Exhaustive information for Strongs Number: 1722

Word info for ἐν

Root: ἐν, ἐμμέσῳ, ἐννόμως
Strongs Number: 1722
Transliteration: [en]
Phonetics: en
Etymology: A primary preposition denoting (fixed) position (in place, time or state), and (by implication) instrumentality (medially or constructively), i.e. a relation of rest (intermediate between 1519 and 1537)
Parts of Speech: prep.
Sense: in, by, with etc (more info)

Outline of Biblical Usage:

   1 in, by, with etc.
   Additional Information: Wigram’s frequency count is 2798 not 2782.

Frequency in the Books

Words from the Root of G1722

ἐν, Ἐν, ⧼ἐν, ‹ἐν›, ἔν, [ἐν], ‹ἐν, (ἐν), {εν

All words for strongs number G1722 :

Word Occurance
ἐν 2042
Ἐν 62
ἔν 6
[ἐν] 5
‹ἐν› 4
⧼ἐν 2
‹ἐν 2
(ἐν) 1
{εν 1

How strongs number G1722 is translated (KJV)

English Occurance
in 1629
among 96
with 90
by 82
on 60
at 31
in [the] 25
into 17
within 14
during 9
through 9
[is] in 8
to 7
as 5
under 3
[are] in 2
while 2
with [the] 2
besides 2
as to 2
at [the] 2
along 2
because of 2
throughout 2
before 1
in the midst of 1
[while] in 1
with the 1
with respect to 1
wherein 1
in the 1
[are] among 1
in regard to 1
when 1
in [their] 1
for 1
in all 1
but in 1
until 1
[it is] in 1
afterward 1
toward 1
[were] in 1
by [the] 1
among [those] 1
amidst 1

Two strong number together

G1722 G3739
G1722 G3739
G1722 G769
G1722 G5129
G1722 G3739
G1722 G3739
G1722 G846
G1722 G3739
G1722 G846
G1722 G3739
G1722 G3954
G1722 G1064
G1722 G1064
G1722 G5101
G1722 G5318
G1722 G5318
G1722 G5318
G1722 G3739
G1722 G1565
G1722 G3319
G1722 G846
G1722 G1565
G1722 G3739
G1722 G1698
G1722 G5026
G1722 G3739
G1722 G5101
G1722 G846
G1722 G1698
G1722 G3739
G1722 G907
G1722 G2517
G1722 G3319
G1722 G1096
G1722 G3319
G1722 G846
G1722 G1565
G1722 G1880
G1722 G846
G1722 G846
G1722 G5101
G1722 G846
G1722 G846
G1722 G3956
G1722 G3319
G1722 G846
G1722 G846
G1722 G435
G1722 G5129
G1722 G3739
G1722 G3954
G1722 G5129
G1722 G240
G1722 G3739
G1722 G1565
G1722 G846
G1722 G3739
G1722 G3739
G1722 G3739
G1722 G3739
G1722 G4571
G1722 G3739
G1722 G191
G1722 G846
G1722 G3739
G1722 G5034
G1722 G846
G1722 G3739
G1722 G3739
G1722 G846
G1722 G4594
G1722 G846
G1722 G5129
G1722 G3739
G1722 G1616
G1722 G3739
G1722 G3641
G1722 G3641
G1722 G4183
G1722 G4012
G1722 G3739
G1722 G5318
G1722 G5318
G1722 G2927
G1722 G3739
G1722 G846
G1722 G3739
G1722 G3739
G1722 G240
G1722 G5034
G1722 G1318
G1722 G5129
G1722 G3739
G1722 G3739
G1722 G5129
G1722 G135
G1722 G2087
G1722 G3739
G1722 G4413
G1722 G1121
G1722 G1391
G1722 G1391
G1722 G5129
G1722 G3956
G1722 G3739
G1722 G877
G1722 G3739
G1722 G877
G1722 G3739
G1722 G3739
G1722 G846
G1722 G3834
G1722 G3739
G1722 G3739
G1722 G3739
G1722 G2540
G1722 G846
G1722 G457
G1722 G3954
G1722 G5129
G1722 G3956
G1722 G1411
G1722 G3056
G1722 G4392
G1722 G922
G1722 G3319
G1722 G3956
G1722 G3739
G1722 G2724
G1722 G1442
G1722 G3739
G1722 G3739
G1722 G3739
G1722 G3739
G1722 G3367
G1722 G846
G1722 G846
G1722 G3739
G1722 G846
G1722 G3739
G1722 G3739
G1722 G3739
G1722 G846
G1722 G3739
G1722 G5129
G1722 G5129
G1722 G5129
G1722 G5129
G1722 G5129
G1722 G3739
G1722 G5129
G1722 G5129
G1722 G5129
G1722 G5034
G1722 G846
G1722 G3739
G1722 G1321
G1722 G846
G1722 G846
G1722 G846
G1722 G846
G1722 G1565
G1722 G846
G1722 G3739
G1722 G846
G1722 G5034

Greek Commentary Search

Matthew 1:18 Betrothed to Joseph [ευρετη εν γαστρι εχουσα]
Matthew proceeds to explain his statement in Matthew 1:16 which implied that Joseph, though the legal father of Jesus in the royal line, was not the actual father of Mary‘s Son. Betrothal with the Jews was a serious matter, not lightly entered into and not lightly broken. The man who betrothed a maiden was legally husband (Genesis 29:21; Deuteronomy 22:23.) and “an informal cancelling of betrothal was impossible” (McNeile). Though they did not live together as husband and wife till actual marriage, breach of faithfulness on the part of the betrothed was treated as adultery and punished with death. The New Testament in Braid Scots actually has “mairry‘t till Joseph” for “betrothed to Joseph.” Matthew uses the genitive absolute construction here, a very common Greek idiom.Of the Holy Ghost (ek pneumatos hagiou). The discovery that Mary was pregnant was inevitable and it is plain that she had not told Joseph. She “was found with child” (heurethē en gastri echousa). This way of putting it, the usual Greek idiom, plainly shows that it was the discovery that shocked Joseph. He did not as yet know what Matthew plainly asserts that the Holy Ghost, not Joseph and not any man, was responsible for the pregnancy of Mary. The problem of the Virgin Birth of Jesus has been a disturbing fact to some through all the ages and is today to those who do not believe in the pre-existence of Christ, the Son of God, before his Incarnation on earth. This is the primal fact about the Birth of Christ. The Incarnation of Christ is clearly stated by Paul (2 Corinthians 8:9; Philemon 2:5-11; and involved in Colossians 1:15-19) and by John (John 1:14; John 17:5). If one frankly admits the actual pre-existence of Christ and the real Incarnation, he has taken the longest and most difficult step in the matter of the supernatural Birth of Christ. That being true, no merely human birth without the supernatural element can possibly explain the facts. Incarnation is far more than the Indwelling of God by the Holy Spirit in the human heart. To admit real incarnation and also full human birth, both father and mother, creates a greater difficulty than to admit the Virgin Birth of Jesus begotten by the Holy Spirit, as Matthew here says, and born of the Virgin Mary. It is true that only Matthew and Luke tell the story of the supernatural birth of Jesus, though John 1:14 seems to refer to it. Mark has nothing whatever concerning the birth and childhood of Jesus and so cannot be used as a witness on the subject. Both Matthew and Luke present the birth of Jesus as not according to ordinary human birth. Jesus had no human father. There is such a thing in nature as parthenogenesis in the lower orders of life. But that scientific fact has no bearing here. We see here God sending his Son into the world to be the world‘s Saviour and he gave him a human mother, but not a human father so that Jesus Christ is both Son of God and Son of Man, the God Man. Matthew tells the story of the birth of Jesus from the standpoint of Joseph as Luke gives it from the standpoint of Mary. The two narratives harmonize with each other. One credits these most wonderful of all birth narratives according as he believes in the love and power of Almighty God to do what he wills. There is no miracle with God who has all power and all knowledge. The laws of nature are simply the expression of God‘s will, but he has not revealed all his will in the laws that we discover. God is Spirit. He is Person. He holds in his own power all life. John 3:16 is called the Little Gospel because it puts briefly the love of God for men in sending his own Son to live and die for us. [source]
Matthew 10:17 In their synagogues [εν τοις συναγωγαις αυτων]
Here not merely as the place of assembly for worship, but as an assembly of justice exercising discipline as when the man born blind was cast out of the synagogue (John 9:35). They were now after the exile in every town of any size where Jews were. [source]
Matthew 10:16 As sheep in the midst of wolves [ως προβατα εν μεσωι λυκων]
The presence of wolves on every hand was a fact then and now. Some of these very sheep (Matthew 10:6) at the end will turn out to be wolves and cry for Christ‘s crucifixion. The situation called for consummate wisdom and courage. The serpent was the emblem of wisdom or shrewdness, intellectual keenness (Genesis 3:1; Psalm 58:5), the dove of simplicity (Hosea 7:11). It was a proverb, this combination, but one difficult of realization. Either without the other is bad (rascality or gullibility). The first clause with αρνας — arnas for προβατα — probata is in Luke 10:3 and apparently is in a Fragment of a Lost Gospel edited by Grenfell and Hunt. The combination of wariness and innocence is necessary for the protection of the sheep and the discomfiture of the wolves. For “harmless” (ακεραιοι — akeraioi) Moffatt and Goodspeed have “guileless,” Weymouth “innocent.” The word means “unmixed” (α — a privative and κεραννυμι — kerannumi), “unadulterated,” “simple,” “unalloyed.” [source]
Matthew 10:28 Destroy both soul and body in hell [και πσυχην και σωμα απολεσαι εν γεεννηι]
Note “soul” here of the eternal spirit, not just life in the body. “Destroy” here is not annihilation, but eternal punishment in Gehenna (the real hell) for which see note on Matthew 5:22. Bruce thinks that the devil as the tempter is here meant, not God as the judge, but surely he is wrong. There is no more needed lesson today than the fear of God. [source]
Matthew 10:32 Shall confess me [ομολογησει εν εμοι]
An Aramaic idiom, not Hebrew, see also Luke 12:8. So also here, “him will I also confess” Literally this Aramaic idiom reproduced in the Greek means “confess in me,” indicating a sense of unity with Christ and of Christ with the man who takes the open stand for him. [source]
Matthew 11:2 John heard in the prison [ο δε Ιωανης ακουσας εν τωι δεσμωτηριωι]
Probably (Luke 7:18) the raising of the son of the widow of Nain. The word for prison here is the place where one was kept bound (Acts 5:21, Acts 5:23; Acts 16:26). See note on Matthew 4:12. It was in Machaerus east of the Dead Sea which at this time belonged to the rule of Herod Antipas (Jos. Ant. XVIII. v.2). John‘s disciples had access to him. So he sent word by (δια — dia not δυο — duo as in Luke 7:19) them to Jesus. [source]
Matthew 11:6 Whosoever shall find none occasion of stumbling in me [ος αν μη σκανδαλιστηι εν εμοι]
Indefinite relative clause with first aorist passive subjunctive. This beatitude is a rebuke to John for his doubt even though in prison. Doubt is not a proof of superior intellect, scholarship, or piety. John was in the fog and that is the time not to make serious decisions. “In some way even the Baptist had found some occasion of stumbling in Jesus” (Plummer). [source]
Matthew 11:25 At that season Jesus answered and said [εν εκεινωι τωι καιρωι αποκριτεις ειπεν]
Spoke to his Father in audible voice. The time and place we do not know. But here we catch a glimpse of Jesus in one of his moods of worship. “It is usual to call this golden utterance a prayer, but it is at once prayer, praise, and self-communing in a devout spirit” (Bruce). Critics are disturbed because this passage from the Logia of Jesus or Q of Synoptic criticism (Matthew 11:25-30; Luke 10:21-24) is so manifestly Johannine in spirit and very language, “the Father” Jesus praises the Father “not that the σοποι — sophoi were ignorant, but that the νηπιοι — nēpioi knew” (McNeile). [source]
Matthew 12:41 In the judgment [εν τηι κρισει]
Except here and in the next verse Matthew has “day of judgment” Note this use of εις — eis just like εν — en Note also πλειον — pleion (neuter), not πλειων — pleiōn (masc.). See the same idiom in Matthew 12:6 and Matthew 12:48. Jesus is something greater than the temple, than Jonah, than Solomon. “You will continue to disbelieve in spite of all I can say or do, and at last you will put me to death. But I will rise again, a sign for your confusion, if not for your conversion” (Bruce). [source]
Matthew 13:1 On that day [εν τηι ημεραι εκεινηι]
So this group of parables is placed by Matthew on the same day as the blasphemous accusation and the visit of the mother of Jesus. It is called “the Busy Day,” not because it was the only one, but simply that so much is told of this day that it serves as a specimen of many others filled to the full with stress and strain. [source]
Matthew 13:3 Many things in parables [πολλα εν παραβολαις]
It was not the first time that Jesus had used parables, but the first time that he had spoken so many and some of such length. He will use a great many in the future as in Luke 12 to 18 and Matt. 24 and 25. The parables already mentioned in Matthew include the salt and the light (Matthew 5:13-16), the birds and the lilies (Matthew 6:26-30), the splinter and the beam in the eye (Matthew 7:3-5), the two gates (Matthew 7:13.), the wolves in sheep‘s clothing (Matthew 7:15), the good and bad trees (Matthew 7:17-19), the wise and foolish builders (Matthew 7:24-27), the garment and the wineskins (Matthew 9:16.), the children in the market places (Matthew 11:16.). It is not certain how many he spoke on this occasion. Matthew mentions eight in this chapter (the Sower, the Tares, the Mustard Seed, the Leaven, the Hid Treasure, the Pearl of Great Price, the Net, the Householder). Mark adds the Parable of the Lamp (Mark 4:21; Luke 8:16), the Parable of the Seed Growing of Itself (Mark 4:26-29), making ten of which we know. But both Mark (Mark 4:33) and Matthew (Matthew 13:34) imply that there were many others. “Without a parable spake he nothing unto them” (Matthew 13:34), on this occasion, we may suppose. The word parable There are parables in the Old Testament, in the Talmud, in sermons in all ages. But no one has spoken such parables as these of Jesus. They hold the mirror up to nature and, as all illustrations should do, throw light on the truth presented. The fable puts things as they are not in nature, Aesop‘s Fables, for instance. The parable may not be actual fact, but it could be so. It is harmony with the nature of the case. The allegory John does not use the word parable, but only παροιμια — paroimia a saying by the way (John 10:6; John 16:25, John 16:29). As a rule the parables of Jesus illustrate one main point and the details are more or less incidental, though sometimes Jesus himself explains these. When he does not do so, we should be slow to interpret the minor details. Much heresy has come from fantastic interpretations of the parables. In the case of the Parable of the Sower (Matthew 13:3-8) we have also the careful exposition of the story by Jesus (Matthew 13:18-23) as well as the reason for the use of parables on this occasion by Jesus (Matthew 13:9-17). [source]
Matthew 13:4 As he sowed [εν τωι σπειρειν αυτον]
Literally, “in the sowing as to him,” a neat Greek idiom unlike our English temporal conjunction. Locative case with the articular present infinitive. [source]
Matthew 13:10 Why speakest thou unto them in parables? [δια τι εν παραβολαις λαλεις αυτοις]
Already the disciples are puzzled over the meaning of this parable and the reason for giving them to the people. So they “came up” closer to Jesus and asked him. Jesus was used to questions and surpassed all teachers in his replies. [source]
Matthew 13:19 The seed sown in his heart [το εσπαρμενον εν τηι καρδιαι αυτου]
(το εσπαρμενον εν τηι καρδιαι αυτου — to esparmenon en tēi kardiāi autou perfect passive participle of σπειρω — speirō to sow) and “the man sown by the wayside” (ο παρα την οδον σπαρεις — ho para tēn hodon spareis aorist passive participle, along the wayside) are identified. The seed in the heart is not of itself responsible, but the man who lets the devil snatch it away. [source]
Matthew 13:21 Yet hath he not root in himself [ουκ εχει δε ριζαν εν εαυτωι]
Cf. Colossians 2:7 and Ephesians 3:18 ερριζωμεμοι — errizōmemoi Stability like a tree. Here the man has a mushroom growth and “endureth for a while” What a picture of some converts in our modern revivals. They drop away overnight because they did not have the root of the matter in them. This man does not last or hold out. [source]
Matthew 13:25 While men slept [εν τωι κατευδειν τους αντρωπους]
Same use of the articular present infinitive with εν — en and the accusative as in Matthew 13:4. [source]
Matthew 13:57 And they were offended in him [και εσκανδαλιζοντο εν αυτωι]
Graphic imperfect passive. Literally, “They stumbled at him,” “They were repelled by him” (Moffatt), “They turned against him” (Weymouth). It was unpardonable for Jesus not to be commonplace like themselves. [source]
Matthew 14:6 Danced in the midst [ωρχησατο εν τωι μεσωι]
This was Salome, daughter of Herodias by her first marriage. The root of the verb means some kind of rapid motion. “Leaped in the middle,” Wycliff puts it. It was a shameful exhibition of lewd dancing prearranged by Herodias to compass her purpose for John‘s death. Salome had stooped to the level of an αλμε — almeh or common dancer. [source]
Matthew 14:13 In a boat [εν πλοιωι]
Contrast between the lake and the land route. [source]
Matthew 18:18 Shall be bound in heaven [εσται δεδεμενα εν ουρανωι]
Future passive periphrastic perfect indicative as in “shall be loosed” In Matthew 16:19 this same unusual form occurs. The binding and the loosing is there addressed to Peter, but it is here repeated for the church or for the disciples as the case may be. [source]
Matthew 19:28 In the regeneration [εν τηι παλινγενεσιαι]
The new birth of the world is to be fulfilled when Jesus sits on his throne of glory. This word was used by the Stoics and the Pythagoreans. It is common also in the mystery religions (Angus, Mystery Religions and Christianity, pp. 95ff.). It is in the papyri also. We must put no fantastic ideas into the mouth of Jesus. But he did look for the final consummation of his kingdom. What is meant by the disciples also sitting on twelve thrones is not clear. [source]
Matthew 2:1 In the days of Herod the King [εν ημεραις ηρωιδου του ασιλεως]
This is the only date for the birth of Christ given by Matthew. Luke gives a more precise date in his Gospel (Luke 2:1-3), the time of the first enrolment by Augustus and while Cyrenius was ruler of Syria. More will be said of Luke‘s date when we come to his Gospel. We know from Matthew that Jesus was born while Herod was king, the Herod sometimes called Herod the Great. Josephus makes it plain that Herod died b.c. 4. He was first Governor of Galilee, but had been king of Judaea since b.c. 40 (by Antony and Octavius). I call him “Herod the Great Pervert” in Some Minor Characters in the New Testament. He was great in sin and in cruelty and had won the favour of the Emperor. The story in Josephus is a tragedy. It is not made plain by Matthew how long before the death of Herod Jesus was born. Our traditional date a.d. 1, is certainly wrong as Matthew shows. It seems plain that the birth of Jesus cannot be put later than b.c. 5. The data supplied by Luke probably call for b.c. 6 or 7. [source]
Matthew 2:1 In Bethlehem of Judea [εν ητλεεμ της Ιουδαιας]
There was a Bethlehem in Galilee seven miles northwest of Nazareth (Josephus, Antiquities XIX. 15). This Bethlehem (house of bread, the name means) of Judah was the scene of Ruth‘s life with Boaz (Rth 1:1.; Matthew 1:5) and the home of David, descendant of Ruth and ancestor of Jesus (Matthew 1:5). David was born here and anointed king by Samuel (1 Samuel 17:12). The town came to be called the city of David (Luke 2:11). Jesus, who was born in this House of Bread called himself the Bread of Life (John 6:35), the true Manna from heaven. Matthew assumes the knowledge of the details of the birth of Jesus in Bethlehem which are given in Luke 2:1-7 or did not consider them germane to his purpose. Joseph and Mary went to Bethlehem from Nazareth because it was the original family home for both of them. The first enrolment by the Emperor Augustus as the papyri show was by families Possibly Joseph had delayed the journey for some reason till now it approached the time for the birth of the child.In the days of Herod the King (εν ημεραις ηρωιδου του ασιλεως — en hēmerais Hērōidou tou Basileōs). This is the only date for the birth of Christ given by Matthew. Luke gives a more precise date in his Gospel (Luke 2:1-3), the time of the first enrolment by Augustus and while Cyrenius was ruler of Syria. More will be said of Luke‘s date when we come to his Gospel. We know from Matthew that Jesus was born while Herod was king, the Herod sometimes called Herod the Great. Josephus makes it plain that Herod died b.c. 4. He was first Governor of Galilee, but had been king of Judaea since b.c. 40 (by Antony and Octavius). I call him “Herod the Great Pervert” in Some Minor Characters in the New Testament. He was great in sin and in cruelty and had won the favour of the Emperor. The story in Josephus is a tragedy. It is not made plain by Matthew how long before the death of Herod Jesus was born. Our traditional date a.d. 1, is certainly wrong as Matthew shows. It seems plain that the birth of Jesus cannot be put later than b.c. 5. The data supplied by Luke probably call for b.c. 6 or 7.Wise men from the east The etymology of Μαγι — Magi is quite uncertain. It may come from the same Indo-European root as (megas) magnus, though some find it of Babylonian origin. Herodotus speaks of a tribe of Magi among the Medians. Among the Persians there was a priestly caste of Magi like the Chaldeans in Babylon (Daniel 1:4). Daniel was head of such an order (Daniel 2:48). It is the same word as our “magician” and it sometimes carried that idea as in the case of Simon Magus (Acts 8:9, Acts 8:11) and of Elymas Barjesus (Acts 13:6, Acts 13:8). But here in Matthew the idea seems to be rather that of astrologers. Babylon was the home of astrology, but we only know that the men were from the east whether Arabia, Babylon, Persia, or elsewhere. The notion that they were kings arose from an interpretation of Isaiah 60:3; Revelation 21:24. The idea that they were three in number is due to the mention of three kinds of gifts (gold, frankincense, myrrh), but that is no proof at all. Legend has added to the story that the names were Caspar, Balthasar, and Melchior as in Ben Hur and also that they represent Shem, Ham, and Japhet. A casket in the Cologne Cathedral actually is supposed to contain the skulls of these three Magi. The word for east (αποανατολων — apo anatolōn) means “from the risings” of the sun. [source]
Matthew 2:2 For we saw his star in the east [ειδομεν γαρ αυτου τον αστερα εν τηι ανατοληι]
This does not mean that they saw the star which was in the east. That would make them go east to follow it instead of west from the east. The words “in the east” are probably to be taken with “we saw” i.e. we were in the east when we saw it, or still more probably “we saw his star at its rising” or “when it rose” as Moffatt puts it. The singular form here The Magi ask where is the one born king of the Jews. They claim that they had seen his star, either a miracle or a combination of bright stars or a comet. These men may have been Jewish proselytes and may have known of the Messianic hope, for even Vergil had caught a vision of it. The whole world was on tiptoe of expectancy for something. Moulton (Journal of Theological Studies, 1902, p. 524) “refers to the Magian belief that a star could be the fravashi, the counterpart or angel (cf. Matthew 18:10) of a great man” (McNeile). They came to worship the newly born king of the Jews. Seneca (Epistle 58) tells of Magians who came to Athens with sacrifices to Plato after his death. They had their own way of concluding that the star which they had seen pointed to the birth of this Messianic king. Cicero (Deuteronomy Divin. i. 47) “refers to the constellation from which, on the birthnight of Alexander, Magians foretold that the destroyer of Asia was born” (McNeile). Alford is positive that no miracle is intended by the report of the Magi or by Matthew in his narrative. But one must be allowed to say that the birth of Jesus, if really God‘s only Son who has become Incarnate, is the greatest of all miracles. Even the methods of astrologers need not disturb those who are sure of this fact. [source]
Matthew 2:16 Slew all the male children that were in Bethlehem [ανειλεν παντας τους παιδας τους εν ητλεεμ]
The flight of Joseph was justified, for Herod was violently enraged Vulgate illusus esset. Herod did not know, of course, how old the child was, but he took no chances and included all the little boys (τους παιδας — tous paidas masculine article) in Bethlehem two years old and under, perhaps fifteen or twenty. It is no surprise that Josephus makes no note of this small item in Herod‘s chamber of horrors. It was another fulfilment of the prophecy in Jeremiah 31:15. The quotation (Matthew 2:18) seems to be from the Septuagint. It was originally written of the Babylonian captivity but it has a striking illustration in this case also. Macrobius (Sat. II. iv. II) notes that Augustus said that it was better to be Herod‘s sow (υς — hus) than his son (υιος — huios), for the sow had a better chance of life. [source]
Matthew 21:8 In the way [εν τηι οδωι]
This the most of the crowd did. The disciples put their garments on the asses. Note change of tenses (constative aorist εστρωσαν — estrōsan descriptive imperfects εκοπτον και εστρωννυον — ekopton kai estrōnnuon showing the growing enthusiasm of the crowd). When the colt had passed over their garments, they would pick the garments up and spread them again before. [source]
Matthew 21:32 In the way of righteousness [εν οδωι δικαιοσυνης]
In the path of righteousness. Compare the two ways in Matthew 7:13, Matthew 7:14 and “the way of God” (Matthew 22:16). [source]
Matthew 22:1 Again in parables [παλιν εν παραβολαις]
Matthew has already given two on this occasion (The Two Sons, The Wicked Husbandmen). He alone gives this Parable of the Marriage Feast of the King‘s Son. It is somewhat similar to that of The Supper in Luke 14:16-23 given on another occasion. Hence some scholars consider this merely Matthew‘s version of the Lucan parable in the wrong place because of Matthew‘s habit of grouping the sayings of Jesus. But that is a gratuitous indictment of Matthew‘s report which definitely locates the parable here by παλιν — palin Some regard it as not spoken by Jesus at all, but an effort on the part of the writer to cover the sin and fate of the Jews, the calling of the Gentiles, and God‘s demand for righteousness. But here again it is like Jesus and suits the present occasion. [source]
Matthew 22:15 Ensnare in his talk [παγιδευσωσιν εν λογωι]
From παγις — pagis a snare or trap. Here only in the N.T. In the lxx (1 Samuel 28:9; Ecclesiastes 9:12; Test. of Twelve Patriarchs, Joseph 7:1). Vivid picture of the effort to trip Jesus in his speech like a bird or wild beast. [source]
Matthew 22:36 The great commandment in the law [εντολη μεγαλη εν τωι νομωι]
The positive adjective is sometimes as high in rank as the superlative. See μεγας — megas in Matthew 5:19 in contrast with ελαχιστος — elachistos The superlative μεγιστος — megistos occurs in the N.T. only in 2 Peter 1:4. Possibly this scribe wishes to know which commandment stood first (Mark 12:28) with Jesus. “The scribes declared that there were 248 affirmative precepts, as many as the members of the human body; and 365 negative precepts, as many as the days in the year, the total being 613, the number of letters in the Decalogue” (Vincent). But Jesus cuts through such pettifogging hair-splitting to the heart of the problem. [source]
Matthew 23:6 The chief place at feasts [την πρωτοκλισιαν εν τοις δειπνοις]
Literally, the first reclining place on the divan at the meal. The Persians, Greeks, Romans, Jews differed in their customs, but all cared for the post of honour at formal functions as is true of us today. Hostesses often solve the point by putting the name of each guest at the table. At the last passover meal the apostles had an ugly snarl over this very point of precedence (Luke 22:24; John 13:2-11), just two days after this exposure of the Pharisees in the presence of the apostles. [source]
Matthew 23:6 The chief seats in the synagogues [τας πρωτοκατεδριας εν ταις συναγωγαις]
“An insatiable hunger for prominence” (Bruce). These chief seats (Zuchermandel) were on the platform looking to the audience and with the back to the chest in which were kept the rolls of scripture. The Essenes had a different arrangement. People today pay high prices for front seats at the theatre, but at church prefer the rear seats out of a curious mock-humility. In the time of Jesus the hypocrites boldly sat up in front. Now, if they come to church at all, they take the rear seats. [source]
Matthew 24:18 In the field [εν τωι αγρωι]
The peasant worked in his time and left his mantle at home then as now. [source]
Matthew 24:26 In the wilderness [εν τηι ερημωι]
Like Simon son of Gioras (Josephus, War, IV,9,5,&7). [source]
Matthew 24:26 In the inner chambers [εν τοις ταμειοις]
Like John of Giscala (Josephus, War, V,6,1). False Messiahs act the role of the Great Unseen and Unknown. [source]
Matthew 24:30 The sign of the Son of Man in heaven [το σημειον του υιου του αντρωπου εν ουρανωι]
Many theories have been suggested like the cross in the sky, etc. Bruce sees a reference to Daniel 7:13 “one like the Son of man” and holds that Christ himself is the sign in question (the genitive of apposition). This is certainly possible. It is confirmed by the rest of the verse: “They shall see the Son of man coming.” See Matthew 16:27; Matthew 26:64. The Jews had repeatedly asked for such a sign (Broadus) as in Matthew 12:38; Matthew 16:1; John 2:18. [source]
Matthew 24:41 At the mill [εν τωι μυλωι]
So Westcott and Hort and not μυλωνι — mulōni (millhouse) Textus Receptus. The millstone and then hand-mill which was turned by two women (αλητουσαι — alēthousai) as in Exodus 11:5. This verb is a late form for αλεω — aleō There was a handle near the edge of the upper stone. [source]
Matthew 25:4 In their vessels [εν τοις αγγειοις]
Here alone in the N.T., through αγγη — aggē in Matthew 13:48. Extra supply in these receptacles besides the oil in the dish on top of the staff. [source]
Matthew 25:16 With them [εν αυτοις]
Instrumental use of εν — en He worked But Westcott and Hort read εκερδησεν — ekerdēsen gained, as in Matthew 25:17. Κερδος — Kerdos means interest. This gain was a hundred per cent. [source]
Matthew 26:6 In the house of Simon the leper [εν οικιαι Σιμωνος του λεπρου]
Evidently a man who had been healed of his leprosy by Jesus who gave the feast in honour of Jesus. All sorts of fantastic theories have arisen about it. Some even identify this Simon with the one in Luke 7:36., but Simon was a very common name and the details are very different. Some hold that it was Martha‘s house because she served (John 12:2) and that Simon was either the father or husband of Martha, but Martha loved to serve and that proves nothing. Some identify Mary of Bethany with the sinful woman in Luke 7 and even with Mary Magdalene, both gratuitous and groundless propositions. For the proof that Mary of Bethany, Mary Magdalene, and the sinful woman of Luke 7 are all distinct see my Some Minor Characters in the New Testament. John (John 12:1) apparently locates the feast six days before the passover, while Mark (Mark 14:3) and Matthew (Matthew 26:6) seem to place it on the Tuesday evening (Jewish Wednesday) just two days before the passover meal. It is possible that John anticipates the date and notes the feast at Bethany at this time because he does not refer to Bethany again. If not, the order of Mark must be followed. According to the order of Mark and Matthew, this feast took place at the very time that the Sanhedrin was plotting about the death of Jesus (Mark 14:1.). [source]
Matthew 27:14 And he gave him no answer, not even to one word [και ουκ απεκριτη αυτωι προς ουδε εν ρημα]
Jesus refused to answer the charges of the Jews (Matthew 27:12). Now he continued silent under the direct question of Pilate. The Greek is very precise besides the double negative. “He did not reply to him up to not even one word.” This silent dignity amazed Pilate and yet he was strangely impressed.sa120 [source]
Matthew 3:1 Preaching in the wilderness of Judea [Κηρυσσων εν τηι ερημωι της Ιουδαιας]
It was the rough region in the hills toward the Jordan and the Dead Sea. There were some people scattered over the barren cliffs. Here John came in close touch with the rocks, the trees, the goats, the sheep, and the shepherds, the snakes that slipped before the burning grass over the rocks. He was the Baptizer, but he was also the Preacher, heralding his message out in the barren hills at first where few people were, but soon his startling message drew crowds from far and near. Some preachers start with crowds and drive them away. [source]
Matthew 3:1 And in those days cometh John the Baptist [εν δε ταις ημεραις παραγινεται Ιωανης ο απτιστης]
Here the synoptic narrative begins with the baptism of John (Matthew 3:1; Mark 1:2; Luke 3:1) as given by Peter in Acts 1:22, “from the baptism of John, unto the day that he was received up from us” (cf. also Acts 10:37-43, Peter‘s summary to Cornelius very much like the outline of Mark‘s Gospel). Matthew does not indicate the date when John appeared as Luke does in ch. 3 (the fifteenth year of Tiberius‘s reign). It was some thirty years after the birth of John, precisely how long after the return of Joseph and Mary to Nazareth we do not know. Moffatt translates the verb But this rite was meant for the Gentiles who accepted Judaism. John is treating the Jews as Gentiles in demanding baptism at their hands on the basis of repentance. [source]
Matthew 3:9 And think not to say within yourselves [και μη δοχητε λεγειν εν εαυτοις]
John touched the tender spot, their ecclesiastical pride. They felt that the “merits of the fathers,” especially of Abraham, were enough for all Israelites. At once John made clear that, reformer as he was, a breach existed between him and the religious leaders of the time. [source]
Matthew 4:23 Went about in all Galilee [περιηγεν εν οληι τηι Γαλιλαιαι]
Literally Jesus “was going around (imperfect) in all Galilee.” This is the first of the three tours of Galilee made by Jesus. This time he took the four fishermen whom he had just called to personal service. The second time he took the twelve. On the third he sent the twelve on ahead by twos and followed after them. He was teaching and preaching the gospel of the kingdom in the synagogues chiefly and on the roads and in the streets where Gentiles could hear. [source]
Matthew 5:18 One jot or one tittle [ιωτα εν η μια κερεα]
“Not an iota, not a comma” (Moffatt), “not the smallest letter, not a particle” (Weymouth). The iota is the smallest Greek vowel, which Matthew here uses to represent the Hebrew yod (jot), the smallest Hebrew letter. “Tittle” is from the Latin titulus which came to mean the stroke above an abbreviated word, then any small mark. It is not certain here whether κερεα — kerea means a little horn, the mere point which distinguishes some Hebrew letters from others or the “hook” letter Vav. Sometimes yod and vav were hardly distinguishable. “In Vay. R. 19 the guilt of altering one of them is pronounced so great that if it were done the world would be destroyed” (McNeile). [source]
Matthew 5:28 In his heart [εν τηι καρδιαι αυτου]
Not just the centre of the blood circulation though it means that. Not just the emotional part of man‘s nature, but here the inner man including the intellect, the affections, the will. This word is exceedingly common in the New Testament and repays careful study always. It is from a root that means to quiver or palpitate. Jesus locates adultery in the eye and heart before the outward act. Wunsche (Beitrage) quotes two pertinent rabbinical sayings as translated by Bruce: “The eye and the heart are the two brokers of sin.” “Passions lodge only in him who sees.” Hence the peril of lewd pictures and plays to the pure. [source]
Matthew 6:5 In the synagogues and in the corners of the streets [εν ταις συναγωγαις και εν ταις γωνιαις των πλατειων]
These were the usual places of prayer (synagogues) and the street corners where crowds stopped for business or talk. If the hour of prayer overtook a Pharisee here, he would strike his attitude of prayer like a modern Moslem that men might see that he was pious. [source]
Matthew 6:18 In secret [εν τωι κρυπαιωι]
Here as in Matthew 6:4, Matthew 6:6 the Textus Receptus adds εν τωι πανερωι — en tōi phanerōi (openly), but it is not genuine. The word κρυπαιος — kruphaios is here alone in the New Testament, but occurs four times in the Septuagint. [source]
Matthew 9:34 By the prince of the devils [εν τωι αρχοντι των δαιμονιων]
Demons, not devils. The codex Bezae omits this verse, but it is probably genuine. The Pharisees are becoming desperate and, unable to deny the reality of the miracles, they seek to discredit them by trying to connect Jesus with the devil himself, the prince of the demons. They will renew this charge later (Matthew 12:24) when Jesus will refute it with biting sarcasm. [source]
Mark 1:2 In Isaiah, the prophet [εν τωι Εσαιαι τωι προπητηι]
The quotation comes from Malachi 3:1 and Isaiah 40:3. The Western and Neutral classes read Isaiah, the Alexandrian and Syrian, “the prophets,” an evident correction because part of it is from Malachi. But Isaiah is mentioned as the chief of the prophets. It was common to combine quotations from the prophets in testimonia and catenae (chains of quotations). This is Mark‘s only prophetic quotation on his own account (Bruce). [source]
Mark 1:5 In the river Jordan [εν τωι Ιορδανηι ποταμωι]
In the Jordan river, literally. [source]
Mark 1:23 With an unclean spirit [εν πνευματι ακαταρτωι]
This use of εν — en “with” is common in the Septuagint like the Hebrew be, but it occurs also in the papyri. It is the same idiom as “in Christ,” “in the Lord” so common with Paul. In English we speak of our being in love, in drink, in his cups, etc. The unclean spirit was in the man and the man in the unclean spirit, a man in the power of the unclean spirit. Luke has “having,” the usual construction. See Matthew 22:43. Unclean spirit is used as synonymous with [source]
Mark 10:21 One thing thou lackest [εν σε υστερει]
Luke 18:22 has it: “One thing thou lackest yet” Possibly two translations of the same Aramaic phrase. Matthew 19:20 represents the youth as asking “What lack I yet?” The answer of Jesus meets that inquiry after more than mere outward obedience to laws and regulations. The verb υστερω — husterō is from the adjective υστερος — husteros (behind) and means to be too late, to come short, to fail of, to lack. It is used either with the accusative, as here, or with the ablative as in 2 Corinthians 11:5, or the dative as in Textus Receptus here, σοι — soi f0). [source]
Mark 10:37 In thy glory [εν τηι δοχηι]
Matthew 20:21 has “in thy kingdom.” See note on Matthew 20:20 for the literal interpretation of Matthew 19:28. They are looking for a grand Jewish world empire with apocalyptic features in the eschatological culmination of the Messiah‘s kingdom. That dream brushed aside all the talk of Jesus about his death and resurrection as mere pessimism. [source]
Mark 11:13 If haply he might find anything thereon [ει αρα τι ευρησει εν αυτηι]
This use of ει — ei and the future indicative for purpose (to see if, a sort of indirect question) as in Acts 8:22; Acts 17:27. Jesus was hungry as if he had had no food on the night before after the excitement and strain of the Triumphal Entry. The early figs in Palestine do not get ripe before May or June, the later crop in August. It was not the season of figs, Mark notes. But this precocious tree in a sheltered spot had put out leaves as a sign of fruit. It had promise without performance. [source]
Mark 11:23 Shall not doubt in his heart [μη διακριτηι εν τηι καρδιαι αυτου]
First aorist passive subjunctive with ος αν — hos an The verb means a divided judgment Wavering doubt. Not a single act of doubt (διακριτηι — diakrithēi), but continued faith (πιστευηι — pisteuēi). [source]
Mark 11:28 By what authority [εν ποιαι εχουσιαι]
This question in all three Gospels was a perfectly legitimate one. See notes on Matthew 21:23-27 for discussion. Note present subjunctive here (hina tauta poiēis), that you keep on doing these things. [source]
Mark 12:1 He began to speak unto them in parables [ηρχατο αυτοις εν παραβολαις λαλειν]
Mark‘s common idiom again. He does not mean that this was the beginning of Christ‘s use of parables See note on Mark 4:2), but simply that his teaching on this occasion took the parabolic turn. “The circumstances called forth the parabolic mood, that of one whose heart is chilled, and whose spirit is saddened by a sense of loneliness, and who, retiring within himself, by a process of reflection, frames for his thoughts forms which half conceal, half reveal them” (Bruce). Mark does not give the Parable of the Two Sons (Matthew 21:28-32) nor that of the Marriage Feast of the King‘s Son (Matthew 22:1-14). He gives here the Parable of the Wicked Husbandmen. Also in Matthew 21:33-46 and Luke 20:9-19. See discussion in Matthew. Matthew 21:33 calls the man “a householder” (οικοδεσποτης — oikodespotēs). [source]
Mark 12:25 As angels in heaven [ως αγγελοι εν τωι ουρανωι]
So Matthew 22:30. Luke 20:36 has “equal unto the angels” “Their equality with angels consists in their deliverance from mortality and its consequences” (Swete). The angels are directly created, not procreated. [source]
Mark 12:38 Salutations in the marketplaces [ασπασμους εν ταις αγοραις]
(ασπασμους εν ταις αγοραις — aspasmous en tais agorais), where the people could see their dignity recognized. [source]
Mark 12:39 Chief places at feasts [πρωτοκλισιας εν τοις δειπνοις]
Recognizing proper rank and station. Even the disciples fall victims to this desire for precedence at table (Luke 22:24). [source]
Mark 14:2 Not during the feast [Μη εν τηι εορτηι]
They had first planned to kill him at the feast (John 11:57), but the Triumphal Entry and great Tuesday debate (this very morning) in the temple had made them decide to wait till after the feast was over. It was plain that Jesus had too large and powerful a following. See note on Matthew 26:47. [source]
Mark 14:66 Beneath in the court [κατω εν τηι αυληι]
This implies that Jesus was upstairs when the Sanhedrin met. Matthew 26:69 has it without in the court Both are true. The open court was outside of the rooms and also below. [source]
Mark 16:12 In another form [εν ετεραι μορπηι]
It was not a μεταμορπωσις — metamorphōsis or transfiguration like that described in Mark 9:2. Luke explains that their eyes were holden so that they could not recognize Jesus (Luke 24:16). This matchless story appears in full in Luke 24:13-32. [source]
Mark 16:5 sitting on the right side [κατημενον εν τοις δεχιοις]
Possibly different aspects and stages of the incident.Arrayed in a white robe (περιβεβλημενον στολην λευκην — peribeblēmenon stolēn leukēn). Perfect passive participle with the accusative case of the thing retained (verb of clothing). Luke 24:4 has “in dazzling apparel.”They were amazed They were utterly (εχ — ex in composition) amazed. Luke 24:5 has it “affrighted.” Matthew 28:3. tells more of the raiment white as snow which made the watchers quake and become as dead men. But this was before the arrival of the women. Mark, like Matthew and Luke, does not mention the sudden departure of Mary Magdalene to tell Peter and John of the grave robbery as she supposed (John 20:1-10). [source]
Mark 2:6 Sitting there, and reasoning in their hearts [εκει κατημενοι και διαλογιζομενοι εν ταις καρδιαις αυτων]
Another of Mark‘s pictures through Peter‘s eyes. These scribes (and Pharisees, Luke 5:21) were there to cause trouble, to pick flaws in the teaching and conduct of Jesus. His popularity and power had aroused their jealousy. There is no evidence that they spoke aloud the murmur in their hearts, “within themselves” (Matthew 9:3). It was not necessary, for their looks gave them away and Jesus knew their thoughts (Matthew 9:4) and perceived their reasoning (Luke 5:22). [source]
Mark 3:23 In parables [εν παραβολαις]
In crisp pungent thrusts that exposed the inconsistencies of the scribes and Pharisees. See notes in Matthew 13 for discussion of the word parable These short parabolic quips concern Satan‘s casting out (εκβαλλει — ekballei the very word used of casting out demons) Satan (rhetorical question), a kingdom divided (μεριστηι — meristhēi for a mere portion) against itself, a house divided (μεριστηι — meristhēi) against itself, two conditions of the third class undetermined, but with prospect of determination. [source]
Mark 4:1 Sat in the sea [κατησται εν τηι ταλασσηι]
In the boat, of course, which was in the sea. He first sat by the beach (Matthew 13:1) and then a very great multitude (οχλος πλειστος — ochlos pleistos) made him enter a boat in which he sat and taught. It was a common experience now to teach the crowds on the beach (Mark 2:13; Mark 3:7-9). [source]
Mark 4:2 In parables [εν παραβολαις]
As in Mark 3:23, only here more extended parables. See notes in Matthew 13 for discussion concerning Christ‘s use of parables. Eight are given there, one (the Lamp both in Mark 4:21 and Luke 8:16 (both Sower and the Lamp in Luke), one alone in Mark 4:26-29 (seed growing of itself) not in Matthew or Luke, ten on this occasion. Only four are mentioned in Mark 4:1-34 (The Sower, the Lamp, the Seed Growing of Itself, the Mustard Seed). But Mark adds (Mark 4:34) “without a parable spake he not unto them,” clearly meaning that Jesus spoke many others on this occasion and Matt. after mentioning eight (Matthew 13:34) makes the same statement. Manifestly, therefore, Jesus spoke many parables on this day and all theories of exegesis or dispensations on the basis of the number of these kingdom parables are quite beside the mark. In beginning Jesus said:Hearken (Ακουετε — Akouete). It is significant that even Jesus had to ask people to listen when he spoke. See also Mark 4:9. [source]
Mark 4:24 With what measure [εν ωι μετρωι]
See already in the Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 7:2; see note on Luke 6:38). [source]
Mark 4:30 In what parable shall we set it forth? [εν τινι αυτην παραβοληι τωμεν]
Deliberative second aorist subjunctive. The graphic question draws the interest of the hearers (we) by fine tact. Luke 13:18. retains the double question which Matthew 13:31. does not have, though he has it in a very different context, probably an illustration of Christ‘s favourite sayings often repeated to different audiences as is true of all teachers and preachers. [source]
Mark 5:30 Perceiving in himself [επιγνους εν εαυτωι]
She thought, perhaps, that the touch of Christ‘s garment would cure her without his knowing it, a foolish fancy, no doubt, but one due to her excessive timidity. Jesus felt in his own consciousness. The Greek idiom more exactly means: “Jesus perceiving in himself the power from him go out” The aorist participle here is punctiliar simply and timeless and can be illustrated by Luke 10:18: “I was beholding Satan fall” So here Jesus means to say: “I felt in myself the power from me go.” Scholars argue whether in this instance Jesus healed the woman by conscious will or by unconscious response to her appeal. Some even argue that the actual healing took place after Jesus became aware of the woman‘s reaching for help by touching his garment. What we do know is that Jesus was conscious of the going out of power from himself. Luke 8:46 uses εγνων — egnōn (personal knowledge), but Mark has επιγνους — epignous (personal and additional, clear knowledge). One may remark that no real good can be done without the outgoing of power. That is true of mother, preacher, teacher, doctor. [source]
Mark 6:14 Therefore do these powers work in him [δια τουτο ενεργουσιν αι δυναμεις εν αυτωι]
“A snatch of Herod‘s theology and philosophy” (Morison). John wrought no miracles (John 10:41), but if he had risen from the dead perhaps he could. So Herod may have argued. “Herod‘s superstition and his guilty conscience raised this ghost to plague him” (Gould). Our word energy is this same Greek word here used It means at work. Miraculous powers were at work in Jesus whatever the explanation. This all agreed, but they differed widely as to his personality, whether Elijah or another of the prophets or John the Baptist. Herod was at first much perplexed (διηπορει — diēporei Luke 9:7 and Mark 6:20). [source]
Mark 6:32 And they went away in a boat [και απηλτον εν τωι πλοιωι]
They accepted with alacrity and off they went. [source]
Mark 6:48 Seeing them distressed in rowing [ιδων αυτους βασανιζομενους εν τωι ελαυνειν]
See also Matthew 8:29 for the word βασανιζω — basanizō to torture, torment (Matthew 4:24) with a touch-stone, then to distress as here. Papyri have δια βασανων — dia basanōn used on slaves like our third degree for criminals. Ελαυνειν — Elaunein is literally to drive as of ships or chariots. They drove the boat with oars. Common in Xenophon for marching. [source]
Mark 6:51 They were sore amazed in themselves [λιαν εν εαυτοις εχισταντο]
Only in Mark. Imperfect tense picturing vividly the excited disciples. Mark does not give the incident of Peter‘s walking on the water and beginning to sink. Perhaps Peter was not fond of telling that story. [source]
Mark 9:1 Till they see the kingdom of God come with power [εως αν ιδωσιν την βασιλειαν του τεου εληλυτυιαν εν δυναμει]
In Mark 8:38 Jesus clearly is speaking of the second coming. To what is he referring in Mark 9:1 ? One is reminded of Mark 13:32; Matthew 24:36 where Jesus expressly denies that anyone save the Father himself (not even the Son) knows the day or the hour. Does he contradict that here? It may be observed that Luke has only “see the kingdom of God,” while Matthew has “see the Son of man coming” Mark has “see the kingdom of God come” (εληλυτυιαν — elēluthuian perfect active participle, already come) and adds “with power.” Certainly the second coming did not take place while some of those standing there still lived. Did Jesus mean that? The very next incident in the Synoptic Gospels is the Transfiguration on Mount Hermon. Does not Jesus have that in mind here? The language will apply also to the coming of the Holy Spirit on the great Day of Pentecost. Some see in it a reference to the destruction of the temple. It is at least open to question whether the Master is speaking of the same event in Mark 8:38; Mark 9:1. [source]
Luke 1:7 Well stricken in years [προβεβηκοτες εν ταις ημεραις αυτων]
Wycliff has it right: “Had gone far in their days.” Perfect active participle. See also Luke 1:18. [source]
Luke 1:8 While he executed the priest‘s office [εν τωι ιερατευειν αυτον]
A favourite idiom in Luke, εν — en with the articular infinitive and the accusative of general reference where the genitive absolute could have been used or a temporal conjunction and finite verb. It is proper Greek, but occurs often in the lxx, which Luke read, particularly in imitation of the Hebrew infinitive construct. The word ιερατευω — hierateuō does not appear in the ancient Greek, but in the lxx and this one example in Luke. It is on the Rosetta Stone and the early inscriptions so that the word was simply applied by the lxx translators from current usage. [source]
Luke 1:17 In the spirit and power of Elijah [εν πνευματι και δυναμει Ελεια]
See Isaiah 40:1-11; Malachi 3:1-5. John will deny that he is actually Elijah in person, as they expected (John 1:21), but Jesus will call him Elijah in spirit (Mark 9:12; Matthew 17:12).Hearts of fathers (καρδιας πατερων — kardias paterōn). Paternal love had died out. This is one of the first results of conversion, the revival of love in the home.Wisdom Not σοπια — sophia but a word for practical intelligence.Prepared (κατεσκευασμενον — kateskeuasmenon). Perfect passive participle, state of readiness for Christ. This John did. This is a marvellous forecast of the character and career of John the Baptist, one that should have caught the faith of Zacharias. [source]
Luke 1:21 While he tarried [εν τωι χρονιζειν]
See Luke 1:8 for the same idiom. [source]
Luke 1:31 Conceive in thy womb [συλλημπσηι εν γαστρι]
Adding εν γαστρι — en gastri to the verb of Luke 1:24. Same idiom in Isaiah 7:14 of Immanuel. [source]
Luke 1:75 In holiness and righteousness [εν οσιοτητι και δικαιοσυνηι]
Not a usual combination (Ephesians 4:24; Titus 1:8; 1 Thessalonians 2:10). The Godward and the manward aspects of conduct (Bruce). οσιος — Hosios the eternal principles of right, δικαιος — dikaios the rule of conduct before men. [source]
Luke 10:7 In that same house [εν αυτηι τηι οικιαι]
Literally, in the house itself, not “in the same house” (εν τηι αυτηι οικιαι — en tēi autēi oikiāi), a different construction. A free rendering of the common Lukan idiom is, “in that very house.” [source]
Luke 10:13 Sitting in sackcloth and ashes [εν σακκωι και σποδοι κατημενοι]
Pictorial and graphic. The σακκος — sakkos (sackcloth) was dark coarse cloth made of goat‘s hair and worn by penitents, mourners, suppliants. It is a Hebrew word, sag The rough cloth was used for sacks or bags. To cover oneself with ashes was a mode of punishment as well as of voluntary humiliation. [source]
Luke 10:21 In that same hour [εν αυτηι τηι ωραι]
Literally, “at the hour itself,” almost a demonstrative use of αυτος — autos (Robertson, Grammar, p. 686) and in Luke alone in the N.T. (Luke 2:38; Luke 10:21; Luke 12:12; Luke 20:19). Matthew 11:25 uses the demonstrative here, “at that time” (εν εκεινωι τωι καιρωι — en ekeinōi tōi kairōi). [source]
Luke 10:35 When I come back again [εν τωι επανερχεσται με]
Luke‘s favourite idiom of εν — en and the articular infinitive with accusative of general reference. Double compound verb επανερχομαι — epanerchomai f0). [source]
Luke 11:1 As he was praying in a certain place [εν τωι ειναι αυτον εν τοπωι τινι προσευχομενον]
Characteristically Lukan idiom: εν — en with articular periphrastic infinitive (ειναι προσευχομενον — einai proseuchomenon) with accusative of general reference (αυτον — auton). [source]
Luke 11:19 And if I by Beelzebub [ει δε εγω εν εεζεβουλ]
Also a condition of the first class, determined as fulfilled. A Greek condition deals only with the statement, not with the actual facts. For sake of argument, Jesus here assumes that he casts out demons by Beelzebub. The conclusion is a reductio ad absurdum. The Jewish exorcists practiced incantations against demons (Acts 19:13). [source]
Luke 11:20 By the finger of God [εν δακτυλωι τεου]
In distinction from the Jewish exorcists. Matthew 12:28 has “by the Spirit of God.” [source]
Luke 11:27 As he said these things [εν τωι λεγειν αυτον]
Luke‘s common idiom, εν — en with articular infinitive. Luke 11:27, Luke 11:28 are peculiar to Luke. His Gospel in a special sense is the Gospel of Woman. This woman “speaks well, but womanly” (Bengel). Her beatitude She is fulfilling Mary‘s own prophecy in Luke 1:48 (μακαριουσιν με — makariousin me shall call me happy). [source]
Luke 11:37 Now as he spake [εν δε τωι λαλησαι]
Luke‘s common idiom, εν — en with the articular infinitive (aorist active infinitive) but it does not mean “after he had spoken” as Plummer argues, but simply “in the speaking,” no time in the aorist infinitive. See note on Luke 3:21 for similar use of aorist infinitive with εν — en Present active indicative, dramatic present. Request, not question. [source]
Luke 11:43 The chief seats in the synagogues [την πρωτοκατεδριαν εν ταις συναγωγαις]
Singular here, plural in Matthew 23:6. This semi-circular bench faced the congregation. Matthew 23:6 has also the chief place at feasts given by Luke also in that discourse (Luke 20:46) as well as in Luke 14:7, a marked characteristic of the Pharisees. [source]
Luke 12:1 In the meantime [εν οις]
It is a classic idiom to start a sentence or even a paragraph as here with a relative, “in which things or circumstances,” without any expressed antecedent other than the incidents in Luke 11:53. In Luke 12:3 Luke actually begins the sentence with two relatives αντ ων οσα — anth' hōn hosa (wherefore whatsoever). [source]
Luke 12:3 In the inner chambers [εν τοις ταμειοις]
Old form ταμιειον — tamieion a store chamber (Luke 12:24), secret room (Matthew 6:6; Luke 12:3). [source]
Luke 12:8 Everyone who shall confess me [πας ος αν ομολογησει εν εμοι]
Just like Matthew 10:32 except the use of αν — an here which adds nothing. The Hebraistic use of εν — en after ομολογεω — homologeō both here and in Matthew is admitted by even Moulton (Prolegomena, p. 104). [source]
Luke 12:15 In the abundance of the things which he possesseth [εν τωι περισσευειν τινι εκ των υπαρχοντων αυτωι]
A rather awkward Lukan idiom: “In the abounding (articular infinitive) to one out of the things belonging (articular participle) to him.” [source]
Luke 12:17 Reasoned within himself [διελογιζετο εν αυτωι]
Imperfect middle, picturing his continued cogitations over his perplexity. [source]
Luke 13:1 At that very season [εν αυτωι τωι καιρωι]
Luke‘s frequent idiom, “at the season itself.” Apparently in close connexion with the preceding discourses. Probably “were present” These people had a piece of news for Jesus. [source]
Luke 13:4 The tower in Siloam [ο πυργος εν Σιλωαμ]
Few sites have been more clearly located than this. Jesus mentions this accident (only in Luke) of his own accord to illustrate still further the responsibility of his hearers. Jesus makes use of public events in both these incidents to teach spiritual lessons. He gives the “moral” to the massacre of the Galilean pilgrims and the “moral” of the catastrophe at Siloam. [source]
Luke 13:31 In that very hour [εν αυτηι τηι ωραι]
Luke‘s favourite notation of time. [source]
Luke 14:1 When he went [εν τωι ελτειν αυτον]
Luke‘s favourite temporal clause = “on the going as to him.” [source]
Luke 14:31 With ten thousand [εν δεκα χιλιασιν]
Literally, in ten thousand. See this so-called instrumental use of εν — en in Judges 1:14. Equipped in or with ten thousand. See note on Luke 1:17. Note μετα εικοσι χιλιαδων — meta eikosi chiliadōn just below (midst of twenty thousand).To meet (υπαντησαι — hupantēsai). Common verb (like απανταω — apantaō) from ανταω — antaō (αντα — anta end, face to face, from which αντι — anti) with preposition υπο — hupo (or απο — apo), to go to meet. Here it has a military meaning. [source]
Luke 15:4 In the wilderness [εν τηι ερημωι]
Their usual pasturage, not a place of danger or peril. It is the owner of the hundred sheep who cares so much for the one that is lost. He knows each one of the sheep and loves each one. [source]
Luke 16:3 Within himself [εν εαυτωι]
As soon as he had time to think the thing over carefully. He knew that he was guilty of embezzlement of the Master‘s funds. [source]
Luke 16:10 Faithful in a very little [πιστος εν ελαχιστωι]
Elative superlative. One of the profoundest sayings of Christ. We see it in business life. The man who can be trusted in a very small thing will be promoted to large responsibilities. That is the way men climb to the top. Men who embezzle in large sums began with small sums. Luke 16:10-13 here explain the point of the preceding parables. [source]
Luke 16:11 Faithful in the unrighteous mammon [εν τωι αδικωι μαμωναι]
In the use of what is considered “unrighteous” as it so often is. Condition of the first class, “if ye did not prove to be” Failure here forfeits confidence in “the true riches” There is no sadder story than to see a preacher go down by the wrong use of money, caught in this snare of the devil. [source]
Luke 16:23 In Hades [εν τωι αιδηι]
See note on Matthew 16:18 for discussion of this word. Lazarus was in Hades also for both Paradise (Abraham‘s bosom) and Gehenna are in the unseen world beyond the grave. [source]
Luke 16:23 Sees [εν βασανοις]
Dramatic present indicative. The Jews believed that Gehenna and Paradise were close together. This detail in the parable does not demand that we believe it. The picture calls for it. [source]
Luke 16:26 Beside all this [εν πασι τουτοις]
(εν πασι τουτοις — en pāsi toutois). [source]
Luke 17:14 As they went [εν τωι υπαγειν αυτους]
Favourite Lukan idiom of εν — en with articular infinitive as in Luke 17:11 and often. [source]
Luke 18:22 One thing thou lackest yet [ετι εν σοι λειπει]
Literally, one thing still fails thee or is wanting to thee. An old verb with the dative of personal interest. Mark 10:21 has here υστερει σε — husterei se which see note. It was an amazing compliment for one who was aiming at perfection (Matthew 19:21). The youth evidently had great charm and was sincere in his claims. [source]
Luke 19:13 Trade ye herewith till I come [πραγματευσαστε εν ωι ερχομαι]
First aorist middle imperative of πραγματευομαι — pragmateuomai an old verb from πραγμα — prāgma business. Here only in the N.T. Westcott and Hort in their text read πραγματευσασται — pragmateusasthai first aorist middle infinitive (-αι — ai and -ε — e were pronounced alike). The infinitive makes it indirect discourse, the imperative direct. [source]
Luke 19:15 When he was come back again [εν τωι επανελτειν αυτον]
“On the coming back again as to him.” Luke‘s favourite idiom of the articular infinitive after εν — en and with the accusative of general reference. [source]
Luke 19:20 In a napkin [εν σουδαριωι]
A Latin word sudarium from sudor (sweat) transliterated into Greek, a sweatcloth handkerchief or napkin. Found in papyrus marriage contracts as part of the dowry (second and third centuries a.d., Deissmann, Bible Studies, p. 223). Used also for swathing the head of the dead (John 11:44; John 20:7). [source]
Luke 2:7 In a manger [εν πατνηι]
In a crib in a stall whether in a cave (Justin Martyr) or connected with the inn we do not know. The cattle may have been out on the hills or the donkeys used in travelling may have been feeding in this stall or another near. [source]
Luke 2:7 In the inn [εν τωι καταλυματι]
A lodging-house or khan, poor enough at best, but there was not even room in this public place because of the crowds for the census. See the word also in Luke 22:11; Mark 14:14 with the sense of guest-room (cf. 1 Kings 1:13). It is the Hellenistic equivalent for καταγωγειον — katagōgeion and appears also in one papyrus. See Exodus 4:24. There would sometimes be an inner court, a range or arches, an open gallery round the four sides. On one side of the square, outside the wall, would be stables for the asses and camels, buffaloes and goats. Each man had to carry his own food and bedding. [source]
Luke 2:14 Among men in whom he is well pleased [εν αντρωποις ευδοκιας]
The Textus Receptus (Authorized Version also has ευδοκια — eudokia but the genitive ευδοκιας — eudokias is undoubtedly correct, supported by the oldest and best uncials. (Aleph, A B D W). C has a lacuna here. Plummer justly notes how in this angelic hymn Glory and Peace correspond, in the highest and on earth, to God and among men of goodwill. It would be possible to connect “on earth” with “the highest” and also to have a triple division. There has been much objection raised to the genitive ευδοκιας — eudokias the correct text. But it makes perfectly good sense and better sense. As a matter of fact real peace on earth exists only among those who are the subjects of God‘s goodwill, who are characterized by goodwill toward God and man. This word ευδοκια — eudokia we have already had in Matthew 11:26. It does not occur in the ancient Greek. The word is confined to Jewish and Christian writings, though the papyri furnish instances of ευδοκησις — eudokēsis Wycliff has it “to men of goodwill.” [source]
Luke 2:23 In the law of the Lord [εν νομωι Κυριου]
No articles, but definite by preposition and genitive. Vincent notes that “law” occurs in this chapter five times. Paul (Galatians 4:4) will urge that Jesus “was made under the law” as Luke here explains. The law did not require that the child be brought to Jerusalem. The purification concerned the mother, the presentation the son. [source]
Luke 2:27 When the parents brought in the child Jesus [εν τωι εισαγαγειν τους γονεις το παιδιον Ιησουν]
A neat Greek and Hebrew idiom difficult to render into English, very common in the lxx; In the bringing the Child Jesus as to the parents. The articular infinitive and two accusatives (one the object, the other accusative of general reference). [source]
Luke 2:34 Is set for the falling and the rising up of many in Israel [Κειται εις πτωσιν και αναστασιν πολλων εν τωι Ισραηλ]
Present indicative of the old defective verb appearing only in present and imperfect in the N.T. Sometimes it is used as the passive of τιτημι — tithēmi as here. The falling of some and the rising up of others is what is meant. He will be a stumbling-block to some (Isaiah 8:14; Matthew 21:42, Matthew 21:44; Romans 9:33; 1 Peter 2:16.) who love darkness rather than light (John 3:19), he will be the cause of rising for others (Romans 6:4, Romans 6:9; Ephesians 2:6). “Judas despairs, Peter repents: one robber blasphemes, the other confesses” (Plummer). Jesus is the magnet of the ages. He draws some, he repels others. This is true of all epoch-making men to some extent. [source]
Luke 2:43 As they were returning [εν τωι υποστρεπειν αντους]
The articular infinitive with εν — en a construction that Luke often uses (Luke 1:21; Luke 2:27).The boy, Jesus (Ιησους ο παις — Iēsous ho pais). More exactly, “Jesus the boy.” In Luke 2:40 it was “the child “ (το παιδιον — to paidion), here it is “the boy” (ο παις — ho pais no longer the diminutive form). It was not disobedience on the part of “the boy” that made him remain behind, but intense interest in the services of the temple; “involuntary preoccupation” (Bruce) held him fast. [source]
Luke 2:44 In the company [εν τηι συνοδιαι]
The caravan going together on the road or way The women usually went ahead and the men followed. Joseph may have thought Jesus was with Mary and Mary that he was with Joseph. “The Nazareth caravan was so long that it took a whole day to look through it” (Plummer). [source]
Luke 2:46 In the temple [εν τωι ιερωι]
Probably on the terrace where members of the Sanhedrin gave public instruction on sabbaths and feast-days, so probably while the feast was still going on. The rabbis probably sat on benches in a circle. The listeners on the ground, among whom was Jesus the boy in a rapture of interest.Both hearing them and asking them questions (και ακουοντα αυτων και επερωτωντα αυτους — kai akouonta autōn kai eperōtōnta autous). Paul sat at the feet of Gamaliel (Acts 22:3). Picture this eager boy alive with interest. It was his one opportunity in a theological school outside of the synagogue to hear the great rabbis expound the problems of life. This was the most unusual of all children, to be sure, in intellectual grasp and power. But it is a mistake to think that children of twelve do not think profoundly concerning the issues of life. What father or mother has ever been able to answer a child‘s questions? [source]
Luke 2:49 In my Father‘s house [εν τοις του πατρος μου]
Not “about my Father‘s business,” but “in my Father‘s house” (cf. Genesis 41:51). Common Greek idiom. And note “my,” not “our.” When the boy first became conscious of his peculiar relation to the Father in heaven we do not know. But he has it now at twelve and it will grow within him through the years ahead in Nazareth. [source]
Luke 20:1 On one of the days [εν μιαι των ημερων]
Luke‘s favourite way of indicating time. It was the last day of the temple teaching (Tuesday). Luke 20:1-19 is to be compared with Mark 11:27-12:12; Matthew 21:23-46. [source]
Luke 20:19 In that very hour [εν αυτηι τηι ωραι]
Luke‘s favourite idiom, in the hour itself. Not in Mark or Matthew and shows that the Sanhedrin were angry enough to force the climax then.And they feared (και εποβητησαν — kai ephobēthēsan). Adversative use of και — kai = but they feared. Hence they refrained.For they perceived The reason for their rage. Second aorist active indicative of γινωσκω — ginōskō them As in Mark 12:12. The cap fitted them and they saw it. [source]
Luke 20:42 In the book of the Psalms [εν βιβλωι Πσαλμων]
Compare Luke 3:4 “in the book of the words of Isaiah the prophet.” [source]
Luke 21:25 In perplexity [εν αποριαι]
State of one who is απορος — aporos who has lost his way Here only in the N.T. though an old and common word.For the roaring of the sea (ηχους ταλασσης — ēchous thalassēs). Our word echo (Latin echo) is this word ηχος — ēchos a reverberating sound. Sense of rumour in Luke 4:37.Billows Old word σαλος — salos for the swell of the sea. Here only in the N.T. [source]
Luke 22:28 In my temptations [εν τοις πειρασμοις μου]
Probably “trials” is better here as in James 1:2 though temptations clearly in James 1:13 This is the tragedy of the situation when Jesus is facing the Cross with the traitor at the table and the rest chiefly concerned about their own primacy and dignity. [source]
Luke 22:44 In an agony [εν αγωνιαι]
It was conflict, contest from αγων — agōn An old word, but only here in the N.T. Satan pressed Jesus harder than ever before. [source]
Luke 22:49 Shall we smite with a sword? [ει παταχομεν εν μαχαιρηι]
Note ει — ei in a direct question like the Hebrew. Luke alone gives this question. Instrumental use of εν — en They had the two swords already mentioned (Luke 22:38). [source]
Luke 23:9 In many words [εν λογοις ικανοις]
Same use of ικανος — hikanos as in Luke 23:8. [source]
Luke 23:12 For before they were at enmity between themselves [προυπηρχον γαρ εν εχτραι οντες προς εαυτους]
A periphrastic imperfect of the double compound προυπερχω — prouperchō an old verb, to exist (υπαρχω — huparchō) previously (προ — pro -), here alone in the N.T., with οντες — ontes (participle of ειμι — eimi) added. [source]
Luke 23:31 In the green tree [εν υγρωι χυλωι]
Green wood is hard to burn and so is used for the innocent. [source]
Luke 23:31 In the dry [εν τωι χηρωι]
Dry wood kindles easily and is a symbol for the guilty. This common proverb has various applications. Here the point is that if they can put Jesus to death, being who he is, what will happen to Jerusalem when its day of judgment comes? What shall be done (τι γενηται — ti genētai). Deliberative subjunctive. [source]
Luke 23:43 Today shalt thou be with me in Paradise [Σημερον μετ εμου εσηι εν τωι παραδεισωι]
However crude may have been the robber‘s Messianic ideas Jesus clears the path for him. He promises him immediate and conscious fellowship after death with Christ in Paradise which is a Persian word and is used here not for any supposed intermediate state; but the very bliss of heaven itself. This Persian word was used for an enclosed park or pleasure ground (so Xenophon). The word occurs in two other passages in the N.T. (2 Corinthians 12:4; Revelation 2:7), in both of which the reference is plainly to heaven. Some Jews did use the word for the abode of the pious dead till the resurrection, interpreting “Abraham‘s bosom” (Luke 16:22.) in this sense also. But the evidence for such an intermediate state is too weak to warrant belief in it. [source]
Luke 23:53 Where never man had yet lain [ου ουκ εν ουδεις ουπω κειμενος]
Triple negative and periphrastic past perfect passive in sense (κειμαι — keimai), though periphrastic imperfect passive in form. Same item in John 19:40 who uses ην τετειμενος — ēn tetheimenos (periphrastic past perfect passive in form). [source]
Luke 24:4 While they were perplexed thereabout [εν τωι απορεισται αυτας περι τουτου]
Luke‘s common Hebraistic idiom, εν — en with the articular infinitive (present passive απορεισται — aporeisthai from απορεω — aporeō to lose one‘s way) and the accusative of general reference. [source]
Luke 24:4 In dazzling apparel [εν εστητι αστραπτουσηι]
This is the correct text. This common simplex verb occurs only twice in the N.T., here and Luke 17:24 (the Transfiguration). It has the same root as αστραπη — astrapē (lightning). The “men” had the garments of “angels.” [source]
Luke 24:15 While they communed and questioned together [εν τωι ομιλειν αυτους και συνζητειν]
Same idiom as in Luke 24:14, which see. Note συνζητειν — sunzētein each questioned the other. [source]
Luke 24:30 When he had sat down [εν τωι κατακλιτηναι αυτον]
Luke‘s common idiom as in Luke 24:4, Luke 24:15. Note first aorist passive infinitive (on the reclining as to him). [source]
Luke 3:1 Now in the fifteenth year [εν ετει δε πεντεκαιδεκατωι]
Tiberius Caesar was ruler in the provinces two years before Augustus Caesar died. Luke makes a six-fold attempt here to indicate the time when John the Baptist began his ministry. John revived the function of the prophet (Ecce Homo, p. 2) and it was a momentous event after centuries of prophetic silence. Luke begins with the Roman Emperor, then mentions Pontius Pilate Procurator of Judea, Herod Antipas Tetrarch of Galilee (and Perea), Philip, Tetrarch of Iturea and Trachonitis, Lysanias, Tetrarch of Abilene (all with the genitive absolute construction) and concludes with the high-priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas (son-in-law and successor of Annas). The ancients did not have our modern system of chronology, the names of rulers as here being the common way. Objection has been made to the mention of Lysanias here because Josephus (Ant. XXVII. I) tells of a Lysanias who was King of Abila up to b.c. 36 as the one referred to by Luke with the wrong date. But an inscription has been found on the site of Abilene with mention of “Lysanias the tetrarch” and at the time to which Luke refers (see my Luke the Historian in the Light of Research, pp. 167f.). So Luke is vindicated again by the rocks. [source]
Luke 3:21 When all the people were baptised [εν τωι βαπτιστηναι απαντα τον λαον]
The use of the articular aorist infinitive here with εν — en bothers some grammarians and commentators. There is no element of time in the aorist infinitive. It is simply punctiliar action, literally “in the being baptized as to all the people.” Luke does not say that all the people were baptized before Jesus came or were baptized at the same time. It is merely a general statement that Jesus was baptized in connexion with or at the time of the baptizing of the people as a whole. [source]
Luke 4:1 Was led by the Spirit [ηγετο εν τοι πνευματι]
Imperfect passive, continuously led. Εν — En may be the instrumental use as often, for Matthew 4:1 has here υπο — hupo of direct agency. But Matthew has the aorist passive ανηχτη — anēchthē which may be ingressive as he has εις την ερημον — eis tēn erēmon (into the wilderness) while Luke has εν τωι ερημωι — en tōi erēmōi (in the wilderness). At any rate Luke affirms that Jesus was now continuously under the guidance of the Holy Spirit. Hence in this same sentence he mentions the Spirit twice.During the forty days (ημερας τεσσερακοντα — hēmerās tesserakonta). Accusative of duration of time, to be connected with “led” not with “tempted.” He was led in the Spirit during these forty days (cf. Deuteronomy 8:2, forty years). The words are amphibolous also in Mark 1:13. Matthew 4:2 seems to imply that the three recorded temptations came at the close of the fasting for forty days. That can be true and yet what Luke states be true also. These three may be merely specimens and so “representative of the struggle which continued throughout the whole period” (Plummer). [source]
Luke 4:14 In the power of the Spirit [εν τηι δυναμει του πνευματος]
Luke in these two verses (Luke 4:14) gives a description of the Galilean Ministry with three marked characteristics (Plummer): the power of the spirit, rapid spread of Christ‘s fame, use of the Jewish synagogues. Luke often notes the power of the Holy Spirit in the work of Christ. Our word dynamite is this same word δυναμις — dunamis (power).A fame (πημη — phēmē). An old Greek word found in the N.T. only here and Matthew 9:26. It is from πημι — phēmi to say. Talk ran rapidly in every direction. It assumes the previous ministry as told by John. [source]
Luke 5:16 But he withdrew himself in the deserts and prayed [αυτος δε ην υποχωρων εν ταις ερημοις και προσευχομενος]
Periphrastic imperfects. Literally, “But he himself was with drawing in the desert places and praying.” The more the crowds came as a result of the leper‘s story, the more Jesus turned away from them to the desert regions and prayed with the Father. It is a picture of Jesus drawn with vivid power. The wild enthusiasm of the crowds was running ahead of their comprehension of Christ and his mission and message. υποχωρεω — Hupochōreō (perhaps with the notion of slipping away secretly, υπο — hupo -) is a very common Greek verb, but in the N.T. occurs in Luke alone. Elsewhere in the N.T. αναχωρεω — anachōreō (to go back) appears. [source]
Luke 5:35 Then in those days [τοτε εν εκειναις ταις ημεραις]
Here Mark 2:20 has “then in that day,” and Matthew 9:15 only “then.” [source]
Luke 6:6 On another sabbath [εν ετερωι σαββατωι]
This was a second See Matt. and Mark for details. Only Luke notes that it was on a sabbath. Was this because Luke as a physician had to meet this problem in his own practise? [source]
Luke 6:1 On a sabbath [εν σαββατωι]
This is the second sabbath on which Jesus is noted by Luke. The first was Luke 4:31-41. There was another in John 5:1-47. There is Western and Syrian (Byzantine) evidence for a very curious reading here which calls this sabbath “secondfirst” It is undoubtedly spurious, though Westcott and Hort print it in the margin. A possible explanation is that a scribe wrote “first” (πρωτωι — prōtōi) on the margin because of the sabbath miracle in Luke 6:6-11. Then another scribe recalled Luke 4:31 where a sabbath is mentioned and wrote “second” (δευτερωι — deuterōi) also on the margin. Finally a third scribe combined the two in the word δευτεροπρωτωι — deuteroprōtōi that is not found elsewhere. If it were genuine, we should not know what it means. [source]
Luke 6:12 In prayer to God [εν τηι προσευχηι του τεου]
Objective genitive του τεου — tou theou This phrase occurs nowhere else. Προσευχη — Proseuchē does not mean “place of prayer” or synagogue as in Acts 16:13, but the actual prayer of Jesus to the Father all night long. He needed the Father‘s guidance now in the choice of the Apostles in the morning. [source]
Luke 7:11 Soon afterwards [εν τοι εχης]
According to this reading supply χρονωι — chronōi time. Other MSS. read τηι εχης — tēi hexēs (supply ημεραι — hēmerāi day). εχης — Hexēs occurs in Luke and Acts in the N.T. though old adverb of time. [source]
Luke 7:21 In that hour he cured [εν εκεινηι τηι οραι ετεραπευσεν]
This item is not in Matthew. Jesus gave the two disciples of John an example of the direct method. They had heard. Then they saw for themselves. [source]
Luke 7:25 Gorgeously apparelled [εν ιματισμωι ενδοχωι]
In splendid clothing. Here alone in this sense in the N.T. [source]
Luke 7:25 In kings‘ courts [εν τοις βασιλειοις]
Only here in the N.T. Matthew 11:8 has it “in kings‘ houses.” Luke 7:26, Luke 7:27 are precisely alike in Matthew 11:9, Matthew 11:10. See note on Matthew 11:9 for discussion. [source]
Luke 7:37 A woman which was in the city, a sinner [γυνη ητις εν τηι πολει αμαρτωλος]
Probably in Capernaum. The use of ητις — hētis means “Who was of such a character as to be” (cf. Luke 8:3) and so more than merely the relative η — hē who, that is, “who was a sinner in the city,” a woman of the town, in other words, and known to be such. αμαρτωλος — Hamartōlos from αμαρτανω — hamartanō to sin, means devoted to sin and uses the same form for feminine and masculine. It is false and unjust to Mary Magdalene, introduced as a new character in Luke 8:2, to identify this woman with her. Luke would have no motive in concealing her name here and the life of a courtesan would be incompatible with the sevenfold possession of demons. Still worse is it to identify this courtesan not only with Mary Magdalene, but also with Mary of Bethany simply because it is a Simon who gives there a feast to Jesus when Mary of Bethany does a beautiful deed somewhat like this one here (Mark 14:3-9; Matthew 26:6-13; John 12:2-8). Certainly Luke knew full well the real character of Mary of Bethany (Luke 10:38-42) so beautifully pictured by him. But a falsehood, once started, seems to have more lives than the cat‘s proverbial nine. The very name Magdalene has come to mean a repentant courtesan. But we can at least refuse to countenance such a slander on Mary Magdalene and on Mary of Bethany. This sinful woman had undoubtedly repented and changed her life and wished to show her gratitude to Jesus who had rescued her. Her bad reputation as a harlot clung to her and made her an unwelcome visitor in the Pharisee‘s house. [source]
Luke 8:1 Soon afterwards [εν τωι κατεχης]
In Luke 7:11 we have εν τωι εχης — en tōi hexēs This word means one after the other, successively, but that gives no definite data as to the time, only that this incident in Luke 8:1-3 follows that in Luke 7:36-50. Both in Luke alone. [source]
Luke 8:7 Amidst the thorns [εν μεσωι των ακαντων]
Mark 4:7 has εις — eis (among) and Matthew 13:7 has επι — epi “upon.” [source]
Luke 8:15 In an honest and good heart [εν καρδιαι καληι και αγατηι]
Peculiar to Luke. In Luke 8:8 the land So Luke uses both adjectives of the heart. The Greeks used καλος κ αγατος — kalos k' agathos of the high-minded gentleman. It is probable that Luke knew this idiom. It occurs here alone in the N.T. It is not easy to translate. We have such phrases as “good and true,” “sound and good,” “right and good,” no one of which quite suits the Greek. Certainly Luke adds new moral qualities not in the Hellenic phrase. The English word “honest” here is like the Latin honestus (fair, noble). The words are to be connected with “hold fast” That is the proof of spiritual life. [source]
Luke 8:15 In patience [εν υπομονηι]
There is no other way for real fruit to come. Mushrooms spring up overnight, but they are usually poisonous. The best fruits require time, cultivation, patience. [source]
Luke 8:27 And abode not in any house [και εν οικιαι ουκ εμενεν]
Imperfect active. Peculiar to Luke, though implied by the mention of tombs in all three (Mark 5:3; Matthew 8:28; Luke 8:27). [source]
Luke 9:18 As he was praying [εν τωι ειναι αυτον προσευχομενον]
Common Lukan idiom of εν — en with the articular infinitive for a temporal clause, only here Luke has the periphrastic infinitive (ειναι προσευχομενον — einai proseuchomenon) as also in Luke 11:1. This item about Christ‘s praying alone in Luke. [source]
Luke 9:26 In his own glory [εν τηι δοχηι αυτου]
This item added to what is in Mark 8:38; Matthew 16:27. [source]
Luke 9:31 Who appeared in glory [οι οπτεντες εν δοχηι]
First aorist passive participle of οραω — horaō This item peculiar to Luke. Compare Luke 9:26.Spake of his decease (ελεγον την εχοδον — elegon tēn exodon). Imperfect active, were talking about his εχοδυς — exodus (departure from earth to heaven) very much like our English word “decease” (Latin decessus, a going away). The glorious light graphically revealed Moses and Elijah talking with Jesus about the very subject concerning which Peter had dared to rebuke Jesus for mentioning (Mark 8:32; Matthew 16:22). This very word εχοδυς — exodus (way out) in the sense of death occurs in 2 Peter 1:15 and is followed by a brief description of the Transfiguration glory. Other words for death (τανατος — thanatos) in the N.T. are εκβασις — ekbasis going out as departure (Hebrews 13:7), απιχις — aphixis departing (Acts 20:29), αναλυσις — analusis loosening anchor (2 Timothy 4:6) and αναλυσαι — analusai (Philemon 1:23).To accomplish To fulfil. Moses had led the Exodus from Egypt. Jesus will accomplish the exodus of God‘s people into the Promised Land on high. See notes on Mark and note on Matthew for discussion of significance of the appearance of Moses and Elijah as representatives of law and prophecy and with a peculiar death. The purpose of the Transfiguration was to strengthen the heart of Jesus as he was praying long about his approaching death and to give these chosen three disciples a glimpse of his glory for the hour of darkness coming. No one on earth understood the heart of Jesus and so Moses and Elijah came. The poor disciples utterly failed to grasp the significance of it all. [source]
Luke 9:33 As they were departing from him [εν τωι διαχωριζεσται αυτους απ αυτου]
Peculiar to Luke and another instance of Luke‘s common idiom of εν — en with the articular infinitive in a temporal clause. This common verb occurs here only in the N.T. The present middle voice means to separate oneself fully (direct middle). This departing of Moses and Elijah apparently accompanied Peter‘s remark as given in all three Gospels. See for details on Mark and Matthew. [source]
Luke 9:34 As they entered into the cloud [εν]
Luke‘s idiom of εποβητησαν — en with the articular infinitive again (aorist active this time, on the entering in as to them). All six “entered into” the cloud, but only Peter, James, and John “became afraid” (ephobēthēsan ingressive first aorist passive).sa120 [source]
Luke 9:36 When the voice came [εν τοι γενεσται την πωνην]
Another example of Luke‘s idiom, this time with the second aorist middle infinitive. Literally, “on the coming as to the voice” (accusative of general reference). It does not mean that it was “after” the voice was past that Jesus was found alone, but simultaneously with it (ingressive aorist tense). [source]
Luke 9:48 For he that is least among you all [ο γαρ μικροτερος εν πασιν υμιν υπαρχων]
Note the use of υπαρχω — huparchō as in Luke 8:41; Luke 23:50. The comparative μικροτερος — mikroteros is in accord with the Koiné idiom where the superlative is vanishing (nearly gone in modern Greek). But great (μεγας — megas) is positive and very strong. This saying peculiar to Luke here. [source]
Luke 9:51 When the days were well-nigh come [εν τωι συμπληρουσται τας ημερας]
Luke‘s common idiom εν — en with the articular infinitive, “in the being fulfilled as to the days.” This common compound occurs in the N.T. only here and Luke 8:23; Acts 2:1. The language here makes it plain that Jesus was fully conscious of the time of his death as near as already stated (Luke 9:22, Luke 9:27, Luke 9:31). [source]
John 1:1 In the beginning [εν αρχηι]
Αρχη — Archē is definite, though anarthrous like our at home, in town, and the similar Hebrew ην — be reshith in Genesis 1:1. But Westcott notes that here John carries our thoughts beyond the beginning of creation in time to eternity. There is no argument here to prove the existence of God any more than in Genesis. It is simply assumed. Either God exists and is the Creator of the universe as scientists like Eddington and Jeans assume or matter is eternal or it has come out of nothing. Was Three times in this sentence John uses this imperfect of εγενετο — eimi to be which conveys no idea of origin for God or for the Logos, simply continuous existence. Quite a different verb The Word λεγω — Logos is from Λογος — legō old word in Homer to lay by, to collect, to put words side by side, to speak, to express an opinion. ανιμα μυνδι — Logos is common for reason as well as speech. Heraclitus used it for the principle which controls the universe. The Stoics employed it for the soul of the world There is a possible personification of “the Word of God” in Hebrews 4:12. But the personal pre-existence of Christ is taught by Paul (2 Corinthians 8:9; Philemon 2:6.; Colossians 1:17) and in Hebrews 1:2. and in John 17:5. This term suits John‘s purpose better than σαρχ εγενετο — sophia (wisdom) and is his answer to the Gnostics who either denied the actual humanity of Christ (Docetic Gnostics) or who separated the προς τον τεον — aeon Christ from the man Jesus (Cerinthian Gnostics). The pre-existent Logos “became flesh” Though existing eternally with God the Logos was in perfect fellowship with God. παρακλητον εχομεν προς τον πατερα — Pros with the accusative presents a plane of equality and intimacy, face to face with each other. In 1 John 2:1 we have a like use of προσωπον προς προσωπον — pros “We have a Paraclete with the Father” See προς — prosōpon pros prosōpon (face to face, 1 Corinthians 13:12), a triple use of το γνωστον της προς αλληλους συνητειας — pros There is a papyrus example of προς — pros in this sense παρα σοι — to gnōston tēs pros allēlous sunētheias “the knowledge of our intimacy with one another” (M.&M., Vocabulary) which answers the claim of Rendel Harris, Origin of Prologue, p. 8) that the use of και τεος ην ο λογος — pros here and in Mark 6:3 is a mere Aramaism. It is not a classic idiom, but this is Koiné, not old Attic. In John 17:5 John has ο τεος ην ο λογος — para soi the more common idiom. And the Word was God By exact and careful language John denied Sabellianism by not saying ο λογος — ho theos ēn ho logos That would mean that all of God was expressed in τεος — ho logos and the terms would be interchangeable, each having the article. The subject is made plain by the article Thus in the Trinity we see personal fellowship on an equality. [source]
John 1:4 In him was life [εν αυτωι ζωη ην]
That which has come into being (John 1:3) in the Logos was life. The power that creates and sustains life in the universe is the Logos. This is what Paul means by the perfect passive verb εκτισται — ektistai (stands created) in Colossians 1:16. This is also the claim of Jesus to Martha (John 11:25). This is the idea in Hebrews 1:3 “bearing (upholding) the all things by the word of his power.” Once this language might have been termed unscientific, but not so now after the spiritual interpretation of the physical world by Eddington and Jeans. Usually in John ζωη — zōē means spiritual life, but here the term is unlimited and includes all life; only it is not βιος — bios (manner of life), but the very principle or essence of life. That is spiritual behind the physical and to this great scientists today agree. It is also personal intelligence and power. Some of the western documents have εστιν — estin here instead of ην — ēn to bring out clearly the timelessness of this phrase of the work of the Λογος — Logos And the life was the light of men Here the article with both ζωη — zōē and πως — phōs makes them interchangeable. “The light was the life of men” is also true. That statement is curiously like the view of some physicists who find in electricity (both light and power) the nearest equivalent to life in its ultimate physical form. Later Jesus will call himself the light of the world (John 8:12). John is fond of these words life and light in Gospel, Epistles, Revelation. He here combines them to picture his conception of the Pre-incarnate Logos in his relation to the race. He was and is the Life of men (των αντρωπον — tōn anthrōpon generic use of the article) and the Light of men. John asserts this relation of the Logos to the race of men in particular before the Incarnation. [source]
John 1:10 He was in the world [εν τωι κοσμωι ην]
Imperfect tense of continuous existence in the universe before the Incarnation as in John 1:1 and John 1:2. Was made by him “Through him.” Same statement here of “the world” Second aorist active indicative of common verb γινοσκω — ginoskō what Gildersleeve called a negative aorist, refused or failed to recognize him, his world that he had created and that was held together by him (Colossians 1:16). Not only did the world fail to know the Pre-incarnate Logos, but it failed to recognize him when he became Incarnate (John 1:26). Two examples in this sentence of John‘s fondness for και — kai as in John 1:1, John 1:4, John 1:5, and John 1:14, the paratactic rather than the hypotactic construction, like the common Hebrew use of wav f0). [source]
John 1:28 In Bethany beyond Jordan [εν ητανιαι περαν του Ιορδανου]
Undoubtedly the correct text, not “in Bethabara” as Origen suggested instead of “in Bethany” of all the known Greek manuscripts under the mistaken notion that the only Bethany was that near Jerusalem. Was baptizing Periphrastic imperfect, common idiom in John. [source]
John 10:22 And it was the feast of the dedication at Jerusalem [εγενετο δε τα ενκαινια εν τοις Ιεροσολυμοις]
But Westcott and Hort read τοτε — tote (then) instead of δε — de (and) on the authority of B L W 33 and some versions. This is probably correct: “At that time came the feast of dedication in Jerusalem.” Τοτε — Tote does not mean that the preceding events followed immediately after the incidents in 10:1-21. Bernard brings chapter 9 up to this date (possibly also chapter 8) and rearranges chapter 10 in a purely arbitrary way. There is no real reason for this arrangement. Clearly there is a considerable lapse between the events in 10:22-39 and 10:1-21, possibly nearly three months (from just after tabernacles John 7:37 to dedication John 10:22). The Pharisees greet his return with the same desire to catch him. This feast of dedication, celebrated for eight days about the middle of our December, was instituted by Judas Maccabeus b.c. 164 in commemoration of the cleansing of the temple from the defilements of pagan worship by Antiochus Epiphanes (1Macc 4:59). The word ενκαινια — enkainia Winter Old word from χειμα — cheima See Matthew 24:20. [source]
John 10:30 One [εν]
Neuter, not masculine Not one person (cf. εις — heis in Galatians 3:28), but one essence or nature. By the plural συμυς — sumus (separate persons) Sabellius is refuted, by υνυμ — unum Arius. So Bengel rightly argues, though Jesus is not referring, of course, to either Sabellius or Arius. The Pharisees had accused Jesus of making himself equal with God as his own special Father (John 5:18). Jesus then admitted and proved this claim (John 5:19-30). Now he states it tersely in this great saying repeated later (John 17:11, John 17:21). Note εν — hen used in 1 Corinthians 3:3 of the oneness in work of the planter and the waterer and in John 17:11, John 17:23 of the hoped for unity of Christ‘s disciples. This crisp statement is the climax of Christ‘s claims concerning the relation between the Father and himself (the Son). They stir the Pharisees to uncontrollable anger. [source]
John 11:10 But if a man walk in the night [εαν δε τις περιπατηι εν τηι νυκτι]
Third condition again. It is spiritual darkness that Jesus here pictures, but the result is the same. See the same figure in John 12:35 (1 John 2:11). The ancients had poor illumination at night as indeed we did before Edison gave us electric lights. Pedestrians actually used to have little lamps fastened on the feet to light the path. In him Spiritual darkness, the worst of all (cf. Matthew 6:23; John 8:12). Man has the capacity for light, but is not the source of light. “By the application of this principle Christianity is distinguished from Neo-Platonism” (Westcott). [source]
John 11:24 In the resurrection at the last day [εν τηι αναστασει εν τηι εσχατηι ημεραι]
Did Jesus mean only that? She believed it, of course, and such comfort is often offered in case of death, but that idea did not console Martha and is not what she hinted at in John 11:22. [source]
John 11:38 Again groaning in himself [παλιν εμβριμωμενος εν εαυτωι]
Direct reference to the use of this same word (present middle participle here) in John 11:33, only with εν εαυτωι — en heautōi (in himself) rather than τωι πνευματι — tōi pneumati (in his spirit), practically the same idea. The speculation concerning his power stirred the depths of his nature again. Cometh to the tomb Vivid historical present. A cave Old word (from σπεος — speos cavern). Cf. Matthew 21:13. Lay against it Imperfect middle of επικειμαι — epikeimai old verb to lie upon as in John 21:9 and figuratively (1 Corinthians 9:16). Note repetition of επι — epi with locative case. The use of a cave for burial was common (Genesis 23:19). Either the body was let down through a horizontal opening (hardly so here) or put in a tomb cut in the face of the rock (if so, επι — epi can mean “against”). The stones were used to keep away wild animals from the bodies. [source]
John 11:52 But that he might also gather together into one [αλλ ινα συναγαγηι εις εν]
Purpose clause with ινα — hina and the second aorist active subjunctive of συναγω — sunagō Caiaphas was thinking only of the Jewish people The explanation and interpretation of John here follow the lead of the words of Jesus about the other sheep and the one flock in John 10:16. That are scattered abroad (διασκορπιζω — ta dieskorpismena). Perfect passive articular participle of εις εν — diaskorpizō late verb (Polybius, lxx) to scatter apart, to winnow grain from chaff, only here in John. The meaning here is not the Diaspora (Jews scattered over the world), but the potential children of God in all lands and all ages that the death of Christ will gather “into one” (eis hen). A glorious idea, but far beyond Caiaphas. [source]
John 12:35 Yet a little while is the light among you [ετι μικρον χρονον το πως εν υμιν εστιν]
Χρονον — Chronon is the accusative of extent of time. Jesus does not argue the point of theology with the crowd who would not understand. He turns to the metaphor used before when he claimed to be the light of the world (John 8:12) and urges that they take advantage of their privilege “while ye have the light” That darkness overtake you not Purpose (negative) with ινα μη — hina mē and second aorist active subjunctive of καταλαμβανω — katalambanō See this verb in John 1:5. In 1 Thessalonians 5:4 this verb occurs with ημερα — hēmera (day) overtaking one like a thief. Knoweth not whither he goeth See John 11:10 for this idea and the same language in 1 John 2:11. The ancients did not have our electric street lights. The dark streets were a terror to travellers. [source]
John 13:32 In himself [εν αυτωι]
Reflexive pronoun. God is the source of the glory (John 17:5) and is the glory succeeding the Cross (the glory with the Father in heaven). And straightway No postponement now. First and quickly the Cross, then the Ascension. [source]
John 13:35 By this [εν τουτωι]
Locative case with εν — en “In this way,” viz., “if ye have love” See John 17:23 where Jesus prays for mutual love among the disciples “that the world may know” that the Father sent him. Jerome (ad Galat. vi. 10) says that in his extreme old age John repeated often this command of Jesus and justified it: “Because it is the Lord‘s commandment; and if it be fulfilled it is enough.” See also John 14:31. Tertullian (Apol. 39) urges it also as proof of being disciples. Hatred of one another per contra, is an argument that we are not disciples (learners) of Jesus. [source]
John 13:23 Was at the table reclining in Jesus‘ bosom [ην ανακειμενος εν τωι κολπωι του Ιησου]
No word for “table” in the text. Periphrastic imperfect of ανακειμαι — anakeimai to lie back, to recline. Κολπος — Kolpos usual word for bosom (John 1:18). Whom Jesus loved Imperfect active of αγαπαω — agapaō John‘s description of himself of which he was proud (John 19:26; John 20:2; John 21:7, John 21:20), identified in John 21:24 as the author of the book and necessarily one of the twelve because of the “explicit” (Bernard) language of Mark (Mark 14:17; Luke 22:14). John son of Zebedee and brother of James. At the table John was on the right of Jesus lying obliquely so that his head lay on the bosom of Jesus. The centre, the place of honour, Jesus occupied. The next place in rank was to the left of Jesus, held by Peter (Westcott) or by Judas (Bernard) which one doubts. [source]
John 14:14 If ye shall ask me anything in my name [εαν τι αιτησητε με εν τωι ονοματι μου]
Condition of third class with εαν — ean and first aorist active subjunctive of αιτεω — aiteō The use of με — me (me) here is supported by Aleph B 33 Vulgate Syriac Peshitta. Just this phrase does not occur elsewhere in John and seems awkward, but see John 16:23. If it is genuine, as seems likely, here is direct prayer to Jesus taught as we see it practiced by Stephen in Acts 7:59; and in Revelation 22:20. [source]
John 14:20 In that day [εν εκεινηι τηι ημεραι]
The New Dispensation of the Holy Spirit, beginning with Christ‘s Resurrection and the Coming of the Holy Spirit at pentecost. Shall know Future middle of γινωσκω — ginōskō Chapter 1 to chapter 3 of Acts bear eloquent witness to these words. [source]
John 15:4 Abide in me [μεινατε εν εμοι]
Constative aorist active imperative of μενω — menō The only way to continue “clean” (pruned) and to bear fruit is to maintain vital spiritual connexion with Christ (the vine). Judas is gone and Satan will sift the rest of them like wheat (Luke 22:31.). Blind complacency is a peril to the preacher. Of itself As source (from itself) and apart from the vine (cf. John 17:17). Except it abide Condition of third class with εαν — ean negative μη — mē and present active (keep on abiding) subjunctive of μενω — menō Same condition and tense in the application, “except ye abide in me.” [source]
John 15:8 Herein [εν τουτωι]
That is in the vital union and the much fruit bearing. It points here backwards and forwards. Is glorified Another gnomic or timeless first aorist passive indicative. Bear Present active subjunctive, “keep on bearing” much fruit. And so shall ye be Rather “become.” Future middle indicative of γινομαι — ginomai though B D L read γενηστε — genēsthe (after ινα — hina like περητε — pherēte). “Become” my disciples (learners) in the fullest sense of rich fruit-bearing according to the text in John 8:31. [source]
John 15:11 That my joy may be in you [ινα η χαρα η εμη εν υμιν ηι]
Purpose clause with ινα — hina and the present subjunctive ηι — ēi (some MSS. have μεινηι — meinēi may remain), Christ‘s permanent absolute joy in the disciples. And that your joy be fulfilled Same construction with first aorist (effective) passive subjunctive of πληροω — plēroō consummation of the process preceding. [source]
John 16:25 In proverbs [εν παροιμιαις]
See note on John 10:6 for this word. Shall tell Future active of απαγγελλω — apaggellō to report, correct text and not αναγγελω — anaggelō (John 16:13, John 16:14, John 16:15), as in 1 John 1:2. Plainly See note on John 7:13 for this word. [source]
John 16:33 That in me ye may have peace [ινα εν εμοι ειρηνην εχητε]
Present active subjunctive of εχω — echō “that ye may keep on having peace in me,” even when I am put to death, peace to be found nowhere save in me (John 14:27). Be of good cheer Imperative active from ταρσος — tharsos courage (Acts 28:15). A word for courage in the face of danger, only here in John, but see Matthew 9:2, Matthew 9:22; Mark 10:49. I have overcome the world Perfect active indicative of τετελεσται — nikaō to be victorious, to conquer. Always of spiritual victory in the N.T. See 1 John 5:4. This majestic proclamation of victory over death may be compared with υπερνικωμεν — tetelestai (It is finished) in John 19:30 as Christ died and with Paul‘s hupernikōmen (we are more than conquerors) in Romans 8:37. [source]
John 17:13 That they may have my joy fulfilled in themselves [ινα εχωσιν την χαραν την εμην πεπληρωμενην εν εαυτοις]
Purpose clause with present active subjunctive of εχω — echō “that they may keep on having Christ‘s joy in their faithfulness realized in themselves.” Πεπληρωμενην — Peplērōmenēn is the perfect passive participle of πληροω — plēroō in the predicate position. For the use of πληροω — plēroō with χαρα — chara (joy) see John 15:11; John 16:24; Philemon 2:2. [source]
John 17:21 That they also may be in us [ινα και αυτοι εν ημιν ωσιν]
Another purpose clause with ινα — hina and the present active subjunctive of ειμι — eimi The only possible way to have unity among believers is for all of them to find unity first with God in Christ. That the world may believe Another purpose clause with ινα — hina and the present active subjunctive of πιστευω — pisteuō “may keep on believing.” Beyond a doubt, strife, wrangling, division are a stumbling block to the outside world. [source]
John 17:23 That they may be perfected into one [ινα ωσιν τετελειωμενοι εις εν]
Purpose clause again with ινα — hina (nineteen times in this prayer, this the fifteenth) with the periphrastic perfect passive subjunctive of τελειοω — teleioō (John 17:4), permanent state, with εις εν — eis hen (into one) as the goal and final result. That the world may know Present active subjunctive of γινωσκω — ginōskō with ινα — hina like the present tense of πιστευω — pisteuō in John 17:21, “that the world may keep on knowing” with the same pregnant phrase “that thou me didst send” Timeless aorist, but love shown by sending Christ (John 3:16) and illustrated and proven by the way Christians love one another. [source]
John 18:26 Did not I see thee in the garden with him? [ουκ εγω σε ειδον εν τωι κηπωι μετ αυτου]
This staggering and sudden thrust expects an affirmative answer by the use of ουκ — ouk not μη — mē as in John 18:17, John 18:25, but Peter‘s previous denials with the knowledge that he was observed by a kinsman of Malchus whom he had tried to kill (John 18:10) drove him to the third flat denial that he knew Jesus, this time with cursing and swearing (Mark 14:71; Matthew 26:73). Peter was in dire peril now of arrest himself for attempt to kill. Straightway As in Matthew 26:74 while Luke has παραχρημα — parachrēma (Luke 22:60). Mark (Mark 14:68, Mark 14:72) speaks of two crowings as often happens when one cock crows. See Matthew 26:34 for αλεκτωρ — alektōr (cock). That was usually the close of the third watch of the night (Mark 13:35), about 3 a.m. Luke 22:61 notes that Jesus turned and looked on Peter probably as he passed from the rooms of Annas to the trial before Caiaphas and the Sanhedrin (the ecclesiastical court). See Mrs. Browning‘s beautiful sonnets on “The Look”. [source]
John 2:23 In Jerusalem [εν τοις Ιεροσολυμοις]
The form Ιεροσολυμα — Ierosoluma as in John 2:13 always in this Gospel and in Mark, and usually in Matthew, though Ιερουσαλημ — Ierousalēm only in Revelation, and both forms by Luke and Paul. During the feast The feast of unleavened bread followed for seven days right after the passover (one day strictly), though το πασχα — to pascha is used either for the passover meal or for the whole eight days. Believed on his name See note on John 1:12 for this phrase. Only one has to watch for the real import of πιστευω — pisteuō Beholding his signs Present active participle (causal use) of τεωρεω — theōreō Which he did “Which he was doing” (imperfect tense). He did his first sign in Cana, but now he was doing many in Jerusalem. Already Jesus had become the cynosure of all eyes in Jerusalem at this first visit in his ministry. [source]
John 21:25 If they should be written every one [εαν γραπηται κατ εν]
Condition of the third class with εαν — ean and present passive subjunctive of γραπω — graphō “If they should be written one by one” (in full detail). I suppose Note change back to the first person singular by the author. Would not contain Future active infinitive in indirect discourse after οιμαι — oimai This is, of course, natural hyperbole, but graphically pictures for us the vastness of the work and words of Jesus from which the author has made a small selection (John 20:30.) and by which he has produced what is, all things considered, the greatest of all the books produced by man, the eternal gospel from the eagle who soars to the very heavens and gives us a glimpse of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ. [source]
John 3:15 That whosoever believeth may in him have eternal life [ινα πας ο πιστευων εν αυτωι εχηι ζωην αιωνιον]
Final use of ινα — hina with present active subjunctive of εχω — echō that he may keep on having eternal life (a frequent phrase in John, always in John αιωνιος — aiōnios occurs with ζωη — zōē 16 times in the Gospel, 6 in 1John, ageless or endless life, beginning now and lasting forever). It is more than endless, for it is sharing in the life of God in Christ (John 5:26; John 17:3; 1 John 5:12). So here εν αυτωι — en autōi (in him) is taken with εχηι — echēi rather than with πιστευων — pisteuōn The interview with Nicodemus apparently closes with John 3:15. In John 3:16-21 we have past tenses constantly as is natural for the reflection of John, but unnatural for Jesus speaking. There are phrases like the Prologue (John 3:19; John 1:9-11). “Only begotten” does not occur elsewhere in the words of Jesus, but is in John 1:14, John 1:18; 1 John 4:9. John often puts in explanatory comments (John 1:16-18; John 12:37-41). [source]
John 3:35 Hath given all things into his hand [παντα δεδωκεν εν τηι χειρι αυτου]
John makes the same statement about Jesus in John 13:3 (using εις τας χειρας — eis tas cheiras instead of εν τηι χειρι — en tēi cheiri). Jesus makes the same claim in John 5:19-30; Matthew 11:27; Matthew 28:18. [source]
John 4:20 In this mountain [εν τωι ορει τουτωι]
Jacob‘s Well is at the foot of Mount Gerizim toward which she pointed. Sanballat erected a temple on this mountain which was destroyed by John Hyrcanus b.c. 129. Abraham (Genesis 12:7) and Jacob (Genesis 33:20) set up altars at Shechem. On Gerizim were proclaimed the blessings recorded in Deut 28. The Samaritan Pentateuch records an altar set up on Gerizim that is on Ebal (over 200 feet higher than Gerizim) in the Hebrew (Deuteronomy 27:4). The Samaritans held that Abraham offered up Isaac on Gerizim. The Samaritans kept up this worship on this mountain and a handful do it still. And ye say Emphasis on υμεις — humeis (ye). Ye Jews. Ought to worship “Must worship,” as of necessity The woman felt that by raising this theological wrangle she would turn the attention of Jesus away from herself and perhaps get some light on the famous controversy. Προσκυνεω — Proskuneō in John is always worship, not just respect. [source]
John 4:31 In the meanwhile [εν τωι μεταχυ]
Supply καιροι — kairoi or χρονοι — chronoi See το μεταχυ Σαββατον — to metaxu Sabbaton “the next Sabbath” (Acts 13:42) and εν τωι μεταχυ — en tōi metaxu (Luke 8:1). Μεταχυ — Metaxu means between. Prayed him Imperfect active, “kept beseeching him.” For this late (Koiné) use of ερωταω — erōtaō to beseech, instead of the usual sense to question see also John 4:40, John 4:47. Their concern for the comfort of Jesus overcame their surprise about the woman. [source]
John 4:37 For herein [εν γαρ τουτωι]
In this relation between the sower and the reaper. The saying Like 1 Timothy 1:15; 1 Timothy 3:1, etc. Probably a proverb that is particularly true “One is the sower and another the reaper.” It is sad when the sower misses the joy of reaping (Job 31:8) and has only the sowing in tears (Psalm 126:5.). This may be the punishment for sin (Deuteronomy 28:30; Micah 6:15). Sometimes one reaps where he has not sown (Deuteronomy 6:11; Joshua 24:13). It is the prerogative of the Master to reap (Matthew 25:26.), but Jesus here lets the disciples share his joy. [source]
John 5:3 In these [εν ταυταις]
In these five porches. Lay Imperfect middle of κατακειμαι — katakeimai to lie down, singular number because πλητος — plēthos (multitude) is a collective substantive. Withered Old adjective χηρος — xēros for dry, wasted as the hand (Matthew 12:10). The oldest and best manuscripts omit what the Textus Receptus adds here “waiting for the moving of the water” (εκδεχομενον την του υδατος κινησιν — ekdechomenon tēn tou hudatos kinēsin), a Western and Syrian addition to throw light on the word ταραχτηι — tarachthēi (is troubled) in John 5:7. [source]
John 5:26 In himself [εν εαυτωι]
The Living God possesses life wholly in himself and so he has bestowed this power of life to the Son as already stated in the Prologue of the Logos (John 1:3). For “gave” (εδωκεν — edōken timeless aorist active indicative) see also John 3:35; John 17:2, John 17:24. The particles “as” (ωσπερ — hōsper) and “so” (ουτως — houtōs) mark here the fact, not the degree (Westcott). [source]
John 5:28 In the tombs [εν τοις μνημειοις]
Ταπος — Taphos (grave) presents the notion of burial Jesus claims not only the power of life (spiritual) and of judgment, but of power to quicken the actual dead at the Last Day. They will hear his voice and come out A general judgment and a general bodily resurrection we have here for both good and bad as in Matthew 25:46; Acts 24:15; 2 Corinthians 5:10 and as often implied in the words of Jesus (Matthew 5:29.; Matthew 10:28; Luke 11:32). In John 6:39 Jesus asserts that he will raise up the righteous. [source]
John 5:43 In my Father‘s name [εν τωι ονοματι του πατρος μου]
Seven times Jesus in John speaks of the “Name” of the Father (John 5:43; John 10:25; John 12:28; John 17:6, John 17:11, John 17:12, John 17:26). See John 1:12 for use of ονομα — onoma (Luke 1:49). And ye receive me not “And yet ye do not receive me,” as in John 5:40, “the Gospel of the Rejection” (John 1:11; John 3:11, John 3:32; John 12:37) often applied to the Fourth Gospel. If another come Condition of third class Note αλλος — allos not ετερος — heteros like αλλον Ιησουν — allon Iēsoun in 2 Corinthians 11:4. Similar prophecies occur in Mark 13:6, Mark 13:22 (Matthew 24:5, Matthew 24:24), all general in character like Antichrist in 2 Thessalonians 2:8-12. There is no occasion for a reference to any individual like Barcochba (about a.d. 134) as Pfleiderer and Schmiedel hold. These Messianic upstarts all come “in their own name” and always find a following. Him ye will receive “That one,” whoever he is, as Jesus said. Future active indicative of λαμβανω — lambanō Credulous about the false Messiahs, incredulous about Christ. [source]
John 6:56 Abideth in me and I in him [εν εμοι μενει καγω εν αυτωι]
Added to the phrase in John 6:54 in the place of εχει ζωην αιωνιον — echei zōēn aiōnion (has eternal life). The verb μενω — menō (to abide) expresses continual mystical fellowship between Christ and the believer as in John 15:4-7; 1 John 2:6, 1 John 2:27, 1 John 2:28; 1 John 3:6, 1 John 3:24; 1 John 4:12, 1 John 4:16. There is, of course, no reference to the Lord‘s Supper (Eucharist), but simply to mystical fellowship with Christ. [source]
John 6:59 In the synagogue [εν συναγωγηι]
Definite like our in church, though article absent. Only use of the word in John except John 18:20. “Among the ruins at Tell Hum, the probable site of Capernaum, have been found among the remains of a synagogue a block of stone perhaps the lintel, carved with a pot of manna, and with a pattern of vine leaves and clusters of grapes” (Vincent). [source]
John 6:61 Knowing in himself [ειδως εν εαυτωι]
Second perfect active participle of οιδα — oida See John 2:25 for this supernatural insight into men‘s minds. Murmured Present active indicative retained in indirect discourse. See John 6:41 for γογγυζω — gogguzō At this “Concerning this word.” Cause to stumble Common Synoptic verb from σκανδαλον — skandalon for which see Matthew 5:29. In John again only in John 16:1. [source]
John 7:4 In secret [εν κρυπτωι]
See Matthew 6:4, Matthew 6:6 for this phrase. Openly “In public” See Matthew 8:32. Common in John (John 7:13, John 7:26; John 10:24; John 16:25, John 16:29; John 18:20; here again contrasted with en kruptōi). It is wise advice in the abstract that a public teacher must allow inspection of his deeds, but the motive is evil. They might get Jesus into trouble. εν κρυπτωι — If thou doest these things This condition of the first class assumes the reality of the deeds of Jesus, but the use of the condition at all throws doubt on it all as in Matthew 4:3, Matthew 4:6. Manifest thyself First aorist active imperative of πανερωσον σεαυτον — phaneroō To the world Not just to “thy disciples,” but to the public at large as at the feast of tabernacles. See John 8:26; John 14:22 for this use of τωι κοσμωι — kosmos f0). [source]
John 7:9 He abode still in Galilee [εμεινεν εν τηι Γαλιλαιαι]
No “still” (ετι — eti) in the Greek text. The constative aorist active indicative εμεινεν — emeinen covers a period of some days. [source]
John 7:12 Among the multitudes [εν τοις οχλοις]
“The multitudes” literally, plural here only in John. These different groups were visitors from Galilee and elsewhere and were divided in their opinion of Jesus as the Galileans had already become (John 6:66). A good man Pure in motive. See Mark 10:17.; Romans 5:7 (absolute sense of God). Superior to δικαιος — dikaios Jesus had champions in these scattered groups in the temple courts. Not so, but he leadeth the multitude astray Sharp clash in the crowd. Present active indicative of εκεινος ο πλανος — planaō to go astray (Matthew 18:12.), like our “planets,” to lead others astray (Matthew 24:4, Matthew 24:5, Matthew 24:11, etc.). In the end the rulers will call Jesus “that deceiver” (ekeinos ho planos Matthew 27:63). The Jewish leaders have a following among the crowds as is seen (John 7:31.). [source]
John 7:21 One work [εν εργον]
Direct allusion to the healing of the impotent man when in Jerusalem before (John 5:1.). He had wrought others before (John 2:23; John 4:45), but this one on the Sabbath caused the rulers to try to kill Jesus (John 5:18). Some wondered then, others had murder in their hearts. This crowd here is ignorant. [source]
John 7:37 Now on the last day [εν δε τηι εσχατηι ημεραι]
The eighth day which was “an holy convocation,” kept as a Sabbath (Leviticus 23:36), apparently observed as a memorial of the entrance into Canaan, hence “the great day of the feast” Stood and cried Past perfect active of ιστημι — histēmi used as imperfect and intransitive and first aorist active of κραζω — krazō Picture Jesus standing (linear) and suddenly crying out (punctiliar). If any man thirst Third class condition with εαν — ean and present active subjunctive of διπσαω — dipsaō “if any one is thirsty.” On each of the seven preceding days water was drawn in a golden pitcher from the pool of Siloam and carried in procession to the temple and offered by the priests as the singers chanted Isaiah 12:3: “With joy shall ye draw water out of the wells of salvation.” “It is uncertain whether the libations were made upon the eighth day. If they were not made, the significant cessation of the striking rite on this one day of the feast would give a still more fitting occasion for the words” (Westcott). [source]
John 8:17 Yea and in your law [και εν τωι νομωι δε τωι υμετερωι]
Same use of καιδε — kai -de as in John 8:16. They claimed possession of the law (John 7:49) and so Jesus takes this turn in answer to the charge of single witness in John 8:13. He will use similar language (your law) in John 10:34 in an argumentum ad hominem as here in controversy with the Jews. In John 15:24 to the apostles Jesus even says “in their law” in speaking of the hostile Jews plotting his death. He does not mean in either case to separate himself wholly from the Jews and the law, though in Matthew 5 he does show the superiority of his teaching to that of the law. For the Mosaic regulation about two witnesses see Deuteronomy 17:6; Deuteronomy 19:15. This combined witness of two is not true just because they agree, unless true in fact separately. But if they disagree, the testimony falls to the ground. In this case the Father confirms the witness of the Son as Jesus had already shown (John 5:37). [source]
John 8:20 In the treasury [εν τωι γαζοπυλακιωι]
See note on Mark 12:41 and note on Luke 21:1 for this word for the treasure-chambers of the temple. “It abutted on the Court of the Women, and against its walls were placed chests, trumpet-like in form, as receptacles for the offerings of the worshippers” (Bernard). The Persian word gaza (treasure) occurs only once in the N.T. (Acts 8:27) and the compound And Reason (οτι — hoti) given why no one seized (επιασεν — epiasen cf. John 7:30) him. Εληλυτει — Elēluthei is past perfect active of ερχομαι — erchomai “had not yet come.” This very use of ωρα — hōra appears in John 2:4 and the very clause in John 7:30 which see. [source]
John 9:3 But that the works of God should be made manifest in him [αλλ ινα πανερωτηι τα εργα του τεου εν αυτωι]
Jesus denies both alternatives, and puts God‘s purpose (αλλ ινα — all' hina with first aorist subjunctive of πανεροω — phaneroō) as the true solution. It is sometimes true that disease is the result of personal sin as in the man in John 5:14 and parents can hand on the effects of sin to the third and fourth generations, but there are cases free from blame like this. There is comfort for many sufferers in the words of Jesus here. [source]
John 9:25 One thing I know [εν οιδα]
This man is keen and quick and refuses to fall into the trap set for him. He passes by their quibbling about Jesus being a “sinner” Literally, “Being blind I now see.” The present active participle ων — ōn of ειμι — eimi by implication in contrast with αρτι — arti (just now, at this moment) points to previous and so past time. It must be borne in mind that the man did not at this stage know who Jesus was and so had not yet taken him as Saviour (John 9:36-38). [source]
John 8:44 Stood not in the truth [εν τηι αλητειαι ουκ εστηκεν]
Since ουκ — ouk not ουχ — ouch is genuine, the form of the verb is εστεκεν — esteken the imperfect of the late present stem στηκω — stēkō (Mark 11:25) from the perfect active εστηκα — hestēka (intransitive) of ιστημι — histēmi to place. No truth in him Inside him or outside (environment). The devil and truth have no contact. When he speaketh a lie Indefinite temporal clause with οταν — hotan and the present active subjunctive of λαλεω — laleō But note the article το — to “Whenever he speaks the lie,” as he is sure to do because it is his nature. Hence “he speaks out of his own” For he is a liar Old word for the agent in a conscious falsehood See 1 John 1:10; Romans 3:4. Common word in John because of the emphasis on αλητεια — alētheia (truth). And the father thereof (και ο πατηρ αυτου — kai ho patēr autou). Either the father of the lie or of the liar, both of which are true as already shown by Jesus. Autou in the genitive can be either neuter or masculine. Westcott takes it thus, “because he is a liar and his father (the devil) is a liar,” making “one,” not the devil, the subject of “whenever he speaks,” a very doubtful expression. [source]
John 8:44 No truth in him [ουκ εστιν αλητεια εν αυτωι]
Inside him or outside (environment). The devil and truth have no contact. When he speaketh a lie Indefinite temporal clause with οταν — hotan and the present active subjunctive of λαλεω — laleō But note the article το — to “Whenever he speaks the lie,” as he is sure to do because it is his nature. Hence “he speaks out of his own” For he is a liar Old word for the agent in a conscious falsehood See 1 John 1:10; Romans 3:4. Common word in John because of the emphasis on αλητεια — alētheia (truth). And the father thereof (και ο πατηρ αυτου — kai ho patēr autou). Either the father of the lie or of the liar, both of which are true as already shown by Jesus. Autou in the genitive can be either neuter or masculine. Westcott takes it thus, “because he is a liar and his father (the devil) is a liar,” making “one,” not the devil, the subject of “whenever he speaks,” a very doubtful expression. [source]
John 9:5 When I am in the world [οταν εν τωι κοσμωι ω]
Indefinite relative clause with οταν — hotan and present active subjunctive ω — ō “whenever I am in the world.” The Latin Vulgate renders here οταν — hotan by quamdiu so long as or while as if it were εως — heōs But clearly Jesus here refers to the historic Incarnation (John 17:11) and to any previous visitations in the time of the patriarchs, prophets, etc. Jesus as God‘s Son is always the Light of the World (John 1:4, John 1:10; John 8:12), but here the reference is limited to his manifestation “in the world.” I am the light of the world The absence of the definite article Literally, “I am light to the world, whenever I am in the world.” “The display of the character varies with the occasion” (Westcott). [source]
John 9:30 Why, herein is the marvel [εν τουτωι γαρ το ταυμαστον εστιν]
This use of γαρ — gar The man is angry now and quick in his insight and reply. You confess your ignorance of whence he is, ye who know everything, “and yet (adversative use of και ηνοιχεν μου τους οπταλμους — kai again) he opened my eyes” That stubborn fact stands. [source]
John 9:34 Thou wast altogether born in sin [εν αμαρτιαις συ εγεννητης ολος]
First aorist passive indicative of γενναω — gennaō “In sins thou wast begotten (or born) all of thee.” ολος — Holos is predicate nominative and teaches total depravity in this case beyond controversy, the Pharisees being judges. And dost thou teach us? The audacity of it all. Note emphasis on συ — su (thou). It was insufferable. He had not only taught the rabbis, but had utterly routed them in argument. And they cast him out Effective second aorist active indicative of εκβαλλω — ekballō intensified by the addition of εχω — exō Probably not yet expulsion from the synagogue (John 9:22) which required a formal meeting of the Sanhedrin, but certainly forcible driving of the gifted upstart from their presence. See note on John 6:37 for another use of εκβαλλω εχω — ekballō exō besides John 9:35. [source]
Acts 1:3 By many proofs [εν πολλοις τεκμηριοις]
Literally, “in many proofs.” Τεκμηριον — Tekmērion is only here in the N.T., though an old and common word in ancient Greek and occurring in the Koiné{[28928]}š (papyri, etc.). The verb τεκμαιρω — tekmairō to prove by sure signs, is from τεκμαρ — tekmar a sign. Luke does not hesitate to apply the definite word “proofs” to the evidence for the Resurrection of Christ after full investigation on the part of this scientific historian. Aristotle makes a distinction between τεκμηριον — tekmērion (proof) and σημειον — sēmeion (sign) as does Galen the medical writer. Appearing (οπτανομενος — optanomenos). Present middle participle from late verb οπτανω — optanō late Koiné{[28928]}š verb from root οπτω — optō seen in οπσομαι ωπτην — opsomaiοπτασια — ōphthēn In lxx, papyri of second century b.c. (Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East, p. 83). Only here in the N.T. For δι ημερων τεσσερακοντα — optasia for vision, see note on Acts 26:19; Luke 1:22; Luke 24:23. By the space of forty days At intervals In the Gospel of Luke 24 this separation of forty days between the Resurrection and the Ascension is not drawn. The things concerning the Kingdom of God (ευαγγελιον — ta peri tēs basileias tou theou). This phrase appears 33 times in Luke‘s Gospel, 15 times in Mark, 4 times in Matthew who elsewhere has “the kingdom of heaven,” once in John, and 6 times in Acts. No essential distinction is to be drawn between the two for the Jews often used “heaven” rather than “God” to avoid using the Tetragrammaton. But it is noticeable how the word kingdom drops out of Acts. Other words like gospel (τα περι — euaggelion) take the place of “kingdom.” Jesus was fond of the word “kingdom” and Luke is fond of the idiom “the things concerning” (ta peri). Certainly with Jesus the term “kingdom” applies to the present and the future and covers so much that it is not strange that the disciples with their notions of a political Messianic kingdom (Acts 1:6) were slow to comprehend the spiritual nature of the reign of God. [source]
Acts 10:48 In the name of Jesus Christ [εν τωι ονοματι Ιησου Χριστου]
The essential name in Christian baptism as in Acts 2:38; Acts 19:5. But these passages give the authority for the act, not the formula that was employed (Alvah Hovey in Hackett‘s Commentary. See also chapter on the Baptismal Formula in my The Christ of the Logia). “Golden days” (αυρει διες — aurei dies Bengel) were these for the whole group. [source]
Acts 11:14 Whereby thou shalt be saved, thou and all thy house [εν οις σωτησηι συ και πας ο οικος σου]
Future passive indicative of σωζω — sōzō to save. Clearly Cornelius was unsaved in spite of his interest in Jewish worship. Clearly also the household of Cornelius would likewise be won to Christ by the words of Simon Peter. This is household conversion before the household baptism (Acts 10:48; Acts 11:17). [source]
Acts 11:15 As I began to speak [εν τωι αρχασται με λαλειν]
Εν — En with the locative of the articular aorist infinitive αρχασται — arxasthai (punctiliar action simply) and the accusative of general reference. The second infinitive λαλειν — lalein (to speak) is dependent on αρχασται — arxasthai “In the beginning to speak as to me.” [source]
Acts 11:15 Even as on us at the beginning [ωσπερ και επ ημας εν αρχηι]
Peter recalls vividly the events at Pentecost, the speaking with tongues and all. It is noteworthy that Peter does not here repeat his sermon. “He rests his defence, not on what he said, but on what God did” (Furneaux). [source]
Acts 11:22 Of the church which was in Jerusalem [της εκκλησιας της εν Ιερουσαλημ]
Not yet was the term “church” applied to the group of disciples in Antioch as it is in Acts 11:26; Acts 13:1. They sent forth (εχαπεστειλαν — exapesteilan). First aorist active indicative of the double compound verb εχαποστελλω — eẋapȯstellō to send out and away. The choice of Barnabas was eminently wise. He already had a position of leadership in Jerusalem because of his generosity (Acts 4:36.) and his championship of Saul after his conversion (Acts 9:27). He was originally from Cyprus and probably had personal friends among some of the leaders in this new movement. He was to investigate the work of the travelling preachers (Acts 11:19) all the way to Antioch (εως Αντιοχειας — heōs Antiocheias). [source]
Acts 11:26 They were gathered together with the church [συναχτηναι εν τηι εκκλησιαι]
First aorist passive infinitive of συναγω — sunagō old verb, probably here to meet together as in Matthew 28:12. In Acts 14:27 the verb is used of gathering together the church, but here εν τηι εκκλησιαι — en tēi ekklēsiāi excludes that idea. Barnabas met together “in the church” (note first use of the word for the disciples at Antioch). This peculiar phrase accents the leadership and co-operation of Barnabas and Saul in teaching And that the disciples were called Christians first in Antioch (χρηματισαι τε πρωτως εν Αντιοχειαι τους ματητας Χριστιανους — chrēmatisai te prōtōs en Antiocheiāi tous mathētas Christianous). This first active infinitive χρηματισαι — chrēmatisai is also a subject of εγενετο — egeneto and is added as a separate item by the use of τε — te rather than και — kai For the word itself in the sense of divine command, see note on Matthew 2:12, note on Matthew 2:22; note on Luke 2:26; and note on Acts 10:22. Here and in Romans 7:3 it means to be called or named (assuming a name from one‘s business, χρημα — chrēma from χραομαι — chraomai to use or to do business). Polybius uses it in this sense as here. Τους ματητας — Tous mathētas (the disciples) is in the accusative of general reference with the infinitive. Χριστιανους — Christianous (Christians) is simply predicate accusative. This word is made after the pattern of εροδιανυς — Herodianus (Matthew 22:16, ερωιδιανοι — Herōidianoi followers of Herod), Χαεσαριανυς — Caesarianus a follower of Caesar (Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East, p. 377, gives papyri examples of the genitive Καισαρος — Kaisaros meaning also “belonging to Caesar” like the common adjective Χαεσαριανυς — Caesarianus). It is made thus like a Latin adjective, though it is a Greek word, and it refers to the Hebrew belief in a Messiah (Page). The name was evidently given to the followers of Christ by the Gentiles to distinguish them from the Jews since they were Greeks, not Grecian Jews. The Jews would not call them Christians because of their own use of Χριστος — Christos the Messiah. The Jews termed them Galileans or Nazarenes. The followers of Christ called themselves disciples (learners), believers, brethren, saints, those of the Way. The three uses of Christian in the N.T. are from the heathen standpoint (here), Acts 26:28 (a term of contempt in the mouth of Agrippa), and 1 Peter 4:16 (persecution from the Roman government). It is a clear distinction from both Jews and Gentiles and it is not strange that it came into use first here in Antioch when the large Greek church gave occasion for it. Later Ignatius was bishop in Antioch and was given to the lions in Rome, and John Chrysostom preached here his wonderful sermons. [source]
Acts 11:26 And that the disciples were called Christians first in Antioch [χρηματισαι τε πρωτως εν Αντιοχειαι τους ματητας Χριστιανους]
This first active infinitive χρηματισαι — chrēmatisai is also a subject of εγενετο — egeneto and is added as a separate item by the use of τε — te rather than και — kai For the word itself in the sense of divine command, see note on Matthew 2:12, note on Matthew 2:22; note on Luke 2:26; and note on Acts 10:22. Here and in Romans 7:3 it means to be called or named (assuming a name from one‘s business, χρημα — chrēma from χραομαι — chraomai to use or to do business). Polybius uses it in this sense as here. Τους ματητας — Tous mathētas (the disciples) is in the accusative of general reference with the infinitive. Χριστιανους — Christianous (Christians) is simply predicate accusative. This word is made after the pattern of εροδιανυς — Herodianus (Matthew 22:16, ερωιδιανοι — Herōidianoi followers of Herod), Χαεσαριανυς — Caesarianus a follower of Caesar (Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East, p. 377, gives papyri examples of the genitive Καισαρος — Kaisaros meaning also “belonging to Caesar” like the common adjective Χαεσαριανυς — Caesarianus). It is made thus like a Latin adjective, though it is a Greek word, and it refers to the Hebrew belief in a Messiah (Page). The name was evidently given to the followers of Christ by the Gentiles to distinguish them from the Jews since they were Greeks, not Grecian Jews. The Jews would not call them Christians because of their own use of Χριστος — Christos the Messiah. The Jews termed them Galileans or Nazarenes. The followers of Christ called themselves disciples (learners), believers, brethren, saints, those of the Way. The three uses of Christian in the N.T. are from the heathen standpoint (here), Acts 26:28 (a term of contempt in the mouth of Agrippa), and 1 Peter 4:16 (persecution from the Roman government). It is a clear distinction from both Jews and Gentiles and it is not strange that it came into use first here in Antioch when the large Greek church gave occasion for it. Later Ignatius was bishop in Antioch and was given to the lions in Rome, and John Chrysostom preached here his wonderful sermons. [source]
Acts 12:7 In the cell [εν τωι οικηματι]
Literally, a dwelling place or habitation (from οικεω — oikeō to dwell, οικος — oikos house), but here not the prison as a whole as in Thucydides, but the room in the prison (cell) where Peter was chained to the two guards. Old word, but only here in the N.T. He smote Peter on the side (παταχας την πλευραν του Πετρου — pataxas tēn pleuran tou Petrou). More exactly, “smote the side of Peter.” Strongly enough to wake Peter up who was sound asleep and yet not rouse the two guards. It was probably between 3 a.m. and 6 a.m., hours when changes in the guards were made. Rise up Short form (Koiné{[28928]}š) of αναστητι — anastēthi second aorist active imperative of ανιστημι — anistēmi intransitive. So also Acts 9:11 (Westcott and Hort text); Ephesians 5:14. Fell off (εχεπεσαν — exepesan). Second aorist active with α — a ending like first aorist of εχπιπτω — expiptō old verb. This miracle was necessary if Peter was to escape without rousing the two guards. [source]
Acts 12:11 Was come to himself [εν εαυτωι γενομενος]
Second aorist middle participle of γινομαι — ginomai with εν — en and the locative case, “becoming at himself.” In Luke 15:17 we have εις εαυτον ελτων — eis heauton elthōn (coming to himself, as if he had been on a trip away from himself). [source]
Acts 13:15 If ye have any word of exhortation for the people [ει τις εστιν εν υμιν λογος παρακλησεως προς τον λαον]
Literally, if there is among you any word of exhortation for the people. It is a condition of the first class and assumed to be true, a polite invitation. On “exhortation” (παρακλησις — paraklēsis) See note on Acts 9:31. It may be a technical phrase used in the synagogue (Hebrews 13:22; 1 Timothy 4:13). [source]
Acts 13:17 When they sojourned [εν τηι παροικιαι]
In the sojourn. Late word from παροικος — paroikos (sojourner, dweller, Acts 7:6) common in lxx. In N.T. only here and 1 Peter 1:17. [source]
Acts 13:33 In the second psalm [εν τωι πσαλμωι τωι δευτερωι]
Psalm 2:7. D has πρωτωι — prōtōi because the first psalm was often counted as merely introductory. [source]
Acts 13:39 And by him every one that believeth is justified from all things, from which ye could not be justified by the law of Moses [και απο παντων ων ουκ ηδυνητητε εν νομωι Μωυσεως δικαιοτηναι εν τουτωι πας ο πιστευων δικαιουται]
This is a characteristic Greek sentence with the principal clause at the end and Pauline to the core. A literal rendering as to the order would be: “And from all the things from The failure of the Mosaic law to bring the kind of righteousness that God demands is stated. This is made possible in and by But in the end Paul holds that real righteousness will come (Romans 6-8) to those whom God treats as righteous (Romans 3-5) though both Gentile and Jew fall short without Christ (Romans 1-3). This is the doctrine of grace that will prove a stumbling block to the Jews with their ceremonial works and foolishness to the Greeks with their abstract philosophical ethics (1 Corinthians 1:23-25). It is a new and strange doctrine to the people of Antioch. [source]
Acts 13:40 In the prophets [εν τοις προπηταις]
The quotation is from the lxx text of Habakkuk 1:5. The plural here refers to the prophetic collection (Luke 24:44; Acts 24:14). “The Jews of Habakkuk‘s day had refused to believe in the impending invasion by the Chaldeans, and yet it had come” (Furneaux). [source]
Acts 14:8 At Lystra [εν Λυστροις]
Neuter plural as in Acts 16:2; 2 Timothy 3:11 while feminine singular in Acts 14:6, Acts 14:21; Acts 16:1. There was apparently no synagogue in Lystra and so not many Jews. Paul and Barnabas had to do open-air preaching and probably had difficulty in being understood by the natives though both Greek and Latin inscriptions were discovered here by Professor Sterrett in 1885. The incident narrated here (Acts 13:8-18) shows how they got a real hearing among these rude heathen. [source]
Acts 14:16 In the generations gone by [εν ταις παρωιχημεναις γενεαις]
Perfect middle participle from παροιχομαι — paroichomai to go by, old verb, here alone in the N.T. [source]
Acts 17:22 Stood in the midst of the Areopagus [στατεις εν μεσωι του Αρειου Παγου]
First aorist passive of ιστημι — histēmi used of Peter in Acts 2:14. Majestic figure whether on Mars Hill or in the Stoa Basilica before the Areopagus Court. There would be a crowd of spectators and philosophers in either case and Paul seized the opportunity to preach Christ to this strange audience as he did in Caesarea before Herod Agrippa and the crowd of prominent people gathered by Festus for the entertainment. Paul does not speak as a man on trial, but as one trying to get a hearing for the gospel of Christ. [source]
Acts 17:16 Now while Paul waited for them in Athens [Εν δε ταις Ατηναις εκδεχομενου αυτους του Παυλου]
Genitive absolute with present middle participle of εκδεχομαι — ekdechomai old verb to receive, but only with the sense of looking out for, expecting found here and elsewhere in N.T We know that Timothy did come to Paul in Athens (1 Thessalonians 3:1, 1 Thessalonians 3:6) from Thessalonica and was sent back to them from Athens. If Silas also came to Athens, he was also sent away, possibly to Philippi, for that church was deeply interested in Paul. At any rate both Timothy and Silas came from Macedonia to Corinth with messages and relief for Paul (Acts 18:5; 2 Corinthians 11:8.). Before they came and after they left, Paul felt lonely in Athens (1 Thessalonians 3:1), the first time on this tour or the first that he has been completely without fellow workers. Athens had been captured by Sulla b.c. 86. After various changes Achaia, of which Corinth is the capital, is a separate province from Macedonia and a.d. 44 was restored by Claudius to the Senate with the Proconsul at Corinth. Paul is probably here about a.d. 50. Politically Athens is no longer of importance when Paul comes though it is still the university seat of the world with all its rich environment and traditions. Rackham grows eloquent over Paul the Jew of Tarsus being in the city of Pericles and Demosthenes, Socrates and Plato and Aristotle, Sophocles and Euripides. In its Agora Socrates had taught, here was the Academy of Plato, the Lyceum of Aristotle, the Porch of Zeno, the Garden of Epicurus. Here men still talked about philosophy, poetry, politics, religion, anything and everything. It was the art centre of the world. The Parthenon, the most beautiful of temples, crowned the Acropolis. Was Paul insensible to all this cultural environment? It is hard to think so for he was a university man of Tarsus and he makes a number of allusions to Greek writers. Probably it had not been in Paul‘s original plan to evangelize Athens, difficult as all university seats are, but he cannot be idle though here apparently by chance because driven out of Macedonia. [source]
Acts 17:28 For in him [εν αυτωι γαρ]
Proof of God‘s nearness, not stoic pantheism, but real immanence in God as God dwells in us. The three verbs Εκ σου γαρ γενος εσμεν — Kinoumetha is either direct middle present indicative (we move ourselves) or passive (we are moved). [source]
Acts 17:23 With this inscription [εν ωι επεγεγραπτο]
On which had been written (stood written), past perfect passive indicative of επιγραπω — epigraphō old and common verb for writing on inscriptions To an Unknown God (ΑΓΝΟΣΤΟ ΤΕΟ — AGNOSTO THEO). Dative case, dedicated to. Pausanias (I. 1, 4) says that in Athens there are “altars to gods unknown” (βωμοι τεων αγνωστων — bōmoi theōn agnōstōn). Epimenides in a pestilence advised the sacrifice of a sheep to the befitting god whoever he might be. If an altar was dedicated to the wrong deity, the Athenians feared the anger of the other gods. The only use in the N.T. of αγνωστος — agnōstos old and common adjective (from α — a privative and γνωστος — gnōstos verbal of γινωσκω — ginōskō to know). Our word agnostic comes from it. Here it has an ambiguous meaning, but Paul uses it though to a stern Christian philosopher it may be the “confession at once of a bastard philosophy and of a bastard religion” (Hort, Hulsean Lectures, p. 64). Paul was quick to use this confession on the part of the Athenians of a higher power than yet known to them. So he gets his theme from this evidence of a deeper religious sense in them and makes a most clever use of it with consummate skill. In ignorance Present active participle of αγνοεω — agnoeō old verb from same root as αγνωστος — agnōstos to which Paul refers by using it. This set I forth unto you (τουτο εγο καταγγελλω υμιν — touto ego kataggellō humin). He is a καταγγελευς — kataggeleus (Acts 17:18) as they suspected of a God, both old and new, old in that they already worship him, new in that Paul knows who he is. By this master stroke he has brushed to one side any notion of violation of Roman law or suspicion of heresy and claims their endorsement of his new gospel, a shrewd and consummate turn. He has their attention now and proceeds to describe this God left out of their list as the one true and Supreme God. The later MSS. here read οντουτον — hoṅ̇touton (whom--this one) rather than οτουτο — hȯ̇touto (what--this), but the late text is plainly an effort to introduce too soon the personal nature of God which comes out clearly in Acts 17:24. [source]
Acts 17:24 And all things therein [και παντα τα εν αυτωι]
All the details in the universe were created by this one God. Paul is using the words of Isaiah 42:5. The Epicureans held that matter was eternal. Paul sets them aside. This one God was not to be confounded with any of their numerous gods save with this “Unknown God.” Being Lord of heaven and earth (ουρανου και γης υπαρχων κυριος — ouranou kai gēs huparchōn kurios). Κυριος — Kurios here owner, absolute possessor of both heaven and earth (Isaiah 45:7), not of just parts. Dwelleth not in temples made with hands The old adjective χειροποιητος — cheiropoiētos No doubt Paul pointed to the wonderful Parthenon, supposed to be the home of Athene as Stephen denied that God dwelt alone in the temple in Jerusalem. [source]
Acts 18:24 Mighty in the Scriptures [δυνατος ων εν ταις γραπαις]
Being powerful (δυνατος — dunatos verbal of δυναμαι — dunamai and same root as δυναμις — dunamis dynamite, dynamo) in the Scriptures (in the knowledge and the use of the Scriptures), as should be true of every preacher. There is no excuse for ignorance of the Scriptures on the part of preachers, the professed interpreters of the word of God. The last lecture made to the New Testament English class in Southern Baptist Theological Seminary by John A. Broadus was on this passage with a plea for his students to be mighty in the Scriptures. In Alexandria Clement of Alexandria and Origen taught in the Christian theological school. [source]
Acts 19:1 While Apollos was at Corinth [εν τωι τον Απολλω ειναι εν Κοριντωι]
Favourite idiom with Luke, εν — en with the locative of the articular infinitive and the accusative of general reference (Luke 1:8; Luke 2:27, etc.). [source]
Acts 19:9 In the school of Tyrannus [εν τηι σχοληι Τυραννου]
Σχολη — Scholē (our school) is an old word from σχειν — schein (εχω — echō) to hold on, leisure and then in later Greek (Plutarch, etc.) a place where there is leisure as here. Only this example in the N.T. This is the Greek notion of “school,” the Jewish being that of “yoke” as in Matthew 11:29. The name Tyrannus (our tyrant) is a common one. It is an inscription in the Columbarium of the Empress Livia as that of a physician in the court. Furneaux suggests the possibility that a relative of this physician was lecturing on medicine in Ephesus and so as a friend of Luke, the physician, would be glad to help Paul about a place to preach. It was probably a public building or lecture hall with this name whether hired by Paul or loaned to him. The pagan sophists often spoke in such halls. The Codex Bezae adds “from the fifth hour to the tenth” as the time allotted Paul for his work in this hall, which is quite possible, from just before midday till the close of the afternoon (from before the noon meal till two hours before sunset) each day. Here Paul had great freedom and a great hearing. As the church grows there will be other places of meeting as the church in the house of Aquila and Priscilla (1 Corinthians 16:19). [source]
Acts 19:21 Purposed in the spirit [ετετο εν τωι πνευματι]
Second aorist middle indicative for mental action and “spirit” expressed also. A new stage in Paul‘s career begins here, a new division of the Acts. [source]
Acts 2:1 Was now come [εν τωι συνπληρουσται]
Luke‘s favourite idiom of εν — en with the articular present infinitive passive and the accusative of general reference, “in the being fulfilled completely (perfective use of συν — suṅ) as to the day of Pentecost.” Common verb, but only in Luke in N.T. In literal sense of filling a boat in Luke 8:23, about days in Luke 9:51 as here. Whether the disciples expected the coming of the Holy Spirit on this day we do not know. Blass holds that the present tense shows that the day had not yet come. It is a Hebrew idiom (Exodus 7:25) and Luke may mean that the day of Pentecost was not yet over, was still going on, though Hackett takes it for the interval (fifty days) between Passover and Pentecost. Apparently this day of Pentecost fell on the Jewish Sabbath (our Saturday). It was the feast of first fruits. [source]
Acts 2:17 In the last days [εν ταις εσχαταις ημεραις]
Joel does not have precisely these words, but he defines “those days” as being “the day of the Lord” (cf. Isaiah 2:2; Micah 4:1). [source]
Acts 2:46 With one accord in the temple [ομοτυμαδον εν τωι ιερωι]
See note on Acts 1:14 for ομοτυμαδον — homothumadon They were still worshipping in the temple for no breach had yet come between Christians and Jews. Daily they were here and daily breaking bread at home (κατ οικον — kat' oikon) which looks like the regular meal. [source]
Acts 20:5 Were waiting for us in Troas [εμενον ημας εν Τροιαδι]
Here again we have “us” for the first time since chapter 16 where Paul was with Luke in Philippi. Had Luke remained all this time in Philippi? We do not know, but he is with Paul now till Rome is reached. The seven brethren of Acts 20:4 went on ahead from Philippi to Troas while Paul remained with Luke in Philippi. [source]
Acts 20:7 Upon the first day of the week [εν δε μιαι των σαββατων]
The cardinal μιαι — miāi used here for the ordinal πρωτηι — prōtēi (Mark 16:9) like the Hebrew ehadh as in Mark 16:2; Matthew 28:1; Luke 24:1; John 20:1 and in harmony with the Koiné{[28928]}š idiom (Robertson, Grammar, p. 671). Either the singular (Mark 16:9) σαββατου — sabbatou or the plural σαββατον — sabbaton as here was used for the week (sabbath to sabbath). For the first time here we have services mentioned on the first day of the week though in 1 Corinthians 16:2 it is implied by the collections stored on that day. In Revelation 1:10 the Lord‘s day seems to be the day of the week on which Jesus rose from the grave. Worship on the first day of the week instead of the seventh naturally arose in Gentile churches, though John 20:26 seems to mean that from the very start the disciples began to meet on the first (or eighth) day. But liberty was allowed as Paul makes plain in Romans 14:5. [source]
Acts 20:8 In the upper room [εν τωι υπερωιωι]
As in Acts 1:13 which see. [source]
Acts 20:10 For his life is in him [η γαρ πσυχη αυτου εν αυτωι εστιν]
This language is relied on by Ramsay, Wendt, Zoeckler to show that Eutychus had not really died, but had merely swooned. Paul‘s language would suit that view, but it suits equally well the idea that he had just been restored to life and so is indecisive. Furneaux urges also the fact that his friends did not bring him back to the meeting till morning (Acts 20:12) as additional evidence that it was a case of swooning rather than of death. But this again is not conclusive as they would naturally not take him back at once. One will believe here as the facts appeal to him. [source]
Acts 20:26 This day [εν τηι σημερον ημεραι]
The today day, the last day with you, our parting day. I am pure from the blood of all men (καταρος ειμι απο του αιματος παντων — katharos eimi apo tou haimatos pantōn). Paul was sensitive on this point as in Corinth (Acts 18:6). It is much for any preacher to claim and it ought to be true of all. The papyri also give this use of απο — apo with the ablative rather than the mere ablative after καταρος — katharos Acts 20:27 Paul here repeats the very words and idioms used in Acts 20:20, adding “the whole counsel of God” (pāsan tēn boulēn tou theou). All the counsel of God that concerned Paul‘s work and nothing inconsistent with the purpose of God of redemption through Christ Jesus (Page). [source]
Acts 21:29 With him in the city Trophimus the Ephesian [Τροπιμον τον Επεσιον εν τηι πολει συν αυτωι]
The Jews from Asia (Ephesus) knew Trophimus by sight as well as Paul. One day they saw both of them together That was another fact. [source]
Acts 21:27 When they saw him in the temple [τεασαμενοι αυτον εν τωι ιερωι]
First aorist middle participle of τεαομαι — theaomai (from τεα — thea a view, cf. theatre) to behold. In the very act of honouring the temple these Jews from Asia raise a hue and cry that he is dishonouring it. Paul was not known by face now to many of the Jerusalem Jews, though once the leader of the persecution after the death of Stephen and the outstanding young Jew of the day. But the Jews in Ephesus knew him only too well, some of whom are here at the pentecostal feast. They had plotted against him in Ephesus to no purpose (Acts 19:23-41; Acts 20:19), but now a new opportunity had come. It is possible that the cry was led by Alexander put forward by the Jews in Ephesus (Acts 19:33) who may be the same as Alexander the coppersmith who did Paul so much harm (2 Timothy 4:14). Paul was not in the inner sanctuary Stirred up all the multitude (συνεχεον παντα τον οχλον — sunecheon panta ton ochlon). Imperfect (kept on) active of συνχεω — suncheō or συνχυνω — sunchunō (υννω — ̇unnō), to pour together, to confuse as in Acts 2:6; Acts 9:22; Acts 19:31, Acts 19:32; Acts 21:31 and here to stir up by the same sort of confusion created by Demetrius in Ephesus where the same word is used twice (Acts 19:31, Acts 19:32). The Jews from Ephesus had learned it from Demetrius the silversmith. Laid hands on him Second aorist (ingressive, with endings of the first aorist, αν — ̇an) active indicative of επιβαλλω — epiballō old verb to lay upon, to attack (note repetition of επι — epi). They attacked and seized Paul before the charge was made. [source]
Acts 23:35 In Herod‘s palace [εν τωι πραιτωριωι]
The Latin word πραετοριυμ — praetorium The word meant the camp of the general, then the palace of the governor as here and Matthew 27:27 which see, and then the camp of praetorian soldiers or rather the praetorian guard as in Philemon 1:13. [source]
Acts 24:16 Herein [εν τουτωι]
His whole confession of belief in Acts 24:14, Acts 24:15. [source]
Acts 24:18 Amidst which [εν αιλ]
That is, “in which offerings” (in presenting which offerings, Acts 21:27). [source]
Acts 24:18 purified in the temple [ηγνισμενον εν τωι ιερωι]
Perfect passive participle of αγνιζω — hagnizō (same verb in Acts 21:24, Acts 21:26) state of completion of the Jewish sacrifices which had gone on for seven days (Acts 21:27), the very opposite of the charges made. With no crowd (ου μετα οχλου — ou meta ochlou). “Not with a crowd” till the Asiatic Jews gathered one (Acts 21:27). Nor yet with tumult They made the tumult (Acts 27:30), not Paul. Till they made the stir, all was quiet. [source]
Acts 25:4 Shortly [εν ταχει]
In quickness, in speed. Old and common usage, seen already in Luke 18:8; Acts 12:7; Acts 22:18. Festus is clearly within his rights again since his stay in Caesarea had been so brief. He did go down in “eight or ten days” (Acts 25:6). Luke did not consider the matter important enough to be precise. [source]
Acts 25:5 Them therefore which are of power among you [οι ουν εν υμιν δυνατοι]
“The mighty ones among you,” “the men of power” (δυνατοι — dunatoi) and authority, “the first men,” the Sanhedrin, in other words. Note change here by Luke from indirect discourse in Acts 25:4, to direct in Acts 25:5 (πησιν — phēsin says he). [source]
Acts 26:7 Earnestly [εν εκτενειαι]
A late word from εκτεινω — ekteinō to stretch out, only here in N.T., but in papyri and inscriptions. Page refers to Simeon and Anna (Luke 2:25-28) as instances of Jews looking for the coming of the Messiah. Note the accusative of νυκτα και ημεραν — nukta kai hēmeran as in Acts 20:31. Hope to attain (ελπιζει καταντησαι — elpizei katantēsai). This Messianic hope had been the red thread running through Jewish history. Today, alas, it is a sadly worn thread for Jews who refuse to see the Messiah in Jesus. I am accused by Jews The very word used in Acts 23:28 (ενεκαλουν — enekaloun) which see, and by Jews of all people in the world whose mainspring was this very “hope.” It is a tremendously effective turn. [source]
Acts 26:12 Whereupon [εν οις]
“In which things” (affairs of persecution), “on which errand.” Cf. Acts 24:18. Paul made them leave Palestine (Acts 11:19) and followed them beyond it (Acts 9:2). [source]
Acts 26:28 With but little persuasion thou wouldest fain make me a Christian [εν ολιγωι με πειτεις Χριστιανον ποιησαι]
The Authorized rendering is impossible: “Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian.” Εν ολιγωι — En oligōi does not mean “almost.” That would require ολιγου παρ ολιγον — oligouδει ολιγου — par' oligon or εν ολιγοι — dei oligou It is not clear, however, precisely what εν μεγαλωι — en oligoi does mean. It may refer to time (in little time) or a short cut, but that does not suit well πειτεις — en megalōi in Acts 26:29. Tyndale and Crammer rendered it “somewhat” (in small measure or degree). There are, alas, many “somewhat” Christians. Most likely the idea is “in (or with) small effort you are trying to persuade The aorist is punctiliar action for single act, not “perfect.” The tone of Agrippa is ironical, but not unpleasant. He pushes it aside with a shrug of the shoulders. The use of “Christian” is natural here as in the other two instances (Acts 11:26; 1 Peter 4:16). [source]
Acts 26:29 Whether with little or with much [και εν μικρωι και εν μεγαλωι]
Literally, “both in little and in great,” or “both with little and with great pains” or “both in some measure and in great measure.” Paul takes kindly the sarcasm of Agrippa. Such as I am (τοιουτους οποιος και εγω ειμι — toioutous hopoios kai egō eimi). Accusative τοιουτους — toioutous with the infinitive γενεσται — genesthai Paul uses these two qualitative pronouns instead of repeating the word “Christian.” Except these bonds Ablative case with παρεκτος — parektos (late preposition for the old παρεκ — parek). Paul lifts his right manacled hand with exquisite grace and good feeling. [source]
Acts 27:7 Many days [εν ικαναις ημεραις]
See note on Luke 7:6 for hikanos Literally, “in considerable days.” With difficulty (ικανος — molis). Used in old Greek, like μολος — mogis (Luke 9:39) from μολος — molos toil (See note on Acts 14:18). Over against Cnidus “Down along Cnidus.” A hundred and thirty miles from Myra, the southwest point of Asia Minor and the western coast. Here the protection of the land from the northwest wind ceased. The wind not further suffering us (μη προσεωντος ημας του ανεμου — mē proseōntos hēmās tou anemou). Genitive absolute with present active participle of προσεαω — proseaō one of the few words still “not found elsewhere” (Thayer). Regular negative μη — mē with participles. They could not go on west as they had been doing since leaving Myra. We sailed under the lee of Crete See note on Acts 27:4. Instead of going to the right of Crete as the straight course would have been they sailed southwest with Crete to their right and got some protection against the wind there. Over against Salmone (κατα Σαλμωνην — kata Salmōnēn). Off Cape Salmone, a promontory on the east of the island. [source]
Acts 27:27 In the sea of Adria [εν τωι αδριαι]
Not the Adriatic Sea as we now call the sea between Italy and the mainland of Illyricum, but all the lower Mediterranean between Italy and Greece. Luke‘s usage is like that of Strabo. Surmised (υπενοουν — hupenooun). Imperfect active indicative of υπονοεω — huponoeō inchoative, began to suspect. That they were drawing near to some country Infinitive with accusative of general reference in indirect assertion. Προσαγω — Prosagō is here used intransitively and Luke writes from the sailor‘s standpoint that a certain land was drawing near to them The sailors heard the sound of breakers and grew uneasy. [source]
Acts 27:31 Except these abide in the ship [Εαν μη ουτοι μεινωσιν εν τωι πλοιωι]
Condition of the third class (undetermined, but with hope, etc.). Paul has no hesitancy in saying this in spite of his strong language in Acts 27:24 about God‘s promise. He has no notion of lying supinely down and leaving God to do it all. Without the sailors the ship could not be properly beached. [source]
Acts 28:25 They departed [ειποντος του Παυλου ρημα εν]
Imperfect middle (direct) indicative, “They loosed themselves from Paul.” Graphic close. After that Paul had spoken one word (καλως — eipontos tou Paulou rhēma hen). Genitive absolute. One last word (like a preacher) after the all day exposition. Well Cf. Matthew 14:7; Mark 7:6, Mark 7:9 (irony). Here strong indignation in the very position of the word (Page). To your fathers (ημων — pros tous pateras humōn). So Aleph A B instead of hēmōn (our) like Stephen in Acts 7:52 whose words Paul had heard. By mentioning the Holy Spirit Paul shows (Knowling) that they are resisting God (Acts 7:52). [source]
Acts 28:30 In his own hired dwelling [εν ιδιωι μιστωματι]
Old word, here only in N.T., that which is hired for a price (from μιστοω — misthoō and that from μιστος — misthos hire). Received (απεδεχετο — apedecheto). Imperfect middle of αποδεχομαι — apodechomai received from time to time as they came, all that came (εισπορευομενους — eisporeuomenous) from time to time. Preaching None forbidding him (ακωλυτως — akōlutōs). Old adverb from nan privative and the verbal adjective α — kōlutos (from κωλυτος — kōluō to hinder), here only in the N.T. Page comments on “the rhythmic cadence of the concluding words.” Page rejects the notion that the book is an unfinished work. It closes with the style of a concluded work. I agree with Harnack that Luke wrote the Acts during this period of two years in Rome and carried events no further because they had gone no further. Paul was still a prisoner in Rome when Luke completed the book. But he had carried Paul to “Rome, the capital of the world, Urbi et Orbi ” (Page). The gospel of Christ has reached Rome. For the fate of Paul we must turn elsewhere. But Luke had the presence of Paul while he carried the Acts to its triumphant conclusion. Ramsay can give a good deal in proof of his claim that Luke is the greatest of all historians. Beyond a doubt his rank is high and the world can never repay its debt to this cultured physician who wrote the Gospel and the Acts. [source]
Acts 3:6 In the name [εν τωι ονοματι]
The healing power is in that name (Page) and Peter says so. Cf. Luke 9:49; Luke 10:17; Acts 4:7, Acts 4:10; Acts 19:27; Acts 16:18. [source]
Acts 4:2 In Jesus [εν Ιησου]
In the case of Jesus, an actual instance of resurrection which the Sadducees denied (Matthew 22:23). This same use of εν — en appears in 1 Corinthians 4:6 (in us). The Sadducees were also aristocrats and political ecclesiastics who disliked popular disturbances. In particular, they resented the claim about Jesus whom they had helped crucify. [source]
Acts 4:7 In the midst [εν τωι μεσωι]
The Sanhedrin sat in a semicircle. [source]
Acts 4:7 Or in what nameεν ποιωι ονοματι]
As if by some magical formula such as exorcists practised (Acts 19:13) as if to catch them by (Deuteronomy 13:1). [source]
Acts 4:10 In him doth this man stand [εν τουτωι ουτος παρεστηκεν]
Rather (note play on ουτος — houtos), “In this one It was a centre shot. [source]
Acts 4:30 While thou stretchest forth thy hand [εν τωι την χειρα εκτεινειν σε]
Luke‘s favourite idiom, “In the stretching out (articular present active infinitive) the hand as to thee” (accusative of general reference), the second allusion to God‘s “hand” in this prayer (Acts 4:28). [source]
Acts 7:6 In a strange land [εν γηι αλλοτριαι]
In a land not one‘s own, that belongs to another, alien as in Matthew 17:25., which see. [source]
Acts 7:13 At the second time [εν τωι δευτερωι]
This expression only here in the N.T. This second visit is recorded in Genesis 45:1. [source]
Acts 7:14 Three-score and fifteen souls [εν πσυχαις εβδομηκοντα πεντε]
Stephen follows the lxx which counts some grandchildren of Joseph and so makes it 75 whereas Genesis 46:26 has 66 and then the next verse makes it 70 including Jacob and Joseph with his two sons. The use of εν — en means “consisting in.” [source]
Acts 7:16 In Shechem [εν Συχεμ]
This is the reading of Aleph B C instead of the Textus Receptus του Συχεμ — tou Suchem which makes it “Hamar the father of Sichem.” “In Shechem” is the true reading. [source]
Acts 7:22 Mighty in his words and works [δυνατος εν λογοις και εργοις αυτου]
The same phrase used of Jesus in Luke 24:19. The adjective δυνατος — dunatos is employed of Apollos as an interpreter of the Scriptures (Acts 18:24). Moses did not have the rhetorical skill or eloquence of Aaron (Exodus 4:10), but his words like his deeds carried weight and power. [source]
Acts 7:30 In a flame of fire in a bush [εν πλογι πυρος βατου]
Horeb in Exodus 3:1; but Sinai and Horeb were “probably peaks of one mountain range” (Page), Horeb “the mountain of the dried-up ground,” Sinai “the mountain of the thorns.” Literally, “in the flame of fire of a bush” (two genitives, πυρος — puros and βατου — batou dependent on πλογι — phlogi flame). Descriptive genitives as in Acts 9:15; 2 Thessalonians 1:8. ατος — Batos (bush) is the wild acacia (mimosa nilotica). In Exodus 3:20 it is Jehovah who speaks. Hence “angel” here with Stephen is understood to be the Angel of the Presence, the Eternal Logos of the Father, the Angel of Jehovah. [source]
Acts 7:38 In the church in the wilderness [εν τηι εκκλησιαι εν τηι ερημωι]
Better rendered “congregation” here as in Hebrews 2:12 (Psalm 22:22), the people of Israel gathered at Matthew. Sinai, the whole nation. Moses is here represented as receiving the law from an angel as in Hebrews 2:2; Galatians 3:19 (Deuteronomy 33:2, lxx) and so was a mediator But Exodus does not speak of an angel. [source]
Acts 7:42 In the book of the prophets [εν βιβλωι των προπητων]
That is the twelve minor prophets which the Jews counted as one book (cf. Acts 13:40). This quotation is from Amos 5:25-27. The greater prophets were Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel. [source]
Acts 7:45 When they entered on the possession of the nations [εν τηι κατασχεσει των ετνων]
Literally “in (or at the time of) the possession of the nations.” See note on Hebrews 7:5 for the only other N.T. instance of κατασχεσις — kataschesis Which (ων — hn). The nations, genitive by attraction to case of ετνων — ethnōn Thrust out First aorist active indicative of εχωτεω — exōtheō to push out, common verb, here, only in N.T. save some MSS. in Acts 27:39. [source]
Acts 7:48 In houses made with hands [εν χειροποιητοις]
No word here for “houses” or “temples” in correct text Literally, “In things made with hands” It occurs in Mark 14:58 of the temple and of the sanctuary of Moab (Isaiah 16:12). It occurs also in Acts 7:24; Hebrews 9:11, Hebrews 9:24; Ephesians 2:11. Common in the old Greek. The prophet (ο προπητης — ho prophētēs). Isaiah 66:1. Isaiah taught plainly that heaven is God‘s throne. [source]
Acts 8:6 When they heard [εν τωι ακουειν αυτους]
Favourite Lukan idiom, εν — en and the locative case of the articlar infinitive with the accusative of general reference “in the hearing as to them.” Which he did (α εποιει — ha epoiei). Imperfect active again, which he kept on doing from time to time. Philip wrought real miracles which upset the schemes of Simon Magus. [source]
Acts 9:3 As he journeyed [εν τωι πορευεσται]
Luke‘s common idiom for a temporal clause (in the journeying), εν — en with the locative articular middle infinitive. [source]
Acts 9:10 In a vision [εν οραματι]
Zeller and others scout the idea of the historicity of this vision as supernatural. Even Furneaux holds that “it is a characteristic of the Jewish Christian sources to point out the Providential ordering of events by the literary device of a vision,” as “in the early chapters of Matthew‘s and Luke‘s Gospels.” He is content with this “beautiful expression of the belief” with no interest in the actual facts. But that is plain illusion, not to say delusion, and makes both Paul and Luke deceived by the story of Ananias (Acts 9:10-18; Acts 22:12-16, Acts 22:26). One MS. of the old Latin Version does omit the vision to Ananias and that is basis enough for those who deny the supernatural aspects of Christianity. [source]
Acts 9:25 In a basket [εν σπυριδι]
The word used when the four thousand were fed (Mark 8:8; Matthew 15:37). A large basket plaited of reeds and distinguished in Mark 8:19. (Matthew 16:9.) from the smaller κοπινος — kophinos Paul uses σαργανη — sarganē a basket made of ropes. This escape by night by the help of the men whom he had come to destroy was a shameful memory to Paul (2 Corinthians 11:33). Wendt thinks that the coincidences in language here prove that Luke had read II Corinthians. That, of course, is quite possible. [source]
Romans 1:2 In the holy scriptures [εν γραπαις αγιαις]
No article, yet definite. Perhaps the earliest use of the phrase (Sanday and Headlam). Paul definitely finds God‘s gospel in the Holy Scriptures. [source]
Romans 1:7 In Rome [εν ωμηι]
One late uncial (G of tenth century) and a cursive omit these words here and one or two other late MSS. omit εν ωμηι — en Rōmēi in Romans 1:15. This possibly proves the Epistle was circulated as a circular to a limited extent, but the evidence is late and slight and by no means shows that this was the case in the first century. It is not comparable with the absence of εν Επεσωι — en Ephesōi in Ephesians 1:1 from Aleph and B (the two oldest and best MSS.). [source]
Romans 1:8 Throughout all the world [εν ολωι τωι κοσμωι]
Natural hyperbole as in Colossians 1:6; Acts 17:6. But widely known because the church was in the central city of the empire. [source]
Romans 1:10 By the will of God [εν τωι τεληματι του τεου]
Paul‘s way lay “in” God‘s will. [source]
Romans 1:12 That I with you may be comforted [συνπαρακλητηναι εν υμιν]
“My being comforted in you (εν υμιν — en humin) together (συν — suṅ) with you,” a mutual blessing to each party (you and me). [source]
Romans 1:17 For therein [γαρ εν αυτωι]
In the gospel (Romans 1:16) of which Paul is not ashamed. [source]
Romans 10:5 Thereby [εν αυτηι]
That is by or in “the righteousness that is from law.” He stands or falls with it. The quotation is from Leviticus 18:5. [source]
Romans 10:6 Say not in thy heart [μη ειπηις εν τηι καρδιαι σου]
Second aorist active subjunctive with μη — mē like Deuteronomy 8:17. To say in the heart is to think (Matthew 3:9). That is, to bring Christ down (τουτ εστιν Χριστον καταγαγειν — tout' estin Christon katagagein). Second aorist active infinitive of the common verb καταγω — katagō to bring or lead down. It is dependent on the preceding verb αναβησεται — anabēsetai (shall ascend). Τουτ εστιν — Tout' estin (that is) is what is called Midrash or interpretation as in Romans 9:8. It occurs three times here (Romans 9:6-8). Paul applies the words of Moses to Christ. There is no need for one to go to heaven to bring Christ down to earth. The Incarnation is already a glorious fact. Today some men scout the idea of the Deity and Incarnation of Christ. [source]
Romans 10:9 With thy mouth Jesus as Lord [εν τωι στοματι σου Κυριον Ιησουν]
This is the reading of nearly all the MSS. But B 71 Clem of Alex. read το ρημα εν τωι στοματι σου οτι Κυριος Ιησους — to rēma en tōi stomati sou hoti Kurios Iēsous (the word in thy mouth that Jesus is Lord). The idea is the same, the confession of Jesus as Lord as in 1 Corinthians 12:3; Philemon 2:11. No Jew would do this who had not really trusted Christ, for Κυριος — Kurios in the lxx is used of God. No Gentile would do it who had not ceased worshipping the emperor as Κυριος — Kurios The word Κυριος — Kurios was and is the touchstone of faith. And shalt believe (και πιστευσηις — kai pisteusēis). Same construction. Faith precedes confession, of course. [source]
Romans 11:2 Of Elijah [εν Ελειαι]
“In the case of Elijah.” Cf. “in the bush” (Mark 12:26). [source]
Romans 11:25 Wise in your own conceits [εν εαυτοις προνιμοι]
“Wise in yourselves.” Some MSS. read παρ εαυτοις — par' heautois (by yourselves). Negative purpose here Late word from πωροω — pōroō (Romans 11:7). Occurs in Hippocrates as a medical term, only here in N.T. save Mark 3:5; Ephesians 4:18. It means obtuseness of intellectual discernment, mental dulness. In part Goes with the verb γεγονεν — gegonen (has happened in part). For απο μερους — apo merous see note on 2 Corinthians 1:14; 2 Corinthians 2:5; Romans 15:24; for ανα μερος — ana meros see note on 1 Corinthians 14:27; for εκ μερους — ek merous see note on 1 Corinthians 12:27; 1 Corinthians 13:9; for κατα μερος — kata meros see note on Hebrews 9:5; for μερος τι — meros ti (adverbial accusative) partly see note on 1 Corinthians 11:18. Paul refuses to believe that no more Jews will be saved. Until the fulness of the Gentiles be come in (αχρι ου το πληρωμα των ετνων εισελτηι — achri hou to plērōma tōn ethnōn eiselthēi). Temporal clause with αχρι ου — achri hou (until which time) and the second aorist active subjunctive of εισερχομαι — eiserchomai to come in (Matthew 7:13, Matthew 7:21). For fulness of the Gentiles (το πληρωμα των ετνων — to plērōma tōn ethnōn) see Romans 11:12, the complement of the Gentiles. [source]
Romans 12:7 With diligence [εν σπουδηι]
“In haste” as if in earnest (Mark 6:25; 2 Corinthians 7:11., 2 Corinthians 8:8, 2 Corinthians 8:16), from σπευδω — speudō to hasten. Again Romans 12:11. With cheerfulness (εν ιλαροτητι — en hilarotēti). Late word, only here in N.T., from ιλαρος — hilaros (2 Corinthians 9:7) cheerful, hilarious. [source]
Romans 12:7 With cheerfulness [εν ιλαροτητι]
Late word, only here in N.T., from ιλαρος — hilaros (2 Corinthians 9:7) cheerful, hilarious. [source]
Romans 12:21 But overcome evil with good [αλλα νικα εν τωι αγατωι το κακον]
“But keep on conquering the evil in the good.” Drown the evil in the good. Seneca: Vincit malos pertinax bonitas. [source]
Romans 14:5 In his own mind [εν τωι ιδιωι νοι]
Intelligent and honest decision according to the light possessed by each. [source]
Romans 14:14 I know and am persuaded in the Lord Jesus [οιδα και πεπεισμαι εν κυριωι Ιησου]
He knows it and stands persuaded (perfect passive indicative of πειτω — peithō to persuade), but in the sphere of the Lord Jesus (cf. Romans 9:1), not by mere rational processes. [source]
Romans 14:18 Herein [εν τουτωι]
“On the principle implied by these virtues” (Sanday and Headlam). [source]
Romans 14:21 Whereby [εν ωι]
“On which thy brother stumbleth” (προσκοπτει — proskoptei). [source]
Romans 14:22 In that which he approveth [εν οι δοκιμαζει]
This beatitude cuts both ways. After testing and then approving (Romans 1:28; Romans 2:18) one takes his stand which very act may condemn himself by what he says or does. “It is a rare felicity to have a conscience untroubled by scruples” (Denney). [source]
Romans 15:6 With one mouth [εν ενι στοματι]
Vivid outward expression of the unity of feeling. May glorify (δοχαζητε — doxazēte). Present active subjunctive of δοχαζω — doxazō final clause with ινα — hina “that ye may keep on glorifying.” For “the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ” see note on 2 Corinthians 1:3 for discussion; 2 Corinthians 11:31. It occurs also in Ephesians 1:3; 1 Peter 1:3. [source]
Romans 15:13 In believing [εν τωι πιστευειν]
“In the believing” (εν — en with locative of the articular infinitive, the idiom so common in Luke‘s Gospel). [source]
Romans 15:16 Acceptable [ηγιασμενη εν πνευματι αγιωι]
See note on 2 Corinthians 6:2; 2 Corinthians 8:12. Because “sanctified in the Holy Spirit” (αγιαζω — hēgiasmenē en pneumati hagiōi perfect passive participle of hagiazō). [source]
Romans 15:19 In power of signs and wonders [εν δυναμει σημειων και τερατων]
Note all three words as in Hebrews 2:4, only here δυναμις — dunamis is connected with σημεια — sēmeia and τερατα — terata See all three words used of Paul‘s own work in 2 Corinthians 12:12 and in 2 Thessalonians 2:9 of the Man of Sin. See note on 1 Thessalonians 1:5; 1 Corinthians 2:4 for the “power” of the Holy Spirit in Paul‘s preaching. Note repetition of εν δυναμει — en dunamei here with πνευματος αγιου — pneumatos hagiou [source]
Romans 15:23 Having no more any place in these regions [μηκετι τοπον εχων εν τοις κλιμασιν]
Surprising frankness that the average preacher would hardly use on such a matter. Paul is now free to come to Rome because there is no demand for him where he is. For κλιμα — klima (from κλινω — klinō to incline), slope, then tract of land, region, see already 2 Corinthians 11:10; Galatians 1:21 (the only N.T. examples). [source]
Romans 15:27 In carnal things [εν τοις σαρκικοις]
Things which belong to the natural life of the flesh (σαρχ — sarx), not the sinful aspects of the flesh at all. [source]
Romans 15:29 In the fulness of the blessing of Christ [εν πληρωματι ευλογιας Χριστου]
On πληρωματι — plērōmati see Romans 11:12. Paul had already (Romans 1:11.) said that he had a χαρισμα πνευματικον — charisma pneumatikon (spiritual blessing) for Rome. He did bring that to them. [source]
Romans 16:2 In whatsoever matter [εν ωι πραγματι]
Incorporation of the antecedent (πραγματι — pragmati) into the relative clause (ωι — hōi). [source]
Romans 16:7 Among the apostles [εν τοις αποστολοις]
Naturally this means that they are counted among the apostles in the general sense true of Barnabas, James, the brother of Christ, Silas, and others. But it can mean simply that they were famous in the circle of the apostles in the technical sense. [source]
Romans 16:7 Who have been in Christ before me [οι και προ εμου γεγοναν εν Χριστωι]
Andronicus and Junias were converted before Paul was. Note γεγοναν — gegonan (Koiné{[28928]}š form by analogy) instead of the usual second perfect active indicative form γεγονασιν — gegonasin which some MSS. have. The perfect tense notes that they are still in Christ. [source]
Romans 16:16 With a holy kiss [εν πιληματι αγιωι]
The near-east mode of salutation as hand-shaking in the Western. In China one shakes hands with himself. Men kissed men and women kissed women. See note on 1 Thessalonians 5:26; 1 Corinthians 16:20; 2 Corinthians 13:12. [source]
Romans 2:12 Under law [εν νομωι]
In the sphere of the Mosaic law. By the law (δια νομου — dia nomou). The Jew has to stand or fall by the Mosaic law. [source]
Romans 2:15 Written in their hearts [γραπτον εν ταις καρδιαις αυτων]
Verbal adjective of γραπω — graphō to write. When their conduct corresponds on any point with the Mosaic law they practise the unwritten law in their hearts. Their conscience bearing witness therewith (συνμαρτυρουσης αυτων της συνειδησεως — sunmarturousēs autōn tēs suneidēseōs). On conscience (συνειδησις — suneidēsis) see note on 1 Corinthians 8:7; 1 Corinthians 10:25.; 2 Corinthians 1:12. Genitive absolute here with present active participle συνμαρτυρουσης — sunmarturousēs as in Romans 9:1. The word συνειδησις — suneidēsis means Corinthians-knowledge by the side of the original consciousness of the act. This second knowledge is personified as confronting the first (Sanday and Headlam). The Stoics used the word a great deal and Paul has it twenty times. It is not in the O.T., but first in this sense in Wisdom 17:10. All men have this faculty of passing judgment on their actions. It can be over-scrupulous (1 Corinthians 10:25) or “seared” by abuse (1 Timothy 4:12). It acts according to the light it has. Their thoughts one with another accusing or also excusing them Genitive absolute again showing the alternative action of the conscience, now accusing, now excusing. Paul does not say that a heathen‘s conscience always commends everything that he thinks, says, or does. In order for one to be set right with God by his own life he must always act in accord with his conscience and never have its disapproval. That, of course, is impossible else Christ died for naught (Galatians 2:21). Jesus alone lived a sinless life. For one to be saved without Christ he must also live a sinless life. [source]
Romans 2:17 Gloriest in God [καυχασαι εν τεωι]
Koiné{[28928]}š vernacular form for καυχαι — kauchāi (καυχαεσαι καυχασαι — kauchaesaiκαυχαομαι — kauchāsai) of κατακαυχασαι — kauchaomai as in Romans 2:23; 1 Corinthians 4:7 and δοκιμαζεις τα διαπεροντα — katakauchāsai in Romans 11:18. The Jew gloried in God as a national asset and private prerogative (2 Corinthians 10:15; Galatians 6:13). [source]
Romans 2:28 Which is one outwardly [ο εν τωι πανερωι]
Ιουδαιος — Ioudaios (Jew) has to be repeated (ellipse) with the article, “the in the open Jew” (circumcision, phylacteries, tithes, etc.). Likewise repeat περιτομη — peritomē (circumcision). [source]
Romans 2:29 Who is one inwardly [ο εν τωι κρυπτωι]
Repeat Ιουδαιος — Ioudaios (Jew) here also, “the in the inward part Jew” (circumcision of the heart περιτομη καρδιας — peritomē kardias and not a mere surgical operation as in Colossians 2:11, in the spirit εν πνευματι — en pneumati with which compare 2 Corinthians 3:3, 2 Corinthians 3:6). This inward or inside Jew who lives up to his covenant relation with God is the high standard that Paul puts before the merely professional Jew described above. [source]
Romans 3:4 When thou comest into judgement [εν τωι κρινεσται σε]
“In the being judged as to thee” (present passive infinitive or, if taken as middle, “in the entering upon trial as to thee”). Common construction in the lxx from the Hebrew infinitive construct. [source]
Romans 3:7 Through my lie [εν τωι εμωι πσευσματι]
] Old word from πσευδομαι — pseudomai to lie, only here in N.T. Paul returns to the imaginary objection in Romans 3:5. The MSS. differ sharply here between ει δε — ei de (but if) and ει γαρ — ei gar (for if). Paul “uses the first person from motives of delicacy” (Sanday and Headlam) in this supposable case for argument‘s sake as in 1 Corinthians 4:6. So here he “transfers by a fiction” (Field) to himself the objection. [source]
Romans 3:25 Through faith, by his blood [δια πιστεως εν τωι αυτου αιματι]
So probably, connecting εν τοι αιματι — en toi haimati (in his blood) with προετετο — proetheto [source]
Romans 3:26 At this present season [εν τωι νυν καιρωι]
“In the now crisis,” in contrast with “done aforetime.” That he might himself be (εις το ειναι αυτον — eis to einai auton). Purpose with εις — eis to and the infinitive ειναι — einai and the accusative of general reference. Just and the justifier of “This is the key phrase which establishes the connexion between the δικαιοσυνη τεου — dikaiosunē theou and the δικαιοσυνη εκ πιστεως — dikaiosunē ek pisteōs ” (Sanday and Headlam). Nowhere has Paul put the problem of God more acutely or profoundly. To pronounce the unrighteous righteous is unjust by itself (Romans 4:5). God‘s mercy would not allow him to leave man to his fate. God‘s justice demanded some punishment for sin. The only possible way to save some was the propitiatory offering of Christ and the call for faith on man‘s part. [source]
Romans 4:10 When he was in circumcision [εν περιτομηι οντι]
Dative masculine singular of the present active participle of ειμι — eimi “to him being in a state of circumcision or in a state of uncircumcision?” A pertinent point that the average Jew had not noticed. [source]
Romans 5:2 Wherein we stand [εν ηι εστηκαμεν]
Perfect active (intransitive) indicative of ιστημι — histēmi Grace is here present as a field into which we have been introduced and where we stand and we should enjoy all the privileges of this grace about us. [source]
Romans 5:3 But let us also rejoice in our tribulations [αλλα και καυχωμετα εν ταις τλιπσεσιν]
Present middle subjunctive of same verb as in Romans 5:2. Καυχωμαι — Kauchōmai is more than “rejoice,” rather “glory,” “exult.” These three volitive subjunctives (εχωμεν καυχωμετα — echōmenkauchōmetha twice) hold up the high ideal for the Christian after, and because of, his being set right with God. It is one thing to submit to or endure tribulations without complaint, but it is another to find ground of glorying in the midst of them as Paul exhorts here. [source]
Romans 5:11 But also glorying in God [αλλα και καυχωμενοι εν τωι τεωι]
Basis of all the exultation above (Romans 5:1-5). [source]
Romans 6:4 In newness of life [εν καινοτητι ζωης]
The picture in baptism points two ways, backwards to Christ‘s death and burial and to our death to sin (Romans 6:1), forwards to Christ‘s resurrection from the dead and to our new life pledged by the coming out of the watery grave to walk on the other side of the baptismal grave (F. B. Meyer). There is the further picture of our own resurrection from the grave. It is a tragedy that Paul‘s majestic picture here has been so blurred by controversy that some refuse to see it. It should be said also that a symbol is not the reality, but the picture of the reality. [source]
Romans 7:6 Wherein we were holden [εν ωι κατειχομετα]
Imperfect passive of κατεχω — katechō picture of our former state (same verb in Romans 1:18). In newness of spirit (εν καινοτητι πνευματος — en kainotēti pneumatos). The death to the letter of the law (the old husband) has set us free to the new life in Christ. So Paul has shown again the obligation on us to live for Christ. [source]
Romans 7:6 In newness of spirit [εν καινοτητι πνευματος]
The death to the letter of the law (the old husband) has set us free to the new life in Christ. So Paul has shown again the obligation on us to live for Christ. [source]
Romans 7:5 In the flesh [εν τηι σαρκι]
Same sense as in Romans 6:19 and Romans 7:18, Romans 7:25. The “flesh” is not inherently sinful, but is subject to sin. It is what Paul means by being “under the law.” He uses σαρχ — sarx in a good many senses. [source]
Romans 7:8 Wrought in me [κατειργασατο εν εμοι]
First aorist active middle indicative of the intensive verb κατεργαζομαι — katergazomai to work out (to the finish), effective aorist. The command not to lust made me lust more. Dead (νεκρα — nekra). Inactive, not non-existent. Sin in reality was there in a dormant state. [source]
Romans 7:17 But sin that dwelleth in me [αλλ η ενοικουσα εν εμοι αμαρτια]
“But the dwelling in me sin.” Not my true self, my higher personality, but my lower self due to my slavery to indwelling sin. Paul does not mean to say that his whole self has no moral responsibility by using this paradox. “To be saved from sin, a man must at the same time own it and disown it” (Denney). [source]
Romans 7:18 In me [εν εμοι]
Paul explains this by “in my flesh” (εν τηι σαρκι μου — en tēi sarki mou), the unregenerate man “sold under sin” of Romans 7:14. [source]
Romans 8:3 In that [εν ωι]
“Wherein.” It was weak (ηστενει — ēsthenei). Imperfect active, continued weak as already shown. In the likeness of sinful flesh For “likeness” see note on Philemon 2:7, a real man, but more than man for God‘s “own Son.” Two genitives “of flesh of sin” (marked by sin), that is the flesh of man is, but not the flesh of Jesus. And for sin (και περι αμαρτιας — kai peri hamartias). Condensed phrase, God sent his Son also concerning sin (our sin). Condemned sin in the flesh First aorist active indicative of κατακρινω — katakrinō He condemned the sin of men and the condemnation took place in the flesh of Jesus. If the article την — tēn had been repeated before εν τηι σαρκι — en tēi sarki Paul would have affirmed sin in the flesh of Jesus, but he carefully avoided that (Robertson, Grammar, p. 784). [source]
Romans 8:3 In the likeness of sinful flesh [εν ομοιωματι σαρκος αμαρτιας]
For “likeness” see note on Philemon 2:7, a real man, but more than man for God‘s “own Son.” Two genitives “of flesh of sin” (marked by sin), that is the flesh of man is, but not the flesh of Jesus. And for sin (και περι αμαρτιας — kai peri hamartias). Condensed phrase, God sent his Son also concerning sin (our sin). Condemned sin in the flesh First aorist active indicative of κατακρινω — katakrinō He condemned the sin of men and the condemnation took place in the flesh of Jesus. If the article την — tēn had been repeated before εν τηι σαρκι — en tēi sarki Paul would have affirmed sin in the flesh of Jesus, but he carefully avoided that (Robertson, Grammar, p. 784). [source]
Romans 8:3 Condemned sin in the flesh [κατεκρινε την αμαρτιαν εν τηι σαρκι]
First aorist active indicative of κατακρινω — katakrinō He condemned the sin of men and the condemnation took place in the flesh of Jesus. If the article την — tēn had been repeated before εν τηι σαρκι — en tēi sarki Paul would have affirmed sin in the flesh of Jesus, but he carefully avoided that (Robertson, Grammar, p. 784). [source]
Romans 8:9 Not in the flesh [ουκ εν σαρκι]
Not sold under sin (Romans 7:14) any more. [source]
Romans 8:9 But in the spirit [αλλα εν πνευματι]
Probably, “in the Holy Spirit.” It is not Pantheism or Buddhism that Paul here teaches, but the mystical union of the believer with Christ in the Holy Spirit. If so be that (ειπερ — eiper). “If as is the fact” (cf. Romans 3:30). The Spirit of Christ The same as “the Spirit of God” just before. See also Philemon 1:19; 1 Peter 1:11. Incidental argument for the Deity of Christ and probably the meaning of 2 Corinthians 3:18 “the Spirit of the Lord.” Condition of first class, assumed as true. [source]
Romans 8:29 First born among many brethren [πρωτοτοκον εν πολλοις αδελποις]
Christ is “first born” of all creation (Colossians 1:15), but here he is “first born from the dead” (Colossians 1:18), the Eldest Brother in this family of God‘s sons, though “Son” in a sense not true of us. [source]
Romans 9:1 In Christ [εν Χριστωι]
Paul really takes a triple oath here so strongly is he stirred. He makes a positive affirmation in Christ, a negative one (not lying), the appeal to his conscience as Corinthians-witness (συνμαρτυρουσης — sunmarturousēs genitive absolute as in Romans 2:15 which see) “in the Holy Spirit.” [source]
Romans 9:25 In Hosea [εν τωι ωσηε]
He quotes Hosea 2:23 with some freedom. Hosea refers to the ten tribes and Paul applies the principle stated there to the Gentiles. Hosea had a son named Lo-ammi = ου λαος — ou laos So here ο ου λαος μου — ho ou laos mou “the not people of mine.” Ου — Ou with substantives obliterates the meaning of the substantive, an idiom seen in Thucydides and other Greek writers. See also Romans 10:19; 1 Peter 2:10. [source]
1 Corinthians 1:2 Which is in Corinth [τηι ουσηι εν Κοριντωι]
See note on Acts 13:1 for idiom. It is God‘s church even in Corinth, “laetum et ingens paradoxon ” (Bengel). This city, destroyed by Mummius b.c. 146, had been restored by Julius Caesar a hundred years later, b.c. 44, and now after another hundred years has become very rich and very corrupt. The very word “to Corinthianize” meant to practise vile immoralities in the worship of Aphrodite (Venus). It was located on the narrow Isthmus of the Peloponnesus with two harbours (Lechaeum and Cenchreae). It had schools of rhetoric and philosophy and made a flashy imitation of the real culture of Athens. See note on Acts 18:1 for the story of Paul‘s work here and now the later developments and divisions in this church will give Paul grave concern as is shown in detail in I and II Corinthians. All the problems of a modern city church come to the front in Corinth. They call for all the wisdom and statesmanship in Paul. That are sanctified (ηγιασμενοις — hēgiasmenois). Perfect passive participle of αγιαζω — hagiazō late form for αγιζω — hagizō so far found only in the Greek Bible and in ecclesiastical writers. It means to make or to declare αγιον — hagion (from αγος — hagos awe, reverence, and this from αζω — hazō to venerate). It is significant that Paul uses this word concerning the called saints or called to be saints (κλητοις αγιοις — klētois hagiois) in Corinth. Cf. κλητος αποστολος — klētos apostolos in 1 Corinthians 1:1. It is because they are sanctified in Christ Jesus (εν Χριστωι Ιησου — en Christōi Iēsou). He is the sphere in which this act of consecration takes place. Note plural, construction according to sense, because εκκλησια — ekklēsia is a collective substantive. With all that call upon Associative instrumental case with συν — sun rather than και — kai (and), making a close connection with “saints” just before and so giving the Corinthian Christians a picture of their close unity with the brotherhood everywhere through the common bond of faith. This phrase occurs in the lxx (Genesis 12:8; Zec 13:9) and is applied to Christ as to Jehovah (2 Thessalonians 1:7, 2 Thessalonians 1:9, 2 Thessalonians 1:12; Philemon 2:9, Philemon 2:10). Paul heard Stephen pray to Christ as Lord (Acts 7:59). Here “with a plain and direct reference to the Divinity of our Lord” (Ellicott). Their Lord and ours (αυτων και ημων — autōn kai hēmōn). This is the interpretation of the Greek commentators and is the correct one, an afterthought and expansion (επανορτωσις — epanorthōsis) of the previous “our,” showing the universality of Christ. [source]
1 Corinthians 1:4 For the grace of God which was given to you in Christ Jesus [επι τηι χαριτι του τεου τηι δοτεισηι υμιν εν Χριστωι Ιησου]
Upon the basis of (επι — epi) God‘s grace, not in general, but specifically given (δοτεισηι — dotheisēi first aorist passive participle of διδωμι — didōmi), in the sphere of (εν — en as in 1 Corinthians 1:2) Christ Jesus. [source]
1 Corinthians 1:5 Ye were enriched in him [επλουτιστητε εν αυτωι]
First aorist passive indicative of πλουτιζω — ploutizō old causative verb from πλουτος — ploutos wealth, common in Attic writers, dropped out for centuries, reappeared in lxx. In N.T. only three times and alone in Paul (1 Corinthians 1:5; 2 Corinthians 6:10, 2 Corinthians 6:11). The Christian finds his real riches in Christ, one of Paul‘s pregnant phrases full of the truest mysticism. In all utterance and all knowledge (εν παντι λογωι και πασηι γνωσει — en panti logōi kai pasēi gnōsei). One detail in explanation of the riches in Christ. The outward expression (λογωι — logōi) here is put before the inward knowledge (γνωσει — gnōsei) which should precede all speech. But we get at one‘s knowledge by means of his speech. Chapters 1 Corinthians 12-14 throw much light on this element in the spiritual gifts of the Corinthians (the gift of tongues, interpreting tongues, discernment) as summed up in 1 Corinthians 13:1, 1 Corinthians 13:2, the greater gifts of 1 Corinthians 12:31. It was a marvellously endowed church in spite of their perversions. [source]
1 Corinthians 1:5 In all utterance and all knowledge [εν παντι λογωι και πασηι γνωσει]
One detail in explanation of the riches in Christ. The outward expression (λογωι — logōi) here is put before the inward knowledge (γνωσει — gnōsei) which should precede all speech. But we get at one‘s knowledge by means of his speech. Chapters 1 Corinthians 12-14 throw much light on this element in the spiritual gifts of the Corinthians (the gift of tongues, interpreting tongues, discernment) as summed up in 1 Corinthians 13:1, 1 Corinthians 13:2, the greater gifts of 1 Corinthians 12:31. It was a marvellously endowed church in spite of their perversions. [source]
1 Corinthians 1:6 Was confirmed in you [εβεβαιωτη εν υμιν]
First aorist passive of βεβαιοω — bebaioō old verb from βεβαιος — bebaios and that from βαινω — bainō to make to stand, to make stable. These special gifts of the Holy Spirit which they had so lavishly received (ch. 1 Corinthians 12) were for that very purpose. [source]
1 Corinthians 1:7 So that ye come behind in no gift [ωστε υμας μη υστερεισται εν μηδενι χαρισματι]
Consecutive clause with ωστε — hōste and the infinitive and the double negative. Come behind (υστερεισται — hustereisthai) is to be late (υστερος — husteros), old verb seen already in Mark 10:21; Matthew 19:20. It is a wonderful record here recorded. But in 2 Corinthians 8:7-11; 2 Corinthians 9:1-7 Paul will have to complain that they have not paid their pledges for the collection, pledges made over a year before, a very modern complaint. [source]
1 Corinthians 1:30 In Christ Jesus [εν Χριστωι Ιησου]
In the sphere of Christ Jesus the choice was made. This is God‘s wisdom. Who was made unto us wisdom from God (ος εγενητη σοπια ημιν απο τεου — hos egenēthē sophia hēmin apo theou). Note εγενητη — egenēthē became (first aorist passive and indicative), not ην — ēn was, the Incarnation, Cross, and Resurrection. Christ is the wisdom of God (1 Corinthians 2:2.) “both righteousness and sanctification and redemption” (δικαιοσυνη τε και αγιασμος και απολυτρωσις — dikaiosunē te kai hagiasmos kai apolutrōsis), as is made plain by the use of τεκαικαι — tė̇kai̇̇kai The three words (δικαιοσυνη αγιασμοσ απολυτρωσις — dikaiosunēσοπια — hagiasmosδικαιοσυνη — apolutrōsis) are thus shown to be an epexegesis of απολυτρωσις — sophia (Lightfoot). All the treasures of wisdom and knowledge in Christ Jesus. We are made righteous, holy, and redeemed in Christ Jesus. Redemption comes here last for emphasis though the foundation of the other two. In Romans 1:17 we see clearly Paul‘s idea of the God kind of righteousness (αγιασμος — dikaiosunē) in Christ. In Romans 3:24 we have Paul‘s conception of redemption (apolutrōsis setting free as a ransomed slave) in Christ. In Romans 6:19 we have Paul‘s notion of holiness or sanctification (hagiasmos) in Christ. These great theological terms will call for full discussion in Romans, but they must not be overlooked here. See also Acts 10:35; Acts 24:25; 1 Thessalonians 4:3-7; 1 Corinthians 1:2. [source]
1 Corinthians 10:5 With most of them [εν τοις πλειοσιν αυτων]
“A mournful understatement,” for only two (Caleb and Joshua) actually reached the Promised Land (Numbers 14:30-32). All the rest were rejected or αδοκιμοι — adokimoi (1 Corinthians 9:27). [source]
1 Corinthians 10:2 Were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea [παντες εις τον Μωυσην εβαπτισαντο εν τηι νεπεληι και εν τηι ταλασσηι]
The picture is plain enough. The mystic cloud covered the people while the sea rose in walls on each side of them as they marched across. B K L P read εβαπτισαντο — ebaptisanto (causative first aorist middle, got themselves baptized) while Aleph A C D have εβαπτιστησαν — ebaptisthēsan (first aorist passive, were baptized). The immersion was complete for all of them in the sea around them and the cloud over them. Moses was their leader then as Christ is now and so Paul uses εις — eis concerning the relation of the Israelites to Moses as he does of our baptism in relation to Christ (Galatians 3:27). [source]
1 Corinthians 10:17 One body [εν σωμα]
Here the mystical spiritual body of Christ as in 1 Corinthians 12:12., the spiritual kingdom or church of which Christ is head (Colossians 1:18; Ephesians 5:23). [source]
1 Corinthians 10:25 In the shambles [εν μακελλωι]
Only here in N.T. A transliterated Latin word macellum, possibly akin to μαχερια — maceria and the Hebrew word for enclosure, though occurring in Ionic and Laconian and more frequent in the Latin. It occurs in Dio Cassius and Plutarch and in the papyri and inscriptions for “the provision market.” Deissmann (Light from the Ancient East, p. 276) says: “In the Macellum at Pompeii we can imagine to ourselves the poor Christians buying their modest pound of meat in the Corinthian Macellum (1 Corinthians 10:25), with the same life-like reality with which the Diocletian maximum tariff called up the picture of the Galilean woman purchasing her five sparrows.” [source]
1 Corinthians 11:11 In the Lord [εν Κυριωι]
In the sphere of the Lord, where Paul finds the solution of all problems. [source]
1 Corinthians 11:5 One and the same thing as if she were shaven [εν και το αυτο τηι εχυρημενηι]
Literally, “One and the same thing with the one shaven” (associative instrumental case again, Robertson, Grammar, p. 530). Perfect passive articular participle of the verb χυραω — xuraō later form for the old χυρεω — xureō It is public praying and prophesying that the Apostle here has in mind. He does not here condemn the act, but the breach of custom which would bring reproach. A woman convicted of adultery had her hair shorn (Isaiah 7:20). The Justinian code prescribed shaving the head for an adulteress whom the husband refused to receive after two years. Paul does not tell Corinthian Christian women to put themselves on a level with courtesans. [source]
1 Corinthians 11:18 When ye come together in the church [συνερχομενων ημων εν εκκλησιαι]
Genitive absolute. Here εκκλησια — ekklēsia has the literal meaning of assembly. Divisions (σχισματα — schismata). Accusative of general reference with the infinitive υπαρχειν — huparchein in indirect discourse. Old word for cleft, rent, from σχιζω — schizō Example in papyri for splinter of wood. See note on 1 Corinthians 1:10. Not yet formal cleavages into two or more organizations, but partisan divisions that showed in the love-feasts and at the Lord‘s Supper. Partly Accusative of extent (to some part) like παντα — panta in 1 Corinthians 10:33. He could have said εκ μερους — ek merous as in 1 Corinthians 13:9. The rumours of strife were so constant (I keep on hearing, ακουω — akouō). [source]
1 Corinthians 11:34 At home [εν οικωι]
If so hungry as all that (1 Corinthians 11:22). [source]
1 Corinthians 12:3 Speaking in the Spirit of God [εν πνευματι τεου λαλων]
Either sphere or instrumentality. No great distinction here between λαλεω — laleō (utter sounds) and λεγω — legō (to say). Jesus is anathema (ανατεμα Ιησους — anathema Iēsous). On distinction between ανατεμα — anathema (curse) and ανατημα — anathēma (offering, Luke 21:5) see discussion. In lxx ανατημα — anathēma means a thing devoted to God without being redeemed, doomed to destruction (Leviticus 27:28f.; Joshua 6:17; 7:12). See note on 1 Corinthians 16:22; note. on Galatians 1:8; note on Romans 9:3. This blasphemous language against Jesus was mainly by the Jews (Acts 13:45; Acts 18:6). It is even possible that Paul had once tried to make Christians say Ανατεμα Ιησους — Anathema Iēsous (Acts 26:11). Jesus is Lord The term Κυριος — Kurios as we have seen, is common in the lxx for God. The Romans used it freely for the emperor in the emperor worship. “Most important of all is the early establishment of a polemical parallelism between the cult of Christ and the cult of Caesar in the application of the term Κυριος — Kurios ‹lord.‘The new texts have here furnished quite astonishing revelations” (Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East, p. 349). Inscriptions, ostraca, papyri apply the term to Roman emperors, particularly to Nero when Paul wrote this very letter (ib., p. 353f.): “One with ‹Nero Kurios‘ quite in the manner of a formula (without article, like the ‹Kurios Jesus‘ in 1 Corinthians 12:3.” “The battle-cries of the spirits of error and of truth contending at Corinth” (Findlay). One is reminded of the demand made by Polycarp that he say Κυριος Χαεσαρ — Kurios Caesar and how each time he replied Κυριος Ιησους — Kurios Iēsous He paid the penalty for his loyalty with his life. Lighthearted men today can say “Lord Jesus” in a flippant or even in an irreverent way, but no Jew or Gentile then said it who did not mean it. [source]
1 Corinthians 12:6 Who worketh all things in all [ο ενεργων τα παντα εν πασιν]
Paul is not afraid to say that God is the Energy and the Energizer of the Universe. “I say that the magnet floats in space by the will of God” (Dr. W. R. Whitney, a world figure in science). This is his philosophic and scientific theory of the Cosmos. No one has shown Paul‘s philosophy and science to be wrong. Here he is speaking only of spiritual gifts and results as a whole, but he applies this principle to the universe Note the Trinity in these verses: the same Spirit (1 Corinthians 12:4), the same Lord (Jesus) in 1 Corinthians 12:5, the same God (the Father) in 1 Corinthians 12:6. [source]
1 Corinthians 12:13 Were we all baptized into one body [ημεις παντες εις εν σωμα εβαπτιστημεν]
First aorist passive indicative of βαπτιζω — baptizō and so a reference to a definite past event with each of them of different races, nations, classes, when each of them put on the outward badge of service to Christ, the symbol of the inward changes already wrought in them by the Holy Spirit (Galatians 3:27; Romans 6:2.). [source]
1 Corinthians 12:13 And were all made to drink of one Spirit [και παντες εν πνευμα εποτιστημεν]
First aorist passive indicative of ποτιζω — potizō old verb, to give to drink. The accusative εν πνευμα — hen pneuma is retained in the passive as often with verbs that in the active take two accusatives. The reference is to a definite act in the past, probably to the inward experience of the Holy Spirit symbolized by the act of baptism. [source]
1 Corinthians 12:14 Is not one member [ουκ εστιν εν μελος]
The point sounds like a truism, but it is the key to the whole problem of church life both local and general. Vincent refers to the fable of the body and the members by Menenius Agrippa (Livy, II, 32), but it was an old parable. Socrates pointed out how absurd it would be if feet and hands should work against one another when God made them to cooperate (Xen., Mem. II. iii. 18). Seneca alludes to it as does Marcus Aurelius and Marcus Antoninus. [source]
1 Corinthians 12:19 One member [εν μελος]
Paul applies the logic of 1 Corinthians 12:17 to any member of the body. The application to members of the church is obvious. It is particularly pertinent in the case of a “church boss.” [source]
1 Corinthians 12:20 Many members, but one body [πολλα μελη εν δε σωμα]
The argument in a nutshell, in one epigram. [source]
1 Corinthians 13:12 Darkly [εν αινιγματι]
Literally, in an enigma. Old word from αινισσομαι — ainissomai to express obscurely. This is true of all ancient mirrors. Here only in N.T., but often in lxx. “To see a friend‘s face in a cheap mirror would be very different from looking at the friend” (Robertson and Plummer). Face to face (προσωπον προς προσωπον — prosōpon pros prosōpon). Note triple use of προς — pros which means facing one as in John 1:1. Προσωπον — Prosōpon is old word from προς — pros and οπς — ops eye, face. Shall I know I shall fully (επι — epi̇) know. Future middle indicative as γινωσκω — ginōskō (I know) is present active and επεγνωστην — epegnōsthēn (I was fully known) is first aorist passive (all three voices). [source]
1 Corinthians 14:11 Unto me [εν εμοι]
In my case, almost like a dative. [source]
1 Corinthians 14:19 Howbeit in church [αλλα εν εκκλησιαι]
Private ecstasy is one thing (cf. 2 Corinthians 12:1-9) but not in church worship. [source]
1 Corinthians 14:21 In the law it is written [εν τωι νομωι γεγραπται]
Isaiah 28:11. Freely quoted. [source]
1 Corinthians 14:25 That God is among you indeed [οτι οντως εν υμιν εστιν]
Recitative οτι — hoti and direct quotation from Isaiah 45:15 (Hebrew rather than the lxx). “Really (οντως — ontōs Luke 24:34) God is in you.” [source]
1 Corinthians 14:28 Keep silence in church [σιγατω εν εκκλησιαι]
Linear action (present active imperative). He is not even to speak in a tongue once. He can indulge his private ecstasy with God. [source]
1 Corinthians 14:33 As in all the churches of the saints [ως εν πασαις ταις εκκλησιαις των αγιων]
Orderly reverence is a mark of the churches. This is a proper conclusion of his argument as in 1 Corinthians 11:16. [source]
1 Corinthians 15:3 First of all [εν πρωτοις]
Among first things. In primis. Not to time, but to importance. [source]
1 Corinthians 14:34 Keep silence in the churches [εν ταις εκκλησιαις σιγατωσαν]
The same verb used about the disorders caused by speakers in tongues (1 Corinthians 14:28) and prophets (1 Corinthians 14:30). For some reason some of the women were creating disturbance in the public worship by their dress (1 Corinthians 11:2-16) and now by their speech. There is no doubt at all as to Paul‘s meaning here. In church the women are not allowed to speak He calls it a shame Certainly women are still in subjection But somehow modern Christians have concluded that Paul‘s commands on this subject, even 1 Timothy 2:12, were meant for specific conditions that do not apply wholly now. Women do most of the teaching in our Sunday schools today. It is not easy to draw the line. The daughters of Philip were prophetesses. It seems clear that we need to be patient with each other as we try to understand Paul‘s real meaning here. [source]
1 Corinthians 15:12 How say some among you? [πως λεγουσιν εν υμιν τινεσ]
The question springs naturally from the proof of the fact of the resurrection of Christ (1 Corinthians 15:1-11) and the continual preaching which Paul here assumes by condition of the first class There were sceptics in Corinth, possibly in the church, who denied the resurrection of dead people just as some men today deny that miracles happen or ever did happen. Paul‘s answer is the resurrection of Christ as a fact. It all turns on this fact. [source]
1 Corinthians 15:17 Ye are yet in your sins [ετι εστε εν ταις αμαρτιαις υμων]
Because the death of Christ has no atoning value if he did not rise from the dead. In that case he was only a man like other men and did not die for our sins (1 Corinthians 15:3). [source]
1 Corinthians 15:23 At his coming [εν τηι παρουσιαι]
The word παρουσια — parousia was the technical word “for the arrival or visit of the king or emperor” and can be traced from the Ptolemaic period into the second century a.d. (Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East, p. 368). “Advent-coins were struck after a parousia of the emperor.” Paul is only discussing “those that are Christ‘s” (1 Corinthians 3:23; Galatians 5:24) and so says nothing about judgment (cf. 1 Thessalonians 2:19; 1 Thessalonians 3:13; 1 Thessalonians 4:15; 1 Thessalonians 5:23). [source]
1 Corinthians 15:28 That God may be all in all [ινα ηι ο τεος παντα εν πασιν]
The final goal of all God‘s redemptive plans as Paul has so well said in Romans 11:36. Precisely this language Paul will use of Christ (Colossians 3:11). [source]
1 Corinthians 15:32 If I fought with wild beasts at Ephesus [ει ετηριομαχησα εν Επεσωι]
Late verb from τηριομαχος — thēriomachos a fighter with wild beasts. Found in inscriptions and in Ignatius. Those who argue for an Ephesian imprisonment for Paul and Ephesus as the place where he wrote the imprisonment epistles (see Duncan‘s book just mentioned) take the verb literally. There is in the ruins of Ephesus now a place called St. Paul‘s Prison. But Paul was a Roman citizen and it was unlawful to make such a one be a τηριομαχος — thēriomachos If he were cast to the lions unlawfully, he could have prevented it by claiming his citizenship. Besides, shortly after this Paul wrote II Corinthians, but he does not mention so unusual a peril in the list in 2 Corinthians 11:23. The incident, whatever it was, whether literal or figurative language, took place before Paul wrote I Corinthians. What doth it profit me? (τι μοι το οπελοσ — ti moi to opheloṡ). What the profit to me? Let us eat and drink Volitive second aorist subjunctives of εστιω — esthiō and πινω — pinō Cited from Isaiah 22:13. It is the outcry of the people of Jerusalem during the siege of Jerusalem by the Assyrians. At Anchiale near Tarsus is a statue of Sardanapalus with the inscription: “Eat, drink, enjoy thyself. The rest is nothing.” This was the motto of the Epicureans. Paul is not giving his own view, but that of people who deny the resurrection. [source]
1 Corinthians 15:41 For one star differeth from another star in glory [αστηρ γαρ αστερος διαπερει εν δοχηι]
A beautiful illustration of Paul‘s point. Αστερος — Asteros is the ablative case after διαπερει — diapherei (old verb διαπερω — diapherō Latin differo, our differ, bear apart). On αστηρ — astēr see Matthew 2:7 and on αστρον — astron see Luke 21:25. Stars differ in magnitude and brilliancy. The telescope has added more force to Paul‘s argument. [source]
1 Corinthians 15:41 In glory [εν δοχηι]
Old word from δοκεω — dokeō to think, to seem. So opinion, estimate, then the shekinah glory of God in the lxx, glory in general. It is one of the great words of the N.T. Jesus is termed the glory in James 2:1. [source]
1 Corinthians 15:42 In incorruption [εν απταρσιαι]
Late word from α — a privative and πτειρω — phtheirō to corrupt. In lxx, Plutarch, Philo, late papyrus of a Gnostic gospel, and quotation from Epicurus. Vulgate incorruptio. The resurrection body has undergone a complete change as compared with the body of flesh like the plant from the seed. It is related to it, but it is a different body of glory. [source]
1 Corinthians 15:43 In weakness [εν αστενειαι]
Lack of strength as shown in the victory of death. [source]
1 Corinthians 15:43 In power [εν δυναμει]
Death can never conquer this new body, “conformed to the body of His glory” (Philemon 3:21). [source]
1 Corinthians 15:52 In a moment [εν ατομωι]
Old word, from α — a privative and τεμνω — temnō to cut, indivisible: Scientific word for atom which was considered indivisible, but that was before the day of electrons and protons. Only here in N.T. [source]
1 Corinthians 15:52 In the twinkling of an eye [εν ριπηι οπταλμου]
Old word ριπη — ripē from ριπτω — riptō to throw. Only here in N.T. Used by the Greeks for the flapping of a wing, the buzz of a gnat, the quivering of a harp, the twinkling of a star. At the last trump (εν τηι εσχατηι σαλπιγγι — en tēi eschatēi salpiggi). Symbolical, of course. See 1 Thessalonians 4:16; note on Matthew 24:31. [source]
1 Corinthians 15:52 At the last trump [εν τηι εσχατηι σαλπιγγι]
Symbolical, of course. See 1 Thessalonians 4:16; note on Matthew 24:31. [source]
1 Corinthians 16:7 Now by the way [αρτι εν παροδωι]
Like our “by the way” (παροδος — parodos), incidentally. [source]
1 Corinthians 16:20 With a holy kiss [εν πιληματι αγιωι]
In the synagogue men kissed men and women kissed women. This was the Christian custom at a later date and apparently so here. See note on 1 Thessalonians 5:26; note on 2 Corinthians 13:12; Romans 3:8; 1 Peter 5:14. It seems never to have been promiscuous between the sexes. [source]
1 Corinthians 2:2 For I determined not to know anything among you [ου γαρ εκρινα τι ειδεναι εν υμιν]
Literally, “For I did not decide to know anything among you.” The negative goes with εκρινα — ekrina not with τι — ti Paul means that he did not think it fit or his business to know anything for his message beyond this “mystery of God.” [source]
1 Corinthians 2:4 Not in persuasive words of wisdom [ουκ εν πιτοις σοπιας λογοις]
This looks like a false disclaimer or mock modesty, for surely the preacher desires to be persuasive. This adjective πιτος — pithos (MSS. πειτος — peithos) has not yet been found elsewhere. It seems to be formed directly from πειτω — peithō to persuade, as πειδος — pheidos (πιδος — phidos) is from πειδομαι — pheidomai to spare. The old Greek form πιτανος — pithanos is common enough and is used by Josephus (Ant. VIII. 9. 1) of “the plausible words of the lying prophet” in 1 Kings 13. The kindred word πιτανολογια — pithanologia occurs in Colossians 2:4 for the specious and plausible Gnostic philosophers. And gullible people are easy marks for these plausible pulpiteers. Corinth put a premium on the veneer of false rhetoric and thin thinking. [source]
1 Corinthians 2:4 But in demonstration [αλλ εν αποδειχει]
In contrast with the plausibility just mentioned. This word, though an old one from αποδεικνυμι — apodeiknumi to show forth, occurs nowhere else in the New Testament. Spirit (πνευμα — pneuma) here can be the Holy Spirit or inward spirit as opposed to superficial expression and power (δυναμις — dunamis) is moral power rather than intellectual acuteness (cf. 1 Corinthians 1:18). [source]
1 Corinthians 2:7 God‘s wisdom in a mystery [τεου σοπιαν εν μυστηριωι]
Two points are here sharply made. It is God‘s wisdom (note emphatic position of the genitive τεου — theou) in contrast to the wisdom of this age. Every age of the world has a conceit of its own and it is particularly true of this twentieth century, but God‘s wisdom is eternal and superior to the wisdom of any age or time. God‘s wisdom is alone absolute. See note on 1 Corinthians 2:1 for mystery. It is not certain whether in a mystery is to be taken with wisdom or we speak. The result does not differ greatly, probably with wisdom, so long a secret and now at last revealed (Colossians 1:26; 2 Thessalonians 2:7). [source]
1 Corinthians 2:6 Among the perfect [εν τοις τελειοις]
Paul is not here drawing a distinction between exoteric and esoteric wisdom as the Gnostics did for their initiates, but simply to the necessary difference in teaching for babes (1 Corinthians 3:1) and adults or grown men (common use of τελειος — teleios for relative perfection, for adults, as is in 1 Corinthians 14:20; Philemon 3:15; Ephesians 4:13; Hebrews 5:14). Some were simply old babes and unable in spite of their years to digest solid spiritual food, “the ample teaching as to the Person of Christ and the eternal purpose of God. Such ‹wisdom‘ we have in the Epistles to the Ephesians and the Colossians especially, and in a less degree in the Epistle to the Romans. This ‹wisdom‘ is discerned in the Gospel of John, as compared with the other Evangelists” (Lightfoot). These imperfect disciples Paul wishes to develop into spiritual maturity. [source]
1 Corinthians 2:11 The Spirit of God [το εν αυτωι]
Note the absence of Πνευμα — to en autōi It is not the mere self-consciousness of God, but the personal Holy Spirit in his relation to God the Father. Paul‘s analogy between the spirit of man and the Spirit of God does not hold clear through and he guards it at this vital point as he does elsewhere as in Romans 8:26 and in the full Trinitarian benediction in 2 Corinthians 13:13. Pneuma in itself merely means breath or wind as in John 3:8. To know accurately Paul‘s use of the word in every instance calls for an adequate knowledge of his theology, and psychology. But the point here is plain. God‘s Holy Spirit is amply qualified to make the revelation claimed here in 1 Corinthians 2:6-10. [source]
1 Corinthians 2:13 Not in words which man‘s wisdom teacheth [ουκ εν διδακτοις αντρωπινης σοπιας λογοις]
Literally, “not in words taught by human wisdom.” The verbal adjective διδακτοις — didaktois (from διδασκω — didaskō to teach) is here passive in idea and is followed by the ablative case of origin or source as in John 6:45, εσονται παντες διδακτοι τεου — esontai pantes didaktoi theou (from Isaiah 54:13), “They shall all be taught by God.” The ablative in Greek, as is well known, has the same form as the genitive, though quite different in idea (Robertson, Grammar, p. 516). So then Paul claims the help of the Holy Spirit in the utterance Clearly Paul means that the help of the Holy Spirit in the utterance of the revelation extends to the words. No theory of inspiration is here stated, but it is not mere human wisdom. Paul‘s own Epistles bear eloquent witness to the lofty claim here made. They remain today after nearly nineteen centuries throbbing with the power of the Spirit of God, dynamic with life for the problems of today as when Paul wrote them for the needs of the believers in his time, the greatest epistles of all time, surcharged with the energy of God. Comparing spiritual things with spiritual (πνευματικοις πνευματικα συνκρινοντες — pneumatikois pneumatika sunkrinontes). Each of these words is in dispute. The verb συνκρινω — sunkrinō originally meant to combine, to join together fitly. In the lxx it means to interpret dreams (Genesis 40:8, 22; 41:12) possibly by comparison. In the later Greek it may mean to compare as in 2 Corinthians 10:12. In the papyri Moulton and Milligan (Vocabulary) give it only for “decide,” probably after comparing. But “comparing,” in spite of the translations, does not suit well here. So it is best to follow the original meaning to combine as do Lightfoot and Ellicott. But what gender is πνευματικοις — pneumatikois Is it masculine or neuter like πνευματικα — pneumatika If masculine, the idea would be “interpreting (like lxx) spiritual truths to spiritual persons” or “matching spiritual truths with spiritual persons.” This is a possible rendering and makes good sense in harmony with 1 Corinthians 2:14. If πνευματικοις — pneumatikois be taken as neuter plural (associative instrumental case after συν — sun in συνκρινοντες — sunkrinontes), the idea most naturally would be, “combining spiritual ideas (πνευματικα — pneumatika) with spiritual words” (πνευματικοις — pneumatikois). This again makes good sense in harmony with the first part of 1 Corinthians 2:13. On the whole this is the most natural way to take it, though various other possibilities exist. [source]
1 Corinthians 3:8 Are one [εν εισιν]
The neuter singular again (εν — hen not εις — heis) as with the interrogative τι — ti and the indefinite τι — ti By this bold metaphor which Paul expands he shows how the planter and the waterer work together. If no one planted, the watering would be useless. If no one watered, the planting would come to naught as the dreadful drouth of 1930 testifies while these words are written. [source]
1 Corinthians 3:13 It is revealed in fire [εν πυρι αποκαλυπτεται]
Apparently “the day” is the subject of the verb, not the work, not the Lord. See 2 Thessalonians 1:8; 2 Thessalonians 2:8. This metaphor of fire was employed in the O.T. (Daniel 7:9.; Malachi 4:1) and by John the Baptist (Matthew 3:12; Luke 3:16.). It is a metaphor that must not be understood as purgatorial, but simple testing (Ellicott) as every fire tests (the fire itself will test, το πυρ αυτο δοκιμασει — to pur auto dokimasei) the quality of the material used in the building, of what sort it is (οποιον εστιν — hopoion estin), qualitative relative pronoun. Men today find, alas, that some of the fireproof buildings are not fireproof when the fire actually comes. [source]
1 Corinthians 3:16 Dwelleth in you [εν υμιν οικει]
The Spirit of God makes his home (οικει — oikei) in us, not in temples made with hands (Acts 7:48; Acts 17:24). [source]
1 Corinthians 3:21 Wherefore let no one glory in men [ωστε μηδεις καυχαστω εν αντρωποις]
The conclusion The spirit of glorying in party is a species of self-conceit and inconsistent with glorying in the Lord (1 Corinthians 1:31). [source]
1 Corinthians 4:4 Am I not hereby justified [ουκ εν τουτωι δεδικαιωμαι]
Perfect passive indicative of state of completion. Failure to be conscious of one‘s own sins does not mean that one is innocent. Most prisoners plead “not guilty.” Who is the judge of the steward of the mysteries of God? It is the Lord “that judgeth me” Probably, who examines me and then passes on my fidelity (πιστος — pistos in 1 Corinthians 4:2). [source]
1 Corinthians 4:6 That in us ye may learn [ινα εν ημιν ματητε]
Final clause with ινα — hina and the second aorist active subjunctive of μαντανω — manthanō to learn. As an object lesson in our cases It is no more true of Paul and Apollos than of other ministers, but the wrangles in Corinth started about them. So Paul boldly puts himself and Apollos to the fore in the discussion of the principles involved. Not to go beyond the things which are written (το Μη υπερ α γεγραπται — to Mē huper ha gegraptai). It is difficult to reproduce the Greek idiom in English. The article το — to is in the accusative case as the object of the verb ματητε — mathēte (learn) and points at the words “Μη υπερ α γεγραπται — Mē huper ha gegraptai apparently a proverb or rule, and elliptical in form with no principal verb expressed with μη — mē whether “think” (Auth.) or “go” (Revised). There was a constant tendency to smooth out Paul‘s ellipses as in 2 Thessalonians 2:3; 1 Corinthians 1:26, 1 Corinthians 1:31. Lightfoot thinks that Paul may have in mind O.T. passages quoted in 1 Corinthians 1:19, 1 Corinthians 1:31; 1 Corinthians 3:19, 1 Corinthians 3:20. That ye be not puffed up Sub-final use of ινα — hina (second use in this sentence) with notion of result. It is not certain whether πυσιουστε — phusiousthe (late verb form like πυσιαω πυσαω — phusiaōινα — phusaō to blow up, to inflate, to puff up), used only by Paul in the N.T., is present indicative with ζηλουτε — hina like ινα γινωσκομεν — zēloute in Galatians 4:17 (cf. Πυσιοω — hina ginōskomen in 1 John 5:20) or the present subjunctive by irregular contraction (Robertson, Grammar, pp. 203, 342f.), probably the present indicative. πυσις — Phusioō is from πυσαω — phusis (nature) and so meant to make natural, but it is used by Paul just like πυσιαω — phusaō or πυσα — phusiaō (from εις υπερ του ενος κατα του ετερου — phusa a pair of bellows), a vivid picture of self-conceit. One for the one against the other (υπερ — heis huper tou henos kata tou heterou). This is the precise idea of this idiom of partitive apposition. This is the rule with partisans. They are “for” (κατα — huper) the one and “against” (του ετερου — kata down on, the genitive case) the other (ετεροδοχ — tou heterou not merely another or a second, but the different sort, heterodox). [source]
1 Corinthians 4:17 In every church [εν πασηι εκκλησιαι]
Paul expects his teachings and practices to be followed in every church (1 Corinthians 14:33). Note his language here “my ways those in Christ Jesus.” Timothy as Paul‘s spokesman will remind (αναμνησει — anamnēsei) the Corinthians of Paul‘s teachings. [source]
1 Corinthians 4:21 With a rod [εν ραβδωι]
The so-called instrumental use of εν — en like the Hebrew (1 Samuel 17:43). The shepherd leaned on his rod, staff, walking stick. The paedagogue had his rod also. [source]
1 Corinthians 5:1 As is not even among the Gentiles [ητις ουδε εν τοις ετνεσιν]
Height of scorn. The Corinthian Christians were actually trying to win pagans to Christ and living more loosely than the Corinthian heathen among whom the very word “Corinthianize” meant to live in sexual wantonness and license. See Cicero pro Cluentio, v. 14. That one of you hath his father‘s wife (ωστε γυναικα τινα του πατρος εχειν — hōste gunaika tina tou patros echein). “So as (usual force of ωστε — hōste) for one to go on having (εχειν — echein present infinitive) a wife of the (his) father.” It was probably a permanent union (concubine or mistress) of some kind without formal marriage like John 4:8. The woman probably was not the offender‘s mother (step-mother) and the father may have been dead or divorced. The Jewish law prescribed stoning for this crime (Leviticus 18:8; Leviticus 22:11; Deuteronomy 22:30). But the rabbis (Rabbi Akibah) invented a subterfuge in the case of a proselyte to permit such a relation. Perhaps the Corinthians had also learned how to split hairs over moral matters in such an evil atmosphere and so to condone this crime in one of their own members. Expulsion Paul had urged in 2 Thessalonians 3:6 for such offenders. [source]
1 Corinthians 5:8 With the leaven of malice and wickedness [εν ζυμηι κακιας και πονηριας]
Vicious disposition and evil deed. With the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth (εν αζυμοις ειλικρινιας και αλητειας — en azumois eilikrinias kai alētheias). No word for “bread.” The plural of αζυμοις — azumois may suggest “elements” or “loaves.” Ειλικρινια — Eilikrinia (sincerity) does not occur in the ancient Greek and is rare in the later Greek. In the papyri it means probity in one example. The etymology is uncertain. Boisacq inclines to the notion of ειλη — heilē or ελη — helē sunlight, and κρινω — krinō to judge by the light of the sun, holding up to the light. Αλητεια — Alētheia (truth) is a common word from αλητης — alēthēs (true) and this from α — a privative and λητω — lēthō (λατειν λαντανω — latheinlanthanō to conceal or hide) and so unconcealed, not hidden. The Greek idea of truth is out in the open. Note Romans 1:18 where Paul pictures those who are holding down the truth in unrighteousness. [source]
1 Corinthians 5:8 With the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth [εν αζυμοις ειλικρινιας και αλητειας]
No word for “bread.” The plural of αζυμοις — azumois may suggest “elements” or “loaves.” Ειλικρινια — Eilikrinia (sincerity) does not occur in the ancient Greek and is rare in the later Greek. In the papyri it means probity in one example. The etymology is uncertain. Boisacq inclines to the notion of ειλη — heilē or ελη — helē sunlight, and κρινω — krinō to judge by the light of the sun, holding up to the light. Αλητεια — Alētheia (truth) is a common word from αλητης — alēthēs (true) and this from α — a privative and λητω — lēthō (λατειν λαντανω — latheinlanthanō to conceal or hide) and so unconcealed, not hidden. The Greek idea of truth is out in the open. Note Romans 1:18 where Paul pictures those who are holding down the truth in unrighteousness. [source]
1 Corinthians 5:9 I wrote unto you in my epistle [εγραπσα υμιν εν τηι επιστοληι]
Not the epistolary aorist, but a reference to an epistle to the Corinthians earlier than this one (our First Corinthians), one not preserved to us. What a “find” it would be if a bundle of papyri in Egypt should give it back to us? [source]
1 Corinthians 6:16 One body [εν σωμα]
With the harlot. That union is for the harlot the same as with the wife. The words quoted from Genesis 2:24 describing the sexual union of husband and wife, are also quoted and explained by Jesus in Matthew 19:5. which see for discussion of the translation Hebraism with use of εις — eis [source]
1 Corinthians 6:17 One spirit [εν πνευμα]
With the Lord, the inner vital spiritual union with the Lord Jesus (Ephesians 4:4; Ephesians 5:30). [source]
1 Corinthians 6:20 Glorify God therefore in your body [δοχασατε δη τον τεον εν τωι σωματι υμων]
Passionate conclusion to his powerful argument against sexual uncleanness. Δη — Dē is a shortened form of ηδη — ēdē and is an urgent inferential particle. See note on Luke 2:15. Paul holds to his high ideal of the destiny of the body and urges glorifying God in it. Some of the later Christians felt that Paul‘s words could be lightened a bit by adding “and in your spirits which are his,” but these words are found only in late MSS. and are clearly not genuine. Paul‘s argument stands four-square for the dignity of the body as the sanctuary of the Holy Spirit united to the Lord Jesus. [source]
1 Corinthians 7:14 Is sanctified in the wife [ηγιασται εν τηι γυναικι]
Perfect passive indicative of αγιαζω — hagiazō to set apart, to hallow, to sanctify. Paul does not, of course, mean that the unbelieving husband is saved by the faith of the believing wife, though Hodge actually so interprets him. Clearly he only means that the marriage relation is sanctified so that there is no need of a divorce. If either husband or wife is a believer and the other agrees to remain, the marriage is holy and need not be set aside. This is so simple that one wonders at the ability of men to get confused over Paul‘s language. [source]
1 Corinthians 7:15 But God hath called us in peace [εν δε ειρηνηι κεκληκεν ημας]
Perfect active indicative of καλεω — kaleō permanent call in the sphere or atmosphere of peace. He does not desire enslavement in the marriage relation between the believer and the unbeliever. [source]
1 Corinthians 8:4 No idol is anything in the world [ουδεν ειδωλον εν κοσμωι]
Probably correct translation, though no copula is expressed. On ειδωλον — eidōlon (from ειδος — eidos), old word, see note on Acts 7:41; note on Acts 15:20; note on 1 Thessalonians 1:9. The idol was a mere picture or symbol of a god. If the god has no existence, the idol is a non-entity. This Gentile Christians had come to know as Jews and Jewish Christians already knew. [source]
1 Corinthians 8:7 Howbeit in all men there is not that knowledge [αλλ ουκ εν πασιν η γνωσις]
The knowledge (η γνωσις — hē gnōsis) of which Paul is speaking. Knowledge has to overcome inheritance and environment, prejudice, fear, and many other hindrances. [source]
1 Corinthians 8:11 Through thy knowledge [εν τηι σηι γνωσει]
Literally, in thy knowledge. Surely a poor use to put one‘s superior knowledge. [source]
1 Corinthians 8:10 If a man see thee which hast knowledge sitting at meat in an idol‘s temple [εαν γαρ τις ιδηι σε τον εχοντα γνωσιν εν ειδωλειωι κατακειμενον]
Condition of third class, a possible case. Paul draws the picture of the enlightened brother exercising his “liberty” by eating in the idol‘s temple. Later he will discuss the peril to the man‘s own soul in this phase of the matter (1 Corinthians 10:14-22), but here he considers only the effect of such conduct on the unenlightened or weak brother. This bravado at a sacrificial banquet is in itself idolatrous as Paul will show. But our weak brother will be emboldened Alas, how often that has happened. Defiance is flung in the face of the unenlightened brother instead of loving consideration. [source]
1 Corinthians 9:24 In a race [εν σταδιωι]
Old word from ιστημι — histēmi to place. A stated or fixed distance, 606 3/4 feet, both masculine σταδιοι — stadioi (Matthew 14:24; Luke 24:13) and neuter as here. Most of the Greek cities had race-courses for runners like that at Olympia. [source]
2 Corinthians 1:1 In all Achaia [εν οληι τηι Αχαιαι]
The Romans divided Greece into two provinces (Achaia and Macedonia). Macedonia included also Illyricum, Epirus, and Thessaly. Achaia was all of Greece south of this (both Attica and the Peloponnesus). The restored Corinth was made the capital of Achaia where the pro-consul resided (Acts 18:12). He does not mention other churches in Achaia outside of the one in Corinth, but only “saints” Athens was in Achaia, but it is not clear that there was as yet a church there, though some converts had been won (Acts 17:34), and there was a church in Cenchreae, the eastern port of Corinth (Romans 16:1). Paul in 2 Corinthians 9:2 speaks of Achaia and Macedonia together. His language here would seem to cover the whole (οληι — holēi all) of Achaia in his scope and not merely the environment around Corinth. [source]
2 Corinthians 1:8 In Asia [εν Ασιαι]
Probably in Ephesus, but what it was we do not know whether sickness or peril. We do know that the disciples and the Asiarchs would not allow Paul to face the mob in the amphitheatre gathered by Demetrius (Acts 20:30.). In Romans 16:4 Paul says that Prisca and Aquila laid down their necks for him, risked their very lives for him. It may have been a later plot to kill Paul that hastened his departure from Ephesus (Acts 20:1). He had a trial so great that “we were weighed down exceedingly beyond our power” Old verb from βαρος — baros weight, βαρυς — barus weighty. First aorist passive indicative. See note on 1 Corinthians 12:31 for kath' huperbolēn (cf. our hyperbole). It was beyond Paul‘s power to endure if left to himself. Insomuch that we despaired even of life (hōste exaporēthēnai hēmas kai tou zēin). Usual clause of result with κατ υπερβολην — hōste and the infinitive. First aorist passive infinitive ωστε εχαπορητηναι ημας και του ζηιν — exaporēthēnai late compound for utter despair (perfective use of ωστε — ex and at a complete loss, εχαπορητηναι — a privative and εχ — poros way). There seemed no way out. Of life Ablative case of the articular infinitive, of living. [source]
2 Corinthians 1:9 We ourselves have had within ourselves [αυτοι εν εαυτοις εσχηκαμεν]
Regular perfect of εχω — echō to have. And still have the vivid recollection of that experience. For this lively dramatic use of the present perfect indicative for a past experience see also εσχηκα — eschēka in 2 Corinthians 2:13 (Moulton, Prolegomena, p. 143f.; Robertson, Grammar, p. 896f.). [source]
2 Corinthians 1:12 We behaved ourselves [ουκ εν σοπιαι σαρκικηι]
Second aorist passive indicative of anastrephō old verb, to turn back, to turn back and forth, to walk. Here the passive is used as in late Greek as if middle. [source]
2 Corinthians 1:19 But in him is yea [αλλα Ναι εν αυτωι γεγονεν]
Rather, “But in him Yes has become yes,” has proved true. So Paul appeals to the life of Christ to sustain his own veracity. [source]
2 Corinthians 1:20 In him is the yea [εν αυτωι το Ναι]
Supply γεγονεν — gegonen from the preceding sentence, “In him was the Yea come true.” This applies to all God‘s promises. [source]
2 Corinthians 10:1 Lowly among you [ταπεινος εν υμιν]
The bad use of ταπεινος — tapeinos the old use, but here alone in N.T. in that meaning. Socrates and Aristotle used it for littleness of soul. Probably Paul here is quoting one of the sneers of his traducers in Corinth about his humble conduct while with them (1 Corinthians 2:2, 1 Corinthians 2:3; 2 Corinthians 7:6) and his boldness “It was easy to satirize and misrepresent a depression of spirits, a humility of demeanour, which were either the direct results of some bodily affliction, or which the consciousness of this affliction had rendered habitual” (Farrar). The words stung Paul to the quick. [source]
2 Corinthians 10:3 In the flesh [εν σαρκι]
But that is a very different thing from walking κατα σαρκα — kata sarka according to the standards of the flesh as his enemies charged. It is easy enough to make insinuations. [source]
2 Corinthians 10:6 Being in readiness [εν ετοιμωι εχοντες]
This very idiom occurs in Polybius, Philo, etc. “Holding in readiness.” In 2 Corinthians 12:14 we have ετοιμως εχω — hetoimōs echō for the same idea (adverb ετοιμως — hetoimōs). [source]
2 Corinthians 10:12 Measuring themselves by themselves [εν εαυτοις εαυτους μετρουντες]
Or “in themselves.” Keenest sarcasm. Setting themselves up as the standards of orthodoxy these Judaizers always measure up to the standard while Paul falls short. Comparing themselves with themselves (συνκρινοντες εαυτους εαυτοις — sunkrinontes heautous heautois). Associate instrumental case εαυτοις — heautois after συνκρινοντες — sunkrinontes (verb just explained). Paul is not keen to fall into the trap set for him. Are without understanding The regular form for present active indicative third plural of συνιημι — suniēmi to comprehend, to grasp. Some MSS. have the late form συνιουσιν — suniousin (omega form συνιω — suniō). It is a hard thing to see, but it is true. These men do not see their own picture so obvious to others (Ephesians 5:17; 1 Timothy 1:7). Cf. Mark 8:17. [source]
2 Corinthians 10:15 In other men‘s labours [εν αλλοτριοις κοποις]
Αλλοτριος — Allotrios means belonging to another as in Luke 16:12. Paul founded the church in Corinth. [source]
2 Corinthians 11:6 Among all men [εν πασιν]
He has made his mastery of the things of Christ plain among all men. He knew his subject. [source]
2 Corinthians 11:10 In the regions of Achaia [εν τοις κλιμασιν της Αχαιας]
Κλιμα — Klima from κλινω — klinō to incline, is Koiné{[28928]}š word for declivity slope, region (our climate). See chapter 1 Corinthians 9 for Paul‘s boast about preaching the gospel without cost to them. [source]
2 Corinthians 11:23 More abundant [εν πυλακαις]
See 2 Corinthians 7:15. No verbs with these clauses, but they are clear. [source]
2 Corinthians 11:25 Have I been in the deep [εν τωι βυτωι πεποιηκα]
Vivid dramatic perfect active indicative of ποιεω — poieō “I have done a night and day in the deep.” The memory of it survives like a nightmare. υτος — Buthos is old word (only here in N.T.) for bottom, depth of the sea, then the sea itself. Paul does not mean that he was a night and day under the water, not a Jonah experience, only that he was far out at sea and shipwrecked. This was one of the three shipwrecks-already named. [source]
2 Corinthians 11:26 Among false brethren [εν πσευδαδελποις]
Chapters 2 Corinthians 10; 11 throw a lurid light on this aspect of the subject. [source]
2 Corinthians 11:27 In cold [εν πσυχει]
Old word from πσυχω — psuchō to cool by blowing. See Acts 28:2. See the picture of the aged Paul later in the Roman dungeon (2 Timothy 4:9-18). [source]
2 Corinthians 11:33 In a basket [εν σαργανηι]
Old word for rope basket whereas Luke (Acts 9:25) has εν σπυριδι — en sphuridi (the word for the feeding of the 4,000 while κοπινος — kophinos is the one for the 5,000). This was a humiliating experience for Paul in this oldest city of the world whither he had started as a conqueror over the despised Christians. [source]
2 Corinthians 13:12 With a holy kiss [εν αγιωι πιληματι]
In the Jewish synagogues where the sexes were separated, men kissed men, the women, women. This apparently was the Christian custom also. It is still observed in the Coptic and the Russian churches. It was dropped because of charges made against the Christians by the pagans. In England in 1250 Archbishop Walter of York introduced a “pax-board” which was first kissed by the clergy and then passed around. Think of the germ theory of disease and that kissing tablet! [source]
2 Corinthians 2:1 That I would not come again to you with sorrow [το μη παλιν εν λυπηι προς υμας ελτειν]
Articular second aorist active infinitive with negative μη — mē in apposition with τουτο — touto (this) preceding. What does Paul mean by “again” And so as to 2 Corinthians 13:1. There is absolutely no way to tell clearly whether Paul had already made a second visit. If he had done so, it is a bit odd that he did not plainly say so in 2 Corinthians 1:15. when he is apologizing for not having made the proposed visit (“a second benefit”). [source]
2 Corinthians 2:10 In the person of Christ [εν προσωπωι Χριστου]
More exactly, “in the presence of Christ,” before Christ, in the face of Christ. Cf. ενωπιον του τεου — enōpion tou theou (2 Corinthians 4:2) in the eye of God, ενωπιον Κυριου — enōpion Kuriou (2 Corinthians 8:21). [source]
2 Corinthians 2:15 In them that are perishing [εν τοις απολλυμενοις]
Even in these if the preacher does his duty. [source]
2 Corinthians 3:7 Came with glory [εγενητη εν δοχηι]
In glory. As it did, condition of first class, assumed as true. See Exodus 34:29, Exodus 34:35. [source]
2 Corinthians 3:10 In this respect [εν τουτωι τωι μερει]
The glory on the face of Moses was temporary, though real, and passed away (2 Corinthians 3:7), a type of the dimming of the glory of the old dispensation by the brightness of the new. The moon makes a dim light after the sun rises, “is not glorified” (ου δεδοχασται — ou dedoxastai perfect passive indicative of δοχαζω — doxazō). [source]
2 Corinthians 4:2 In craftiness [εν πανουργιαι]
Old word from πανουργος — panourgos (παν εργον — panergon), a doer of any deed (good or bad), clever, cunning, deceitful. See note on Luke 20:23. [source]
2 Corinthians 4:3 It is veiled in them that are perishing [εν τοις απολλυμενοις εστιν κεκαλυμμενον]
Periphrastic perfect passive of καλυπτω — kaluptō to veil in both condition (first class) and conclusion. See note on 2 Corinthians 2:15. for “the perishing.” [source]
2 Corinthians 4:6 In the face of Jesus Christ [εν προσωπωι Ιησου Χριστου]
The Christian who looks on the face of Jesus Christ as Moses looked upon the glory of God will be able to give the illumination of the knowledge of the glory of God. See note on 2 Corinthians 2:10 for προσωπον — prosōpon f0). [source]
2 Corinthians 4:7 In earthen vessels [εν οστρακινοις σκευεσιν]
This adjective is common in the lxx with σκευοσ αγγος — skeuosαγγειον — aggos and σκευη — aggeion It occurs again in 2 Timothy 2:20 with σκευος — skeuē It is found also in the papyri with οστρακον — skeuos as here. It is from οστεον — ostrakon baked clay (same root as η υπερβολη — osteon bone), so many fragments of which are found in Egypt with writing on them. We are but earthen jars used of God for his purposes (Romans 9:20.) and so fragile. The exceeding greatness (hē huperbolē). See note on 1 Corinthians 12:31 for this word, “the preeminence of the power.” This is God‘s purpose (hinȧ̇ēi). God, not man, is the dynamo (ιναηι — dunamis). It comes from God (δυναμις — tou theou ablative) and does not originate with us (του τεου — mē ex hēmōn). [source]
2 Corinthians 4:12 Death worketh in us [ο τανατος εν ημιν ενεργειται]
Middle voice present tense of the old verb to operate, be at work. Physical death works in him while spiritual life (paradox) works in them. [source]
2 Corinthians 5:6 At home in the body [ενδημουντες εν τωι σωματι]
Rare verb ενδημεω — endēmeō from ενδημος — endēmos (one among his own people as opposed to εκδημος — ekdēmos one away from home). Both εκδημεω — ekdēmeō (more common in the old Greek) and ενδημεω — endēmeō occur in the papyri with the contrast made by Paul here. [source]
2 Corinthians 5:12 That ye may have wherewith to answer [εν προσωπωι και μη εν καρδιαι]
Literally, “That ye may have something against (for facing those, etc.).” Paul wishes his champions in Corinth to know the facts. In appearance, and not in heart (en prosōpōi kai mē en kardiāi). He means the Judaizers who were braggarts about their orthodox Judaism. [source]
2 Corinthians 6:3 Giving no occasion of stumbling in any thing [μηδεμιαν εν μηδενι διδοντες προσκοπην]
Προσκοπη — Proskopē late word (Polybius, lxx), from προσκοπτω — proskoptō to strike against, to stumble. Only here in N.T. Note double negative in the Greek. [source]
2 Corinthians 6:4 But in everything commending ourselves [αλλ εν παντι συνιστανοντες εαυτους]
Paul gives a marvellous summary of his argument about the dignity and glory of ministers of Christ as ministers of God (ως τεου διακονοι — hōs theou diakonoi) under three aspects, the first with in (εν — en) 2 Corinthians 6:3-7, the second with by (δια — dia) 2 Corinthians 6:7, 2 Corinthians 6:8, the third with as (ως — hōs) 2 Corinthians 6:9-10. The negative view with εν — en we have in 2 Corinthians 6:3, then the positive in 2 Corinthians 6:4-7. Each word carries a story that can be filled in from Paul‘s own life as a preacher with an echo in that of us all. [source]
2 Corinthians 6:4 In distresses [εν στενοχωριαις]
In tight places (2 Corinthians 12:10). Late word from στενοχωρεω — stenochōreō (see note on 2 Corinthians 4:8). [source]
2 Corinthians 6:5 In stripes [εν πληγαις]
In blows, wounds (Luke 10:30; Luke 12:48; Acts 16:23, Acts 16:33). Our plague. [source]
2 Corinthians 6:5 In tumults [εν ακαταστασιαις]
See 1 Corinthians 14:33). Instabilities, often from politics. In watchings (εν αγρυπνιαις — en agrupniais). In sleeplessnesses, instances of insomnia. Old word, in N.T. only here and 2 Corinthians 11:27. Paul knew all about this. [source]
2 Corinthians 6:5 In watchings [εν αγρυπνιαις]
In sleeplessnesses, instances of insomnia. Old word, in N.T. only here and 2 Corinthians 11:27. Paul knew all about this. [source]
2 Corinthians 6:6 In love unfeigned [εν αγαπηι ανυποκριτωι]
Late and rare word (α — a privative and υποκριτος — hupokritos from υποκρινομαι — hupokrinomai) This is the only love that is worth while (Romans 12:9). [source]
2 Corinthians 6:12 Ye are not straitened in us [ου στενοχωρειστε εν ημιν]
The same figure as in 2 Corinthians 6:11. See note on 2 Corinthians 4:8 for στενοχωρεω — stenochōreō There is no restraint in me (my heart). My adversaries may have caused some of you to tighten up your affections (σπλαγχνα — splagchna for affection as in James 5:11; 1 Peter 3:8). [source]
2 Corinthians 7:8 With my epistle [εν τηι επιστοληι]
The one referred to in 2 Corinthians 2:3. I do not regret it (ου μεταμελομαι — ou metamelomai). This verb really means “repent” (be sorry again) which meaning we have transferred to μετανοεω — metanoeō to change one‘s mind (not to be sorry at all). See note on Matthew 21:29; note on Matthew 27:3 for the verb μεταμελομαι — metamelomai to be sorry, to regret as here. Paul is now glad that he made them sorry. Though I did regret Imperfect indicative in the concessive clause. I was in a regretful mood at first. For I see (βλεπω γαρ — blepō gar). A parenthetical explanation of his present joy in their sorrow. B D do not have γαρ — gar The Latin Vulgate has videns (seeing) for βλεπων — blepōn For a season Cf. 1 Thessalonians 2:17. It was only “for an hour.” [source]
2 Corinthians 7:9 That ye might suffer loss by us in nothing [ινα εν μηδενι ζημιωτητε εχ υμων]
Purpose clause with ινα — hina and first aorist passive subjunctive of ζημιοω — zēmioō old verb to suffer damage. See Matthew 16:26. This was God‘s intention and so he overruled their sorrow to good. [source]
2 Corinthians 8:7 In this grace also [και εν ταυτηι τηι χαριτι]
This gifted church (1 Corinthians 12-14) had fallen behind in the grace of giving. Kindly irony in this allusion. [source]
Galatians 1:13 In the Jews‘ religion [εν τωι Ιουδαισμωι]
“In Judaism.” The word in N.T. only here and next verse, already in 2 Maccabees 2:21; 8:1; 14:38; 4 Maccabees 4:26. In these passages it means the Jewish religion as opposed to the Hellenism that the Syrian Kings were imposing upon the Jews. So later Justin Martyr (386 D) will use Χριστιανισμος — Christianismos for Christianity. Both words are made from verbs in ιζω — ̇izō Beyond measure (κατ υπερβολην — kath' huperbolēn). “According to excess” (throwing beyond, υπερβολη — huperbolē). I persecuted Imperfect active, “I used to persecute” (see Acts 7-9 for the facts). Made havock of it (επορτουν αυτην — eporthoun autēn). Customary action again, imperfect of old verb πορτεω — portheō to lay waste, to sack. In N.T. only here, Galatians 1:23, and Acts 9:31 (used by Christians in Damascus of Saul after his conversion of his former conduct, the very word of Paul here). Paul heard them use it of him and it stuck in his mind. [source]
Galatians 1:16 To reveal his Son in me [αποκαλυπσαι τον υιον αυτου εν εμοι]
By “in me” Once (1 Corinthians 14:11) εν εμοι — en emoi is almost equivalent to the dative (to me). On the whole Lightfoot seems correct here in taking it to mean “in my case,” though the following words suit either idea. Certainly Paul could not preach Christ among the Gentiles without the rich inward experience and in the objective vision he was called to that task. [source]
Galatians 1:24 In me [εν εμοι]
In my case as in Galatians 1:16. [source]
Galatians 3:8 In thee [εν σοι]
“As their spiritual progenitor” (Lightfoot). [source]
Galatians 3:19 By the hand of a mediator [εν χειρι μεσιτου]
Εν χειρι — En cheiri is a manifest Aramaism or Hebraism and only here in the N.T. It is common in the lxx. Μεσιτης — Mesitēs from μεσος — mesos is middle or midst, is a late word (Polybius, Diodorus, Philo, Josephus) and common in the papyri in legal transactions for arbiter, surety, etc. Here of Moses, but also of Christ (1 Timothy 2:5; Hebrews 8:6; Hebrews 9:15; Hebrews 12:24). [source]
Galatians 4:14 A temptation to you in my flesh [τον πειρασμον υμων εν τηι σαρκι μου]
“Your temptation (or trial) in my flesh.” Peirasmon can be either as we see in James 1:2, James 1:12. If trial here, it was a severe one. [source]
Galatians 4:18 To be zealously sought in a good matter [ζηλουσται εν καλωι]
Present passive infinitive. It is only in an evil matter that it is bad as here (ου καλος — ou kalos). [source]
Galatians 4:18 When I am present [εν τωι παρειναι με]
“In the being present as to me.” [source]
Galatians 4:19 Until Christ be formed in you [μεχρις ου μορπωτηι Χριστος εν υμιν]
Future temporal clause with μεχρις ου — mechris hou (until which time) and the first aorist passive subjunctive of μορποω — morphoō late and rare verb, in Plutarch, not in lxx, not in papyri, only here in N.T. This figure is the embryo developing into the child. Paul boldly represents himself as again the mother with birth pangs over them. This is better than to suppose that the Galatians are pregnant mothers (Burton) by a reversal of the picture as in 1 Thessalonians 2:7. [source]
Galatians 4:20 About you [εν υμιν]
In your cases. For this use of εν — en see 2 Corinthians 7:16; Galatians 1:24. [source]
Galatians 5:4 Who would be justified by the law [οιτινες εν νομωι δικαιουστε]
Present passive conative indicative, “ye who are trying to be justified in the law.” Ye are fallen away from grace (της χαριτος εχεπεσατε — tēs charitos exepesate). Second aorist active indicative of εκπιπτω — ekpiptō (with α — a variable vowel of the first aorist) and followed by the ablative case. “Ye did fall out of grace,” “ye left the sphere of grace in Christ and took your stand in the sphere of law” as your hope of salvation. Paul does not mince words and carries the logic to the end of the course. He is not, of course, speaking of occasional sins, but he has in mind a far more serious matter, that of substituting law for Christ as the agent in salvation. [source]
Galatians 5:14 Even in this [εν τωι]
Just the article with εν — en “in the,” but it points at the quotation from Leviticus 19:18. Jews (Luke 10:29) confined “neighbour” (πλησιον — plēsion) to Jews. Paul uses here a striking paradox by urging obedience to the law against which he has been arguing, but this is the moral law as proof of the new love and life. See also Romans 13:8, precisely as Jesus did (Matthew 22:40). [source]
Ephesians 1:1 At Ephesus [εν Επεσωι]
In Aleph and B these words are inserted by later hands, though both MSS. give the title Προς Επεσιους — Pros Ephesious Origen explains the words τοις αγιοις τοις ουσιν — tois hagiois tois ousin as meaning “the saints that are” (genuine saints), showing that his MSS. did not have the words εν Επεσωι — en Ephesōi The explanation of the insertion of these words has already been given in the remarks on “The Destination” as one copy of the general letter that was preserved in Ephesus. It is perfectly proper to call it the Epistle to the Ephesians if we understand the facts. [source]
Ephesians 1:3 With [εν]
So-called instrumental use of εν — en though in is clear. Every spiritual blessing (πασηι ευλογιαι πνευματικηι — pasēi eulogiāi pneumatikēi). Third use of the root ευλογ — eulog (verbal, verb, substantive). Paul lovingly plays with the idea. The believer is a citizen of heaven and the spiritual blessings count for most to him. In the heavenly places in Christ In four other places in Ephesians (Ephesians 1:20; Ephesians 2:6; Ephesians 3:10; Ephesians 6:12). This precise phrase (with εν — en) occurs nowhere else in the N.T. and has a clearly local meaning in Ephesians 1:20; Ephesians 2:6; Ephesians 3:10, doubtful in Ephesians 6:12, but probably so here. In Ephesians 2:6 the believer is conceived as already seated with Christ. Heaven is the real abode of the citizen of Christ‘s kingdom (Philemon 3:20) who is a stranger on earth (Philemon 1:27; Ephesians 2:19). The word επουρανιος — epouranios (heavenly) occurs in various passages in the N.T. in contrast with τα επιγεια — ta epigeia (the earthly) as in John 3:12; 1 Corinthians 15:40, 1 Corinthians 15:48, 1 Corinthians 15:49; Philemon 2:10, with πατρις — patris (country) in Hebrews 11:16, with κλησις — klēsis (calling) in Hebrews 3:1, with δωρεα — dōrea (gift) in Hebrews 6:4, with βασιλεια — basileia (kingdom) in 2 Timothy 4:18. [source]
Ephesians 1:4 Even as he chose us in him [κατως εχελεχατο ημας εν αυτωι]
First aorist middle indicative of εκλεγω — eklegō to pick out, to choose. Definitive statement of God‘s elective grace concerning believers in Christ. [source]
Ephesians 1:3 In the heavenly places in Christ [εν τοις επουρανιοις εν Χριστωι]
In four other places in Ephesians (Ephesians 1:20; Ephesians 2:6; Ephesians 3:10; Ephesians 6:12). This precise phrase (with εν — en) occurs nowhere else in the N.T. and has a clearly local meaning in Ephesians 1:20; Ephesians 2:6; Ephesians 3:10, doubtful in Ephesians 6:12, but probably so here. In Ephesians 2:6 the believer is conceived as already seated with Christ. Heaven is the real abode of the citizen of Christ‘s kingdom (Philemon 3:20) who is a stranger on earth (Philemon 1:27; Ephesians 2:19). The word επουρανιος — epouranios (heavenly) occurs in various passages in the N.T. in contrast with τα επιγεια — ta epigeia (the earthly) as in John 3:12; 1 Corinthians 15:40, 1 Corinthians 15:48, 1 Corinthians 15:49; Philemon 2:10, with πατρις — patris (country) in Hebrews 11:16, with κλησις — klēsis (calling) in Hebrews 3:1, with δωρεα — dōrea (gift) in Hebrews 6:4, with βασιλεια — basileia (kingdom) in 2 Timothy 4:18. [source]
Ephesians 1:6 In the Beloved [εν τωι ηγαπημενωι]
Perfect passive participle of αγαπαω — agapaō This phrase nowhere else in the N.T. though in the Apostolic Fathers. [source]
Ephesians 1:7 In whom [εν ωι]
Just like Colossians 1:14 with παραπτωματων — paraptōmatōn (trespasses) in place of αμαρτιων — hamartiōn (sins) and with the addition of δια του αιματος αυτου — dia tou haimatos autou (through his blood) as in Colossians 1:20. Clearly Paul makes the blood of Christ the cost of redemption, the ransom money See note on Colossians 1:9. [source]
Ephesians 1:11 In him [εν αυτωι]
Repeats the idea of εν τωι Χριστωι — en tōi Christōi of Ephesians 1:10. [source]
Ephesians 1:12 Who had before hoped in Christ [τους προηλπικοτας εν τωι Χριστωι]
Articular perfect active participle of προελπιζω — proelpizō late and rare compound (here only in N.T.) and the reference of προ — pro not clear. Probably the reference is to those who like Paul had once been Jews and had now found the Messiah in Jesus, some of whom like Simeon and Anna had even looked for the spiritual Messiah before his coming. [source]
Ephesians 1:13 In whom [εν ωι]
Repeated third time (once in Ephesians 1:11, twice in Ephesians 1:13), and note ο — ho or ος — hos in Ephesians 1:14. Ye were sealed (εσπραγιστητε — esphragisthēte). First aorist passive indicative of σπραγιζω — sphragizō old verb, to set a seal on one as a mark or stamp, sometimes the marks of ownership or of worship of deities like στιγματα — stigmata (Galatians 6:17). Marked and authenticated as God‘s heritage as in Ephesians 4:30. See note on 2 Corinthians 1:22 for the very use of the metaphor here applied to the Holy Spirit even with the word αρραβων — arrabōn (earnest). Spirit In the instrumental case. [source]
Ephesians 1:17 In the knowledge of him [εν επιγνωσει αυτου]
In the full knowledge of Christ as in Colossians. [source]
Ephesians 1:18 In the saints [εν τοις αγιοις]
Our riches is in God, God‘s is in his saints. [source]
Ephesians 1:23 The fulness of him that filleth all in all [το πληρωμα του τα παντα εν πασιν πληρουμενου]
This is probably the correct translation of a much disputed phrase. This view takes πληρωμα — plērōma in the passive sense (that which is filled, as is usual, Colossians 1:19) and πληρουμενου — plēroumenou as present middle participle, not passive. All things are summed up in Christ (Ephesians 1:10), who is the πληρωμα — plērōma of God (Colossians 1:19), and in particular does Christ fill the church universal as his body. Hence we see in Ephesians the Dignity of the Body of Christ which is ultimately to be filled with the fulness (πληρωμα — plērōma) of God (Ephesians 3:19) when it grows up into the fulness (πληρωμα — plērōma) of Christ (Ephesians 4:13, Ephesians 4:16). [source]
Ephesians 2:4 Being rich in mercy [πλουσιος ων εν ελεει]
More than ελεημων — eleēmōn (being merciful). Wherewith (ην — hēn). Cognate accusative with ηγαπησεν — ēgapēsen (loved). [source]
Ephesians 2:6 In Christ Jesus [εν Χριστωι Ιησου]
All the preceding turns on this phrase. See note on Colossians 3:1 for the word συνηγειρεν — sunēgeiren [source]
Ephesians 2:7 In kindness toward us [εν χρηστοτητι επ ημας]
See Romans 2:7 for this word from χρηστος — chrēstos and that from χραομαι — chraomai here God‘s benignity toward us. [source]
Ephesians 2:10 That we should walk in them [ινα εν αυτοις περιπατησωμεν]
Expexegetic final clause explanatory of the election to good works. [source]
Ephesians 2:13 In the blood of Christ [εν τωι αιματι του Χριστου]
Not a perfunctory addition, but essential (Ephesians 1:7), particularly in view of the Gnostic denial of Christ‘s real humanity. [source]
Ephesians 2:14 Both one [τα αμποτερα εν]
“The both” (Jew and Gentile). Jesus had said “other sheep I have which are not of this fold” (John 10:16). One (εν — hen) is neuter singular (oneness, unity, identity) as in Galatians 3:28. Race and national distinctions vanish in Christ. If all men were really in Christ, war would disappear. Brake down the middle wall of partition “Having loosened (first aorist active participle of λυω — luō see note on John 2:19) the middle-wall (late word, only here in N.T., and very rare anywhere, one in papyri, and one inscription) of partition See the uproar when Paul was accused of taking Trophimus beyond this wall (Acts 21:28). [source]
Ephesians 2:14 One [εν]
(εν — hen) is neuter singular (oneness, unity, identity) as in Galatians 3:28. Race and national distinctions vanish in Christ. If all men were really in Christ, war would disappear. [source]
Ephesians 2:16 In one body [εν ενι σωματι]
The “one new man” of Ephesians 2:15 of which Christ is Head (Ephesians 1:23), the spiritual church. Paul piles up metaphors to express his idea of the Kingdom of God with Christ as King (the church, the body, the commonwealth of Israel, oneness, one new man in Christ, fellow-citizens, the family of God, the temple of God). [source]
Ephesians 2:16 Thereby [εν αυτωι]
On the Cross where he slew the enmity (repeated here) between Jew and Gentile. [source]
Ephesians 2:18 In one Spirit [εν ενι πνευματι]
The Holy Spirit. Unto the Father (προς τον πατερα — pros ton patera). So the Trinity as in Ephesians 1:13. The Three Persons all share in the work of redemption. [source]
Ephesians 3:3 In few words [εν ολιγωι]
Not = προ ολιγου — pro oligou shortly before, but as in Acts 26:28 “in brief space or time” = συντονως — suntonōs (Acts 24:4), “briefly.” [source]
Ephesians 3:4 My understanding in the mystery of Christ [την συνεσιν μου εν τωι μυστηριωι του Χριστου]
My “comprehension” Every sermon reveals the preacher‘s grasp of “the mystery of Christ.” If he has no insight into Christ, he has no call to preach. [source]
Ephesians 3:12 In confidence [εν πεποιτησει]
Late and rare word from πεποιτα — pepoitha See note on 2 Corinthians 1:15. [source]
Ephesians 3:17 Being rooted and grounded in love [εν αγαπηι ερριζωμενοι και τετεμελιωμενοι]
But it is not certain whether εν αγαπηι — en agapēi should go with these participles or with the preceding infinitive κατοικησαι — katoikēsai (dwell). Besides, these two perfect passive participles (from ριζοω — rizoō old verb, in N.T. only here and Colossians 2:7, and from τεμελιοω — themelioō see also Colossians 1:23) are in the nominative case and are to be taken with ινα εχισχυσητε — hina exischusēte and are proleptically placed before ινα — hina Ephesians 3:18 should really begin with these participles. Paul piles up metaphors (dwelling, rooted, grounded). [source]
Ephesians 3:21 In the church [εν τηι εκκλησιαι]
The general church, the body of Christ. [source]
Ephesians 3:21 And in Christ Jesus [και εν Χριστωι Ιησου]
The Head of the glorious church. [source]
Ephesians 4:3 In the bond of peace [εν τωι συνδεσμωι της ειρηνης]
In Colossians 3:14 αγαπη — agapē (love) is the συνδεσμος — sundesmos (bond). But there is no peace without love (Ephesians 4:2). [source]
Ephesians 4:4 One body [εν σωμα]
One mystical body of Christ (the spiritual church or kingdom, cf. Ephesians 1:23; Ephesians 2:16). [source]
Ephesians 4:4 One Spirit [εν πνευμα]
One Holy Spirit, grammatical neuter gender (not to be referred to by “it,” but by “he”). In one hope (εν μιαι ελπιδι — en miāi elpidi). The same hope as a result of their calling for both Jew and Greek as shown in chapter 2. [source]
Ephesians 4:4 In one hope [εν μιαι ελπιδι]
The same hope as a result of their calling for both Jew and Greek as shown in chapter 2. [source]
Ephesians 4:5 One baptism [εν βαπτισμα]
The result of baptizing (βαπτισμα — baptisma), while βαπτισμος — baptismos is the act. Only in the N.T. (βαπτισμος — baptismos in Josephus) and ecclesiastical writers naturally. See note on Mark 10:38. There is only one act of baptism for all (Jews and Gentiles) who confess Christ by means of this symbol, not that they are made disciples by this one act, but merely so profess him, put Christ on publicly by this ordinance. [source]
Ephesians 4:6 and in all [και εν πασιν]
Thus by three prepositions (επι δια εν — epiπαντων παντων πασιν — diaen) Paul has endeavoured to express the universal sweep and power of God in men‘s lives. The pronouns (pantōnpantōnpāsin) can be all masculine, all neuter, or part one or the other. The last “in all” is certainly masculine and probably all are. [source]
Ephesians 4:14 By the sleight [εν τηι κυβιαι]
“In the deceit,” “in the throw of the dice” Old word from πανουργος — panourgos (παν εργον — panπρος την μετοδιαν της πλανης — ergon any deed, every deed), cleverness, trickiness. After the wiles of error μετοδευω — Methodia is from μετα οδος — methodeuō (πλανης — metahodos) to follow after or up, to practise deceit, and occurs nowhere else (Ephesians 4:13; Ephesians 6:11) save in late papyri in the sense of method. The word planēs (wandering like our “planet”) adds to the evil idea in the word. Paul has covered the whole ground in this picture of Gnostic error. [source]
Ephesians 4:14 In craftiness [εν πανουργιαι]
Old word from πανουργος — panourgos (παν εργον — panπρος την μετοδιαν της πλανης — ergon any deed, every deed), cleverness, trickiness. [source]
Ephesians 4:15 In love [εν αγαπηι]
If truth were always spoken only in love! [source]
Ephesians 4:16 In due measure [εν μετρωι]
Just “in measure” in the Greek, but the assumption is that each part of the body functions properly in its own sphere. Unto the building up of itself (εις οικοδομην εαυτου — eis oikodomēn heautou). Modern knowledge of cell life in the human body greatly strengthens the force of Paul‘s metaphor. This is the way the body grows by cooperation under the control of the head and all “in love” (εν αγαπηι — en agapēi). [source]
Ephesians 4:17 In vanity of their mind [εν ματαιοτητι του νοος αυτων]
“In emptiness (from ματαιος — mataios late and rare word. See note on Romans 8:20) of their intellect (νοος — noos late form for earlier genitive νου — nou from νους — nous). [source]
Ephesians 4:19 With greediness [εν πλεονεχιαι]
From πλεονεκτης — pleonektēs one who always wants more whether money or sexual indulgence as here. The two vices are often connected in the N.T. [source]
Ephesians 4:21 Even as truth is in Jesus [κατως εστιν αλητεια εν τωι Ιησου]
It is not clear what Paul‘s precise idea is here. The Cerinthian Gnostics did distinguish between the man Jesus and the aeon Christ. Paul here identifies Christ (Ephesians 4:20) and Jesus (Ephesians 4:21). At any rate he flatly affirms that there is “truth in Jesus” which is in direct opposition to the heathen manner of life and which is further explained by the epexegetical infinitives that follow (αποτεσται ανανεουσται δε και ενδυσασται — apothesthaiananeousthai dekai endusasthai). [source]
Ephesians 4:30 In whom [εν ωι]
Not “in which.” Ye were sealed (εσπραγιστητε — esphragisthēte). See note on Ephesians 1:13 for this verb, and Ephesians 1:14 for απολυτρωσεως — apolutrōseōs the day when final redemption is realized. [source]
Ephesians 5:18 But be filled with the Spirit [αλλα πληρουστε εν πνευματι]
In contrast to a state of intoxication with wine. [source]
Ephesians 5:20 In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ [εν ονοματι του Κυριου ημων Ιησου Χριστου]
Jesus had told the disciples to use his name in prayer (John 16:23.). [source]
Ephesians 6:2 First - with promise [πρώτη εν ἐπαγγελίᾳ]
First in point of promise, as it also is in order the first with promise. [source]
Ephesians 6:2 The first commandment with promise [εντολη πρωτη εν επαγγελιαι]
Εν — En here means “accompanied by” (Alford). But why “with a promise”? The second has a general promise, but the fifth alone (Exodus 20:12) has a specific promise. Perhaps that is the idea. Some take it to be first because in the order of time it was taught first to children, but the addition of εν επαγγελιαι — en epaggeliāi here to πρωτη — prōtē points to the other view. [source]
Ephesians 6:4 In the chastening and admonition of the Lord [εν παιδειαι και νουτεσιαι του κυριου]
Εν — En is the sphere in which it all takes place. There are only three examples in the N.T. of παιδεια — paideia old Greek for training a παις — pais (boy or girl) and so for the general education and culture of the child. Both papyri and inscriptions give examples of this original and wider sense (Moulton and Milligan, Vocabulary). It is possible, as Thayer gives it, that this is the meaning here in Ephesians 6:4. In 2 Timothy 3:16 adults are included also in the use. In Hebrews 12:5, Hebrews 12:7, Hebrews 12:11 the narrower sense of “chastening” appears which some argue for here. At any rate νουτεσια — nouthesia (from νουσ τιτημι — noustithēmi), common from Aristophanes on, does have the idea of correction. In N.T. only here and 1 Corinthians 10:11; Titus 3:10. [source]
Ephesians 6:10 Be strong in the Lord [ενδυναμουστε εν κυριωι]
A late word in lxx and N.T. (Acts 9:22; Romans 4:20; Philemon 4:13), present passive imperative of ενδυναμοω — endunamoō from εν — en and δυναμις — dunamis to empower. See Philemon 1:10 for “in the strength of his might.” Not a hendiadys. [source]
Ephesians 6:12 In the heavenly places [εν τοις επουρανιοις]
Clearly so here. Our “wrestling” is with foes of evil natural and supernatural. We sorely need “the panoply of God” (furnished by God). [source]
Ephesians 6:14 Having girded your loins with truth [περιζωσαμενοι την οσπυν υμων εν αλητειαι]
First aorist middle participle (antecedent action) of περιζωννυω — perizōnnuō old verb, to gird around, direct middle (gird yourselves) in Luke 12:37; but indirect here with accusative of the thing, “having girded your own loins.” So ενδυσαμενοι — endusamenoi (having put on) is indirect middle participle. The breast-plate of righteousness (τον τωρακα της δικαιοσυνης — ton thōraka tēs dikaiosunēs). Old word for breast and then for breastplate. Same metaphor of righteousness as breastplate in 1 Thessalonians 5:8. [source]
Ephesians 6:15 With the preparation [εν ετοιμασιαι]
Late word from ετοιμαζω — hetoimazō to make ready, only here in N.T. Readiness of mind that comes from the gospel whose message is peace. [source]
Ephesians 6:18 At all seasons [εν παντι καιρωι]
“On every occasion.” Prayer is needed in this fight. The panoply of God is necessary, but so is prayer.“Satan trembles when he sees, The weakest saint upon his knees.” [source]
Ephesians 6:20 For which I am an ambassador in chains [υπερ ου πρεσβευω εν αλυσει]
“For which mystery” of the gospel (Ephesians 6:19). Πρεσβευω — Presbeuō is an old word for ambassador (from πρεσβυς — presbus an old man) in N.T. only here and 2 Corinthians 5:20. Paul is now an old man Paul will wear a chain at the close of his life in Rome (2 Timothy 1:16). [source]
Ephesians 6:20 In it [εν αυτωι]
In the mystery of the gospel. This is probably a second purpose See note on 1 Thessalonians 2:2. See note on Colossians 4:4 for “as I ought.” [source]
Ephesians 6:24 In uncorruptness [εν απταρσιαι]
A never diminishing love. See note on 1 Corinthians 15:42 for απταρσια — aphtharsia sa120 [source]
Philippians 1:1 In Christ Jesus [εν Χριστωι Ιησου]
The centre for all Christian relations and activities for Paul and for us. In Philippi (εν Πιλιπποις — en Philippois). See note on Acts 16:12 for discussion of this name. With the bishops “Together with bishops,” thus singled out from “all the saints.” See note on Acts 20:17 and note on Acts 20:28 for the use of this most interesting word as equivalent to presbuteros (elder). It is an old word from συν επισκοποις — episkeptomai to look upon or after, to inspect, so the overseer or superintendent. In the second century πρεσβυτερος — episcopos (Ignatius) came to mean one superior to elders, but not so in the N.T. The two New Testament church officers are here mentioned (bishops or elders and deacons). The plural is here employed because there was usually one church in a city with several pastors (bishops, elders). And deacons (επισκεπτομαι — kai diakonois). Technical sense here of the other church officers as in 1 Timothy 3:8-13, not the general use as in Matthew 22:13. The origin of the office is probably seen in Acts 6:1-6. The term is often applied to preachers (1 Corinthians 3:5; 2 Corinthians 3:6). The etymology (επισχοπος — diaκαι διακονοις — konis) suggests raising a dust by hastening. [source]
Philippians 1:1 In Philippi [εν Πιλιπποις]
See note on Acts 16:12 for discussion of this name. [source]
Philippians 1:7 Because I have you in my heart [δια το εχειν με εν τηι καρδιαι υμας]
Or “because you hold me in your heart.” Literally, “because of the holding me (or you) in the heart as to you (or me).” One accusative is the object of the infinitive εχειν — echein the other is the accusative of general reference. There is no way to decide which is the idea meant except to say that love begets love. The pastor who, like Paul, holds his people in his heart will find them holding him in their hearts. [source]
Philippians 1:7 In the defence [εν τηι απολογιαι]
Old word (our word apology, but not our idea of apologizing), in the original sense in Acts 22:1; Acts 25:16. So also in Phlippians 1:16 below. Confirmation (βεβαιωσει — bebaiōsei). Old word from βεβαιοω — bebaioō (βεβαιοσ βαινω — bebaiosσυγκοινωνους μου της χαριτος — bainō), to make stable. In N.T. only here and Hebrews 6:16 about oath. Partakers with me of grace Literally, “my Corinthians-sharers in grace” (objective genitive). “Grace prompted them to alleviate his imprisonment, to cooperate with him in defending and propagating the gospel, and to suffer for its sake” (Vincent, Int. Crit. Comm.). [source]
Philippians 1:8 In the tender mercies [εν σπλαγχνοις]
Literally “in the bowels” as the seat of the affections. [source]
Philippians 1:13 Throughout the whole praetorian guard [εν ολωι τωι πραιτωριωι]
There were originally ten thousand of these picked soldiers, concentrated in Rome by Tiberius. They had double pay and special privileges and became so powerful that emperors had to court their favour. Paul had contact with one after another of these soldiers. It is a Latin word, but the meaning is not certain, for in the other New Testament examples (Matthew 27:27; Mark 15:16; John 18:28, John 18:33; John 19:9; Acts 23:35) it means the palace of the provincial governor either in Jerusalem or Caesarea. In Rome “palace” would have to be the emperor‘s palace, a possible meaning for Paul a provincial writing to provincials (Kennedy). Some take it to mean the camp or barracks of the praetorian guard. The Greek, “in the whole praetorium,” allows this meaning, though there is no clear example of it. Mommsen and Ramsay argue for the judicial authorities (praefecti praetorio) with the assessors of the imperial court. At any rate Paul, chained to a soldier, had access to the soldiers and the officials. [source]
Philippians 1:14 In the Lord [εν Κυριωι]
It is not clear whether this phrase is to be connected with “brethren” or with “being confident” (πεποιτοτας — pepoithotas), probably with πεποιτοτας — pepoithotas If so, then “through my bonds” (τοις δεσμοις μου — tois desmois mou) would be the instrumental case and mean that by means of Paul‘s bonds the brethren “are more abundantly bold” (περισσοτερως τολμαιν — perissoterōs tolmāin). [source]
Philippians 1:26 In Christ Jesus in me [εν Χριστωι Ιησου εν εμοι]
“In Christ Jesus” as the basis for the glorying (καυχημα — kauchēma), “in me” as the instance in point. [source]
Philippians 2:2 Of one mind [το εν προνουντες]
“Thinking the one thing.” Like clocks that strike at the same moment. Perfect intellectual telepathy. Identity of ideas and harmony of feelings. [source]
Philippians 2:5 Have this mind in you [τουτο προνειτε εν υμιν]
“Keep on thinking this in you which was also in Christ Jesus” What is that? Humility. Paul presents Jesus as the supreme example of humility. He urges humility on the Philippians as the only way to secure unity. [source]
Philippians 2:7 In the likeness of men [εν ομοιωματι αντρωπων]
It was a likeness, but a real likeness (Kennedy), no mere phantom humanity as the Docetic Gnostics held. Note the difference in tense between υπαρχων — huparchōn (eternal existence in the μορπη — morphē of God) and γενομενος — genomenos (second aorist middle participle of γινομαι — ginomai becoming, definite entrance in time upon his humanity). [source]
Philippians 2:10 That in the name of Jesus every knee should bow [ινα εν τωι ονοματι Ιησου παν γονυ καμπσηι]
First aorist active subjunctive of καμπτω — kamptō old verb, to bend, to bow, in purpose clause with ινα — hina Not perfunctory genuflections whenever the name of Jesus is mentioned, but universal acknowledgment of the majesty and power of Jesus who carries his human name and nature to heaven. This universal homage to Jesus is seen in Romans 8:22; Ephesians 1:20-22 and in particular Revelation 5:13. [source]
Philippians 2:12 Not as in my presence only [μη ως εν τηι παρουσιαι μονον]
B and a few other MSS. omit ως — hōs The negative μη — mē goes with the imperative κατεργαζεστε — katergazesthe (work out), not with υπηκουσατε — hupēkousate (obeyed) which would call for ουχ — ouch [source]
Philippians 2:13 Which worketh in you [ο ενεργων εν υμιν]
Articular present active participle of ενεργεω — energeō from ενεργος — energos (εν εργον — enκαι το τελειν και το ενεργειν — ergon) one at work, common verb from Aristotle on, to be at work, to energize. God is the Energy and the Energizer of the universe. Modern scientists, like Eddington, Jeans, and Whitney, are not afraid to agree with Paul and to put God back of all activity in nature. [source]
Philippians 2:24 In the Lord [εν Κυριωι]
Not a perfunctory use of this phrase. Paul‘s whole life is centred in Christ (Galatians 2:20). [source]
Philippians 3:3 In the flesh [εν σαρκι]
Technical term in Paul‘s controversy with the Judaizers (2 Corinthians 11:18; Galatians 6:13.). External privileges beyond mere flesh. [source]
Philippians 3:9 Be found in him [ευρετω εν αυτωι]
First aorist (effective) passive subjunctive with ινα — hina of ευρισκω — heuriskō At death (2 Corinthians 5:3) or when Christ comes. Cf. Phlippians 2:8; Galatians 2:17. [source]
Philippians 3:13 But one thing [εν δε]
No verb in the Greek. We can supply ποιω — poiō (I do) or διωκω — diōkō (I keep on in the chase), but no verb is really needed. “When all is said, the greatest art is to limit and isolate oneself” (Goethe), concentration. [source]
Philippians 4:3 In the book of life [εν βιβλωι ζωης]
The only instance of this expression in the N.T. outside of the Apocalypse (Revelation 3:5; Revelation 13:8; Revelation 17:8, etc.). Hence real Christians in spite of their bickerings. [source]
Philippians 4:9 In me [εν εμοι]
Paul dares to point to his life in Philippi as an illustration of this high thinking. The preacher is the interpreter of the spiritual life and should be an example of it. [source]
Philippians 4:11 In whatsoever state I am [εν οις ειμι]
“In what things (circumstances) I am.” [source]
Philippians 4:13 In him that strengtheneth me [εν τωι ενδυναμουντι με]
Late and rare verb (in lxx) from adjective ενδυναμος — endunamos Causative verb to empower, to pour power into one. See same phrase in 1 Timothy 1:12 δυναμις — tōi endunamōsanti me (aorist tense here). Paul has such strength so long as Jesus keeps on putting power (dunamis) into him. [source]
Philippians 4:15 In the beginning of the gospel [εν αρχηι του ευαγγελιου]
After he had wrought in Philippi (2 Thessalonians 2:13). [source]
Philippians 4:19 According to his riches in glory [κατα το πλουτος αυτου εν δοχηι]
God has an abundant treasure in glory and will repay the Philippians for what they have done for Paul. The spiritual reward is what spurs men into the ministry and holds them to it.sa120 [source]
Colossians 1:2 At Colossae [εν Κολοσσαις]
The spelling is uncertain, the MSS. differing in the title Colossae was a city of Phrygia on the Lycus, the tributaries of which brought a calcareous deposit of a peculiar kind that choked up the streams and made arches and fantastic grottoes. In spite of this there was much fertility in the valley with two other prosperous cities some ten or twelve miles away (Hierapolis and Laodicea). “The church at Colossae was the least important of any to which Paul‘s epistles were addressed” (Vincent). But he had no greater message for any church than he here gives concerning the Person of Christ. There is no more important message today for modern men. [source]
Colossians 1:4 Your faith in Jesus Christ [την πιστιν υμων εν Ιησου Χριστωι]
See Ephesians 1:15 for similar phrase. No article is needed before εν — en as it is a closely knit phrase and bears the same sense as the objective genitive in Galatians 2:16 Which ye have (ην εχετε — hēn echete). Probably genuine (Aleph A C D), though B omits it and others have the article (την — tēn). There is a real distinction here between εν — en (sphere or basis) and εις — eis (direction towards), though they are often identical in idea. [source]
Colossians 1:5 In the word of the truth of the gospel [εν τωι λογωι της αλητειας του ευαγγελιου]
“In the preaching of the truth of the gospel” (Galatians 2:5, Galatians 2:14) which is come They heard the pure gospel from Epaphras before the Gnostics came. [source]
Colossians 1:6 In all the world [εν παντι τωι κοσμωι]
A legitimate hyperbole, for the gospel was spreading all over the Roman Empire. [source]
Colossians 1:9 In all spiritual wisdom and understanding [εν πασηι σοπιαι και συνεσει πνευματικηι]
Both πασει — pasei (all) and πνευματικηι — pneumatikēi (spiritual) are to be taken with both σοπιαι — sophiāi and συνεσει — sunesei In Ephesians 1:8 Paul uses προνησει — phronēsei (from πρην — phrēn intellect) rather than συνεσει — sunesei (grasp, from συνιημι — suniēmi to send together). Συνεσις — Sunesis is the faculty of deciding in particular cases while σοπια — sophia gives the general principles (Abbott). Paul faces Gnosticism with full front and wishes the freest use of all one‘s intellectual powers in interpreting Christianity. The preacher ought to be the greatest man in the world for he has to deal with the greatest problems of life and death. [source]
Colossians 1:12 In light [εν τωι πωτι]
Taken with μεριδα — merida (portion) “situated in the kingdom of light” (Lightfoot). [source]
Colossians 1:14 In whom [εν ωι]
In Christ as in Ephesians 1:7. This great sentence about Christ carries on by means of three relatives (εν ωι — en hōi Colossians 1:14, ος — hos Colossians 1:15, ος — hos Colossians 1:18) and repeated personal pronoun (αυτος — autos), twice with οτι — hoti (Colossians 1:15, Colossians 1:19), thrice with και — kai (Colossians 1:17, Colossians 1:18, Colossians 1:20), twice alone (Colossians 1:16, Colossians 1:20). [source]
Colossians 1:16 In him were created [εν αυτωι εκτιστη]
Paul now gives the reason It is the constative aorist passive indicative εκτιστη — ektisthē (from κτιζω — ktizō old verb, to found, to create (Romans 1:25). This central activity of Christ in the work of creation is presented also in John 1:3; Hebrews 1:2 and is a complete denial of the Gnostic philosophy. The whole of creative activity is summed up in Christ including the angels in heaven and everything on earth. God wrought through “the Son of his love.” All earthly dignities are included. Have been created (εκτισται — ektistai). Perfect passive indicative of κτιζω — ktizō “stand created,” “remain created.” The permanence of the universe rests, then, on Christ far more than on gravity. It is a Christo-centric universe. Through him As the intermediate and sustaining agent. He had already used εν αυτωι — en autōi (in him) as the sphere of activity. And unto him (και εις αυτον — kai eis auton). This is the only remaining step to take and Paul takes it (1 Corinthians 15:28) See note on Ephesians 1:10 for similar use of εν αυτωι — en autōi of Christ and in Colossians 1:19, Colossians 1:20 again we have εν αυτωι δι αυτου εις αυτον — en autōiclass="normal greek">δι ον — di' autouclass="normal greek">δι ου — eis auton used of Christ. See note on Hebrews 2:10 for τα παντα — di' hon (because of whom) and εχ αυτου και δι αυτου και εις αυτον τα παντα — di' hou (by means of whom) applied to God concerning the universe (εχ — ta panta). In Romans 11:35 we find εν — ex autou kai di' autou kai eis auton ta panta referring to God. But Paul does not use δια — ex in this connection of Christ, but only εις — en εχ — dia and δια — eis See the same distinction preserved in 1 Corinthians 8:6 (ex of God, dia of Christ). [source]
Colossians 1:18 That in all things he might have the preeminence [ινα γενηται εν πασιν αυτος πρωτευων]
Purpose clause with ινα — hina and the second aorist middle subjunctive of γινομαι — ginomai “that he himself in all things (material and spiritual) may come to Christ is first with Paul in time and in rank. See note on Revelation 1:5 for this same use of πρωτοτοκος — prōtotokos with των νεκρων — tōn nekrōn (the dead). [source]
Colossians 1:20 Through the blood of his cross [ειτε τα εν τοις ουρανοις]
This for the benefit of the Docetic Gnostics who denied the real humanity of Jesus and as clearly stating the causa medians (Ellicott) of the work of reconciliation to be the Cross of Christ, a doctrine needed today. Or things in the heavens (eite ta en tois ouranois). Much needless trouble has been made over this phrase as if things in heaven were not exactly right. It is rather a hypothetical statement like Colossians 1:16 not put in categorical form (Abbott), universitas rerum (Ellicott). [source]
Colossians 1:22 In the body of his flesh [εν τωι σωματι της σαρκος αυτου]
See the same combination in Colossians 2:11 though in Ephesians 2:14 only σαρκι — sarki (flesh). Apparently Paul combines both σωμα — sōma and σαρχ — sarx to make plain the actual humanity of Jesus against incipient Docetic Gnostics who denied it. [source]
Colossians 1:23 In all creation [εν πασηι κτισει]
Κτισις — Ktisis is the act of founding (Romans 1:20) from κτιζω — ktizō (Colossians 1:16), then a created thing (Romans 1:25), then the sum of created things as here and Revelation 3:14. It is hyperbole, to be sure, but Paul does not say that all men are converted, but only that the message has been heralded abroad over the Roman Empire in a wider fashion than most people imagine. [source]
Colossians 2:1 For them at Laodicea [των εν Λαοδικιαι]
Supply υπερ — huper as with υπερ υμων — huper humōn Paul‘s concern extended beyond Colossae to Laodicea (Colossians 4:16) and to Hierapolis (Colossians 4:13), the three great cities in the Lycus Valley where Gnosticism was beginning to do harm. Laodicea is the church described as lukewarm in Revelation 3:14. For as many as have not seen my face The phrase undoubtedly includes Hierapolis (Colossians 4:13), and a few late MSS. actually insert it here. Lightfoot suggests that Hierapolis had not yet been harmed by the Gnostics as much as Colossae and Laodicea. Perhaps so, but the language includes all in that whole region who have not seen Paul‘s face in the flesh (that is, in person, and not in picture). How precious a real picture of Paul would be to us today. The antecedent to οσοι — hosoi is not expressed and it would be τουτων — toutōn after υπερ — huper The form εορακαν — heorakan (perfect active indicative of οραω — horaō instead of the usual εωρακασιν — heōrakasin has two peculiarities ο — o in Paul‘s Epistles (1 Corinthians 9:1) instead of ω — ō (see note on John 1:18 for εωρακεν — heōraken) and αν — ̇an by analogy in place of ασιν — ̇asin which short form is common in the papyri. See note on Luke 9:36 εωρακαν — heōrakan f0). [source]
Colossians 2:3 In whom [εν ωι]
This locative form can refer to μυστηριου — mustēriou or to Χριστου — Christou It really makes no difference in sense since Christ is the mystery of God. [source]
Colossians 2:4 With persuasiveness of speech [εν πιτανολογιαι]
Rare word (Plato) from πιτανος — pithanos and λογος — logos speech, adapted to persuade, then speciously leading astray. Only here in N.T. One papyrus example. The art of persuasion is the height of oratory, but it easily degenerates into trickery and momentary and flashy deceit such as Paul disclaimed in 1 Corinthians 2:4 (ουκ εν πιτοις σοπιας λογοις — ouk en pithois sophias logois) where he uses the very adjective πιτος — pithos (persuasive) of which πιτανος — pithanos (both from πειτω — peithō) is another form. It is curious how winning champions of error, like the Gnostics and modern faddists, can be with plausibility that catches the gullible. [source]
Colossians 2:6 Walk in him [εν αυτωι περιπατειτε]
“Go on walking in him” (present active indicative of περιπατεω — peripateō). Stick to your first lessons in Christ. [source]
Colossians 2:7 Builded up in him [εποικοδομουμενοι εν αυτωι]
Present passive participle (rooted to stay so) of εποικοδομεω — epoikodomeō old verb, to build upon as in 1 Corinthians 3:10, 1 Corinthians 3:12. The metaphor is changed again to a building as continually going up (present tense). Stablished (βεβαιουμενοι — bebaioumenoi). Present passive participle of βεβαιοω — bebaioō old verb from βεβαιος — bebaios (from βαινω βαιω — bainōτηι πιστει — baiō), to make firm or stable. In your faith Locative case, though the instrumental case, by your faith, makes good sense also. Even as ye were taught (διδασκω — kathōs edidachthēte). First aorist passive indicative of παρελαβετε — didaskō an allusion to εματετε — parelabete in Colossians 2:6 and to εν ευχαριστιαι — emathete in Colossians 1:7. In thanksgiving Hence they had no occasion to yield to the blandishments of the Gnostic teachers. [source]
Colossians 2:9 For in him dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead bodily [οτι εν αυτωι κατοικει παν το πληρωμα της τεοτητος σωματικως]
In this sentence, given as the reason The fulness of the God-head was in Christ before the Incarnation (John 1:1, John 1:18; Philemon 2:6), during the Incarnation (John 1:14, John 1:18; 1 John 1:1-3). It was the Son of God who came in the likeness of men (Philemon 2:7). Paul here disposes of the Docetic theory that Jesus had no human body as well as the Cerinthian separation between the man Jesus and the aeon Christ. He asserts plainly the deity and the humanity of Jesus Christ in corporeal form. [source]
Colossians 2:11 In the putting off [εν τηι απεκδυσει]
As if an old garment (the fleshly body). From απεκδυομαι — apekduomai (Colossians 2:15, possibly also coined by Paul) and occurring nowhere else so far as known. The word is made in a perfectly normal way by the perfective use of the two Greek prepositions Paul had as much right to mint a Greek compound as any one and surely no one ever had more ideas to express and more power in doing it. [source]
Colossians 2:12 Having been buried with him in baptism [συνταπεντες αυτωι εν τωι βαπτισματι]
Second aorist passive participle of συνταπτω — sunthaptō old word, in N.T. only here and Romans 6:4, followed by associative instrumental case Thayer‘s Lexicon says: “For all who in the rite of baptism are plunged under the water, thereby declare that they put faith in the expiatory death of Christ for the pardon of their past sins.” Yes, and for all future sins also. This word gives Paul‘s vivid picture of baptism as a symbolic burial with Christ and resurrection also to newness of life in him as Paul shows by the addition “wherein ye were also raised with him” “In which baptism” First aorist passive indicative of συνεγειρω — sunegeirō late and rare verb (Plutarch for waking up together), in lxx, in N.T. only in Colossians 2:12; Colossians 3:1; Ephesians 2:6. In the symbol of baptism the resurrection to new life in Christ is pictured with an allusion to Christ‘s own resurrection and to our final resurrection. Paul does not mean to say that the new life in Christ is caused or created by the act of baptism. That is grossly to misunderstand him. The Gnostics and the Judaizers were sacramentalists, but not so Paul the champion of spiritual Christianity. He has just given the spiritual interpretation to circumcision which itself followed Abraham‘s faith (Romans 4:10-12). Cf. Galatians 3:27. Baptism gives a picture of the change already wrought in the heart “through faith” (δια της πιστεως — dia tēs pisteōs). [source]
Colossians 2:15 Triumphing over them on it [τριαμβευσας αυτους εν αυτωι]
On the Cross the triumph was won. This late, though common verb in Koiné{[28928]}š writers It is derived from τριαμβος — thriambos a hymn sung in festal procession and is kin to the Latin triumphus (our triumph), a triumphal procession of victorious Roman generals. God won a complete triumph over all the angelic agencies Lightfoot adds, applying τριαμβευσας — thriambeusas to Christ: “The convict‘s gibbet is the victor‘s car.” It is possible, of course, to take αυτωι — autōi as referring to χειρογραπον — cheirographon (bond) or even to Christ. [source]
Colossians 2:20 As though living in the world [ως ζωντες εν κοσμωι]
Concessive use of the participle with ως — hōs The picture is that of baptism, having come out (F. B. Meyer) on the other side of the grave, we are not to act as though we had not done so. We are in the Land of Beulah. [source]
Colossians 2:23 In will-worship [εν ετελοτρησκιαι]
This word occurs nowhere else and was probably coined by Paul after the pattern of ετελοδουλεια — ethelodouleia to describe the voluntary worship of angels (see note on Colossians 2:18). [source]
Colossians 3:1 Seated on the right hand of God [εν δεχιαι του τεου κατημενος]
Not periphrastic verb, but additional statement. Christ is up there and at God‘s right hand. Cf. Colossians 2:3. [source]
Colossians 2:23 Not of any value [ουκ εν τιμηι τινι]
Τιμη — Timē usually means honour or price. Against the indulgence of the flesh (προς πλησμονην της σαρκος — pros plēsmonēn tēs sarkos). These words are sharply debated along with τιμη — timē just before. It is not unusual for προς — pros to be found in the sense of “against” rather than “with” or “for.” See προς — pros in sense of against in Colossians 3:13; Ephesians 6:11.; 2 Corinthians 5:12; 1 Corinthians 6:1. Πλησμονη — Plēsmonē is an old word from πιμπλημι — pimplēmi to fill and means satiety. It occurs here only in the N.T. Peake is inclined to agree with Hort and Haupt that there is a primitive corruption here. But the translation in the Revised Version is possible and it is true that mere rules do not carry us very far in human conduct as every father or mother knows, though we must have some regulations in family and state and church. But they are not enough of themselves. [source]
Colossians 3:11 And in all [και εν πασιν]
Locative plural and neuter also. “Christ occupies the whole sphere of human life and permeates all its developments” (Lightfoot). Christ has obliterated the words barbarian, master, slave, all of them and has substituted the word αδελπος — adelphos (brother). [source]
Colossians 3:15 In one body [εν ενι σωματι]
With one Head (Christ) as in Colossians 1:18, Colossians 1:24. [source]
Colossians 3:16 In you [εν υμιν]
Not “among you.” [source]
Colossians 3:16 In all wisdom [εν πασηι σοπιαι]
It is not clear whether this phrase goes with πλουσιως — plousiōs (richly) or with the participles following Either punctuation makes good sense. The older Greek MSS. had no punctuation. There is an anacoluthon here. The participles may be used as imperatives as in Romans 12:11., Romans 12:16. [source]
Colossians 3:16 Singing with grace [εν χαριτι αιδοντες]
In God‘s grace (2 Corinthians 1:12). The phrase can be taken with the preceding words. The verb αιδω — āidō is an old one (Ephesians 5:19) for lyrical emotion in a devout soul. [source]
Colossians 3:16 In your hearts [εν ταις καρδιαις υμων]
Without this there is no real worship “to God” How can a Jew or Unitarian in the choir lead in the worship of Christ as Saviour? Whether with instrument or with voice or with both it is all for naught if the adoration is not in the heart. [source]
Colossians 3:18 As is fitting in the Lord [ως ανηκεν εν Κυριωι]
This is an idiomatic use of the imperfect indicative with verbs of propriety in present time (Robertson, Grammar, p. 919). Wives have rights and privileges, but recognition of the husband‘s leadership is essential to a well-ordered home, only the assumption is that the husband has a head and a wise one. [source]
Colossians 3:22 Not with eye-service [μη εν οπταλμοδουλιαις]
Another Pauline word (here only and Ephesians 6:6), elsewhere only in Christian writers after Paul, an easy and expressive compound, service while the master‘s eye was on the slave and no longer. Men-pleasers (αντρωπαρεσκοι — anthrōpareskoi). Late compound only in lxx and Paul (here and Ephesians 6:6). In singleness of heart So in Ephesians 6:5. Old and expressive word from απλους — haplous (simple, without folds). See 2 Corinthians 11:3. Fearing the Lord (ποβουμενοι τον Κυριον — phoboumenoi ton Kurion). Rather than the lords according to the flesh. [source]
Colossians 3:22 In singleness of heart [εν απλοτητι καρδιας]
So in Ephesians 6:5. Old and expressive word from απλους — haplous (simple, without folds). See 2 Corinthians 11:3. Fearing the Lord (ποβουμενοι τον Κυριον — phoboumenoi ton Kurion). Rather than the lords according to the flesh. [source]
Colossians 4:1 A Master in heaven [Κυριον εν ουρανωι]
A wholesome reminder to the effect that he keeps his eye on the conduct of masters of men here towards their employees. [source]
Colossians 4:13 And for them in Hierapolis [και των εν ιεραι Πολει]
The third of the three cities in the Lycus Valley which had not seen Paul‘s face (Colossians 2:1). It was across the valley from Laodicea. Probably Epaphras had evangelized all three cities and all were in peril from the Gnostics. [source]
Colossians 4:17 Thou hast received in the Lord [παρελαβες εν Κυριωι]
Second aorist active indicative of παραλαμβανω — paralambanō the verb used by Paul of getting his message from the Lord (1 Corinthians 15:3). Clearly Archippus had a call “in the Lord” as every preacher should have. That thou fulfil it (ινα αυτην πληροις — hina autēn plērois). Present active subjunctive of πληροω — plēroō “that thou keep on filling it full.” It is a life-time job. [source]
1 Thessalonians 1:1 In God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ [εν τεωι πατρι και κυριωι ησου Χριστωι]
This church is grounded in (εν — en with the locative case) and exists in the sphere and power of [source]
1 Thessalonians 1:6 In much affliction [εν τλιπσει πολληι]
Late word, pressure. Tribulation (Latin tribulum) from τλιβω — thlibō to press hard on. Christianity has glorified this word. It occurs in some Christian papyrus letters in this same sense. Runs all through the N.T. (2 Thessalonians 1:4; Romans 5:3). Paul had his share of them (Colossians 1:24; 2 Corinthians 2:4) and so he understands how to sympathize with the Thessalonians (1 Thessalonians 3:3.). They suffered after Paul left Thessalonica (1 Thessalonians 2:14). [source]
1 Thessalonians 2:2 And been shamefully entreated in Philippi [και υβριστεντες εν Πιλιπποις]
First aorist passive participle of υβριζω — hubrizō old verb, to treat insolently. “More than the bodily suffering it was the personal indignity that had been offered to him as a Roman citizen” (Milligan), for which account see notes on Acts 16:16-40, an interesting example of how Acts and the Epistles throw light on each other. Luke tells how Paul resented the treatment accorded to him as a Roman citizen and here Paul shows that the memory still rankled in his bosom. We waxed bold in our God (επαρρησιασαμετα εν τωι τεωι ημων — eparrēsiasametha en tōi theōi hēmōn). Ingressive first aorist middle of παρρησιαζομαι — parrēsiazomai old deponent verb from παρρησια — parrēsia (full story, παν ρησια — pan-, παρρησιαζομενος λαλω — rēsia). In his reply to Festus (Acts 26:26) Paul uses επαρρησιασαμετα λαλησαι — parrēsiazomenos lalō being bold I speak, while here he has we waxed bold to speak (προς υμας — eparrēsiasametha lalēsai). The insult in Philippi did not close Paul‘s mouth, but had precisely the opposite effect “in our God.” It was not wild fanaticism, but determined courage and confidence in God that spurred Paul to still greater boldness in Thessalonica, unto you (το ευαγγελιον του τεου εν πολλωι αγωνι — pros humās), be the consequences what they might, the gospel of God in much conflict, (αγων — to euaggelion tou theou en pollōi agōni). This figure of the athletic games (agōn) may refer to outward conflict like Philemon 1:30 or inward anxiety (Colossians 2:1). He had both in Thessalonica. [source]
1 Thessalonians 2:2 We waxed bold in our God [επαρρησιασαμετα εν τωι τεωι ημων]
Ingressive first aorist middle of παρρησιαζομαι — parrēsiazomai old deponent verb from παρρησια — parrēsia (full story, παν ρησια — pan-, παρρησιαζομενος λαλω — rēsia). In his reply to Festus (Acts 26:26) Paul uses επαρρησιασαμετα λαλησαι — parrēsiazomenos lalō being bold I speak, while here he has we waxed bold to speak The insult in Philippi did not close Paul‘s mouth, but had precisely the opposite effect “in our God.” It was not wild fanaticism, but determined courage and confidence in God that spurred Paul to still greater boldness in Thessalonica, unto you This figure of the athletic games He had both in Thessalonica. [source]
1 Thessalonians 2:3 nor in guile [ουδε εν δολωι]
“This disclaimer, startling as it may seem, was not unneeded amidst the impurities consecrated by the religions of the day” (Lightfoot). There was no necessary connection in the popular mind between religion and morals. The ecstatic initiations in some of the popular religions were grossly sensual. [source]
1 Thessalonians 2:5 Using words of flattery [εν λογωι κολακειας]
Literally, in speech of flattery or fawning. Old word, only here in N.T., from κολακς — kolaks a flatterer. An Epicurean, Philodemus, wrote a work Περι Κολακειας — Peri Kolakeias (Concerning Flattery). Milligan (Vocabulary, etc.) speaks of “the selfish conduct of too many of the rhetoricians of the day,” conduct extremely repugnant to Paul. The third time (1 Thessalonians 2:1, 1 Thessalonians 2:2, 1 Thessalonians 2:5) he appeals to their knowledge of his work in Thessalonica. Frame suggests “cajolery.” [source]
1 Thessalonians 2:6 When we might have been burdensome, as apostles of Christ [δυναμενοι εν βαρει ειναι ως Χριστου αποστολοι]
Westcott and Hort put this clause in 1 Thessalonians 2:7. Probably a concessive participle, though being able to be in a position of weight (either in matter of finance or of dignity, or a burden on your funds or “men of weight” as Moffatt suggests). Milligan suggests that Paul “plays here on the double sense of the phrase” like the Latin proverb: Honos propter onus. So he adds, including Silas and Timothy, as Christ‘s apostles, as missionaries clearly, whether in the technical sense or not (cf. Acts 14:4, Acts 14:14; 2 Corinthians 8:23; 2 Corinthians 11:13; Romans 16:7; Philemon 2:25; Revelation 2:2). They were entitled to pay as “Christ‘s apostles” (cf. 1 Corinthians 9; 2 Corinthians 11:7.), though they had not asked for it. [source]
1 Thessalonians 2:7 But we were gentle in the midst of you [αλλα εγενητημεν νηπιοι εν μεσωι υμων]
Note εγενητημεν — egenēthēmen (became), not ημετα — ēmetha (were). This rendering follows ηπιοι — ēpioi instead of νηπιοι — nēpioi (Aleph B D C Vulg. Boh.) which is clearly correct, though Dibelius, Moffatt, Ellicott, Weiss prefer ηπιοι — ēpioi as making better sense. Dibelius terms νηπιοι — nēpioi unmoglich (impossible), but surely that is too strong. Paul is fond of the word νηπιοι — nēpioi (babes). Lightfoot admits that he here works the metaphor to the limit in his passion, but does not mar it as Ellicott holds. [source]
1 Thessalonians 2:13 Worketh in you [ενεργειται εν υμιν]
Perhaps middle voice of ενεργεω — energeō (εν εργον — energon work) late verb, not in ancient Greek or lxx, but in papyri and late writers (Polybius, etc.) and in N.T. only by Paul and James. If it is passive, as Milligan thinks, it means “is set in operation,” as Polybius has it. The idea then is that the word of God is set in operation in you that believe. [source]
1 Thessalonians 2:14 Imitators of the churches of God which are in Judea [μιμηται των εκκλησιων του τεου των ουσων εν τηι Ιουδαιαι]
On μιμηται — mimētai see note on 1 Thessalonians 1:6. “This passage, implying an affectionate admiration of the Jewish churches on the part of St. Paul, and thus entirely bearing out the impression produced by the narrative in the Acts, is entirely subversive of the theory maintained by some and based on a misconception of Galatians 2, and by the fiction of the Pseudo-Clementines, of the feud existing between St. Paul and the Twelve” (Lightfoot). [source]
1 Thessalonians 2:14 In Christ Jesus [εν Χριστωι Ιησου]
It takes this to make a Christian church of God. Note order here Christ Jesus as compared with Jesus Christ in 1 Thessalonians 1:1, 1 Thessalonians 1:3. Ye also - even as they (και υμεισκαι αυτοι — kai humeiṡ̇kai autoi). Note και — kai twice (correlative use of και — kai). Countrymen Fellow-countrymen or tribesmen. Late word that refers primarily to Gentiles who no doubt joined the Jews in Thessalonica who instigated the attacks on Paul and Silas so that it “was taken up by the native population, without whose Corinthians-operation it would have been powerless” (Lightfoot). Own (ιδιων — idiōn) here has apparently a weakened force. Note υπο — hupo here with the ablative both with συμπυλετων — sumphuletōn and Ιουδαιων — Ioudaiōn after the intransitive επατετε — epathete (suffered). The persecution of the Christians by the Jews in Judea was known everywhere. [source]
1 Thessalonians 2:19 At his coming [εν τηι αυτου παρουσιαι]
This word παρουσια — parousia is untechnical (just presence from παρειμι — pareimi) in 2 Thessalonians 2:9; 1 Corinthians 16:17; 2 Corinthians 7:6.; 2 Corinthians 10:10; Philemon 1:26; Philemon 2:12. But here (also 1 Thessalonians 3:13; 1 Thessalonians 4:15; 1 Thessalonians 5:23; 2 Thessalonians 2:1, 2 Thessalonians 2:8; 1 Corinthians 15:23) we have the technical sense of the second coming of Christ. Deissmann (Light from the Ancient East, pp. 372ff.) notes that the word in the papyri is almost technical for the arrival of a king or ruler who expects to receive his “crown of coming.” The Thessalonians, Paul says, will be his crown, glory, joy when Jesus comes. [source]
1 Thessalonians 4:5 Not in the passion of lust [μη εν πατει επιτυμιας]
Plain picture of the wrong way for the husband to come to marriage. [source]
1 Thessalonians 4:6 In the matter [εν τωι πραγματι]
The delicacy of Paul makes him refrain from plainer terms and the context makes it clear enough as in 2 Corinthians 7:11 (τωι πραγματι — tōi pragmati). [source]
1 Thessalonians 4:7 Not for uncleanness, but in sanctification [επι ακαταρσιαι αλλ εν αγιασμωι]
Sharp contrast made still sharper by the two prepositions επι — epi (on the basis of) and εν — en (in the sphere of). God has “called” us all for a decent sex life consonant with his aims and purposes. It was necessary for Paul to place this lofty ideal before the Thessalonian Christians living in a pagan world. It is equally important now. [source]
1 Thessalonians 4:15 By the word of the Lord [εν λογωι Κυριου]
We do not know to what word of the Lord Jesus Paul refers, probably Paul meaning only the point in the teaching of Christ rather than a quotation. He may be claiming a direct revelation on this important matter as about the Lord‘s Supper in 1 Corinthians 11:23. Jesus may have spoken on this subject though it has not been preserved to us (cf. Mark 9:1). [source]
1 Thessalonians 4:16 With a shout [εν κελευσματι]
Note this so-called instrumental use of εν — en Old word, here only in N.T., from κελευω — keleuō to order, command (military command). Christ will come as Conqueror. [source]
1 Thessalonians 4:16 With the voice of the archangel [εν πωνηι αρχαγγελου]
Further explanation of κελευσματι — keleusmati (command). The only archangel mentioned in N.T. is Michael in Judges 1:9. But note absence of article with both πωνηι — phōnēi and αρχαγγελου — archaggelou The reference may be thus indefinite. With the trump of God (εν σαλπιγγι τεου — en salpiggi theou). Trumpet. See same figure in 1 Corinthians 15:52. The dead in Christ shall rise first First here refers plainly to the fact that, so far from the dead in Christ having no share in the Parousia, they will rise before those still alive are changed. [source]
1 Thessalonians 4:16 With the trump of God [εν σαλπιγγι τεου]
Trumpet. See same figure in 1 Corinthians 15:52. [source]
1 Thessalonians 4:16 The dead in Christ shall rise first [οι νεκροι εν Χριστωι αναστησονται πρωτον]
First here refers plainly to the fact that, so far from the dead in Christ having no share in the Parousia, they will rise before those still alive are changed. [source]
1 Thessalonians 4:18 With these words [εν τοις λογοις τουτοις]
In these words. They were a comfort to the Thessalonians as they still comfort the people of God. [source]
1 Thessalonians 5:2 As a thief in the night [ως κλεπτης εν νυκτι]
As a thief at night, suddenly and unexpectedly. Reminiscence of the word of Jesus (Matthew 24:43; Luke 12:39), used also in 2 Peter 3:10; Revelation 3:3; Revelation 16:15. Cometh (ερχεται — erchetai). Prophetic or futuristic present tense. [source]
1 Thessalonians 5:3 As travail upon a woman with child [ωσπερ η ωδιν τηι εν γαστρι εχουσηι]
Earlier form ωδις — ōdis for birth-pang used also by Jesus (Mark 13:8; Matthew 24:8). Technical phrase for pregnancy, to the one who has it in belly (cf. Matthew 1:18 of Mary). They shall in no wise escape (ου μη εκπυγωσιν — ou mē ekphugōsin). Strong negative like that in 1 Thessalonians 4:15 ου μη — ou mē (double negative) and the second aorist active subjunctive. [source]
1 Thessalonians 5:12 Them that labour among you [τους κοπιωντας εν υμιν]
Old word for toil even if weary. [source]
1 Thessalonians 5:12 And are over you in the Lord [και προισταμενους υμων εν Κυριωι]
Same article with this participle. Literally, those who stand in front of you, your leaders in the Lord, the presbyters or bishops and deacons. Get acquainted with them and follow them. And admonish you (και νουτετουντας υμας — kai nouthetountas humas). Old verb from νουτετης — nouthetēs and this from νους — nous (mind) and τιτημι — tithēmi to put. Putting sense into the heads of people. A thankless, but a necessary, task. The same article connects all three participles, different functions of the same leaders in the church. [source]
1 Thessalonians 5:18 In everything give thanks [εν παντι ευχαριστειτε]
There is a silver lining to every cloud. God is with us whatever befalls us. It is God‘s will that we find joy in prayer in Christ Jesus in every condition of life. [source]
1 Thessalonians 5:26 With a holy kiss [εν πιληματι αγιωι]
With a kiss that is holy (Milligan) a token of friendship and brotherly love (1 Corinthians 16:20; 2 Corinthians 13:12; Romans 16:16). In 1 Peter 5:14 it is “with a kiss of love.” This was the customary salutation for rabbis. [source]
2 Thessalonians 1:4 In all your persecutions [εν πασιν τοις διωγμοις υμων]
Their patience and faith had already attracted Paul‘s attention (1 Thessalonians 1:3) and their tribulations τλιπσεσιν — thlipsesin (1 Thessalonians 1:6). Here Paul adds the more specific term διωγμος — diōgmos old word from διωκω — diōkō to chase, to pursue, a word used by Paul of his treatment in Corinth (2 Corinthians 12:10). Which ye endure (αις ανεχεστε — hais anechesthe). B here reads ενεχεστε — enechesthe to be entangled in, to be held in as in Galatians 5:1, but ανεχεστε — anechesthe is probably correct and the αις — hais is probably attracted to locative case of τλιπσεσιν — thlipsesin from the ablative ων — hōn after ανεχεστε — anechesthe from which ye hold yourselves back (cf. Colossians 3:13). [source]
2 Thessalonians 1:7 At the revelation of the Lord Jesus [εν τηι αποκαλυπσει του Κυριου Ιησου]
Here the Παρουσια — Parousia (1 Thessalonians 2:19; 1 Thessalonians 3:13; 1 Thessalonians 5:23) is pictured as a Revelation (Un-veiling, αποκαλυπσις — apȯkalupsis) of the Messiah as in 1 Corinthians 1:7, 1 Peter 1:7, 1 Peter 1:13 (cf. Luke 17:30). At this Unveiling of the Messiah there will come the recompense (2 Thessalonians 1:6) to the persecutors and the rest from the persecutions. This Revelation will be from heaven In Acts 7:30 the text is flame of fire where πυρος — puros is genitive (like Isaiah 66:15) rather than πλογος — phlogos as here (Exodus 3:2). [source]
2 Thessalonians 1:7 in flaming fire [εν πυρι πλογος]
In Acts 7:30 the text is flame of fire where πυρος — puros is genitive (like Isaiah 66:15) rather than πλογος — phlogos as here (Exodus 3:2). [source]
2 Thessalonians 1:10 In his saints [εν τοις αγιοις αυτου]
The sphere in which Christ will find his glory at the Revelation. [source]
2 Thessalonians 1:10 On that day [εν τηι ημεραι εκεινηι]
The day of Christ‘s coming (2 Timothy 1:12, 2 Timothy 1:18; 2 Timothy 4:8). [source]
2 Thessalonians 1:11 With power [εν δυναμει]
In power. Connect with πληρωσηι — plērōsēi (fulfil), God‘s power (Romans 1:29; Colossians 1:4) in Christ (1 Corinthians 1:24) through the Holy Spirit (1 Thessalonians 1:5). [source]
2 Thessalonians 1:12 In you, and ye in him [εν υμιν και υμεις εν αυτωι]
This reciprocal glorying is Pauline, but it is also like Christ‘s figure of the vine and the branches in John 15:1-11. [source]
2 Thessalonians 2:6 In his own season [εν τωι αυτου καιρωι]
Note αυτου — autou (his), not εαυτου — heautou (his own), revealed in his time, in the time set him by God. [source]
2 Thessalonians 2:10 With all deceit of unrighteousness [εν πασηι απατηι αδικιας]
This pastmaster of trickery will have at his command all the energy and skill of Satan to mislead and deceive. How many illustrations lie along the pathway of Christian history. [source]
2 Thessalonians 2:13 In sanctification of the Spirit [εν αγιασμωι πνευματος]
Subjective genitive πνευματος — pneumatos sanctification wrought by the Holy Spirit. And belief of the truth (και πιστει αλητειας — kai pistei alētheias). Objective genitive αλητειας — alētheias belief in the truth. [source]
2 Thessalonians 3:4 In the Lord touching you [εν κυριωι επ υμας]
Note the two prepositions, εν — en in the sphere of the Lord (1 Thessalonians 4:1) as the ground of Paul‘s confident trust, επ — Ephesians' Ye both do and will do (και ποιειτε και ποιησετε — ̣kaǐ poieite kai poiēsete). Compliment and also appeal, present and future tenses of ποιεω — poieō The things which we command Note of apostolic authority here, not advice or urging, but command. [source]
2 Thessalonians 3:6 In the name of the Lord Jesus Christ [εν ονοματι του κυριου Ιησου Χριστου]
Name (ονομα — onoma) here for authority of Jesus Christ with which compare through the Lord Jesus (δια του κυριου Ιησου — dia tou kuriou Iēsou) in 1 Thessalonians 4:2. For a full discussion of the phrase see the monograph of W. Heitmuller, Im Namen Jesu. Paul wishes his readers to realize the responsibility on them for their obedience to his command. That ye withdraw yourselves Present middle (direct) infinitive of στελλω — stellō old verb to place, arrange, make compact or shorten as sails, to move oneself from or to withdraw oneself from (with απο — apo and the ablative). In 2 Corinthians 8:20 the middle voice He calls him “brother” still. The adverb ατακτως — ataktōs is common in Plato and is here and 2 Thessalonians 3:11 alone in the N.T., though the adjective ατακτος — ataktos equally common in Plato we had in 1 Thessalonians 5:14 which see. Military term, out of ranks. And not after the tradition See note on 1 Thessalonians 2:15 for παραδοσιν — paradosin Which they received of us (ην παρελαβοσαν παρ ημων — hēn parelabosan par hēmōn). Westcott and Hort put this form of the verb (second aorist indicative third person plural of παραλαμβανω — paralambanō the οσαν — ̇osan form instead of ον — ̇on with slight support from the papyri, but in the lxx and the Boeotian dialect, Robertson, Grammar, pp. 335f.) in the margin with παρελαβετε — parelabete (ye received) in the text. There are five different readings of the verb here, the others being παρελαβον παρελαβε ελαβοσαν — parelabonparelabeelabosan f0). [source]
2 Thessalonians 3:7 For we behaved not ourselves disorderly among you [οτι ουκ ητακτησαμεν εν υμιν]
First aorist active indicative of old verb ατακτεω — atakteō to be out of ranks of soldiers. Specific denial on Paul‘s part in contrast to 2 Thessalonians 3:6, 2 Thessalonians 3:17. [source]
2 Thessalonians 3:17 The token in every epistle [σημειον εν πασηι επιστοληι]
Mark (2 Thessalonians 3:14) and proof of the genuineness of each epistle, Paul‘s signature. Already there were spurious forgeries (2 Thessalonians 2:2). Thus each church was enabled to know that Paul wrote the letter. If only the autograph copy could be found! [source]
1 Timothy 1:4 In faith [εν πιστει]
Pauline use of πιστις — pistis f0). [source]
1 Timothy 1:13 In unbelief [εν απιστιαι]
See Romans 11:20, Romans 11:25. [source]
1 Timothy 1:16 In me as chief [εν εμοι πρωτωι]
Probably starts with the same sense of πρωτος — prōtos as in 1 Timothy 1:15 (rank), but turns to order (first in line). Paul becomes the “specimen” sinner as an encouragement to all who come after him. [source]
1 Timothy 1:18 That by them thou mayest war the good warfare [ινα στρατευηι εν αυταις την καλην στρατειαν]
Cognate accusative As if in defensive armour. [source]
1 Timothy 2:2 And all them that are in high place [και παντων των εν υπεροχηι οντων]
υπεροχη — Huperochē is old word (from υπεροχος — huperochos and this from υπερ — huper and εχω — echō), but in N.T. only here and 1 Corinthians 2:1. That we may lead (ινα διαγωμεν — hina diagōmen). Purpose clause with present active subjunctive of διαγω — diagō an old and common verb, but in N.T. only here and Titus 3:3. Tranquil Late adjective from the old adverb ηρεμα — ērema (stilly, quietly). Here only in N.T. Quiet (ησυχιον — hēsuchion). Old adjective, once in lxx (Isa 66:2), in N.T. only here and 1 Peter 3:4. Life Old word for course of life (not ζωη — zōē). So Luke 8:14. Gravity (σεμνοτητι — semnotēti). Old word from σεμνος — semnos (Philemon 4:8), in N.T. only here, 1 Timothy 3:4; Titus 2:7. [source]
1 Timothy 2:9 In modest apparel [εν καταστοληι κοσμιωι]
Καταστολη — Katastolē is a late word (a letting down, καταστελλω — katastellō of demeanour or dress, arrangement of dress). Only here in N.T. Κοσμιος — Kosmios is old adjective from κοσμος — kosmos and means well-arranged, becoming. W. H. have adverb in margin (κοσμιως — kosmiōs). [source]
1 Timothy 2:9 Not with braided hair [μη εν πλεγμασιν]
Old word from πλεκω — plekō to plait, to braid, for nets, baskets, here only in N.T. Cf. 1 Peter 3:1 And gold (εν χρυσιωι — en chrusiōi). Locative case with εν — en repeated. Some MSS. read χρυσωι — chrusōi Both used for gold ornaments. Or pearls See note on Matthew 7:6 for this word. Or costly raiment (η ιματισμωι πολυτελει — ē himatismōi polutelei). ιματισμος — Himatismos a common Koiné{[28928]}š word from ιματιζω — himatizō to clothe. Πολυτελης — Polutelēs old word from πολυς — polus and τελος — telos (great price). See Mark 14:3. [source]
1 Timothy 2:9 And gold [εν χρυσιωι]
Locative case with εν — en repeated. Some MSS. read χρυσωι — chrusōi Both used for gold ornaments. [source]
1 Timothy 2:11 In quietness [εν ησυχιαι]
Old word from ησυχιος — hēsuchios In N.T. only here, Acts 22:2; 2 Thessalonians 3:12. [source]
1 Timothy 2:11 In all subjection [εν πασηι υποταγηι]
Late word (Dion. Hal., papyri), in N.T. only here, 2 Corinthians 9:13; Galatians 2:5. See 1 Corinthians 14:33-35. [source]
1 Timothy 3:4 In subjection [εν υποταγηι]
See 1 Timothy 3:11. [source]
1 Timothy 3:9 In a pure conscience [εν καταραι συνειδησει]
See note on 1 Timothy 1:19. “The casket in which the jewel is to be kept” (Lock). [source]
1 Timothy 3:11 Faithful in all things [πιστας εν πασιν]
Perhaps as almoners (Ellicott) the deaconesses had special temptations. [source]
1 Timothy 3:13 In the faith which is in Christ Jesus [εν πιστει τηι εν Χριστωι Ιησου]
Pauline phrase again (Acts 26:18; Galatians 3:26; Colossians 1:4; Ephesians 1:15; 2 Timothy 1:13; 2 Timothy 3:15). [source]
1 Timothy 3:15 In the house of God [εν οικωι τεου]
Probably here “household of God,” that is “the family of God” rather than “the house (or temple) of God.” Christians as yet had no separate houses of worship and οικος — oikos commonly means “household.” Christians are the ναος — naos (sanctuary) of God (1 Corinthians 3:16.; 2 Corinthians 6:16), and Paul calls them οικειοι του τεου — oikeioi tou theou (Ephesians 2:19) “members of God‘s family.” It is conduct as members of God‘s family (οικος — oikos) that Paul has in mind. [source]
1 Timothy 3:16 Believed on in the world [επιστευτη εν κοσμωι]
First aorist indicative passive again of πιστευω — pisteuō to believe (2 Thessalonians 1:10). Cf. 1 Timothy 1:15; 2 Corinthians 5:19. [source]
1 Timothy 3:16 Received up in glory [ανελημπτη εν δοχηι]
First aorist passive again (six verbs in the same voice and tense in succession, a rhythmic arrangement like a hymn). Cf. Romans 8:29. This time the verb is αναλαμβανω — analambanō the verb used of the ascension (Acts 1:11, Acts 1:22, which see). In a wonderful way this stanza of a hymn presents the outline of the life of Christ. [source]
1 Timothy 3:16 Justified in the spirit [εδικαιωτη εν πνευματι]
First aorist passive indicative of δικαιοω — dikaioō to declare righteous, to vindicate. Christ was vindicated in his own spirit (Hebrews 9:14) before men by overcoming death and rising from the dead (Romans 1:3.). Seen of angels (ωπτη αγγελοις — ōphthē aggelois). First aorist passive indicative of οραω — horaō to see, with either the instrumental or the dative case of angels (αγγελοις — aggelois). The words were probably suggested by the appearance of Jesus (ωπτη — ōphthē the usual form for the resurrection appearances of Christ) of the angels at the tomb and at the ascension of Christ. See note on Philemon 2:10; 1 Peter 3:22 for the appearance of Jesus to the angels in heaven at the ascension. Some would take “angels” here to be “messengers” (the women). Preached among the nations First aorist passive indicative of κηρυσσω — kērussō to proclaim. The word ετνος — ethnos may mean “all creation” (Colossians 1:23) and not just Gentiles as distinct from Jews. Paul had done more of this heralding of Christ among the Gentiles than any one else. It was his glory (Ephesians 3:1, Ephesians 3:8). Cf. 1 Timothy 2:7. Believed on in the world (επιστευτη εν κοσμωι — episteuthē en kosmōi). First aorist indicative passive again of πιστευω — pisteuō to believe (2 Thessalonians 1:10). Cf. 1 Timothy 1:15; 2 Corinthians 5:19. Received up in glory First aorist passive again (six verbs in the same voice and tense in succession, a rhythmic arrangement like a hymn). Cf. Romans 8:29. This time the verb is αναλαμβανω — analambanō the verb used of the ascension (Acts 1:11, Acts 1:22, which see). In a wonderful way this stanza of a hymn presents the outline of the life of Christ. [source]
1 Timothy 3:16 Preached among the nations [εκηρυχτη εν ετνεσιν]
First aorist passive indicative of κηρυσσω — kērussō to proclaim. The word ετνος — ethnos may mean “all creation” (Colossians 1:23) and not just Gentiles as distinct from Jews. Paul had done more of this heralding of Christ among the Gentiles than any one else. It was his glory (Ephesians 3:1, Ephesians 3:8). Cf. 1 Timothy 2:7. Believed on in the world (επιστευτη εν κοσμωι — episteuthē en kosmōi). First aorist indicative passive again of πιστευω — pisteuō to believe (2 Thessalonians 1:10). Cf. 1 Timothy 1:15; 2 Corinthians 5:19. Received up in glory First aorist passive again (six verbs in the same voice and tense in succession, a rhythmic arrangement like a hymn). Cf. Romans 8:29. This time the verb is αναλαμβανω — analambanō the verb used of the ascension (Acts 1:11, Acts 1:22, which see). In a wonderful way this stanza of a hymn presents the outline of the life of Christ. [source]
1 Timothy 4:1 In later times [εν υστεροις καιροις]
Old adjective (Matthew 21:31) usually as adverb, υστερον — husteron (Matthew 4:2). Relative time from the prediction, now coming true (a present danger). Some shall fall away (αποστησονται τινες — apostēsontai tines). Future middle of απιστημι — aphistēmi intransitive use, shall stand off from, to fall away, apostatize (2 Corinthians 12:8). From the faith Ablative case (separation). Not creed, but faith in God through Christ. Giving heed (προσεχοντες — prosechontes). Supply τον νουν — ton noun (the mind) as in 1 Timothy 3:8. Seducing spirits Old adjective As substantive in 2 Corinthians 6:8. Probably some heathen or the worst of the Gnostics. Doctrines of devils (διδασκαλιαις δαιμονιων — didaskaliais daimoniōn). “Teachings of δαιμονς — daimons Definite explanation of the preceding. Cf. 1 Corinthians 10:20. [source]
1 Timothy 4:2 Through the hypocrisy of men that speak lies [εν υποκρισει πσευδολογων]
For υποκρισις — hupokrisis see note on Galatians 2:13. Πσευδολογος — Pseudologos (πσευδησ λεγω — pseudēsκεκαυστηριασμενων την ιδιαν συνειδησιν — legō) Koiné{[28928]}š word from Aristophanes on. Here only in N.T. “A good classical word for liars on a large scale” (Parry). [source]
1 Timothy 4:12 In word [εν λογωι]
In conversation as well as in public speech. In manner of life (εν αναστροπηι — en anastrophēi). “In bearing” (Galatians 1:13; Ephesians 4:22). In purity Old word from αγνευω — hagneuō Sinlessness of life. Used of a Nazirite (Numbers 6:2, Numbers 6:21). Only here and 1 Timothy 5:2 in N.T. [source]
1 Timothy 4:12 In manner of life [εν αναστροπηι]
“In bearing” (Galatians 1:13; Ephesians 4:22). [source]
1 Timothy 4:12 In purity [εν αγνειαι]
Old word from αγνευω — hagneuō Sinlessness of life. Used of a Nazirite (Numbers 6:2, Numbers 6:21). Only here and 1 Timothy 5:2 in N.T. [source]
1 Timothy 4:14 The gift that is in thee [του εν σοι χαρισματος]
Late word of result from χαριζομαι — charizomai in papyri (Preisigke), a regular Pauline word in N.T. (1 Corinthians 1:7; 2 Corinthians 1:11; Romans 1:11; etc.). Here it is God‘s gift to Timothy as in 2 Timothy 1:6. By prophecy (δια προπητειας — dia prophēteias). Accompanied by prophecy (1 Timothy 1:18), not bestowed by prophecy. With the laying on of the hands of the presbytery In Acts 13:2., when Barnabas and Saul were formally set apart to the mission campaign (not then ordained as ministers, for they were already that), there was the call of the Spirit and the laying on of hands with prayer. Here again μετα — meta does not express instrument or means, but merely accompaniment. In 2 Timothy 1:6 Paul speaks only of his own laying on of hands, but the rest of the presbytery no doubt did so at the same time and the reference is to this incident. There is no way to tell when and where it was done, whether at Lystra when Timothy joined Paul‘s party or at Ephesus just before Paul left Timothy there (1 Timothy 1:3). Επιτεσις — Epithesis Πρεσβυτεριον — Presbuterion is a late word (ecclesiastical use also), first for the Jewish Sanhedrin (Luke 22:66; Acts 22:5), then (here only in N.T.) of Christian elders (common in Ignatius), though πρεσβυτερος — presbuteros (elder) for preachers (bishops) is common (Acts 11:30; Acts 15:2; Acts 20:17, etc.). [source]
1 Timothy 4:15 Give thyself wholly to them [εν τουτοις ιστι]
Present imperative second person singular of ειμι — eimi “keep on in these things.” Note five uses of εν — en in 1 Timothy 4:12 and three datives in 1 Timothy 4:14. Plutarch (Pomp. 656 B) says Caesar was εν τουτοις — en toutois (“in these things”). It is like our “up to his ears” in work Koiné{[28928]}š word from προκοπτω — prokoptō to cut forward, to blaze the way, in N.T. only here and Philemon 1:12, Philemon 1:25. Paul‘s concern (purpose, ινα — hina and present subjunctive ηι — ēi of ειμι — eimi) is that Timothy‘s “progress” may be “manifest to all.” It is inspiring to see a young preacher grow for then the church will grow with him. [source]
1 Timothy 5:2 The younger as sisters, in all purity [νεωτερας ως αδελπας εν πασηι αγνιαι]
Anarthrous also and comparative form as in 1 Timothy 5:1. See note on 1 Timothy 4:12 for αγνια — hagnia No sort of behavior will so easily make or mar the young preacher as his conduct with young women. [source]
1 Timothy 5:17 Especially those who labour in word and teaching [μαλιστα οι κοπιωντες εν λογωι και διδασκαλιαι]
Either those who work hard or toil (usual meaning of κοπιαω — kopiaō 2 Timothy 2:6) in preaching and teaching (most probable meaning. See 1 Timothy 5:18) or those who teach and preach and not merely preside (a doubtful distinction in “elders” at this time). See Titus 1:8. See both κοπιαω — kopiaō and προισταμαι — proistamai used for same men (elders) in 1 Thessalonians 5:12 and the use of κοπιαω — kopiaō in 1 Corinthians 15:10; 1 Corinthians 16:16. [source]
1 Timothy 6:17 In this present world [εν τωι νυν αιωνι]
“In the now age,” in contrast with the future. [source]
1 Timothy 6:18 Rich in good works [πλουτειν εν εργοις καλοις]
See note on Luke 12:21 “rich toward God” and notes on Matthew 6:19. for “treasures in heaven.” Ready to distribute (ευμεταδοτους — eumetadotous). Late and rare verbal (ευ μετα διδωμι — euκοινωνικους — metadidōmi). Free to give, liberal. Only here in N.T. Willing to communicate Old adjective, ready to share, gracious, liberal again. Only here in N.T. See note on Galatians 6:6; Philemon 4:15. [source]
2 Timothy 1:1 According to the promise of the life which is in Christ Jesus [κατ επαγγελιαν ζωης της εν Χριστωι Ιησου]
“With a view to the fulfilment of the promise.” See note on Titus 1:1 for this same use of κατα — kata For κατ επαγγελιαν — kat' epaggelian see Galatians 3:29. See 1 Timothy 4:8 for the phrase “promise of life.” Here or there “life that in Christ Jesus” includes the present as well as the future. [source]
2 Timothy 1:3 In a pure conscience [εν καταραι συνειδησει]
See note on 1 Timothy 1:5; note on Acts 23:1. Unceasing (αδιαλειπτον — adialeipton). Late and rare compound, in N.T. only here and Romans 9:2 which see. The adverb αδιαλειπτως — adialeiptōs is more frequent (in the papyri, literary Koiné, 1 Thessalonians 1:2; Romans 1:9). The adjective here is the predicate accusative, “how I hold the memory concerning thee unceasing.” The use of αδιαλειπτως — adialeiptōs (adverb) is a sort of epistolary formula (papyri, 1 Thessalonians 1:3; 1 Thessalonians 2:13; 1 Thessalonians 5:17; Romans 1:9). Remembrance Old word, in N.T. only Pauline (seven times, 1 Thessalonians 1:2; Romans 1:9; Philemon 1:3). [source]
2 Timothy 1:5 In thy grandmother Lois [εν τηι μαμμηι Λωιδι]
Old word, originally the infantile word for μητηρ — mētēr (mother), then extended by writers to grandmother as here. Common for grandmother in the papyri. Lois is the mother of Eunice, Timothy‘s mother, since Timothy‘s father was a Greek (Acts 16:1). Probably both grandmother and mother became Christians. [source]
2 Timothy 1:14 Which dwelleth in us [του ενοικουντος εν ημιν]
It is only through the Holy Spirit that Timothy or any of us can guard God‘s deposit with us. [source]
2 Timothy 1:17 When he was in Rome [γενομενος εν ομηι]
Second aorist middle participle of γινομαι — ginomai (coming to Rome, happening in Rome). [source]
2 Timothy 2:1 In the grace that is in Christ Jesus [εν τηι χαριτι τηι εν Χριστωι Ιησου]
Where the power is located. Christ is the dynamo for power only when and while we keep in touch with him. [source]
2 Timothy 2:9 Wherein [εν ωι]
In my gospel. [source]
2 Timothy 2:20 In a great house [εν μεγαληι οικιαι]
Metaphor of a palace. He doubtless has the Kingdom of God in mind, but he works out the metaphor of a great house of the rich and mighty. [source]
2 Timothy 3:1 In the last days [εν εσχαταις ημεραις]
See note on James 5:3 and 1 Timothy 4:1. Grievous (χαλεποι — chalepoi). Hard. See Ephesians 5:16. Shall come Future middle of ενιστημι — enistēmi (intransitive use), old verb, to stand on or be at hand, as in 2 Thessalonians 2:2. [source]
2 Timothy 3:14 In the things which [εν οις]
The antecedent to οις — hois is not expressed (“in which things”) and the relative is attracted from α — ha accusative with εματες — emathes (didst learn, second aorist active indicative of μαντανω — manthanō) to the case of the unexpressed antecedent (locative with εν — en). Hast been assured of (επιστωτης — epistōthēs). First aorist passive indicative of πιστοω — pistoō old verb (from πιστος — pistos faithful), to make reliable, only here in N.T. Knowing from whom Second perfect active participle of οιδα — oida Note τινων — tinōn (ablative case after παρα — para in an indirect question). The list included the O.T. prophets, Paul, Eunice, Lois. There ought to be moral authority in such personages. [source]
2 Timothy 3:15 Which is in [της εν]
Common idiom with the article, “the in.” The use of the Scriptures was not magic, but of value when used “through faith that is in Christ Jesus.” [source]
2 Timothy 4:8 At that day [εν εκεινηι τηι ημεραι]
That great and blessed day (2 Timothy 1:12, 2 Timothy 1:18). [source]
2 Timothy 4:16 At my first defence [εν τηι πρωτηι απολογιαι]
Original sense of “apology” as in Philemon 1:7, Philemon 1:16. Either the first stage in this trial or the previous trial and acquittal at the end of the first Roman imprisonment. Probably the first view is correct, though really there is no way to decide. [source]
2 Timothy 4:20 At Miletus sick [εν Μιλητωι αστενουντα]
Present active participle of αστενεω — astheneō to be weak. Probably on Paul‘s return from Crete. [source]
Titus 1:3 In the message [εν κηρυγματι]
See note on 1 Corinthians 1:21; 1 Corinthians 2:4 for this word, the human proclamation (preaching) of God‘s word. Wherewith I was intrusted (ο επιστευτην — ho episteuthēn). Accusative relative ο — ho retained with the first aorist passive indicative of πιστευω — pisteuō as in 1 Timothy 1:11. See note on 1 Timothy 2:7. Of God our Saviour In Titus 1:4 he applies the words “του σωτηρος ημων — tou sōtēros hēmōn ” to Christ. In Titus 2:13 he applies both τεου — theou and σωτηρος — sōtēros to Christ. [source]
Titus 1:5 Left I thee in Crete [απελειπον σε εν Κρητηι]
This is the imperfect active of απολειπω — apoleipō though MSS. give the aorist active also Late and rare double compound (inscriptions, here only in N.T.), first aorist middle subjunctive (final clause with ινα — hina) of επιδιορτοω — epidiorthoō to set straight (ορτοω — orthoō) thoroughly (δια — dia) in addition (επι — epi), a clean job of it. The things that were wanting “The things that remain.” See note on 2 Timothy 3:13; Luke 18:22. Either things left undone or things that survive. In both senses the new pastor faces problems after the tornado has passed. Parry takes it “of present defects” in Cretan character. And appoint (και καταστησηις — kai katastēsēis). Final clause still and first aorist active subjunctive of κατιστημι — kathistēmi the word used in Acts 6:13 about the deacons. The word does not preclude the choice by the churches (in every city, κατα πολιν — kata polin distributive use of κατα — kata). This is a chief point in the επιδορτωσις — epidorthōsis (White). Elders See note on 1 Timothy 3:2; 1 Timothy 4:14. As I gave thee charge (ως εγω σοι διεταχαμην — hōs egō soi dietaxamēn). First aorist (constative) middle imperative of διατασσω — diatassō clear reference to previous personal details given to Titus on previous occasions. [source]
Titus 1:6 Not accused of riot [μη εν κατηγοριαι ασωτιας]
See note on 1 Timothy 5:19 for κατηγορια — katēgoria and Ephesians 5:18 for ασωτια — asōtia “Not in accusation of profligacy.” [source]
Titus 3:3 In malice [εν κακιαι]
See note on Romans 1:29. [source]
Philemon 1:6 In you [εν υμιν]
Some MSS. have εν ημιν — en hēmin (in us), itacism and common. [source]
Philemon 1:10 Whom I have begotten in my bonds [ον εγεννησα εν τοις δεσμοις]
First aorist active indicative of γενναω — gennaō to beget. See note on 1 Corinthians 4:15 for this figurative sense. Paul is evidently proud of winning Onesimus to Christ though a prisoner himself. [source]
Philemon 1:20 Refresh my heart in Christ [αναπαυσον μου τα σπλαγχνα εν Χριστωι]
See Philemon 1:7 for αναπαυσον — anapauson (first aorist active imperative of αναπαυω — anapauō) and σπλαγχνα — splagchna (3 times in this letter, Philemon 1:7, Philemon 1:12; Philemon 1:20). [source]
Hebrews 11:2 Therein [εν ταυτηι]
That is, “in faith,” feminine demonstrative referring to πιστις — pistis The elders More nearly like “the fathers,” not the technical sense of elders (officers) usual in the N.T., but more like “the tradition of the elders” (Mark 7:3, Mark 7:5; Matthew 15:2). Had witness borne to them First aorist passive of μαρτυρεω — martureō (cf. Hebrews 7:8), “were testified to.” [source]
Hebrews 13:21 Working in us [ποιων εν εμιν]
“Doing in us.” Some MSS. read “in you.” Well-pleasing Compound adjective Usually with the dative (Romans 12:2), here with enōpion autou more like the Hebrew. This is one of the noblest doxologies in the N.T. [source]
Hebrews 2:8 In that he subjected [εν τωι υποταχαι]
First aorist active articular infinitive of υπατασσω — hupatassō in the locative case, “in the subjecting.” He left First aorist active indicative (kappa aorist) of απιημι — aphiēmi Nothing that is not subject to him Later verbal of υποτασσω — hupotassō with α — a privative. Here in passive sense, active sense in 1 Timothy 1:9. Man‘s sovereignty was meant to be all-inclusive including the administration of “the world to come.” “He is crowned king of nature, invested with a divine authority over creation” (Moffatt). But how far short of this destiny has man come! But now we see not yet Not even today in the wonderful twentieth century with man‘s triumphs over nature has he reached that goal, wonderful as are the researches by the help of telescope and microscope, the mechanism of the airplane, the submarine, steam, electricity, radio. [source]
Hebrews 2:18 In that [εν ωι]
Literally, “In which” (= εν τουτωι εν ωι — en toutōi en hōi in that in which), a causal idea, though in Romans 14:22 εν ωι — en hōi means “wherein.” Hath suffered Second perfect active indicative of πασχω — paschō permanent part of Christ‘s experience. Being tempted First aorist passive participle of πειραζω — peirazō The temptation to escape the shame of the Cross was early and repeatedly presented to Christ, by Satan in the wilderness (Matthew 4:8-11), by Peter in the spirit of Satan (Matthew 16:22.), in Gethsemane (Matthew 26:39), and caused intense suffering to Jesus (Luke 22:44; Hebrews 5:8). He is able This word strikes the heart of it all. Christ‘s power to help is due not merely to his deity as God‘s Son, but also to his humanity without which he could not sympathize with us (Hebrews 4:15). To succour First aorist active infinitive of the old compound verb βοητεω — boētheō Them that are tempted Dative plural of the articular participle (present passive) of πειραζω — peirazō These Jewish Christians were daily tempted to give up Christ, to apostatize from Christianity. Jesus understands himself (αυτος — autos) their predicament and is able to help them to be faithful. [source]
Hebrews 3:15 While it is said [εν τωι λεγεσται]
Locative case with εν — en of the articular present passive infinitive of λεγω — legō “in the being said.” Thus the author (cf. same phrase in Psalm 42:4) introduces the repeated quotation from Hebrews 3:7, Hebrews 3:8. Probably it is to be connected with κατασχωμεν — kataschōmen though it can be joined with παρακαλειτε — parakaleite in Hebrews 3:13 (treating Hebrews 3:14 as a parenthesis). [source]
Hebrews 4:5 And in this place again [και εν τουτωι παλιν]
The passage already quoted in Hebrews 4:3; Hebrews 3:11. [source]
Hebrews 5:6 In another place [εν ετερωι]
That is Psalm 110:4. It is this crucial passage by which the author will prove the superiority of Jesus to Aaron as high priest. Only the word priest The point lies in the meaning of the phrase “After the order of Melchizedek” But at this point the only thing pressed is the fact of the divine appointment of Jesus as priest. He returns to this point (5:10-7:28). [source]
Hebrews 5:7 In the days of his flesh [εν ταις ημεραις της σαρκος αυτου]
Here (Hebrews 5:7-9) the author turns to the other requirement of a high priest (human sympathy). Since Jesus was “without sin” (Hebrews 4:15) he did not have to offer sacrifices “for himself,” yet in all other points he felt the sympathy of the human high priest, even more so by reason of his victory over sin. Having offered up Second aorist active (-α — a form) participle of προσπερω — prospherō (cf. Hebrews 5:3). An allusion to the Agony of Christ in Gethsemane. Supplications Socrates, Polybius, Job (Job 40:22) combine this word with δεησεις — deēseis (prayers) as here. The older form was ικεσια — hikesia The word ικετηριος — hiketērios is an adjective from ικετης — hiketēs (a suppliant from ικω — hikō to come to one) and suggests one coming with an olive branch Here only in the N.T. With strong crying and tears See Luke 22:44. for a picture of the scene in Gethsemane (anguish and pathos). No doubt the writer has in mind other times when Jesus shed tears (John 11:35; Luke 19:41), but Gethsemane chiefly. To save him from death A reference to the cry of Jesus in Gethsemane (Matthew 26:39). Having been heard for his godly fear Old word from ευλαβης — eulabēs (taking hold well, Luke 2:25 from ευ λαμβανω — eu class="normal greek">ευλαβεομαι — lambanō the verb eulabeomai in N.T. only in Hebrews 11:7), in N.T. only here and Hebrews 12:28. Fine picture of Christ‘s attitude toward the Father in the prayer in Gethsemane and in all his prayers. Jesus in Gethsemane at once surrendered his will to that of the Father who heard his plea and enabled him to acquiesce in the Father‘s will. [source]
Hebrews 7:10 In the loins of his father [εν τηι οσπυι του πατρος]
Levi was not yet born. The reference is to Abraham, the forefather (πατρος — patros) of Levi. This is a rabbinical imaginative refinement appealing to Jews. [source]
Hebrews 8:9 In the day that I took them [εν ημεραι επιλαβομενου μου]
Genitive absolute Technical use of the genitive of the part affected. To lead them forth Second aorist active infinitive of εχαγω — exagō to denote purpose. For they continued not First aorist active indicative of εμμενω — emmenō old verb to remain in (Acts 14:22). The Israelites broke the covenant. Then God annulled it. I regarded not “I neglected” as in Hebrews 2:3. The covenant was void when they broke it. [source]
Hebrews 8:13 In that he saith [εν τωι λεγειν]
Locative case of the articular present active infinitive of λεγω — legō “in the saying as to him.” He hath made the first old Perfect active indicative of παλαιοω — palaioō old verb from παλαιος — palaios (in contrast with καινος — kainos fresh, new), to treat as old and out of date. The conclusion is to the point. That which is becoming old and waxeth aged Γηρασκω — Gēraskō is old verb from γηρας — gēras (age) like γερων — gerōn (old man) and refers to the decay of old age so that both ideas appear here in opposition to καινος — kainos Is nigh unto vanishing away Genitive case with εγγυς — eggus and late word for disappearance (from απανιζω — aphanizō Matthew 6:19), here only in the N.T. The author writes as if the Old Testament legal and ceremonial system were about to vanish before the new covenant of grace. If he wrote after a.d. 70, would he not have written “has vanished away”? [source]
James 1:1 Which are of the Dispersion [ταις εν τηι διασποραι]
“Those in the Dispersion” (repeated article). The term appears in Deuteronomy 28:25 (lxx) and comes from διασπειρω — diaspeirō to scatter (sow) abroad. In its literal sense we have it in John 7:34, but here and in 1 Peter 1:1 Christian Jews are chiefly, if not wholly, in view. The Jews at this period were roughly divided into Palestinian Jews (chiefly agriculturists) and Jews of the Dispersion (dwellers in cities and mainly traders). In Palestine Aramaic was spoken as a rule, while in the Western Diaspora the language was Greek (Koiné, lxx), though the Eastern Diaspora spoke Aramaic and Syriac. The Jews of the Diaspora were compelled to compare their religion with the various cults around them (comparative religion) and had a wider outlook on life. James writes thus in cultural Koiné but in the Hebraic tone.Greeting (χαιρειν — chairein). Absolute infinitive (present active of χαιρω — chairō) as in Acts 15:23 (the Epistle to Antioch and the churches of Syria and Galatia). It is the usual idiom in the thousands of papyri letters known to us, but in no other New Testament letter. But note χαιρειν λεγετε — chairein legete in 2 John 1:10, 2 John 1:11. [source]
James 1:4 Lacking in nothing [εν μηδενι λειπομενοι]
Present passive participle of λειπω — leipō to leave. Negative statement of the preceding positive as often in James (cf. James 1:6). There is now a digression (James 1:5-8) from the discussion of πειρασμος — peirasmos which is taken up again in James 1:9. The word λειπομενοι — leipomenoi (lacking) suggests the digression. [source]
James 1:6 In faith [εν πιστει]
Faith here “is the fundamental religious attitude” (Ropes), belief in God‘s beneficent activity and personal reliance on him (Oesterley). [source]
James 1:9 Glory in his high estate [καυχαστω εν τωι υπσει αυτου]
Paradox, but true. In his low estate he is “in his height” (υπσος — hupsos old word, in N.T., also in Luke 1:78; Ephesians 3:1; etc.). [source]
James 1:10 In that he is made low [εν τηι ταπεινωσει αυτου]
“In his low estate.” Play on ταπεινωσις — tapeinōsis (from ταπεινοω — tapeinoō Philemon 3:7), like ταπεινος — tapeinos of James 1:9, old word in various senses, in N.T. only here, Luke 1:48; Acts 8:33; Philemon 3:21. The Cross of Christ lifts up the poor and brings down the high. It is the great leveller of men. [source]
James 1:21 With meekness [εν πρατητι]
In docility. “The contrast is with οργη — orgē rather than κακιας — kakias ” (Ropes). [source]
James 1:25 In his doing [εν τηι ποιησει αυτου]
Another beatitude with μακαριος — makarios as in James 1:12, like the Beatitudes in Matthew 5:3-12. Ποιησις — Poiēsis is an old word (from ποιεω — poieō for the act of doing), only here in N.T. [source]
James 2:1 With respect of persons [εν προσωπολημπσιαις]
A Christian word, like προσωπολημπτης — prosōpolēmptēs (Acts 10:34) and προσωπολημπτειτε — prosōpolēmpteite (James 2:9), not in lxx or any previous Greek, but made from προσωπον λαμβανειν — prosōpon lambanein (Luke 20:21; Galatians 2:6), which is α — a Hebrew idiom for panim nasa, “to lift up the face on a person,” to be favorable and so partial to him. See προσωπολημπσια — prosōpolēmpsia in this sense of partiality (respect of persons) in Romans 2:11; Colossians 3:25; Ephesians 6:9 (nowhere else in N.T.). Do not show partiality. [source]
James 2:2 In fine clothing [εν εστητι λαμπραι]
“In bright (brilliant) clothing” as in Matthew 11:8; Luke 23:11; Acts 10:30. In contrast with “vile clothing” υπαρος — Ruparos (late word from ρυπος — rupos filth, 1 Peter 3:21) means filthy, dirty. In N.T. only here and Revelation 22:11 (filthy).Poor man (πτωχος — ptōchos). Beggarly mendicant (Matthew 19:21), the opposite of πλουσιος — plousios (rich). [source]
James 2:4 Are ye not divided in your own mind? [ου διεκριτητε εν εαυτοισ]
First aorist (gnomic) passive indicative of διακρινω — diakrinō to separate, conclusion of the third-class condition (future) in a rhetorical question in the gnomic aorist (as if past) with ou expecting an affirmative answer. For this idiom (gnomic aorist) in a conclusion of the third-class condition see 1 Corinthians 7:28. “Were ye not divided in (among) yourselves?” Cf. James 1:6; Matthew 21:21. [source]
James 2:5 Rich in faith [πλουσιους εν πιστει]
Rich because of their faith. As he has shown in James 1:9. [source]
James 3:9 Therewith [εν αυτηι]
This instrumental use of εν — en is not merely Hebraistic, but appears in late Koiné writers (Moulton, Prol., pp. 11f., 61f.). See also Romans 15:6. [source]
James 3:13 In meekness of wisdom [εν πραυτητι σοπιας]
As in James 1:21 of the listener, so here of the teacher. Cf. Matthew 5:5; Matthew 11:29 and Zechariah 9:9 of King Messiah quoted in Matthew 21:5. Startling combination. [source]
James 3:14 In your heart [εν τηι καρδιαι υμων]
The real fountain (πηγη — pēgē James 3:11). [source]
James 3:18 Is sown in peace [εν ειρηνηι σπειρεται]
Present passive indicative of σπειρω — speirō to sow. The seed which bears the fruit is sown, but James catches up the metaphor of καρπος — karpos (fruit) from James 3:17. Only in peace is the fruit of righteousness found. [source]
James 4:3 That ye may spend it in your pleasures [ινα εν ταις ηδοναις υμων δαπανησητε]
Purpose clause with ινα — hina and the first aorist subjunctive of δαπαναω — dapanaō old verb from δαπανη — dapanē cost (Luke 14:28 only in N.T.), to squander (Luke 15:14). God does not hear prayers like this. [source]
James 4:16 In your vauntings [εν ταις αλαζονιαις υμων]
Old word for braggart talk (from αλαζονευομαι — alazoneuomai to act the αλαζων — alazōn empty boaster Romans 1:30), common in Aristophanes, in N.T. only here and 1 John 2:16. [source]
James 5:10 In the name of [εν τωι ονοματι]
As in Jeremiah 20:9. With the authority of the Lord (Deissmann, Bible Studies, p. 198). [source]
James 5:13 Among you [εν υμιν]
As in James 3:13.Let him pray (προσευχεστω — proseuchesthō). Present middle imperative, “let him keep on praying” (instead of cursing as in James 5:12).Is any cheerful Present active indicative of ευτυμεω — euthumeō old verb from ευτυμος — euthumos (Acts 27:36), in N.T. only here and Acts 27:22, Acts 27:25.Let him sing praise (πσαλλετω — psalletō). Present active imperative of πσαλλω — psallō originally to twang a chord as on a harp, to sing praise to God whether with instrument or without, in N.T. only here, 1 Corinthians 14:15; Romans 15:9; Ephesians 5:19. “Let him keep on making melody.” [source]
James 5:14 Is any among you sick? [αστενει τις εν υμιν]
Present active indicative of αστενεω — astheneō old verb, to be weak (without strength), often in N.T. (Matthew 10:8). [source]
James 5:19 If any one among you do err [εαν τις εν υμιν πλανητηι]
Third-class condition (supposed case) with εαν — ean and the first aorist passive subjunctive of πλαναω — planaō old verb, to go astray, to wander (Matthew 18:12), figuratively (Hebrews 5:2). [source]
1 Peter 1:2 In sanctification of the Spirit [εν αγιασμωι πνευματος]
Clearly the Holy Spirit, though anarthrous like τεου πατρος — theou patros Late word from αγιαζω — hagiazō to render holy Obedience (from υπακουω — hupakouō to hear under, to hearken) to the Lord Jesus as in 1 Peter 1:22 “to the truth,” result of “the sanctification.”And sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ Late substantive from ραντιζω — rantizō to sprinkle (Hebrews 9:13), a word used in the lxx of the sacrifices (Num 19:9, 13, 20, etc.), but not in any non-biblical source so far as known, in N.T. only here and Hebrews 12:24 (of the sprinkling of blood). Reference to the death of Christ on the Cross and to the ratification of the New Covenant by the blood of Christ as given in Hebrews 9:19.; Hebrews 12:24 with allusion to Exodus 24:3-8. Paul does not mention this ritual use of the blood of Christ, but Jesus does (Matthew 26:28; Mark 14:24). Hence it is not surprising to find the use of it by Peter and the author of Hebrews. Hort suggests that Peter may also have an ulterior reference to the blood of the martyrs as in Revelation 7:14.; Revelation 12:11, but only as illustration of what Jesus did for us, not as having any value. The whole Epistle is a commentary upon προγνωσις τεου αγιασμος πνευματοσ αιμα Χριστου — prognōsis theouπλητυντειη — hagiasmos pneumatosπλητυνω — haima Christou (Bigg). Peter is not ashamed of the blood of Christ.Be multiplied (πλητυς — plēthuntheiē). First aorist passive optative (volitive) of χαρις και ειρηνη — plēthunō old verb (from ελεος — plēthus fulness), in a wish. So in 2 Peter 1:2; Judges 1:2, but nowhere else in N.T. salutations. Grace and peace (ελεος — charis kai eirēnē) occur together in 2 Peter 1:2, in 2 John 1:2 (with eleos), and in all Paul‘s Epistles (with eleos added in 1 Timothy and 2 Timothy). [source]
1 Peter 1:5 By the power of God [εν δυναμει τεου]
No other δυναμις — dunamis (power) like this (Colossians 1:3). [source]
1 Peter 1:5 In the last time [εν καιρωι εσχατωι]
This precise phrase nowhere else, but similar ones in John 6:39; Acts 2:17; James 5:3; 2 Timothy 3:1; 2 Peter 3:3; Hebrews 1:2; Judges 1:18; 1 John 2:18. Hort translates it here “in a season of extremity,” but it is usually taken to refer to the Day of Judgment. That day no one knows, Jesus said. [source]
1 Peter 1:6 Wherein [εν ωι]
This translation refers the relative ωι — hōi to καιρωι — kairōi but it is possible to see a reference to Χριστου — Christou (1 Peter 1:3) or to τεου — theou (1 Peter 1:5) or even to the entire content of 1 Peter 1:3-5. Either makes sense, though possibly καιρωι — kairōi is correct. [source]
1 Peter 1:6 In manifold temptations [εν ποικιλοις πειρασμοις]
Just the phrase in James 1:2, which see note on. “Trials” clearly right here as there. Seven N.T. writers use ποικιλος — poikilos (varied). [source]
1 Peter 1:7 At the revelation of Jesus Christ [εν αποκαλυπσει Ιησου Χριστου]
So also in 1 Peter 1:13; 1 Peter 4:13; 2 Thessalonians 1:7; 1 Corinthians 1:7; Luke 17:30 of the second coming of Christ as the Judge and Rewarder (Bigg). [source]
1 Peter 1:11 The Spirit of Christ which was in them [το εν αυτοις πνευμα Χριστου]
Peter definitely asserts here that the Spirit of Jesus Christ (the Messiah) was in the Old Testament prophets, the Holy Spirit called the Spirit of Christ and the Spirit of God (Romans 8:9), who spoke to the prophets as he would speak to the apostles (John 16:14). [source]
1 Peter 1:22 In your obedience [εν τηι υπακοηι]
With repetition of the idea in 1 Peter 1:2, 1 Peter 1:14 (children of obedience).To the truth (της αλετειας — tēs aletheias). Objective genitive with which compare John 17:17, John 17:19 about sanctification in the truth and 2 Thessalonians 2:12 about believing the truth. There is cleansing power in the truth of God in Christ.Unfeigned Late and rare double compound, here alone in Peter, but see James 3:17; 2 Corinthians 6:6, etc. No other kind of πιλαδελπια — philadelphia (brotherly love) is worth having (1 Thessalonians 4:9; Hebrews 13:1; 2 Peter 1:7).From the heart fervently (εκ καρδιας εκτενως — ek kardias ektenōs). Late adverb (in inscriptions, Polybius, lxx). The adjective εκτενης — ektenēs is more common (1 Peter 4:8). [source]
1 Peter 2:2 That ye may grow thereby [ινα εν αυτωι αυχητητε]
Purpose clause with ινα — hina and the first aorist passive subjunctive of αυχανω — auxanō old and common verb to grow. See this same metaphor in Colossians 2:19; Ephesians 4:15. Peter uses the word of God as the food for growth, especially for babes in Christ, not emphasizing the distinction from solid food (βρωμα — brōma) made in 1 Corinthians 3:2; Hebrews 5:13. Salvation (σωτηριαν — sōtērian) here is final salvation. [source]
1 Peter 2:12 Wherein [εν ωι]
“In what thing.” [source]
1 Peter 2:12 In the day of visitation [εν ημεραι επισκοπης]
From Isaiah 10:33. Cf. its use in Luke 19:44, which see for the word επισκοπη — episkopē (from επισκοπεω — episkopeō to inspect (Hebrews 12:15). Clear echo here of Matthew 5:16. [source]
1 Peter 3:4 In the incorruptible apparel of a meek and quiet spirit [εν τωι απταρτωι του ησυχιου και πραεως πνευματος]
No word in the Greek for “apparel” For απταρτος — aphthartos see note on 1 Peter 1:4 and note on 1 Peter 1:23. For πραυς — praus see Matthew 5:5; Matthew 11:29. Πνευμα — Pneuma (spirit) is here disposition or temper (Bigg), unlike any other use in the N.T. In 1 Peter 3:18, 1 Peter 3:19; 1 Peter 4:6 it means the whole inner man as opposed to σαρχ — sarx or σωμα — sōma very much as πσυχη — psuchē is used as opposed to σωμα — sōma Spirit just mentioned.Of great price (πολυτελες — poluteles). Old word (from πολυ — polu and τελος — telos cost), in N.T. only here, Mark 14:3; 1 Timothy 2:9. [source]
1 Peter 3:15 A reason concerning the hope that is in you [λογον περι της εν υμιν ελπιδος]
Original sense of λογον — logon (accusative of the thing with αιτουντι — aitounti with υμας — humās accusative of the person) “concerning the in you hope.” Ready with a spoken defence of the inward hope. This attitude calls for an intelligent grasp of the hope and skill in presenting it. In Athens every citizen was expected to be able to join in the discussion of state affairs. [source]
1 Peter 3:16 Wherein ye are spoken against [εν ωι καταλαλειστε]
Present passive indicative of καταλαλεω — katalaleō for which see 1 Peter 2:12 with εν ωι — en hōi also. Peter may be recalling (Hart) his own experience at Pentecost when the Jews first scoffed and others were cut to the heart (Acts 2:13, Acts 2:37). [source]
1 Peter 3:16 In Christ [εν Χριστωι]
Paul‘s common mystical phrase that Peter has three times (here, 1 Peter 5:10, 1 Peter 5:14), not in John, though the idea is constantly in John. Peter here gives a new turn (cf. 1 Peter 2:12) to αναστροπη — anastrophē (manner of life). “Constantly the apostle repeats his phrases with new significance and in a new light” (Bigg). [source]
1 Peter 3:19 In which also [εν ωι και]
That is, in spirit (relative referring to πνευματι — pneumati). But, a number of modern scholars have followed Griesbach‘s conjecture that the original text was either Νωε και — Nōe kai (Noah also), or Ενωχ και — Enōch kai (Enoch also), or εν ωι και Ενωχ — en hōi kai Enōch (in which Enoch also) which an early scribe misunderstood or omitted Ενωχ και — Enōch kai in copying It is allowed in Stier and Theile‘s Polyglott. It is advocated by J. Cramer in 1891, by J. Rendel Harris in The Expositor (1901), and Sidelights on N.T. Research (p. 208), by Nestle in 1902, by Moffatt‘s New Translation of the New Testament. Windisch rejects it as inconsistent with the context. There is no manuscript for the conjecture, though it would relieve the difficulty greatly. Luther admits that he does not know what Peter means. Bigg has no doubt that the event recorded took place between Christ‘s death and his resurrection and holds that Peter is alluding to Christ‘s Descensus ad Inferos in Acts 2:27 (with which he compares Matthew 27:52.; Luke 23:34; Ephesians 4:9). With this Windisch agrees. But Wohlenberg holds that Peter means that Christ in his preexistent state preached to those who rejected the preaching of Noah who are now in prison. Augustine held that Christ was in Noah when he preached. Bigg argues strongly that Christ during the time between his death and resurrection preached to those who once heard Noah (but are now in prison) and offered them another chance and not mere condemnation. If so, why did Jesus confine his preaching to this one group? So the theories run on about this passage. One can only say that it is a slim hope for those who neglect or reject Christ in this life to gamble with a possible second chance after death which rests on very precarious exegesis of a most difficult passage in Peter‘s Epistle. Accepting the text as we have, what can we make of it? [source]
1 Peter 3:19 Unto the spirits in prison [τοις εν πυλακηι πνευμασιν]
The language is plain enough except that it does not make it clear whether Jesus did the preaching to spirits in prison at the time or to people whose spirits are now in prison, the point of doubt already discussed. The metaphorical use of εν πυλακηι — en phulakēi can be illustrated by 2 Peter 2:4; Judges 1:6; Revelation 20:7 (the final abode of the lost). See Hebrews 12:23 for the use of πνευματα — pneumata for disembodied spirits. [source]
1 Peter 4:2 The rest of your time in the flesh [τον επιλοιπον εν σαρκι χρονον]
Accusative of time Επιλοιπον — Epiloipon is old adjective (επι λοιπος — epiεις το — loipos remaining in addition), here only in N.T. But eis to here can be result (so that) as in Romans 1:20; Romans 4:18. [source]
1 Peter 4:3 In lasciviousness [εν]
All these sins are in the locative case with επιτυμιαις — en “In unbridled lustful excesses” (2 Peter 2:7; 2 Corinthians 12:21).Lusts (οινοπλυγιαις — epithumiais). Cf. 1 Peter 2:11; 1 Peter 4:2.Winebibbings Old compound Old word (from ποτοις — keimai to lie down), rioting drinking parties, in N.T. here and Galatians 5:21; Romans 13:13.Carousings Old word for drinking carousal (from ατεμιτοις ειδωλολατριαις — pinō to drink), here only in the N.T. In the light of these words it seems strange to find modern Christians justifying their “personal liberty” to drink and carouse, to say nothing of the prohibition law. The Greeks actually carried lust and drunkenness into their religious observances (Aphrodite, for instance).Abominable idolatries (ειδωλον λατρεια — athemitois eidōlolatriais). To the Christian all “idolatry,” (τεμιτος — eidōlonτεμιστος — latreia), worship of idols, is “abominable,” not allowed (alpha privative and τεμιζω — themitos ατεμιτος — themistos the old form, verbal of themizō to make lawful), but particularly those associated with drinking and licentiousness. The only other N.T. example of athemitos is by Peter also (Acts 10:28) and about the Mosaic law. That may be the idea here, for Jews often fell into idolatrous practices (Deissmann, Bible Studies, p. 274). [source]
1 Peter 4:4 Wherein [εν ωι]
“In which thing” (manner of life). [source]
1 Peter 4:12 Concerning the fiery trial among you [τει εν υμιν πυρωσει]
Instrumental case, “by the among you burning,” metaphorical sense of old word (since Aristotle), from πυροω — puroō to burn See 1 Peter 1:7 for the metaphor. See Revelation 18:9, Revelation 18:18 only other N.T. examples. It occurs in Proverbs 27:21 for the smelting of gold and silver and so in Psalm 56:10 (lxx 65:10): “Thou didst smelt us as silver is smelted” Present middle participle of γινομαι — ginomai (already coming) with dative case υμιν — humin prove you (προς πειρασμον — pros peirasmon). “For testing.”As though a strange thing happened unto you Genitive absolute with ως — hōs giving the alleged reason, and υμιν — humin dative case with συμβαινοντος — sumbainontos (present active participle of συμβαινω — sumbainō to go together, to happen (Mark 10:32), agreeing with χενου — xenou (strange, Hebrews 13:9). [source]
1 Peter 4:14 For the name of Christ [εν ονοματι Χριστου]
“In the matter of the name of Christ.” For the idea see Matthew 5:11.; Matthew 19:29; Acts 5:41; Acts 9:16; Acts 21:13. This is the only N.T. example of just ονομα Χριστου — onoma Christou here used because of the use of Χριστιανος — Christianos in 1 Peter 4:16. For the beatitude μακαριοι — makarioi see Matthew 5:11.The Spirit of glory and the Spirit of God (το της δοχης και το του τεου πνευμα — to tēs doxēs kai to tou theou pneuma). Note repetition of the article (το — to) though πνευμα — pneuma only once. The reference is to the Holy Spirit, who is the Spirit of Glory and of God.Resteth upon you Quotation from Isaiah 11:2. Present middle indicative of αναπαυω — anapauō to give rest, refresh (Matthew 11:28). “He rests upon the Christian as the Shechinah rested upon the tabernacle” (Bigg). Cf. 1 Peter 1:8; Matthew 3:16. [source]
1 Peter 4:19 In well-doing [εν αγατοποιιαι]
Late and rare word, only here in N.T., from αγατοποιεω — agathopoieō (1 Peter 2:15, 1 Peter 2:20). [source]
1 Peter 5:6 In due time [εν καιρωι]
Same phrase in Matthew 24:45. [source]
1 Peter 5:9 In your brethren who are in the world [τηι εν τωι κοσμωι υμων αδελποτητι]
Associate-instrumental case αδελποτητι — adelphotēti (in N.T. only here and 1 Peter 2:17, which see) after τα αυτα — ta auta (like 1 Corinthians 11:5) or dative after επιτελεισται — epiteleisthai Even so ειδοτες — eidotes (second perfect active participle of οιδα — oida) with an infinitive usually means “knowing how to” (object infinitive) as in Luke 12:56; Philemon 3:18 rather than “knowing that” (indirect assertion) as taken above. [source]
1 Peter 5:10 In Christ [εν Χριστωι]
A Pauline phrase (2 Corinthians 5:17-19), but Petrine also. For God‘s “calling” us Second aorist active participle of πασχω — paschō antecedent to the principal verbs which are future active (καταρτισει — katartisei to mend, Mark 1:19; Galatians 6:1, στηριχει — stērixei for which see Luke 9:51; Luke 22:32, στενωσει — sthenōsei from στενος — sthenos and so far a απαχ λεγομενον — hapax legomenon like ενισχυω — enischuō according to Hesychius). For ολιγον — oligon see 1 Peter 1:6. [source]
1 Peter 5:13 She that is in Babylon, elect together with youεν αβυλωνι συνεκλεκτη]
Either actual Babylon or, as most likely, mystical Babylon (Rome) as in the Apocalypse. If Peter is in Rome about a.d. 65, there is every reason why he should not make that fact plain to the world at large and least of all to Nero. It is also uncertain whether η συνεκλεκτη — hē suneklektē (found here alone), “the co-elect woman,” means Peter‘s wife (1 Corinthians 9:5) or the church in “Babylon.” The natural way to take it is for Peter‘s wife. Cf. εκλεκτηι κυριαι — eklektēi kuriāi in 2 John 1:1 (also verse 2 John 1:13). [source]
1 Peter 5:14 With a kiss of love [εν πιληματι αγαπης]
As in 1 Corinthians 16:20. The abuse of this custom led to its confinement to men with men and women with women and to its final abandonment (Apost. Const. ii. 57, 12). [source]
1 Peter 5:14 That are in Christ [τοις εν Χριστωι]
This is the greatest of all secret orders and ties, one that is open to all who take Christ as Lord and Saviour. [source]
2 Peter 1:1 In the righteousness [εν δικαιοσυνηι]
Definite because of the preposition εν — en and the following genitive even though anarthrous. The O.T. sense of δικαιοσυνη — dikaiosunē applied to God (Romans 1:17) and here to Christ.Of our God and Saviour Jesus Christ (του τεου ημων και σωτηρος Ιησου Χριστου — tou theou hēmōn kai sōtēros Iēsou Christou). So the one article (του — tou) with τεου — theou and σωτηρος — sōtēros requires precisely as with του κυριου ημων και σωτηρος Ιησου Χριστου — tou kuriou hēmōn kai sōtēros Iēsou Christou (of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ), one person, not two, in 2 Peter 1:11 as in 2 Peter 2:20; 2 Peter 3:2, 2 Peter 3:18. So in 1 Peter 1:3 we have ο τεος και πατηρ — ho theos kai patēr (the God and Father), one person, not two. The grammar is uniform and inevitable (Robertson, Grammar, p. 786), as even Schmiedel (Winer-Schmiedel, Grammatik, p. 158) admits: “Grammar demands that one person be meant.” Moulton (Prol., p. 84) cites papyri examples of like usage of τεος — theos for the Roman emperors. See the same idiom in Titus 2:13. The use of τεος — theos by Peter as a predicate with Jesus Christ no more disproves the Petrine authorship of this Epistle than a like use in John 1:1 disproves the Johannine authorship of the Fourth Gospel and the same use in Titus 2:13 disproves the genuineness of Titus. Peter had heard Thomas call Jesus God (John 20:28) and he himself had called him the Son of God (Matthew 16:16). [source]
2 Peter 1:2 In the knowledge [εν επιγνωσει]
Full (additional, επι — epi) knowledge as in 2 Peter 1:8 (only γνωσις — gnōsis in 2 Peter 1:5, 2 Peter 1:6; 2 Peter 3:18), but επιγνωσιν — epignōsin again in 2 Peter 1:3, 2 Peter 1:8; 2 Peter 2:20. As in Colossians, so here full knowledge is urged against the claims of the Gnostic heretics to special γνωσις — gnōsis God and of Jesus our Lord At first sight the idiom here seems to require one person as in 2 Peter 1:1, though there is a second article (του — tou) before κυριου — kuriou and Ιησου — Iēsou is a proper name. But the text here is very uncertain. Bengel, Spitta, Zahn, Nestle accept the short reading of P and some Vulgate MSS. and some minuscles with only του κυριου ημων — tou kuriou hēmōn (our Lord) from which the three other readings may have come. Elsewhere in 2 Peter γνωσις — gnōsis and επιγνωσις — epignōsis are used of Christ alone. The text of 2 Peter is not in a good state of preservation. [source]
2 Peter 1:4 By lust [εν επιτυμιαι]
Caused by, consisting in, lust. “Man becomes either regenerate or degenerate” (Strachan). [source]
2 Peter 1:13 By putting you in remembrance [εν υπομνησει]
Old word, from υπομιμνησκω — hupomimnēskō (2 Peter 1:12), in N.T. only here, 2 Peter 3:1; 2 Timothy 1:5. “By way of reminding you.” [source]
2 Peter 1:18 In the holy mount [εν τωι αγιωι ορει]
Made holy by the majestic glory. See Ezekiel 28:14 for “holy mount of God,” there Sinai, this one probably one of the lower slopes of Hermon. Peter‘s account is independent of the Synoptic narrative, but agrees with it in all essentials. [source]
2 Peter 1:19 In a dark place [εν αυχμηρωι τοπωι]
Old adjective, parched, squalid, dirty, dark, murky, here only in N.T., though in Aristotle and on tombstone for a boy. [source]
2 Peter 2:3 In covetousness [εν πλεονεχιαι]
As did Balaam (2 Peter 2:15). These licentious Gnostics made money out of their dupes. A merely intellectual Gnosticism had its fruit in immorality and fraud. [source]
2 Peter 2:7 By the lascivious life of the wicked [υπο της των ατεσμων εν ασελγειαι αναστροπης]
“By the life in lasciviousness of the lawless.” Ατεσμος — Athesmos (alpha privative and τεσμος — thesmos), late and common adjective (cf. ατεμιτος — athemitos 1 Peter 4:3) for rebels against law (of nature and conscience here). Αναστροπη — Anastrophē is frequent in 1 Peter. [source]
2 Peter 2:12 In matters whereof they are ignorant [εν οις αγνοουσιν]
“In which things they are ignorant.” Here εν οις — en hois = εν τουτοις α — en toutois ha (in those things which), a common Greek idiom. For αγνοεω — agnoeō (present active indicative) see 1 Thessalonians 4:13; 1 Timothy 1:7 for a like picture of loud ignoramuses posing as professional experts. [source]
2 Peter 2:12 Shall in their destroying surely be destroyed [εν τηι πτοραι αυτων πταρησονται]
Second future passive of πτειρω — phtheirō Rhetorical Hebraism in the use of εν πτοραι — en phthorāi (same root as πτειρω — phtheirō), word four times in 2 Peter. See Judges 1:10. [source]
2 Peter 2:13 In their love-feasts [εν ταις αγαπαις]
So B Sah, but Aleph A C K L P read απαταις — apatais (in their deceivings). If αγαπαις — agapais is genuine as it is in Judges 1:12, they are the only N.T. examples of this use of αγαπη — agapē they feast with you Present passive participle of late and rare verb συνευωχεω — suneuōcheō (συν — sun together, and ευωχεω — euōcheō to feed abundantly) to entertain with. Clement of Alex. (Paed. ii. I. 6) applies ευωχια — euōchia to the αγαπη — agapē f0). [source]
2 Peter 2:13 To revel in the daytime [την εν ημεραι τρυπην]
“The in the daytime revel” (old word τρυπη — truphē from τρυπτω — thruptō to enervate, in N.T. only here and Luke 7:25).Spots (σπιλοι — spiloi). Old word for disfiguring spot, in N.T. only here and Ephesians 5:27.Blemishes Old word for blot (kin to μυω — muō), only here in N.T. See 1 Peter 1:19 for αμωμος και ασπιλος — amōmos kai aspilos Present active participle of εντρυπαω — entruphaō old compound for living in luxury, only here in N.T.In their love-feasts (εν ταις αγαπαις — en tais agapais). So B Sah, but Aleph A C K L P read απαταις — apatais (in their deceivings). If αγαπαις — agapais is genuine as it is in Judges 1:12, they are the only N.T. examples of this use of αγαπη — agapē they feast with you (συνευωχουμενοι — suneuōchoumenoi). Present passive participle of late and rare verb συνευωχεω — suneuōcheō (συν — sun together, and ευωχεω — euōcheō to feed abundantly) to entertain with. Clement of Alex. (Paed. ii. I. 6) applies ευωχια — euōchia to the αγαπη — agapē f0). [source]
2 Peter 3:1 And in both of them [εν αις]
“In which epistles.” [source]
2 Peter 3:1 By putting you in remembrance [εν υπομνησει]
As in 2 Peter 1:13. [source]
2 Peter 3:8 Forget not this one thing [εν τουτο μη λαντανετω υμας]
Rather, “let not this one thing escape you.” For λαντανετω — lanthanetō (present active imperative of λαντανω — lanthanō) see 2 Peter 3:5. The “one thing” It may come tomorrow; but what is tomorrow? What does God mean by a day? It may be a thousand years” (Bigg). Precisely the same argument applies to those who argue for a literal interpretation of the thousand years in Revelation 20:4-6. It may be a day or a day may be a thousand years. God‘s clock (παρα κυριωι — para kuriōi beside the Lord) does not run by our timepieces. The scoffers scoff ignorantly. [source]
2 Peter 3:10 In the which [εν ηι]
The day when the Lord comes. [source]
2 Peter 3:13 Wherein [εν οις]
The new heavens and earth.Dwelleth (κατοικει — katoikei). Has its home (οικος — oikos). Certainly “righteousness” (δικαιοσυνη — dikaiosunē) is not at home in this present world either in individuals, families, or nations. [source]
2 Peter 3:16 As also in all his epistles [ως και εν πασαις επιστολαις]
We do not know to how many Peter here refers. There is no difficulty in supposing that Peter “received every one of St. Paul‘s Epistles within a month or two of its publication” (Bigg). And yet Peter does not here assert the formation of a canon of Paul‘s Epistles. [source]
2 Peter 3:16 Speaking in them of these things [λαλων εν αυταις περι τουτων]
Present active participle of λαλεω — laleō That is to say, Paul also wrote about the second coming of Christ, as is obviously true.Hard to be understood (δυσνοητα — dusnoēta). Late verbal from δυς — dus and νοεω — noeō (in Aristotle, Lucian, Diog. Laert.), here only in N.T. We know that the Thessalonians persisted in misrepresenting Paul on this very subject of the second coming as Hymenaeus and Philetus did about the resurrection (2 Timothy 2:17) and Spitta holds that Paul‘s teaching about grace was twisted to mean moral laxity like Galatians 3:10; Romans 3:20, Romans 3:28; Romans 5:20 (with which cf. Romans 6:1 as a case in point), etc. Peter does not say that he himself did not understand Paul on the subject of faith and freedom.Unlearned Old word (alpha privative and μαντανω — manthanō to learn), ignorant, here only in N.T.Unsteadfast (αστηρικτοι — astēriktoi). See note on 2 Peter 2:14.Wrest Present active indicative of στρεβλοω — strebloō old verb (from στρεβλος — streblos twisted, στρεπω — strephō to turn), here only in N.T.The other scriptures (τας λοιπας γραπας — tas loipas graphas). There is no doubt that the apostles claimed to speak by the help of the Holy Spirit (1 Thessalonians 5:27; Colossians 4:16) just as the prophets of old did (2 Peter 1:20.). Note λοιπας — loipas (rest) here rather than αλλας — allas (other). Peter thus puts Paul‘s Epistles on the same plane with the O.T., which was also misused (Matt 5:21-44; Matthew 15:3-6; Matthew 19:3-10). [source]
2 Peter 3:18 In the grace and knowledge [εν χαριτι και γνωσει]
Locative case with εν — en Grow in both. Keep it up. See note on 2 Peter 1:1 for the idiomatic use of the single article To Christ.For ever “Unto the day of eternity.” So Sirach 18:9f. One of the various ways of expressing eternity by the use of αιων — aiōn So εις τον αιωνα — eis ton aiōna in John 6:5; John 12:34. [source]
1 John 2:3 Hereby [εν τουτωι]
See this phrase also in 1 John 2:5; 1 John 3:16, 1 John 3:19, 1 John 3:24; 1 John 4:2, 1 John 4:13; 1 John 5:2. That is explained by the εαν — ean clause, “if we keep his commandments” (εαν τηρωμεν — ean tērōmen condition of the third class, εαν — ean with present active subjunctive, “if we keep on keeping”), the clause itself in apposition with τουτωι — toutōi (locative case). [source]
1 John 2:5 Hereby [εν τουτωι]
That is by continuous keeping of Christ‘s commandments, not by loud talk and loose living. [source]
1 John 2:8 True in him and in you [αλητες εν αυτωι και εν υμιν]
This newness is shown supremely in Christ and in disciples when they walk as Jesus did (1 John 2:6).Because (οτι — hoti). Explanation of the paradox.Is passing away Present middle indicative of παραγω — paragō old verb, to lead by, to go by (intransitive), as in Matthew 20:30. Night does pass by even if slowly. See this verb in 1 John 2:17 of the world passing by like a procession.True (αλητινον — alēthinon). Genuine, reliable, no false flicker.Already shineth Linear present active, “is already shining” and the darkness is already passing by. Dawn is here. Is John thinking of the second coming of Christ or of the victory of truth over error, of light over darkness (cf. John 1:5-9), the slow but sure victory of Christ over Satan as shown in the Apocalypse? See 1 John 1:5. [source]
1 John 2:24 Let abide in you [εν υμιν μενετω]
Present active imperative of μενω — menō to remain. Do not be carried away by the new-fangled Gnostic teaching. [source]
1 John 3:5 And in him is no sin [και αμαρτια εν αυτωι ουκ εστιν]
“And sin (the sinful principle) in him is not.” As Jesus had claimed about himself (John 7:18; John 8:46) and as is repeatedly stated in the N.T. (2 Corinthians 5:21; Hebrews 4:15; Hebrews 7:26; Hebrews 9:13). [source]
1 John 3:10 In this [εν τουτωι]
As already shown. A life of sin is proof that one is a child of the devil and not of God. This is the line of cleavage that is obvious to all. See John 8:33-39 for the claim of the Pharisees to be the children of Abraham, whereas their conduct showed them to be children of the devil. This is not a popular note with an age that wishes to remove all distinctions between Christians and the world. [source]
1 John 3:24 And he in him [και αυτος εν αυτωι]
That is “God abides in him” as in 1 John 4:15. We abide in God and God abides in us through the Holy Spirit (John 14:10, John 14:17, John 14:23; John 17:21). “Therefore let God be a home to thee, and be thou the home of God: abide in God, and let God abide in thee” (Bede). [source]
1 John 4:2 Hereby know ye [εν τουτωι γινωσκετε]
Either present active indicative or imperative. The test of “the Spirit of God” (το πνευμα του τεου — to pneuma tou theou) here alone in this Epistle, save 1 John 4:13. With the clamour of voices then and now this is important. The test (εν τουτωι — en toutōi as in 1 John 3:19) follows. [source]
1 John 4:2 That Jesus Christ is come in the flesh [Ιησουν Χριστον εν σαρκι εληλυτοτα]
The correct text (perfect active participle predicate accusative), not the infinitive The predicate participle (see John 9:22 for predicate accusative with ομολογεω — homologeō) describes Jesus as already come in the flesh (his actual humanity, not a phantom body as the Docetic Gnostics held). See this same idiom in 2 John 1:7 with ερχομενον — erchomenon (coming). A like test is proposed by Paul for confessing the deity of Jesus Christ in 1 Corinthians 12:3 and for the Incarnation and Resurrection of Jesus in Romans 10:6-10. [source]
1 John 4:9 In us [εν ημιν]
In our case, not “among us” nor “to us.” Cf. Galatians 1:16.Hath sent (απεσταλκεν — apestalken). Perfect active indicative of αποστελλω — apostellō as again in 1 John 4:14, the permanent mission of the Son, though in 1 John 4:10 the aorist απεστειλεν — apesteilen occurs for the single event. See John 3:16 for this great idea.His only-begotten Son “His Son the only-begotten” as in John 3:16. John applies μονογενης — monogenēs to Jesus alone (John 1:14, John 1:18), but Luke (Luke 7:12; Luke 8:42; Luke 9:38) to others. Jesus alone completely reproduces the nature and character of God (Brooke).That we might live through him (ινα ζησωμεν δι αυτου — hina zēsōmen di' autou). Purpose clause with ινα — hina and the first aorist (ingressive, get life) active subjunctive of ζαω — zaō “Through him” is through Christ, who is the life (John 14:6). Christ also lives in us (Galatians 2:20). This life begins here and now. [source]
1 John 4:12 God abideth in us [ο τεος εν ημιν μενει]
Else we cannot go on loving one another. [source]
1 John 4:13 Hereby know we [εν τουτωι γινωσκομεν]
The Christian‘s consciousness of the fact of God dwelling in him is due to the Spirit of God whom God has given This gift of God is proof of our fellowship with God. [source]
1 John 4:17 Herein [εν τουτωι]
It is not clear whether the ινα — hina clause (sub-final use) is in apposition with εν τουτωι — en toutōi as in John 15:8 or the οτι — hoti clause (because) with the ινα — hina clause as parenthesis. Either makes sense. Westcott argues for the latter idea, which is reinforced by the preceding sentence. [source]
1 John 5:2 Hereby [εν τουτωι]
John‘s usual phrase for the test of the sincerity of our love. “The love of God and the love of the brethren do in fact include each the other” (Westcott). Each is a test of the other. So put 1 John 3:14 with 1 John 5:2. [source]
1 John 5:8 Agree in one [εις το εν εισιν]
“Are for the one thing,” to bring us to faith in Jesus as the Incarnate Son of God, the very purpose for which John wrote his Gospel (John 20:31). [source]
1 John 5:10 In him [εν αυτωι]
“In himself,” though the evidence is not decisive between αυτωι — hautōi and αυτωι — autōi made Perfect active indicative of ποιεω — poieō like μεμαρτυρηκεν — memarturēken and πεπιστευκεν — pepisteuken permanent state.A liar (πσευστην — pseustēn). As in 1 John 1:10, which see.Because he hath not believed Actual negative reason with negative ου — ou not the subjective reason as in John 3:18, where we have οτι μη πεπιστευκεν — hoti mē pepisteuken). The subjective negative is regular with ο μη πιστευων — ho mē pisteuōn Relative clause here repeats close of 1 John 5:9. [source]
1 John 5:11 In his Son [εν τωι υιωι αυτου]
This life and the witness also. This is why Jesus who is life (John 14:6) came to give us abundant life (John 10:10). [source]
1 John 5:19 Lieth in the evil one [εν τωι πονηρωι κειται]
Present middle indicative of the defective verb κειμαι — keimai to lie, as in Luke 2:12. Πονηρωι — Ponērōi is masculine, like ο πονηρος — ho ponēros in 1 John 5:18. This is a terrible picture of the Graeco-Roman world of the first century a.d., which is confirmed by Paul in Romans 1 and 2 and by Horace, Seneca, Juvenal, Tacitus. [source]
1 John 5:20 In him that is true [εν τωι αλητινωι]
In God in contrast with the world “in the evil one” (1 John 5:19). See John 17:3. [source]
1 John 5:20 Even in his Son Jesus Christ [εν τωι υιωι αυτου Ιησου Χριστωι]
The αυτου — autou refers clearly to εν τωι αλητινωι — en tōi alēthinōi (God). Hence this clause is not in apposition with the preceding, but an explanation as to how we are “in the True One” by being “in his Son Jesus Christ.”This (ουτος — houtos). Grammatically ουτος — houtos may refer to Jesus Christ or to “the True One.” It is a bit tautological to refer it to God, but that is probably correct, God in Christ, at any rate. God is eternal life (John 5:26) and he gives it to us through Christ. [source]
2 John 1:2 Which abideth in us [την μενουσαν εν ημιν]
See John 17:19 for “sanctified in truth” and 1 John 2:6 for abiding in Christ, and so it includes all who are in Christ.It shall be with us (μετ ημων εσται — meth' hēmōn estai). Confident assertion, not a mere wish. Note the order of the words, “With us it shall be” (εσται — estai future middle of ειμι — eimi). [source]
2 John 1:4 In truth [εν αλητειαι]
As in 2 John 1:1; 3 John 1:4.We received (ελαβομεν — elabomen). Second aorist active (possibly, though not certainly, literary plural) of λαμβανω — lambanō This very idiom (εντολην λαμβανω — entolēn lambanō) in John 10:18; Acts 17:15; Colossians 4:10. Perhaps the reference here is to 1 John 2:7.; 1 John 3:23. [source]
2 John 1:6 In it [εν αυτηι]
Either to αλητειαι — alētheiāi (truth) of 2 John 1:4, αγαπη — agapē of this verse, or εντολη — entolē of this verse. Either makes good sense, probably “in love.” With περιπατεω — peripateō (walk) we have often εν — en (1 John 1:7; 1 John 2:11, etc.) or κατα — kata (according to) as in Mark 7:5; 1 Corinthians 3:3; 2 Corinthians 10:2, etc. [source]
2 John 1:7 That Jesus Christ cometh in the flesh [Ιησουν Χριστον ερχομενον εν σαρκι]
“Jesus Christ coming in the flesh.” Present middle participle of ερχομαι — erchomai treating the Incarnation as a continuing fact which the Docetic Gnostics flatly denied. In 1 John 4:2 we have εληλυτοτα — elēluthota (perfect active participle) in this same construction with ομολογεω — homologeō because there the reference is to the definite historical fact of the Incarnation. There is no allusion here to the second coming of Christ.This (ουτος — houtos). See 1 John 2:18, 1 John 2:22; 1 John 5:6, 1 John 5:20.The deceiver and the antichrist Article with each word, as in Revelation 1:17, to bring out sharply each separate phrase, though one individual is referred to. The one par excellence in popular expectation (1 John 2:22), though many in reality (1 John 2:18; 3 John 1:7). [source]
2 John 1:9 And abideth not in the teaching of Christ [και μη μενων εν τηι διδαχηι του Χριστου]
Not the teaching about Christ, but that of Christ which is the standard of Christian teaching as the walk of Christ is the standard for the Christian‘s walk (1 John 2:6). See John 7:16; John 18:19. These Gnostics claimed to be the progressives, the advanced thinkers, and were anxious to relegate Christ to the past in their onward march. This struggle goes on always among those who approach the study of Christ. Is he a “landmark” merely or is he our goal and pattern? Progress we all desire, but progress toward Christ, not away from him. Reactionary obscurantists wish no progress toward Christ, but desire to stop and camp where they are. “True progress includes the past” (Westcott). Jesus Christ is still ahead of us all calling us to come on to him. [source]
3 John 1:3 Even as thou walkest in truth [κατως συ εν αλητειαι περιπατεις]
“Thou” in contrast to Diotrephes (3 John 1:9) and others like him. On περιπατεω — peripateō see 1 John 1:6 and on εν αλητειαι — en alētheiāi see 2 John 1:4. [source]
Jude 1:14 With ten thousand of his holy ones [εν αγιαις μυριασιν αυτου]
“With (εν — en of accompaniment, Luke 14:31) his holy ten thousands” (μυριας — murias regular word, feminine gender, for ten thousand, Acts 19:19, there an unlimited number like our myriads, Luke 12:1). [source]
Jude 1:20 Praying in the Holy Spirit [εν πνευματι αγιωι προσευχομενοι]
This is the way to build themselves up on their faith. [source]
Jude 1:23 And on some have mercy with fear [ους δε ελεατε εν ποβωι]
In fear “of the contagion of sin while we are rescuing them” (Vincent). For this idea see 1 Peter 1:17; 1 Peter 3:15; 2 Corinthians 7:1; Philemon 2:12.Spotted (εσπιλωμενον — espilōmenon). Perfect passive participle of σπιλοω — spiloō late and common verb (from σπιλος — spilos spot, 2 Peter 2:13), in N.T. only here and James 3:6. [source]
Revelation 1:1 Must shortly come to pass [δει γενεσται εν ταχει]
Second aorist middle infinitive of γινομαι — ginomai with δει — dei See this same adjunct “Having sent” (first aorist active participle of αποστελλω — apostellō Matthew 10:16 and again in Revelation 22:6 of God sending his angel) “signified” (first aorist active indicative of σημαινω — sēmainō from σημα — sēma sign or token, for which see John 12:33; Acts 11:28). See Revelation 12:1 for σημειον — sēmeion though σημαινω — sēmainō (only here in the Apocalypse) suits admirably the symbolic character of the book.By his angel Christ‘s angel as Christ is the subject of the verb εσημανεν — esēmanen as in Revelation 22:16 Christ sends his angel, though in Revelation 22:6 God sends.Unto his servant John (τωι δουλωι αυτου Ιωανει — tōi doulōi autou Iōanei). Dative case. John gives his name here, though not in Gospel or Epistles, because “prophecy requires the guarantee of the individual who is inspired to utter it” (Milligan). “The genesis of the Apocalypse has now been traced from its origin in the Mind of God to the moment when it reached its human interpreter” (Swete). “Jesus is the medium of all revelation” (Moffatt). [source]
Revelation 1:4 To the seven churches which are in Asia [ταις επτα εκκλησιαις ταις εν τηι Ασιαι]
Dative case as in a letter (Galatians 1:1). John is writing, but the revelation is from God and Christ through an angel. It is the Roman province of Asia which included the western part of Phrygia. There were churches also at Troas (Acts 20:5.) and at Colossal and Hierapolis (Colossians 1:1; Colossians 2:1; Colossians 4:13) and possibly at Magnesia and Tralles. But these seven were the best points of communication with seven districts (Ramsay) and, besides, seven is a favorite number of completion (like the full week) in the book (Revelation 1:4, Revelation 1:12, Revelation 1:16; Revelation 4:5; Revelation 5:1, Revelation 5:6; Revelation 8:2; Revelation 10:3; Revelation 11:13; Revelation 12:3; Revelation 13:1; Revelation 14:6.). [source]
Revelation 1:5 By his blood [εν τωι αιματι αυτου]
As in Revelation 5:9. John here as in the Gospel and Epistles states plainly and repeatedly the place of the blood of Christ in the work of redemption. [source]
Revelation 1:10 I was in the Spirit [εγενομην εν πνευματι]
Rather, “I came to be (as in Revelation 1:9) in the Spirit,” came into an ecstatic condition as in Acts 10:10.; Acts 22:17, not the normal spiritual condition (ειναι εν πνευματι — einai en pneumati Romans 8:9). [source]
Revelation 1:10 On the Lord‘s Day [εν τηι κυριακηι ημεραι]
Deissmann has proven (Bible Studies, p. 217f.; Light, etc., p. 357ff.) from inscriptions and papyri that the word κυριακος — kuriakos was in common use for the sense “imperial” as imperial finance and imperial treasury and from papyri and ostraca that ημερα Σεβαστη — hēmera Sebastē (Augustus Day) was the first day of each month, Emperor‘s Day on which money payments were made (cf. 1 Corinthians 16:1.). It was easy, therefore, for the Christians to take this term, already in use, and apply it to the first day of the week in honour of the Lord Jesus Christ‘s resurrection on that day (Didache 14, Ignatius Magn. 9). In the N.T. the word occurs only here and 1 Corinthians 11:20 It has no reference to ημερα κυριου — hēmera kuriou (the day of judgment, 2 Peter 3:10).Behind me (οπισω μου — opisō mou). “The unexpected, overpowering entrance of the divine voice” (Vincent). Cf. Ezekiel 3:12.Voice Of Christ, as is plain in Revelation 1:12.As of a trumpet (ως σαλπιγγος — hōs salpiggos). So in Revelation 4:1 referring to this.Saying Present active participle genitive case agreeing with σαλπιγγος — salpiggos rather than λεγουσαν — legousan accusative agreeing with πωνην — phōnēn So on purpose, as is clear from Revelation 4:1, where λαλουσης — lalousēs also agrees with σαλπιγγος — salpiggos f0). [source]
Revelation 1:15 In a furnace [εν καμινωι]
Old word, in N.T. also Revelation 9:2; Matthew 13:42, Matthew 13:50. [source]
Revelation 1:16 In his right hand [εν τηι δεχιαι χειρι]
For safe keeping as in John 10:28.Seven stars (αστερας επτα — asteras hepta). Symbols of the seven churches (Revelation 1:20), seven planets rather than Pleiades or any other constellation like the bear.Proceeded Present middle participle of εκπορευομαι — ekporeuomai old compound (Matthew 3:5) used loosely again like εχων — echōn sharp two-edged sword “A sword two-mouthed sharp.” ομπαια — Romphaia (as distinct from μαχαιρα — machaira) is a long sword, properly a Thracian javelin, in N.T. only Luke 2:35; Revelation 1:16; Revelation 2:12; Hebrews 4:12. See στομα — stoma used with μαχαιρης — machairēs in Luke 21:24 (by the mouth of the sword).Countenance (οπσις — opsis). Old word (from οπτω — optō), in N.T. only here, John 7:24; John 11:44.As the sun shineth Brachylogy, “as the sun when it shines.” For παινει — phainei see John 1:5. [source]
Revelation 10:6 By him that liveth [εν τωι ζωντι]
This use of εν — en after ομνυω — omnuō instead of the usual accusative (James 5:12) is like the Hebrew (Matthew 5:34, Matthew 5:36). “The living one for ages of ages” is a common phrase in the Apocalypse for God as eternally existing (Revelation 1:18; Revelation 4:9, Revelation 4:10; Revelation 15:7). This oath proves that this angel is not Christ.Who created (ος εκτισεν — hos ektisen). First aorist active indicative of κτιζω — ktizō a reference to God‘s creative activity as seen in Genesis 1:1.; Exodus 20:11; Isaiah 37:16; Isaiah 42:5; Psalm 33:6; Psalm 145:6, etc.That there shall be time no longer Future indicative indirect discourse with οτι — hoti But this does not mean that χρονος — chronos (time), Einstein‘s “fourth dimension” (added to length, breadth, height), will cease to exist, but only that there will be no more delay in the fulfillment of the seventh trumpet (Revelation 10:7), in answer to the question, “How long?” (Psalm 6:10). [source]
Revelation 11:6 With every plague [εν πασηι πληγηι]
In 1 Kings 4:8, but with reference to the plagues in Egypt.As often as they shall desire (οσακις εαν τελησωσιν — hosakis ean thelēsōsin). Indefinite temporal clause with οσακις — hosakis and modal εαν — ean (= αν — an) and the first aorist active subjunctive of τελω — thelō “as often as they will.” [source]
Revelation 11:11 Entered into them [εισηλτεν εν αυτοις]
Second aorist active indicative of εισερχομαι — eiserchomai with εν — en rather than εις — eis after it (cf. Luke 9:46). The prophecy has here become fact (change from future πεμπσουσιν — pempsousin to aorist εισηλτεν — eisēlthen). [source]
Revelation 12:2 And she was with child [και εν γαστρι εχουσα]
Perhaps εστιν — estin to be supplied or the participle used as a finite verb as in Revelation 10:2. This is the technical idiom for pregnancy as in Matthew 1:18, Matthew 1:23, etc. [source]
Revelation 12:5 Who is to rule all the nations with a rod of iron [ος μελλει ποιμαινειν παντα τα ετνη εν ραβδωι σιδηραι]
See Revelation 2:27 for these words (from Psalm 2:9) applied there to victorious Christians also, and in Revelation 19:15 to the triumphant Christian. His rule will go beyond the Jews (Matthew 2:6). There is here, of course, direct reference to the birth of Jesus from Mary, who thus represented in her person this “ideal woman” (God‘s people). [source]
Revelation 12:7 There was war in heaven [εγενετο πολεμος εν τωι ουρανωι]
“There came to be war in heaven” “Another ταβλεαυ — tableau not a σημειον — sēmeion (Revelation 12:1, Revelation 12:3), but consequent upon the two σημεια — sēmeia which precede it. The birth and rapture of the Woman‘s Son issue in a war which invades the επουρανια — epourania ” (Swete). The reference is not to the original rebellion of Satan, as Andreas held. As the coming of Christ brought on fresh manifestations of diabolic power (Mark 1:13; Luke 22:3, Luke 22:31; John 12:31; John 14:30; John 16:11), just so Christ‘s return to heaven is pictured as being the occasion of renewed attacks there. We are not to visualize it too literally, but certainly modern airplanes help us to grasp the notion of battles in the sky even more than the phalanxes of storm-clouds (Swete). John even describes this last conflict as in heaven itself. Cf. Luke 10:18; 1 Kings 22:1.; Job 1; Job 2:1-13; Zechariah 3:1. [source]
Revelation 12:12 They that dwell therein [οι εν αυτοις σκηνουντες]
Present active articular participle of σκηνοω — skēnoō (see Revelation 7:15; Revelation 13:6) to dwell (tabernacle) as of Christ in John 1:14 and of God in Revelation 21:3. The inhabitants of heaven (angels and saints) have cause to rejoice, and earth reason to mourn.Woe for the earth and for the sea (ουαι την γην και την ταλασσαν — ouai tēn gēn kai tēn thalassan). The accusative after ουαι — ouai as in Revelation 8:13, but nominative in Revelation 18:10, Revelation 18:16, Revelation 18:19 in place of the usual dative (Matthew 11:21; Matthew 18:7, etc.).Is gone down Second aorist (effective) active indicative of καταβαινω — katabainō “did go down.”But a short time (ολιγον καιρον — oligon kairon). Accusative of extent of time, “a little time.” The devil‘s departure from his warfare in the heavens reveals (ειδως — eidōs knowing, perfect active participle) to him that his time for doing harm to men is limited, and hence his great wrath (τυμον — thumon boiling rage). [source]
Revelation 13:10 Must he be killed [δει αυτον εν μαχαιρηι αποκταντηναι]
First aorist passive infinitive of αποκτεινω — apokteinō The inevitable conclusion (δει — dei) of such conduct. The killer is killed. [source]
Revelation 13:10 If any man shall kill with the sword [ει τις εν μαχαιρηι αποκτενει]
First-class condition with future active of αποκτεινω — apokteinō not future passive, for it is a picture of the persecutor drawn here like that by Jesus in Matthew 26:52.Must he be killed (δει αυτον εν μαχαιρηι αποκταντηναι — dei auton en machairēi apoktanthēnai). First aorist passive infinitive of αποκτεινω — apokteinō The inevitable conclusion (δει — dei) of such conduct. The killer is killed.Here In this attitude of submission to the inevitable. For ωδε — hōde see Revelation 13:18; Revelation 14:12; Revelation 17:9. “Faith” (πιστις — pistis) here is more like faithfulness, fidelity. [source]
Revelation 14:10 With fire and brimstone [εν πυρι και τειωι]
See Revelation 9:17 for fire and brimstone and also Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:10; Revelation 21:8. The imagery is already in Genesis 19:24; Isaiah 30:33; Ezekiel 38:22.In the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb (ενωπιον αγγελων αγιων και ενωπιον του αρνιου — enōpion aggelōn hagiōn kai enōpion tou arniou). This holy environment adds to the punishment. [source]
Revelation 14:10 In the cup of his anger [εν τωι ποτηριωι της οργης αυτου]
Both τυμος — thumos (vehement fury) and οργη — orgē (settled indignation).He shall be tormented (βασανιστησεται — basanisthēsetai). Future passive of βασανιζω — basanizō See Revelation 9:5; Revelation 11:10.With fire and brimstone See Revelation 9:17 for fire and brimstone and also Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:10; Revelation 21:8. The imagery is already in Genesis 19:24; Isaiah 30:33; Ezekiel 38:22.In the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb (ενωπιον αγγελων αγιων και ενωπιον του αρνιου — enōpion aggelōn hagiōn kai enōpion tou arniou). This holy environment adds to the punishment. [source]
Revelation 15:1 Another sign in heaven [αλλο σημειον εν τωι ουρανωι]
Looking back to Revelation 12:1, Revelation 12:3, after the series intervening. The Seven Bowls are parallel with the Seven Seals (ch. Rev 6) and the Seven Trumpets (chapters Rev 8-11), but there is an even closer connection with chapters Rev 12-14, “the drama of the long conflict between the church and the world” (Swete). [source]
Revelation 16:3 Even the things that were in the sea [τα εν τηι ταλασσηι]
“The things in the sea,” in apposition with πσυχη — psuchē Complete destruction, not partial as in Revelation 8:9. [source]
Revelation 16:8 To scorch with fire [καυματισαι εν πυρι]
First aorist active infinitive of καυματιζω — kaumatizō late (Plutarch, Epictetus) causative verb (from καυμα — kauma heat), in N.T. only here and Revelation 16:9; Matthew 13:6; Mark 4:6. The addition of εν πυρι — en puri (in fire, with fire) intensifies the picture. [source]
Revelation 17:3 In the Spirit [εν πνευματι]
Probably his own spirit, though the Holy Spirit is possible (Revelation 1:10; Revelation 4:2; Revelation 21:10), without Paul‘s uncertainty (2 Corinthians 12:2). Cf. Ezekiel 3:14.; Ezekiel 8:3; Ezekiel 11:24.Into a wilderness (εις ερημον — eis erēmon). In Isaiah 21:1 there is το οραμα της ερημου — to horama tēs erēmou (the vision of the deserted one, Babylon), and in Isaiah 14:23 Babylon is called ερημον — erēmon John may here picture this to be the fate of Rome or it may be that he himself, in the wilderness (desert) this side of Babylon, sees her fate. In Revelation 21:10 he sees the New Jerusalem from a high mountain.Sitting Present middle participle of κατημαι — kathēmai as in Revelation 17:1. “To manage and guide the beast” (Vincent).Upon a scarlet-coloured beast (επι τηριον κοκκινον — epi thērion kokkinon). Accusative with επι — epi here, though genitive in Revelation 17:1. Late adjective (from κοκκος — kokkos a parasite of the ilex coccifera), a crimson tint for splendour, in Revelation 17:3, Revelation 17:4; Revelation 18:12, Revelation 18:16; Matthew 27:28; Hebrews 9:19.Full of names of blasphemy See Revelation 13:1 for “names of blasphemy” on the seven heads of the beast, but here they cover the whole body of the beast (the first beast of Revelation 13:1; Revelation 19:20). The harlot city (Rome) sits astride this beast with seven heads and ten horns (Roman world power). The beast is here personified with masculine participles instead of neuter, like τηριον — thērion (γεμοντα — gemonta accusative singular, εχων — echōn nominative singular, though some MSS. read εχοντα — echonta), construction according to sense in both instances. The verb γεμω — gemō always has the genitive after it in the Apocalypse (Revelation 4:6, Revelation 4:8; Revelation 5:8; Revelation 15:7; Revelation 17:4; Revelation 21:9) save here and apparently once in Revelation 17:4. [source]
Revelation 17:16 Shall burn her utterly with fire [αυτην κατακαυσουσιν εν πυρι]
Future active of κατακαιω — katakaiō to burn down (perfective use of καιω — kaiō). John wrote before the days of Alaric, Genseric, Ricimer, Totila, with their hordes which devastated Rome and the west in the fifth and sixth centuries. “No reader of the Decline and Fall can be at a loss for materials which will at once illustrate and justify the general trend of St. John‘s prophecy” (Swete). [source]
Revelation 18:8 In one day [εν μιαι ημεραι]
Symbolical term for suddenness like μιαι ωραι — miāi hōrāi in one hour (Revelation 18:10, Revelation 18:16, Revelation 18:19). John has in mind still Isaiah 47:7-9.Shall come (ηχουσιν — hēxousin). Future active of ηκω — hēkō Her plagues are named (death, mourning, famine).She shall be utterly burned Future passive of κατακαιω — katakaiō (perfective use of κατα — kata).With fire (εν πυρι — en puri). “In fire,” as in Revelation 17:16.Which judged her Articular first aorist active participle of κρινω — krinō referring to κυριος ο τεος — kurios ho theos (the Lord God). The doom of Babylon is certain because of the power of God. [source]
Revelation 18:8 With fire [εν πυρι]
“In fire,” as in Revelation 17:16. [source]
Revelation 18:23 With thy sorcery [εν τηι παρμακιαι σου]
Εν — En (instrumental use) and the locative case of παρμακια — pharmakia old word (from παρμακευω — pharmakeuō to prepare drugs, from παρμακον — pharmakon sorcery, Revelation 9:21), in N.T. only here and Galatians 5:20 for sorcery and magical arts. If one is puzzled over the connection between medicine and sorcery as illustrated by this word (our pharmacy), he has only to recall quackery today in medicine (patent medicines and cure-alls), witch-doctors, professional faith-healers, medicine-men in Africa. True medical science has had a hard fight to shake off chicanery and charlatanry. [source]
Revelation 18:24 In her [εν αυτηι]
In Rome. [source]
Revelation 19:11 In righteousness he doth judge and make war [εν δικαιοσυνηι κρινει και πολεμει]
See Isaiah 11:3. The Messiah is both Judge and Warrior, but he does both in righteousness (Revelation 15:3; Revelation 16:5, Revelation 16:7; Revelation 19:2). He passes judgment on the beast (antichrist) and makes war on him. Satan had offered Christ a victory of compromise which was rejected. [source]
Revelation 19:14 The armies which are in heaven [τα στρατευματα τα εν τωι ουρανωι]
See Revelation 12:7 for Michael and angels warring with the dragon, and also Matthew 26:53 for the angels at Christ‘s call, not to say Hebrews 1:6., Hebrews 1:14; Matthew 13:41; and Revelation 5:11. [source]
Revelation 19:17 Standing in the sun [εστωτα εν τωι ηλιωι]
Second perfect active participle of ιστημι — histēmi (intransitive). “Where all the birds of prey would behold him” (Beckwith). For ορνεοις — orneois (birds) see Revelation 18:2 and for εν μεσουρανηματι — en mesouranēmati (in mid heaven) see Revelation 18:13; Revelation 14:6.Come and be gathered together (Δευτε συναχτητε — Deute sunachthēte). Δευτε — Deute is the adverb δευρω — deurō (hither), used when two or more are addressed, possibly from δευρο ιτε — deuro ite (come here). Asyndeton also without και — kai (and). First aorist passive imperative of συναγω — sunagō The metaphor is drawn from Ezekiel 39:17.Unto the great supper of God The habits of vultures are described by Christ in Matthew 24:28. This is a bold and powerful picture of the battlefield after the victory of the Messiah, “a sacrificial feast spread on God‘s table for all the vultures of the sky” (Swete). Is this battle the same as that of Har Magedon (Revelation 16:16) and that of Gog and Magog (Revelation 20:8.) mentioned after the thousand years? The language in Revelation 20:8. seems like this derived from Ezekiel 39:17., and “in the Apocalypse priority in the order of sequence does not always imply priority in time” (Swete). There seems no way to decide this point save that the end seems to be at hand. [source]
Revelation 19:20 Wherewith [εν οις]
“In which” signs.He deceived (επλανησεν — eplanēsen). First aorist active indicative of πλαναω — planaō He was only able to deceive “them that had received” (τους λαβοντας — tous labontas articular second aorist active participle of λαμβανω — lambanō “those receiving”) “the mark of the beast” (Revelation 13:16; Revelation 14:9.; Revelation 16:2; Revelation 20:4) “and them that worshipped his image” (τους προσκυνουντας τηι εικονι αυτου — tous proskunountas tēi eikoni autou) as in Revelation 13:15.They twain “The two.”Were cast (εβλητησαν — eblēthēsan). First aorist passive Indicative of βαλλω — ballō They fall together as they fought together. “The day that sees the end of a false statecraft will see also that of a false priestcraft” (Swete).Alive Present active participle of ζαω — zaō predicative nominative, “living.”Into the lake of fire (εις την λιμνην του πυρος — eis tēn limnēn tou puros). Genitive πυρος — puros describes this λιμνην — limnēn (lake, cf. Luke 5:1) as it does γεεννα — gehenna in Matthew 5:22. See also Revelation 20:10; Revelation 21:8. It is a different figure from the “abyss” in Revelation 9:1; Revelation 20:1. This is the final abode of Satan, the beast, the false prophet, and wicked men.That burneth with brimstone Note the genitive here in place of the accusative λιμνην — limnēn perhaps because of the intervening genitive πυρος — puros (neuter, not feminine). The agreement is regular in Revelation 21:8. For εν τειωι — en theiōi (with brimstone) see Revelation 14:10; Revelation 20:10; Revelation 21:8. The fact of hell is clearly taught here, but the imagery is not to be taken literally any more than that of heaven in chapters Revelation 4:1-11; Revelation 5:1-14; 21; 22 is to be so understood. Both fall short of the reality. [source]
Revelation 19:20 That burneth with brimstone [της καιομενης εν τειωι]
Note the genitive here in place of the accusative λιμνην — limnēn perhaps because of the intervening genitive πυρος — puros (neuter, not feminine). The agreement is regular in Revelation 21:8. For εν τειωι — en theiōi (with brimstone) see Revelation 14:10; Revelation 20:10; Revelation 21:8. The fact of hell is clearly taught here, but the imagery is not to be taken literally any more than that of heaven in chapters Revelation 4:1-11; Revelation 5:1-14; 21; 22 is to be so understood. Both fall short of the reality. [source]
Revelation 2:1 In Ephesus [εν Επεσωι]
Near the sea on the river Cayster, the foremost city of Asia Minor, the temple-keeper of Artemis and her wonderful temple (Acts 19:35), the home of the magic arts (Ephesian letters, Acts 19:19) and of the mystery-cults, place of Paul‘s three years‘ stay (Acts 19:1-10; 20:17-38), where Aquila and Priscilla and Apollos laboured (Acts 18:24-28), where Timothy wrought (1 Tim. and 2 Tim.), where the Apostle John preached in his old age. Surely it was a place of great privilege, of great preaching. It was about sixty miles from Patmos and the messenger would reach Ephesus first. It is a free city, a seat of proconsular government (Acts 19:38), the end of the great road from the Euphrates. The port was a place of shifting sands, due to the silting up of the mouth of the Cayster. Ramsay (Letters to the Seven Churches, p. 210) calls it “the City of Change.” [source]
Revelation 2:7 In the Paradise of God [εν τωι παραδεισωι του τεου]
Persian word, for which see Luke 23:43; 2 Corinthians 12:4. The abode of God and the home of the redeemed with Christ, not a mere intermediate state. It was originally a garden of delight and finally heaven itself (Trench), as here. [source]
Revelation 2:8 In Smyrna [εν Σμυρνηι]
North of Ephesus, on a gulf of the Aegean, one of the great cities of Asia (province), a seat of emperor-worship with temple to Tiberius, with many Jews hostile to Christianity who later join in the martyrdom of Polycarp, poor church (rich in grace) which receives only praise from Christ, scene of the recent massacre of Greeks by the Turks. Ramsay (op. cit., p. 251) terms Smyrna “the City of Life.” Christianity has held on here better than in any city of Asia. [source]
Revelation 2:12 In Pergamum [εν Περγαμωι]
In a north-easterly direction from Smyrna in the Caicus Valley, some fifty-five miles away, in Mysia, on a lofty hill, a great political and religious centre. Ramsay (Op. cit., p. 281) calls it “the royal city, the city of authority.” Eumenes II (b.c. 197-159) extended it and embellished it with many great buildings, including a library with 200,000 volumes, second only to Alexandria. The Kingdom of Pergamum became a Roman province b.c. 130. Pliny termed it the most illustrious city of Asia. Parchment Next to this was the grove and temple of Asklepios, the god of healing, called the god of Pergamum, with a university for medical study. Pergamum was the first city in Asia (a.d. 29) with a temple for the worship of Augustus (Octavius Caesar). Hence in the Apocalypse Pergamum is a very centre of emperor-worship “where Satan dwells” (Revelation 2:13). Here also the Nicolaitans flourished (Revelation 2:15) as in Ephesus (Revelation 2:6) and in Thyatira (Revelation 2:20.). Like Ephesus this city is called temple-sweeper (νεωκορος — neōkoros) for the gods. [source]
Revelation 2:16 With [εν]
Instrumental use of εν — en For the language see Revelation 1:16; Revelation 2:12; Revelation 19:15. [source]
Revelation 2:18 In Thyatira [εν Τυατειροις]
Some forty miles south-east of Pergamum, a Lydian city on the edge of Mysia, under Rome since b.c. 190, a centre of trade, especially for the royal purple, home of Lydia of Philippi (Acts 16:14.), shown by inscriptions to be full of trade guilds, Apollo the chief deity with no emperor-worship, centre of activity by the Nicolaitans with their idolatry and licentiousness under a “prophetess” who defied the church there. Ramsay calls it “Weakness Made Strong” (op. cit., p. 316). [source]
Revelation 2:23 I will kill with death [αποκτενω εν τανατωι]
Future (volitive) active of αποκτεινω — apokteinō with the tautological (cognate) εν τανατωι — en thanatōi (in the sense of pestilence) as in Ezekiel 33:27. [source]
Revelation 2:27 With a rod of iron [εν ραβδωι σιδηραι]
Continuing the quotation. Instrumental use of εν — en αβδος — Rabdos (feminine) is the royal sceptre and indicates rigorous rule.The vessels of the potter (τα σκευη τα κεραμικα — ta skeuē ta keramika). Old adjective, belonging to a potter (κεραμευσ κεραμος — kerameusσυντριβεται — keramos), here only in N.T.Are broken to shivers Present passive indicative of suntribō old verb, to rub together, to break in pieces (Mark 14:3). [source]
Revelation 20:8 Which are in the four corners of the earth [τα εν ταις τεσσαρσι γωνιαις της γης]
Clearly the reign with Christ, if on earth, was not shared in by all on earth, for Satan finds a large and ready following on his release. See Revelation 7:1 (Isaiah 11:12) for “the four corners of the earth.”Gog and Magog (τον Γωγ και Μαγωγ — ton Gōg kai Magōg). Accusative in explanatory apposition with τα ετνη — ta ethnē (the nations). Magog is first mentioned in Genesis 10:2. The reference here seems to be Ezekiel 38:2, where both are mentioned. Josephus (Ant. I. 6. 1) identifies Magog with the Scythians, with Gog as their prince. In the rabbinical writings Gog and Magog appear as the enemies of the Messiah. Some early Christian writers thought of the Goths and Huns, but Augustine refuses to narrow the imagery and sees only the final protest of the world against Christianity.To gather them together to the war Second aorist active infinitive of purpose of συναγω — sunagō a congenial task for Satan after his confinement. See Revelation 16:14 for this very phrase and also Revelation 17:14; Revelation 19:19.Of whom (ωναυτων — hōn- ως η αμμος της ταλασσης — autōn). Pleonasm or redundant pronoun as in Revelation 3:8 and often (of whom - of them).As the sand of the sea Already in Revelation 13:1. Clearly then the millennium, whatever it is, does not mean a period when Satan has no following on earth, for this vast host rallies at once to his standard. [source]
Revelation 21:10 He carried me away in the Spirit [απηνεγκεν με εν πνευματι]
See same language in Revelation 17:7 when John received a vision of the Harlot City in a wilderness. Here it is “to a mountain great and high” So it was with Ezekiel (Ezekiel 40:2) and so the devil took Jesus (Matthew 4:8). It was apparently not Mount Zion (Revelation 14:1), for the New Jerusalem is seen from this mountain. “The Seer is carried thither ‹in spirit‘ (cf. Revelation 1:10; Revelation 4:1); the Angel‘s δευρο — deuro is a και εδειχεν μοι — sursum cor to which his spirit under the influence of the ‹Spirit of revelation‘ (Ephesians 1:17) at once responds” (Swete). [source]
Revelation 21:22 I saw no temple therein [ναον ουκ ειδον εν αυτηι]
“Temple I did not see in it.” The whole city is a temple in one sense (Revelation 21:16), but it is something more than a temple even with its sanctuary and Shekinah Glory in the Holy of Holies. [source]
Revelation 22:2 In the midst of the street thereof [εν μεσωι της πλατειας αυτης]
Connected probably with the river in Revelation 22:1, though many connect it with Revelation 22:2. Only one street mentioned here as in Revelation 21:21. [source]
Revelation 22:19 Which are written in this book [των γεγραμμενων εν τωι βιβλιωι τουτωι]
Ablative neuter plural articular perfect passive participle in apposition with εκ του χυλου της ζωης — ek tou xulou tēs zōēs (from the tree of life) and εκ της πολεως της αγιας — ek tēs poleōs tēs hagias (out of the holy city). Such a man is unworthy of his inheritance. [source]
Revelation 3:1 In Sardis [εν Σαρδεσιν]
Some thirty miles south-east of Thyatira, old capital of Lydia, wealthy and the home of Croesus, conquered by Cyrus and then by Alexander the Great, in b.c. 214 by Antiochus the Great, at the crossing of Roman roads, in a plain watered by the river Pactolus, according to Pliny the place where the dyeing of wool was discovered, seat of the licentious worship of Cybele and the ruins of the temple still there, called by Ramsay (op. cit., p. 354) “the city of Death,” city of softness and luxury, of apathy and immorality, “a contrast of past splendour and present unresting decline” (Charles). Along with Laodicea it was blamed most of all the seven churches. [source]
Revelation 3:5 In white garments [εν ιματιοις λευκοις]
Apparently the spiritual bodies in the risen life as in 2 Corinthians 5:1, 2 Corinthians 5:4 and often in Revelation (Revelation 3:4, Revelation 3:5; Revelation 6:11; Revelation 7:9, Revelation 7:13.; Revelation 19:8).I will in no wise blot out (ου μη εχαλειπσω — ou mē exaleipsō). Strong double negative ου μη — ou mē and the first aorist active (or future) of εχαλειπω — exaleiphō old word, to wipe out (Acts 3:19).Of the book of life Ablative case with εκ — ek This divine register first occurs in Exodus 32:32. and often in the O.T. See Luke 10:20; Philemon 4:3; Revelation 13:8; Revelation 20:15; Revelation 21:27. The book is in Christ‘s hands (Revelation 13:8; Revelation 21:27).His name (το ονομα αυτου — to onoma autou). The name of the one who overcomes (ο νικων — ho nikōn). Clear reminiscence of the words of Christ about confessing to the Father those who confess him here (Matthew 10:32; Mark 8:38; Luke 9:26; Luke 12:8). Whether John knew the Synoptic Gospels (and why not?) he certainly knew such sayings of Jesus. [source]
Revelation 3:7 In Philadelphia [εν Πιλαδελπιαι]
Some twenty-eight miles south-east of Sardis, in Lydia, subject to earthquakes, rebuilt by Tiberius after the great earthquake of a.d. 17, for a time called in coins Neo-Caesarea, in wine-growing district with Bacchus (Dionysos) as the chief deity, on fine Roman roads and of commercial importance, though not a large city, called by Ramsay (op. cit., p. 392) “the Missionary City” to promote the spread of the Graeco-Roman civilization and then of Christianity, later offering stubborn resistance to the Turks (1379-90 a.d.) and now called Ala-Sheher (reddish city, Charles, from the red hills behind it). The chief opposition to the faithful little church is from the Jews (cf. Rom 9-11). There are some 1,000 Christians there today. [source]
Revelation 3:14 In Laodicea [εν Λαοδικιαι]
Forty miles south-east of Philadelphia and some forty miles east of Ephesus, the last of the seven churches addressed with special messages, on the river Lycus on the border of Phrygia, near Colossae and Hierapolis, recipient of two letters by Paul (Colossians 4:16), on the great trade-route from Ephesus to the east and seat of large manufacturing and banking operations (especially of woollen carpets and clothing, Ramsay, Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia, p. 40ff.), centre of the worship of Asklepios and seat of a medical school and also of a provincial court where Cicero lived and wrote many of his letters, home of many Jews, called by Ramsay (op. cit., p. 413) “the City of Compromise,” the church here founded apparently by Epaphras (Colossians 1:7; Colossians 4:12.), now a deserted ruin, one of six cities with this name (meaning justice of the people). No praise is bestowed on this church, but only blame for its lukewarmness. [source]
Revelation 4:1 In heaven [εν τωι ουρανωι]
As in Ezekiel 1:1; Mark 1:10; John 1:51. In Revelation always in singular except Revelation 12:12.The first (η πρωτη — hē prōtē). Reference is to Revelation 1:10.Speaking From λαλεω — laleō rather λεγουσης — legousēs of Revelation 1:10 from λεγω — legō both agreeing with σαλπιγγος — salpiggos (trumpet).Saying (λεγων — legōn). Present active participle of λεγω — legō repeating the idea of λαλουσης — lalousēs but in the nominative masculine singular construed with πωνη — phōnē (feminine singular), construction according to sense because of the person behind the voice as in Revelation 11:15; Revelation 19:14.Come up Short Koiné form for αναβητι — anabēthi (second aorist active imperative second person singular of αναβαινω — anabainō).Hither (ωδε — hōde). Originally “here,” but vernacular use (John 6:25; John 10:27).I will show Future active of δεικνυμι — deiknumi in same sense in Revelation 1:1.Hereafter (μετα ταυτα — meta tauta). Some editors (Westcott and Hort) connect these words with the beginning of Revelation 4:2. [source]
Revelation 4:2 Straightway I was in the Spirit [ευτεως εγενομην εν πνευματι]
But John had already “come to be in the Spirit” (Revelation 1:10, the very same phrase). Perhaps here effective aorist middle indicative while ingressive aorist in Revelation 1:10 (sequel or result, not entrance), “At once I found myself in the Spirit” (Swete), not “I came to be in the Spirit” as in Revelation 1:10. [source]
Revelation 4:6 In the midst of the throne [εν μεσωι του τρονου]
As one looks from the front, really before. [source]
Revelation 4:8 Each one of them [εν κατ εν αυτων]
“One by one of them,” a vernacular idiom like εις κατα εις — heis kata heis in Mark 14:19. [source]
Revelation 5:6 In the midst [εν μεσωι]
See Revelation 4:6 for this idiom. It is not quite clear where the Lamb was standing in the vision, whether close to the throne or in the space between the throne and the elders (perhaps implied by “came” in Revelation 5:7, but nearness to the throne is implied by Revelation 14:1; Acts 7:56; Hebrews 10:11).A Lamb (αρνιον — arnion). Elsewhere in the N.T. ο αμνος — ho amnos is used of Christ (John 1:29, John 1:36; Acts 8:32; 1 Peter 1:19 like Isaiah 53:7), but in the Apocalypse το αρνιον — to arnion occurs for the Crucified Christ 29 times in twelve chapters.Standing Second perfect active (intransitive of ιστημι — histēmi) neuter accusative singular (grammatical gender like αρνιον — arnion), though some MSS. read εστηκως — hestēkōs (natural gender masculine and nominative in spite of ειδον — eidon construction according to sense).As though it had been slain (ως εσπαγμενον — hōs esphagmenon). Perfect passive predicate participle of σπαζω — sphazō old word, in N.T. only in Revelation 5:6, Revelation 5:9, Revelation 5:12; Revelation 6:4, Revelation 6:9; Revelation 13:3; Revelation 18:24; 1 John 3:12. ως — Hōs (as if) is used because the Lamb is now alive, but (in appearance) with the marks of the sacrifice. The Christ as the Lamb is both sacrifice and Priest (Hebrews 9:12.; Hebrews 10:11).Having Construction according to sense again with masculine nominative participle instead of εχοντα — echonta (masculine accusative singular) or εχον — echon (neuter accusative singular). Seven horns Fulness of power (the All-powerful one) is symbolized by seven.Seven eyes (οπταλμους επτα — ophthalmous hepta). Like Zechariah 3:9; Zechariah 4:10 and denotes here, as there, omniscience. Here they are identified with the seven Spirits of Christ, while in Revelation 1:4 the seven Spirits are clearly the Holy Spirit of God (Revelation 3:1), and blaze like torches (Revelation 4:5), like the eyes of Christ (Revelation 1:14). The Holy Spirit is both Spirit of God and of Christ (Romans 8:9).Sent forth Perfect passive predicate participle of αποστελλω — apostellō masculine plural (agreeing with οι — hoi and οπταλμους — ophthalmous in gender), but some MSS. have απεσταλμενα — apestalmena agreeing with the nearer πνευματα — pneumata f0). [source]
Revelation 5:9 With thy blood [εν τωι αιματι σου]
Instrumental use of εν — en as in Revelation 1:5. The blood of Christ as the price of our redemption runs all through the Apocalypse. This is the reason why Christ is worthy to “take the book and open its seals.” That is, he is worthy to receive adoration and worship (Revelation 4:11) as the Father does. [source]
Revelation 7:14 In the blood of the Lamb [εν τωι αιματι του αρνιου]
There is power alone in the blood of Christ to cleanse from sin (1 John 1:7), not in the blood of the martyrs themselves. The result is “white,” not “red,” as one might imagine. [source]
Revelation 8:7 Hail and fire mingled with blood [χαλαζα και πυρ μεμιγμενα εν αιματι]
Like the plague of hail and fire in Exodus 9:24. The first four trumpets are very much like the plagues in Egypt, this one like a semitropical thunderstorm (Swete) with blood like the first plague (Exodus 7:17.; Psalm 106:35). The old feminine word χαλαζα — chalaza (hail) is from the verb χαλαω — chalaō to let down (Mark 2:4), in N.T. only in Revelation 8:7; Revelation 11:19; Revelation 16:21. The perfect passive participle μεμιγμενα — memigmena (from μιγνυμι — mignumi to mix) is neuter plural because of πυρ — pur (fire).Were cast (εβλητη — eblēthē). First aorist passive singular because χαλαζα — chalaza and πυρ — pur treated as neuter plural. “The storm flung itself on the earth” (Swete).Was burnt up Second aorist (effective) passive indicative of κατακαιω — katakaiō old verb to burn down (effective use of κατα — kata up, we say). Repeated here three times for dramatic effect. See Revelation 7:1-3 about the trees and Revelation 9:4 where the locusts are forbidden to injure the grass. [source]
Revelation 8:13 Flying in mid-heaven [πετομενου εν μεσουρανηματι]
Like the angel in Revelation 14:6 and the birds in Revelation 19:17. Μεσουρανημα — Mesouranēma (from μεσουρανεω — mesouraneō to be in mid-heaven) is a late word (Plutarch, papyri) for the sun at noon, in N.T. only these three examples. This eagle is flying where all can see, and crying so that all can hear.Woe, woe, woe (ουαι ουαι ουαι — ouaiουαι — ouaiτους κατοικουντας — ouai). Triple because three trumpets yet to come. In Revelation 18:10, Revelation 18:16, Revelation 18:19 the double κατοικεω — ouai is merely for emphasis.For them that dwell on the earth Accusative of the articular present active participle of εκ — katoikeō is unusual (Aleph Q here and also in Revelation 12:12) as in Matthew 11:21. There is even a nominative in Revelation 18:10.By reason of the other voices (των τριων αγγελων των μελλοντων σαλπιζειν — ek tōn loipōn phōnōn). “As a result of (ek) the rest of the voices.” There is more and worse to come, “of the three angels who are yet to sound” (tōn triōn aggelōn tōn mellontōn salpizein). [source]
Revelation 9:10 In their tails [εν ταις ουραις αυτων]
This locates “their power to hurt” (η εχουσια αυτων αδικησαι — hē exousia autōn adikēsai infinitive here, ινα αδικησουσιν — hina adikēsousin in Revelation 9:4) in their tails. It might have been in other organs. [source]
Revelation 9:11 In the Greek tongue [εν τηι ελληνικηι]
With γλωσσηι — glōssēi or διαλεκτωι — dialektōi understood. As usual, John gives both the Hebrew and the Greek.Apollyon (Απολλυων — Apolluōn). Present active masculine singular participle of απολλυω — apolluō meaning “destroying,” used here as a name and so “Destroyer,” with the nominative case retained though in apposition with the accusative ονομα — onoma The personification of Abaddon occurs in the Talmud also. It is not clear whether by Apollyon John means Death or Satan. Bousset even finds in the name Apollyon an indirect allusion to Apollo, one of whose symbols was the locust, a doubtful point assuredly. [source]
Revelation 9:17 And thus I saw in the vision [και ουτως ειδον εν τηι ορασει]
Nowhere else does John allude to his own vision, though often in Dan. (Daniel 7:2; Daniel 8:2, Daniel 8:15; Daniel 9:21). [source]
Revelation 9:19 With them [εν αυταις]
Instrumental use of εν — en Surely dreadful monsters. [source]

2125 Verses with G1722

Matthew 1:18
Literal: - Now of Jesus Christ the birth thus came about Having been pledged the mother of Him Mary - to Joseph before rather coming together of them she was found in womb having [a child] out of [the] Spirit Holy
KJV: Now  of Jesus  Christ  on this wise:  his  mother  Mary  was espoused  to Joseph,  before  they  came together,  she was found  with child  of  the Holy  Ghost. 

Matthew 1:20
Literal: These things now of him having pondered behold an angel of [the] Lord in a dream appeared to him saying Joseph son of David not you should fear to receive Mary [as] the wife of you that for in her having been conceived from [the] Spirit is Holy
KJV: But  while he  thought on  behold,  the angel  of the Lord  appeared  unto him  in  a dream,  saying,  Joseph,  thou son  of David,  fear  not  to take  Mary  thy wife:  for  that which is conceived  in  her  of  the Holy  Ghost. 

Matthew 1:23
Literal: Behold the virgin in womb will hold and will bear a son they will call the name of Him Immanuel which is being translated With us - God
KJV: Behold,  a virgin  shall be with child,  and  shall bring forth  a son,  and  they shall call  his  name  Emmanuel,  which  being interpreted  God  with 

Matthew 2:1
Literal: - Now Jesus having been born in Bethlehem - of Judea [the] days of Herod the king behold Magi from [the] east arrived in Jerusalem
KJV: Now  when Jesus  was born  in  Bethlehem  of Judaea  in  the days  of Herod  the king,  behold,  there came  wise men  from  the east  to  Jerusalem, 

Matthew 2:2
Literal: saying Where is the [One] having been born King of the Jews We saw for of Him the star in the east and are come to worship Him
KJV: Saying,  Where  he that is born  King  of the Jews?  for  his  star  in  the east,  and  are come  to worship  him. 

Matthew 2:5
Literal: - And they said to him In Bethlehem - of Judea thus for has it been written through the prophet
KJV: And  they said  unto him,  In  Bethlehem  of Judaea:  for  thus  it is written  by  the prophet, 

Matthew 2:6
Literal: And you Bethlehem land of Judah by no means least are among the rulers out of you for will go forth [One] leading who will shepherd the people of Me - Israel
KJV: And  thou  Bethlehem,  in the land  of Juda,  not  the least  among  the princes  of Juda:  for  out of  shall come  a Governor,  that  shall rule  people  Israel. 

Matthew 2:9
Literal: - And having heard the king they went away and behold the star which they saw in the east went before them until having arrived it stood over where was the Child
KJV: When  they had heard  the king,  they departed;  and,  lo,  the star,  which  in  the east,  went before  them,  till  it came  and stood  over  where  the young child 

Matthew 2:16
Literal: Then Herod having seen that he had been outwitted by the Magi was enraged intensely and having sent forth he put to death all the boys that [were] in Bethlehem all the vicinity of it from two years old under according to the time which he had ascertained from
KJV: Then  Herod,  that  he was mocked  of  the wise men,  was exceeding  wroth,  and  sent forth,  and slew  all  the children  that were in  Bethlehem,  and  in  all  the coasts  thereof,  from  two years old  and  under,  according  to the time  which  he had diligently enquired  of  the wise men. 

Matthew 2:18
Literal: A voice in Ramah was heard weeping and mourning great Rachel weeping [for] the children of her not would be comforted because no more are they
KJV: In  Rama  a voice  heard,  and  weeping,  and  great  mourning,  Rachel  weeping  for her  children,  and  would  not  be comforted,  because  not. 

Matthew 2:19
Literal: Having died now - of Herod behold an angel of [the] Lord appears in a dream to Joseph in Egypt
KJV: But  when Herod  was dead,  behold,  an angel  of the Lord  appeareth  in  a dream  to Joseph  in  Egypt, 

Matthew 3:1
Literal: In then the days those comes John the Baptist preaching the wilderness - of Judea
KJV: In  those  days  came  John  the Baptist,  preaching  in  the wilderness  of Judaea, 

Matthew 3:3
Literal: This for is the [One] having been spoken of through Isaiah the prophet saying [The] voice of one crying in the wilderness Prepare the way of [the] Lord straight make the paths of Him
KJV: For  this  the prophet  Esaias,  saying,  The voice  of one crying  in  the wilderness,  Prepare ye  the way  of the Lord,  make  his  paths  straight. 

Matthew 3:6
Literal: and were being baptized in the Jordan River by him confessing the sins of them
KJV: And  were baptized  of  him  in  Jordan,  confessing  their  sins. 

Matthew 3:9
Literal: And not presume to say within yourselves [As] father we have - Abraham I say for to you that able is - God out of the stones these to raise up children unto Abraham
KJV: And  think  not  to say  within  yourselves,  We have  Abraham  to our father:  for  I say  that  God  is able  of  stones  to raise up  children  unto Abraham. 

Matthew 3:11
Literal: I indeed you baptize with water to repentance - but after me is coming mightier than I He of whom not I am fit the sandals to carry He you will baptize [the] Spirit Holy and with fire
KJV: indeed  baptize  with  water  unto  repentance:  but  he that cometh  after  mightier than  whose  shoes  I am  not  worthy  to bear:  he  shall baptize  with  the Holy  Ghost,  and  with fire: 

Matthew 3:12
Literal: whose - winnowing fork [is] in the hand of Him and He will clear the threshing floor will gather the wheat into barn the but chaff He will burn up with fire unquenchable
KJV: Whose  fan  is in  his  hand,  and  he will throughly purge  his  floor,  and  gather  his  wheat  into  the garner;  but  he will burn up  the chaff  with unquenchable  fire. 

Matthew 3:17
Literal: And behold a voice out of the heavens saying This is the Son of me beloved in whom I was well pleased
KJV: And  lo  a voice  from  heaven,  saying,  This  beloved  Son,  in  whom  I am well pleased. 

Matthew 4:13
Literal: And having left - Nazareth having come he dwelt at Capernaum which [is] on the sea-side in [the] region of Zebulun Naphtali
KJV: And  leaving  Nazareth,  he came  and dwelt  in  Capernaum,  which  is upon the sea coast,  in  the borders  of Zabulon  and  Nephthalim: 

Matthew 4:16
Literal: The people - sitting in darkness a light have seen great and to those sitting in [the] land shadow of death a light has dawned on them
KJV: The people  which  sat  in  great  light;  and  to them which  sat  in  the region  and  shadow  of death  light  is sprung up. 

Matthew 4:21
Literal: And having gone on from there He saw others two brothers James the [son] - of Zebedee John the brother of him in the boat with Zebedee the father of them mending the nets He called them
KJV: And  going on  from thence,  other  two  brethren,  James  the son of  Zebedee,  and  John  his  brother,  in  a ship  with  Zebedee  their  father,  mending  their  nets;  and  he called  them. 

Matthew 4:23
Literal: And He was going throughout all - Galilee teaching in the synagogues of them proclaiming the gospel of the kingdom healing every disease sickness among the people
KJV: And  went about  all  Galilee,  teaching  in  their  synagogues,  and  preaching  the gospel  of the kingdom,  and  healing  all  manner of sickness  and  all  manner of disease  among  the people. 

Matthew 5:12
Literal: Rejoice and exult for the reward of you [is] great in the heavens thus for they persecuted the prophets - before you
KJV: Rejoice,  and  be exceeding glad:  for  great  reward  in  heaven:  for  so  persecuted they  the prophets  which  were before 

Matthew 5:13
Literal: You are the salt of the earth if however becomes tasteless with what will it be salted For nothing it is potent any longer if not having been cast out to be trampled upon by - men
KJV: the salt  of the earth:  but  if  the salt  have lost his savour,  wherewith  shall it be salted?  it is thenceforth  good  for  nothing,  to be cast  out,  to be trodden under foot  of  men. 

Matthew 5:15
Literal: Nor do they light a lamp and put it under - a basket but upon the lampstand it shines for all those in the house
KJV: Neither  do men light  a candle,  and  put  it  under  a bushel,  but  on  a candlestick;  and  it giveth light  unto all  that are in  the house. 

Matthew 5:16
Literal: Thus let shine the light of you before - men so that they may see your - good works and they should glorify the Father - in the heavens
KJV: light  so  shine  before  men,  that  good  works,  and  glorify  Father  which  is in  heaven. 

Matthew 5:19
Literal: Whoever if then shall break one of the commandments of these the least and shall teach so the others least he will be called in the kingdom of the heavens now - shall keep shall teach [them] this [one] great will be called
KJV: Whosoever  therefore  shall break  least  commandments,  and  shall teach  men  so,  he shall be called  the least  in  the kingdom  of heaven:  but  whosoever  shall do  and  teach  them, the same  shall be called  great  in  the kingdom  of heaven. 

Matthew 5:25
Literal: Be agreeing with accuser of you quickly while which you are with him on the way lest ever you deliver the accuser to the judge and judge officer into prison you will be cast
KJV: adversary  quickly,  whiles  in  the way  with  him;  the adversary  deliver  to the judge,  and  the judge  deliver  to the officer,  and  thou be cast  into  prison. 

Matthew 5:28
Literal: I however say to you that everyone - looking upon a woman in order - to lust after her already has committed adultery with in the heart of him
KJV: But  say  That  whosoever  looketh  on a woman  to  lust after  her  hath committed adultery  with her  already  in  his  heart. 

Matthew 5:34
Literal: I however say to you not to swear at all neither by - heaven because [the] throne it is - of God
KJV: But  say  Swear  not  at all;  neither  by  heaven;  for  God's  throne: 

Matthew 5:35
Literal: nor by the earth because [the] footstool it is of the feet of Him by Jerusalem [the] city it is of the great King
KJV: Nor  by  the earth;  for  his  footstool:  neither  by  Jerusalem;  for  the city  of the great  King. 

Matthew 5:36
Literal: Neither by the head of you shall you swear because not you are able one hair white to make or black
KJV: Neither  shalt thou swear  by  head,  because  thou canst  not  make  hair  white  or  black. 

Matthew 5:45
Literal: so that you may be sons of the Father of you who is in [the] heavens For the sun of Him He makes rise on evil and good He sends rain righteous unrighteous
KJV: That  ye may be  the children  Father  which  is in  heaven:  for  his  sun  to rise  on  the evil  and  on the good,  and  sendeth rain  on  the just  and  on the unjust. 

Matthew 6:1
Literal: Beware now the righteousness of you not to do before - men in order - to be seen by them if otherwise reward not have you with the Father who [is] in the heavens
KJV: Take heed  that ye do  not  before  men,  to be seen  of them:  otherwise  ye have  no  reward  of  Father  which  is in  heaven. 

Matthew 6:2
Literal: When therefore you do acts of charity not do sound a trumpet before you as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and streets so that they may have glory from - men Truly I say to you they have the reward of them
KJV: Therefore  when  thou doest  thine alms,  not  sound a trumpet  before  as  the hypocrites  do  in  the synagogues  and  in  the streets,  that  they may have glory  of  men.  Verily  I say  They have  their  reward. 

Matthew 6:4
Literal: so that may be your - giving in - secret And the Father of you the [One] seeing will reward you
KJV: That  alms  in  secret:  and  Father  which  seeth  in  secret  shall reward  openly. 

Matthew 6:5
Literal: And when you pray not you shall be like the hypocrites for they love in the synagogues on corners of the streets standing to pray so that they might be seen - by men Truly I say to you they have the reward of them
KJV: And  when  thou prayest,  not  the hypocrites  are: for  they love  to pray  standing  in  the synagogues  and  in  the corners  of the streets,  that  be seen  of men.  Verily  I say  They have  their  reward. 

Matthew 6:6
Literal: You however when you pray enter into the room of you and having shut the door pray to Father the [One] in - secret the Father the [One] seeing will reward you
KJV: But  thou,  when  thou prayest,  enter  into  closet,  and  when thou hast shut  door,  pray  Father  which  is in  secret;  and  Father  which  seeth  in  secret  shall reward  openly. 

Matthew 6:7
Literal: Praying now not do use vain repetitions like the pagans they think for that in the many words of them they will be heard
KJV: But  when ye pray,  not  vain repetitions,  as  the heathen  do: for  they think  that  they shall be heard  for  their  much speaking. 

Matthew 6:9
Literal: Thus therefore pray you Father of us who [is] in the heavens hallowed be the name of You
KJV: After this manner  therefore  pray  Father  which  art in  heaven,  Hallowed be  name.