The Meaning of John 5:1 Explained

John 5:1

KJV: After this there was a feast of the Jews; and Jesus went up to Jerusalem.

YLT: After these things there was a feast of the Jews, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem,

Darby: After these things was a feast of the Jews, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem.

ASV: After these things there was a feast of the Jews; and Jesus went up to Jerusalem.

KJV Reverse Interlinear

After  this  there was  a feast  of the Jews;  and  Jesus  went up  to  Jerusalem. 

What does John 5:1 Mean?

Verse Meaning

Some time later Jesus returned to Jerusalem to celebrate one of the Jewish feasts and to use that occasion to minister. John did not specify which feast it was. Elsewhere in his Gospel when John identified the feast in view he did so because the events and teaching that followed had relevance to that particular feast (cf. John 2:13; John 6:4; John 7:2; John 10:22; John 11:55). Here they did not. Consequently the identity of the feast is unimportant for the interpretation of the text. Hoehner favored one of the three pilgrim feasts that the Mosaic Law required Jewish males to attend: Passover, Pentecost, or Tabernacles. He preferred the last of these though conceded that certain identification is probably impossible. [1] John probably just mentioned the feast to explain Jesus" return to and presence in Jerusalem.

Context Summary

John 5:1-9 - Weakness Made Strength
An interval of some months lies between the previous chapter and this, in which many of the incidents of our Lord's Galilean life took place. John does not touch on them, because they had been described in the Synoptic Gospels, and because he wished to concentrate all his force on the great conflict which our Lord waged in Jerusalem, the stronghold of Jewish prejudice. He also chose the incidents which led to our Lord's discourses, and served as the text of his words.
The pool of Bethesda had medicinal properties. It was an intermittent spring. There must have been something in this man who lay at its brink which specially attracted Jesus. He saw that he had faith to be healed, and therefore made a direct challenge to the will of the sufferer. As soon as the appeal was made, he opened his heart to Christ's power. Through his expectant faith new energy poured into his being.
Are you a withered soul? Healing and wholeness are in Christ for you. Receive from Him the power that waits to flow through your wasted muscles. Believe that it is passing through you, and act accordingly. Spring to your feet, roll up your bed, and carry that which has so long carried you. [source]

Chapter Summary: John 5

1  Jesus on the Sabbath day cures him who was diseased thirty-eight years
10  The Jews therefore object, and persecute him for it
17  He answers for himself, and reproves them, showing by the testimony of his Father,
31  of John,
36  of his works,
39  and of the Scriptures, who he is

Greek Commentary for John 5:1

After these things [μετα ταυτα]
John is fond of this vague phrase (John 3:22; John 6:1). He does not mean that this incident follows immediately. He is supplementing the Synoptic Gospels and does not attempt a full story of the work of Jesus. Some scholars needlessly put chapter 5 after chapter 6 because in chapter 6 Jesus is in Galilee as at the end of chapter 4. But surely it is not incongruous to think of Jesus making a visit to Jerusalem before the events in chapter 6 which undoubtedly come within a year of the end (John 6:4). A feast of the Jews Some manuscripts have the article Went up Second aorist active indicative of αναβαινω — anabainō It was up towards Jerusalem from every direction save from Hebron. [source]
A feast [ἑορτὴ]
Or festival. What festival is uncertain. It has been identified with the Passover, Pentecost, and the Feast of Tabernacles; also with the Day of Atonement, the Feast of Dedication, and the Feast of Purim. [source]

Reverse Greek Commentary Search for John 5:1

Mark 2:4 Come nigh [προσεγγισαι]
But Westcott and Hort read προσενεγκαι — prosenegkai to bring to, after Aleph, B, L, 33, 63 (cf. John 5:18). [source]
Luke 4:40 When the sun was setting []
The people brought their sick at that hour, not only because of the coolness, but because it was the end of the Sabbath, and carrying a sick person was regarded as work. See John 5:10. [source]
Luke 19:40 If these shall hold their peace [εαν ουτοι σιωπησουσιν]
A condition of the first class, determined as fulfilled. The use of εαν — ean rather than ει — ei cuts no figure in the case (See note on Acts 8:31; note on 1 Thessalonians 3:8; and the note on 1 John 5:15). The kind of condition is determined by the mode which is here indicative. The future tense by its very nature does approximate the aorist subjunctive, but after all it is the indicative. [source]
Luke 4:40 When the sun was setting [δυνοντος του ηλιου]
Genitive absolute and present participle It was not only cooler, but it was the end of the sabbath when it was not regarded as work (Vincent) to carry a sick person (John 5:10). And also by now the news of the cure of the demoniac of Peter‘s mother-in-law had spread all over the town. [source]
Luke 5:20 Man [αντρωπε]
Mark and Matthew have “child” or “Son” Are forgiven This Doric form of the perfect passive indicative is for the Attic απεινται — apheintai It appears also in Luke 5:23; Luke 7:47, Luke 7:48; John 20:23; 1 John 2:12. Mark 2:6; Matthew 9:2 have the present passive απιενται — aphientai Possibly this man‘s malady was due to his sin as is sometimes true (John 5:14). The man had faith along with that of the four, but he was still a paralytic when Jesus forgave his sins. [source]
Luke 6:1 On a sabbath [εν σαββατωι]
This is the second sabbath on which Jesus is noted by Luke. The first was Luke 4:31-41. There was another in John 5:1-47. There is Western and Syrian (Byzantine) evidence for a very curious reading here which calls this sabbath “secondfirst” It is undoubtedly spurious, though Westcott and Hort print it in the margin. A possible explanation is that a scribe wrote “first” (πρωτωι — prōtōi) on the margin because of the sabbath miracle in Luke 6:6-11. Then another scribe recalled Luke 4:31 where a sabbath is mentioned and wrote “second” (δευτερωι — deuterōi) also on the margin. Finally a third scribe combined the two in the word δευτεροπρωτωι — deuteroprōtōi that is not found elsewhere. If it were genuine, we should not know what it means. [source]
Luke 6:11 Communed [διελαλουν]
Luke puts it in a less damaging way than Mark 3:6; Matthew 12:14. This aorist optative with αν — an is the deliberative question like that in Acts 17:18 retained in the indirect form here. Perhaps Luke means, not that they were undecided about killing Jesus, but only as to the best way of doing it. Already nearly two years before the end we see the set determination to destroy Jesus. We see it here in Galilee. We have already seen it at the feast in Jerusalem (John 5:18) where “the Jews sought the more to kill him.” John and the Synoptics are in perfect agreement as to the Pharisaic attitude toward Jesus. [source]
Luke 6:11 What they might do to Jesus [τι αν ποιησαιεν Ιησου]
Luke puts it in a less damaging way than Mark 3:6; Matthew 12:14. This aorist optative with αν — an is the deliberative question like that in Acts 17:18 retained in the indirect form here. Perhaps Luke means, not that they were undecided about killing Jesus, but only as to the best way of doing it. Already nearly two years before the end we see the set determination to destroy Jesus. We see it here in Galilee. We have already seen it at the feast in Jerusalem (John 5:18) where “the Jews sought the more to kill him.” John and the Synoptics are in perfect agreement as to the Pharisaic attitude toward Jesus. [source]
John 7:7 Cannot []
Frequent in John, and expressing an inherent impossibility. See John 3:3, John 3:5; John 5:19; John 6:44; John 7:34, John 7:36; John 8:21, John 8:43; John 12:39; John 14:17, etc. [source]
John 7:21 One work [ἓν ἔργον]
The healing on the Sabbath (John 5:1-8). [source]
John 5:42 In you [ἐν ἑαυτοῖς]
Rev., rightly, in yourselves. Compare John 6:53; 1 John 5:10; Mark 4:17. [source]
John 5:20 Greater works will He show Him []
As Jesus does whatever He sees the Father do (John 5:19), the showing of greater works will be the signal for Jesus to do them. On works, as a characteristic word in John, see on John 4:47. [source]
John 5:18 Had broken [ἔλυε]
Literally, was loosing: the imperfect tense. See on He did, John 5:16. Not, broke the Sabbath in any particular case, but was annulling the law and duty of Sabbath observance. [source]
John 5:14 Findeth - said []
Note the lively interchange of the tenses, as in John 5:13. [source]
John 5:13 He that was healed [ἰαθεὶς]
Compare John 5:10, and note the different word for healing. See references there. [source]
John 3:6 That which is born [τὸ γεγεννηένον]
Strictly, that which hath been born, and consequently is now before us as born. The aorist tense (John 3:3, John 3:4, John 3:5, John 3:7), marks the fact of birth; the perfect (as here), the state of that which has been born (see on 1 John 5:18, where both tenses occur); the neuter, that which, states the principle in the abstract. Compare John 3:8, where the statement is personal: everyone that is born. Compare 1 John 5:4, and 1 John 5:1, 1 John 5:18. [source]
John 3:19 This []
That is, herein consists the judgment. The prefacing a statement with this is, and then defining the statement by ὅτι or ἵνα , that, is characteristic of John. See John 15:12; John 17:3; 1 John 1:5; 1 John 5:11, 1 John 5:14; 3 John 1:6. [source]
John 17:15 From the evil [τοῦ πονηροῦ]
Or, the evil one. This rendering is according to John's usage. See 1 John 2:13, 1 John 2:14; 1 John 3:12; 1 John 5:18, 1 John 5:19; and compare John 12:31; John 14:30; John 16:11. From ( ἐκ ), literally, out of, means out of the hands of. [source]
John 14:23 Abode [μονὴν]
See on John 14:2. Compare 1 John 2:24; 1 John 5:15. [source]
John 10:35 Broken [λυθῆναι]
Literally, loosened. Wyc., undone. The word is characteristic of John. He uses it of the destruction of the temple (John 2:19); the breaking of the Sabbath (John 5:18); the violation of the law (John 7:23); the destruction of Satan's works (1 John 3:8), besides elsewhere in the physical sense. [source]
John 1:34 The Son of God []
This is the proper reading, but one very important manuscript reads ὁ ἐκλεκτὸς , the chosen. By the phrase John means the Messiah. It has the same sense as in the Synoptic Gospels. Compare Matthew 11:27; Matthew 28:19. For the sense in which it was understood by the Jews of Christ's day, see John 5:18, John 5:19; John 10:29, John 10:30-36. The phrase occurs in the Old Testament only in Daniel 3:25. Compare Psalm 2:12. On υἱὸς , son, as distinguished from τέκνον , child, see on John 1:12. [source]
John 3:3 Be born again [γεννηθῇ ἄνωθεν]
See on Luke 1:3. Literally, from the top (Matthew 27:51). Expositors are divided on the rendering of ἄνωθεν , some translating, from above, and others, again or anew. The word is used in the following senses in the New Testament, where it occurs thirteen times: 1. From the top: Matthew 27:51; Mark 15:38; John 19:23. -DIVIDER-
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2. From above: John 3:31; John 19:11; James 1:17; James 3:15, James 3:17. -DIVIDER-
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3. From the beginning: Luke 1:3; Acts 26:5. -DIVIDER-
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4. Again: Galatians 4:9, but accompanied by πάλιν , again. In favor of the rendering from above, it is urged that it corresponds to John's habitual method of describing the work of spiritual regeneration as a birth from God (John 1:13; 1 John 3:9; 1 John 4:7; 1 John 5:1, 1 John 5:4, 1 John 5:8); and further, that it is Paul, and not John, who describes it as a new birth. In favor of the other rendering, again, it may be said: 1. that from above does not describe the fact but the nature of the new birth, which in the logical order would be stated after the fact, but which is first announced if we render from above. If we translate anew or again, the logical order is preserved, the nature of the birth being described in John 3:5. 2. That Nicodemus clearly understood the word as meaning again, since, in John 3:4, he translated it into a second time. 3. That it seems strange that Nicodemus should have been startled by the idea of a birth from heaven. -DIVIDER-
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Canon Westcott calls attention to the traditional form of the saying in which the word ἀναγεννᾶσθαι , which can only mean reborn, is used as its equivalent. Again, however, does not give the exact force of the word, which is rather as Rev., anew, or afresh. Render, therefore, as Rev., except a man be born anew. The phrase occurs only in John's Gospel. [source]

John 3:15 Have eternal life []
A characteristic phrase of John for live forever. See John 3:16, John 3:36; John 5:24; John 6:40, John 6:47, John 6:54; 1 John 3:15; 1 John 5:12. The interview with Nicodemus closes with John 3:15; and the succeeding words are John's. This appears from the following facts: 1. The past tenses loved and gave, in John 1:16-183 better suit the later point of view from which John writes, after the atoning death of Christ was an accomplished historic fact, than the drift of the present discourse of Jesus before the full revelation of that work. 2. It is in John's manner to throw in explanatory comments of his own (1716407634_81; John 12:37-41), and to do so abruptly. See John 1:15, John 1:16, and on and, John 1:16. 3. John 3:19is in the same line of thought with John 1:9-11in the Prologue; and the tone of that verse is historic, carrying the sense of past rejection, as loved darkness; were evil. 4. The phrase believe on the name is not used elsewhere by our Lord, but by John (John 1:12; John 2:23; 1 John 5:13). 5. The phrase only-begotten son is not elsewhere used by Jesus of himself, but in every case by the Evangelist (John 1:14, John 1:18; 1 John 4:9). 6. The phrase to do truth (John 3:21) occurs elsewhere only in 1 John 1:6. -DIVIDER-
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John 3:12 Heavenly things [τὰ ἐπουράνια]
Compounded with ἐπί , upon or in, and οὐρανός , heaven. Not holy things as compared with sinful, nor spiritual things as compared with temporal; but things which are in heaven, mysteries of redemption, having their seat in the divine will, realized in the world through the work and death of Jesus Christ and the faith of mankind (John 5:14-16). Thus it is said (John 3:13) that the Son of man who is in heaven came down out of heaven, and in John 3:31, John 3:32that He that cometh out of heaven beareth witness (on earth) of what He has seen and heard; and that, being sent from God, He speaketh the words of God (John 3:34). It has been urged against the genuineness of the fourth Gospel that the lofty and mystical language which is there ascribed to Jesus is inconsistent with the synoptical reports of His words. That if the one represents truthfully His style of speaking, the other must misrepresent it. Godet's words on this point are worth quoting: “It would be truly curious that the first who should have pointed out that contrast should be the Evangelist himself against whose narrative it has been brought forward as a ground of objection. The author of the fourth Gospel puts these words (John 3:12) into the mouth of Jesus. He there declares that He came down from heaven to bring this divine message to the world. The author of the fourth Gospel was then clearly aware of two ways of teaching adopted by Jesus; the one the usual, in which he explained earthly things, evidently always in their relation to God and His kingdom; the other, which contrasted in many respects with the first, and which Jesus employed only exceptionally, in which He spoke directly, and as a witness, of God and the things of God, always naturally in connection with the fate of mankind. The instructions of the first kind had a more simple, more practical, more varied character. They referred to the different situations of life; it was the exposition of the true moral relations of men to each other, and of men to God … . But in that way Jesus could not attain to the final aim which He sought, the full revelation of the divine mystery, of the plan of salvation. Since His baptism Jesus had heaven constantly open before Him; the decree of salvation was disclosed to Him; He had, in particular, heard these words: 'Thou art my well beloved Son;' He reposed on the Father's bosom, and He could descend and redescend without ceasing into the depths of the Father's fathomless love, of which He felt the vivifying power; and when He came, at certain exceptional moments, to speak of that divine relationship, and to give scope to that fullness of life with which it supplied Him, His language took a peculiar, solemn, mystical, one might even say a heavenly tone; for they were heavenly things which He then revealed. Now such is precisely the character of His language in the fourth Gospel.” Compare Luke 10:18, sqq., where Jesus' words take on a character similar to that of His utterances in John. -DIVIDER-
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John 1:19 This [αὕτη]
The following. This use of the pronoun, calling the reader's attention to what follows, and preparing him for it, is frequent in John. Sometimes the pronoun carries the sense of quality: of this character. See John 3:19; John 15:12; 1 John 5:4, 1 John 5:9, 1 John 5:11, 1 John 5:14. [source]
John 1:7 For a witness [εἰς μαρτυρίαν]
Revised version of the New Testament, more correctly, for witness: a witness would be, μάρτυρα as Acts 1:8. The sense is for witness-bearing or to bear witness. On the word, see Acts 1:22; 1 Peter 5:1. It is one of John's characteristic words, occurring nearly fifty times in various forms in his Gospel, and thirty or forty times in the Epistles and Revelation. The emphatic development of the idea of witness is peculiar to this Gospel. “It evidently belongs to a time when men had begun to reason about the faith, and to analyze the grounds on which it rested” (Westcott). He develops the idea under the following forms: The witness of the Father (John 5:31, John 5:34, John 5:37); the witness of Christ himself (John 8:14; John 18:37); the witness of works (John 5:17, John 5:36; John 10:25; John 14:11; John 15:24); the witness of Scripture (John 5:39, John 5:40, John 5:46; John 1:46); the witness of the forerunner (John 1:7; John 5:33, John 5:35); the witness of the disciples (John 15:27; John 19:35; John 21:24; 1 John 1:2; 1 John 4:14); the witness of the Spirit (John 15:26; John 16:13, John 16:14; 1 John 5:6). Note the emphasis attached to the idea here, by the twofold form in which it is put: first, generally, for witness, and then by giving the subject of the testimony. [source]
John 1:4 In Him was life [ἐν αὐτῷ ζωὴ ἦν]
He was the fountain of life - physical, moral, and eternal - its principle and source. Two words for life are employed in the New Testament: βίος and ζωὴ . The primary distinction is that ζωὴ means existence as contrasted with death, and βίος , the period, means, or manner of existence. Hence βίος is originally the higher word, being used of men, while ζωὴ is used of animals ( ζῶα ). We speak therefore of the discussion of the life and habits of animals as zoo logy; and of accounts of men's lives as bio graphy. Animals have the vital principle in common with men, but men lead lives controlled by intellect and will, and directed to moral and intellectual ends. In the New Testament, βίος means either living, i.e., means of subsistence (Mark 12:44; Luke 8:43), or course of life, life regarded as an economy (Luke 8:14; 1 Timothy 2:2; 2 Timothy 2:4). Ζωὴ occurs in the lower sense of life, considered principally or wholly as existence (1 Peter 3:10; Acts 8:33; Acts 17:25; Hebrews 7:3). There seems to be a significance in the use of the word in Luke 16:25: “Thou in thy lifetime ( ἐν τῇ ζωῇ σου ) receivedst thy good things;” the intimation being that the rich man's life had been little better than mere existence, and not life at all in the true sense. But throughout the New Testament ζωὴ is the nobler word, seeming to have changed places with βίος . It expresses the sum of mortal and eternal blessedness (Matthew 25:46; Luke 18:30; John 11:25; Acts 2:28; Romans 5:17; Romans 6:4), and that not only in respect of men, but also of God and Christ. So here. Compare John 5:26; John 14:6; 1 John 1:2. This change is due to the gospel revelation of the essential connection of sin with death, and consequently, of life with holiness. “Whatever truly lives, does so because sin has never found place in it, or, having found place for a time, has since been overcome and expelled” (Trench). Ζωὴ is a favorite word with John. See John 11:25; John 14:6; John 8:12; 1 John 1:2; 1 John 5:20; John 6:35, John 6:48; John 6:63; Revelation 21:6; Revelation 22:1, Revelation 22:17; Revelation 7:17; John 4:14; Revelation 2:7; Revelation 22:2, Revelation 22:14, Revelation 22:19; John 12:50; John 17:3; John 20:31; John 5:26; John 6:53, John 6:54; John 5:40; John 3:15, John 3:16, John 3:36; John 10:10; John 5:24; John 12:25; John 6:27; John 4:36; 1 John 5:12, 1 John 5:16; John 6:51.Was the Light of men ( ἦν τὸ φῶς τῶν ἀνθρώπων )Passing from the thought of creation in general to that of mankind, who, in the whole range of created things, had a special capacity for receiving the divine. The Light - the peculiar mode of the divine operation upon men, conformably to their rational and moral nature which alone was fitted to receive the light of divine truth. It is not said that the Word was light, but that the life was the light. The Word becomes light through the medium of life, of spiritual life, just as sight is a function of physical life. Compare John 14:6, where Christ becomes the life through being the truth; and Matthew 5:8, where the pure heart is the medium through which God is beheld. In whatever mode of manifestation the Word is in the world, He is the light of the world; in His works, in the dawn of creation; in the happy conditions of Eden; in the Patriarchs, in the Law and the Prophets, in His incarnation, and in the subsequent history of the Church. Compare John 9:5. Of men, as a class, and not of individuals only. [source]
John 1:30 A man [ἀνὴρ]
Three words are used in the New Testament for man: ἄῤῥην , or ἄρσην , ἀνήρ , and ἄνθρωπος . Ἄρσην marks merely the sexual distinction, male (Romans 1:27; Revelation 12:5, Revelation 12:13). Ἁνήρ denotes the man as distinguished from the woman, as male or as a husband (Acts 8:12; Matthew 1:16), or from a boy (Matthew 14:21). Also man as endowed with courage, intelligence, strength, and other noble attributes (1 Corinthians 13:11; Ephesians 4:13; James 3:2). Ἄνθρωπος is generic, without distinction of sex, a human being (John 16:21), though often used in connections which indicate or imply sex, as Matthew 19:10; Matthew 10:35. Used of mankind (Matthew 4:4), or of the people (Matthew 5:13, Matthew 5:16; Matthew 6:5, Matthew 6:18; John 6:10). Of man as distinguished from animals or plants (Matthew 4:19; 2 Peter 2:16), and from God, Christ as divine and angels (Matthew 10:32; John 10:33; Luke 2:15). With the notion of weakness leading to sin, and with a contemptuous sense (1 Corinthians 2:5; 1 Peter 4:2; John 5:12; Romans 9:20). The more honorable and noble sense thus attaches to ἀνήρ rather than to ἄνθρωπος . Thus Herodotus says that when the Medes charged the Greeks, they fell in vast numbers, so that it was manifest to Xerxes that he had many men combatants ( ἄνθρωποι ) but few warriors ( ἄνθρωποι ) vii., 210. So Homer: “O friends, be men ( ἀνέρες ), and take on a stout heart” (“Iliad,” v., 529). Ἁνήρ is therefore used here of Jesus by the Baptist with a sense of dignity. Compare ἄνθρωπος , in John 1:6, where the word implies no disparagement, but is simply indefinite. In John ἀνήρ has mostly the sense of husband (John 4:16-18). See John 6:10. -DIVIDER-
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John 1:12 Believe on [πιστευούσιν εἰς]
The present participle, believing, indicates the present and continuous activity of faith. The word is used by John, sometimes with the dative case simply meaning to believe a person or thing; i.e., to believe that they are true or speak the truth. Thus, to believe the Scripture (John 2:22); believe me (John 4:21); believe Moses, his writings, my words (John 4:46). At other times with a preposition, εἰς , into, which is rendered believe in, or believe on. So here, John 6:29; John 8:30; 1 John 5:10. See the two contrasted in John 6:29, John 6:30; John 8:30, John 8:31; 1 John 5:10. To believe in, or on, is more than mere acceptance of a statement. It is so to accept a statement or a person as to rest upon them, to trust them practically; to draw upon and avail one's self of all that is offered to him in them. Hence to believe on the Lord Jesus Christ is not merely to believe the facts of His historic life or of His saving energy as facts, but to accept Him as Savior, Teacher, Sympathizer, Judge; to rest the soul upon Him for present and future salvation, and to accept and adopt His precepts and example as binding upon the life. [source]
John 10:28 And I give unto them eternal life [καγω διδωμι αυτοις ζωην αιωνιον]
This is the gift of Jesus now to his sheep as stated in John 6:27, John 6:40 (cf. 1 John 2:25; 1 John 5:11). And they shall never perish Emphatic double negative with second aorist middle (intransitive) subjunctive of απολλυμι — apollumi to destroy. The sheep may feel secure (John 3:16; John 6:39; John 17:12; John 18:9). And no one shall snatch them out of my hand Jesus had promised this security in Galilee (John 6:37, John 6:39). No wolf, no thief, no bandit, no hireling, no demon, not even the devil can pluck the sheep out of my hand. Cf. Colossians 3:3 (Your life is hid together with Christ in God). [source]
John 11:53 So from that day [απ εκεινης ουν της ημερας]
The raising of Lazarus brought matters to a head so to speak. It was now apparently not more than a month before the end. They took counsel First aorist middle indicative of βουλευω — bouleuō old verb to take counsel, in the middle voice for themselves, among themselves. The Sanhedrin took the advice of Caiaphas seriously and plotted the death of Jesus. That they might put him to death Purpose clause with ινα — hina and first aorist active subjunctive of αποκτεινω — apokteinō It is an old purpose (John 5:18; John 7:19; John 8:44, John 8:59; John 10:39; John 11:8) now revived with fresh energy due to the raising of Lazarus. [source]
John 10:18 No one taketh it away from me [ουδεις αιρει αυτην απ εμου]
But Aleph B read ηρεν — ēren (first aorist active indicative of αιρω — airō to take away), probably correct (Westcott and Hort). “John is representing Jesus as speaking sub specie aeternitatis ” (Bernard). He speaks of his death as already past and the resurrection as already accomplished. Cf. John 3:16. Of myself The voluntariness of the death of Jesus repeated and sharpened. D omits it, probably because of superficial and apparent conflict with John 5:19. But there is no inconsistency as is shown by John 3:16; Romans 5:8. The Father “gave” the Son who was glad to be given and to give himself. I have power to lay it down Εχουσια — Exousia is not an easy word to translate (right, authority, power, privilege). See John 1:12. Restatement of the voluntariness of his death for the sheep. [source]
John 10:30 One [εν]
Neuter, not masculine Not one person (cf. εις — heis in Galatians 3:28), but one essence or nature. By the plural συμυς — sumus (separate persons) Sabellius is refuted, by υνυμ — unum Arius. So Bengel rightly argues, though Jesus is not referring, of course, to either Sabellius or Arius. The Pharisees had accused Jesus of making himself equal with God as his own special Father (John 5:18). Jesus then admitted and proved this claim (John 5:19-30). Now he states it tersely in this great saying repeated later (John 17:11, John 17:21). Note εν — hen used in 1 Corinthians 3:3 of the oneness in work of the planter and the waterer and in John 17:11, John 17:23 of the hoped for unity of Christ‘s disciples. This crisp statement is the climax of Christ‘s claims concerning the relation between the Father and himself (the Son). They stir the Pharisees to uncontrollable anger. [source]
John 10:31 Took up stones again [εβαστασαν παλιν λιτους]
First aorist active indicative of βασταζω — bastazō old verb to pick up, to carry (John 12:6), to bear (Galatians 6:5). The παλιν — palin refers to John 8:59 where ηραν — ēran was used. They wanted to kill him also when he made himself equal to God in John 5:18. Perhaps here εβαστασαν — ebastasan means “they fetched stones from a distance.” To stone him Final clause with ινα — hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of λιταζω — lithazō late verb (Aristotle, Polybius) from λιτος — lithos (stone, small, Matthew 4:6, or large, Matthew 28:2), in John 10:31-33; John 11:8; Acts 5:26; Acts 14:19; 2 Corinthians 11:25; Hebrews 11:37, but not in the Synoptics. It means to pelt with stones, to overwhelm with stones. [source]
John 10:33 For a good work we stone thee not [περι καλου εργου ου λιταζομεν]
“Concerning a good deed we are not stoning thee.” Flat denial that the healing of the blind man on the Sabbath had led them to this attempt (John 8:59) in spite of the facts. But for blasphemy See Acts 26:7 where περι — peri with the genitive is also used with εγκαλουμαι — egkaloumai for the charge against Paul. This is the only example in John of the word βλασπημια — blasphēmia (cf. Matthew 12:31). And because that thou, being a man, makest thyself God In John 5:18 they stated the charge more accurately: “He called God his own Father, making himself equal with God.” That is, he made himself the Son of God. This he did beyond a doubt. But was it blasphemy? Only if he was not the Son of God. The penalty for blasphemy was death by stoning (Leviticus 24:16; 1 Kings 21:10, 1 Kings 21:13). [source]
John 10:36 Of him whom the Father sanctified and sent into the world [ον ο πατηρ ηγιασεν και απεστειλεν εις τον κοσμον]
Another relative clause with the antecedent Recitative οτι — hoti again before direct quotation. Because I said Causal use of οτι — hoti and regular form ειπον — eipon (cf. ειπα — eipa in John 10:34). I am the Son of God Direct quotation again after ειπον — eipon This Jesus had implied long before as in John 2:16 (my Father) and had said in John 5:18-30 (the Father, the Son), in John 9:35 in some MSS., and virtually in John 10:30. They will make this charge against Jesus before Pilate (John 19:7). Jesus does not use the article here with υιος — huios perhaps (Westcott) fixing attention on the character of Son rather than on the person as in Hebrews 1:2. There is no answer to this question with its arguments. [source]
John 14:10 Believest thou not? [ου πιστευεισ]
Jesus had a right to expect greater faith from these men than from the blind man (John 9:35) or Martha (John 11:27). His words in John 14:1 are clearly needed. This oneness with the Father Jesus had already stated (John 10:38) as shown by his “words” Cf. John 3:34; John 5:19; John 6:62. [source]
John 17:15 Shouldest take [αρηις]
First aorist active subjunctive of αιρω — airō (liquid verb). From the evil one Ablative case with εκ — ek but can mean the evil man, Satan, or the evil deed. See same ambiguity in Matthew 6:13. But in 1 John 5:18 ο πονηρος — ho ponēros is masculine (the evil one). Cf. Revelation 3:10. [source]
John 19:7 Because he made himself the Son of God [οτι υιον τεου εαυτον εποιησεν]
Here at last the Sanhedrin give the real ground for their hostility to Jesus, one of long standing for probably three years (John 5:18) and the one on which the Sanhedrin voted the condemnation of Jesus (Mark 14:61-64; Matt 27:23-66), but even now they do not mention their own decision to Pilate, for they had no legal right to vote Christ‘s death before Pilate‘s consent which they now have secured. [source]
John 2:13 The passover of the Jews [το πασχα των Ιουδαιων]
The Synoptics do not give “of the Jews,” but John is writing after the destruction of the temple and for Gentile readers. John mentions the passovers in Christ‘s ministry outside of the one when Christ was crucified, this one and one in John 6:4. There may be another (John 5:1), but we do not know. But for John we should not know that Christ‘s ministry was much over a year in length. [source]
John 11:4 Heard it [ακουσας]
The messenger delivered the message of the sisters. The reply of Jesus is for him and for the apostles. Is not unto death Death in the final issue, to remain dead. Lazarus did die, but he did not remain dead. See αμαρτια προς τανατον — hamartia pros thanaton in 1 John 5:16, “sin unto death” (final death). But for the glory of God In behalf of God‘s glory, as the sequel shows. Cf. John 9:3 about the man born blind. The death of Lazarus will illustrate God‘s glory. In some humble sense those who suffer the loss of loved ones are entitled to some comfort from this point made by Jesus about Lazarus. In a supreme way it is true of the death of Christ which he himself calls glorification of himself and God (John 13:31). In John 7:39 John had already used δοχαζω — doxazō of the death of Christ. That the Son of God may be glorified thereby Purpose clause with ινα — hina and the first aorist passive subjunctive of δοχαζω — doxazō Here Jesus calls himself “the Son of God.” In John 8:54 Jesus had said: “It is my Father that glorifieth me.” The raising of Lazarus from the tomb will bring glory to the Son of God. See John 17:1 for this idea in Christ‘s prayer. The raising of Lazarus will also bring to an issue his own death and all this involves the glorification of the Father (John 7:39; John 12:16; John 13:31; John 14:13). The death of Lazarus brings Jesus face to face with his own death. [source]
John 12:9 The common people [ο οχλος πολυς]
This is the right reading with the article ο — ho literally, “the people much or in large numbers.” One is reminded of the French idiom. Gildersleeve (Syntax, p. 284) gives a few rare examples of the idiom ο ανηρ αγατος — ho anēr agathos Westcott suggests that οχλος πολυς — ochlos polus came to be regarded as a compound noun. This is the usual order in the N.T. rather than πολυς οχλος — polus ochlos (Robertson, Grammar, p. 774). Mark 12:37 has ο πολυς οχλος — ho polus ochlos Moulton (Proleg., p. 84) terms ο οχλος πολυς — ho ochlos polus here and in John 12:12 “a curious misplacement of the article.” John‘s use of οχλος — ochlos is usually the common crowd as “riff-raff.” That he was Present active indicative retained in indirect discourse after the secondary tense These “Jews” are not all hostile to Jesus as in John 5:10; John 6:41, etc., but included some who were friendly (John 12:11). But that they might see Lazarus also Purpose clause with ινα — hina and second aorist active subjunctive of οραω — horaō Motive enough to gather a great crowd, to see one raised from the dead (cf. John 12:1 for the same phrase, “whom he had raised from the dead”). Some of the very witnesses of the raising of Lazarus will bear witness later (John 12:17). It was a tense situation. [source]
John 13:21 He was troubled in the spirit [εταραχτη τοι πνευματι]
First aorist passive indicative of ταρασσω — tarassō and the locative case of πνευμα — pneuma See note on John 11:33 and note on John 12:27 for this use of ταρασσω — tarassō for the agitation of Christ‘s spirit. In John 14:1, John 14:27 it is used of the disciples. Jesus was one with God (John 5:19) and yet he had our real humanity (John 1:14). Testified First aorist active indicative of μαρτυρεω — martureō definite witness as in John 4:44; John 18:37. One of you shall betray me Future active of παραδιδωμι — paradidōmi to betray, the word so often used of Judas. This very language occurs in Mark 14:18; Matthew 26:21 and the idea in Luke 22:21. Jesus had said a year ago that “one of you is a devil” (John 6:70), but it made no such stir then. Now it was a bolt from the blue sky as Jesus swept his eyes around and looked at the disciples. [source]
John 15:20 Remember [μνημονευετε]
Present active imperative of μνημονευω — mnēmoneuō old verb from μνημων — mnēmōn in John again in John 16:4, John 16:21. See John 13:16 for this word. If they persecuted me Condition of first class. They certainly did persecute (first aorist active of διωκω — diōkō to chase like a wild beast like the Latin persequor, our “persecute”) Jesus (John 5:16). They will persecute those like Jesus. Cf. John 16:33; Mark 10:30; Luke 21:12; 1 Corinthians 4:12; 2 Corinthians 4:9; Galatians 4:29; 2 Timothy 3:12 for proof that this prophecy came true. But the alternative is true and is stated by Jesus with a like condition of the first class, “if they kept my word” The world does praise the word of Jesus, but dreads to follow it. [source]
John 3:15 That whosoever believeth may in him have eternal life [ινα πας ο πιστευων εν αυτωι εχηι ζωην αιωνιον]
Final use of ινα — hina with present active subjunctive of εχω — echō that he may keep on having eternal life (a frequent phrase in John, always in John αιωνιος — aiōnios occurs with ζωη — zōē 16 times in the Gospel, 6 in 1John, ageless or endless life, beginning now and lasting forever). It is more than endless, for it is sharing in the life of God in Christ (John 5:26; John 17:3; 1 John 5:12). So here εν αυτωι — en autōi (in him) is taken with εχηι — echēi rather than with πιστευων — pisteuōn The interview with Nicodemus apparently closes with John 3:15. In John 3:16-21 we have past tenses constantly as is natural for the reflection of John, but unnatural for Jesus speaking. There are phrases like the Prologue (John 3:19; John 1:9-11). “Only begotten” does not occur elsewhere in the words of Jesus, but is in John 1:14, John 1:18; 1 John 4:9. John often puts in explanatory comments (John 1:16-18; John 12:37-41). [source]
John 3:22 After these things [μετα ταυτα]
Transition after the interview with Nicodemus. For the phrase see John 5:1; John 6:1; John 7:1. Into the land of Judea Into the country districts outside of Jerusalem. The only example of this phrase in the N.T., but “the region of Judea” Descriptive imperfect active of διατριβω — diatribō old verb to rub between or hard, to spend time (Acts 14:3). Baptized Imperfect active of βαπτιζω — baptizō “He was baptizing.” The six disciples were with him and in John 4:2 John explains that Jesus did the baptizing through the disciples. [source]
John 3:35 Hath given all things into his hand [παντα δεδωκεν εν τηι χειρι αυτου]
John makes the same statement about Jesus in John 13:3 (using εις τας χειρας — eis tas cheiras instead of εν τηι χειρι — en tēi cheiri). Jesus makes the same claim in John 5:19-30; Matthew 11:27; Matthew 28:18. [source]
John 5:17 Answered [απεκρινατο]
Regular aorist middle indicative of αποκρινομαι — apokrinomai in John here only and John 5:19, elsewhere απεκριτη — apekrithē as in John 5:11. My Father Not “our Father,” claim to peculiar relation to the Father. Worketh even until now Linear present middle indicative, “keeps on working until now” without a break on the Sabbath. Philo points out this fact of the continuous activity of God. Justin Martyr, Origen and others note this fact about God. He made the Sabbath for man‘s blessing, but cannot observe it himself. And I work Jesus puts himself on a par with God‘s activity and thus justifies his healing on the Sabbath. [source]
John 3:16 For so [ουτως γαρ]
This use of γαρ — gar is quite in John‘s style in introducing his comments (John 2:25; John 4:8; John 5:13, etc.). This “Little Gospel” as it is often called, this “comfortable word” (the Anglican Liturgy), while not a quotation from Jesus is a just and marvellous interpretation of the mission and message of our Lord. In John 3:16-21 John recapitulates in summary fashion the teaching of Jesus to Nicodemus. Loved First aorist active indicative of αγαπαω — agapaō the noble word so common in the Gospels for the highest form of love, used here as often in John (John 14:23; John 17:23; 1 John 3:1; 1 John 4:10) of God‘s love for man (cf. 2 Thessalonians 2:16; Romans 5:8; Ephesians 2:4). In John 21:15 John presents a distinction between αγαπαω — agapaō and πιλεω — phileō Αγαπαω — Agapaō is used also for love of men for men (John 13:34), for Jesus (John 8:42), for God (1 John 4:10). The world The whole cosmos of men, including Gentiles, the whole human race. This universal aspect of God‘s love appears also in 2 Corinthians 5:19; Romans 5:8. That he gave The usual classical construction with ωστε — hōste and the indicative (first aorist active) practical result, the only example in the N.T. save that in Galatians 2:13. Elsewhere ωστε — hōste with the infinitive occurs for actual result (Matthew 13:32) as well as purpose (Matthew 10:1), though even this is rare. His only begotten Son “The Son the only begotten.” For this word see note on John 1:14, note on John 1:18; and John 3:18. The rest of the sentence, the purpose clause with ιναεχηι — hina -εις αυτον — echēi precisely reproduces the close of John 3:15 save that εν αυτωι — eis auton takes the place of πιστευων — en autōi (see John 1:12) and goes certainly with εχηι — pisteuōn (not with εν αυτωι — echēi as μη αποληται αλλα — en autōi in John 3:15) and the added clause “should not perish but” The same contrast between “perish” and “eternal life” (for this world and the next) appears also in John 10:28. On “perish” see also John 17:12. [source]
John 3:18 Is not judged [ου κρινεται]
Present passive indicative. Trust in Christ prevents condemnation, for he takes our place and pays the penalty for sin for all who put their case in his hands (Romans 8:32.). The believer in Christ as Saviour does not come into judgment (John 5:24). Hath been judged already Perfect passive indicative of κρινω — krinō Judgment has already been passed on the one who refuses to believe in Christ as the Saviour sent by the Father, the man who is not willing to come to Christ for life (John 5:40). Because he hath not believed Perfect active indicative of πιστευω — pisteuō has taken a permanent attitude of refusal. Here οτι μη — hoti mē states the reason subjectively as the judgment of the Judge in any such case (ο μη πιστευων — ho mē pisteuōn already mentioned) while in 1 John 5:10 οτι ου πεπιστευκεν — hoti ou pepisteuken gives the reason objectively (ου — ou instead of μη — mē) conceived as an actual case and no longer hypothetical. See John 1:12 for εις το ονομα — eis to onoma with πιστευω — pisteuō (believing on the name) and John 1:14 for μονογενους — monogenous (only begotten) and also John 3:16. [source]
John 3:19 And this is the judgment [αυτη δε εστιν η κρισις]
A thoroughly Johannine phrase for sequence of thought (John 15:12; John 17:3; 1 John 1:5; 1 John 5:11, 1 John 5:14; 3 John 1:6). It is more precisely the process of judging The light is come Second perfect active indicative of το σκοτος — erchomai a permanent result as already explained in the Prologue concerning the Incarnation (John 1:4, John 1:5, John 1:9, John 1:11). Jesus is the Light of the world. Loved darkness Job (Job 24:13) spoke of men rebelling against the light. Here πονηρα — to skotos common word for moral and spiritual darkness (1 Thessalonians 5:5), though Πονηρος — hē skotia in John 1:5. “Darkness” is common in John as a metaphor for the state of sinners (John 8:12; John 12:35, John 12:46; 1 John 1:6; 1 John 2:8, 1 John 2:9, 1 John 2:11). Jesus himself is the only moral and spiritual light of the world (John 8:12) as he dared claim to his enemies. The pathos of it all is that men fall in love with the darkness of sin and rebel against the light like denizens of the underworld, “for their works were evil In the end the god of this world blinds men‘s eyes so that they do not see the light (2 Corinthians 4:4). The fish in the Mammoth Cave have no longer eyes, but only sockets where eyes used to be. The evil one has a powerful grip on the world (1 John 5:19). [source]
John 5:30 I [Εγω]
The discourse returns to the first person after using “the Son” since John 5:19. Here Jesus repeats in the first person (as in John 8:28) the statement made in John 5:19 about the Son. In John εμαυτου — emautou is used by Jesus 16 times and not at all by Jesus in the Synoptics. It occurs in the Synoptics only in Matthew 8:8; Luke 7:7. Righteous As all judgments should be. The reason is plain (οτι — hoti because), the guiding principle with the Son being the will of the Father who sent him and made him Judge. Judges often have difficulty in knowing what is law and what is right, but the Son‘s task as Judge is simple enough, the will of the Father which he knows (John 5:20). [source]
John 6:32 It was not Moses that gave you [ου Μωυσης εδωκεν υμιν]
“Not Moses gave you.” Blunt and pointed denial (aorist active indicative of διδωμι — didōmi) that Moses was the giver of the bread from heaven (the manna). Moses was not superior to Christ on this score. But my Father Not “our Father,” but same claim as in John 5:17. Which caused so much anger in Jerusalem. Gives Present active indicative, not aorist Continual process. The true bread out of heaven “The bread out of heaven” as the manna and more “the genuine bread” of which that was merely a type. On αλητινος — alēthinos see John 1:9; John 4:23. [source]
John 7:19 And yet [και]
Clear use of και — kai in the adversative sense of “and yet” or “but.” They marvelled at Christ‘s “ignorance” and boasted of their own knowledge of the law of Moses. And yet they violated that law by not practising it. Why seek ye to kill me? A sudden and startling question as an illustration of their failure to do the law of Moses. Jesus had previously known (John 5:39, John 5:45-47) that the Jews really rejected the teaching of Moses while professing to believe it. On that very occasion they had sought to kill him (John 5:18), the very language used here. Apparently he had not been to Jerusalem since then. He undoubtedly alludes to their conduct then and charges them with the same purpose now. [source]
John 7:21 One work [εν εργον]
Direct allusion to the healing of the impotent man when in Jerusalem before (John 5:1.). He had wrought others before (John 2:23; John 4:45), but this one on the Sabbath caused the rulers to try to kill Jesus (John 5:18). Some wondered then, others had murder in their hearts. This crowd here is ignorant. [source]
John 5:19 The Son [ο υιος]
The absolute use of the Son in relation to the Father admitting the charge in John 5:18 and defending his equality with the Father. Can do nothing by himself True in a sense of every man, but in a much deeper sense of Christ because of the intimate relation between him and the Father. See this same point in John 5:30; John 7:28; John 8:28; John 14:10. Jesus had already made it in John 5:17. Now he repeats and defends it. But what he seeth the Father doing Rather, “unless he sees the Father doing something.” Negative condition It is a supreme example of a son copying the spirit and work of a father. In his work on earth the Son sees continually what the Father is doing. In healing this poor man he was doing what the Father wishes him to do. For what things soever he doeth, these the Son also doeth in like manner Indefinite relative clause with αν — an and the present active subjunctive Note εκεινος — ekeinos emphatic demonstrative, that one, referring to the Father. This sublime claim on the part of Jesus will exasperate his enemies still more. [source]
John 5:37 He hath borne witness [εκεινος μεμαρτυρηκεν]
Εκεινος — Ekeinos (that one; cf. John 5:35, John 5:38), not αυτος — autos Perfect active indicative of μαρτυρεω — martureō the direct witness of the Father, besides the indirect witness of the works. Jesus is not speaking of the voice of the Father at his baptism (Mark 1:11), the transfiguration (Mark 9:7), nor even at the time of the visit of the Greeks (John 12:28). This last voice was heard by many who thought it was thunder or an angel. The language of Jesus refers to the witness of the Father in the heart of the believers as is made plain in 1 John 5:9, 1 John 5:10. God‘s witness does not come by audible “voice” Cf. John 1:18; John 6:46; 1 John 4:12. Ακηκοατε — Akēkoate is perfect active indicative of ακουω — akouō to hear, and εωρακατε — heōrakate is perfect active indicative of οραω — horaō to see. It is a permanent state of failure to hear and see God. The experience of Jacob in Peniel (Genesis 32:30) was unusual, but Jesus will say that those who have seen him have seen the Father (John 14:9), but here he means the Father‘s “voice” and “form” as distinct from the Son. [source]
John 6:1 After these things [μετα ταυτα]
A common, but indefinite, note of time in John (John 3:22; John 5:1; John 6:1; John 7:1). The phrase does not mean immediate sequence of events. As a matter of fact, a whole year may intervene between the events of chapter 5 in Jerusalem and those in chapter 6 in Galilee. There is no sufficient reason for believing that chapter 6 originally preceded chapter 5. The feeding of the five thousand is the only event before the last visit to Jerusalem recorded in all Four Gospels (Mark 6:30-44; Matthew 14:13-21; Luke 9:10-17; John 6:1-13). The disciples have returned from the tour of Galilee and report to Jesus. It was the passover time (John 6:4) just a year before the end. To the other side of the Sea of Galilee The name given in Mark and Matthew. It is called Gennesaret in Luke 5:1 and “Sea of Tiberias” in John 21:1. Here “of Tiberias” (της Τιβεριαδος — tēs Tiberiados) is added as further description. Herod Antipas a.d. 22 built Tiberias to the west of the Sea of Galilee and made it his capital. See John 6:23 for this city. Luke (Luke 9:10) explains that it was the eastern Bethsaida (Julias) to which Jesus took the disciples, not the western Bethsaida of Mark 6:45 in Galilee. [source]
John 7:1 After these things [μετα ταυτα]
John‘s favourite general note of the order of events. Bernard conceives that the events in John 7:1-14 follow John 7:15-24 and both follow chapter 5, not chapter 6, a wholly needless readjustment of the narrative to suit a preconceived theory. John simply supplements the narrative in the Synoptics at points deemed important. He now skips the period of withdrawal from Galilee of about six months (from passover to tabernacles). Walked Imperfect active, a literal picture of the itinerant ministry of Jesus. He has returned to Galilee from the region of Caesarea Philippi. He had been avoiding Galilee as well as Judea for six months. For he would not walk in Judea Imperfect active of τελω — thelō picturing the attitude of refusal to work in Judea after the events in chapter 5 (perhaps a year and a half before). Sought to kill Imperfect active again, progressive attitude, had been seeking to kill him as shown in John 5:18 where the same words occur. [source]
John 7:11 The Jews [οι Ιουδαιοι]
The hostile leaders in Jerusalem, not the Galilean crowds (John 7:12) nor the populace in Jerusalem (John 7:25). Sought Imperfect active of ζητεω — zēteō “were seeking,” picture of the attitude of the Jewish leaders toward Jesus who had not yet appeared in public at the feast. In fact he had avoided Jerusalem since the collision in chapter 5. The leaders clearly wished to attack him. Where is he? “Where is that one? (emphatic use of εκεινος — ekeinos as in John 1:8; John 9:12). Jesus had been at two feasts during his ministry (passover in John 2:12.; possibly another passover in John 5:1), but he had avoided the preceding passover (John 6:4; John 7:1). The leaders in Jerusalem had kept in touch with Christ‘s work in Galilee. They anticipate a crisis in Jerusalem. [source]
John 7:25 Some therefore of them of Jerusalem [ουν τινες εκ των Ιεροσολυμειτων]
The people of the city in contrast to the multitude of pilgrims at the feast. They form a separate group. The word is made from Ιεροσολυμα — Ierosoluma and occurs in Josephus and 4Maccabees. In N.T. only here and Mark 1:5. These Jerusalem people knew better than the pilgrims the designs of the rulers (Vincent). Is not this? Expecting affirmative answer. Clearly they were not as familiar with the appearance of Jesus as the Galilean multitude (Dods). They seek The plural refers to the group of leaders already present (John 7:15) to whom the Jerusalem crowd probably pointed. They knew of their threats to kill Jesus (John 5:18). [source]
John 7:26 They say nothing unto him [ουδεν αυτοι λεγουσιν]
But only make sneering comments about him (John 7:16) in spite of his speaking “openly” Negative answer expected by μη ποτε — mē pote and yet there is ridicule of the rulers in the form of the question. See a like use of μη ποτε — mē pote in Luke 3:15, though nowhere else in John. Εγνωσαν — Egnōsan (second aorist ingressive active indicative of γινωσκω — ginōskō) may refer to the examination of Jesus by these rulers in John 5:19. and means, “Did they come to know or find out” (and so hold now)? That this is the Christ The Messiah of Jewish hope. [source]
John 8:11 No man, Lord [Ουδεισ Κυριε]
“No one, Sir.” She makes no excuse for her sin. Does she recognize Jesus as “Lord”? Neither do I condemn thee (απο του νυν μηκετι αμαρτανε — Oude egō se katakrinō). Jesus does not condone her sin. See John 8:15 for “I do not judge (condemn) any one.” But he does give the poor woman another chance. Henceforth sin no more (apo tou nun mēketi hamartane). See also John 5:14 where this same language is used to the impotent man. It literally means (prohibition with present active imperative): “Henceforth no longer go on sinning.” One can only hope that the woman was really changed in heart and life. Jesus clearly felt that even a wicked woman can be saved. [source]
John 7:20 The multitude [ο οχλος]
Outside of Jerusalem (the Galilean crowd as in John 7:11.) and so unfamiliar with the effort to kill Jesus recorded in John 5:18. It is important in this chapter to distinguish clearly the several groups like the Jewish leaders (John 7:13, John 7:15, John 7:25, John 7:26, John 7:30, John 7:32, etc.), the multitude from Galilee and elsewhere (John 7:10-13, John 7:20, John 7:31, John 7:40, John 7:49), the common people of Jerusalem (John 7:25), the Roman soldiers (John 7:45.). Thou hast a devil “Demon,” of course, as always in the Gospels. These pilgrims make the same charge against Jesus made long ago by the Pharisees in Jerusalem in explanation of the difference between John and Jesus (Matthew 11:18; Luke 7:33). It is an easy way to make a fling like that. “He is a monomaniac labouring under a hallucination that people wish to kill him” (Dods). [source]
John 8:13 Of thyself [περι σεαυτου]
This technical objection was according to the rules of evidence among the rabbis. “No man can give witness for himself” (Mishnah, Ketub. 11. 9). Hence, they say, “not true” (ουκ αλητες — ouk alēthes), not pertinent. “They were still in the region of pedantic rules and external tests.” In John 5:31 Jesus acknowledged this technical need of further witness outside of his own claims (John 5:19-30) and proceeded to give it (John 5:32-47) in the testimony of the Baptist, of the Father, of his works, of the Scriptures, and of Moses in particular. [source]
John 8:25 Who art thou? [Συ τις ει]
Proleptic use of συ — su before τις — tis “Thou, who art thou?” Cf. John 1:19. He had virtually claimed to be the Messiah and on a par with God as in John 5:15. They wish to pin him down and to charge him with blasphemy. Even that which I have also spoken unto you from the beginning A difficult sentence. It is not clear whether it is an affirmation or a question. The Latin and Syriac versions treat it as affirmative. Westcott and Hort follow Meyer and take it as interrogative. The Greek fathers take it as an exclamation. It seems clear that the adverbial accusative την αρχην — tēn archēn cannot mean “from the beginning” like απ αρχης — ap' archēs (John 15:27) or εχ αρχης — ex archēs (John 16:4). The lxx has την αρχην — tēn archēn for “at the beginning” or “at the first” (Gen 43:20). There are examples in Greek, chiefly negative, where την αρχην — tēn archēn means “at all,” “essentially,” “primarily.” Vincent and Bernard so take it here, “Primarily what I am telling you.” Jesus avoids the term Messiah with its political connotations. He stands by his high claims already made. [source]
John 8:53 Art thou greater than our father Abraham? [Μη συ μειζων ει του πατρος ημων Αβρααμ]
Negative answer expected by μη — mē with ablative case of comparison in πατρος — patros after μειζων — meizōn The question was designed to put Jesus in a difficult position, for Abraham and the prophets all “died.” They do not see that Jesus uses death in a different sense. Whom makest thou thyself? Σεαυτον — Seauton is predicate accusative with ποιεις — poieis They suspect that Jesus is guilty of blasphemy as they charged in John 5:18 in making himself equal with God. Later they will make it specifically (John 10:33; John 19:7). They set a trap for Jesus for this purpose. [source]
John 8:55 And ye have not known him [και ουκ εγνωκατε αυτον]
Adversative use again of και — kai = “and yet.” Perfect active indicative of γινωσκω — ginōskō the verb for experiential knowledge. This was true of the κοσμος — kosmos (John 1:10; John 17:25) and of the hostile Jews (John 16:3). Jesus prays that the world may know (John 17:23) and the handful of disciples had come to know (John 17:25). But I know him Equipped by eternal fellowship to reveal the Father (1:1-18). This peculiar intimate knowledge Jesus had already claimed (John 7:29). Jesus used οιδα — oida (John 8:19; John 15:21) or γινωσκω — ginōskō (John 17:23, John 17:25) for the knowledge of the Father. No undue distinction can be drawn here. And if I should say Third-class condition (concession), “even if I say,” with και εαν — kai ean Apodosis of the condition. ομοιος — Homoios (like) is followed by the associative-instrumental case υμιν — humin The word πσευστης — pseustēs (liar), in spite of the statement that they are the children of the devil, the father of lying (John 8:44), comes with a sudden jolt because it is a direct charge. This word liar is not considered polite today in public speech when hurled at definite individuals. There is a rather free use of the word in 1 John 2:4, 1 John 2:22; 1 John 4:20; 1 John 5:10. It is not hard to imagine the quick anger of these Pharisees. [source]
John 9:3 But that the works of God should be made manifest in him [αλλ ινα πανερωτηι τα εργα του τεου εν αυτωι]
Jesus denies both alternatives, and puts God‘s purpose (αλλ ινα — all' hina with first aorist subjunctive of πανεροω — phaneroō) as the true solution. It is sometimes true that disease is the result of personal sin as in the man in John 5:14 and parents can hand on the effects of sin to the third and fourth generations, but there are cases free from blame like this. There is comfort for many sufferers in the words of Jesus here. [source]
John 9:16 Because he keepeth not the sabbath [οτι το σαββατον ου τηρει]
This is reason (causal οτι — hoti) enough. He violates our rules about the Sabbath and therefore is a Sabbath-breaker as charged when here before (John 5:10, John 5:16, John 5:18). Hence he is not “from God” So some. How can a man that is a sinner do such signs? This was the argument of Nicodemus, himself a Pharisee and one of the Sanhedrin, long ago (John 3:2). It was a conundrum for the Pharisees. No wonder there was “a division” (σχισμα — schisma schism, split, from σχιζω — schizō) as in John 7:43; John 10:19. [source]
John 9:18 The Jews [οι Ιουδαιοι]
Probably the incredulous and hostile section of the Pharisees in John 9:16 (cf. John 5:10). Did not believe The facts told by the man, “that he had been blind and had received his sight” Usual construction of εως οτου — heōs hotou (= until which time, like εως — heōs alone) with aorist active indicative of πωνεω — phōneō old verb from πωνη — phōnē (voice, sound). They called out loud for his parents to throw light on this grave problem to cover up their own stupidity. [source]
Romans 6:10 In that He died [ὃ γὰρ ἀπέθανεν]
Lit.. what he died; the death which he died. Compare sin a sin, 1 John 5:16; the life which I live, literally, what I live, Galatians 2:20. [source]
Romans 3:26 Him which believeth in Jesus [τὸν ἐκ πίστεως Ἱησοῦ]
Lit., him which is of faith in Jesus. See on Romans 3:22. Some texts omit of Jesus. The expression “of faith” indicates the distinguishing peculiarity of the justified as derived from faith in Christ. For the force of ἐκ outof, see on Luke 16:31; see on John 8:23; see on John 12:49; see on 1 John 5:19. [source]
Romans 12:14 Them that persecute [τοὺς διώκοντας]
See on John 5:16. It has been suggested that the verb pursuing in Romans 12:13may have suggested the persecutors here. Pursue hospitality toward the brethren as the wicked pursue them. [source]
Romans 1:8 Is proclaimed [καταγγέλλεται]
The different compounds of the simple verb ἀγγέλλω toannounce, are interesting. The simple verb occurs only at John 20:18. Ἁναγγέλλειν is to report with the additional idea of bringing tidings up to or back to the person receiving them. So John 5:15. The impotent man brought back information to the Jews. Compare Mark 5:14. So Christ will send the Comforter, and He will bring back to the disciples tidings of things to come. John 16:13-15. See Acts 14:27; 2 Corinthians 7:7; 1 Peter 1:12. Ἁπαγγέλλειν is to announce with a reference to the source from ( ἀπό ) which the message comes So Matthew 2:8; Acts 12:14. Compare Luke 7:22; Luke 8:34, Acts 5:22. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
Καταγγέλλειν is to proclaim with authority, as commissioned to spread the tidings throughout, down among those that hear them, with the included idea of celebrating or commending. So here. Compare Acts 16:21; Acts 17:3. Thus in ἀναγγέλλειν therecipient of the news is contemplated; in ἀπαγγέλλειν thesource; in καταγγέλλειν the relation of the bearer and hearer of the message. The first is found mostly in John, Mark, and Acts; the second in the Synoptists and Acts; the third only. in the Acts and Paul. [source]

Romans 1:8 That [οτι]
Or because. Either declarative or causal οτι — hoti makes sense here. Your faith (η πιστις υμων — hē pistis humōn). “Your Christianity” (Sanday and Headlam). Is proclaimed Present passive indicative of καταγγελλω — kataggellō to announce See also αναγγελλω — anaggellō to bring back news (John 5:15), απαγγελλω — apaggellō to announce from one as the source (Matthew 2:8), προκαταγγελλω — prokataggellō to announce far and wide beforehand (Acts 3:18). Throughout all the world (εν ολωι τωι κοσμωι — en holōi tōi kosmōi). Natural hyperbole as in Colossians 1:6; Acts 17:6. But widely known because the church was in the central city of the empire. [source]
Romans 1:8 Is proclaimed [καταγγελλεται]
Present passive indicative of καταγγελλω — kataggellō to announce See also αναγγελλω — anaggellō to bring back news (John 5:15), απαγγελλω — apaggellō to announce from one as the source (Matthew 2:8), προκαταγγελλω — prokataggellō to announce far and wide beforehand (Acts 3:18). Throughout all the world (εν ολωι τωι κοσμωι — en holōi tōi kosmōi). Natural hyperbole as in Colossians 1:6; Acts 17:6. But widely known because the church was in the central city of the empire. [source]
Romans 1:8 Through [δια]
As the mediator or medium of thanksgiving as in Romans 7:25. For (περι — peri). Concerning, about. That Or because. Either declarative or causal οτι — hoti makes sense here. Your faith (η πιστις υμων — hē pistis humōn). “Your Christianity” (Sanday and Headlam). Is proclaimed Present passive indicative of καταγγελλω — kataggellō to announce See also αναγγελλω — anaggellō to bring back news (John 5:15), απαγγελλω — apaggellō to announce from one as the source (Matthew 2:8), προκαταγγελλω — prokataggellō to announce far and wide beforehand (Acts 3:18). Throughout all the world (εν ολωι τωι κοσμωι — en holōi tōi kosmōi). Natural hyperbole as in Colossians 1:6; Acts 17:6. But widely known because the church was in the central city of the empire. [source]
Romans 8:16 Beareth witness with our spirit [συμμαρτυρει τωι πνευματι ημων]
See note on Romans 2:15 for this verb with associative instrumental case. See 1 John 5:10. for this double witness. [source]
2 Corinthians 4:4 The god of this world [ο τεος του αιωνος τουτου]
“Age,” more exactly, as in 1 Corinthians 1:20. Satan is “the god of this age,” a phrase nowhere else in the N.T., but Jesus uses the same idea in John 12:31; John 14:30 and Paul in Ephesians 2:2; Ephesians 6:12 and John in 1 John 5:19. Satan claimed the rule over the world in the temptations with Jesus. [source]
Galatians 5:22 Love [ἀγάπη]
Comp. love of the Spirit, Romans 15:30. In Class. φιλεῖν is the most general designation of love, denoting an inner inclination to persons or things, and standing opposed to μισεῖν or ἐχθαίρειν tohate. It occasionally acquires from the context a sensual flavor, as Hom. Od. xviii. 325; Hdt. iv. 176, thus running into the sense of ἐρᾶν which denotes sensual love. It is love to persons and things growing out of intercourse and amenities or attractive qualities. Στέργειν (not in N.T., lxx, Sirach 27:17) expresses a deep, quiet, appropriating, natural love, as distinguished from that which is called out by circumstances. Unlike φιλεῖν , it has a distinct moral significance, and is not applied to base inclinations opposed to a genuine manly nature. It is the word for love to parents, wife, children, king or country, as one's own. Aristotle (Nic. ix. 7,3) speaks of poets as loving ( στέργοντες ) their own poems as their children. See also Eurip. Med. 87. Ἁγαπᾶν is to love out of an intelligent estimate of the object of love. It answers to Lat. diligere, or Germ. schatzen to prize. It is not passionate and sensual as ἐρᾶν . It is not, like φιλεῖν , attachment to a person independently of his quality and created by close intercourse. It is less sentiment than consideration. While φιλεῖν contemplates the person, ἀγαπᾶν contemplates the attributes and character, and gives an account of its inclination. Ἁγαπᾶν is really the weaker expression for love, as that term is conventionally used. It is judicial rather than affectionate. Even in classical usage, however, the distinction between ἀγαπᾶν and φιλεῖν is often very subtle, and well-nigh impossible to express. In N.T. ἐπιθυμαῖν todesire or lust is used instead of ἐρᾶν . In lxx ἀγαπᾶν is far more common than φιλεῖν . Φιλεῖν occurs only 16 times in the sense of love, and 16 times in the sense of kiss; while ἀγαπᾶν is found nearly 300 times. It is used with a wide range, of the love of parent for child, of man for God, of God for man, of love to one's neighbor and to the stranger, of husband for wife, of love for God's house, and for mercy and truth; but also of the love of Samson for Delilah, of Hosea for his adulterous wife, of Amnon's love for Tamar, of Solomon's love for strange women, of loving a woman for her beauty. Also of loving vanity, unrighteousness, devouring words, cursing, death, silver. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
The noun ἀγάπη , oClass., was apparently created by the lxx, although it is found there only 19 times. It first comes into habitual use in Christian writings. In N.T. it is, practically, the only noun for love, although compound nouns expressing peculiar phases of love, as brotherly love, love of money, love of children, etc., are formed with φίλος , as φιλαδελφία, φιλαργυρία, φιλανθρωπία . Both verbs, φιλεῖν and ἀγαπᾶν occur, but ἀγαπᾶν more frequently. The attempt to carry out consistently the classical distinction between these two must be abandoned. Both are used of the love of parents and children, of the love of God for Christ, of Christ for men, of God for men, of men for Christ and of men for men. The love of man for God and of husband for wife, only ἀγαπᾶν . The distinction is rather between ἀγαπᾶν and ἐπιθυμεῖν than between ἀγαπᾶν and φιλεῖν . Love, in this passage, is that fruit of the Spirit which dominates all the others. See Galatians 5:13, Galatians 5:14. Comp. 1 Corinthians 13:1-13; 1 John 2:5, 1 John 2:9-11; 1 John 3:11, 1 John 3:14-16; 1 John 4:7-11, 1 John 4:16-21; 1 John 5:1-3. [source]

Galatians 3:26 For ye are all the children of God [πάντες γὰρ υἱοὶ θεοῦ ἐστὲ]
Better, ye are all sons of God. Note 1. The change of person, ye are. Comp. we, our, us, Galatians 3:23, Galatians 3:24, Galatians 3:25. He now addresses the Galatians, who were mostly Gentiles, and includes all Christians, Jewish and Gentile. 2. The emphasis is on sons of God rather than on all; for his object is to show that, after the coming of faith, they are no more under the care of a guardian. Ὑιοὶ signifies sons of full age (comp. Galatians 4:1) who have outgrown the surveillance of the guardian; so that sons is emphasized as against children. Paul describes Christians both as τέκνα θεοῦ childrenof God (Romans 8:16, Romans 8:21; Romans 9:8; Philemon 2:15), and υἱοὶ θεοῦ sonsof God (Romans 8:14, Romans 8:19; Romans 9:26). Both τέκνον and υἱός signify a relation based on parentage. The common distinction between τέκνον as emphasizing natural relationship, and υἱός as marking legal or ethical status, should not be pressed. In lxx both words are applied ethically to Israel as God's beloved people. See Isaiah 30:1; Wisd. 16:21; Joel 2:23; Zechariah 9:13; and Isaiah 63:6; Deuteronomy 14:1; Wisd. 9:7; 12:19. John never uses υἱός to describe the relation of Christians to God; but he attaches both the ethical relation and that of conferred privilege, as well as that of birth, to τέκνον . See John 1:12; 1 John 3:1, 1 John 3:10; John 1:13; John 3:3, John 3:7; 1 John 3:9; 1 John 4:7; 1 John 5:1, 1 John 5:4, 1 John 5:18. Paul often regards the Christian relation from a legal point of view as υἱοθεσία adoptiona word used only by him. See Romans 8:14, Romans 8:17, we have both υἱοὶ and τέκνα , and both in the ethical sense. In Romans 9:8; Ephesians 5:1, the ethical sense. 3. In Christ Jesus. Const. with faith. The article before πίστεως faithmay point back to the faith previously mentioned, or may have, as so often, a possessive force, your faith. [source]
Ephesians 6:12 Rulers of the darkness of this world [κοσμοκράτορας τοῦ σκότους τούτου]
Rev., more correctly, world-rulers of this darkness. World-Rulers only here. Compare John 14:30; John 16:11; 1 John 5:19; 2 Corinthians 4:4. [source]
Ephesians 4:18 Life of God [ζωῆς]
See on John 1:4. The life which God bestows; life in Christ. See 1 John 5:11. [source]
Colossians 3:4 Who is our life [ζωὴ]
See on John 1:4. The life is not only with Christ, it is Christ. Compare John 14:6; 2 Corinthians 4:10, 2 Corinthians 4:11; 1 John 5:11, 1 John 5:12. For the change of person, our for your, see on Colossians 2:13. [source]
Colossians 2:21 Touch - taste - handle [ἅψῃ - γεύσῃ - θίγῃς]
Ἅπτομαι , A.V., touch, is properly to fasten one's self to or cling to. So John 20:17(note). Frequently rendered touch in the New Testament, and used in most cases of Christ's touching or being touched by the diseased. To get hands on so as to injure, 1 John 5:18. To have intercourse with, 1 Corinthians 7:1; 2 Corinthians 6:17. Thus, in every case, the contact described exerts a modifying influence, and a more permanent contact or effect of contact is often implied than is expressed by touch. “The idea of a voluntary or conscious effort is often involved.” No single English word will express all these phases of meaning. Handle comes, perhaps, as near as any other, especially in its sense of treatment, as when we say that a speaker or writer handles a subject; or that a man is roughly handled by his enemies. This wider and stronger sense does not attach to θιγγάνειν A.V., handle, though the two words are sometimes used interchangeably, as Exodus 19:12, and though θιγγάνειν also implies a modifying contact, unlike ψηλαφάω , which signifies to touch with a view of ascertaining the quality of the object; to feel after, to grope. See Luke 24:39; Acts 17:27. Thus ψηλαφίνδα is blind-man's-bluff. The contact implied by θιγγάνειν is more superficial and transitory. It lies between ἅπτομαι and ψηλαφάω . Thus we have here a climax which is lost in the A.V. Handle not, taste not, do not even touch. Rev., handle not, nor taste, nor touch. [source]
2 Thessalonians 3:3 From evil [ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ]
Possibly, from the evil one. Τὸ πονηρόν evilis found Romans 12:9; Matthew 5:39; but general N.T. usage favors the masculine, personal sense. See Matthew 13:19, Matthew 13:38; Ephesians 6:16; 1 John 2:13, 1 John 2:14; 1 John 3:12; 1 John 5:18. In lxx, τὸ πονηρόν evil is very common: ὁ πονηρὸς a few times, but always of men. See Deuteronomy 24:7; Esther 7:6; Job 21:30. In Tobit 3:8,17, τὸ πονηρόν δαιμόνιον thewicked demon. The masculine is favored by the Jewish formularies, of which traces appear in the Lord's prayer; by the unanimous tradition of Greek interpreters; by the interpretations of Tertullian and Cyprian, and by the evidence of the Syriac and Sahidic Versions. [source]
2 Thessalonians 3:3 But faithful is the Lord [correct rendition)]
(correct rendition), with a play (paronomasia) on πιστις — pistis by πιστος — pistos as in Romans 3:3 we have a word-play on απιστεω — apisteō and απιστια — apistia The Lord can be counted on, however perverse men may be. From the evil one (απο του πονηρου — apo tou ponērou). Apparently a reminiscence of the Lord‘s Prayer in Matthew 6:13 ρυσαι ημας απο του πονηρου — rusai hēmas apo tou ponērou But here as there it is not certain whether του πονηρου — tou ponērou is neuter (evil) like to πονηρον — ponēron in Romans 12:9 or masculine (the evil one). But we have ο πονηρος — ho ponēros (the evil one) in 1 John 5:18 and του πονηρου — tou ponērou is clearly masculine in Ephesians 6:16. If masculine here, as is probable, is it “the Evil One” (Ellicott) or merely the evil man like those mentioned in 2 Thessalonians 3:2 ? Perhaps Paul has in mind the representative of Satan, the man of sin, pictured in 2 Thessalonians 2:1-12, by the phrase here without trying to be too definite. [source]
2 Thessalonians 3:3 From the evil one [απο του πονηρου]
Apparently a reminiscence of the Lord‘s Prayer in Matthew 6:13 ρυσαι ημας απο του πονηρου — rusai hēmas apo tou ponērou But here as there it is not certain whether του πονηρου — tou ponērou is neuter (evil) like to πονηρον — ponēron in Romans 12:9 or masculine (the evil one). But we have ο πονηρος — ho ponēros (the evil one) in 1 John 5:18 and του πονηρου — tou ponērou is clearly masculine in Ephesians 6:16. If masculine here, as is probable, is it “the Evil One” (Ellicott) or merely the evil man like those mentioned in 2 Thessalonians 3:2 ? Perhaps Paul has in mind the representative of Satan, the man of sin, pictured in 2 Thessalonians 2:1-12, by the phrase here without trying to be too definite. [source]
2 Timothy 1:1 Of life which is in Christ Jesus []
The phrase promise of life only here and 1 Timothy 4:8. oP. Life in Christ is a Pauline thought. See Romans 8:2; 2 Corinthians 4:10; Romans 6:2-14; Galatians 2:19, Galatians 2:20; Colossians 3:4; Philemon 1:21. It is also a Johannine thought; see John 1:4; John 3:15; John 6:25; John 14:6; 1 John 5:11. [source]
Hebrews 8:12 Their sins and their iniquities [τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν αὐτῶν]
Omit and their iniquities. For ἁμαρτία sinsee on Matthew 1:21; and for both ἀδικία and ἁμαρτία , see on 1 John 1:9. Comp. 1 John 5:17. [source]
Hebrews 12:9 And live [καὶ ζήσομεν]
Have true life; not limited to the future life. Comp. John 5:26; John 6:57; 1 John 5:11; Revelation 11:11; Acts 16:28; Romans 6:11; Romans 14:8; 1 John 4:9, and see on living God, Hebrews 3:12. [source]
Hebrews 10:19 To enter into the holiest [εἰς τὴν εἴσοδον τῶν ἁγίων]
Lit. for the entering of the holiest. The phrase παρρησία εἰς boldnessunto, N.T.o Παρρησία with περὶ concerning John 16:25; with πρὸς with reference to, 2 Corinthians 7:4; 1 John 3:21; 1 John 5:14. Ἔισοδος in N.T. habitually of the act of entering. [source]
Hebrews 4:10 As God did from his [ὤσπερ ἀπὸ τῶν ἰδίων ὁ θεός]
Rend. as God (did ) from his own. Ἰδίων ownsignifies more than mere possession. Rather, works peculiarly his own, thus hinting at the perfect nature of the original works of creation as corresponding with God's nature and bearing his impress. The blessing of the Sabbath-rest is thus put as a cessation from labors. The basis of the conception is Jewish, the rest of the Sabbath being conceived as mere abstinence from labor, and not according to Christ's conception of the Sabbath, as a season of refreshment and beneficent activity, Mark 2:27; John 5:17. Our writer's conception is not the rabbinical conception of cessation of work, but rather of the cessation of the weariness and pain which accompany human labor. Comp. Revelation 14:13; Revelation 21:4; Luke 11:7; Luke 18:5; Galatians 6:17. [source]
Hebrews 1:2 By whom also he made the worlds [δι ' οὗ καὶ ἐποίησεν τοὺς αἰῶνας]
Διὰ commonly expresses secondary agency, but, in some instances, it is used of God's direct agency. See 1 Corinthians 1:1; 2 Corinthians 1:1; Galatians 4:7. Christ is here represented as a mediate agency in creation. The phrase is, clearly, colored by the Alexandrian conception, but differs from it in that Christ is not represented as a mere instrument, a passive tool, but rather as a cooperating agent. “Every being, to reach existence, must have passed through the thought and will of the Logos” (Godet); yet “the Son can do nothing of himself but what he seeth the Father doing” (John 5:19). With this passage Colossians 1:16should be studied. There it is said that all things, collectively ( τὰ πάντα ), were created in him ( ἐν αὐτῷ ) and through him ( δι ' αὐτοῦ as here). The former expression enlarges and completes the latter. Δι ' αὐτοῦ represents Christ as the mediate instrument. Ἐν αὐτῷ indicates that “all the laws and purposes which guide the creation and government of the universe reside in him, the Eternal Word, as their meeting-point.” Comp. John 1:3; 1 Corinthians 8:6. For τοῦς αἰῶνας theworlds, see additional note on 2 Thessalonians 1:9. Rend. for by whom also he made, by whom he also made. The emphasis is on made, not on worlds: on the fact of creation, not on what was created. In the writer's thought heirship goes with creation. Christ is heir of what he made, and because he made it. As πάντων, in the preceding clause, regards all things taken singly, αἰῶνας regards them in cycles. Ἀιῶνας does not mean times, as if representing the Son as the creator of all time and times, but creation unfolded in time through successive aeons. All that, in successive periods of time, has come to pass, has come to pass through him. Comp. 1 Corinthians 10:11; Ephesians 3:21; Hebrews 9:26; 1 Timothy 1:17; lxx, Ecclesiastes href="/desk/?q=ec+3:11&sr=1">Ecclesiastes 3:11. See also Clement of Rome, Ad Corinth. xxxv, ὁ δημιουργὸς καὶ πατὴρ τῶν αἰώνων theCreator and Father of the ages. Besides this expression, the writer speaks of the world as κόσμος (Hebrews 4:3; Hebrews 10:5); ἡ οἰκουμένη (Hebrews 1:6), and τὰ πάντα (Hebrews 1:3). [source]
Hebrews 4:4 Somewhere on this wise [που ουτως]
See Hebrews 2:6 for που τις — pou tis for a like indefinite allusion to an Old Testament quotation. Here it is Genesis 2:2 (cf. Exodus 20:11; Exodus 31:17). Moffatt notes that Philo quotes Genesis 2:2 with the same “literary mannerism.” Rested First aorist active indicative of καταπαυω — katapauō intransitive here, but transitive in Hebrews 4:8. It is not, of course, absolute rest from all creative activity as Jesus shows in John 5:17. But the seventh day of God‘s rest was still going on (clearly not a twenty-four hour day). [source]
James 5:15 Shall save [σωσει]
Future active of σωζω — sōzō to make well. As in Matthew 9:21.; Mark 6:56. No reference here to salvation of the soul. The medicine does not heal the sick, but it helps nature (God) do it. The doctor cooperates with God in nature.The sick (τον καμνοντα — ton kamnonta). Present active articular participle of καμνω — kamnō old verb, to grow weary (Hebrews 12:3), to be sick (here), only N.T. examples.The Lord shall raise him up Future active of εγειρω — egeirō Precious promise, but not for a professional “faith-healer” who scoffs at medicine and makes merchandise out of prayer.And if he have committed sins (καν αμαρτιας ηι πεποιηκως — kan hamartias ēi pepoiēkōs). Periphrastic perfect active subjunctive (unusual idiom) with και εαν — kai ean (crasis καν — kan) in condition of third class. Supposing that he has committed sins as many sick people have (Mark 2:5.; John 5:14; John 9:2.; 1 Corinthians 11:30).It shall be forgiven him Future passive of απιημι — aphiēmi (impersonal passive as in Matthew 7:2, Matthew 7:7; Romans 10:10). Not in any magical way, not because his sickness has been healed, not without change of heart and turning to God through Christ. Much is assumed here that is not expressed. [source]
James 5:15 And if he have committed sins [καν αμαρτιας ηι πεποιηκως]
Periphrastic perfect active subjunctive (unusual idiom) with και εαν — kai ean (crasis καν — kan) in condition of third class. Supposing that he has committed sins as many sick people have (Mark 2:5.; John 5:14; John 9:2.; 1 Corinthians 11:30). [source]
James 5:15 The Lord shall raise him up [εγερει αυτον ο κυριος]
Future active of εγειρω — egeirō Precious promise, but not for a professional “faith-healer” who scoffs at medicine and makes merchandise out of prayer.And if he have committed sins (καν αμαρτιας ηι πεποιηκως — kan hamartias ēi pepoiēkōs). Periphrastic perfect active subjunctive (unusual idiom) with και εαν — kai ean (crasis καν — kan) in condition of third class. Supposing that he has committed sins as many sick people have (Mark 2:5.; John 5:14; John 9:2.; 1 Corinthians 11:30).It shall be forgiven him Future passive of απιημι — aphiēmi (impersonal passive as in Matthew 7:2, Matthew 7:7; Romans 10:10). Not in any magical way, not because his sickness has been healed, not without change of heart and turning to God through Christ. Much is assumed here that is not expressed. [source]
1 John 5:19 We are of God [ἐκ τοῦ Θεοῦ ἐσμέν]
For the phrase εἷναι ἐκ tobe from, see on John 1:46. For ἐσμέν weare, see on 1 John 3:1. John expresses the relation of believers to God by the following phrases: To be born or begotten of God, γεννηθῆναι ἐκ τοῦ Θεοῦ (1 John 5:1; 1 John 2:29; 1 John 4:7): denoting the initial communication of the new life. To be of God, εἷναι ἐκ τοῦ Θεοῦ (John 8:47; 1 John 3:10; 1 John 4:6): denoting the essential connection in virtue of the new life. Child of God, τέκνον Θεοῦ (John 1:12; 1 John 3:1, 1 John 3:10): denoting the relation established by the new life. [source]
1 John 5:18 We know [οἴδαμεν]
John uses this appeal to knowledge in two forms: we know (1 John 3:2, 1 John 3:14; 1 John 5:18, 1 John 5:19, 1 John 5:20); ye know (1 John 2:20; 1 John 3:5, 1 John 3:15). [source]
1 John 5:16 Not unto death [μὴ πρὸς θάνατον]
Describing the nature of the sin. The preposition unto, signifies tendency toward, not necessarily involving death. See on 1 John 5:17. [source]
1 John 4:4 He that is in the world []
In 1 John 5:19, the world is said to be in the evil one. Compare Ephesians 2:2. [source]
1 John 5:12 Hath life [ἔχει τὴν ζωὴν]
More strictly, as Rev., the life; i.e., the life which God gave (1 John 5:11). See on John 16:22. Compare Christ who is our life (Colossians 3:4). [source]
1 John 3:5 Ye know []
John's characteristic appeal to Christian knowledge. Compare 1 John 2:20, 1 John 2:21; 1 John 4:2, 1 John 4:14, 1 John 4:16; 1 John 5:15, 1 John 5:18; 3 John 1:12. [source]
1 John 3:3 Every man that hath [πᾶς ὁ ἔχων]
A characteristic form of expression with John, containing “a reference to some who had questioned the application of a general principle in particular cases.” Here to some persons who had denied the practical obligation to moral purity involved in their hope. See 1 John 3:4, 1 John 3:6, 1 John 3:9, 1 John 3:10, 1 John 3:15, 1 John 3:23, 1 John 3:24; 1 John 4:7; 1 John 5:1, 1 John 5:4, 1 John 5:18; 2 John 1:9. [source]
1 John 2:9 Until now [ἕως ἄρτι]
Though the light has been increasing, and though he may claim that he has been in the light from the first. The phrase occurs in John 2:10; John 5:17; John 16:24; and is used by Paul, 1 Corinthians 4:13; 1 Corinthians 8:7; 1 Corinthians 15:6. [source]
1 John 2:6 He [ἐκεῖνος]
Always of Christ in the Epistles of John. See ἐκείνης , referring to ἁμαρτία sin 1 John 5:16. [source]
1 John 2:13 The evil one [τὸν πονηρόν]
See on wickedness, Mark 7:22; see on evils, Luke 3:19; see on evil spirits, Luke 7:21. The prince of darkness is styled by John ὁ διάβολος thefalse accuser (John 8:44; John 13:2; 1 John 3:8, 1 John 3:10. See on Matthew 4:1): ὁ Σατανᾶς Satanthe adversary (John 13:27; compare ὁ κατήγωρ theaccuser, properly, in court, Revelation 12:10): ὁ πονηρός theevil one (John 17:15; 1 John 2:13, 1 John 2:14; 1 John 3:12; 1 John 5:18, 1 John 5:19): ὁ ἄρχων τοῦ κόσμου τούτου theruler of this world (John 12:31; John 14:30; John 16:11). Note the abrupt introduction of the word here, as indicating something familiar. [source]
1 John 5:16 Unto death []
The difficulty of the passage lies in the explanation of these words. It is impossible to determine their exact meaning with certainty. Some of the many explanations are as follows: Such sin as God punishes with deadly sickness or sudden death. All those sins punished with excommunication (so the older Catholic theologians). An unrepented sin. Envy. A sinful state or condition. The sin by which the Christian falls back from Christian life into death. The anti-Christian denial that Jesus is the Christ. The phrase λαβεῖν ἁμαρτίαν θανητοφόρον toincur a death-bearing sin (A. V., bear sin and die ), occurs Numbers 18:22, Sept., and the distinction between sins unto death and sins not unto death is common in Rabbinic writings. However John's expression may have been suggested by these, it cannot be assumed that they determine the sense in which he uses it. -DIVIDER-
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Life and death in the passage must correspond. Bodily death and spiritual life cannot be meant. The passage must be interpreted in the light of John's utterances elsewhere concerning life and death. In 1 John 5:12, he says: He that hath the Son hath life, and he that hath not the Son of God hath not life. In 1 John 3:14, 1 John 3:15, he says that he that loveth not abideth in death: that he that hateth his brother is a manslayer, and that no manslayer hath eternal life abiding in him. These canons of interpretation point to the explanation, in which some of the best authorities agree, that the sin unto death does not refer to a specific act, but to a class or species of sins, the tendency of which is to cut the bond of fellowship with Christ. Hence the passage is in the key-note of fellowship which pervades the Epistle. Whatever breaks the fellowship between the soul and Christ, and, by consequence, between the individual and the body of believers, is unto death, for there is no life apart from Christ. It is indeed true that this tendency inheres in all sin. Sin is essentially death. But a distinction is to be made, as Canon Westcott observes, between sins which flow from human imperfection and infirmity, and sins which are open manifestations of a character alien from God. “All unrighteousness is sin, and there is a sin not unto death.” It must be carefully born in mind in the study of the passage, that John is speaking of sinful acts as revelations of character, and not simply in themselves. So Huther: “Such sinning as is characterized, not by the object with which it is connected, but by the disposition from which it proceeds.” [source]

1 John 1:9 Unrighteousness [ἀδικίας]
With reference to δίκαιος righteousThe righteous One who calls us into fellowship with Himself, purges away the unrighteousness which is contrary to His nature, and which renders fellowship impossible. The word occurs in John's writings only at John 7:18; 1 John 5:17. [source]
1 John 1:5 This then is [καὶ αὕτη ἐστὶν]
Rev., correctly and literally, and this. According to the proper reading the verb stands first in order ( ἐστὶν αὕτη ), with emphasis, not merely as a copula, but in the sense “there exists this as the message.” For a similar use of the substantive verb, see 1 John 5:16, 1 John 5:17; 1 John 2:15; John 8:50. [source]
1 John 1:5 In Him is no darkness at all [καὶ σκοτία οὐκ ἔστιν ἐν αὐτῷ οὐδεμία]
It is characteristic of John to express the same idea positively and negatively. See John 1:7, John 1:8, John 1:20; John 3:15, John 3:17, John 3:20; John 4:42; John 5:24; John 8:35; John 10:28; 1 John 1:6, 1 John 1:8; 1 John 2:4, 1 John 2:27; 1 John 5:12. According to the Greek order, the rendering is: “And darkness there is not in Him, no, not in any way.” For a similar addition of οὐδείς notone, to a complete sentence, see John 6:63; John 11:19; John 19:11. On σκοτία darknesssee on John 1:5. [source]
1 John 4:17 Herein [ἐν τούτῳ]
To what does this refer? Two explanations are given. (1.) To the following that we may have boldness. So Huther, who argues thus on the ground that 1 John 4:18shows that the drift of the writer's thought is toward the fearlessness of love. According to this, therefore, love has its fulfillment in freeing us from fear, and inspiring us with boldness even in view of the final judgment. (2.) To what precedes, viz., our dwelling in God and He in us. So Westcott: “The fellowship of God with man and of man with God, carries with it the consummation of love.” I prefer the latter, principally on the ground that in such phrases as ἐν τούτῳ inthis, διὰ τοῦτο onthis account, therefore, the pronoun usually refers to something preceding, though more fully developed in what follows. See John 5:16, John 5:18; John 6:65; John 8:47; John 10:17; John 12:18; John 16:15. [source]
1 John 2:9 His brother [τὸν ἀδελφόν]
His fellow-Christian. The singular, brother, is characteristic of this Epistle. See 1 John 2:10, 1 John 2:11; 1 John 3:10, 1 John 3:15, 1 John 3:17; 1 John 4:20, 1 John 4:21; 1 John 5:16. Christians are called in the New Testament, Christians (Acts 11:26; Acts 26:28; 1 Peter 4:16), mainly by those outside of the Christian circle. Disciples, applied to all followers of Christ (John 2:11; John 6:61) and strictly to the twelve (John 13:5sqq.). In Acts 19:1, to those who had received only John's baptism. Not found in John's Epistles nor in Revelation. Brethren. The first title given to the body of believers after the Ascension (Acts 1:15, where the true reading is ἀδελφῶν brethrenfor μαθητῶν disciples). See Acts 9:30; Acts 10:23; Acts 11:29; 1 Thessalonians 4:10; 1 Thessalonians 5:26; 1 John 3:14; 3 John 1:5, 3 John 1:10; John 21:23. Peter has ἡ ἀδελφότης thebrotherhood (1 Peter 2:17; 1 Peter 5:9). The believers. Under three forms: The believers ( οἱ πιστοί ; Acts 10:45; 1 Timothy 4:12); they that believe ( οἱ πιστεύοντες ; 1 Peter 2:7; 1 Thessalonians 1:7; Ephesians 1:19); they that believed ( οἱ πιστεύσαντες ; Acts 2:44; Acts 4:32; Hebrews 4:3). The saints ( οἱ ἅγιοι ); characteristic of Paul and Revelation. Four times in the Acts (Acts 9:13, Acts 9:32, Acts 9:41; Acts 26:10), and once in Jude (Judges 1:3). Also Hebrews 6:10; Hebrews 13:24. In Paul, 1 Corinthians 6:1; 1 Corinthians 14:33; Ephesians 1:1, Ephesians 1:15, etc. In Revelation 5:8; Revelation 8:3, Revelation 8:4; Revelation 11:18, etc.|Until now ( ἕως ἄρτι )|Though the light has been increasing, and though he may claim that he has been in the light from the first. The phrase occurs in John 2:10; John 5:17; John 16:24; and is used by Paul, 1 Corinthians 4:13; 1 Corinthians 8:7; 1 Corinthians 15:6.| [source]
1 John 2:28 We may have confidence [σχῶμεν παῤῥησίαν]
Rev., boldness. For the phrase have boldness, see 1 John 3:21; 1 John 4:17; 1 John 5:14; Hebrews 3:6; Hebrews 10:19; Philemon 1:8. For the word παῤῥησία boldnesssee on John 7:13; see on Acts 2:29. It is opposed, as here, to αἰσχύνομαι tobe ashamed, in Proverbs 13:5, where the Septuagint reads “a wicked man is ashamed ( αἰσχύνεται ) and shall not have boldness ( παῤῥησίαν ). Also in Philemon 1:20. Compare 2 Corinthians 3:12. The idea of free, open speech lies at the bottom of the word: coming before God's bar with nothing to conceal. The thought is embodied in the general confession of the Book of Common Prayer: “That we should not dissemble nor cloke them before the face of Almighty God our Heavenly Father, but confess them.” So John Wesley's Hymn:“Jesus, Thy blood and righteousnessMy beauty are, my glorious dress: 'Midst flaming worlds, in these arrayed,-DIVIDER-
With joy shall I lift up my head.Bold shall I stand in Thy great day,For who aught to my charge shall lay? Fully absolved through these I am, - From sin and fear, from guilt and shame.” [source]

1 John 1:2 The Life [ἡ ζωὴ]
The Word Himself who is the Life. Compare John 14:6; John 5:26; 1 John 5:11, 1 John 5:12. Life expresses the nature of the Word (John 1:4). The phrase, the Life, besides being equivalent to the Word, also indicates, like the Truth and the Light, an aspect of His being. [source]
1 John 1:10 We make Him [ποιοῦμεν αὐτὸν]
A phrase characteristic of John. See John 5:18; John 8:53; John 10:33; John 19:7, John 19:12. [source]
1 John 2:2 The propitiation [ιλασμος]
Late substantive from ιλασκομαι — hilaskomai (Luke 18:13; Hebrews 2:17), in lxx, Philo, Plutarch, in N.T. only here and 1 John 4:10. Christ himself is the means of propitiation for It is possible to supply the ellipsis here of των αμαρτιων — tōn hamartiōn (the sins of) as we have it in Hebrews 7:27, but a simpler way is just to regard “the whole world” as a mass of sin (1 John 5:19). At any rate, the propitiation by Christ provides for salvation for all (Hebrews 2:9) if they will only be reconciled with God (2 Corinthians 5:19-21). [source]
1 John 2:2 For the whole world [περι ολου του κοσμου]
It is possible to supply the ellipsis here of των αμαρτιων — tōn hamartiōn (the sins of) as we have it in Hebrews 7:27, but a simpler way is just to regard “the whole world” as a mass of sin (1 John 5:19). At any rate, the propitiation by Christ provides for salvation for all (Hebrews 2:9) if they will only be reconciled with God (2 Corinthians 5:19-21). [source]
1 John 2:15 Love not the world [μη αγαπατε τον κοσμον]
Prohibition with μη — mē and the present active imperative of αγαπαω — agapaō either stop doing it or do not have the habit of doing it. This use of κοσμος — kosmos is common in John‘s Gospel (John 1:10; John 17:14.) and appears also in 1 John 5:19. In epitome the Roman Empire represented it. See it also in James 4:4. It confronts every believer today. [source]
1 John 3:23 We should believe [πιστευσωμεν]
(πιστευσωμεν — pisteusōmen first aorist active subjunctive according to B K L, though Aleph A C read the present subjunctive πιστευωμεν — pisteuōmen) either in a crisis (aorist) or the continuous tenor (present) of our lives. The “name” of Jesus Christ here stands for all that he is, “a compressed creed” (Westcott) as in 1 John 1:3. Note dative ονοματι — onomati here with πιστευω — pisteuō as in 1 John 5:10, though εις ονομα — eis onoma (on the name) in 1 John 5:13; John 1:12; John 2:23; John 3:18. [source]
1 John 5:1 That Jesus is the Christ [οτι Ιησους εστιν ο Χριστος]
The Cerinthian antichrist denies the identity of Jesus and Christ (1 John 2:22). Hence John insists on this form of faith Nothing less will satisfy John, not merely intellectual conviction, but full surrender to Jesus Christ as Lord and Saviour. “The Divine Begetting is the antecedent, not the consequent of the believing” (Law). For “is begotten of God” (εκ του τεου γεγεννηται — ek tou theou gegennētai) see 1 John 2:29; 1 John 3:9; 1 John 4:7; 1 John 5:4, 1 John 5:18. John appeals here to family relationship and family love. [source]
1 John 1:7 Of Jesus Christ His Son []
Omit Christ. The human name, Jesus, shows that His blood is available for man. The divine name, His Son, shows that it is efficacious. I shall be rendering a service to students of John's Epistles by giving, in a condensed form, Canon Westcott's note, classifying the several names of our Lord and their uses in the Epistles. The name in John, as in the Bible elsewhere, has two distinct, but closely connected meanings. -DIVIDER-
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1. The Revelation of the Divine Being by a special title. -DIVIDER-
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2. The whole sum of the manifold revelations gathered up so as to form one supreme revelation. -DIVIDER-
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The latter sense is illustrated in 3 John 1:7, where “the name” absolutely includes the essential elements of the Christian creed, the complete revelation of Christ's work in relation to God and man. Compare John 20:31; Acts 5:41. -DIVIDER-
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In 1 John 2:12, the term is more limited, referring to Christ as He lived on earth and gave Himself for “the brethren.” In 1 John 3:23; 1 John 5:13, the exact sense is defined by what follows. -DIVIDER-
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Actual Names Used. -DIVIDER-
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(I.) His Son Jesus Christ. 1 John 1:3; 1 John 3:23; 1 John 5:20. The divine antecedent is differently described in each case, and the difference colors the phrase. In 1 John 1:2-3, the Father (compare 1John href="/desk/?q=1jo+3:23&sr=1">1 John 3:23, God. In 1 John 5:20, He that is true. Thus the sonship of Christ is regarded in relation to God as Father, as God, and as satisfying the divine ideal which man is able to form. The whole phrase, His Son Jesus Christ, includes the two elements of the confessions which John makes prominent. -DIVIDER-
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1. Jesus is the Son of God (John 4:15; John 5:5). -DIVIDER-
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2. Jesus is the Christ (John 2:22; John 5:1). -DIVIDER-
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The constituents of the compressed phrase are all used separately by John. -DIVIDER-
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(1.) Jesus. 1 John 2:22; 1 John 5:1; 1 John 4:3(where the correct reading omits Christ). The thought is that of the Lord in His perfect historic humanity. -DIVIDER-
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(2.) Christ. 2 John 1:9. Pointing to the preparation made under the old covenant. -DIVIDER-
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(3). Jesus Christ. 1 John 2:1; 1 John 5:6; 2 John 1:7. Combining the ideas of true humanity and messianic position. -DIVIDER-
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In 1 John 4:15, the reading is doubtful: Jesus or Jesus Christ. -DIVIDER-
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On 1 John 4:2, see note. -DIVIDER-
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(4.) The Son. 1 John 2:22, 1 John 2:23, 1 John 2:24; 1 John 4:14; 1 John 5:12. The absolute relation of Sonship to Fatherhood. -DIVIDER-
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(5.) The Son of God. 1 John 3:8; 1 John 5:10, 1 John 5:12, 1 John 5:13, 1 John 5:20. Compare His Son (1 John 4:10; 1 John 5:9), where the immediate antecedent is ὁ Θεός Godand 1 John 5:18, He that was begotten of God. Combination of the ideas of Christ's divine dignity and divine sonship. -DIVIDER-
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(6.) Jesus His (God's) Son. 1 John 1:7. Two truths. The blood of Christ is available and efficacious. -DIVIDER-
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(7). His (God's) Son, His only Son. 1 John 4:9. The uniqueness of the gift is the manifestation of love. -DIVIDER-
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The Son in various forms is eminently characteristic of the First and Second Epistles, in which it occurs more times than in all Paul's Epistles. -DIVIDER-
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Κύριος Lordis not found in the Epistles (omit from 2 John 1:3), but occurs in the Gospel, and often in Revelation. -DIVIDER-
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The expression, the blood of Jesus His Son, is chosen with a profound insight. Though Ignatius uses the phrase blood of God yet the word blood is inappropriate to the Son conceived in His divine nature. The word Jesus brings out His human nature, in which He assumed a real body of flesh and blood, which blood was shed for us.Cleanseth ( καθαρίζει )See on Mark 7:19. Not only forgives but removes. Compare Titus 2:14; Hebrews 9:13sq.; Hebrews 9:22sq.; Ephesians 5:26sq.; Matthew 5:8; 1 John 3:3. Compare also 1 John 1:9, where, forgive ( ἀφῇ ) and cleanse ( καθαρίσῃ ) occur, with an obvious difference of meaning. Note the present tense cleanseth. The cleansing is present and continuous. Alexander (Bishop of Derry) cites a striking passage from Victor Hugo (“Le Parricide”). The usurper Canute, who has had a share in his father's death, expiring after a virtuous and glorious reign, walks towards the light of heaven. But first he cuts with his sword a shroud of snow from the top of Mt. Savo. As he advances towards heaven, a cloud forms, and drop by drop his shroud is soaked with a rain of blood.All sin ( πάσης ἁμαρτίας )The principle of sin in all its forms and manifestations; not the separate manifestations. Compare all joy (James 1:2); all patience (2 Corinthians 7:12); all wisdom (Ephesians 1:8); all diligence (2 Peter 1:5). [source]

1 John 3:23 That [ινα]
Subfinal use of ινα — hina in apposition with εντολη — entolē (commandment) and explanatory of it, as in John 15:12 See Christ‘s summary of the commandments (Mark 12:28-31; Matthew 22:34-40).So these two points here (1) We should believe (πιστευσωμεν — pisteusōmen first aorist active subjunctive according to B K L, though Aleph A C read the present subjunctive πιστευωμεν — pisteuōmen) either in a crisis (aorist) or the continuous tenor (present) of our lives. The “name” of Jesus Christ here stands for all that he is, “a compressed creed” (Westcott) as in 1 John 1:3. Note dative ονοματι — onomati here with πιστευω — pisteuō as in 1 John 5:10, though εις ονομα — eis onoma (on the name) in 1 John 5:13; John 1:12; John 2:23; John 3:18.But (2) we should love one another” There are frequent points of contact between this Epistle and the words of Jesus in John 13-17. [source]
1 John 5:4 Even our faith [η πιστις ημων]
The only instance of πιστις — pistis in the Johannine Epistles (not in John‘s Gospel, though in the Apocalypse). It is our faith in Jesus Christ as shown by our confession (1 John 5:1) and by our life (1 John 5:2). [source]
1 John 5:5 And who is he that overcometh? [τις εστιν δε ο νικων]
Not a mere rhetorical question (1 John 2:22), but an appeal to experience and fact. Note the present active articular participle (νικων — nikōn) like νικαι — nikāi (present active indicative in 1 John 5:4), “the one who keeps on conquering the world.” See 1 Corinthians 15:57 for the same note of victory (νικος — nikos) through Christ. See 1 John 5:1 for ο πιστευων — ho pisteuōn (the one who believes) as here. [source]
1 John 5:5 Jesus is the Son of God [Ιησους εστιν ο υιος του τεου]
As in 1 John 5:1 save that here ο υιος του τεου — ho huios tou theou in place of Χριστος — Christos and see both in 1 John 2:22. Here there is sharp antithesis between “Jesus” (humanity) and “the Son of God” (deity) united in the one personality. [source]
1 John 5:9 Greater [μειζων]
Comparative of μεγας — megas because God is always true.For (οτι — hoti). So it applies to this case.That Thus taken in the declarative sense (the fact that) as in John 3:19, though it can be causal (because) or indefinite relative with μεμαρτυρηκεν — memarturēken (what he hath testified, perfect active indicative of μαρτυρεω — martureō as in John 1:32; John 4:44, etc.), a harsh construction here because of μαρτυρια — marturia though some MSS. do read εν — hen to agree with it (cf. 1 John 5:10). See οτι εαν — hoti ean in 1 John 3:20 for that idiom. Westcott notes the Trinity in 1 John 5:6-9: the Son comes, the Spirit witnesses, the Father has witnessed. [source]
1 John 5:4 Whatsoever is begotten of God [παν το γεγεννημενον εκ του τεου]
Neuter singular perfect passive participle of γενναω — gennaō rather than the masculine singular (1 John 5:1) to express sharply the universality of the principle (Rothe) as in John 3:6, John 3:8; John 6:37, John 6:39.Overcometh the world (νικαι τον κοσμον — nikāi ton kosmon). Present active indicative of νικαω — nikaō a continuous victory because a continuous struggle, “keeps on conquering the world” (“the sum of all the forces antagonistic to the spiritual life,” D. Smith).This is the victory For this form of expression see 1 John 1:5; John 1:19. Νικη — Nikē (victory, cf. νικαω — nikaō), old word, here alone in N.T., but the later form νικος — nikos in Matthew 12:20; 1 Corinthians 15:54-55, 1 Corinthians 15:57.That overcometh (η νικησασα — hē nikēsasa). First aorist active articular participle of νικαω — nikaō The English cannot reproduce the play on the word here. The aorist tense singles out an individual experience when one believed or when one met temptation with victory. Jesus won the victory over the world (John 16:33) and God in us (1 John 4:4) gives us the victory.Even our faith The only instance of πιστις — pistis in the Johannine Epistles (not in John‘s Gospel, though in the Apocalypse). It is our faith in Jesus Christ as shown by our confession (1 John 5:1) and by our life (1 John 5:2). [source]
1 John 5:4 This is the victory [αυτη εστιν η νικη]
For this form of expression see 1 John 1:5; John 1:19. Νικη — Nikē (victory, cf. νικαω — nikaō), old word, here alone in N.T., but the later form νικος — nikos in Matthew 12:20; 1 Corinthians 15:54-55, 1 Corinthians 15:57.That overcometh (η νικησασα — hē nikēsasa). First aorist active articular participle of νικαω — nikaō The English cannot reproduce the play on the word here. The aorist tense singles out an individual experience when one believed or when one met temptation with victory. Jesus won the victory over the world (John 16:33) and God in us (1 John 4:4) gives us the victory.Even our faith The only instance of πιστις — pistis in the Johannine Epistles (not in John‘s Gospel, though in the Apocalypse). It is our faith in Jesus Christ as shown by our confession (1 John 5:1) and by our life (1 John 5:2). [source]
1 John 5:9 That [οτι]
Thus taken in the declarative sense (the fact that) as in John 3:19, though it can be causal (because) or indefinite relative with μεμαρτυρηκεν — memarturēken (what he hath testified, perfect active indicative of μαρτυρεω — martureō as in John 1:32; John 4:44, etc.), a harsh construction here because of μαρτυρια — marturia though some MSS. do read εν — hen to agree with it (cf. 1 John 5:10). See οτι εαν — hoti ean in 1 John 3:20 for that idiom. Westcott notes the Trinity in 1 John 5:6-9: the Son comes, the Spirit witnesses, the Father has witnessed. [source]
1 John 5:11 That God gave [οτι εδωκεν ο τεος]
Declarative οτι — hoti in apposition with μαρτυρια — marturia as in 1 John 5:14; John 3:19. Note aorist active indicative εδωκεν — edōken (from διδωμι — didōmi) as in 1 John 3:23., the great historic fact of the Incarnation (John 3:16), but the perfect δεδωκεν — dedōken in 1 John 3:1 to emphasize the abiding presence of God‘s love. [source]
1 John 5:12 Hath the life [εχει την ζωην]
The life which God gave (1 John 5:11). This is the position of Jesus himself (John 5:24; John 14:6). [source]
1 John 5:13 I have written [εγραπσα]
Not epistolary aorist, but refers to 1 John 5:1-12 of this Epistle as in 1 John 2:26 to the preceding verses. [source]
1 John 5:13 That ye may know [ινα ειδητε]
Purpose clause with ινα — hina and the second perfect active subjunctive of οιδα — oida to know with settled intuitive knowledge. He wishes them to have eternal life in Christ (John 20:31) and to know that they have it, but not with flippant superficiality (1 John 2:3.).Unto you that believe on (τοις πιστευουσιν εις — tois pisteuousin eis). Dative of the articular present active participle of πιστευω — pisteuō and εις — eis as in 1 John 5:10. For this use of ονομα — onoma (name) with πιστευω — pisteuō see 1 John 3:23; John 2:23. [source]
1 John 5:13 Unto you that believe on [τοις πιστευουσιν εις]
Dative of the articular present active participle of πιστευω — pisteuō and εις — eis as in 1 John 5:10. For this use of ονομα — onoma (name) with πιστευω — pisteuō see 1 John 3:23; John 2:23. [source]
1 John 5:14 That [οτι]
Declarative again, as in 1 John 5:11.If we ask anything (εαν τι αιτωμετα — ean ti aitōmetha). Condition of third class with εαν — ean and present middle (indirect) subjunctive (personal interest as in James 4:3, though the point is not to be pressed too far, for see Matthew 20:20, Matthew 20:22; John 16:24, John 16:26).According to his will This is the secret in all prayer, even in the case of Jesus himself. For the phrase see 1 Peter 4:19; Galatians 1:4; Ephesians 1:5, Ephesians 1:11.He heareth us (ακουει ημων — akouei hēmōn). Even when God does not give us what we ask, in particular then (Hebrews 5:7.). [source]
1 John 5:18 We know [οιδαμεν]
As in 1 John 3:2, 1 John 3:14; 1 John 5:15, 1 John 5:19, 1 John 5:20. He has “ye know” in 1 John 2:20; 1 John 3:5, 1 John 3:15. [source]
1 John 5:19 Lieth in the evil one [εν τωι πονηρωι κειται]
Present middle indicative of the defective verb κειμαι — keimai to lie, as in Luke 2:12. Πονηρωι — Ponērōi is masculine, like ο πονηρος — ho ponēros in 1 John 5:18. This is a terrible picture of the Graeco-Roman world of the first century a.d., which is confirmed by Paul in Romans 1 and 2 and by Horace, Seneca, Juvenal, Tacitus. [source]
1 John 5:20 In him that is true [εν τωι αλητινωι]
In God in contrast with the world “in the evil one” (1 John 5:19). See John 17:3. [source]
1 John 5:20 An understanding [διανοιαν]
Here alone in John‘s writings, but in Paul (Ephesians 4:18) and Peter (1 Peter 1:13). John does not use γνωσις — gnōsis (knowledge) and νους — nous (mind) only in Revelation 13:18; Revelation 17:9.That we know (ινα γινωσκομεν — hina ginōskomen). Result clause with ινα — hina and the present active indicative, as is common with ινα — hina and the future indicative (John 7:3). It is possible that here ο — o was pronounced ω — ō as a subjunctive, but many old MSS. have ινα γινωσκουσιν — hina ginōskousin (plainly indicative) in John 17:3, and in many other places in the N.T. the present indicative with ινα — hina occurs as a variant reading as in John 5:20.Him that is true That is, God. Cf. 1 John 1:8.In him that is true (εν τωι αλητινωι — en tōi alēthinōi). In God in contrast with the world “in the evil one” (1 John 5:19). See John 17:3.Even in his Son Jesus Christ The αυτου — autou refers clearly to εν τωι αλητινωι — en tōi alēthinōi (God). Hence this clause is not in apposition with the preceding, but an explanation as to how we are “in the True One” by being “in his Son Jesus Christ.”This (ουτος — houtos). Grammatically ουτος — houtos may refer to Jesus Christ or to “the True One.” It is a bit tautological to refer it to God, but that is probably correct, God in Christ, at any rate. God is eternal life (John 5:26) and he gives it to us through Christ. [source]
1 John 5:20 Him that is true [τον αλητινον]
That is, God. Cf. 1 John 1:8.In him that is true (εν τωι αλητινωι — en tōi alēthinōi). In God in contrast with the world “in the evil one” (1 John 5:19). See John 17:3.Even in his Son Jesus Christ The αυτου — autou refers clearly to εν τωι αλητινωι — en tōi alēthinōi (God). Hence this clause is not in apposition with the preceding, but an explanation as to how we are “in the True One” by being “in his Son Jesus Christ.”This (ουτος — houtos). Grammatically ουτος — houtos may refer to Jesus Christ or to “the True One.” It is a bit tautological to refer it to God, but that is probably correct, God in Christ, at any rate. God is eternal life (John 5:26) and he gives it to us through Christ. [source]
2 John 1:5 Beseech [ερωτω]
For pray as in 1 John 5:16. [source]
3 John 1:5 Thou doest [ἐργάσῃ]
Or lit., according to the eymology, workest ( ἔργον work). See on James 2:9. The distinction between this verb and others signifying to do, such as ποιεῖν , πράσσειν , δρᾶν , which last does not occur in the New Testament, is not sharply maintained in Attic Greek. In certain connections the difference between them is great, in others, it is hardly perceptible. On ποιεῖν and πρα.σσειν , see on John 3:21. Ἐργάζομαι , like πράσσειν , contemplates the process rather than the end of action, carrying the ideas of continuity and repetition. It means to labor, to be active, to perform, with the idea of continued exertion, and therefore is used of servants, or of those who have an assigned business or office. See Matthew 21:28; Matthew 25:26; Luke 13:14; John 5:17; John 6:27; John 9:4; 1 Thessalonians 2:9. For the phrase ἐργάσῃ εἰς thoudoest toward (Rev.), see Matthew 26:10. [source]
Revelation 1:9 Kingdom [βασιλείᾳ]
The present kingdom. Trench is wrong in saying that “while the tribulation is present the kingdom is only in hope.” On the contrary, it is the assurance of being now within the kingdom of Christ - under Christ's sovereignty, fighting the good fight under His leadership - which gives hope and courage and patience. The kingdom of God is a present energy, and it is a peculiality of John to treat the eternal life as already present. See John 3:36; John 5:24; John 6:47, John 6:54; 1 John 5:11. “In all these things we are abundantly the conquerors (Romans 8:37sqq.). This may go to explain the peculiar order of the three words; tribulation and kingdom, two apparently antithetic ideas, being joined, with a true insight into their relation, and patience being added as the element through which the tribulation is translated into sovereignty. The reference to the future glorious consummation of the kingdom need not be rejected. It is rather involved in the present kingdom. Patience, which links the life of tribulation with the sovereignty of Christ here upon earth, likewise links it with the consummation of Christ's kingdom in heaven. Through faith and patience the subjects of that kingdom inherit the promises. “Rightly he says first 'in the tribulation' and adds afterwards 'in the kingdom,' because, if we suffer together we shall also reign together” (Richard of St. Victor, cited by Trench). Compare Acts 14:22. [source]
Revelation 1:2 Bare witness [εμαρτυρησεν]
First aorist active indicative of μαρτυρεω — martureō which, along with μαρτυς — martus and μαρτυρια — marturia is common in all the Johannine books (cf. Revelation 22:18, Revelation 22:20), usually with περι — peri or οτι — hoti but with cognate accusative as here in Revelation 22:16, Revelation 22:20; 1 John 5:10. Epistolary aorist here, referring to this book. [source]
Revelation 20:11 A great white throne [τρονον μεγαν λευκον]
Here μεγαν — megan (great) is added to the throne pictures in Revelation 4:4; Revelation 20:4. The scene is prepared for the last judgment often mentioned in the N.T. (Matt 25:31-46; Romans 14:10; 2 Corinthians 5:10). “The absolute purity of this Supreme Court is symbolized by the colour of the Throne” (Swete) as in Daniel 7:9; Psalm 9:1; Psalm 97:2. The name of God is not mentioned, but the Almighty Father sits upon the throne (Revelation 4:2., Revelation 4:9; Revelation 5:1, Revelation 5:7, Revelation 5:13; Revelation 6:16; Revelation 7:10, Revelation 7:15; Revelation 19:4; Revelation 21:5), and the Son sits there with him (Hebrews 1:3) and works with the Father (John 5:19-21; John 10:30; Matthew 25:31.; Acts 17:31; 2 Corinthians 5:10; 2 Timothy 4:1). [source]
Revelation 4:8 Having [εχων]
Masculine participle again as in Revelation 4:7, though ζωον — zōon neuter.Six wings (ανα πτερυγας εχ — ana pterugas hex). Distributive use of ανα — ana “six wings apiece” as in Luke 10:1 (ανα δυο — ana duo by twos). Like Isaiah 6:2, not like Ezekiel 1:6, where only four wings are given apiece.Are full of Plural verb, though ζωα — zōa neuter, to individualize each one.Round about and within (κυκλοτεν και εσωτεν — kuklothen kai esōthen). Perhaps before and behind (Revelation 4:6) and under the wings, “pointing to the secret energies of nature” (Swete).Rest See also Revelation 14:11. Old word (from αναπαυω — anapauō to relax), as in Matthew 11:29. God and Christ cease not their activity (John 5:17). “This ceaseless activity of nature under the hand of God is a ceaseless tribute of praise” (Swete).Day and night (ημερας και νυκτος — hēmeras kai nuktos). Genitive of time, by day and by night.Holy, holy, holy “The task of the Cherubim together with the Seraphim and Ophannim is to sing the praises of God” (Charles) in the Κυριος ο τεος — trisagion (triple repetition of εστιν — hagios).Is the Lord God (ο παντοκρατωρ — Kurios ho theos). See Isaiah 6:3. The copula ο ην και ο ων και ο ερχομενος — estin (is) is not expressed, but is implied.The Almighty See note on Revelation 1:8.Which was and which is and which is to come (ho ēn kai ho ōn kai ho erchomenos). Just as in Revelation 1:4, Revelation 1:8, but with the order changed. [source]
Revelation 4:8 Are full of [γεμουσιν]
Plural verb, though ζωα — zōa neuter, to individualize each one.Round about and within (κυκλοτεν και εσωτεν — kuklothen kai esōthen). Perhaps before and behind (Revelation 4:6) and under the wings, “pointing to the secret energies of nature” (Swete).Rest See also Revelation 14:11. Old word (from αναπαυω — anapauō to relax), as in Matthew 11:29. God and Christ cease not their activity (John 5:17). “This ceaseless activity of nature under the hand of God is a ceaseless tribute of praise” (Swete).Day and night (ημερας και νυκτος — hēmeras kai nuktos). Genitive of time, by day and by night.Holy, holy, holy “The task of the Cherubim together with the Seraphim and Ophannim is to sing the praises of God” (Charles) in the Κυριος ο τεος — trisagion (triple repetition of εστιν — hagios).Is the Lord God (ο παντοκρατωρ — Kurios ho theos). See Isaiah 6:3. The copula ο ην και ο ων και ο ερχομενος — estin (is) is not expressed, but is implied.The Almighty See note on Revelation 1:8.Which was and which is and which is to come (ho ēn kai ho ōn kai ho erchomenos). Just as in Revelation 1:4, Revelation 1:8, but with the order changed. [source]
Revelation 4:8 Rest [αναπαυσιν]
See also Revelation 14:11. Old word (from αναπαυω — anapauō to relax), as in Matthew 11:29. God and Christ cease not their activity (John 5:17). “This ceaseless activity of nature under the hand of God is a ceaseless tribute of praise” (Swete).Day and night (ημερας και νυκτος — hēmeras kai nuktos). Genitive of time, by day and by night.Holy, holy, holy “The task of the Cherubim together with the Seraphim and Ophannim is to sing the praises of God” (Charles) in the Κυριος ο τεος — trisagion (triple repetition of εστιν — hagios).Is the Lord God (ο παντοκρατωρ — Kurios ho theos). See Isaiah 6:3. The copula ο ην και ο ων και ο ερχομενος — estin (is) is not expressed, but is implied.The Almighty See note on Revelation 1:8.Which was and which is and which is to come (ho ēn kai ho ōn kai ho erchomenos). Just as in Revelation 1:4, Revelation 1:8, but with the order changed. [source]

What do the individual words in John 5:1 mean?

After these things there was a feast of the Jews and went up Jesus to Jerusalem
Μετὰ ταῦτα ἦν ἑορτὴ τῶν Ἰουδαίων καὶ ἀνέβη Ἰησοῦς εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα

Μετὰ  After 
Parse: Preposition
Root: μετά  
Sense: with, after, behind.
ταῦτα  these  things 
Parse: Demonstrative Pronoun, Accusative Neuter Plural
Root: οὗτος  
Sense: this.
ἦν  there  was 
Parse: Verb, Imperfect Indicative Active, 3rd Person Singular
Root: εἰμί  
Sense: to be, to exist, to happen, to be present.
ἑορτὴ  a  feast 
Parse: Noun, Nominative Feminine Singular
Root: ἑορτή  
Sense: a feast day, festival.
τῶν  of  the 
Parse: Article, Genitive Masculine Plural
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
Ἰουδαίων  Jews 
Parse: Adjective, Genitive Masculine Plural
Root: Ἰουδαῖος  
Sense: Jewish, belonging to the Jewish race.
ἀνέβη  went  up 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Active, 3rd Person Singular
Root: ἀναβαίνω  
Sense: ascend.
Ἰησοῦς  Jesus 
Parse: Noun, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root: Ἰησοῦς  
Sense: Joshua was the famous captain of the Israelites, Moses’ successor.
Ἱεροσόλυμα  Jerusalem 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Neuter Plural
Root: Ἱεροσόλυμα  
Sense: denotes either the city itself or the inhabitants.