The Meaning of Revelation 20:4 Explained

Revelation 20:4

KJV: And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given unto them: and I saw the souls of them that were beheaded for the witness of Jesus, and for the word of God, and which had not worshipped the beast, neither his image, neither had received his mark upon their foreheads, or in their hands; and they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years.

YLT: And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given to them, and the souls of those who have been beheaded because of the testimony of Jesus, and because of the word of God, and who did not bow before the beast, nor his image, and did not receive the mark upon their forehead and upon their hand, and they did live and reign with Christ the thousand years;

Darby: And I saw thrones; and they sat upon them, and judgment was given to them; and the souls of those beheaded on account of the testimony of Jesus, and on account of the word of God; and those who had not done homage to the beast nor to his image, and had not received the mark on their forehead and hand; and they lived and reigned with the Christ a thousand years:

ASV: And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given unto them: and I saw the souls of them that had been beheaded for the testimony of Jesus, and for the word of God, and such as worshipped not the beast, neither his image, and received not the mark upon their forehead and upon their hand; and they lived, and reigned with Christ a thousand years.

What does Revelation 20:4 Mean?

Verse Meaning

John saw a new scene. The purpose of the thrones that John saw was twofold: ruling and judging (cf. Daniel 7:9-10; Daniel 7:22; Matthew 19:28). Those sitting on them are probably the faithful saints who have returned with Christ to the earth ( Revelation 19:7-8; Revelation 19:14; Revelation 19:19; cf. Revelation 2:26-28; Revelation 3:12; Revelation 3:21). [1] Other views are that they are the24elders viewed as representatives of the church, [2] Tribulation saints, [3] or the apostles and perhaps some other saints. [4] They receive authority from God to take charge of the earth, the beast"s domain, under Christ"s rule.
John also saw the souls of some people not yet resurrected. These are quite clearly Tribulation martyrs who died because they held steadfastly to the testimony that Jesus bore and the word of God (cf. Revelation 6:9; Revelation 12:17; Revelation 18:24; Revelation 19:2). [5] They refused to take the mark of the beast or to worship his image and had died for their faith ( Revelation 13:15). John saw them come back to life; that Isaiah , they experienced bodily resurrection (cf. Revelation 20:5; Revelation 1:18; Revelation 2:8; Revelation 13:14; John 11:25; Acts 1:3; Acts 9:41). [6] Moreover these martyrs will reign with Christ on earth during the Millennium (cf. Revelation 5:10). The name "Christ" (Anointed One) looks back to Psalm 2:2 here, as it does wherever it occurs in Revelation ( Revelation 11:15; Revelation 12:10; Revelation 20:6), tying this reign to Old Testament expectations of God"s kingdom on earth.
"They who were once judged by earth"s courts to be worthy of death are now the judges of the earth under Christ." [7]
Many amillennialists believe this reign of Christ refers to His spiritual reign over the hearts of His people or the triumph of the martyrs in a symbolic sense. There are four good reasons why Jesus Christ"s reign will be a physical, earthly reign rather than a spiritual, heavenly one. First, Christ will be on earth after He returns ( Revelation 19:11-16). Second, at the end of His reign the saints, who reign with Him, will still be on the earth ( Revelation 20:9). Third, God promised the saints an earthly reign ( Revelation 5:10). Fourth, the Old Testament Messianic prophecies anticipated an earthly kingdom (e.g, 2 Samuel 7:10-16; Psalm 2:8; Isaiah 65:17 to Isaiah 66:24; Daniel 7:27; et al.).

Context Summary

Revelation 20:1-6 - The Millennial Reign
In the preceding chapter the beast and the false prophet are depicted as meeting their punishment in the lake of fire. In this, the devil, death, and Hades are consigned to a similar fate. The imagery is apparently drawn from that fearful tragedy which left so deep an impression on the ancient world. See Genesis 14:10; Genesis 19:24; Judges 1:7. The last reference is especially interesting, because there the fate of the cities of the plain is quoted as an example of eternal fire. May it be ours to participate in the first resurrection!
Let our loins be girded and our lamps trimmed, that we may be found of Christ in peace, at our posts, and prepare to enter with Him into the bridal feast. This is a more solemn and critical consideration than the majority of Christians seem to suppose. In fellowship with their Lord, His people are to exert in a godly direction the same kind of influence over the affairs of men, as the rulers of darkness in an ungodly sense now exercise. Thank God, every morning brings that blessed day nearer. [source]

Chapter Summary: Revelation 20

1  Satan bound for a thousand years
6  The first resurrection;
7  Satan let loose again
8  Gog and Magog
10  The demons cast into the lake of fire and brimstone
11  The last and general resurrection

Greek Commentary for Revelation 20:4

And they sat upon them [και εκατισαν επ αυτους]
First aorist active indicative of κατιζω — kathizō Another period here apparently synchronous (Revelation 20:7) with the confinement of Satan in the abyss. No subject is given for this plural verb. Apparently Christ and the Apostles (Matthew 19:28; Luke 22:30) and some of the saints (1 Corinthians 6:3), martyrs some hold. [source]
Judgment was given unto them [κριμα εδοτη αυτοις]
First aorist passive of διδωμι — didōmi Picture of the heavenly court of assizes.The souls (τας πσυχας — tas psuchas). Accusative after ειδον — eidon at the beginning of the verse.Of them that had been beheaded Genitive of the articular perfect passive participle of πελεκιζω — pelekizō old word (from πελεκυς — pelekus an axe, the traditional instrument for execution in republican Rome, but later supplanted by the sword), to cut off with an axe, here only in N.T. See Revelation 6:9; Revelation 18:24; Revelation 19:2 for previous mention of these martyrs for the witness of Jesus (Revelation 1:9; Revelation 12:17; Revelation 19:10). Others also besides martyrs shared in Christ‘s victory, those who refused to worship the beast or wear his mark as in Revelation 13:15; Revelation 14:9.; Revelation 16:2; Revelation 19:20.And they lived (και εζησαν — kai ezēsan). First aorist active indicative of ζαω — zaō If the ingressive aorist, it means “came to life” or “lived again” as in Revelation 2:8 and so as to Revelation 20:5. If it is the constative aorist here and in Revelation 20:5, then it could mean increased spiritual life. See John 5:21-29 for the double sense of life and death (now literal, now spiritual) precisely as we have the second death in Revelation 2:11; Revelation 20:6, Revelation 20:14.And reigned with Christ Same use of the first aorist active indicative of βασιλευω — basileuō but more clearly constative. Beckwith and Swete take this to apply solely to the martyrs, the martyrs‘ reign with Christ. [source]
The souls [τας πσυχας]
Accusative after ειδον — eidon at the beginning of the verse. [source]
Of them that had been beheaded [των πεπελεκισμενων]
Genitive of the articular perfect passive participle of πελεκιζω — pelekizō old word (from πελεκυς — pelekus an axe, the traditional instrument for execution in republican Rome, but later supplanted by the sword), to cut off with an axe, here only in N.T. See Revelation 6:9; Revelation 18:24; Revelation 19:2 for previous mention of these martyrs for the witness of Jesus (Revelation 1:9; Revelation 12:17; Revelation 19:10). Others also besides martyrs shared in Christ‘s victory, those who refused to worship the beast or wear his mark as in Revelation 13:15; Revelation 14:9.; Revelation 16:2; Revelation 19:20.And they lived (και εζησαν — kai ezēsan). First aorist active indicative of ζαω — zaō If the ingressive aorist, it means “came to life” or “lived again” as in Revelation 2:8 and so as to Revelation 20:5. If it is the constative aorist here and in Revelation 20:5, then it could mean increased spiritual life. See John 5:21-29 for the double sense of life and death (now literal, now spiritual) precisely as we have the second death in Revelation 2:11; Revelation 20:6, Revelation 20:14.And reigned with Christ Same use of the first aorist active indicative of βασιλευω — basileuō but more clearly constative. Beckwith and Swete take this to apply solely to the martyrs, the martyrs‘ reign with Christ. [source]
And they lived [και εζησαν]
First aorist active indicative of ζαω — zaō If the ingressive aorist, it means “came to life” or “lived again” as in Revelation 2:8 and so as to Revelation 20:5. If it is the constative aorist here and in Revelation 20:5, then it could mean increased spiritual life. See John 5:21-29 for the double sense of life and death (now literal, now spiritual) precisely as we have the second death in Revelation 2:11; Revelation 20:6, Revelation 20:14. [source]
And reigned with Christ [και εβασιλευσαν μετα του Χριστου]
Same use of the first aorist active indicative of βασιλευω — basileuō but more clearly constative. Beckwith and Swete take this to apply solely to the martyrs, the martyrs‘ reign with Christ. [source]
Thrones []
See on Revelation 2:13. [source]
They sat []
All the faithful members of Christ's Church. Compare they reigned with Christ. [source]
Beheaded [πεπελεκισμένων]
From πέλεκυς anax. Only here in the New Testament. [source]
They lived []
Equivalent to lived again. Compare Revelation 20:5. [source]

Reverse Greek Commentary Search for Revelation 20:4

John 5:24 Hath eternal life [εχει ζωην αιωνιον]
Has now this spiritual life which is endless. See John 3:36. In John 5:24, John 5:25 Jesus speaks of spiritual life and spiritual death. In this passage (John 5:21-29) Jesus speaks now of physical life and death, now of spiritual, and one must notice carefully the quick transition. In Revelation 20:14 we have the phrase “the second death” with which language compare Revelation 20:4-6. But hath passed out of death into life Perfect active indicative of μεταβαινω — metabainō to pass from one place or state to another. Out of spiritual death into spiritual life and so no judgment (κρισις — krisis). [source]
1 Peter 3:19 To the spirits [πνεύμασιν]
As in Hebrews 12:23, of disembodied spirits, though the word ψυχαὶ , souls, is used elsewhere (Revelation 6:9; Revelation 20:4). [source]
2 Peter 3:8 Forget not this one thing [εν τουτο μη λαντανετω υμας]
Rather, “let not this one thing escape you.” For λαντανετω — lanthanetō (present active imperative of λαντανω — lanthanō) see 2 Peter 3:5. The “one thing” It may come tomorrow; but what is tomorrow? What does God mean by a day? It may be a thousand years” (Bigg). Precisely the same argument applies to those who argue for a literal interpretation of the thousand years in Revelation 20:4-6. It may be a day or a day may be a thousand years. God‘s clock (παρα κυριωι — para kuriōi beside the Lord) does not run by our timepieces. The scoffers scoff ignorantly. [source]
Revelation 7:4 An hundred and forty and four thousand []
Not literally, but the number symbolical of fixedness and full completion (12 x 12). The interpretations, as usual, vary greatly, dividing generally into two great classes: one holding that only Jews are meant, the other including the whole number of the elect both Jew and Gentile. Of the former class some regard the sealed as representing Jewish believers chosen out of the literal Israel. Others add to this the idea of these as forming the nucleus of glorified humanity to which the Gentiles are joined. Others again regard them as Jews reserved by God until Antichrist comes, to maintain in the bosom of their nation a true belief in Jehovah and His law, like the seven thousand in the days of Elijah. The interpretation of the latter class seems entitled to the greater weight. According to the Apocalyptic usage, Jewish terms are “christianized and heightened in their meaning, and the word “Israel” is to be understood of all Christians, the blessed company of all faithful people, the true Israel of God.” See Romans 2:28, Romans 2:29; Romans 9:6, Romans 9:7; Galatians 6:16; Philemon 3:3. The city of God, which includes all believers, is designated by the Jewish name, New Jerusalem. In Revelation 7:3, the sealed are designated generally as the servants of God. In chapter 14 the one hundred and forty-four thousand sealed are mentioned after the description of the enemies of Christ, who have reference to the whole Church of Christ; and the mention of the sealed is followed by the world-wide harvest and vintage of the earth. The one hundred and forty-four thousand in chapter 14, have the Father's name written in their foreheads; and in Revelation 22:4, all the inhabitants of the New Jerusalem are so marked. In Revelation 21:12, the twelve tribes include all believers. The mark of Satan which is in the forehead, is set upon all his servants without distinction of race. See Revelation 13:16, Revelation 13:17; Revelation 14:9; Revelation 16:2; Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:4. The plagues threaten both Jews and Gentiles, as the sealing protects all. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
[source]

Revelation 20:5 Lived - again [ἀνέζησαν]
Read ἔζησαν livedas in Revelation 20:4 [source]
Revelation 13:14 An image to the beast [εἰκόνα τῷ θηρίῳ]
Εἰκών is a figure or likeness. Thus Matthew 22:20, of the likeness of Caesar on the coin. Romans 1:24, an image of men, birds, beasts, etc. Colossians 3:10, “the image of Him that created him;” i.e., the moral likeness of renewed men to God. Christ is called the image of God (Colossians 1:15; 2 Corinthians 4:4). Besides the idea of likeness, the word involves the idea of representation, though not of perfect representation. Thus, man is said to be the image of God (1 Corinthians 11:7). In this it resembles χαρακτήρ imagein Hebrews 1:3. Caesar's image on the coin, the reflection of the sun in the water (Plato, “Phaedo,” 99); and the statue or image of the beast in this passage, are εἰκών . The word also involves the idea of manifestation. Thus, Colossians 1:15, where, in the image there is an implied contrast with the invisible God. Hence Philo applied the term to the Logos. See on John 1:1. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
The word played an important part in the Arian controversy, in which the distinction was sharply emphasized between εἰκών imageas assuming a prototype, and therefore as properly representing the relation of the Son to the Father, and ὁμοίωμα likenessas implying mere similitude, and not embodying the essential verity of the prototype. The image involves the likeness, but the likeness does not involve the image. The latter may imply only an accidental resemblance, while the former is a veritable representation. Christ is therefore the εἰκών of God. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
The image of the beast occurs ten times in Revelation; four times in this chapter, and in Revelation 14:9, Revelation 14:11; Revelation 15:2; Revelation 16:2; Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:4. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
[source]

Revelation 1:9 For the word of God [διὰ τὸν λόγον τοῦ Θεοῦ]
For is because of: on account of. The expression is commonly explained with reference to John's banishment as a martyr for Christian truth. Some, however, especially those who desire to overthrow John's authorship of the book, explain that he was in Patmos for the sake of preaching the word there, or in order to receive a communication of the word of God. Apart, however, from the general tone of John's address, which implies a season of persecution, the phrase for the word of God occurs in two passages where the meaning cannot be doubtful; Revelation 6:9, and Revelation 20:4. [source]
Revelation 1:6 Kings [βασιλεῖς]
The correct reading is, βασιλείαν akingdom. The term King is never applied in the New Testament to individual Christians. The reigning of the saints is emphasized in this book. See Revelation 5:10; Revelation 20:4, Revelation 20:6; Revelation 22:5. Compare Daniel 7:18, Daniel 7:22. [source]
Revelation 1:2 The word of God [τον λογον του τεου]
Subjective genitive, given by God. The prophetic word as in Revelation 1:9; Revelation 6:9; Revelation 20:4, not the personal Word as in Revelation 19:14.The testimony of Jesus Christ (την μαρτυριαν Ιησου Χριστου — tēn marturian Iēsou Christou). Subjective genitive again, borne witness to by Jesus Christ.Even of all the things that he saw Relative clause in apposition with λογον — logon and μαρτυριαν — marturian f0). [source]
Revelation 12:17 With the woman [επι τηι γυναικι]
“At the woman,” “because of the woman.”Went away “Went off” in his rage to make war with the scattered followers of the Lamb not in the wilderness, perhaps an allusion to Genesis 3:15. The devil carries on relentless war with all those “which keep the commandments of God and hold the testimony of Jesus” These two marks excite the wrath of the devil then and always. Cf. Revelation 1:9; Revelation 6:9; Revelation 14:12; Revelation 19:10; Revelation 20:4.sa60 [source]
Revelation 12:17 Went away [απηλτεν]
“Went off” in his rage to make war with the scattered followers of the Lamb not in the wilderness, perhaps an allusion to Genesis 3:15. The devil carries on relentless war with all those “which keep the commandments of God and hold the testimony of Jesus” These two marks excite the wrath of the devil then and always. Cf. Revelation 1:9; Revelation 6:9; Revelation 14:12; Revelation 19:10; Revelation 20:4.sa60 [source]
Revelation 13:16 That there be given them [ινα δωσιν αυτοις]
Same use of ινα — hina after ποιεω — poieō as in Revelation 13:12, Revelation 13:15, only here with indefinite plural δωσιν — dōsin (second aorist active subjunctive), “that they give themselves,” as in Revelation 10:11; Revelation 12:6; Revelation 16:15.A mark (χαραγμα — charagma). Old word from χαρασσω — charassō to engrave, in Acts 17:29 of idolatrous images, but in Rev (Revelation 13:16, Revelation 13:17; Revelation 14:9, Revelation 14:11; Revelation 16:2; Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:4) of the brand of the beast on the right hand or on the forehead or on both. Deissmann (Bible Studies, pp. 240ff.) shows that in the papyri official business documents often have the name and image of the emperor, with the date as the official stamp or seal and with χαραγμα — charagma as the name of this seal. Animals and slaves were often branded with the owner‘s name, as Paul (Galatians 6:17) bore the stigmata of Christ. Ptolemy Philadelphus compelled some Alexandrian Jews to receive the mark of Dionysus as his devotees (3 Macc. 3:29). The servants of God receive on their foreheads the stamp of the divine seal (Revelation 7:3). Charles is certain that John gets his metaphor from the τεπιλλιν — tephillin (phylacteries) which the Jew wore on his left hand and on his forehead. At any rate, this “mark of the beast” was necessary for life and all social and business relations. On the right hand, that is in plain sight.Upon their forehead Accusative with επι — epi though genitive just before with χειρος — cheiros (hand). See note on Revelation 7:3 and note on Revelation 9:4 (genitive επι των μετωπων — epi tōn metōpōn). Only in the Apocalypse in N.T. [source]
Revelation 13:16 A mark [χαραγμα]
Old word from χαρασσω — charassō to engrave, in Acts 17:29 of idolatrous images, but in Rev (Revelation 13:16, Revelation 13:17; Revelation 14:9, Revelation 14:11; Revelation 16:2; Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:4) of the brand of the beast on the right hand or on the forehead or on both. Deissmann (Bible Studies, pp. 240ff.) shows that in the papyri official business documents often have the name and image of the emperor, with the date as the official stamp or seal and with χαραγμα — charagma as the name of this seal. Animals and slaves were often branded with the owner‘s name, as Paul (Galatians 6:17) bore the stigmata of Christ. Ptolemy Philadelphus compelled some Alexandrian Jews to receive the mark of Dionysus as his devotees (3 Macc. 3:29). The servants of God receive on their foreheads the stamp of the divine seal (Revelation 7:3). Charles is certain that John gets his metaphor from the τεπιλλιν — tephillin (phylacteries) which the Jew wore on his left hand and on his forehead. At any rate, this “mark of the beast” was necessary for life and all social and business relations. On the right hand, that is in plain sight. [source]
Revelation 15:2 Mingled with fire [μεμιγμενην πυρι]
Perfect passive participle of μιγνυμι — mignumi to mix, and the associative instrumental case πυρι — puri This item not in Revelation 4:6 (a vision of peace), but here it adds to the splendour of the vision. This parenthesis (Revelation 15:2-4) gives a picture of the martyrs in their state of bliss.Them that come off victorious (τους νικωντας — tous nikōntas). Present active articular participle of νικαω — nikaō accusative after ειδον — eidon “those that come off victorious” (Revelation 14:4).From the beast and from his image This use of εκ — ek after νικαω — nikaō is unusual, also with εκ του αριτμου — ek tou arithmou For these items see Revelation 13:1, Revelation 13:14, Revelation 13:17; Revelation 14:9, Revelation 14:11; Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:4.By the glassy sea (επι την ταλασσαν την υαλινην — epi tēn thalassan tēn hualinēn). Or “upon” more likely (Revelation 4:6) with the accusative as in Matthew 14:25.Harps of God Objective genitive, for the worship of God (Revelation 5:8; Revelation 14:2; 1 Chronicles 16:42). [source]
Revelation 15:2 From the beast and from his image [εκ του τηριου και εκ της εικονος αυτου]
This use of εκ — ek after νικαω — nikaō is unusual, also with εκ του αριτμου — ek tou arithmou For these items see Revelation 13:1, Revelation 13:14, Revelation 13:17; Revelation 14:9, Revelation 14:11; Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:4.By the glassy sea (επι την ταλασσαν την υαλινην — epi tēn thalassan tēn hualinēn). Or “upon” more likely (Revelation 4:6) with the accusative as in Matthew 14:25.Harps of God Objective genitive, for the worship of God (Revelation 5:8; Revelation 14:2; 1 Chronicles 16:42). [source]
Revelation 19:20 He deceived [επλανησεν]
First aorist active indicative of πλαναω — planaō He was only able to deceive “them that had received” (τους λαβοντας — tous labontas articular second aorist active participle of λαμβανω — lambanō “those receiving”) “the mark of the beast” (Revelation 13:16; Revelation 14:9.; Revelation 16:2; Revelation 20:4) “and them that worshipped his image” (τους προσκυνουντας τηι εικονι αυτου — tous proskunountas tēi eikoni autou) as in Revelation 13:15. [source]
Revelation 20:9 They went up [ανεβησαν]
Second aorist active indicative of αναβαινω — anabainō a return to the manner of the seer as in Revelation 20:4, Revelation 20:5. [source]
Revelation 22:5 They shall reign [βασιλευσουσιν]
Future active of βασιλευω — basileuō Reign eternally in contrast with the limited millennial reign of Revelation 20:4, Revelation 20:6. This glorious eternal reign with Christ occurs repeatedly in the book (Revelation 1:6; Revelation 3:21; Revelation 5:10) as in Luke 22:30. Christ‘s Kingdom is spiritual (John 18:36.). “The visions of the Apocalypse are now ended; they have reached their climax in the New Jerusalem” (Swete). Now John gives the parting utterances of some of the speakers, and it is not always clear who is speaking. [source]
Revelation 19:20 The false prophet [ο πσευδοπροπητης]
Possibly the second beast of Revelation 13:11-17; Revelation 16:13; Revelation 20:10. Charles takes him to be “the priesthood of the Imperial cult, which practised all kinds of magic and imposture to beguile men to worship the Beast.”That wrought the signs in his sight (ο ποιεσας τα σημεια ενωπιον αυτου — ho poiesas ta sēmeia enōpion autou). As in Revelation 13:14.Wherewith “In which” signs.He deceived (επλανησεν — eplanēsen). First aorist active indicative of πλαναω — planaō He was only able to deceive “them that had received” (τους λαβοντας — tous labontas articular second aorist active participle of λαμβανω — lambanō “those receiving”) “the mark of the beast” (Revelation 13:16; Revelation 14:9.; Revelation 16:2; Revelation 20:4) “and them that worshipped his image” (τους προσκυνουντας τηι εικονι αυτου — tous proskunountas tēi eikoni autou) as in Revelation 13:15.They twain “The two.”Were cast (εβλητησαν — eblēthēsan). First aorist passive Indicative of βαλλω — ballō They fall together as they fought together. “The day that sees the end of a false statecraft will see also that of a false priestcraft” (Swete).Alive Present active participle of ζαω — zaō predicative nominative, “living.”Into the lake of fire (εις την λιμνην του πυρος — eis tēn limnēn tou puros). Genitive πυρος — puros describes this λιμνην — limnēn (lake, cf. Luke 5:1) as it does γεεννα — gehenna in Matthew 5:22. See also Revelation 20:10; Revelation 21:8. It is a different figure from the “abyss” in Revelation 9:1; Revelation 20:1. This is the final abode of Satan, the beast, the false prophet, and wicked men.That burneth with brimstone Note the genitive here in place of the accusative λιμνην — limnēn perhaps because of the intervening genitive πυρος — puros (neuter, not feminine). The agreement is regular in Revelation 21:8. For εν τειωι — en theiōi (with brimstone) see Revelation 14:10; Revelation 20:10; Revelation 21:8. The fact of hell is clearly taught here, but the imagery is not to be taken literally any more than that of heaven in chapters Revelation 4:1-11; Revelation 5:1-14; 21; 22 is to be so understood. Both fall short of the reality. [source]
Revelation 19:20 Wherewith [εν οις]
“In which” signs.He deceived (επλανησεν — eplanēsen). First aorist active indicative of πλαναω — planaō He was only able to deceive “them that had received” (τους λαβοντας — tous labontas articular second aorist active participle of λαμβανω — lambanō “those receiving”) “the mark of the beast” (Revelation 13:16; Revelation 14:9.; Revelation 16:2; Revelation 20:4) “and them that worshipped his image” (τους προσκυνουντας τηι εικονι αυτου — tous proskunountas tēi eikoni autou) as in Revelation 13:15.They twain “The two.”Were cast (εβλητησαν — eblēthēsan). First aorist passive Indicative of βαλλω — ballō They fall together as they fought together. “The day that sees the end of a false statecraft will see also that of a false priestcraft” (Swete).Alive Present active participle of ζαω — zaō predicative nominative, “living.”Into the lake of fire (εις την λιμνην του πυρος — eis tēn limnēn tou puros). Genitive πυρος — puros describes this λιμνην — limnēn (lake, cf. Luke 5:1) as it does γεεννα — gehenna in Matthew 5:22. See also Revelation 20:10; Revelation 21:8. It is a different figure from the “abyss” in Revelation 9:1; Revelation 20:1. This is the final abode of Satan, the beast, the false prophet, and wicked men.That burneth with brimstone Note the genitive here in place of the accusative λιμνην — limnēn perhaps because of the intervening genitive πυρος — puros (neuter, not feminine). The agreement is regular in Revelation 21:8. For εν τειωι — en theiōi (with brimstone) see Revelation 14:10; Revelation 20:10; Revelation 21:8. The fact of hell is clearly taught here, but the imagery is not to be taken literally any more than that of heaven in chapters Revelation 4:1-11; Revelation 5:1-14; 21; 22 is to be so understood. Both fall short of the reality. [source]
Revelation 20:5 Lived not until the thousand years should be finished [ουκ εζησαν αχρι τελεστηι τα χιλια ετη]
See Revelation 20:4 for the items here. “To infer from this statement, as many expositors have done, that the εζησαν — ezēsan of Revelation 20:4 must be understood of bodily resuscitation, is to interpret apocalyptic prophecy by methods of exegesis which are proper to ordinary narrative” (Swete). I sympathize wholly with that comment and confess my own ignorance therefore as to the meaning of the symbolism without any predilections for post-millennialism or premillennialism.This is the first resurrection (αυτη η αναστασις η πρωτη — hautē hē anastasis hē prōtē). Scholars differ as to the genuineness of this phrase. Accepting it as genuine, Swete applies it to “the return of the martyrs and confessors to life at the beginning of the Thousand Years.” According to this view the first resurrection is a special incident in the present life before the Parousia. It has no parallel with 1 Thessalonians 4:16, where the dead in Christ are raised before those living are changed. Some think that John here pictures the “Regeneration” (παλινγενεσια — palingenesia) of Matthew 19:28 and the “Restoration” (αποκαταστασις — apokatastasis) of Acts 3:21. No effort is here made to solve this problem, save to call attention to the general judgment out of the books in Revelation 20:12 and to the general resurrection in John 5:29; Acts 24:15. [source]
Revelation 3:7 He that hath the key of David [και ουδεις κλεισει]
This epithet comes from Isaiah 22:22, where Eliakim as the chief steward of the royal household holds the keys of power. Christ as the Messiah (Revelation 5:5; Revelation 22:16) has exclusive power in heaven, on earth, and in Hades (Matthew 16:19; Matthew 28:18; Romans 14:9; Philemon 2:9.; Revelation 1:18). Christ has power to admit and exclude of his own will (Matthew 25:10.; Ephesians 1:22; Revelation 3:21; Revelation 19:11-16; Revelation 20:4; Revelation 22:16). [source]
Revelation 4:2 Upon the throne [Επι]
επι του τρονου — Epi with the accusative, as in Revelation 4:4; Revelation 6:2, Revelation 6:4.; Revelation 11:16; Revelation 20:4, but in Revelation 4:9, Revelation 4:10; Revelation 5:1, Revelation 5:7; Revelation 6:16; Revelation 7:15 we have επι τωι τρονωι — epi tou thronou (genitive), while in Revelation 7:10; Revelation 19:4; Revelation 21:5 we have epi tōi thronōi (locative) with no great distinction in the resultant idea. [source]
Revelation 9:4 But only such men as [ει μη τους αντρωπους οιτινες]
“Except (elliptical use of ει μη — ei mē if not, unless) the men who (the very ones who).” For this use of οστις — hostis see Revelation 1:7; Revelation 2:24; Revelation 20:4.The seal of God upon their foreheads (την σπραγιδα του τεου επι των μετωπων — tēn sphragida tou theou epi tōn metōpōn). Provided for in Revelation 7:3. “As Israel in Egypt escaped the plagues which punished their neighbours, so the new Israel is exempted from the attack of the locusts of the Abyss” (Swete). [source]
Revelation 20:11 A great white throne [τρονον μεγαν λευκον]
Here μεγαν — megan (great) is added to the throne pictures in Revelation 4:4; Revelation 20:4. The scene is prepared for the last judgment often mentioned in the N.T. (Matt 25:31-46; Romans 14:10; 2 Corinthians 5:10). “The absolute purity of this Supreme Court is symbolized by the colour of the Throne” (Swete) as in Daniel 7:9; Psalm 9:1; Psalm 97:2. The name of God is not mentioned, but the Almighty Father sits upon the throne (Revelation 4:2., Revelation 4:9; Revelation 5:1, Revelation 5:7, Revelation 5:13; Revelation 6:16; Revelation 7:10, Revelation 7:15; Revelation 19:4; Revelation 21:5), and the Son sits there with him (Hebrews 1:3) and works with the Father (John 5:19-21; John 10:30; Matthew 25:31.; Acts 17:31; 2 Corinthians 5:10; 2 Timothy 4:1). [source]
Revelation 22:5 They need [εχουσιν χρειαν]
Present active indicative, “They have need,” though A has εχουσιν — hexousin (shall have), future like εσται — estai Here again there is repetition of part of Revelation 21:23, but for the purpose of showing the delightsomeness of the New Jerusalem with no need of lamp or sun (change to πως — phōs with ηλιου — hēliou instead of πωτος — phōtos “they have no light of sun”).Shall give them light (πωτισει — phōtisei). Future active of πωτιζω — phōtizō while aorist επωτισεν — ephōtisen in Revelation 21:23.They shall reign Future active of βασιλευω — basileuō Reign eternally in contrast with the limited millennial reign of Revelation 20:4, Revelation 20:6. This glorious eternal reign with Christ occurs repeatedly in the book (Revelation 1:6; Revelation 3:21; Revelation 5:10) as in Luke 22:30. Christ‘s Kingdom is spiritual (John 18:36.). “The visions of the Apocalypse are now ended; they have reached their climax in the New Jerusalem” (Swete). Now John gives the parting utterances of some of the speakers, and it is not always clear who is speaking. [source]
Revelation 3:7 The holy, he that is true [ο αγιοσ ο αλητινος]
Separate articles (four in all) for each item in this description. “The holy, the genuine.” Asyndeton in the Greek. Latin Vulgate, Sanctus et Verus. αγιος — Hosea hagios is ascribed to God in Revelation 4:8; Revelation 6:10 (both αλητινος — hagios and αλητινος — alēthinos as here), but to Christ in Mark 1:24; Luke 4:34; John 6:69; Acts 4:27, Acts 4:30; 1 John 2:20, a recognized title of the Messiah as the consecrated one set apart. Swete notes that αλητης — alēthinos is verus as distinguished from verax So it is applied to God in Revelation 6:10 and to Christ in Revelation 3:14; Revelation 19:11 as in John 1:9; John 6:32; John 15:1.He that hath the key of David (και ουδεις κλεισει — ho echōn tēn klein Daueid). This epithet comes from Isaiah 22:22, where Eliakim as the chief steward of the royal household holds the keys of power. Christ as the Messiah (Revelation 5:5; Revelation 22:16) has exclusive power in heaven, on earth, and in Hades (Matthew 16:19; Matthew 28:18; Romans 14:9; Philemon 2:9.; Revelation 1:18). Christ has power to admit and exclude of his own will (Matthew 25:10.; Ephesians 1:22; Revelation 3:21; Revelation 19:11-16; Revelation 20:4; Revelation 22:16).And none shall shut Charles calls the structure Hebrew (future active indicative of ο ανοιγων — kleiō), and not Greek because it does not correspond to the present articular participle just before και ουδεις ανοιγει — ho anoigōn (the one opening), but it occurs often in this book as in the very next clause, “and none openeth” (κλειων — kai oudeis anoigei) over against κλειει — kleiōn (present active participle, opening) though here some MSS. read kleiei (present active indicative, open). [source]
Revelation 4:2 Was set [εκειτο]
Imperfect middle of κειμαι — keimai old verb, used as passive of τιτημι — tithēmi As the vision opens John sees the throne already in place as the first thing in heaven. This bold imagery comes chiefly from 1 Kings 22:19; Isaiah 6:1.; Ezekiel 1:26-28; Daniel 7:9. One should not forget that this language is glorious imagery, not actual objects in heaven. God is spirit. The picture of God on the throne is common in the O.T. and the N.T. (Matthew 5:34.; Matthew 23:22; Hebrews 1:3 and in nearly every chapter in the Revelation, Revelation 1:4, etc.). The use of κατημενος — kathēmenos (sitting) for the name of God is like the Hebrew avoidance of the name επι τον τρονον — Jahweh and is distinguished from the Son in Revelation 6:16; Revelation 7:10.Upon the throne (Επι — epi ton thronon). επι του τρονου — Epi with the accusative, as in Revelation 4:4; Revelation 6:2, Revelation 6:4.; Revelation 11:16; Revelation 20:4, but in Revelation 4:9, Revelation 4:10; Revelation 5:1, Revelation 5:7; Revelation 6:16; Revelation 7:15 we have επι τωι τρονωι — epi tou thronou (genitive), while in Revelation 7:10; Revelation 19:4; Revelation 21:5 we have epi tōi thronōi (locative) with no great distinction in the resultant idea. [source]
Revelation 7:3 Till we shall have sealed [αχρι σπραγισωμεν]
Temporal clause of indefinite action for the future with αχρι — achri (sometimes αχρις ου — achris hou or αχρις ου αν — achris hou an) and the aorist subjunctive as in Revelation 15:8; Revelation 20:3, Revelation 20:5 or the future indicative (Revelation 17:7), usually with the notion of ascent (up to) rather than extent like μεχρι — mechri (modal) sometimes occurs, but it is not necessary. But there is no futurum exactum idea in the aorist subjunctive, simply “till we seal,” not “till we shall have sealed.”Upon their foreheads (επι των μετωπων — epi tōn metōpōn). From Ezekiel 9:4. Old word (μετα ωπς — metaτους δουλους του τεου — ōps after the eye, above the eye, the space above or between the eyes), in N.T. only in the Apocalypse (Revelation 7:3; Revelation 9:4; Revelation 13:16; Revelation 14:1, Revelation 14:9; Revelation 17:5; Revelation 20:4; Revelation 22:4). For “the servants of God” (tous doulous tou theou) who are to be thus marked linked with angels in the service of God see Revelation 1:1; Revelation 2:20; Revelation 19:2, Revelation 19:5; Revelation 22:3, Revelation 22:6. [source]

What do the individual words in Revelation 20:4 mean?

And I saw thrones and they sat upon them judgment was given to them the souls of those having been beheaded because of the testimony of Jesus the word - of God those who not did worship the beast nor image of him not did take mark upon forehead hand of them they lived reigned with Christ a thousand years
‹Καὶ εἶδον θρόνους καὶ ἐκάθισαν ἐπ’ αὐτούς κρίμα ἐδόθη αὐτοῖς τὰς ψυχὰς τῶν πεπελεκισμένων διὰ τὴν μαρτυρίαν Ἰησοῦ τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ οἵτινες οὐ προσεκύνησαν τὸ θηρίον οὐδὲ εἰκόνα αὐτοῦ οὐκ ἔλαβον χάραγμα ἐπὶ μέτωπον χεῖρα αὐτῶν ἔζησαν ἐβασίλευσαν μετὰ χριστοῦ χίλια ἔτη›

εἶδον  I  saw 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Active, 1st Person Singular
Root: εἶδον 
Sense: to see with the eyes.
θρόνους  thrones 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Masculine Plural
Root: θρόνος  
Sense: a throne seat.
ἐκάθισαν  they  sat 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Active, 3rd Person Plural
Root: καθίζω  
Sense: to make to sit down.
ἐπ’  upon 
Parse: Preposition
Root: ἐπί  
Sense: upon, on, at, by, before.
κρίμα  judgment 
Parse: Noun, Nominative Neuter Singular
Root: κρίμα  
Sense: a decree, judgments.
ἐδόθη  was  given 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Passive, 3rd Person Singular
Root: διδῶ 
Sense: to give.
αὐτοῖς  to  them 
Parse: Personal / Possessive Pronoun, Dative Masculine 3rd Person Plural
Root: αὐτός  
Sense: himself, herself, themselves, itself.
ψυχὰς  souls 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Feminine Plural
Root: ψυχή  
Sense: breath.
τῶν  of  those 
Parse: Article, Genitive Masculine Plural
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
πεπελεκισμένων  having  been  beheaded 
Parse: Verb, Perfect Participle Middle or Passive, Genitive Masculine Plural
Root: πελεκίζω  
Sense: to cut off with an axe, to behead.
διὰ  because  of 
Parse: Preposition
Root: διά  
Sense: through.
μαρτυρίαν  testimony 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Feminine Singular
Root: μαρτυρία  
Sense: a testifying.
Ἰησοῦ  of  Jesus 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Masculine Singular
Root: Ἰησοῦς  
Sense: Joshua was the famous captain of the Israelites, Moses’ successor.
λόγον  word 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Masculine Singular
Root: λόγος  
Sense: of speech.
τοῦ  - 
Parse: Article, Genitive Masculine Singular
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
θεοῦ  of  God 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Masculine Singular
Root: θεός  
Sense: a god or goddess, a general name of deities or divinities.
οἵτινες  those  who 
Parse: Personal / Relative Pronoun, Nominative Masculine Plural
Root: ὅστις  
Sense: whoever, whatever, who.
προσεκύνησαν  did  worship 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Active, 3rd Person Plural
Root: προσκυνέω  
Sense: to kiss the hand to (towards) one, in token of reverence.
θηρίον  beast 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Neuter Singular
Root: θηρίον  
Sense: an animal.
οὐδὲ  nor 
Parse: Conjunction
Root: οὐδέ  
Sense: but not, neither, nor, not even.
εἰκόνα  image 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Feminine Singular
Root: εἰκών  
Sense: an image, figure, likeness.
αὐτοῦ  of  him 
Parse: Personal / Possessive Pronoun, Genitive Neuter 3rd Person Singular
Root: αὐτός  
Sense: himself, herself, themselves, itself.
ἔλαβον  did  take 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Active, 3rd Person Plural
Root: λαμβάνω  
Sense: to take.
χάραγμα  mark 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Neuter Singular
Root: χάραγμα  
Sense: a stamp, an imprinted mark.
ἐπὶ  upon 
Parse: Preposition
Root: ἐπί  
Sense: upon, on, at, by, before.
μέτωπον  forehead 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Neuter Singular
Root: μέτωπον  
Sense: the space between the eyes, the forehead.
χεῖρα  hand 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Feminine Singular
Root: χείρ  
Sense: by the help or agency of any one, by means of any one.
αὐτῶν  of  them 
Parse: Personal / Possessive Pronoun, Genitive Masculine 3rd Person Plural
Root: αὐτός  
Sense: himself, herself, themselves, itself.
ἔζησαν  they  lived 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Active, 3rd Person Plural
Root: ζάω  
Sense: to live, breathe, be among the living (not lifeless, not dead).
ἐβασίλευσαν  reigned 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Active, 3rd Person Plural
Root: βασιλεύω  
Sense: to be king, to exercise kingly power, to reign.
χριστοῦ  Christ 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Masculine Singular
Root: Χριστός  
Sense: Christ was the Messiah, the Son of God.
χίλια  a  thousand 
Parse: Adjective, Accusative Neuter Plural
Root: χίλιοι  
Sense: a thousand.
ἔτη›  years 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Neuter Plural
Root: ἔτος  
Sense: year.