The Meaning of Acts 8:1 Explained

Acts 8:1

KJV: And Saul was consenting unto his death. And at that time there was a great persecution against the church which was at Jerusalem; and they were all scattered abroad throughout the regions of Judaea and Samaria, except the apostles.

YLT: And Saul was assenting to his death, and there came in that day a great persecution upon the assembly in Jerusalem, all also were scattered abroad in the regions of Judea and Samaria, except the apostles;

Darby: And Saul was consenting to his being killed. And on that day there arose a great persecution against the assembly which was in Jerusalem, and all were scattered into the countries of Judaea and Samaria except the apostles.

ASV: And Saul was consenting unto his death. And there arose on that day a great persecution against the church which was in Jerusalem; and they were all scattered abroad throughout the regions of Judaea and Samaria, except the apostles.

What does Acts 8:1 Mean?

Study Notes

sin
Sin.
sinned
Sin, Summary: The literal meanings of the Heb. and (Greek - ἀλεκτοροφωνία sin," "sinner," etc)., disclose the true nature of sin in its manifold manifestations. Sin is transgression, an overstepping of the law, the divine boundary between good and evil Psalms 51:1 ; Luke 15:29 , iniquity, an act inherently wrong, whether expressly forbidden or not; error, a departure from right; Psalms 51:9 ; Romans 3:23 , missing the mark, a failure to meet the divine standard; trespass, the intrusion of self-will into the sphere of divine authority Ephesians 2:1 , lawlessness, or spiritual anarchy 1 Timothy 1:9 , unbelief, or an insult to the divine veracity John 16:9 .
Sin originated with Satan Isaiah 14:12-14 , entered the world through Adam Romans 5:12 , was, and is, universal, Christ alone excepted; Romans 3:23 ; 1 Peter 2:22 , incurs the penalties of spiritual and physical death; Genesis 2:17 ; Genesis 3:19 ; Ezekiel 18:4 ; Ezekiel 18:20 ; Romans 6:23 and has no remedy but in the sacrificial death of Christ; Hebrews 9:26 ; Acts 4:12 availed of by faith Acts 13:38 ; Acts 13:39 . Sin may be summarized as threefold: An act, the violation of, or want of obedience to the revealed will of God; a state, absence of righteousness; a nature, enmity toward God.

Verse Meaning

Stephen"s execution ignited the first popular persecution of Christian Jews. [1] Luke showed that the early Jerusalem Christians first received a warning ( Acts 4:21), then flogging ( Acts 5:40), then martyrdom ( Acts 7:58-60), then widespread persecution. Since Stephen was a Hellenistic Jew, the Hellenistic Jewish Christians were probably the main targets of this antagonism. The unbelieving Jews living in Jerusalem turned against the believing Jews. This hostility resulted in many of the believers leaving Jerusalem for more secure places of residence. They took the gospel seed with them and planted churches in all Judea (cf. 1 Thessalonians 2:14) as well as in Samaria. The Greek word diesparesen, translated "scattered" here and in Acts 8:4, comes from the verb speiro, used to refer to sowing seed (cf. Matthew 6:26; Matthew 13:3-4; Matthew 13:18; Matthew 25:24; Matthew 25:26; Luke 8:5; Luke 12:24; et al.). The word "diaspora" derives from it. This persecution was hard on the Christians, but it was good for the church since it resulted in widening evangelization. The apostles probably stayed in Jerusalem because they believed their presence there was essential regardless of the danger. Moreover the persecution seems to have been against Hellenistic Jews particularly, and the Twelve were Hebraic Jews.

Context Summary

Acts 8:1-13 - Fruits Of The Scattered Seed
Evidently Stephen was beloved outside the precincts of the Church, for it would seem that the devout men who lamented his early death and carried his poor body to its burial were godly Jews who had been attracted by his earnest character. In the furious persecution that ensued under the leadership of Saul, neither sex nor age was spared. According to the subsequent statement of the arch-persecutor, the disciples of Jesus were dragged before the magistrate, thrust into prison, exposed to cruel torture, and compelled to blaspheme His holy Name. During those terrible days scenes were enacted which were destined to fill the heart of the future Apostle with most poignant sorrow.
This persecution was overruled to scatter the Church, which had grown too prosperous and secure, and needed to be reminded of the Lord's injunction to go into all the world and preach the gospel to every creature. The light must be diffused; the salt must be scattered. How often God has to drive us by trouble to do what we ought to have done gladly and spontaneously! It was impossible to keep the deacons to the office of serving tables. Philip must needs go to Samaria, and that city welcomed what Jerusalem had refused. Here we enter upon the second circle of Acts 1:8. [source]

Chapter Summary: Acts 8

1  By occasion of the persecution in Jerusalem, the church being planted in Samaria,
4  by Philip the deacon, who preached, did miracles, and baptized many;
9  among the rest Simon the sorcerer, a great seducer of the people;
14  Peter and John come to confirm and enlarge the church;
15  where, by prayer and imposition of hands giving the Holy Spirit;
18  when Simon would have bought the like power of them,
20  Peter sharply reproving his hypocrisy and covetousness,
22  and exhorting him to repentance,
25  together with John preaching the word of the Lord, return to Jerusalem;
26  but the angel sends Philip to teach and baptize the Ethiopian Eunuch

Greek Commentary for Acts 8:1

Was consenting [ην συνευδοκων]
Periphrastic imperfect of συνευδοκεω — suneudokeō a late double compound It is a gruesome picture. Chapter 7 should have ended here. [source]
On that day [en ekeinēi tēi hēmerāi)]
On that definite day, that same day as in Acts 2:41. A great persecution (diōgmos megas). It was at first persecution from the Sadducees, but this attack on Stephen was from the Pharisees so that both parties are now united in a general persecution that deserves the adjective “great.” See Matthew 13:21 for the old word διωγμος — diōgmos from διωκω — diōkō to chase, hunt, pursue, persecute. Were all scattered abroad Second aorist passive indicative of διασπειρω — diaspeirō to scatter like grain, to disperse, old word, in the N.T. only in Acts 8:1, Acts 8:4; Acts 11:19. Except the apostles (πλην των αποστολων — plēn tōn apostolōn). Preposition πλην — plēn (adverb from πλεον — pleon more) with the ablative often in Luke. It remains a bit of a puzzle why the Pharisees spared the apostles. Was it due to the advice of Gamaliel in Acts 5:34-40 ? Or was it the courage of the apostles? Or was it a combination of both with the popularity of the apostles in addition? [source]
A great persecution [diōgmos megas)]
It was at first persecution from the Sadducees, but this attack on Stephen was from the Pharisees so that both parties are now united in a general persecution that deserves the adjective “great.” See Matthew 13:21 for the old word διωγμος — diōgmos from διωκω — diōkō to chase, hunt, pursue, persecute. [source]
Were all scattered abroad [παντες διεσπαρησαν]
Second aorist passive indicative of διασπειρω — diaspeirō to scatter like grain, to disperse, old word, in the N.T. only in Acts 8:1, Acts 8:4; Acts 11:19. Except the apostles (πλην των αποστολων — plēn tōn apostolōn). Preposition πλην — plēn (adverb from πλεον — pleon more) with the ablative often in Luke. It remains a bit of a puzzle why the Pharisees spared the apostles. Was it due to the advice of Gamaliel in Acts 5:34-40 ? Or was it the courage of the apostles? Or was it a combination of both with the popularity of the apostles in addition? [source]
Except the apostles [πλην των αποστολων]
Preposition πλην — plēn (adverb from πλεον — pleon more) with the ablative often in Luke. It remains a bit of a puzzle why the Pharisees spared the apostles. Was it due to the advice of Gamaliel in Acts 5:34-40 ? Or was it the courage of the apostles? Or was it a combination of both with the popularity of the apostles in addition? [source]
Death [ἀναιρέσει]
Lit., taking off. See on Luke 23:32. [source]

Reverse Greek Commentary Search for Acts 8:1

Matthew 28:19 In the name [εἰς τὸ ὄνομα]
Rev., correctly, “into the name.” Baptizing into the name has a twofold meaning. 1. Unto, denoting object or purpose, as εἰς μετάνοιαν , unto repentance (Matthew 3:11); εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν , for the remission of sins (Acts 2:38). 2. Into, denoting union or communion with, as Romans 6:3, “baptized into Christ Jesus; into his death;” i.e., we are brought by baptism into fellowship with his death. Baptizing into the name of the Holy Trinity implies a spiritual and mystical union with him. E ἰς , into, is the preposition commonly used with baptize. See Acts 8:16; Acts 19:3, Acts 19:5; 1 Corinthians 1:13, 1 Corinthians 1:15; 1 Corinthians 10:2; Galatians 3:27. In Acts 2:38, however, Peter says, “Be baptized upon ( ἐπὶ ) the name of Jesus Christ; and in Acts 10:48, he commands Cornelius and his friends to be baptized in ( ἐν ) the name of the Lord. To be baptized upon the name is to be baptized on the confession of that which the name implies: on the ground of the name; so that the name Jesus, as the contents of the faith and confession, is the ground upon which the becoming baptized rests. In the name ( ἐν ) has reference to the sphere within which alone true baptism is accomplished. The name is not the mere designation, a sense which would give to the baptismal formula merely the force of acharm. The name, as in the Lord's Prayer (“Hallowed be thy name”), is the expression of the sum total of the divine Being: not his designation as God or Lord, but the formula in which all his attributes and characteristics are summed up. It is equivalent to his person. The finite mind can deal with him only through his name; but his name is of no avail detached from his nature. When one is baptized into the name of the Trinity, he professes to acknowledge and appropriate God in all that he is and in all that he does for man. He recognizes and depends upon God the Father as his Creator and Preserver; receives Jesus Christ as his only Mediator and Redeemer, and his pattern of life; and confesses the Holy Spirit as his Sanctifier and Comforter. [source]
Matthew 16:18 Thou art Peter [οὺ εἶ Πέτρος]
Christ responds to Peter's emphatic thou with another, equally emphatic. Peter says, “Thou art the Christ.” Christ replies, “Thou art Peter.” Πέτρος (Peter ) is used as a proper name, but without losing its meaning as a common noun. The name was bestowed on Simon at his first interview with Jesus (John 1:42) under the form of its Aramaic equivalent, CephasIn this passage attention is called, not to the giving of the name, but to its meaning. In classical Greek the word means a piece of rock, as in Homer, of Ajax throwing a stone at Hector (“Iliadvii., 270), or of Patroclus grasping and hiding in his hand a jagged stone (“Iliadxvi., 784).On this rock ( ἐπὶ ταύτῃ τῇ πέρᾳ )The word is feminine, and means a rock, as distinguished from a stone or a fragment of rock ( πέτρος , above). Used of a ledge of rocks or a rocky peak. In Homer (“Odyssey,” ix., 243), the rock ( πέτρην ) which Polyphemus places at the door of his cavern, is a mass which two-and-twenty wagons could not remove; and the rock which he hurled at the retreating ships of Ulysses, created by its fall a wave in the sea which drove the ships back toward the land (“Odyssey,” ix., 484). The word refers neither to Christ as a rock, distinguished from Simon, a stone, nor to Peter's confession, but to Peter himself, in a sense defined by his previous confession, and as enlightened by the “Father in Heaven.” The reference of πέτρα to Christ is forced and unnatural. The obvious reference of the word is to Peter. The emphatic this naturally refers to the nearest antecedent; and besides, the metaphor is thus weakened, since Christ appears here, not as the foundation, but as the architect: “On this rock will I build.” Again, Christ is the great foundation, the “chief corner-stone,” but the New Testament writers recognize no impropriety in applying to the members of Christ's church certain terms which are applied to him. For instance, Peter himself (1 Peter 2:4), calls Christ a living stone, and, in 1 Peter 2:5, addresses the church as living stones. In Revelation 21:14, the names of the twelve apostles appear in the twelve foundation-stones of the heavenly city; and in Ephesians 2:20, it is said, “Ye are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets (i.e., laid by the apostles and prophets), Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner-stone.” Equally untenable is the explanation which refers πέτρα to Simon's confession. Both the play upon the words and the natural reading of the passage are against it, and besides, it does not conform to the fact, since the church is built, not on confessions, but on confessors - living men. “The word πέτρα ,” says Edersheim, “was used in the same sense in Rabbinic language. According to the Rabbins, when God was about to build his world, he could not rear it on the generation of Enos, nor on that of the flood, who brought destruction upon the world; but when he beheld that Abraham would arise in the future, he said' 'Behold, I have found a rock to build on it, and to found the world,' whence, also, Abraham is called a rock, as it is said' 'Look unto the rock whence ye are hewn.' The parallel between Abraham and Peter might be carried even further. If, from a misunderstanding of the Lord's promise to Peter, later Christian legend represented the apostle as sitting at the gate of heaven, Jewish legend represents Abraham as sitting at the gate of Gehenna, so as to prevent all who had the seal of circumcision from falling into its abyss” (“Life and Times of Jesus”). The reference to Simon himself is confirmed by the actual relation of Peter to the early church, to the Jewish portion of which he was a foundation-stone. See Acts, Acts 1:15; Acts 2:14, Acts 2:37; Acts 3:12; Acts 4:8; Acts 5:15, Acts 5:29; Acts 9:34, Acts 9:40; Acts 10:25, Acts 10:26; Galatians 1:15.Church ( ἐκκλησίαν ) ἐκ out, καλέω , to call or summon. This is the first occurrence of this word in the New Testament. Originally an assembly of citizens, regularly summoned. So in New Testament, Acts 19:39. The Septuagint uses the word for the congregation of Israel, either as summoned for a definite purpose (Acts 7:38); but for this there is more commonly employed συναγωγή , of which synagogue is a transcription; σύν , together, ἄγω , to bring (Acts 13:43). In Christ's words to Peter the word ἐκκλησία acquires special emphasis from the opposition implied in it to the synagogue. The Christian community in the midst of Israel would be designated as ἐκκλησία , without being confounded with the συναγωγή , the Jewish community. See Acts 5:11; Acts 8:1; Acts 12:1; Acts 14:23, Acts 14:27, etc. Nevertheless συναγωγή is applied to a Christian assembly in James 2:2, while ἐπισυναγωγή (gathering or assembling together ) is found in 2 Thessalonians 2:1; Hebrews 10:25. Both in Hebrew and in New Testament usage ἐκκλησία implies more than a collective or national unity; rather a community based on a special religious idea and established in a special way. In the New Testament the term is used also in the narrower sense of a single church, or a church confined to a particular place. So of the church in the house of Aquila and Priscilla (Romans 16:5); the church at Corinth, the churches in Judea, the church at Jerusalem, etc.Gates of hell ( πύλαι ᾅδου )Rev., Hades. Hades was originally the name of the god who presided over the realm of the dead - Pluto or Dis. Hence the phrase, house of Hades. It is derived from ἀ , not, and; ἰδεῖν , to see; and signifies, therefore, the invisible land, the realm of shadow. It is the place to which all who depart this life descend, without reference to their moral character. By this word the Septuagint translated the Hebrew Sheol, which has a similar general meaning. The classical Hades embraced both good and bad men, though divided into Elysium, the abode of the virtuous, and Tartarus, the abode of the wicked. In these particulars it corresponds substantially with Sheol; both the godly and the wicked being represented as gathered into the latter. See Genesis 42:38; Psalm 9:17; Psalm 139:8; Isaiah 14:9; Isaiah 57:2; Ezekiel 32:27; Hosea 13:14. Hades and Sheol were alike conceived as a definite place, lower than the world. The passage of both good and bad into it was regarded as a descent. The Hebrew conception is that of a place of darkness; a cheerless home of a dull, joyless, shadowy life. See Psalm 6:5; Psalm 94:17; Psalm 115:17; Psalm 88:5, Psalm 88:6, Psalm 88:10; Job 10:21; Job 3:17-19; Job 14:10, Job 14:11; Ecclesiastes 9:5. Vagueness is its characteristic. In this the Hebrew's faith appears bare in contrast with that of the Greek and Roman. The pagan poets gave the popular mind definite pictures of Tartarus and Elysium; of Styx and Acheron; of happy plains where dead heroes held high discourse, and of black abysses where offenders underwent strange and ingenious tortures. There was, indeed, this difference between the Hebrew and the Pagan conceptions; that to the Pagan, Hades was the final home of its tenants, while Sheol was a temporary condition. Hence the patriarchs are described (Hebrews 11:16) as looking for a better, heavenly country; and the martyrs as enduring in hope of “a better resurrection.” Prophecy declared that the dead should arise and sing, when Sheol itself should be destroyed and its inmates brought forth, some to everlasting life, and others to shame and contempt (Isaiah 26:19; Hosea 13:14; Daniel 12:2). Paul represents this promise as made to the fathers by God, and as the hope of his countrymen (Acts 26:7). God was the God of the dead as well as of the living; present in the dark chambers of Sheol as well as in heaven (Psalm 139:8; Psalm 16:10). This is the underlying thought of that most touching and pathetic utterance of Job (Job 14:13-15), in which he breathes the wish that God would hide him with loving care in Hades, as a place of temporary concealment, where he will wait patiently, standing like a sentinel at his post, awaiting the divine voice calling him to a new and happier life. This, too, is the thought of the familiar and much-disputed passage, Job 19:23-27. His Redeemer, vindicator, avenger, shall arise after he shall have passed through the shadowy realm of Sheol. “A judgment in Hades, in which the judge will show himself his friend, in which all the tangled skein of his life will be unravelled by wise and kindly hands, and the insoluble problem of his strange and self-contradicting experience will at last be solved - this is what Job still looks for on that happy day when he shall see God for himself, and find his Goel (vindicator) in that Almighty Deliverer” (Cox, “Commentary on the Book of Job”). In the New Testament, Hades is the realm of the dead. It cannot be successfully maintained that it is, in particular, the place for sinners (so Cremer, “Biblico-Theological Lexicon”). The words about Capernaum (Matthew 11:23), which it is surprising to find Cremer citing in support of this position, are merely a rhetorical expression of a fall from the height of earthly glory to the deepest degradation, and have no more bearing upon the moral character of Hades than the words of Zophar (Job 11:7, Job 11:8) about the perfection of the Almighty. “It is high as heaven - deeper than Sheol. ” Hades is indeed coupled with Death (Revelation 1:18; Revelation 6:8; Revelation 20:13, Revelation 20:14), but the association is natural, and indeed inevitable, apart from all moral distinctions. Death would naturally be followed by Hades in any case. In Revelation 20:13, Revelation 20:14, the general judgment is predicted, and not only Death and Hades, but the sea give tip their dead, and only those who are not written in the book of life are cast into the lake of fire (Revelation 20:15). The rich man was in Hades (Luke 16:23), and in torments, but Lazarus was also in Hades, “in Abraham's bosom.” The details of this story “evidently represent the views current at the time among the Jews. According to them, the Garden of Eden and the Tree of Life were the abode of the blessed. We read that the righteous in Eden see the wicked in Gehenna and rejoice; and similarly, that the wicked in Gehenna see the righteous sitting beatified in Eden, and their souls are troubled (Edersheim, “Life and Times of Jesus”). Christ also was in Hades (Acts 2:27, Acts 2:31). Moreover, the word γέεννα , hell (see on Matthew 5:22), is specially used to denote the place of future punishment. Hades, then, in the New Testament, is a broad and general conception, with an idea of locality bound up with it. It is the condition following death, which is blessed or the contrary, according to the moral character of the dead, and is therefore divided into different realms, represented by Paradise or Abraham's bosom, and Gehenna. The expression Gates of Hades is an orientalism for the court, throne, power, and dignity of the infernal kingdom. Hades is contemplated as a mighty city, with formidable, frowning portals. Some expositors introduce also the idea of the councils of the Satanic powers, with reference to the Eastern custom of holding such deliberations in the gates of cities. Compare the expression Sublime Porte, applied to the Ottoman court. The idea of a building is maintained in both members of the comparison. The kingdom or city of Hades confronts and assaults the church which Christ will build upon the rock. See Job 38:17; Psalm 9:13; Psalm 107:18; Isaiah 38:10. [source]
Matthew 2:1 Wise men from the east [μαγοι απο ανατολων]
The etymology of Μαγι — Magi is quite uncertain. It may come from the same Indo-European root as (megas) magnus, though some find it of Babylonian origin. Herodotus speaks of a tribe of Magi among the Medians. Among the Persians there was a priestly caste of Magi like the Chaldeans in Babylon (Daniel 1:4). Daniel was head of such an order (Daniel 2:48). It is the same word as our “magician” and it sometimes carried that idea as in the case of Simon Magus (Acts 8:9, Acts 8:11) and of Elymas Barjesus (Acts 13:6, Acts 13:8). But here in Matthew the idea seems to be rather that of astrologers. Babylon was the home of astrology, but we only know that the men were from the east whether Arabia, Babylon, Persia, or elsewhere. The notion that they were kings arose from an interpretation of Isaiah 60:3; Revelation 21:24. The idea that they were three in number is due to the mention of three kinds of gifts (gold, frankincense, myrrh), but that is no proof at all. Legend has added to the story that the names were Caspar, Balthasar, and Melchior as in Ben Hur and also that they represent Shem, Ham, and Japhet. A casket in the Cologne Cathedral actually is supposed to contain the skulls of these three Magi. The word for east (αποανατολων — apo anatolōn) means “from the risings” of the sun. [source]
Matthew 2:1 In Bethlehem of Judea [εν ητλεεμ της Ιουδαιας]
There was a Bethlehem in Galilee seven miles northwest of Nazareth (Josephus, Antiquities XIX. 15). This Bethlehem (house of bread, the name means) of Judah was the scene of Ruth‘s life with Boaz (Rth 1:1.; Matthew 1:5) and the home of David, descendant of Ruth and ancestor of Jesus (Matthew 1:5). David was born here and anointed king by Samuel (1 Samuel 17:12). The town came to be called the city of David (Luke 2:11). Jesus, who was born in this House of Bread called himself the Bread of Life (John 6:35), the true Manna from heaven. Matthew assumes the knowledge of the details of the birth of Jesus in Bethlehem which are given in Luke 2:1-7 or did not consider them germane to his purpose. Joseph and Mary went to Bethlehem from Nazareth because it was the original family home for both of them. The first enrolment by the Emperor Augustus as the papyri show was by families Possibly Joseph had delayed the journey for some reason till now it approached the time for the birth of the child.In the days of Herod the King (εν ημεραις ηρωιδου του ασιλεως — en hēmerais Hērōidou tou Basileōs). This is the only date for the birth of Christ given by Matthew. Luke gives a more precise date in his Gospel (Luke 2:1-3), the time of the first enrolment by Augustus and while Cyrenius was ruler of Syria. More will be said of Luke‘s date when we come to his Gospel. We know from Matthew that Jesus was born while Herod was king, the Herod sometimes called Herod the Great. Josephus makes it plain that Herod died b.c. 4. He was first Governor of Galilee, but had been king of Judaea since b.c. 40 (by Antony and Octavius). I call him “Herod the Great Pervert” in Some Minor Characters in the New Testament. He was great in sin and in cruelty and had won the favour of the Emperor. The story in Josephus is a tragedy. It is not made plain by Matthew how long before the death of Herod Jesus was born. Our traditional date a.d. 1, is certainly wrong as Matthew shows. It seems plain that the birth of Jesus cannot be put later than b.c. 5. The data supplied by Luke probably call for b.c. 6 or 7.Wise men from the east The etymology of Μαγι — Magi is quite uncertain. It may come from the same Indo-European root as (megas) magnus, though some find it of Babylonian origin. Herodotus speaks of a tribe of Magi among the Medians. Among the Persians there was a priestly caste of Magi like the Chaldeans in Babylon (Daniel 1:4). Daniel was head of such an order (Daniel 2:48). It is the same word as our “magician” and it sometimes carried that idea as in the case of Simon Magus (Acts 8:9, Acts 8:11) and of Elymas Barjesus (Acts 13:6, Acts 13:8). But here in Matthew the idea seems to be rather that of astrologers. Babylon was the home of astrology, but we only know that the men were from the east whether Arabia, Babylon, Persia, or elsewhere. The notion that they were kings arose from an interpretation of Isaiah 60:3; Revelation 21:24. The idea that they were three in number is due to the mention of three kinds of gifts (gold, frankincense, myrrh), but that is no proof at all. Legend has added to the story that the names were Caspar, Balthasar, and Melchior as in Ben Hur and also that they represent Shem, Ham, and Japhet. A casket in the Cologne Cathedral actually is supposed to contain the skulls of these three Magi. The word for east (αποανατολων — apo anatolōn) means “from the risings” of the sun. [source]
Mark 1:27 A new teaching [διδαχη καινη]
One surprise had followed another this day. The teaching was fresh It is not certain whether the phrase is to be taken with “new teaching,” “It‘s new teaching with authority behind it,” as Moffatt has it, or with the verb; “with authority commandeth even the unclean spirits” The position is equivocal and may be due to the fact that “Mark gives the incoherent and excited remarks of the crowd in this natural form” (Swete). But the most astonishing thing of all is that the demons “obey him” The people were accustomed to the use of magical formulae by the Jewish exorcists (Matthew 12:27; Acts 19:13), but here was something utterly different. Simon Magus could not understand how Simon Peter could do his miracles without some secret trick and even offered to buy it (Acts 8:19). [source]
Luke 11:48 Consent [συνευδοκειτε]
Double compound (συν ευ δοκεω — sun μαρτυρες — eu dokeō), to think well along with others, to give full approval. A late verb, several times in the N.T., in Acts 8:1 of Saul‘s consenting to and agreeing to Stephen‘s death. It is a somewhat subtle, but just, argument made here. Outwardly the lawyers build tombs for the prophets whom their fathers (forefathers) killed as if they disapproved what their fathers did. But in reality they neglect and oppose what the prophets teach just as their fathers did. So they are “witnesses” (martures) against themselves (Matthew 23:31). [source]
Luke 23:8 Of a long time [εχ ικανων χρονων]
For this idiom, see note on Luke 8:27; the note on Luke 20:9; and note on Acts 8:11).He hoped (ηλπιζεν — ēlpizen). Imperfect active. He was still hoping. He had long ago gotten over his fright that Jesus was John the Baptist come to life again (Luke 9:7-9).Done Present middle participle. He wanted to see a miracle happening like a stunt of a sleight-of-hand performer. [source]
John 1:30 A man [ἀνὴρ]
Three words are used in the New Testament for man: ἄῤῥην , or ἄρσην , ἀνήρ , and ἄνθρωπος . Ἄρσην marks merely the sexual distinction, male (Romans 1:27; Revelation 12:5, Revelation 12:13). Ἁνήρ denotes the man as distinguished from the woman, as male or as a husband (Acts 8:12; Matthew 1:16), or from a boy (Matthew 14:21). Also man as endowed with courage, intelligence, strength, and other noble attributes (1 Corinthians 13:11; Ephesians 4:13; James 3:2). Ἄνθρωπος is generic, without distinction of sex, a human being (John 16:21), though often used in connections which indicate or imply sex, as Matthew 19:10; Matthew 10:35. Used of mankind (Matthew 4:4), or of the people (Matthew 5:13, Matthew 5:16; Matthew 6:5, Matthew 6:18; John 6:10). Of man as distinguished from animals or plants (Matthew 4:19; 2 Peter 2:16), and from God, Christ as divine and angels (Matthew 10:32; John 10:33; Luke 2:15). With the notion of weakness leading to sin, and with a contemptuous sense (1 Corinthians 2:5; 1 Peter 4:2; John 5:12; Romans 9:20). The more honorable and noble sense thus attaches to ἀνήρ rather than to ἄνθρωπος . Thus Herodotus says that when the Medes charged the Greeks, they fell in vast numbers, so that it was manifest to Xerxes that he had many men combatants ( ἄνθρωποι ) but few warriors ( ἄνθρωποι ) vii., 210. So Homer: “O friends, be men ( ἀνέρες ), and take on a stout heart” (“Iliad,” v., 529). Ἁνήρ is therefore used here of Jesus by the Baptist with a sense of dignity. Compare ἄνθρωπος , in John 1:6, where the word implies no disparagement, but is simply indefinite. In John ἀνήρ has mostly the sense of husband (John 4:16-18). See John 6:10. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
[source]

John 2:24 But Jesus did not trust himself to them [αυτος δε Ιησους ουκ επιστευεν αυτον αυτοις]
“But Jesus himself kept on refusing (negative imperfect) to trust himself to them.” The double use of πιστευω — pisteuō here is shown by Acts 8:13 where Simon Magus “believed” Causal use of δια — dia and the accusative case of the articular infinitive το γινωσκειν — to ginōskein (because of the knowing) with the object of the infinitive (παντας — pantas all men) and the accusative of general reference (αυτον — auton as to himself). [source]
John 4:38 I sent [εγω απεστειλα]
Emphatic use of εγω — egō and first aorist active indicative of αποστελλω — apostellō common in John for to send. Whereon ye have not laboured Perfect active indicative of κοπιαω — kopiaō for which see John 4:6. So also κεκοπιακασιν — kekopiakasin in next line. The disciples had done no sowing here in Sychar, only Jesus and the woman. Others And ye Emphatic contrast. Have entered Perfect active indicative of εισερχομαι — eiserchomai Into their labour Into the fruit and blessed results of their toil This is always true as seen in Acts 8:5-7, Acts 8:14. [source]
John 7:35 Among themselves [προς εαυτους]
These Jewish leaders of John 7:32 talk among themselves about what Jesus said in a spirit of contempt (this man or fellow, ουτος — houtos). That Almost result like οτι — hoti in Matthew 8:27. Will he go? Negative answer expected in an ironical question, “Is he about to go?” Unto the Dispersion among the Greeks Objective genitive των ελληνων — tōn Hellēnōn (of the Greeks) translated here “among,” because it is the Dispersion of Jews among the Greeks. Διασπορα — Diaspora is from διασπειρω — diaspeirō to scatter apart (Acts 8:1, Acts 8:4). It occurs in Plutarch and is common in the lxx, in the N.T. only here, James 1:1; 1 Peter 1:1. There were millions of these scattered Jews. And teach the Greeks Confessing his failure to teach the Jews in Palestine, “thus ignorantly anticipating the course Christianity took; what seemed unlikely and impossible to them became actual” (Dods). [source]
Acts 22:20 Consenting [συνευδοκῶν]
See on allow, Luke 11:48; and compare Acts 8:1. [source]
Acts 11:27 Prophets [προπηται]
Christian prophets these were (cf. Acts 13:1) who came from Jerusalem (the headquarters, Acts 8:15). Judas and Silas are called prophets (Acts 14:4; Acts 15:32). They were not just fore-tellers, but forth-tellers. The prophet had inspiration and was superior to the speaker with tongues (1 Corinthians 14:3). John was a prophet (Luke 7:26). We need prophets in the ministry today. [source]
Acts 13:19 For about four hundred and fifty years [ως ετεσιν τετρακοσιοις και πεντηκοντα]
Associative instrumental case with an expression of time as in Acts 8:11; Luke 8:29 (Robertson, Grammar, p. 527). The oldest MSS. (Aleph A B C Vg Sah Boh) place these figures before “after these things” and so in Acts 13:19. This is the true reading and is in agreement with the notation in 1 Kings 6:1. The difficulty found in the Textus Receptus (King James Version) thus disappears with the true text. The four hundred and fifty years runs therefore from the birth of Isaac to the actual conquest of Canaan and does not cover the period of the Judges. See note on Acts 7:6. [source]
Acts 10:44 The Holy Ghost fell [επεπεσεν το πνευμα το αγιον]
Second aorist active indicative of επιπιπτω — epipiptō old verb to fall upon, to recline, to come upon. Used of the Holy Spirit in Acts 8:16; Acts 10:44; Acts 11:15. It appears that Peter was interrupted in his sermon by this remarkable event. The Jews had received the Holy Spirit (Acts 2:4), the Samaritans (Acts 8:17), and now Gentiles. But on this occasion it was before baptism, as was apparently true in Paul‘s case (Acts 9:17.). In Acts 8:16; Acts 19:5 the hands of the apostles were also placed after baptism on those who received the Holy Spirit. Here it was unexpected by Peter and by Cornelius and was indubitable proof of the conversion of these Gentiles who had accepted Peter‘s message and had believed on Jesus Christ as Saviour. [source]
Acts 18:18 Having tarried after this yet many days [ετι προσμεινας ημερας ικανας]
First aorist (constative) active participle of προσμενω — prosmenō old verb, to remain besides The accusative is extent of time. On Luke‘s frequent use of ικανος — hikanos See note on Acts 8:11. It is not certain that this period of “considerable days” which followed the trial before Gallio is included in the year and six months of Acts 18:11 or is in addition to it which is most likely. Vindicated as Paul was, there was no reason for haste in leaving, though he usually left after such a crisis was passed. [source]
Acts 19:6 When Paul had laid his hands upon them [επιτεντος αυτοις του Παυλου χειρας]
Genitive absolute of second aorist active participle of επιτιτημι — epitithēmi This act of laying on of the hands was done in Samaria by Peter and John (Acts 8:16) and in Damascus in the case of Paul (Acts 9:17) and was followed as here by the descent of the Holy Spirit in supernatural power. [source]
Acts 2:38 The gift of the Holy Ghost [την δωρεαν του αγιου πνευματος]
The gift consists (Acts 8:17) in the Holy Spirit (genitive of identification). [source]
Acts 22:20 Consenting [συνευδοκων]
The very word used by Luke in Acts 8:1 about Paul. Koiné{[28928]}š word for being pleased at the same time with (cf. Luke 11:48). Paul adds here the item of “guarding the clothes of those who were slaying Paul recalls the very words of protest used by him to Jesus. He did not like the idea of running away to save his own life right where he had helped slay Stephen. He is getting on dangerous ground. [source]
Acts 7:53 Ye who [οιτινες]
The very ones who, quippe qui, often in Acts when the persons are enlarged upon (Acts 8:15; Acts 9:35; Acts 10:41, Acts 10:47). [source]
Acts 8:1 Were all scattered abroad [παντες διεσπαρησαν]
Second aorist passive indicative of διασπειρω — diaspeirō to scatter like grain, to disperse, old word, in the N.T. only in Acts 8:1, Acts 8:4; Acts 11:19. Except the apostles (πλην των αποστολων — plēn tōn apostolōn). Preposition πλην — plēn (adverb from πλεον — pleon more) with the ablative often in Luke. It remains a bit of a puzzle why the Pharisees spared the apostles. Was it due to the advice of Gamaliel in Acts 5:34-40 ? Or was it the courage of the apostles? Or was it a combination of both with the popularity of the apostles in addition? [source]
Acts 13:6 A certain sorcerer, a false prophet, a Jew [ανδρα τινα μαγον πσευδοπροπητην Ιουδαιον]
Literally, “a certain man” The bad sense occurs in Acts 8:9, Acts 8:11 (Simon Magus) and is made plain here by “false prophet.” In Acts 13:8 here Barjesus (Son of Jesus) is called “Elymas the sorcerer (or Magian),” probably his professional title, as Luke interprets the Arabic or Aramaic word Elymas. These Jewish mountebanks were numerous and had great influence with the uneducated. In Acts 19:13 the seven sons of Sceva, Jewish exorcists, tried to imitate Paul. If one is surprised that a man like Sergius Paulus should fall under the influence of this fraud, he should recall what Juvenal says of the Emperor Tiberius “sitting on the rock of Capri with his flock of Chaldaeans around him.” [source]
Acts 13:12 Believed [επιστευσεν]
Ingressive aorist active indicative. Renan considers it impossible that a Roman proconsul could be converted by a miracle. But it was the teaching about the Lord (του κυριου — tou kuriou objective genitive) by which he was astonished (εκπλησσομενος — ekplēssomenos present passive participle of εκπλησσω — ekplēssō See note on Matthew 7:28) or struck out as well as by the miracle. The blindness came “immediately” (παραερημα — paraehrēma) upon the judgment pronounced by Paul. It is possible that Sergius Paulus was converted to Christ without openly identifying himself with the Christians as his baptism is not mentioned as in the case of Cornelius. But, even if he was baptized, he need not have been deposed from his proconsulship as Furneaux and Rackham argue because his office called for “official patronage of idolatrous worship.” But that could have been merely perfunctory as it probably was already. He had been a disciple of the Jewish magician, Elymas Barjesus, without losing his position. Imperial persecution against Christianity had not yet begun. Furneaux even suggests that the conversion of a proconsul to Christianity at this stage would have called for mention by the Roman and Greek historians. There is the name Sergia Paullina in a Christian cemetery in Rome which shows that one of his family was a Christian later. One will believe what he wills about Sergius Paulus, but I do not see that Luke leaves him in the category of Simon Magus who “believed” (Acts 8:13) for revenue only. [source]
Acts 13:19 He gave them for an inheritance [κατεκληρονομησεν]
First aorist active indicative of the double compound verb κατακληρονομεω — katȧklērȯnomeō late verb in lxx (Numbers 34:18; Deuteronomy 3:28; Joshua 14:1) and only here in the N.T., to distribute by lot, to distribute as an inheritance. This is the correct reading and not κατεκληροδοτησεν — kateklērodotēsen from κατακληροδοτεω — kataklērodoteō of the Textus Receptus. These two verbs were confused in the MSS. of the lxx as well as here. For about four hundred and fifty years (ως ετεσιν τετρακοσιοις και πεντηκοντα — hōs etesin tetrakosiois kai pentēkonta). Associative instrumental case with an expression of time as in Acts 8:11; Luke 8:29 (Robertson, Grammar, p. 527). The oldest MSS. (Aleph A B C Vg Sah Boh) place these figures before “after these things” and so in Acts 13:19. This is the true reading and is in agreement with the notation in 1 Kings 6:1. The difficulty found in the Textus Receptus (King James Version) thus disappears with the true text. The four hundred and fifty years runs therefore from the birth of Isaac to the actual conquest of Canaan and does not cover the period of the Judges. See note on Acts 7:6. [source]
Acts 2:4 With other tongues [ετεραις γλωσσαις]
Other than their native tongues. Each one began to speak in a language that he had not acquired and yet it was a real language and understood by those from various lands familiar with them. It was not jargon, but intelligible language. Jesus had said that the gospel was to go to all the nations and here the various tongues of earth were spoken. One might conclude that this was the way in which the message was to be carried to the nations, but future developments disprove it. This is a third miracle (the sound, the tongues like fire, the untaught languages). There is no blinking the fact that Luke so pictures them. One need not be surprised if this occasion marks the fulfilment of the Promise of the Father. But one is not to confound these miraculous signs with the Holy Spirit. They are merely proof that he has come to carry on the work of his dispensation. The gift of tongues came also on the house of Cornelius at Caesarea (Acts 10:44-47; Acts 11:15-17), the disciples of John at Ephesus (Acts 19:6), the disciples at Corinth (1 Corinthians 14:1-33). It is possible that the gift appeared also at Samaria (Acts 8:18). But it was not a general or a permanent gift. Paul explains in 1 Corinthians 14:22 that “tongues” were a sign to unbelievers and were not to be exercised unless one was present who understood them and could translate them. This restriction disposes at once of the modern so-called tongues which are nothing but jargon and hysteria. It so happened that here on this occasion at Pentecost there were Jews from all parts of the world, so that some one would understand one tongue and some another without an interpreter such as was needed at Corinth. The experience is identical in all four instances and they are not for edification or instruction, but for adoration and wonder and worship. [source]
Acts 8:4 They therefore [οι μεν ουν]
Demonstrative οι — hoi as often (Acts 1:6, etc.) though it will make sense as the article with the participle διασπαρεντες — diasparentes The general statement is made here by μεν — men and a particular instance Now they were pushed out by Saul and began as a result to carry out the Great Commission for world conquest, that is those “scattered abroad” This verb means disperse, to sow in separate or scattered places (δια — dia) and so to drive people hither and thither. Old and very common verb, especially in the lxx, but in the N.T. only in Acts 8:1, Acts 8:4; Acts 11:19. [source]
Acts 8:6 Gave heed [προσειχον]
Imperfect active as in Acts 8:10, Acts 8:11, there with dative of the person There is an ellipse of νουν — noun (mind). They kept on giving heed or holding the mind on the things said by Philip, spell-bound, in a word. [source]
Acts 8:11 Because that of long time he had amazed them with his sorceries [δια το ικανωι χρονωι ταις μαγιαις εχεστακεναι αυτους]
Causal use of δια — dia with the accusative articular infinitive (perfect active Koiné{[28928]}š form and transitive, εχεστακεναι — exestakenai). Same verb as in Acts 8:9 participle εχιστανων — existanōn and in Acts 8:13 imperfect passive εχιστατο — existato (cf. also Acts 2:7 already). Χρονωι — Chronōi is associative instrumental and μαγιαις — magiais instrumental case. [source]
Acts 2:38 And be baptized every one of you [και βαπτιστητω εκαστος μων]
Rather, “And let each one of you be baptized.” Change of number from plural to singular and of person from second to third. This change marks a break in the thought here that the English translation does not preserve. The first thing to do is make a radical and complete change of heart and life. Then let each one be baptized after this change has taken place, and the act of baptism be performed “in the name of Jesus Christ” In accordance with the command of Jesus in Matthew 28:19 No distinction is to be insisted on between εις το ονομα — eis to onoma and εν τωι ονοματι — en tōi onomati with βαπτιζω — baptizō since εις — eis and εν — en are really the same word in origin. In Acts 10:48 εν τωι ονοματι Ιησου Χριστου — en tōi onomati Iēsou Christou occurs, but εις — eis to ονομα — onoma in Acts 8:16; Acts 19:5. The use of ονομα — onoma means in the name or with the authority of one as εις ονομα προπητου — eis onoma prophētou (Matthew 10:41) as a prophet, in the name of a prophet. In the Acts the full name of the Trinity does not occur in baptism as in Matthew 28:19, but this does not show that it was not used. The name of Jesus Christ is the distinctive one in Christian baptism and really involves the Father and the Spirit. See note on Matthew 28:19 for discussion of this point. “Luke does not give the form of words used in baptism by the Apostles, but merely states the fact that they baptized those who acknowledged Jesus as Messiah or as Lord” (Page). Unto the remission of your sins (eis aphesin tōn hamartiōn hūmōn). This phrase is the subject of endless controversy as men look at it from the standpoint of sacramental or of evangelical theology. In themselves the words can express aim or purpose for that use of eis does exist as in 1 Corinthians 2:7 εις απεσιν των αμαρτιων μων — eis doxan hēmōn (for our glory). But then another usage exists which is just as good Greek as the use of εις — eis for aim or purpose. It is seen in Matthew 10:41 in three examples εις δοχαν ημων — eis onoma prophētouεις — dikaiouεις ονομα προπητου δικαιου ματητου — mathētou where it cannot be purpose or aim, but rather the basis or ground, on the basis of the name of prophet, righteous man, disciple, because one is, etc. It is seen again in Matthew 12:41 about the preaching of Jonah (εις το κηρυγμα Ιωνα — eis to kērugma Iōna). They repented because of (or at) the preaching of Jonah. The illustrations of both usages are numerous in the N.T. and the Koiné{[28928]}š generally (Robertson, Grammar, p. 592). One will decide the use here according as he believes that baptism is essential to the remission of sins or not. My view is decidedly against the idea that Peter, Paul, or any one in the New Testament taught baptism as essential to the remission of sins or the means of securing such remission. So I understand Peter to be urging baptism on each of them who had already turned (repented) and for it to be done in the name of Jesus Christ on the basis of the forgiveness of sins which they had already received. The gift of the Holy Ghost The gift consists (Acts 8:17) in the Holy Spirit (genitive of identification). [source]
Acts 22:20 Witness [μαρτυρος]
And “martyr” also as in Revelation 2:13; Revelation 17:6. Transition state for the word here. I also was standing by (και αυτος ημην επεστως — kai autos ēmēn ephestōs). Periphrastic second past perfect in form, but imperfect (linear) in sense since εστωσισταμενος — hestōŝhistamenos (intransitive). Consenting The very word used by Luke in Acts 8:1 about Paul. Koiné{[28928]}š word for being pleased at the same time with (cf. Luke 11:48). Paul adds here the item of “guarding the clothes of those who were slaying Paul recalls the very words of protest used by him to Jesus. He did not like the idea of running away to save his own life right where he had helped slay Stephen. He is getting on dangerous ground. [source]
Acts 26:22 The help that is from God [επικουριας της απο του τεου]
Old word from επικουρεω — epikoureō to aid, and that from επικουρος — epikouros ally, assister. Only here in N.T. God is Paul‘s ally. All of the plots of the Jews against Paul had failed so far. I stand (εστηκα — hestēka). Second perfect of ιστημι — histēmi to place, intransitive to stand. Picturesque word (Page) of Paul‘s stability and fidelity (cf. Philemon 4:1; Ephesians 6:13). Both to small and great Dative singular (rather than instrumental, taking μαρτυρουμενος — marturoumenos middle, not passive) and use of τε και — te kai links the two adjectives together in an inclusive way. These two adjectives in the singular (representative singular rather than plural) can apply to age (young and old) or to rank (Revelation 11:18) as is specially suitable here with Festus and Agrippa present. In Acts 8:10 (Hebrews 8:11) the phrase explains παντες — pantes (all). Saying nothing but what (ουδεν εκτος λεγων ων — ouden ektos legōn hōn). “Saying nothing outside of those things which.” The ablative relative ων — hōn is attracted into the case of the unexpressed antecedent τουτων — toutōn and so ablative after εκτος — ektos (adverbial preposition common in lxx, the papyri. In N.T. here and 1 Corinthians 6:18; 1 Corinthians 15:27; 2 Corinthians 12:2.). Cf. Luke 16:29 about Moses and the prophets. [source]
Acts 26:22 Both to small and great [μικρωι τε και μεγαλωι]
Dative singular (rather than instrumental, taking μαρτυρουμενος — marturoumenos middle, not passive) and use of τε και — te kai links the two adjectives together in an inclusive way. These two adjectives in the singular (representative singular rather than plural) can apply to age (young and old) or to rank (Revelation 11:18) as is specially suitable here with Festus and Agrippa present. In Acts 8:10 (Hebrews 8:11) the phrase explains παντες — pantes (all). Saying nothing but what (ουδεν εκτος λεγων ων — ouden ektos legōn hōn). “Saying nothing outside of those things which.” The ablative relative ων — hōn is attracted into the case of the unexpressed antecedent τουτων — toutōn and so ablative after εκτος — ektos (adverbial preposition common in lxx, the papyri. In N.T. here and 1 Corinthians 6:18; 1 Corinthians 15:27; 2 Corinthians 12:2.). Cf. Luke 16:29 about Moses and the prophets. [source]
Acts 6:9 The synagogue of the Libertines [εκ της συναγωγης της λεγομενης Λιβερτινων]
The Libertines (Latin libertinus, a freedman or the son of a freedman) were Jews, once slaves of Rome (perhaps descendants of the Jews taken to Rome as captives by Pompey), now set free and settled in Jerusalem and numerous enough to have a synagogue of their own. Schuerer calls a Talmudic myth the statement that there were 480 synagogues in Jerusalem. There were many, no doubt, but how many no one knows. These places of worship and study were in all the cities of the later times where there were Jews enough to maintain one. Apparently Luke here speaks of five such synagogues in Jerusalem (that of the Libertines, of the Cyrenians, of the Alexandrians, of Cilicia, and of Asia). There probably were enough Hellenists in Jerusalem to have five such synagogues. But the language of Luke is not clear on this point. He may make only two groups instead of five since he uses the article των — tōn twice (once before Λιβερτινων και Κυρηναιων και Αλεχανδρεων — Libertinōn kai Kurēnaiōn kai Alexandreōn again before απο Κιλικιας και Ασιας — apo Kilikias kai Asias). He also changes from the genitive plural to απο — apo before Cilicia and Asia. But, leaving the number of the synagogues unsettled whether five or two, it is certain that in each one where Stephen appeared as a Hellenist preaching Jesus as the Messiah he met opposition. Certain of them “arose” Present active participle of συνζητεω — sunzēteō to question together as the two on the way to Emmaus did (Luke 24:15). Such interruptions were common with Jews. They give a skilled speaker great opportunity for reply if he is quick in repartee. Evidently Stephen was fully equipped for the emergency. One of their synagogues had men from Cilicia in it, making it practically certain that young Saul of Tarsus, the brilliant student of Gamaliel, was present and tried his wits with Stephen. His ignominious defeat may be one explanation of his zest in the stoning of Stephen (Acts 8:1). [source]
Acts 8:1 On that day [en ekeinēi tēi hēmerāi)]
On that definite day, that same day as in Acts 2:41. A great persecution (diōgmos megas). It was at first persecution from the Sadducees, but this attack on Stephen was from the Pharisees so that both parties are now united in a general persecution that deserves the adjective “great.” See Matthew 13:21 for the old word διωγμος — diōgmos from διωκω — diōkō to chase, hunt, pursue, persecute. Were all scattered abroad Second aorist passive indicative of διασπειρω — diaspeirō to scatter like grain, to disperse, old word, in the N.T. only in Acts 8:1, Acts 8:4; Acts 11:19. Except the apostles (πλην των αποστολων — plēn tōn apostolōn). Preposition πλην — plēn (adverb from πλεον — pleon more) with the ablative often in Luke. It remains a bit of a puzzle why the Pharisees spared the apostles. Was it due to the advice of Gamaliel in Acts 5:34-40 ? Or was it the courage of the apostles? Or was it a combination of both with the popularity of the apostles in addition? [source]
Acts 9:1 Breathing threatening and slaughter [ενπνεων απειλης και πονου]
Present active participle of old and common verb. Not “breathing out,” but “breathing in” (inhaling) as in Aeschylus and Plato or “breathing on” (from Homer on). The partitive genitive of απειλης — apeilēs and πονου — phonou means that threatening and slaughter had come to be the very breath that Saul breathed, like a warhorse who sniffed the smell of battle. He breathed on the remaining disciples the murder that he had already breathed in from the death of the others. He exhaled what he inhaled. Jacob had said that “Benjamin shall ravin as a wolf” (Genesis 49:27). This greatest son of Benjamin was fulfilling this prophecy (Furneaux). The taste of blood in the death of Stephen was pleasing to young Saul (Acts 8:1) and now he revelled in the slaughter of the saints both men and women. In Acts 26:11 Luke quotes Paul as saying that he was “exceedingly mad against them.” [source]
Acts 9:31 So the church [Hē men oun ekklēsia)]
The singular ekklēsia is undoubtedly the true reading here (all the great documents have it so). By this time there were churches scattered over Judea, Galilee, and Samaria (Galatians 1:22), but Luke either regards the disciples in Palestine as still members of the one great church in Jerusalem (instance already the work of Philip in Samaria and soon of Peter in Joppa and Caesarea) or he employs the term ekklēsia in a geographical or collective sense covering all of Palestine. The strictly local sense we have seen already in Acts 8:1, Acts 8:3 (and Matthew 18:17) and the general spiritual sense in Matthew 16:18. But in Acts 8:3 it is plain that the term is applied to the organization of Jerusalem Christians even when scattered in their homes. The use of men oun (so) is Luke‘s common way of gathering up the connection. The obvious meaning is that the persecution ceased because the persecutor had been converted. The wolf no longer ravined the sheep. It is true also that the effort of Caligula a.d. 39 to set up his image in the temple in Jerusalem for the Jews to worship greatly excited the Jews and gave them troubles of their own (Josephus, Ant. XVIII. 8, 2-9). [source]
Romans 15:23 Many [ἱκανῶν]
See on worthy, Luke 7:6. The primary meaning is sufficient, and hence comes to be applied to number and quantity; many, enough, as Mark 10:46; Luke 8:32; Acts 9:23, etc. So, long, of time (Acts 8:11; Acts 27:9). Worthy, i.e., sufficient for an honor or a place (Mark 1:7; Luke 7:6; 1 Corinthians 15:9). Adequate (2 Corinthians 2:16; 2 Corinthians 3:5). Qualified (2 Timothy 2:2). Here the sense might be expressed by for years enough. [source]
Romans 1:32 But also consent with them [αλλα και συνευδοκουσιν]
Late verb for hearty approval as in Luke 11:48; Acts 8:1; 1 Corinthians 7:12. It is a tragedy of American city government that so many of the officials are proven to be hand in glove with the underworld of law-breakers. [source]
Romans 13:6 Attending continually [προσκαρτερουντες]
Present active participle of the late verb προσκαρτερεω — proskartereō (προς — pros and καρτερεω — kartereō from καρτος — kartos or κρατος — kratos strength) to persevere. See note on Acts 2:42 and note on Acts 8:13. [source]
Romans 13:6 Tribute [πορους]
Old word from περω — pherō to bring, especially the annual tax on lands, etc. (Luke 20:22; Luke 23:1). Paying taxes recognizes authority over us. Ministers of God‘s service (λειτουργοι τεου — leitourgoi theou). Late word for public servant (unused λειτος — leitos from Attic λεως — leōs people, and εργω — ergō to work). Often used of military servants, servants of the king, and temple servants (Hebrews 8:2). Paul uses it also of himself as Christ‘s λειτουργος — leitourgos (Romans 15:16) and of Epaphroditus as a minister to him (Philemon 2:25). See τεου διακονος — theou diakonos in Romans 13:4. Attending continually Present active participle of the late verb προσκαρτερεω — proskartereō (προς — pros and καρτερεω — kartereō from καρτος — kartos or κρατος — kratos strength) to persevere. See note on Acts 2:42 and note on Acts 8:13. [source]
1 Corinthians 2:14 Receiveth not [οὐ δέχεται]
Not, does not understand, but does not admit them into his heart; thus, according to New Testament usage, when the word is used in connection with teaching. See Luke 8:13; Acts 8:14; Acts 11:1; 1 Thessalonians 1:6; James 1:21. [source]
1 Corinthians 1:13 Was Paul crucified for you? [Μη Παυλος εσταυρωτη υπερ υμων]
An indignant “No” is demanded by μη — mē Paul shows his tact by employing himself as the illustration, rather than Apollos or Cephas. Probably υπερ — huper over, in behalf of, rather than περι — peri (concerning, around) is genuine, though either makes good sense here. In the Koiné{[28928]}š υπερ — huper encroaches on περι — peri as in 2 Thessalonians 2:1. Were ye baptized into the name of Paul? (εις το ονομα Παυλου εβαπτιστητε — eis to onoma Paulou ebaptisthēte̱). It is unnecessary to say into for εις — eis rather than in since εις — eis is the same preposition originally as εν — en and both are used with βαπτιζω — baptizō as in Acts 8:16; Acts 10:48 with no difference in idea (Robertson, Grammar, p. 592). Paul evidently knows the idea in Matthew 28:19 and scouts the notion of being put on a par with Christ or the Trinity. He is no rival of Christ. This use of ονομα — onoma for the person is not only in the lxx, but the papyri, ostraca, and inscriptions give numerous examples of the name of the king or the god for the power and authority of the king or god (Deissmann, Bible Studies, pp. 146ff., 196ff.; Light from the Ancient East, p. 121). [source]
1 Corinthians 1:13 Were ye baptized into the name of Paul? [εις το ονομα Παυλου εβαπτιστητε]
It is unnecessary to say into for εις — eis rather than in since εις — eis is the same preposition originally as εν — en and both are used with βαπτιζω — baptizō as in Acts 8:16; Acts 10:48 with no difference in idea (Robertson, Grammar, p. 592). Paul evidently knows the idea in Matthew 28:19 and scouts the notion of being put on a par with Christ or the Trinity. He is no rival of Christ. This use of ονομα — onoma for the person is not only in the lxx, but the papyri, ostraca, and inscriptions give numerous examples of the name of the king or the god for the power and authority of the king or god (Deissmann, Bible Studies, pp. 146ff., 196ff.; Light from the Ancient East, p. 121). [source]
Philippians 3:6 As touching zeal [κατα ζηλος]
So the old MSS. treating ζηλος — zēlos as neuter, not masculine. He was a zealot against Christianity, “persecuting the church” He was the ringleader in the persecution from the death of Stephen till his own conversion (Acts 8:1-9:9). [source]
1 Timothy 1:4 To give heed [προσεχειν]
With νουν — noun understood. Old and common idiom in N.T. especially in Luke and Acts (Acts 8:10.). Not in Paul‘s earlier Epistles. 1 Timothy 3:8; 1 Timothy 4:1, 1 Timothy 4:13; Titus 1:14. [source]
1 Timothy 4:14 With the laying on of the hands [μετὰ ἐπιθέσεως τῶν χειρῶν]
Μετὰ implies that the prophetic intimations were in some way repeated or emphasized in connection with the ceremony of ordination. We note the association of prophecy with ordination in the setting apart of Paul and Barnabas (Acts 13:9, Acts 13:3); so that the case of Timothy has an analogue in that of Paul himself. Ἑπίθεσις layingon, imposition, also Acts 8:18; 2 Timothy 1:6; Hebrews 6:2, in each case with of hands. “The custom,” says Lange, “is as old as the race.” The Biblical custom rests on the conception of the hand as the organ of mediation and transference. The priest laid his hand on the head of the bullock or goat (Leviticus 1:4) to show that the guilt of the people was transferred. The hand was laid on the head of a son, to indicate the transmission of the hereditary blessing (Genesis 48:14); upon one appointed to a position of authority, as Joshua (Numbers 27:18-23); upon the sick or dead in token of miraculous power to heal or to restore to life (2 Kings 4:34). So Christ (Mark 6:5; Luke 4:40). In the primitive Christian church the laying on of hands signified the imparting of the Holy Spirit to the newly-baptized (Acts 8:17; Acts 19:6; comp. Hebrews 6:2). Hands were laid upon the seven (Acts 6:6). But the form of consecration in ordination varied. No one mode has been universal in the church, and no authoritative written formula exists. In the Alexandrian and Abyssinian churches it was by breathing: in the Eastern church generally, by lifting up the hands in benediction: in the Armenian church, by touching the dead hand of the predecessor: in the early Celtic church, by the transmission of relics or pastoral staff: in the Latin church, by touching the head. [source]
Hebrews 6:2  []
The other four items are qualitative genitives withδιδαχην — didachēn(βαπτισμων επιτεσεως χειρων αναστασεως νεκρων κριματος αιωνιου — baptismōnclass="normal greek">βαπτισμων—epitheseōs cheirōn class="translit"> anastaseōs nekrōn class="translit"> krimatos aiōniou ). The plural baptismōn “by itself does not mean specifically Christian baptism either in this epistle ( Hebrews 9:10 ) or elsewhere ( Mark 7:4 ), but ablutions or immersions such as the mystery religions and the Jewish cultus required for initiates, proselytes, and worshippers in general” (Moffatt). The disciples of the Baptist had disputes with the Jews over purification ( John 3:25 ). See also Acts 19:2 . “The laying on of hands” seems to us out of place in a list of elementary principles, but it was common as a sign of blessing ( Matthew 19:13 ), of healing ( Mark 7:32 ), in the choice of the Seven ( Acts 6:6 ), in the bestowal of the Holy Spirit ( Acts 8:17 .; Acts 19:6 ), in separation for a special task ( Acts 13:3 ), in ordination ( 1 Timothy 4:14 ; 1 Timothy 5:22 ; 2 Timothy 1:6 ). Prayer accompanied this laying on of the hands as a symbol. The resurrection of the dead (both just and unjust, John 5:29 ; Acts 24:15 ) is easily seen to be basal (cf. 1Cor 15) as well as eternal judgment (timeless and endless). [source]
1 Peter 1:11 When it testified beforehand [προμαρτυρομενον]
Present middle participle of προμαρτυρομαι — promarturomai a late compound unknown elsewhere save in a writer of the fourteenth century (Theodorus Mech.) and now in a papyrus of the eighth. It is neuter here because πνευμα — pneuma is neuter, but this grammatical gender should not be retained as “it” in English, but should be rendered “he” (and so as to Acts 8:15). Here we have predictive prophecy concerning the Messiah, though some modern critics fail to find predictions of the Messiah in the Old Testament. [source]
1 Peter 1:1 An apostle of Jesus Christ [αποστολος Ιησου Χριστου]
This is his official title, but in 2 Peter 1:1 δουλος — doulos is added, which occurs alone in James 1:1. In 2 John and 3 John we have only ο πρεσβυτερος — ho presbuteros (the elder), as Peter terms himself συνπρεσβυτερος — sunpresbuteros in 1 Peter 5:1. Paul‘s usage varies greatly: only the names in 1 Thessalonians and 2 Thessalonians, the title αποστολος — apostolos added and defended in Galatians and Romans as also in 1 Corinthians and 2 Corinthians and Colossians and Ephesians and 2 Timothy with “by the will of God” added, and in 1 Timothy with the addition of “according to the command of God.” In Philippians Paul has only “δουλος — doulos (slave) Χριστου Ιησου — Christou Iēsou like James and Jude. In Romans and Titus Paul has both δουλος — doulos and αποστολος — apostolos like 2 Peter, while in Philemon he uses only δεσμιος — desmios (prisoner) Ιησου Χριστου — Iēsou Christou the elect Without article (with the article in Matthew 24:22, Matthew 24:24, Matthew 24:31) and dative case, “to elect persons” (viewed as a group). Bigg takes εκλεκτοις — eklektois (old, but rare verbal adjective from εκλεγω — eklegō to pick out, to select) as an adjective describing the next word, “to elect sojourners.” That is possible and is like γενος εκλεκτον — genos eklekton in 1 Peter 2:9. See the distinction between κλητοι — klētoi (called) and εκλεκτοι — eklektoi (chosen) in Matthew 22:14.Who are sojourners (παρεπιδημοις — parepidēmois). Late double compound adjective (παρα επιδημουντες — paraδιασπορας — epidēmountes Acts 2:10, to sojourn by the side of natives), strangers sojourning for a while in a particular place. So in Polybius, papyri, in lxx only twice (Genesis 23:4 or Psalm 38:13), in N.T. only here, 1 Peter 2:11; Hebrews 11:13. The picture in the metaphor here is that heaven is our native country and we are only temporary sojourners here on earth.Of the Dispersion See John 7:35 for literal sense of the word for scattered (from diaspeirō to scatter abroad, Acts 8:1) Jews outside of Palestine, and James 1:1 for the sense here to Jewish Christians, including Gentile Christians (only N T. examples). Note absence of the article, though a definite conception (of the Dispersion). The Christian is a pilgrim on his way to the homeland. These five Roman provinces include what we call Asia Minor north and west of the Taurus mountain range (Hort). Hort suggests that the order here suggests that Silvanus (bearer of the Epistle) was to land in Pontus from the Euxine Sea, proceed through Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, to Bithynia, where he would re-embark for Rome. This, he holds, explains the separation of Pontus and Bithynia, though the same province. Only Galatia and Asia are mentioned elsewhere in the N.T. as having Christian converts, but the N.T. by no means gives a full account of the spread of the Gospel, as can be judged from Colossians 1:6, Colossians 1:23. [source]
1 Peter 1:1 Of the Dispersion [διασπειρω]
See John 7:35 for literal sense of the word for scattered (from diaspeirō to scatter abroad, Acts 8:1) Jews outside of Palestine, and James 1:1 for the sense here to Jewish Christians, including Gentile Christians (only N T. examples). Note absence of the article, though a definite conception (of the Dispersion). The Christian is a pilgrim on his way to the homeland. These five Roman provinces include what we call Asia Minor north and west of the Taurus mountain range (Hort). Hort suggests that the order here suggests that Silvanus (bearer of the Epistle) was to land in Pontus from the Euxine Sea, proceed through Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, to Bithynia, where he would re-embark for Rome. This, he holds, explains the separation of Pontus and Bithynia, though the same province. Only Galatia and Asia are mentioned elsewhere in the N.T. as having Christian converts, but the N.T. by no means gives a full account of the spread of the Gospel, as can be judged from Colossians 1:6, Colossians 1:23. [source]
1 Peter 1:11 What time or what manner of time [εις τινα η ποιον καιρον]
Proper sense of ποιος — poios (qualitative interrogative) kept here as in 1 Corinthians 15:35, Romans 3:27, though it is losing its distinctive sense from τις — tis (Acts 23:34). The prophets knew what they prophesied, but not at what time the Messianic prophecies would be fulfilled.The Spirit of Christ which was in them (το εν αυτοις πνευμα Χριστου — to en autois pneuma Christou). Peter definitely asserts here that the Spirit of Jesus Christ (the Messiah) was in the Old Testament prophets, the Holy Spirit called the Spirit of Christ and the Spirit of God (Romans 8:9), who spoke to the prophets as he would speak to the apostles (John 16:14).Did point unto Imperfect active of δηλοω — dēloō to make plain, “did keep on pointing to,” though they did not clearly perceive the time.When it testified beforehand (προμαρτυρομενον — promarturomenon). Present middle participle of προμαρτυρομαι — promarturomai a late compound unknown elsewhere save in a writer of the fourteenth century (Theodorus Mech.) and now in a papyrus of the eighth. It is neuter here because πνευμα — pneuma is neuter, but this grammatical gender should not be retained as “it” in English, but should be rendered “he” (and so as to Acts 8:15). Here we have predictive prophecy concerning the Messiah, though some modern critics fail to find predictions of the Messiah in the Old Testament.The sufferings of Christ “The sufferings for (destined for) Christ” like the use of εις — eis in 1 Peter 1:10 “The after these things (sufferings) glories.” The plural of δοχα — doxa is rare, but occurs in Exodus 15:11; Hosea 9:11. The glories of Christ followed the sufferings as in 1 Peter 4:13; 1 Peter 5:1, 1 Peter 5:6. [source]
1 Peter 1:11 Did point unto [εδηλου]
Imperfect active of δηλοω — dēloō to make plain, “did keep on pointing to,” though they did not clearly perceive the time.When it testified beforehand (προμαρτυρομενον — promarturomenon). Present middle participle of προμαρτυρομαι — promarturomai a late compound unknown elsewhere save in a writer of the fourteenth century (Theodorus Mech.) and now in a papyrus of the eighth. It is neuter here because πνευμα — pneuma is neuter, but this grammatical gender should not be retained as “it” in English, but should be rendered “he” (and so as to Acts 8:15). Here we have predictive prophecy concerning the Messiah, though some modern critics fail to find predictions of the Messiah in the Old Testament.The sufferings of Christ “The sufferings for (destined for) Christ” like the use of εις — eis in 1 Peter 1:10 “The after these things (sufferings) glories.” The plural of δοχα — doxa is rare, but occurs in Exodus 15:11; Hosea 9:11. The glories of Christ followed the sufferings as in 1 Peter 4:13; 1 Peter 5:1, 1 Peter 5:6. [source]

What do the individual words in Acts 8:1 mean?

Saul now was there consenting to the killing of him Arose then on that - day a persecution great against the church which [was] in Jerusalem All were scattered throughout the regions - of Judea and Samaria except the apostles
Σαῦλος δὲ ἦν συνευδοκῶν τῇ ἀναιρέσει αὐτοῦ Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ διωγμὸς μέγας ἐπὶ τὴν ἐκκλησίαν τὴν ἐν Ἱεροσολύμοις πάντες διεσπάρησαν κατὰ τὰς χώρας τῆς Ἰουδαίας καὶ Σαμαρείας πλὴν τῶν ἀποστόλων

Σαῦλος  Saul 
Parse: Noun, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root: Σαῦλος  
Sense: the Jewish name of the apostle Paul.
δὲ  now 
Parse: Conjunction
Root: δέ  
Sense: but, moreover, and, etc.
ἦν  was  there 
Parse: Verb, Imperfect Indicative Active, 3rd Person Singular
Root: εἰμί  
Sense: to be, to exist, to happen, to be present.
συνευδοκῶν  consenting 
Parse: Verb, Present Participle Active, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root: συνευδοκέω  
Sense: to be pleased together with, to approve together (with others).
τῇ  to  the 
Parse: Article, Dative Feminine Singular
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
ἀναιρέσει  killing 
Parse: Noun, Dative Feminine Singular
Root: ἀναίρεσις  
Sense: a destroying, killing, murder.
αὐτοῦ  of  him 
Parse: Personal / Possessive Pronoun, Genitive Masculine 3rd Person Singular
Root: αὐτός  
Sense: himself, herself, themselves, itself.
Ἐγένετο  Arose 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Middle, 3rd Person Singular
Root: γίνομαι  
Sense: to become, i.
ἐκείνῃ  that 
Parse: Demonstrative Pronoun, Dative Feminine Singular
Root: ἐκεῖνος  
Sense: he, she it, etc.
τῇ  - 
Parse: Article, Dative Feminine Singular
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
ἡμέρᾳ  day 
Parse: Noun, Dative Feminine Singular
Root: ἡμέρα  
Sense: the day, used of the natural day, or the interval between sunrise and sunset, as distinguished from and contrasted with the night.
διωγμὸς  a  persecution 
Parse: Noun, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root: διωγμός  
Sense: persecution.
μέγας  great 
Parse: Adjective, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root: μέγας  
Sense: great.
ἐπὶ  against 
Parse: Preposition
Root: ἐπί  
Sense: upon, on, at, by, before.
ἐκκλησίαν  church 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Feminine Singular
Root: ἐκκλησία  
Sense: a gathering of citizens called out from their homes into some public place, an assembly.
τὴν  which  [was] 
Parse: Article, Accusative Feminine Singular
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
Ἱεροσολύμοις  Jerusalem 
Parse: Noun, Dative Neuter Plural
Root: Ἱεροσόλυμα  
Sense: denotes either the city itself or the inhabitants.
διεσπάρησαν  were  scattered 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Passive, 3rd Person Plural
Root: διασπείρω  
Sense: to scatter abroad, disperse.
κατὰ  throughout 
Parse: Preposition
Root: κατά 
Sense: down from, through out.
χώρας  regions 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Feminine Plural
Root: χώρα  
Sense: the space lying between two places or limits.
τῆς  - 
Parse: Article, Genitive Feminine Singular
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
Ἰουδαίας  of  Judea 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Feminine Singular
Root: Ἰουδαία  
Sense: in a narrower sense, to the southern portion of Palestine lying on this side of the Jordan and the Dead Sea, to distinguish it from Samaria, Galilee, Peraea, and Idumaea.
Σαμαρείας  Samaria 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Feminine Singular
Root: Σαμάρεια 
Sense: a territory in Palestine, which had Samaria as its capital.
πλὴν  except 
Parse: Preposition
Root: πλήν  
Sense: moreover, besides, but, nevertheless.
ἀποστόλων  apostles 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Masculine Plural
Root: ἀπόστολος  
Sense: a delegate, messenger, one sent forth with orders.