The Meaning of John 3:16 Explained

John 3:16

KJV: For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.

YLT: for God did so love the world, that His Son -- the only begotten -- He gave, that every one who is believing in him may not perish, but may have life age-during.

Darby: For God so loved the world, that he gave his only-begotten Son, that whosoever believes on him may not perish, but have life eternal.

ASV: For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth on him should not perish, but have eternal life.

What does John 3:16 Mean?

Study Notes

perish
(Greek - ἀπόλλυμι ," trans). "marred," Mark 2:22 , "lost,"; Matthew 10:6 ; Matthew 15:24 ; Matthew 18:11 ; Luke 15:4 ; Luke 15:6 ; Luke 15:32 . In no N.T. instance does it signify cessation of existence or of consciousness. It is the condition of every non-believer.
world kosmos = mankind.
world
The Greek word kosmos means "order," "arrangement," and so, with the Greeks, "beauty"; for order and arrangement in the sense of system are at the bottom of the Greek conception of beauty.
When used in the N.T. of humanity, the "world" of men, it is organized humanity-- humanity in families, tribes, nations--which is meant. The word for chaotic, unorganized humanity--the mere mass of man is thalassa, the "sea" of men (e.g.) Revelation 13:1 (See Scofield " Revelation 13:8 ") . For "world" (kosmos) in the bad ethical sense, "world system" John 7:7 .

Verse Meaning

This best-known verse in the whole Bible expresses the gospel message more clearly and winsomely than any other. Almost every word in it is significant.
Jesus" mission in the Incarnation ( John 3:13; John 3:17) and the Cross ( John 3:14-15) resulted from God"s love for human beings. The construction of the Greek sentence stresses the intensity of God"s love. He gave His best, His unique and loved Son. The Jews believed that God loved the children of Israel, but John affirmed that God loved all people regardless of race. According to one commentator, no Jewish writer specifically asserted that God loved His world. [1] There is nothing in this verse or in the context that would limit "the world" to the world of the elect. This love of God is amazing not so much because the world is so big as because it is so bad (cf. John 1:9). The Father loves the world with the selfless love that provided the Incarnation and the Crucifixion. Galatians 2:20 reveals that the Cross shows the Son"s love.
"The Greek construction puts some emphasis on the actuality of the gift: it is not "God loved enough to give," but "God loved so that he gave." His love is not a vague, sentimental feeling, but a love that costs. God gave what was most dear to him." [2]
Christians should not love the world with the selfish love that seeks to profit from it personally ( 1 John 2:15-17).
The world stands under the threat of divine judgment because of the Fall and sin ( John 3:36; Romans 1:18). God in His gracious love has reached out and chosen some people from out of the world for salvation ( John 15:19; Romans 6:23). He does not take pleasure in pouring His wrath out on the lost, but He rejoices when people turn from their wicked ways to Him ( Ezekiel 18:23). The fact that God allows sinners to perish does not contradict His love. He has provided a way by which they need not perish because He loves mankind. His ultimate purpose is the salvation of those who believe in His Son.
The consequences of belief are new birth ( John 3:3; John 3:5), eternal life ( John 3:15-16), and salvation ( John 3:17). The alternative is perishing ( John 3:16; cf. John 10:28), losing one"s life ( John 12:25), and destruction ( John 17:12). To perish (Gr. apoletai) does not mean to experience annihilation but ruin, failure to realize God"s purpose, and exclusion from His fellowship. The only alternatives are life or perishing; there is no other final state.
Cessation of belief does not result in the loss of salvation.
"We might say, "Whoever believes that Rockefeller is a philanthropist will receive a million dollars." At the point in time a person believes this, He is a millionaire. However, if he ceases to believe this ten years later, he is still in possession of the million dollars. Similarly, if a man has believed in Christ, he is regenerate and in possession of eternal life, even if he ceases to believe in God in the future." [3]

Context Summary

John 3:9-21 - Love's Great Gift: Received Or Rejected
Though physically on earth, our Lord was spiritually in touch with the heavenly realities. He was living among them and bore witness to them. Notice that must, John 3:14. He was the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world, and the divine purpose of redemption would fail unless He fulfilled His part in the eternal compact. That which had been resolved upon before the foundations of the hills were laid must be carried out in all its terrible detail. He must be accounted as a sin offering, and go forth as a scapegoat. He must tread the winepress alone, and pour out His soul unto death. Yet He was not rebellious, nor did He turn back. He rejoiced to do the Father's will. For the joy that was set before Him, He endured the Cross.
Redemption originated in God's great love. Notice the pairs in John 3:16 : God and the Son; loved and gave; the world and whosoever; believe and have; not perish but have life. The judgment is already in process, and the turning point with each who has known the gospel will be his attitude toward the light he has enjoyed. Evil men avoid the light, as an inflamed eye the sun. No true heart fears Christ, and on coming to Him it discovers that unconsciously it has been wrought upon by God. [source]

Chapter Summary: John 3

1  Jesus teaches Nicodemus the necessity of being born again,
14  of faith in his death,
16  the great love of God toward the world,
18  and the condemnation for unbelief
22  Jesus baptizes in Judea
23  The baptism, witness, and doctrine of John concerning Jesus

Greek Commentary for John 3:16

For so [ουτως γαρ]
This use of γαρ — gar is quite in John‘s style in introducing his comments (John 2:25; John 4:8; John 5:13, etc.). This “Little Gospel” as it is often called, this “comfortable word” (the Anglican Liturgy), while not a quotation from Jesus is a just and marvellous interpretation of the mission and message of our Lord. In John 3:16-21 John recapitulates in summary fashion the teaching of Jesus to Nicodemus. Loved First aorist active indicative of αγαπαω — agapaō the noble word so common in the Gospels for the highest form of love, used here as often in John (John 14:23; John 17:23; 1 John 3:1; 1 John 4:10) of God‘s love for man (cf. 2 Thessalonians 2:16; Romans 5:8; Ephesians 2:4). In John 21:15 John presents a distinction between αγαπαω — agapaō and πιλεω — phileō Αγαπαω — Agapaō is used also for love of men for men (John 13:34), for Jesus (John 8:42), for God (1 John 4:10). The world The whole cosmos of men, including Gentiles, the whole human race. This universal aspect of God‘s love appears also in 2 Corinthians 5:19; Romans 5:8. That he gave The usual classical construction with ωστε — hōste and the indicative (first aorist active) practical result, the only example in the N.T. save that in Galatians 2:13. Elsewhere ωστε — hōste with the infinitive occurs for actual result (Matthew 13:32) as well as purpose (Matthew 10:1), though even this is rare. His only begotten Son “The Son the only begotten.” For this word see note on John 1:14, note on John 1:18; and John 3:18. The rest of the sentence, the purpose clause with ιναεχηι — hina -εις αυτον — echēi precisely reproduces the close of John 3:15 save that εν αυτωι — eis auton takes the place of πιστευων — en autōi (see John 1:12) and goes certainly with εχηι — pisteuōn (not with εν αυτωι — echēi as μη αποληται αλλα — en autōi in John 3:15) and the added clause “should not perish but” The same contrast between “perish” and “eternal life” (for this world and the next) appears also in John 10:28. On “perish” see also John 17:12. [source]
The world [κόσμον]
See on John 1:9. [source]
Have []
See on John 3:15. This attitude of God toward the world is in suggestive contrast with that in which the gods of paganism are represented. -DIVIDER-
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Thus Juno says to Vulcan:“Dear son, refrain: it is not well that thusA God should suffer for the sake of men.”“Iliad,” xxi., 379, 380. And Apollo to Neptune:“Thou would'st not deem me wise, should I contendWith thee, O Neptune, for the sake of men, Who flourish like the forest-leaves awhile,-DIVIDER-
And feed upon the fruits of earth, and then-DIVIDER-
Decay and perish. Let us quit the field,-DIVIDER-
And leave the combat to the warring hosts.”“Iliad,” xxi., 461, 467. Man has no assurance of forgiveness even when he offers the sacrifices in which the gods especially delight. “Man's sin and the divine punishment therefore are certain; forgiveness is uncertain, dependent upon the arbitrary caprice of the gods. Human life is a life without the certainty of grace” (Nagelsbach, “Homerische Theologie”). Mr. Gladstone observes: “No Homeric deity ever will be found to make a personal sacrifice on behalf of a human client” (“Homer and the Homeric Age,” ii., 372). [source]

Gave []
Rather than sent; emphasizing the idea of sacrifice. [source]
Only-begotten Son []
See on John 1:14. [source]

Reverse Greek Commentary Search for John 3:16

Matthew 1:1 The Son [υἱός]
The word τέκνον (child ) is often used interchangeably with υἱός (son )but is never applied to Christ. (For τέκνον , see on 1 John 3:1.) While in τέκνον there is commonly implied the passive or dependent relation of the children to the parents, υἱός fixes the thought on the person himself rather than on the dependence upon his parents. It suggests individuality rather than descent; or, if descent, mainly to bring out the fact that the son was worthy of his parent. Hence the word marks the filial relation as carrying with it privilege, dignity, and freedom, and is, therefore, the only appropriate term to express Christ's sonship. (See John 1:18; John 3:16; Romans 8:29; Colossians 1:13, Colossians 1:15.) Through Christ the dignity of sons is bestowed on believers, so that the same word is appropriate to Christians, sons of God. (See Romans 8:14; Romans 9:26; Galatians 3:26; Galatians 4:5, Galatians 4:6, Galatians 4:7.) [source]
Matthew 1:18 Betrothed to Joseph [ευρετη εν γαστρι εχουσα]
Matthew proceeds to explain his statement in Matthew 1:16 which implied that Joseph, though the legal father of Jesus in the royal line, was not the actual father of Mary‘s Son. Betrothal with the Jews was a serious matter, not lightly entered into and not lightly broken. The man who betrothed a maiden was legally husband (Genesis 29:21; Deuteronomy 22:23.) and “an informal cancelling of betrothal was impossible” (McNeile). Though they did not live together as husband and wife till actual marriage, breach of faithfulness on the part of the betrothed was treated as adultery and punished with death. The New Testament in Braid Scots actually has “mairry‘t till Joseph” for “betrothed to Joseph.” Matthew uses the genitive absolute construction here, a very common Greek idiom.Of the Holy Ghost (ek pneumatos hagiou). The discovery that Mary was pregnant was inevitable and it is plain that she had not told Joseph. She “was found with child” (heurethē en gastri echousa). This way of putting it, the usual Greek idiom, plainly shows that it was the discovery that shocked Joseph. He did not as yet know what Matthew plainly asserts that the Holy Ghost, not Joseph and not any man, was responsible for the pregnancy of Mary. The problem of the Virgin Birth of Jesus has been a disturbing fact to some through all the ages and is today to those who do not believe in the pre-existence of Christ, the Son of God, before his Incarnation on earth. This is the primal fact about the Birth of Christ. The Incarnation of Christ is clearly stated by Paul (2 Corinthians 8:9; Philemon 2:5-11; and involved in Colossians 1:15-19) and by John (John 1:14; John 17:5). If one frankly admits the actual pre-existence of Christ and the real Incarnation, he has taken the longest and most difficult step in the matter of the supernatural Birth of Christ. That being true, no merely human birth without the supernatural element can possibly explain the facts. Incarnation is far more than the Indwelling of God by the Holy Spirit in the human heart. To admit real incarnation and also full human birth, both father and mother, creates a greater difficulty than to admit the Virgin Birth of Jesus begotten by the Holy Spirit, as Matthew here says, and born of the Virgin Mary. It is true that only Matthew and Luke tell the story of the supernatural birth of Jesus, though John 1:14 seems to refer to it. Mark has nothing whatever concerning the birth and childhood of Jesus and so cannot be used as a witness on the subject. Both Matthew and Luke present the birth of Jesus as not according to ordinary human birth. Jesus had no human father. There is such a thing in nature as parthenogenesis in the lower orders of life. But that scientific fact has no bearing here. We see here God sending his Son into the world to be the world‘s Saviour and he gave him a human mother, but not a human father so that Jesus Christ is both Son of God and Son of Man, the God Man. Matthew tells the story of the birth of Jesus from the standpoint of Joseph as Luke gives it from the standpoint of Mary. The two narratives harmonize with each other. One credits these most wonderful of all birth narratives according as he believes in the love and power of Almighty God to do what he wills. There is no miracle with God who has all power and all knowledge. The laws of nature are simply the expression of God‘s will, but he has not revealed all his will in the laws that we discover. God is Spirit. He is Person. He holds in his own power all life. John 3:16 is called the Little Gospel because it puts briefly the love of God for men in sending his own Son to live and die for us. [source]
Matthew 1:18 Of the Holy Ghost [ek pneumatos hagiou)]
The discovery that Mary was pregnant was inevitable and it is plain that she had not told Joseph. She “was found with child” This way of putting it, the usual Greek idiom, plainly shows that it was the discovery that shocked Joseph. He did not as yet know what Matthew plainly asserts that the Holy Ghost, not Joseph and not any man, was responsible for the pregnancy of Mary. The problem of the Virgin Birth of Jesus has been a disturbing fact to some through all the ages and is today to those who do not believe in the pre-existence of Christ, the Son of God, before his Incarnation on earth. This is the primal fact about the Birth of Christ. The Incarnation of Christ is clearly stated by Paul (2 Corinthians 8:9; Philemon 2:5-11; and involved in Colossians 1:15-19) and by John (John 1:14; John 17:5). If one frankly admits the actual pre-existence of Christ and the real Incarnation, he has taken the longest and most difficult step in the matter of the supernatural Birth of Christ. That being true, no merely human birth without the supernatural element can possibly explain the facts. Incarnation is far more than the Indwelling of God by the Holy Spirit in the human heart. To admit real incarnation and also full human birth, both father and mother, creates a greater difficulty than to admit the Virgin Birth of Jesus begotten by the Holy Spirit, as Matthew here says, and born of the Virgin Mary. It is true that only Matthew and Luke tell the story of the supernatural birth of Jesus, though John 1:14 seems to refer to it. Mark has nothing whatever concerning the birth and childhood of Jesus and so cannot be used as a witness on the subject. Both Matthew and Luke present the birth of Jesus as not according to ordinary human birth. Jesus had no human father. There is such a thing in nature as parthenogenesis in the lower orders of life. But that scientific fact has no bearing here. We see here God sending his Son into the world to be the world‘s Saviour and he gave him a human mother, but not a human father so that Jesus Christ is both Son of God and Son of Man, the God Man. Matthew tells the story of the birth of Jesus from the standpoint of Joseph as Luke gives it from the standpoint of Mary. The two narratives harmonize with each other. One credits these most wonderful of all birth narratives according as he believes in the love and power of Almighty God to do what he wills. There is no miracle with God who has all power and all knowledge. The laws of nature are simply the expression of God‘s will, but he has not revealed all his will in the laws that we discover. God is Spirit. He is Person. He holds in his own power all life. John 3:16 is called the Little Gospel because it puts briefly the love of God for men in sending his own Son to live and die for us. [source]
Matthew 27:46 My God, My God, why hast thou forsaken me? [Τεε μου τεε μου ινα τι με εγκατελιπεσ]
Matthew first transliterates the Aramaic, according to the Vatican manuscript (B), the words used by Jesus: Elōielōilema sabachthanei Some of the MSS. give the transliteration of these words from Psalm 22:1 in the Hebrew This is the only one of the seven sayings of Christ on the Cross given by Mark and Matthew. The other six occur in Luke and John. This is the only sentence of any length in Aramaic preserved in Matthew, though he has Aramaic words like amen, corban, mammon, pascha, raca, Satan, Golgotha. The so-called Gospel of Peter preserves this saying in a Docetic (Cerinthian) form: “My power, my power, thou hast forsaken me!” The Cerinthian Gnostics held that the aeon Christ came on the man Jesus at his baptism and left him here on the Cross so that only the man Jesus died. Nothing from Jesus so well illustrates the depth of his suffering of soul as he felt himself regarded as sin though sinless (2 Corinthians 5:21). John 3:16 comes to our relief here as we see the Son of God bearing the sin of the world. This cry of desolation comes at the close of the three hours of darkness. [source]
Luke 8:42 An only daughter [τυγατηρ μονογενης]
The same adjective used of the widow‘s son (Luke 7:12) and the epileptic boy (Luke 9:38) and of Jesus (John 1:18; John 3:16). [source]
Luke 7:12 One that was dead [τετνηκως]
Perfect active participle of τνησκω — thnēskō to die.The only son of his mother (μονογενης υιος τηι μητρι αυτο — monogenēs huios tēi mētri autoū). Only begotten son to his mother (dative case). The compound adjective μονογενης — monogenēs (μονος — monos and γενος — genos) is common in the old Greek and occurs in the N.T. about Jesus (John 3:16, John 3:18). The “death of a widow‘s only son was the greatest misfortune conceivable” (Easton).And she was a widow This word χηρα — chēra gives the finishing touch to the pathos of the situation. The word is from χηρος — chēros bereft. The mourning of a widow for an only son is the extremity of grief (Plummer).Much people (οχλος ικανος — ochlos hikanos). Considerable crowd as often with this adjective ικανος — hikanos Some were hired mourners, but the size of the crowd showed the real sympathy of the town for her. [source]
John 3:17 Sent [ἀπέστειλεν]
See on John 1:6. Sent rather than gave (John 3:16), because the idea of sacrifice is here merged in that of authoritative commission. [source]
John 3:15 Have eternal life []
A characteristic phrase of John for live forever. See John 3:16, John 3:36; John 5:24; John 6:40, John 6:47, John 6:54; 1 John 3:15; 1 John 5:12. The interview with Nicodemus closes with John 3:15; and the succeeding words are John's. This appears from the following facts: 1. The past tenses loved and gave, in John 3:16, better suit the later point of view from which John writes, after the atoning death of Christ was an accomplished historic fact, than the drift of the present discourse of Jesus before the full revelation of that work. 2. It is in John's manner to throw in explanatory comments of his own (John 1:16-18; John 12:37-41), and to do so abruptly. See John 1:15, John 1:16, and on and, John 1:16. 3. John 3:19is in the same line of thought with John 1:9-11in the Prologue; and the tone of that verse is historic, carrying the sense of past rejection, as loved darkness; were evil. 4. The phrase believe on the name is not used elsewhere by our Lord, but by John (John 1:12; John 2:23; 1 John 5:13). 5. The phrase only-begotten son is not elsewhere used by Jesus of himself, but in every case by the Evangelist (John 1:14, John 1:18; 1 John 4:9). 6. The phrase to do truth (John 3:21) occurs elsewhere only in 1 John 1:6. -DIVIDER-
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[source]

John 16:30 By this [ἐν τούτῳ]
Literally, in this. Compare 1 John 2:3, 1 John 2:5; 1 John 3:16, 1 John 3:19, 1 John 3:24; 1 John 4:9, 1 John 4:10, 1 John 4:13, 1 John 4:17; 1 John 5:2. [source]
John 14:26 He [ἐκεῖνος]
Setting the Advocate distinctly and sharply before the hearers. The pronoun is used in John's First Epistle, distinctively of our Lord. See 1 John 2:6; 1 John 3:3, 1 John 3:5, 1 John 3:7, 1 John 3:16; 1 John 4:17. [source]
John 13:14 Ought [ὀφείλετε]
The verb means to owe. It occurs several times in John's Epistles (1 John 2:6; 1 John 3:16; 1 John 4:11; 3 John 1:8). In the Gospel only here and John 19:7. Compare Luke 17:10. In Matthew's version of the Lord's prayer occur the two kindred words ὀφείλνμα , debt, and ὀφειλέτης , debtor. Jesus here puts the obligation to ministry as a debt under which His disciples are laid by His ministry to them. The word ought is the past tense of owe. Δεῖ , ought or must (see John 3:7, John 3:14, John 3:30, etc.) expresses an obligation in the nature of things; ὀφείλειν , a special, personal obligation. [source]
John 13:1 Unto the end [εἰς τέλος]
Interpretations differ. The rendering of the A.V. and Rev. is of doubtful authority. The passages cited in support of this, Matthew 10:22; Matthew 24:13; Mark 13:13, may all be rendered to the uttermost. Morever, other formulas are used where the meaning to the end is unquestionable. In Revelation 2:26, the only other instance in John's writings where τέλος is used in an adverbial phrase the expression is ἄχρι τέλους , unto the end. Similarly Hebrews 6:11. In Hebrews 3:6, Hebrews 3:14, μέχρι τὲλους , unto the end. The phrase may mean at last, and so is rendered by many here, as Meyer, Lange, Thayer (Lex.). “At last He loved them;” that is, showed them the last proof of His love. This is the most probable rendering in Luke 18:5, on which see note. It may also mean to the uttermost, completely. So Westcott and Godet. But I am inclined, with Meyer, to shrink from the “inappropriate gradation” which is thus implied, as though Jesus' love now reached a higher degree than before ( ἀγαπήσας ). Hence I prefer the rendering at last, or finally He loved them, taking ἠγάπησεν , loved, in the sense of the manifestation of His love. This sense frequently attaches to the verb. See, for instance, 1 John 4:10(“love viewed in its historic manifestation” Westcott), and compare John 3:16; Ephesians 2:4; Ephesians 5:2, Ephesians 5:25; 2 Thessalonians 2:16; Revelation 3:9. [source]
John 1:1 The Word [ὁ λόγος]
Logos. This expression is the keynote and theme of the entire gospel. Λόγος is from the root λεγ , appearing in λέγω , the primitive meaning of which is to lay: then, to pick out, gather, pick up: hence to gather or put words together, and so, to speak. Hence λόγος is, first of all, a collecting or collection both of things in the mind, and of words by which they are expressed. It therefore signifies both the outward form by which the inward thought is expressed, and the inward thought itself, the Latin oratio and ratio: compare the Italian ragionare, “to think” and “to speak.” As signifying the outward form it is never used in the merely grammatical sense, as simply the name of a thing or act ( ἔπος, ὄνομα, ῥῆμα ), but means a word as the thing referred to: the material, not the formal part: a word as embodying a conception or idea. See, for instance, Matthew 22:46; 1 Corinthians 14:9, 1 Corinthians 14:19. Hence it signifies a saying, of God, or of man (Matthew 19:21, Matthew 19:22; Mark 5:35, Mark 5:36): a decree, a precept (Romans 9:28; Mark 7:13). The ten commandments are called in the Septuagint, οἱ δέκα λόγοι , “the ten words ” (Exodus 34:28), and hence the familiar term decalogue. It is further used of discourse: either of the act of speaking (Acts 14:12), of skill and practice in speaking (Acts 18:15; 2 Timothy 4:15), specifically the doctrine of salvation through Christ (Matthew 13:20-23; Philemon 1:14); of narrative, both the relation and the thing related (Acts 1:1; John 21:23; Mark 1:45); of matter under discussion, an affair, a case in law (Acts 15:6; Genesis 16:7-13). -DIVIDER-
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As signifying the inward thought, it denotes the faculty of thinking and reasoning (Hebrews 4:12); regard or consideration (Acts 20:24); reckoning, account (Philemon 4:15, Philemon 4:17; Hebrews 4:13); cause or reason (Acts 10:29). -DIVIDER-
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John uses the word in a peculiar sense, here, and in John 1:14; and, in this sense, in these two passages only. The nearest approach to it is in Revelation 19:13, where the conqueror is called the Word of God; and it is recalled in the phrases Word of Life, and the Life was manifested (1 John 1:1, 1 John 1:2). Compare Hebrews 4:12. It was a familiar and current theological term when John wrote, and therefore he uses it without explanation. Old Testament Usage of the TermThe word here points directly to Psalm href="/desk/?q=ps+33:6&sr=1">Psalm 33:6). The idea of God, who is in his own nature hidden, revealing himself in creation, is the root of the Logos-idea, in contrast with all materialistic or pantheistic conceptions of creation. This idea develops itself in the Old Testament on three lines. (1) The Word, as embodying the divine will, is personified in Hebrew poetry. Consequently divine attributes are predicated of it as being the continuous revelation of God in law and prophecy (Psalm 3:4; Isaiah 40:8; Psalm 119:105). The Word is a healer in Psalm 107:20; a messenger in Psalm 147:15; the agent of the divine decrees in Isaiah 55:11. (2) The personified wisdom (Job 28:12sq.; Job 28). Even Death, which unlocks so many secrets, and the underworld, know it only as a rumor (Job href="/desk/?q=job+28:22&sr=1">Job 28:22). It is only God who knows its way and its place (Job 28:23). He made the world, made the winds and the waters, made a decree for the rain and a way for the lightning of the thunder (Job 28:25, Job 28:26). He who possessed wisdom in the beginning of his way, before His works of old, before the earth with its depths and springs and mountains, with whom was wisdom as one brought up with Him (Proverbs 8:26-31), declared it. “It became, as it were, objective, so that He beheld it” (Job 28:27) and embodied it in His creative work. This personification, therefore, is based on the thought that wisdom is not shut up at rest in God, but is active and manifest in the world. “She standeth in the top of high places, by the way in the places of the paths. She crieth at the gates, at the entry of the city, at the coming in at the doors” (Proverbs 8:2, Proverbs 8:3). She builds a palace and prepares a banquet, and issues a general invitation to the simple and to him that wanteth understanding (Proverbs 9:1-6). It is viewed as the one guide to salvation, comprehending all revelations of God, and as an attribute embracing and combining all His other attributes. -DIVIDER-
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(3) The Angel of Jehovah. The messenger of God who serves as His agent in the world of sense, and is sometimes distinguished from Jehovah and sometimes identical with him (Acts 19:38; Genesis 32:24-28; Hosea 12:4, Hosea 12:5; Exodus 23:20, Exodus 23:21; Malachi 3:1). Apocryphal UsageIn the Apocryphal writings this mediative element is more distinctly apprehended, but with a tendency to pantheism. In the Wisdom of Solomon (at least 100 b.c.), where wisdom seems to be viewed as another name for the whole divine nature, while nowhere connected with the Messiah, it is described as a being of light, proceeding essentially from God; a true image of God, co-occupant of the divine throne; a real and independent principle, revealing God in the world and mediating between it and Him, after having created it as his organ - in association with a spirit which is called μονογενές , only begotten (7:22). “She is the breath of the power of God, and a pure influence flowing from the glory of the Almighty; therefore can no defiled thing fall into her. For she is the brightness of the everlasting light, the unspotted mirror of the power of God, and the image of his goodness” (see chapter 7, throughout). Again: “Wisdom reacheth from one end to another mightily, and sweetly doth she order all things. In that she is conversant with God, she magnifieth her nobility: yea, the Lord of all things Himself loved her. For she is privy to the mysteries of the knowledge of God, and a lover of His works. Moreover, by the means of her I shall obtain immortality, and leave behind me an everlasting memorial to them that come after me” (chapter 9). In 16:12, it is said, “Thy word, O Lord, healeth all things” (compare Psalm 107:20); and in 18:15,16, “Thine almighty word leaped from heaven out of thy royal throne, as a fierce man of war into the midst of a land of destruction, and brought thine unfeigned commandment as a sharp sword, and, standing up, filled all things with death; and it touched the heaven, but it stood upon the earth.” See also Wisdom of Sirach, chapters 1,24, and Genesis href="/desk/?q=ge+39:21&sr=1">Genesis 39:21, they paraphrase, “The Memra was with Joseph in prison.” In Psalm 110:1-7Jehovah addresses the first verse to the Memra. The Memra is the angel that destroyed the first-born of Egypt, and it was the Memra that led the Israelites in the cloudy pillar. Usage in the Judaeo-Alexandrine PhilosophyFrom the time of Ptolemy I: (323-285 b.c.), there were Jews in great numbers in Egypt. Philo (a.d. 50) estimates them at a million in his time. Alexandria was their headquarters. They had their own senate and magistrates, and possessed the same privileges as the Greeks. The Septuagint translation of the Hebrew Scriptures into Greek (b.c. 280-150) was the beginning of a literary movement among them, the key-note of which was the reconciliation of Western culture and Judaism, the establishment of a connection between the Old Testament faith and the Greek philosophy. Hence they interpreted the facts of sacred history allegorically, and made them symbols of certain speculative principles, alleging that the Greek philosophers had borrowed their wisdom from Moses. Aristobulus (about 150 b.c.) asserted the existence of a previous and much older translation of the law, and dedicated to Ptolemy VI an allegorical exposition of the Pentateuch, in which he tried to show that the doctrines of the Peripatetic or Aristotelian school were derived from the Old Testament. Most of the schools of Greek philosophy were represented among the Alexandrian Jews, but the favorite one was the Platonic. The effort at reconciliation culminated in Philo, a contemporary of Christ. Philo was intimately acquainted with the Platonic philosophy, and made it the fundamental feature of his own doctrines, while availing himself likewise of ideas belonging to the Peripatetic and Stoic schools. Unable to discern the difference in the points of view from which these different doctrines severally proceeded, he jumbled together not merely discordant doctrines of the Greek schools, but also those of the East, regarding the wisdom of the Greeks as having originated in the legislation and writings of Moses. He gathered together from East and West every element that could help to shape his conception of a vicegerent of God, “a mediator between the eternal and the ephemeral. His Logos reflects light from countless facets.” According to Philo, God is the absolute Being. He calls God “that which is:” “the One and the All.” God alone exists for himself, without multiplicity and without mixture. No name can properly be ascribed to Him: He simply is. Hence, in His nature, He is unknowable. -DIVIDER-
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Outside of God there exists eternal matter, without form and void, and essentially evil; but the perfect Being could not come into direct contact with the senseless and corruptible; so that the world could not have been created by His direct agency. Hence the doctrine of a mediating principle between God and matter - the divine Reason, the Logos in whom are comprised all the ideas of finite things, and who created the sensible world by causing these ideas to penetrate into matter. -DIVIDER-
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The absolute God is surrounded by his powers ( δυνάμεις ) as a king by his servants. These powers are, in Platonic language, ideas; in Jewish, angels; but all are essentially one, and their unity, as they exist in God, as they emanate from him, as they are disseminated in the world, is expressed by Logos Hence the Logos appears under a twofold aspect: (1) As the immanent reason of God, containing within itself the world-ideal, which, while not outwardly existing, is like the immanent reason in man. This is styled Λόγος ἐνδιάθετος , i.e., the Logos conceived and residing in the mind. This was the aspect emphasized by the Alexandrians, and which tended to the recognition of a twofold personality in the divine essence. (2) As the outspoken word, proceeding from God and manifest in the world. This, when it has issued from God in creating the world, is the Λόγος προφορικός , i.e., the Logos uttered, even as in man the spoken word is the manifestation of thought. This aspect prevailed in Palestine, where the Word appears like the angel of the Pentateuch, as the medium of the outward communication of God with men, and tends toward the recognition of a divine person subordinate to God. Under the former aspect, the Logos is, really, one with God's hidden being: the latter comprehends all the workings and revelations of God in the world; affords from itself the ideas and energies by which the world was framed and is upheld; and, filling all things with divine light and life, rules them in wisdom, love, and righteousness. It is the beginning of creation, not inaugurated, like God, nor made, like the world; but the eldest son of the eternal Father (the world being the younger); God's image; the mediator between God and the world; the highest angel; the second God. -DIVIDER-
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Philo's conception of the Logos, therefore, is: the sum-total and free exercise of the divine energies; so that God, so far as he reveals himself, is called Logos; while the Logos, so far as he reveals God, is called God. -DIVIDER-
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John's doctrine and terms are colored by these preceding influences. During his residence at Ephesus he must have become familiar with the forms and terms of the Alexandrian theology. Nor is it improbable that he used the term Logos with an intent to facilitate the passage from the current theories of his time to the pure gospel which he proclaimed. “To those Hellenists and Hellenistic Jews, on the one hand, who were vainly philosophizing on the relations of the finite and infinite; to those investigators of the letter of the Scriptures, on the other, who speculated about the theocratic revelations, John said, by giving this name Logos to Jesus: 'The unknown Mediator between God and the world, the knowledge of whom you are striving after, we have seen, heard, and touched. Your philosophical speculations and your scriptural subtleties will never raise you to Him. Believe as we do in Jesus, and you will possess in Him that divine Revealer who engages your thoughts'” (Godet). -DIVIDER-
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But John's doctrine is not Philo's, and does not depend upon it. The differences between the two are pronounced. Though both use the term Logos, they use it with utterly different meanings. In John it signifies word, as in Holy Scripture generally; in Philo, reason; and that so distinctly that when Philo wishes to give it the meaning of word, he adds to it by way of explanation, the term ῥῆμα , word. The nature of the being described by Logos is conceived by each in an entirely different spirit. John's Logos is a person, with a consciousness of personal distinction; Philo's is impersonal. His notion is indeterminate and fluctuating, shaped by the influence which happens to be operating at the time. Under the influence of Jewish documents he styles the Logos an “archangel;” under the influence of Plato, “the Idea of Ideas;” of the Stoics, “the impersonal Reason.” It is doubtful whether Philo ever meant to represent the Logos formally as a person. All the titles he gives it may be explained by supposing it to mean the ideal world on which the actual is modeled. -DIVIDER-
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In Philo, moreover, the function of the Logos is confined to the creation and preservation of the universe. He does not identify or connect him with the Messiah. His doctrine was, to a great degree, a philosophical substitute for Messianic hopes. He may have conceived of the Word as acting through the Messiah, but not as one with him. He is a universal principle. In John the Messiah is the Logos himself, uniting himself with humanity, and clothing himself with a body in order to save the world. -DIVIDER-
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The two notions differ as to origin. The impersonal God of Philo cannot pass to the finite creation without contamination of his divine essence. Hence an inferior agent must be interposed. John's God, on the other hand, is personal, and a loving personality. He is a Father (John 1:18); His essence is love (John 3:16; 1 John 4:8, 1 John 4:16). He is in direct relation with the world which He desires to save, and the Logos is He Himself, manifest in the flesh. According to Philo, the Logos is not coexistent with the eternal God. Eternal matter is before him in time. According to John, the Logos is essentially with the Father from all eternity (John 1:2), and it is He who creates all things, matter included (John 1:3). -DIVIDER-
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Philo misses the moral energy of the Hebrew religion as expressed in its emphasis upon the holiness of Jehovah, and therefore fails to perceive the necessity of a divine teacher and Savior. He forgets the wide distinction between God and the world, and declares that, were the universe to end, God would die of loneliness and inactivity. The Meaning of Logos in JohnAs Logos has the double meaning of thought and speech, so Christ is related to God as the word to the idea, the word being not merely a name for the idea, but the idea itself expressed. The thought is the inward word (Dr. Schaff compares the Hebrew expression “I speak in my heart” for “I think”). The Logos of John is the real, personal God (John 1:1), the Word, who was originally before the creation with God. and was God, one in essence and nature, yet personally distinct (John 1:1, John 1:18); the revealer and interpreter of the hidden being of God; the reflection and visible image of God, and the organ of all His manifestations to the world. Compare Hebrews 1:3. He made all things, proceeding personally from God for the accomplishment of the act of creation (Hebrews 1:3), and became man in the person of Jesus Christ, accomplishing the redemption of the world. Compare Philemon 2:6. -DIVIDER-
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The following is from William Austin, “Meditation for Christmas Day,” cited by Ford on John:-DIVIDER-
“The name Word is most excellently given to our Savior; for it expresses His nature in one, more than in any others. Therefore St. John, when he names the Person in the Trinity (1 John 5:7), chooses rather to call Him Word than Son; for word is a phrase more communicable than son. Son hath only reference to the Father that begot Him; but word may refer to him that conceives it; to him that speaks it; to that which is spoken by it; to the voice that it is clad in; and to the effects it raises in him that hears it. So Christ, as He is the Word, not only refers to His Father that begot Him, and from whom He comes forth, but to all the creatures that were made by Him; to the flesh that He took to clothe Him; and to the doctrine He brought and taught, and, which lives yet in the hearts of all them that obediently do hear it. He it is that is this Word; and any other, prophet or preacher, he is but a voice (Luke 3:4). Word is an inward conception of the mind; and voice is but a sign of intention. St. John was but a sign, a voice; not worthy to untie the shoe-latchet of this Word. Christ is the inner conception 'in the bosom of His Father;' and that is properly the Word. And yet the Word is the intention uttered forth, as well as conceived within; for Christ was no less the Word in the womb of the Virgin, or in the cradle of the manger, or on the altar of the cross, than he was in the beginning, 'in the bosom of his Father.' For as the intention departs not from the mind when the word is uttered, so Christ, proceeding from the Father by eternal generation, and after here by birth and incarnation, remains still in Him and with Him in essence; as the intention, which is conceived and born in the mind, remains still with it and in it, though the word be spoken. He is therefore rightly called the Word, both by His coming from, and yet remaining still in, the Father.”And the WordA repetition of the great subject, with solemn emphasis.Was with God ( ἦν πὸς τὸν Θεὸν )Anglo-Saxon vers., mid Gode. Wyc., at God. With ( πρός ) does not convey the full meaning, that there is no single English word which will give it better. The preposition πρός , which, with the accusative case, denotes motion towards, or direction, is also often used in the New Testament in the sense of with; and that not merely as being near or beside, but as a living union and communion; implying the active notion of intercourse. Thus: “Are not his sisters here with us ” ( πρὸς ἡμᾶς ), i.e., in social relations with us (Mark 6:3; Matthew 13:56). “How long shall I be with you ” ( πρὸς ὑμᾶς , Mark 9:16). “I sat daily with you ” (Matthew 26:55). “To be present with the Lord ” ( πρὸς τὸν Κύριον , 2 Corinthians 5:8). “Abide and winter with you ” (1 Corinthians 16:6). “The eternal life which was with the Father ” ( πρὸς τὸν πατέρα , 1 John 1:2). Thus John's statement is that the divine Word not only abode with the Father from all eternity, but was in the living, active relation of communion with Him.And the Word was God ( καὶ Θεὸς ἦν ὁ λόγος )In the Greek order, and God was the Word, which is followed by Anglo-Saxon, Wyc., and Tynd. But θεὸς , God, is the predicate and not the subject of the proposition. The subject must be the Word; for John is not trying to show who is God, but who is the Word. Notice that Θεὸς is without the article, which could not have been omitted if he had meant to designate the word as God; because, in that event, Θεὸς would have been ambiguous; perhaps a God. Moreover, if he had said God was the Word, he would have contradicted his previous statement by which he had distinguished (hypostatically) God from the word, and λόγος (Logos) would, further, have signified only an attribute of God. The predicate is emphatically placed in the proposition before the subject, because of the progress of the thought; this being the third and highest statement respecting the Word - the climax of the two preceding propositions. The word God, used attributively, maintains the personal distinction between God and the Word, but makes the unity of essence and nature to follow the distinction of person, and ascribes to the Word all the attributes of the divine essence. “There is something majestic in the way in which the description of the Logos, in the three brief but great propositions of John 1:1, is unfolded with increasing fullness” (Meyer). [source]

John 11:35 Wept [ἐδάκρυσεν]
A different verb from that in John 11:31. From δάκρυ , tear, and meaning to shed tears, to weep silently. Only here in the New Testament. Κλαίω , to weep audibly, is once used of our Lord in Luke 19:41. “The very Gospel in which the deity of Jesus is most clearly asserted, is also that which makes us best acquainted with the profoundly human side of His life” (Godet). How far such a conception of deity is removed from the pagan ideal, may be seen by even a superficial study of the classics. Homer's gods and goddesses weep and bellow when wounded, but are not touched with the feeling of human infirmity (see on John 3:16). “The gods,” says Gladstone, “while they dispense afflictions upon earth, which are neither sweetened by love, nor elevated by a distinct disciplinary purpose, take care to keep themselves beyond all touch of grief or care.”“The gods ordainThe lot of man to suffer, while themselves Are free from care.”“Iliad,” xxiv., 525. So Diana, when appealed to by the wretched Hippolytus for sympathy, replies:“I see thy love, but must not shed a tear.”Euripides, “Hippolytes,” 1396. The Roman satirist unconsciously bears witness to the profound truthfulness and beauty of this picture of the weeping Savior, in the words: “Nature confesses that she gives the tenderest of hearts to the human race by giving them tears: this is the best part of our sensations” (Juvenal, “Satire” xv., 131-133). [source]
John 10:11 Giveth his life [τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ τίθησιν]
The phrase is peculiar to John, occurring in the Gospel and First Epistle. It is explained in two ways: either (1) as laying down as a pledge, paying as a price, according to the classical usage of the word τίθημι . So Demosthenes, to pay interest or the alien tax. Or (2) according to John 13:4, as laying aside his life like a garment. The latter seems preferable. Τίθημι , in the sense of to pay down a price, does not occur in the New Testament, unless this phrase, to lay down the life, be so explained. In John 13:4, layeth aside His garments ( τίδησι τὰ ἱμάτια ) is followed, in John 13:12, by had taken His garments ( ἔλαβε τὰ ἱμάτια ). So, in this chapter, giveth ( τίδησιν ) His life (John 10:11), and I lay down ( τίδημι ) my life (John 10:17, John 10:18), are followed by λαβεῖν “to take it again.” The phrases τὴν ψυχὴν Helaid down His life, and τὰς ψυχὰς θεῖναι tolay down our lives, occur in 1 John 3:16. The verb is used in the sense of laying aside in the classics, as to lay aside war, shields, etc. Compare Matthew 20:28, δοῦναι τὴν ψυχὴν , to give His life. [source]
John 1:4 In Him was life [ἐν αὐτῷ ζωὴ ἦν]
He was the fountain of life - physical, moral, and eternal - its principle and source. Two words for life are employed in the New Testament: βίος and ζωὴ . The primary distinction is that ζωὴ means existence as contrasted with death, and βίος , the period, means, or manner of existence. Hence βίος is originally the higher word, being used of men, while ζωὴ is used of animals ( ζῶα ). We speak therefore of the discussion of the life and habits of animals as zoo logy; and of accounts of men's lives as bio graphy. Animals have the vital principle in common with men, but men lead lives controlled by intellect and will, and directed to moral and intellectual ends. In the New Testament, βίος means either living, i.e., means of subsistence (Mark 12:44; Luke 8:43), or course of life, life regarded as an economy (Luke 8:14; 1 Timothy 2:2; 2 Timothy 2:4). Ζωὴ occurs in the lower sense of life, considered principally or wholly as existence (1 Peter 3:10; Acts 8:33; Acts 17:25; Hebrews 7:3). There seems to be a significance in the use of the word in Luke 16:25: “Thou in thy lifetime ( ἐν τῇ ζωῇ σου ) receivedst thy good things;” the intimation being that the rich man's life had been little better than mere existence, and not life at all in the true sense. But throughout the New Testament ζωὴ is the nobler word, seeming to have changed places with βίος . It expresses the sum of mortal and eternal blessedness (Matthew 25:46; Luke 18:30; John 11:25; Acts 2:28; Romans 5:17; Romans 6:4), and that not only in respect of men, but also of God and Christ. So here. Compare John 5:26; John 14:6; 1 John 1:2. This change is due to the gospel revelation of the essential connection of sin with death, and consequently, of life with holiness. “Whatever truly lives, does so because sin has never found place in it, or, having found place for a time, has since been overcome and expelled” (Trench). Ζωὴ is a favorite word with John. See John 11:25; John 14:6; John 8:12; 1 John 1:2; 1 John 5:20; John 6:35, John 6:48; John 6:63; Revelation 21:6; Revelation 22:1, Revelation 22:17; Revelation 7:17; John 4:14; Revelation 2:7; Revelation 22:2, Revelation 22:14, Revelation 22:19; John 12:50; John 17:3; John 20:31; John 5:26; John 6:53, John 6:54; John 5:40; John 3:15, John 3:16, John 3:36; John 10:10; John 5:24; John 12:25; John 6:27; John 4:36; 1 John 5:12, 1 John 5:16; John 6:51.Was the Light of men ( ἦν τὸ φῶς τῶν ἀνθρώπων )Passing from the thought of creation in general to that of mankind, who, in the whole range of created things, had a special capacity for receiving the divine. The Light - the peculiar mode of the divine operation upon men, conformably to their rational and moral nature which alone was fitted to receive the light of divine truth. It is not said that the Word was light, but that the life was the light. The Word becomes light through the medium of life, of spiritual life, just as sight is a function of physical life. Compare John 14:6, where Christ becomes the life through being the truth; and Matthew 5:8, where the pure heart is the medium through which God is beheld. In whatever mode of manifestation the Word is in the world, He is the light of the world; in His works, in the dawn of creation; in the happy conditions of Eden; in the Patriarchs, in the Law and the Prophets, in His incarnation, and in the subsequent history of the Church. Compare John 9:5. Of men, as a class, and not of individuals only. [source]
John 10:28 And I give unto them eternal life [καγω διδωμι αυτοις ζωην αιωνιον]
This is the gift of Jesus now to his sheep as stated in John 6:27, John 6:40 (cf. 1 John 2:25; 1 John 5:11). And they shall never perish Emphatic double negative with second aorist middle (intransitive) subjunctive of απολλυμι — apollumi to destroy. The sheep may feel secure (John 3:16; John 6:39; John 17:12; John 18:9). And no one shall snatch them out of my hand Jesus had promised this security in Galilee (John 6:37, John 6:39). No wolf, no thief, no bandit, no hireling, no demon, not even the devil can pluck the sheep out of my hand. Cf. Colossians 3:3 (Your life is hid together with Christ in God). [source]
John 12:47 If any one [εαν τις]
Third-class condition with εαν — ean and first aorist active subjunctive Purpose clause again (cf. ινα κρινω — hina krinō just before) with ινα — hina and first aorist active of sōzō Exaggerated contrast again, “not so much to judge, but also to save.” See John 3:17 for same contrast. And yet Jesus does judge the world inevitably (John 8:15.; John 9:39), but his primary purpose is to save the world (John 3:16). See close of the Sermon on the Mount for the same insistence on hearing and keeping (obeying) the words of Jesus (Matthew 7:24, Matthew 7:26) and also Luke 11:28. [source]
John 15:9 Abide [μεινατε]
Constative first aorist active imperative of μενω — menō summing up the whole. In my love Subjunctive possessive pronoun, “in the love that I have for you.” Our love for Christ is the result of Christ‘s love for us and is grounded at bottom in the Father‘s love for the world (John 3:16). John has εμος — emos 37 times and always in the words of Jesus (Bernard). But he uses μου — mou also (John 15:10). [source]
John 15:13 Than this [ταυτης]
Ablative case after the comparative adjective μειζονα — meizona and feminine agreeing with της αγαπης — tēs agapēs (love) understood. That a man lay down his life Object clause (non-final use of ινα — hina in apposition with the ablative pronoun ταυτης — tautēs and the second aorist active subjunctive of τιτημι — tithēmi). For the phrase see John 10:11 of the good shepherd. Cf. 1 John 3:16; Romans 5:7. For his friends “In behalf of his friends” and so “in place of his friends.” “Self-sacrifice is the high-water mark of love” (Dods). For this use of υπερ — huper see John 11:50; Galatians 3:13; 2 Corinthians 5:14.; Romans 5:7. [source]
John 16:27 Loveth [πιλει]
Present active indicative of πιλεω — phileō the word for warm and friendly love, here used of God‘s love for the disciples, while in John 3:16 αγαπαω — agapaō occurs of God‘s love for the world. Ye have loved me Perfect active indicative of πιλεω — phileō “loved and still love me warmly.” And have believed Perfect active indicative again. Recall the exhortation in John 14:1. [source]
John 17:9 I pray [εγω ερωτω]
Request, not question, as in John 16:23. Not for the world Now at this point in the prayer Christ means. In John 17:19 Jesus does pray for the world (for future believers) that it may believe (John 17:21). God loves the whole world (John 3:16). Christ died for sinners (Romans 5:8) and prayed for sinners (Luke 23:34) and intercedes for sinners (1 John 2:1.; Romans 8:34; Hebrews 7:25). For those whom A condensed and common Greek idiom for περι τουτων ους — peri toutōn hous with τουτων — toutōn (the demonstrative antecedent) omitted and the relative ους — hous attracted from the accusative ους — hous (object of δεδωκας — dedōkas) to the case (genitive) of the omitted antecedent. [source]
John 17:23 That they may be perfected into one [ινα ωσιν τετελειωμενοι εις εν]
Purpose clause again with ινα — hina (nineteen times in this prayer, this the fifteenth) with the periphrastic perfect passive subjunctive of τελειοω — teleioō (John 17:4), permanent state, with εις εν — eis hen (into one) as the goal and final result. That the world may know Present active subjunctive of γινωσκω — ginōskō with ινα — hina like the present tense of πιστευω — pisteuō in John 17:21, “that the world may keep on knowing” with the same pregnant phrase “that thou me didst send” Timeless aorist, but love shown by sending Christ (John 3:16) and illustrated and proven by the way Christians love one another. [source]
John 1:14 And the Word became flesh [και ο λογος σαρχ εγενετο]
See John 1:3 for this verb and note its use for the historic event of the Incarnation rather than ην — ēn of John 1:1. Note also the absence of the article with the predicate substantive σαρχ — sarx so that it cannot mean “the flesh became the Word.” The Pre-existence of the Logos has already been plainly stated and argued. John does not here say that the Logos entered into a man or dwelt in a man or filled a man. One is at liberty to see an allusion to the birth narratives in Matthew 1:16-25; Luke 1:28-38, if he wishes, since John clearly had the Synoptics before him and chiefly supplemented them in his narrative. In fact, one is also at liberty to ask what intelligent meaning can one give to John‘s language here apart from the Virgin Birth? What ordinary mother or father ever speaks of a child “becoming flesh”? For the Incarnation see also 2 Corinthians 8:9; Galatians 4:4; Romans 1:3; Romans 8:3; Philemon 2:7.; 1 Timothy 3:16; Hebrews 2:14. “To explain the exact significance of εγενετο — egeneto in this sentence is beyond the powers of any interpreter” (Bernard). Unless, indeed, as seems plain, John is referring to the Virgin Birth as recorded in Matthew and Luke. “The Logos of philosophy is, John declares, the Jesus of history” (Bernard). Thus John asserts the deity and the real humanity of Christ. He answers the Docetic Gnostics who denied his humanity. Dwelt among us First aorist ingressive aorist active indicative of σκηνοω — skēnoō old verb, to pitch one‘s tent or tabernacle First aorist middle indicative of τεαομαι — theaomai (from τεα — thea spectacle). The personal experience of John and of others who did recognize Jesus as the Shekinah glory John employs τεαομαι — theaomai again in John 1:32 (the Baptist beholding the Spirit coming down as a dove) and John 1:38 of the Baptist gazing in rapture at Jesus. So also John 4:35; John 11:45; 1 John 1:1.; 1 John 4:12, 1 John 4:14. By this word John insists that in the human Jesus he beheld the Shekinah glory of God who was and is the Logos who existed before with God. By this plural John speaks for himself and all those who saw in Jesus what he did. As of the only begotten from the Father Strictly, “as of an only born from a father,” since there is no article with μονογενους — monogenous or with πατρος — patros In John 3:16; 1 John 4:9 we have τον μονογενη — ton monogenē referring to Christ. This is the first use in the Gospel of πατηρ — patēr of God in relation to the Logos. Μονογενης — Monogenēs (only born rather than only begotten) here refers to the eternal relationship of the Logos (as in John 1:18) rather than to the Incarnation. It distinguishes thus between the Logos and the believers as children John clearly means to say that “the manifested glory of the Word was as it were the glory of the Eternal Father shared with His only Son” (Bernard). Cf. John 8:54; John 14:9; John 17:5. Full Probably indeclinable accusative adjective agreeing with δοχαν — doxan (or genitive with μονογενους — monogenous) of which we have papyri examples (Robertson, Grammar, p. 275). As nominative πληρης — plērēs can agree with the subject of εσκηνωσεν — eskēnōsen Of grace and truth Curiously this great word χαρις — charis (grace), so common with Paul, does not occur in John‘s Gospel save in John 1:14, John 1:16, John 1:17, though αλητεια — alētheia (truth) is one of the keywords in the Fourth Gospel and in 1John, occurring 25 times in the Gospel and 20 in the Johannine Epistles, 7 times in the Synoptics and not at all in Revelation (Bernard). In John 1:17 these two words picture the Gospel in Christ in contrast with the law of Moses. See Epistles of Paul for origin and use of both words. [source]
John 4:34 To do the will [ινα ποιησω το τελημα]
Non-final use of ινα — hina and the first aorist active subjunctive as subject or predicate nominative as in John 6:29; John 15:8; John 17:3. The Messianic consciousness of Jesus is clear and steady (John 5:30; John 6:38). He never doubted that the Father sent him. And to accomplish his work ινα — Hina understood with τελειωσω — teleiōsō in like idiom, first aorist active subjunctive of τελειοω — teleioō (from τελειος — teleios), to bring to an end. See John 5:36. In John 17:4 (the Intercessory Prayer) he will say that he has done He will carry through the Father‘s programme (John 3:16). That is his “food.” He had been doing that in winning the woman to God. [source]
John 5:40 And ye will not come to me [και ου τελετε ελτειν προς με]
“And yet” See John 1:11; Matthew 23:37 Men loved darkness rather than light (John 3:19). That ye may have life Life in its simplest form as in John 3:36 (cf. John 3:16). This is the purpose of John in writing the Fourth Gospel (John 20:31). There is life only in Christ Jesus. [source]
John 1:18 No man hath seen God at any time [τεον ουδεις εωρακεν πωποτε]
“God no one has ever seen.” Perfect active indicative of οραω — horaō Seen with the human physical eye, John means. God is invisible (Exodus 33:20; Deuteronomy 4:12). Paul calls God αορατος — aoratos (Colossians 1:15; 1 Timothy 1:17). John repeats the idea in John 5:37; John 6:46. And yet in John 14:7 Jesus claims that the one who sees him has seen the Father as here. The only begotten Son This is the reading of the Textus Receptus and is intelligible after ως μονογενους παρα πατρος — hōs monogenous para patros in John 1:14. But the best old Greek manuscripts (Aleph B C L) read μονογενης τεος — monogenēs theos (God only begotten) which is undoubtedly the true text. Probably some scribe changed it to ο μονογενης υιος — ho monogenēs huios to obviate the blunt statement of the deity of Christ and to make it like John 3:16. But there is an inner harmony in the reading of the old uncials. The Logos is plainly called τεος — theos in John 1:1. The Incarnation is stated in John 1:14, where he is also termed μονογενης — monogenēs He was that before the Incarnation. So he is “God only begotten,” “the Eternal Generation of the Son” of Origen‘s phrase. Which is in the bosom of the Father The eternal relation of the Son with the Father like προς τον τεον — pros ton theon in John 1:1. In John 3:13 there is some evidence for ο ων εν τωι ουρανωι — ho ōn en tōi ouranōi used by Christ of himself while still on earth. The mystic sense here is that the Son is qualified to reveal the Father as Logos (both the Father in Idea and Expression) by reason of the continual fellowship with the Father. He Emphatic pronoun referring to the Son. Hath declared him First aorist (effective) middle indicative of εχηγεομαι — exēgeomai old verb to lead out, to draw out in narrative, to recount. Here only in John, though once in Luke‘s Gospel (Luke 24:35) and four times in Acts (Acts 10:8; Acts 15:12, Acts 15:14; Acts 21:19). This word fitly closes the Prologue in which the Logos is pictured in marvellous fashion as the Word of God in human flesh, the Son of God with the Glory of God in him, showing men who God is and what he is. [source]
John 10:16 Other sheep [αλλα προβατα]
Sheep, not goats, but “not of this fold” See John 10:1 for αυλη — aulē Clearly “his flock is not confined to those enclosed in the Jewish fold, whether in Palestine or elsewhere” (Westcott). Christ‘s horizon takes in all men of all races and times (John 11:52; John 12:32). The world mission of Christ for all nations is no new idea with him (Matthew 8:11; Luke 13:28). God loved the world and gave his Son for the race (John 3:16). Them also I must bring Second aorist active infinitive of κακεινα δει με αγαγειν — agō with αγω — dei expressing the moral urgency of Christ‘s passion for God‘s people in all lands and ages. Missions in Christ‘s mind takes in the whole world. This is according to prophecy (Isaiah 42:6; Isaiah 49:6; Isaiah 56:8) for the Messiah is to be a Light also to the Gentiles. It was typified by the brazen serpent (John 3:14). Christ died for every man. The Pharisees doubtless listened in amazement and even the disciples with slow comprehension. And they shall hear my voice Future middle indicative of και της πωνης μου ακουσονται — akouō with the genitive ακουω — phōnēs These words read like a transcript from the Acts and the Epistles of Paul (Rom 9-11 in particular). See especially Paul‘s words in Acts 28:28. Present-day Christianity is here foretold. Only do we really listen to the voice of the Shepherd as we should? Jesus means that the Gentiles will hearken if the Jews turn away from him. And they shall become one flock, one shepherd Future middle indicative of γινομαι — ginomai plural, not singular γενησεται — genēsetai as some MSS. have it. All (Jews and Gentiles) will form one flock under one Shepherd. Note the distinction here by Jesus between ποιμνη — poimnē (old word, contraction of ποιμενη — poimenē from ποιμην — poimēn shepherd), as in Matthew 26:31, and αυλη — aulē (fold) just before. There may be many folds of the one flock. Jerome in his Vulgate confused this distinction, but he is wrong. His use of ovile for both αυλη — aulē and πομνιον — pomnion has helped Roman Catholic assumptions. Christ‘s use of “flock” (ποιμνη — poimnē) here is just another metaphor for kingdom (βασιλεια — basileia) in Matthew 8:11 where the children of the kingdom come from all climes and nations. See also the various metaphors in Ephesians 2 for this same idea. There is only the one Great Shepherd of the sheep (Hebrews 13:20), Jesus Christ our Lord. [source]
John 10:17 For this reason [δια τουτο]
Points to the following οτι — hoti clause. The Father‘s love for the Son is drawn out (John 3:16) by the voluntary offering of the Son for the sin of the world (Romans 5:8). Hence the greater exaltation (Philemon 2:9). Jesus does for us what any good shepherd does (John 10:11) as he has already said (John 10:15). The value of the atoning death of Christ lies in the fact that he is the Son of God, the Son of Man, free of sin, and that he makes the offering voluntarily (Hebrews 9:14). That I may take it again Purpose clause with ινα — hina and second aorist active subjunctive of λαμβανω — lambanō He looked beyond his death on the Cross to the resurrection. “The purpose of the Passion was not merely to exhibit his unselfish love; it was in order that He might resume His life, now enriched with quickening power as never before” (Bernard). The Father raised Jesus from the dead (Acts 2:32). There is spontaneity in the surrender to death and in the taking life back again (Dods). [source]
John 10:18 No one taketh it away from me [ουδεις αιρει αυτην απ εμου]
But Aleph B read ηρεν — ēren (first aorist active indicative of αιρω — airō to take away), probably correct (Westcott and Hort). “John is representing Jesus as speaking sub specie aeternitatis ” (Bernard). He speaks of his death as already past and the resurrection as already accomplished. Cf. John 3:16. Of myself The voluntariness of the death of Jesus repeated and sharpened. D omits it, probably because of superficial and apparent conflict with John 5:19. But there is no inconsistency as is shown by John 3:16; Romans 5:8. The Father “gave” the Son who was glad to be given and to give himself. I have power to lay it down Εχουσια — Exousia is not an easy word to translate (right, authority, power, privilege). See John 1:12. Restatement of the voluntariness of his death for the sheep. [source]
John 3:15 That whosoever believeth may in him have eternal life [ινα πας ο πιστευων εν αυτωι εχηι ζωην αιωνιον]
Final use of ινα — hina with present active subjunctive of εχω — echō that he may keep on having eternal life (a frequent phrase in John, always in John αιωνιος — aiōnios occurs with ζωη — zōē 16 times in the Gospel, 6 in 1John, ageless or endless life, beginning now and lasting forever). It is more than endless, for it is sharing in the life of God in Christ (John 5:26; John 17:3; 1 John 5:12). So here εν αυτωι — en autōi (in him) is taken with εχηι — echēi rather than with πιστευων — pisteuōn The interview with Nicodemus apparently closes with John 3:15. In John 3:16-21 we have past tenses constantly as is natural for the reflection of John, but unnatural for Jesus speaking. There are phrases like the Prologue (John 3:19; John 1:9-11). “Only begotten” does not occur elsewhere in the words of Jesus, but is in John 1:14, John 1:18; 1 John 4:9. John often puts in explanatory comments (John 1:16-18; John 12:37-41). [source]
John 3:16 For so [ουτως γαρ]
This use of γαρ — gar is quite in John‘s style in introducing his comments (John 2:25; John 4:8; John 5:13, etc.). This “Little Gospel” as it is often called, this “comfortable word” (the Anglican Liturgy), while not a quotation from Jesus is a just and marvellous interpretation of the mission and message of our Lord. In John 3:16-21 John recapitulates in summary fashion the teaching of Jesus to Nicodemus. Loved First aorist active indicative of αγαπαω — agapaō the noble word so common in the Gospels for the highest form of love, used here as often in John (John 14:23; John 17:23; 1 John 3:1; 1 John 4:10) of God‘s love for man (cf. 2 Thessalonians 2:16; Romans 5:8; Ephesians 2:4). In John 21:15 John presents a distinction between αγαπαω — agapaō and πιλεω — phileō Αγαπαω — Agapaō is used also for love of men for men (John 13:34), for Jesus (John 8:42), for God (1 John 4:10). The world The whole cosmos of men, including Gentiles, the whole human race. This universal aspect of God‘s love appears also in 2 Corinthians 5:19; Romans 5:8. That he gave The usual classical construction with ωστε — hōste and the indicative (first aorist active) practical result, the only example in the N.T. save that in Galatians 2:13. Elsewhere ωστε — hōste with the infinitive occurs for actual result (Matthew 13:32) as well as purpose (Matthew 10:1), though even this is rare. His only begotten Son “The Son the only begotten.” For this word see note on John 1:14, note on John 1:18; and John 3:18. The rest of the sentence, the purpose clause with ιναεχηι — hina -εις αυτον — echēi precisely reproduces the close of John 3:15 save that εν αυτωι — eis auton takes the place of πιστευων — en autōi (see John 1:12) and goes certainly with εχηι — pisteuōn (not with εν αυτωι — echēi as μη αποληται αλλα — en autōi in John 3:15) and the added clause “should not perish but” The same contrast between “perish” and “eternal life” (for this world and the next) appears also in John 10:28. On “perish” see also John 17:12. [source]
John 3:18 Is not judged [ου κρινεται]
Present passive indicative. Trust in Christ prevents condemnation, for he takes our place and pays the penalty for sin for all who put their case in his hands (Romans 8:32.). The believer in Christ as Saviour does not come into judgment (John 5:24). Hath been judged already Perfect passive indicative of κρινω — krinō Judgment has already been passed on the one who refuses to believe in Christ as the Saviour sent by the Father, the man who is not willing to come to Christ for life (John 5:40). Because he hath not believed Perfect active indicative of πιστευω — pisteuō has taken a permanent attitude of refusal. Here οτι μη — hoti mē states the reason subjectively as the judgment of the Judge in any such case (ο μη πιστευων — ho mē pisteuōn already mentioned) while in 1 John 5:10 οτι ου πεπιστευκεν — hoti ou pepisteuken gives the reason objectively (ου — ou instead of μη — mē) conceived as an actual case and no longer hypothetical. See John 1:12 for εις το ονομα — eis to onoma with πιστευω — pisteuō (believing on the name) and John 1:14 for μονογενους — monogenous (only begotten) and also John 3:16. [source]
John 4:10 Answered and said [απεκριτη και ειπεν]
As often (redundant) in John. The first aorist passive Condition of second class, determined as unfulfilled, ει — ei and past perfect ηιδεις — ēideis (used as imperfect) in condition and αν — an and aorist active indicative in conclusion The gift of God Naturally the gift mentioned in John 3:16 (Westcott), the inexpressible gift (2 Corinthians 9:15). Some take it to refer to the living water below, but that is another allusion (metaphor) to John 3:16. See Ephesians 4:7 for Paul‘s use of both χαρις — charis and δωρεα — dōrea (from διδωμι — didōmi to give). Who it is She only knew that he was a Jew. This Messianic self-consciousness of Jesus is plain in John, but it is early in the Synoptics also. Living water Running water like a spring or well supplied by springs. This Jacob‘s Well was filled by water from rains percolating through, a sort of cistern, good water, but not equal to a real spring which was always preferred (Genesis 26:19; Leviticus 14:5; Numbers 19:17). Jesus, of course, is symbolically referring to himself as the Living Water though he does not say it in plain words as he does about the Living Bread (John 6:51). The phrase “the fountain of life” occurs in Proverbs 13:14. Jesus supplies the water of life (John 7:39). Cf. Revelation 7:17; Revelation 22:1. [source]
John 4:23 And now is [και νυν εστιν]
See this same phrase in John 5:25. This item could not be added in John 4:21 for local worship was not abolished, but spiritual independence of place was called for at once. So contrast John 5:25, John 5:28; John 16:25, John 16:32. The true worshippers See John 1:9 for αλητινος — alēthinos (genuine). Προσκυνητης — Proskunētēs is a late word from προσκυνεω — proskuneō to bow the knee, to worship, occurs here only in N.T., but is found in one pre-Christian inscription (Deissmann, Light, etc., p. 101) and in one of the 3rd century a.d. (Moulton & Milligan, Vocabulary). In spirit and truth This is what matters, not where, but how (in reality, in the spirit of man, the highest part of man, and so in truth). All this is according to the Holy Spirit (Romans 8:5) who is the Spirit of truth (John 16:13). Here Jesus has said the final word on worship, one needed today. Seeketh The Father has revealed himself in the Son who is the truth (John 14:6, John 14:9). It does matter whether we have a true conception of God whom we worship. To be his worshippers Rather, “seeks such as those who worship him” (predicate accusative articular participle in apposition with τοιουτους — toioutous (such). John pictures the Father as seeking worshippers, a doctrine running all through the Gospel (John 3:16; John 6:44; John 15:16; 1 John 4:10). [source]
John 6:51 The living bread [ο αρτος ο ζων]
“The bread the living.” Repetition of the claim in John 6:35, John 6:41, John 6:48, but with a slight change from ζωης — zōēs to ζων — zōn (present active participle of ζαω — zaō). It is alive and can give life. See John 4:10 for living water. In Revelation 1:17 Jesus calls himself the Living One For ever Eternally like αιωνιον — aiōnion with ζωην — zōēn in John 6:47. I shall give Emphasis on εγω — egō (I). Superior so to Moses. Is my flesh See note on John 1:14 for σαρχ — sarx the Incarnation. This new idea creates far more difficulty to the hearers who cannot grasp Christ‘s idea of self-sacrifice. For the life of the world Over, in behalf of, υπερ — huper means, and in some connexions instead of as in John 11:50. See John 1:30 for the Baptist‘s picture of Christ as the Lamb of God that taketh away the sin of the world. See also John 3:17; John 4:42; 1 John 3:16; Matthew 20:28; Galatians 3:13; 2 Corinthians 5:14.; Romans 5:8. Jesus has here presented to this Galilean multitude the central fact of his atoning death for the spiritual life of the world. [source]
Acts 14:1 So spake that [λαλησαι ουτως ωστε]
Infinitive again parallel to εισελτειν — eiselthein With the result that, actual result here stated with ωστε — hōste and the aorist infinitive πιστευσαι — pisteusai (Robertson, Grammar, pp. 999f.) rather than ωστε — hōste and the indicative like John 3:16. It was a tremendous first meeting. [source]
Acts 2:23 By the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God [τηι ωρισμενηι βουληι και προγνωσηι του τεου]
Instrumental case. Note both purpose God had willed the death of Jesus (John 3:16) and the death of Judas (Acts 1:16), but that fact did not absolve Judas from his responsibility and guilt (Luke 22:22). He acted as a free moral agent. [source]
Acts 3:18 That his Christ should suffer [πατειν τον Χριστον αυτου]
Accusative of general reference with the aorist active infinitive Their crime, though real, was carrying out God‘s purpose (Acts 2:23; John 3:16). See the same idea in Acts 17:3; Acts 26:23. This “immense paradox” (Page) was a stumbling block to these Jews as it is yet (1 Corinthians 1:23). Peter discusses the sufferings of Christ in 1 Peter 4:13; 1 Peter 5:1. [source]
Acts 2:23 Being delivered up [εκδοτον]
Verbal adjective from εκδιδωμι — ekdidōmi to give out or over. Old word, but here only in the N.T. Delivered up by Judas, Peter means. By the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God (τηι ωρισμενηι βουληι και προγνωσηι του τεου — tēi hōrismenēi boulēi kai prognōsēi tou theou). Instrumental case. Note both purpose (βουλη — boulē) and foreknowledge (προγνωσις — prognōsis) of God and “determined” (ωρισμενη — hōrismenē perfect passive participle, state of completion). God had willed the death of Jesus (John 3:16) and the death of Judas (Acts 1:16), but that fact did not absolve Judas from his responsibility and guilt (Luke 22:22). He acted as a free moral agent. By the hand Luke is fond of these figures (hand, face, etc.) very much like the Hebrew though the vernacular of all languages uses them. Lawless men (ανομων — anomōn). Men without law, who recognize no law for their conduct, like men in high and low stations today who defy the laws of God and man. Old word, very common in the lxx. Ye did crucify First aorist active participle of προσπηγνυμι — prospēgnumi rare compound word in Dio Cassius and here only in the N.T. One must supply τωι σταυρωι — tōi staurōi and so it means “fastened to the cross,” a graphic picture like Paul‘s “nailed to the cross” Second aorist active indicative with first aorist vowel α — a instead of ο — o as is common in the Koiné. This verb αναιρεω — anaireō to take up, is often used for kill as in Acts 12:2. Note Peter‘s boldness now under the power of the Holy Spirit. He charges the people to their faces with the death of Christ. [source]
Romans 3:24 Freely [δωρεαν]
As in Galatians 2:21. By his grace (τηι αυτου χαριτι — tēi autou chariti). Instrumental case of this wonderful word χαρις — charis which so richly expresses Paul‘s idea of salvation as God‘s free gift. Through the redemption A releasing by ransom God did not set men right out of hand with nothing done about men‘s sins. We have the words of Jesus that he came to give his life a ransom τηι εν Χριστωι Ιησου — Lutron is common in the papyri as the purchase-money in freeing slaves (Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East, pp. 327f.). That is in Christ Jesus (tēi en Christōi Iēsou). There can be no mistake about this redemption. It is like John 3:16. [source]
Romans 3:24 Through the redemption [δια της απολυτρωσεως]
A releasing by ransom God did not set men right out of hand with nothing done about men‘s sins. We have the words of Jesus that he came to give his life a ransom τηι εν Χριστωι Ιησου — Lutron is common in the papyri as the purchase-money in freeing slaves (Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East, pp. 327f.). That is in Christ Jesus (tēi en Christōi Iēsou). There can be no mistake about this redemption. It is like John 3:16. [source]
Romans 3:24 That is in Christ Jesus [tēi en Christōi Iēsou)]
There can be no mistake about this redemption. It is like John 3:16. [source]
Romans 5:8 His own love [την εαυτου αγαπην]
See note on John 3:16 as the best comment here. [source]
2 Corinthians 5:18 Who reconciled us to himself through Christ [του καταλλαχαντος ημας εαυτωι δια Χριστου]
Here Paul uses one of his great doctrinal words, καταλλασσω — katallassō old word for exchanging coins. Διαλλασσω — Diallassō to change one‘s mind, to reconcile, occurs in N.T. only in Matthew 5:24 though in papyri (Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East, p. 187), and common in Attic. Καταλλασσω — Katallassō is old verb, but more frequent in later writers. We find συναλλασσω — sunallassō in Acts 7:26 and αποκαταλλασσω — apokatallassō in Colossians 1:20.; Ephesians 2:16 and the substantive καταλλαγη — katallagē in Romans 5:11; Romans 11:15 as well as here. It is hard to discuss this great theme without apparent contradiction. God‘s love (John 3:16) provided the means and basis for man‘s reconciliation to God against whom he had sinned. It is all God‘s plan because of his love, but God‘s own sense of justice had to be satisfied (Romans 3:26) and so God gave his Son as a propitiation for our sins (Romans 3:25; Colossians 1:20; 1 John 2:2; 1 John 4:10). The point made by Paul here is that God needs no reconciliation, but is engaged in the great business of reconciling us to himself. This has to be done on God‘s terms and is made possible through (δια — dia) Christ. [source]
Hebrews 1:6 The first-begotten [τὸν πρωτότοκον]
Mostly in Paul and Hebrews. Comp. Romans 8:29; Colossians 1:15, Colossians 1:18; Revelation 1:5. Μονογενής only-begotten(John 1:14, John 1:18; John 3:16, John 3:18; 1 John 4:9, never by Paul) describes the unique relation of the Son to the Father in his divine nature: πρωτότοκος first-begottendescribes the relation of the risen Christ in his glorified humanity to man. The comparison implied in the word is not limited to angels. He is the first-born in relation to the creation, the dead, the new manhood, etc. See Colossians 1:15, Colossians 1:18. The rabbinical writers applied the title first-born even to God. Philo (De Confus. Ling. § 14) speaks of the Logos as πρωτόγονος or πρεσβύτατος thefirst-born or eldest son. [source]
Hebrews 2:10 It became him [επρεπεν αυτωι]
Imperfect active of πρεπω — prepō old verb to stand out, to be becoming or seemly. Here it is impersonal with τελειωσαι — teleiōsai as subject, though personal in Hebrews 7:26. Αυτωι — Autōi (him) is in the dative case and refers to God, not to Christ as is made plain by τον αρχηγον — ton archēgon (author). One has only to recall John 3:16 to get the idea here. The voluntary humiliation or incarnation of Christ the Son a little lower than the angels was a seemly thing to God the Father as the writer now shows in a great passage (Hebrews 2:10-18) worthy to go beside Philemon 2:5-11. For whom Referring to αυτωι — autōi (God) as the reason (cause) for the universe Through whom With the genitive δια — dia expresses the agent by whom the universe came into existence, a direct repudiation of the Gnostic view of intermediate agencies (aeons) between God and the creation of the universe. Paul puts it succinctly in Romans 11:36 by his εχ αυτου και δι αυτου και εις αυτον τα παντα — ex autou kai di' autou kai eis auton ta panta The universe comes out of God, by means of God, for God. This writer has already said that God used his Son as the Agent Second aorist active participle of αυτωι — agō in the accusative case in spite of the dative τον αρχηγον — autōi just before to which it refers. The author (αρχη — ton archēgon). Old compound word (αγω — archē and τελειωσαι — agō) one leading off, leader or prince as in Acts 5:31, one blazing the way, a pioneer (Dods) in faith (Hebrews 12:2), author (Acts 3:15). Either sense suits here, though author best (Hebrews 2:9). Jesus is the author of salvation, the leader of the sons of God, the Elder Brother of us all (Romans 8:29). To make perfect (τελειοω — teleiōsai). First aorist active infinitive of τελειος — teleioō (from teleios). If one recoils at the idea of God making Christ perfect, he should bear in mind that it is the humanity of Jesus that is under discussion. The writer does not say that Jesus was sinful (see the opposite in Hebrews 4:15), but simply that “by means of sufferings” God perfected his Son in his human life and death for his task as Redeemer and Saviour. One cannot know human life without living it. There was no moral imperfection in Jesus, but he lived his human life in order to be able to be a sympathizing and effective leader in the work of salvation. [source]
Hebrews 2:17 Wherefore [οτεν]
Old relative adverb It behoved him Imperfect active of οπειλω — opheilō old verb to owe, money (Matthew 18:28), service and love (Romans 13:8), duty or obligation as here and often in N.T. (Luke 17:10). Jesus is here the subject and the reference is to the incarnation. Having undertaken the work of redemption (John 3:16), voluntarily (John 10:17), Jesus was under obligation to be properly equipped for that priestly service and sacrifice. In all things Except yielding to sin (Hebrews 4:15) and yet he knew what temptation was, difficult as it may be for us to comprehend that in the Son of God who is also the Son of man (Mark 1:13). Jesus fought through to victory over Satan. To be made like unto his brethren First aorist passive infinitive of ομοιοω — homoioō old and common verb from ομοιος — homoios (like), as in Matthew 6:8, with the associative instrumental case as here. Christ, our Elder Brother, resembles us in reality (Philemon 2:7 “in the likeness of men”) as we shall resemble him in the end (Romans 8:29 “first-born among many brethren”; 1 John 3:2 “like him”), where the same root is used as here That he might be (ινα — hina genētai). Purpose clause with γινομαι — hina and the second aorist middle subjunctive of ελεημων και πιστος αρχιερευς — ginomai to become, “that he might become.” That was only possible by being like his brethren in actual human nature. Merciful and faithful high priest (αρχιερευς — eleēmōn kai pistos archiereus). The sudden use of ελεημων — archiereus here for Jesus has been anticipated by Hebrews 1:3; Hebrews 2:9 and see Hebrews 3:1. Jesus as the priest-victim is the chief topic of the Epistle. These two adjectives (πιστος — eleēmōn and τα προς τον τεον — pistos) touch the chief points in the function of the high priest (Hebrews 5:1-10), sympathy and fidelity to God. The Sadducean high priests (Annas and Caiaphas) were political and ecclesiastical tools and puppets out of sympathy with the people and chosen by Rome. In things pertaining to God (τα προς τον τεον — ta pros ton theon). The adverbial accusative of the article is a common idiom. See the very idiom προς — ta pros ton theon in Exodus 18:19; Romans 15:17. This use of εις το ιλασκεσται — pros we had already in Hebrews 1:7. On the day of atonement the high priest entered the holy of holies and officiated in behalf of the people. To make propitiation for (εις το — eis to hilaskesthai). Purpose clause with ιλασκομαι — eis to and the infinitive (common Greek idiom), here present indirect middle of ιλαος — hilaskomai to render propitious to oneself (from ιλεως — hilaos Attic ιλαστητι — hileōs gracious). This idea occurs in the lxx (Psalm 65:3), but only here in N.T., though in Luke 18:13 the passive form (ιλασμος — hilasthēti) occurs as in 2 Kings 5:18. In 1 John 2:2 we have hilasmos used of Christ (cf. Hebrews 7:25). The inscriptions illustrate the meaning in Hebrews 2:17 as well as the lxx. [source]
Hebrews 2:17 It behoved him [ωπειλεν]
Imperfect active of οπειλω — opheilō old verb to owe, money (Matthew 18:28), service and love (Romans 13:8), duty or obligation as here and often in N.T. (Luke 17:10). Jesus is here the subject and the reference is to the incarnation. Having undertaken the work of redemption (John 3:16), voluntarily (John 10:17), Jesus was under obligation to be properly equipped for that priestly service and sacrifice. In all things Except yielding to sin (Hebrews 4:15) and yet he knew what temptation was, difficult as it may be for us to comprehend that in the Son of God who is also the Son of man (Mark 1:13). Jesus fought through to victory over Satan. To be made like unto his brethren First aorist passive infinitive of ομοιοω — homoioō old and common verb from ομοιος — homoios (like), as in Matthew 6:8, with the associative instrumental case as here. Christ, our Elder Brother, resembles us in reality (Philemon 2:7 “in the likeness of men”) as we shall resemble him in the end (Romans 8:29 “first-born among many brethren”; 1 John 3:2 “like him”), where the same root is used as here That he might be (ινα — hina genētai). Purpose clause with γινομαι — hina and the second aorist middle subjunctive of ελεημων και πιστος αρχιερευς — ginomai to become, “that he might become.” That was only possible by being like his brethren in actual human nature. Merciful and faithful high priest (αρχιερευς — eleēmōn kai pistos archiereus). The sudden use of ελεημων — archiereus here for Jesus has been anticipated by Hebrews 1:3; Hebrews 2:9 and see Hebrews 3:1. Jesus as the priest-victim is the chief topic of the Epistle. These two adjectives (πιστος — eleēmōn and τα προς τον τεον — pistos) touch the chief points in the function of the high priest (Hebrews 5:1-10), sympathy and fidelity to God. The Sadducean high priests (Annas and Caiaphas) were political and ecclesiastical tools and puppets out of sympathy with the people and chosen by Rome. In things pertaining to God (τα προς τον τεον — ta pros ton theon). The adverbial accusative of the article is a common idiom. See the very idiom προς — ta pros ton theon in Exodus 18:19; Romans 15:17. This use of εις το ιλασκεσται — pros we had already in Hebrews 1:7. On the day of atonement the high priest entered the holy of holies and officiated in behalf of the people. To make propitiation for (εις το — eis to hilaskesthai). Purpose clause with ιλασκομαι — eis to and the infinitive (common Greek idiom), here present indirect middle of ιλαος — hilaskomai to render propitious to oneself (from ιλεως — hilaos Attic ιλαστητι — hileōs gracious). This idea occurs in the lxx (Psalm 65:3), but only here in N.T., though in Luke 18:13 the passive form (ιλασμος — hilasthēti) occurs as in 2 Kings 5:18. In 1 John 2:2 we have hilasmos used of Christ (cf. Hebrews 7:25). The inscriptions illustrate the meaning in Hebrews 2:17 as well as the lxx. [source]
Hebrews 5:5 So Christ also [ουτως και ο Χριστος]
Just as with Aaron. Jesus had divine appointment as high priest also. To be made First aorist passive infinitive of γινομαι — ginomai High priest Predicate accusative agreeing with εαυτον — heauton (himself) object of εδοχασεν — edoxasen But he that spake unto him Ellipsis of εδοχασεν — edoxasen to be supplied from preceding clause. God did glorify Jesus in appointing him priest as we see in Psalm 2:7 quoted already as Messianic (Hebrews 1:5). Jesus himself repeatedly claimed that the Father sent him on his mission to the world (John 5:30, John 5:43; John 8:54; John 17:5, etc.). Bruce holds that Christ‘s priesthood is co-eval with his Sonship. Davidson thinks it is merely suitable because he is Son. Clearly the Father nominated (Dods) the Son to the Messianic priesthood (John 3:16). [source]
1 John 2:6 Ought [ὀφείλει]
An obligation, put as a debt. See Luke 17:10, and on debts, Matthew 6:12. The word expresses a special, personal obligation, and not as δεῖ mustan obligation in the nature of things. See John 20:9, and compare 1 John 3:16; 1 John 4:11; 3 John 1:8. [source]
1 John 2:3 Hereby [ἐν τούτῳ]
Lit., in this. Characteristic of John. See John 8:35; John 15:8; John 16:30; 1 John 2:5; 1 John 3:24; 1 John 4:13; 1 John 5:2; 1 John 3:16; 1 John 3:19; 1 John 4:2. The expression points to what follows, “if we keep His commandments,” yet with a covert reference to that idea as generally implied in the previous words concerning fellowship with God and walking in the light. [source]
1 John 2:3 Hereby [εν τουτωι]
See this phrase also in 1 John 2:5; 1 John 3:16, 1 John 3:19, 1 John 3:24; 1 John 4:2, 1 John 4:13; 1 John 5:2. That is explained by the εαν — ean clause, “if we keep his commandments” (εαν τηρωμεν — ean tērōmen condition of the third class, εαν — ean with present active subjunctive, “if we keep on keeping”), the clause itself in apposition with τουτωι — toutōi (locative case). [source]
1 John 2:6 Even as he walked [κατως εκεινος περιεπατησεν]
Constative aorist active indicative summing up the life of Christ on earth with the emphatic use of the demonstrative εκεινος — ekeinos in reference to Christ as in 1 John 3:3, 1 John 3:5, 1 John 3:7, 1 John 3:16; 1 John 4:17; John 7:11; John 9:12, John 9:28; John 19:21. [source]
1 John 4:9 Hath sent [απεσταλκεν]
Perfect active indicative of αποστελλω — apostellō as again in 1 John 4:14, the permanent mission of the Son, though in 1 John 4:10 the aorist απεστειλεν — apesteilen occurs for the single event. See John 3:16 for this great idea. [source]
1 John 4:9 His only-begotten Son [τον υιον αυτου τον μονογενη]
“His Son the only-begotten” as in John 3:16. John applies μονογενης — monogenēs to Jesus alone (John 1:14, John 1:18), but Luke (Luke 7:12; Luke 8:42; Luke 9:38) to others. Jesus alone completely reproduces the nature and character of God (Brooke).That we might live through him (ινα ζησωμεν δι αυτου — hina zēsōmen di' autou). Purpose clause with ινα — hina and the first aorist (ingressive, get life) active subjunctive of ζαω — zaō “Through him” is through Christ, who is the life (John 14:6). Christ also lives in us (Galatians 2:20). This life begins here and now. [source]
1 John 4:11 If God so loved us [ει ουτως ο τεος ηγαπησεν ημας]
Condition of first class with ει — ei and the first aorist active indicative. As in John 3:16, so here ουτως — houtōs emphasises the manifestation of God‘s love both in its manner and in its extent (Romans 8:32). [source]
1 John 4:17 With us [μετ ημων]
Construed with the verb τετελειωται — teteleiōtai (is perfected). In contrast to εν ημιν — en hēmin (1 John 4:12, 1 John 4:16), emphasising cooperation. “God works with man” (Westcott). For boldness That is Christ as in 1 John 2:6; 1 John 3:3, 1 John 3:5, 1 John 3:7, 1 John 3:16. Same tense (present) as in 1 John 3:7. “Love is a heavenly visitant” (David Smith). We are in this world to manifest Christ. [source]
1 John 4:17 As he is [κατως εκεινος εστιν]
That is Christ as in 1 John 2:6; 1 John 3:3, 1 John 3:5, 1 John 3:7, 1 John 3:16. Same tense (present) as in 1 John 3:7. “Love is a heavenly visitant” (David Smith). We are in this world to manifest Christ. [source]
1 John 4:19 He first [αυτος πρωτος]
Note πρωτος — prōtos (nominative), not πρωτον — prōton as in John 20:4, John 20:8. God loved us before we loved him (John 3:16). Our love is in response to his love for us. Αγαπωμεν — Agapōmen is indicative (we love), not subjunctive (let us love) of the same form. There is no object expressed here. [source]
1 John 1:1 From the beginning [απ αρχης]
Anarthrous as in John 1:1; John 6:64; John 16:4. See same phrase in 1 John 2:7. The reference goes beyond the Christian dispensation, beyond the Incarnation, to the eternal purpose of God in Christ (John 3:16), “coeval in some sense with creation” (Westcott).That which we have heard (ο ακηκοαμεν — ho akēkoamen). Note fourfold repetition of ο — ho (that which) without connectives (asyndeton). The perfect tense (active indicative of ακουω — akouō) stresses John‘s equipment to speak on this subject so slowly revealed. It is the literary plural unless John associates the elders of Ephesus with himself (Lightfoot) the men who certified the authenticity of the Gospel (John 21:24).That which we have seen Perfect active, again, of οραω — horaō with the same emphasis on the possession of knowledge by John.With our eyes (τοις οπταλμοις ημων — tois ophthalmois hēmōn). Instrumental case and showing it was not imagination on John‘s part, not an optical illusion as the Docetists claimed, for Jesus had an actual human body. He could be heard and seen.That which we beheld Repetition with the aorist middle indicative of τεαομαι — theaomai (the very form in John 1:14), “a spectacle which broke on our astonished vision” (D. Smith).Handled (επσηλαπησαν — epsēlaphēsan). First aorist active indicative of πσηλαπαω — psēlaphaō old and graphic verb (from πσαω — psaō to touch), the very verb used by Jesus to prove that he was not a mere spirit (Luke 24:39). Three senses are here appealed to (hearing, sight, touch) as combining to show the reality of Christ‘s humanity against the Docetic Gnostics and the qualification of John by experience to speak. But he is also “the Word of life” and so God Incarnate. [source]
1 John 5:11 That God gave [οτι εδωκεν ο τεος]
Declarative οτι — hoti in apposition with μαρτυρια — marturia as in 1 John 5:14; John 3:19. Note aorist active indicative εδωκεν — edōken (from διδωμι — didōmi) as in 1 John 3:23., the great historic fact of the Incarnation (John 3:16), but the perfect δεδωκεν — dedōken in 1 John 3:1 to emphasize the abiding presence of God‘s love. [source]
1 John 2:5 Is the love of God perfected [ἡ ἀγάπη τοῦ Θεοῦ τετελείωται]
Rev., rendering the perfect tense more closely, hath the love of God been perfected. The change in the form of this antithetic clause is striking. He who claims to know God, yet lives in disobedience, is a liar. We should expect as an offset to this: He that keepeth His commandments is of the truth; or, the truth is in him. Instead we have, “In him has the love of God been perfected.” In other words, the obedient child of God is characterized, not by any representative trait or quality of his own personality, but merely as the subject of the work of divine love: as the sphere in which that love accomplishes its perfect work. The phrase ἡ ἀγάπη τοῦ Θεοῦ the love of God, may mean either the love which God shows, or the love of which God is the object, or the love which is characteristic of God whether manifested by Himself or by His obedient child through His Spirit. John's usage is not decisive like Paul's, according to which the love of God habitually means the love which proceeds from and is manifested by God. The exact phrase, the love of God or the love of the Father, is found in 1 John 3:16; 1 John 4:9, in the undoubted sense of the love of God to men. The same sense is intended in 1 John 3:1, 1 John 3:9, 1 John 3:16, though differently expressed. The sense is doubtful in 1 John 2:5; 1 John 3:17; 1 John 4:12. Men's love to God is clearly meant in 1 John 2:15; 1 John 5:3. The phrase occurs only twice in the Gospels (Luke 6:42; John 5:42), and in both cases the sense is doubtful. Some, as Ebrard, combine the two, and explain the love of God as the mutual relation of love between God and men. It is not possible to settle the point decisively, but I incline to the view that the fundamental idea of the love of God as expounded by John is the love which God has made known and which answers to His nature. In favor of this is the general usage of ἀγάπη lovein the New Testament, with the subjective genitive. The object is more commonly expressed by εἰς towardsor to. See 1 Thessalonians 3:12; Colossians 1:4; 1 Peter 4:8. Still stronger is John's treatment of the subject in ch. 4. Here we have, 1 John 4:9, the manifestation of the love of God in us ( ἐν ἡμῖν ) By our life in Christ and our love to God we are a manifestation of God's love. Directly following this is a definition of the essential nature of love. “In this is love; i.e., herein consists love: not that we have loved God, but that He loved us ” (1 John 4:10). Our mutual love is a proof that God dwells in us. God dwelling in us, His love is perfected in us (1 John 4:12). The latter clause, it would seem, must be explained according to 1 John 4:10. Then (1 John 4:16), “We have known and believed the love that God hath in us ” (see on John 16:22, on the phrase have love ). “God is love;” that is His nature, and He imparts this nature to be the sphere in which His children dwell. “He that dwelleth in love dwelleth in God.” Finally, our love is engendered by His love to us. “We love Him because He first loved us” (1 John 4:19). -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
In harmony with this is John 15:9. “As the Father loved me, I also loved you. Continue ye in my love.” My love must be explained by I loved you. This is the same idea of divine love as the sphere or element of renewed being; and this idea is placed, as in the passage we are considering, in direct connection with the keeping of the divine commandments. “If ye keep my commandments ye shall abide in my love.”-DIVIDER-
This interpretation does not exclude man's love to God. On the contrary, it includes it. The love which God has, is revealed as the love of God in the love of His children towards Him, no less than in His manifestations of love to them. The idea of divine love is thus complex. Love, in its very essence, is reciprocal. Its perfect ideal requires two parties. It is not enough to tell us, as a bare, abstract truth, that God is love. The truth must be rounded and filled out for us by the appreciable exertion of divine love upon an object, and by the response of the object. The love of God is perfected or completed by the perfect establishment of the relation of love between God and man. When man loves perfectly, his love is the love of God shed abroad in his heart. His love owes both its origin and its nature to the love of God. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
The word verily ( ἀληθῶς ) is never used by John as a mere formula of affirmation, but has the meaning of a qualitative adverb, expressing not merely the actual existence of a thing, but its existence in a manner most absolutely corresponding to ἀλήθεια truthCompare John 1:48; John 8:31. Hath been perfected. John is presenting the ideal of life in God. “This is the love of God that we keep His commandments.” Therefore whosoever keepeth God's word, His message in its entirety, realizes the perfect relation of love. [source]

1 John 4:9 In us [εν ημιν]
In our case, not “among us” nor “to us.” Cf. Galatians 1:16.Hath sent (απεσταλκεν — apestalken). Perfect active indicative of αποστελλω — apostellō as again in 1 John 4:14, the permanent mission of the Son, though in 1 John 4:10 the aorist απεστειλεν — apesteilen occurs for the single event. See John 3:16 for this great idea.His only-begotten Son “His Son the only-begotten” as in John 3:16. John applies μονογενης — monogenēs to Jesus alone (John 1:14, John 1:18), but Luke (Luke 7:12; Luke 8:42; Luke 9:38) to others. Jesus alone completely reproduces the nature and character of God (Brooke).That we might live through him (ινα ζησωμεν δι αυτου — hina zēsōmen di' autou). Purpose clause with ινα — hina and the first aorist (ingressive, get life) active subjunctive of ζαω — zaō “Through him” is through Christ, who is the life (John 14:6). Christ also lives in us (Galatians 2:20). This life begins here and now. [source]
3 John 1:2 Soul [ψυχή]
See on Mark 12:30; see on Luke 1:46. The soul ( ψυχή ) is the principle of individuality, the seat of personal impressions. It has a side in contact with both the material and the spiritual element of humanity, and is thus the mediating organ between body and spirit. Its meaning, therefore, constantly rises above life or the living individual, and takes color from its relation to either the emotional or the spiritual side of life, from the fact of its being the seat of the feelings, desires, affections, aversions, and the bearer and manifester of the divine life-principle ( πνεῦμα ). Consequently ψυχή is often used in our sense of heart (Luke 1:46; Luke 2:35; John 10:24; Acts 14:2); and the meanings of ψυχή souland πνεῦμα spiritoccasionally approach each other very closely. Compare John 12:27, and John 11:33; Matthew 11:29, and 1 Corinthians 16:18. Also both words in Luke 1:47. In this passage ψυχή soulexpresses the soul regarded as moral being designed for everlasting life. See Hebrews 6:19; Hebrews 10:39; Hebrews 13:17; 1 Peter 2:11; 1 Peter 4:19. John commonly uses the word to denote the principle of the natural life. See John 10:11, John 10:15; John 13:37; John 15:13; 1 John 3:16; Revelation 8:9; Revelation 12:11; Revelation 16:3. [source]
3 John 1:8 Ought [οπειλομεν]
See for this word 1 John 2:6; 1 John 3:16; 1 John 4:11. [source]
Revelation 1:5 The first-born of the dead [ο πρωτοτοκος των νεκρων]
A Jewish Messianic title (Psalm 89:27) and as in Colossians 1:18 refers to priority in the resurrection to be followed by others. See Luke 2:7 for the word.The ruler of the kings of the earth (ο αρχων των βασιλεων της γης — ho archōn tōn basileōn tēs gēs). Jesus by his resurrection won lordship over the kings of earth (Revelation 17:14; Revelation 19:16), what the devil offered him by surrender (Matthew 4:8.).Unto him that loveth us Dative of the articular present (not aorist αγαπησαντι — agapēsanti) active participle of αγαπαω — agapaō in a doxology to Christ, the first of many others to God and to Christ (Revelation 1:6; Revelation 4:11; Revelation 5:9, Revelation 5:12.; Revelation 7:10, Revelation 7:12, etc.). For the thought see John 3:16.Loosed (λυσαντι — lusanti). First aorist active participle of λυω — luō (Aleph A C), though some MSS. (P Q) read λουσαντι — lousanti (washed), a manifest correction. Note the change of tense. Christ loosed us once for all, but loves us always.By his blood As in Revelation 5:9. John here as in the Gospel and Epistles states plainly and repeatedly the place of the blood of Christ in the work of redemption. [source]
Revelation 1:5 Unto him that loveth us [τωι αγαπωντι ημας]
Dative of the articular present (not aorist αγαπησαντι — agapēsanti) active participle of αγαπαω — agapaō in a doxology to Christ, the first of many others to God and to Christ (Revelation 1:6; Revelation 4:11; Revelation 5:9, Revelation 5:12.; Revelation 7:10, Revelation 7:12, etc.). For the thought see John 3:16.Loosed (λυσαντι — lusanti). First aorist active participle of λυω — luō (Aleph A C), though some MSS. (P Q) read λουσαντι — lousanti (washed), a manifest correction. Note the change of tense. Christ loosed us once for all, but loves us always.By his blood As in Revelation 5:9. John here as in the Gospel and Epistles states plainly and repeatedly the place of the blood of Christ in the work of redemption. [source]
Revelation 13:8 Whose [ουαυτου]
Redundant use of genitive ου — autou (his) with ων — hou (whose) as common in this book, and singular instead of plural παντες — hōn with antecedent ου γεγραπται — pantes (all, plural), thus calling attention to the responsibility of the individual in emperor-worship.Hath not been written (γραπω — ou gegraptai). Perfect passive indicative of εν τωι βιβλιωι της ζωης του αρνιου — graphō permanent state, stands written.In the book of life of the Lamb See Revelation 3:5 for this phrase and the O.T. references. It occurs again in Revelation 17:8; Revelation 20:12, Revelation 20:15; Revelation 21:27. “Here and in Revelation 21:27, the Divine Register is represented as belonging to ‹the Lamb that was slain‘” (Swete).That hath been slain from the foundation of the world (απο καταβολης κοσμου — tou esphagmenou (for which see Revelation 5:6) απο καταβολης κοσμου — apo katabolēs kosmou). For the phrase κοσμου — apo katabolēs kosmou (not in the lxx) there are six other N.T. uses (Matthew 13:35 without προ καταβολης κοσμου — kosmou Matthew 25:34; Luke 11:50; Hebrews 4:3; Hebrews 9:26; Revelation 17:8), and for του εσπαγμενου — pro katabolēs kosmou three (John 17:24; Ephesians 1:4; 1 Peter 1:20). It is doubtful here whether it is to be taken with γεγραπται — tou esphagmenou (cf. 1 Peter 1:20) or with εσπαγμενου — gegraptai as in Revelation 17:8. Either makes sense, and here the most natural use is with esphagmenou At any rate the death of Christ lies in the purpose of God, as in John 3:16. [source]
Revelation 13:8 In the book of life of the Lamb [του εσπαγμενου]
See Revelation 3:5 for this phrase and the O.T. references. It occurs again in Revelation 17:8; Revelation 20:12, Revelation 20:15; Revelation 21:27. “Here and in Revelation 21:27, the Divine Register is represented as belonging to ‹the Lamb that was slain‘” (Swete).That hath been slain from the foundation of the world (απο καταβολης κοσμου — tou esphagmenou (for which see Revelation 5:6) απο καταβολης κοσμου — apo katabolēs kosmou). For the phrase κοσμου — apo katabolēs kosmou (not in the lxx) there are six other N.T. uses (Matthew 13:35 without προ καταβολης κοσμου — kosmou Matthew 25:34; Luke 11:50; Hebrews 4:3; Hebrews 9:26; Revelation 17:8), and for του εσπαγμενου — pro katabolēs kosmou three (John 17:24; Ephesians 1:4; 1 Peter 1:20). It is doubtful here whether it is to be taken with γεγραπται — tou esphagmenou (cf. 1 Peter 1:20) or with εσπαγμενου — gegraptai as in Revelation 17:8. Either makes sense, and here the most natural use is with esphagmenou At any rate the death of Christ lies in the purpose of God, as in John 3:16. [source]
Revelation 13:8 That hath been slain from the foundation of the world [απο καταβολης κοσμου]
For the phrase κοσμου — apo katabolēs kosmou (not in the lxx) there are six other N.T. uses (Matthew 13:35 without προ καταβολης κοσμου — kosmou Matthew 25:34; Luke 11:50; Hebrews 4:3; Hebrews 9:26; Revelation 17:8), and for του εσπαγμενου — pro katabolēs kosmou three (John 17:24; Ephesians 1:4; 1 Peter 1:20). It is doubtful here whether it is to be taken with γεγραπται — tou esphagmenou (cf. 1 Peter 1:20) or with εσπαγμενου — gegraptai as in Revelation 17:8. Either makes sense, and here the most natural use is with esphagmenou At any rate the death of Christ lies in the purpose of God, as in John 3:16. [source]

What do the individual words in John 3:16 mean?

Thus for loved - God the world that Son only begotten He gave so that everyone believing in Him not should perish but should have life eternal
Οὕτως γὰρ ἠγάπησεν Θεὸς τὸν κόσμον ὥστε Υἱὸν μονογενῆ ἔδωκεν ἵνα πᾶς πιστεύων εἰς αὐτὸν μὴ ἀπόληται ἀλλ’ ἔχῃ ζωὴν αἰώνιον

Οὕτως  Thus 
Parse: Adverb
Root: οὕτως  
Sense: in this manner, thus, so.
ἠγάπησεν  loved 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Active, 3rd Person Singular
Root: ἀγαπάω  
Sense: of persons.
  - 
Parse: Article, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
Θεὸς  God 
Parse: Noun, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root: θεός  
Sense: a god or goddess, a general name of deities or divinities.
κόσμον  world 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Masculine Singular
Root: κόσμος  
Sense: an apt and harmonious arrangement or constitution, order, government.
ὥστε  that 
Parse: Conjunction
Root: ὥστε  
Sense: so that, insomuch that.
Υἱὸν  Son 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Masculine Singular
Root: υἱός  
Sense: a son.
μονογενῆ  only  begotten 
Parse: Adjective, Accusative Masculine Singular
Root: μονογενής  
Sense: single of its kind, only.
ἔδωκεν  He  gave 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Active, 3rd Person Singular
Root: διδῶ 
Sense: to give.
ἵνα  so  that 
Parse: Conjunction
Root: ἵνα  
Sense: that, in order that, so that.
πᾶς  everyone 
Parse: Adjective, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root: πᾶς  
Sense: individually.
πιστεύων  believing 
Parse: Verb, Present Participle Active, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root: πιστεύω  
Sense: to think to be true, to be persuaded of, to credit, place confidence in.
ἀπόληται  should  perish 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Subjunctive Middle, 3rd Person Singular
Root: ἀπόλλυμι  
Sense: to destroy.
ἔχῃ  should  have 
Parse: Verb, Present Subjunctive Active, 3rd Person Singular
Root: ἔχω  
Sense: to have, i.e. to hold.
ζωὴν  life 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Feminine Singular
Root: ζωή  
Sense: life.
αἰώνιον  eternal 
Parse: Adjective, Accusative Feminine Singular
Root: αἰώνιος  
Sense: without beginning and end, that which always has been and always will be.