The Meaning of 2 Corinthians 4:4 Explained

2 Corinthians 4:4

KJV: In whom the god of this world hath blinded the minds of them which believe not, lest the light of the glorious gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, should shine unto them.

YLT: in whom the god of this age did blind the minds of the unbelieving, that there doth not shine forth to them the enlightening of the good news of the glory of the Christ, who is the image of God;

Darby: in whom the god of this world has blinded the thoughts of the unbelieving, so that the radiancy of the glad tidings of the glory of the Christ, who is the image of God, should not shine forth for them.

ASV: in whom the god of this world hath blinded the minds of the unbelieving, that the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ, who is the image of God, should not dawn upon them .

What does 2 Corinthians 4:4 Mean?

Context Summary

2 Corinthians 4:1-6 - God's Glory Reflected In Christ
The servant of Christ must never forget that he once needed and obtained mercy. This will sustain him in many an hour when heart and flesh fail. His weapon is the truth, his appeal to conscience. Others may vie with him in brilliant imagination, fervid enthusiasm, and intellectual force, but he has unrivaled supremacy in the realm of conscience. As Richard I of England, immured in a castle-dungeon, recognized the voice and song of his troubadour, singing outside the castle gate a strain familiar to them both, and responded note for note, so does conscience awaken and respond to the truth, which it recognizes as the voice of God.
Why, then, does the gospel fail? Not through any defect in itself, nor because of some arbitrary decree on the part of God, but because the god of this world has blinded the eyes of the heart by the glamour of worldly prosperity and success, or perhaps by the covering film or scale of evil habit, so that the light of the dawn, stealing over the world, is unable to penetrate the darkened life. [source]

Chapter Summary: 2 Corinthians 4

1  Paul declares how he has used all sincerity and diligence in preaching the gospel,
7  and how his troubles and persecutions did redound to the praise of God's power,
12  to the benefit of the church,
16  and to the apostle's own eternal glory

Greek Commentary for 2 Corinthians 4:4

The god of this world [ο τεος του αιωνος τουτου]
“Age,” more exactly, as in 1 Corinthians 1:20. Satan is “the god of this age,” a phrase nowhere else in the N.T., but Jesus uses the same idea in John 12:31; John 14:30 and Paul in Ephesians 2:2; Ephesians 6:12 and John in 1 John 5:19. Satan claimed the rule over the world in the temptations with Jesus. [source]
Blinded [ετυπλωσεν]
First aorist active of τυπλοω — tuphloō old verb to blind They refused to believe The illumination, the enlightening. Late word from ποτιζω — photizō to give light, in Plutarch and lxx. In N.T. only in 2 Corinthians 4:4, 2 Corinthians 4:6. Accusative case of general reference here with the articular infinitive (εις το μη αυγασαι — eis to mē augasai that should not dawn). That is, if αυγασαι — augasai is intransitive as is likely, though it is transitive in the old poets (from αυγη — augē radiance. Cf. German Auge =eye). If it is transitive, the idea would be “that they should not see clearly the illumination, etc.” [source]
The light [τον πωτισμον]
The illumination, the enlightening. Late word from ποτιζω — photizō to give light, in Plutarch and lxx. In N.T. only in 2 Corinthians 4:4, 2 Corinthians 4:6. Accusative case of general reference here with the articular infinitive That is, if αυγασαι — augasai is intransitive as is likely, though it is transitive in the old poets (from αυγη — augē radiance. Cf. German Auge =eye). If it is transitive, the idea would be “that they should not see clearly the illumination, etc.” [source]
The god of this world [ὁ θεὸς τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου]
The phrase occurs only here. Compare Ephesians 2:2; Ephesians 6:12; John 12:31; John 14:30. Satan is called god in the rabbinical writings. “The first God is the true God; but the second god is Samael.” “The matron said, 'Our god is greater than thy God; for when thy God appeared to Moses in the bush, he hid his face; when, however, he saw the serpent, which is my god, he fled.”' [source]
The light [τὸν φωτισμὸν]
Only here and 2 Corinthians 4:6. Lit., the illumination, act of enlightening. [source]
Image of God []
Compare Colossians 1:15; John 17:5; Philemon 2:6; Philemon 3:21. Christ's light is also God's. Compare Hebrews 1:3, Rev., effulgence ( ἀπαύγασμα , compare αὐγάσαι shinein this passage). Theodoret says: “The effulgence is both from the fire and with the fire, and has the fire as its cause, yet is not divided from the fire; for whence comes the fire, thence also comes the effulgence.” [source]
Shine [αὐγάσαι]
Only here in the New Testament. From αὐγή brightnesswhich also occurs but once, Acts 20:11, daybreak. In classical Greek of the sun especially. Rev., dawn is legitimate as a translation, but hardly here, since Paul is going back to the figure of 2 Corinthians 3:18. [source]

Reverse Greek Commentary Search for 2 Corinthians 4:4

John 1:9 The world [τὸν κόσμον]
As in John 1:3, the creation was designated in its several details by πάντα , all things, so here, creation is regarded in its totality, as an ordered whole. See on Acts 17:24; see on James 3:6. Four words are used in the New Testament for world: (1) γῇ , land, ground, territory, the earth, as distinguished from the heavens. The sense is purely physical. -DIVIDER-
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(2) οἰκουμένη , which is a participle, meaning inhabited, with γῆ , earth, understood, and signifies the earth as the abode of men; the whole inhabited world. See on Matthew 24:14; see on Luke 2:1. Also in a physical sense, though used once of “the world to come” (Hebrews 2:5). -DIVIDER-
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(3) αἰών , essentially time, as the condition under which all created things exist, and the measure of their existence: a period of existence; a lifetime; a generation; hence, a long space of time; an age, era, epoch, period of a dispensation. On this primary, physical sense there arises a secondary sense, viz., all that exists in the world under the conditions of time. From this again develops a more distinctly ethical sense, the course and current of this world's affairs (compare the expression, the times ), and this course as corrupted by sin; hence the evil world. So Galatians 1:4; 2 Corinthians 4:4. -DIVIDER-
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(4) κόσμος , which follows a similar line of development from the physical to the ethical sense; meaning (a) ornament, arrangement, order (1 Peter 3:3); (b) the sum-total of the material universe considered as a system (Matthew 13:35; John 17:5; Acts 17:24; Philemon 2:15). Compare Plato. “He who is incapable of communion is also incapable of friendship. And philosophers tell us, Callicles, that communion and friendship and orderliness and temperance and justice bind together heaven and earth and gods and men, and that this universe is therefore called Cosmos, or order, not disorder or misrule” (“Gorgias,” 508). (c) That universe as the abode of man (John 16:21; 1 John 3:17). (d) The sum-total of humanity in the world; the human race (John 1:29; John 4:42). (e) In the ethical sense, the sum-total of human life in the ordered world, considered apart from, alienated from, and hostile to God, and of the earthly things which seduce from God (John 7:7; John 15:18; John 17:9, John 17:14; 1 Corinthians 1:20, 1 Corinthians 1:21; 2 Corinthians 7:10; James 4:4). -DIVIDER-
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This word is characteristic of John, and pre-eminently in this last, ethical sense, in which it is rarely used by the Synoptists; while John nowhere uses αἰών of the moral order. In this latter sense the word is wholly strange to heathen literature, since the heathen world had no perception of the opposition between God and sinful man; between the divine order and the moral disorder introduced and maintained by sin. -DIVIDER-
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John 1:7 For witness [εις μαρτυριαν]
Old word from μαρτυρεω — martureō (from μαρτυς — martus), both more common in John‘s writings than the rest of the N.T. This the purpose of the Baptist‘s ministry. That he might bear witness Final clause with ινα — hina and aorist active subjunctive of μαρτυρεω — martureō to make clearer εις μαρτυριαν — eis marturian Of the light “Concerning the light.” The light was shining and men with blinded eyes were not seeing the light (John 1:26), blinded by the god of this world still (2 Corinthians 4:4). John had his own eyes opened so that he saw and told what he saw. That is the mission of every preacher of Christ. But he must first have his own eyes opened. That all might believe Final clause with ινα — hina and first aorist active subjunctive of πιστευω — pisteuō ingressive aorist “come to believe.” This is one of John‘s great words (about 100 times), “with nine times the frequency with which it is used by the Synoptists” (Bernard). And yet πιστις — pistis so common in Paul, John uses only in 1 John 5:4 and four times in the Apocalypse where πιστευω — pisteuō does not occur at all. Here it is used absolutely as in John 1:50, etc. Through him As the intermediate agent in winning men to believe in Christ (the Logos) as the Light and the Life of men. This is likewise the purpose of the author of this book (John 1:31). The preacher is merely the herald to point men to Christ. [source]
John 8:15 After the flesh [κατα την σαρκα]
According to the standards of the flesh (2 Corinthians 5:16). The Baptist had said: “There stands one among you whom ye know not” (John 1:26). The Light of the World had come, but they loved darkness rather than light (John 3:19), because the god of this age had blinded their thoughts so that they could not see the illumination of the gospel of the glory of Christ who is the image of God (2 Corinthians 4:4). [source]
John 12:40 He hath blinded [τετυπλωκεν]
Perfect active indicative of τυπλοω — tuphloō old causative verb to make blind (from τυπλος — tuphlos blind), in N.T. only here, 2 Corinthians 4:4; 1 John 2:11. He hardened First aorist active indicative of πωροω — pōroō a late causative verb (from πωρος — pōros hard skin), seen already in Mark 6:52, etc. This quotation is from Isaiah 6:10 and differs from the lxx. Lest they should see Negative purpose clause with ινα μη — hina mē instead of μηποτε — mēpote (never used by John) of the lxx. Matthew (Matthew 13:15) has μηποτε — mēpote and quotes Jesus as using the passage as do Mark (Mark 4:12) and Luke (Luke 8:10). Paul quotes it again (Acts 28:26) to the Jews in Rome. In each instance the words of Isaiah are interpreted as forecasting the doom of the Jews for rejecting the Messiah. Matthew (Matthew 13:15) has συνωσιν — sunōsin where John has νοησωσιν — noēsōsin (perceive), and both change from the subjunctive to the future (και ιασομαι — kai iasomai), “And I should heal them.” John has here στραπωσιν — straphōsin (second aorist passive subjunctive of στρεπω — strephō) while Matthew reads επιστρεπσωσιν — epistrepsōsin (first aorist active of επιστρεπω — epistrephō). [source]
John 3:19 And this is the judgment [αυτη δε εστιν η κρισις]
A thoroughly Johannine phrase for sequence of thought (John 15:12; John 17:3; 1 John 1:5; 1 John 5:11, 1 John 5:14; 3 John 1:6). It is more precisely the process of judging The light is come Second perfect active indicative of το σκοτος — erchomai a permanent result as already explained in the Prologue concerning the Incarnation (John 1:4, John 1:5, John 1:9, John 1:11). Jesus is the Light of the world. Loved darkness Job (Job 24:13) spoke of men rebelling against the light. Here πονηρα — to skotos common word for moral and spiritual darkness (1 Thessalonians 5:5), though Πονηρος — hē skotia in John 1:5. “Darkness” is common in John as a metaphor for the state of sinners (John 8:12; John 12:35, John 12:46; 1 John 1:6; 1 John 2:8, 1 John 2:9, 1 John 2:11). Jesus himself is the only moral and spiritual light of the world (John 8:12) as he dared claim to his enemies. The pathos of it all is that men fall in love with the darkness of sin and rebel against the light like denizens of the underworld, “for their works were evil In the end the god of this world blinds men‘s eyes so that they do not see the light (2 Corinthians 4:4). The fish in the Mammoth Cave have no longer eyes, but only sockets where eyes used to be. The evil one has a powerful grip on the world (1 John 5:19). [source]
Romans 8:29 Conformed to the image [συμμορπους της εικονος]
Late adjective from συν — sun and μορπη — morphē and so an inward and not merely superficial conformity. Εικων — Eikōn is used of Christ as the very image of the Father (2 Corinthians 4:4; Colossians 1:15). See note on Philemon 2:6. for μορπη — morphē Here we have both μορπη — morphē and εικων — eikōn to express the gradual change in us till we acquire the likeness of Christ the Son of God so that we ourselves shall ultimately have the family likeness of sons of God. Glorious destiny. [source]
Romans 7:15 I know not [ου γινωσκω]
“I do not recognize” in its true nature. My spiritual perceptions are dulled, blinded by sin (2 Corinthians 4:4). The dual life pictured here by Paul finds an echo in us all, the struggle after the highest in us (“what I really wish,” ο τελω — ho thelō to practise it steadily, πρασσω — prassō) and the slipping into doing (ποιω — poiō) “what I really hate” (ο μισω — ho misō) and yet sometimes do. There is a deal of controversy as to whether Paul is describing his struggle with sin before conversion or after it. The words “sold under sin” in Romans 7:14 seem to turn the scale for the pre-conversion period. “It is the unregenerate man‘s experience, surviving at least in memory into regenerate days, and read with regenerate eyes” (Denney). [source]
Romans 8:29 He foreordained [προωρισεν]
First aorist active indicative of προοριζω — proorizō late verb to appoint beforehand as in Acts 4:28; 1 Corinthians 2:7. Another compound with προ — prȯ (for eternity). Conformed to the image (συμμορπους της εικονος — summorphous tēs eikonos). Late adjective from συν — sun and μορπη — morphē and so an inward and not merely superficial conformity. Εικων — Eikōn is used of Christ as the very image of the Father (2 Corinthians 4:4; Colossians 1:15). See note on Philemon 2:6. for μορπη — morphē Here we have both μορπη — morphē and εικων — eikōn to express the gradual change in us till we acquire the likeness of Christ the Son of God so that we ourselves shall ultimately have the family likeness of sons of God. Glorious destiny. That he might be Common idiom for purpose. First born among many brethren (πρωτοτοκον εν πολλοις αδελποις — prōtotokon en pollois adelphois). Christ is “first born” of all creation (Colossians 1:15), but here he is “first born from the dead” (Colossians 1:18), the Eldest Brother in this family of God‘s sons, though “Son” in a sense not true of us. [source]
1 Corinthians 8:5 Gods - lords []
Superhuman beings to whom these titles are given, as Ephesians 6:12; 2 Corinthians 4:4; John 12:31; John 14:30. [source]
2 Corinthians 4:6 To give the light of the knowledge [πρὸς φωτισμὸν τῆς γνώσεως]
Lit., for the illumination, as 2 Corinthians 4:4. In order that the knowledge may lighten. Knowledge, if not diffused, is not of the nature of light. [source]
2 Corinthians 4:4 Blinded [ετυπλωσεν]
First aorist active of τυπλοω — tuphloō old verb to blind They refused to believe The illumination, the enlightening. Late word from ποτιζω — photizō to give light, in Plutarch and lxx. In N.T. only in 2 Corinthians 4:4, 2 Corinthians 4:6. Accusative case of general reference here with the articular infinitive (εις το μη αυγασαι — eis to mē augasai that should not dawn). That is, if αυγασαι — augasai is intransitive as is likely, though it is transitive in the old poets (from αυγη — augē radiance. Cf. German Auge =eye). If it is transitive, the idea would be “that they should not see clearly the illumination, etc.” [source]
2 Corinthians 3:18 Beholding as in a glass [κατοπτριζόμενοι]
So American Rev. Rev., reflecting. Only here in the New Testament. The verb in the active voice means to show in a mirror; to cause to be reflected. In the middle voice, to took at or behold one's self in a mirror. Rev., reflecting seems to be preferred on internal grounds, as better suiting the comparison with the divine glory as mirrored in the unveiled face of Moses. But this is unwarranted by usage. Stanley, who adopts this rendering, admits that there is no actual instance of the sense of reflecting. This sense, however, is not sacrificed by the translation beholding, but is conveyed by the succeeding clause, changed into the same image, etc. As Heinrici observes, beholding expresses the fact from which the process of change into God's image proceeds. When Moses beheld Jehovah's glory, his own face reflected that glory. The mirror is the Gospel, which is called the Gospel of the glory of Christ, 2 Corinthians 4:4. [source]
2 Corinthians 4:4 The light [τον πωτισμον]
The illumination, the enlightening. Late word from ποτιζω — photizō to give light, in Plutarch and lxx. In N.T. only in 2 Corinthians 4:4, 2 Corinthians 4:6. Accusative case of general reference here with the articular infinitive That is, if αυγασαι — augasai is intransitive as is likely, though it is transitive in the old poets (from αυγη — augē radiance. Cf. German Auge =eye). If it is transitive, the idea would be “that they should not see clearly the illumination, etc.” [source]
Galatians 1:4 Out of this present evil world [ἐκ τοῦ αἰῶνος τοῦ ἐνεστῶτος πονηροῦ]
Lit. out of the world, the present (world which is ) evil. For αἰών ageor period, see John 1:9, and additional note on 2 Thessalonians 1:9. Here it has an ethical sense, the course and current of this world's affairs as corrupted by sin. Comp. 2 Corinthians 4:4. Ἑνεστῶτος , present, as contrasted with the world to come. Elsewhere we have ὁ νῦν αἰών thenow world (1 Timothy 6:17); ὁ αἰὼν τοῦκοσμοῦ theperiod of this world (Ephesians 2:2); ὁ αἰὼν οὗτος thisworld or age (Romans 7:2). Ἑνεστῶτος , not impending, as some expositors, - the period of wickedness and suffering preceding the parousia (2 Thessalonians 2:3), which would imply a limitation of Christ's atoning work to that period. Comp. 2 Thessalonians 2:2; 2 Timothy 3:1; 1 Corinthians 7:26. The sense of present as related to future is clear in Romans 8:38; 1 Corinthians 3:22; Hebrews 9:9. For the evil character of the present world as conceived by Paul, see Romans 12:2; 1 Corinthians 2:6; 2 Corinthians 4:4; Ephesians 2:2. [source]
Ephesians 6:12 Rulers of the darkness of this world [κοσμοκράτορας τοῦ σκότους τούτου]
Rev., more correctly, world-rulers of this darkness. World-Rulers only here. Compare John 14:30; John 16:11; 1 John 5:19; 2 Corinthians 4:4. [source]
Ephesians 1:19 According to the working of His mighty power [κατὰ τὴν ἐνέργειαν τοῦ κράτους τῆς ἰσχύος αὐτοῦ]
The A.V. frequently impairs the force of a passage by combining into a single conception two words which represent distinct ideas; translating two nouns by an adjective and a noun. Thus Philemon 3:21, vile body, glorious body, for body of humiliation, body of glory: Romans 8:21, glorious liberty, for liberty of the glory: 2 Corinthians 4:4, glorious gospel, for gospel of the glory: Colossians 1:11, glorious power, for power of the glory: 1 Peter 1:14, obedient children, for children of obedience: 2 Peter 2:14, cursed children, for children of cursing. So here, mighty power, for strength of might. The idea is thus diluted, and the peculiar force and distinction of the separate words is measurably lost. Rev., correctly, working of the strength of His might. For working, see on Colossians 1:29. For strength and might, see on 2 Peter 2:11; see on John 1:12. Strength ( κράτους ) is used only of God, and denotes relative and manifested power. Might ( ἰσχύος ) is indwelling strength. Working ( ἐνέργειαν ) is the active, efficient manifestation of these. Hence we have here God's indwelling power, which inheres in the divine nature (strength ); the relative quality or measure of this power (might ); and the efficient exertion of the divine quality (working ). The phrase, according to the working of the strength, etc., is to be connected with the exceeding greatness of His power. The magnitude of God's power toward believers is known in the operation of the strength of His might. [source]
Ephesians 6:12 The world-rulers of this darkness [τους κοσμοκρατορας του σκοτους τουτου]
This phrase occurs here alone. In John 14:30 Satan is called “the ruler of this world” In 2 Corinthians 4:4 he is termed “the god of this age” The word κοσμοκρατωρ — kosmokratōr is found in the Orphic Hymns of Satan, in Gnostic writings of the devil, in rabbinical writings (transliterated) of the angel of death, in inscriptions of the Emperor Caracalla. These “world-rulers” are limited to “this darkness” here on earth. The spiritual hosts of wickedness (τα πνευματικα της πονηριας — ta pneumatika tēs ponērias). No word for “hosts” in the Greek. Probably simply, “the spiritual things (or elements) of wickedness.” Πονηρια — Ponēria (from πονηρος — ponēros) is depravity (Matthew 22:18; 1 Corinthians 5:8). In the heavenly places Clearly so here. Our “wrestling” is with foes of evil natural and supernatural. We sorely need “the panoply of God” (furnished by God). [source]
Colossians 1:15 The image [εικων]
In predicate and no article. On εικων — eikōn see 2 Corinthians 4:4; 2 Corinthians 3:18; Romans 8:29; Colossians 3:10. Jesus is the very stamp of God the Father as he was before the Incarnation (John 17:5) and is now (Philemon 2:5-11; Hebrews 1:3). [source]
1 Timothy 1:11 The glorious gospel of the blessed God [τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τῆς δόξης τοῦ μακαρίου θεοῦ]
More correctly, the gospel of the glory, etc. The phrase as a whole has no parallel in N.T. The nearest approach to it is 2 Corinthians 4:4. Gospel of God is a Pauline phrase; but μακάριος blessedis not used of God by Paul, is not used of God by Paul, nor elsewhere outside of the pastorals, where it occurs twice, here and 1 Timothy 6:15. For blessed is not used of God by Paul, nor elsewhere outside of the Pastorals, where it occurs twice, here and 1 Timothy 6:15. For blessed see on Matthew 5:3. The appearing of the glory of God in Jesus Christ is the contents of the gospel. Comp. Titus 2:13. [source]
1 Timothy 1:18 According to the prophecies which went before on thee [κατα τας προαγουσας επι σε προπητειας]
Intransitive use of προαγω — proagō to go before. When Timothy first comes before us (Acts 16:2) “he was testified to” Cognate accusative (στρατειαν — strateian old word from στρατευω — strateuō in N.T. only here and 2 Corinthians 4:4) with στρατευηι — strateuēi (second person singular middle present subjunctive of στρατευω — strateuō old verb chiefly in Paul in N.T., 1 Corinthians 9:7; 2 Corinthians 10:3). As if in defensive armour. [source]
Hebrews 10:1 Shadow [σκιαν]
The contrast here between σκια — skia (shadow, shade caused by interruption of light as by trees, Mark 4:32) and εικων — eikōn (image or picture) is striking. Christ is the εικων — eikōn of God (2 Corinthians 4:4; Colossians 1:15). In Colossians 2:17 Paul draws a distinction between σκια — skia for the Jewish rites and ceremonies and σωμα — sōma for the reality in Christ. Children are fond of shadow pictures. The law gives only a dim outline of the good things to come (Hebrews 9:11). Continually See this phrase also in Hebrews 7:3; Hebrews 9:12, Hebrews 9:14. Nowhere else in N.T. From διηνεγκα — diēnegka This reading leaves ο νομος — ho nomos a nominativus pendens (an anacoluthon). But many MSS. read δυναται — dunatai (it - the law - can). For the idea and use of τελειωσαι — teleiōsai see Hebrews 9:9. [source]
James 1:16 Be not deceived [μη πλαναστε]
Prohibition with μη — mē and the present passive imperative of πλαναω — planaō common verb to lead astray. This is the way of sin to deceive and to kill (Romans 7:7-14). The devil is a pastmaster at blinding men‘s eyes about sin (2 Corinthians 4:4; Romans 1:27; Ephesians 4:14; etc.). [source]
1 John 2:11 Blinded [ετυπλωσεν]
First aorist active indicative of τυπλοω — tuphloō the very verb and form used in 2 Corinthians 4:4 of the god of this age to keep men from beholding the illumination of the gospel of the glory of Christ who is the image of God. The first part of the verse repeats 1 John 2:9, but adds this vivid touch of the blinding power of darkness. In the Mammoth Cave of Kentucky the fish in Echo River have eye-sockets, but no eyes. [source]
1 John 4:4 Because [οτι]
The reason for the victory lies in God, who abides in them (1 John 3:20, 1 John 3:24; John 14:20; John 15:4.). God is greater than Satan, “he that is in the world” (ο εν τωι κοσμωι — ho en tōi kosmōi), the prince of this world (John 12:31; John 14:30), the god of this age (2 Corinthians 4:4), powerful as he seems. [source]
Revelation 13:14 An image to the beast [εἰκόνα τῷ θηρίῳ]
Εἰκών is a figure or likeness. Thus Matthew 22:20, of the likeness of Caesar on the coin. Romans 1:24, an image of men, birds, beasts, etc. Colossians 3:10, “the image of Him that created him;” i.e., the moral likeness of renewed men to God. Christ is called the image of God (Colossians 1:15; 2 Corinthians 4:4). Besides the idea of likeness, the word involves the idea of representation, though not of perfect representation. Thus, man is said to be the image of God (1 Corinthians 11:7). In this it resembles χαρακτήρ imagein Hebrews 1:3. Caesar's image on the coin, the reflection of the sun in the water (Plato, “Phaedo,” 99); and the statue or image of the beast in this passage, are εἰκών . The word also involves the idea of manifestation. Thus, Colossians 1:15, where, in the image there is an implied contrast with the invisible God. Hence Philo applied the term to the Logos. See on John 1:1. -DIVIDER-
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The word played an important part in the Arian controversy, in which the distinction was sharply emphasized between εἰκών imageas assuming a prototype, and therefore as properly representing the relation of the Son to the Father, and ὁμοίωμα likenessas implying mere similitude, and not embodying the essential verity of the prototype. The image involves the likeness, but the likeness does not involve the image. The latter may imply only an accidental resemblance, while the former is a veritable representation. Christ is therefore the εἰκών of God. -DIVIDER-
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The image of the beast occurs ten times in Revelation; four times in this chapter, and in Revelation 14:9, Revelation 14:11; Revelation 15:2; Revelation 16:2; Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:4. -DIVIDER-
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Revelation 1:6 Glory and dominion [ἡ δόξα καὶ τὸ κράτος]
Rev., correctly, rendering the two articles, “the glory and the dominion.” The articles express universality: all glory; that which everywhere and under every form represents glory and dominion. The verb be (the glory) is not in the text. We may render either as an ascription, be, or as a confession, is. The glory is His. Δόξα glorymeans originally opinion or judgment. In this sense it is not used in Scripture. In the sacred writers always of a good or favorable opinion, and hence praise, honor, glory (Luke 14:10; Hebrews 3:3; 1 Peter 5:4). Applied to physical objects, as light, the heavenly bodies (Acts 22:11; 1 Corinthians 15:40). The visible brightness in manifestations of God (Luke 2:9; Acts 7:55; Luke 9:32; 2 Corinthians 3:7). Magnificence, dignity (Matthew 4:8; Luke 4:6). Divine majesty or perfect excellence, especially in doxologies, either of God or Christ (1 Peter 4:11; Judges 1:25; Revelation 4:9, Revelation 4:11; Matthew 16:27; Mark 10:37; Mark 8:38; Luke 9:26; 2 Corinthians 3:18; 2 Corinthians 4:4). The glory or majesty of divine grace (Ephesians 1:6, Ephesians 1:12, Ephesians 1:14, Ephesians 1:18; 1 Timothy 1:11). The majesty of angels (Luke 9:26; Judges 1:8; 2 Peter 2:10). The glorious condition of Christ after accomplishing His earthly work, and of the redeemed who share His eternal glory (Luke 24:26; John 17:5; Philemon 3:21; 1 Timothy 3:16; Romans 8:18, Romans 8:21; Romans 9:23; 2 Corinthians 4:17; Colossians 1:27).| Trench remarks upon the prominence of the doxological element in the highest worship of the Church as contrasted with the very subordinate place which it often occupies in ours. “We can perhaps make our requests known unto God, and this is well, for it is prayer; but to give glory to God, quite apart from anything to be directly gotten by ourselves in return, this is better, for it is adoration.” Dr. John Brown in his Memoir of his father, one of the very finest biographical sketches in English literature, records a formula used by him in closing his prayers on specially solemn occasions: “And now unto Thee, O Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, the one Jehovah and our God, we would - as is most meet - with the Church on earth and the Church in heaven, ascribe all honor and glory, dominion and majesty, as it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end, Amen” (“Horae Subsecivae”). Compare the doxologies in |1 Peter 4:11|; |Galatians 1:5|; |Revelation 4:9|, |Revelation 4:11|; |Revelation 5:13|; |Revelation 7:12|; |Judges 1:25|; |1 Chronicles 29:11|.|Forever and ever ( εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων )|Lit., unto the ages of the ages. For the phrase compare Galatians 1:5; Hebrews 13:21; 1 Peter 4:11. It occurs twelve times in Revelation, but not in John's Gospel or Epistles. It is the formula of eternity.|Amen ( ἀμὴν )|The English word is a transcription of the Greek and of the Hebrew. A verbal adjective, meaning firm, faithful. Hence ὁ ἀμὴν , the Amen, applied to Christ (Revelation 3:14). It passes into an adverbial sense by which something is asserted or confirmed. Thus often used by Christ, verily. John alone uses the double affirmation, verily, verily. See on John 1:51; see on John 10:1.| [source]

What do the individual words in 2 Corinthians 4:4 mean?

in whom the god of the age this has blinded the minds of the unbelieving so as for - not to beam forth the illumination of the gospel of the glory - of Christ who is [the] image of God
ἐν οἷς θεὸς τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου ἐτύφλωσεν τὰ νοήματα τῶν ἀπίστων εἰς τὸ μὴ αὐγάσαι τὸν φωτισμὸν τοῦ εὐαγγελίου τῆς δόξης τοῦ Χριστοῦ ὅς ἐστιν εἰκὼν Θεοῦ

οἷς  whom 
Parse: Personal / Relative Pronoun, Dative Masculine Plural
Root: ὅς 
Sense: who, which, what, that.
θεὸς  god 
Parse: Noun, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root: θεός  
Sense: a god or goddess, a general name of deities or divinities.
τοῦ  of  the 
Parse: Article, Genitive Masculine Singular
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
αἰῶνος  age 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Masculine Singular
Root: αἰών  
Sense: for ever, an unbroken age, perpetuity of time, eternity.
τούτου  this 
Parse: Demonstrative Pronoun, Genitive Masculine Singular
Root: οὗτος  
Sense: this.
ἐτύφλωσεν  has  blinded 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Active, 3rd Person Singular
Root: τυφλόω  
Sense: to blind, make blind.
νοήματα  minds 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Neuter Plural
Root: νόημα  
Sense: a mental perception, thought.
τῶν  of  the 
Parse: Article, Genitive Masculine Plural
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
ἀπίστων  unbelieving 
Parse: Adjective, Genitive Masculine Plural
Root: ἄπιστος  
Sense: unfaithful, faithless, (not to be trusted, perfidious).
εἰς  so  as  for 
Parse: Preposition
Root: εἰς  
Sense: into, unto, to, towards, for, among.
τὸ  - 
Parse: Article, Accusative Neuter Singular
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
αὐγάσαι  to  beam  forth 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Infinitive Active
Root: αὐγάζω 
Sense: to beam upon, irradiate.
φωτισμὸν  illumination 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Masculine Singular
Root: φωτισμός  
Sense: the act of enlightening, illumination.
τοῦ  of  the 
Parse: Article, Genitive Neuter Singular
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
εὐαγγελίου  gospel 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Neuter Singular
Root: εὐαγγέλιον  
Sense: a reward for good tidings.
τῆς  of  the 
Parse: Article, Genitive Feminine Singular
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
δόξης  glory 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Feminine Singular
Root: δόξα  
Sense: opinion, judgment, view.
τοῦ  - 
Parse: Article, Genitive Masculine Singular
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
Χριστοῦ  of  Christ 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Masculine Singular
Root: Χριστός  
Sense: Christ was the Messiah, the Son of God.
εἰκὼν  [the]  image 
Parse: Noun, Nominative Feminine Singular
Root: εἰκών  
Sense: an image, figure, likeness.
Θεοῦ  of  God 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Masculine Singular
Root: θεός  
Sense: a god or goddess, a general name of deities or divinities.