Jesus did not mean that He and the Father were the same person of the Godhead. If He had meant that, He would have used the masculine form of the word translated "one" (Gr. heis). Instead He used the neuter form of the word (Gr. hen). He meant that He and the Father were one in their action. This explanation also harmonized with the context since Jesus had said that He would keep His sheep safe ( John 10:28) and His Father would keep them safe ( John 10:29). [source][source][source]
This verse has been at the center of serious discussions about Jesus" nature that have taken place over the centuries. Those who believe that Jesus was fully God and fully man (the orthodox) and those who believe that Jesus was not fully God (Arians) have appealed to it to support their positions. Therefore we need to look at it carefully. [source][source][source]
First, Jesus" claim to oneness does not in itself prove the Son"s unity in essence with the Father. In John 17:22, Jesus prayed that His disciples might be one as He and the Father were one, namely, in their purpose and beliefs. Second, other passages in the Gospel declare that the Father and the Son are one in more than just their purpose and beliefs (cf1 , 18; John 8:58; John 12:41; John 20:28). Third, the context of this verse also implies that Jesus did everything His Father did (cf. John 5:19) and that Jesus and the Father united in fulfilling a divine will and a divine task. Fourth, this Gospel has consistently presented Jesus as a unique Son of God, not one of many sons. Fifth, 17:55 uses the Father Son unity as the basis for the disciple disciple unity in the analogy, not the other way around, implying that the former is the more fundamental unity. [source]
In short, this verse does not say that Jesus was claiming to be of the same essence as God. Here He claimed to function in union with the Father. However the context and other statements in this Gospel show that His unity with the Father extended beyond a functional unity and did involve essential metaphysical unity. [source][source][source]
The Jews had asked Jesus for a plain statement about His messiahship. Jesus gave them far more, a claim that He fully and completely carried out the Father"s will, which strongly hinted at Jesus" deity. This statement is the climax of the preceding discussion ( John 10:22-29; cf. John 5:18; John 8:59). [source][source][source]
John 10:19-30 - Our Assurance Of Safe-Keeping
Our Lord did not shrink from the avowal of His divine origin and glory, when there was need or when they were challenged. See John 4:26; Matthew 26:64. For the most part, however, He wished men to exercise their own faculties of discernment and to accept Him, not because He told them what He was, but because they were inwardly convinced.
In John 10:27 we have three characteristics of His sheep-to hear, to be recognized by Him, and to follow; and in John 10:28 there are also three privileges which they enjoy-to possess eternal life, never to perish, never to be snatched away by man or devil.
Note the safety of those who really belong to Christ. They are not only in His hand, but in the Father's, because the Father and He are one. "Your life is hid with Christ in God." Here is a double protection. They may wander far, lose joy and comfort, fall on dark and stormy times, but He is responsible for them, will seek them out, and bring them home. This also is true-that our relationship with Jesus involves our relationship with the Father. But if any should presume to live carelessly because of this divine grace, it is clear that such a one is not one of Christ's sheep. [source]
Chapter Summary: John 10
1Jesus is the door, and the good shepherd 19Diverse opinions of him 23He proves by his works that he is Jesus the Son of God; 31escapes the Jews; 39and goes again beyond Jordan, where many believe on him