The Meaning of 2 Peter 1:5 Explained

2 Peter 1:5

KJV: And beside this, giving all diligence, add to your faith virtue; and to virtue knowledge;

YLT: And this same also -- all diligence having brought in besides, superadd in your faith the worthiness, and in the worthiness the knowledge,

Darby: But for this very reason also, using therewith all diligence, in your faith have also virtue, in virtue knowledge,

ASV: Yea, and for this very cause adding on your part all diligence, in your faith supply virtue; and in your virtue knowledge;

What does 2 Peter 1:5 Mean?

Verse Meaning

Since believers have resources that are adequate for a godly life, we should use them diligently to grow in grace (cf. 2 Peter 3:18). Escaping the corruption of lust takes effort (cf. 1 Timothy 6:11-12; 2 Timothy 2:2). It is possible to frustrate the grace of God by having "faith without works" ( James 2:20). [1] Therefore we must apply all diligence. This is the most basic requirement for experiencing effective Christian growth (cf. 2 Peter 1:10; 2 Peter 1:15; 2 Peter 3:14).
"Spiritual growth in the Christian life calls for the strenuous involvement of the believer." [2]
"The Christian must engage in this sort of cooperation with God in the production of a Christian life which is a credit to Him." [2]
"Spirituality, then, is a choice. It does not come automatically or inevitably.
"Indeed, if the Christian fails to add "virtue" to his faith, his faith will soon become what James described as "dead faith" ( James 2:14-26). Its vitality and productivity will disappear. In fact, Peter says this same thing in his own way in 2 Peter 1:8-9." [4]
To his faith, as a foundation, the believer needs to add seven qualities with God"s help. Each virtue contributes to the total growth of the saint. Note that Peter placed responsibility for attaining them on the Christian. Though, again, we can only make progress in godliness as God enables us.
"The Christian life is like power steering on a car. The engine provides the power for the steering, but the driver must actually turn the wheel. So the Lord provides the power to run our lives, but we must "turn the wheel." To a great extent the Christian determines the course of his life." [5]
Peter said add in and mix together, as in a recipe, the following ingredients to produce a mature godly life. He used a literary device common in his day to impress upon us the importance of giving attention to each virtue. Unlike other New Testament ethical lists (except Romans 5:3-5) Peter used a literary device called sorites (also called climax or gradatio). Sorites (from the Gr. soros, a heap) is a set of statements that proceed, step by step, to a climactic conclusion through the force of logic or reliance upon a series of indisputable facts. Each new statement picks up the last key word or phrase of the preceding one. [6] Other examples of sorites are in Romans 8:29-30; Romans 10:14-15; and James 1:15. We should not infer that before we can work on the third virtue we must master the second, and so on. This literary device simply arranges the virtues in a random order but presents them so each one receives emphasis. The total effect is to create the impression of growing a healthy tree, for example, in which several branches are vital.
Often children want to grow up faster than they can. They sometimes ask their parents to measure their height again, perhaps only a week or two after their last measuring. The wise parent will tell the child not to be so concerned about constantly measuring his or her growth. Rather the child should give attention to certain basic activities that will insure good growth over time: drink your milk, eat your vegetables, get enough exercise and rest. This is the spirit of Peter"s advice.
"Moral excellence" (Gr. areten) is virtue or goodness ( 2 Peter 1:3; cf. 1 Peter 2:9). Moral purity and uprightness of character through obedience to God are in view. This Greek word describes anything that fulfills its purpose or function properly. In this context it means a Christian who fulfills his or her calling (i.e, Matthew 22:37-39; Matthew 28:19-20; et al.).
"Knowledge" (Gr. gnosis) refers to acquired information. In particular the Christian needs to know all that God has revealed in His Word, not just the gospel (cf. Matthew 28:19-20).
"Gnosis here is the wisdom and discernment which the Christian needs for a virtuous life and which is progressively acquired. It is practical rather than purely speculative wisdom (cf. Philippians 1:9)." [7]

Context Summary

2 Peter 1:1-11 - The Rule Of Christian Growth
The keynote of this paragraph is these things, 2 Peter 1:8-10. Precious faith, 2 Peter 1:1, answers to precious promises, 2 Peter 1:4. Notice that God has given us every provision for a godly life, through the knowledge of Jesus, but that we must avail ourselves of it. The promises are great and precious, but we must appropriate and absorb them, if we are through them to partake of the divine nature. Our redemption has been secured by our Savior, but we must constantly advance and add to the golden links already securely stapled in faith.
In 2 Peter 1:5-7, a choir with linked hands passes before us, each member of which leads another; or we may use another similitude, and say that each grace, here mentioned, is contained in the next, as a series of Chinese boxes. To be deficient in these things is to be barren and unfruitful, 2 Peter 1:8, and to be shortsighted, 2 Peter 1:9. We may well desire the abundant entrance, 2 Peter 1:11, not like waterlogged vessels, but with every sail unfurled-hot landing on the celestial shore unexpected and unwanted, but welcomed by those we have helped. [source]

Chapter Summary: 2 Peter 1

1  Peter confirms the hope of the increase of God's grace,
5  exhorts them, by faith, and good works, to make their calling sure;
12  whereof he is careful to remind them, knowing that his death is at hand;
16  and assures them of the authenticity of the Gospel, by the eyewitness of the apostles and the prophets

Greek Commentary for 2 Peter 1:5

Yea, and for this very cause [και αυτο τουτο δε]
Adverbial accusative “The soul of religion is the practical part” (Bunyan). Because of the new birth and the promises we have a part to play. [source]
Adding on your part [παρεισπερω]
First aorist active participle of εισπερω — pareispherō old double compound, to bring in Old word from πασαν σπουδην — speudō to hasten (Luke 19:5.). This phrase (ποιουμενος — pāsan spoudēn) occurs in Judges 1:3 with ισπερεσται — poioumenos and on the inscription in Stratonicea (2 Peter 1:3) with εν τηι πιστει υμων — ispheresthai (certainly a curious coincidence, to say the least, though common in the Koiné).In your faith Faith or αγαπη — pistis (strong conviction as in Hebrews 11:1, Hebrews 11:3, the root of the Christian life Ephesians 2:8) is the foundation which goes through various steps up to love See similar lists in James 1:3; 1 Thessalonians 1:3; 2 Thessalonians 1:3.; Galatians 5:22.; Romans 5:3.; Romans 8:29. Hermas (Vis. iii. 8. 1-7) has a list called “daughters” of one another. Note the use of επιχορηγησατε — en (in, on) with each step.Supply (επιχορηγεω — epichorēgēsate). First aorist active imperative of επι — epichorēgeō late and rare double compound verb (χορηγεω — epi and χορηγος — chorēgeō 1 Peter 4:11 from χορος — chorēgos chorus-leader, ηγεομαι — choros and αρετην — hēgeomai to lead), to fit out the chorus with additional (complete) supplies. Both compound and simplex (more common) occur in the papyri. In 2 Peter 1:11 and already in 2 Corinthians 9:10; Galatians 3:5; Colossians 2:19.Virtue Moral power, moral energy, vigor of soul (Bengel). See 2 Peter 1:3.Knowledge (gnōsin). Insight, understanding (1 Corinthians 16:18; John 15:15). [source]
All diligence [σπευδω]
Old word from πασαν σπουδην — speudō to hasten (Luke 19:5.). This phrase (ποιουμενος — pāsan spoudēn) occurs in Judges 1:3 with ισπερεσται — poioumenos and on the inscription in Stratonicea (2 Peter 1:3) with εν τηι πιστει υμων — ispheresthai (certainly a curious coincidence, to say the least, though common in the Koiné). [source]
In your faith [πιστις]
Faith or αγαπη — pistis (strong conviction as in Hebrews 11:1, Hebrews 11:3, the root of the Christian life Ephesians 2:8) is the foundation which goes through various steps up to love See similar lists in James 1:3; 1 Thessalonians 1:3; 2 Thessalonians 1:3.; Galatians 5:22.; Romans 5:3.; Romans 8:29. Hermas (Vis. iii. 8. 1-7) has a list called “daughters” of one another. Note the use of επιχορηγησατε — en (in, on) with each step.Supply (επιχορηγεω — epichorēgēsate). First aorist active imperative of επι — epichorēgeō late and rare double compound verb (χορηγεω — epi and χορηγος — chorēgeō 1 Peter 4:11 from χορος — chorēgos chorus-leader, ηγεομαι — choros and αρετην — hēgeomai to lead), to fit out the chorus with additional (complete) supplies. Both compound and simplex (more common) occur in the papyri. In 2 Peter 1:11 and already in 2 Corinthians 9:10; Galatians 3:5; Colossians 2:19.Virtue Moral power, moral energy, vigor of soul (Bengel). See 2 Peter 1:3.Knowledge (gnōsin). Insight, understanding (1 Corinthians 16:18; John 15:15). [source]
Supply [επιχορηγεω]
First aorist active imperative of επι — epichorēgeō late and rare double compound verb (χορηγεω — epi and χορηγος — chorēgeō 1 Peter 4:11 from χορος — chorēgos chorus-leader, ηγεομαι — choros and αρετην — hēgeomai to lead), to fit out the chorus with additional (complete) supplies. Both compound and simplex (more common) occur in the papyri. In 2 Peter 1:11 and already in 2 Corinthians 9:10; Galatians 3:5; Colossians 2:19. [source]
Virtue [γνωσιν]
Moral power, moral energy, vigor of soul (Bengel). See 2 Peter 1:3.Knowledge (gnōsin). Insight, understanding (1 Corinthians 16:18; John 15:15). [source]
Knowledge [gnōsin)]
Insight, understanding (1 Corinthians 16:18; John 15:15). [source]
Beside this [αὐτὸ τοῦτο]
Wrong. Renderfor this very cause, as Rev. Lit., this very thing. Just as τί , what? has come to mean why? So the strengthened demonstrative acquires the meaning of wherefore, for this very cause. [source]
Add to your faith, etc []
The A. V. is entirely wrong. The verb rendered add ( ἐπιχορηγήσατε ) is derived from χορός a chorus, such as was employed in the representation of the Greek tragedies. The verb originally means to bear the expense of a chorus, which was done by a person selected by the state, who was obliged to defray all the expenses of training and maintenance. In the New Testament the word has lost this technical sense, and is used in the general sense of supplying or providing. The verb is used by Paul (2 Corinthians 9:10; Galatians 3:5; Colossians 2:19), and is rendered minister (A. V.), supply (Rev.); and the simple verb χορηγέω , minister, occurs 1 Peter 4:11; 2 Corinthians 9:10. Here the Rev., properly, renders supply. [source]
Giving all diligence [σπουδὴν πᾶσαν παρεισενέγκαντες]
The verb occurs only here in New Testament, and means, literally, to bring in by the side of: adding your diligence to the divine promises. So Rev., adding on your part. [source]
To your faith [ἐν τῇ πίστει]
The A. V. exhorts to add one virtue to another; but the Greek, to develop one virtue in the exercise of another: “an increase by growth, not by external junction; each new grace springing out of, attempting, and perfecting the other.” Render, therefore, as Rev. In your faith supply virtue, and in your virtue knowledge, etc. [source]
Virtue []
See on 2 Peter 1:3, and 1 Peter 2:9. Not in the sense of moral excellence, but of the energy which Christians are to exhibit, as God exerts his energy upon them. As God calls us by his own virtue (2 Peter 1:3), so Christians are to exhibit virtue or energy in the exercise of their faith, translating it into vigorous action. [source]

Reverse Greek Commentary Search for 2 Peter 1:5

John 1:16 Grace for grace [χάριν ἀντὶ χάριτος]
The preposition ἀντί originally means over against; opposite; before (in a local sense). Through the idea of placing one thing over against another is developed that of exchange. Thus Herodotus (iii., 59), “They bought the island, ἀντὶ χρημάτων , for money.” So Matthew 5:38, “An eye for ( ἀντὶ ) an eye,” etc. This idea is at the root of the peculiar sense in which the preposition is used here. We received, not New Testament grace instead of Old Testament grace; nor simply, grace added to grace; but new grace imparted as the former measure of grace has been received and improved. “To have realized and used one measure of grace, was to have gained a larger measure (as it were) in exchange for it.” Consequently, continuous, unintermitted grace. The idea of the development of one grace from another is elaborated by Peter (2 Peter 1:5), on which see notes. Winer cites a most interesting parallel from Philo. “Wherefore, having provided and dispensed the first graces ( χάριτας ), before their recipients have waxed wanton through satiety, he subsequently bestows different graces in exchange for ( ἀντὶ ) those, and a third supply for the second, and ever new ones in exchange for the older.” [source]
2 Corinthians 9:10 Ministereth [ἐπιχορηγῶν]
Rev., supplieth. See on add, 2 Peter 1:5. [source]
2 Corinthians 9:10 Supplieth [επιχορηγων]
Late Koiné{[28928]}š compound verb from επι — epi and χορηγεω — chorēgeō just below (1 Peter 4:11). Χορηγος — Chorēgos is old word for leader of a chorus (χοροσ ηγεομαι — chorosεπιχορηγεω — hēgeomai) or chorus-leader. The verb means to furnish a chorus at one‘s own expense, then to supply in general. N.T. examples of πλητυνει — epichorēgeō are 2 Corinthians 9:10; Galatians 3:15; Colossians 2:19; 2 Peter 1:5. [source]
Galatians 3:5 He that ministereth [ὁ ἐπιχορηγῶν]
Or supplieth. See 2 Corinthians 9:10; Colossians 2:19; 2 Peter 1:5. The idea of abundant supply (Lightfoot), if conveyed at all, resides, not in the preposition ἐπὶ , which indicates direction, but in the simple verb, which is used of abundant, liberal supply. He that ministereth is God. [source]
Galatians 3:5 Supplieth [επιχορηγων]
It is God. See note on 2 Corinthians 9:10 for this present active participle. Cf. Philemon 1:19; 2 Peter 1:5. [source]
Ephesians 4:16 By that which every joint supplieth [διὰ πάσης ἁφῆς τῆς ἐπιχορηγίας]
Lit., through every joint of the supply. For joint, see on Colossians 2:19; for supply, see on 2 Peter 1:5. The supply specifies it as peculiarly Christ's. The phrase joint of the supply signifies joint whose office or purpose it is to supply. Construe with the two participles, as Colossians 2:19. [source]
Philippians 4:8 Virtue [ἀρετὴ]
With this exception the word occurs only in Peter's epistles; 1 Peter 2:9(note); 2 Peter 1:3, 2 Peter 1:5(note). [source]
Philippians 1:19 Supply [ἐπιχορηγίας]
See on add, 2 Peter 1:5. Compare Galatians 3:5. The word implies bountiful supply. [source]
Philippians 4:8 Virtue [αρετη]
Old word, possibly from αρεσκω — areskō to please, used very often in a variety of senses by the ancients for any mental excellence or moral quality or physical power. Its very vagueness perhaps explains its rarity in the N.T., only four times (Phlippians 4:8; 1 Peter 2:9; 2 Peter 1:3, 2 Peter 1:5). It is common in the papyri, but probably Paul is using it in the sense found in the lxx (Isa 42:12; 43:21) of God‘s splendour and might (Deissmann, Bible Studies, p. 95) in connection with “praise” Present middle imperative for habit of thought. We are responsible for our thoughts and can hold them to high and holy ideals. [source]
Philippians 4:8 Whatsoever [οσα]
Thus he introduces six adjectives picturing Christian ideals, old-fashioned and familiar words not necessarily from any philosophic list of moral excellencies Stoic or otherwise. Without these no ideals can exist. They are pertinent now when so much filth is flaunted before the world in books, magazines and moving-pictures under the name of realism (the slime of the gutter and the cess-pool). Honourable (σεμνα — semna). Old word from σεβω — sebō to worship, revere. So revered, venerated (1 Timothy 3:8). Pure Old word for all sorts of purity. There are clean things, thoughts, words, deeds. Lovely (προσπιλη — prosphilē). Old word, here only in N.T., from προς — pros and πιλεω — phileō pleasing, winsome. Of good report Paul changes the construction from οσα — hosa (whatsoever) to a condition of the first class, as in Phlippians 2:1, with two substantives. Virtue Old word, possibly from αρεσκω — areskō to please, used very often in a variety of senses by the ancients for any mental excellence or moral quality or physical power. Its very vagueness perhaps explains its rarity in the N.T., only four times (Phlippians 4:8; 1 Peter 2:9; 2 Peter 1:3, 2 Peter 1:5). It is common in the papyri, but probably Paul is using it in the sense found in the lxx (Isa 42:12; 43:21) of God‘s splendour and might (Deissmann, Bible Studies, p. 95) in connection with “praise” Present middle imperative for habit of thought. We are responsible for our thoughts and can hold them to high and holy ideals. [source]
Philippians 4:8 Pure [αγνα]
Old word for all sorts of purity. There are clean things, thoughts, words, deeds. Lovely (προσπιλη — prosphilē). Old word, here only in N.T., from προς — pros and πιλεω — phileō pleasing, winsome. Of good report Paul changes the construction from οσα — hosa (whatsoever) to a condition of the first class, as in Phlippians 2:1, with two substantives. Virtue Old word, possibly from αρεσκω — areskō to please, used very often in a variety of senses by the ancients for any mental excellence or moral quality or physical power. Its very vagueness perhaps explains its rarity in the N.T., only four times (Phlippians 4:8; 1 Peter 2:9; 2 Peter 1:3, 2 Peter 1:5). It is common in the papyri, but probably Paul is using it in the sense found in the lxx (Isa 42:12; 43:21) of God‘s splendour and might (Deissmann, Bible Studies, p. 95) in connection with “praise” Present middle imperative for habit of thought. We are responsible for our thoughts and can hold them to high and holy ideals. [source]
Philippians 4:8 Of good report [ευπημα]
Paul changes the construction from οσα — hosa (whatsoever) to a condition of the first class, as in Phlippians 2:1, with two substantives. Virtue Old word, possibly from αρεσκω — areskō to please, used very often in a variety of senses by the ancients for any mental excellence or moral quality or physical power. Its very vagueness perhaps explains its rarity in the N.T., only four times (Phlippians 4:8; 1 Peter 2:9; 2 Peter 1:3, 2 Peter 1:5). It is common in the papyri, but probably Paul is using it in the sense found in the lxx (Isa 42:12; 43:21) of God‘s splendour and might (Deissmann, Bible Studies, p. 95) in connection with “praise” Present middle imperative for habit of thought. We are responsible for our thoughts and can hold them to high and holy ideals. [source]
Colossians 2:19 Ministered [ἐπιχορηγουμένον]
See on add, 2 Peter 1:5. Rev., supplied. [source]
Colossians 2:19 Being supplied [επιχορηγουμενον]
Present passive participle (continuous action) of επιχορηγεω — epichorēgeō for which interesting verb see already 2 Corinthians 9:10; Galatians 3:5 and further 2 Peter 1:5. [source]
Colossians 2:19 From whom [εχ ου]
Masculine ablative rather than εχ ης — ex hēs Being supplied (επιχορηγουμενον — epichorēgoumenon). Present passive participle (continuous action) of επιχορηγεω — epichorēgeō for which interesting verb see already 2 Corinthians 9:10; Galatians 3:5 and further 2 Peter 1:5. Knit together Present passive participle also (continuous action) of συνβιβαζω — sunbibazō for which see note on Colossians 2:2. Through the joints (δια των απων — dia tōn haphōn). Late word απη — haphē (from απτω — haptō to fasten together), connections (junctura and nexus in the Vulgate). And bonds Old word from συνδεω — sundeō to bind together. Aristotle and Galen use it of the human body. Both words picture well the wonderful unity in the body by cells, muscles, arteries, veins, nerves, skin, glands, etc. It is a marvellous machine working together under the direction of the head. Increaseth with the increase of God (αυχει την αυχησιν του τεου — auxei tēn auxēsin tou theou). Cognate accusative (αυχησιν — auxēsin) with the old verb αυχει — auxei f0). [source]
1 Peter 4:11 Giveth [χορηγεῖ]
Only here and 2 Corinthians 9:10. Peter uses the compound ἐπιχορηγέω , furnish, in 2 Peter 1:5; which see. [source]
1 Peter 2:9 An elect race [γενος εκλεκτον]
From Isaiah 43:20. The blood relation of the spiritual Israel (not the Jewish race) through the new birth (1 Peter 1:23).A royal priesthood (βασιλειον ιερατευμα — basileion hierateuma). From Exodus 19:6 (cf. Revelation 1:6; Revelation 5:10). The official in Christian churches is πρεσβυτεροσεπισχοπος — presbuteros =ιερευς — episcopos not ιερεις — hiereus We are all ετνος αγιον — hiereis (priests). Cf. 1 Peter 2:5.A holy nation Also from Exodus 19:6, but here applied, not to the national Israel, but to the spiritual Israel of believers (both Jews and Gentiles).A people for God‘s own possession (λαος περιουσιος — laos eis peripoiēsin). The idea here occurs in Exodus 19:5; Deuteronomy 7:6; Deuteronomy 14:2; Deuteronomy 26:18, where we have εις περιποιησιν — laos periousios as in Titus 2:14 (alone in the N.T.), and in Malachi 3:17 we find Περιουσιος λαος — eis peripoiēsin (for a possession). περιποιησις — Periousios laos is a people over and above the others and περιεποιησατο — peripoiēsis is a possession in a special sense (Ephesians 1:14). See Paul‘s use of οπως εχαγγειλητε — periepoiēsato in Acts 20:28. The old rendering, “a peculiar people,” had this idea of possession, for “peculiar” is from pecus (Latin for flock).That ye may shew forth Purpose clause with ινα — hopōs rather than εχαγγελλω — hina with the first aorist active subjunctive of τας αρετας — exaggellō old verb, to tell out, here alone in N.T.The excellencies (τα μεγαλεια του τεου — tas aretas). From Isaiah 43:21. Old word for any preeminence (moral, intellectual, military), often for “virtue,” but not in that sense in the O.T. or the N.T. The word has the sense of moral worth in 2 Peter 1:3, 2 Peter 1:5; Philemon 4:8; and the Apocrypha. In Isaiah (here quoted) it means praise and glory to God. So also Isaiah 42:12. See Acts 2:11 σκοτους — ta megaleia tou theou (the mighty works of God).Darkness Heathenism.His marvellous light (ταυμαστον — to thaumaston autou phōs). Christianity. For ταυμαζω — thaumaston (from thaumazō) see Matthew 21:42. For the change from heathenism to Christianity see Colossians 1:12; Ephesians 5:8-14. [source]
1 Peter 2:9 The excellencies [τα μεγαλεια του τεου]
From Isaiah 43:21. Old word for any preeminence (moral, intellectual, military), often for “virtue,” but not in that sense in the O.T. or the N.T. The word has the sense of moral worth in 2 Peter 1:3, 2 Peter 1:5; Philemon 4:8; and the Apocrypha. In Isaiah (here quoted) it means praise and glory to God. So also Isaiah 42:12. See Acts 2:11 σκοτους — ta megaleia tou theou (the mighty works of God). [source]
1 Peter 2:9 A holy nation [λαος εις περιποιησιν]
Also from Exodus 19:6, but here applied, not to the national Israel, but to the spiritual Israel of believers (both Jews and Gentiles).A people for God‘s own possession (λαος περιουσιος — laos eis peripoiēsin). The idea here occurs in Exodus 19:5; Deuteronomy 7:6; Deuteronomy 14:2; Deuteronomy 26:18, where we have εις περιποιησιν — laos periousios as in Titus 2:14 (alone in the N.T.), and in Malachi 3:17 we find Περιουσιος λαος — eis peripoiēsin (for a possession). περιποιησις — Periousios laos is a people over and above the others and περιεποιησατο — peripoiēsis is a possession in a special sense (Ephesians 1:14). See Paul‘s use of οπως εχαγγειλητε — periepoiēsato in Acts 20:28. The old rendering, “a peculiar people,” had this idea of possession, for “peculiar” is from pecus (Latin for flock).That ye may shew forth Purpose clause with ινα — hopōs rather than εχαγγελλω — hina with the first aorist active subjunctive of τας αρετας — exaggellō old verb, to tell out, here alone in N.T.The excellencies (τα μεγαλεια του τεου — tas aretas). From Isaiah 43:21. Old word for any preeminence (moral, intellectual, military), often for “virtue,” but not in that sense in the O.T. or the N.T. The word has the sense of moral worth in 2 Peter 1:3, 2 Peter 1:5; Philemon 4:8; and the Apocrypha. In Isaiah (here quoted) it means praise and glory to God. So also Isaiah 42:12. See Acts 2:11 σκοτους — ta megaleia tou theou (the mighty works of God).Darkness Heathenism.His marvellous light (ταυμαστον — to thaumaston autou phōs). Christianity. For ταυμαζω — thaumaston (from thaumazō) see Matthew 21:42. For the change from heathenism to Christianity see Colossians 1:12; Ephesians 5:8-14. [source]
1 Peter 2:9 That ye may shew forth [οπως]
Purpose clause with ινα — hopōs rather than εχαγγελλω — hina with the first aorist active subjunctive of τας αρετας — exaggellō old verb, to tell out, here alone in N.T.The excellencies (τα μεγαλεια του τεου — tas aretas). From Isaiah 43:21. Old word for any preeminence (moral, intellectual, military), often for “virtue,” but not in that sense in the O.T. or the N.T. The word has the sense of moral worth in 2 Peter 1:3, 2 Peter 1:5; Philemon 4:8; and the Apocrypha. In Isaiah (here quoted) it means praise and glory to God. So also Isaiah 42:12. See Acts 2:11 σκοτους — ta megaleia tou theou (the mighty works of God).Darkness Heathenism.His marvellous light (ταυμαστον — to thaumaston autou phōs). Christianity. For ταυμαζω — thaumaston (from thaumazō) see Matthew 21:42. For the change from heathenism to Christianity see Colossians 1:12; Ephesians 5:8-14. [source]
1 Peter 4:11 Speaking as it were oracles of God [ως λογια τεου]
No predicate in this conclusion of the condition. For λογια τεου — logia theou see Acts 7:38 (Mosaic law); Romans 3:2 (the Old Testament); Hebrews 5:12 (the substance of Christian teaching), here of the utterances of God through Christian teachers. Λογιον — Logion (old word) is a diminutive of λογος — logos (speech, word). It can be construed here as nominative or as accusative. The verb has to be supplied.If any one ministereth (ει τις διακονει — ei tis diakonei). First-class condition again. See Acts 6:2-4 for the twofold division of service involved here.Which God supplieth Ablative case Peter has the compound επιχορηγεω — epichorēgeō in 2 Peter 1:5, 2 Peter 1:11. God is the supplier of strength.That God may be glorified (ινα δοχαζηται ο τεος — hina doxazētai ho theos). Purpose clause with ινα — hina and the present passive subjunctive of δοχαζω — doxazō See John 15:8.Whose is “To whom (dative) is,” that is to Jesus Christ the immediate antecedent, but in Romans 16:27; Judges 1:25 the doxology is to God through Christ. For other doxologies see 1 Peter 5:11; 2 Peter 3:18; Galatians 1:5; Romans 9:5; Romans 11:36; Philemon 4:20; Ephesians 3:21; 1 Timothy 1:17; 1 Timothy 6:16; 2 Timothy 4:18; Hebrews 13:21; Revelation 1:6; Revelation 5:13; Revelation 7:12. The others addressed to Christ are 2 Peter 3:18; 2 Timothy 4:18; Revelation 1:6. [source]
1 Peter 4:11 Which God supplieth [ης χορηγει ο τεος]
Ablative case Peter has the compound επιχορηγεω — epichorēgeō in 2 Peter 1:5, 2 Peter 1:11. God is the supplier of strength.That God may be glorified (ινα δοχαζηται ο τεος — hina doxazētai ho theos). Purpose clause with ινα — hina and the present passive subjunctive of δοχαζω — doxazō See John 15:8.Whose is “To whom (dative) is,” that is to Jesus Christ the immediate antecedent, but in Romans 16:27; Judges 1:25 the doxology is to God through Christ. For other doxologies see 1 Peter 5:11; 2 Peter 3:18; Galatians 1:5; Romans 9:5; Romans 11:36; Philemon 4:20; Ephesians 3:21; 1 Timothy 1:17; 1 Timothy 6:16; 2 Timothy 4:18; Hebrews 13:21; Revelation 1:6; Revelation 5:13; Revelation 7:12. The others addressed to Christ are 2 Peter 3:18; 2 Timothy 4:18; Revelation 1:6. [source]
2 Peter 1:11 Shall be ministered abundantly [πλουσίως ἐπιχορηγηθήσεται]
On the verb see 2 Peter 1:5. Rev., shall be richly supplied. We are to furnish in our faith: the reward shall be furnished unto us. Richly, indicating the fulness of future blessedness. Professor Salmond observes that it is the reverse of “saved, yet so as by fire” (1 Corinthians 3:15). [source]
2 Peter 1:3 By his own glory and virtue [ιδιος]
So B K L, but Aleph A C P read αρετη — idiāi doxēi kai aretēi (either instrumental case “by” or dative “to”). Peter is fond of idios (own, 1 Peter 3:1, 1 Peter 3:5; 2 Peter 2:16, 2 Peter 2:22, etc.). “Glory” here is the manifestation of the Divine Character in Christ. For aretē see note on 1 Peter 2:9, note on Philemon 4:8, and note on 2 Peter 1:5. [source]
2 Peter 1:10 Wherefore [διο]
Because of the exhortation and argument in 2 Peter 1:5-9. [source]
2 Peter 2:21 From [εκ]
Out of. So in Acts 12:25 with υποστρεπω — hupostrephō With ablative case. See Romans 7:12 for αγια — hagia applied to η εντολη — hē entolē (cf. 1 Timothy 6:14). 2 Peter strikes a high ethical note (2 Peter 1:5.).Delivered (παραδοτεισης — paradotheisēs). First aorist passive participle feminine ablative singular of παραδιδωμι — paradidōmi f0). [source]
2 Peter 1:2 In the knowledge [εν επιγνωσει]
Full (additional, επι — epi) knowledge as in 2 Peter 1:8 (only γνωσις — gnōsis in 2 Peter 1:5, 2 Peter 1:6; 2 Peter 3:18), but επιγνωσιν — epignōsin again in 2 Peter 1:3, 2 Peter 1:8; 2 Peter 2:20. As in Colossians, so here full knowledge is urged against the claims of the Gnostic heretics to special γνωσις — gnōsis God and of Jesus our Lord At first sight the idiom here seems to require one person as in 2 Peter 1:1, though there is a second article (του — tou) before κυριου — kuriou and Ιησου — Iēsou is a proper name. But the text here is very uncertain. Bengel, Spitta, Zahn, Nestle accept the short reading of P and some Vulgate MSS. and some minuscles with only του κυριου ημων — tou kuriou hēmōn (our Lord) from which the three other readings may have come. Elsewhere in 2 Peter γνωσις — gnōsis and επιγνωσις — epignōsis are used of Christ alone. The text of 2 Peter is not in a good state of preservation. [source]
2 Peter 1:3 All things that pertain unto life and godliness [παντα τα προς ζωην και ευσεβειαν]
“All the things for life and godliness.” The new life in Christ who is the mystery of godliness (1 Timothy 3:16). Ευσεβεια — Eusebeia with its cognates Genitive of the articular first aorist active participle of ιδιαι δοχηι και αρετηι — kaleō Christ called Peter and all other Christians.By his own glory and virtue So B K L, but Aleph A C P read αρετη — idiāi doxēi kai aretēi (either instrumental case “by” or dative “to”). Peter is fond of idios (own, 1 Peter 3:1, 1 Peter 3:5; 2 Peter 2:16, 2 Peter 2:22, etc.). “Glory” here is the manifestation of the Divine Character in Christ. For aretē see note on 1 Peter 2:9, note on Philemon 4:8, and note on 2 Peter 1:5. [source]
2 Peter 1:11 Shall be supplied [επιχορηγητησεται]
Future passive of επιχορηγεω — epichorēgeō for which see 2 Peter 1:5. You supply the virtues above and God will supply the entrance See Colossians 3:16 for this adverb.Into the eternal kingdom The believer‘s inheritance of 1 Peter 1:4 is here termed kingdom, but “eternal” Curiously again in the Stratonicea inscription we find της αιωνιου αρχης — tēs aiōniou archēs (of the eternal rule) applied to “the lords of Rome.” But this is the spiritual reign of God in men‘s hearts here on earth (1 Peter 2:9) and in heaven.Of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ (του κυριου ημων και σωτηρος Ιησου Χριστου — tou kuriou hēmōn kai sōtēros Iēsou Christou). For which idiom see note on 2 Peter 1:1. [source]
2 Peter 2:21 Not to have known [μη επεγνωκεναι]
Perfect active infinitive of επιγινωσκω — epiginōskō (cf. επιγνωσει — epignōsei 2 Peter 2:20) to know fully.The way of righteousness (την οδον της δικαιοσυνης — tēn hodon tēs dikaiosunēs). For the phrase see Matthew 21:33, also the way of truth (2 Peter 2:2), the straight way (2 Peter 2:15).After knowing it Second aorist active participle of επιγινωσκω — epiginōskō (just used) in the dative plural agreeing with αυτοις — autois (for them).To turn back (υποστρεπσαι — hupostrepsai). First aorist active infinitive of υποστρεπω — hupostrephō old and common verb, to turn back, to return.From Out of. So in Acts 12:25 with υποστρεπω — hupostrephō With ablative case. See Romans 7:12 for αγια — hagia applied to η εντολη — hē entolē (cf. 1 Timothy 6:14). 2 Peter strikes a high ethical note (2 Peter 1:5.).Delivered (παραδοτεισης — paradotheisēs). First aorist passive participle feminine ablative singular of παραδιδωμι — paradidōmi f0). [source]
2 Peter 2:21 After knowing it [επιγνουσιν]
Second aorist active participle of επιγινωσκω — epiginōskō (just used) in the dative plural agreeing with αυτοις — autois (for them).To turn back (υποστρεπσαι — hupostrepsai). First aorist active infinitive of υποστρεπω — hupostrephō old and common verb, to turn back, to return.From Out of. So in Acts 12:25 with υποστρεπω — hupostrephō With ablative case. See Romans 7:12 for αγια — hagia applied to η εντολη — hē entolē (cf. 1 Timothy 6:14). 2 Peter strikes a high ethical note (2 Peter 1:5.).Delivered (παραδοτεισης — paradotheisēs). First aorist passive participle feminine ablative singular of παραδιδωμι — paradidōmi f0). [source]
1 John 1:7 All sin [πάσης ἁμαρτίας]
The principle of sin in all its forms and manifestations; not the separate manifestations. Compare all joy (James 1:2); all patience (2 Corinthians 7:12); all wisdom (Ephesians 1:8); all diligence (2 Peter 1:5). [source]
1 John 1:7 Of Jesus Christ His Son []
Omit Christ. The human name, Jesus, shows that His blood is available for man. The divine name, His Son, shows that it is efficacious. I shall be rendering a service to students of John's Epistles by giving, in a condensed form, Canon Westcott's note, classifying the several names of our Lord and their uses in the Epistles. The name in John, as in the Bible elsewhere, has two distinct, but closely connected meanings. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
1. The Revelation of the Divine Being by a special title. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
2. The whole sum of the manifold revelations gathered up so as to form one supreme revelation. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
The latter sense is illustrated in 3 John 1:7, where “the name” absolutely includes the essential elements of the Christian creed, the complete revelation of Christ's work in relation to God and man. Compare John 20:31; Acts 5:41. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
In 1 John 2:12, the term is more limited, referring to Christ as He lived on earth and gave Himself for “the brethren.” In 1 John 3:23; 1 John 5:13, the exact sense is defined by what follows. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
Actual Names Used. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
(I.) His Son Jesus Christ. 1 John 1:3; 1 John 3:23; 1 John 5:20. The divine antecedent is differently described in each case, and the difference colors the phrase. In 1 John 1:2-3, the Father (compare 1John href="/desk/?q=1jo+3:23&sr=1">1 John 3:23, God. In 1 John 5:20, He that is true. Thus the sonship of Christ is regarded in relation to God as Father, as God, and as satisfying the divine ideal which man is able to form. The whole phrase, His Son Jesus Christ, includes the two elements of the confessions which John makes prominent. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
1. Jesus is the Son of God (John 4:15; John 5:5). -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
2. Jesus is the Christ (John 2:22; John 5:1). -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
The constituents of the compressed phrase are all used separately by John. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
(1.) Jesus. 1 John 2:22; 1 John 5:1; 1 John 4:3(where the correct reading omits Christ). The thought is that of the Lord in His perfect historic humanity. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
(2.) Christ. 2 John 1:9. Pointing to the preparation made under the old covenant. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
(3). Jesus Christ. 1 John 2:1; 1 John 5:6; 2 John 1:7. Combining the ideas of true humanity and messianic position. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
In 1 John 4:15, the reading is doubtful: Jesus or Jesus Christ. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
On 1 John 4:2, see note. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
(4.) The Son. 1 John 2:22, 1 John 2:23, 1 John 2:24; 1 John 4:14; 1 John 5:12. The absolute relation of Sonship to Fatherhood. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
(5.) The Son of God. 1 John 3:8; 1 John 5:10, 1 John 5:12, 1 John 5:13, 1 John 5:20. Compare His Son (1 John 4:10; 1 John 5:9), where the immediate antecedent is ὁ Θεός Godand 1 John 5:18, He that was begotten of God. Combination of the ideas of Christ's divine dignity and divine sonship. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
(6.) Jesus His (God's) Son. 1 John 1:7. Two truths. The blood of Christ is available and efficacious. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
(7). His (God's) Son, His only Son. 1 John 4:9. The uniqueness of the gift is the manifestation of love. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
The Son in various forms is eminently characteristic of the First and Second Epistles, in which it occurs more times than in all Paul's Epistles. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
Κύριος Lordis not found in the Epistles (omit from 2 John 1:3), but occurs in the Gospel, and often in Revelation. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
The expression, the blood of Jesus His Son, is chosen with a profound insight. Though Ignatius uses the phrase blood of God yet the word blood is inappropriate to the Son conceived in His divine nature. The word Jesus brings out His human nature, in which He assumed a real body of flesh and blood, which blood was shed for us.Cleanseth ( καθαρίζει )See on Mark 7:19. Not only forgives but removes. Compare Titus 2:14; Hebrews 9:13sq.; Hebrews 9:22sq.; Ephesians 5:26sq.; Matthew 5:8; 1 John 3:3. Compare also 1 John 1:9, where, forgive ( ἀφῇ ) and cleanse ( καθαρίσῃ ) occur, with an obvious difference of meaning. Note the present tense cleanseth. The cleansing is present and continuous. Alexander (Bishop of Derry) cites a striking passage from Victor Hugo (“Le Parricide”). The usurper Canute, who has had a share in his father's death, expiring after a virtuous and glorious reign, walks towards the light of heaven. But first he cuts with his sword a shroud of snow from the top of Mt. Savo. As he advances towards heaven, a cloud forms, and drop by drop his shroud is soaked with a rain of blood.All sin ( πάσης ἁμαρτίας )The principle of sin in all its forms and manifestations; not the separate manifestations. Compare all joy (James 1:2); all patience (2 Corinthians 7:12); all wisdom (Ephesians 1:8); all diligence (2 Peter 1:5). [source]

Jude 1:3 When I gave all diligence [πᾶσαν σπουδὴν ποιούμενος]
Lit., making all diligence; the phrase found only here. In Hebrews 6:11, we find “shew diligence” ( ἐνδεικνυσθαι )and in 2 Peter 1:5, “adding diligence.” See note there. [source]
Jude 1:20 On your most holy faith [τηι αγιωτατηι υμων πιστει]
For the spiritual temple see also 1 Peter 2:3-5. See πιστις — pistis (faith) in this sense (cf. Hebrews 11:1) in 2 Peter 1:5 with the list of graces added. A true superlative here αγιωτατηι — hagiōtatēi not elative.Praying in the Holy Spirit (εν πνευματι αγιωι προσευχομενοι — en pneumati hagiōi proseuchomenoi). This is the way to build themselves up on their faith. [source]
Jude 1:3 All diligence [πασαν σπουδην]
As in 2 Peter 1:5.Of our common salvation (περι της κοινης ημων σωτηριας — peri tēs koinēs hēmōn sōtērias). See this use of κοινος — koinos (common to all) in Titus 1:4 with πιστις — pistis while in 2 Peter 1:1 we have ισοτιμον πιστιν — isotimon pistin which see.I was constrained “I had necessity” like Luke 14:18; Hebrews 7:27.To contend earnestly (επαγωνιζεσται — epagōnizesthai). Late and rare (in Plutarch, inscriptions) compound, here only in N.T. A little additional (επι — epi) striving to the already strong αγωνιζεσται — agōnizesthai (αγων — agōn contest). Cf. 1 Timothy 6:12 αγωνιζου τον καλον αγωνα — agōnizou ton kalon agōna the faith (τηιπιστει — tēi- απαχ παραδοτεισηι — pistei). Dative of advantage. Here not in the original sense of trust, but rather of the thing believed as in Judges 1:20; Galatians 1:23; Galatians 3:23; Philemon 1:27.Once for all delivered First aorist passive participle feminine dative singular of paradidōmi for which see 2 Peter 2:21. See also 2 Thessalonians 2:15; 1 Corinthians 11:2; 1 Timothy 6:20. [source]

What do the individual words in 2 Peter 1:5 mean?

And very [reason] for this now earnestness all having brought in supplement into the faith of you - virtue and - virtue knowledge
Καὶ αὐτὸ τοῦτο δὲ σπουδὴν πᾶσαν παρεισενέγκαντες ἐπιχορηγήσατε ἐν τῇ πίστει ὑμῶν τὴν ἀρετήν δὲ τῇ ἀρετῇ γνῶσιν

αὐτὸ  very  [reason] 
Parse: Personal / Possessive Pronoun, Nominative Neuter 3rd Person Singular
Root: αὐτός  
Sense: himself, herself, themselves, itself.
τοῦτο  for  this 
Parse: Demonstrative Pronoun, Accusative Neuter Singular
Root: οὗτος  
Sense: this.
δὲ  now 
Parse: Conjunction
Root: δέ  
Sense: but, moreover, and, etc.
σπουδὴν  earnestness 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Feminine Singular
Root: σπουδή  
Sense: haste, with haste.
παρεισενέγκαντες  having  brought  in 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Participle Active, Nominative Masculine Plural
Root: παρεισφέρω  
Sense: to bring in besides.
ἐπιχορηγήσατε  supplement 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Imperative Active, 2nd Person Plural
Root: ἐπιχορηγέω  
Sense: to supply, furnish, present.
ἐν  into 
Parse: Preposition
Root: ἐν 
Sense: in, by, with etc.
πίστει  faith 
Parse: Noun, Dative Feminine Singular
Root: πίστις  
Sense: conviction of the truth of anything, belief; in the NT of a conviction or belief respecting man’s relationship to God and divine things, generally with the included idea of trust and holy fervour born of faith and joined with it.
ὑμῶν  of  you 
Parse: Personal / Possessive Pronoun, Genitive 2nd Person Plural
Root: σύ  
Sense: you.
τὴν  - 
Parse: Article, Accusative Feminine Singular
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
ἀρετήν  virtue 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Feminine Singular
Root: ἀρετή  
Sense: a virtuous course of thought, feeling and action.
τῇ  - 
Parse: Article, Dative Feminine Singular
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
ἀρετῇ  virtue 
Parse: Noun, Dative Feminine Singular
Root: ἀρετή  
Sense: a virtuous course of thought, feeling and action.
γνῶσιν  knowledge 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Feminine Singular
Root: γνῶσις  
Sense: knowledge signifies in general intelligence, understanding.