The Meaning of Ephesians 2:2 Explained

Ephesians 2:2

KJV: Wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience:

YLT: in which once ye did walk according to the age of this world, according to the ruler of the authority of the air, of the spirit that is now working in the sons of disobedience,

Darby: in which ye once walked according to the age of this world, according to the ruler of the authority of the air, the spirit who now works in the sons of disobedience:

ASV: wherein ye once walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the powers of the air, of the spirit that now worketh in the sons of disobedience;

What does Ephesians 2:2 Mean?

Study Notes

world
kosmos = world-system. Colossians 2:20 ; John 7:7 .
Kosmos, Summary: In the sense of the present world-system, the ethically bad sense of the word, refers to the "order," "arrangement," under which Satan has organized the world of unbelieving mankind upon his cosmic principle of force, greed, selfishness, ambition, and pleasure. Matthew 4:8 ; Matthew 4:9 ; John 12:31 ; John 14:30 ; John 18:36 ; Ephesians 2:2 ; Ephesians 6:12 ; 1 John 2:15-17 . This world- system is imposing and powerful with armies and fleets; is often outwardly religious, scientific, cultured, and elegant; but, seething with national and commercial rivalries and ambitions, is upheld in any real crisis only by armed force, and is dominated by Satanic principles.

Verse Meaning

The apostle further described the sphere in which unbelievers live in three ways. First, it is a lifestyle in which people follow the ways of the world. The philosophy that seeks to eliminate God from every aspect of life dominates this lifestyle (cf. John 15:18; John 15:23).
"The Jews called their laws of conduct Halachah, which means "Walking" (cf. Mk. vii5; Acts xxi21; Heb. xiii9 , RV mg.)." [1]
Second, the unsaved follow the person who is promoting this philosophy, namely, Satan. As prince of the power of the air Satan received temporary freedom to lead this rebellion against God (cf. 1 John 5:19; 2 Corinthians 4:4; Revelation 12:9). The "spirit" now working probably refers to the "power" or "kingdom" (lit. authority) of the air since that word is its nearest antecedent.
". . . by speaking of the devil"s authority as "in the air", Paul was not necessarily accepting the current notion of the air being the abode and realm of evil spirits. Basically his thought was of an evil power with control in the world (see on vi12), but whose existence was not material but spiritual." [2]
"Sons of disobedience" is a way of saying people characterized by disobedience, as a son bears the traits of his parent. Unbelievers resemble Satan in their rebellion.

Context Summary

Ephesians 2:1-10 - What Grace Has Done
Evidently dead men may walk; that is, they may be dead to the eternal world but alive to this world, which is moving past like the films of a moving picture. The death of the spirit is compatible with much active interest in the course of this world. Behind the shifting scenes of the material is the great enemy of souls. As the Spirit of God works in the obedient, so does the evil spirit work in the disobedient. Note this trinity of evil-the course of this world, the lusts of our flesh, and the prince of the power of the air. If we desire to save men, we must be in living union with the all-conquering Spirit of Christ.
Notice, also, the past tense which describes the finality of Christ's work, Ephesians 2:5-6. In the purpose of God we have been raised from the grave of sin and are seated with the risen Lord in the place of acceptance and victory. We were one with Christ when He lay in the grave and arose. In God's thought we have already taken our seat with the glorified Christ upon the throne; only the pity is that we do not believe this or act as if we had done so. All this is the gift of God's unmerited love. By grace have we been brought into this position, and by grace are we maintained in it. We are of God's "making;" such is the Greek word for workmanship, Ephesians 2:10. We have been created for good works; they have been planned for us and we have only to walk in them. [source]

Chapter Summary: Ephesians 2

1  By comparing what we were by nature, with what we are by grace,
10  he declares that we are made for good works: and being brought near by Christ,
19  should not live as Gentiles and foreigners, but as citizens with the saints, and the family of God

Greek Commentary for Ephesians 2:2

According to the course of this world [κατα τον αιωνα του κοσμου τουτου]
Curious combinations of αιων — aiōn (a period of time), κοσμος — kosmos (the world in that period). See note on 1 Corinthians 1:20 for “this age” and 1 Corinthians 3:9 for “this world.” [source]
The prince of the power of the air [τον αρχοντα της εχουσιας του αερος]
Αηρ — Aēr was used by the ancients for the lower and denser atmosphere and αιτηρ — aithēr for the higher and rarer. Satan is here pictured as ruler of the demons and other agencies of evil. Jesus called him “the prince of this world” That now worketh (του νυν ενεργουντος — tou nun energountos). Those who deny the existence of a personal devil cannot successfully deny the vicious tendencies, the crime waves, in modern men. The power of the devil in the lives of men does explain the evil at work “in the sons of disobedience” (εν τοις υιοις της απετιας — en tois huiois tēs apethias). In Ephesians 5:6 also. A Hebrew idiom found in the papyri like “sons of light” (1 Thessalonians 5:5). [source]
That now worketh [του νυν ενεργουντος]
Those who deny the existence of a personal devil cannot successfully deny the vicious tendencies, the crime waves, in modern men. The power of the devil in the lives of men does explain the evil at work “in the sons of disobedience” In Ephesians 5:6 also. A Hebrew idiom found in the papyri like “sons of light” (1 Thessalonians 5:5). [source]
Course [αἰῶνα]
Lit., age. See on John 1:9. [source]
Power [ἐξουσίας]
Collective, the whole empire of evil spirits. [source]
The air []
According to Paul's usage, in the simple physical sense. See Acts 22:23; 1 Corinthians 9:26; 1 Thessalonians 4:17; Revelation 16:17. The air is regarded as the region of the demons' might. [source]
The spirit []
See on 1 Corinthians 2:12. The term designates the power over which Satan rules, on the side of its operation in men's hearts. [source]
Now []
With an implied reference to its former working in his readers. Compare once, Ephesians 2:3 [source]
Children of disobedience [υἱοῖς τῆς ἀπειθείας]
Compare Ephesians 5:6. A Hebraistic expression. Compare son of perdition, John 17:12; children of obedience, 1 Peter 1:14; children of cursing, 2 Peter 2:14. Rev., correctly, sons of disobedience: belonging to disobedience as sons to a parent. [source]

Reverse Greek Commentary Search for Ephesians 2:2

Matthew 16:18 Thou art Peter [οὺ εἶ Πέτρος]
Christ responds to Peter's emphatic thou with another, equally emphatic. Peter says, “Thou art the Christ.” Christ replies, “Thou art Peter.” Πέτρος (Peter ) is used as a proper name, but without losing its meaning as a common noun. The name was bestowed on Simon at his first interview with Jesus (John 1:42) under the form of its Aramaic equivalent, CephasIn this passage attention is called, not to the giving of the name, but to its meaning. In classical Greek the word means a piece of rock, as in Homer, of Ajax throwing a stone at Hector (“Iliadvii., 270), or of Patroclus grasping and hiding in his hand a jagged stone (“Iliadxvi., 784).On this rock ( ἐπὶ ταύτῃ τῇ πέρᾳ )The word is feminine, and means a rock, as distinguished from a stone or a fragment of rock ( πέτρος , above). Used of a ledge of rocks or a rocky peak. In Homer (“Odyssey,” ix., 243), the rock ( πέτρην ) which Polyphemus places at the door of his cavern, is a mass which two-and-twenty wagons could not remove; and the rock which he hurled at the retreating ships of Ulysses, created by its fall a wave in the sea which drove the ships back toward the land (“Odyssey,” ix., 484). The word refers neither to Christ as a rock, distinguished from Simon, a stone, nor to Peter's confession, but to Peter himself, in a sense defined by his previous confession, and as enlightened by the “Father in Heaven.” The reference of πέτρα to Christ is forced and unnatural. The obvious reference of the word is to Peter. The emphatic this naturally refers to the nearest antecedent; and besides, the metaphor is thus weakened, since Christ appears here, not as the foundation, but as the architect: “On this rock will I build.” Again, Christ is the great foundation, the “chief corner-stone,” but the New Testament writers recognize no impropriety in applying to the members of Christ's church certain terms which are applied to him. For instance, Peter himself (1 Peter 2:4), calls Christ a living stone, and, in 1 Peter 2:5, addresses the church as living stones. In Revelation 21:14, the names of the twelve apostles appear in the twelve foundation-stones of the heavenly city; and in Ephesians 2:20, it is said, “Ye are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets (i.e., laid by the apostles and prophets), Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner-stone.” Equally untenable is the explanation which refers πέτρα to Simon's confession. Both the play upon the words and the natural reading of the passage are against it, and besides, it does not conform to the fact, since the church is built, not on confessions, but on confessors - living men. “The word πέτρα ,” says Edersheim, “was used in the same sense in Rabbinic language. According to the Rabbins, when God was about to build his world, he could not rear it on the generation of Enos, nor on that of the flood, who brought destruction upon the world; but when he beheld that Abraham would arise in the future, he said' 'Behold, I have found a rock to build on it, and to found the world,' whence, also, Abraham is called a rock, as it is said' 'Look unto the rock whence ye are hewn.' The parallel between Abraham and Peter might be carried even further. If, from a misunderstanding of the Lord's promise to Peter, later Christian legend represented the apostle as sitting at the gate of heaven, Jewish legend represents Abraham as sitting at the gate of Gehenna, so as to prevent all who had the seal of circumcision from falling into its abyss” (“Life and Times of Jesus”). The reference to Simon himself is confirmed by the actual relation of Peter to the early church, to the Jewish portion of which he was a foundation-stone. See Acts, Acts 1:15; Acts 2:14, Acts 2:37; Acts 3:12; Acts 4:8; Acts 5:15, Acts 5:29; Acts 9:34, Acts 9:40; Acts 10:25, Acts 10:26; Galatians 1:15.Church ( ἐκκλησίαν ) ἐκ out, καλέω , to call or summon. This is the first occurrence of this word in the New Testament. Originally an assembly of citizens, regularly summoned. So in New Testament, Acts 19:39. The Septuagint uses the word for the congregation of Israel, either as summoned for a definite purpose (Acts 7:38); but for this there is more commonly employed συναγωγή , of which synagogue is a transcription; σύν , together, ἄγω , to bring (Acts 13:43). In Christ's words to Peter the word ἐκκλησία acquires special emphasis from the opposition implied in it to the synagogue. The Christian community in the midst of Israel would be designated as ἐκκλησία , without being confounded with the συναγωγή , the Jewish community. See Acts 5:11; Acts 8:1; Acts 12:1; Acts 14:23, Acts 14:27, etc. Nevertheless συναγωγή is applied to a Christian assembly in James 2:2, while ἐπισυναγωγή (gathering or assembling together ) is found in 2 Thessalonians 2:1; Hebrews 10:25. Both in Hebrew and in New Testament usage ἐκκλησία implies more than a collective or national unity; rather a community based on a special religious idea and established in a special way. In the New Testament the term is used also in the narrower sense of a single church, or a church confined to a particular place. So of the church in the house of Aquila and Priscilla (Romans 16:5); the church at Corinth, the churches in Judea, the church at Jerusalem, etc.Gates of hell ( πύλαι ᾅδου )Rev., Hades. Hades was originally the name of the god who presided over the realm of the dead - Pluto or Dis. Hence the phrase, house of Hades. It is derived from ἀ , not, and; ἰδεῖν , to see; and signifies, therefore, the invisible land, the realm of shadow. It is the place to which all who depart this life descend, without reference to their moral character. By this word the Septuagint translated the Hebrew Sheol, which has a similar general meaning. The classical Hades embraced both good and bad men, though divided into Elysium, the abode of the virtuous, and Tartarus, the abode of the wicked. In these particulars it corresponds substantially with Sheol; both the godly and the wicked being represented as gathered into the latter. See Genesis 42:38; Psalm 9:17; Psalm 139:8; Isaiah 14:9; Isaiah 57:2; Ezekiel 32:27; Hosea 13:14. Hades and Sheol were alike conceived as a definite place, lower than the world. The passage of both good and bad into it was regarded as a descent. The Hebrew conception is that of a place of darkness; a cheerless home of a dull, joyless, shadowy life. See Psalm 6:5; Psalm 94:17; Psalm 115:17; Psalm 88:5, Psalm 88:6, Psalm 88:10; Job 10:21; Job 3:17-19; Job 14:10, Job 14:11; Ecclesiastes 9:5. Vagueness is its characteristic. In this the Hebrew's faith appears bare in contrast with that of the Greek and Roman. The pagan poets gave the popular mind definite pictures of Tartarus and Elysium; of Styx and Acheron; of happy plains where dead heroes held high discourse, and of black abysses where offenders underwent strange and ingenious tortures. There was, indeed, this difference between the Hebrew and the Pagan conceptions; that to the Pagan, Hades was the final home of its tenants, while Sheol was a temporary condition. Hence the patriarchs are described (Hebrews 11:16) as looking for a better, heavenly country; and the martyrs as enduring in hope of “a better resurrection.” Prophecy declared that the dead should arise and sing, when Sheol itself should be destroyed and its inmates brought forth, some to everlasting life, and others to shame and contempt (Isaiah 26:19; Hosea 13:14; Daniel 12:2). Paul represents this promise as made to the fathers by God, and as the hope of his countrymen (Acts 26:7). God was the God of the dead as well as of the living; present in the dark chambers of Sheol as well as in heaven (Psalm 139:8; Psalm 16:10). This is the underlying thought of that most touching and pathetic utterance of Job (Job 14:13-15), in which he breathes the wish that God would hide him with loving care in Hades, as a place of temporary concealment, where he will wait patiently, standing like a sentinel at his post, awaiting the divine voice calling him to a new and happier life. This, too, is the thought of the familiar and much-disputed passage, Job 19:23-27. His Redeemer, vindicator, avenger, shall arise after he shall have passed through the shadowy realm of Sheol. “A judgment in Hades, in which the judge will show himself his friend, in which all the tangled skein of his life will be unravelled by wise and kindly hands, and the insoluble problem of his strange and self-contradicting experience will at last be solved - this is what Job still looks for on that happy day when he shall see God for himself, and find his Goel (vindicator) in that Almighty Deliverer” (Cox, “Commentary on the Book of Job”). In the New Testament, Hades is the realm of the dead. It cannot be successfully maintained that it is, in particular, the place for sinners (so Cremer, “Biblico-Theological Lexicon”). The words about Capernaum (Matthew 11:23), which it is surprising to find Cremer citing in support of this position, are merely a rhetorical expression of a fall from the height of earthly glory to the deepest degradation, and have no more bearing upon the moral character of Hades than the words of Zophar (Job 11:7, Job 11:8) about the perfection of the Almighty. “It is high as heaven - deeper than Sheol. ” Hades is indeed coupled with Death (Revelation 1:18; Revelation 6:8; Revelation 20:13, Revelation 20:14), but the association is natural, and indeed inevitable, apart from all moral distinctions. Death would naturally be followed by Hades in any case. In Revelation 20:13, Revelation 20:14, the general judgment is predicted, and not only Death and Hades, but the sea give tip their dead, and only those who are not written in the book of life are cast into the lake of fire (Revelation 20:15). The rich man was in Hades (Luke 16:23), and in torments, but Lazarus was also in Hades, “in Abraham's bosom.” The details of this story “evidently represent the views current at the time among the Jews. According to them, the Garden of Eden and the Tree of Life were the abode of the blessed. We read that the righteous in Eden see the wicked in Gehenna and rejoice; and similarly, that the wicked in Gehenna see the righteous sitting beatified in Eden, and their souls are troubled (Edersheim, “Life and Times of Jesus”). Christ also was in Hades (Acts 2:27, Acts 2:31). Moreover, the word γέεννα , hell (see on Matthew 5:22), is specially used to denote the place of future punishment. Hades, then, in the New Testament, is a broad and general conception, with an idea of locality bound up with it. It is the condition following death, which is blessed or the contrary, according to the moral character of the dead, and is therefore divided into different realms, represented by Paradise or Abraham's bosom, and Gehenna. The expression Gates of Hades is an orientalism for the court, throne, power, and dignity of the infernal kingdom. Hades is contemplated as a mighty city, with formidable, frowning portals. Some expositors introduce also the idea of the councils of the Satanic powers, with reference to the Eastern custom of holding such deliberations in the gates of cities. Compare the expression Sublime Porte, applied to the Ottoman court. The idea of a building is maintained in both members of the comparison. The kingdom or city of Hades confronts and assaults the church which Christ will build upon the rock. See Job 38:17; Psalm 9:13; Psalm 107:18; Isaiah 38:10. [source]
Mark 3:17 He surnamed them Boanerges [ἐπέθηκεν αὐτοῖς ὄνομα Βοανηργές]
Lit.,he put upon them the name. Some uncertainty attaches to both the origin and the application of the name. Most of the best texts read ὀνόματα , names, instead of name. This would indicate that each of the two was surnamed a “son of thunder.” Some, however, have claimed that it was a dual name given to them as a pair, as the name Dioscuri was given to Castor and Pollux. The reason of its bestowal we do not know. It seems to have been intended as a title of honor, though not perpetuated like the surname Peter, this being the only instance of its occurrence; possibly because the inconvenience of a common surname, which would not have sufficiently designated which of them was intended, may have hindered it from ever growing into an appellation. It is justified by the impetuosity and zeal which characterized both the brothers, which prompted them to suggest the calling of fire from heaven to consume the inhospitable Samaritan village (Luke 9:54); which marked James as the victim of an early martyrdom (Acts 12:2); and which sounds in the thunders of John's Apocalypse. The Greek Church calls John Βροντόφωνος , the thunder-voiced. The phrase, sons of, is a familiar Hebrew idiom, in which the distinguishing characteristic of the individual or thing named is regarded as his parent. Thus sparks are sons of fire (Job 5:7); threshed corn is son of the floor (Isaiah 21:10). Compare son of perdition (John 17:12); sons of disobedience (Ephesians 2:2; Ephesians 5:6). [source]
Acts 20:32 I commend [παρατιτεμαι]
Present middle indicative of παρατιτημι — paratithēmi old verb to place beside, middle, to deposit with one, to interest as in 1 Timothy 1:18; 2 Timothy 2:2. Paul can now only do this, but he does it hopefully. Cf. 1 Peter 4:19. The word of his grace (τωι λογωι της χαριτος αυτου — tōi logōi tēs charitos autou). The instrumentality through preaching and the Holy Spirit employed by God. Cf. Colossians 4:6; Ephesians 4:29. Which is able to build up God works through the word of his grace and so it is able to build up (edify); a favourite Pauline word (1 Corinthians 3:10-14; 1 Corinthians 3:9; 2 Corinthians 5:1; Ephesians 2:20-22; 2 Timothy 3:15; etc.), and James 1:21. The very words “build” and “inheritance among the sanctified” will occur in Ephesians 1:11; Ephesians 3:18 and which some may recall on reading. Cf. Colossians 1:12. Stephen in Acts 7:5 used the word “inheritance” (κληρονομιαν — klēronomian), nowhere else in Acts, but in Ephesians 1:14, Ephesians 1:18; Ephesians 5:5. In Ephesians 1:18 the very expression occurs “his inheritance among the saints “ (την κληρονομιαν αυτου εν τοις αγιοις — tēn klēronomian autou en tois hagiois). [source]
Acts 20:32 Which is able to build up [τωι δυναμενωι οικοδομησαι]
God works through the word of his grace and so it is able to build up (edify); a favourite Pauline word (1 Corinthians 3:10-14; 1 Corinthians 3:9; 2 Corinthians 5:1; Ephesians 2:20-22; 2 Timothy 3:15; etc.), and James 1:21. The very words “build” and “inheritance among the sanctified” will occur in Ephesians 1:11; Ephesians 3:18 and which some may recall on reading. Cf. Colossians 1:12. Stephen in Acts 7:5 used the word “inheritance” (κληρονομιαν — klēronomian), nowhere else in Acts, but in Ephesians 1:14, Ephesians 1:18; Ephesians 5:5. In Ephesians 1:18 the very expression occurs “his inheritance among the saints “ (την κληρονομιαν αυτου εν τοις αγιοις — tēn klēronomian autou en tois hagiois). [source]
Romans 8:4 The Spirit [πνεῦμα]
From πνέω tobreathe or blow. The primary conception is wind or breath. Breath being the sign and condition of life in man, it comes to signify life. In this sense, physiologically considered, it is frequent in the classics. In the psychological sense, never. In the Old Testament it is ordinarily the translation of ruach It is also used to translate chai life, Isaiah 38:12; nbreath, 1 Kings 17:17. In the New Testament it occurs in the sense of wind or breath, John 3:8; 2 Thessalonians 2:8; Hebrews 1:7. Closely related to the physiological sense are such passages as Luke 8:55; James 2:26; Revelation 13:15. Pauline Usage: 1. Breath, 2 Thessalonians 2:8. 2. The spirit or mind of man; the inward, self-conscious principle which feels and thinks and wills (1 Corinthians 2:11; 1 Corinthians 5:3; 1 Corinthians 7:34; Colossians 2:5). In this sense it is distinguished from σῶμα bodyor accompanied with a personal pronoun in the genitive, as my, our, his spirit (Romans 1:9; Romans 8:16; 1 Corinthians 5:4; 1 Corinthians 16:18, etc.). It is used as parallel with ψυχή souland καρδία heartSee 1 Corinthians 5:3; 1 Thessalonians 2:17; and compare John 13:21and John 12:27; Matthew 26:38and Luke 1:46, Luke 1:47. But while ψυχή soulis represented as the subject of life, πνεύμα spiritrepresents the principle of life, having independent activity in all circumstances of the perceptive and emotional life, and never as the subject. Generally, πνεύμα spiritmay be described as the principle, ψυχή soulas the subject, and καρδία heartas the organ of life. 3. The spiritual nature of Christ. Romans 1:4; 1 Corinthians 15:45; 1 Timothy 3:16. 4. The divine power or influence belonging to God, and communicated in Christ to men, in virtue of which they become πνευματικοί spiritual - recipientsand organs of the Spirit. This is Paul's most common use of the word. Romans 8:9; 1 Corinthians 2:13; Galatians 4:6; Galatians 6:1; 1 Thessalonians 4:8. In this sense it appears as: a. Spirit of God. Romans 8:9, Romans 8:11, Romans 8:14; 1 Corinthians 2:10, 1 Corinthians 2:11, 1 Corinthians 2:12, 1 Corinthians 2:14; 1 Corinthians 3:16; 1 Corinthians 6:11; 1 Corinthians 7:40; 2 Corinthians 3:3; Ephesians 3:16. b. Spirit of Christ. Romans 8:9; 2 Corinthians 3:17, 2 Corinthians 3:18; Galatians 4:6; Philemon 1:19. c. Holy Spirit. Romans 5:5; 1 Corinthians 6:19; 1 Corinthians 12:3; Ephesians 1:13; 1 Thessalonians 1:5, 1 Thessalonians 1:6; 1 Thessalonians 4:8, etc. d. Spirit. With or without the article, but with its reference to the Spirit of God or Holy Spirit indicated by the context. Romans 8:16, Romans 8:23, Romans 8:26, Romans 8:27; 1 Corinthians 2:4, 1 Corinthians 2:10; 1 Corinthians 12:4, 1 Corinthians 12:7, 1 Corinthians 12:8, 1 Corinthians 12:9; 1 Samuel 16:14-16,; 2 Thessalonians 2:13, etc. 5. A power or influence, the character, manifestations, or results of which are more peculiarly defined by qualifying genitives. Thus spirit of meekness, faith, power, wisdom. Romans 8:2, Romans 8:15; 1 Corinthians 4:21; 2 Corinthians 4:13; Galatians 6:1; Ephesians 1:17; 2 Timothy 1:7, etc. These combinations with the genitives are not mere periphrases for a faculty or disposition of man. By the spirit of meekness or wisdom, for instance, is not meant merely a meek or wise spirit; but that meekness, wisdom, power, etc., are gifts of the Spirit of God. This usage is according to Old Testament analogy. Compare Exodus 28:3; Exodus 31:3; Exodus 35:31; Isaiah 11:2. 6. In the plural, used of spiritual gifts or of those who profess to be under spiritual influence, 1 Corinthians 12:10; 1 Corinthians 14:12. 7. Powers or influences alien or averse from the divine Spirit, but with some qualifying word. Thus, the spirit of the world; another spirit; spirit of slumber. Romans 11:8; 1 Corinthians 2:12; 2 Corinthians 11:4; Ephesians 2:2; 2 Timothy 1:7. Where these expressions are in negative form they are framed after the analogy of the positive counterpart with which they are placed in contrast. Thus Romans 8:15: “Ye have not received the spirit of bondage, but of adoption. In other cases, as Ephesians 2:2, where the expression is positive, the conception is shaped according to Old-Testament usage, where spirits of evil are conceived as issuing from, and dependent upon, God, so far as He permits their operation and makes them subservient to His own ends. See Judges 9:23; Ephesians 4:3 1 Samuel 16:23; 1 Samuel 18:10; 1 Kings 22:21sqq.; Isaiah 19:4. Spirit is found contrasted with letter, Romans 2:29; Romans 7:6; 2 Corinthians 3:6. With flesh, Romans 8:1-13; Galatians 5:16, Galatians 5:24. It is frequently associated with the idea of power (Romans 1:4; Romans 15:13, Romans 15:19; 1 Corinthians 2:4; Galatians 3:5; Ephesians 3:16; 2 Timothy 1:7); and the verb ἐνεργεῖν , denoting to work efficaciously, is used to mark its special operation (1 Corinthians 12:11; Ephesians 3:20; Philemon 2:13; Colossians 1:29). It is also closely associated with life, Romans 8:2, Romans 8:6, Romans 8:11, Romans 8:13; 1 Corinthians 15:4, 1 Corinthians 15:5; 2 Corinthians 3:6; Galatians 5:25; Galatians 6:8. It is the common possession of the Church and its members; not an occasional gift, but an essential element and mark of the christian life; not appearing merely or mainly in exceptional, marvelous, ecstatic demonstrations, but as the motive and mainspring of all christian action and feeling. It reveals itself in confession (1 Corinthians 12:3); in the consciousness of sonship (Romans 8:16); in the knowledge of the love of God (Romans 5:5); in the peace and joy of faith (Romans 14:17; 1 Thessalonians 1:6); in hope (Romans 5:5; Romans 15:13). It leads believers (Romans 8:14; Galatians 5:18): they serve in newness of the Spirit (Romans 7:6) They walk after the Spirit (Romans 8:4, Romans 8:5; Galatians 5:16-25). Through the Spirit they are sanctified (2 Thessalonians 2:13). It manifests itself in the diversity of forms and operations, appearing under two main aspects: a difference of gifts, and a difference of functions. See Romans 8:9; 1 Corinthians 3:16; 1 Corinthians 5:1, 1 Corinthians 5:11; 1 Corinthians 12:13; Ephesians 1:13; Ephesians 4:3, Ephesians 4:4, Ephesians 4:30; Philemon 2:1; [source]
1 Corinthians 3:16 Temple [ναὸς]
Or sanctuary. See on Matthew 4:5. Compare Ephesians 2:21; 2 Corinthians 6:16. [source]
1 Corinthians 2:12 The spirit of the world [τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ κόσμου]
For this use of πνεῦμα , see on Romans 8:4, under 7. Κόσμος worldis used with the ethical sense. See on John 1:9, under 4, e, The phrase means the principle of evil which animates the unregenerate world; not the personal spirit of evil or Satan, since Paul does not use πνεῦμα spiritelsewhere in the personal sense of an evil spirit. See note on Ephesians 2:2. [source]
1 Corinthians 15:48 As is the earthly [οιος ο χοικος]
Masculine gender because of αντρωπος — anthrōpos and correlative pronouns Christ in his ascended state (1 Thessalonians 4:16; 2 Thessalonians 1:7; Ephesians 2:6, Ephesians 2:20; Philemon 3:20.). -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
[source]

1 Corinthians 3:9 Building [οἰκοδομή]
Paul's metaphors are drawn from the works and customs of men rather than from the works of nature. “In his epistles,” says Archdeacon Farrar, “we only breathe the air of cities and synagogues.” The abundance of architectural metaphors is not strange in view of the magnificent temples and public buildings which he was continually seeing at Antioch, Athens, Corinth, and Ephesus. His frequent use of to build and building in a moral and spiritual sense is noteworthy. In this sense the two words οἰκοδομέω and οἰκοδομή occur twenty-six times in the New Testament, and in all but two cases in Paul's writings. Peter uses build in a similar sense; 1 Peter 2:5. See edify, edification, build, 1 Corinthians 3:6-9,2; Romans 15:20; 1 Corinthians 8:1; 1 Corinthians 8:10, where emboldened is literally built up, and is used ironically. Also Romans 14:19; Romans 15:2; 1 Corinthians 14:3; Ephesians 2:21, etc. It is worth noting that in the Epistle to the Hebrews, while the same metaphor occurs, different words are used. Thus in Hebrews 3:3, Hebrews 3:4, built, builded, represent κατασκευάζω toprepare. In Hebrews 11:10, τεχνίτης artificerand δημιουργὸς , lit., a workman for the public: A.V., builder and maker. This fact has a bearing on the authorship of the epistle. In earlier English, edify was used for build in the literal sense. Thus Piers Ploughman: “I shal overturne this temple and a-down throwe it, and in thre daies after edifie it newe.” See on Acts 20:32. In the double metaphor of the field and the building, the former furnishes the mould of Paul's thought in 1618540865_57 and the latter in 1 Corinthians 3:10-17. Edwards remarks that the field describes the raw material on which God works, the house the result of the work. [source]
2 Corinthians 4:4 The god of this world [ὁ θεὸς τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου]
The phrase occurs only here. Compare Ephesians 2:2; Ephesians 6:12; John 12:31; John 14:30. Satan is called god in the rabbinical writings. “The first God is the true God; but the second god is Samael.” “The matron said, 'Our god is greater than thy God; for when thy God appeared to Moses in the bush, he hid his face; when, however, he saw the serpent, which is my god, he fled.”' [source]
2 Corinthians 4:4 The god of this world [ο τεος του αιωνος τουτου]
“Age,” more exactly, as in 1 Corinthians 1:20. Satan is “the god of this age,” a phrase nowhere else in the N.T., but Jesus uses the same idea in John 12:31; John 14:30 and Paul in Ephesians 2:2; Ephesians 6:12 and John in 1 John 5:19. Satan claimed the rule over the world in the temptations with Jesus. [source]
Galatians 5:5 Through the Spirit [πνεύματι]
The Holy Spirit who inspires our faith. Not as Lightfoot, spiritually. The words πνεύματι ἐκ πίστεως are not to be taken as one conception, the Spirit which is of faith, but present two distinct and coordinate facts which characterize the waiting for the hope of righteousness; namely, the agency of the Holy Spirit, in contrast with the flesh (comp. Romans 7:6; Romans 8:4, Romans 8:15, Romans 8:16; Ephesians 1:13; Ephesians 2:22), and faith in contrast with the works of the law (comp. Galatians 3:3, and see Galatians 2:16; Galatians 3:3; Romans 1:17; Romans 3:22; Romans 9:30; Romans 10:6). [source]
Galatians 3:5 Miracles [δυνάμεις]
See on Matthew 11:20. Either miracles, as Mark 6:2; 1 Corinthians 12:10, or miraculous powers, as 1 Corinthians 12:6; Philemon 2:13; Ephesians 2:2. The analogy of these latter passages favors the second meaning. [source]
Galatians 2:18 I build again the things which I destroyed [ἃ κατέλυσα ταῦτα πάλιν οἰκοδομῶ]
Peter, by his Christian profession, had asserted that justification was by faith alone; and by his eating with Gentiles had declared that the Mosaic law was no longer binding upon him. He had thus, figuratively, destroyed or pulled down the Jewish law as a standard of Christian faith and conduct. By his subsequent refusal to eat with Gentiles he had retracted this declaration, had asserted that the Jewish law was still binding upon Christians, and had thus built again what he had pulled down. Building and pulling down are favorite figures with Paul. See Romans 14:20; Romans 15:20; 1 Corinthians 8:1, 1 Corinthians 8:10; 1 Corinthians 10:23; 1 Corinthians 14:17; Ephesians 2:20f. For καταλύειν destroysee on Romans 14:20; see on 2 Corinthians 5:1. [source]
Galatians 1:4 Out of this present evil world [ἐκ τοῦ αἰῶνος τοῦ ἐνεστῶτος πονηροῦ]
Lit. out of the world, the present (world which is ) evil. For αἰών ageor period, see John 1:9, and additional note on 2 Thessalonians 1:9. Here it has an ethical sense, the course and current of this world's affairs as corrupted by sin. Comp. 2 Corinthians 4:4. Ἑνεστῶτος , present, as contrasted with the world to come. Elsewhere we have ὁ νῦν αἰών thenow world (1 Timothy 6:17); ὁ αἰὼν τοῦκοσμοῦ theperiod of this world (Ephesians 2:2); ὁ αἰὼν οὗτος thisworld or age (Romans 7:2). Ἑνεστῶτος , not impending, as some expositors, - the period of wickedness and suffering preceding the parousia (2 Thessalonians 2:3), which would imply a limitation of Christ's atoning work to that period. Comp. 2 Thessalonians 2:2; 2 Timothy 3:1; 1 Corinthians 7:26. The sense of present as related to future is clear in Romans 8:38; 1 Corinthians 3:22; Hebrews 9:9. For the evil character of the present world as conceived by Paul, see Romans 12:2; 1 Corinthians 2:6; 2 Corinthians 4:4; Ephesians 2:2. [source]
Ephesians 6:12 In high places [ἐν τοῖς ἐπουρανίοις]
Rev., more literally, in the heavenly places. Used in the general sense of the sky or air. See on Ephesians 2:2. [source]
Ephesians 4:6 Through - in [διὰ - ἐν]
Through, pervading: in, indwelling. Compare Ephesians 2:22; Ephesians 3:17. [source]
Ephesians 3:17 May dwell [κατοικῆσαι]
Settle down and abide. Take up His permanent abode, so that ye may be a habitation ( κατοικητήριον ) of God. See on Ephesians 2:22. The connection is with the preceding clause: “to be strengthened, etc., so that Christ may dwell, the latter words having at once a climactic and an explanatory force, and adding the idea of permanency to that of strengthening. [source]
Ephesians 2:1 And you []
Taking up the closing thought of the preceding chapter, the magnitude of God's power toward believers as exhibited in Christ's resurrection. He now shows that the same power is applied to his readers. Hence the connection is: “When He raised Him from the dead, etc., and you did He quicken, even as He quickened Christ.” The structure of the passage is broken. Paul having prominently in mind the thought God quickened you as He did Christ, begins with you also. Then the connection is interrupted by Ephesians 2:2, Ephesians 2:3, which describe their previous condition. Then Ephesians 2:1is taken up in Ephesians 2:4, by but God, God introducing a new sentence. [source]
Ephesians 2:3 By nature children of wrath []
See on Ephesians 2:2. Children ( τέκνα ) emphasizes the connection by birth; see on John 1:12. Wrath ( ὀργῆς ) is God's holy hatred of sin; His essential, necessary antagonism to everything evil, Romans 1:18. By nature ( φύσει ) accords with children, implying what; is innate. That man is born with a sinful nature, and that God and sin are essentially antagonistic, are conceded on all hands: but that unconscious human beings come into the world under the blaze of God's indignation, hardly consists with Christ's assertion that to little children belongs the kingdom of heaven. It is true that there is a birth-principle of evil, which, if suffered to develop, will bring upon itself the wrath of God. Whether Paul means more than this I do not know. [source]
Ephesians 4:12 Unto the building up [εις οικοδομην]
See note on Ephesians 2:21. This is the ultimate goal in all these varied gifts, “building up.” [source]
Ephesians 5:6 With empty words [κενοις λογοις]
Instrumental case. Probably Paul has in mind the same Gnostic praters as in Colossians 2:4. See note on Ephesians 2:2. [source]
Ephesians 2:3 Once lived [ανεστραπημεν ποτε]
Second aorist passive indicative of αναστρεπω — anastrephō old verb, to turn back and forth, to live (2 Corinthians 1:12). Cf. ποτε περιεπατησατε — pote periepatēsate of the Gentiles in Ephesians 2:2. The desires (τα τεληματα — ta thelēmata). Late and rare word except in lxx and N.T., from τελω — thelō to will, to wish. Plural here “the wishes,” “the wills” of the flesh like ταις επιτυμιαις της σαρκος — tais epithumiais tēs sarkos just before. Gentiles had no monopoly of such sinful impulses. Of the mind Plural again, “of the thoughts or purposes.” Were by nature children of wrath (ημετα τεκνα πυσει οργης — ēmetha tekna phusei orgēs). This is the proper order of these words which have been the occasion of much controversy. There is no article with τεκνα — tekna Paul is insisting that Jews as well as Gentiles (“even as the rest”) are the objects of God‘s wrath (οργης — orgēs) because of their lives of sin. See Romans 2:1-3:20 for the full discussion of this to Jews unpalatable truth. The use of πυσει — phusei (associative instrumental case of manner) is but the application of Paul‘s use of “all” (παντες — pantes) as shown also in Romans 3:20; Romans 5:12. See πυσει — phusei of Gentiles in Romans 2:14. The implication of original sin is here, but not in the form that God‘s wrath rests upon little children before they have committed acts of sin. The salvation of children dying before the age of responsibility is clearly involved in Romans 5:13. [source]
Ephesians 4:16 Fitly framed [συναρμολογουμενον]
See note on Ephesians 2:21 for this verb. Through that which every joint supplieth (δια πασης απης της επιχορηγιας — dia pasēs haphēs tēs epichorēgias). Literally, “through every joint of the supply.” See note on Colossians 2:19 for απη — haphē and Philemon 1:19 for the late word επιχορηγια — epichorēgia (only two examples in N.T.) from επιχορηγεω — epichorēgeō to supply (Colossians 2:19). In due measure Just “in measure” in the Greek, but the assumption is that each part of the body functions properly in its own sphere. Unto the building up of itself (εις οικοδομην εαυτου — eis oikodomēn heautou). Modern knowledge of cell life in the human body greatly strengthens the force of Paul‘s metaphor. This is the way the body grows by cooperation under the control of the head and all “in love” (εν αγαπηι — en agapēi). [source]
Colossians 2:7 In Him [ἐν αὐτῶ]
Rather than upon Him, as might have been expected. In this and in the Ephesian epistle, Christ is represented as the sphere within which the building goes on. Compare Ephesians 2:20. The whole upbuilding of the Church proceeds within the compass of Christ's personality, life, and power. [source]
Colossians 2:13 Having forgiven us [χαρισάμενος ἡμῖν]
Freely ( χάρις gracefree gift ), as Luke 7:42; 2 Corinthians 2:7, 2 Corinthians 2:10; Colossians 3:13. Note the change of pronoun from you to us, believers generally, embracing himself. This change from the second to the first person, or, vice versa, is common in Paul's writings. See Colossians 1:10-13; Colossians 3:3, Colossians 3:4; Ephesians 2:2, Ephesians 2:3, Ephesians 2:13, Ephesians 2:14; Ephesians 4:31, Ephesians 4:32. [source]
Colossians 2:7 Rooted - built up [ἐῤῥιζωμένοι - ἐποικοδομούμενοι]
Note the change of metaphor from the solidity of military array to walking, rooting of a tree, and then to building. The metaphors of rooting and being founded occur together, Ephesians 3:17. Compare 1 Corinthians 3:9. In Jeremiah 1:10, ἐκριζοῦν toroot out is applied to a kingdom, and the words to build and to plant follow. It must be said that ῥιζόω tocause to take root is often used in the sense of firmness or fixedness without regard to its primary meaning. Built up. The preposition ἐπί uponindicates the placing of one layer upon another. See on Acts 20:32, and see on 1 Corinthians 3:9. Compare 1 Corinthians 3:10-14; Ephesians 2:20. note also the change of tenses: having been rooted (perfect participle), being (in process of) built up and strengthened (present participle). [source]
Colossians 1:19 Dwell [κατοικῆσαι]
Permanently. See on Luke 11:26. Compare the Septuagint usage of κατοικεῖν permanentdwelling, and παροικεῖν transientsojourning. Thus Genesis 37:1, “Jacob dwelt (permanently, κατῴκει ) in the land where his father sojourned ( παρῷκησεν A.V., was a stranger ). Perhaps in contrast with the partial and transient connection of the pleroma with Christ asserted by the false teachers. The word is used of the indwelling of the Father, Ephesians 2:22( κατοικητήριον τοῦ Θεοῦ habitationof God ); of the Son, Ephesians 3:17; and of the Spirit, James 4:5. [source]
Colossians 1:23 Grounded [τετεμελιωμενοι]
Perfect passive participle of τεμελιοω — themelioō old verb from τεμελιος — themelios (adjective, from τεμα — thema from τιτημι — tithēmi laid down as a foundation, substantive, 1 Corinthians 3:11.). Picture of the saint as a building like Ephesians 2:20. [source]
Colossians 1:23 Pistei []
is in the locative case (in faith). Grounded (τετεμελιωμενοι — tethemeliōmenoi). Perfect passive participle of τεμελιοω — themelioō old verb from τεμελιος — themelios (adjective, from τεμα — thema from τιτημι — tithēmi laid down as a foundation, substantive, 1 Corinthians 3:11.). Picture of the saint as a building like Ephesians 2:20. Steadfast Old adjective from εδρα — hedra (seat). In N.T. only here, 1 Corinthians 7:37; 1 Corinthians 15:58. Metaphor of seated in a chair. Not moved away (μη μετακινουμενοι — mē metakinoumenoi). Present passive participle (with negative μη — mē) of μετακινεω — metakineō old verb, to move away, to change location, only here in N.T. Negative statement covering the same ground. From the hope of the gospel Ablative case with απο — apo The hope given by or in the gospel and there alone. Which ye heard (ου ηκουσατε — hou ēkousate). Genitive case of relative either by attraction or after ηκουσατε — ēkousate The Colossians had in reality heard the gospel from Epaphras. Preached First aorist passive participle of κηρυσσω — kērussō to herald, to proclaim. In all creation (εν πασηι κτισει — en pasēi ktisei). Κτισις — Ktisis is the act of founding (Romans 1:20) from κτιζω — ktizō (Colossians 1:16), then a created thing (Romans 1:25), then the sum of created things as here and Revelation 3:14. It is hyperbole, to be sure, but Paul does not say that all men are converted, but only that the message has been heralded abroad over the Roman Empire in a wider fashion than most people imagine. A minister General term for service Our “deacon” is this word transliterated and given a technical meaning as in Philemon 1:1. [source]
1 Thessalonians 5:11 Edify [οἰκοδομεῖτε]
Lit. build up. See on Acts 20:32. The metaphorical sense habitually in Paul. See 1 Corinthians 8:1, 1 Corinthians 8:10; 1 Corinthians 10:23; 1 Corinthians 14:4; Ephesians 2:20. In O.T. mostly in the literal sense. See however lxx, Rth 4:11 ; 88:2; Jeremiah href="/desk/?q=jer+31:4&sr=1">Jeremiah 31:4. [source]
1 Thessalonians 5:20 Prophesyings [προφητείας]
The emphasis on prophesyings corresponds with that in 1 Corinthians 14:1-5, 1 Corinthians 14:22ff. Prophecy in the apostolic church was directly inspired instruction, exhortation, or warning. The prophet received the truth into his own spirit which was withdrawn from earthly things and concentrated upon the spiritual world. His higher, spiritual part ( πνεῦμα ), and his moral intelligence ( νοῦς ), and his speech ( λόγος ) worked in harmony. His spirit received a spiritual truth in symbol: his understanding interpreted it in its application to actual events, and his speech uttered the interpretation. He was not ecstatically rapt out of the sphere of human intelligence, although his understanding was intensified and clarified by the phenomenal action of the Spirit upon it. This double action imparted a peculiarly elevated character to his speech. The prophetic influence was thus distinguished from the mystical ecstasy, the ecstasy of Paul when rapt into the third heaven, which affected the subject alone and was incommunicable (2 Corinthians 12:1-4). The gift of tongues carried the subject out of the prophetic condition in which spirit, understanding, and speech operated in concert, and into a condition in which the understanding was overpowered by the communication to the spirit, so that the spirit could not find its natural expression in rational speech, or speech begotten of the understanding, and found supernatural expression in a tongue created by the Spirit. Paul attached great value to prophecy. He places prophets next after apostles in the list of those whom God has set in the Church (1 Corinthians 12:28). He associates apostles and prophets as the foundation of the Church (Ephesians 2:20). He assigns to prophecy the precedence among spiritual gifts (1 Corinthians 14:1-5), and urges his readers to desire the gift (1 Corinthians 14:1, 1 Corinthians 14:39). Hence his exhortation here. [source]
1 Timothy 1:18 According to the prophecies which went before on thee [κατὰ τὰς προαγούσας ἐπὶ σὲ προφητείας]
Const, according to with I commit: which went before is to be taken absolutely, and not with on thee: const. prophecies with on these. On thee means concerning thee. The sense of the whole passage is: “I commit this charge unto thee in accordance with prophetic intimations which I formerly received concerning thee.” Prophecy is ranked among the foremost of the special spiritual endowments enumerated by Paul. See Romans 12:6; 1 Corinthians 12:10; 1 Corinthians 13:2, 1 Corinthians 13:8; 1 Corinthians 14:6, 1 Corinthians 14:22. In 1 Corinthians 12:28; Ephesians 4:11, prophets come next after apostles in the list of those whom God has appointed in the church. In Ephesians 2:20, believers, Jew and Gentile, are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets. According to 1 Timothy 4:14, prophecy has previously designated Timothy as the recipient of a special spiritual gift; and the prophecies in our passage are the single expressions or detailed contents of the prophecy mentioned there. Προαγεῖν togo before is not used by Paul. In the Pastorals and Hebrews it appears only as an intransitive verb, and so in the only instance in Luke, Luke 18:39. In Acts always transitive, to bring forth. See Acts 12:6; Acts 16:30; Acts 17:5; Acts 25:26. [source]
2 Timothy 2:19 The foundation of God standeth sure [ὁ στερεὸς θεμέλιος τοῦ θεοῦ ἕστηκεν]
Wrong. Στερεὸς sureis attributive, not predicative. Rend. the firm foundation of God standeth. The phrase foundation of God, N.T.o Θεμέλιος foundationis an adjective, and λίθος stoneis to be supplied. It is not to be taken by metonymy for οἰκία house(2 Timothy 2:20), but must be interpreted consistently with it, and, in a loose way, represents or foreshadows it. So we speak of an endowed institution as a foundation. By “the sure foundation of God” is meant the church, which is “the pillar and stay of the truth” (1 Timothy 3:15), by means of which the truth of God is to withstand the assaults of error. The church has its being in the contents of “the sound teaching” (1 Timothy 1:10), which is “according to godliness” (1 Timothy 6:3), and which is deposited in it. “The mystery of godliness “ is intrusted to it (1 Timothy 3:16). Its servants possess “the mystery of the faith” (1 Timothy 3:9). In 1 Corinthians 3:11, Christ is represented as “ the chief corner-stone.” In Ephesians 2:20, the church is built “upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets,” with Christ as the corner-stone, and grows into a “holy temple ( ναὸν ) in the Lord.” Here, the church itself is the foundation, and the building is conceived as a great dwelling-house. While the conception of the church here does not contradict that of Paul, the difference is apparent between it and the conception in Ephesians, where the church is the seat of the indwelling and energy of the Holy Spirit. Comp. 1 Corinthians 3:16, 1 Corinthians 3:17. Στερεός firmonly here, Hebrews 5:12, Hebrews 5:14, and 1 Peter 5:9(note). Ἕστηκεν standethin contrast with overthrow (2 Timothy 2:18). [source]
Hebrews 3:6 We [ἡμεῖς]
Even as was the house in which Moses served. The Christian community is thus emphatically designated as the house of God, implying the transitoriness of the Mosaic system. Comp. 1 Corinthians 3:16, 1 Corinthians 3:17; 2 Corinthians 6:16; Ephesians 2:22; 1 Peter 4:17. [source]
Hebrews 10:21 House of God [οἶκον τοῦ θεοῦ]
In the Gospels always of the temple. Not found in Paul. Once in the Pastorals, of the church, 1 Timothy 3:15, and so 1 Peter 4:17. Here the whole Christian family. Comp. 1 Corinthians 3:16, 1 Corinthians 3:17; 2 Corinthians 6:16; Ephesians 2:22. [source]
1 Peter 1:14 As children of obedience [ως τεκνα υπακοης]
A common Hebraism (descriptive genitive frequent in lxx and N.T., like υιοι της απειτειας — huioi tēs apeitheias children of disobedience, in Ephesians 2:2) suggested by υπακοην — hupakoēn in 1 Peter 1:2, “children marked by obedience.” [source]
1 Peter 2:6 It is contained [περιεχει]
Present active (here intransitive, to contain, only N.T. example) of περιεχω — periechō old verb, to surround, transitive in Luke 5:9 to seize (only other N.T. example). The formula with περιεχει — periechei is in Josephus (Ant. XI. 7). This Scripture Paul in Ephesians 2:20 uses the same word, making Christ the chief corner stone (the only other N.T. example). In Isaiah the metaphor is rather a foundation stone. Peter and Paul make it “the primary foundation stone at the structure” (W. W. Lloyd). [source]
1 John 4:4 He that is in the world []
In 1 John 5:19, the world is said to be in the evil one. Compare Ephesians 2:2. [source]
Jude 1:20 Building up [εποικοδομουντες]
Present active participle of εποικοδομεω — epoikodomeō old compound with metaphor of a house (οικος — oikos), common in Paul (1 Corinthians 3:9-17; Colossians 2:7; Ephesians 2:20). [source]
Revelation 18:2 A habitation of devils [κατοικεω]
Late word (from πυλακη παντος πνευματος ακαταρτου — katoikeō to dwell), in N.T. only here and Ephesians 2:22. Devils should be demons, of course. So Isaiah prophesied of Babylon (Isaiah 13:21-22) and also Jeremiah (Jeremiah 50:39) and Zephaniah of Nineveh (Zephaniah 2:14). Both Babylon and Nineveh are ruins. [source]
Revelation 21:14 Names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb [ονοματα των δωδεκα αποστολων του αρνιου]
Jesus had spoken of twelve thrones for the apostles (Matthew 19:28); names of all twelve are here written, not just that of Peter, as some would argue from Matthew 16:18. As a matter of fact, Christ is the corner stone or ακρογωνιαιον — akrogōniaion (1 Peter 2:6; 1 Corinthians 3:10; Ephesians 2:20), though rejected by the Sanhedrin (Matthew 21:42.). One may wonder if the name of Judas is on that stone or that of Matthias. [source]
Revelation 18:2 Is become [κατοικητηριον]
Prophetic aorist middle.A habitation of devils (κατοικεω — katoikētērion). Late word (from πυλακη παντος πνευματος ακαταρτου — katoikeō to dwell), in N.T. only here and Ephesians 2:22. Devils should be demons, of course. So Isaiah prophesied of Babylon (Isaiah 13:21-22) and also Jeremiah (Jeremiah 50:39) and Zephaniah of Nineveh (Zephaniah 2:14). Both Babylon and Nineveh are ruins.A hold of every unclean spirit πυλακη παντος ορνεου ακαταρτου και μεμισημενου — Phulakē is garrison or watch-tower as in Habakkuk 2:1, rather than a prison (Revelation 20:7).A hold of every unclean and hateful bird (Ορνεου — phulakē pantos orneou akathartou kai memisēmenou). Orneou is old word for bird, in N.T. only Revelation 18:2; Revelation 19:17, Revelation 19:21. “The evil spirits, watching over fallen Rome like night-birds or harpies that wait for their prey, build their eyries in the broken towers which rise from the ashes of the city” (Swete). Long ago true of Babylon and Nineveh, some day to be true of Rome. [source]
Revelation 21:14 Twelve foundations [τεμελιους δωδεκα]
Foundation stones, old adjective (from τεμα — thema from τιτημι — tithēmi), here as in 1 Corinthians 3:11.; 2 Timothy 2:19, with λιτους — lithous (stones understood), though often neuter substantive to τεμελιον — themelion (Luke 6:48.; Acts 16:26). See Isaiah 28:16; Hebrews 11:10. Twelve because of the twelve apostles as foundation stones (Ephesians 2:20).On them (επ αυτων — ep' autōn). On the twelve foundation stones.Names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb Jesus had spoken of twelve thrones for the apostles (Matthew 19:28); names of all twelve are here written, not just that of Peter, as some would argue from Matthew 16:18. As a matter of fact, Christ is the corner stone or ακρογωνιαιον — akrogōniaion (1 Peter 2:6; 1 Corinthians 3:10; Ephesians 2:20), though rejected by the Sanhedrin (Matthew 21:42.). One may wonder if the name of Judas is on that stone or that of Matthias. [source]

What do the individual words in Ephesians 2:2 mean?

in which once you walked according to the age the world of this ruler of the authority of the air the spirit - now working the sons - of disobedience
ἐν αἷς ποτε περιεπατήσατε κατὰ τὸν αἰῶνα τοῦ κόσμου τούτου ἄρχοντα τῆς ἐξουσίας τοῦ ἀέρος τοῦ πνεύματος τοῦ νῦν ἐνεργοῦντος τοῖς υἱοῖς τῆς ἀπειθείας

ποτε  once 
Parse: Particle
Root: ποτέ  
Sense: once i.
περιεπατήσατε  you  walked 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Active, 2nd Person Plural
Root: περιπατέω  
Sense: to walk.
κατὰ  according  to 
Parse: Preposition
Root: κατά 
Sense: down from, through out.
αἰῶνα  age 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Masculine Singular
Root: αἰών  
Sense: for ever, an unbroken age, perpetuity of time, eternity.
κόσμου  world 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Masculine Singular
Root: κόσμος  
Sense: an apt and harmonious arrangement or constitution, order, government.
τούτου  of  this 
Parse: Demonstrative Pronoun, Genitive Masculine Singular
Root: οὗτος  
Sense: this.
ἄρχοντα  ruler 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Masculine Singular
Root: ἄρχων  
Sense: a ruler, commander, chief, leader.
τῆς  of  the 
Parse: Article, Genitive Feminine Singular
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
ἐξουσίας  authority 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Feminine Singular
Root: ἐξουσία  
Sense: power of choice, liberty of doing as one pleases.
τοῦ  of  the 
Parse: Article, Genitive Masculine Singular
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
ἀέρος  air 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Masculine Singular
Root: ἀήρ  
Sense: the air, particularly the lower and denser air as distinguished from the higher and rarer air.
πνεύματος  spirit 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Neuter Singular
Root: πνεῦμα  
Sense: a movement of air (a gentle blast.
τοῦ  - 
Parse: Article, Genitive Neuter Singular
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
νῦν  now 
Parse: Adverb
Root: νῦν  
Sense: at this time, the present, now.
ἐνεργοῦντος  working 
Parse: Verb, Present Participle Active, Genitive Neuter Singular
Root: ἐνεργέω  
Sense: to be operative, be at work, put forth power.
υἱοῖς  sons 
Parse: Noun, Dative Masculine Plural
Root: υἱός  
Sense: a son.
τῆς  - 
Parse: Article, Genitive Feminine Singular
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
ἀπειθείας  of  disobedience 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Feminine Singular
Root: ἀπείθεια  
Sense: obstinacy, obstinate opposition to the divine will.