The Meaning of Matthew 19:28 Explained

Matthew 19:28

KJV: And Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, That ye which have followed me, in the regeneration when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.

YLT: And Jesus said to them, 'Verily I say to you, that ye who did follow me, in the regeneration, when the Son of Man may sit upon a throne of his glory, shall sit -- ye also -- upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel;

Darby: And Jesus said to them, Verily I say unto you, That ye who have followed me, in the regeneration when the Son of man shall sit down upon his throne of glory, ye also shall sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.

ASV: And Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, that ye who have followed me, in the regeneration when the Son of man shall sit on the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.

What does Matthew 19:28 Mean?

Study Notes

judging
Disclosing how the promise Isaiah 1:26 will be fulfilled when the kingdom is set up. The kingdom will be administered over Israel through the apostles, according to the ancient theocratic judgeship. Judges 2:18 .
regeneration
(Greek - ἀπόλλυμι = "re-creation," "making new)." The word occurs once again in Titus 3:5 . There it refers to the new birth or a believing person; here to the re-creation of the social order, and renewal of the earth; Isaiah 11:6-9 ; Romans 8:19-23 when the kingdom shall come. (See "Kingdom (O.T.),"
See Scofield " 1 Corinthians 15:24 "
judging
Disclosing how the promise Isaiah 1:26 will be fulfilled when the kingdom is set up. The kingdom will be administered over Israel through the apostles, according to the ancient theocratic judgeship. Judges 2:18 .
angel
( See Scofield Hebrews 1:4 ).
David
Kingdom in Old Testament, Summary:
I. Dominion over the earth before the call of Abraham
(1) Dominion over creation was given to the first man and woman ( Genesis 1:26 ); ( Genesis 1:28 ). Through the fall this dominion was lost, Satan becoming "prince of this world"; ( Matthew 4:8-10 ); ( John 14:30 ).
(2) After the flood, the principle of human government was established under the covenant with Noah
( See Scofield Psalms 22:1-3164 ).
Biblically this is still the charter of all Gentile government.
II. The Theocracy in Israel. The call of Abraham involved, with much else, the creation of a distinctive people through whom great purposes of God toward the race might be worked out.
(see "Israel" ( Genesis 12:1-3 ); ( Romans 11:26 ).
Among these purposes is the establishment of a universal kingdom. The order of the development of Divine rule in Israel is:
(1) The mediatorship of Moses ( Exodus 3:1-10 ); ( Exodus 19:9 ); ( Exodus 24:12 ).
(2) The leadership of Joshua ( Joshua 1:1-5 ).
(3) The institution of Judges ( Judges 2:16-18 ).
(4) The popular rejection of the Theocracy, and choice of a king -- Saul, ( 1 Samuel 8:1-7 ); ( 1 Samuel 9:12-17 ).
III. The Davidic kingdom
(1) The divine choice of David ( 1 Samuel 16:1-13 ).
(2) The giving of the Davidic Covenant ( 2 Samuel 7:8-16 ); ( Psalms 89:3 ); ( Psalms 89:4 ); ( Psalms 89:20 ); ( Psalms 89:21 ); ( Psalms 89:28-37 ).
(3) The exposition of the David Covenant by the prophets ( Isaiah 11:4-95 ); ( Isaiah 1:26 ); ( Zechariah 12:6-8 ).
See margin reference, "Kingdom" and references.
( See Scofield Isaiah 1:25 )
The kingdom as described by the prophets is:
a) Davidic, to be established under an heir of David, who is to be born of a virgin, therefore truly man, but also "Immanuel," "the mighty God, the everlasting Father, the Prince of Peace" ( Isaiah 7:13 ); ( Isaiah 7:14 ); ( Isaiah 9:6 ); ( Isaiah 9:7 ); ( Isaiah 11:1 ); ( Jeremiah 23:5 ); ( Ezekiel 34:23 ); ( Ezekiel 37:24 ); ( Hosea 3:4 ); ( Hosea 3:5 ).
b) A kingdom heavenly in origin, principle, and authority ( Daniel 2:34 ); ( Daniel 2:35 ); ( Daniel 2:44 ); ( Daniel 2:45 ) but set up on the earth, with Jerusalem as the capital; ( Isaiah 2:2-4 ); ( Isaiah 4:3 ); ( Isaiah 4:5 ); ( Isaiah 24:23 ); ( Isaiah 33:20 ); ( Isaiah 62:1-7 ); ( Jeremiah 23:5 ); ( Jeremiah 31:38-40 ); ( Joel 3:1 ); ( Joel 3:16 ); ( Joel 3:17 ).
c) The kingdom is to be established first over regathered, restored, and converted Israel, and then to become universal ( Psalms 2:6-8 ); ( 1618423510_2 ); ( Psalms 22:1-10 ); ( Isaiah 1:2 ); ( Isaiah 1:3 ); ( Isaiah 11:1 ); ( Isaiah 11:10-16 ); ( Isaiah 11:12 ); ( Jeremiah 23:5-8 ); ( Jeremiah 30:7-11 ); ( Ezekiel 20:33-40 ); ( Ezekiel 37:21-25 ); ( Zechariah 9:10 ); ( Zechariah 14:16-19 ).
d) The moral characteristics of the kingdom are to be righteousness and peace. The meek, not the proud, will inherit the earth; longevity will be greatly increased; the knowledge of the Lord will be universal; beast ferocity will be removed; absolute equity will be enforced; and outbreaking sin visited with instant judgment; while the enormous majority of earth's inhabitants will be saved ( Isaiah 11:4 ); ( Isaiah 11:6-9 ); ( Isaiah 65:20 ); ( Psalms 2:9 ); ( Isaiah 26:9 ); ( Zechariah 14:16-21 ). The New Testament ( Revelation 20:1-5 ); adds a detail of immense significance -- the removal of Satan from the scene. It is impossible to conceive to what heights of spiritual, intellectual, and physical perfection humanity will attain in this, its coming age of righteousness and peace. ( 1618423510_17 ); ( Psalms 72:1-10 ).
e) The kingdom is to be established by power, not persuasion, and is to follow divine judgment upon the Gentile world-powers ( Psalms 2:4-9 ); ( Isaiah 9:7 ); ( Daniel 2:35 ); ( Daniel 2:44 ); ( Daniel 2:45 ); ( Daniel 7:26 ); ( Daniel 7:27 ); ( Zechariah 14:1-19 ) ( See Scofield Zechariah 6:11 ).
f) The restoration of Israel and the establishment of the kingdom are connected with an advent of the Lord, yet future ( Deuteronomy 30:3-5 ); ( Psalms 2:1-9 ); ( Zechariah 14:4 ).
g) The chastisement reserved for disobedience in the house of David ( 2 Samuel 7:14 ); ( Psalms 89:30-33 ) fell in the captivities and world-wide dispersion, since which time, though a remnant returned under prince Zerubbabel, Jerusalem has been under the overlordship of Gentile. But the Davidic Covenant has not been abrogated ( Psalms 89:33-37 ) but is yet to be fulfilled. ( Acts 15:14-17 ).
angel
( See Scofield Hebrews 1:4 ).

Context Summary

Matthew 19:23-30 - Riches In The Kingdom
Money is not an unmixed good. It brings in its train many temptations. It is easier to bear poverty than wealth-easier to be a saint when life is hard than when prosperity lavishes her gifts.
When the Pope was showing St. Francis of Assisi the treasures of the Vatican, he remarked: "We can hardly say with the Apostle, "˜Silver and gold have we none.'" Francis replied aptly and incisively: "Yes, holy father, and I suppose we can hardly say either, "˜Rise up and walk.'" Often it is in the poverty of earthly circumstances that the soul becomes possessed of an authority which wealth cannot buy.
What compensations there will be hereafter in the times of the restitution of all things! See Acts 3:21. Then the unsatisfied yearnings for husband, wife, or child; the love which craved for love; the lonely, the homeless, the pilgrim, will neither hunger nor thirst, because the Lamb will lead him to the fountains of waters of life. [source]

Chapter Summary: Matthew 19

1  Jesus heals the sick;
3  answers the Pharisees concerning divorce;
10  shows when marriage is necessary;
13  receives the little children;
16  instructs the young man how to attain eternal life;
20  and how to be perfect;
23  tells his disciples how hard it is for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God;
27  and promises reward to those who forsake all to follow him

Greek Commentary for Matthew 19:28

In the regeneration [εν τηι παλινγενεσιαι]
The new birth of the world is to be fulfilled when Jesus sits on his throne of glory. This word was used by the Stoics and the Pythagoreans. It is common also in the mystery religions (Angus, Mystery Religions and Christianity, pp. 95ff.). It is in the papyri also. We must put no fantastic ideas into the mouth of Jesus. But he did look for the final consummation of his kingdom. What is meant by the disciples also sitting on twelve thrones is not clear. [source]
Have followed []
“Peter had said together the words we have left, we have followed. Jesus replies to them separately; for the latter was peculiar to the apostles, the former common to them with others” (Bengel). [source]
In the regeneration []
The final restitution of all things. To be construed with ye shall sit. [source]
Shall sit [καθίσῃ]
Or shall have taken his seat, which brings out more vividly the solemn inauguration of Christ's judgment. [source]

Reverse Greek Commentary Search for Matthew 19:28

Matthew 20:20 Then [τοτε]
Surely an inopportune time for such a request just after the pointed prediction of Christ‘s crucifixion. Perhaps their minds had been preoccupied with the words of Jesus (Matthew 19:28) about their sitting on twelve thrones taking them in a literal sense. The mother of James and John, probably Salome, possibly a sister of the Master‘s mother (John 19:25), apparently prompted her two sons because of the family relationship and now speaks for them. [source]
Mark 10:37 In thy glory [εν τηι δοχηι]
Matthew 20:21 has “in thy kingdom.” See note on Matthew 20:20 for the literal interpretation of Matthew 19:28. They are looking for a grand Jewish world empire with apocalyptic features in the eschatological culmination of the Messiah‘s kingdom. That dream brushed aside all the talk of Jesus about his death and resurrection as mere pessimism. [source]
Mark 3:14 He appointed twelve [εποιησεν δωδεκα]
This was a second selection out of those invited to the hills and after the night of prayer and after day came (Luke 6:13). Why he chose twelve we are not told, probably because there were twelve tribes in Israel. It was a good round number at any rate. They were to be princes in the new Israel (cf. Matthew 19:28; Luke 22:30; Revelation 21:14, Revelation 21:15). Luke (Luke 6:13-16) also gives the list of the twelve at this point while Matthew (Matthew 10:1-4) postpones giving the names till they are sent out in Galilee. There is a fourth list in Acts 1:13. See discussion of the names of the apostles on Matthew 10:1-4 and pp. 271-3 of my Harmony of the Gospels for Students of the Life of Christ. The three groups of four begin alike (Simon, Philip, James). There are some difficulties. [source]
Luke 6:20 Kingdom of God [ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ]
Matthew has kingdom of heaven, or of the heavens ( τῶν οὐρανῶν )a phrase used by him only, and most frequently employed by Christ himself to describe the kingdom; though Matthew also uses, less frequently, kingdom of God. The two are substantially equivalent terms, though the pre-eminent title was kingdom of God, since it was expected to be fully realized in the Messianic era, when God should take upon himself the kingdom by a visible representative. Compare Isaiah 40:9, “Behold your God. ” The phrase kingdom of Heaven was common in the Rabbinical writings, and had a double signification: the historical kingdom and the spiritual and moral kingdom. They very often understood by it divine worship; adoration of God; the sum of religious duties; but also the Messianic kingdom. The kingdom of God is, essentially, the absolute dominion of God in the universe, both in a physical and a spiritual sense. It is “an organic commonwealth which has the principle of its existence in the will of God” (Tholuck). It was foreshadowed in the Jewish theocracy. The idea of the kingdom advanced toward clearer definition from Jacob's prophecy of the Prince out of Judah (Genesis 49:10), through David's prophecy of the everlasting kingdom and the king of righteousness and peace (Daniel 7:14-27; Daniel 4:25; Daniel 2:44). In this sense it was apprehended by John the Baptist. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
The ideal kingdom is to be realized in the absolute rule of the eternal Son, Jesus Christ, by whom all things are made and consist (John 1:3; Colossians 1:16-20), whose life of perfect obedience to God and whose sacrificial offering of love upon the cross reveal to men their true relation to God, and whose spirit works to bring them into this relation. The ultimate idea of the kingdom is that of “a redeemed humanity, with its divinely revealed destiny manifesting itself in a religious communion, or the Church; asocial communion, or the state; and an aesthetic communion, expressing itself in forms of knowledge and art.”-DIVIDER-
This kingdom is both present (Matthew 11:12; Matthew 12:28; Matthew 16:19; Luke 11:20; Luke 16:16; Luke 17:21; see, also, the parables of the Sower, the Tares, the Leaven, and the Drag-net; and compare the expression “theirs, or yours, is the kingdom,” Matthew 5:3; Luke 6:20) and future (Daniel 7:27; Matthew 13:43; Matthew 19:28; Matthew 25:34; Matthew 26:29; Mark 9:47; 2 Peter 1:11; 1 Corinthians 6:9; Revelation 20:1-15 sq.). As a present kingdom it is incomplete and in process of development. It is expanding in society like the grain of mustard seed (Matthew 13:31, Matthew 13:32); working toward the pervasion of society like the leaven in the lump (Matthew 13:33). God is in Christ reconciling the world unto himself, and the Gospel of Christ is the great instrument in that process (2 Corinthians 5:19, 2 Corinthians 5:20). The kingdom develops from within outward under the power of its essential divine energy and law of growth, which insures its progress and final triumph against all obstacles. Similarly, its work in reconciling and subjecting the world to God begins at the fountain-head of man's life, by implanting in his heart its own divine potency, and thus giving a divine impulse and direction to the whole man, rather than by moulding him from without by a moral code. The law is written in his heart. In like manner the State and the Church are shaped, not by external pressure, like the Roman empire and the Roxnish hierarchy, but by the evolution of holy character in men. The kingdom of God in its present development is not identical with the Church. It is a larger movement which includes the Church. The Church is identified with the kingdom to the degree in which it is under the power of the spirit of Christ. “As the Old Testament kingdom of God was perfected and completed when it ceased to be external, and became internal by being enthroned in the heart, so, on the other hand, the perfection of the New Testament kingdom will consist in its complete incarnation and externalization; that is, when it shall attain an outward manifestation, adequately expressing, exactly corresponding to its internal principle” (Tholuck). The consummation is described in Revelation 21,22. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
[source]

Luke 22:30 And ye shall sit [κατησεστε]
But Westcott and Hort read in the text κατηστε — kathēsthe (present middle subjunctive with ινα — hina). The picture seems to be that given in Matthew 19:28 when Jesus replied to Peter‘s inquiry. It is not clear how literally this imagery is to be taken. But there is the promise of honour for the loyal among these in the end. [source]
John 1:51 Son of man []
See on Luke 6:22. Notice the titles successively applied to our Lord in this chapter: the greater Successor of the Baptist, the Lamb of God, the Son of God, the Messiah, the King of Israel. These were all given by others. The title Son of man He applies to Himself. In John's Gospel, as in the Synoptists, this phrase is used only by Christ in speaking of Himself; and elsewhere only in Acts 7:56, where the name is applied to Him by Stephen. It occurs less frequently in John than in the Synoptists, being found in Matthew thirty times, in Mark thirteen, and in John twelve. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
Jesus' use of the term here is explained in two ways. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
I. That He borrows the title from the Old Testament to designate Himself either: (a ) as a prophet, as in Ezekiel 2:1-3; Ezekiel 3:1, etc.; or (b ) as the Messiah, as prefigured in Daniel 7:13. This prophecy of Daniel had obtained such wide currency that the Messiah was called Anani, or the man of the clouds. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
(a.) This is untenable, because in Ezekiel, as everywhere in the Old Testament, the phrase Son of man, or Sons of men, is used to describe man under his human limitations, as weak, fallible, and incompetent by himself to be a divine agent. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
(b.) The allusion to Daniel's prophecy is admitted; but Jesus does not mean to say, “I am the Messiah who is prefigured by Daniel.” A political meaning attached in popular conception to the term Messiah; and it is noticeable throughout John's Gospel that Jesus carefully avoids using that term before the people, but expresses the thing itself by circumlocution, in order to avoid the complication which the popular understanding would have introduced into his work. See John 8:24, John 8:25; John 10:24, John 10:25. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
Moreover, the phrase Son of man was not generally applied to the Messiah. On the contrary, John 5:27and John 12:34show that it was set off against that term. Compare Matthew 16:13, Matthew 16:15. Son of God is the Messianic title, which, with one exception, appears in confessions (John 1:34, John 1:49; John 11:27; John 20:31). -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
In Daniel the reference is exclusively to the final stage of human affairs. The point is the final establishment of the divine kingdom. Moreover, Daniel does not say “the Son of man,” but “one like a Son of man.” Compare Revelation 1:13; Revelation 14:14, where also the article is omitted. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
II. The second, and correct explanation is that the phrase Son of man is the expression of Christ's self-consciousness as being related to humanity as a whole: denoting His real participation in human nature, and designating Himself as the representative man. It thus corresponds with the passage in Daniel, where the earthly kingdoms are represented by beasts, but the divine kingdom by a Son of man. Hence, too, the word ἄνθρωπος is purposely used (see on a man, John 1:30, and compare John 8:40). -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
While the human element was thus emphasized in the phrase, the consciousness of Jesus, as thus expressed, did not exclude His divine nature and claims, but rather regarded these through the medium of His humanity. He showed Himself divine in being thus profoundly human. Hence two aspects of the phrase appear in John, as in the Synoptists. The one regards His earthly life and work, and involves His being despised; His accommodation to the conditions of human life; the partial veiling of His divine nature; the loving character of His mission; His liability to misinterpretation; and His outlook upon a consummation of agony. On the other hand, He is possessed of supreme authority; He is about His Father's work; He reveals glimpses of His divine nature through His humanity; His presence and mission entail serious responsibility upon those to whom He appeals; and He foresees a consummation of glory no less than of agony. See Matthew 8:20; Matthew 11:19; Matthew 12:8, Matthew 12:32; Matthew 13:37; Matthew 16:13; Matthew 20:18; Matthew 26:64; Mark 8:31, Mark 8:38; Mark 14:21; Luke 9:26, Luke 9:58; Luke 12:8; Luke 17:22; Luke 19:10; Luke 22:69. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
The other aspect is related to the future. He has visions of another life of glory and dominion; though present in the flesh, His coming is still future, and will be followed by a judgment which is committed to Him, and by the final glory of His redeemed in His heavenly kingdom. See Matthew 10:23; Matthew 13:40sqq.; Matthew 16:27sqq.; Matthew 19:28; Matthew 24:27, Matthew 24:37, Matthew 24:44; Matthew 25:31sqq.; Mark 13:26; Luke 6:22; Luke 17:24, Luke 17:30; Luke 18:8; Luke 21:27. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
[source]

Acts 3:21 Restoration [αποκαταστασεως]
Double compound (απο κατα ιστημι — apoαποκατιστημι — kataπαλινγενεσια — histēmi), here only in the N.T., though common in late writers. In papyri and inscriptions for repairs to temples and this phrase occurs in Jewish apocalyptic writings, something like the new heaven and the new earth of Revelation 21:1. Paul has a mystical allusion also to the agony of nature in Romans 8:20-22. The verb apokathistēmi is used by Jesus of the spiritual and moral restoration wrought by the Baptist as Elijah (Matthew 17:11; Mark 9:12) and by the disciples to Jesus in Acts 1:6. Josephus uses the word of the return from captivity and Philo of the restitution of inheritances in the year of jubilee. As a technical medical term it means complete restoration to health. See a like idea in palingenesia (renewal, new birth) in Matthew 19:28; Titus 3:5. This universalism of Peter will be clearer to him after Joppa and Caesarea. [source]
Romans 4:13 Heir of the world [κληρονόμον κόσμου]
See on divided by lot, Acts 13:19; and see on inheritance, 1 Peter 1:4. “Paul here takes the Jewish conception of the universal dominion of the Messianic theocracy prefigured by the inheritance of Canaan, divests it of its Judaistic element, and raises it to a christological truth.” Compare Matthew 19:28, Matthew 19:29; Luke 22:30. The idea underlies the phrases kingdom of God, kingdom of Heaven. [source]
1 Corinthians 6:2 Shall judge the world [τον κοσμον κρινουσιν]
Future active indicative. At the last day with the Lord Jesus (Matthew 19:28; Luke 22:30). [source]
Titus 3:5 Through the washing of regeneration [δια λουτρου παλινγενεσιας]
Late and common word with the Stoics (Dibelius) and in the Mystery-religions (Angus), also in the papyri and Philo. Only twice in the N.T. (Matthew 19:28 with which compare αποκαταστασια — apokatastasia in Acts 3:21, and here in personal sense of new birth). For λουτρον — loutron see note on Ephesians 5:26, here as there the laver or the bath. Probably in both cases there is a reference to baptism, but, as in Romans 6:3-6, the immersion is the picture or the symbol of the new birth, not the means of securing it. [source]
Titus 3:5 By the washing of regeneration [διὰ λουτροῦ παλινγενεσίας]
Λουτρόν only here and Ephesians 5:26. It does not mean the act of bathing, but the bath, the laver. Παλινγενεσία only here and Matthew 19:28, where it is used of the final restoration of all things. The phrase laver of regeneration distinctly refers to baptism, in connection with which and through which as a medium regeneration is conceived as taking place. Comp. Romans 6:3-5. It is true that nothing is said of faith; but baptism implies faith on the part of its recipient. It has no regenerating effect apart from faith; and the renewing of the Holy Spirit is not bestowed if faith be wanting. [source]
Titus 3:5 According to his mercy he saved us [κατα το αυτου ελεος εσωσεν]
See Psalm 109:26; 1 Peter 1:3; Ephesians 2:4. Effective aorist active indicative of σωζω — sōzō Through the washing of regeneration (δια λουτρου παλινγενεσιας — dia loutrou palingenesias). Late and common word with the Stoics (Dibelius) and in the Mystery-religions (Angus), also in the papyri and Philo. Only twice in the N.T. (Matthew 19:28 with which compare αποκαταστασια — apokatastasia in Acts 3:21, and here in personal sense of new birth). For λουτρον — loutron see note on Ephesians 5:26, here as there the laver or the bath. Probably in both cases there is a reference to baptism, but, as in Romans 6:3-6, the immersion is the picture or the symbol of the new birth, not the means of securing it. And renewing of the Holy Spirit “And renewal by the Holy Spirit” (subjective genitive). For the late word ανακαινωσις — anakainōsis see note on Romans 12:2. Here, as often, Paul has put the objective symbol before the reality. The Holy Spirit does the renewing, man submits to the baptism after the new birth to picture it forth to men. [source]
Hebrews 4:16 Unto the throne of grace [τῷ θρόνῳ τῆς χάριτος]
The phrase N.T.oThrone of glory, Matthew 19:28; Matthew 25:31: of majesty, Hebrews 8:1. In Revelation throne occurs over forty times, either the throne, or his throne, or throne of God. Once throne of the beast, Revelation 16:10. Throne of grace expresses grace as the gift of divine power. [source]
Revelation 3:12 Pillar [στύλον]
The word occurs, Galatians 2:9; 1 Timothy 3:15; Revelation 10:1. The reference here is not to any prominence in the earthly church, as Galatians 2:9, but to blessedness in the future state. The exact meaning is doubtful. Some explain, he shall have a fixed and important place in the glorified church. Compare Matthew 19:28. Others emphasize the idea of stability, and find a possible local reference to the frequent earthquakes from which Philadelphia had suffered, and which had shaken its temples. Strabo says: “And Philadelphia has not even its walls unimpaired, but daily they are shaken in some way, and gaps are made in them. But the inhabitants continue to occupy the land notwithstanding their sufferings, and to build new houses.” Others again emphasize the idea of beauty. Compare 1 Peter 2:5, where the saints are described living stones. [source]
Revelation 2:13 Seat [θρόνος]
Rev., rightly, throne, which is a transcript of the Greek word. Better than seat, because it is intended to represent Satan as exercising dominion there. The word is used in the New Testament of a kingly throne (Luke 1:32, Luke 1:52; Acts 2:30): of the judicial tribunal or bench (Matthew 19:28; Luke 22:30): of the seats of the elders (Revelation 4:4; Revelation 11:16). Also, by metonymy, of one who exercises authority, so, in the plural, of angels (Colossians 1:16), thrones belonging to the highest grade of angelic beings whose place is in the immediate presence of God. [source]
Revelation 2:13 Where [πουοπου]
οπου — Pou is interrogative adverb used here in an indirect question as in John 1:39. που — Hopou is relative adverb referring to ο τρονος του Σατανα — pou Satan‘s throne Satan not simply resided in Pergamum, but his “throne” or seat of power of king or judge (Matthew 19:28; Luke 1:32, Luke 1:52). The symbol of Asklepios was the serpent as it is of Satan (Revelation 12:9; Revelation 20:2). There was, besides, a great throne altar to Zeus cut on the Acropolis rock, symbol of “rampant paganism” (Swete) and the new Caesar-worship with the recent martyrdom of Antipas made Pergamum indeed a very throne of Satan. [source]
Revelation 20:4 And they sat upon them [και εκατισαν επ αυτους]
First aorist active indicative of κατιζω — kathizō Another period here apparently synchronous (Revelation 20:7) with the confinement of Satan in the abyss. No subject is given for this plural verb. Apparently Christ and the Apostles (Matthew 19:28; Luke 22:30) and some of the saints (1 Corinthians 6:3), martyrs some hold. [source]
Revelation 20:5 Lived not until the thousand years should be finished [ουκ εζησαν αχρι τελεστηι τα χιλια ετη]
See Revelation 20:4 for the items here. “To infer from this statement, as many expositors have done, that the εζησαν — ezēsan of Revelation 20:4 must be understood of bodily resuscitation, is to interpret apocalyptic prophecy by methods of exegesis which are proper to ordinary narrative” (Swete). I sympathize wholly with that comment and confess my own ignorance therefore as to the meaning of the symbolism without any predilections for post-millennialism or premillennialism.This is the first resurrection (αυτη η αναστασις η πρωτη — hautē hē anastasis hē prōtē). Scholars differ as to the genuineness of this phrase. Accepting it as genuine, Swete applies it to “the return of the martyrs and confessors to life at the beginning of the Thousand Years.” According to this view the first resurrection is a special incident in the present life before the Parousia. It has no parallel with 1 Thessalonians 4:16, where the dead in Christ are raised before those living are changed. Some think that John here pictures the “Regeneration” (παλινγενεσια — palingenesia) of Matthew 19:28 and the “Restoration” (αποκαταστασις — apokatastasis) of Acts 3:21. No effort is here made to solve this problem, save to call attention to the general judgment out of the books in Revelation 20:12 and to the general resurrection in John 5:29; Acts 24:15. [source]
Revelation 20:5 This is the first resurrection [αυτη η αναστασις η πρωτη]
Scholars differ as to the genuineness of this phrase. Accepting it as genuine, Swete applies it to “the return of the martyrs and confessors to life at the beginning of the Thousand Years.” According to this view the first resurrection is a special incident in the present life before the Parousia. It has no parallel with 1 Thessalonians 4:16, where the dead in Christ are raised before those living are changed. Some think that John here pictures the “Regeneration” (παλινγενεσια — palingenesia) of Matthew 19:28 and the “Restoration” (αποκαταστασις — apokatastasis) of Acts 3:21. No effort is here made to solve this problem, save to call attention to the general judgment out of the books in Revelation 20:12 and to the general resurrection in John 5:29; Acts 24:15. [source]
Revelation 20:6 Priests of God and of Christ [ιερεις του τεου και του Χριστου]
As in Revelation 1:6; Revelation 5:10; Revelation 22:3, Revelation 22:5.Shall reign with him (βασιλευσουσιν μετ αυτου — basileusousin met' autou). As promised in the same passages. The servants of God are to be priests with Christ and to reign with him (Matthew 19:28). In Revelation 5:10 επι της γης — epi tēs gēs (upon earth) occurs, but this item does not appear here. “No hint is given as to where this service is to be rendered and this royalty to be exercised” (Swete). [source]
Revelation 20:6 Shall reign with him [βασιλευσουσιν μετ αυτου]
As promised in the same passages. The servants of God are to be priests with Christ and to reign with him (Matthew 19:28). In Revelation 5:10 επι της γης — epi tēs gēs (upon earth) occurs, but this item does not appear here. “No hint is given as to where this service is to be rendered and this royalty to be exercised” (Swete). [source]
Revelation 21:14 Twelve foundations [τεμελιους δωδεκα]
Foundation stones, old adjective (from τεμα — thema from τιτημι — tithēmi), here as in 1 Corinthians 3:11.; 2 Timothy 2:19, with λιτους — lithous (stones understood), though often neuter substantive to τεμελιον — themelion (Luke 6:48.; Acts 16:26). See Isaiah 28:16; Hebrews 11:10. Twelve because of the twelve apostles as foundation stones (Ephesians 2:20).On them (επ αυτων — ep' autōn). On the twelve foundation stones.Names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb Jesus had spoken of twelve thrones for the apostles (Matthew 19:28); names of all twelve are here written, not just that of Peter, as some would argue from Matthew 16:18. As a matter of fact, Christ is the corner stone or ακρογωνιαιον — akrogōniaion (1 Peter 2:6; 1 Corinthians 3:10; Ephesians 2:20), though rejected by the Sanhedrin (Matthew 21:42.). One may wonder if the name of Judas is on that stone or that of Matthias. [source]
Revelation 21:14 Names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb [ονοματα των δωδεκα αποστολων του αρνιου]
Jesus had spoken of twelve thrones for the apostles (Matthew 19:28); names of all twelve are here written, not just that of Peter, as some would argue from Matthew 16:18. As a matter of fact, Christ is the corner stone or ακρογωνιαιον — akrogōniaion (1 Peter 2:6; 1 Corinthians 3:10; Ephesians 2:20), though rejected by the Sanhedrin (Matthew 21:42.). One may wonder if the name of Judas is on that stone or that of Matthias. [source]
Revelation 3:21 To sit [κατισαι]
First aorist active infinitive of κατιζω — kathizō This promise grows out of the prophecy that the saints will share in the Messiah‘s rule, made to the twelve (Matthew 19:28; Luke 22:29.), repeated by Paul (1 Corinthians 6:2.), enlarged in Revelation 22:1-5 (to last forever, 2 Timothy 2:11.). James and John took this hope and promise literally (Mark 10:40) not metaphorically.As I also overcame (ως καγω ενικησα — hōs kagō enikēsa). First aorist active indicative of νικαω — nikaō looking back on the victory as over in the past. In John 16:33 before the Cross Jesus says Εγω νενικηκα τον κοσμον — Egō nenikēka ton kosmon (perfect active), emphasizing the abiding effect of the victory.Sat down “I took my seat” (Hebrews 1:3) where Christ is now (Revelation 22:3; Colossians 3:1). Cf. 1 John 5:4; Revelation 2:27. Each of these seven messages begins alike and ends alike. Each is the message of the Christ and of the Holy Spirit to the angel of the church. Each has a special message suited to the actual condition of each church. In each case the individual who overcomes has a promise of blessing. Christ the Shepherd knows his sheep and lays bare the particular peril in each case. [source]

What do the individual words in Matthew 19:28 mean?

- And Jesus said to them Truly I say to you that you - having followed Me in the regeneration when shall sit down the Son - of Man upon [the] throne of glory of Him will sit also you on twelve thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel
δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι ὑμεῖς οἱ ἀκολουθήσαντές μοι ἐν τῇ παλινγενεσίᾳ ὅταν καθίσῃ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐπὶ θρόνου δόξης αὐτοῦ καθήσεσθε καὶ ὑμεῖς ἐπὶ δώδεκα θρόνους κρίνοντες τὰς δώδεκα φυλὰς Ἰσραήλ

  - 
Parse: Article, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
Ἰησοῦς  Jesus 
Parse: Noun, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root: Ἰησοῦς  
Sense: Joshua was the famous captain of the Israelites, Moses’ successor.
εἶπεν  said 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Active, 3rd Person Singular
Root: λέγω  
Sense: to speak, say.
αὐτοῖς  to  them 
Parse: Personal / Possessive Pronoun, Dative Masculine 3rd Person Plural
Root: αὐτός  
Sense: himself, herself, themselves, itself.
Ἀμὴν  Truly 
Parse: Hebrew Word
Root: ἀμήν  
Sense: firm.
λέγω  I  say 
Parse: Verb, Present Indicative Active, 1st Person Singular
Root: λέγω 
Sense: to say, to speak.
ὑμῖν  to  you 
Parse: Personal / Possessive Pronoun, Dative 2nd Person Plural
Root: σύ  
Sense: you.
ὅτι  that 
Parse: Conjunction
Root: ὅτι  
Sense: that, because, since.
οἱ  - 
Parse: Article, Nominative Masculine Plural
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
ἀκολουθήσαντές  having  followed 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Participle Active, Nominative Masculine Plural
Root: ἀκολουθέω  
Sense: to follow one who precedes, join him as his attendant, accompany him.
μοι  Me 
Parse: Personal / Possessive Pronoun, Dative 1st Person Singular
Root: ἐγώ  
Sense: I, me, my.
παλινγενεσίᾳ  regeneration 
Parse: Noun, Dative Feminine Singular
Root: παλιγγενεσία 
Sense: new birth, reproduction, renewal, recreation, regeneration.
καθίσῃ  shall  sit  down 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Subjunctive Active, 3rd Person Singular
Root: καθίζω  
Sense: to make to sit down.
Υἱὸς  Son 
Parse: Noun, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root: υἱός  
Sense: a son.
τοῦ  - 
Parse: Article, Genitive Masculine Singular
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
ἀνθρώπου  of  Man 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Masculine Singular
Root: ἄνθρωπος  
Sense: a human being, whether male or female.
ἐπὶ  upon 
Parse: Preposition
Root: ἐπί  
Sense: upon, on, at, by, before.
θρόνου  [the]  throne 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Masculine Singular
Root: θρόνος  
Sense: a throne seat.
δόξης  of  glory 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Feminine Singular
Root: δόξα  
Sense: opinion, judgment, view.
αὐτοῦ  of  Him 
Parse: Personal / Possessive Pronoun, Genitive Masculine 3rd Person Singular
Root: αὐτός  
Sense: himself, herself, themselves, itself.
καθήσεσθε  will  sit 
Parse: Verb, Future Indicative Middle, 2nd Person Plural
Root: κάθημαι  
Sense: to sit down, seat one’s self.
καὶ  also 
Parse: Conjunction
Root: καί  
Sense: and, also, even, indeed, but.
δώδεκα  twelve 
Parse: Adjective, Accusative Masculine Plural
Root: δώδεκα  
Sense: twelve.
θρόνους  thrones 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Masculine Plural
Root: θρόνος  
Sense: a throne seat.
κρίνοντες  judging 
Parse: Verb, Present Participle Active, Nominative Masculine Plural
Root: κρίνω  
Sense: to separate, put asunder, to pick out, select, choose.
δώδεκα  twelve 
Parse: Adjective, Accusative Feminine Plural
Root: δώδεκα  
Sense: twelve.
φυλὰς  tribes 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Feminine Plural
Root: φυλή  
Sense: a tribe.
Ἰσραήλ  of  Israel 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Masculine Singular
Root: Ἰσραήλ  
Sense: the name given to the patriarch Jacob (and borne by him in addition to his former name).