The Meaning of Matthew 1:21 Explained

Matthew 1:21

KJV: And she shall bring forth a son, and thou shalt call his name JESUS: for he shall save his people from their sins.

YLT: and she shall bring forth a son, and thou shalt call his name Jesus, for he shall save his people from their sins.'

Darby: And she shall bring forth a son, and thou shalt call his name Jesus, for he shall save his people from their sins.

ASV: And she shall bring forth a son; and thou shalt call his name JESUS; for it is he that shall save his people from their sins.

What does Matthew 1:21 Mean?

Study Notes

save See note, Romans 1:16 (See Scofield " Romans 1:16 ")
sins See note, Romans 3:23
sinned
Sin, Summary: The literal meanings of the Heb. and (Greek - ἀλεκτοροφωνία sin," "sinner," etc)., disclose the true nature of sin in its manifold manifestations. Sin is transgression, an overstepping of the law, the divine boundary between good and evil Psalms 51:1 ; Luke 15:29 , iniquity, an act inherently wrong, whether expressly forbidden or not; error, a departure from right; Psalms 51:9 ; Romans 3:23 , missing the mark, a failure to meet the divine standard; trespass, the intrusion of self-will into the sphere of divine authority Ephesians 2:1 , lawlessness, or spiritual anarchy 1 Timothy 1:9 , unbelief, or an insult to the divine veracity John 16:9 .
Sin originated with Satan Isaiah 14:12-14 , entered the world through Adam Romans 5:12 , was, and is, universal, Christ alone excepted; Romans 3:23 ; 1 Peter 2:22 , incurs the penalties of spiritual and physical death; Genesis 2:17 ; Genesis 3:19 ; Ezekiel 18:4 ; Ezekiel 18:20 ; Romans 6:23 and has no remedy but in the sacrificial death of Christ; Hebrews 9:26 ; Acts 4:12 availed of by faith Acts 13:38 ; Acts 13:39 . Sin may be summarized as threefold: An act, the violation of, or want of obedience to the revealed will of God; a state, absence of righteousness; a nature, enmity toward God.

Context Summary

Matthew 1:18-25 - The Birth Of Jesus Christ
The fear that Joseph, being a just man, might withdraw from their contemplated wedlock, would have filled Mary's heart with untold anguish had she not been upheld by her faith in God. She felt that He was pledged to vindicate her character. Yield yourself to Him for His purposes and leave Him to deal with any contingent results! He becomes responsible!
That which happened historically must take place experimentally. In each of us Jesus Christ must be born through the direct action of the Holy Spirit. See Galatians 4:1-5. This is what we mean by the new birth; and when He has so entered our hearts, our Lord will become our Savior, not merely from the penalty but from the love and the power of our sins. Claim that this shall be your experience!
Let us seek after that union with God which is the height of blessedness, both in this life and the next, and in virtue of which God becomes the companion of the soul in its earthly pilgrimage. This is the Name of names-Emmanuel. See Isaiah 7:14; Isaiah 9:1-7. [source]

Chapter Summary: Matthew 1

1  The genealogy of Jesus from Abraham to Joseph
18  He is miraculously conceived of the Holy Spirit by the Virgin Mary
19  The angel satisfies the doubts of Joseph,
21  and declares the names and office of Jesus;
25  Jesus is born

Greek Commentary for Matthew 1:21

Thou shalt call his name Jesus [Καλεσιες το ονομα αυτου Ιησουν]
The rabbis named six whose names were given before birth: “Isaac, Ishmael, Moses, Solomon, Josiah, and the name of the Messiah, whom may the Holy One, blessed be His name, bring in our day.” The angel puts it up to Joseph as the putative father to name the child. “Jesus is the same as Joshua, a contraction of Jehoshuah (Numbers 13:16; 1 Chronicles 7:27), signifying in Hebrew, ‹Jehovah is helper,‘ or ‹Help of Jehovah‘”(Broadus). So Jesus is the Greek form of Joshua (Hebrews 4:8). He is another Joshua to lead the true people of God into the Promised Land. The name itself was common enough as Josephus shows. Jehovah is Salvation as seen in Joshua for the Hebrews and in Jesus for all believers. “The meaning of the name, therefore, finds expression in the title Saviour applied to our Lord (Luke 1:47; Luke 2:11; John 4:42)” (Vincent). He will save He will be prophet, priest, and king, but “Saviour” sums it all up in one word. The explanation is carried out in the promise, “for he is the one who (αυτος — autos) will save (σωσει — sōsei with a play on the name Jesus) his people from their sins.” Paul will later explain that by the covenant people, the children of promise, God means the spiritual Israel, all who believe whether Jews or Gentiles. This wonderful word touches the very heart of the mission and message of the Messiah. Jesus himself will show that the kingdom of heaven includes all those and only those who have the reign of God in their hearts and lives. [source]
From their sins [απο των αμαρτιων αυτων]
Both sins of omission and of commission. The substantive (αμαρτια — hamartia) is from the verb (αμαρτανειν — hamartanein) and means missing the mark as with an arrow. How often the best of us fall short and fail to score. Jesus will save us away from (απο — apo) as well as out of (εχ — ex) our sins. They will be cast into oblivion and he will cover them up out of sight. [source]
He [αὐτὸς]
Emphatic; and so rightly in Rev., “For it is He that shall save his people.”Their sins ( ἁμαρτιῶν )Akin to ἁμαρτάνω , to miss a mark; as a warrior who throws his spear and fails to strike his adversary, or as a traveller who misses his way. In this word, therefore, one of a large group which represent sin under different phases, sin is conceived as a failing and missing the true end and scope of our lives, which is God. [source]
Shalt call []
Thus committing the office of a father to Joseph. The naming of the unborn Messiah would accord with popular notions. The Rabbis had a saying concerning the six whose names were given before their birth: “Isaac, Ishmael, Moses, Solomon, Josiah, and the name of the Messiah, whom may the Holy One, blessed be His name, bring quickly in our days.” [source]
Jesus [Ιησοῦν]
The Greek form of a Hebrew name, which had been borne by two illustrious individuals in former periods of the Jewish history - Joshua, the successor of Moses, and Jeshua, the high-priest, who with Zerubbabel took so active a part in the re-establishment of the civil and religious polity of the Jews on their return from Babylon. Its original and full form is Jehoshua, becoming by contraction Joshua or Jeshua. Joshua, the son of Nun, the successor of Moses, was originally named Hoshea (saving )which was altered by Moses into Jehoshua (Jehovah (our )Salvation ) (Numbers 13:16). The meaning of the name, therefore, finds expression in the title Saviour, applied to our Lord (Luke 1:47; Luke 2:11; John 4:42). Joshua, the son of Nun, is a type of Christ in his office of captain and deliverer of his people, in the military aspect of his saving work (Revelation 19:11-16). As God's revelation to Moses was in the character of a law-giver, his revelation to Joshua was in that of the Lord of Hosts (Joshua 5:13, Joshua 5:14). Under Joshua the enemies of Israel were conquered, and the people established in the Promised Land. So Jesus leads his people in the fight with sin and temptation. He is the leader of the faith which overcomes the world (Hebrews 12:2). Following him, we enter into rest. -DIVIDER-
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The priestly office of Jesus is foreshadowed in the high-priest Jeshua, who appears in the vision of Zechariah (Zechariah 3:1-10; compare Ezra 2:2) in court before God, under accusation of Satan, and clad in filthy garments. Jeshua stands not only for himself, but as the representative of sinning and suffering Israel. Satan is defeated. The Lord rebukes him, and declares that he will redeem and restore this erring people; and in token thereof he commands that the accused priest be clad in clean robes and crowned with the priestly mitre. -DIVIDER-
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Thus in this priestly Jeshua we have a type of our “Great High-Priest, touched with the feeling of our infirmities, and in all points tempted and tried like as we are;” confronting Satan in the wilderness; trying conclusions with him upon the victims of his malice - the sick, the sinful, and the demon-ridden. His royal robes are left behind. He counts not “equality with God a thing to be grasped at,” but “empties-DIVIDER-
himself,” taking the “form of a servant,” humbling himself and becoming “obedient even unto death” (Philemon 2:6, Philemon 2:7, Rev.). He assumes the stained garments of our humanity. He who “knew no sin” is “made to be sin on our behalf, that we might become the righteousness of God in him” (2 Corinthians 5:21). He is at once priest and victim. He pleads for sinful man before God's throne. He will redeem him. He will rebuke the malice and cast down the power of Satan. He will behold him” as lightning fall from heaven” (Luke 10:18). He will raise and save and purify men of weak natures, rebellious wills, and furious passions - cowardly braggarts and deniers like Peter, persecutors like Saul of Tarsus, charred brands - and make them witnesses of his grace and preachers of his love and power. His kingdom shall be a kingdom of priests, and the song of his redeemed church shall be, “unto him that loveth us, and loosed us from our sins by his own blood, and made us to be a kingdom, to be priests unto his God and Father; to him be the glory and the dominion forever and ever. Amen” (Revelation 1:5, Revelation 1:6, in Rev.). -DIVIDER-
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It is no mere fancy which sees a suggestion and a foreshadowing of the prophetic work of Jesus in the economy of salvation, in a third name closely akin to the former. Hoshea, which we know in our English Bible as Hosea, was the original name of Joshua (compare Romans 9:25, Rev.) and means saving. He is, in a peculiar sense, the prophet of grace and salvation, placing his hope in God's personal coming as the refuge and strength of humanity; in the purification of human life by its contact with the divine. The great truth which he has to teach is the love of Jehovah to Israel as expressed in the relation of husband, an idea which pervades his prophecy, and which is generated by his own sad domestic experience. He foreshadows Jesus in his pointed warnings against sin, his repeated offers of divine mercy, and his patient, forbearing love, as manifested in his dealing with an unfaithful and dissolute wife, whose soul he succeeded in rescuing from sin and death (Hosea 1-3). So long as he lived, he was one continual, living prophecy of the tenderness of God toward sinners; a picture of God's love for us when alien from him, and with nothing in us to love. The faithfulness of the prophetic teacher thus blends in Hosea, as in our Lord, with the compassion and sympathy and sacrifice of the priest. [source]

Their sins [ἁμαρτιῶν]
Akin to ἁμαρτάνω , to miss a mark; as a warrior who throws his spear and fails to strike his adversary, or as a traveller who misses his way. In this word, therefore, one of a large group which represent sin under different phases, sin is conceived as a failing and missing the true end and scope of our lives, which is God. [source]

Reverse Greek Commentary Search for Matthew 1:21

Matthew 1:23 They shall call [καλὲσουσιν]
In Matthew 1:21, it is thou shalt call. The original of Isaiah (Isaiah 7:14) has she shall call; but Matthew generalizes the singular into the plural, and quotes the prophecy in a form suited to its larger and final fulfilment: men shall call his name Immanuel, as they shall come to the practical knowledge that God will indeed dwell with men upon the earth. [source]
Matthew 6:14 Trespasses [παραπτώματα]
The Lord here uses another word for sins, and still another ( ἁμαρτιας ) appears in Luke's version of the prayer, though he also says, “every one that is indebted to us.” There is no difficulty in supposing that Christ, contemplating sins in general, should represent them by different terms expressive of different aspects of wrong-doing (see on Matthew 1:21). This word is derived from παραπίπτω , to fall or throw one's self beside. Thus it has a sense somewhat akin to ἁμαρτία , of going beside a mark, missing. In classical Greek the verb is often used of intentional falling, as of throwing one's self upon an enemy; and this is the prevailing sense in biblical Greek, indicating reckless and wilful sin (see 1 Chronicles 5:25; 1 Chronicles 10:13; 2 Chronicles 26:18; 2 Chronicles 29:6, 2 Chronicles 29:19; Ezekiel 14:13; Ezekiel 18:26). It does not, therefore, imply palliation or excuse. It is a conscious violation of right, involving guilt, and occurs therefore, in connection with the mention of forgiveness (Romans 4:25; Romans 5:16; Colossians 2:13; Ephesians 2:1, Ephesians 2:5). Unlike παράβασις (transgression )which contemplates merely the objective violation of law, it carries the thought of sin as affecting the sinner, and hence is found associated with expressions which indicate the consequences and the remedy of sin (Romans 4:25; Romans 5:15, Romans 5:17; Ephesians 2:1). [source]
Luke 2:11 A Saviour []
See on Matthew 1:21. [source]
Luke 11:4 Sins [ἁμαρτίας]
See on Matthew 1:21. Compare debts, Matthew 6:12. [source]
Luke 1:31 Jesus []
See on Matthew 1:21. [source]
Luke 1:31 Jesus [Ιησουν]
As to Joseph in Matthew 1:21, but without the explanation of the meaning. See note on Matthew 1:21. [source]
John 8:21 In your sin [ἐν τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ ὑμῶν]
See on Matthew 1:21. Note the singular, sin, not sins. It is used collectively to express the whole condition of estrangement from God. [source]
John 5:14 Sin no more [μηκέτι ἁμάρτανε]
No longer continue to sin. See on Matthew 1:21. Jesus thus shows His knowledge that the sickness was the result of sin. [source]
John 4:42 The Savior [ὁ σωτὴρ]
John uses the word only here and 1 John 4:14. See on Jesus, Matthew 1:21. It is significant that this conception of Christ should have been first expressed by a Samaritan. [source]
John 3:29 The bride []
A common figure in the Old testament prophecies, of the relation between Jehovah and His people (Hosea href="/desk/?q=ho+2:19&sr=1">Hosea 2:19; Malachi 2:11). See also on Matthew 1:21, concerning Hosea. [source]
John 4:42 Not because of thy speaking [ουκετι δια την σην λαλιαν]
“No longer because of thy talk,” good and effective as that was. Λαλια — Lalia (cf. λαλεω — laleō) is talk, talkativeness, mode of speech, one‘s vernacular, used by Jesus of his own speech (John 8:43). We have heard Perfect active indicative of ακουω — akouō their abiding experience. For ourselves Just “ourselves.” The Saviour of the world See Matthew 1:21 for σωτηρ — sōseiused of Jesus by the angel Gabriel. John applies the term sōtēr to Jesus again in 1 John 4:14. Jesus had said to the woman that salvation is of the Jews (John 4:22). He clearly told the Samaritans during these two days that he was the Messiah as he had done to the woman (John 4:26) and explained that to mean Saviour of Samaritans as well as Jews. Sanday thinks that probably John puts this epithet of Saviour in the mouth of the Samaritans, but adds: “At the same time it is possible that such an epithet might be employed by them merely as synonymous with Messiah.” But why “merely”? Was it not natural for these Samaritans who took Jesus as their “Saviour,” Jew as he was, to enlarge the idea to the whole world? Bernard has this amazing statement on John 4:42: “That in the first century Messiah was given the title sōtēr is not proven.” The use of “saviour and god” for Ptolemy in the third century b.c. is well known. “The ample materials collected by Magie show that the full title of honour, Saviour of the world, with which St. John adorns the Master, was bestowed with sundry variations in the Greek expression on Julius Caesar, Augustus, Claudius, Vespasian, Titus, Trajan, Hadrian, and other Emperors in inscriptions in the Hellenistic East” (Deissmann, Light, etc., p. 364). Perhaps Bernard means that the Jews did not call Messiah Saviour. But what of it? The Romans so termed their emperors and the New Testament so calls Christ (Luke 2:11; John 4:42; Acts 5:31; Acts 3:23; Philemon 3:20; Ephesians 5:23; Titus 1:4; Titus 2:13; Titus 3:6; 2 Timothy 1:10; 2 Peter 1:1, 2 Peter 1:11; 2 Peter 2:20; 2 Peter 3:2, 2 Peter 3:18). All these are writings of the first century a.d. The Samaritan villagers rise to the conception that he was the Saviour of the world. [source]
John 4:42 We have heard [ακηκοαμεν]
Perfect active indicative of ακουω — akouō their abiding experience. For ourselves Just “ourselves.” The Saviour of the world See Matthew 1:21 for σωτηρ — sōseiused of Jesus by the angel Gabriel. John applies the term sōtēr to Jesus again in 1 John 4:14. Jesus had said to the woman that salvation is of the Jews (John 4:22). He clearly told the Samaritans during these two days that he was the Messiah as he had done to the woman (John 4:26) and explained that to mean Saviour of Samaritans as well as Jews. Sanday thinks that probably John puts this epithet of Saviour in the mouth of the Samaritans, but adds: “At the same time it is possible that such an epithet might be employed by them merely as synonymous with Messiah.” But why “merely”? Was it not natural for these Samaritans who took Jesus as their “Saviour,” Jew as he was, to enlarge the idea to the whole world? Bernard has this amazing statement on John 4:42: “That in the first century Messiah was given the title sōtēr is not proven.” The use of “saviour and god” for Ptolemy in the third century b.c. is well known. “The ample materials collected by Magie show that the full title of honour, Saviour of the world, with which St. John adorns the Master, was bestowed with sundry variations in the Greek expression on Julius Caesar, Augustus, Claudius, Vespasian, Titus, Trajan, Hadrian, and other Emperors in inscriptions in the Hellenistic East” (Deissmann, Light, etc., p. 364). Perhaps Bernard means that the Jews did not call Messiah Saviour. But what of it? The Romans so termed their emperors and the New Testament so calls Christ (Luke 2:11; John 4:42; Acts 5:31; Acts 3:23; Philemon 3:20; Ephesians 5:23; Titus 1:4; Titus 2:13; Titus 3:6; 2 Timothy 1:10; 2 Peter 1:1, 2 Peter 1:11; 2 Peter 2:20; 2 Peter 3:2, 2 Peter 3:18). All these are writings of the first century a.d. The Samaritan villagers rise to the conception that he was the Saviour of the world. [source]
John 4:42 For ourselves [αυτοι]
Just “ourselves.” The Saviour of the world See Matthew 1:21 for σωτηρ — sōseiused of Jesus by the angel Gabriel. John applies the term sōtēr to Jesus again in 1 John 4:14. Jesus had said to the woman that salvation is of the Jews (John 4:22). He clearly told the Samaritans during these two days that he was the Messiah as he had done to the woman (John 4:26) and explained that to mean Saviour of Samaritans as well as Jews. Sanday thinks that probably John puts this epithet of Saviour in the mouth of the Samaritans, but adds: “At the same time it is possible that such an epithet might be employed by them merely as synonymous with Messiah.” But why “merely”? Was it not natural for these Samaritans who took Jesus as their “Saviour,” Jew as he was, to enlarge the idea to the whole world? Bernard has this amazing statement on John 4:42: “That in the first century Messiah was given the title sōtēr is not proven.” The use of “saviour and god” for Ptolemy in the third century b.c. is well known. “The ample materials collected by Magie show that the full title of honour, Saviour of the world, with which St. John adorns the Master, was bestowed with sundry variations in the Greek expression on Julius Caesar, Augustus, Claudius, Vespasian, Titus, Trajan, Hadrian, and other Emperors in inscriptions in the Hellenistic East” (Deissmann, Light, etc., p. 364). Perhaps Bernard means that the Jews did not call Messiah Saviour. But what of it? The Romans so termed their emperors and the New Testament so calls Christ (Luke 2:11; John 4:42; Acts 5:31; Acts 3:23; Philemon 3:20; Ephesians 5:23; Titus 1:4; Titus 2:13; Titus 3:6; 2 Timothy 1:10; 2 Peter 1:1, 2 Peter 1:11; 2 Peter 2:20; 2 Peter 3:2, 2 Peter 3:18). All these are writings of the first century a.d. The Samaritan villagers rise to the conception that he was the Saviour of the world. [source]
John 4:42 The Saviour of the world [ο σωτηρ του κοσμου]
See Matthew 1:21 for σωτηρ — sōseiused of Jesus by the angel Gabriel. John applies the term sōtēr to Jesus again in 1 John 4:14. Jesus had said to the woman that salvation is of the Jews (John 4:22). He clearly told the Samaritans during these two days that he was the Messiah as he had done to the woman (John 4:26) and explained that to mean Saviour of Samaritans as well as Jews. Sanday thinks that probably John puts this epithet of Saviour in the mouth of the Samaritans, but adds: “At the same time it is possible that such an epithet might be employed by them merely as synonymous with Messiah.” But why “merely”? Was it not natural for these Samaritans who took Jesus as their “Saviour,” Jew as he was, to enlarge the idea to the whole world? Bernard has this amazing statement on John 4:42: “That in the first century Messiah was given the title sōtēr is not proven.” The use of “saviour and god” for Ptolemy in the third century b.c. is well known. “The ample materials collected by Magie show that the full title of honour, Saviour of the world, with which St. John adorns the Master, was bestowed with sundry variations in the Greek expression on Julius Caesar, Augustus, Claudius, Vespasian, Titus, Trajan, Hadrian, and other Emperors in inscriptions in the Hellenistic East” (Deissmann, Light, etc., p. 364). Perhaps Bernard means that the Jews did not call Messiah Saviour. But what of it? The Romans so termed their emperors and the New Testament so calls Christ (Luke 2:11; John 4:42; Acts 5:31; Acts 3:23; Philemon 3:20; Ephesians 5:23; Titus 1:4; Titus 2:13; Titus 3:6; 2 Timothy 1:10; 2 Peter 1:1, 2 Peter 1:11; 2 Peter 2:20; 2 Peter 3:2, 2 Peter 3:18). All these are writings of the first century a.d. The Samaritan villagers rise to the conception that he was the Saviour of the world. [source]
John 5:14 Findeth him [ευρισκει αυτον]
Dramatic present as in John 1:45, possibly after search as in John 9:35. Sin no more “No longer go on sinning.” Present active imperative with μηκετι — mēketi a clear implication that disease was due to personal sin as is so often the case. Jesus used the same words to the woman taken in adultery in the spurious passage (John 8:11). He had suffered for 38 years. All sickness is not due to personal sin (John 9:3), but much is and nature is a hard paymaster. Jesus is here living up to his name (Matthew 1:21). Lest a worse thing befall thee Negative final clause with second aorist middle subjunctive of γινομαι — ginomai Χειρον — Cheiron is comparative of κακος — kakos bad. Worse than the illness of 38 years, bad as that is. He will now be sinning against knowledge. [source]
Acts 7:45 Jesus []
Joshua. The names are the same, both signifying Saviour. See on Matthew 1:21. [source]
Acts 25:8 Have I offended [ἥμαρτον]
See on the kindred noun ἁμαρτία , sin, Matthew 1:21. [source]
Acts 7:45 With Joshua [μετα Ιησου]
With Jesus, the Greek form of Joshua (contracted from Jehoshua, Matthew 1:21), as in Hebrews 4:8. [source]
Acts 7:45 In their turn [διαδεχαμενοι]
First aorist middle participle of διαδεχομαι — diadechomai to receive through another, to receive in sucession or in turn. Late Greek, only here in N.T. Deissmann (Bible Studies, p. 115) argues from a second century b.c. papyrus that διαδοχος — diadochos means rather deputy or court official than successor. With Joshua (μετα Ιησου — meta Iēsou). With Jesus, the Greek form of Joshua (contracted from Jehoshua, Matthew 1:21), as in Hebrews 4:8. When they entered on the possession of the nations Literally “in (or at the time of) the possession of the nations.” See note on Hebrews 7:5 for the only other N.T. instance of κατασχεσις — kataschesis Which (ων — hn). The nations, genitive by attraction to case of ετνων — ethnōn Thrust out First aorist active indicative of εχωτεω — exōtheō to push out, common verb, here, only in N.T. save some MSS. in Acts 27:39. [source]
Romans 4:17 Calleth [καλοῦντος]
The verb is used in the following senses: 1. To give a name, with ὄνομα name Matthew 1:21, Matthew 1:22, Matthew 1:25; Luke 1:13, Luke 1:31; without ὄνομα Luke 1:59, Luke 1:60. To salute by a name, Matthew 23:9; Matthew 22:43, Matthew 22:45. -DIVIDER-
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2. Passive. To bear a name or title among men, Luke 1:35; Luke 22:25; 1 Corinthians 15:9. To be acknowledged or to pass as, Matthew 5:9, Matthew 5:19; James 2:23. -DIVIDER-
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3. To invite, Matthew 22:3, Matthew 22:9; John 2:2; 1 Corinthians 10:27. To summon, Matthew 4:21; Acts 4:18; Acts 24:2. To call out from, Matthew 2:15; Hebrews 11:8; 1 Peter 2:9. -DIVIDER-
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4. To appoint. Select for an office, Galatians 1:15; Hebrews 5:4; to salvation, Romans 9:11; Romans 8:30. -DIVIDER-
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5. Of God's creative decree. To call forth from nothing, Isaiah 41:4; 2 Kings 8:1. -DIVIDER-
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In this last sense some explain the word here; but it can scarcely be said that God creates things that are not as actually existing. Others explain, God's disposing decree. He disposes of things that are not as though existing. The simplest explanation appears to be to give καλεῖν the sense of nameth, speaketh of. Compare Romans 9:7; Acts 7:5. The seed of Abraham “which were at present in the category of things which were not, and the nations which should spring physically or spiritually from him, God spoke of as having an existence, which word Abraham believed” (Alford). In this case there may properly be added the idea of the summons to the high destiny ordained for Abraham's seed. -DIVIDER-
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[source]

Romans 2:23 Transgression [παραβάσεως]
Trench remarks upon “the mournfully numerous group of words” which express the different aspects of sin. It is ἁμαρτια themissing of a mark; παράβασις theoverpassing of a line; παρακοή thedisobedience to a voice; παράπτωμα afalling when one should have stood; ἀγνόημα ignoranceof what one should know; ἥττημα adiminishing of what should be rendered in full measure; ἀνομία or παρανομία non-observanceof law; πλημμέλεια discord. The primary sense of the preposition παρά is beside or by, with reference to a line or extended surface. Hence it indicates that which is not on its true line but beside it, either in the way of falling short or of going beyond. Thus, in the sense of going beyond, Romans 12:3, to think more highly than he ought ( παρ ' ὃ δεῖ ), where the sense of beyond is fixed by ὑπερφρονεῖν to think beyond or over.” So Luke 13:2. In the sense of falling short, Thucydides, 3,49: “Mitylene came near such peril” ( παρὰ τοσοῦτο κινδύνου ), as if parallel to the danger but not touching it. Hence παραβάσις differs from the Homeric ὑπερβασία transgressionin that the latter carries only the idea of going beyond or over. A mark or line as a standard is thus implied. Transgression implies something to transgress. With the law came in the possibility off transgressing the law. “Where there is no law there is no transgression” (Romans 4:15). Hence Adam's sin is called a transgression (Romans 5:14), because it was the violation of a definite command. Paul habitually uses the word and its kindred παραβάτης transgressorof the transgression of a commandment distinctly given (Galatians 3:19; 1 Timothy 2:14, Romans 2:25, Romans 2:27). Hence it is peculiarly appropriate here of one who boasts in the law. It thus differs from ἁμαρτία sin(see on sins, Matthew 1:21), in that one may sin without being under express law. See Romans 5. Sin ( ἁμαρτία ) was in the world until the law; i.e. during the period prior to the law. Death reigned from Adam to Moses over those who had not sinned ( ἁμαρτήσαντας ) after the similitude of Adam's transgression ( παραβάσεως ). The sin is implicit, the transgression explicit. -DIVIDER-
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[source]

1 Corinthians 1:21 To save [σῶσαι]
The word was technically used in the Old Testament of deliverance at the Messiah's coming; of salvation from the penalties of the messianic judgment, or from the evils which obstruct the messianic deliverance. See Joel 2:32; Matthew 1:21; compare Acts 2:40. Paul uses it in the ethical sense, to make one a partaker of the salvation which is through Christ. Edwards calls attention to the foregleam of this christian conception of the word in the closing paragraph of Plato's “Republic:” “And thus, Glaucon, the tale has been saved, and has not perished, and will save ( σώσειεν ) us if we are obedient to the word spoken, and we shall pass safely over the river of forgetfulness and our soul will not be defiled.” [source]
Ephesians 2:1 Trespasses - sins [παραπτώμασιν - ἁμαρτίαις]
See on Matthew 1:21; see on Matthew 6:14. Trespasses, special acts. Sins, all forms and phases of sin: more general. [source]
Philippians 2:9 A name []
Rev., correctly, the name. This expression is differently explained: either the particular name given to Christ, as Jesus or Lord; or name is taken in the sense of dignity or glory, which is a common Old-Testament usage, and occurs in Ephesians 1:21; Hebrews 1:4. Under the former explanation a variety of names are proposed, as Son of God, Lord, God, Christ Jesus. The sense of the personal name Jesus seems to meet all the conditions, and the personal sense is the simpler, since Jesus occurs immediately after with the word name, and again Jesus Christ in Phlippians 2:11. The name Jesus was bestowed on Christ at the beginning of His humiliation, but prophetically as the One who should save His people from their sins, Matthew 1:21. It was the personal name of others besides; but if that is an objection here, it is equally an objection in Phlippians 2:10. The dignity is expressed by above every name. He bears the name in His glory. See Acts 9:5. See on Matthew 1:21. [source]
1 Thessalonians 1:10 Jesus which delivered [Ἱησοῦν τὸν ῥυόμενον]
More correctly, delivereth. See on Matthew 1:21. Ῥύεσθαι todeliver, mostly in Paul. Lit. to draw to one's self. Almost invariably with the specification of some evil or danger or enemy. Σώζειν tosave is often used in a similar sense, of deliverance from disease, from sin, or from divine wrath: see Matthew 1:21; Mark 6:56; Luke 8:36; Acts 2:40; Romans 5:9: but σώζειν is a larger and more comprehensive term, including not only deliverance from sin and death, but investment with all the privileges and rewards of the new life in Christ. [source]
1 Thessalonians 1:1 God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ []
. No article in the Greek, for both τεωι πατρι — theōi patri and κυριωι ησου Χριστωι — kuriōi Jēsou Christōi are treated as proper names. In the very beginning of this first Epistle of Paul we meet his Christology. He at once uses the full title, “Lord Jesus Christ,” with all the theological content of each word. The name “Jesus” (Saviour, Matthew 1:21) he knew, as the “Jesus of history,” the personal name of the Man of Galilee, whom he had once persecuted (Acts 9:5), but whom he at once, after his conversion, proclaimed to be “the Messiah,” This position Paul never changed. In the great sermon at Antioch in Pisidia which Luke has preserved (Acts 13:23) Paul proved that God fulfilled his promise to Israel by raising up “Jesus as Saviour” Now Paul follows the Christian custom by adding Χριστος — Christos (verbal from χριω — chriō to anoint) as a proper name to Jesus (Jesus Christ) as later he will often say “Christ Jesus” (Colossians 1:1). And he dares also to apply κυριος — kurios (Lord) to “Jesus Christ,” the word appropriated by Claudius (Dominus, Κυριος — Kurios) and other emperors in the emperor-worship, and also common in the Septuagint for God as in Psalm 32:1. (quoted by Paul in Romans 4:8). Paul uses Κυριος — Kurios of God (1 Corinthians 3:5) or of Jesus Christ as here. In fact, he more frequently applies it to Christ when not quoting the Old Testament as in Romans 4:8. And here he places “the Lord Jesus Christ” in the same category and on the same plane with “God the father.” There will be growth in Paul‘s Christology and he will never attain all the knowledge of Christ for which he longs (Philemon 3:10-12), but it is patent that here in his first Epistle there is no “reduced Christ” for Paul. He took Jesus as “Lord” when he surrendered to Jesus on the Damascus Road: “And I said, What shall I do, Lord? And the Lord said to me” (Acts 22:10). It is impossible to understand Paul without seeing clearly this first and final stand for the Lord Jesus Christ. Paul did not get this view of Jesus from current views of Mithra or of Isis or any other alien faith. The Risen Christ became at once for Paul the Lord of his life. Grace to you and peace (χαρις υμιν και ειρηνη — charis humin kai eirēnē). These words, common in Paul‘s Epistles, bear “the stamp of Paul‘s experience” (Milligan). They are not commonplace salutations, but the old words “deepened and spiritualised” (Frame). The infinitive (χαιρειν — chairein) so common in the papyri letters and seen in the New Testament also (Acts 15:23; Acts 23:26; James 1:1) here gives place to χαρις — charis one of the great words of the New Testament (cf. John 1:16.) and particularly of the Pauline Epistles. Perhaps no one word carries more meaning for Paul‘s messages than this word χαρις — charis (from χαιρω — chairō rejoice) from which χαριζομαι — charizomai comes. Peace This introduction is brief, but rich and gracious and pitches the letter at once on a high plane. [source]
1 Thessalonians 1:10 Whom he raised from the dead [ον ηγειρεν εκ των νεκρων]
Paul gloried in the fact of the resurrection of Jesus from the dead of which fact he was himself a personal witness. This fact is the foundation stone for all his theology and it comes out in this first chapter. Jesus which delivereth us from the wrath to come (Ιησουν τον ρυομενον ημας εκ της οργης της ερχομενης — Iēsoun ton ruomenon hēmās ek tēs orgēs tēs erchomenēs). It is the historic, crucified, risen, and ascended Jesus Christ, God‘s Son, who delivers from the coming wrath. He is our Saviour (Matthew 1:21) true to his name Jesus. He is our Rescuer (Romans 11:26, ο ρυομενος — ho ruomenos from Isaiah 59:20). It is eschatological language, this coming wrath of God for sin (1 Thessalonians 2:16; Romans 3:5; Romans 5:9; Romans 9:22; Romans 13:5). It was Paul‘s allusion to the day of judgment with Jesus as Judge whom God had raised from the dead that made the Athenians mock and leave him (Acts 17:31.). But Paul did not change his belief or his preaching because of the conduct of the Athenians. He is certain that God‘s wrath in due time will punish sin. Surely this is a needed lesson for our day. It was coming then and it is coming now. [source]
1 Thessalonians 1:1 Unto the church of the Thessalonians [τηι εκκλησιαι Τεσσαλονικεων]
The dative case in address. Note absence of the article with Τεσσαλονικεων — Thessalonikeōn because a proper name and so definite without it. This is the common use of εκκλησια — ekklēsia for a local body (church). The word originally meant “assembly” as in Acts 19:39, but it came to mean an organization for worship whether assembled or unassembled (cf. Acts 8:3). The only superscription in the oldest Greek manuscripts (Aleph B A) is Προς Τεσσαλονικεις Α — Pros Thessalonikeis A (To the Thessalonians First). But probably Paul wrote no superscription and certainly he would not write A to it before he had written II Thessalonians (B). His signature at the close was the proof of genuineness (2 Thessalonians 3:17) against all spurious claimants (2 Thessalonians 2:2). Unfortunately the brittle papyrus on which he wrote easily perished outside of the sand heaps and tombs of Egypt or the lava covered ruins of Herculaneum. What a treasure that autograph would be! In God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ (εν τεωι πατρι και κυριωι ησου Χριστωι — en theōi patri kai kuriōi Jēsou Christōi). This church is grounded in (εν — en with the locative case) and exists in the sphere and power of God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. No article in the Greek, for both τεωι πατρι — theōi patri and κυριωι ησου Χριστωι — kuriōi Jēsou Christōi are treated as proper names. In the very beginning of this first Epistle of Paul we meet his Christology. He at once uses the full title, “Lord Jesus Christ,” with all the theological content of each word. The name “Jesus” (Saviour, Matthew 1:21) he knew, as the “Jesus of history,” the personal name of the Man of Galilee, whom he had once persecuted (Acts 9:5), but whom he at once, after his conversion, proclaimed to be “the Messiah,” This position Paul never changed. In the great sermon at Antioch in Pisidia which Luke has preserved (Acts 13:23) Paul proved that God fulfilled his promise to Israel by raising up “Jesus as Saviour” Now Paul follows the Christian custom by adding Χριστος — Christos (verbal from χριω — chriō to anoint) as a proper name to Jesus (Jesus Christ) as later he will often say “Christ Jesus” (Colossians 1:1). And he dares also to apply κυριος — kurios (Lord) to “Jesus Christ,” the word appropriated by Claudius (Dominus, Κυριος — Kurios) and other emperors in the emperor-worship, and also common in the Septuagint for God as in Psalm 32:1. (quoted by Paul in Romans 4:8). Paul uses Κυριος — Kurios of God (1 Corinthians 3:5) or of Jesus Christ as here. In fact, he more frequently applies it to Christ when not quoting the Old Testament as in Romans 4:8. And here he places “the Lord Jesus Christ” in the same category and on the same plane with “God the father.” There will be growth in Paul‘s Christology and he will never attain all the knowledge of Christ for which he longs (Philemon 3:10-12), but it is patent that here in his first Epistle there is no “reduced Christ” for Paul. He took Jesus as “Lord” when he surrendered to Jesus on the Damascus Road: “And I said, What shall I do, Lord? And the Lord said to me” (Acts 22:10). It is impossible to understand Paul without seeing clearly this first and final stand for the Lord Jesus Christ. Paul did not get this view of Jesus from current views of Mithra or of Isis or any other alien faith. The Risen Christ became at once for Paul the Lord of his life. Grace to you and peace (χαρις υμιν και ειρηνη — charis humin kai eirēnē). These words, common in Paul‘s Epistles, bear “the stamp of Paul‘s experience” (Milligan). They are not commonplace salutations, but the old words “deepened and spiritualised” (Frame). The infinitive (χαιρειν — chairein) so common in the papyri letters and seen in the New Testament also (Acts 15:23; Acts 23:26; James 1:1) here gives place to χαρις — charis one of the great words of the New Testament (cf. John 1:16.) and particularly of the Pauline Epistles. Perhaps no one word carries more meaning for Paul‘s messages than this word χαρις — charis (from χαιρω — chairō rejoice) from which χαριζομαι — charizomai comes. Peace This introduction is brief, but rich and gracious and pitches the letter at once on a high plane. [source]
1 Thessalonians 1:10 Jesus which delivereth us from the wrath to come [Ιησουν τον ρυομενον ημας εκ της οργης της ερχομενης]
It is the historic, crucified, risen, and ascended Jesus Christ, God‘s Son, who delivers from the coming wrath. He is our Saviour (Matthew 1:21) true to his name Jesus. He is our Rescuer (Romans 11:26, ο ρυομενος — ho ruomenos from Isaiah 59:20). It is eschatological language, this coming wrath of God for sin (1 Thessalonians 2:16; Romans 3:5; Romans 5:9; Romans 9:22; Romans 13:5). It was Paul‘s allusion to the day of judgment with Jesus as Judge whom God had raised from the dead that made the Athenians mock and leave him (Acts 17:31.). But Paul did not change his belief or his preaching because of the conduct of the Athenians. He is certain that God‘s wrath in due time will punish sin. Surely this is a needed lesson for our day. It was coming then and it is coming now. [source]
Titus 3:11 Sinneth [ἁμαρτάνει]
See on 1 John 1:9; see on Matthew 1:21, and see on trespasses, Matthew 6:14. [source]
Hebrews 8:12 Their sins and their iniquities [τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν αὐτῶν]
Omit and their iniquities. For ἁμαρτία sinsee on Matthew 1:21; and for both ἀδικία and ἁμαρτία , see on 1 John 1:9. Comp. 1 John 5:17. [source]
Hebrews 4:8 Jesus [Ἰησοῦς]
Rend. Joshua, and see on Matthew 1:21. [source]
Hebrews 13:12 That he might sanctify the people [ἵνα ἁγιάσῃ τὸν λαόν]
Ἁγιάζειν tosanctify had a peculiar significance to Jews. It meant to set them apart as holy. Hence, the Israelites were called ἅγιοι , as separated from other nations and consecrated to God. Our writer extends the application of the word to Christians. For Christ's work he claims the same efficacy which the Jew claimed for the special call of God to Israel, and for the operation of the Jewish sacrificial system. The office of his atoning work is to sanctify; to make for himself a holy nation ( ἔθνος ἅγιον ), a people “prepared for the Lord” (Luke 1:17); a true Israel of God. Ὁ λαός thepeople, or λαός mypeople, occurs constantly in O.T. as a designation of Israel, and also in N.T. See, in this epistle, Hebrews 5:3; Hebrews 7:5, Hebrews 7:11, Hebrews 7:27; Hebrews 9:7, Hebrews 9:19. The N.T. extends the title to all who, under the new dispensation, occupy the position of Israel. See 1 Peter 2:10; Matthew 1:21; Luke 2:10; Hebrews 4:9; Hebrews 8:10; Hebrews 10:30; Hebrews 11:25. [source]
1 John 1:8 That we have no sin []
Ὅτι thatmay be taken merely as a mark of quotation: “If we say, sin we have not.” On the phrase to have sin, see on John 16:22, and compare have fellowship, 1 John 1:3. Sin ( ἁμαρτίαν ) is not to be understood of original sin, or of sin before conversion, but generally. “It is obvious that this ἔχειν ἁμαρτίαν (to have sin ), is infinitely diversified, according to the successive measure of the purification and development of the new man. Even the apostle John does not exclude himself from the universal if we say ” (Ebrard). Heathen authors say very little about sin, and classic paganism had little or no conception of sin in the Gospel sense. The nearest approach to it was by Plato, from whose works a tolerably complete doctrinal statement might be gathered of the origin, nature, and effects of sin. The fundamental idea of ἁμαρτία (sin ) among the Greeks is physical; the missing of a mark (see on Matthew 1:21; see on Matthew 6:14); from which it develops into a metaphysical meaning, to wander in the understanding. This assumes knowledge as the basis of goodness; and sin, therefore, is, primarily, ignorance. In the Platonic conception of sin, intellectual error is the prominent element. Thus: “What then, I said, is the result of all this? Is not this the result - that other things are indifferent, and that wisdom is the only good, and ignorance the only evil?” (“Euthydemus,” 281). “The business of the founders of the state will be to compel the best minds to attain that knowledge which has been already declared by us to be the greatest of all - they must continue to rise until they arrive at the good” (“Republic,” vii., 519). Plato represents sin as the dominance of the lower impulses of the soul, which is opposed to nature and to God (see “Laws,” ix., 863. “Republic,” i., 351). Or again, as an inward want of harmony. “May we not regard every living being as a puppet of the gods, either their plaything only or created with a purpose - which of the two we cannot certainly know? But this we know, that these affections in us are like cords and strings which pull us different and opposite ways, and to opposite actions; and herein lies the difference between virtue and vice” (“Laws,” i., 644). He traces most sins to the influence of the body on the soul. “In this present life, I reckon that we make the nearest approach to knowledge when we have the least possible communion or fellowship with the body, and are not infected with the bodily nature, but remain pure until the hour when God himself is pleased to release us. And then the foolishness of the body will be cleared away, and we shall be pure, and hold converse with other pure souls, and know of ourselves the clear light everywhere, which is no other than the light of truth” (“Phedo,” 67). -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
We find in the classical writers, however, the occasional sense of the universal faultiness of mankind, though even Plato furnishes scarcely any traces of accepting the doctrine of innate depravity. Thus Theognis: “The sun beholds no wholly good and virtuous man among those who are now living” (615). “But having become good, to remain in a good state and be good, is not possible, and is not granted to man. God only has this blessing; but man cannot help being bad when the force of circumstances overpowers him” (Plato, “Protagoras,” 344). “ How, then: is it possible to be sinless? It is impossible; but this is possible, to strive not to sin” (“Epictetus,” iv., 12,19). [source]

What do the individual words in Matthew 1:21 mean?

She will bear then a son and you will call the name of Him Jesus He for will save the people from the sins of them
τέξεται δὲ υἱὸν καὶ καλέσεις τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ Ἰησοῦν αὐτὸς γὰρ σώσει τὸν λαὸν ἀπὸ τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν αὐτῶν

τέξεται  She  will  bear 
Parse: Verb, Future Indicative Middle, 3rd Person Singular
Root: τίκτω  
Sense: to bring forth, bear, produce (fruit from the seed).
υἱὸν  a  son 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Masculine Singular
Root: υἱός  
Sense: a son.
καλέσεις  you  will  call 
Parse: Verb, Future Indicative Active, 2nd Person Singular
Root: καλέω  
Sense: to call.
ὄνομα  name 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Neuter Singular
Root: ὄνομα  
Sense: name: univ.
αὐτοῦ  of  Him 
Parse: Personal / Possessive Pronoun, Genitive Masculine 3rd Person Singular
Root: αὐτός  
Sense: himself, herself, themselves, itself.
Ἰησοῦν  Jesus 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Masculine Singular
Root: Ἰησοῦς  
Sense: Joshua was the famous captain of the Israelites, Moses’ successor.
σώσει  will  save 
Parse: Verb, Future Indicative Active, 3rd Person Singular
Root: ἐκσῴζω 
Sense: to save, keep safe and sound, to rescue from danger or destruction.
λαὸν  people 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Masculine Singular
Root: λαός  
Sense: a people, people group, tribe, nation, all those who are of the same stock and language.
ἁμαρτιῶν  sins 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Feminine Plural
Root: ἁμαρτία  
Sense: equivalent to 264.
αὐτῶν  of  them 
Parse: Personal / Possessive Pronoun, Genitive Masculine 3rd Person Plural
Root: αὐτός  
Sense: himself, herself, themselves, itself.