The Meaning of Revelation 5:8 Explained

Revelation 5:8

KJV: And when he had taken the book, the four beasts and four and twenty elders fell down before the Lamb, having every one of them harps, and golden vials full of odours, which are the prayers of saints.

YLT: And when he took the scroll, the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders fell before the Lamb, having each one harps and golden vials full of perfumes, which are the prayers of the saints,

Darby: And when it took the book, the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders fell before the Lamb, having each a harp and golden bowls full of incenses, which are the prayers of the saints.

ASV: And when he had taken the book, the four living creatures and the four and twenty elders fell down before the Lamb, having each one a harp, and golden bowls full of incense, which are the prayers of the saints.

What does Revelation 5:8 Mean?

Study Notes

beasts
living creatures.
living creatures
The "living creatures" are identical with the Cherubim. The subject is somewhat obscure, but from the position of the Cherubim at the gate of Eden, upon the cover of the ark of the covenant, and in Revelation 4, it is clearly gathered that they have to do with vindication of the holiness of God as against the presumptuous pride of sinful man who, despite his sin, would "put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life" Genesis 3:22-24 . Upon the ark of the covenant, of one substance with the mercy-seat, they saw the sprinkled blood which, in type, spake of the perfect maintenance of the divine righteousness by the sacrifice of Christ Exodus 25:17-20 . (See Scofield " Romans 3:24 ") . See Scofield " Romans 3:25 ". See Scofield " Romans 3:26 ". The living creatures (or Cherubim) appear to be actual beings of the angelic order. Cf. See Scofield " Isaiah 6:2 ". The Cherubim or living creatures are not identical with the Seraphim. Isaiah 6:2-7 . They appear to have to do with the holiness of God as outraged by sin; the Seraphim with uncleanness in the people of God. The passage in Ezekiel is highly figurative, but the effect was the revelation to the prophet of the Shekinah glory of the Lord. Such revelations are connected invariably with new blessing and service. Cf.; Exodus 3:2-10 ; Isaiah 6:1-10 ; Daniel 10:5-14 ; Revelation 1:12-19 .

Verse Meaning

This transfer triggered an outpouring of praise for the Lamb because it signaled that Christ would begin judging. While the four living creatures and24elders prostrated themselves in worship, only the elders had harps (lyres) and bowls. This is clear in the Greek text from the gender of hekastos, translated "each one." [1] They used the harps to praise God in song ( Psalm 33:2; Numbers 16:6-7). This is the only place in Scripture where angels praise God with harps.
John explained that the bowls contained the prayers of God"s people that are like the fragrant aroma of burning incense to Him (cf. Psalm 141:2; Luke 1:10). In the Old Testament the offering of incense was a priestly prerogative ( Psalm 98:5), so these angels were functioning in a priestly capacity. The Jews believed that angels carried human prayers to God (cf. Revelation 8:3). [2] The prayers offered are probably all those as yet unanswered petitions that people have prayed asking God to judge unrighteousness including, "Thy kingdom come, thy will be done in earth as it is in heaven" (cf. Revelation 5:10; Revelation 6:10; Revelation 8:3-5; Matthew 6:10; Luke 18:7-8). [3]

Context Summary

Revelation 5:1-8 - The Book With Seven Seals
This "book" is a roll of papyrus or parchment, written on each side to prevent unauthorized additions. Probably it contains the history of the successive steps to be taken to win the empire of the world for Christ. In other words, it tells of the successive stages of the coming of the kingdom of God. As the seals are opened, certain phenomena occur which in part reveal the mysteries hidden in the book, but the whole is in the hand of the Lamb of God. He alone knows the contents; He alone presides over their development. We must not weep because the future is unknown. "Jesus we know, and He is on the throne." We must trust our own future to Christ without fear or tears of foreboding. The Lamb who shed His blood to redeem may be trusted to order and perfect that which concerneth us.
What contrasts presented themselves! The Apostle looked for a lion, and behold, a lamb; for one who had overcome, and instead, one who had the appearance of having been slain; for one who had the majesty of a king, and instead, the emblem of humility. But in the lamb were the seven horns of perfect power, seven eyes of perfect wisdom, and seven spirits traversing the world, denoting omnipresence. What homage can be offered worthy of this combination of Redeemer and Creator? [source]

Chapter Summary: Revelation 5

1  The book sealed with seven seals,
9  which only the Lamb that was slain is worthy to open
12  Therefore the elders praise him, and confess that he redeemed them with his blood

Greek Commentary for Revelation 5:8

He had taken [ελαβεν]
Here John drops back to the narrative tense (the second aorist active indicative of λαμβανω — lambanō), not the past perfect as the English rendering might indicate, merely “when he took.” For like vivid variation (not confusion) of tenses with ειληπεν — eilēphen see Revelation 3:3; Revelation 8:5; Revelation 11:17 and with ειρηκα — eirēka in Revelation 7:13.; Revelation 19:3. [source]
Fell down [επεσαν]
Second aorist active indicative of πιπτω — piptō with first aorist “Holding.”A harp Old word, the traditional instrument (lyre or zithern) for psalmody (Psalm 33:2; Psalm 98:5, etc.).Golden bowls (πιαλας χρυσας — phialas chrusās). Broad shallow saucers, old word, in N.T. only in Revelation 5:8; Revelation 15:7; Revelation 16:1-4, Revelation 16:8, Revelation 16:10, Revelation 16:12, Revelation 16:17; Revelation 17:1; Revelation 21:9.Of incense Old word from τυμιαω — thumiaō to burn incense (Luke 1:9), as in Luke 1:10.Which are (αι εισιν — hai eisin). “Which (these bowls of incense) symbolize the prayers of the saints” as in Psalm 140:2; Luke 1:10. [source]
Having [εχοντες]
“Holding.” [source]
A harp [κιταραν]
Old word, the traditional instrument (lyre or zithern) for psalmody (Psalm 33:2; Psalm 98:5, etc.).Golden bowls (πιαλας χρυσας — phialas chrusās). Broad shallow saucers, old word, in N.T. only in Revelation 5:8; Revelation 15:7; Revelation 16:1-4, Revelation 16:8, Revelation 16:10, Revelation 16:12, Revelation 16:17; Revelation 17:1; Revelation 21:9.Of incense Old word from τυμιαω — thumiaō to burn incense (Luke 1:9), as in Luke 1:10.Which are (αι εισιν — hai eisin). “Which (these bowls of incense) symbolize the prayers of the saints” as in Psalm 140:2; Luke 1:10. [source]
Golden bowls [πιαλας χρυσας]
Broad shallow saucers, old word, in N.T. only in Revelation 5:8; Revelation 15:7; Revelation 16:1-4, Revelation 16:8, Revelation 16:10, Revelation 16:12, Revelation 16:17; Revelation 17:1; Revelation 21:9. [source]
Of incense [τυμιαματων]
Old word from τυμιαω — thumiaō to burn incense (Luke 1:9), as in Luke 1:10.Which are (αι εισιν — hai eisin). “Which (these bowls of incense) symbolize the prayers of the saints” as in Psalm 140:2; Luke 1:10. [source]
Which are [αι εισιν]
“Which (these bowls of incense) symbolize the prayers of the saints” as in Psalm 140:2; Luke 1:10. [source]
Had taken [ἔλαβεν]
Lit., took. The aorist is resumed. [source]
Every one of them harps [ἕκαστος κιθάρας]
Rev., less clumsily, having each one a harp. Each one, that is, of the elders. Κιθάρα harpsignifies an instrument unlike our harp as ordinarily constructed. Rather a lute or guitar, to which latter word kithara is etymologically related. Anciently of a triangular shape, with seven strings, afterwards increased to eleven. Josephus says it had ten, and was played with a plectrum or small piece of ivory. [source]
Vials [φιάλας]
Only in Revelation. The word vial, used commonly of a small bottle, gives a wrong picture here. The φιάλη was a broad, flat vessel, used for boiling liquids, sometimes as a cinerary urn, and for drinking, or pouring libations. Also of the shallow cup, usually without a foot, in which libations were drawn out of the mixer. Herodotus says that at Plataea the Spartan Helots were bidden by Pausanias to bring together the booty of the Persian camp, and that they found “many golden mixers and bowls ( φιάλας ), and other ἐκπώματα (drinking-vessels )” (ix., 30). From its broad, flat shape Ἄρεος φιάλη bowlof Mars was a comic metaphor for a shield. It was also used for sunken work in a ceiling. In the Septuagint the word is frequently used for bowls or basons. See Numbers 7:13, Numbers 7:19, Numbers 7:25, Numbers 7:31, Numbers 7:37, Numbers 7:43, etc.; 1 Kings 7:50; Zechariah 9:15. Here, censers, though several different words of the Septuagint and New Testament are rendered censer; as θυΐ́σκη , 1 Kings 7:50; θυμιατήριον , 2 Chronicles 26:19; Ezekiel 8:11; Hebrews 9:4; λιβανωτὸν, Revelation 8:3. Θυΐ́σκη however is the golden incense-cup or spoon to receive the frankincense which was lighted with coals from the brazen altar, and offered on the golden altar before the veil. The imagery is from the tabernacle and temple service. [source]
Incense [θυμιαμάτων]
The directions for the composition of the incense for the tabernacle-worship, are given Exodus 30:37, Exodus 30:38. [source]
Prayers []
For incense as the symbol of prayer, see Leviticus 16:12, Leviticus 16:13; Psalm 141:2. See on Luke 1:9. Edersheim, describing the offering of incense in the temple, says: “As the President gave the word of command which marked that 'the time of incense had come,' the whole multitude of the people without withdrew from the inner court and fell down before the Lord, spreading their hands in silent prayer. It is this most solemn period, when, throughout the vast temple-buildings, deep silence rested on the worshipping multitude, while within the sanctuary itself the priest laid the incense on the golden altar, and the cloud of odors rose up before the Lord, which serves as the image of heavenly things in Revelation (Revelation 8:1, Revelation 8:3, Revelation 8:4). The prayers offered by priests and people at this part of the service are recorded by tradition as follows: 'True it is that Thou art Jehovah, our God and the God of our fathers; our King and the King of our fathers; our Savior and the Rock of our salvation; our Help and our Deliverer. Thy name is from everlasting, and there is no God beside Thee. A new song did they that were delivered sing to Thy name by the seashore. Together did all praise and own Thee as King, and say, 'Jehovah shall reign who saveth Israel.'” Compare “the Song of Moses,” Revelation 15:3, and “a new song,” Revelation 5:9. [source]

Reverse Greek Commentary Search for Revelation 5:8

John 1:29 The Lamb [ὁ ἀμνὸς]
The word occurs in John only here and in John 1:36. Also in Acts 8:32; 1 Peter 1:19. The diminutive ἀρνίον , a little lamb, is found once in the Gospel (John 21:15), often in Revelation, but only of the glorified Redeemer, and nowhere else in the New Testament. In some instances the word may emphasize the gentle and innocent character of Jesus suffering to expiate the sins of men (Revelation 5:6, Revelation 5:12; Revelation 13:8); but it is also employed in describing Him as indignant (Revelation 6:16); as victorious (Revelation 17:4); as the object of adoration (Revelation 5:8); and as enthroned (Revelation 5:13; Revelation 7:17). The term, the Lamb of God (note the article), is evidently used here by the Baptist in some sense understood by his hearers, and points to Isaiah 53:7; compare Acts 8:32. The reference is probably to the Paschal lamb, though commentators differ. [source]
1 Corinthians 14:7 Harp [κιθάρα]
See on Revelation 5:8. [source]
1 John 2:9 His brother [τὸν ἀδελφόν]
His fellow-Christian. The singular, brother, is characteristic of this Epistle. See 1 John 2:10, 1 John 2:11; 1 John 3:10, 1 John 3:15, 1 John 3:17; 1 John 4:20, 1 John 4:21; 1 John 5:16. Christians are called in the New Testament, Christians (Acts 11:26; Acts 26:28; 1 Peter 4:16), mainly by those outside of the Christian circle. Disciples, applied to all followers of Christ (John 2:11; John 6:61) and strictly to the twelve (John 13:5sqq.). In Acts 19:1, to those who had received only John's baptism. Not found in John's Epistles nor in Revelation. Brethren. The first title given to the body of believers after the Ascension (Acts 1:15, where the true reading is ἀδελφῶν brethrenfor μαθητῶν disciples). See Acts 9:30; Acts 10:23; Acts 11:29; 1 Thessalonians 4:10; 1 Thessalonians 5:26; 1 John 3:14; 3 John 1:5, 3 John 1:10; John 21:23. Peter has ἡ ἀδελφότης thebrotherhood (1 Peter 2:17; 1 Peter 5:9). The believers. Under three forms: The believers ( οἱ πιστοί ; Acts 10:45; 1 Timothy 4:12); they that believe ( οἱ πιστεύοντες ; 1 Peter 2:7; 1 Thessalonians 1:7; Ephesians 1:19); they that believed ( οἱ πιστεύσαντες ; Acts 2:44; Acts 4:32; Hebrews 4:3). The saints ( οἱ ἅγιοι ); characteristic of Paul and Revelation. Four times in the Acts (Acts 9:13, Acts 9:32, Acts 9:41; Acts 26:10), and once in Jude (Judges 1:3). Also Hebrews 6:10; Hebrews 13:24. In Paul, 1 Corinthians 6:1; 1 Corinthians 14:33; Ephesians 1:1, Ephesians 1:15, etc. In Revelation 5:8; Revelation 8:3, Revelation 8:4; Revelation 11:18, etc.|Until now ( ἕως ἄρτι )|Though the light has been increasing, and though he may claim that he has been in the light from the first. The phrase occurs in John 2:10; John 5:17; John 16:24; and is used by Paul, 1 Corinthians 4:13; 1 Corinthians 8:7; 1 Corinthians 15:6.| [source]
2 John 1:1 The elder [ὁ πρεσβύτερος]
The word is used originally of seniority in age. So Luke 15:25. Afterward as a term of rank or office. Applied to members of the Sanhedrim (Matthew 16:21; Acts 6:12). Those who presided over the Christian assemblies or churches (Acts 11:30; 1 Timothy 5:17, 1 Timothy 5:19). The twenty-four members of the heavenly court in John's vision (Revelation 4:4, Revelation 4:10; Revelation 5:5, Revelation 5:6, Revelation 5:8, Revelation 5:11, Revelation 5:14). Here, with reference to official position, coupled, presumably, with age. [source]
Revelation 8:3 Incense []
See on Revelation 5:8. [source]
Revelation 8:3 Censer []
See on Revelation 5:8. [source]
Revelation 21:9 Vials []
Properly bowls. See on Revelation 5:8. [source]
Revelation 15:7 Vials [φιάλας]
Rev., bowls. See on Revelation 5:8. [source]
Revelation 15:2 The harps of God []
Omit the. Instruments devoted wholly to His praise. Compare Revelation 5:8; Revelation 14:2. [source]
Revelation 14:2 And I heard the voice of harpers [καὶ φωνὴν ἤκουσα κιθαρῳδῶν]
The correct reading is, καὶ ἡ φωνὴ ἣν ἤκουσα ὡς κιθαρῳδῶν andthe voice which I heard (was) as (the voice) of harpers. Κιθαρῳδός is from κιθάρα aharp (see on Revelation 5:8) and ᾠδός asinger. Properly, one who sings, accompanying himself on the harp. [source]
Revelation 11:15 There followed [εγενοντο]
“There came to pass.” There was silence in heaven upon the opening of the seventh seal (Revelation 8:1), but here “great voices.” Perhaps the great voices are the ζωα — zōa of Revelation 4:6.; Revelation 5:8. [source]
Revelation 14:2 Of a great thunder [βροντης μεγαλης]
For which see Revelation 6:1; Revelation 19:6. For this voice out of heaven see Revelation 10:4; Revelation 14:15; Revelation 18:4 and note accusative with ηκουσα — ēkousa the voice of harpers harping with their harps Triple use of κιταρα — kithara (Revelation 5:8), κιταρωιδων — kitharōidōn (Revelation 18:22), κιταριζοντων — kitharizontōn (old verb κιταριζω — kitharizō in N.T. only here and 1 Corinthians 14:7). Wonderful melody in this chorus by the angels, not by the 144,000. [source]
Revelation 15:2 From the beast and from his image [εκ του τηριου και εκ της εικονος αυτου]
This use of εκ — ek after νικαω — nikaō is unusual, also with εκ του αριτμου — ek tou arithmou For these items see Revelation 13:1, Revelation 13:14, Revelation 13:17; Revelation 14:9, Revelation 14:11; Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:4.By the glassy sea (επι την ταλασσαν την υαλινην — epi tēn thalassan tēn hualinēn). Or “upon” more likely (Revelation 4:6) with the accusative as in Matthew 14:25.Harps of God Objective genitive, for the worship of God (Revelation 5:8; Revelation 14:2; 1 Chronicles 16:42). [source]
Revelation 15:2 Harps of God [κιταρας του τεου]
Objective genitive, for the worship of God (Revelation 5:8; Revelation 14:2; 1 Chronicles 16:42). [source]
Revelation 15:7 Seven golden bowls [επτα πιαλας χρυσας]
Golden saucers, but not full of incense as in Revelation 5:8, but “full Portents of dreadful events. [source]
Revelation 18:13 Incense [τυμιαματα]
See Revelation 5:8; Revelation 8:3. [source]
Revelation 21:15 To measure [ινα μετρησηι]
Purpose clause with ινα — hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of μετρεω — metreō The rod of gold was in keeping with the dignity of the service of God (Revelation 1:12; Revelation 5:8; Revelation 8:3; Revelation 9:13; Revelation 15:7). [source]
Revelation 11:16 The four and twenty elders [οι εικοσι τεσσαρες πρεσβυτεροι]
They follow the living creatures (Revelation 11:15, if correctly interpreted) in their adoration, as in Revelation 4:9. Though seated on thrones of their own (Revelation 4:4), yet they fall upon their faces in every act of worship to God and Christ (Revelation 4:10; Revelation 5:8, Revelation 5:14; Revelation 19:4). Here επι τα προσωπα αυτων — epi ta prosōpa autōn (upon their faces) is added as in Revelation 7:11 about the angels. The elders here again represent the redeemed, as the four living creatures the forces of nature, in the great thanksgiving here (ευχαριστουμεν — eucharistoumen present active indicative of ευχαριστεω — eucharisteō). [source]
Revelation 15:2 Mingled with fire [μεμιγμενην πυρι]
Perfect passive participle of μιγνυμι — mignumi to mix, and the associative instrumental case πυρι — puri This item not in Revelation 4:6 (a vision of peace), but here it adds to the splendour of the vision. This parenthesis (Revelation 15:2-4) gives a picture of the martyrs in their state of bliss.Them that come off victorious (τους νικωντας — tous nikōntas). Present active articular participle of νικαω — nikaō accusative after ειδον — eidon “those that come off victorious” (Revelation 14:4).From the beast and from his image This use of εκ — ek after νικαω — nikaō is unusual, also with εκ του αριτμου — ek tou arithmou For these items see Revelation 13:1, Revelation 13:14, Revelation 13:17; Revelation 14:9, Revelation 14:11; Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:4.By the glassy sea (επι την ταλασσαν την υαλινην — epi tēn thalassan tēn hualinēn). Or “upon” more likely (Revelation 4:6) with the accusative as in Matthew 14:25.Harps of God Objective genitive, for the worship of God (Revelation 5:8; Revelation 14:2; 1 Chronicles 16:42). [source]
Revelation 17:3 In the Spirit [εν πνευματι]
Probably his own spirit, though the Holy Spirit is possible (Revelation 1:10; Revelation 4:2; Revelation 21:10), without Paul‘s uncertainty (2 Corinthians 12:2). Cf. Ezekiel 3:14.; Ezekiel 8:3; Ezekiel 11:24.Into a wilderness (εις ερημον — eis erēmon). In Isaiah 21:1 there is το οραμα της ερημου — to horama tēs erēmou (the vision of the deserted one, Babylon), and in Isaiah 14:23 Babylon is called ερημον — erēmon John may here picture this to be the fate of Rome or it may be that he himself, in the wilderness (desert) this side of Babylon, sees her fate. In Revelation 21:10 he sees the New Jerusalem from a high mountain.Sitting Present middle participle of κατημαι — kathēmai as in Revelation 17:1. “To manage and guide the beast” (Vincent).Upon a scarlet-coloured beast (επι τηριον κοκκινον — epi thērion kokkinon). Accusative with επι — epi here, though genitive in Revelation 17:1. Late adjective (from κοκκος — kokkos a parasite of the ilex coccifera), a crimson tint for splendour, in Revelation 17:3, Revelation 17:4; Revelation 18:12, Revelation 18:16; Matthew 27:28; Hebrews 9:19.Full of names of blasphemy See Revelation 13:1 for “names of blasphemy” on the seven heads of the beast, but here they cover the whole body of the beast (the first beast of Revelation 13:1; Revelation 19:20). The harlot city (Rome) sits astride this beast with seven heads and ten horns (Roman world power). The beast is here personified with masculine participles instead of neuter, like τηριον — thērion (γεμοντα — gemonta accusative singular, εχων — echōn nominative singular, though some MSS. read εχοντα — echonta), construction according to sense in both instances. The verb γεμω — gemō always has the genitive after it in the Apocalypse (Revelation 4:6, Revelation 4:8; Revelation 5:8; Revelation 15:7; Revelation 17:4; Revelation 21:9) save here and apparently once in Revelation 17:4. [source]
Revelation 17:3 Sitting [κατημενην]
Present middle participle of κατημαι — kathēmai as in Revelation 17:1. “To manage and guide the beast” (Vincent).Upon a scarlet-coloured beast (επι τηριον κοκκινον — epi thērion kokkinon). Accusative with επι — epi here, though genitive in Revelation 17:1. Late adjective (from κοκκος — kokkos a parasite of the ilex coccifera), a crimson tint for splendour, in Revelation 17:3, Revelation 17:4; Revelation 18:12, Revelation 18:16; Matthew 27:28; Hebrews 9:19.Full of names of blasphemy See Revelation 13:1 for “names of blasphemy” on the seven heads of the beast, but here they cover the whole body of the beast (the first beast of Revelation 13:1; Revelation 19:20). The harlot city (Rome) sits astride this beast with seven heads and ten horns (Roman world power). The beast is here personified with masculine participles instead of neuter, like τηριον — thērion (γεμοντα — gemonta accusative singular, εχων — echōn nominative singular, though some MSS. read εχοντα — echonta), construction according to sense in both instances. The verb γεμω — gemō always has the genitive after it in the Apocalypse (Revelation 4:6, Revelation 4:8; Revelation 5:8; Revelation 15:7; Revelation 17:4; Revelation 21:9) save here and apparently once in Revelation 17:4. [source]
Revelation 4:4 I saw four and twenty elders [εικοσι τεσσαρας πρεσβυτερους]
No ειδον — eidon in the text, but the accusative case calls for it. Twenty-four as a symbolic number occurs only in this book and only for these elders (Revelation 4:4, Revelation 4:10; Revelation 5:8; Revelation 11:16; Revelation 19:4). We do not really know why this number is chosen, perhaps two elders for each tribe, perhaps the twelve tribes and the twelve apostles (Judaism and Christianity), perhaps the twenty-four courses of the sons of Aaron (1 Chron 24:1-19), perhaps some angelic rank (Colossians 1:16) of which we know nothing. Cf. Ephesians 2:6. [source]
Revelation 5:8 Fell down [επεσαν]
Second aorist active indicative of πιπτω — piptō with first aorist “Holding.”A harp Old word, the traditional instrument (lyre or zithern) for psalmody (Psalm 33:2; Psalm 98:5, etc.).Golden bowls (πιαλας χρυσας — phialas chrusās). Broad shallow saucers, old word, in N.T. only in Revelation 5:8; Revelation 15:7; Revelation 16:1-4, Revelation 16:8, Revelation 16:10, Revelation 16:12, Revelation 16:17; Revelation 17:1; Revelation 21:9.Of incense Old word from τυμιαω — thumiaō to burn incense (Luke 1:9), as in Luke 1:10.Which are (αι εισιν — hai eisin). “Which (these bowls of incense) symbolize the prayers of the saints” as in Psalm 140:2; Luke 1:10. [source]
Revelation 5:8 A harp [κιταραν]
Old word, the traditional instrument (lyre or zithern) for psalmody (Psalm 33:2; Psalm 98:5, etc.).Golden bowls (πιαλας χρυσας — phialas chrusās). Broad shallow saucers, old word, in N.T. only in Revelation 5:8; Revelation 15:7; Revelation 16:1-4, Revelation 16:8, Revelation 16:10, Revelation 16:12, Revelation 16:17; Revelation 17:1; Revelation 21:9.Of incense Old word from τυμιαω — thumiaō to burn incense (Luke 1:9), as in Luke 1:10.Which are (αι εισιν — hai eisin). “Which (these bowls of incense) symbolize the prayers of the saints” as in Psalm 140:2; Luke 1:10. [source]
Revelation 17:3 Full of names of blasphemy [γεμοντα ονοματα βλασπημιας]
See Revelation 13:1 for “names of blasphemy” on the seven heads of the beast, but here they cover the whole body of the beast (the first beast of Revelation 13:1; Revelation 19:20). The harlot city (Rome) sits astride this beast with seven heads and ten horns (Roman world power). The beast is here personified with masculine participles instead of neuter, like τηριον — thērion (γεμοντα — gemonta accusative singular, εχων — echōn nominative singular, though some MSS. read εχοντα — echonta), construction according to sense in both instances. The verb γεμω — gemō always has the genitive after it in the Apocalypse (Revelation 4:6, Revelation 4:8; Revelation 5:8; Revelation 15:7; Revelation 17:4; Revelation 21:9) save here and apparently once in Revelation 17:4. [source]
Revelation 18:13 Spice [αμωμον]
A fragrant plant of India, αμομυμ — amomum for perfume.Incense (τυμιαματα — thumiamata). See Revelation 5:8; Revelation 8:3.Ointment See Matthew 26:7.Frankincense (λιβανον — libanon). See Revelation 8:3.Fine flour Old word for finest wheaten flour, here only in N.T.Of horses (ιππων — hippōn). Here then is a return to the construction of the genitive after γομον — gomon in Revelation 18:12, though not used here, an anomalous genitive construction (Charles).Of chariots A Gallic word for a vehicle with four wheels, here only in N.T.Of slaves (σοματων — somatōn). “Of bodies,” treated as animals or implements, like the horses and the chariots (cf. rickshaw men in China). This use of σωμα — sōma for slave occurs in Genesis 34:29; Tob 10:11 (σωματα και κτηνη — sōmata kai ktēnē slaves and cattle); 2 Macc. 8:11.Souls of men Deissmann (Bible Studies, p. 160) finds this use of σωμα — sōma for slave in the Egyptian Delta. Return to the accusative πσυχας — psuchas From Numbers 31:35; 1 Chronicles 5:21; Ezekiel 27:13. This addition is an explanation of the use of σωματα — sōmata for slaves, “human live stock” (Swete), but slaves all the same. Perhaps και — kai here should be rendered “even,” not “and”: “bodies even souls of men.” The slave merchant was called σωματεμπορος — sōmatemporos (body merchant). [source]
Revelation 4:4 Four and twenty thrones [τρονοι εικοσι τεσσαρες]
So P Q, but Aleph A have accusative τρονους — thronous (supply ειδον — eidon from Revelation 4:1) and τεσσαρες — tessares (late accusative in ες — ̇es). This further circle of thrones beyond the great throne.I saw four and twenty elders (εικοσι τεσσαρας πρεσβυτερους — eikosi tessaras presbuterous). No ειδον — eidon in the text, but the accusative case calls for it. Twenty-four as a symbolic number occurs only in this book and only for these elders (Revelation 4:4, Revelation 4:10; Revelation 5:8; Revelation 11:16; Revelation 19:4). We do not really know why this number is chosen, perhaps two elders for each tribe, perhaps the twelve tribes and the twelve apostles (Judaism and Christianity), perhaps the twenty-four courses of the sons of Aaron (1 Chron 24:1-19), perhaps some angelic rank (Colossians 1:16) of which we know nothing. Cf. Ephesians 2:6.Sitting Upon their thrones.Arrayed (περιβεβλημενους — peribeblēmenous). Perfect passive participle of περιβαλλω — periballō (to throw around).In white garments Locative case here as in Revelation 3:5 (with εν — en), though accusative in Revelation 7:9, Revelation 7:13.Crowns of gold (στεπανους χρυσους — stephanous chrusous). Accusative case again like πρεσβυτερους — presbuterous after ειδον — eidon (Revelation 4:1), not ιδου — idou In Revelation 19:14 εχων — echōn (having) is added. John uses διαδημα — diadēma (diadem) for the kingly crown in Revelation 12:3; Revelation 13:1; Revelation 19:12, but it is not certain that the old distinction between διαδεμ — diadem as the kingly crown and στεπανος — stephanos as the victor‘s wreath is always observed in late Greek. [source]
Revelation 5:8 Golden bowls [πιαλας χρυσας]
Broad shallow saucers, old word, in N.T. only in Revelation 5:8; Revelation 15:7; Revelation 16:1-4, Revelation 16:8, Revelation 16:10, Revelation 16:12, Revelation 16:17; Revelation 17:1; Revelation 21:9. [source]
Revelation 8:3 Stood [εστατη]
Ingressive first aorist passive of ιστημι — histēmi (intransitive), “took his place.”Over the altar (επι του τυσιαστηριου — epi tou thusiastēriou). See Revelation 6:9 for the word for the burnt-offering, here apparently the altar of incense (clearly so in Luke 1:11; possibly also Revelation 9:13), but it is not clear that in apocalyptic the distinction between the two altars of the tabernacle and temple is preserved. Aleph C Q have the genitive, while A P have the accusative επι το τυσιαστηριον — epi to thusiastērion golden censer (λιβανωτον χρυσουν — libanōton chrusoun). Old word for frankincense (from λιβανος — libanos Matthew 2:11; Revelation 18:13), but here alone in N.T. and for censer, as is plain by the use of χρυσουν — chrusoun (golden) with it. Cf. 1 Kings 7:50.Much incense See Revelation 5:8 for τυμιαμα — thumiama (the aromatic substance burnt, also in Revelation 18:13), but here for the live coals on which the incense falls.That he should add (ινα δωσει — hina dōsei). Sub-final clause (subject of εδοτη — edothē was given, singular because τυμιαματα — thumiamata neuter plural) with ινα — hina and the future active indicative of διδωμι — didōmi to give, instead of δωι — dōi the second aorist subjunctive.Unto the prayers Dative case. In Revelation 5:8 the τυμιαματα — thumiamata are the prayers.Upon the golden altar (επι το τυσιαστηριον το χρυσουν το — epi to thusiastērion to chrusoun to). Accusative case here, not genitive as above, and apparently the altar of incense as indicated by the word golden (Exodus 30:1.; Leviticus 4:17). Note triple article here το — to (once before the substantive, once before the adjective, once before the adjunct “the one before the throne”). [source]
Revelation 8:3 Unto the prayers [ταις προσευχαις]
Dative case. In Revelation 5:8 the τυμιαματα — thumiamata are the prayers.Upon the golden altar (επι το τυσιαστηριον το χρυσουν το — epi to thusiastērion to chrusoun to). Accusative case here, not genitive as above, and apparently the altar of incense as indicated by the word golden (Exodus 30:1.; Leviticus 4:17). Note triple article here το — to (once before the substantive, once before the adjective, once before the adjunct “the one before the throne”). [source]
Revelation 8:3 Much incense [τυμιαματα πολλα]
See Revelation 5:8 for τυμιαμα — thumiama (the aromatic substance burnt, also in Revelation 18:13), but here for the live coals on which the incense falls.That he should add (ινα δωσει — hina dōsei). Sub-final clause (subject of εδοτη — edothē was given, singular because τυμιαματα — thumiamata neuter plural) with ινα — hina and the future active indicative of διδωμι — didōmi to give, instead of δωι — dōi the second aorist subjunctive.Unto the prayers Dative case. In Revelation 5:8 the τυμιαματα — thumiamata are the prayers.Upon the golden altar (επι το τυσιαστηριον το χρυσουν το — epi to thusiastērion to chrusoun to). Accusative case here, not genitive as above, and apparently the altar of incense as indicated by the word golden (Exodus 30:1.; Leviticus 4:17). Note triple article here το — to (once before the substantive, once before the adjective, once before the adjunct “the one before the throne”). [source]

What do the individual words in Revelation 5:8 mean?

And when He had taken the scroll the four living creatures the twenty four elders fell down before the Lamb having each a harp bowls golden being full of incenses which are the prayers of the saints
Καὶ ὅτε ἔλαβεν τὸ βιβλίον τὰ τέσσαρα ζῷα οἱ εἴκοσι τέσσαρες πρεσβύτεροι ἔπεσαν ἐνώπιον τοῦ Ἀρνίου ἔχοντες ἕκαστος κιθάραν φιάλας χρυσᾶς γεμούσας θυμιαμάτων αἵ εἰσιν αἱ προσευχαὶ τῶν ἁγίων

ἔλαβεν  He  had  taken 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Active, 3rd Person Singular
Root: λαμβάνω  
Sense: to take.
βιβλίον  scroll 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Neuter Singular
Root: βιβλίον  
Sense: a small book, a scroll, a written document.
τέσσαρα  four 
Parse: Adjective, Nominative Neuter Plural
Root: τέσσαρες  
Sense: four.
ζῷα  living  creatures 
Parse: Noun, Nominative Neuter Plural
Root: ζῷον  
Sense: a living being.
εἴκοσι  twenty 
Parse: Adjective, Nominative Masculine Plural
Root: εἴκοσι  
Sense: twenty.
τέσσαρες  four 
Parse: Adjective, Nominative Masculine Plural
Root: τέσσαρες  
Sense: four.
πρεσβύτεροι  elders 
Parse: Adjective, Nominative Masculine Plural
Root: πρεσβύτερος  
Sense: elder, of age,.
ἔπεσαν  fell  down 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Active, 3rd Person Plural
Root: πίπτω 
Sense: to descend from a higher place to a lower.
ἐνώπιον  before 
Parse: Preposition
Root: ἐνώπιον  
Sense: in the presence of, before.
Ἀρνίου  Lamb 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Neuter Singular
Root: ἀρνίον  
Sense: .
ἕκαστος  each 
Parse: Adjective, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root: ἕκαστος  
Sense: each, every.
κιθάραν  a  harp 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Feminine Singular
Root: κιθάρα  
Sense: a harp to which praises of God are sung in heaven.
φιάλας  bowls 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Feminine Plural
Root: φιάλη  
Sense: a broad shallow bowl, deep saucer.
χρυσᾶς  golden 
Parse: Adjective, Accusative Feminine Plural
Root: χρύσεος 
Sense: golden.
γεμούσας  being  full 
Parse: Verb, Present Participle Active, Accusative Feminine Plural
Root: γέμω  
Sense: to be full, filled, full.
θυμιαμάτων  of  incenses 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Neuter Plural
Root: θυμίαμα  
Sense: an aromatic substance burnt, incense.
προσευχαὶ  prayers 
Parse: Noun, Nominative Feminine Plural
Root: προσευχή  
Sense: prayer addressed to God.
τῶν  of  the 
Parse: Article, Genitive Masculine Plural
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
ἁγίων  saints 
Parse: Adjective, Genitive Masculine Plural
Root: ἅγιος  
Sense: most holy thing, a saint.