The Meaning of Revelation 20:13 Explained

Revelation 20:13

KJV: And the sea gave up the dead which were in it; and death and hell delivered up the dead which were in them: and they were judged every man according to their works.

YLT: and the sea did give up those dead in it, and the death and the hades did give up the dead in them, and they were judged, each one according to their works;

Darby: And the sea gave up the dead which were in it, and death and hades gave up the dead which were in them; and they were judged each according to their works:

ASV: And the sea gave up the dead that were in it; and death and Hades gave up the dead that were in them: and they were judged every man according to their works.

What does Revelation 20:13 Mean?

Study Notes

hell
.
(Greek - ᾅδης , "the unseen world," is revealed as the place of departed human spirits between death and resurrection). The word occurs, Matthew 11:23 ; Matthew 16:18 ; Luke 10:15 ; Acts 2:27 ; Acts 2:31 ; Revelation 1:18 ; Revelation 6:8 ; Revelation 20:13 ; Revelation 20:14 and is the equivalent of the O.T. "sheol." (See Scofield " Habakkuk 2:5 ") . The Septuagint invariably renders sheol by hades.
Summary:
(1) Hades before the ascension of Christ. The passages in which the word occurs make it clear that hades was formerly in two divisions, the abodes respectively of the saved and of the lost. The former was called "paradise" and "Abraham's bosom." Both designations were Talmudic, but adopted by Christ in Ephesians 4:8-109 ; Luke 23:43 . The blessed dead were with Abraham, they were conscious and were "comforted" Luke 16:25 . The believing malefactor was to be, that day, with Christ in "paradise." The lost were separated from the saved by a "great gulf fixed" Luke 16:26 . The representative man of the lost who are now in hades is the rich man of Luke 16:19-31 . He was alive, conscious, in the full exercise of his faculties, memory, etc., and in torment.
(2) Hades since the ascension of Christ. So far as the unsaved dead are concerned, no change of their place or condition is revealed in Scripture. At the judgment of the great white throne, hades will give them up, they will be judged, and will pass into the lake of fire Revelation 20:13 ; Revelation 20:14 . But a change has taken place which affects paradise. Paul was "caught up to the third heaven.. .into paradise" 2 Corinthians 12:1-4 . Paradise, therefore, is now in the immediate presence of God. It is believed that 1618483377_61 indicates the time of the change. "When he ascended up on high he led a multitude of captives." It is immediately added that He had previously "descended first into the lower parts of the earth," i.e. the paradise division of Hades. During the present church-age the saved who died are "absent from the body, at home with the Lord." The wicked dead in hades, and the righteous dead "at home with the Lord," alike await the resurrection; Job 19:25 ; 1 Corinthians 15:52 . (See Scofield " Matthew 5:22 ") .

Verse Meaning

This verse describes the resurrection and judgment of the unrighteous more fully. In logical sequence this verse fits in the middle of the preceding one. This resurrection results in death (cf. Revelation 20:6) whereas the previous one ( Revelation 20:4) resulted in life.
God will resurrect the bodies of all unbelievers and unite them with their spirits, even those bodies decomposed in the sea and in every other way. The special mention of death by drowning and burial at sea may be due to the fact that the ancients regarded these fates as especially abhorrent. [1] "Death and Hades" probably refer to the state of death and the place of death. [2] "Hades" is the temporary abode of unbelievers" spirits until the great white throne judgment. Hades is the unseen place where all non-Christians (believers from other dispensations and unbelievers) who die reside until their resurrection (cf. 2 Corinthians 5:8). It includes Paradise ( Luke 23:43) and Gehenna ( Luke 12:5), also called Abraham"s bosom and the place of torment and anguish ( Luke 16:22-28). It is a place of conscious torment for unbelievers ( Luke 16:23). "Hades" is the New Testament word for this place, and "Sheol" is the Old Testament word.
Another reference to judgment on the basis of deeds again stresses personal responsibility (cf. Revelation 20:12; Revelation 2:23; Matthew 16:27; Romans 2:6; Romans 14:12; 1 Peter 1:17). God will judge all people on the basis of their works ( Revelation 20:12; cf. Psalm 62:12; Matthew 25:41-46; Hebrews 4:12-13). This is also true of Christians at the judgment seat of Christ ( Romans 14:10; 1 Corinthians 3:13; 2 Corinthians 5:10).
"The White Throne Judgment will be nothing like our modern court cases. At the White Throne, there will be a Judge but no jury, a prosecution but no defense, a sentence but no appeal. No one will be able to defend himself or accuse God of unrighteousness. What an awesome scene it will be!" [3]

Context Summary

Revelation 20:7-15 - Before The Great White Throne
Gog and Magog take us back to Genesis 10:2; see also Ezekiel 38:1-23; Ezekiel 39:1-29. It would seem that this great confederacy of the northern nations against the beloved city, Jerusalem, will be led by Satan, and overwhelmed once and for all by the direct judgment of God.
The final judgment is depicted in Revelation 20:11-15. God's people will not appear at that bar. All the human family will be arraigned, save those whose names are in the book of life, John 5:24. See Exodus 32:32; Daniel 12:1; Philippians 4:3; and Revelation 21:27. Death and Hades will surrender their contents. What a marvelous audience! The throne is great, because of the destinies to be decided; and white, because of the immaculate purity of the Judge, who will be none other than our Lord. See John 5:22; Acts 17:31. The books will surely include conscience; Romans 2:15-16; God's Word, John 12:48; and the tablets of memory, Luke 16:25. [source]

Chapter Summary: Revelation 20

1  Satan bound for a thousand years
6  The first resurrection;
7  Satan let loose again
8  Gog and Magog
10  The demons cast into the lake of fire and brimstone
11  The last and general resurrection

Greek Commentary for Revelation 20:13

Gave up [εδωκεν]
Just “gave” (first aorist active indicative of διδωμι — didōmi), but for the sea to give is to give up (effective aorist). Sea as well as land delivers its dead (all kinds of dead, good and bad). Swete notes that accidental deaths will not prevent any from appearing. Milligan is sure that the sea here means “the sea of the troubled and sinful world.” [source]
Death and Hades [ο τανατος και ο αιδης]
“An inseparable pair” (Swete) as in Revelation 1:18; Revelation 6:8; Revelation 20:14. So in Matthew 16:18 “the gates of Hades” means the power of death. Etymologically Hades is the unseen world where all who die are as opposed to this visible world, but in actual use Hades is sometimes treated as the abode of the unrighteous (Luke 16:23). Charles thinks that this is true here, though there is nothing to show it apart from the personification of death and Hades and the casting of both into the lake of fire in Revelation 20:14. Here again “each man” (εκαστος — hekastos) receives judgment according to his deeds (Matthew 16:27; 1 Corinthians 3:13; 2 Corinthians 5:10; Romans 2:6; Romans 14:12; 1 Peter 1:17; Revelation 2:23). [source]
The sea []
As commonly understood, the sea means the literal sea, and the passage signifies that the dead contained in it shall rise. So Alford. Other interpreters, however, say that it cannot mean the literal sea. Thus Milligan argues that the symbols of the Apocalypse must always be interpreted in the same way. “Symbols,” he says, “are a form of speech, and therefore subject to the rules that regulate the interpretation of all speech … The power of that convention which links a certain sense to a certain sound in ordinary terms, is not less binding in the presence than in the absence of metaphor of any kind whatever. Thus when we read in the Apocalypse of 'the sea' as an emblem of the troubled and sinful nations of the earth, we are bound, unless forbidden by the context, to carry that interpretation through, and to understand the sea of the troubled and sinful world.” [source]
Hell [ὁ ᾅδης]
Rev., Hades. See on Matthew 16:18. [source]

Reverse Greek Commentary Search for Revelation 20:13

Matthew 16:18 Thou art Peter [οὺ εἶ Πέτρος]
Christ responds to Peter's emphatic thou with another, equally emphatic. Peter says, “Thou art the Christ.” Christ replies, “Thou art Peter.” Πέτρος (Peter ) is used as a proper name, but without losing its meaning as a common noun. The name was bestowed on Simon at his first interview with Jesus (John 1:42) under the form of its Aramaic equivalent, CephasIn this passage attention is called, not to the giving of the name, but to its meaning. In classical Greek the word means a piece of rock, as in Homer, of Ajax throwing a stone at Hector (“Iliadvii., 270), or of Patroclus grasping and hiding in his hand a jagged stone (“Iliadxvi., 784).On this rock ( ἐπὶ ταύτῃ τῇ πέρᾳ )The word is feminine, and means a rock, as distinguished from a stone or a fragment of rock ( πέτρος , above). Used of a ledge of rocks or a rocky peak. In Homer (“Odyssey,” ix., 243), the rock ( πέτρην ) which Polyphemus places at the door of his cavern, is a mass which two-and-twenty wagons could not remove; and the rock which he hurled at the retreating ships of Ulysses, created by its fall a wave in the sea which drove the ships back toward the land (“Odyssey,” ix., 484). The word refers neither to Christ as a rock, distinguished from Simon, a stone, nor to Peter's confession, but to Peter himself, in a sense defined by his previous confession, and as enlightened by the “Father in Heaven.” The reference of πέτρα to Christ is forced and unnatural. The obvious reference of the word is to Peter. The emphatic this naturally refers to the nearest antecedent; and besides, the metaphor is thus weakened, since Christ appears here, not as the foundation, but as the architect: “On this rock will I build.” Again, Christ is the great foundation, the “chief corner-stone,” but the New Testament writers recognize no impropriety in applying to the members of Christ's church certain terms which are applied to him. For instance, Peter himself (1 Peter 2:4), calls Christ a living stone, and, in 1 Peter 2:5, addresses the church as living stones. In Revelation 21:14, the names of the twelve apostles appear in the twelve foundation-stones of the heavenly city; and in Ephesians 2:20, it is said, “Ye are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets (i.e., laid by the apostles and prophets), Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner-stone.” Equally untenable is the explanation which refers πέτρα to Simon's confession. Both the play upon the words and the natural reading of the passage are against it, and besides, it does not conform to the fact, since the church is built, not on confessions, but on confessors - living men. “The word πέτρα ,” says Edersheim, “was used in the same sense in Rabbinic language. According to the Rabbins, when God was about to build his world, he could not rear it on the generation of Enos, nor on that of the flood, who brought destruction upon the world; but when he beheld that Abraham would arise in the future, he said' 'Behold, I have found a rock to build on it, and to found the world,' whence, also, Abraham is called a rock, as it is said' 'Look unto the rock whence ye are hewn.' The parallel between Abraham and Peter might be carried even further. If, from a misunderstanding of the Lord's promise to Peter, later Christian legend represented the apostle as sitting at the gate of heaven, Jewish legend represents Abraham as sitting at the gate of Gehenna, so as to prevent all who had the seal of circumcision from falling into its abyss” (“Life and Times of Jesus”). The reference to Simon himself is confirmed by the actual relation of Peter to the early church, to the Jewish portion of which he was a foundation-stone. See Acts, Acts 1:15; Acts 2:14, Acts 2:37; Acts 3:12; Acts 4:8; Acts 5:15, Acts 5:29; Acts 9:34, Acts 9:40; Acts 10:25, Acts 10:26; Galatians 1:15.Church ( ἐκκλησίαν ) ἐκ out, καλέω , to call or summon. This is the first occurrence of this word in the New Testament. Originally an assembly of citizens, regularly summoned. So in New Testament, Acts 19:39. The Septuagint uses the word for the congregation of Israel, either as summoned for a definite purpose (Acts 7:38); but for this there is more commonly employed συναγωγή , of which synagogue is a transcription; σύν , together, ἄγω , to bring (Acts 13:43). In Christ's words to Peter the word ἐκκλησία acquires special emphasis from the opposition implied in it to the synagogue. The Christian community in the midst of Israel would be designated as ἐκκλησία , without being confounded with the συναγωγή , the Jewish community. See Acts 5:11; Acts 8:1; Acts 12:1; Acts 14:23, Acts 14:27, etc. Nevertheless συναγωγή is applied to a Christian assembly in James 2:2, while ἐπισυναγωγή (gathering or assembling together ) is found in 2 Thessalonians 2:1; Hebrews 10:25. Both in Hebrew and in New Testament usage ἐκκλησία implies more than a collective or national unity; rather a community based on a special religious idea and established in a special way. In the New Testament the term is used also in the narrower sense of a single church, or a church confined to a particular place. So of the church in the house of Aquila and Priscilla (Romans 16:5); the church at Corinth, the churches in Judea, the church at Jerusalem, etc.Gates of hell ( πύλαι ᾅδου )Rev., Hades. Hades was originally the name of the god who presided over the realm of the dead - Pluto or Dis. Hence the phrase, house of Hades. It is derived from ἀ , not, and; ἰδεῖν , to see; and signifies, therefore, the invisible land, the realm of shadow. It is the place to which all who depart this life descend, without reference to their moral character. By this word the Septuagint translated the Hebrew Sheol, which has a similar general meaning. The classical Hades embraced both good and bad men, though divided into Elysium, the abode of the virtuous, and Tartarus, the abode of the wicked. In these particulars it corresponds substantially with Sheol; both the godly and the wicked being represented as gathered into the latter. See Genesis 42:38; Psalm 9:17; Psalm 139:8; Isaiah 14:9; Isaiah 57:2; Ezekiel 32:27; Hosea 13:14. Hades and Sheol were alike conceived as a definite place, lower than the world. The passage of both good and bad into it was regarded as a descent. The Hebrew conception is that of a place of darkness; a cheerless home of a dull, joyless, shadowy life. See Psalm 6:5; Psalm 94:17; Psalm 115:17; Psalm 88:5, Psalm 88:6, Psalm 88:10; Job 10:21; Job 3:17-19; Job 14:10, Job 14:11; Ecclesiastes 9:5. Vagueness is its characteristic. In this the Hebrew's faith appears bare in contrast with that of the Greek and Roman. The pagan poets gave the popular mind definite pictures of Tartarus and Elysium; of Styx and Acheron; of happy plains where dead heroes held high discourse, and of black abysses where offenders underwent strange and ingenious tortures. There was, indeed, this difference between the Hebrew and the Pagan conceptions; that to the Pagan, Hades was the final home of its tenants, while Sheol was a temporary condition. Hence the patriarchs are described (Hebrews 11:16) as looking for a better, heavenly country; and the martyrs as enduring in hope of “a better resurrection.” Prophecy declared that the dead should arise and sing, when Sheol itself should be destroyed and its inmates brought forth, some to everlasting life, and others to shame and contempt (Isaiah 26:19; Hosea 13:14; Daniel 12:2). Paul represents this promise as made to the fathers by God, and as the hope of his countrymen (Acts 26:7). God was the God of the dead as well as of the living; present in the dark chambers of Sheol as well as in heaven (Psalm 139:8; Psalm 16:10). This is the underlying thought of that most touching and pathetic utterance of Job (Job 14:13-15), in which he breathes the wish that God would hide him with loving care in Hades, as a place of temporary concealment, where he will wait patiently, standing like a sentinel at his post, awaiting the divine voice calling him to a new and happier life. This, too, is the thought of the familiar and much-disputed passage, Job 19:23-27. His Redeemer, vindicator, avenger, shall arise after he shall have passed through the shadowy realm of Sheol. “A judgment in Hades, in which the judge will show himself his friend, in which all the tangled skein of his life will be unravelled by wise and kindly hands, and the insoluble problem of his strange and self-contradicting experience will at last be solved - this is what Job still looks for on that happy day when he shall see God for himself, and find his Goel (vindicator) in that Almighty Deliverer” (Cox, “Commentary on the Book of Job”). In the New Testament, Hades is the realm of the dead. It cannot be successfully maintained that it is, in particular, the place for sinners (so Cremer, “Biblico-Theological Lexicon”). The words about Capernaum (Matthew 11:23), which it is surprising to find Cremer citing in support of this position, are merely a rhetorical expression of a fall from the height of earthly glory to the deepest degradation, and have no more bearing upon the moral character of Hades than the words of Zophar (Job 11:7, Job 11:8) about the perfection of the Almighty. “It is high as heaven - deeper than Sheol. ” Hades is indeed coupled with Death (Revelation 1:18; Revelation 6:8; Revelation 20:13, Revelation 20:14), but the association is natural, and indeed inevitable, apart from all moral distinctions. Death would naturally be followed by Hades in any case. In Revelation 20:13, Revelation 20:14, the general judgment is predicted, and not only Death and Hades, but the sea give tip their dead, and only those who are not written in the book of life are cast into the lake of fire (Revelation 20:15). The rich man was in Hades (Luke 16:23), and in torments, but Lazarus was also in Hades, “in Abraham's bosom.” The details of this story “evidently represent the views current at the time among the Jews. According to them, the Garden of Eden and the Tree of Life were the abode of the blessed. We read that the righteous in Eden see the wicked in Gehenna and rejoice; and similarly, that the wicked in Gehenna see the righteous sitting beatified in Eden, and their souls are troubled (Edersheim, “Life and Times of Jesus”). Christ also was in Hades (Acts 2:27, Acts 2:31). Moreover, the word γέεννα , hell (see on Matthew 5:22), is specially used to denote the place of future punishment. Hades, then, in the New Testament, is a broad and general conception, with an idea of locality bound up with it. It is the condition following death, which is blessed or the contrary, according to the moral character of the dead, and is therefore divided into different realms, represented by Paradise or Abraham's bosom, and Gehenna. The expression Gates of Hades is an orientalism for the court, throne, power, and dignity of the infernal kingdom. Hades is contemplated as a mighty city, with formidable, frowning portals. Some expositors introduce also the idea of the councils of the Satanic powers, with reference to the Eastern custom of holding such deliberations in the gates of cities. Compare the expression Sublime Porte, applied to the Ottoman court. The idea of a building is maintained in both members of the comparison. The kingdom or city of Hades confronts and assaults the church which Christ will build upon the rock. See Job 38:17; Psalm 9:13; Psalm 107:18; Isaiah 38:10. [source]
1 John 3:14 From death [ἐκ τοῦ θανάτου]
Lit., out of the death. The article marks it as one of the two spheres in which men must be; death or life. The death, the life, present one of those sharp oppositions which are characteristic of the Epistle; as love, hatred; darkness, light; truth, a lie. Ὁ θάνατος thedeath, occurs in John's Epistles only here and in the next clause. In the Gospel, only John 5:24. Personified in Revelation 1:18; Revelation 6:8; Revelation 9:6; Revelation 20:13. [source]
Revelation 21:1 There was no more sea [ἡ θάλασσα οὐκ ἔστιν ἔπι]
Lit., as Rev., the sea is no more. Here as in Revelation 20:13. Some explain the sea as the ungodly world. I cannot help thinking this interpretation forced. According to this explanation, the passage is in the highest degree tautological. The first earth was passed away, and the ungodly world was no more. [source]
Revelation 1:9 Patmos []
Now called Patmo and Palmosa. In the Aegean, one of the group of the Sporades, about twenty-eight miles S. S.W. of Samos. It is about ten miles long by six in breadth. The island is volcanic, and is bare and rocky throughout; the hills, of which the highest rises to nearly a thousand feet, commanding a magnificent view of the neighboring sea and islands. The bay of La Scala, running into the land on the east, divides the island into two nearly equal parts, a northern and a southern. The ancient town, remains of which are still to be seen, occupied the isthmus which separates La Scala from the bay of Merika on the western coast. The modern town is on a hill in the southern half of the island, clustered at the foot of the monastery of St. John. A grotto is shown called “the grotto of the Apocalypse,” in which the apostle is said to have received the vision. “The stern, rugged barrenness of its broken promontories well suits the historical fact of the relegation of the condemned Christian to its shores, as of a convict to his prison. The view from the topmost peak, or, indeed, from any lofty elevation in the islands, unfolds an unusual sweep such as well became the Apocalypse, the unveiling of the future to the eyes of the solitary seer. Above, there was always the broad heaven of a Grecian sky; sometimes bright with its 'white cloud' (Revelation 14:14), sometimes torn with 'lightnings and thunderings,' and darkened by 'great hail,' or cheered with 'a rainbow like unto an emerald' (Revelation 4:3; Revelation 8:7; Revelation 11:19; Revelation 16:21). Over the high tops of Icaria, Samos, and Naxos rise the mountains of Asia Minor; amongst which would lie, to the north, the circle of the Seven Churches to which his addresses were to be sent. Around him stood the mountains and islands of the Archipelago (Revelation 6:14; Revelation 16:20). When he looked round, above or below, 'the sea' would always occupy the foremost place … the voices of heaven were like the sound of the waves beating on the shore, as 'the sound of many waters' (Revelation 14:2; Revelation 19:6); the millstone was 'cast into the sea' (Revelation 18:21); the sea was to 'give up the dead which were in it' (Revelation 20:13)” (Stanley, “Sermons in the East”). [source]
Revelation 1:18 I am alive [ζων ειμι]
Periphrastic present active indicative, “I am living,” as the words ο ζων — ho zōn just used mean.Forevermore (εις τους αιωνας των αιωνων — eis tous aiōnas tōn aiōnōn). “Unto the ages of the ages,” a stronger expression of eternity even than in Revelation 1:6.The keys One of the forms for the accusative plural along with κλειδας — kleidas the usual one (Matthew 16:19).Of death and of Hades (του τανατου και του αιδου — tou thanatou kai tou hāidou). Conceived as in Matthew 16:18 as a prison house or walled city. The keys are the symbol of authority, as we speak of honouring one by giving him the keys of the city. Hades here means the unseen world to which death is the portal. Jesus has the keys because of his victory over death. See this same graphic picture in Revelation 6:8; Revelation 20:13. For the key of David see Revelation 3:7, for the key of the abyss see Revelation 9:1; Revelation 20:1. [source]
Revelation 1:18 The keys [τας κλεις]
One of the forms for the accusative plural along with κλειδας — kleidas the usual one (Matthew 16:19).Of death and of Hades (του τανατου και του αιδου — tou thanatou kai tou hāidou). Conceived as in Matthew 16:18 as a prison house or walled city. The keys are the symbol of authority, as we speak of honouring one by giving him the keys of the city. Hades here means the unseen world to which death is the portal. Jesus has the keys because of his victory over death. See this same graphic picture in Revelation 6:8; Revelation 20:13. For the key of David see Revelation 3:7, for the key of the abyss see Revelation 9:1; Revelation 20:1. [source]
Revelation 1:18 Of death and of Hades [του τανατου και του αιδου]
Conceived as in Matthew 16:18 as a prison house or walled city. The keys are the symbol of authority, as we speak of honouring one by giving him the keys of the city. Hades here means the unseen world to which death is the portal. Jesus has the keys because of his victory over death. See this same graphic picture in Revelation 6:8; Revelation 20:13. For the key of David see Revelation 3:7, for the key of the abyss see Revelation 9:1; Revelation 20:1. [source]
Revelation 20:12 The dead, the great and the small [τους νεκρους τους μεγαλους και τους μικρους]
The general resurrection of Revelation 20:13 is pictured by anticipation as already over. No living are mentioned after the battle of Revelation 20:7-10, though some will be living when Jesus comes to judge the quick and the dead (2 Timothy 4:1; 1 Thessalonians 4:13.). All classes and conditions (Revelation 11:18; Revelation 13:16; Revelation 19:5, Revelation 19:18) John saw “standing before the throne” (εστωτας ενωπιον του τρονου — hestōtas enōpion tou thronou). [source]
Revelation 21:1 The first heaven and the first earth [ο πρωτος ουρανος και η πρωτη γη]
“Fled away” The sea had given up its dead (Revelation 20:13). There were great risks on the sea (Revelation 18:17.). The old physical world is gone in this vision. It is not a picture of renovation of this earth, but of the disappearance of this earth and sky (not heaven where God dwells). It is a glorious picture here in Revelation 21:1-8 in sharp contrast to the lake of fire in Revelation 20:11-15. The symbolism in neither case is to be pressed too literally, but a stern and a glorious reality exists behind it all. [source]
Revelation 21:1 are passed away [απηλταν]
“Fled away” The sea had given up its dead (Revelation 20:13). There were great risks on the sea (Revelation 18:17.). The old physical world is gone in this vision. It is not a picture of renovation of this earth, but of the disappearance of this earth and sky (not heaven where God dwells). It is a glorious picture here in Revelation 21:1-8 in sharp contrast to the lake of fire in Revelation 20:11-15. The symbolism in neither case is to be pressed too literally, but a stern and a glorious reality exists behind it all. [source]
Revelation 21:1 And the sea is no more [και η ταλασσα ουκ εστιν ετι]
The sea had given up its dead (Revelation 20:13). There were great risks on the sea (Revelation 18:17.). The old physical world is gone in this vision. It is not a picture of renovation of this earth, but of the disappearance of this earth and sky (not heaven where God dwells). It is a glorious picture here in Revelation 21:1-8 in sharp contrast to the lake of fire in Revelation 20:11-15. The symbolism in neither case is to be pressed too literally, but a stern and a glorious reality exists behind it all. [source]
Revelation 3:18 To buy [αγορασαι]
First aorist active infinitive of αγοραζω — agorazō (from αγορα — agora market-place), rich as they think themselves to be.From me (παρ εμου — par' emou). From my side, emphatic.Refined by fire Perfect passive participle of πυροω — puroō (as in Revelation 1:15) and the metaphor carried on by εκ πυρος — ek puros “fired by fire.” Purity by removing dross (Psalm 66:10) like 1 Peter 1:7.That thou mayest become rich (ινα πλουτησηις — hina ploutēsēis). Purpose clause with ινα — hina and the ingressive first aorist active of πλουτεω — plouteō spiritual riches.That thou mayest clothe thyself Purpose clause with ινα — hina and second aorist middle (direct) subjunctive of περιβαλλω — periballō to fling round one as in Revelation 3:5.Be not made manifest (μη πανερωτηι — mē phanerōthēi). Continued purpose clause with negative μη — mē and first aorist passive subjunctive of πανεροω — phaneroō (γυμνοτητος — gumnotētos). Late and rare word from γυμνος — gumnos naked, in N.T. only here, 2 Corinthians 11:27; Romans 8:35. Cf. Revelation 16:15; Revelation 20:13; 2 Corinthians 5:2.Eye-salve Diminutive of κολλυρα — kollura (coarse bread of cylindrical shape), object of αγορασαι — agorasai name for a famous Phrygian powder for the eyes made in Laodicea (Charles), Latin collyrium (used for eye-salve by Horace and Juvenal).To anoint (εγχρισαι — egchrisai). First aorist active infinitive (epexegetic) of εγχριω — egchriō late compound (εν χριω — enινα βλεπηις — chriō Strabo, Epictetus), to rub in, here only in N.T.That thou mayest see Another purpose clause with hina and the present active subjunctive (keep on seeing). [source]
Revelation 3:18 Refined by fire [πεπυρωμενον εκ πυρος]
Perfect passive participle of πυροω — puroō (as in Revelation 1:15) and the metaphor carried on by εκ πυρος — ek puros “fired by fire.” Purity by removing dross (Psalm 66:10) like 1 Peter 1:7.That thou mayest become rich (ινα πλουτησηις — hina ploutēsēis). Purpose clause with ινα — hina and the ingressive first aorist active of πλουτεω — plouteō spiritual riches.That thou mayest clothe thyself Purpose clause with ινα — hina and second aorist middle (direct) subjunctive of περιβαλλω — periballō to fling round one as in Revelation 3:5.Be not made manifest (μη πανερωτηι — mē phanerōthēi). Continued purpose clause with negative μη — mē and first aorist passive subjunctive of πανεροω — phaneroō (γυμνοτητος — gumnotētos). Late and rare word from γυμνος — gumnos naked, in N.T. only here, 2 Corinthians 11:27; Romans 8:35. Cf. Revelation 16:15; Revelation 20:13; 2 Corinthians 5:2.Eye-salve Diminutive of κολλυρα — kollura (coarse bread of cylindrical shape), object of αγορασαι — agorasai name for a famous Phrygian powder for the eyes made in Laodicea (Charles), Latin collyrium (used for eye-salve by Horace and Juvenal).To anoint (εγχρισαι — egchrisai). First aorist active infinitive (epexegetic) of εγχριω — egchriō late compound (εν χριω — enινα βλεπηις — chriō Strabo, Epictetus), to rub in, here only in N.T.That thou mayest see Another purpose clause with hina and the present active subjunctive (keep on seeing). [source]
Revelation 3:18 That thou mayest clothe thyself [ινα περιβαληι]
Purpose clause with ινα — hina and second aorist middle (direct) subjunctive of περιβαλλω — periballō to fling round one as in Revelation 3:5.Be not made manifest (μη πανερωτηι — mē phanerōthēi). Continued purpose clause with negative μη — mē and first aorist passive subjunctive of πανεροω — phaneroō (γυμνοτητος — gumnotētos). Late and rare word from γυμνος — gumnos naked, in N.T. only here, 2 Corinthians 11:27; Romans 8:35. Cf. Revelation 16:15; Revelation 20:13; 2 Corinthians 5:2.Eye-salve Diminutive of κολλυρα — kollura (coarse bread of cylindrical shape), object of αγορασαι — agorasai name for a famous Phrygian powder for the eyes made in Laodicea (Charles), Latin collyrium (used for eye-salve by Horace and Juvenal).To anoint (εγχρισαι — egchrisai). First aorist active infinitive (epexegetic) of εγχριω — egchriō late compound (εν χριω — enινα βλεπηις — chriō Strabo, Epictetus), to rub in, here only in N.T.That thou mayest see Another purpose clause with hina and the present active subjunctive (keep on seeing). [source]
Revelation 3:18 Be not made manifest [μη πανερωτηι]
Continued purpose clause with negative μη — mē and first aorist passive subjunctive of πανεροω — phaneroō Late and rare word from γυμνος — gumnos naked, in N.T. only here, 2 Corinthians 11:27; Romans 8:35. Cf. Revelation 16:15; Revelation 20:13; 2 Corinthians 5:2. [source]
Revelation 6:8 His name was Death [ονομα αυτωι ο τανατος]
Anacoluthon in grammatical structure like that in John 3:1 (cf. Revelation 2:26) and common enough. Death is the name of this fourth rider (so personified) and there is with Death “his inseparable comrade, Hades (Revelation 1:16; Revelation 20:13.)” (Swete). Hades Imperfect active of ακολουτεω — akoloutheō kept step with death, whether on the same horse or on another horse by his side or on foot John does not say.Over the fourth part of the earth Partitive genitive γης — gēs after τεταρτον — tetarton Wider authority First aorist active infinitive of αποκτεινω — apokteinō explanation of the εχουσια — exousia (authority). The four scourges of Ezekiel 14:21 are here reproduced with instrumental εν — en with the inanimate things (ρομπαιαι λιμωι τανατωι — romphaiāiυπο — limōi thanatōi) and τηριων — hupo for the beasts (τανατωι — thēriōn). Death here (λοιμος — thanatōi) seems to mean pestilence as the Hebrew does (λιμος — loimos - cf. limos famine). Cf. the “black death” for a plague. [source]

What do the individual words in Revelation 20:13 mean?

And gave up the sea the dead who were in it - Death Hades gave up them they were judged each [of them] according to the works of them
καὶ ἔδωκεν θάλασσα τοὺς νεκροὺς τοὺς ἐν αὐτῇ θάνατος ᾅδης ἔδωκαν αὐτοῖς ἐκρίθησαν ἕκαστος κατὰ τὰ ἔργα αὐτῶν

ἔδωκεν  gave  up 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Active, 3rd Person Singular
Root: διδῶ 
Sense: to give.
θάλασσα  sea 
Parse: Noun, Nominative Feminine Singular
Root: θάλασσα  
Sense: the sea.
νεκροὺς  dead 
Parse: Adjective, Accusative Masculine Plural
Root: νεκρός  
Sense: properly.
τοὺς  who  were 
Parse: Article, Accusative Masculine Plural
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
  - 
Parse: Article, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
θάνατος  Death 
Parse: Noun, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root: θάνατος 
Sense: the death of the body.
ᾅδης  Hades 
Parse: Noun, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root: ᾅδης  
Sense: name Hades or Pluto, the god of the lower regions.
ἔδωκαν  gave  up 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Active, 3rd Person Plural
Root: διδῶ 
Sense: to give.
ἐκρίθησαν  they  were  judged 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Passive, 3rd Person Plural
Root: κρίνω  
Sense: to separate, put asunder, to pick out, select, choose.
ἕκαστος  each  [of  them] 
Parse: Adjective, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root: ἕκαστος  
Sense: each, every.
κατὰ  according  to 
Parse: Preposition
Root: κατά 
Sense: down from, through out.
ἔργα  works 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Neuter Plural
Root: ἔργον  
Sense: business, employment, that which any one is occupied.
αὐτῶν  of  them 
Parse: Personal / Possessive Pronoun, Genitive Masculine 3rd Person Plural
Root: αὐτός  
Sense: himself, herself, themselves, itself.