The Meaning of Revelation 18:2 Explained

Revelation 18:2

KJV: And he cried mightily with a strong voice, saying, Babylon the great is fallen, is fallen, and is become the habitation of devils, and the hold of every foul spirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird.

YLT: and he did cry in might -- a great voice, saying, 'Fall, fall did Babylon the great, and she became a habitation of demons, and a hold of every unclean spirit, and a hold of every unclean and hateful bird,

Darby: And he cried with a strong voice, saying, Great Babylon has fallen, has fallen, and has become the habitation of demons, and a hold of every unclean spirit, and a hold of every unclean and hated bird;

ASV: And he cried with a mighty voice, saying, Fallen, fallen is Babylon the great, and is become a habitation of demons, and a hold of every unclean spirit, and a hold of every unclean and hateful bird.

What does Revelation 18:2 Mean?

Study Notes

Babylon
Babylon, "confusion," is repeatedly used by the prophets in a symbolic sense , note 2. Two "Babylons" are to be distinguished in the Revelation: ecclesiastical babylon, which is apostate Christendom, headed up under the Papacy; and political babylon, which is the Beast's confederated empire, the last form of Gentile world-dominion. Ecclesiastical Babylon is "the great whore" Revelation 17:1 and is destroyed by political Babylon Revelation 17:15-18 that the beast may be the alone object of worship.; 2 Thessalonians 2:3 ; 2 Thessalonians 2:4 ; Revelation 13:15 . The power of political Babylon is destroyed by the return of the Lord in glory. (See "Armageddon,"); Revelation 16:14 ; Revelation 19:17 . The notion of a literal Babylon to be rebuilt on the site of ancient Babylon is in conflict with Isaiah 13:19-22 . But the language of Revelation 18:10 ; Revelation 18:16 ; Revelation 18:18 seems beyond question to identify "Babylon," the "city" of luxury and traffic, with "Babylon" the ecclesiastical centre, viz. Rome. The very kings who hate ecclesiastical Babylon deplore the destruction of commercial Babylon.

Verse Meaning

The repetition of the word "Fallen" (cf. Revelation 14:8; Isaiah 21:9; Jeremiah 51:8) probably indicates that God guaranteed this judgment and that it will happen quickly ( Genesis 41:32; cf. 2 Peter 3:8). This is another proleptic announcement in which the angel described a future action as already having happened. The prophetic aorist tense of the Greek verb makes this clear.
"It is the prophetic way of declaring that the great purpose of God in triumphing over evil is a fait accompli." [1]
The description of Babylon in this verse is what it will be after God judges it (cf. Isaiah 13:21; Isaiah 34:11; Isaiah 34:14; Isaiah 47:7-9; Jeremiah 50-51; Ezekiel 26-28; Nahum 3; Zephaniah 2:15). Ancient Babylon fell to Cyrus the Persian in539 B.C, but that fall did not fulfill Old Testament prophecies about Babylon completely (cf. Isaiah 47:11; Jeremiah 51:8). [2] John had described God only through hymns of worship to this point, and he now similarly described the fall of Babylon through the laments of onlookers. [3]
"The prophecy thus indicates that before the advent of the warrior-king in Revelation 19:11-16, Babylon will rise to its greatest heights, not only of idolatry (chap17), but also of luxury (chap18).... Babylon of the future, therefore, will be the center for both false religion and world economic prosperity." [4]
Apparently it is the city that will be the prison of demons, a place where they are safe but kept against their wills (cf. Isaiah 13:21-22; Isaiah 34:11-17; Jeremiah 51:37). A prison (or haunt) for unclean birds is a figure of desolation (cf. Isaiah 34:11; Isaiah 34:13; Jeremiah 50:39). Babylon will become utterly desolate.

Context Summary

Revelation 18:1-13 - "her Sins Have Reached Unto Heaven"
We have seen that the scarlet woman represents the false religion of human wit and fashion. It is found in every age. There is not a city, town, or village where it does not seek to allure men from Christ. The mischief is that so many really godly people are misled by it. In this they resemble Obadiah, who hid the prophets in a cave and fed them but was hand and glove with Ahab. To all such, who are endeavoring to keep in touch with the true Bride and with the apostate Church, the summons of Revelation 18:4 has a very profound significance.
It was the unanimous verdict of the reformers that the great city here described, Revelation 18:10, was intended to represent Rome, as the seat of the great apostasy. If that be the case, the merchandise described here does not refer to literal commerce, but to the carnal delights which are often permitted and fostered by false religious systems to win the adhesion of the worldly and unclean. [source]

Chapter Summary: Revelation 18

1  Babylon is fallen
4  People commanded to depart out of her
9  The kings of the earth, with the merchants and mariners, lament over her
20  The saints rejoice for the judgments of God upon her

Greek Commentary for Revelation 18:2

Fallen, fallen is Babylon the great [επεσεν επεσεν αβυλων η μεγαλη]
The very words of Revelation 14:8: “Did fall, did fall Babylon the great.” Prophetic aorists of εγενετο — piptō repeated like a solemn dirge of the damned. [source]
Is become [κατοικητηριον]
Prophetic aorist middle.A habitation of devils (κατοικεω — katoikētērion). Late word (from πυλακη παντος πνευματος ακαταρτου — katoikeō to dwell), in N.T. only here and Ephesians 2:22. Devils should be demons, of course. So Isaiah prophesied of Babylon (Isaiah 13:21-22) and also Jeremiah (Jeremiah 50:39) and Zephaniah of Nineveh (Zephaniah 2:14). Both Babylon and Nineveh are ruins.A hold of every unclean spirit πυλακη παντος ορνεου ακαταρτου και μεμισημενου — Phulakē is garrison or watch-tower as in Habakkuk 2:1, rather than a prison (Revelation 20:7).A hold of every unclean and hateful bird (Ορνεου — phulakē pantos orneou akathartou kai memisēmenou). Orneou is old word for bird, in N.T. only Revelation 18:2; Revelation 19:17, Revelation 19:21. “The evil spirits, watching over fallen Rome like night-birds or harpies that wait for their prey, build their eyries in the broken towers which rise from the ashes of the city” (Swete). Long ago true of Babylon and Nineveh, some day to be true of Rome. [source]
A habitation of devils [κατοικεω]
Late word (from πυλακη παντος πνευματος ακαταρτου — katoikeō to dwell), in N.T. only here and Ephesians 2:22. Devils should be demons, of course. So Isaiah prophesied of Babylon (Isaiah 13:21-22) and also Jeremiah (Jeremiah 50:39) and Zephaniah of Nineveh (Zephaniah 2:14). Both Babylon and Nineveh are ruins. [source]
A hold of every unclean spirit [Πυλακη]
πυλακη παντος ορνεου ακαταρτου και μεμισημενου — Phulakē is garrison or watch-tower as in Habakkuk 2:1, rather than a prison (Revelation 20:7).A hold of every unclean and hateful bird (Ορνεου — phulakē pantos orneou akathartou kai memisēmenou). Orneou is old word for bird, in N.T. only Revelation 18:2; Revelation 19:17, Revelation 19:21. “The evil spirits, watching over fallen Rome like night-birds or harpies that wait for their prey, build their eyries in the broken towers which rise from the ashes of the city” (Swete). Long ago true of Babylon and Nineveh, some day to be true of Rome. [source]
A hold of every unclean and hateful bird [Ορνεου]
Orneou is old word for bird, in N.T. only Revelation 18:2; Revelation 19:17, Revelation 19:21. “The evil spirits, watching over fallen Rome like night-birds or harpies that wait for their prey, build their eyries in the broken towers which rise from the ashes of the city” (Swete). Long ago true of Babylon and Nineveh, some day to be true of Rome. [source]
Mightily with a strong voice [ἐν ἰσχύΐ́ φωνῇ μεγὰλῃ]
Lit., in strength with a great voice. Omit μεγάλῃ greatand read ἰσχυρᾷ φωνῇ witha mighty voice. So Rev. [source]
Babylon - is fallen []
The Rev. improves on the A.V. by placing fallen in the emphatic position of the Greek: “Fallen, fallen is Babylon.” Compare Isaiah 21:9. [source]
Is become [ἐγένετο]
Lit., became. [source]
Devils [δαιμόνων]
Properly, demons, which Rev., strangely commits to the margin. See on Mark 1:34. See Isaiah 13:20-22; Isaiah 34:13-15. Also on Luke 11:24. [source]
Hold [φυλακὴ]
See on 1 Peter 3:19, and see on Acts 5:21. Rev., in margin, prison. [source]
Cage [φυλακὴ]
The word rendered above hold. Rev., hold. Some, however, explain it, not as a cage where they are kept, but as a place of safety to which they resort. [source]
Bird [ὀρνέου]
Only in Revelation, here, Revelation 19:17, Revelation 19:21. Compare Jeremiah 50:39. [source]

Reverse Greek Commentary Search for Revelation 18:2

Mark 6:21 Lords [μεγιστᾶσιν]
Only here, and Revelation 6:15; Revelation 18:23. A late word, from μέγας , great. [source]
Mark 6:21 Made a supper [deipnon epoiēsen)]
Banquet.To his lords (γενεσιοις — tois megistāsin autou). From δειπνον εποιησεν — megistan (that from τοις μεγιστασιν αυτου — megas great), common in the lxx and later Greek. Cf. Revelation 6:15; Revelation 18:23. In the papyri. The grandees, magnates, nobles, the chief men of civil life.The high captains Military tribunes, commanders of a thousand men.The chief men of Galilee (μεγας — tois prōtois tēs Galilaias). The first men of social importance and prominence. A notable gathering that included these three groups at the banquet on Herod‘s birthday. [source]
Mark 6:21 To his lords [γενεσιοις]
From δειπνον εποιησεν — megistan (that from τοις μεγιστασιν αυτου — megas great), common in the lxx and later Greek. Cf. Revelation 6:15; Revelation 18:23. In the papyri. The grandees, magnates, nobles, the chief men of civil life. [source]
Luke 9:58 Birds [πετεινὰ]
Strictly, flying fowl. The common word for bird in the New Testament. Ὄρνις , occurs Matthew 23:37; Luke 13:34; but both times in the sense of hen. See on Matthew 23:37. Ὄρνεον is found in Revelation 18:2; Revelation 19:17, Revelation 19:21; and πτηνόν , another form for the word in this passage, occurs 1 Corinthians 15:30. [source]
Galatians 5:20 Witchcraft [φαρμακία]
Or sorcery. Elsewhere only Revelation 18:23. From φάρμακον adrug. In lxx, see Exodus 7:11; Wisd. 12:4; Isaiah 47:9. Comp. Acts 19:19, περίεργα curiousarts, note. [source]
Galatians 5:19 Manifest [πανερα]
Opposed to “hidden” Ancient writers were fond of lists of vices and virtues. Cf. Stalker‘s sermons on The Seven Cardinal Virtues and The Seven Deadly Sins. There are more than seven in this deadly list in Galatians 5:19-21. He makes the two lists in explanation of the conflict in Galatians 5:17 to emphasize the command in Galatians 5:13. There are four groups in Paul‘s list of manifest vices:(1)Sensual sins like fornication (πορνεια — porneia prostitution, harlotry), uncleanness (ακαταρσια — akatharsia moral impurity), lasciviousness (ασελγεια — aselgeia wantonness), sexual vice of all kinds prevailed in heathenism.(2)Idolatry (ειδωλατρεια — eidōlatreia worship of idols) and witchcraft (παρμακεια — pharmakeia from παρμακον — pharmakon a drug, the ministering of drugs), but the sorcerers monopolized the word for a while in their magical arts and used it in connection with idolatry. In N.T. only here and Revelation 18:23. See note on Acts 19:19 περιεργα — perierga curious arts. [source]
Ephesians 2:22 Habitation [κατοικητήριον]
Answering to temple. Only here and Revelation 18:2. Indicating a permanent dwelling. See on dwell, Luke 11:26; see on Acts 2:5; see on Mark 5:3. In marked contrast with sojourners, Ephesians 2:19. [source]
Ephesians 2:22 For a habitation [εις κατοικητηριον]
Late word (lxx), in N.T. only here and Revelation 18:2. From κατοικεω — katoikeō to dwell, as Ephesians 3:17. Possibly each of us is meant here to be the “habitation of God in the Spirit” and all together growing (αυχει — auxei) “into a holy temple in the Lord,” a noble conception of the brotherhood in Christ. [source]
Philippians 2:15 Ye shine [φαίνεσθε]
Rev., more correctly, ye are seen. Compare Matthew 24:27; Revelation 18:23, A.V., where the same error occurs. Shine would require the verb in the active voice, as John 1:5; John 5:35. [source]
Hebrews 11:10 Builder and maker [τεχνίτης καὶ δημιουργὸς]
Τεχνίτης artificerarchitect. Comp. Acts 19:24(note), Acts 19:28; Revelation 18:22, and lxx, 1 Chronicles 29:5; Song of Solomon 7:1; Wisd. 8:6; 14:2; Sirach 9:17 Δημιουργὸς N.T.ooriginally a workman for the public ( δῆμος ); generally, framer, builder. It is used by Xenophon and Plato of the maker of the world (Xen. Mem. i. 4,9; Plato, Tim. 40 C; Repub. 530 A). It was appropriated by the Neo Platonists as the designation of God. To the Gnostics, the Demiurge was a limited, secondary God, who created the world; since there was no possibility of direct contact between the supreme, incommunicable God and the visible world. [source]
1 Peter 3:19 In prison [ἐν φυλακῇ]
Authorities differ, some explaining by 2 Peter 2:4; Judges 1:6; Revelation 20:7, as the final abode of the lost. Excepting in the last passage, the word occurs nowhere else in the New Testament in a metaphorical sense. It is often translated watch (Matthew 14:25; Luke 2:8); hold and cage (Revelation 18:2). Others explain as Hades, the kingdom of the dead generally. [source]
1 Peter 5:13 Babylon []
Some understand in a figurative sense, as meaning Rome; others, literally, of Babylon on the Euphrates. In favor of the former view are the drift of ancient opinion and the Roman Catholic interpreters, with Luther and several noted modern expositors, as Ewald and Hoffmann. This, too, is the view of Canon Cook in the “Speaker's Commentary.” In favor of the literal interpretation are the weighty names of Alford, Huther, Calvin, Neander, Weiss, and Reuss. Professor Salmond, in his admirable commentary on this epistle, has so forcibly summed up the testimony that we cannot do better than to give his comment entire: “In favor of this allegorical interpretation it is urged that there are other occurrences of Babylon in the New Testament as a mystical name for Rome (Revelation 14:8; Revelation 18:2, Revelation 18:10); that it is in the highest degree unlikely that Peter should have made the Assyrian Babylon his residence or missionary centre, especially in view of a statement by Josephus indicating that the Emperor Claudius had expelled the Jews from that city and neighborhood; and that tradition connects Peter with Rome, but not with Babylon. The fact, however, that the word is mystically used in a mystical book like the Apocalypse - a book, too, which is steeped in the spirit and terminology of the Old Testament - is no argument for the mystical use of the word in writings of a different type. The allegorical interpretation becomes still less likely when it is observed that other geographical designations in this epistle (1 Peter 1:1) have undoubtedly the literal meaning. The tradition itself, too, is uncertain. The statement in Josephus does not bear all that it is made to bear. There is no reason to suppose that, at the time when this epistle was written, the city of Rome was currently known among Christians as Babylon. On the contrary, wherever it is mentioned in the New Testament, with the single exception of the Apocalypse (and even there it is distinguished as 'Babylon, the great ')it gets its usual name, Rome. So far, too, from the Assyrian Babylon being practically in a deserted state at this date, there is very good ground for believing that the Jewish population (not to speak of the heathen) of the city and vicinity was very considerable. For these and other reasons a succession of distinguished interpreters and historians, from Erasmus and Calvin, on to Neander, Weiss, Reuss, Huther, etc., have rightly held by the literal sense.” [source]
Revelation 9:21 Sorceries [φαρμακειῶν]
Only here, Revelation 18:23; and Galatians 5:20, where φαρμακεία sorceriesA.V., witchcraft is enumerated among the “works of the flesh.” Used in the Septuagint of the Egyptian sorceries (Exodus 7:22. Of Babylon, Isaiah 47:9, Isaiah 47:12). From φάρμακον adrug, and thence a poison, an enchantment. Plato says: “There are two kinds of poisons used among men which cannot clearly be distinguished. There is one kind of poison which injures bodies by the use of other bodies according to a natural law … but there is another kind which injures by sorceries and incantations and magic bonds, as they are termed, and induces one class of men to injure another as far as they can, and persuades others that they, above all persons, are liable to be injured by the powers of the magicians. Now it is not easy to know the nature of all these things; nor if a man do know can he readily persuade others of his belief. And when men are disturbed at the sight of waxen images, fixed either at the doors, or in a place where three ways meet, or in the sepulchers of parents, there is no use of trying to persuade them that they should despise all such things, because they have no certain knowledge about them. But we must have a law in two parts concerning poisoning, in whichever of the two ways the attempt is made; and we must entreat and exhort and advise men not to have recourse to such practices, by which they scare the multitude out of their wits, as if they were children, compelling the legislator and the judge to heal the fears which the sorcerer arouses, and to tell them, in the first place, that he who attempts to poison or enchant others knows not what he is doing, either as regards the body (unless he have a knowledge of medicine) or as regards his enchantments, unless he happens to be a prophet or diviner” (“Laws,” xi., 933). [source]
Revelation 19:2 At her hand [ἐκ]
Lit., “from her hand.” See on Revelation 2:7; see on Revelation 18:20. [source]
Revelation 19:17 Fowls [ὀρνέοις]
See on Revelation 18:2. Rev., birds. [source]
Revelation 1:9 Patmos []
Now called Patmo and Palmosa. In the Aegean, one of the group of the Sporades, about twenty-eight miles S. S.W. of Samos. It is about ten miles long by six in breadth. The island is volcanic, and is bare and rocky throughout; the hills, of which the highest rises to nearly a thousand feet, commanding a magnificent view of the neighboring sea and islands. The bay of La Scala, running into the land on the east, divides the island into two nearly equal parts, a northern and a southern. The ancient town, remains of which are still to be seen, occupied the isthmus which separates La Scala from the bay of Merika on the western coast. The modern town is on a hill in the southern half of the island, clustered at the foot of the monastery of St. John. A grotto is shown called “the grotto of the Apocalypse,” in which the apostle is said to have received the vision. “The stern, rugged barrenness of its broken promontories well suits the historical fact of the relegation of the condemned Christian to its shores, as of a convict to his prison. The view from the topmost peak, or, indeed, from any lofty elevation in the islands, unfolds an unusual sweep such as well became the Apocalypse, the unveiling of the future to the eyes of the solitary seer. Above, there was always the broad heaven of a Grecian sky; sometimes bright with its 'white cloud' (Revelation 14:14), sometimes torn with 'lightnings and thunderings,' and darkened by 'great hail,' or cheered with 'a rainbow like unto an emerald' (Revelation 4:3; Revelation 8:7; Revelation 11:19; Revelation 16:21). Over the high tops of Icaria, Samos, and Naxos rise the mountains of Asia Minor; amongst which would lie, to the north, the circle of the Seven Churches to which his addresses were to be sent. Around him stood the mountains and islands of the Archipelago (Revelation 6:14; Revelation 16:20). When he looked round, above or below, 'the sea' would always occupy the foremost place … the voices of heaven were like the sound of the waves beating on the shore, as 'the sound of many waters' (Revelation 14:2; Revelation 19:6); the millstone was 'cast into the sea' (Revelation 18:21); the sea was to 'give up the dead which were in it' (Revelation 20:13)” (Stanley, “Sermons in the East”). [source]
Revelation 1:8 The Alpha and the Omega [το Αλπα και το Ο]
The first and the last letters of the Greek alphabet, each with its own neuter (grammatical gender) article. This description of the eternity of God recurs in Revelation 21:6 with the added explanation η αρχη και το τελος — hē archē kai to telos (the Beginning and the End) and of Christ in Revelation 22:13 with the still further explanation ο πρωτος και ο εσχατος — ho prōtos kai ho eschatos (the First and the Last). This last phrase appears also in Revelation 1:17; Revelation 2:8 without το Αλπα και το Ο — to Alpha kai to O The change of speaker here is unannounced, as in Revelation 16:15; Revelation 18:20. Only here and Revelation 21:5. is God introduced as the speaker. The eternity of God guarantees the prophecy just made. [source]
Revelation 10:1 Another strong angel [αλλον αγγελον ισχυρον]
But the seventh trumpet does not sound till Revelation 11:15. This angel is not one of the seven or of the four, but like the other strong angel in Revelation 5:2; Revelation 18:21 or the other angel in Revelation 14:6, Revelation 14:15. The sixth trumpet of Revelation 9:13 ends in Revelation 9:21. The opening of the seventh seal was preceded by two visions (chapter Rev 7) and so here the sounding of the seventh trumpet (Revelation 11:15) is preceded by a new series of visions (10:1-11:14). [source]
Revelation 11:8 Of the great city [της πολεως της μεγαλης]
Clearly Jerusalem in view of the closing clause (οπουεσταυρωτη — hopou- ητις — estaurōthē), though not here called “the holy city” as in Revelation 11:2, and though elsewhere in the Apocalypse Babylon (Rome) is so described (Revelation 14:8; Revelation 16:19; Revelation 17:5; Revelation 18:2, Revelation 18:10, Revelation 18:16, Revelation 18:18, Revelation 18:19, Revelation 18:21). [source]
Revelation 11:10 Make merry [ευπραινονται]
Present middle indicative of ευπραινω — euphrainō old verb (ευ πρην — euδωρα πεμπσουσιν αλληλοις — phrēn jolly mind), as in Luke 15:32; Revelation 12:12; Revelation 18:20. Jubilant jollification over the cessation of the activity of the two prophets. [source]
Revelation 14:2 Of a great thunder [βροντης μεγαλης]
For which see Revelation 6:1; Revelation 19:6. For this voice out of heaven see Revelation 10:4; Revelation 14:15; Revelation 18:4 and note accusative with ηκουσα — ēkousa the voice of harpers harping with their harps Triple use of κιταρα — kithara (Revelation 5:8), κιταρωιδων — kitharōidōn (Revelation 18:22), κιταριζοντων — kitharizontōn (old verb κιταριζω — kitharizō in N.T. only here and 1 Corinthians 14:7). Wonderful melody in this chorus by the angels, not by the 144,000. [source]
Revelation 11:8 In [επι]
“Upon,” as in Revelation 11:6, with genitive Clearly Jerusalem in view of the closing clause (οπουεσταυρωτη — hopou- ητις — estaurōthē), though not here called “the holy city” as in Revelation 11:2, and though elsewhere in the Apocalypse Babylon (Rome) is so described (Revelation 14:8; Revelation 16:19; Revelation 17:5; Revelation 18:2, Revelation 18:10, Revelation 18:16, Revelation 18:18, Revelation 18:19, Revelation 18:21).Which Which very city, not “whichever.”Spiritually (πνευματικος — pneumatikōs). This late adverb from πνευματικος — pneumatikos (spiritual) occurs in the N.T. only twice, in 1 Corinthians 2:14 for the help of the Holy Spirit in interpreting God‘s message and here in a hidden or mystical (allegorical sense). For this use of οπου και ο κυριος αυτων εσταυρωτη — pneumatikos see 1 Corinthians 10:3. Judah is called Sodom in Isaiah 1:9.; Ezekiel 16:46, Ezekiel 16:55. See also Matthew 10:15; Matthew 11:23. Egypt is not applied to Israel in the O.T., but is “an obvious symbol of oppression and slavery” (Swete).Where also their Lord was crucified First aorist passive indicative of stauroō to crucify, a reference to the fact of Christ‘s crucifixion in Jerusalem. This item is one of the sins of Jerusalem and the disciple is not greater than the Master (John 15:20). [source]
Revelation 11:10 Rejoice [χαιρουσιν]
Present active indicative of χαιρω — chairō them Locative (or dative) case with επι — epi as in Revelation 10:11.Make merry (ευπραινονται — euphrainontai). Present middle indicative of ευπραινω — euphrainō old verb (ευ πρην — euδωρα πεμπσουσιν αλληλοις — phrēn jolly mind), as in Luke 15:32; Revelation 12:12; Revelation 18:20. Jubilant jollification over the cessation of the activity of the two prophets.They shall send gifts to one another Future active of αλληλοις — pempō with dative εβασανισαν — allēlois Just as we see it done in Esther 9:19, Esther 9:22; Nehemiah 8:10, Nehemiah 8:12.Tormented (βασανιζω — ebasanisan). First aorist active indicative of οτι — basanizō for which see Revelation 9:5. This is the reason (hoti) of the fiendish glee of Jew and Gentile, who no longer will have to endure the prophecies (Revelation 11:3.) and dread miracles (Revelation 11:5.) of these two prophets. “Such a sense of relief is perhaps not seldom felt today by bad men when a preacher of righteousness or a signal example of goodness is removed” (Swete). [source]
Revelation 12:12 Rejoice [ευπραινεστε]
Present middle imperative of ευπραινω — euphrainō as in Revelation 11:10; Revelation 18:20.O heavens (οι ουρανοι — hoi ouranoi). Plural here alone in the Apocalypse, though common elsewhere in the N.T. Satan is no longer in the heavens.They that dwell therein Present active articular participle of σκηνοω — skēnoō (see Revelation 7:15; Revelation 13:6) to dwell (tabernacle) as of Christ in John 1:14 and of God in Revelation 21:3. The inhabitants of heaven (angels and saints) have cause to rejoice, and earth reason to mourn.Woe for the earth and for the sea (ουαι την γην και την ταλασσαν — ouai tēn gēn kai tēn thalassan). The accusative after ουαι — ouai as in Revelation 8:13, but nominative in Revelation 18:10, Revelation 18:16, Revelation 18:19 in place of the usual dative (Matthew 11:21; Matthew 18:7, etc.).Is gone down Second aorist (effective) active indicative of καταβαινω — katabainō “did go down.”But a short time (ολιγον καιρον — oligon kairon). Accusative of extent of time, “a little time.” The devil‘s departure from his warfare in the heavens reveals (ειδως — eidōs knowing, perfect active participle) to him that his time for doing harm to men is limited, and hence his great wrath (τυμον — thumon boiling rage). [source]
Revelation 14:8 Fallen, fallen [επεσεν επεσεν]
Prophetic aorist active indicative of πεπτωκεν πεπτωκεν — piptō repeated as a solemn dirge announcing the certainty of the fall. The English participle “fallen, fallen” is more musical and rhythmical than the literal rendering “fell, fell.” The language is an echo of Isaiah 21:9, though B in the lxx has αβυλων η μαγαλη — peptōkenμεγαλη — peptōken (perfect).Babylon the great (αβυλων — Babulōn hē magalē). The adjective πεποτικεν — megalē occurs with ποτιζω — Babulōn each time in the Apocalypse (Revelation 14:8; Revelation 16:19; Revelation 17:5; Revelation 18:2, Revelation 18:10, Revelation 18:21) as a reminder of Nebuchadrezzar. There is no doubt that Rome is meant by Babylon, as is probably seen already in 1 Peter 5:13. As a prisoner in Patmos John can speak his mind by this symbolism.Hath made to drink Perfect active indicative of potizō old causative verb (from potos drinking, 1 Peter 4:3), as in Matthew 25:35. The remarkable phrase that follows seems based on Jeremiah 51:8 (Jeremiah 25:15). It is a combination also of Revelation 14:10 (the wine of God‘s wrath, also in Revelation 16:19; Revelation 19:15) and Revelation 17:2. There is no doubt of the dissoluteness of the old Babylon of Jeremiah‘s day as of the Rome of John‘s time. Rome is pictured as the great courtesan who intoxicates and beguiles the nations to fornication (Revelation 17:2, Revelation 17:4, Revelation 17:6), but the cup of God‘s wrath for her and her paramours is full (Revelation 14:10; Revelation 16:19; Revelation 18:2). [source]
Revelation 14:8 Babylon the great [αβυλων]
The adjective πεποτικεν — megalē occurs with ποτιζω — Babulōn each time in the Apocalypse (Revelation 14:8; Revelation 16:19; Revelation 17:5; Revelation 18:2, Revelation 18:10, Revelation 18:21) as a reminder of Nebuchadrezzar. There is no doubt that Rome is meant by Babylon, as is probably seen already in 1 Peter 5:13. As a prisoner in Patmos John can speak his mind by this symbolism. [source]
Revelation 14:8 Hath made to drink [ποτος]
Perfect active indicative of potizō old causative verb (from potos drinking, 1 Peter 4:3), as in Matthew 25:35. The remarkable phrase that follows seems based on Jeremiah 51:8 (Jeremiah 25:15). It is a combination also of Revelation 14:10 (the wine of God‘s wrath, also in Revelation 16:19; Revelation 19:15) and Revelation 17:2. There is no doubt of the dissoluteness of the old Babylon of Jeremiah‘s day as of the Rome of John‘s time. Rome is pictured as the great courtesan who intoxicates and beguiles the nations to fornication (Revelation 17:2, Revelation 17:4, Revelation 17:6), but the cup of God‘s wrath for her and her paramours is full (Revelation 14:10; Revelation 16:19; Revelation 18:2). [source]
Revelation 17:6 Of the martyrs of Jesus [των μαρτυρων Ιησου]
“Witnesses” (Revelation 2:13) for Jesus (objective genitive) unto blood (Revelation 16:6; Revelation 18:24) and so martyrs in the modern sense of the word. “Drunk with blood” is a common idea with the ancients (Euripides, Josephus, Philo, Cicero, Pliny).With a great wonder (ταυμα μεγα — thauma mega). Cognate accusative with εταυμασα — ethaumasa f0). [source]
Revelation 16:6 They poured out [εχεχεαν]
Second aorist active indicative of εκχεω — ekcheō with αν — ̇an instead of ον — ̇on hast thou given them to drink αιμα — Haima (blood) is the emphatic word, measure for measure for shedding the blood of saints and prophets (Revelation 11:18; Revelation 18:24). Perfect active indicative of διδωμι — didōmi and so a permanent and just punishment. Πειν — Pein is the abbreviated second aorist active infinitive of πινω — pinō for πιειν — piein It is the epexegetical infinitive after δεδωκας — dedōkas There was no more drinking-water, but only this coagulated blood.They are worthy (αχιοι εισιν — axioi eisin). “Terrible antithesis” (Swete) to Revelation 3:4. The asyndeton adds to it (Alford). [source]
Revelation 18:2 Is become [κατοικητηριον]
Prophetic aorist middle.A habitation of devils (κατοικεω — katoikētērion). Late word (from πυλακη παντος πνευματος ακαταρτου — katoikeō to dwell), in N.T. only here and Ephesians 2:22. Devils should be demons, of course. So Isaiah prophesied of Babylon (Isaiah 13:21-22) and also Jeremiah (Jeremiah 50:39) and Zephaniah of Nineveh (Zephaniah 2:14). Both Babylon and Nineveh are ruins.A hold of every unclean spirit πυλακη παντος ορνεου ακαταρτου και μεμισημενου — Phulakē is garrison or watch-tower as in Habakkuk 2:1, rather than a prison (Revelation 20:7).A hold of every unclean and hateful bird (Ορνεου — phulakē pantos orneou akathartou kai memisēmenou). Orneou is old word for bird, in N.T. only Revelation 18:2; Revelation 19:17, Revelation 19:21. “The evil spirits, watching over fallen Rome like night-birds or harpies that wait for their prey, build their eyries in the broken towers which rise from the ashes of the city” (Swete). Long ago true of Babylon and Nineveh, some day to be true of Rome. [source]
Revelation 18:2 A hold of every unclean spirit [Πυλακη]
πυλακη παντος ορνεου ακαταρτου και μεμισημενου — Phulakē is garrison or watch-tower as in Habakkuk 2:1, rather than a prison (Revelation 20:7).A hold of every unclean and hateful bird (Ορνεου — phulakē pantos orneou akathartou kai memisēmenou). Orneou is old word for bird, in N.T. only Revelation 18:2; Revelation 19:17, Revelation 19:21. “The evil spirits, watching over fallen Rome like night-birds or harpies that wait for their prey, build their eyries in the broken towers which rise from the ashes of the city” (Swete). Long ago true of Babylon and Nineveh, some day to be true of Rome. [source]
Revelation 18:2 A hold of every unclean and hateful bird [Ορνεου]
Orneou is old word for bird, in N.T. only Revelation 18:2; Revelation 19:17, Revelation 19:21. “The evil spirits, watching over fallen Rome like night-birds or harpies that wait for their prey, build their eyries in the broken towers which rise from the ashes of the city” (Swete). Long ago true of Babylon and Nineveh, some day to be true of Rome. [source]
Revelation 18:3 Have fallen [πεπτωκαν]
Perfect active third personal of πιπτω — piptō for usual πεπτωκασι — peptōkasi Some MSS. read πεπωκαν — pepōkan (have drunk), from πινω — pinō like the metaphor in Revelation 14:8, Revelation 14:10; Revelation 16:19; Revelation 17:2. See Revelation 17:2 for the same charge about the kings of the earth.The merchants of the earth (οι εμποροι της γης — hoi emporoi tēs gēs). Old word for one on a journey for trade (from εν πορος — enεμποριον — poros), like drummers, in N.T. only Matthew 13:45; Revelation 18:3, Revelation 18:11, Revelation 18:15, Revelation 18:23. Like εμπορευομαι — emporion (John 2:16) and επλουτησαν — emporeuomai (James 4:13).Waxed rich First ingressive aorist active indicative of του στρηνους αυτης — plouteō to be rich (cf. Revelation 3:17). Here alone in the N.T. do we catch a glimpse of the vast traffic between east and west that made Rome rich.Of her wantonness (στρηνιαω — tou strēnous autēs). Late word for arrogance, luxury, here alone in N.T. See strēniaō in Revelation 18:7, Revelation 18:9, to live wantonly. [source]
Revelation 18:3 The merchants of the earth [οι εμποροι της γης]
Old word for one on a journey for trade (from εν πορος — enεμποριον — poros), like drummers, in N.T. only Matthew 13:45; Revelation 18:3, Revelation 18:11, Revelation 18:15, Revelation 18:23. Like εμπορευομαι — emporion (John 2:16) and επλουτησαν — emporeuomai (James 4:13). [source]
Revelation 18:6 Render as she rendered [αποδοτε ως απεδωκεν]
Second aorist (effective) active imperative and first aorist (effective) active of αποδιδωμι — apodidōmi old and common verb for requital, to give back, the lex talionis which is in the O.T. (Jeremiah 50:15, Jeremiah 50:29; Jeremiah 51:24, Jeremiah 51:56; Psalm 137:8), and in the N.T. also (Matthew 7:2). Here the reference is to persecutions by Rome, particularly the martyrdom of the saints (Revelation 18:24; Revelation 19:2). [source]
Revelation 18:11 The merchants [οι εμποροι]
As in Revelation 18:3, Revelation 18:15, Revelation 18:23. The dirge of the merchants follows the wail of the kings. [source]
Revelation 18:23 The voice of the bridegroom and of the bride [πωνη νυμπιου και νυμπης]
See John 3:29; Jeremiah 7:34; Jeremiah 16:9. “Even the occasional flash of the torches carried by bridal processions (Matthew 25:1.) is seen no more” (Swete). The sixth instance of ου μη — ou mē in Revelation 18:21-23, occurs with ακουστηι — akousthēi (third instance of ακουστηι — akousthēi two in Revelation 18:22). [source]
Revelation 19:3 They say [ειρηκαν]
Perfect active indicative of ειπον — eipon “They have said,” not an “aoristic” perfect for “they say,” but vivid dramatic perfect as in Revelation 5:7 and the form in αν — ̇an instead of ασιν — ̇asin as in Revelation 18:3; Revelation 21:6.Goeth up (αναβαινει — anabainei). Linear present active indicative of αναβαινω — anabainō “keeps on going up,” “a last touch to the description already given (Revelation 18:21.) of Babylon‘s utter collapse” (Swete). The smoke of the city‘s ruin (Revelation 14:11; Revelation 18:8., and Revelation 18:18) instead of incense (Revelation 8:4). Cf. Isaiah 34:9. [source]
Revelation 19:3 Goeth up [αναβαινει]
Linear present active indicative of αναβαινω — anabainō “keeps on going up,” “a last touch to the description already given (Revelation 18:21.) of Babylon‘s utter collapse” (Swete). The smoke of the city‘s ruin (Revelation 14:11; Revelation 18:8., and Revelation 18:18) instead of incense (Revelation 8:4). Cf. Isaiah 34:9. [source]
Revelation 18:22 Of harpers [κιταρωιδων]
Old word (from κιταρα — kithara harp, and ωιδος — ōidos singer) as in Revelation 14:2.Of minstrels (μουσικων — mousikōn). Old word (from μουσα — mousa music), here only in N.T., one playing on musical instruments.Of flute-players Old word (from αυλεω — auleō to play on a flute, Matthew 11:17, αυλος — aulos flute, 1 Corinthians 14:7), in N.T. only here and Matthew 9:23.Of trumpeters (σαλπιστων — salpistōn). Late form for the earlier σαλπιγκτης — salpigktēs (from σαλπιζω — salpizō), here only in N.T.Shall be heard no more at all First aorist passive subjunctive of ακουω — akouō with the double negative as below, with πωνη μυλου — phōnē mulou (sound of the millstone), and as in Revelation 18:21 with ου με ευρετηι — ou me heurethēi and again with πας τεχνιτης — pās technitēs (craftsman). This old word is from τεχνη — technē art, as here in some MSS. (“of whatsoever craft,” πασης τεχνης — pasēs technēs). Τεχνιτης — Technitēs occurs also in this sense in Acts 19:24, Acts 19:38; and in Hebrews 11:10 of God as the Architect. There is power in this four-fold sonorous repetition of ου μη — ou mē and the subjunctive with two more examples in Revelation 18:23. [source]
Revelation 18:22 Of flute-players [αυλητων]
Old word (from αυλεω — auleō to play on a flute, Matthew 11:17, αυλος — aulos flute, 1 Corinthians 14:7), in N.T. only here and Matthew 9:23.Of trumpeters (σαλπιστων — salpistōn). Late form for the earlier σαλπιγκτης — salpigktēs (from σαλπιζω — salpizō), here only in N.T.Shall be heard no more at all First aorist passive subjunctive of ακουω — akouō with the double negative as below, with πωνη μυλου — phōnē mulou (sound of the millstone), and as in Revelation 18:21 with ου με ευρετηι — ou me heurethēi and again with πας τεχνιτης — pās technitēs (craftsman). This old word is from τεχνη — technē art, as here in some MSS. (“of whatsoever craft,” πασης τεχνης — pasēs technēs). Τεχνιτης — Technitēs occurs also in this sense in Acts 19:24, Acts 19:38; and in Hebrews 11:10 of God as the Architect. There is power in this four-fold sonorous repetition of ου μη — ou mē and the subjunctive with two more examples in Revelation 18:23. [source]
Revelation 18:22 Shall be heard no more at all [ου μη ακουστηι]
First aorist passive subjunctive of ακουω — akouō with the double negative as below, with πωνη μυλου — phōnē mulou (sound of the millstone), and as in Revelation 18:21 with ου με ευρετηι — ou me heurethēi and again with πας τεχνιτης — pās technitēs (craftsman). This old word is from τεχνη — technē art, as here in some MSS. (“of whatsoever craft,” πασης τεχνης — pasēs technēs). Τεχνιτης — Technitēs occurs also in this sense in Acts 19:24, Acts 19:38; and in Hebrews 11:10 of God as the Architect. There is power in this four-fold sonorous repetition of ου μη — ou mē and the subjunctive with two more examples in Revelation 18:23. [source]
Revelation 18:23 Shall shine no more at all [ου μη πανηι]
Fifth instance in these verses of ου μη — ou mē with the aorist subjunctive, here the active of παινω — phainō as in Revelation 8:12. It is not known whether Rome had street lights or not.The voice of the bridegroom and of the bride (πωνη νυμπιου και νυμπης — phōnē numphiou kai numphēs). See John 3:29; Jeremiah 7:34; Jeremiah 16:9. “Even the occasional flash of the torches carried by bridal processions (Matthew 25:1.) is seen no more” (Swete). The sixth instance of ου μη — ou mē in Revelation 18:21-23, occurs with ακουστηι — akousthēi (third instance of ακουστηι — akousthēi two in Revelation 18:22).Were the princes of the earth For μεγισταν — megistān see Revelation 6:15; Mark 6:21. “Thy merchants were the grandees” once, but now these merchant princes are gone.With thy sorcery (εν τηι παρμακιαι σου — en tēi pharmakiāi sou). Εν — En (instrumental use) and the locative case of παρμακια — pharmakia old word (from παρμακευω — pharmakeuō to prepare drugs, from παρμακον — pharmakon sorcery, Revelation 9:21), in N.T. only here and Galatians 5:20 for sorcery and magical arts. If one is puzzled over the connection between medicine and sorcery as illustrated by this word (our pharmacy), he has only to recall quackery today in medicine (patent medicines and cure-alls), witch-doctors, professional faith-healers, medicine-men in Africa. True medical science has had a hard fight to shake off chicanery and charlatanry.Were deceived First aorist passive indicative of πλαναω — planaō These charlatans always find plenty of victims. See Mark 12:24. [source]
Revelation 19:17 An angel [ενα αγγελον]
Like εις — heis in Revelation 18:21, just “an,” not “one.” [source]
Revelation 22:17 The Spirit and the bride [το πνευμα και η νυμπη]
The Holy Spirit, speaking through the prophets or the Spirit of prophecy (Revelation 2:7; Revelation 16:4; Revelation 18:24), joins with the bride (Revelation 21:2), the people of God, in a response to the voice of Jesus just heard. After the picture of heaven in Revelation 22:1-5 there is intense longing (Revelation 19:7) of God‘s people for the consummation of the marriage of the Lamb and the Bride. So now “the prophets and the saints” (Swete) make a common plea to the Lord Jesus to “come” The call for Christ is to be repeated by every hearer (ο ακουων — ho akouōn) as in Revelation 1:3. [source]
Revelation 5:2 A strong angel [αγγελον ισχυρον]
One needed (Revelation 10:1; Revelation 18:21) “whose call could reach to the farthest limits of the universe” (Beckwith) and so “with a great voice” See εν ισχυραι πωνηι — en ischurāi phōnēi (Revelation 18:2). [source]
Revelation 5:6 As though it had been slain [ως εσπαγμενον]
Perfect passive predicate participle of σπαζω — sphazō old word, in N.T. only in Revelation 5:6, Revelation 5:9, Revelation 5:12; Revelation 6:4, Revelation 6:9; Revelation 13:3; Revelation 18:24; 1 John 3:12. ως — Hōs (as if) is used because the Lamb is now alive, but (in appearance) with the marks of the sacrifice. The Christ as the Lamb is both sacrifice and Priest (Hebrews 9:12.; Hebrews 10:11). [source]
Revelation 6:15 The princes [οι μεγιστανες]
Late word from the superlative μεγιστος — megistos in lxx, Josephus, papyri, in N.T. only in Mark 6:21; Revelation 6:15; Revelation 18:23, for the grandees, the persecuting proconsuls (Swete). [source]
Revelation 8:12 That should be darkened [ινα σκοτιστηι]
Purpose clause with ινα — hina and the first aorist passive subjunctive of σκοτιζω — skotizō from σκοτος — skotos (darkness) as in Matthew 24:29, but σκοτοω — skotoō in Revelation 9:2.And the day should not shine (και η ημερα μη πανηι — kai hē hēmera mē phanēi). Negative purpose clause with ινα μη — hina mē and the first aorist active subjunctive of παινω — phainō to shed light upon, as in Revelation 18:23, not the second aorist passive subjunctive πανηι — phanēi with different accent. The eclipse here is only partial and is kin to the ninth Egyptian plague (Exodus 10:21). [source]
Revelation 19:17 Standing in the sun [εστωτα εν τωι ηλιωι]
Second perfect active participle of ιστημι — histēmi (intransitive). “Where all the birds of prey would behold him” (Beckwith). For ορνεοις — orneois (birds) see Revelation 18:2 and for εν μεσουρανηματι — en mesouranēmati (in mid heaven) see Revelation 18:13; Revelation 14:6.Come and be gathered together (Δευτε συναχτητε — Deute sunachthēte). Δευτε — Deute is the adverb δευρω — deurō (hither), used when two or more are addressed, possibly from δευρο ιτε — deuro ite (come here). Asyndeton also without και — kai (and). First aorist passive imperative of συναγω — sunagō The metaphor is drawn from Ezekiel 39:17.Unto the great supper of God The habits of vultures are described by Christ in Matthew 24:28. This is a bold and powerful picture of the battlefield after the victory of the Messiah, “a sacrificial feast spread on God‘s table for all the vultures of the sky” (Swete). Is this battle the same as that of Har Magedon (Revelation 16:16) and that of Gog and Magog (Revelation 20:8.) mentioned after the thousand years? The language in Revelation 20:8. seems like this derived from Ezekiel 39:17., and “in the Apocalypse priority in the order of sequence does not always imply priority in time” (Swete). There seems no way to decide this point save that the end seems to be at hand. [source]
Revelation 20:4 Judgment was given unto them [κριμα εδοτη αυτοις]
First aorist passive of διδωμι — didōmi Picture of the heavenly court of assizes.The souls (τας πσυχας — tas psuchas). Accusative after ειδον — eidon at the beginning of the verse.Of them that had been beheaded Genitive of the articular perfect passive participle of πελεκιζω — pelekizō old word (from πελεκυς — pelekus an axe, the traditional instrument for execution in republican Rome, but later supplanted by the sword), to cut off with an axe, here only in N.T. See Revelation 6:9; Revelation 18:24; Revelation 19:2 for previous mention of these martyrs for the witness of Jesus (Revelation 1:9; Revelation 12:17; Revelation 19:10). Others also besides martyrs shared in Christ‘s victory, those who refused to worship the beast or wear his mark as in Revelation 13:15; Revelation 14:9.; Revelation 16:2; Revelation 19:20.And they lived (και εζησαν — kai ezēsan). First aorist active indicative of ζαω — zaō If the ingressive aorist, it means “came to life” or “lived again” as in Revelation 2:8 and so as to Revelation 20:5. If it is the constative aorist here and in Revelation 20:5, then it could mean increased spiritual life. See John 5:21-29 for the double sense of life and death (now literal, now spiritual) precisely as we have the second death in Revelation 2:11; Revelation 20:6, Revelation 20:14.And reigned with Christ Same use of the first aorist active indicative of βασιλευω — basileuō but more clearly constative. Beckwith and Swete take this to apply solely to the martyrs, the martyrs‘ reign with Christ. [source]
Revelation 20:4 Of them that had been beheaded [των πεπελεκισμενων]
Genitive of the articular perfect passive participle of πελεκιζω — pelekizō old word (from πελεκυς — pelekus an axe, the traditional instrument for execution in republican Rome, but later supplanted by the sword), to cut off with an axe, here only in N.T. See Revelation 6:9; Revelation 18:24; Revelation 19:2 for previous mention of these martyrs for the witness of Jesus (Revelation 1:9; Revelation 12:17; Revelation 19:10). Others also besides martyrs shared in Christ‘s victory, those who refused to worship the beast or wear his mark as in Revelation 13:15; Revelation 14:9.; Revelation 16:2; Revelation 19:20.And they lived (και εζησαν — kai ezēsan). First aorist active indicative of ζαω — zaō If the ingressive aorist, it means “came to life” or “lived again” as in John 5:21-29 and so as to Revelation 20:5. If it is the constative aorist here and in Revelation 20:5, then it could mean increased spiritual life. See Revelation 2:8 for the double sense of life and death (now literal, now spiritual) precisely as we have the second death in Revelation 2:11; Revelation 20:6, Revelation 20:14.And reigned with Christ Same use of the first aorist active indicative of βασιλευω — basileuō but more clearly constative. Beckwith and Swete take this to apply solely to the martyrs, the martyrs‘ reign with Christ. [source]
Revelation 5:6 In the midst [εν μεσωι]
See Revelation 4:6 for this idiom. It is not quite clear where the Lamb was standing in the vision, whether close to the throne or in the space between the throne and the elders (perhaps implied by “came” in Revelation 5:7, but nearness to the throne is implied by Revelation 14:1; Acts 7:56; Hebrews 10:11).A Lamb (αρνιον — arnion). Elsewhere in the N.T. ο αμνος — ho amnos is used of Christ (John 1:29, John 1:36; Acts 8:32; 1 Peter 1:19 like Isaiah 53:7), but in the Apocalypse το αρνιον — to arnion occurs for the Crucified Christ 29 times in twelve chapters.Standing Second perfect active (intransitive of ιστημι — histēmi) neuter accusative singular (grammatical gender like αρνιον — arnion), though some MSS. read εστηκως — hestēkōs (natural gender masculine and nominative in spite of ειδον — eidon construction according to sense).As though it had been slain (ως εσπαγμενον — hōs esphagmenon). Perfect passive predicate participle of σπαζω — sphazō old word, in N.T. only in Revelation 5:6, Revelation 5:9, Revelation 5:12; Revelation 6:4, Revelation 6:9; Revelation 13:3; Revelation 18:24; 1 John 3:12. ως — Hōs (as if) is used because the Lamb is now alive, but (in appearance) with the marks of the sacrifice. The Christ as the Lamb is both sacrifice and Priest (Hebrews 9:12.; Hebrews 10:11).Having Construction according to sense again with masculine nominative participle instead of εχοντα — echonta (masculine accusative singular) or εχον — echon (neuter accusative singular). Seven horns Fulness of power (the All-powerful one) is symbolized by seven.Seven eyes (οπταλμους επτα — ophthalmous hepta). Like Zechariah 3:9; Zechariah 4:10 and denotes here, as there, omniscience. Here they are identified with the seven Spirits of Christ, while in Revelation 1:4 the seven Spirits are clearly the Holy Spirit of God (Revelation 3:1), and blaze like torches (Revelation 4:5), like the eyes of Christ (Revelation 1:14). The Holy Spirit is both Spirit of God and of Christ (Romans 8:9).Sent forth Perfect passive predicate participle of αποστελλω — apostellō masculine plural (agreeing with οι — hoi and οπταλμους — ophthalmous in gender), but some MSS. have απεσταλμενα — apestalmena agreeing with the nearer πνευματα — pneumata f0). [source]
Revelation 8:12 And the day should not shine [και η ημερα μη πανηι]
Negative purpose clause with ινα μη — hina mē and the first aorist active subjunctive of παινω — phainō to shed light upon, as in Revelation 18:23, not the second aorist passive subjunctive πανηι — phanēi with different accent. The eclipse here is only partial and is kin to the ninth Egyptian plague (Exodus 10:21). [source]
Revelation 5:6 Standing [εστηκος]
Second perfect active (intransitive of ιστημι — histēmi) neuter accusative singular (grammatical gender like αρνιον — arnion), though some MSS. read εστηκως — hestēkōs (natural gender masculine and nominative in spite of ειδον — eidon construction according to sense).As though it had been slain (ως εσπαγμενον — hōs esphagmenon). Perfect passive predicate participle of σπαζω — sphazō old word, in N.T. only in Revelation 5:6, Revelation 5:9, Revelation 5:12; Revelation 6:4, Revelation 6:9; Revelation 13:3; Revelation 18:24; 1 John 3:12. ως — Hōs (as if) is used because the Lamb is now alive, but (in appearance) with the marks of the sacrifice. The Christ as the Lamb is both sacrifice and Priest (Hebrews 9:12.; Hebrews 10:11).Having Construction according to sense again with masculine nominative participle instead of εχοντα — echonta (masculine accusative singular) or εχον — echon (neuter accusative singular). Seven horns Fulness of power (the All-powerful one) is symbolized by seven.Seven eyes (οπταλμους επτα — ophthalmous hepta). Like Zechariah 3:9; Zechariah 4:10 and denotes here, as there, omniscience. Here they are identified with the seven Spirits of Christ, while in Revelation 1:4 the seven Spirits are clearly the Holy Spirit of God (Revelation 3:1), and blaze like torches (Revelation 4:5), like the eyes of Christ (Revelation 1:14). The Holy Spirit is both Spirit of God and of Christ (Romans 8:9).Sent forth Perfect passive predicate participle of αποστελλω — apostellō masculine plural (agreeing with οι — hoi and οπταλμους — ophthalmous in gender), but some MSS. have απεσταλμενα — apestalmena agreeing with the nearer πνευματα — pneumata f0). [source]
Revelation 9:21 Of their murders [εκ των πονων αυτων]
Heads the list, but “sorceries” (εκ των παρμακων — ek tōn pharmakōn) comes next. Παρμακον — Pharmakon was originally enchantment, as also in Revelation 21:8, then drug. For παρμακια — pharmakia see Revelation 18:23; Galatians 5:20. The two other items are fornication (πορνειας — porneias) and thefts (κλεμματων — klemmatōn old word from κλεπτω — kleptō here alone in N.T.), all four characteristic of demonic worship and idolatry. See other lists of vices in Mark 7:21; Galatians 5:20; Revelation 21:8; Revelation 22:15. Our word “pharmacy” as applied to drugs and medicine has certainly come a long way out of a bad environment, but there is still a bad odour about “patent medicines.” [source]

What do the individual words in Revelation 18:2 mean?

And he cried out in a mighty voice saying Fallen Fallen is Babylon the great she has become a habitation of demons a prison of every spirit unclean bird and creature unclean having been hated
καὶ ἔκραξεν ἐν ἰσχυρᾷ φωνῇ λέγων Ἔπεσεν ἔπεσεν Βαβυλὼν μεγάλη ἐγένετο κατοικητήριον δαιμονίων φυλακὴ παντὸς πνεύματος ἀκαθάρτου ὀρνέου ‹καὶ θηρίου ἀκαθάρτου› μεμισημένου

ἔκραξεν  he  cried  out 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Active, 3rd Person Singular
Root: κράζω  
Sense: to croak.
ἰσχυρᾷ  a  mighty 
Parse: Adjective, Dative Feminine Singular
Root: ἰσχυρός  
Sense: strong, mighty.
φωνῇ  voice 
Parse: Noun, Dative Feminine Singular
Root: φωνή  
Sense: a sound, a tone.
λέγων  saying 
Parse: Verb, Present Participle Active, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root: λέγω 
Sense: to say, to speak.
Ἔπεσεν  Fallen 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Active, 3rd Person Singular
Root: πίπτω 
Sense: to descend from a higher place to a lower.
ἔπεσεν  Fallen  is 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Active, 3rd Person Singular
Root: πίπτω 
Sense: to descend from a higher place to a lower.
Βαβυλὼν  Babylon 
Parse: Noun, Nominative Feminine Singular
Root: Βαβυλών  
Sense: a very large and famous city, the residence of the Babylonian kings, situated on both banks of the Euphrates.
μεγάλη  great 
Parse: Adjective, Nominative Feminine Singular
Root: μέγας  
Sense: great.
ἐγένετο  she  has  become 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Middle, 3rd Person Singular
Root: γίνομαι  
Sense: to become, i.
κατοικητήριον  a  habitation 
Parse: Noun, Nominative Neuter Singular
Root: κατοικητήριον  
Sense: an abode, a habitation.
δαιμονίων  of  demons 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Neuter Plural
Root: δαιμόνιον  
Sense: the divine power, deity, divinity.
φυλακὴ  a  prison 
Parse: Noun, Nominative Feminine Singular
Root: φυλακή  
Sense: guard, watch.
παντὸς  of  every 
Parse: Adjective, Genitive Neuter Singular
Root: πᾶς  
Sense: individually.
πνεύματος  spirit 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Neuter Singular
Root: πνεῦμα  
Sense: a movement of air (a gentle blast.
ἀκαθάρτου  unclean 
Parse: Adjective, Genitive Neuter Singular
Root: ἀκάθαρτος  
Sense: not cleansed, unclean.
ὀρνέου  bird 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Neuter Singular
Root: ὄρνεον  
Sense: a bird.
θηρίου  creature 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Neuter Singular
Root: θηρίον  
Sense: an animal.
ἀκαθάρτου›  unclean 
Parse: Adjective, Genitive Neuter Singular
Root: ἀκάθαρτος  
Sense: not cleansed, unclean.
μεμισημένου  having  been  hated 
Parse: Verb, Perfect Participle Middle or Passive, Genitive Neuter Singular
Root: μισέω  
Sense: to hate, pursue with hatred, detest.