The Meaning of Matthew 16:18 Explained

Matthew 16:18

KJV: And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it.

YLT: 'And I also say to thee, that thou art a rock, and upon this rock I will build my assembly, and gates of Hades shall not prevail against it;

Darby: And I also, I say unto thee that thou art Peter, and on this rock I will build my assembly, and hades' gates shall not prevail against it.

ASV: And I also say unto thee, that thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of Hades shall not prevail against it.

What does Matthew 16:18 Mean?

Study Notes

church
2 (Greek - ἀπόλλυμι (ek="out of," kaleo ="to call"), an assembly of called out ones). The word is used of any assembly; the word itself implies no more, as, e.g., the town-meeting at Ephesus Acts 19:39 and Israel, called out of Egypt and assembled in the wilderness Acts 7:38 . Israel was a true "church," but not in any sense the N.T. church--the only point of similarity being that both were "called out" and by the same God. All else is contrast.
See Scofield " Hebrews 12:23 "
hell See note,
Israel in the land is never called a church. In the wilderness Israel was a true church (G. ecclesia = called-out assembly), but in striking contrast with the N.T. ecclesia
(See Scofield " Matthew 16:18 ") .
angel (See Scofield " Ephesians 4:8-1046 ") .
hell
(Greek - ᾅδης , "the unseen world," is revealed as the place of departed human spirits between death and resurrection). The word occurs, Matthew 11:23 ; Matthew 16:18 ; Luke 10:15 ; Acts 2:27 ; Acts 2:31 ; Revelation 1:18 ; Revelation 6:8 ; Revelation 20:13 ; Revelation 20:14 and is the equivalent of the O.T. "sheol." (See Scofield " Habakkuk 2:5 ") . The Septuagint invariably renders sheol by hades.
Summary:
(1) Hades before the ascension of Christ. The passages in which the word occurs make it clear that hades was formerly in two divisions, the abodes respectively of the saved and of the lost. The former was called "paradise" and "Abraham's bosom." Both designations were Talmudic, but adopted by Christ in Luke 16:22 ; Luke 23:43 . The blessed dead were with Abraham, they were conscious and were "comforted" Luke 16:25 . The believing malefactor was to be, that day, with Christ in "paradise." The lost were separated from the saved by a "great gulf fixed" Luke 16:26 . The representative man of the lost who are now in hades is the rich man of Luke 16:19-31 . He was alive, conscious, in the full exercise of his faculties, memory, etc., and in torment.
(2) Hades since the ascension of Christ. So far as the unsaved dead are concerned, no change of their place or condition is revealed in Scripture. At the judgment of the great white throne, hades will give them up, they will be judged, and will pass into the lake of fire Revelation 20:13 ; Revelation 20:14 . But a change has taken place which affects paradise. Paul was "caught up to the third heaven.. .into paradise" 2 Corinthians 12:1-4 . Paradise, therefore, is now in the immediate presence of God. It is believed that 1618164113_8 indicates the time of the change. "When he ascended up on high he led a multitude of captives." It is immediately added that He had previously "descended first into the lower parts of the earth," i.e. the paradise division of Hades. During the present church-age the saved who died are "absent from the body, at home with the Lord." The wicked dead in hades, and the righteous dead "at home with the Lord," alike await the resurrection; Job 19:25 ; 1 Corinthians 15:52 . (See Scofield " Matthew 5:22 ") .
Peter
There is the Greek a play upon the words, "thou art Peter petros-- literally 'a little rock', and upon this rock Petra I will build my church." He does not promise to build His church upon Peter, but upon Himself, as Peter is careful to tell us ( 1 Peter 2:4-9 )
church
2 (Greek - ἀπόλλυμι (ek="out of," kaleo ="to call"), an assembly of called out ones). The word is used of any assembly; the word itself implies no more, as, e.g., the town-meeting at Ephesus Acts 19:39 and Israel, called out of Egypt and assembled in the wilderness Acts 7:38 . Israel was a true "church," but not in any sense the N.T. church--the only point of similarity being that both were "called out" and by the same God. All else is contrast.
See Scofield " Hebrews 12:23 "
hell See note,
church
Israel in the land is never called a church. In the wilderness Israel was a true church (G. ecclesia = called-out assembly), but in striking contrast with the N.T. ecclesia
(See Scofield " Matthew 16:18 ") .
angel (See Scofield " Hebrews 1:4 ") .
hell
(Greek - ᾅδης , "the unseen world," is revealed as the place of departed human spirits between death and resurrection). The word occurs, Matthew 11:23 ; Matthew 16:18 ; Luke 10:15 ; Acts 2:27 ; Acts 2:31 ; Revelation 1:18 ; Revelation 6:8 ; Revelation 20:13 ; Revelation 20:14 and is the equivalent of the O.T. "sheol." (See Scofield " Habakkuk 2:5 ") . The Septuagint invariably renders sheol by hades.
Summary:
(1) Hades before the ascension of Christ. The passages in which the word occurs make it clear that hades was formerly in two divisions, the abodes respectively of the saved and of the lost. The former was called "paradise" and "Abraham's bosom." Both designations were Talmudic, but adopted by Christ in Luke 16:22 ; Luke 23:43 . The blessed dead were with Abraham, they were conscious and were "comforted" Luke 16:25 . The believing malefactor was to be, that day, with Christ in "paradise." The lost were separated from the saved by a "great gulf fixed" Luke 16:26 . The representative man of the lost who are now in hades is the rich man of Luke 16:19-31 . He was alive, conscious, in the full exercise of his faculties, memory, etc., and in torment.
(2) Hades since the ascension of Christ. So far as the unsaved dead are concerned, no change of their place or condition is revealed in Scripture. At the judgment of the great white throne, hades will give them up, they will be judged, and will pass into the lake of fire Revelation 20:13 ; Revelation 20:14 . But a change has taken place which affects paradise. Paul was "caught up to the third heaven.. .into paradise" 2 Corinthians 12:1-4 . Paradise, therefore, is now in the immediate presence of God. It is believed that Ephesians 4:8-10 indicates the time of the change. "When he ascended up on high he led a multitude of captives." It is immediately added that He had previously "descended first into the lower parts of the earth," i.e. the paradise division of Hades. During the present church-age the saved who died are "absent from the body, at home with the Lord." The wicked dead in hades, and the righteous dead "at home with the Lord," alike await the resurrection; Job 19:25 ; 1 Corinthians 15:52 . (See Scofield " Matthew 5:22 ") .

Verse Meaning

Jesus proceeded immediately to build on the disciples" faith. They were now ready for more information. He gave them new revelation concerning what lay ahead so they would be ready for it.
However, Jesus used two different words for "Peter" and "rock." Matthew recorded the Aramaic distinction in Greek. If Jesus had wanted to identify Peter as the rock on which He would build the church, the clearest way to do this would have been to use the same word. Second, while Peter"s confession triggered Jesus" comment about building His church on a rock, it did not place Peter in a privileged position among the disciples. Jesus never treated Peter as though he occupied a favored position in the church because he made this confession. Third, the New Testament writers never connected Peter"s leadership in the early church with his confession. That rested on divine election, Jesus" command to strengthen his brethren ( John 14:1-3), and Peter"s personality.
A second view is that Jesus meant the truth that Peter confessed, namely, that Jesus is the Messiah and God, was the rock. [1] This position has in its favor the different words Jesus used for "rock" and the definite "this" before "rock" as identifying something in the immediately preceding context. Furthermore other New Testament references to the foundation of the church could refer to the truth concerning Jesus" person and work ( Romans 9:33; Ephesians 2:20; 1 Peter 2:5-8).
Nevertheless calling the truth about Jesus a rock when Jesus had just called Peter a rock seems unnecessarily confusing. The addition of "this" only compounds the confusion. Also, the other New Testament passages that refer to the foundation of the church never identify that foundation as the truth about Jesus. They point to something else.
This leads us to the third and what I believe is the best solution to this problem. Many interpreters believe that Jesus Himself is the Rock in view. [2] The Old Testament prophets likened Messiah to a stone ( Psalm 118:22; Isaiah 28:16), and Jesus claimed to be that stone ( Matthew 21:42). Peter himself identified Jesus as that stone ( Acts 4:10-12; 1 Peter 2:5-8), as Paul did ( Romans 9:32-33; 1 Corinthians 3:11; 1 Corinthians 10:4; Ephesians 2:20). Second, this interpretation explains the use of two different though related words for "rock." Third, this view accounts for the use of "this" since Jesus was present when He said these words. Fourth, the Old Testament used the figure of a rock to describe God ( Deuteronomy 32:4; Deuteronomy 32:15; Deuteronomy 32:18; Deuteronomy 32:30-31; Deuteronomy 32:37; 2 Samuel 22:2; Psalm 18:2; Psalm 18:31; Psalm 18:46; Psalm 28:1). Since Peter had just confessed that Jesus was God, it would have been natural for Jesus to use this figure of God to picture Himself.
Critics of this view point out that this interpretation makes Jesus mix His metaphors. Jesus becomes the foundation of the church and the builder of the church. However the New Testament refers explicitly to Jesus as the church"s foundation elsewhere ( Romans 9:33; 1 Corinthians 3:11; 1 Peter 2:5-8), and Jesus referred to Himself as the church"s builder here. Second, Paul"s statement that God builds the church on the apostles and prophets has ruled Jesus out as the foundation for some interpreters ( Ephesians 2:20). However, the apostles and prophets were the foundation in a secondary sense, Jesus being the chief rock (cornerstone) around which they also provided a foundation (cf. 1 Corinthians 3:10-11). Third, Peter"s prominence among the disciples and in the early church seems to some to argue against Jesus being the foundation in view. Still Peter was only the first among equals. His leadership in the church was not essentially different from the other apostles as the New Testament writers present it.
The next key word in this important verse is "church." The only occurrences of this word (Gr. ekklesia) in all four Gospels are here and in Matthew 18:17. [3] The Greek word refers to an assembly of people called out for a particular purpose. It comes from the verb ekkaleo, "to call out from." The Septuagint translators used it of Israel ( Deuteronomy 4:10; Joshua 9:2; Judges 20:2; et al.; cf. Acts 7:38). [4] In the New Testament it also refers to an assembly of citizens with no religious significance ( Acts 19:39). [5] However, Jesus used it here with a new meaning.
". . . ekklesia was the only possible word to express the Christian body as distinct from Jews.... He had just ended His public ministry in Galilee, had taken the disciples on a long journey alone, and was about to go to Jerusalem with the avowed intention of being killed; no moment was more suitable for preparing His followers to become a new body, isolated both from the masses and from the civil and religious authorities." [6]
Jesus used the term ekklesia to refer to a new entity that was yet to come into existence. He said He would build it in the future. He would not yet establish His kingdom on earth, but He would build His church.
"The word build is also significant because it implies the gradual erection of the church under the symbolism of living stones being built upon Christ, the foundation stone, as indicated in 1 Peter 2:4-8. This was to be the purpose of God before the second coming, in contrast to the millennial kingdom, which would follow the second coming." [7]
Furthermore Jesus claimed the church as His own in a unique sense by calling it "my church." Jesus revealed the existence of this new organism here for the first time in history. There is no Old Testament revelation of its existence. Jesus brought it into being because Israel had rejected her Messiah, and consequently God would postpone the kingdom of God on earth. In the meantime Jesus would construct an entirely new entity. He Himself would be its foundation and its builder.
Jesus" "church" is not the same as His "kingdom." It is interesting that even some scholars who were not dispensationalists acknowledged this. [8] Jesus would create a new entity (on the day of Pentecost), but He only postponed the kingdom, which will come into being at His second coming after He has taken the church to heaven ( Luke 22:32). "Christians" (believers living in the church age) will return with Jesus Christ at His second coming and will participate in His messianic kingdom on the earth in glorified bodies (cf. 1 Thessalonians 4:17).
"Gates" in biblical usage refer to fortifications ( Genesis 22:17; Psalm 127:5). "Hades" is the place of departed spirits (cf. Matthew 5:22; Matthew 11:23). Together these terms refer to death and dying ( Job 17:16; Job 38:17; Psalm 9:13; Psalm 107:18; Isaiah 38:10). [9] Jesus meant that the powers of death, Satan and his hosts doing their most powerful work of opposing life, would not prevail over the church. The church cannot die. This statement anticipated Jesus" resurrection and the resurrection and translation of church saints. Even Jesus" death would not prevent Him from building the church. Jesus" church would be a living church just a Yahweh was the living God (cf. Matthew 16:16).
This is all that Jesus revealed about the church here. He simply introduced this new revelation to the disciples as a farmer plants a seed. All of their thinking had been about the kingdom. To say more about the church now would have confused them unnecessarily. Jesus would provide more revelation about the church later (ch18; John 14-16).

Context Summary

Matthew 16:13-20 - "the Son Of The Living God"
The shadows of Calvary were beginning to gather and the Lord desired to prepare His friends for all that it stood for. His questions elicited Peter's magnificent confession.
Notice the date of the Church. It was still future when He spoke. I will build. The materials may have been prepared beforehand, but the actual building began at our Lord's resurrection. He is the Architect. Through the centuries He has been building, and if we are in His Church today, we are there because He excavated us out of the first Adam, and placed us in the very position we now occupy. The foundations of that Church were not in the Apostle (Petros) but in his confession (petra)of the divine sonship of Jesus. See John 5:18. Its impregnability is attested, for the Lord Himself defends it. See Revelation 2:1. The gates of Hades, that is, the unseen world, include all the principalities and powers that are allied against God's people. They cannot prevail, Ephesians 6:12. [source]

Chapter Summary: Matthew 16

1  The Pharisees require a sign
5  Jesus warns his disciples of the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees
13  The people's opinion of Jesus,
16  and Peter's confession of him
21  Jesus foretells his death;
23  reproves Peter for dissuading him from it;
24  and admonishes those who will follow him, to bear the cross

Greek Commentary for Matthew 16:18

And I also say unto thee [καγω δε σοι λεγω]
“The emphasis is not on ‹Thou art Peter‘ over against ‹Thou art the Christ,‘ but on Καγω — Kagō ‹The Father hath revealed to thee one truth, and I also tell you another” (McNeile). Jesus calls Peter here by the name that he had said he would have (John 1:42). Peter Then it was prophecy, now it is fact. In Matthew 16:17 Jesus addresses him as “Simon Bar-Jonah,” his full patronymic (Aramaic) name. But Jesus has a purpose now in using his nickname “Peter” which he had himself given him. Jesus makes a remarkable play on Peter‘s name, a pun in fact, that has caused volumes of controversy and endless theological strife. [source]
On this rock [επι ταυτηι τηι πετραι]
What did Jesus mean by this word-play?I will build my church (οικοδομησω μου την εκκλησιαν — oikodomēsō mou tēn ekklēsian). It is the figure of a building and he uses the word εκκλησιαν — ekklēsian which occurs in the New Testament usually of a local organization, but sometimes in a more general sense. What is the sense here in which Jesus uses it? The word originally meant “assembly” (Acts 19:39), but it came to be applied to an “unassembled assembly” as in Acts 8:3 for the Christians persecuted by Saul from house to house. “And the name for the new Israel, εκκλησια — ekklēsia in His mouth is not an anachronism. It is an old familiar name for the congregation of Israel found in Deut. (Deuteronomy 18:16; Deuteronomy 23:2) and Psalms (Psalm 22:25), both books well known to Jesus” (Bruce). It is interesting to observe that in Psalms 89 most of the important words employed by Jesus on this occasion occur in the lxx text. So οικοδομησω — oikodomēsō in Psalm 89:5; εκκλησια — ekklēsia in Psalm 89:6; κατισχυω — katischuō in Psalm 89:22; Χριστος — Christos in Psalm 89:39, Psalm 89:52; αιδης — hāidēs in Psalm 89:49 (εκ χειρος αιδου — ek cheiros hāidou). If one is puzzled over the use of “building” with the word εκκλησια — ekklēsia it will be helpful to turn to 1 Peter 2:5. Peter, the very one to whom Jesus is here speaking, writing to the Christians in the five Roman provinces in Asia (1 Peter 1:1), says: “You are built a spiritual house” (οικοδομειστε οικος πνευματικος — oikodomeisthe oikos pneumatikos). It is difficult to resist the impression that Peter recalls the words of Jesus to him on this memorable occasion. Further on (1 Peter 2:9) he speaks of them as an elect race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, showing beyond controversy that Peter‘s use of building a spiritual house is general, not local. This is undoubtedly the picture in the mind of Christ here in Matthew 16:18. It is a great spiritual house, Christ‘s Israel, not the Jewish nation, which he describes. What is the rock on which Christ will build his vast temple? Not on Peter alone or mainly or primarily. Peter by his confession was furnished with the illustration for the rock on which His church will rest. It is the same kind of faith that Peter has just confessed. The perpetuity of this church general is guaranteed.The gates of Hades Each word here creates difficulty. Hades is technically the unseen world, the Hebrew Sheol, the land of the departed, that is death. Paul uses τανατε — thanate in 1 Corinthians 15:55 in quoting Hosea 13:14 for αιδη — hāidē It is not common in the papyri, but it is common on tombstones in Asia Minor, “doubtless a survival of its use in the old Greek religion” (Moulton and Milligan, Vocabulary). The ancient pagans divided Hades Christ was in Hades (Acts 2:27, Acts 2:31), not in Gehenna. We have here the figure of two buildings, the Church of Christ on the Rock, the House of Death (Hades). “In the Old Testament the ‹gates of Hades‘ (Sheol) never bears any other meaning (Isaiah 38:10; Wisd. 16:3; 3 Maccabees 5:51) than death,” McNeile claims. See also Psalm 9:13; Psalm 107:18; Job 38:17 It is not the picture of Hades attacking Christ‘s church, but of death‘s possible victory over the church. “The εκκλησια — ekklēsia is built upon the Messiahship of her master, and death, the gates of Hades, will not prevail against her by keeping Him imprisoned. It was a mysterious truth, which He will soon tell them in plain words (Matthew 16:21); it is echoed in Acts 2:24, Acts 2:31 ” (McNeile). Christ‘s church will prevail and survive because He will burst the gates of Hades and come forth conqueror. He will ever live and be the guarantor of the perpetuity of His people or church. The verb κατισχυω — katischuō (literally have strength against, ισχυω — ischuō from ισχυς — ischus and κατ — kaṫ) occurs also in Luke 21:36; Luke 23:23. It appears in the ancient Greek, the lxx, and in the papyri with the accusative and is used in the modern Greek with the sense of gaining the mastery over. The wealth of imagery in Matthew 16:18 makes it difficult to decide each detail, but the main point is clear. The εκκλησια — ekklēsia which consists of those confessing Christ as Peter has just done will not cease. The gates of Hades or bars of Sheol will not close down on it. Christ will rise and will keep his church alive. Sublime Porte used to be the title of Turkish power in Constantinople. [source]
I will build my church [οικοδομησω μου την εκκλησιαν]
It is the figure of a building and he uses the word εκκλησιαν — ekklēsian which occurs in the New Testament usually of a local organization, but sometimes in a more general sense. What is the sense here in which Jesus uses it? The word originally meant “assembly” (Acts 19:39), but it came to be applied to an “unassembled assembly” as in Acts 8:3 for the Christians persecuted by Saul from house to house. “And the name for the new Israel, εκκλησια — ekklēsia in His mouth is not an anachronism. It is an old familiar name for the congregation of Israel found in Deut. (Deuteronomy 18:16; Deuteronomy 23:2) and Psalms (Psalm 22:25), both books well known to Jesus” (Bruce). It is interesting to observe that in Psalms 89 most of the important words employed by Jesus on this occasion occur in the lxx text. So οικοδομησω — oikodomēsō in Psalm 89:5; εκκλησια — ekklēsia in Psalm 89:6; κατισχυω — katischuō in Psalm 89:22; Χριστος — Christos in Psalm 89:39, Psalm 89:52; αιδης — hāidēs in Psalm 89:49 If one is puzzled over the use of “building” with the word εκκλησια — ekklēsia it will be helpful to turn to 1 Peter 2:5. Peter, the very one to whom Jesus is here speaking, writing to the Christians in the five Roman provinces in Asia (1 Peter 1:1), says: “You are built a spiritual house” It is difficult to resist the impression that Peter recalls the words of Jesus to him on this memorable occasion. Further on (1 Peter 2:9) he speaks of them as an elect race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, showing beyond controversy that Peter‘s use of building a spiritual house is general, not local. This is undoubtedly the picture in the mind of Christ here in Matthew 16:18. It is a great spiritual house, Christ‘s Israel, not the Jewish nation, which he describes. What is the rock on which Christ will build his vast temple? Not on Peter alone or mainly or primarily. Peter by his confession was furnished with the illustration for the rock on which His church will rest. It is the same kind of faith that Peter has just confessed. The perpetuity of this church general is guaranteed. [source]
The gates of Hades [πυλαι αιδου]
Each word here creates difficulty. Hades is technically the unseen world, the Hebrew Sheol, the land of the departed, that is death. Paul uses τανατε — thanate in 1 Corinthians 15:55 in quoting Hosea 13:14 for αιδη — hāidē It is not common in the papyri, but it is common on tombstones in Asia Minor, “doubtless a survival of its use in the old Greek religion” (Moulton and Milligan, Vocabulary). The ancient pagans divided Hades Christ was in Hades (Acts 2:27, Acts 2:31), not in Gehenna. We have here the figure of two buildings, the Church of Christ on the Rock, the House of Death (Hades). “In the Old Testament the ‹gates of Hades‘ (Sheol) never bears any other meaning (Isaiah 38:10; Wisd. 16:3; 3 Maccabees 5:51) than death,” McNeile claims. See also Psalm 9:13; Psalm 107:18; Job 38:17 It is not the picture of Hades attacking Christ‘s church, but of death‘s possible victory over the church. “The εκκλησια — ekklēsia is built upon the Messiahship of her master, and death, the gates of Hades, will not prevail against her by keeping Him imprisoned. It was a mysterious truth, which He will soon tell them in plain words (Matthew 16:21); it is echoed in Acts 2:24, Acts 2:31 ” (McNeile). Christ‘s church will prevail and survive because He will burst the gates of Hades and come forth conqueror. He will ever live and be the guarantor of the perpetuity of His people or church. The verb κατισχυω — katischuō (literally have strength against, ισχυω — ischuō from ισχυς — ischus and κατ — kaṫ) occurs also in Luke 21:36; Luke 23:23. It appears in the ancient Greek, the lxx, and in the papyri with the accusative and is used in the modern Greek with the sense of gaining the mastery over. The wealth of imagery in Matthew 16:18 makes it difficult to decide each detail, but the main point is clear. The εκκλησια — ekklēsia which consists of those confessing Christ as Peter has just done will not cease. The gates of Hades or bars of Sheol will not close down on it. Christ will rise and will keep his church alive. Sublime Porte used to be the title of Turkish power in Constantinople. [source]
shall not prevail against it [ου κατισχυσουσιν αυτης]
Each word here creates difficulty. Hades is technically the unseen world, the Hebrew Sheol, the land of the departed, that is death. Paul uses τανατε — thanate in 1 Corinthians 15:55 in quoting Hosea 13:14 for αιδη — hāidē It is not common in the papyri, but it is common on tombstones in Asia Minor, “doubtless a survival of its use in the old Greek religion” (Moulton and Milligan, Vocabulary). The ancient pagans divided Hades Christ was in Hades (Acts 2:27, Acts 2:31), not in Gehenna. We have here the figure of two buildings, the Church of Christ on the Rock, the House of Death (Hades). “In the Old Testament the ‹gates of Hades‘ (Sheol) never bears any other meaning (Isaiah 38:10; Wisd. 16:3; 3 Maccabees 5:51) than death,” McNeile claims. See also Psalm 9:13; Psalm 107:18; Job 38:17 It is not the picture of Hades attacking Christ‘s church, but of death‘s possible victory over the church. “The εκκλησια — ekklēsia is built upon the Messiahship of her master, and death, the gates of Hades, will not prevail against her by keeping Him imprisoned. It was a mysterious truth, which He will soon tell them in plain words (Matthew 16:21); it is echoed in Acts 2:24, Acts 2:31 ” (McNeile). Christ‘s church will prevail and survive because He will burst the gates of Hades and come forth conqueror. He will ever live and be the guarantor of the perpetuity of His people or church. The verb κατισχυω — katischuō (literally have strength against, ισχυω — ischuō from ισχυς — ischus and κατ — kaṫ) occurs also in Luke 21:36; Luke 23:23. It appears in the ancient Greek, the lxx, and in the papyri with the accusative and is used in the modern Greek with the sense of gaining the mastery over. The wealth of imagery in Matthew 16:18 makes it difficult to decide each detail, but the main point is clear. The εκκλησια — ekklēsia which consists of those confessing Christ as Peter has just done will not cease. The gates of Hades or bars of Sheol will not close down on it. Christ will rise and will keep his church alive. Sublime Porte used to be the title of Turkish power in Constantinople. [source]
Thou art Peter [οὺ εἶ Πέτρος]
Christ responds to Peter's emphatic thou with another, equally emphatic. Peter says, “Thou art the Christ.” Christ replies, “Thou art Peter.” Πέτρος (Peter ) is used as a proper name, but without losing its meaning as a common noun. The name was bestowed on Simon at his first interview with Jesus (John 1:42) under the form of its Aramaic equivalent, CephasIn this passage attention is called, not to the giving of the name, but to its meaning. In classical Greek the word means a piece of rock, as in Homer, of Ajax throwing a stone at Hector (“Iliadvii., 270), or of Patroclus grasping and hiding in his hand a jagged stone (“Iliadxvi., 784).On this rock ( ἐπὶ ταύτῃ τῇ πέρᾳ )The word is feminine, and means a rock, as distinguished from a stone or a fragment of rock ( πέτρος , above). Used of a ledge of rocks or a rocky peak. In Homer (“Odyssey,” ix., 243), the rock ( πέτρην ) which Polyphemus places at the door of his cavern, is a mass which two-and-twenty wagons could not remove; and the rock which he hurled at the retreating ships of Ulysses, created by its fall a wave in the sea which drove the ships back toward the land (“Odyssey,” ix., 484). The word refers neither to Christ as a rock, distinguished from Simon, a stone, nor to Peter's confession, but to Peter himself, in a sense defined by his previous confession, and as enlightened by the “Father in Heaven.” The reference of πέτρα to Christ is forced and unnatural. The obvious reference of the word is to Peter. The emphatic this naturally refers to the nearest antecedent; and besides, the metaphor is thus weakened, since Christ appears here, not as the foundation, but as the architect: “On this rock will I build.” Again, Christ is the great foundation, the “chief corner-stone,” but the New Testament writers recognize no impropriety in applying to the members of Christ's church certain terms which are applied to him. For instance, Peter himself (1 Peter 2:4), calls Christ a living stone, and, in 1 Peter 2:5, addresses the church as living stones. In Revelation 21:14, the names of the twelve apostles appear in the twelve foundation-stones of the heavenly city; and in Ephesians 2:20, it is said, “Ye are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets (i.e., laid by the apostles and prophets), Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner-stone.” Equally untenable is the explanation which refers πέτρα to Simon's confession. Both the play upon the words and the natural reading of the passage are against it, and besides, it does not conform to the fact, since the church is built, not on confessions, but on confessors - living men. “The word πέτρα ,” says Edersheim, “was used in the same sense in Rabbinic language. According to the Rabbins, when God was about to build his world, he could not rear it on the generation of Enos, nor on that of the flood, who brought destruction upon the world; but when he beheld that Abraham would arise in the future, he said' 'Behold, I have found a rock to build on it, and to found the world,' whence, also, Abraham is called a rock, as it is said' 'Look unto the rock whence ye are hewn.' The parallel between Abraham and Peter might be carried even further. If, from a misunderstanding of the Lord's promise to Peter, later Christian legend represented the apostle as sitting at the gate of heaven, Jewish legend represents Abraham as sitting at the gate of Gehenna, so as to prevent all who had the seal of circumcision from falling into its abyss” (“Life and Times of Jesus”). The reference to Simon himself is confirmed by the actual relation of Peter to the early church, to the Jewish portion of which he was a foundation-stone. See Acts, Acts 1:15; Job 19:23-277 Acts 2:37; Acts 3:12; Acts 4:8; Acts 5:15, Acts 5:29; Acts 9:34, Acts 9:40; Acts 10:25, Acts 10:26; Galatians 1:15.Church ( ἐκκλησίαν ) ἐκ out, καλέω , to call or summon. This is the first occurrence of this word in the New Testament. Originally an assembly of citizens, regularly summoned. So in New Testament, Acts 19:39. The Septuagint uses the word for the congregation of Israel, either as summoned for a definite purpose (Acts 7:38); but for this there is more commonly employed συναγωγή , of which synagogue is a transcription; σύν , together, ἄγω , to bring (Acts 13:43). In Christ's words to Peter the word ἐκκλησία acquires special emphasis from the opposition implied in it to the synagogue. The Christian community in the midst of Israel would be designated as ἐκκλησία , without being confounded with the συναγωγή , the Jewish community. See Acts 5:11; Acts 8:1; Acts 12:1; Acts 14:23, Acts 14:27, etc. Nevertheless συναγωγή is applied to a Christian assembly in James 2:2, while ἐπισυναγωγή (gathering or assembling together ) is found in 2 Thessalonians 2:1; Hebrews 10:25. Both in Hebrew and in New Testament usage ἐκκλησία implies more than a collective or national unity; rather a community based on a special religious idea and established in a special way. In the New Testament the term is used also in the narrower sense of a single church, or a church confined to a particular place. So of the church in the house of Aquila and Priscilla (Romans 16:5); the church at Corinth, the churches in Judea, the church at Jerusalem, etc.Gates of hell ( πύλαι ᾅδου )Rev., Hades. Hades was originally the name of the god who presided over the realm of the dead - Pluto or Dis. Hence the phrase, house of Hades. It is derived from ἀ , not, and; ἰδεῖν , to see; and signifies, therefore, the invisible land, the realm of shadow. It is the place to which all who depart this life descend, without reference to their moral character. By this word the Septuagint translated the Hebrew Sheol, which has a similar general meaning. The classical Hades embraced both good and bad men, though divided into Elysium, the abode of the virtuous, and Tartarus, the abode of the wicked. In these particulars it corresponds substantially with Sheol; both the godly and the wicked being represented as gathered into the latter. See Genesis 42:38; Psalm 9:17; Psalm 139:8; Isaiah 14:9; Isaiah 57:2; Ezekiel 32:27; Hosea 13:14. Hades and Sheol were alike conceived as a definite place, lower than the world. The passage of both good and bad into it was regarded as a descent. The Hebrew conception is that of a place of darkness; a cheerless home of a dull, joyless, shadowy life. See Psalm 6:5; Psalm 94:17; Psalm 115:17; Psalm 88:5, Psalm 88:6, Psalm 88:10; Job 10:21; Job 3:17-19; Job 14:10, Job 14:11; Ecclesiastes 9:5. Vagueness is its characteristic. In this the Hebrew's faith appears bare in contrast with that of the Greek and Roman. The pagan poets gave the popular mind definite pictures of Tartarus and Elysium; of Styx and Acheron; of happy plains where dead heroes held high discourse, and of black abysses where offenders underwent strange and ingenious tortures. There was, indeed, this difference between the Hebrew and the Pagan conceptions; that to the Pagan, Hades was the final home of its tenants, while Sheol was a temporary condition. Hence the patriarchs are described (Hebrews 11:16) as looking for a better, heavenly country; and the martyrs as enduring in hope of “a better resurrection.” Prophecy declared that the dead should arise and sing, when Sheol itself should be destroyed and its inmates brought forth, some to everlasting life, and others to shame and contempt (Isaiah 26:19; Hosea 13:14; Daniel 12:2). Paul represents this promise as made to the fathers by God, and as the hope of his countrymen (Acts 26:7). God was the God of the dead as well as of the living; present in the dark chambers of Sheol as well as in heaven (Psalm 139:8; Psalm 16:10). This is the underlying thought of that most touching and pathetic utterance of Job (Job 14:13-15), in which he breathes the wish that God would hide him with loving care in Hades, as a place of temporary concealment, where he will wait patiently, standing like a sentinel at his post, awaiting the divine voice calling him to a new and happier life. This, too, is the thought of the familiar and much-disputed passage, 1618164113_87. His Redeemer, vindicator, avenger, shall arise after he shall have passed through the shadowy realm of Sheol. “A judgment in Hades, in which the judge will show himself his friend, in which all the tangled skein of his life will be unravelled by wise and kindly hands, and the insoluble problem of his strange and self-contradicting experience will at last be solved - this is what Job still looks for on that happy day when he shall see God for himself, and find his Goel (vindicator) in that Almighty Deliverer” (Cox, “Commentary on the Book of Job”). In the New Testament, Hades is the realm of the dead. It cannot be successfully maintained that it is, in particular, the place for sinners (so Cremer, “Biblico-Theological Lexicon”). The words about Capernaum (Matthew 11:23), which it is surprising to find Cremer citing in support of this position, are merely a rhetorical expression of a fall from the height of earthly glory to the deepest degradation, and have no more bearing upon the moral character of Hades than the words of Zophar (Job 11:7, Job 11:8) about the perfection of the Almighty. “It is high as heaven - deeper than Sheol. ” Hades is indeed coupled with Death (Revelation 1:18; Revelation 6:8; Revelation 20:13, Revelation 20:14), but the association is natural, and indeed inevitable, apart from all moral distinctions. Death would naturally be followed by Hades in any case. In Revelation 20:13, Revelation 20:14, the general judgment is predicted, and not only Death and Hades, but the sea give tip their dead, and only those who are not written in the book of life are cast into the lake of fire (Revelation 20:15). The rich man was in Hades (Luke 16:23), and in torments, but Lazarus was also in Hades, “in Abraham's bosom.” The details of this story “evidently represent the views current at the time among the Jews. According to them, the Garden of Eden and the Tree of Life were the abode of the blessed. We read that the righteous in Eden see the wicked in Gehenna and rejoice; and similarly, that the wicked in Gehenna see the righteous sitting beatified in Eden, and their souls are troubled (Edersheim, “Life and Times of Jesus”). Christ also was in Hades (Acts 2:27, Acts 2:31). Moreover, the word γέεννα , hell (see on Matthew 5:22), is specially used to denote the place of future punishment. Hades, then, in the New Testament, is a broad and general conception, with an idea of locality bound up with it. It is the condition following death, which is blessed or the contrary, according to the moral character of the dead, and is therefore divided into different realms, represented by Paradise or Abraham's bosom, and Gehenna. The expression Gates of Hades is an orientalism for the court, throne, power, and dignity of the infernal kingdom. Hades is contemplated as a mighty city, with formidable, frowning portals. Some expositors introduce also the idea of the councils of the Satanic powers, with reference to the Eastern custom of holding such deliberations in the gates of cities. Compare the expression Sublime Porte, applied to the Ottoman court. The idea of a building is maintained in both members of the comparison. The kingdom or city of Hades confronts and assaults the church which Christ will build upon the rock. See Job 38:17; Psalm 9:13; Psalm 107:18; Isaiah 38:10. [source]

Reverse Greek Commentary Search for Matthew 16:18

Matthew 18:17 The church [τηι εκκλησιαι]
The local body, not the general as in Matthew 16:18 which see for discussion. The problem here is whether Jesus has in mind an actual body of believers already in existence or is speaking prophetically of the local churches that would be organized later (as in Acts). There are some who think that the Twelve Apostles constituted a local εκκλησια — ekklēsia a sort of moving church of preachers. That could only be true in essence as they were a band of ministers and not located in any one place. Bruce holds that they were “the nucleus” of a local church at any rate. [source]
Matthew 16:18 I will build my church [οικοδομησω μου την εκκλησιαν]
It is the figure of a building and he uses the word εκκλησιαν — ekklēsian which occurs in the New Testament usually of a local organization, but sometimes in a more general sense. What is the sense here in which Jesus uses it? The word originally meant “assembly” (Acts 19:39), but it came to be applied to an “unassembled assembly” as in Acts 8:3 for the Christians persecuted by Saul from house to house. “And the name for the new Israel, εκκλησια — ekklēsia in His mouth is not an anachronism. It is an old familiar name for the congregation of Israel found in Deut. (Deuteronomy 18:16; Deuteronomy 23:2) and Psalms (Psalm 22:25), both books well known to Jesus” (Bruce). It is interesting to observe that in Psalms 89 most of the important words employed by Jesus on this occasion occur in the lxx text. So οικοδομησω — oikodomēsō in Psalm 89:5; εκκλησια — ekklēsia in Psalm 89:6; κατισχυω — katischuō in Psalm 89:22; Χριστος — Christos in Psalm 89:39, Psalm 89:52; αιδης — hāidēs in Psalm 89:49 If one is puzzled over the use of “building” with the word εκκλησια — ekklēsia it will be helpful to turn to 1 Peter 2:5. Peter, the very one to whom Jesus is here speaking, writing to the Christians in the five Roman provinces in Asia (1 Peter 1:1), says: “You are built a spiritual house” It is difficult to resist the impression that Peter recalls the words of Jesus to him on this memorable occasion. Further on (1 Peter 2:9) he speaks of them as an elect race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, showing beyond controversy that Peter‘s use of building a spiritual house is general, not local. This is undoubtedly the picture in the mind of Christ here in Matthew 16:18. It is a great spiritual house, Christ‘s Israel, not the Jewish nation, which he describes. What is the rock on which Christ will build his vast temple? Not on Peter alone or mainly or primarily. Peter by his confession was furnished with the illustration for the rock on which His church will rest. It is the same kind of faith that Peter has just confessed. The perpetuity of this church general is guaranteed. [source]
Matthew 16:18 On this rock [επι ταυτηι τηι πετραι]
What did Jesus mean by this word-play?I will build my church (οικοδομησω μου την εκκλησιαν — oikodomēsō mou tēn ekklēsian). It is the figure of a building and he uses the word εκκλησιαν — ekklēsian which occurs in the New Testament usually of a local organization, but sometimes in a more general sense. What is the sense here in which Jesus uses it? The word originally meant “assembly” (Acts 19:39), but it came to be applied to an “unassembled assembly” as in Acts 8:3 for the Christians persecuted by Saul from house to house. “And the name for the new Israel, εκκλησια — ekklēsia in His mouth is not an anachronism. It is an old familiar name for the congregation of Israel found in Deut. (Deuteronomy 18:16; Deuteronomy 23:2) and Psalms (Psalm 22:25), both books well known to Jesus” (Bruce). It is interesting to observe that in Psalms 89 most of the important words employed by Jesus on this occasion occur in the lxx text. So οικοδομησω — oikodomēsō in Psalm 89:5; εκκλησια — ekklēsia in Psalm 89:6; κατισχυω — katischuō in Psalm 89:22; Χριστος — Christos in Psalm 89:39, Psalm 89:52; αιδης — hāidēs in Psalm 89:49 (εκ χειρος αιδου — ek cheiros hāidou). If one is puzzled over the use of “building” with the word εκκλησια — ekklēsia it will be helpful to turn to 1 Peter 2:5. Peter, the very one to whom Jesus is here speaking, writing to the Christians in the five Roman provinces in Asia (1 Peter 1:1), says: “You are built a spiritual house” (οικοδομειστε οικος πνευματικος — oikodomeisthe oikos pneumatikos). It is difficult to resist the impression that Peter recalls the words of Jesus to him on this memorable occasion. Further on (1 Peter 2:9) he speaks of them as an elect race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, showing beyond controversy that Peter‘s use of building a spiritual house is general, not local. This is undoubtedly the picture in the mind of Christ here in Matthew 16:18. It is a great spiritual house, Christ‘s Israel, not the Jewish nation, which he describes. What is the rock on which Christ will build his vast temple? Not on Peter alone or mainly or primarily. Peter by his confession was furnished with the illustration for the rock on which His church will rest. It is the same kind of faith that Peter has just confessed. The perpetuity of this church general is guaranteed.The gates of Hades Each word here creates difficulty. Hades is technically the unseen world, the Hebrew Sheol, the land of the departed, that is death. Paul uses τανατε — thanate in 1 Corinthians 15:55 in quoting Hosea 13:14 for αιδη — hāidē It is not common in the papyri, but it is common on tombstones in Asia Minor, “doubtless a survival of its use in the old Greek religion” (Moulton and Milligan, Vocabulary). The ancient pagans divided Hades Christ was in Hades (Acts 2:27, Acts 2:31), not in Gehenna. We have here the figure of two buildings, the Church of Christ on the Rock, the House of Death (Hades). “In the Old Testament the ‹gates of Hades‘ (Sheol) never bears any other meaning (Isaiah 38:10; Wisd. 16:3; 3 Maccabees 5:51) than death,” McNeile claims. See also Psalm 9:13; Psalm 107:18; Job 38:17 It is not the picture of Hades attacking Christ‘s church, but of death‘s possible victory over the church. “The εκκλησια — ekklēsia is built upon the Messiahship of her master, and death, the gates of Hades, will not prevail against her by keeping Him imprisoned. It was a mysterious truth, which He will soon tell them in plain words (Matthew 16:21); it is echoed in Acts 2:24, Acts 2:31 ” (McNeile). Christ‘s church will prevail and survive because He will burst the gates of Hades and come forth conqueror. He will ever live and be the guarantor of the perpetuity of His people or church. The verb κατισχυω — katischuō (literally have strength against, ισχυω — ischuō from ισχυς — ischus and κατ — kaṫ) occurs also in Luke 21:36; Luke 23:23. It appears in the ancient Greek, the lxx, and in the papyri with the accusative and is used in the modern Greek with the sense of gaining the mastery over. The wealth of imagery in Matthew 16:18 makes it difficult to decide each detail, but the main point is clear. The εκκλησια — ekklēsia which consists of those confessing Christ as Peter has just done will not cease. The gates of Hades or bars of Sheol will not close down on it. Christ will rise and will keep his church alive. Sublime Porte used to be the title of Turkish power in Constantinople. [source]
Matthew 16:18 The gates of Hades [πυλαι αιδου]
Each word here creates difficulty. Hades is technically the unseen world, the Hebrew Sheol, the land of the departed, that is death. Paul uses τανατε — thanate in 1 Corinthians 15:55 in quoting Hosea 13:14 for αιδη — hāidē It is not common in the papyri, but it is common on tombstones in Asia Minor, “doubtless a survival of its use in the old Greek religion” (Moulton and Milligan, Vocabulary). The ancient pagans divided Hades Christ was in Hades (Acts 2:27, Acts 2:31), not in Gehenna. We have here the figure of two buildings, the Church of Christ on the Rock, the House of Death (Hades). “In the Old Testament the ‹gates of Hades‘ (Sheol) never bears any other meaning (Isaiah 38:10; Wisd. 16:3; 3 Maccabees 5:51) than death,” McNeile claims. See also Psalm 9:13; Psalm 107:18; Job 38:17 It is not the picture of Hades attacking Christ‘s church, but of death‘s possible victory over the church. “The εκκλησια — ekklēsia is built upon the Messiahship of her master, and death, the gates of Hades, will not prevail against her by keeping Him imprisoned. It was a mysterious truth, which He will soon tell them in plain words (Matthew 16:21); it is echoed in Acts 2:24, Acts 2:31 ” (McNeile). Christ‘s church will prevail and survive because He will burst the gates of Hades and come forth conqueror. He will ever live and be the guarantor of the perpetuity of His people or church. The verb κατισχυω — katischuō (literally have strength against, ισχυω — ischuō from ισχυς — ischus and κατ — kaṫ) occurs also in Luke 21:36; Luke 23:23. It appears in the ancient Greek, the lxx, and in the papyri with the accusative and is used in the modern Greek with the sense of gaining the mastery over. The wealth of imagery in Matthew 16:18 makes it difficult to decide each detail, but the main point is clear. The εκκλησια — ekklēsia which consists of those confessing Christ as Peter has just done will not cease. The gates of Hades or bars of Sheol will not close down on it. Christ will rise and will keep his church alive. Sublime Porte used to be the title of Turkish power in Constantinople. [source]
Matthew 16:18 shall not prevail against it [ου κατισχυσουσιν αυτης]
Each word here creates difficulty. Hades is technically the unseen world, the Hebrew Sheol, the land of the departed, that is death. Paul uses τανατε — thanate in 1 Corinthians 15:55 in quoting Hosea 13:14 for αιδη — hāidē It is not common in the papyri, but it is common on tombstones in Asia Minor, “doubtless a survival of its use in the old Greek religion” (Moulton and Milligan, Vocabulary). The ancient pagans divided Hades Christ was in Hades (Acts 2:27, Acts 2:31), not in Gehenna. We have here the figure of two buildings, the Church of Christ on the Rock, the House of Death (Hades). “In the Old Testament the ‹gates of Hades‘ (Sheol) never bears any other meaning (Isaiah 38:10; Wisd. 16:3; 3 Maccabees 5:51) than death,” McNeile claims. See also Psalm 9:13; Psalm 107:18; Job 38:17 It is not the picture of Hades attacking Christ‘s church, but of death‘s possible victory over the church. “The εκκλησια — ekklēsia is built upon the Messiahship of her master, and death, the gates of Hades, will not prevail against her by keeping Him imprisoned. It was a mysterious truth, which He will soon tell them in plain words (Matthew 16:21); it is echoed in Acts 2:24, Acts 2:31 ” (McNeile). Christ‘s church will prevail and survive because He will burst the gates of Hades and come forth conqueror. He will ever live and be the guarantor of the perpetuity of His people or church. The verb κατισχυω — katischuō (literally have strength against, ισχυω — ischuō from ισχυς — ischus and κατ — kaṫ) occurs also in Luke 21:36; Luke 23:23. It appears in the ancient Greek, the lxx, and in the papyri with the accusative and is used in the modern Greek with the sense of gaining the mastery over. The wealth of imagery in Matthew 16:18 makes it difficult to decide each detail, but the main point is clear. The εκκλησια — ekklēsia which consists of those confessing Christ as Peter has just done will not cease. The gates of Hades or bars of Sheol will not close down on it. Christ will rise and will keep his church alive. Sublime Porte used to be the title of Turkish power in Constantinople. [source]
Matthew 16:19 The Keys of the kingdom [τας κλειδας της βασιλειας]
Here again we have the figure of a building with keys to open from the outside. The question is raised at once if Jesus does not here mean the same thing by “kingdom” that he did by “church” in Matthew 16:18. In Revelation 1:18; Revelation 3:7 Christ the Risen Lord has “the keys of death and of Hades.” He has also “the keys of the kingdom of heaven” which he here hands over to Peter as “gatekeeper” or “steward” Later after the Resurrection Christ will use this same language to all the disciples (John 20:23), showing that it was not a special prerogative of Peter. He is simply first among equals, primus inter pares, because on this occasion he was spokesman for the faith of all. It is a violent leap in logic to claim power to forgive sins, to pronounce absolution, by reason of the technical rabbinical language that Jesus employed about binding and loosing. Every preacher uses the keys of the kingdom when he proclaims the terms of salvation in Christ. The proclamation of these terms when accepted by faith in Christ has the sanction and approval of God the Father. The more personal we make these great words the nearer we come to the mind of Christ. The more ecclesiastical we make them the further we drift away from him. [source]
Mark 3:16 Simon he surnamed Peter [επετηκεν ονομα τωι Σιμωνι Πετρον]
The Greek idiom seems awkward, but it is not. Peter is in apposition with name or ονομα — onoma (accusative). This surname Jesus gave in addition Here then is a direct reference to what is told in John 1:42 when Jesus met Simon for the first time. Mark here reflects Peter‘s own words. Luke (Luke 6:14) simply says “Whom he also surnamed Peter.” See note on Matthew 16:18 for the full explanation of the name Peter, a Rock, Cephas. [source]
Mark 8:29 Thou art the Christ [Συ ει ο Χριστος]
Mark does not give “the Son of the living God” (Matthew 16:16) or “of God” (Luke 9:20). The full confession is the form in Matthew. Luke‘s language means practically the same, while Mark‘s is the briefest. But the form in Mark really means the full idea. Mark omits all praise of Peter, probably because Peter had done so in his story of the incident. For criticism of the view that Matthew‘s narrative is due to ecclesiastical development and effort to justify ecclesiastical prerogatives, see discussion on Matthew 16:16, Matthew 16:18. The disciples had confessed him as Messiah before. Thus John 1:41; John 4:29; John 6:69; Matthew 14:33. But Jesus had ceased to use the word Messiah to avoid political complications and a revolutionary movement (John 6:14.). But did the disciples still believe in Jesus as Messiah after all the defections and oppositions seen by them? It was a serious test to which Jesus now put them. [source]
Luke 23:23 Prevailed [καίσχυον]
Had power ( ἰσχύς ) to bear down ( κατά ) the remonstrances of Pilate. Only here and Matthew 16:18. [source]
Luke 16:23 Hell []
Rev., Hades. Where Lazarus also was, but in a different region. See on Matthew 16:18. [source]
Luke 10:15 Unto Hades [εως αιδου]
See note on Matthew 16:18 for this word which is here in contrast to Heaven as in Isaiah 14:13-15. Hades is not Gehenna. “The desolation of the whole neighbourhood, and the difficulty of identifying even the site of these flourishing towns, is part of the fulfilment of this prophecy” (Plummer). Ragg notes the omission of Nazareth from this list of cities of neglected privilege and opportunity. “Is it the tender memories of boyhood that keep from His lips the name of the arch-rejector (Luke 4:28 sqq.) Nazareth?” [source]
Luke 16:23 In Hades [εν τωι αιδηι]
See note on Matthew 16:18 for discussion of this word. Lazarus was in Hades also for both Paradise (Abraham‘s bosom) and Gehenna are in the unseen world beyond the grave. [source]
Luke 21:36 That ye may prevail to escape [ινα κατισχυσητε εκπυγειν]
First aorist active subjunctive with ινα — hina of purpose. The verb κατισχυω — katischuō means to have strength against (cf. Matthew 16:18). Common in later writers. Εκπυγειν — Ekphugein is second aorist active infinitive, to escape out.To stand before the Son of man (στατηναι εμπροστεν του υιου του αντρωπου — stathēnai emprosthen tou huiou tou anthrōpou). That is the goal. There will be no dread of the Son then if one is ready. Στατηναι — Stathēnai is first aorist passive infinitive of ιστημι — histēmi f0). [source]
Luke 23:23 With loud voices [πωναις μεγαλαις]
Instrumental case. Poor Pilate was overwhelmed by this tornado.Prevailed (κατισχυον — katischuon). Imperfect active of κατισχυω — katischuō (See note on Matthew 16:18; and note on Luke 21:36). The tempest Pilate had invited (Luke 23:13). [source]
Luke 23:23 Prevailed [κατισχυον]
Imperfect active of κατισχυω — katischuō (See note on Matthew 16:18; and note on Luke 21:36). The tempest Pilate had invited (Luke 23:13). [source]
John 1:42 A stone [Πέτρος]
See on Matthew 16:18. A detached mass of rock. Cephas is the Aramaic name, occurring 1 Corinthians 1:12; 1 Corinthians 3:22; 1 Corinthians 9:5; 1 Corinthians 15:5; Galatians 2:9. [source]
Acts 6:9 Synagogue []
See on Church, Matthew 16:18. [source]
Acts 15:16 I will build again [ανοικοδομησω]
Here lxx has αναστησω — anastēsō Compound (ανα — ana up or again) of οικοδομεω — oikodomeō the verb used by Jesus in Matthew 16:18 of the general church or kingdom as here which see. [source]
Acts 9:31 Edified [oikodomoumenē)]
Present passive participle, linear action also. One result of the enjoyment of peace after the persecution was the continued edification (Latin word aedificatio for building up a house), a favourite figure with Paul (1 Corinthians 14; Eph 3) and scattered throughout the N.T., old Greek verb. In 1 Peter 2:5 Peter speaks of “the spiritual house” throughout the five Roman provinces being “built up” (cf. Matthew 16:18). [source]
Acts 5:11 Upon the whole church [επ ολην την εκκλησιαν]
Here εκκλησια — ekklēsia for the first time in Acts of the believers in Jerusalem. Twice already in the Gospels, once of the whole body of believers or the Kingdom (Matthew 16:18), the other of the local body (Matthew 18:17). In Acts 7:38 it is used of the whole congregation of Israel while in Acts 19:32 it is used of a public assembly in Ephesus. But already in Acts 8:3 it is applied to the church which Saul was persecuting in their homes when not assembled. So here the etymological meaning of “assembly” disappears for “the church” were now the scattered saints hiding in their separate homes. The whole body of believers in Jerusalem and all who heard of the fate of Ananias and Sapphira (beautiful, her name means) were in awe and dread. It was already a dangerous thing to be a follower of Christ unless one was willing to walk straight. [source]
Acts 9:31 So the church [Hē men oun ekklēsia)]
The singular ekklēsia is undoubtedly the true reading here (all the great documents have it so). By this time there were churches scattered over Judea, Galilee, and Samaria (Galatians 1:22), but Luke either regards the disciples in Palestine as still members of the one great church in Jerusalem (instance already the work of Philip in Samaria and soon of Peter in Joppa and Caesarea) or he employs the term ekklēsia in a geographical or collective sense covering all of Palestine. The strictly local sense we have seen already in Acts 8:1, Acts 8:3 (and Matthew 18:17) and the general spiritual sense in Matthew 16:18. But in Acts 8:3 it is plain that the term is applied to the organization of Jerusalem Christians even when scattered in their homes. The use of men oun (so) is Luke‘s common way of gathering up the connection. The obvious meaning is that the persecution ceased because the persecutor had been converted. The wolf no longer ravined the sheep. It is true also that the effort of Caligula a.d. 39 to set up his image in the temple in Jerusalem for the Jews to worship greatly excited the Jews and gave them troubles of their own (Josephus, Ant. XVIII. 8, 2-9). [source]
Acts 9:31 Had peace [eichen eirēnēn)]
Imperfect active. Kept on having peace, enjoying peace, because the persecution had ceased. Many of the disciples came back to Jerusalem and the apostles began to make preaching tours out from the city. This idiom Edified (oikodomoumenē). Present passive participle, linear action also. One result of the enjoyment of peace after the persecution was the continued edification (Latin word aedificatio for building up a house), a favourite figure with Paul (1 Corinthians 14; Eph 3) and scattered throughout the N.T., old Greek verb. In 1 Peter 2:5 Peter speaks of “the spiritual house” throughout the five Roman provinces being “built up” (cf. Matthew 16:18). In the comfort of the Holy Spirit Either locative (in) or instrumental case (by). The Holy Spirit had been promised by Jesus as “another Paraclete” and now this is shown to be true. The only instance in Acts of the use of paraklēsis with the Holy Spirit. The word, of course, means calling to one‘s side Imperfect middle passive. The multiplication of the disciples kept pace with the peace, the edification, the walking in the fear of the Lord, the comfort of the Holy Spirit. The blood of the martyrs was already becoming the seed of the church. Stephen had not borne his witness in vain. [source]
1 Corinthians 11:18 In the church [ἐν ἐκκλησίᾳ]
See on Matthew 16:18. Not the church edifice, a meaning which the word never has in the New Testament, and which appears first in patristic writings. The marginal rendering of the Rev. is better: in congregation. [source]
1 Corinthians 12:28 In the church [en tēi ekklēsiāi)]
The general sense of αποστολους — ekklēsia as in Matthew 16:18 and later in Colossians 1:18, Colossians 1:24; Ephesians 5:23, Ephesians 5:32; Hebrews 12:23. See list also in Ephesians 4:11. See note on Matthew 10:2 for προπητας — apostolous the official title given the twelve by Jesus, and claimed by Paul though not one of the twelve. Prophets (διδασκαλους — prophētas). For-speakers for God and Christ. See the list of prophets and teachers in Acts 13:1 with Barnabas first and Saul last. Prophets are needed today if men will let God‘s Spirit use them, men moved to utter the deep things of God. Teachers Old word from αποστολος — didaskō to teach. Used to the Baptist (Luke 3:12), to Jesus (John 3:10; John 13:13), and of Paul by himself along with επειτα δυναμεις — apostolos (1 Timothy 2:7). It is a calamity when the preacher is no longer a teacher, but only an exhorter. See note on Ephesians 4:11. Then miracles (δυναμεισ ιαμητων γλωσσων — epeita dunameis). Here a change is made from the concrete to the abstract. See the reverse in Romans 12:7. See these words (γλωσσων — dunameisαντιλημπσεις — iamētōnαντιλαμβανομαι — glōssōn) in 1 Corinthians 12:9, 1 Corinthians 12:10 with κυβερνησεις — glōssōn last again. But these two new terms (helps, governments). Helps Old word, from Κυβερνητης — antilambanomai to lay hold of. In lxx, common in papyri, here only in N.T. Probably refers to the work of the deacons, help rendered to the poor and the sick. Governments (επισχοποι — kubernēseis). Old word from πρεσβυτεροι — kubernaō (cf. οι προισταμενοι — Kubernētēs in Acts 27:11) like Latin gubernare, our govern. So a governing. Probably Paul has in mind bishops (οι ηγουμενοι — episcopoi) or elders (presbuteroi), the outstanding leaders (hoi proistamenoi in 1 Thessalonians 5:12; Romans 12:8; hoi hēgoumenoi in Acts 15:22; Hebrews 13:7, Hebrews 13:17, Hebrews 13:24). Curiously enough, these two offices (pastors and deacons) which are not named specifically are the two that survive today. See note on Philemon 1:1 for both officers. [source]
Galatians 1:18 To see [ἱστορῆσαι]
N.T.o1. To inquire into: 2. to find out by inquiring: 3. to gain knowledge by visiting; to become personally acquainted with. In lxx, only Matthew href="/desk/?q=mt+16:18&sr=1">Matthew 16:18; see on John 1:42; see on 1 Corinthians 1:12. [source]
Ephesians 1:22 The Church [τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ]
See on Matthew 16:18. [source]
1 Timothy 3:15 The pillar and ground of the truth [στυλος και εδραιωμα της αλητειας]
Paul changes the metaphor again as he often does. Those words are in apposition to εκκλησια — ekklēsia and οικος — oikos On στυλος — stulos old word for pillar, see note on Galatians 2:9; Revelation 3:12 (only other N.T. examples). εδραιωμα — Hedraiōma late and rare word (from εδραιοω — hedraioō to make stable) occurs here first and only in ecclesiastical writers later. Probably it means stay or support rather than foundation or ground. See 1 Corinthians 1:23; 2 Timothy 2:19 for similar idea. See also Matthew 16:18. [source]
1 Timothy 3:15 That thou mayest know [ινα ειδηις]
Final clause with ινα — hina and second perfect active subjunctive of οιδα — oida to know. How men ought (πως δει — pōs dei). “How it is necessary for thee” (supply σε — se more naturally than τινα — tina any one). Indirect question. To behave themselves Present middle (direct) infinitive of αναστρεπω — anastrephō old verb, to turn up and down. See note on 2 Corinthians 1:12; Ephesians 2:3. In the house of God (εν οικωι τεου — en oikōi theou). Probably here “household of God,” that is “the family of God” rather than “the house (or temple) of God.” Christians as yet had no separate houses of worship and οικος — oikos commonly means “household.” Christians are the ναος — naos (sanctuary) of God (1 Corinthians 3:16.; 2 Corinthians 6:16), and Paul calls them οικειοι του τεου — oikeioi tou theou (Ephesians 2:19) “members of God‘s family.” It is conduct as members of God‘s family (οικος — oikos) that Paul has in mind. Which “Which very house of God,” agreeing (feminine) with the predicate word εκκλησια — ekklēsia (church). The church of the living God (εκκλησια τεου ζωντος — ekklēsia theou zōntos). Probably here the general church or kingdom as in Colossians and Ephesians, though the local church in 1 Timothy 3:5. The pillar and ground of the truth Paul changes the metaphor again as he often does. Those words are in apposition to εκκλησια — ekklēsia and οικος — oikos On στυλος — stulos old word for pillar, see note on Galatians 2:9; Revelation 3:12 (only other N.T. examples). εδραιωμα — Hedraiōma late and rare word (from εδραιοω — hedraioō to make stable) occurs here first and only in ecclesiastical writers later. Probably it means stay or support rather than foundation or ground. See 1 Corinthians 1:23; 2 Timothy 2:19 for similar idea. See also Matthew 16:18. [source]
1 Timothy 3:15 To behave themselves [αναστρεπεσται]
Present middle (direct) infinitive of αναστρεπω — anastrephō old verb, to turn up and down. See note on 2 Corinthians 1:12; Ephesians 2:3. In the house of God (εν οικωι τεου — en oikōi theou). Probably here “household of God,” that is “the family of God” rather than “the house (or temple) of God.” Christians as yet had no separate houses of worship and οικος — oikos commonly means “household.” Christians are the ναος — naos (sanctuary) of God (1 Corinthians 3:16.; 2 Corinthians 6:16), and Paul calls them οικειοι του τεου — oikeioi tou theou (Ephesians 2:19) “members of God‘s family.” It is conduct as members of God‘s family (οικος — oikos) that Paul has in mind. Which “Which very house of God,” agreeing (feminine) with the predicate word εκκλησια — ekklēsia (church). The church of the living God (εκκλησια τεου ζωντος — ekklēsia theou zōntos). Probably here the general church or kingdom as in Colossians and Ephesians, though the local church in 1 Timothy 3:5. The pillar and ground of the truth Paul changes the metaphor again as he often does. Those words are in apposition to εκκλησια — ekklēsia and οικος — oikos On στυλος — stulos old word for pillar, see note on Galatians 2:9; Revelation 3:12 (only other N.T. examples). εδραιωμα — Hedraiōma late and rare word (from εδραιοω — hedraioō to make stable) occurs here first and only in ecclesiastical writers later. Probably it means stay or support rather than foundation or ground. See 1 Corinthians 1:23; 2 Timothy 2:19 for similar idea. See also Matthew 16:18. [source]
1 Timothy 3:15 Which [ητις]
“Which very house of God,” agreeing (feminine) with the predicate word εκκλησια — ekklēsia (church). The church of the living God (εκκλησια τεου ζωντος — ekklēsia theou zōntos). Probably here the general church or kingdom as in Colossians and Ephesians, though the local church in 1 Timothy 3:5. The pillar and ground of the truth Paul changes the metaphor again as he often does. Those words are in apposition to εκκλησια — ekklēsia and οικος — oikos On στυλος — stulos old word for pillar, see note on Galatians 2:9; Revelation 3:12 (only other N.T. examples). εδραιωμα — Hedraiōma late and rare word (from εδραιοω — hedraioō to make stable) occurs here first and only in ecclesiastical writers later. Probably it means stay or support rather than foundation or ground. See 1 Corinthians 1:23; 2 Timothy 2:19 for similar idea. See also Matthew 16:18. [source]
Philemon 1:11 Unprofitable [ἄχρηστον]
A play on the word Onesimus profitable. Compare unprofitable ( ἀχρεῖος ) servant, Matthew 25:30. These plays upon proper names are common both in Greek and Roman literature. Thus Aeschylus on the name of Helen of Troy, the play or pun turning on the root ἑλ , hel destroy: Helene helenaus helandras heleptolisHelen, ship-destroyer, man-destroyer, city-destroyer (“Agamemnon,” 671). Or, as Robert Browning: “Helen, ship's-hell, man's-hell, city's-hell.” So on Prometheus (forethought ): “Falsely do the gods call thee Prometheus, for thou thyself hast need of prometheus i.e., of forethought ” (“Prometheus Bound,” 85,86). Or Sophocles on Ajax. Aias (Ajax) cries ai, ai! and says, “Who would have thought that my name would thus be the appropriate expression for my woes?” (“Ajax,” 430). In the New Testament, a familiar example is Matthew 16:18; “thou art Petros and on this petra will I build my church.” See on Epaenetus, 2 Corinthians 8:18.Now profitable“Christianity knows nothing of hopeless cases. It professes its ability to take the most crooked stick and bring it straight, to flash a new power into the blackest carbon, which will turn it into a diamond” (Maclaren, “Philemon,” in “Expositor's Bible”).And to meThe words are ingeniously thrown in as an afterthought. Compare Philemon 2:27; Romans 16:13; 1 Corinthians 16:18. A strong appeal to Philemon lies in the fact that Paul is to reap benefit from Onesimus in his new attitude as a christian brother. [source]
Hebrews 12:23 And church of the first-born which are written in heaven [καὶ ἐκκλησίᾳ πρωτοτόκων ἀπογεγραμμένων ἐν οὐρανοῖς]
This forms a distinct clause; “and to the church,” etc. For ἐκκλησία assemblyor church, see on Matthew 16:18; see on 1 Thessalonians 1:1. The “myriads” embrace not only angels, but redeemed men, enrolled as citizens of the heavenly commonwealth, and entitled to the rights and privileges of first-born sons. Πρωτότοκος first-bornis applied mostly to Christ in N.T. See Romans 8:29; Colossians 1:15, Colossians 1:18; Hebrews 1:6; Revelation 1:5. Comp. Hebrews 11:28, and Luke 2:7. Properly applied to Christians by virtue of their union with Christ, “the first-born of all creation,” “the first-born from the dead,” as sharing his sonship and heirship. See Romans 8:14-17, Romans 8:29. The word also points to Christians as the true Israel of God. The analogy is suggested with the first-born of Israel, to whom peculiar sanctity attached, and whose consecration to himself God enjoined (Exodus 13:1, Exodus 13:11-16); and with the further application of the term first-born to Israel as a people, Exodus 4:22. The way was thus prepared for its application to the Messiah. There seems, moreover, to be a clear reference to the case of Esau (Hebrews 12:16). Esau was the first-born of the twin sons of Isaac (Genesis 25:25). He sold his birthright ( πρωτοτοκία ), and thus forfeited the privilege of the first-born. The assembly to which Christian believers are introduced is composed of those who have not thus parted with their birthright, but have retained the privileges of the first-born. The phrase “church of the first-born” includes all who have possessed and retained their heavenly birthright, living or dead, of both dispensations: the whole Israel of God, although it is quite likely that the Christian church may have been most prominent in the writer's thought. [source]
Hebrews 2:12 Unto my brethren [τοις αδελποις μου]
To prove his point the writer quotes Psalm 22:22 when the Messiah is presented as speaking “unto my brethren.” Congregation The word came to mean the local church and also the general church or kingdom (Matthew 16:18; Hebrews 12:23). Here we have the picture of public worship and the Messiah sharing it with others as we know Jesus often did. [source]
Hebrews 12:23 To the general assembly [πανηγυρει]
Old word (from πας — pas and αγυρισ αγειρω — aguris class="normal greek">Πανηγυριζω — ageirō). Here only in N.T. αγγελων — Panēgurizō occurs in Isaiah 66:10 for keeping a festal holiday. Possibly to be connected with εκκλησιαι πρωτοτοκων — aggelōn though not certain. Church of the firstborn (εκκλησια — ekklēsiāi prōtotokōn). Probably an additional item besides the angelic host as the people of Israel are called firstborn (Exodus 4:22). The word απογεγραμμενων εν ουρανοις — ekklēsia here has the general sense of all the redeemed, as in Matthew 16:18; Colossians 1:18; Ephesians 5:24-32, and equivalent to the kingdom of God. Who are enrolled in heaven (απογραπω — apogegrammenōn en ouranois). Perfect passive participle of κριτηι τεωι παντων — apographō old verb to write off, to copy, to enroll as in Luke 2:1, Luke 2:3, Luke 2:5 (only N.T. examples). Enrolled as citizens of heaven even while on earth (Luke 10:20; Philemon 1:27; Philemon 3:20; Philemon 4:3; Revelation 13:8, etc.). To God the Judge of all (τετελειωμενων — kritēi theōi pantōn). All these chief substantives in the dative case. People should not forget that God is the Judge of all men. Made perfect (τελειοω — teteleiōmenōn). Perfect passive participle of teleioō perfected at last (Hebrews 11:40). [source]
1 Peter 1:1 Peter [Πέτρος]
See on Matthew 16:18. As Paul in his letters does not call himself by his original name of Saul, so Peter calls himself, not Simon, but Peter, the name most significant and precious both to himself and to his readers, because bestowed by his Lord. In the opening of the second epistle he uses both names. [source]
1 Peter 1:1 Peter [Πετρος]
Greek form for the Aramaic (Chaldaic) Χηπας — Cēphās the nickname given Simon by Jesus when he first saw him (John 1:42) and reaffirmed in the Greek form on his great confession (Matthew 16:18), with an allusion to πετρα — petra another form for a rock, ledge, or cliff. In 2 Peter 1:1 we have both Σιμων — Simōn and Πετρος — Petros Paul in his Epistles always terms himself Paul, not Saul. So Peter uses this name, not Cephas or Simon, because he is writing to Christians scattered over Asia Minor. The nominative absolute occurs here as in James 1:1, but without χαιρειν — chairein as there, the usual form of greeting in letters (Acts 23:26) so common in the papyri. [source]
1 Peter 2:5 Are built up a spiritual house [οικοδομειστε οικος πνευματικος]
Present passive indicative second person plural of οικοδομεω — oikodomeō the very verb used by Jesus to Peter in Matthew 16:18 This “spiritual house” includes believers in the five Roman provinces of 1 Peter 1:1 and shows clearly how Peter understood the metaphor of Christ in Matthew 16:18 to be not a local church, but the church general (the kingdom of Christ).To be a holy priesthood (εις ιερατευμα αγιον — eis hierateuma hagion). Late word (from ιερατευω — hierateuō to serve as priest, Luke 1:8 alone in N.T.), in lxx (Exodus 19:6), in N.T. only here and 1 Peter 2:9, either the office of priest (Hort) or an order or body of priests. At any rate, Peter has the same idea of Revelation 1:6 (ιερεις — hiereis priests) that all believers are priests (Hebrews 4:16) and can approach God directly.To offer up First aorist active infinitive (of purpose here) of αναπερω — anapherō the usual word for offering sacrifices (Hebrews 7:27). Only these are “spiritual” Late (Plutarch) double compound verbal adjective (ευ προσ δεχομαι — euprosdechomai) as in 2 Corinthians 6:2. [source]
3 John 1:6 The Church [ἐκκλησίας]
See on Matthew 16:18. [source]
Revelation 6:8 Hell []
Properly, Hades. The realm of the dead personified. See on Matthew 16:18. [source]
Revelation 6:15 Rocks [πέτρας]
See on Matthew 16:18. [source]
Revelation 20:13 Hell [ὁ ᾅδης]
Rev., Hades. See on Matthew 16:18. [source]
Revelation 1:18 The keys of Hell and Death []
Rev., correctly, of Death and of Hades. Conceived as a prison-house or a walled city. See on Matthew 16:18. The keys are the symbol of authority. See Matthew 16:19; Revelation 3:7; Revelation 9:1; Revelation 20:1. The Rabbinical proverb said: “There are four keys lodged in God's hand, which He committeth neither to angel nor to seraph: the key of the rain, the key of food, the key of the tombs, and the key of a barren woman.” [source]
Revelation 1:18 The keys [τας κλεις]
One of the forms for the accusative plural along with κλειδας — kleidas the usual one (Matthew 16:19).Of death and of Hades (του τανατου και του αιδου — tou thanatou kai tou hāidou). Conceived as in Matthew 16:18 as a prison house or walled city. The keys are the symbol of authority, as we speak of honouring one by giving him the keys of the city. Hades here means the unseen world to which death is the portal. Jesus has the keys because of his victory over death. See this same graphic picture in Revelation 6:8; Revelation 20:13. For the key of David see Revelation 3:7, for the key of the abyss see Revelation 9:1; Revelation 20:1. [source]
Revelation 1:18 Of death and of Hades [του τανατου και του αιδου]
Conceived as in Matthew 16:18 as a prison house or walled city. The keys are the symbol of authority, as we speak of honouring one by giving him the keys of the city. Hades here means the unseen world to which death is the portal. Jesus has the keys because of his victory over death. See this same graphic picture in Revelation 6:8; Revelation 20:13. For the key of David see Revelation 3:7, for the key of the abyss see Revelation 9:1; Revelation 20:1. [source]
Revelation 21:14 Names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb [ονοματα των δωδεκα αποστολων του αρνιου]
Jesus had spoken of twelve thrones for the apostles (Matthew 19:28); names of all twelve are here written, not just that of Peter, as some would argue from Matthew 16:18. As a matter of fact, Christ is the corner stone or ακρογωνιαιον — akrogōniaion (1 Peter 2:6; 1 Corinthians 3:10; Ephesians 2:20), though rejected by the Sanhedrin (Matthew 21:42.). One may wonder if the name of Judas is on that stone or that of Matthias. [source]
Revelation 1:18 I am alive [ζων ειμι]
Periphrastic present active indicative, “I am living,” as the words ο ζων — ho zōn just used mean.Forevermore (εις τους αιωνας των αιωνων — eis tous aiōnas tōn aiōnōn). “Unto the ages of the ages,” a stronger expression of eternity even than in Revelation 1:6.The keys One of the forms for the accusative plural along with κλειδας — kleidas the usual one (Matthew 16:19).Of death and of Hades (του τανατου και του αιδου — tou thanatou kai tou hāidou). Conceived as in Matthew 16:18 as a prison house or walled city. The keys are the symbol of authority, as we speak of honouring one by giving him the keys of the city. Hades here means the unseen world to which death is the portal. Jesus has the keys because of his victory over death. See this same graphic picture in Revelation 6:8; Revelation 20:13. For the key of David see Revelation 3:7, for the key of the abyss see Revelation 9:1; Revelation 20:1. [source]
Revelation 20:13 Death and Hades [ο τανατος και ο αιδης]
“An inseparable pair” (Swete) as in Revelation 1:18; Revelation 6:8; Revelation 20:14. So in Matthew 16:18 “the gates of Hades” means the power of death. Etymologically Hades is the unseen world where all who die are as opposed to this visible world, but in actual use Hades is sometimes treated as the abode of the unrighteous (Luke 16:23). Charles thinks that this is true here, though there is nothing to show it apart from the personification of death and Hades and the casting of both into the lake of fire in Revelation 20:14. Here again “each man” (εκαστος — hekastos) receives judgment according to his deeds (Matthew 16:27; 1 Corinthians 3:13; 2 Corinthians 5:10; Romans 2:6; Romans 14:12; 1 Peter 1:17; Revelation 2:23). [source]
Revelation 21:14 Twelve foundations [τεμελιους δωδεκα]
Foundation stones, old adjective (from τεμα — thema from τιτημι — tithēmi), here as in 1 Corinthians 3:11.; 2 Timothy 2:19, with λιτους — lithous (stones understood), though often neuter substantive to τεμελιον — themelion (Luke 6:48.; Acts 16:26). See Isaiah 28:16; Hebrews 11:10. Twelve because of the twelve apostles as foundation stones (Ephesians 2:20).On them (επ αυτων — ep' autōn). On the twelve foundation stones.Names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb Jesus had spoken of twelve thrones for the apostles (Matthew 19:28); names of all twelve are here written, not just that of Peter, as some would argue from Matthew 16:18. As a matter of fact, Christ is the corner stone or ακρογωνιαιον — akrogōniaion (1 Peter 2:6; 1 Corinthians 3:10; Ephesians 2:20), though rejected by the Sanhedrin (Matthew 21:42.). One may wonder if the name of Judas is on that stone or that of Matthias. [source]

What do the individual words in Matthew 16:18 mean?

I also now to you say that you are Peter and on this the rock I will build My - church [the] gates of hades not will prevail against it
κἀγὼ δέ σοι λέγω ὅτι σὺ εἶ Πέτρος καὶ ἐπὶ ταύτῃ τῇ πέτρᾳ οἰκοδομήσω μου τὴν ἐκκλησίαν πύλαι ᾅδου οὐ κατισχύσουσιν αὐτῆς

κἀγὼ  I  also 
Parse: Personal / Possessive Pronoun, Nominative 1st Person Singular
Root: κἀγώ  
Sense: and I.
δέ  now 
Parse: Conjunction
Root: δέ  
Sense: but, moreover, and, etc.
σοι  to  you 
Parse: Personal / Possessive Pronoun, Dative 2nd Person Singular
Root: σύ  
Sense: you.
λέγω  say 
Parse: Verb, Present Indicative Active, 1st Person Singular
Root: λέγω 
Sense: to say, to speak.
ὅτι  that 
Parse: Conjunction
Root: ὅτι  
Sense: that, because, since.
Πέτρος  Peter 
Parse: Noun, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root: Πέτρος  
Sense: one of the twelve disciples of Jesus.
ταύτῃ  this 
Parse: Demonstrative Pronoun, Dative Feminine Singular
Root: οὗτος  
Sense: this.
πέτρᾳ  rock 
Parse: Noun, Dative Feminine Singular
Root: πέτρα  
Sense: a rock, cliff or ledge.
οἰκοδομήσω  I  will  build 
Parse: Verb, Future Indicative Active, 1st Person Singular
Root: οἰκοδομέω 
Sense: to build a house, erect a building.
μου  My 
Parse: Personal / Possessive Pronoun, Genitive 1st Person Singular
Root: ἐγώ  
Sense: I, me, my.
τὴν  - 
Parse: Article, Accusative Feminine Singular
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
ἐκκλησίαν  church 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Feminine Singular
Root: ἐκκλησία  
Sense: a gathering of citizens called out from their homes into some public place, an assembly.
πύλαι  [the]  gates 
Parse: Noun, Nominative Feminine Plural
Root: πύλη  
Sense: a gate.
ᾅδου  of  hades 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Masculine Singular
Root: ᾅδης  
Sense: name Hades or Pluto, the god of the lower regions.
κατισχύσουσιν  will  prevail  against 
Parse: Verb, Future Indicative Active, 3rd Person Plural
Root: κατισχύω  
Sense: to be strong to another’s detriment, to prevail against.