The Meaning of John 6:4 Explained

John 6:4

KJV: And the passover, a feast of the Jews, was nigh.

YLT: and the passover was nigh, the feast of the Jews.

Darby: but the passover, the feast of the Jews, was near.

ASV: Now the passover, the feast of the Jews, was at hand.

What does John 6:4 Mean?

Verse Meaning

Evidently John identified the nearness of the Passover because of Jesus" later references to Himself as the Bread of Life ( John 6:33; John 6:35; John 6:51), the fulfillment of what the Passover bread typified.
"The people were thinking in terms of blood, flesh, lambs, and unleavened bread. They longed for a new Moses who would deliver them from Roman bondage." [1]
This was John"s second reference to a Passover feast during Jesus" ministry (cf. John 2:13; John 2:23; John 11:55; John 13:1). Evidently this event happened two years after Jesus" first cleansing of the temple and one year before He died on the cross. It would have taken place in April of A.D32. [2]
"The movement from the miracle to the discourse, from Moses to Jesus ( John 6:32-35, cf. John 1:17), and, above all, from bread to flesh, is almost unintelligible unless the reference in John 6:4 to the Passover picks up i29 , 36 , anticipates xix36 ( Exodus 12:46; Numbers 9:12), and governs the whole narrative." [2]
The Passover was an intensely nationalistic celebration in Israel. This accounts for the extreme zeal that many of the Jews demonstrated when they sought to draft Jesus as their political deliverer ( John 6:15).

Context Summary

John 6:1-14 - The Multitude Satisfied With Food
In this chapter we have a further illustration of John's method in selecting for his purpose the miracles which became the texts of our Lord's discourses. These multitudes had evidently gathered on their way to Jerusalem to celebrate the Passover; and the imminence of that great festival, when the worshipers not only sacrificed but partook of the slain lamb, gave point to much that our Lord said after this memorable feeding of the multitude.
Christ often tests us to see what we shall say and do in the presence of overwhelming difficulty, but He always knows the way out. We at once begin to calculate our paltry resources, and to confess their inadequacy. We come back to explain that when we have done our utmost, we can provide very little. Then He steps in, determined that everyone shall be filled, with an ample supply left over. He makes His guests sit down in comfort on the grass, because there is plenty of time, as well as an abundance of food, for a happy and comfortable meal. We must bring Him what we have, however slender; must enter into His great plan and arrange the people for the banquet; must distribute the food and gather up the broken pieces. The world is to be fed by the cooperation of Christ and His Church. [source]

Chapter Summary: John 6

1  Jesus feeds five thousand men with five loaves and two fishes
15  Thereupon the people would have made him king;
16  but withdrawing himself, he walks on the sea to his disciples;
26  reproves the people flocking after him, and all the fleshly hearers of his word;
32  declares himself to be the bread of life to believers
66  Many disciples depart from him
68  Peter confesses him
70  Judas is a devil

Greek Commentary for John 6:4

The feast of the Jews [η εορτη των Ιουδαιων]
Here used of the passover In John 2:13, here, and John 11:55 (the last one) the adverb εγγυς — eggus (near) is used. John is fond of notes of time. Jesus failed to go to this passover because of the hostility in Jerusalem (John 7:1). [source]
A feast [ἡ ἑορτὴ]
With the definite article, the feast; pointing to something well known. [source]

Reverse Greek Commentary Search for John 6:4

Mark 6:39 Upon the green grass [επι τωι χλωρωι χορτωι]
Another Markan touch. It was passover time (John 6:4) and the afternoon sun shone upon the orderly groups upon the green spring grass. See note on Matthew 14:15. They may have been seated like companies at tables, open at one end. [source]
Mark 6:45 While he himself sendeth the multitude away [εως αυτος απολυει τον οχλον]
Matthew 14:22 has it “till he should send away” (εως ου απολυσηι — heōs hou apolusēi) with the aorist subjunctive of purpose. Mark with the present indicative απολυει — apoluei pictures Jesus as personally engaged in persuading the crowds to go away now. John 6:41. explains this activity of Jesus. The crowds had become so excited that they were in the mood to start a revolution against the Roman government and proclaim Jesus king. He had already forced in reality the disciples to leave in a boat to go before him (προαγειν — proagein) in order to get them out of this atmosphere of overwrought excitement with a political twist to the whole conception of the Messianic Kingdom. They were in grave danger of being swept off their feet and falling heedlessly into the Pharisaic conception and so defeating the whole teaching and training of Jesus with them. See note on Matthew 14:22, Matthew 14:23. To this pass things had come one year before the Crucifixion. He had done his best to help and bless the crowds and lost his chance to rest. No one really understood Jesus, not the crowds, not the disciples. Jesus needed the Father to stay and steady him. The devil had come again to tempt him with world dominion in league with the Pharisees, the populace, and the devil in the background. [source]
John 7:7 Cannot []
Frequent in John, and expressing an inherent impossibility. See John 3:3, John 3:5; John 5:19; John 6:44; John 7:34, John 7:36; John 8:21, John 8:43; John 12:39; John 14:17, etc. [source]
John 7:29 From him [παρ ' αὐτοῦ]
See on John 6:46. [source]
John 7:12 Murmuring []
See on John 6:41. [source]
John 6:52 Strove [ἐμάχοντο]
The murmuring (John 6:41) now breaks out into open contention among the Jews themselves. [source]
John 6:46 Hath seen []
As contrasted with hearing and learning (John 6:45). The Father is not seen immediately, but through the Son. Compare John 1:18; John 14:9; 1 John 3:2, Matthew 11:27. [source]
John 6:44 Draw [ἑλκύση]
Two words for drawing are found in the New Testament, σύρω and ἑλκύω . The distinction is not habitually observed, and the meanings often overlap. Σύρω is originally to drag or trail along, as a garment or torn slippers. Both words are used of haling to justice. (See Acts 8:3; Acts 17:6; Acts 16:19) In Acts 14:19, συ.ρω , of dragging Paul's senseless body out of the city at Lystra. In John 21:6, John 21:8, John 21:11, both words of drawing the net. In John 18:10, ἑλκύω , of drawing Peter's sword. One distinction, however, is observed: σύρω is never used of Christ's attraction of men. See John 6:44; John 12:32. Ἑλκύω occurs only once outside of John's writings (Acts 16:19). Luther says on this passage: “The drawing is not like that of the executioner, who draws the thief up the ladder to the gallows; but it is a gracious allurement, such as that of the man whom everybody loves, and to whom everybody willingly goes.” [source]
John 6:35 I am the bread of life []
A form of expression peculiar to John. See John 6:41, John 6:48, John 6:51; John 8:12; John 10:7, John 10:9, John 10:11, John 10:14; John 11:25; John 14:6; John 15:1, John 15:5. [source]
John 4:21 The Father []
This absolute use of the title the Father is characteristic of John. He speaks of God as the Father, and my Father, more commonly the former. On the distinction between the two Canon Westcott observes: “Generally it may be said that the former title expresses the original relation of God to being, and specially to humanity, in virtue of man's creation in the divine image; and the latter more particularly the relation of the Father to the Son incarnate, and so indirectly to man in virtue of the Incarnation. The former suggests those thoughts which spring from the consideration of the absolute moral connection of man with God; the latter those which spring from what is made known to us, through revelation, of the connection of the Incarnate Son with God and with man.” See John 6:45; John 10:30; John 20:21; John 8:18, John 8:19; John 14:6-10; John 15:8. John never uses our Father; only once your Father (John 20:17), and never Father without the article, except in address. [source]
John 12:32 Will draw [ἑλκύσω]
See on John 6:44. [source]
John 3:15 Have eternal life []
A characteristic phrase of John for live forever. See John 3:16, John 3:36; John 5:24; John 6:40, John 6:47, John 6:54; 1 John 3:15; 1 John 5:12. The interview with Nicodemus closes with John 3:15; and the succeeding words are John's. This appears from the following facts: 1. The past tenses loved and gave, in John 3:16, better suit the later point of view from which John writes, after the atoning death of Christ was an accomplished historic fact, than the drift of the present discourse of Jesus before the full revelation of that work. 2. It is in John's manner to throw in explanatory comments of his own (John 1:16-18; John 12:37-41), and to do so abruptly. See John 1:15, John 1:16, and on and, John 1:16. 3. John 3:19is in the same line of thought with John 1:9-11in the Prologue; and the tone of that verse is historic, carrying the sense of past rejection, as loved darkness; were evil. 4. The phrase believe on the name is not used elsewhere by our Lord, but by John (John 1:12; John 2:23; 1 John 5:13). 5. The phrase only-begotten son is not elsewhere used by Jesus of himself, but in every case by the Evangelist (John 1:14, John 1:18; 1 John 4:9). 6. The phrase to do truth (John 3:21) occurs elsewhere only in 1 John 1:6. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
[source]

John 1:4 In Him was life [ἐν αὐτῷ ζωὴ ἦν]
He was the fountain of life - physical, moral, and eternal - its principle and source. Two words for life are employed in the New Testament: βίος and ζωὴ . The primary distinction is that ζωὴ means existence as contrasted with death, and βίος , the period, means, or manner of existence. Hence βίος is originally the higher word, being used of men, while ζωὴ is used of animals ( ζῶα ). We speak therefore of the discussion of the life and habits of animals as zoo logy; and of accounts of men's lives as bio graphy. Animals have the vital principle in common with men, but men lead lives controlled by intellect and will, and directed to moral and intellectual ends. In the New Testament, βίος means either living, i.e., means of subsistence (Mark 12:44; Luke 8:43), or course of life, life regarded as an economy (Luke 8:14; 1 Timothy 2:2; 2 Timothy 2:4). Ζωὴ occurs in the lower sense of life, considered principally or wholly as existence (1 Peter 3:10; Acts 8:33; Acts 17:25; Hebrews 7:3). There seems to be a significance in the use of the word in Luke 16:25: “Thou in thy lifetime ( ἐν τῇ ζωῇ σου ) receivedst thy good things;” the intimation being that the rich man's life had been little better than mere existence, and not life at all in the true sense. But throughout the New Testament ζωὴ is the nobler word, seeming to have changed places with βίος . It expresses the sum of mortal and eternal blessedness (Matthew 25:46; Luke 18:30; John 11:25; Acts 2:28; Romans 5:17; Romans 6:4), and that not only in respect of men, but also of God and Christ. So here. Compare John 5:26; John 14:6; 1 John 1:2. This change is due to the gospel revelation of the essential connection of sin with death, and consequently, of life with holiness. “Whatever truly lives, does so because sin has never found place in it, or, having found place for a time, has since been overcome and expelled” (Trench). Ζωὴ is a favorite word with John. See John 11:25; John 14:6; John 8:12; 1 John 1:2; 1 John 5:20; John 6:35, John 6:48; John 6:63; Revelation 21:6; Revelation 22:1, Revelation 22:17; Revelation 7:17; John 4:14; Revelation 2:7; Revelation 22:2, Revelation 22:14, Revelation 22:19; John 12:50; John 17:3; John 20:31; John 5:26; John 6:53, John 6:54; John 5:40; John 3:15, John 3:16, John 3:36; John 10:10; John 5:24; John 12:25; John 6:27; John 4:36; 1 John 5:12, 1 John 5:16; John 6:51.Was the Light of men ( ἦν τὸ φῶς τῶν ἀνθρώπων )Passing from the thought of creation in general to that of mankind, who, in the whole range of created things, had a special capacity for receiving the divine. The Light - the peculiar mode of the divine operation upon men, conformably to their rational and moral nature which alone was fitted to receive the light of divine truth. It is not said that the Word was light, but that the life was the light. The Word becomes light through the medium of life, of spiritual life, just as sight is a function of physical life. Compare John 14:6, where Christ becomes the life through being the truth; and Matthew 5:8, where the pure heart is the medium through which God is beheld. In whatever mode of manifestation the Word is in the world, He is the light of the world; in His works, in the dawn of creation; in the happy conditions of Eden; in the Patriarchs, in the Law and the Prophets, in His incarnation, and in the subsequent history of the Church. Compare John 9:5. Of men, as a class, and not of individuals only. [source]
John 1:40 Andrew [Ανδρεας]
Explained by John as one of the two disciples of the Baptist and identified as the brother of the famous Simon Peter (cf. also John 6:8; John 12:22). The more formal call of Andrew and Simon, James and John, comes later (Mark 1:16.; Matthew 4:18.; Luke 3:1-11). That heard John speak “That heard from John,” a classical idiom (παρα — para with ablative after ακουω — akouō) seen also in John 6:45; John 7:51; John 8:26, John 8:40; John 15:15. [source]
John 10:28 And I give unto them eternal life [καγω διδωμι αυτοις ζωην αιωνιον]
This is the gift of Jesus now to his sheep as stated in John 6:27, John 6:40 (cf. 1 John 2:25; 1 John 5:11). And they shall never perish Emphatic double negative with second aorist middle (intransitive) subjunctive of απολλυμι — apollumi to destroy. The sheep may feel secure (John 3:16; John 6:39; John 17:12; John 18:9). And no one shall snatch them out of my hand Jesus had promised this security in Galilee (John 6:37, John 6:39). No wolf, no thief, no bandit, no hireling, no demon, not even the devil can pluck the sheep out of my hand. Cf. Colossians 3:3 (Your life is hid together with Christ in God). [source]
John 1:14 Of the only begotten of the Father [μονογενοῦς παρὰ πατρὸς]
Rev., “from the Father.” The glory was like, corresponds in nature to, the glory of an only Son sent from a Father. It was the glory of one who partook of His divine Father's essence; on whom the Father's love was visibly lavished, and who represented the Father as His ambassador. The word μονογενής , only begotten (De Wette and Westcott, “only born ”) is used in the New Testament of a human relationship (Luke 7:12; Luke 8:42; Luke 9:38). In the Septuagint it answers to darling, Hebrew, only one, in Psalm href="/desk/?q=ps+22:20&sr=1">Psalm 22:20; and to desolate in Psalm href="/desk/?q=ps+25:16&sr=1">Psalm 25:16. With the exception of the passages cited above, and Hebrews 11:17, it occurs in the New Testament only in the writings of John, and is used only of Christ. With this word should be compared Paul's πρωτότοκος , first born (Romans 8:29; Colossians 1:15, Colossians 1:18), which occurs but once in John (Revelation 1:5), and in Hebrews 1:6; Hebrews 11:28; Hebrews 12:23. John's word marks the relation to the Father as unique, stating the fact in itself. Paul's word places the eternal Son in relation to the universe. Paul's word emphasizes His existence before created things; John's His distinctness from created things. Μονογενής distinguishes between Christ as the only Son, and the many children ( τέκνα ) of God; and further, in that the only Son did not become ( γενέσθαι ) such by receiving power, by adoption, or by moral generation, but was ( ἦν ) such in the beginning with God. The fact set forth does not belong to the sphere of His incarnation, but of His eternal being. The statement is anthropomorphic, and therefore cannot fully express the metaphysical relation. Of the Father is properly rendered by Rev., “from the Father,” thus giving the force of παρά (see on from God, John 1:6). The preposition does not express the idea of generation, which would be given by ἐκ or by the simple genitive, but of mission - sent from the Father, as John from God (see John 6:46; John 7:29; John 16:27; John 17:8). The correlative of this is John 1:18, “who is in the bosom ( εἰς τὸν κόλπον ) of the Father;” literally, “into the bosom,” the preposition εἰς signifying who has gone into and is there; thus viewing the Son as having returned to the Father (but see on John 1:18). [source]
John 2:13 The passover of the Jews [το πασχα των Ιουδαιων]
The Synoptics do not give “of the Jews,” but John is writing after the destruction of the temple and for Gentile readers. John mentions the passovers in Christ‘s ministry outside of the one when Christ was crucified, this one and one in John 6:4. There may be another (John 5:1), but we do not know. But for John we should not know that Christ‘s ministry was much over a year in length. [source]
John 5:1 After these things [μετα ταυτα]
John is fond of this vague phrase (John 3:22; John 6:1). He does not mean that this incident follows immediately. He is supplementing the Synoptic Gospels and does not attempt a full story of the work of Jesus. Some scholars needlessly put chapter 5 after chapter 6 because in chapter 6 Jesus is in Galilee as at the end of chapter 4. But surely it is not incongruous to think of Jesus making a visit to Jerusalem before the events in chapter 6 which undoubtedly come within a year of the end (John 6:4). A feast of the Jews Some manuscripts have the article Went up Second aorist active indicative of αναβαινω — anabainō It was up towards Jerusalem from every direction save from Hebron. [source]
John 6:10 Sit down [αναπεσειν]
Literally, “fall back,” lie down, recline. Second aorist active infinitive of αναπιπτω — anapiptō Much grass Old word for pasture, green grass (Mark 6:39) or hay (1 Corinthians 3:12). It was spring (John 6:4) and plenty of green grass on the hillside. The men Word for men as distinct from women, expressly stated in Matthew 14:21. In number Adverbial accusative (of general reference). About General estimate, though they were arranged in orderly groups by hundreds and fifties, “in ranks” like “garden beds” (πρασιαι — prasiai Mark 6:40). [source]
John 1:18 No man hath seen God at any time [τεον ουδεις εωρακεν πωποτε]
“God no one has ever seen.” Perfect active indicative of οραω — horaō Seen with the human physical eye, John means. God is invisible (Exodus 33:20; Deuteronomy 4:12). Paul calls God αορατος — aoratos (Colossians 1:15; 1 Timothy 1:17). John repeats the idea in John 5:37; John 6:46. And yet in John 14:7 Jesus claims that the one who sees him has seen the Father as here. The only begotten Son This is the reading of the Textus Receptus and is intelligible after ως μονογενους παρα πατρος — hōs monogenous para patros in John 1:14. But the best old Greek manuscripts (Aleph B C L) read μονογενης τεος — monogenēs theos (God only begotten) which is undoubtedly the true text. Probably some scribe changed it to ο μονογενης υιος — ho monogenēs huios to obviate the blunt statement of the deity of Christ and to make it like John 3:16. But there is an inner harmony in the reading of the old uncials. The Logos is plainly called τεος — theos in John 1:1. The Incarnation is stated in John 1:14, where he is also termed μονογενης — monogenēs He was that before the Incarnation. So he is “God only begotten,” “the Eternal Generation of the Son” of Origen‘s phrase. Which is in the bosom of the Father The eternal relation of the Son with the Father like προς τον τεον — pros ton theon in John 1:1. In John 3:13 there is some evidence for ο ων εν τωι ουρανωι — ho ōn en tōi ouranōi used by Christ of himself while still on earth. The mystic sense here is that the Son is qualified to reveal the Father as Logos (both the Father in Idea and Expression) by reason of the continual fellowship with the Father. He Emphatic pronoun referring to the Son. Hath declared him First aorist (effective) middle indicative of εχηγεομαι — exēgeomai old verb to lead out, to draw out in narrative, to recount. Here only in John, though once in Luke‘s Gospel (Luke 24:35) and four times in Acts (Acts 10:8; Acts 15:12, Acts 15:14; Acts 21:19). This word fitly closes the Prologue in which the Logos is pictured in marvellous fashion as the Word of God in human flesh, the Son of God with the Glory of God in him, showing men who God is and what he is. [source]
John 6:33 The bread of God [ο αρτος του τεου]
All bread is of God (Matthew 6:11). The manna came down from heaven (Numbers 11:9) as does this bread Refers to the bread Bernard notes that this phrase (coming down) is used seven times in this discourse (John 6:33, John 6:38, John 6:41, John 6:42, John 6:50, John 6:51, John 6:58). Giveth life Chrysostom observes that the manna gave nourishment This is a most astounding statement to the crowd. [source]
John 6:43 Murmur not [μη γογγυζετε]
Prohibition with μη — mē and the present active imperative, “stop murmuring” (the very word of John 6:41). There was a rising tide of protest. [source]
John 6:53 Except ye eat [εαν μη παγητε]
Negative condition of third class with second aorist active subjunctive of εστιω — esthiō Jesus repeats the statement in John 6:50, John 6:51. Note change of μου — mou (my) in John 6:51 to του υιου του αντρωπου — tou huiou tou anthrōpou with same idea. And drink his blood Same condition with second aorist active subjunctive of πινω — pinō This addition makes the demand of Jesus seem to these Jews more impossible than before if taken in a baldly literal sense. The only possible meaning is the spiritual appropriation of Jesus Christ by faith (John 6:47), for “ye have not life in yourselves” Life is found only in Christ. [source]
John 6:61 Knowing in himself [ειδως εν εαυτωι]
Second perfect active participle of οιδα — oida See John 2:25 for this supernatural insight into men‘s minds. Murmured Present active indicative retained in indirect discourse. See John 6:41 for γογγυζω — gogguzō At this “Concerning this word.” Cause to stumble Common Synoptic verb from σκανδαλον — skandalon for which see Matthew 5:29. In John again only in John 16:1. [source]
John 6:65 Except it be given him of the Father [εαν μη ηι δεδομενον αυτωι εκ του πατρος]
Condition of third class with εαν μη — ean mē and periphrastic perfect passive subjunctive of διδωμι — didōmi Precisely the same point as in John 6:44 where we have ελκυσηι — helkusēi instead of ηι δεδομενον — ēi dedomenon The impulse to faith comes from God. Jesus does not expect all to believe and seems to imply that Judas did not truly believe. [source]
John 10:32 From the Father [εκ του πατρος]
Proceeding out of the Father as in John 6:65; John 16:28 (cf. John 7:17; John 8:42, John 8:47) rather than παρα — para as in John 1:14; John 6:46; John 7:29; John 17:7. For which of those works Literally, “For what kind of work of them” (referring to the “many good works” πολλα εργα καλα — polla erga kala). Noble and beautiful deeds Jesus had done in Jerusalem like healing the impotent man (chapter 5) and the blind man (chapter 9). Ποιον — Poion is a qualitative interrogative pronoun pointing to καλα — kala (good). Do ye stone me Conative present active indicative, “are ye trying to stone me.” They had the stones in their hands stretched back to fling at him, a threatening attitude. [source]
John 12:9 The common people [ο οχλος πολυς]
This is the right reading with the article ο — ho literally, “the people much or in large numbers.” One is reminded of the French idiom. Gildersleeve (Syntax, p. 284) gives a few rare examples of the idiom ο ανηρ αγατος — ho anēr agathos Westcott suggests that οχλος πολυς — ochlos polus came to be regarded as a compound noun. This is the usual order in the N.T. rather than πολυς οχλος — polus ochlos (Robertson, Grammar, p. 774). Mark 12:37 has ο πολυς οχλος — ho polus ochlos Moulton (Proleg., p. 84) terms ο οχλος πολυς — ho ochlos polus here and in John 12:12 “a curious misplacement of the article.” John‘s use of οχλος — ochlos is usually the common crowd as “riff-raff.” That he was Present active indicative retained in indirect discourse after the secondary tense These “Jews” are not all hostile to Jesus as in John 5:10; John 6:41, etc., but included some who were friendly (John 12:11). But that they might see Lazarus also Purpose clause with ινα — hina and second aorist active subjunctive of οραω — horaō Motive enough to gather a great crowd, to see one raised from the dead (cf. John 12:1 for the same phrase, “whom he had raised from the dead”). Some of the very witnesses of the raising of Lazarus will bear witness later (John 12:17). It was a tense situation. [source]
John 12:32 And I, if I be lifted from the earth [καγω αν υπσωτω εκ της γης]
Note proleptic position of εγω — egō (I). Condition of third class (undetermined with prospect) with αν — an (= εαν — ean here) with first aorist passive subjunctive of υπσοω — hupsoō the verb used in John 3:14 of the brazen serpent and of the Cross of Christ as here and also in John 8:28. Westcott again presses εκ — ek instead of απο — apo to make it refer to the ascension rather than to the Cross, a wrong interpretation surely. Will draw all men unto myself Future active of ελκυω — helkuō late form of ελκω — helkō to draw, to attract. Jesus had already used this verb of the Father‘s drawing power (John 6:44). The magnetism of the Cross is now known of all men, however little they understand the mystery of the Cross. By “all men” (παντας — pantas) Jesus does not mean every individual man, for some, as Simeon said (Luke 2:34) are repelled by Christ, but this is the way that Greeks (John 12:22) can and will come to Christ, by the way of the Cross, the only way to the Father (John 14:6). [source]
John 4:23 And now is [και νυν εστιν]
See this same phrase in John 5:25. This item could not be added in John 4:21 for local worship was not abolished, but spiritual independence of place was called for at once. So contrast John 5:25, John 5:28; John 16:25, John 16:32. The true worshippers See John 1:9 for αλητινος — alēthinos (genuine). Προσκυνητης — Proskunētēs is a late word from προσκυνεω — proskuneō to bow the knee, to worship, occurs here only in N.T., but is found in one pre-Christian inscription (Deissmann, Light, etc., p. 101) and in one of the 3rd century a.d. (Moulton & Milligan, Vocabulary). In spirit and truth This is what matters, not where, but how (in reality, in the spirit of man, the highest part of man, and so in truth). All this is according to the Holy Spirit (Romans 8:5) who is the Spirit of truth (John 16:13). Here Jesus has said the final word on worship, one needed today. Seeketh The Father has revealed himself in the Son who is the truth (John 14:6, John 14:9). It does matter whether we have a true conception of God whom we worship. To be his worshippers Rather, “seeks such as those who worship him” (predicate accusative articular participle in apposition with τοιουτους — toioutous (such). John pictures the Father as seeking worshippers, a doctrine running all through the Gospel (John 3:16; John 6:44; John 15:16; 1 John 4:10). [source]
John 7:16 Mine [εμη]
Possessive pronoun, “not mine in origin.” Jesus denies that he is self-taught, though not a schoolman. But his that sent me Genitive case of the articular participle (first aorist active of πεμπω — pempō). His teaching is not self-originated nor is it the product of the schools (see the Talmud in contrast with the New Testament). Jesus often in John uses this idiom of “the one who sent me” of the Father (John 4:34; John 5:23, John 5:24, John 5:30, John 5:37; John 6:38-40, John 6:44; John 7:16, John 7:18, John 7:28, etc.). The bold claim is here made by Jesus that his teaching is superior in character and source to that of the rabbis. [source]
John 5:37 He hath borne witness [εκεινος μεμαρτυρηκεν]
Εκεινος — Ekeinos (that one; cf. John 5:35, John 5:38), not αυτος — autos Perfect active indicative of μαρτυρεω — martureō the direct witness of the Father, besides the indirect witness of the works. Jesus is not speaking of the voice of the Father at his baptism (Mark 1:11), the transfiguration (Mark 9:7), nor even at the time of the visit of the Greeks (John 12:28). This last voice was heard by many who thought it was thunder or an angel. The language of Jesus refers to the witness of the Father in the heart of the believers as is made plain in 1 John 5:9, 1 John 5:10. God‘s witness does not come by audible “voice” Cf. John 1:18; John 6:46; 1 John 4:12. Ακηκοατε — Akēkoate is perfect active indicative of ακουω — akouō to hear, and εωρακατε — heōrakate is perfect active indicative of οραω — horaō to see. It is a permanent state of failure to hear and see God. The experience of Jacob in Peniel (Genesis 32:30) was unusual, but Jesus will say that those who have seen him have seen the Father (John 14:9), but here he means the Father‘s “voice” and “form” as distinct from the Son. [source]
John 6:1 After these things [μετα ταυτα]
A common, but indefinite, note of time in John (John 3:22; John 5:1; John 6:1; John 7:1). The phrase does not mean immediate sequence of events. As a matter of fact, a whole year may intervene between the events of chapter 5 in Jerusalem and those in chapter 6 in Galilee. There is no sufficient reason for believing that chapter 6 originally preceded chapter 5. The feeding of the five thousand is the only event before the last visit to Jerusalem recorded in all Four Gospels (Mark 6:30-44; Matthew 14:13-21; Luke 9:10-17; John 6:1-13). The disciples have returned from the tour of Galilee and report to Jesus. It was the passover time (John 6:4) just a year before the end. To the other side of the Sea of Galilee The name given in Mark and Matthew. It is called Gennesaret in Luke 5:1 and “Sea of Tiberias” in John 21:1. Here “of Tiberias” (της Τιβεριαδος — tēs Tiberiados) is added as further description. Herod Antipas a.d. 22 built Tiberias to the west of the Sea of Galilee and made it his capital. See John 6:23 for this city. Luke (Luke 9:10) explains that it was the eastern Bethsaida (Julias) to which Jesus took the disciples, not the western Bethsaida of Mark 6:45 in Galilee. [source]
John 6:35 I am the bread of life [Εγω ειμι ο αρτος της ζωης]
This sublime sentence was startling in the extreme to the crowd. Philo does compare the manna to the τειος λογος — theios logos in an allegorical sense, but this language is far removed from Philo‘s vagueness. In the Synoptics (Mark 14:22; Matthew 26:26; Luke 22:19) Jesus uses bread He is the bread of life in two senses: it has life in itself, the living bread (John 6:51), and it gives life to others like the water of life, the tree of life. John often has Jesus saying “I am” As also in John 6:41, John 6:48, John 6:51; John 8:12; John 10:7, John 10:9, John 10:11, John 10:14; John 11:25; John 14:6; John 15:1, John 15:5. He that cometh to me The first act of the soul in approaching Jesus. See also John 6:37. Shall not hunger Strong double negative ου με — ou me with first aorist (ingressive) active subjunctive, “shall not become hungry.” He that believeth on me The continuous relation of trust after coming like πιστευητε — pisteuēte (present tense) in John 6:29. See both verbs used together also in John 7:37. Shall never thirst So the old MSS. the future active indicative instead of the aorist subjunctive as above, an even stronger form of negation with πωποτε — pōpote (John 1:18) added. [source]
John 6:39 That of all that which [ινα παν ο]
Literally, “That all which” (see John 6:37 for παν ο — pan ho), but there is a sharp anacoluthon with παν — pān left as nominativus pendens. I should lose nothing Construed with ινα — hina “that I shall not lose anything of it.” Απολεσω — Apolesō from απολλυμι — apollumi can be either future active indicative or first aorist active subjunctive as is true also of αναστησω — anastēsō (from ανιστημι — anistēmi), “I shall raise up.” At the last day Locative case without εν — en Only in John, but four times here (John 6:39, John 6:40, John 6:44, John 6:54) “with the majesty of a solemn refrain.” In John 7:37 it is the last day of the feast of tabernacles, but in John 11:24; John 12:48 of the day of judgment as here. Christ is the Agent of the general resurrection in John 5:28 as in 1 Corinthians 15:22 while here only the resurrection of the righteous is mentioned. [source]
John 6:51 The living bread [ο αρτος ο ζων]
“The bread the living.” Repetition of the claim in John 6:35, John 6:41, John 6:48, but with a slight change from ζωης — zōēs to ζων — zōn (present active participle of ζαω — zaō). It is alive and can give life. See John 4:10 for living water. In Revelation 1:17 Jesus calls himself the Living One For ever Eternally like αιωνιον — aiōnion with ζωην — zōēn in John 6:47. I shall give Emphasis on εγω — egō (I). Superior so to Moses. Is my flesh See note on John 1:14 for σαρχ — sarx the Incarnation. This new idea creates far more difficulty to the hearers who cannot grasp Christ‘s idea of self-sacrifice. For the life of the world Over, in behalf of, υπερ — huper means, and in some connexions instead of as in John 11:50. See John 1:30 for the Baptist‘s picture of Christ as the Lamb of God that taketh away the sin of the world. See also John 3:17; John 4:42; 1 John 3:16; Matthew 20:28; Galatians 3:13; 2 Corinthians 5:14.; Romans 5:8. Jesus has here presented to this Galilean multitude the central fact of his atoning death for the spiritual life of the world. [source]
John 6:52 Strove [εμαχοντο]
Imperfect (inchoative) middle of μαχομαι — machomai to fight in armed combat (Acts 7:26), then to wage a war of words as here and 2 Timothy 2:24. They were already murmuring (John 6:41), now they began bitter strife with one another over the last words of Jesus (John 6:43-51), some probably seeing a spiritual meaning in them. There was division of opinion about Jesus in Jerusalem also later (John 7:12, John 7:40; John 9:16; John 10:19). How can? The very idiom used by Nicodemus in John 3:4, John 3:9. Here scornful disbelief. This man Contemptuous use pictured in John 6:42. His flesh to eat As if we were cannibals! Some MSS. do not have αυτου — autou but the meaning is clear. The mystical appropriation of Christ by the believer (Galatians 2:20; Ephesians 3:17) they could not comprehend, though some apparently were against this literal interpretation of “flesh” (σαρχ — sarx). [source]
John 6:54 He that eateth [ο τρωγων]
Present active participle for continual or habitual eating like πιστευετε — pisteuete in John 6:29. The verb τρωγω — trōgō is an old one for eating fruit or vegetables and the feeding of animals. In the N.T. it occurs only in John 6:54, John 6:56, John 6:58; John 13:18; Matthew 24:38. Elsewhere in the Gospels always εστιω — esthiō or επαγον — ephagon (defective verb with εστιω — esthiō). No distinction is made here between επαγον — ephagon (John 6:48, John 6:50, John 6:52, John 6:53, John 6:58) and τρωγω — trōgō (John 6:54, John 6:56, John 6:57, John 6:58). Some men understand Jesus here to be speaking of the Lord‘s Supper by prophetic forecast or rather they think that John has put into the mouth of Jesus the sacramental conception of Christianity by making participation in the bread and wine the means of securing eternal life. To me that is a violent misinterpretation of the Gospel and an utter misrepresentation of Christ. It is a grossly literal interpretation of the mystical symbolism of the language of Jesus which these Jews also misunderstood. Christ uses bold imagery to picture spiritual appropriation of himself who is to give his life-blood for the life of the world (John 6:51). It would have been hopeless confusion for these Jews if Jesus had used the symbolism of the Lord‘s Supper. It would be real dishonesty for John to use this discourse as a propaganda for sacramentalism. The language of Jesus can only have a spiritual meaning as he unfolds himself as the true manna. [source]
John 7:11 The Jews [οι Ιουδαιοι]
The hostile leaders in Jerusalem, not the Galilean crowds (John 7:12) nor the populace in Jerusalem (John 7:25). Sought Imperfect active of ζητεω — zēteō “were seeking,” picture of the attitude of the Jewish leaders toward Jesus who had not yet appeared in public at the feast. In fact he had avoided Jerusalem since the collision in chapter 5. The leaders clearly wished to attack him. Where is he? “Where is that one? (emphatic use of εκεινος — ekeinos as in John 1:8; John 9:12). Jesus had been at two feasts during his ministry (passover in John 2:12.; possibly another passover in John 5:1), but he had avoided the preceding passover (John 6:4; John 7:1). The leaders in Jerusalem had kept in touch with Christ‘s work in Galilee. They anticipate a crisis in Jerusalem. [source]
John 7:12 Much murmuring [γογγυσμος πολυς]
This Ionic onomatopoetic word is from γογγυζω — gogguzō for which verb see John 6:41, John 6:61; John 7:32, for secret displeasure (Acts 6:1) or querulous discontent (Philemon 2:14). Among the multitudes “The multitudes” literally, plural here only in John. These different groups were visitors from Galilee and elsewhere and were divided in their opinion of Jesus as the Galileans had already become (John 6:66). A good man Pure in motive. See Mark 10:17.; Romans 5:7 (absolute sense of God). Superior to δικαιος — dikaios Jesus had champions in these scattered groups in the temple courts. Not so, but he leadeth the multitude astray Sharp clash in the crowd. Present active indicative of εκεινος ο πλανος — planaō to go astray (Matthew 18:12.), like our “planets,” to lead others astray (Matthew 24:4, Matthew 24:5, Matthew 24:11, etc.). In the end the rulers will call Jesus “that deceiver” (ekeinos ho planos Matthew 27:63). The Jewish leaders have a following among the crowds as is seen (John 7:31.). [source]
John 7:27 Howbeit [αλλα]
Clearly adversative here. This man Possibly contemptuous use of ουτος — houtos as may be true in John 7:25, John 7:26. Whence he is The Galilean Jews knew the family of Jesus (John 6:42), but they knew Jesus only as from Nazareth, not as born in Bethlehem (John 7:42). When the Christ cometh Prolepsis of ο Χριστος — ho Christos and indefinite temporal clause with οταν — hotan and the present middle subjunctive ερχηται — erchētai rather than the more usual second aorist active ελτηι — elthēi as in John 7:31, a trifle more picturesque. This is a piece of popular theology. “Three things come wholly unexpected - Messiah, a godsend, and a scorpion” (Sanhedrin 97a). The rulers knew the birthplace to be Bethlehem (John 7:42; Matthew 2:5.), but some even expected the Messiah to drop suddenly from the skies as Satan proposed to Jesus to fall down from the pinnacle of the temple. The Jews generally expected a sudden emergence of the Messiah from concealment with an anointing by Elijah (Apoc. of Bar. XXIX. 3; 2Esdr. 7:28; 13:32; Justin Martyr, Tryph. 110). [source]
Romans 1:7 Beloved of God [αγαπητοις τεου]
Ablative case of τεου — theou after the verbal adjective like διδακτοι τεου — didaktoi theou (taught of God) in John 6:45 (Robertson, Grammar, p. 516). From God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ (απο τεου πατρος ημων και κυριου Ιησου Χριστου — apo theou patros hēmōn kai kuriou Iēsou Christou). “St. Paul, if not formally enunciating a doctrine of the Divinity of Christ, held a view which cannot really be distinguished from it” (Sanday and Headlam). Paul‘s theology is clearly seen in the terms used in Romans 1:1-7. [source]
1 Corinthians 10:10 Murmur [γογγύζετε]
See on John 6:41. [source]
1 Corinthians 2:13 Not in words which man‘s wisdom teacheth [ουκ εν διδακτοις αντρωπινης σοπιας λογοις]
Literally, “not in words taught by human wisdom.” The verbal adjective διδακτοις — didaktois (from διδασκω — didaskō to teach) is here passive in idea and is followed by the ablative case of origin or source as in John 6:45, εσονται παντες διδακτοι τεου — esontai pantes didaktoi theou (from Isaiah 54:13), “They shall all be taught by God.” The ablative in Greek, as is well known, has the same form as the genitive, though quite different in idea (Robertson, Grammar, p. 516). So then Paul claims the help of the Holy Spirit in the utterance Clearly Paul means that the help of the Holy Spirit in the utterance of the revelation extends to the words. No theory of inspiration is here stated, but it is not mere human wisdom. Paul‘s own Epistles bear eloquent witness to the lofty claim here made. They remain today after nearly nineteen centuries throbbing with the power of the Spirit of God, dynamic with life for the problems of today as when Paul wrote them for the needs of the believers in his time, the greatest epistles of all time, surcharged with the energy of God. Comparing spiritual things with spiritual (πνευματικοις πνευματικα συνκρινοντες — pneumatikois pneumatika sunkrinontes). Each of these words is in dispute. The verb συνκρινω — sunkrinō originally meant to combine, to join together fitly. In the lxx it means to interpret dreams (Genesis 40:8, 22; 41:12) possibly by comparison. In the later Greek it may mean to compare as in 2 Corinthians 10:12. In the papyri Moulton and Milligan (Vocabulary) give it only for “decide,” probably after comparing. But “comparing,” in spite of the translations, does not suit well here. So it is best to follow the original meaning to combine as do Lightfoot and Ellicott. But what gender is πνευματικοις — pneumatikois Is it masculine or neuter like πνευματικα — pneumatika If masculine, the idea would be “interpreting (like lxx) spiritual truths to spiritual persons” or “matching spiritual truths with spiritual persons.” This is a possible rendering and makes good sense in harmony with 1 Corinthians 2:14. If πνευματικοις — pneumatikois be taken as neuter plural (associative instrumental case after συν — sun in συνκρινοντες — sunkrinontes), the idea most naturally would be, “combining spiritual ideas (πνευματικα — pneumatika) with spiritual words” (πνευματικοις — pneumatikois). This again makes good sense in harmony with the first part of 1 Corinthians 2:13. On the whole this is the most natural way to take it, though various other possibilities exist. [source]
Philippians 2:14 Murmurings [γογγυσμῶν]
See on Judges 1:16; see on John 6:41. Compare 1 Corinthians 10:10. [source]
1 Thessalonians 4:16 Shall descend from heaven []
Used nowhere else of Christ's second coming. Frequently in the Fourth Gospel, of Christ's descent to earth as man. See John 3:13; John 6:33, John 6:38, John 6:41, etc. In Ephesians 4:9, of his descent by the Spirit in order to endow the church. [source]
1 Thessalonians 4:9 Are taught by God [τεοδιδακτοι εστε]
Only here and ecclesiastical writers. Passive verbal adjective in τος — ̇tos from διδασκω — didaskō as if τεο — theȯ in ablative case like διδακτοι τεου — didaktoi theou (John 6:45). To love one another (εις το αγαπαιν αλληλους — eis to agapāin allēlous). Another example of εις το — eis to and the infinitive. Only those taught of God keep on loving one another, love neighbours and even enemies as Jesus taught (Matthew 5:44). Note the use of αγαπαω — agapaō not πιλεω — phileō f0). [source]
1 Thessalonians 4:14 Them also which sleep in Jesus will God bring with him [καὶ ὁ θεὸς τοὺς κοιμηθέντας διὰ τοῦ Ἱησοῦ ἄξει σὺν αὐτῷ]
(1) Which sleep should be, which have been laid asleep or have fallen asleep, giving the force of the passive. (2) Διὰ τοῦ Ἱησοῦ can by no possibility be rendered in Jesus, which would be ἐν Ἱησοῦ :see 1 Corinthians 15:18; 1 Thessalonians 4:16. It must mean through or by means of Jesus. -DIVIDER-
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(3) The attempt to construe διὰ τοῦ Ἱησοῦ with τοὺς κοιμηθέντας thosewho have fallen asleep by means of Jesus, gives an awkward and forced interpretation. It has been explained by supposing a reference to martyrs who have died by Jesus; because of their faith in him. In that case we should expect the accusative, διὰ τὸν Ἱησοῦν onaccount of or for the sake of Jesus. Moreover Paul is not accentuating that idea. Κοιμηθέντας would be universally understood by the church as referring to the death of Christians, so that by Jesus would be superfluous. -DIVIDER-
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(4) Διὰ τοῦ Ἱησοῦ should be construed with ἄξει willbring. Rend. the whole: them also that are fallen asleep will God through Jesus bring with him. Jesus is thus represented as the agent of the resurrection. See 1 Corinthians 15:21; John 5:28; John 6:39, John 6:44, John 6:54. Bring ( ἄξει ) is used instead of ἐγειρεῖ shallraise up, because the thought of separation was prominent in the minds of the Thessalonians. -DIVIDER-
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[source]

2 Thessalonians 1:9 Glory of his power [δόξης τῆς ἰσχύος αὐτοῦ]
For glory see on 1 Thessalonians 2:12. Ἱσχὺς powernot often in Paul. It is indwelling power put forth or embodied, either aggressively or as an obstacle to resistance: physical power organized or working under individual direction. An army and a fortress are both ἰσχυρὸς. The power inhering in the magistrate, which is put forth in laws or judicial decisions, is ἰσχὺς , and makes the edicts ἰσχυρὰ validand hard to resist. Δύναμις is the indwelling power which comes to manifestation in ἰσχὺς The precise phrase used here does not appear elsewhere in N.T. In lxx, Isaiah 2:10, Isaiah 2:19, Isaiah 2:21. The power ( δύναμις ) and glory of God are associated in Matthew 24:30; Mark 13:26; Luke 21:27; Revelation 4:11; Revelation 19:1. Comp. κράτος τῆς δόξης αὐτοῦ strengthof his glory, Colossians 1:11. Additional Note on ὄλεθρον αἰώνιον eternaldestruction, 2 Thessalonians 1:9 Ἁιών transliterated eon is a period of time of longer or shorter duration, having a beginning and an end, and complete in itself. Aristotle ( περὶ οὐρανοῦ , i. 9,15) says: “The period which includes the whole time of each one's life is called the eon of each one.” Hence it often means the life of a man, as in Homer, where one's life ( αἰών ) is said to leave him or to consume away (Il. v. 685; Od. v. 160). It is not, however, limited to human life; it signifies any period in the course of events, as the period or age before Christ; the period of the millennium; the mytho-logical period before the beginnings of history. The word has not “a stationary and mechanical value” (De Quincey). It does not mean a period of a fixed length for all cases. There are as many eons as entities, the respective durations of which are fixed by the normal conditions of the several entities. There is one eon of a human life, another of the life of a nation, another of a crow's life, another of an oak's life. The length of the eon depends on the subject to which it is attached. It is sometimes translated world; world representing a period or a series of periods of time. See Matthew 12:32; Matthew 13:40, Matthew 13:49; Luke 1:70; 1 Corinthians 1:20; 1 Corinthians 2:6; Ephesians 1:21. Similarly οἱ αἰῶνες theworlds, the universe, the aggregate of the ages or periods, and their contents which are included in the duration of the world. 1 Corinthians 2:7; 1 Corinthians 10:11; Hebrews 1:2; Hebrews 9:26; Hebrews 11:3. -DIVIDER-
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The word always carries the notion of time, and not of eternity. It always means a period of time. Otherwise it would be impossible to account for the plural, or for such qualifying expressions as this age, or the age to come. It does not mean something endless or everlasting. To deduce that meaning from its relation to ἀεί is absurd; for, apart from the fact that the meaning of a word is not definitely fixed by its derivation, ἀεί does not signify endless duration. When the writer of the Pastoral Epistles quotes the saying that the Cretans are always ( ἀεί ) liars (Titus 1:12), he surely does not mean that the Cretans will go on lying to all eternity. See also Acts 7:51; 2 Corinthians 4:11; 2 Corinthians 6:10; Hebrews 3:10; 1 Peter 3:15. Ἁεί means habitually or continually within the limit of the subject's life. In our colloquial dialect everlastingly is used in the same way. “The boy is everlastingly tormenting me to buy him a drum.”-DIVIDER-
In the New Testament the history of the world is conceived as developed through a succession of eons. A series of such eons precedes the introduction of a new series inaugurated by the Christian dispensation, and the end of the world and the second coming of Christ are to mark the beginning of another series. See Ephesians 3:11. Paul contemplates eons before and after the Christian era. Ephesians 1:21; Ephesians 2:7; Ephesians 3:9, Ephesians 3:21; 1 Corinthians 10:11; comp. Hebrews 9:26. He includes the series of eons in one great eon, ὁ αἰὼν τῶν αἰώνων theeon of the eons (Ephesians 3:21); and the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews describes the throne of God as enduring unto the eon of the eons (Hebrews 1:8). The plural is also used, eons of the eons, signifying all the successive periods which make up the sum total of the ages collectively. Romans 16:27; Galatians 1:5; Philemon 4:20, etc. This plural phrase is applied by Paul to God only. -DIVIDER-
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The adjective αἰώνιος in like manner carries the idea of time. Neither the noun nor the adjective, in themselves, carry the sense of endless or everlasting. They may acquire that sense by their connotation, as, on the other hand, ἀΐ̀διος , which means everlasting, has its meaning limited to a given point of time in Judges 1:6. Ἁιώνιος means enduring through or pertaining to a period of time. Both the noun and the adjective are applied to limited periods. Thus the phrase εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα , habitually rendered forever, is often used of duration which is limited in the very nature of the case. See, for a few out of many instances, lxx, Exodus 21:6; Exodus 29:9; Exodus 32:13; Joshua 14:9; 1 Samuel 8:13; Leviticus 25:46; Deuteronomy 15:17; 1 Chronicles 28:4. See also Matthew 21:19; John 13:8; 1 Corinthians 8:13. The same is true of αἰώνιος . Out of 150 instances in lxx, four-fifths imply limited duration. For a few instances see Genesis 48:4; Numbers 10:8; Numbers 15:15; Proverbs 22:28; Jonah 2:6; Habakkuk 3:6; Isaiah 61:8. -DIVIDER-
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Words which are habitually applied to things temporal or material can not carry in themselves the sense of endlessness. Even when applied to God, we are not forced to render αἰώνιος everlastingOf course the life of God is endless; but the question is whether, in describing God as αἰώνιος , it was intended to describe the duration of his being, or whether some different and larger idea was not contemplated. That God lives longer than men, and lives on everlastingly, and has lived everlastingly, are, no doubt, great and significant facts; yet they are not the dominant or the most impressive facts in God's relations to time. God's eternity does not stand merely or chiefly for a scale of length. It is not primarily a mathematical but a moral fact. The relations of God to time include and imply far more than the bare fact of endless continuance. They carry with them the fact that God transcends time; works on different principles and on a vaster scale than the wisdom of time provides; oversteps the conditions and the motives of time; marshals the successive eons from a point outside of time, on lines which run out into his own measureless cycles, and for sublime moral ends which the creature of threescore and ten years cannot grasp and does not even suspect. -DIVIDER-
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There is a word for everlasting if that idea is demanded. That αἰώνιος occurs rarely in the New Testament and in lxx does not prove that its place was taken by αἰώνιος . It rather goes to show that less importance was attached to the bare idea of everlastingness than later theological thought has given it. Paul uses the word once, in Romans 1:20, where he speaks of “the everlasting power and divinity of God.” In Romans 16:26he speaks of the eternal God ( τοῦ αἰωνίου θεοῦ ); but that he does not mean the everlasting God is perfectly clear from the context. He has said that “the mystery” has been kept in silence in times eternal ( χρόνοις αἰωνίοις ), by which he does not mean everlasting times, but the successive eons which elapsed before Christ was proclaimed. God therefore is described as the God of the eons, the God who pervaded and controlled those periods before the incarnation. To the same effect is the title ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν αἰώνων theKing of the eons, applied to God in 1 Timothy 1:17; Revelation 15:3; comp. 2Timothy href="/desk/?q=2ti+1:9&sr=1">2 Timothy 1:9; Titus 1:2), cannot mean before everlasting times. To say that God bestowed grace on men, or promised them eternal life before endless times, would be absurd. The meaning is of old, as Luke 1:70. The grace and the promise were given in time, but far back in the ages, before the times of reckoning the eons. -DIVIDER-
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Ζωὴ αἰώνιος eternallife, which occurs 42 times in N.T., but not in lxx, is not endless life, but life pertaining to a certain age or eon, or continuing during that eon. I repeat, life may be endless. The life in union with Christ is endless, but the fact is not expressed by αἰώνιος . Κόλασις αἰώνιος , rendered everlasting punishment (Matthew 25:46), is the punishment peculiar to an eon other than that in which Christ is speaking. In some cases ζωὴ αἰώνιος does not refer specifically to the life beyond time, but rather to the eon or dispensation of Messiah which succeeds the legal dispensation. See Matthew 19:16; John 5:39. John says that ζωὴ αἰώνιος is the present possession of those who believe on the Son of God, John 3:36; John 5:24; John 6:47, John 6:64. The Father's commandment is ζωὴ αἰώσιος , John 12:50; to know the only true God and Jesus Christ is ζωὴ αἰώνιος , John 17:3. -DIVIDER-
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Bishop Westcott very justly says, commenting upon the terms used by John to describe life under different aspects: “In considering these phrases it is necessary to premise that in spiritual things we must guard against all conclusions which rest upon the notions of succession and duration. 'Eternal life' is that which St. Paul speaks of as ἡ ὄντως ζωὴ thelife which is life indeed, and ἡ ζωὴ τοῦ θεοῦ thelife of God. It is not an endless duration of being in time, but being of which time is not a measure. We have indeed no powers to grasp the idea except through forms and images of sense. These must be used, but we must not transfer them as realities to another order.”-DIVIDER-
Thus, while αἰώνιος carries the idea of time, though not of endlessness, there belongs to it also, more or less, a sense of quality. Its character is ethical rather than mathematical. The deepest significance of the life beyond time lies, not in endlessness, but in the moral quality of the eon into which the life passes. It is comparatively unimportant whether or not the rich fool, when his soul was required of him (Luke 12:20), entered upon a state that was endless. The principal, the tremendous fact, as Christ unmistakably puts it, was that, in the new eon, the motives, the aims, the conditions, the successes and awards of time counted for nothing. In time, his barns and their contents were everything; the soul was nothing. In the new life the soul was first and everything, and the barns and storehouses nothing. The bliss of the sanctified does not consist primarily in its endlessness, but in the nobler moral conditions of the new eon, - the years of the holy and eternal God. Duration is a secondary idea. When it enters it enters as an accompaniment and outgrowth of moral conditions. -DIVIDER-
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In the present passage it is urged that ὄλεθρον destructionpoints to an unchangeable, irremediable, and endless condition. If this be true, if ὄλεθρος isextinction, then the passage teaches the annihilation of the wicked, in which case the adjective αἰώνιος is superfluous, since extinction is final, and excludes the idea of duration. But ὄλεθρος does not always mean destruction or extinction. Take the kindred verb ἀπόλλυμι todestroy, put an end to, or in the middle voice, to be lost, to perish. Peter says, “the world being deluged with water, perished ” ( ἀπολοῦνται 2 Peter 3:6); but the world did not become extinct, it was renewed. In Hebrews 1:11, Hebrews 1:12quoted from Isaiah href="/desk/?q=isa+51:6&sr=1">Isaiah 51:6, Isaiah 51:16; Isaiah 65:17; Isaiah 66:22; 2 Peter 3:13; Revelation 21:1. Similarly, “the Son of man came to save that which was lost ” ( ἀπολωλός ), Luke 19:10. Jesus charged his apostles to go to the lost ( ἀπολωλότα ) sheep of the house of Israel, Matthew 10:6, comp. Matthew 15:24. “He that shall lose ( ἀπολέσῃ ) his life for my sake shall find it,” Matthew 16:25. Comp. Luke 15:6, Luke 15:9, Luke 15:32. -DIVIDER-
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In this passage the word destruction is qualified. It is “destruction from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of his power, “ at his second coming, in the new eon. In other words, it is the severance, at a given point of time, of those who obey not the gospel from the presence and the glory of Christ. Ἁιώνιος may therefore describe this severance as continuing during the millennial eon between Christ's coming and the final judgment; as being for the wicked prolonged throughout that eon and characteristic of it, or it may describe the severance as characterizing or enduring through a period or eon succeeding the final judgment, the extent of which period is not defined. In neither case is αἰώνιος to be interpreted as everlasting or endless.sa180 [source]

Hebrews 1:1 By the prophets [ἐν τοῖς προφήταις]
Rend. “in the prophets,” which does not mean in the collection of prophetic writings, as John 6:45; Acts 13:40, but rather in the prophets themselves as the vessels of divine inspiration. God spake in them and from them. Thus Philo; “The prophet is an interpreter, echoing from within ( ἔνδοθεν ) the sayings of God” (De Praemiis et Poenis, § 9) [source]
Hebrews 8:11 They shall not teach [ου μη διδαχωσιν]
Strong double negative See Luke 15:15; Luke 19:14. Know the Lord Second aorist active imperative of γινωσκω — ginōskō In the new covenant all will be taught of God (Isaiah 54:13; John 6:45), whereas under the old only the educated scribe could understand the minutiae of the law (Dods). See Paul‘s comparison in 2 Corinthians 3:7-18. Shall know Future perfect active, old form of οιδα — oida (note γινωσκω — ginōskō just before of recognizing God), one of the rare future perfects (cf. Hebrews 2:13, εσομαι πεποιτως — esomai pepoithōs). [source]
1 John 4:9 His only-begotten Son [τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ τὸν μονογενῆ]
Lit., His Son, the only-begotten (Son). A mode of expression common in John, enlarging upon the meaning of a noun by the addition of an adjective or a participle with the article. See 1 John 1:2; 1 John 2:7, 1 John 2:8, 1 John 2:25; 1 John 5:4; John 6:41, John 6:44, John 6:50, John 6:51; John 15:1, etc. On only-begotten, see on John 1:14. [source]
1 John 4:17 The day of judgment [τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῆς κρίσεως]
Lit., the day of judgment. The exact phrase occurs here only. Ἡμέρᾳ κρίσεως dayof judgment, without the articles, is found Matthew 10:15; Matthew 11:22, Matthew 11:24; Matthew 12:36; 2 Peter 2:9; 2 Peter 3:7. The day is called the great day of their wrath (Revelation 6:17); the day of wrath and of revelation of the righteous judgement of God (Romans 2:5); the day of visitation (1 Peter 2:12); the last day (John 6:39, John 6:40, John 6:44, John 6:54); that day (Matthew 7:22; Luke 6:23; Luke 10:12). The judgment is found Matthew 12:41, Matthew 12:42; Luke 10:14; Luke 11:31, Luke 11:32. [source]
1 John 1:5 We have heard of Him [ἀκηκόαμεν ἀπ ' αὐτοῦ]
A form of expression not found elsewhere in John, who commonly uses παρ ' αὐτοῦ . See on John 6:46. The phrase here points to the ultimate and not necessarily the immediate source of the message. Not only John, but others in earlier times had heard this message. Compare 1 Peter 1:10, 1 Peter 1:11. Ἁπό points to the source παρά to the giver. Thus, John 5:41, “ I receive not honor from ( παρά ) men.” They are not the bestowers of honor upon me.” John 5:44, “How can ye believe which receive honor from ( παρά ) one another;” the honor which men have to give, “and seek not the honor that cometh from ( παρά ) God;” the honor which God alone bestows. On the other hand, 1 John 3:22, “Whatsoever we ask we receive from ( ἀπό ) Him,” the ultimate source of our gifts. So Matthew 17:25: “Of ( ἀπό ) whom do the kings of the earth take custom - of ( ἀπό ) their own children or of ( ἀπό ) strangers?” What is the legitimate and ultimate source of revenue in states? [source]
2 John 1:3 From God - from Jesus Christ [παρὰ Θεοῦ - παρὰ Ἱησοῦ Χριστοῦ]
Note the repeated preposition, bringing out the twofold relation to the Father and Son. In the Pauline salutations ἀπό fromis invariably used with God, and never repeated with Jesus Christ. On the use of παρά fromsee on John 6:46; see on 1 John 1:5. [source]
Revelation 3:8 And [καὶ]
John's single copula instead of a particle of logical connection. See on John 1:10; see on John 6:46; see on 1 John 1:5; see on John 8:20. [source]
Revelation 1:9 Kingdom [βασιλείᾳ]
The present kingdom. Trench is wrong in saying that “while the tribulation is present the kingdom is only in hope.” On the contrary, it is the assurance of being now within the kingdom of Christ - under Christ's sovereignty, fighting the good fight under His leadership - which gives hope and courage and patience. The kingdom of God is a present energy, and it is a peculiality of John to treat the eternal life as already present. See John 3:36; John 5:24; John 6:47, John 6:54; 1 John 5:11. “In all these things we are abundantly the conquerors (Romans 8:37sqq.). This may go to explain the peculiar order of the three words; tribulation and kingdom, two apparently antithetic ideas, being joined, with a true insight into their relation, and patience being added as the element through which the tribulation is translated into sovereignty. The reference to the future glorious consummation of the kingdom need not be rejected. It is rather involved in the present kingdom. Patience, which links the life of tribulation with the sovereignty of Christ here upon earth, likewise links it with the consummation of Christ's kingdom in heaven. Through faith and patience the subjects of that kingdom inherit the promises. “Rightly he says first 'in the tribulation' and adds afterwards 'in the kingdom,' because, if we suffer together we shall also reign together” (Richard of St. Victor, cited by Trench). Compare Acts 14:22. [source]
Revelation 2:17 Of the hidden manna [τοῦ μάννα τοῦ κεκρυμμένου]
The allusion may be partly to the pot of manna which was laid up in the ark in the sanctuary. See Exodus 16:32-34; compare Hebrews 9:4. That the imagery of the ark was familiar to John appears from Revelation 11:19. This allusion however is indirect, for the manna laid up in the ark was not for food, but was a memorial of food once enjoyed. Two ideas seem to be combined in the figure: 1. Christ as the bread from heaven, the nourishment of the life of believers, the true manna, of which those who eat shall never die (John 6:31-43, John 6:48-51); hidden, in that He is withdrawn from sight, and the Christian's life is hid with Him in God (Colossians 3:3). 2. The satisfaction of the believer's desire when Christ shall be revealed. The hidden manna shall not remain for ever hidden. We shall see Christ as He is, and be like Him (1 John 3:2). Christ gives the manna in giving Himself “The seeing of Christ as He is, and, through this beatific vision, being made like to Him, is identical with the eating of the hidden manna, which shall, as it were, be then brought forth from the sanctuary, the holy of holies of God's immediate presence where it was withdrawn from sight so long, that all may partake of it; the glory of Christ, now shrouded and concealed, being then revealed to His people” (Trench). -DIVIDER-
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This is one of numerous illustrations of the dependence of Revelation upon Old Testament history and prophecy. “To such an extent is this the case,” says Professor Milligan, “that it may be doubted whether it contains a single figure not drawn from the Old Testament, or a single complete sentence not more or less built up of materials brought from the same source.” See, for instance, Balaam (Revelation 2:14); Jezebel (Revelation 2:20); Michael (Revelation 12:7, compare Daniel 10:13; Daniel 12:1); Abaddon (Revelation 9:11); Jerusalem, Mt. Zion, Babylon, the Euphrates, Sodom, Egypt (Revelation 21:2; Revelation 14:1; Revelation 16:19; Revelation 9:14; Revelation 11:8); Gog and Magog (Revelation 20:8, compare Revelation href="/desk/?q=re+2:7&sr=1">Revelation 2:7, Revelation 2:17, Revelation 2:27, Revelation 2:28). Heaven is described under the figure of the tabernacle in the wilderness (Revelation 11:1, Revelation 11:19; Revelation 6:9; Revelation 8:3; Revelation 11:19; Revelation 4:6). The song of the redeemed is the song of Moses (Revelation 15:3). The plagues of Egypt appear in the blood, fire, thunder, darkness and locusts (Revelation 8:1-13). “The great earthquake of chapter 6 is taken from Haggai; the sun becoming black as sackcloth of hair and the moon becoming blood (Revelation 8:1-13) from Joel: the stars of heaven falling, the fig-tree casting her untimely figs, the heavens departing as a scroll (Revelation 8:1-13) from Isaiah: the scorpions of chapter 9 from Ezekiel: the gathering of the vine of the earth (chapter 14) from Joel, and the treading of the wine-press in the same chapter from Isaiah.” So too the details of a single vision are gathered out of different prophets or different parts of the same prophet. For instance, the vision of the glorified Redeemer (Revelation 1:12-20). The golden candlesticks are from Exodus and Zechariah; the garment down to the foot from Exodus and Daniel; the golden girdle and the hairs like wool from Isaiah and Daniel; the feet like burnished brass, and the voice like the sound of many waters, from Ezekiel; the two-edged sword from Isaiah and Psalms; the countenance like the sun from Exodus; the falling of the seer as dead from Exodus, Isaiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel; the laying of Jesus' right hand on the seer from Daniel. -DIVIDER-
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“Not indeed that the writer binds himself to the Old Testament in a slavish spirit. He rather uses it with great freedom and independence, extending, intensifying, or transfiguring its descriptions at his pleasure. Yet the main source of his emblems cannot be mistaken. The sacred books of his people had been more than familiar to him. They had penetrated his whole being. They had lived within him as a germinating seed, capable of shooting up not only in the old forms, but in new forms of life and beauty. In the whole extent of sacred and religious literature there is to be found nowhere else such a perfect fusion of the revelation given to Israel with the mind of one who would either express Israel's ideas, or give utterance, by means of the symbols supplied by Israel's history, to the present and most elevated thoughts of the Christian faith “(this note is condensed from Professor Milligan's “Baird Lectures on the Revelation of St. John”).A white stone ( ψῆφον λευκὴν )See on counteth, Luke 14:28; and see on white, Luke 9:29. The foundation of the figure is not to be sought in Gentile but in Jewish customs. “White is everywhere the color and livery of heaven” (Trench). See Revelation 1:14; Revelation 3:5; Revelation 7:9; Revelation 14:14; Revelation 19:8, Revelation 19:11, Revelation 19:14; Revelation 20:11. It is the bright, glistering white. Compare Matthew 28:3; Luke 24:4; John 20:12; Revelation 20:11; Daniel 7:9. It is impossible to fix the meaning of the symbol with any certainty. The following are some of the principal views: The Urim and Thummim concealed within the High-Priest's breastplate of judgment. This is advocated by Trench, who supposes that the Urim was a peculiarly rare stone, possibly the diamond, and engraven with the ineffable name of God. The new name he regards as the new name of God or of Christ (Revelation 3:12); some revelation of the glory of God which can be communicated to His people only in the higher state of being, and which they only can understand who have actually received. -DIVIDER-
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Professor Milligan supposes an allusion to the plate of gold worn on the High-Priest's forehead, and inscribed with the words “Holiness to the Lord,” but, somewhat strangely, runs the figure into the stone or pebble used in voting, and regards the white stone as carrying the idea of the believer's acquittal at the hands of God. -DIVIDER-
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Dean Plumptre sees in the stone the signet by which, in virtue of its form or of the characters inscribed on it, he who possessed it could claim from the friend who gave it, at any distance of time, a frank and hearty welcome; and adds to this an allusion to the custom of presenting such a token, with the guest's name upon it, of admission to the feast given to those who were invited to partake within the temple precincts - a feast which consisted wholly or in part of sacrificial meats. -DIVIDER-
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Others, regarding the connection of the stone with the manna, refer to the use of the lot cast among the priests in order to determine which one should offer the sacrifice. -DIVIDER-
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Others, to the writing of a candidate's name at an election by ballot upon a stone or bean. -DIVIDER-
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In short, the commentators are utterly divided, and the true interpretation remains a matter of conjecture.A new nameSome explain the new name of God or of Christ (compare Revelation 3:12); others, of the recipient's own name. “A new name however, a revelation of his everlasting title as a son of God to glory in Christ, but consisting of and revealed in those personal marks and signs of God's peculiar adoption of himself, which he and none other is acquainted with” (Alford). Bengel says: “Wouldst thou know what kind of a new name thou wilt obtain? Overcome. Before that thou wilt ask in vain, and after that thou wilt soon read it inscribed on the white stone.” [source]

Revelation 2:17 Of the hidden manna [του μαννα του κεκρυμμενου]
“Of the manna the hidden” (perfect passive articular participle of κρυπτω — kruptō). The partitive genitive, the only N.T. example with διδωμι — didōmi though Q reads το — to (accusative) here. For examples of the ablative with απο — apo and εκ — ek see Robertson, Grammar, p. 519. See John 6:31, John 6:49 for the indeclinable word μαννα — manna The golden pot of manna was “laid up before God in the ark” (Exodus 16:23). It was believed that Jeremiah hid the ark, before the destruction of Jerusalem, where it would not be discovered till Israel was restored (2 Macc. 2:5ff.). Christ is the true bread from heaven (John 6:31-33, John 6:48-51) and that may be the idea here. Those faithful to Christ will have transcendent fellowship with him. Swete takes it to be “the life-sustaining power of the Sacred Humanity now hid with Christ in God.” [source]

What do the individual words in John 6:4 mean?

Was now near the Passover the feast of the Jews
Ἦν δὲ ἐγγὺς τὸ πάσχα ἑορτὴ τῶν Ἰουδαίων

δὲ  now 
Parse: Conjunction
Root: δέ  
Sense: but, moreover, and, etc.
ἐγγὺς  near 
Parse: Adverb
Root: ἐγγύς  
Sense: near, of place and position.
πάσχα  Passover 
Parse: Noun, Nominative Neuter Singular
Root: πάσχα  
Sense: the paschal sacrifice (which was accustomed to be offered for the people’s deliverance of old from Egypt).
ἑορτὴ  feast 
Parse: Noun, Nominative Feminine Singular
Root: ἑορτή  
Sense: a feast day, festival.
τῶν  of  the 
Parse: Article, Genitive Masculine Plural
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
Ἰουδαίων  Jews 
Parse: Adjective, Genitive Masculine Plural
Root: Ἰουδαῖος  
Sense: Jewish, belonging to the Jewish race.