The Meaning of John 1:18 Explained

John 1:18

KJV: No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him.

YLT: God no one hath ever seen; the only begotten Son, who is on the bosom of the Father -- he did declare.

Darby: No one has seen God at any time; the only-begotten Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him.

ASV: No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him .

What does John 1:18 Mean?

Study Notes

hath seen God
CF Genesis 32:20 ; Exodus 24:10 ; Exodus 33:18 ; Judges 6:22 ; Judges 13:22 ; Revelation 22:4 . The divine essence, God, veiled in angelic form, and especially as incarnate in Jesus Christ, has been seen of men.; Genesis 18:2 ; Genesis 18:22 ; John 14:8 ; John 14:9 .
declared Lit. led him forth, i.e. into full revelation. John 14:9 .

Verse Meaning

There are many passages of Scripture that record various individuals seeing God (e.g, Exodus 33:21-23; Isaiah 6:1-5; Revelation 1:10-18). Those instances involved visions, theophanies, or anthropomorphic representations of God rather than encounters with His unveiled spiritual essence (cf. Exodus 33:20-23; Deuteronomy 4:12; Psalm 97:2; 1 Timothy 1:17; 1 Timothy 6:16; 1 John 4:12). The way we know what God is like is not by viewing His essence. No one can do that and live. God has sent His unique and only Son (monogenous, cf. John 1:14) from His own most intimate presence to reveal God to humankind.
"In the bosom of is a Hebrew idiom expressing the intimate relationship of child and parent, and of friend and friend (cf. xiii23)." [1]
In the system that Moses inaugurated, no one could "see" God, but Jesus has revealed Him now to everyone. Note also that John called Jesus God here again. Though some ancient manuscripts read "Son" instead of "God," the correct reading seems clearly to be "God."
Jesus "explained" (NASB) God in the sense of revealing Him. The Greek word is exegesato from which we get "exegete." The Son has exegeted (i.e, explained, interpreted, or narrated) the Father to humankind. The reference to Jesus being in the bosom of the Father softens and brings affection to the idea of Jesus exegeting the Father. The nature of God is in view here, not His external appearance.
"God is invisible, not because he is unreal, but because physical eyes are incapable of detecting him. The infrared and ultraviolet rays of the light spectrum are invisible because the human eye is not sensitive enough to register them. However, photographic plates or a spectroscope can make them visible to us. Deity as a being is consequently known only through spiritual means that are able to receive its (his) communications." [2]
John ended his prologue as he began it, with a reference to Jesus" deity. [3] He began by saying the Word was with God ( John 1:1), and he concluded by saying that He was at the Father"s side. This indicates the intimate fellowship, love, and knowledge that the Father and the Son shared. It also gives us confidence that the revelation of the Father that Jesus revealed is accurate. John"s main point in this prologue was that Jesus is the ultimate revealer of God. [4]
". . . John in his use of Logos is cutting clean across one of the fundamental Greek ideas. The Greeks thought of the gods as detached from the world, as regarding its struggles and heartaches and joys and fears with serene divine lack of feeling. John"s idea of the Logos conveys exactly the opposite idea. John"s Logos does not show us a God who is serenely detached, but a God who is passionately involved." [5]
Later John described himself as reclining on Jesus" bosom (cf. John 13:23). His Gospel is an accurate revelation of the Word because John enjoyed intimate fellowship with Him just as Jesus was an accurate revelation of God that came from intimate relationship with Him.

Context Summary

John 1:14-28 - The Voice Of Promise
Note that the Revised Version changes the words was made to became, John 1:14. Evidently Jesus had existed before this becoming; and evidently there was a process of self-limitation. Dwelt, that is, tabernacled. As the Shechinah light was veiled by the curtain of the Tabernacle, so the divine essence in Jesus was veiled by His humanity, though it shone out at the Transfiguration. He was full of grace, the unmerited love of God; full of truth, coming to bear witness to it; full of glory, that of the only begotten Son. There are many sons, but only one Son.
What a beautiful testimony John the Baptist gave! He was not the Christ, not Elijah (except in spirit), not the expected prophet, but just a voice, announcing the Christ and dying away. He was content to decrease before the greater whom he had been taught to expect and was sent to herald. There is a sense in which the preacher of repentance must always precede the Christ. There must be a putting away of known sin, previous to the recognition of the Lamb of God. But how great must Christ be, when so noble a man as the Baptist felt unworthy to unloose His sandals! [source]

Chapter Summary: John 1

1  The divinity, humanity, office, and incarnation of Jesus Christ
15  The testimony of John
39  The calling of Simon and Andrew, Philip and Nathanael

Greek Commentary for John 1:18

No man hath seen God at any time [τεον ουδεις εωρακεν πωποτε]
“God no one has ever seen.” Perfect active indicative of οραω — horaō Seen with the human physical eye, John means. God is invisible (Exodus 33:20; Deuteronomy 4:12). Paul calls God αορατος — aoratos (Colossians 1:15; 1 Timothy 1:17). John repeats the idea in John 5:37; John 6:46. And yet in John 14:7 Jesus claims that the one who sees him has seen the Father as here. The only begotten Son This is the reading of the Textus Receptus and is intelligible after ως μονογενους παρα πατρος — hōs monogenous para patros in John 1:14. But the best old Greek manuscripts (Aleph B C L) read μονογενης τεος — monogenēs theos (God only begotten) which is undoubtedly the true text. Probably some scribe changed it to ο μονογενης υιος — ho monogenēs huios to obviate the blunt statement of the deity of Christ and to make it like John 3:16. But there is an inner harmony in the reading of the old uncials. The Logos is plainly called τεος — theos in John 1:1. The Incarnation is stated in John 1:14, where he is also termed μονογενης — monogenēs He was that before the Incarnation. So he is “God only begotten,” “the Eternal Generation of the Son” of Origen‘s phrase. Which is in the bosom of the Father The eternal relation of the Son with the Father like προς τον τεον — pros ton theon in John 1:1. In John 3:13 there is some evidence for ο ων εν τωι ουρανωι — ho ōn en tōi ouranōi used by Christ of himself while still on earth. The mystic sense here is that the Son is qualified to reveal the Father as Logos (both the Father in Idea and Expression) by reason of the continual fellowship with the Father. He Emphatic pronoun referring to the Son. Hath declared him First aorist (effective) middle indicative of εχηγεομαι — exēgeomai old verb to lead out, to draw out in narrative, to recount. Here only in John, though once in Luke‘s Gospel (Luke 24:35) and four times in Acts (Acts 10:8; Acts 15:12, Acts 15:14; Acts 21:19). This word fitly closes the Prologue in which the Logos is pictured in marvellous fashion as the Word of God in human flesh, the Son of God with the Glory of God in him, showing men who God is and what he is. [source]
No man hath seen God at any time [Θεὸν οὐδεὶς ἑώρακεν πώποτε]
God is first in the Greek order, as emphatic: “God hath no man ever seen.” As to the substance of the statement, compare John 3:11; Exodus 33:20; 1 John 4:12. Manifestations of God to Old Testament saints were only partial and approximate (Exodus 33:23). The seeing intended here is seeing of the divine essence rather than of the divine person, which also is indicated by the absence of the article from Θεὸν , God. In this sense even Christ was not seen as God. The verb ὁράω , to see, denotes a physical act, but emphasizes the mental discernment accompanying it, and points to the result rather than to the act of vision. In 1 John 1:1; 1 John 4:12, 1 John 4:14, θεάομαι is used, denoting calm and deliberate contemplation (see on John 1:14). In John 12:45, we have θεωρέω , to behold (see on Mark 5:15; see on Luke 10:18). Both θεάομαι and θεωρέω imply deliberate contemplation, but the former is gazing with a view to satisfy the eye, while the latter is beholding more critically, with an inward spiritual or mental interest in the thing beheld, and with a view to acquire knowledge about it. “ Θεωρεῖν would be used of a general officially reviewing or inspecting an army; θεᾶσθαι of a lay spectator looking at the parade” (Thayer). [source]
Who is in the bosom [ὁ ὢν εἰς τὸν κόλπον]
The expression ὁ ὢν , who is, or the one being, is explained in two ways: 1. As a timeless present, expressing the inherent and eternal relation of the Son to the Father. 2. As interpreted by the preposition. εἰς , in, literally, into, and expressing the fact of Christ's return to the Father's glory after His incarnation: “The Son who has entered into the Father's bosom and is there.” In the former case it is an absolute description of the nature of the Son: in the latter, the emphasis is on the historic fact of the ascension, though with a reference to his eternal abiding with the Father from thenceforth. While the fact of Christ's return to the Father's glory may have been present to the writer's mind, and have helped to determine the form of the statement, to emphasize that fact in this connection would seem less consistent with the course of thought in the Prologue than the other interpretation: since John is declaring in this sentence the competency of the incarnate Son to manifest God to mankind. The ascension of Christ is indeed bound up with that truth, but is not, in the light of the previous course of thought, its primary factor. That is rather the eternal oneness of the Word with God; which, though passing through the phase of incarnation, nevertheless remains unbroken (John 3:13). Thus Godet, aptly: “The quality attributed to Jesus, of being the perfect revealer of the divine Being, is founded on His intimate and perfect relation to God Himself.”-DIVIDER-
The phrase, in the bosom of the Father, depicts this eternal relation as essentially a relation of love; the figure being used of the relation of husband and wife (Deuteronomy 13:6); of a father to an infant child (Numbers 11:12), and of the affectionate protection and rest afforded to Lazarus in Paradise (Luke 16:23). The force of the preposition εἰς , into, according to the first interpretation of who is, is akin to that of “with God” (see on John 1:1); denoting an ever active relation, an eternal going forth and returning to the Father's bosom by the Son in His eternal work of love. He ever goes forth from that element of grace and love and returns to it. That element is His life. He is there “because He plunges into it by His unceasing action” (Godet). [source]

Hath declared [ἐξηγήσατο]
Or, rendering the aorist strictly, He declared. From ἐκ , forth, and ἡγέομαι , to lead the way. Originally, to lead or govern. Hence, like the Latin praeire verbis, to go before with words, to prescribe or dictate a form of words. To draw out in narrative, to recount or rehearse (see Acts 15:14, and on Luke 24:35). To relate in full; to interpret, or translate. Therefore ἐξήγησις , exegesis, is interpretation or explanation. The word ἐξηγητής was used by the Greeks of an expounder of oracles, dreams, omens, or sacred rites. Thus Croesus, finding the suburbs of Sardis alive with serpents, sent to the soothsayers ( ἐξηγητὰς ) of Telmessus (Herodotus, i. 78). The word thus comes to mean a spiritual director. Plato calls Apollo the tutelary director ( πατρῷος ἐξηγητής ) of religion (“Republic,” 427), and says, “Let the priests be interpreters for life” (“Laws,” 759). In the Septuagint the word is used of the magicians of Pharaoh's court (Genesis 41:8, Genesis 41:24), and the kindred verb of teaching or interpreting concerning leprosy (Leviticus 14:57). John's meaning is that the Word revealed or manifested and interpreted the Father to men. The word occurs only here in John's writings. Wyc. renders, He hath told out. These words conclude the Prologue. The Historical Narrative now begins, and falls into two general divisions:-DIVIDER-
I. The Self-Revelation of Christ to the World (1:19-12:50)-DIVIDER-
II. The Self-Revelation of Christ to the Disciples (13:1-21:23)sa120 [source]

The only begotten son [ὁ μονογενὴς υἱὸς]
Several of the principal manuscripts and a great mass of ancient evidence support the reading μονογενὴς Θεὸς , “God only begotten.” Another and minor difference in reading relates to the article, which is omitted from μονογενὴς by most of the authorities which favor Θεὸς . Whether we read the only begotten Son, or God only begotten, the sense of the passage is not affected. The latter reading merely combines in one phrase the two attributes of the word already indicated - God (John 1:1), only begotten (John 1:14); the sense being one who was both God and only begotten. [source]
He [ἐκεῖνος]
Strongly emphatic, and pointing to the eternal Son. This pronoun is used by John more frequently than by any other writer. It occurs seventy-two times, and not only as denoting the more distant subject, but as denoting and laying special stress on the person or thing immediately at hand, or possessing pre-eminently the quality which is immediately in question. Thus Jesus applies it to Himself as the person for whom the healed blind man is inquiring: “It is He ( ἐκεῖνος ) that talketh with thee” (John 9:37). So here, “the only-begotten Son who is in the bosom of the Father - He hath declared Him.” [source]

Reverse Greek Commentary Search for John 1:18

Matthew 1:1 The Son [υἱός]
The word τέκνον (child ) is often used interchangeably with υἱός (son )but is never applied to Christ. (For τέκνον , see on 1 John 3:1.) While in τέκνον there is commonly implied the passive or dependent relation of the children to the parents, υἱός fixes the thought on the person himself rather than on the dependence upon his parents. It suggests individuality rather than descent; or, if descent, mainly to bring out the fact that the son was worthy of his parent. Hence the word marks the filial relation as carrying with it privilege, dignity, and freedom, and is, therefore, the only appropriate term to express Christ's sonship. (See John 1:18; John 3:16; Romans 8:29; Colossians 1:13, Colossians 1:15.) Through Christ the dignity of sons is bestowed on believers, so that the same word is appropriate to Christians, sons of God. (See Romans 8:14; Romans 9:26; Galatians 3:26; Galatians 4:5, Galatians 4:6, Galatians 4:7.) [source]
Luke 16:22 Into Abraham‘s bosom [εις τον ολπον Αβρααμ]
To be in Abraham‘s bosom is to the Jew to be in Paradise. In John 1:18 the Logos is in the bosom of the Father. Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are in heaven and welcome those who come (Matthew 8:11; 4 Maccabees 14:17). The beloved disciple reclined on the bosom of Jesus at the last passover (John 13:23) and this fact indicates special favour. So the welcome to Lazarus was unusual.Was buried (εταπη — etaphē). Second aorist (effective) passive of the common verb ταπτω — thaptō Apparently in contrast with the angelic visitation to the beggar. [source]
Luke 8:42 An only daughter [τυγατηρ μονογενης]
The same adjective used of the widow‘s son (Luke 7:12) and the epileptic boy (Luke 9:38) and of Jesus (John 1:18; John 3:16). [source]
John 6:46 Hath seen []
As contrasted with hearing and learning (John 6:45). The Father is not seen immediately, but through the Son. Compare John 1:18; John 14:9; 1 John 3:2, Matthew 11:27. [source]
John 6:40 Seeth [θεωρῶν]
The word is designedly used. The saving vision of Christ is not here seeing, but earnest contemplation. Rev., beholdeth. See on John 1:18. Compare ye have seen me, and believe not (John 6:36). [source]
John 6:19 They see [θεωροῦσι]
Rev., behold; with an intent gaze. See on John 1:18. Both Luke and John use this word frequently. [source]
John 6:2 Saw [ἑώρων]
Rev., beheld. See on John 1:18. [source]
John 5:11 He that made - the same [ὁ ποιήσας - ἐκεῖνος]
The demonstrative pronoun points with emphasis to the subject of the preceding clause. A characteristic usage of John. See John 1:18, John 1:33; John 9:37; John 10:1; John 12:48, etc. [source]
John 4:19 I perceive [θεωρῶ]
See on John 1:18. Not immediate perception, but rather, I perceive as I observe thee longer and more carefully. [source]
John 3:15 Have eternal life []
A characteristic phrase of John for live forever. See John 1:16-183 John 3:36; John 5:24; John 6:40, John 6:47, John 6:54; 1 John 3:15; 1 John 5:12. The interview with Nicodemus closes with John 3:15; and the succeeding words are John's. This appears from the following facts: 1. The past tenses loved and gave, in John 3:16, better suit the later point of view from which John writes, after the atoning death of Christ was an accomplished historic fact, than the drift of the present discourse of Jesus before the full revelation of that work. 2. It is in John's manner to throw in explanatory comments of his own (1618532846_26; John 12:37-41), and to do so abruptly. See John 1:15, John 1:16, and on and, John 1:16. 3. John 3:19is in the same line of thought with John 1:9-11in the Prologue; and the tone of that verse is historic, carrying the sense of past rejection, as loved darkness; were evil. 4. The phrase believe on the name is not used elsewhere by our Lord, but by John (John 1:12; John 2:23; 1 John 5:13). 5. The phrase only-begotten son is not elsewhere used by Jesus of himself, but in every case by the Evangelist (John 1:14, John 1:18; 1 John 4:9). 6. The phrase to do truth (John 3:21) occurs elsewhere only in 1 John 1:6. -DIVIDER-
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[source]

John 2:21 He [ἐκεῖνος]
See on John 1:18. Emphatic, and marking the contrast between the deeper meaning of Jesus and the literalism of the Jews and of His disciples (see next verse). For other illustrations of John's pointing out the meaning of words of Jesus which were not at first understood, see John 7:39; John 12:33; John 21:19. [source]
John 19:35 And he [κακεῖνος]
This pronoun is urged by some as a reason for regarding the witness as some other than John, because it is the pronoun of remote reference. But John 9:37shows clearly that a speaker can use this pronoun of himself; and it is, further, employed in this Gospel to indicate a person “as possessing the quality which is the point in question in an eminent or even exclusive degree” (Godet). See John 1:18; John 5:39. [source]
John 16:16 Ye shall see [ὄψεσθε]
A different verb for seeing is used here. For the distinction, see on John 1:18. Θεωρέω emphasizes the act of vision, ὁράω , the result. Θεωρέω denotes deliberate contemplation conjoined with mental or spiritual interest. “The vision of wondering contemplation, in which they observed little by little the outward manifestation of the Lord, was changed and transfigured into sight, in which they seized at once, intuitively, all that Christ was. As long as His earthly presence was the object on which their eyes were fixed, their view was necessarily imperfect. His glorified presence showed Him in His true nature” (Westcott). [source]
John 16:10 Ye see [θεωρεῖτε]
Rev., behold. See on John 1:18. [source]
John 14:7 Have seen []
See on John 1:18. [source]
John 1:34 I saw [ἑώρακα]
Rev., more strictly, according to the perfect tense, I have seen. See on John 1:32, and note the different verb for seeing, on which see on John 1:18. [source]
John 1:33 The same [ἐκεῖνος]
Rev., He. See on John 1:18. Emphasizing the personal communication of Christ to the Baptist. [source]
John 1:29 Seeth [βλέπει]
Both ὁράω and βλέπω denote the physical act of seeing, the former seeing in general, the latter the single look. The perception indicated by βλέπω is more outward; the perception of sense as distinguished from mental discernment, which is prominent in ὁράω . A look told the Baptist that the Mightier One had come. See on John 1:18, and see on Matthew 7:3. [source]
John 1:1 The Word [ὁ λόγος]
Logos. This expression is the keynote and theme of the entire gospel. Λόγος is from the root λεγ , appearing in λέγω , the primitive meaning of which is to lay: then, to pick out, gather, pick up: hence to gather or put words together, and so, to speak. Hence λόγος is, first of all, a collecting or collection both of things in the mind, and of words by which they are expressed. It therefore signifies both the outward form by which the inward thought is expressed, and the inward thought itself, the Latin oratio and ratio: compare the Italian ragionare, “to think” and “to speak.” As signifying the outward form it is never used in the merely grammatical sense, as simply the name of a thing or act ( ἔπος, ὄνομα, ῥῆμα ), but means a word as the thing referred to: the material, not the formal part: a word as embodying a conception or idea. See, for instance, Matthew 22:46; 1 Corinthians 14:9, 1 Corinthians 14:19. Hence it signifies a saying, of God, or of man (Matthew 19:21, Matthew 19:22; Mark 5:35, Mark 5:36): a decree, a precept (Romans 9:28; Mark 7:13). The ten commandments are called in the Septuagint, οἱ δέκα λόγοι , “the ten words ” (Exodus 34:28), and hence the familiar term decalogue. It is further used of discourse: either of the act of speaking (Acts 14:12), of skill and practice in speaking (Acts 18:15; 2 Timothy 4:15), specifically the doctrine of salvation through Christ (Matthew 13:20-23; Philemon 1:14); of narrative, both the relation and the thing related (Acts 1:1; John 21:23; Mark 1:45); of matter under discussion, an affair, a case in law (Acts 15:6; Acts 19:38). -DIVIDER-
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As signifying the inward thought, it denotes the faculty of thinking and reasoning (Hebrews 4:12); regard or consideration (Acts 20:24); reckoning, account (Philemon 4:15, Philemon 4:17; Hebrews 4:13); cause or reason (Acts 10:29). -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
John uses the word in a peculiar sense, here, and in John 1:14; and, in this sense, in these two passages only. The nearest approach to it is in Revelation 19:13, where the conqueror is called the Word of God; and it is recalled in the phrases Word of Life, and the Life was manifested (1 John 1:1, 1 John 1:2). Compare Hebrews 4:12. It was a familiar and current theological term when John wrote, and therefore he uses it without explanation. Old Testament Usage of the TermThe word here points directly to Psalm href="/desk/?q=ps+33:6&sr=1">Psalm 33:6). The idea of God, who is in his own nature hidden, revealing himself in creation, is the root of the Logos-idea, in contrast with all materialistic or pantheistic conceptions of creation. This idea develops itself in the Old Testament on three lines. (1) The Word, as embodying the divine will, is personified in Hebrew poetry. Consequently divine attributes are predicated of it as being the continuous revelation of God in law and prophecy (Psalm 3:4; Isaiah 40:8; Psalm 119:105). The Word is a healer in Psalm 107:20; a messenger in Psalm 147:15; the agent of the divine decrees in Isaiah 55:11. (2) The personified wisdom (Job 28:12sq.; Job 28). Even Death, which unlocks so many secrets, and the underworld, know it only as a rumor (Job href="/desk/?q=job+28:22&sr=1">Job 28:22). It is only God who knows its way and its place (Job 28:23). He made the world, made the winds and the waters, made a decree for the rain and a way for the lightning of the thunder (Job 28:25, Job 28:26). He who possessed wisdom in the beginning of his way, before His works of old, before the earth with its depths and springs and mountains, with whom was wisdom as one brought up with Him (Proverbs 8:26-31), declared it. “It became, as it were, objective, so that He beheld it” (Job 28:27) and embodied it in His creative work. This personification, therefore, is based on the thought that wisdom is not shut up at rest in God, but is active and manifest in the world. “She standeth in the top of high places, by the way in the places of the paths. She crieth at the gates, at the entry of the city, at the coming in at the doors” (Proverbs 8:2, Proverbs 8:3). She builds a palace and prepares a banquet, and issues a general invitation to the simple and to him that wanteth understanding (Proverbs 9:1-6). It is viewed as the one guide to salvation, comprehending all revelations of God, and as an attribute embracing and combining all His other attributes. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
(3) The Angel of Jehovah. The messenger of God who serves as His agent in the world of sense, and is sometimes distinguished from Jehovah and sometimes identical with him (Genesis 16:7-13; Genesis 32:24-28; Hosea 12:4, Hosea 12:5; Exodus 23:20, Exodus 23:21; Malachi 3:1). Apocryphal UsageIn the Apocryphal writings this mediative element is more distinctly apprehended, but with a tendency to pantheism. In the Wisdom of Solomon (at least 100 b.c.), where wisdom seems to be viewed as another name for the whole divine nature, while nowhere connected with the Messiah, it is described as a being of light, proceeding essentially from God; a true image of God, co-occupant of the divine throne; a real and independent principle, revealing God in the world and mediating between it and Him, after having created it as his organ - in association with a spirit which is called μονογενές , only begotten (7:22). “She is the breath of the power of God, and a pure influence flowing from the glory of the Almighty; therefore can no defiled thing fall into her. For she is the brightness of the everlasting light, the unspotted mirror of the power of God, and the image of his goodness” (see chapter 7, throughout). Again: “Wisdom reacheth from one end to another mightily, and sweetly doth she order all things. In that she is conversant with God, she magnifieth her nobility: yea, the Lord of all things Himself loved her. For she is privy to the mysteries of the knowledge of God, and a lover of His works. Moreover, by the means of her I shall obtain immortality, and leave behind me an everlasting memorial to them that come after me” (chapter 9). In 16:12, it is said, “Thy word, O Lord, healeth all things” (compare Psalm 107:20); and in 18:15,16, “Thine almighty word leaped from heaven out of thy royal throne, as a fierce man of war into the midst of a land of destruction, and brought thine unfeigned commandment as a sharp sword, and, standing up, filled all things with death; and it touched the heaven, but it stood upon the earth.” See also Wisdom of Sirach, chapters 1,24, and Genesis href="/desk/?q=ge+39:21&sr=1">Genesis 39:21, they paraphrase, “The Memra was with Joseph in prison.” In Psalm 110:1-7Jehovah addresses the first verse to the Memra. The Memra is the angel that destroyed the first-born of Egypt, and it was the Memra that led the Israelites in the cloudy pillar. Usage in the Judaeo-Alexandrine PhilosophyFrom the time of Ptolemy I: (323-285 b.c.), there were Jews in great numbers in Egypt. Philo (a.d. 50) estimates them at a million in his time. Alexandria was their headquarters. They had their own senate and magistrates, and possessed the same privileges as the Greeks. The Septuagint translation of the Hebrew Scriptures into Greek (b.c. 280-150) was the beginning of a literary movement among them, the key-note of which was the reconciliation of Western culture and Judaism, the establishment of a connection between the Old Testament faith and the Greek philosophy. Hence they interpreted the facts of sacred history allegorically, and made them symbols of certain speculative principles, alleging that the Greek philosophers had borrowed their wisdom from Moses. Aristobulus (about 150 b.c.) asserted the existence of a previous and much older translation of the law, and dedicated to Ptolemy VI an allegorical exposition of the Pentateuch, in which he tried to show that the doctrines of the Peripatetic or Aristotelian school were derived from the Old Testament. Most of the schools of Greek philosophy were represented among the Alexandrian Jews, but the favorite one was the Platonic. The effort at reconciliation culminated in Philo, a contemporary of Christ. Philo was intimately acquainted with the Platonic philosophy, and made it the fundamental feature of his own doctrines, while availing himself likewise of ideas belonging to the Peripatetic and Stoic schools. Unable to discern the difference in the points of view from which these different doctrines severally proceeded, he jumbled together not merely discordant doctrines of the Greek schools, but also those of the East, regarding the wisdom of the Greeks as having originated in the legislation and writings of Moses. He gathered together from East and West every element that could help to shape his conception of a vicegerent of God, “a mediator between the eternal and the ephemeral. His Logos reflects light from countless facets.” According to Philo, God is the absolute Being. He calls God “that which is:” “the One and the All.” God alone exists for himself, without multiplicity and without mixture. No name can properly be ascribed to Him: He simply is. Hence, in His nature, He is unknowable. -DIVIDER-
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Outside of God there exists eternal matter, without form and void, and essentially evil; but the perfect Being could not come into direct contact with the senseless and corruptible; so that the world could not have been created by His direct agency. Hence the doctrine of a mediating principle between God and matter - the divine Reason, the Logos in whom are comprised all the ideas of finite things, and who created the sensible world by causing these ideas to penetrate into matter. -DIVIDER-
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The absolute God is surrounded by his powers ( δυνάμεις ) as a king by his servants. These powers are, in Platonic language, ideas; in Jewish, angels; but all are essentially one, and their unity, as they exist in God, as they emanate from him, as they are disseminated in the world, is expressed by Logos Hence the Logos appears under a twofold aspect: (1) As the immanent reason of God, containing within itself the world-ideal, which, while not outwardly existing, is like the immanent reason in man. This is styled Λόγος ἐνδιάθετος , i.e., the Logos conceived and residing in the mind. This was the aspect emphasized by the Alexandrians, and which tended to the recognition of a twofold personality in the divine essence. (2) As the outspoken word, proceeding from God and manifest in the world. This, when it has issued from God in creating the world, is the Λόγος προφορικός , i.e., the Logos uttered, even as in man the spoken word is the manifestation of thought. This aspect prevailed in Palestine, where the Word appears like the angel of the Pentateuch, as the medium of the outward communication of God with men, and tends toward the recognition of a divine person subordinate to God. Under the former aspect, the Logos is, really, one with God's hidden being: the latter comprehends all the workings and revelations of God in the world; affords from itself the ideas and energies by which the world was framed and is upheld; and, filling all things with divine light and life, rules them in wisdom, love, and righteousness. It is the beginning of creation, not inaugurated, like God, nor made, like the world; but the eldest son of the eternal Father (the world being the younger); God's image; the mediator between God and the world; the highest angel; the second God. -DIVIDER-
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Philo's conception of the Logos, therefore, is: the sum-total and free exercise of the divine energies; so that God, so far as he reveals himself, is called Logos; while the Logos, so far as he reveals God, is called God. -DIVIDER-
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John's doctrine and terms are colored by these preceding influences. During his residence at Ephesus he must have become familiar with the forms and terms of the Alexandrian theology. Nor is it improbable that he used the term Logos with an intent to facilitate the passage from the current theories of his time to the pure gospel which he proclaimed. “To those Hellenists and Hellenistic Jews, on the one hand, who were vainly philosophizing on the relations of the finite and infinite; to those investigators of the letter of the Scriptures, on the other, who speculated about the theocratic revelations, John said, by giving this name Logos to Jesus: 'The unknown Mediator between God and the world, the knowledge of whom you are striving after, we have seen, heard, and touched. Your philosophical speculations and your scriptural subtleties will never raise you to Him. Believe as we do in Jesus, and you will possess in Him that divine Revealer who engages your thoughts'” (Godet). -DIVIDER-
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But John's doctrine is not Philo's, and does not depend upon it. The differences between the two are pronounced. Though both use the term Logos, they use it with utterly different meanings. In John it signifies word, as in Holy Scripture generally; in Philo, reason; and that so distinctly that when Philo wishes to give it the meaning of word, he adds to it by way of explanation, the term ῥῆμα , word. The nature of the being described by Logos is conceived by each in an entirely different spirit. John's Logos is a person, with a consciousness of personal distinction; Philo's is impersonal. His notion is indeterminate and fluctuating, shaped by the influence which happens to be operating at the time. Under the influence of Jewish documents he styles the Logos an “archangel;” under the influence of Plato, “the Idea of Ideas;” of the Stoics, “the impersonal Reason.” It is doubtful whether Philo ever meant to represent the Logos formally as a person. All the titles he gives it may be explained by supposing it to mean the ideal world on which the actual is modeled. -DIVIDER-
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In Philo, moreover, the function of the Logos is confined to the creation and preservation of the universe. He does not identify or connect him with the Messiah. His doctrine was, to a great degree, a philosophical substitute for Messianic hopes. He may have conceived of the Word as acting through the Messiah, but not as one with him. He is a universal principle. In John the Messiah is the Logos himself, uniting himself with humanity, and clothing himself with a body in order to save the world. -DIVIDER-
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The two notions differ as to origin. The impersonal God of Philo cannot pass to the finite creation without contamination of his divine essence. Hence an inferior agent must be interposed. John's God, on the other hand, is personal, and a loving personality. He is a Father (John 1:18); His essence is love (John 3:16; 1 John 4:8, 1 John 4:16). He is in direct relation with the world which He desires to save, and the Logos is He Himself, manifest in the flesh. According to Philo, the Logos is not coexistent with the eternal God. Eternal matter is before him in time. According to John, the Logos is essentially with the Father from all eternity (John 1:2), and it is He who creates all things, matter included (John 1:3). -DIVIDER-
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Philo misses the moral energy of the Hebrew religion as expressed in its emphasis upon the holiness of Jehovah, and therefore fails to perceive the necessity of a divine teacher and Savior. He forgets the wide distinction between God and the world, and declares that, were the universe to end, God would die of loneliness and inactivity. The Meaning of Logos in JohnAs Logos has the double meaning of thought and speech, so Christ is related to God as the word to the idea, the word being not merely a name for the idea, but the idea itself expressed. The thought is the inward word (Dr. Schaff compares the Hebrew expression “I speak in my heart” for “I think”). The Logos of John is the real, personal God (John 1:1), the Word, who was originally before the creation with God. and was God, one in essence and nature, yet personally distinct (John 1:1, John 1:18); the revealer and interpreter of the hidden being of God; the reflection and visible image of God, and the organ of all His manifestations to the world. Compare Hebrews 1:3. He made all things, proceeding personally from God for the accomplishment of the act of creation (Hebrews 1:3), and became man in the person of Jesus Christ, accomplishing the redemption of the world. Compare Philemon 2:6. -DIVIDER-
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The following is from William Austin, “Meditation for Christmas Day,” cited by Ford on John:-DIVIDER-
“The name Word is most excellently given to our Savior; for it expresses His nature in one, more than in any others. Therefore St. John, when he names the Person in the Trinity (1 John 5:7), chooses rather to call Him Word than Son; for word is a phrase more communicable than son. Son hath only reference to the Father that begot Him; but word may refer to him that conceives it; to him that speaks it; to that which is spoken by it; to the voice that it is clad in; and to the effects it raises in him that hears it. So Christ, as He is the Word, not only refers to His Father that begot Him, and from whom He comes forth, but to all the creatures that were made by Him; to the flesh that He took to clothe Him; and to the doctrine He brought and taught, and, which lives yet in the hearts of all them that obediently do hear it. He it is that is this Word; and any other, prophet or preacher, he is but a voice (Luke 3:4). Word is an inward conception of the mind; and voice is but a sign of intention. St. John was but a sign, a voice; not worthy to untie the shoe-latchet of this Word. Christ is the inner conception 'in the bosom of His Father;' and that is properly the Word. And yet the Word is the intention uttered forth, as well as conceived within; for Christ was no less the Word in the womb of the Virgin, or in the cradle of the manger, or on the altar of the cross, than he was in the beginning, 'in the bosom of his Father.' For as the intention departs not from the mind when the word is uttered, so Christ, proceeding from the Father by eternal generation, and after here by birth and incarnation, remains still in Him and with Him in essence; as the intention, which is conceived and born in the mind, remains still with it and in it, though the word be spoken. He is therefore rightly called the Word, both by His coming from, and yet remaining still in, the Father.”And the WordA repetition of the great subject, with solemn emphasis.Was with God ( ἦν πὸς τὸν Θεὸν )Anglo-Saxon vers., mid Gode. Wyc., at God. With ( πρός ) does not convey the full meaning, that there is no single English word which will give it better. The preposition πρός , which, with the accusative case, denotes motion towards, or direction, is also often used in the New Testament in the sense of with; and that not merely as being near or beside, but as a living union and communion; implying the active notion of intercourse. Thus: “Are not his sisters here with us ” ( πρὸς ἡμᾶς ), i.e., in social relations with us (Mark 6:3; Matthew 13:56). “How long shall I be with you ” ( πρὸς ὑμᾶς , Mark 9:16). “I sat daily with you ” (Matthew 26:55). “To be present with the Lord ” ( πρὸς τὸν Κύριον , 2 Corinthians 5:8). “Abide and winter with you ” (1 Corinthians 16:6). “The eternal life which was with the Father ” ( πρὸς τὸν πατέρα , 1 John 1:2). Thus John's statement is that the divine Word not only abode with the Father from all eternity, but was in the living, active relation of communion with Him.And the Word was God ( καὶ Θεὸς ἦν ὁ λόγος )In the Greek order, and God was the Word, which is followed by Anglo-Saxon, Wyc., and Tynd. But θεὸς , God, is the predicate and not the subject of the proposition. The subject must be the Word; for John is not trying to show who is God, but who is the Word. Notice that Θεὸς is without the article, which could not have been omitted if he had meant to designate the word as God; because, in that event, Θεὸς would have been ambiguous; perhaps a God. Moreover, if he had said God was the Word, he would have contradicted his previous statement by which he had distinguished (hypostatically) God from the word, and λόγος (Logos) would, further, have signified only an attribute of God. The predicate is emphatically placed in the proposition before the subject, because of the progress of the thought; this being the third and highest statement respecting the Word - the climax of the two preceding propositions. The word God, used attributively, maintains the personal distinction between God and the Word, but makes the unity of essence and nature to follow the distinction of person, and ascribes to the Word all the attributes of the divine essence. “There is something majestic in the way in which the description of the Logos, in the three brief but great propositions of John 1:1, is unfolded with increasing fullness” (Meyer). [source]

John 1:14 Of the only begotten of the Father [μονογενοῦς παρὰ πατρὸς]
Rev., “from the Father.” The glory was like, corresponds in nature to, the glory of an only Son sent from a Father. It was the glory of one who partook of His divine Father's essence; on whom the Father's love was visibly lavished, and who represented the Father as His ambassador. The word μονογενής , only begotten (De Wette and Westcott, “only born ”) is used in the New Testament of a human relationship (Luke 7:12; Luke 8:42; Luke 9:38). In the Septuagint it answers to darling, Hebrew, only one, in Psalm href="/desk/?q=ps+22:20&sr=1">Psalm 22:20; and to desolate in Psalm href="/desk/?q=ps+25:16&sr=1">Psalm 25:16. With the exception of the passages cited above, and Hebrews 11:17, it occurs in the New Testament only in the writings of John, and is used only of Christ. With this word should be compared Paul's πρωτότοκος , first born (Romans 8:29; Colossians 1:15, Colossians 1:18), which occurs but once in John (Revelation 1:5), and in Hebrews 1:6; Hebrews 11:28; Hebrews 12:23. John's word marks the relation to the Father as unique, stating the fact in itself. Paul's word places the eternal Son in relation to the universe. Paul's word emphasizes His existence before created things; John's His distinctness from created things. Μονογενής distinguishes between Christ as the only Son, and the many children ( τέκνα ) of God; and further, in that the only Son did not become ( γενέσθαι ) such by receiving power, by adoption, or by moral generation, but was ( ἦν ) such in the beginning with God. The fact set forth does not belong to the sphere of His incarnation, but of His eternal being. The statement is anthropomorphic, and therefore cannot fully express the metaphysical relation. Of the Father is properly rendered by Rev., “from the Father,” thus giving the force of παρά (see on from God, John 1:6). The preposition does not express the idea of generation, which would be given by ἐκ or by the simple genitive, but of mission - sent from the Father, as John from God (see John 6:46; John 7:29; John 16:27; John 17:8). The correlative of this is John 1:18, “who is in the bosom ( εἰς τὸν κόλπον ) of the Father;” literally, “into the bosom,” the preposition εἰς signifying who has gone into and is there; thus viewing the Son as having returned to the Father (but see on John 1:18). [source]
John 1:45 Philip findeth [ευρισκει Πιλιππος]
Dramatic present again. Philip carries on the work. One wins one. If that glorious beginning had only kept on! Now it takes a hundred to win one. Nathaniel It is a Hebrew name meaning “God has given” like the Greek Τεοδορε — Theodore (Gift of God). He was from Cana of Galilee (John 21:2), not far from Bethsaida and so known to Philip. His name does not occur in the Synoptics while Bartholomew (a patronymic, ευρηκαμεν — Bar Tholmai) does not appear in John. They are almost certainly two names of the same man. Philip uses Μεσσιαν — heurēkamen (John 1:41) also to Nathanael and so unites himself with the circle of believers, but instead of ον — Messian describes him “of whom More exactly, “Jesus, son of Joseph, the one from Nazareth.” Jesus passed as son (no article in the Greek) of Joseph, though John has just described him as “God-only Begotten” in John 1:18, but certainly Philip could not know this. Bernard terms this part “the irony of St. John” for he is sure that his readers will agree with him as to the real deity of Jesus Christ. These details were probably meant to interest Nathanael. [source]
John 14:6 I am the way, and the truth, and the life [Εγω ειμι η οδος και η αλητεια και η ζωη]
Either of these statements is profound enough to stagger any one, but here all three together overwhelm Thomas. Jesus had called himself “the life” to Martha (John 11:25) and “the door” to the Pharisees (John 10:7) and “the light of the world” (John 8:12). He spoke “the way of God in truth” (Mark 12:14). He is the way to God and the only way (John 14:6), the personification of truth, the centre of life. Except by me There is no use for the Christian to wince at these words of Jesus. If he is really the Incarnate Son of God (John 1:1, John 1:14, John 1:18), they are necessarily true. [source]
John 14:7 If ye had known me [ει εγνωκειτε με]
Past perfect indicative of γινωσκω — ginōskō to know by personal experience, in condition of second class as is made plain by the conclusion Probably inchoative present active indicative, “ye are beginning to know the Father from now on.” And have seen him Perfect active indicative of οραω — horaō Because they had seen Jesus who is the Son of God, the Image of God, and like God (John 1:18). Hence God is like Jesus Christ. It is a bold and daring claim to deity. The only intelligible conception of God is precisely what Jesus here says. God is like Christ. [source]
John 1:14 And the Word became flesh [και ο λογος σαρχ εγενετο]
See John 1:3 for this verb and note its use for the historic event of the Incarnation rather than ην — ēn of John 1:1. Note also the absence of the article with the predicate substantive σαρχ — sarx so that it cannot mean “the flesh became the Word.” The Pre-existence of the Logos has already been plainly stated and argued. John does not here say that the Logos entered into a man or dwelt in a man or filled a man. One is at liberty to see an allusion to the birth narratives in Matthew 1:16-25; Luke 1:28-38, if he wishes, since John clearly had the Synoptics before him and chiefly supplemented them in his narrative. In fact, one is also at liberty to ask what intelligent meaning can one give to John‘s language here apart from the Virgin Birth? What ordinary mother or father ever speaks of a child “becoming flesh”? For the Incarnation see also 2 Corinthians 8:9; Galatians 4:4; Romans 1:3; Romans 8:3; Philemon 2:7.; 1 Timothy 3:16; Hebrews 2:14. “To explain the exact significance of εγενετο — egeneto in this sentence is beyond the powers of any interpreter” (Bernard). Unless, indeed, as seems plain, John is referring to the Virgin Birth as recorded in Matthew and Luke. “The Logos of philosophy is, John declares, the Jesus of history” (Bernard). Thus John asserts the deity and the real humanity of Christ. He answers the Docetic Gnostics who denied his humanity. Dwelt among us First aorist ingressive aorist active indicative of σκηνοω — skēnoō old verb, to pitch one‘s tent or tabernacle First aorist middle indicative of τεαομαι — theaomai (from τεα — thea spectacle). The personal experience of John and of others who did recognize Jesus as the Shekinah glory John employs τεαομαι — theaomai again in John 1:32 (the Baptist beholding the Spirit coming down as a dove) and John 1:38 of the Baptist gazing in rapture at Jesus. So also John 4:35; John 11:45; 1 John 1:1.; 1 John 4:12, 1 John 4:14. By this word John insists that in the human Jesus he beheld the Shekinah glory of God who was and is the Logos who existed before with God. By this plural John speaks for himself and all those who saw in Jesus what he did. As of the only begotten from the Father Strictly, “as of an only born from a father,” since there is no article with μονογενους — monogenous or with πατρος — patros In John 3:16; 1 John 4:9 we have τον μονογενη — ton monogenē referring to Christ. This is the first use in the Gospel of πατηρ — patēr of God in relation to the Logos. Μονογενης — Monogenēs (only born rather than only begotten) here refers to the eternal relationship of the Logos (as in John 1:18) rather than to the Incarnation. It distinguishes thus between the Logos and the believers as children John clearly means to say that “the manifested glory of the Word was as it were the glory of the Eternal Father shared with His only Son” (Bernard). Cf. John 8:54; John 14:9; John 17:5. Full Probably indeclinable accusative adjective agreeing with δοχαν — doxan (or genitive with μονογενους — monogenous) of which we have papyri examples (Robertson, Grammar, p. 275). As nominative πληρης — plērēs can agree with the subject of εσκηνωσεν — eskēnōsen Of grace and truth Curiously this great word χαρις — charis (grace), so common with Paul, does not occur in John‘s Gospel save in John 1:14, John 1:16, John 1:17, though αλητεια — alētheia (truth) is one of the keywords in the Fourth Gospel and in 1John, occurring 25 times in the Gospel and 20 in the Johannine Epistles, 7 times in the Synoptics and not at all in Revelation (Bernard). In John 1:17 these two words picture the Gospel in Christ in contrast with the law of Moses. See Epistles of Paul for origin and use of both words. [source]
John 10:15 And I know the Father [καγω γινωσκω τον πατερα]
Hence he is qualified to reveal the Father (John 1:18). The comparison of the mutually reciprocal knowledge between the Father and the Son illustrates what he has just said, though it stands above all else (Matthew 11:27; Luke 10:22; John 17:21-26). We cannot claim such perfect knowledge of the Good Shepherd as exists between the Father and the Son and yet the real sheep do know the Shepherd‘s voice and do love to follow his leadership here and now in spite of thieves, robbers, wolves, hirelings. And I lay down my life for the sheep This he had said in John 10:11, but he repeats it now for clearness. This he does not just as an example for the sheep and for under-shepherds, but primarily to save the sheep from the wolves, the thieves and robbers. [source]
John 13:23 Was at the table reclining in Jesus‘ bosom [ην ανακειμενος εν τωι κολπωι του Ιησου]
No word for “table” in the text. Periphrastic imperfect of ανακειμαι — anakeimai to lie back, to recline. Κολπος — Kolpos usual word for bosom (John 1:18). Whom Jesus loved Imperfect active of αγαπαω — agapaō John‘s description of himself of which he was proud (John 19:26; John 20:2; John 21:7, John 21:20), identified in John 21:24 as the author of the book and necessarily one of the twelve because of the “explicit” (Bernard) language of Mark (Mark 14:17; Luke 22:14). John son of Zebedee and brother of James. At the table John was on the right of Jesus lying obliquely so that his head lay on the bosom of Jesus. The centre, the place of honour, Jesus occupied. The next place in rank was to the left of Jesus, held by Peter (Westcott) or by Judas (Bernard) which one doubts. [source]
John 5:11 But he answered [ος δε απεκριτη]
Demonstrative ος — hos (But this one) and deponent use of απεκριτη — apekrithē (first aorist passive indicative of αποκρινομαι — apokrinomai with no passive force). The same “That one,” emphatic demonstrative as often in John (John 1:18, John 1:33; John 9:37; John 10:1, etc.). The man did not know who Jesus was nor even his name. He quotes the very words of Jesus. Whole Predicate accusative agreeing with με — me (me). [source]
John 6:46 This one has seen the Father [ουτος εωρακεν τον πατερα]
Perfect active indicative of οραω — horaō With the eyes no one has seen God (John 1:18) save the Son who is “from God” in origin (John 1:1, John 1:14; John 7:29; John 16:27; John 17:8). The only way for others to see God is to see Christ (John 14:9). [source]
John 7:29 I know him [εγω οιδα αυτον]
In contrast to the ignorance of these people. See the same words in John 8:55 and the same claim in John 17:25; Matthew 11:27; Luke 10:22 (the Johannine aerolite). “These three words contain the unique claim of Jesus, which is pressed all through the chapters of controversy with the Jews” (Bernard). Jesus is the Interpreter of God to men (John 1:18). And he sent me First aorist active indicative of αποστελλω — apostellō the very verb used of Jesus when he sent forth the twelve (Matthew 10:5) and used by Jesus again of himself in John 17:3. He is the Father‘s Apostle to men. [source]
John 3:15 That whosoever believeth may in him have eternal life [ινα πας ο πιστευων εν αυτωι εχηι ζωην αιωνιον]
Final use of ινα — hina with present active subjunctive of εχω — echō that he may keep on having eternal life (a frequent phrase in John, always in John αιωνιος — aiōnios occurs with ζωη — zōē 16 times in the Gospel, 6 in 1John, ageless or endless life, beginning now and lasting forever). It is more than endless, for it is sharing in the life of God in Christ (John 5:26; John 17:3; 1 John 5:12). So here εν αυτωι — en autōi (in him) is taken with εχηι — echēi rather than with πιστευων — pisteuōn The interview with Nicodemus apparently closes with John 3:15. In John 3:16-21 we have past tenses constantly as is natural for the reflection of John, but unnatural for Jesus speaking. There are phrases like the Prologue (John 3:19; John 1:9-11). “Only begotten” does not occur elsewhere in the words of Jesus, but is in John 1:14, John 1:18; 1 John 4:9. John often puts in explanatory comments (John 1:16-18; John 12:37-41). [source]
John 3:16 For so [ουτως γαρ]
This use of γαρ — gar is quite in John‘s style in introducing his comments (John 2:25; John 4:8; John 5:13, etc.). This “Little Gospel” as it is often called, this “comfortable word” (the Anglican Liturgy), while not a quotation from Jesus is a just and marvellous interpretation of the mission and message of our Lord. In John 3:16-21 John recapitulates in summary fashion the teaching of Jesus to Nicodemus. Loved First aorist active indicative of αγαπαω — agapaō the noble word so common in the Gospels for the highest form of love, used here as often in John (John 14:23; John 17:23; 1 John 3:1; 1 John 4:10) of God‘s love for man (cf. 2 Thessalonians 2:16; Romans 5:8; Ephesians 2:4). In John 21:15 John presents a distinction between αγαπαω — agapaō and πιλεω — phileō Αγαπαω — Agapaō is used also for love of men for men (John 13:34), for Jesus (John 8:42), for God (1 John 4:10). The world The whole cosmos of men, including Gentiles, the whole human race. This universal aspect of God‘s love appears also in 2 Corinthians 5:19; Romans 5:8. That he gave The usual classical construction with ωστε — hōste and the indicative (first aorist active) practical result, the only example in the N.T. save that in Galatians 2:13. Elsewhere ωστε — hōste with the infinitive occurs for actual result (Matthew 13:32) as well as purpose (Matthew 10:1), though even this is rare. His only begotten Son “The Son the only begotten.” For this word see note on John 1:14, note on John 1:18; and John 3:18. The rest of the sentence, the purpose clause with ιναεχηι — hina -εις αυτον — echēi precisely reproduces the close of John 3:15 save that εν αυτωι — eis auton takes the place of πιστευων — en autōi (see John 1:12) and goes certainly with εχηι — pisteuōn (not with εν αυτωι — echēi as μη αποληται αλλα — en autōi in John 3:15) and the added clause “should not perish but” The same contrast between “perish” and “eternal life” (for this world and the next) appears also in John 10:28. On “perish” see also John 17:12. [source]
John 5:37 He hath borne witness [εκεινος μεμαρτυρηκεν]
Εκεινος — Ekeinos (that one; cf. John 5:35, John 5:38), not αυτος — autos Perfect active indicative of μαρτυρεω — martureō the direct witness of the Father, besides the indirect witness of the works. Jesus is not speaking of the voice of the Father at his baptism (Mark 1:11), the transfiguration (Mark 9:7), nor even at the time of the visit of the Greeks (John 12:28). This last voice was heard by many who thought it was thunder or an angel. The language of Jesus refers to the witness of the Father in the heart of the believers as is made plain in 1 John 5:9, 1 John 5:10. God‘s witness does not come by audible “voice” Cf. John 1:18; John 6:46; 1 John 4:12. Ακηκοατε — Akēkoate is perfect active indicative of ακουω — akouō to hear, and εωρακατε — heōrakate is perfect active indicative of οραω — horaō to see. It is a permanent state of failure to hear and see God. The experience of Jacob in Peniel (Genesis 32:30) was unusual, but Jesus will say that those who have seen him have seen the Father (John 14:9), but here he means the Father‘s “voice” and “form” as distinct from the Son. [source]
John 6:35 I am the bread of life [Εγω ειμι ο αρτος της ζωης]
This sublime sentence was startling in the extreme to the crowd. Philo does compare the manna to the τειος λογος — theios logos in an allegorical sense, but this language is far removed from Philo‘s vagueness. In the Synoptics (Mark 14:22; Matthew 26:26; Luke 22:19) Jesus uses bread He is the bread of life in two senses: it has life in itself, the living bread (John 6:51), and it gives life to others like the water of life, the tree of life. John often has Jesus saying “I am” As also in John 6:41, John 6:48, John 6:51; John 8:12; John 10:7, John 10:9, John 10:11, John 10:14; John 11:25; John 14:6; John 15:1, John 15:5. He that cometh to me The first act of the soul in approaching Jesus. See also John 6:37. Shall not hunger Strong double negative ου με — ou me with first aorist (ingressive) active subjunctive, “shall not become hungry.” He that believeth on me The continuous relation of trust after coming like πιστευητε — pisteuēte (present tense) in John 6:29. See both verbs used together also in John 7:37. Shall never thirst So the old MSS. the future active indicative instead of the aorist subjunctive as above, an even stronger form of negation with πωποτε — pōpote (John 1:18) added. [source]
1 Corinthians 9:1 Have I not seen Jesus our Lord? [ουχι Ιησουν τον Κυριον ημων εορακα]
Proof (1 Corinthians 15:8; Acts 9:17, Acts 9:27; Acts 18:9; Acts 22:14, Acts 22:17.; 2 Corinthians 12:1.) that he has the qualification of an apostle (Acts 1:22) though not one of the twelve. Note strong form of the negative ουχι — ouchi here. All these questions expect an affirmative answer. The perfect active εορακα — heoraka from οραω — horaō to see, does not here have double reduplication as in John 1:18. [source]
1 Corinthians 9:1 Am I not an apostle? [ουκ ειμι αποστολοσ]
He has the exceptional privileges as an apostle to support from the churches and yet he foregoes these. Have I not seen Jesus our Lord? (ουχι Ιησουν τον Κυριον ημων εορακα — ouchi Iēsoun ton Kurion hēmōn heoraka̱). Proof (1 Corinthians 15:8; Acts 9:17, Acts 9:27; Acts 18:9; Acts 22:14, Acts 22:17.; 2 Corinthians 12:1.) that he has the qualification of an apostle (Acts 1:22) though not one of the twelve. Note strong form of the negative ουχι — ouchi here. All these questions expect an affirmative answer. The perfect active εορακα — heoraka from οραω — horaō to see, does not here have double reduplication as in John 1:18.Are not ye? They were themselves proof of his apostleship. [source]
Colossians 2:9 For in him dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead bodily [οτι εν αυτωι κατοικει παν το πληρωμα της τεοτητος σωματικως]
In this sentence, given as the reason The fulness of the God-head was in Christ before the Incarnation (John 1:1, John 1:18; Philemon 2:6), during the Incarnation (John 1:14, John 1:18; 1 John 1:1-3). It was the Son of God who came in the likeness of men (Philemon 2:7). Paul here disposes of the Docetic theory that Jesus had no human body as well as the Cerinthian separation between the man Jesus and the aeon Christ. He asserts plainly the deity and the humanity of Jesus Christ in corporeal form. [source]
Colossians 2:1 For them at Laodicea [των εν Λαοδικιαι]
Supply υπερ — huper as with υπερ υμων — huper humōn Paul‘s concern extended beyond Colossae to Laodicea (Colossians 4:16) and to Hierapolis (Colossians 4:13), the three great cities in the Lycus Valley where Gnosticism was beginning to do harm. Laodicea is the church described as lukewarm in Revelation 3:14. For as many as have not seen my face The phrase undoubtedly includes Hierapolis (Colossians 4:13), and a few late MSS. actually insert it here. Lightfoot suggests that Hierapolis had not yet been harmed by the Gnostics as much as Colossae and Laodicea. Perhaps so, but the language includes all in that whole region who have not seen Paul‘s face in the flesh (that is, in person, and not in picture). How precious a real picture of Paul would be to us today. The antecedent to οσοι — hosoi is not expressed and it would be τουτων — toutōn after υπερ — huper The form εορακαν — heorakan (perfect active indicative of οραω — horaō instead of the usual εωρακασιν — heōrakasin has two peculiarities ο — o in Paul‘s Epistles (1 Corinthians 9:1) instead of ω — ō (see note on John 1:18 for εωρακεν — heōraken) and αν — ̇an by analogy in place of ασιν — ̇asin which short form is common in the papyri. See note on Luke 9:36 εωρακαν — heōrakan f0). [source]
Colossians 2:1 For as many as have not seen my face [οσοι ουχ εορακαν το προσωπον μου]
The phrase undoubtedly includes Hierapolis (Colossians 4:13), and a few late MSS. actually insert it here. Lightfoot suggests that Hierapolis had not yet been harmed by the Gnostics as much as Colossae and Laodicea. Perhaps so, but the language includes all in that whole region who have not seen Paul‘s face in the flesh (that is, in person, and not in picture). How precious a real picture of Paul would be to us today. The antecedent to οσοι — hosoi is not expressed and it would be τουτων — toutōn after υπερ — huper The form εορακαν — heorakan (perfect active indicative of οραω — horaō instead of the usual εωρακασιν — heōrakasin has two peculiarities ο — o in Paul‘s Epistles (1 Corinthians 9:1) instead of ω — ō (see note on John 1:18 for εωρακεν — heōraken) and αν — ̇an by analogy in place of ασιν — ̇asin which short form is common in the papyri. See note on Luke 9:36 εωρακαν — heōrakan f0). [source]
1 Timothy 6:16 Unapproachable [απροσιτον]
See Psalm 104:2. Late compound verbal adjective Here only in N.T. Literary Koiné{[28928]}š word. Nor can see (αορατον — oude idein dunatai). See aoraton in Colossians 1:15 and also John 1:18; Matthew 11:27. The “amen” marks the close of the doxology as in 1 Timothy 1:17. [source]
1 Timothy 6:16 Nor can see [αορατον]
See aoraton in Colossians 1:15 and also John 1:18; Matthew 11:27. The “amen” marks the close of the doxology as in 1 Timothy 1:17. [source]
Hebrews 7:4 Consider [θεωρεῖτε]
Only here in Hebrews and oP. Except this passage, confined to the Synoptic Gospels, Acts, and Johannine writings. See on Luke 10:18; see on John 1:18. [source]
Hebrews 13:7 Considering [ἀναθεωροῦντες]
Only here and Acts 17:23, see note. The compound verb means to observe attentively. The simple verb θεωρεῖν implies a spiritual or mental interest in the object. See on John 1:18. [source]
Hebrews 1:6 The first-begotten [τὸν πρωτότοκον]
Mostly in Paul and Hebrews. Comp. Romans 8:29; Colossians 1:15, Colossians 1:18; Revelation 1:5. Μονογενής only-begotten(John 1:14, John 1:18; John 3:16, John 3:18; 1 John 4:9, never by Paul) describes the unique relation of the Son to the Father in his divine nature: πρωτότοκος first-begottendescribes the relation of the risen Christ in his glorified humanity to man. The comparison implied in the word is not limited to angels. He is the first-born in relation to the creation, the dead, the new manhood, etc. See Colossians 1:15, Colossians 1:18. The rabbinical writers applied the title first-born even to God. Philo (De Confus. Ling. § 14) speaks of the Logos as πρωτόγονος or πρεσβύτατος thefirst-born or eldest son. [source]
Hebrews 1:2 At the end of these days [επ εσχατου των ημερων τουτων]
In contrast with παλαι — palai above. Hath spoken First aorist indicative of λαλεω — laleō the same verb as above, “did speak” in a final and full revelation. In his Son In sharp contrast to εν τοις προπηταις — en tois prophētais “The Old Testament slopes upward to Christ” (J. R. Sampey). No article or pronoun here with the preposition εν — en giving the absolute sense of “Son.” Here the idea is not merely what Jesus said, but what he is (Dods), God‘s Son who reveals the Father (John 1:18). “The revelation was a son-revelation ” (Vincent). Hath appointed First aorist (kappa aorist) active of τιτημι — tithēmi a timeless aorist. Heir of all things See Mark 12:6 for ο κληρονομος — ho klēronomos in Christ‘s parable, perhaps an allusion here to this parable (Moffatt). The idea of sonship easily passes into that of heirship (Galatians 4:7; Romans 8:17). See the claim of Christ in Matthew 11:27; Matthew 28:18 even before the Ascension. Through whom The Son as Heir is also the Intermediate Agent “The ages” (secula, Vulgate). See Hebrews 11:3 also where τους αιωναστον κοσμον — tous aiōnas = τα παντα — ton kosmon (the world) or the universe like αιων — ta panta (the all things) in Hebrews 1:3; Romans 11:36; Colossians 1:16. The original sense of αει — aiōn (from aei always) occurs in Hebrews 6:20, but here “by metonomy of the container for the contained” (Thayer) for “the worlds” (the universe) as in lxx, Philo, Josephus. [source]
Hebrews 10:20 By the way which he dedicated for us [ην ενεκαινισεν ημιν οδον]
This “new” Some do take “veil” here as obscuring the deity of Christ rather than the revelation of God in the human body of Christ (John 1:18; John 14:9). At any rate because of the coming of Christ in the flesh we have the new way opened for access to God (Hebrews 2:17.; Hebrews 4:16). [source]
1 John 4:12 God []
Beginning the sentence emphatically, and without the article: God as God. “God hath no man ever yet seen.” Compare John 1:18. [source]
1 John 3:5 He [ἐκεῖνος]
Christ, as always in this Epistle. See on John 1:18. [source]
1 John 3:17 Seeth [θεωρῇ]
Deliberately contemplates. See on John 1:18. Rev., beholdeth. The only occurrence of the verb in John's Epistles. [source]
1 John 1:8 The truth []
The whole Gospel. All reality is in God. He is the only true God ( ἀληθινός John 17:3; see on John 1:9). This reality is incarnated in Christ, the Word of God, “the very image of His substance,” and in His message to men. This message is the truth, a title not found in the Synoptists, Acts, or Revelation, but in the Catholic Epistles (James 5:19; 1 Peter 1:22; 2 Peter 2:2), and in Paul (2 Corinthians 8:8; Ephesians 1:13, etc.). It is especially characteristic of the Gospel and Epistles of John. The truth is represented by John objectively and subjectively. 1. Objectively. In the person of Christ. He is the Truth, the perfect revelation of God (John 1:18; John 14:6). His manhood is true to the absolute law of right, which is the law of love, and is, therefore, our perfect pattern of manhood. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
Truth, absolutely existing in and identified with God, was also, in some measure, diffused in the world. The Word was in the world, before as after the incarnation (John 1:10. See on John 1:4, John 1:5). Christ often treats the truth as something to which He came to bear witness, and which it was His mission to develop into clearer recognition and expression (John 18:37). This He did through the embodiment of truth in His own person (John 1:14, John 1:17; John 14:6), and by His teaching (John 8:40; John 17:17); and His work is carried out by the Spirit of Truth (John 16:13), sent by God and by Christ himself (John 14:26; John 16:7). Hence the Spirit, even as Christ, is the Truth (1 John 5:6). The whole sum of the knowledge of Christ and of the Spirit, is the Truth (1 John 2:21; 2 John 1:1). This truth can be recognized, apprehended, and appropriated by man, and can be also rejected by him (John 8:32; 1 John 2:21; John 8:44). -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
2. Subjectively. The truth is lodged in man by the Spirit, and communicated to his spirit (John 14:17; John 15:26; John 16:13). It dwells in man (1 John 1:8; 1 John 2:4; 2 John 1:2), as revelation, comfort, guidance, enlightenment, conviction, impulse, inspiration, knowledge. It is the spirit of truth as opposed to the spirit of error (1 John 4:6). It translates itself into act. God's true children do the truth (John 3:21; 1 John 1:6). It brings sanctification and freedom (John 8:32; John 17:17). See on John 14:6, John 14:17. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
[source]

1 John 1:1 Have looked upon [ἐθεασάμεθα]
Rev., correctly, beheld. The tense is the aorist; marking not the abiding effect of the vision upon the beholder, but the historical manifestation to special witnesses. On the difference between this verb and ἑωράκαμεν wehave seen, see on John 1:14, John 1:18. [source]
1 John 2:23 He that confesseth the Son [ο ομολογων τον υιον]
Because the Son reveals the Father (John 1:18; John 14:9). Our only approach to the Father is by the Son (John 14:6). Confession of Christ before men is a prerequisite for confession by Christ before the Father (Matthew 10:32; Luke 12:8). [source]
1 John 3:5 He [εκεινος]
As in 1 John 3:3; John 1:18. [source]
1 John 3:6 Whosoever sinneth [ο αμαρτανων]
Present (linear) active articular participle like μενων — menōn above, “the one who keeps on sinning” (lives a life of sin, not mere occasional acts of sin as αμαρτησας — hamartēsas aorist active participle, would mean).Hath not seen him (ουχ εωρακεν αυτον — ouch heōraken auton). Perfect active indicative of οραω — horaō The habit of sin is proof that one has not the vision or the knowledge (εγνωκεν — egnōken perfect active also) of Christ. He means, of course, spiritual vision and spiritual knowledge, not the literal sense of οραω — horaō in John 1:18; John 20:29. [source]
1 John 3:6 Hath not seen him [ουχ εωρακεν αυτον]
Perfect active indicative of οραω — horaō The habit of sin is proof that one has not the vision or the knowledge (εγνωκεν — egnōken perfect active also) of Christ. He means, of course, spiritual vision and spiritual knowledge, not the literal sense of οραω — horaō in John 1:18; John 20:29. [source]
1 John 4:9 In us [εν ημιν]
In our case, not “among us” nor “to us.” Cf. Galatians 1:16.Hath sent (απεσταλκεν — apestalken). Perfect active indicative of αποστελλω — apostellō as again in 1 John 4:14, the permanent mission of the Son, though in 1 John 4:10 the aorist απεστειλεν — apesteilen occurs for the single event. See John 3:16 for this great idea.His only-begotten Son “His Son the only-begotten” as in John 3:16. John applies μονογενης — monogenēs to Jesus alone (John 1:14, John 1:18), but Luke (Luke 7:12; Luke 8:42; Luke 9:38) to others. Jesus alone completely reproduces the nature and character of God (Brooke).That we might live through him (ινα ζησωμεν δι αυτου — hina zēsōmen di' autou). Purpose clause with ινα — hina and the first aorist (ingressive, get life) active subjunctive of ζαω — zaō “Through him” is through Christ, who is the life (John 14:6). Christ also lives in us (Galatians 2:20). This life begins here and now. [source]
1 John 4:9 His only-begotten Son [τον υιον αυτου τον μονογενη]
“His Son the only-begotten” as in John 3:16. John applies μονογενης — monogenēs to Jesus alone (John 1:14, John 1:18), but Luke (Luke 7:12; Luke 8:42; Luke 9:38) to others. Jesus alone completely reproduces the nature and character of God (Brooke).That we might live through him (ινα ζησωμεν δι αυτου — hina zēsōmen di' autou). Purpose clause with ινα — hina and the first aorist (ingressive, get life) active subjunctive of ζαω — zaō “Through him” is through Christ, who is the life (John 14:6). Christ also lives in us (Galatians 2:20). This life begins here and now. [source]
1 John 4:12 No one hath beheld God at any time [τεον ουδεις πωποτε τετεαται]
Perfect middle indicative of τεαομαι — theaomai (John 1:14). Almost the very words of John 1:18 τεον ουδεις πωποτε εωρακεν — theon oudeis pōpote heōraken (instead of τετεαται — tetheātai). [source]
1 John 4:20 I love God [Αγαπω τον τεον]
Quoting an imaginary disputant as in 1 John 2:4.And hateth (και μισει — kai misei). Continuation of the same condition with εαν — ean and the present active subjunctive, “and keep on hating.” See 1 John 2:9; 1 John 3:15 for use of μισεω — miseō (hate) with αδελπος — adelphos (brother). A liar (πσευστης — pseustēs). Blunt and to the point as in 1 John 1:10; 1 John 2:4.That loveth not “The one who does not keep on loving” (present active negative articular participle).Hath seen (εωρακεν — heōraken). Perfect active indicative of οραω — horaō the form in John 1:18 used of seeing God.Cannot love “Is not able to go on loving,” with which compare 1 John 2:9, ου δυναται αμαρτανειν — ou dunatai hamartanein (is not able to go on sinning). The best MSS. do not have πως — pōs (how) here. [source]
1 John 4:20 That loveth not [ο μη αγαπων]
“The one who does not keep on loving” (present active negative articular participle).Hath seen (εωρακεν — heōraken). Perfect active indicative of οραω — horaō the form in John 1:18 used of seeing God.Cannot love “Is not able to go on loving,” with which compare 1 John 2:9, ου δυναται αμαρτανειν — ou dunatai hamartanein (is not able to go on sinning). The best MSS. do not have πως — pōs (how) here. [source]
1 John 4:20 Hath seen [εωρακεν]
Perfect active indicative of οραω — horaō the form in John 1:18 used of seeing God. [source]
2 John 1:3 The Son of the Father []
The phrase occurs nowhere else. Compare John 1:18; 1 John 2:22, 1 John 2:23; 1 John 1:3. [source]
Revelation 11:11 Saw [θεωροῦντας]
See on John 1:18. [source]
Revelation 1:7 Shall see [ὄψεται]
The verb denotes the physical act, but emphasizes the mental discernment accompanying it, and points to the result rather than to the act of vision. See on John 1:18. Appropriate here as indicating the quickened spiritual discernment engendered by the Lord's appearing, in those who have rejected Him, and who now mourn for their folly and sin. [source]

What do the individual words in John 1:18 mean?

God no one has seen ever yet [the] only begotten God the [One] being in the bosom of the Father He has made [Him] known
Θεὸν οὐδεὶς ἑώρακεν πώποτε μονογενὴς Θεὸς ὢν εἰς τὸν κόλπον τοῦ Πατρὸς ἐκεῖνος ἐξηγήσατο

Θεὸν  God 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Masculine Singular
Root: θεός  
Sense: a god or goddess, a general name of deities or divinities.
οὐδεὶς  no  one 
Parse: Adjective, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root: οὐδείς 
Sense: no one, nothing.
ἑώρακεν  has  seen 
Parse: Verb, Perfect Indicative Active, 3rd Person Singular
Root: εἶδον 
Sense: to see with the eyes.
πώποτε  ever  yet 
Parse: Adverb
Root: πώποτε  
Sense: ever, at any time.
μονογενὴς  [the]  only  begotten 
Parse: Adjective, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root: μονογενής  
Sense: single of its kind, only.
Θεὸς  God 
Parse: Noun, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root: θεός  
Sense: a god or goddess, a general name of deities or divinities.
  the  [One] 
Parse: Article, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
ὢν  being 
Parse: Verb, Present Participle Active, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root: εἰμί  
Sense: to be, to exist, to happen, to be present.
κόλπον  bosom 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Masculine Singular
Root: κόλπος  
Sense: the front of the body between the arms.
τοῦ  of  the 
Parse: Article, Genitive Masculine Singular
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
Πατρὸς  Father 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Masculine Singular
Root: προπάτωρ 
Sense: generator or male ancestor.
ἐξηγήσατο  has  made  [Him]  known 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Middle, 3rd Person Singular
Root: ἐξηγέομαι  
Sense: to lead out, be leader, go before.