The Meaning of John 1:12 Explained

John 1:12

KJV: But as many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name:

YLT: but as many as did receive him to them he gave authority to become sons of God -- to those believing in his name,

Darby: but as many as received him, to them gave he the right to be children of God, to those that believe on his name;

ASV: But as many as received him, to them gave he the right to become children of God, even to them that believe on his name:

What does John 1:12 Mean?

Verse Meaning

The contrast with rejection is acceptance. Not everyone rejected Jesus when He came. Some accepted Him. [1] To these He gave as a gift the authority (Gr. exousian) to become God"s children (Gr. tekna). Receiving Jesus consists of believing in His name. Believing therefore equals receiving. "His name" summarizes all that He is. To believe in His name means to accept the revelation of who Jesus is that God has given. Because that revelation includes the fact that Jesus died as a substitute sacrifice in the place of sinners, belief involves relying on Jesus for salvation rather than on self. It does not just mean believing facts intellectually. It involves volitional trust as well.
"In the gospel of John belief is viewed in terms of a relationship with Jesus Christ, which begins with a decision to accept rather than reject who Jesus claims to be. This leads to a new relationship with God ...
". . . in the Johannine writings ... pisteuo [2] with eis [3] refers to belief in a person." [4]
The context determines whether John had genuine or inadequate belief in view in any given passage. [5]
In one sense all human beings are the children of God: we are His creatures. However the Bible speaks of the children of God primarily as those who are His spiritual children by faith in Jesus Christ. The new birth brings us into a new family with new relationships. Clearly John was referring to this family of believers since he wrote that believing in Jesus gives people the right to become God"s children. The New Testament speaks of the believer as a child of God and as a son of God. Usually it describes us as children by birth, the new birth, and as sons by adoption. John consistently referred to believers only as children of God in his Gospel. He did not call us the sons of God. In this Gospel Jesus is the only son of God. "Children" draws attention to community of nature (cf. 2 Peter 1:4) whereas "sons" emphasizes rights and privileges.
When a person offers you a gift that has cost him or her much, it does not become yours until you receive it from that person. The beautifully wrapped package in the outstretched hand of the giver will do the receiver no good until he or she reaches out and takes it. Likewise reception of God"s gracious gift of eternal life is necessary before a person can benefit from it. Receiving a gift from someone else does not constitute a meritorious act or good work, and the Bible never regards it as a work. It is simply a response to the work of another.

Context Summary

John 1:1-13 - The Light For The New Year's Path
The titles of our Lord are set forth in royal fashion. As speech reveals the hidden thoughts of men, so does our Lord utter the unseen God. God spake and it was done. His words preceded the act of creation, but Christ was the Word or utterance of God. He who created time preceded time, and that which is before time is eternal and divine. Christ is the organ or medium by which God goes forth in creation, providence, and redemption. The life of God was stored in the human nature of Jesus, when the Word became flesh, that it might more readily pass into us. True life is always light, as the minute infusoria of the ocean are phosphorescent. When we receive Christ's life, we shine.
Men are still sent from God, as John was, to bear witness to Jesus; but there is also a witness to Him in the breast of man. We call it conscience, or the inner light. The blinded world knew Him not. Indeed, John 9:1-41 is a parable of mankind's condition, 2 Corinthians 4:4. Believing and receiving are the same thing. Let Christ in, and you have instantly the right to call yourself a child of God, Galatians 3:26. Only God can impart to us the germ of that life, which we share with the Son Himself, James 1:18. [source]

Chapter Summary: John 1

1  The divinity, humanity, office, and incarnation of Jesus Christ
15  The testimony of John
39  The calling of Simon and Andrew, Philip and Nathanael

Greek Commentary for John 1:12

As many as received him [οσοι ελαβον αυτον]
Effective aorist active indicative of λαμβανω — lambanō “as many as did receive him,” in contrast with οι ιδιοι — hoi idioi just before, exceptional action on the part of the disciples and other believers. To them Dative case explanatory of the relative clause preceding, an anacoluthon common in John 27 times as against 21 in the Synoptists. This is a common Aramaic idiom and is urged by Burney (Aramaic Origin, etc., p. 64) for his theory of an Aramaic original of the Fourth Gospel. The right In John 5:27 εδωκεν — edōken (first aorist active indicative of διδωμι — didōmi) εχουσιαν — exousian means authority but includes power Here it is more the notion of privilege or right. To become Second aorist middle of γινομαι — ginomai to become what they were not before. Children of God In the full spiritual sense, not as mere offspring of God true of all men (Acts 17:28). Paul‘s phrase υιοι τεου — huioi theou (Galatians 3:26) for believers, used also by Jesus of the pure in heart (Matthew 5:9), does not occur in John‘s Gospel (but in Revelation 21:7). It is possible that John prefers τα τεκνα του τεου — ta tekna tou theou for the spiritual children of God whether Jew or Gentile (John 11:52) because of the community of nature But one cannot follow Westcott in insisting on “adoption” as Paul‘s reason for the use of υιοι — huioi since Jesus uses υιοι τεου — huioi theou in Matthew 5:9. Clearly the idea of regeneration is involved here as in John 3:3. Even to them that believe No “even” in the Greek, merely explanatory apposition with αυτοις — autois dative case of the articular present active participle of πιστευω — pisteuō On his name Bernard notes πιστευω εις — pisteuō eis 35 times in John, to put trust in or on. See also John 2:23 and John 3:36 for πιστευω εις το ονομα αυτου — pisteuō eis to onoma autou This common use of ονομα — onoma for the person is an Aramaism, but it occurs also in the vernacular papyri and εις το ονομα — eis to onoma is particularly common in the payment of debts (Moulton and Milligan‘s Vocabulary). See Acts 1:15 for ονοματα — onomata for persons. [source]
As many as [ὅσοι]
Denoting individuals, as οἱ ἴδιοι (John 1:11) signified the nation at large. [source]
Received [ἔλαβον]
The simple verb of the compound παρέλαβον in John 1:11. The meaning of the two verbs is substantially the same (so Alford, De Wette, and apparently Meyer), though some recognize a difference, as Milligan and Moulton, who render παρέλαβον acceptedand ἔλαβον receivedand say that “the former lays emphasis upon the will that consented (or refused) to receive, while the latter brings before us the possession gained: so that the full meaning is, As many as by accepting Him, received Him.” For the use of the simple verb, see John 5:43; John 13:20; John 19:6. [source]
Power [ἐξουσίαν]
Rev., the right. Six words are used for power in the:New Testament: βία , force, often oppressive, exhibiting itself in violence (Acts 5:26; Acts 27:41. Compare the kindred verb βιάζεται , Matthew 11:12; “the kingdom of heaven is taken by violence ): δύναμις , natural ability (see on 2 Peter 2:11): ἐνέργεια , energy, power in exercise; only of superhuman power, good or evil. Used by Paul only, and chiefly in the Epistles of the Imprisonment (Ephesians 1:19; Ephesians 3:7; Colossians 2:12. Compare the kindred verb ἐνεργέω , to put forth power, and see on Mark 6:14; see on James 5:16): ἰσχύς , strength (see on 2 Peter 2:11. Compare the kindred verb ἰσχύω , to be strong, and see on Luke 14:30; see on Luke 16:3): κράτος , might, only of God, relative and manifested power, dominion (Ephesians 1:19; Ephesians 6:10; 1 Timothy 6:16; 1 Peter 4:11. Compare the kindred verb κρατέω , to have power, to be master of, and see on Mark 7:3; see on Acts 3:11): ἐξουσία , liberty of action ( ἔξεστι , it is lawful ), authority, delegated or arbitrary (John 5:27; John 10:18; John 17:2; John 19:10, John 19:11. See on Mark 2:10; see on Luke 20:20). Here, therefore, ἐξουσία is not merely possibility or ability, but legitimate right derived from a competent source - the Word. [source]
To become [γενέσθαι]
As those who are born (John 1:13. Compare John 3:3, and Matthew 5:45). [source]
Sons [τέκνα]
Rev., more correctly, children. Son is υἱός . Τέκνον , child ( τίκτω , to bring forth ), denotes a relation based on community of nature, while υἱός , Son, may indicate only adoption and heirship. See Galatians 4:7. Except in Revelation 21:7, which is a quotation, John never uses υἱός to describe the relation of Christians to God, since he regards their position not as a result of adoption, but of a new life. Paul, on the other hand, regards the relation from the legal standpoint, as adoption, imparting a new dignity and relation (Romans 8:15; Galatians 4:5, Galatians 4:6). See also James 1:18; 1 Peter 1:3, 1 Peter 1:23, where the point of view is John's rather than Paul's. Τέκνον , indicating the relationship of man to God, occurs in John 1:12; John 11:52; 1 John 3:1, 1 John 3:2, 1 John 3:10; 1 John 5:2, and always in the plural. [source]
Believe on [πιστευούσιν εἰς]
The present participle, believing, indicates the present and continuous activity of faith. The word is used by John, sometimes with the dative case simply meaning to believe a person or thing; i.e., to believe that they are true or speak the truth. Thus, to believe the Scripture (John 2:22); believe me (John 4:21); believe Moses, his writings, my words (John 4:46). At other times with a preposition, εἰς , into, which is rendered believe in, or believe on. So here, John 6:29; John 8:30; 1 John 5:10. See the two contrasted in John 6:29, John 6:30; John 8:30, John 8:31; 1 John 5:10. To believe in, or on, is more than mere acceptance of a statement. It is so to accept a statement or a person as to rest upon them, to trust them practically; to draw upon and avail one's self of all that is offered to him in them. Hence to believe on the Lord Jesus Christ is not merely to believe the facts of His historic life or of His saving energy as facts, but to accept Him as Savior, Teacher, Sympathizer, Judge; to rest the soul upon Him for present and future salvation, and to accept and adopt His precepts and example as binding upon the life. [source]
Name [ὄνομα]
See on Matthew 28:19. Expressing the sum of the qualities which mark the nature or character of a person. To believe in the name of Jesus Christ the Son of God, is to accept as true the revelation contained in that title. Compare John 20:31. [source]

Reverse Greek Commentary Search for John 1:12

John 9:35 Dost thou believe [σὺ πιστεύεις]
The form of the question indicates the confident expectation of an affirmative answer. It is almost an affirmation, you surely believe; you ( σὺ , emphatic) who have born such bold testimony to me that they have cast you out. Note the phrase, πιστεύεις εἰς , believe on, and see on John 1:12. [source]
John 8:39 Children [τέκνα]
See on John 1:12. [source]
John 8:30 Believed on [ἐπιστευκότας αὐτῷ]
See on John 1:12, and compare believed Him, John 8:31. [source]
John 5:27 Authority []
See on John 1:12. [source]
John 4:51 Thy son liveth [ὁ υἰός σοῦ ἔσχεν]
The best texts, however, read αὐτοῦ , his. So Rev., that his son lived. Christ uses υἱός , son, instead of παιδίον , little one, expressing the worth of the child as representing the family. See on John 1:12. [source]
John 3:32 Receiveth [λαμβάνει]
Once only John uses δέχομαι for receive, of the Galilaeans receiving Christ (John 4:45). The distinction between the two is not sharply maintained, but δέχομαι commonly adds to the idea of taking, that of welcoming. Thus Demosthenes says that the Theban elders did not receive ( ἐδέξαντο ) i.e., with a welcome pleasure, the money which was offered them, nor did they take it ( ἔλαβον ). Λαμβάνει also includes the retaining of what is taken. Hence of receiving Christ (John 1:12; John 5:43; John 13:20). The phrase receive the witness is peculiar to John (John 3:11; John 5:34; 1 John 5:9). [source]
John 3:15 Have eternal life []
A characteristic phrase of John for live forever. See John 3:16, John 3:36; John 5:24; John 6:40, John 6:47, John 6:54; 1 John 3:15; 1 John 5:12. The interview with Nicodemus closes with John 3:15; and the succeeding words are John's. This appears from the following facts: 1. The past tenses loved and gave, in John 3:16, better suit the later point of view from which John writes, after the atoning death of Christ was an accomplished historic fact, than the drift of the present discourse of Jesus before the full revelation of that work. 2. It is in John's manner to throw in explanatory comments of his own (John 1:16-18; John 12:37-41), and to do so abruptly. See John 1:15, John 1:16, and on and, John 1:16. 3. John 3:19is in the same line of thought with John 1:9-11in the Prologue; and the tone of that verse is historic, carrying the sense of past rejection, as loved darkness; were evil. 4. The phrase believe on the name is not used elsewhere by our Lord, but by John (John 1:12; John 2:23; 1 John 5:13). 5. The phrase only-begotten son is not elsewhere used by Jesus of himself, but in every case by the Evangelist (John 1:14, John 1:18; 1 John 4:9). 6. The phrase to do truth (John 3:21) occurs elsewhere only in 1 John 1:6. -DIVIDER-
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John 2:23 Believed on [ἐπίστευσαν εἰς]
The stronger expression of faith (John 1:12). [source]
John 2:23 His name []
See on John 1:12. With the phrase believe on His name, compare believe on Him (John 8:30), which is the stronger expression, indicating a casting of one's self upon Him; while to believe on the name is rather to believe in Him as being that which he claims to be, in this case the Messiah. It is believing recognition rather than appropriation. “Their faith in His name (as that of the Messiah) did not yet amount to any decision of their inner life for Jesus, but was only an opinion produced by the sight of His miracles, that He was the Messiah” (Meyer). [source]
John 2:22 Believed the Scripture [ἐπίστευσαν τῇ γραφῇ]
Notice that ἐπίοτευσαν , believed, is used here with the simple dative, and not with the preposition εἰς , into (see on John 1:12). The meaning is, therefore, they believed that the Scripture was true. On γραφή , a passage or section of Scripture, see on Mark 12:10. In John, as elsewhere, the word almost always refers to a particular passage cited in the context. The only two exceptions are John 17:12; John 20:9. For the Old Testament, as a whole, John always uses the plural αἱ γραφαί . The passage referred to here is probably Psalm 16:10. Compare Acts 2:27, Acts 2:31; Acts 13:35. [source]
John 2:11 Believed on Him [ἐπίστευσαν εἰς αὐτὸν]
See on John 1:12. Literally, believed into. Canon Westcott most aptly says that it conveys the idea of “the absolute transference of trust from one's self to another.” [source]
John 17:2 Power [ἐξουσίαν]
Rev., rightly, authority. See on John 1:12. [source]
John 12:42 Believed on Him [ἐπίστευσαν εἰς αὐτόν]
See on John 1:12. It is to be noted that John here uses of this imperfect faith which refused to complete itself in confession, the formula for complete faith. Compare believed in His name (John 2:23), and see note there. [source]
John 10:37 Believe me [πιστεύετέ μοι]
Notice believe, with the simple dative; believe me, not on me. It is a question of faith in His testimony, not in His person. See on John 1:12. [source]
John 10:18 Power [ἐξουσίαν]
Rev., in margin, right. See on John 1:12. [source]
John 1:34 The Son of God []
This is the proper reading, but one very important manuscript reads ὁ ἐκλεκτὸς , the chosen. By the phrase John means the Messiah. It has the same sense as in the Synoptic Gospels. Compare Matthew 11:27; Matthew 28:19. For the sense in which it was understood by the Jews of Christ's day, see John 5:18, John 5:19; John 10:29, John 10:30-36. The phrase occurs in the Old Testament only in Daniel 3:25. Compare Psalm 2:12. On υἱὸς , son, as distinguished from τέκνον , child, see on John 1:12. [source]
John 1:12 Sons [τέκνα]
Rev., more correctly, children. Son is υἱός . Τέκνον , child ( τίκτω , to bring forth ), denotes a relation based on community of nature, while υἱός , Son, may indicate only adoption and heirship. See Galatians 4:7. Except in Revelation 21:7, which is a quotation, John never uses υἱός to describe the relation of Christians to God, since he regards their position not as a result of adoption, but of a new life. Paul, on the other hand, regards the relation from the legal standpoint, as adoption, imparting a new dignity and relation (Romans 8:15; Galatians 4:5, Galatians 4:6). See also James 1:18; 1 Peter 1:3, 1 Peter 1:23, where the point of view is John's rather than Paul's. Τέκνον , indicating the relationship of man to God, occurs in John 1:12; John 11:52; 1 John 3:1, 1 John 3:2, 1 John 3:10; 1 John 5:2, and always in the plural. [source]
John 10:18 No one taketh it away from me [ουδεις αιρει αυτην απ εμου]
But Aleph B read ηρεν — ēren (first aorist active indicative of αιρω — airō to take away), probably correct (Westcott and Hort). “John is representing Jesus as speaking sub specie aeternitatis ” (Bernard). He speaks of his death as already past and the resurrection as already accomplished. Cf. John 3:16. Of myself The voluntariness of the death of Jesus repeated and sharpened. D omits it, probably because of superficial and apparent conflict with John 5:19. But there is no inconsistency as is shown by John 3:16; Romans 5:8. The Father “gave” the Son who was glad to be given and to give himself. I have power to lay it down Εχουσια — Exousia is not an easy word to translate (right, authority, power, privilege). See John 1:12. Restatement of the voluntariness of his death for the sheep. [source]
John 10:42 Many believed on him there [πολλοι επιστευσαν εις αυτον εκει]
See John 1:12; John 2:11 for same idiom. Striking witness to the picture of the Messiah drawn by John. When Jesus came they recognized the original. See John 1:29-34. What about our sermons about Jesus if he were to walk down the aisle in visible form according to A.J. Gordon‘s dream? [source]
John 12:28 Father, glorify thy name [πατερ δοχασον σου το ονομα]
First aorist (note of urgency) active imperative of πνευμα — doxazō and in the sense of his death already in John 12:16, John 12:23 and again in John 13:31; John 17:5. This is the prayer of the πσυχη — pneuma (or σαρχ — psuchē) as opposed to that of the ονομα — sarx (flesh) in John 12:27. The “name” (πωνη εκ του ουρανου — onoma) of God expresses the character of God (John 1:12; John 5:43; John 17:11). Cf. Matthew 6:9. A voice out of heaven (και εδοχασα και παλιν δοχασω — phōnē ek tou ouranou). This was the Father‘s answer to the prayer of Jesus for help. See note on the Father‘s voice at the baptism of Jesus (Mark 1:11) and on the Father‘s voice at the transfiguration (Mark 9:7). The rabbis called the audible voice of God εδοχασα — bath -δοχασω — qol (the daughter of a voice). I have both glorified it and will glorify it again (kai edoxasa kai palin doxasō). This definite assurance from the Father will nerve the soul of Jesus for the coming ordeal. Cf. John 11:40 for edoxasa and John 13:31; John 17:5 for doxasō f0). [source]
John 2:23 In Jerusalem [εν τοις Ιεροσολυμοις]
The form Ιεροσολυμα — Ierosoluma as in John 2:13 always in this Gospel and in Mark, and usually in Matthew, though Ιερουσαλημ — Ierousalēm only in Revelation, and both forms by Luke and Paul. During the feast The feast of unleavened bread followed for seven days right after the passover (one day strictly), though το πασχα — to pascha is used either for the passover meal or for the whole eight days. Believed on his name See note on John 1:12 for this phrase. Only one has to watch for the real import of πιστευω — pisteuō Beholding his signs Present active participle (causal use) of τεωρεω — theōreō Which he did “Which he was doing” (imperfect tense). He did his first sign in Cana, but now he was doing many in Jerusalem. Already Jesus had become the cynosure of all eyes in Jerusalem at this first visit in his ministry. [source]
John 3:16 For so [ουτως γαρ]
This use of γαρ — gar is quite in John‘s style in introducing his comments (John 2:25; John 4:8; John 5:13, etc.). This “Little Gospel” as it is often called, this “comfortable word” (the Anglican Liturgy), while not a quotation from Jesus is a just and marvellous interpretation of the mission and message of our Lord. In John 3:16-21 John recapitulates in summary fashion the teaching of Jesus to Nicodemus. Loved First aorist active indicative of αγαπαω — agapaō the noble word so common in the Gospels for the highest form of love, used here as often in John (John 14:23; John 17:23; 1 John 3:1; 1 John 4:10) of God‘s love for man (cf. 2 Thessalonians 2:16; Romans 5:8; Ephesians 2:4). In John 21:15 John presents a distinction between αγαπαω — agapaō and πιλεω — phileō Αγαπαω — Agapaō is used also for love of men for men (John 13:34), for Jesus (John 8:42), for God (1 John 4:10). The world The whole cosmos of men, including Gentiles, the whole human race. This universal aspect of God‘s love appears also in 2 Corinthians 5:19; Romans 5:8. That he gave The usual classical construction with ωστε — hōste and the indicative (first aorist active) practical result, the only example in the N.T. save that in Galatians 2:13. Elsewhere ωστε — hōste with the infinitive occurs for actual result (Matthew 13:32) as well as purpose (Matthew 10:1), though even this is rare. His only begotten Son “The Son the only begotten.” For this word see note on John 1:14, note on John 1:18; and John 3:18. The rest of the sentence, the purpose clause with ιναεχηι — hina -εις αυτον — echēi precisely reproduces the close of John 3:15 save that εν αυτωι — eis auton takes the place of πιστευων — en autōi (see John 1:12) and goes certainly with εχηι — pisteuōn (not with εν αυτωι — echēi as μη αποληται αλλα — en autōi in John 3:15) and the added clause “should not perish but” The same contrast between “perish” and “eternal life” (for this world and the next) appears also in John 10:28. On “perish” see also John 17:12. [source]
John 3:18 Is not judged [ου κρινεται]
Present passive indicative. Trust in Christ prevents condemnation, for he takes our place and pays the penalty for sin for all who put their case in his hands (Romans 8:32.). The believer in Christ as Saviour does not come into judgment (John 5:24). Hath been judged already Perfect passive indicative of κρινω — krinō Judgment has already been passed on the one who refuses to believe in Christ as the Saviour sent by the Father, the man who is not willing to come to Christ for life (John 5:40). Because he hath not believed Perfect active indicative of πιστευω — pisteuō has taken a permanent attitude of refusal. Here οτι μη — hoti mē states the reason subjectively as the judgment of the Judge in any such case (ο μη πιστευων — ho mē pisteuōn already mentioned) while in 1 John 5:10 οτι ου πεπιστευκεν — hoti ou pepisteuken gives the reason objectively (ου — ou instead of μη — mē) conceived as an actual case and no longer hypothetical. See John 1:12 for εις το ονομα — eis to onoma with πιστευω — pisteuō (believing on the name) and John 1:14 for μονογενους — monogenous (only begotten) and also John 3:16. [source]
John 5:43 In my Father‘s name [εν τωι ονοματι του πατρος μου]
Seven times Jesus in John speaks of the “Name” of the Father (John 5:43; John 10:25; John 12:28; John 17:6, John 17:11, John 17:12, John 17:26). See John 1:12 for use of ονομα — onoma (Luke 1:49). And ye receive me not “And yet ye do not receive me,” as in John 5:40, “the Gospel of the Rejection” (John 1:11; John 3:11, John 3:32; John 12:37) often applied to the Fourth Gospel. If another come Condition of third class Note αλλος — allos not ετερος — heteros like αλλον Ιησουν — allon Iēsoun in 2 Corinthians 11:4. Similar prophecies occur in Mark 13:6, Mark 13:22 (Matthew 24:5, Matthew 24:24), all general in character like Antichrist in 2 Thessalonians 2:8-12. There is no occasion for a reference to any individual like Barcochba (about a.d. 134) as Pfleiderer and Schmiedel hold. These Messianic upstarts all come “in their own name” and always find a following. Him ye will receive “That one,” whoever he is, as Jesus said. Future active indicative of λαμβανω — lambanō Credulous about the false Messiahs, incredulous about Christ. [source]
Romans 7:5 Did work [ἐνηργεῖτο]
Rev., wrought. See 2 Corinthians 1:6; 2 Corinthians 4:12; Ephesians 3:20; Galatians 5:6; Philemon 2:13; Colossians 1:29. Compare Mark 6:14, and see on power, John 1:12. [source]
Romans 4:5 Believeth on Him [πιστεύοντι ἐπὶ τὸν]
The verb πιστεύω tobelieve is used in the New Testament as follows: 1. Transitively, with the accusative and dative: to entrust something to one, Luke 16:11; John 2:24. In the passive, to be entrusted with something, Romans 3:2; 1 Corinthians 9:17; Galatians 2:7. With the simple accusative, to believe a thing, John 11:26; 1 John 4:16. -DIVIDER-
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2. With the infinitive, Acts 15:11. -DIVIDER-
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3. With ὅτι that Matthew 9:28; Mark 11:24; James 2:19. Especially frequent in John: John 4:21; John 11:27, John 11:42; John 13:19; John 14:10, John 14:11; John 16:27, John 16:30, etc. -DIVIDER-
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4. With the simple dative, meaning to believe a person or thing, that they are true or speak the truth, John 2:22; John 4:21; John 5:46. See on John 1:12; see on John 2:22, John 2:23; see on John 8:31; see on John 10:37. -DIVIDER-
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5. With the preposition ἐν inNot frequent, and questioned in some of the passages cited for illustration. In John 3:15, ἐν αὐτῷ inHim, is probably to be construed with have eternal life. The formula occurs nowhere else in John. In Mark 1:15we find πιστεύετε ἐν τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ believein the gospel. The kindred noun πίστις faithoccurs in this combination. Thus Galatians 3:26, though some join in Christ Jesus with sons. See also Ephesians 1:15; Colossians 1:4; 1 Timothy 3:13; 2 Timothy 3:15; Romans 3:25. This preposition indicates the sphere in which faith moves, rather than the object to which it is directed, though instances occur in the Septuagint where it plainly indicates the direction of faith, Psalm 78:22; Jeremiah 12:6. -DIVIDER-
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6. With the preposition ἐπί uponon to, unto. a. With the accusative, Romans 4:5; Acts 9:42; Acts 11:17; Acts 16:31; Acts 22:19. The preposition carries the idea of mental direction with a view to resting upon, which latter idea is conveyed by the same preposition. b. With the dative, 1 Timothy 1:16; Luke 24:25; compare Romans 9:33; Romans 10:11; 1 Peter 2:6. The dative expresses absolute superposition. Christ as the object of faith, is the basis on which faith rests. -DIVIDER-
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7. With the preposition εἰς into Matthew 18:6; John 2:11; Acts 19:4; Romans 10:14; Galatians 2:16; Philemon 1:29, etc. The preposition conveys the idea of the absolute transference of trust from one's self to another. Literally the phrase means to believe into. See on John 1:12; see on John 2:23; see on John 9:35; see on John 12:44.Is counted for righteousness ( λογίζεται εἰς δικαιοσύνην )Rev., is reckoned. See on Romans 4:3. The preposition εἰς has the force of as, not the telic meaning with a view to, or in order that he may be (righteous); nor strictly, in the place of righteousness. Faith is not a substitute for righteousness, since righteousness is involved in faith. When a man is reckoned righteous through faith, it is not a legal fiction. He is not indeed a perfect man, but God does not reckon something which has no real existence. Faith is the germ of righteousness, of life in God. God recognizes no true life apart from holiness, and “he that believeth on the Son hath life.” He is not merely regarded in the law's eye as living. God accepts the germ, not in place of the fruit, but as containing the fruit. “Abraham believed God … . No soul comes into such a relation of trust without having God's investment upon it; and whatever there may be in God's righteousness - love, truth, sacrifice - will be rightfully imputed or counted to be in it, because, being united to Him, it will have them coming over derivatively from Him” (Bushnell). The idea of logical sequence is inherent in λογίζεται isreckoned - the sequence of character upon faith. Where there is faith there is, logically, righteousness, and the righteousness is from faith unto faith (Romans 1:17). Nevertheless, in the highest development of the righteousness of faith, it will remain true that the man is justified, not by the works of righteousness, which are the fruit of faith, but by the faith which, in making him a partaker of the life and righteousness of God, generates and inspires the works. Observe that the believer's own faith is reckoned as righteousness. “In no passage in Paul's writings or in other parts of the New Testament, where the phrase to reckon for or the verb to reckon alone is used, is there a declaration that anything belonging to one person is imputed, accounted, or reckoned to another, or a formal statement that Christ's righteousness is imputed to believers” (President Dwight, “Notes on Meyer”). -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
[source]

Romans 13:1 Higher powers [ἐξουσίαις ὑπερεχούσαις]
Lit., authorities which have themselves over. See on Mark 2:10; see on John 1:12. [source]
Romans 7:5 In the flesh [ἐν τῇ σαρκί]
Σάρξ fleshoccurs in the classics in the physical sense only. Homer commonly uses it in the plural as denoting all the flesh or muscles of the body. Later the singular occurs in the same sense. Paul's use of this and other psychological terms must be determined largely by the Old-Testament usage as it appears in the Septuagint. 1. In the physical sense. The literal flesh. In the Septuagint τὰ κρέα flesh(plural) is used where the reference is to the parts of animals slain, and αἱ σάρκες , flesh (plural) where the reference is to flesh as the covering of the living body. Hence Paul uses κρέα in Romans 14:21; 1 Corinthians 8:13, of the flesh of sacrificed animals. Compare also the adjective σάρκιμος fleshy 2 Corinthians 3:3; and Ezekiel 11:19; Ezekiel 36:26, Sept. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
2. Kindred. Denoting natural or physical relationship, Romans 1:3; Romans 9:3-8; Romans 11:14; Galatians 4:23, Galatians 4:29; 1 Corinthians 10:18; Philemon 1:16. This usage forms a transition to the following sense: the whole human body. Flesh is the medium in and through which the natural relationship of man manifests itself. Kindred is conceived as based on community of bodily substance. Therefore:-DIVIDER-
3. The body itself. The whole being designated by the part, as being its main substance and characteristic, 1 Corinthians 6:16; 1 Corinthians 7:28; 2 Corinthians 4:11; 2 Corinthians 7:5; 2 Corinthians 10:3; 2 Corinthians 12:7. Romans 2:28; Galatians 6:13, etc. Paul follows the Septuagint in sometimes using σῶμα bodyand sometimes σάρξ fleshin this sense, so that the terms occasionally seem to be practically synonymous. Thus 1 Corinthians 6:16, 1 Corinthians 6:17, where the phrase one body is illustrated and confirmed by one flesh. See Genesis 2:24; Ephesians 5:28, Ephesians 5:31, where the two are apparently interchanged. Compare 2 Corinthians 4:10, 2 Corinthians 4:11; 1 Corinthians 5:3, and Colossians 2:5. Σάρξ , however, differs from σῶμα in that it can only signify the organism of an earthly, living being consisting of flesh and bones, and cannot denote “either an earthly organism that is not living, or a living organism that is not earthly” (Wendt, in Dickson). Σῶμα not thus limited. Thus it may denote the organism of the plant (1 Corinthians 15:37, 1 Corinthians 15:38) or the celestial bodies (1 Corinthians 15:40). Hence the two conceptions are related as general and special: σῶμα bodybeing the material organism apart from any definite matter (not from any sort of matter), σάρξ , flesh, the definite, earthly, animal organism. The two are synonymons when σῶμα is used, from the context, of an earthly, animal body. Compare Philemon 1:22; 2 Corinthians 5:1-8. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
Σῶμα bodyand not σάρξ fleshis used when the reference is to a metaphorical organism, as the church, Romans 12:4sqq.; 1 Corinthians 10:16; 12:12-27; Ephesians 1:23; Ephesians 2:16; Colossians 1:18, etc. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
The σάρξ is described as mortal (2 Corinthians 4:11); subject to infirmity (Galatians 4:13; 2 Corinthians 12:7); locally limited (Colossians 2:15); an object of fostering care (Ephesians 5:29). -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
4. Living beings generally, including their mental nature, and with a correlated notion of weakness and perishableness. Thus the phrase πᾶσα σάρξ allflesh (Genesis 6:12; Isaiah 49:26; Isaiah 49:23). This accessory notion of weakness stands in contrast with God. In Paul the phrase all flesh is cited from the Old Testament (Romans 3:20; Galatians 2:16) and is used independently (1 Corinthians 1:29). In all these instances before God is added. So in Galatians 1:16, flesh and blood implies a contrast of human with divine wisdom. Compare 1 Corinthians 15:50; Ephesians 6:12. This leads up to-DIVIDER-
5. Man “either as a creature in his natural state apart from Christ, or the creaturely side or aspect of the man in Christ.” Hence it is correlated with ἄνθρωπος man 1 Corinthians 3:3; Romans 6:19; 2 Corinthians 5:17. Compare Romans 6:6; Ephesians 4:22; Colossians 3:9; Galatians 5:24. Thus the flesh would seem to be interchangeable with the old man. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
It has affections and lusts (Galatians 5:24); willings (Ephesians 2:3; Romans 8:6, Romans 8:7); a mind (Colossians 2:18); a body (Colossians 2:11). -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
It is in sharp contrast with πνεῦμα spirit(Galatians 3:3, Galatians 3:19; Galatians 5:16, Galatians 5:17, Galatians 5:19-24; Galatians 6:8; Romans 8:4). The flesh and the spirit are thus antagonistic. Σάρξ fleshbefore or in contrast with his reception of the divine element whereby he becomes a new creature in Christ: the whole being of man as it exists and acts apart from the influence of the Spirit. It properly characterizes, therefore, not merely the lower forms of sensual gratification, but all - the highest developments of the life estranged from God, whether physical, intellectual, or aesthetic. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
It must be carefully noted:-DIVIDER-
1. That Paul does not identify flesh and sin. Compare, flesh of sin, Romans 8:3. See Romans 7:17, Romans 7:18; 2 Corinthians 7:1; Galatians 2:20. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
2. That Paul does not identify σάρξ withthe material body nor associate sin exclusively and predominantly with the body. The flesh is the flesh of the living man animated by the soul ( ψυχή ) as its principle of life, and is distinctly used as coordinate with ἄνθρωπος manAs in the Old Testament, “it embraces in an emphatic manner the nature of man, mental and corporeal, with its internal distinctions.” The spirit as well as the flesh is capable of defilement (2 Corinthians 7:1; compare 1 Corinthians 7:34). Christian life is to be transformed by the renewing of the mind (Romans 12:2; compare Ephesians 4:23). -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
3. That Paul does not identify the material side of man with evil. The flesh is not the native seat and source of sin. It is only its organ, and the seat of sin's manifestation. Matter is not essentially evil. The logical consequence of this would be that no service of God is possible while the material organism remains. See Romans 12:1. The flesh is not necessarily sinful in itself; but as it has existed from the time of the introduction of sin through Adam, it is recognized by Paul as tainted with sin. Jesus appeared in the flesh, and yet was sinless (2 Corinthians 5:21).The motions of sins ( τὰ παθήματα τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν )Motions used in earlier English for emotions or impulses. Thus Bacon: “He that standeth at a stay where others rise, can hardly avoid motions of envy” (“Essay” xiv.). The word is nearly synonymous with πάθος passion(Romans 1:26, note). From πάθειν tosuffer; a feeling which the mind undergoes, a passion, desire. Rev., sinful passions: which led to sins.Did work ( ἐνηργεῖτο )Rev., wrought. See 2 Corinthians 1:6; 2 Corinthians 4:12; Ephesians 3:20; Galatians 5:6; Philemon 2:13; Colossians 1:29. Compare Mark 6:14, and see on power, John 1:12. [source]

Romans 9:21 Power [ἐξουσίαν]
Or right. See on Mark 2:10; see on John 1:12. [source]
2 Corinthians 3:3 Ink [μέλανι]
From μέλας blackOnly here, 2 John 1:12(see note), and 3 John 1:13. [source]
2 Corinthians 3:3 Not with ink [ου μελανι]
Instrumental case of μελας — melas black. Plato uses το μελαν — to melan for ink as here. See also 2 John 1:12; 3 John 1:13. Of stone (λιτιναις — lithinais). Composed of stone (λιτος — lithos and ending ινος — ̇inos). Of flesh “Fleshen” as in 1 Corinthians 3:1; Romans 7:14. [source]
Galatians 3:26 For ye are all the children of God [πάντες γὰρ υἱοὶ θεοῦ ἐστὲ]
Better, ye are all sons of God. Note 1. The change of person, ye are. Comp. we, our, us, Galatians 3:23, Galatians 3:24, Galatians 3:25. He now addresses the Galatians, who were mostly Gentiles, and includes all Christians, Jewish and Gentile. 2. The emphasis is on sons of God rather than on all; for his object is to show that, after the coming of faith, they are no more under the care of a guardian. Ὑιοὶ signifies sons of full age (comp. Galatians 4:1) who have outgrown the surveillance of the guardian; so that sons is emphasized as against children. Paul describes Christians both as τέκνα θεοῦ childrenof God (Romans 8:16, Romans 8:21; Romans 9:8; Philemon 2:15), and υἱοὶ θεοῦ sonsof God (Romans 8:14, Romans 8:19; Romans 9:26). Both τέκνον and υἱός signify a relation based on parentage. The common distinction between τέκνον as emphasizing natural relationship, and υἱός as marking legal or ethical status, should not be pressed. In lxx both words are applied ethically to Israel as God's beloved people. See Isaiah 30:1; Wisd. 16:21; Joel 2:23; Zechariah 9:13; and Isaiah 63:6; Deuteronomy 14:1; Wisd. 9:7; 12:19. John never uses υἱός to describe the relation of Christians to God; but he attaches both the ethical relation and that of conferred privilege, as well as that of birth, to τέκνον . See John 1:12; 1 John 3:1, 1 John 3:10; John 1:13; John 3:3, John 3:7; 1 John 3:9; 1 John 4:7; 1 John 5:1, 1 John 5:4, 1 John 5:18. Paul often regards the Christian relation from a legal point of view as υἱοθεσία adoptiona word used only by him. See Romans 8:14, Romans 8:17, we have both υἱοὶ and τέκνα , and both in the ethical sense. In Romans 9:8; Ephesians 5:1, the ethical sense. 3. In Christ Jesus. Const. with faith. The article before πίστεως faithmay point back to the faith previously mentioned, or may have, as so often, a possessive force, your faith. [source]
Ephesians 2:3 By nature children of wrath []
See on Ephesians 2:2. Children ( τέκνα ) emphasizes the connection by birth; see on John 1:12. Wrath ( ὀργῆς ) is God's holy hatred of sin; His essential, necessary antagonism to everything evil, Romans 1:18. By nature ( φύσει ) accords with children, implying what; is innate. That man is born with a sinful nature, and that God and sin are essentially antagonistic, are conceded on all hands: but that unconscious human beings come into the world under the blaze of God's indignation, hardly consists with Christ's assertion that to little children belongs the kingdom of heaven. It is true that there is a birth-principle of evil, which, if suffered to develop, will bring upon itself the wrath of God. Whether Paul means more than this I do not know. [source]
Ephesians 1:19 According to the working of His mighty power [κατὰ τὴν ἐνέργειαν τοῦ κράτους τῆς ἰσχύος αὐτοῦ]
The A.V. frequently impairs the force of a passage by combining into a single conception two words which represent distinct ideas; translating two nouns by an adjective and a noun. Thus Philemon 3:21, vile body, glorious body, for body of humiliation, body of glory: Romans 8:21, glorious liberty, for liberty of the glory: 2 Corinthians 4:4, glorious gospel, for gospel of the glory: Colossians 1:11, glorious power, for power of the glory: 1 Peter 1:14, obedient children, for children of obedience: 2 Peter 2:14, cursed children, for children of cursing. So here, mighty power, for strength of might. The idea is thus diluted, and the peculiar force and distinction of the separate words is measurably lost. Rev., correctly, working of the strength of His might. For working, see on Colossians 1:29. For strength and might, see on 2 Peter 2:11; see on John 1:12. Strength ( κράτους ) is used only of God, and denotes relative and manifested power. Might ( ἰσχύος ) is indwelling strength. Working ( ἐνέργειαν ) is the active, efficient manifestation of these. Hence we have here God's indwelling power, which inheres in the divine nature (strength ); the relative quality or measure of this power (might ); and the efficient exertion of the divine quality (working ). The phrase, according to the working of the strength, etc., is to be connected with the exceeding greatness of His power. The magnitude of God's power toward believers is known in the operation of the strength of His might. [source]
Philippians 3:21 The working whereby He is able [τὴν ἐνέργειαν τοῦ δύνασθαι]
Lit., the energy of His being able. Δύνασθαι expresses ability, faculty, natural ability, not necessarily manifest. Ἑνέργεια is power in exercise, used only of superhuman power. See on John 1:12; see on 2 Peter 2:11. Hence, as Calvin remarks, “Paul notes not only the power of God as it resides in Him, but the power as it puts itself into act.” See Ephesians 1:19, where four of the six words for power are used. [source]
Philippians 2:15 Sons of God [τέκνα]
Rev., better, children. See on John 1:12. Compare Deuteronomy 32:5. [source]
Colossians 1:11 Power - might [δυνάμει - κράτος]
See on 2 Peter 2:11; see on John 1:12. [source]
2 Thessalonians 3:9 Power [ἐξουσίαν]
Better, right. See on Mark 2:10; see on John 1:12. [source]
2 Timothy 4:13 The books [βιβλία]
Βίβλος or, βιβλίον was the term most widely used by the Greeks for book or volume. The usual derivation is from βύβλος theEgyptian papyrus. Comp. Lat. liber “the inner bark of a tree,” also “ book.” Pliny (Nat. Hist. xiii. 11) says that the pith of the papyrus plant was cut in slices and laid in rows, over which other rows were laid crosswise, and the whole was massed by pressure. The name for the blank papyrus sheets was χάρτης (charta) paper. See on 2 John 1:12. Timothy is here requested to bring some papyrus documents which are distinguished from the vellum manuscripts. [source]
2 Timothy 1:12 Whom I have believed [ᾧ πεπίστευκα]
Or, in whom I have put my trust. See on John 1:12; see on John 2:22; see on Romans 4:5. [source]
Titus 3:1 Principalities and powers [ἀρχαῖς ἐξουσίαις]
Omit and. Principalities which are authorities. Ἁρχή beginning= that which begins: the leader, principality. See on Colossians 1:16; see on Judges 1:6; see on Acts 10:11. Only here in Pastorals. Ἑξουσία rightauthority. See on Mark 2:10; see on John 1:12; see on Colossians 1:16. Only here in Pastorals. For the combination principalities and powers, see on Luke 20:20. [source]
Hebrews 4:12 Quick and powerful [ζῶν καὶ ἐνεργὴς]
Note the emphatic position of ζῶν livingLiving is the word of God, since it is the word of “the living God” (Hebrews 3:12). Living in its essence. For ἐνεργὴς activeenergizing, and kindred words, see on John 1:12; see on Philemon 3:21; see on Colossians 1:29; see on Philemon 1:6. Manifesting itself actively in the world and in men's hearts. Comp. 1 Peter 1:23. [source]
Hebrews 13:10 Right [ἐξουσίαν]
See on John 1:12. [source]
Hebrews 4:12 The word of God [ο λογος του τεου]
That just quoted about the promise of rest and God‘s rest, but true of any real word of God. Living Cf. the Living God (Hebrews 3:12). In Philo and the Book of Wisdom the Logos of God is personified, but still more in John 1:1-18 where Jesus is pictured as the Logos on a par with God. “Our author is using Philonic language rather than Philonic ideas” (Moffatt). See John 6:63: “The words which I have spoken are spirit and are life.” Active Energetic, powerful (John 1:12; Philemon 3:21; Colossians 1:29). Sharper Comparative of τομος — tomos cutting (from τεμνω — temnō to cut), late adjective, here only in the N.T. Than Often so after a comparative (Luke 16:8; 2 Corinthians 12:13). Two-edged “Two-mouthed” Present middle participle of αχρι μερισμου — diikneomai old verb to go through, here only in N.T. Even to the dividing Old word from μερος — merizō As in 1 Thessalonians 5:23; 1 Corinthians 15:45, but not an argument for trichotomy. Psychology is constantly changing its terminology. Of both joints and marrow From αρμος — arō to join, comes Μυελος — harmos old word, here only in the N.T. μυω — Muelos (from κριτικος — muō to shut), old word, here only in N.T. This surgeon goes into and through the joints and marrow, not cleaving between them. Quick to discern Verbal adjective in -κρινω — ikos from εντυμησεων και εννοιων καρδιας — krinō skilled in judging, as the surgeon has to be and able to decide on the instant what to do. So God‘s word like his eye sees the secret lurking doubt and unbelief “of the thoughts and intents of the heart” The surgeon carries a bright and powerful light for every dark crevice and a sharp knife for the removal of all the pus revealed by the light. It is a powerful picture here drawn. [source]
1 John 5:19 We are of God [ἐκ τοῦ Θεοῦ ἐσμέν]
For the phrase εἷναι ἐκ tobe from, see on John 1:46. For ἐσμέν weare, see on 1 John 3:1. John expresses the relation of believers to God by the following phrases: To be born or begotten of God, γεννηθῆναι ἐκ τοῦ Θεοῦ (1 John 5:1; 1 John 2:29; 1 John 4:7): denoting the initial communication of the new life. To be of God, εἷναι ἐκ τοῦ Θεοῦ (John 8:47; 1 John 3:10; 1 John 4:6): denoting the essential connection in virtue of the new life. Child of God, τέκνον Θεοῦ (John 1:12; 1 John 3:1, 1 John 3:10): denoting the relation established by the new life. [source]
1 John 5:13 On the name [εἰς τὸ ὄνομα]
See on John 2:23; see on John 1:12. [source]
1 John 5:10 God []
Also personal. To believe God, is to believe the message which comes from Him. See on John 1:12. [source]
1 John 5:10 Believed on the witness [πεπίστευκεν εἰς τὴν μαρτυρίαν]
The phrase occurs only here. See on John 1:12. In one other case to believe on is used with an object not directly personal, πιστεύετε εἰς τὸ φῶς ; but the reference is clearly to the personal Christ as the Light of the World (John 8:12). [source]
1 John 3:5 Ye know []
John's characteristic appeal to Christian knowledge. Compare 1 John 2:20, 1 John 2:21; 1 John 4:2, 1 John 4:14, 1 John 4:16; 1 John 5:15, 1 John 5:18; 3 John 1:12. [source]
1 John 3:23 Believe on the name [πιστεύσωμεν τῷ ὀνόματι]
See on John 1:12; see on 1 John 1:7. [source]
1 John 3:1 The sons [τέκνα]
Rev., better, children. See on John 1:12. [source]
1 John 2:12 Name []
See on John 1:12; see on John 2:23. [source]
1 John 2:12 Little children []
See on 1 John 2:1, and John 1:12. Not children in age, but addressed to the readers generally. [source]
1 John 1:4 Full [πεπληρωμένη]
More correctly, fulfilled. Frequent in John. See John 3:29; John 7:8; John 8:38; John 15:11; 2 John 1:12; Revelation 6:11. “The peace of reconciliation, the blessed consciousness of sonship, the happy growth in holiness, the bright prospect of future completion and glory, - all these are but simple details of that which, in all its length and breadth is embraced by one word, Eternal Life, the real possession of which is the immediate source of our joy. We have joy, Christ's joy, because we are blessed, because we have life itself in Christ” (Düsterdieck, cit. by Alford). And Augustine: “For there is a joy which is not given to the ungodly, but to those who love Thee for thine own sake, whose joy Thou thyself art. And this is the happy life, to rejoice to Thee, of Thee; this is it and there is no other” (“Confessions,” x., 22). Alford is right in remarking that this verse gives an epistolary character to what follows, but it can hardly be said with him that it “fills the place of the χαίρειν greetinglit., rejoice, so common in the opening of Epistles.” [source]
1 John 3:1 Hath bestowed [δεδωκεν]
Perfect active indicative of διδωμι — didōmi state of completion, “the endowment of the receiver” (Vincent).That we should be called (ινα κλητωμεν — hina klēthōmen). Sub-final use of ινα — hina with the first aorist passive subjunctive of καλεω — kaleō to call or name, as in Matthew 2:23.Children As in John 1:12 and with an allusion to γεγεννηται — gegennētai in 1 John 2:29 in an effort “to restore the waning enthusiasm of his readers, and to recall them to their first love” (Brooke).And such we are (και εσμεν — kai esmen). “And we are.” A parenthetical reflection characteristic of John (και νυν εστιν — kai nun estin in John 5:25 and και ουκ εισιν — kai ouk eisin in Revelation 2:2; Revelation 3:9) omitted by Textus Receptus, though, in the old MSS.Because it knew him not Second aorist active indicative of γινωσκω — ginōskō precisely the argument in John 15:18. [source]
1 John 3:1 Children [τεκνα]
As in John 1:12 and with an allusion to γεγεννηται — gegennētai in 1 John 2:29 in an effort “to restore the waning enthusiasm of his readers, and to recall them to their first love” (Brooke).And such we are (και εσμεν — kai esmen). “And we are.” A parenthetical reflection characteristic of John (και νυν εστιν — kai nun estin in John 5:25 and και ουκ εισιν — kai ouk eisin in Revelation 2:2; Revelation 3:9) omitted by Textus Receptus, though, in the old MSS.Because it knew him not Second aorist active indicative of γινωσκω — ginōskō precisely the argument in John 15:18. [source]
1 John 3:23 That [ινα]
Subfinal use of ινα — hina in apposition with εντολη — entolē (commandment) and explanatory of it, as in John 15:12 See Christ‘s summary of the commandments (Mark 12:28-31; Matthew 22:34-40).So these two points here (1) We should believe (πιστευσωμεν — pisteusōmen first aorist active subjunctive according to B K L, though Aleph A C read the present subjunctive πιστευωμεν — pisteuōmen) either in a crisis (aorist) or the continuous tenor (present) of our lives. The “name” of Jesus Christ here stands for all that he is, “a compressed creed” (Westcott) as in 1 John 1:3. Note dative ονοματι — onomati here with πιστευω — pisteuō as in 1 John 5:10, though εις ονομα — eis onoma (on the name) in 1 John 5:13; John 1:12; John 2:23; John 3:18.But (2) we should love one another” There are frequent points of contact between this Epistle and the words of Jesus in John 13-17. [source]
1 John 3:23 We should believe [πιστευσωμεν]
(πιστευσωμεν — pisteusōmen first aorist active subjunctive according to B K L, though Aleph A C read the present subjunctive πιστευωμεν — pisteuōmen) either in a crisis (aorist) or the continuous tenor (present) of our lives. The “name” of Jesus Christ here stands for all that he is, “a compressed creed” (Westcott) as in 1 John 1:3. Note dative ονοματι — onomati here with πιστευω — pisteuō as in 1 John 5:10, though εις ονομα — eis onoma (on the name) in 1 John 5:13; John 1:12; John 2:23; John 3:18. [source]
2 John 1:12 Ink [μέλανος]
Lit., that which is black. The word occurs only once outside of John's Epistles (2 Corinthians 3:3), and only three times in all (2 John 1:12; 3 John 1:13). Ink was prepared of soot or of vegetable or mineral substances. Gum and vitriol were also used. Colored inks, red and gold, were also employed. [source]
2 John 1:10 Receive him not [μη]
Present active imperative with λαμβανω — mē For εις οικιαν — lambanō in this sense see John 1:12; John 6:21; John 13:20. [source]
2 John 1:10 This teaching [μη λαμβανετε αυτον]
This teaching of Christ of 2 John 1:9, which is the standard by which to test Gnostic deceivers (2 John 1:7). John does not refer to entertaining strangers (Hebrews 13:2; 1 Timothy 5:10), but to the deceiving propagandists who were carrying dissension and danger with them.Receive him not (μη — mē lambanete auton). Present active imperative with λαμβανω — mē For εις οικιαν — lambanō in this sense see John 1:12; John 6:21; John 13:20.Into your house Definite without the article like our at home, to town.Give him no greeting (χαιρειν — chairein autōi mē legete). “Say not farewell to him.” Apparently λεγετε — chairein here (present active infinitive, object of μη — legete present active imperative with negative χαιρειν — mē) is used of farewell as in 2 Corinthians 13:11, though usually in the N.T. (Acts 15:23; Acts 23:26; James 1:1) of the salutation. But here the point turns on the stranger bringing into the house (or trying to do so) his heretical and harmful teaching which seems to be after the salutation is over. The usual greeting to a house is given in Luke 10:5. On the other hand, if chairein means greeting, not farewell, here, it can very well be understood of the peril of allowing these Gnostic propagandists to spread their pernicious teachings (cf. Mormons or Bolshevists) in home and church (usually meeting in the home). This is assuming that the men were known and not mere strangers. [source]
3 John 1:14 Face to face []
See on 2 John 1:12. [source]
3 John 1:10 If I come [εαν ελτω]
Condition of third class with εαν — ean and second aorist active subjunctive of ερχομαι — erchomai He hopes to come (3 John 1:14), as he had said in 2 John 1:12 (one argument for identifying 2 John with the letter in 3 John 1:9). [source]
3 John 1:13 I am unwilling to write [ου τελω γραπειν]
“I do not wish to go on writing them.”With ink and pen (δια μελανος και καλαμου — dia melanos kai kalamou), “by means of (δια — dia) black (ink) and reed (used as pen).” See 2 John 1:12 for μελανος — melanos and Matthew 11:7 for καλαμος — kalamos used for papyrus and parchment, as γραπειον — grapheion (a sharp stilus) for wax tablets. [source]
3 John 1:13 With ink and pen [δια μελανος και καλαμου]
(δια μελανος και καλαμου — dia melanos kai kalamou), “by means of (δια — dia) black (ink) and reed (used as pen).” See 2 John 1:12 for μελανος — melanos and Matthew 11:7 for καλαμος — kalamos used for papyrus and parchment, as γραπειον — grapheion (a sharp stilus) for wax tablets. [source]
3 John 1:14 I hope [ελπιζω]
Literary plural really singular like ελπιζω — elpizō to face As in 2 John 1:12. [source]
Revelation 22:14 That they may have right to the tree of life [ἵνα ἔσται ἡ ἐξουσία αὐτῶν ἐπὶ τὸ ξύλον τῆς ζωῆς]
Lit., in order that theirs shall be authority over the tree of life. For ἐξουσία rightauthority, see on John 1:12. Ἑπί may be the preposition of direction: “may have right to come to ” (so Rev.) or may be rendered over. [source]
Revelation 21:7 My Son [μοι ὁ υἱός]
Lit., the Son to me. See on John 1:12. This is the only place in John's writings where υἱός sonis used of the relation of man to God. [source]
Revelation 2:26 Power [ἐξουσίαν]
See on John 1:12. Rev., better, authority. [source]

What do the individual words in John 1:12 mean?

As many as however received Him He gave to them authority children of God to be to those believing in the name of Him
ὅσοι δὲ ἔλαβον αὐτόν ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς ἐξουσίαν τέκνα Θεοῦ γενέσθαι τοῖς πιστεύουσιν εἰς τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ

ὅσοι  As  many  as 
Parse: Personal / Relative Pronoun, Nominative Masculine Plural
Root: ὅσος  
Sense: as great as, as far as, how much, how many, whoever.
δὲ  however 
Parse: Conjunction
Root: δέ  
Sense: but, moreover, and, etc.
ἔλαβον  received 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Active, 3rd Person Plural
Root: λαμβάνω  
Sense: to take.
ἔδωκεν  He  gave 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Active, 3rd Person Singular
Root: διδῶ 
Sense: to give.
αὐτοῖς  to  them 
Parse: Personal / Possessive Pronoun, Dative Masculine 3rd Person Plural
Root: αὐτός  
Sense: himself, herself, themselves, itself.
ἐξουσίαν  authority 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Feminine Singular
Root: ἐξουσία  
Sense: power of choice, liberty of doing as one pleases.
τέκνα  children 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Neuter Plural
Root: τέκνον  
Sense: offspring, children.
Θεοῦ  of  God 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Masculine Singular
Root: θεός  
Sense: a god or goddess, a general name of deities or divinities.
γενέσθαι  to  be 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Infinitive Middle
Root: γίνομαι  
Sense: to become, i.
τοῖς  to  those 
Parse: Article, Dative Masculine Plural
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
πιστεύουσιν  believing 
Parse: Verb, Present Participle Active, Dative Masculine Plural
Root: πιστεύω  
Sense: to think to be true, to be persuaded of, to credit, place confidence in.
ὄνομα  name 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Neuter Singular
Root: ὄνομα  
Sense: name: univ.
αὐτοῦ  of  Him 
Parse: Personal / Possessive Pronoun, Genitive Masculine 3rd Person Singular
Root: αὐτός  
Sense: himself, herself, themselves, itself.