What does Jews mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
ἰουδαίων Jewish 61
ἰουδαῖοι Jewish 56
ἰουδαίοις Jewish 24
ἰουδαίους Jewish 17
הַיְּהוּדִ֔ים Jew. 8
הַיְּהוּדִים֙ Jew. 6
הַיְּהוּדִ֗ים Jew. 5
הַיְּהוּדִֽים Jew. 5
הַיְּהוּדִ֖ים Jew. 4
הַיְּהוּדִ֡ים Jew. 4
הַיְּהוּדִ֜ים Jew. 4
ιουδαιων Jewish 4
לַיְּהוּדִ֔ים Jew. 3
יְהוּדָיֵא֙ Jew. 3
יְה֣וּדָיֵ֔א Jew. 2
לַיְּהוּדִים֙ Jew. 2
הַיְּהוּדִ֛ים Jew. 2
יְהוּדִ֕ים Jew. 2
יְהוּדָיֵ֔א Jew. 2
؟ הַיְּהוּדִ֥ים Jew. 1
וְלַיְּהוּדִ֨ים Jew. 1
הַיְּהוּדִ֧ים Jew. 1
הַיְּהוּדִ֨ים Jew. 1
וְהַיְּהוּדִ֨ים Jew. 1
יְהוּדִֽים Jew. 1
יְהוּדָ֔ה Jew. 1
הַיְּהוּדִים֩ ׀ Jew. 1
ἰουδαῖοί Jewish 1
הַיְּהוּדִ֣ים Jew. 1
(וְהַיְּהוּדִ֣ים) Jew. 1
(הַיְּהוּדִ֣ים) Jew. 1
יְהוּדָיֵ֗א Jew. 1
(הַיְּהוּדִ֤ים) Jew. 1
הַיְּהוּדִ֑ים Jew. 1
לַיְּהוּדִ֕ים Jew. 1
לַיְּהוּדִ֣ים ׀ Jew. 1
(בַּיְּהוּדִֽים) Jew. 1
ἰουδαίων» Jewish 1
(הַיְּהוּדִ֑ים) Jew. 1
[והיהודיים] crib 1
מִֽתְיַהֲדִ֔ים (Hithpael) to become a Jew (in fact or in fraud) 1
(בַּיְּהוּדִ֖ים‪‬) Jew. 1
הַ֠יְּהוּדִים Jew. 1
יְהוּדָיֵֽא Jew. 1
יְהוּדָאיִ֗ן Jew. 1
הַיְהוּדִ֖ים Jew. 1
וְהַיְּהוּדִים֙ Jew. 1

Definitions Related to Jews

G2453


   1 Jewish, belonging to the Jewish race.
   2 Jewish as respects to birth, race, religion.
   

H3064


   1 Jew.
   

H3062


   1 Jew.
   

H3054


   1 (Hithpael) to become a Jew (in fact or in fraud), become Judaised.
   

Frequency of Jews (original languages)

Frequency of Jews (English)

Dictionary

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Jews
(Hebrew: Yehudi)
A name which at first was restricted to the subjects of the Kingdom of Juda, but which after the Babylonian exile became the common name for the race descended from Jacob and for the followers of the Mosaic religion. Before the coming of Christ they were the chosen people of God among whom the Saviour of the world was destined to appear. They were elected by God in the person of Abraham, who left Ur, a city of the Chaldees on the Euphrates River, to settle in southern Chanaan. Jacob, his grandson, during a famine moved with his family to Egypt, where his descendants in the course of about 400 years multiplied rapidly; but when persecuted by the Egyptians, they were led out of Egypt, at God's command, by Moses, who likewise organized them into a theocratic nation. Josue, the successor of Moses, brought them pack to Chanaan, and divided its territory among the twelve tribes, which made up the nation. The land had to be taken by force from the original inhabitants.
During the period of conquest, the union among the tribes was rather loose. There was no central government, but there was a common center of worship. Samuel succeeded in effecting a union among the tribes, which was further strengthened when a kingdom was established and Saul was chosen as ita first king. Under his successors, David and Solomon, the nation reached the height of its glory; but Solomon's building activities, and his luxurious mode of life gradually increased taxation till it became oppressive and when Roboam, his son and successor, refused to lighten the burden, the ten northern tribes revolted, and formed the Kingdom of Israel; the two southern tribes, however, remained faithful to David's house, and formed the Kingdom of Juda. The history of both kingdoms is largely a chronicle of wars and intrigues. There was constant fighting amongst themselves, and a desperate effort to ward off foreign invaders. After a hectic existence of about 211 years, the northern kingdom was conquered by Sargon in 722 BC and annexed to the Assyrian Empire. About 140 years later, the southern kingdom of Juda was overrun by Nabuchodonosor, and Jerusalem was captured and destroyed in 582 BC. A large number of the inhabitants were carried off as prisoners to Babylon.
After a period of approximately 70 years, Cyrus, King of Persia, gave the exiles permission to return, and about 50,000 Jews followed Zorobabel to Palestine in 538 BC. Other expeditions came later under Esdras and Nehemias. Jerusalem and the Temple were rebuilt, and a tiny Jewish state was formed, subject to Persia, but under the jurisdiction of the Jewish high priest and a council of elders. After Persia lost the supremacy in the East, Judea changed masters several times, yet the internal government remained undisturbed. Soon, however, Greek-speaking colonies grew up around her, and Hellenic influence began to penetrate even into her community. Intrigue and bribery on the part of members of the high priest's family brought about internal dissension and occasioned a series of Syrian invasions. Antiochus IV (Epiphanes), King of Syria, made a violent attempt to hellenize the Jews; but a priest of Modin named Mattathias, and his sons, Judas Machabeus, Jonathan, and Simon, carried on a long and successful struggle against the armies of Syria, and at length, in 143 BC, gained complete independence for Judea. Its territory was greatly extended by the conquests of John Hyrcanus, Simon's son and successor; then once more dissension and intrigue in the ruling family precipitated a civilwar, whereupon Rome interfered. Herod, an Idumean, was appointed King of Judea by Rome, and not long after his death Roman procurators assumed control of the government in Palestine. The rapacity and cruelty of these procurators led at length to an organized revolt against Rome, which terminated in the destruction of Jerusalem and of its Temple in the year 70 AD, and in the dispersion of the Jews of Palestine throughout the civilized world.
Jewish colonies existed long before this date in many states both of the East and of the West. Josephus (Antiquities, xiv,7,2) quotes Strabo as saying: "Now these Jews are already in all cities, and it is hard to find a place on the habitable earth that hath not admitted this trihe of men, and is not possessed by it." Since the Jews were forbidden by the Law to mingle with Gentiles, these colonies remained distinct, and formed "a nation within a nation." As a rule, the colonial Jews obtained the rights of citizenship, along with religious liberty and the privilege of governing themselves according to their Law. They had their own magistrates as well as their own courts of justice. They were exempted from military service and from taxes which were incompatible with the Mosaic prescriptions, e.g., tax levies in the Sabbatical year. Add to this the enormous wealth which they everywhere accumulated by their business acumen and tireless industry, and it is easy to understand why they were marked out for hatred and persecution everywhere. What happened in the Roman Empire was repeated in every state where the Jews settled. They grew in numbers and wealth, excited the envy and hatred of the native population, and were persecuted and driven out of the country.
After the downfall of Jerusalem, the rabbis gathered at Jabne, near Jaffa, where they reorganized the Sanhedrin, the Council of 71Elders. Driven from Jabne in the time of Hadrian, c.135AD, they settled in Sepphowis, in Galilee, where the Mishna, a collection of the oral traditions about the Law, was published. From Galilee they migrated to Babylonia, which remained for nearly five centuries the chief center of Jewish life. During this period the Talmud, a vast compilation of discussions about the Law and the Mishna, was produced. In the 10th century Spain became the principal center of Jewish activity, where in addition to further commentaries on the Law, books of philosophy, medicine, mathematics, astronomy, and poetry appeared. In Germany the Jews had settlements since 321 AD, principally along the Rhine, where Jew was synonymous with merchant. In Italy they flourished for many centuries; while in France they were alternately protected and persecuted. Universal persecution of the Jews broke out in Europe at the beginning of the First Crusade, 1096. The Crusaders massacred the Jews of the various German cities through which they passed. Subsequent crusades were occasions for further atrocities. In the course of the 13th century the Jews were exiled from France and England, and in the 14th, severe laws were passed against them and bloody assaults made on them in France (where they had been readmitted), in Spain, Germany, and Bohemia. During this and earlier centuries, the popes were the staunchest defenders of the Jews, and by a series of Bulls tried to protect them from oppression and mob violence. In 1492 all Jews were banished from Spain, and in 1496 from Portugal.
They were driven from one country to another till, towards the end of the 18th century, "Edicts of Toleration" were passed by various governments which abolished the harsh laws against them and granted them civilrights. Austria led the way in 1782. France followed in 1791, Holland in 1796, Prussia in 1812. During the last century brief anti-Semitic outbreaks occurred in various states, notably in Russia and Rumania, which were the occasion of vast Jewish emigration, especially to the United States. The following religious sects exist today:
Orthodox Jews, who believe in the inspiration of Scripture and who cling to the prescriptions of the Mishna and Talmud
Conservative Jews, who also hold the inspiration of Scripture, but who have adapted the prescriptions of tradition to modern Conditions
Liberal or Reformed Jews, who have very lax views about the inspiration of Scripture, who try to make their beliefs conform to modern rationalistic theories, and who have abandoned many of the ancient customs and practises
Zionism is a movement to make Palestine the national home of the Jews and the chief center of Jewish culture. It also aims at restoring the ancient Hebrew language among the Jews.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Jews, King of the
Title of Christ used by the Magi (Matthew 2); by Pilate (John 19).
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Wailing-Place, Jews'
A section of the western wall of the temple area, where the Jews assemble every Friday afternoon to bewail their desolate condition (Psalm 79:1,4,5 ). The stones in this part of the wall are of great size, and were placed, as is generally believed, in the position in which they are now found in the time of Solomon. "The congregation at the wailing-place is one of the most solemn gatherings left to the Jewish Church, and as the writer gazed at the motley concourse he experienced a feeling of sorrow that the remnants of the chosen race should be heartlessly thrust outside the sacred enclosure of their fathers' holy temple by men of an alien race and an alien creed. Many of the elders, seated on the ground, with their backs against the wall, on the west side of the area, and with their faces turned toward the eternal house, read out of their well-thumbed Hebrew books passages from the prophetic writings, such as Isaiah 64:9-12 " (King's Recent Discoveries, etc.). The wailing-place of the Jews, viewed in its past spiritual and historic relations, is indeed "the saddest nook in this vale of tears." (See LAMENTATIONS, BOOK OF .)
Holman Bible Dictionary - Jews in the New Testament
The word Jew is derived ultimately from the tribe of Judah through Middle English Iewe , Old French Ieu , Latin Iudaeus , and Greek Ioudaios (compare the woman's name Judith , which originally meant “Jewess”). The Old Testament Era The Hebrew yehudim meant originally descendants of the tribe of Judah and then those who inhabited the territories claimed by them (2 Kings 16:6 ; 2 Kings 25:25 ; Jeremiah 32:12 ). With the deportation and subsequent assimilation of the “Ten Lost Tribes” of the Northern Kingdom by the Assyrians after 722 B.C., the only Israelites to survive into the exilic period (with a few from the tribe of Benjamin, e.g. Mordecai, who is called a “Jew” in Esther 2:5 ) were those from Judah, hence the name Jews (Nehemiah 1:2 ). The corresponding Aramaic word is used in Daniel 3:8 ,Daniel 3:8,3:12 .
The Intertestamental Period The Greek name Ioudaios (plural Ioudaioi ) was used for the Israelites in the Greek and Roman world. This is the name used in the treaty between Judas Maccabeus and the Romans, described in 1 Maccabees 8:23-32 : “May all go well with the Romans and with the nation of the Jews”
Matthew, Mark, Luke The term Ioudaios occurs relatively rarely in the Synoptic Gospels, the first three Gospels which are closely parallel to each other. The word occurs but five times in Matthew, seven times in Mark, and five times in Luke, usually in the expression “King of the Jews” (12 of the total of 17). Of the remaining occurrences only Matthew 28:15 designates Jews as contrasted to Christian believers.
John By contrast the word Ioudaios occurs 70 times in the Gospel of John. Some of these references are quite positive, especially in the dialogue between Jesus and the woman of Samaria ( John 4:1 ). In John 4:9 the woman says to Jesus, “thou, being a Jew,” and in John 4:22 Jesus says, “salvation is of the Jews.” Many of the Jews believed in Jesus ( John 8:31 ; Acts 12:1-33 ; John 12:11 ). Other references are neutral as in John 3:1 , where Nicodemus is described as a ruler of the Jews.
The description of Jesus' opponents reveals a striking difference between the Synoptic Gosepls and John. Whereas the former names Jesus' enemies as scribes and Pharisees, high priests and Sadducees, the Gospel of John simply uses the general term “Jews.” The term often implies Jewish authorities as in John 7:13 ; John 9:22 ; John 19:38 ; John 20:19 .
The Jews impugned Jesus' birth and His sanity (John 8:48 ), and even alleged that He was demon possessed (John 8:52 ). The Jews questioned His statements about the Temple (John 2:20 ) and were scandalized at His claim to be the bread from heaven (John 6:41 ). They regarded His affirmations of equality with the Father as blasphemous and picked up stones to kill Him (John 5:18 ; John 7:1 ; John 10:31 ,John 10:31,10:33 ; John 11:8 ).
The heightened use of the term “Jews” in John to serve as a general designation for those who denied that Jesus was the Christ may be explained by the fact that John's Gospel was composed at a later date than the Synoptics—after such events as the destruction of Jerusalem in A.D. 70 and the insertion of a curse upon the minim (“heretics,” especially Christians) into the daily synagogue prayer in A.D. 80 had increased mutual hostilities between Jews and Christians.
Acts Paul was a Jew from Tarsus (Acts 21:39 ; Acts 22:3 ). After his dramatic conversion on the road to Damascus, his fellow Jews sought to kill him (Acts 9:23 ). King Herod Agrippa I arrested Peter and killed the Apostle James, believing this would please the Jews (1618448567_60 ).
Following his conviction that the gospel should be preached first to the Jews (Romans 1:16 ), Paul on his missionary journeys began his preaching in the Jewish synagogues—at Salamis on Cyprus (Acts 13:5 ), at Iconium (Acts 14:1 ), at Thessalonica (John 8:31-41 ), at Athens (Acts 17:15-17 ), and at Corinth (Acts 18:1 ). Though he made some converts among the Jews, even converting the synagogue ruler at Corinth (Acts 18:8 ), and no doubt had success among the “god fearers” or proselytes who were interested in converting to Judaism (Acts 13:43 ; Acts 17:4 ), the majority of the Jews reacted violently against Paul's message (Acts 13:50 ; Acts 14:2 ; Acts 17:5 ; Acts 18:12 ). Paul therefore turned his efforts increasingly toward the Gentiles, the non-Jews.
Pauline Letters As the “apostle to the Gentiles,” Paul argued against “Judaizers” that Gentile converts did not have to be circumcized, that is, become Jews first, before they became christians (Acts 15:1-5 ). His arguments were accepted by James and the church council at Jerusalem held about A.D. 49. Paul, who had been “an Hebrew of the Hebrews; as touching the law, a Pharisee” (Philippians 3:5 ) and had been more zealous in his pursuit of Judaism than his peers (Galatians 1:13-14 ), came to the radical conclusion that a true Jew is not one who was physically descended from Abraham (compare Acts 17:1 ), adhered to the Torah or Law of Moses (Romans 2:17 ,Romans 2:17,2:28 ) and was circumcized. For Paul a true Jew is one who believes that Jesus is the Messiah or Christ (Galatians 3:26-29 ), relies on God's grace and not works of the law (Ephesians 2:8-9 ), and has been circumcized in his heart by the Holy Spirit (Galatians 2:2-9 ; Galatians 5:6 ). In spite of his grief that most of his fellow Jews did not accept his message, Paul did not teach that God had abandoned the Jews but believed that God still has a plan for them (Romans 9-11 ). (Note: the word Ioudaios is not found in any of the non-Pauline letters of the New Testament.)
Revelation The two references in the Book of Revelation are to the church at Smyrna (Revelation 2:9 ) and the church at Philadelphia (Revelation 3:9 ), where there were those who claimed to be Jews but who were denounced as the “synagogue of Satan” because they opposed Christians. See Israel ; Hebrews ; Pharisees ; Sadducees .
Edwin Yamauchi
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Jews, Judaism
The Old Testament . Judah the Patriarch . Judah initially referred to the fourth son of Jacob (Israel) by his wife, Leah. Direct references to the patriarch Judah are limited to the Book of Genesis. He was born in Paddan Aram before Jacob returned to Canaan (Genesis 35:23 ). In the brotherly conspiracy to eliminate Joseph, Judah recommended selling Joseph to a passing caravan of Ishmaelites rather than killing him, and his brothers agreed (Genesis 37:26-28 ).
Later, Judah moves west to Adullam, away from the Jacob clan, where he married a Canaanite woman. She bore him three sons—Er, Onan, and Shelah. The two oldest sons died young, but not before the eldest had married Tamar. According to custom, she should have become wife of Judah's youngest son; however, Judah feared that Shelah might also die, so through a ploy Judah denied Tamar her due. Subsequently, Tamar became pregnant by Judah by means of deception, bearing him twin sons, Perez and Zerah (Genesis 38 ). David was a Judahite through Perez. The one notable descendant of Judah through Zerah was Achan, who brought calamity on the Israelites when he took booty from Jericho at the time of the conquest (Joshua 7:1,18,24 ).
Judah went to Egypt with his brothers for food in both expeditions (Genesis 42:3 ; 43:3-5 ). He appears to have been the leader on the second trip, for it is he who pleads with Joseph for Benjamin's release. When the extended family of Jacob immigrated to Egypt, Judah's family was in the retinue while he was in the advance party (Genesis 46:12,28 ).
The blessing of Jacob suggests the significant future role Judah's descendants were destined to play. They are to be ferocious warriors and powerful rulers in a fertile and productive land (Genesis 49:8-12 ). Judah died and was buried in Egypt (Exodus 1:6 ).
The Tribal Name . The name appears frequently in the Old Testament to identify the tribe of Judah. Bezalel, the chief artisan in beautifying the tabernacle, was of the tribe of Judah (Exodus 31:2 ). The third tribe mentioned in the census of Numbers is Judah (Numbers 1:7 ), and they possessed the largest group of fighting men (Numbers 1:26 ). The tribal contingent led by Judah was first in the line of march through the wilderness (Numbers 2:3-9 ), and Caleb of Judah joined Joshua, of the tribe of Ephraim, in bringing back a good report about the trip of the twelve spies into Canaan. In the second census, Judah was still the predominant tribe (Numbers 26:22 ).
The Territorial Name . The division of the land takes the size of the tribe into account, allotting a large region to Judah. The Negeb in the south and the wilderness to the east, however, were marginal areas, not capable of sustaining agriculture. The northern boundary extended from the point where the Jordan River enters the Dead Sea westward (to the north of Jerusalem) along the Wadi Sorek to the Mediterranean Sea. Smaller tribal groups and clans within the tribal boundaries were in time absorbed into Judah—Kenites (Judges 1:16 ), Kenazzites (1:11-15), Simeonites (1:17), Jerahmeelites, and Othnielites.
The State Name . The tribal elements of Judah were united under the rule of David at Hebron (2 Samuel 2:4,11 ), and he subsequently united the kingdoms of Judah and Israel (2 Samuel 5:3 ). David was addressed as "king of Israel" by Michal (2 Samuel 6:20 ), but after the division of the kingdom upon the death of Solomon, Rehoboam bore the title "king of Judah" (1 Kings 14:21 ). The rulers of the southern kingdom continued to bear that title; the last to be called king of Judah was the captive Jehoiachin (2 Kings 25:27 ).
Israel and Judah . The title "king of Israel" was comparable to "king of Judah" during the period of the two kingdoms; however, the name "Israel" also could connote the whole people of God, including Judah. Early texts identify Israel as the people of Yahweh, the God of Israel (Exodus 5:1 ). The concept is clearly that of a religiously identifiable group.
The political distinction between Judah and Israel apparently developed early in the period of David, but following the demise of the northern kingdom, prophets and poets continued to speak of Israel, obviously including the people of Judah (Psalm 76:1 ; Isaiah 1:3-4 ; 5:7 ; Jeremiah 2:1-4 ). Isaiah referred to "both houses of Israel" (8:14), and Jeremiah, in prophetic speech intended for those in exile, referred to Judah as the "Virgin Israel" (31:21). Ezekiel also refers to the exiled community in Babylonia as "the house of Israel" (3:1) and as the "people of Israel" (4:13). Other postexilic writers also employed the expression "Israel" in reference to the nonpolitical, cultic community of the exiled people of Judah (Ezra 2:70 ; Nehemiah 7:73 ). In Babylonia, those exiled from the kingdom of Judah adapted the Israelite religion, which had been bound to territory and temple, transforming Yahwehism into a universalistic early Judaism.
The Development of Judaism . Nascent Judaism . The Judahites became the Jews in Babylon. Even Mordecai of the tribe of Benjamin is identified as a Jew (Esther 2:5 ), although the designation "Israel" also continued in use to identify the whole of the ethnic and cultic community (Ezra 2:70 ). The first Jews to return from the Babylonian exile to Jerusalem rebuilt the temple; however, the religious practices of the next generation did not conform to the vision of Judaism that the Babylonian Jewish community held. The reforms of Ezra, based on the Torah, which he brought to Jerusalem and read publically to its inhabitants, revived and redirected Palestinian Judaism (Nehemiah 8-10 ).
The reforms of Ezra resulted in a number of practices. There was a strict prohibition against mixed marriages. All who were of foreign descent were excluded from Israel (Nehemiah 13:3 ), including wives and children (Ezra 10 ). Thus, a Jew was one born of a Jewish mother. Adherents pledged to observe the Torah. Thereafter the Jews were identified as the people of the Book, a people committed to keeping the law of Moses. There was also strict observance of the Sabbath.
Jewish tradition holds that the shekinah , the Spirit of Divine Inspiration, departed Israel after Ezra, who was himself ranked second to Moses. With Ezra, the law of Moses was a given; there was no need for further revelation. What was needed was the transmission of the text by careful scribes and the interpretation of the text by competent scholar-teachers. These circumstances led to the ongoing interpretive expansion of the traditions into the oral law.
Despite the departure of the prophetic spirit, certain devout Jews were inspired to write religious works during the intertestamental period. These survive as the Apocrypha, works found in the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, the Septuagint, but later denied a place in the Hebrew Bible by Jewish leaders. However, in the Roman Empire outside Palestine, the Septaugint was the Bible of Jewish communities and the early church until the end of the first century a.d. Other works similar to the Apocrypha written in the same period were never considered for inclusion in the canon. These include the pseudepigrapha and the sectarian documents of the Dead Sea Scroll community.
The noncanonical writings of the intertestamental period attest to the development of Jewish religious thought. The transcendence of God was stressed; he was remote from humankind and the world. Angels, as intermediaries between God and man, were emphasized, as well as their demonic counterparts. Jews thought much about the cause and manifestation of human sin and conflict between good and evil. Related to this problem was the development of ideas latent in Hebrew Scripture on resurrection of the body, immortality of the soul, and the concept of the afterlife. During this period the biblical concept of the Messiah took on new importance. He was to be the eschatological figure chosen by God to lead in the last great conflict between good and evil and to institute the kingdom of God that would last forever.
Ezra and Nehemiah acted under the authority of the Persian monarch. They imposed ethnic cleansing on the population within the small province named Yehud [1] (Judea), a province that included Jerusalem and its hinterland in a radius of ten to fifteen miles. At first under Persian authority, then under the Greeks, the province was governed by high priests who were descendants of Aaron. The Maccabean revolt established an independent commonwealth under priest-kings of the Hasmonean house rather than the line of Aaron. Herod the Great married into the Hasmonean family, and he and his successors were kings under Roman authority. High priests continued to control the temple until its destruction in the first revolt of the Jews against the Romans in a.d. 70.
Early Jewish Sects . The Samaritans became the earliest Jewish sect. The ethnic division may be traced back to the eighth century b.c. (2 Kings 17:24-41 ), but the religious separation apparently became permanent due to the reforms of Ezra (Nehemiah 13:28 ). The Samaritan sect believed only in the Five Books of Moses.
Following the conquests of Alexander the Great, Greek culture predominated. Jewish leaders in Jerusalem tended to assimilate Hellenistic culture, subtly undermining the strict religious practices of the Judaism Ezra had mandated. Those opposed to Hellenization tended to stand apart from the Jerusalem hierarchy, forming a pious group of Hassideans who opposed foreign rule and culture. The Maccabean revolt against Syrian sovereignty broke out, and an extremely religious fanatical sect of Zealots supported the revolt and high priesthood of the Hasmoneans. Controversy over the high priesthood and other issues led to the fragmentation of Judaism. The Pharisees were strictly orthodox, holding to the authority of both the Torah and the oral tradition, and believing in resurrection and immortality. They conflicted with the Sadducees who believed in the Torah only, rejecting the interpre tation of the rabbis of the Pharisees. The Essenes separated themselves from much of Jewish society. The Qumran community opposed the loss of the Aaronide priesthood; they may have been associated with the Essenes. Others opposed the alliance between political power and religious authority, advocating instead lay leadership. The Qumran community apparently believed in the revealing presence of the Shekinah; the Temple Scroll is written as inspired scripture.
Christianity also began as a Jewish sect. Jesus insisted on a moral and ethical life based on love for God and love for one's neighbor, rather than the observance of a multitude of rules as advocated by the rabbis of the Pharisees. The first revolt of the Jews against the Romans deeply affected both Judaism and Christianity. The Jewish-Christian sect in Palestine was superseded by Gentile Christianity due to the missionary efforts of Paul, the destruction of the Jerusalem temple, and the defensive efforts of rabbinical Judaism to separate the church and the synagogue.
The New Testament . The word "Jew" (Gk. Ioudaios [ Matthew 1:2-3 ; Luke 3:30,33 ; Hebrews 7:14 ), twice to the territory (Matthew 2:6 ; Luke 1:39 ), and three times to the tribe (Hebrews 8:8 ; Revelation 5:5 ; 7:5 ). References to Judah are contained in quotations from or references to the Old Testament, frequently related to Jesus as the fulfillment of ideas or statements in the Hebrew Bible.
References to Jews and Judaism, however, bear a range of negative, neutral, and positive connotations. For example, John's Gospel contains sixty-three references to the Jews, of which approximately 60 percent are negative in nature, with another 20 percent neutral and a group of 20 percent that reflect a positive image. When Luke refers to Jews in Acts, the references tend toward anti-Judaism. Overall, when Jews are mentioned in the New Testament, the connotation usually is negative, reflecting the developing rift between the church and the synagogue. Unfortunately, this became the seed that in time would mature into modern, ungodly, anti-Semitism.
Theology . Genesis provides hardly a hint that Judah, the fourth son of Jacob, would providentially become the conduit through which God would fulfill his promises to Abraham. The biblical biography of Judah is not pleasant reading. He helped pillage the Shechemites after his brothers, Simon and Levi, had slain the men of the city (Genesis 34:27 ). He moved away from his kindred into Canaanite territory and married a Canaanite woman (Genesis 38:2 ). He failed to bring his sons up in the way of the Lord (Genesis 38:7,10 ), and he failed to do right by his daughter-in-law, Tamar (Genesis 38:11-26 ). Yet it was through Perez, one of the twin sons born to Tamar and fathered by Judah, that David's lineage is traced, and ultimately that of Jesus, the Messiah (Matthew 1:3-6 ). Only the Blessing of Jacob hints at not only the dynasty of David but the enigmatic "Shiloh, " which has traditionally been interpreted as a prophetic reference to Christ (Genesis 49:10 ). The story of Jacob illustrates how unsearchable are God's judgments (Romans 11:33 ).
The dynasty of David and the kingdom of Judah survived intact for over four centuries before it succumbed to the destructive power of Nebuchadnezzar's army. The history of that kingdom was marred and largely inglorious, despite the reforms of devout kings such as Hezekiah and Josiah. The demise of the kingdom and the deportation into exile of its leaders and much of its population was the direct result of ill-conceived international politics, domestic inequities and injustice, and religious deviation (2 Chronicles 36:13-20 ). Yet among the deportees was the remnant of the faithful who saved the precious scrolls that comprise the bulk of Bible and carried them into exile with them. And in exile the people of Judah became the Jews, the people of the Book, transforming the territorial temple-centered religion of their forefathers into a uNIVersal religion devoted to the worship of the one true God. Prophetic promises and messianic hope based on the study of God's Word among those in exile made possible the remnant that returned to rebuild temple and town, as God had promised through the prophet Jeremiah (25:11; 29:10-14). The establishment of nascent Judaism and the return and rebuilding of Jerusalem testify to the graciousness of God and his faithfulness in all generations.
The intertestamental period established the Jewish matrix into which Jesus of Nazareth was born at the turn of the era. In that period various currents of thought in Judaism resulted in the development of the oral law, the writing of the Apocrypha, and the fragmentation into factions such as the Sadducees, Pharisees, and the Dead Sea Scroll sect. This environment stimulated Jews to develop ideas that would be important in the rise of Christianity. These ideas included messianic stirring, interest in the eschaton (the end of days), the resurrection from the dead, and the rule of God. The Jewish soil in which the church sprouted and grew reflects the fullness of time (Galatians 4:4 ).
R. David Rightmire
See also Apocrypha ; Dead Sea Scrolls ; Israel ; Pharisees ; Sadducees
Bibliography . J. Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination; Encyclopedia Judaica, 10:21-25,383-97; J. Gager, The Origins of Anti-Semitism: Attitudes Toward Judaism in Pagan and Christian Antiquity ; H. R. Greenstein, Judaism—An Eternal Covenant ; N. P. Lemche, Early Israel ; M. Mansoor, Jewish History and Thought: An Introduction ; E. M. Meyers and J. Strange, Archaeology, the Rabbis, and Early Christianity: The Social and Historical Setting of Palestinian Judaism and Christianity ; H. A. Oberman, The Roots of Anti-Semitism in the Age of Renaissance and Reformation ; M. Shermis, Jewish-Christian Relations: An Annotated Bibliography and Resource Guide ; M. H. Tanenbaum, M. R. Wilson, and A. J. Rudin, eds., Evangelicals and Jews in Conversation ; R. de Vaux, Translating and Understanding the Old Testament .
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Jews
JEWS.—This term, originally perhaps applied only to men of the tribe of Judah, ‘men of Judaea,’ is employed in the Gospels (1) in opposition to Gentiles, proselytes, or Samaritans: Mark 7:3, John 2:6; John 2:13; Mark 7:3-4,7; John 4:22; John 5:1; John 6:4; John 7:2; John 19:40; John 19:42; (2) specially of Jews as antagonistic to our Lord, a usage which is characteristic of Jn. as distinguished from the Synoptics: Matthew 28:15, John 6:41; John 6:52; John 8:48-57; John 9:18; John 10:19; John 11:19; John 11:31; John 11:33; John 11:36; John 12:9; John 12:11. On the inferences that have been drawn from this usage as to the authorship and date of the Fourth Gospel, see art. John (Gospel of). ‘The Jews’ in this sense were blind followers of the Pharisees, and bitter opponents of Christ. Scrupulous about all the practices sanctioned by the elders,—washing of hands, of cups and pots and brazen vessels, Sabbath observance, etc. (1618448567_24 John 5:10 etc.),—they had forsaken the ‘old paths’ trodden by their fathers, and the things commanded by God. ‘For fear of the Jews’ men hesitated to confess Christ (John 7:13; John 9:22).
For customs of the Jews see art. Social Life. See also artt. Israel and Jerusalem.
Literature.—Westcott, Gospel of St. John, Introd. p. viii ff.; Andrews, Life of our Lord [1], p. 470; Fairbairn, Studies in the Life of Christ, ch. x.
J. Soutar.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - King of the Jews
KING OF THE JEWS.—See preceding art., Divinity of Christ (p. 477b), Names and Titles of Christ.
CARM Theological Dictionary - Jews
Originally, a Jew was a member of the state of Judah during the period of the division of Israel into two nations: Judah and Israel. It became a common reference from the 8th century B.C. Today it is used of adherents of the Jewish religion.
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Jews
A name derived from the patriarch Judah, and given to the descendants of Abraham by his eldest son Isaac. We shall here present the reader with as comprehensive a view of this singular people as we Song of Solomon 1:1-17 . Jews, history of the.
The Almighty promised Abraham that he would render his seed extremely numerous: this promise began to be fulfilled in Jacob's twelve sons. In about two hundred and fifteen years they increased in Egypt from seventeen to between two and three millions, men, women, and children. While Joseph lived, they were kindly used by the Egyptian monarchs; but soon after, from a suspicion that they would become too strong for the natives, they were condemned to slavery; but the more they were oppressed, the more they grew. The midwives, and others, were therefore ordered to murder every male infant at the time of its birth; but they, shifting the horrible task, every body was then ordered to destroy the male children wherever they found them. After they had been thus oppressed for about one hundred years, and on the very day that finished the four hundred and thirtieth year from God's first promise of a seed to Abraham, and about four hundred years after the birth of Isaac, God, by terrible plagues on the Egyptians, obliged them to liberate the Hebrews under the direction of Moses and Aaron.
Pharaoh pursued them with a mighty army; but the Lord opened a passage for them through the Red Sea; and the Egyptians, in attempting to follow them, were drowned. After this, we find them in a dry and barren desert, without any provision for their journey; but God supplied them with water from a rock, and manna and quails from heaven. A little after, they routed the Amalekites, who fell on their rear. In the wilderness God delivered them the law, and confirmed the authority of Moses. Three thousand of them were cut off for worshipping the golden calf; and for loathing the manna, they were punished with a month's eating of flesh, till a plague brake out among them; and for their rash belief of the ten wicked spies, and their contempt of the promised land, God had entirely destroyed them, had not Moses's prayers prevented. They were condemned, however, to wander in the desert till the end of forty years, till that whole generation, except Caleb and Joshua, should be cut off by death. Here they were often punished for their rebellion, idolatry, whoredom, &c. God's marvellous favours, however were still continued in conducting and supplying them with meat; and the streams issuing from the rock Meribah, followed their camp about thirty-nine years, and their clothes never waxed old.
On their entrance into Canaan, God ordered them to cut off every idolatrous Canaanite; but they spared vast numbers of them, who enticed them to wickedness, and were sometimes God's rod to punish them. For many ages they had enjoyed little prosperity, and often relapsed into awful idolatry, worshipping Baalim, Ashtaroth. Micah and the Danites introduced it not long after Joshua's death. About this time the lewdness of the men of Gibeah occasioned a war of the eleven tribes against their brethren of Benjamin: they were twice routed by the Benjamites, and forty thousand of them were slain. In the third, however, all the Benjamites were slain, except six hundred. Vexed for the loss of a tribe, the other Hebrews provided wives for these six hundred, at the expense of slaying most of the inhabitants of Jabesh Gilead. There relapses into idolatry also brought on them repeated turns of slavery from the heathen among or around them.
See books of Judges and Samuel. Having been governed by judges for about three hundred and forty years, after the death of Joshua they took a fancy to have a king. Saul was their first sovereign, under whose reign they had perpetual struggles with the Ammonites, Moabites, and Philistines. After about seven years' struggling between the eleven tribes that clave to Ishbosheth, the son of Saul, and the tribe of Judah, which erected themselves into a kingdom under David, David became sole monarch.
Under him they subdued their neighbours, the Philistines, Edomites, and others; and took possession of the whole dominion which had been promised them, from the border of Egypt to the banks of the Euphrates. Under Solomon they had little war: when he died, ten of the Hebrew tribes formed a kingdom of Israel, or Ephraim, for themselves, under Jeroboam, the son of Nebat, in opposition to the kingdom of Judah and Benjamin, ruled by the family of David. The kingdom of Israel, Ephraim, or the ten tribes, had never so much as one pious king: idolatry was always their established religion. The kingdom of Judah had pious and wicked sovereigns by turns, though they often relapsed into idolatry, which brought great distress upon them.
See books of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles. Not only the kingdom of Israel, but that of Judah, was brought to the very brink of ruin after the death of Jehoshaphat. After various changes, sometimes for the better, and sometimes for the worse, the kingdom of Israel was ruined, two hundred and fifty-four years after its erection, by So, king of Egypt, and Halmanaser, king of Assyria, who invaded it, and destroyed most of the people. Judah was invaded by Sennacherib; but Hezekiah's piety, and Isaiah's prayer, were the means of their preservation: but under Manasseh, the Jews abandoned themselves to horrid impiety: for which they were punished by Esarhaddon, king of Assyria, who invaded and reduced the kingdom, and carried Manasseh prisoner to Babylon. Manasseh repented, and the Lord brought him back to his kingdom where he promoted the reformation; but his son Amon defaced all.
Josiah, however, again promoted it, and carried it to a higher pitch than in the reigns of David and Solomon. After Josiah was slain by Pharaoh Necho, king of Egypt, the people returned to idolatry, and God gave them up to servitude to the Egyptians and the Chaldeans. The fate of their kings Jehoahaz, Jehoiakim, Jechoiachin, and Zedekiah, was unhappy. Provoked by Zedekiah's treachery, Nebuchadnezzar invaded the kingdom, murdered vast numbers, and reduced them to captivity. Thus the kingdom of Judah was ruined, A. M. 3416, about three hundred and eighty-eight years after its division from that of the ten tribes. In the seventieth year from the begun captivity, the Jews, according to the edict of Cyrus, king of Persia, who had overturned the empire of Chaldea, returned to their own country.
See Nehemiah, Ezra. Vast numbers of them, who had agreeable settlements, remained in Babylon. After their return they rebuilt the temple and city of Jerusalem, put away their strange wives, and renewed their covenant with God. About 3490, or 3546, they escaped the ruin designed them by Haman. About 3653, Darius Ochus, king of Persia, ravaged part of Judea, and carried off a great many prisoners. When Alexander was in Canaan, about 3670, he confirmed to them all their privileges; and, having built Alexandria, he settled vast numbers of them there. About fourteen years after, Ptolemy Lagus, the Greek king of Egypt, ravaged Judea, and carried one hundred thousand prisoners to Egypt, but used them kindly, and assigned them many places of trust. About eight years after, he transported another multitude of Jews to Egypt, and gave them considerable privileges.
About the same time, Seleucus Nicator, having built about thirty new cities in Asia, settled in them as many Jews as he could; and Ptolemy Philadelphus, of Egypt, about 3720, bought the freedom of all the Jew slaves in Egypt. Antiochus Epiphanes, about 3834, enraged with them for rejoicing at the report of his death, and for the peculiar form of their worship, in his return from Egypt, forced his way into Jerusalem, and murdered forty thousand of them; and about two years after he ordered his troops to pillage the cities of Judea, and murder the men, and sell the women and children for slaves. Multitudes were killed, and ten thousand prisoners carried off; the temple was dedicated to Olympius, an idol of Greece, and the Jews exposed to the basest treatment. Mattathias, the priest, with his sons, chiefly Judas, Jonathan, and Simon, who were called Maccabees, bravely fought for their religion and liberties. Judas, who succeeded his father about 3840 gave Nicanor and the king's troops a terrible defeat, regained the temple, and dedicated it anew, restored the daily worship, and repaired Jerusalem, which was almost in a ruinous heap. After his death, Jonathan and Simon, his brethren, successively succeeded him; and both wisely and bravely promoted the welfare of the church and state.
Simon was succeeded by his son Hircanus, who subdued Idumea, and reduced the Samaritans. In 3899 he was succeeded by his son Janneus, who reduced the Philistines, the country of Moab, Ammon, Gilead, and part of Arabia. Under these three reigns alone the Jewish nation was independent after the captivity. After the death of the widow of Jameus, who governed nine years, the nation was almost ruined with civil broils. In 3939, Aristobulus invited the Romans to assist him against Hircanus, his elder brother. The country was quickly reduced, and Jerusalem took by force; and Pompey, and a number of his officers, pushed their way into the sanctuary, if not into the Holy of Holies, to view the furniture thereof. Nine years after, Crassus the Roman general, pillaged the temple of its valuables. After Judea had for more than thirty years been a scene of ravage and blood, and twenty-four of which had been oppressed by Herod the Great, Herod got himself installed in the kingdom. About twenty years before our Saviour's birth, he, with the Jews' consent began to build the temple.
About this time the Jews had hopes of the Messiah; and about A. M. 4000, Christ actually came, whom Herod (instigated by the fear of losing his throne) sought to murder. The Jews, however, a few excepted, rejected the Messiah, and put him to death. The sceptre was now wholly departed from Judah; and Judea, about twenty-seven years before, reduced to a province. The Jews since that time, have been scattered, contemned, persecuted, and enslaved among all nations, not mixed with any in the common manner, but have remained as a body distinct by themselves. 2. Jews, sentiments of. The Jews commonly reckon but thirteen articles of their faith. Maimonides, a famous Jewish rabbi, reduced them to this number when he drew up their confession about the end of the eleventh century, and it was generally received. All the Jews are obliged to live and die in the profession of these thirteen articles, which are as follow:
1. That God is the creator of all things; that he guides and supports all creatures: that he has done every thing; and that he still acts, and shall act during the whole eternity.
2. That God is one: there is no unity like his. He alone hath been, is, and shall be eternally our God.
3. That God is incorporeal, and cannot have any material properties; and no corporeal essence can be compared with him.
4. That God is the beginning and end of all things, and shall eternally subsist.
5. That God alone ought to be worshipped, and none beside him is to be adored.
6. That whatever has been taught by the prophets is true.
7. That Moses is the head and father of all contemporary doctors, of those who lived before or shall live after him.
8. That the law was given by Moses.
9. That the law shall never be altered, and that God will give no other.
10. That God knows all the thoughts and actions of men.
11. That God will regard the works of all those who have performed what he commands, and punish those who have transgressed his laws.
12. That the Messiah is to come, though he tarry a long time.
13. That there shall be a resurrection of the dead when God shall think fit. The modern Jews adhere still as closely to the Mosaic dispensation, as their dispersed and despised condition will permit them. Their service consists chiefly in reading the law in their synagogues, together with a variety of prayers. They use no sacrifices since the destruction of the temple. They repeat blessings and particular praises to God, not only in their prayers, but on all accidental occasions, and in almost all their actions. They go to prayers three times a day in their synagogues. Their sermons are not made in Hebrew, which few of them now perfectly understand, but in the language of the country where they reside.
They are forbidden all vain swearing, and pronouncing any of the names of God without necessity. They abstain from meats prohibited by the Levitical law; for which reason, whatever they eat must be dressed by Jews, and after a manner peculiar to themselves. As soon as a child can speak, they teach him to read and translate the Bible into the language of the country where they live. In general they observe the same ceremonies which were practised by their ancestors in the celebration of the passover. They acknowledge a two-fold law of God, a written and an unwritten one; the former is contained in the Pentateuch, or five books of Moses; the latter they pretend, was delivered by God to Moses, and handed down from him by oral tradition, and now to be received as of equal authority with the former. They assert the perpetuity of their law, together with its perfection. They deny the accomplishment of the prophecies in the person of Christ; alleging that the Messiah is not yet come, and that he will make his appearance with the greatest worldly pomp and grandeur, subduing all nations before him, and subjecting them to the house of Judah. Since the prophets have predicted his mean condition and sufferings, they confidently talk of two Messiahs; one Ben-Ephraim, whom they grant to be a person of a mean and afflicted condition in this world; and the other Ben-David, who shall be a victorious and powerful prince.
The Jews pray for the souls of the dead, because they suppose there is a paradise for the souls of good men, where they enjoy glory in the presence of God. They believe that the souls of the wicked are tormented in hell with fire and other punishments; that some are condemned to be punished in this manner for ever, while others continue only for a limited time; and this they call purgatory, which is not different from hell in respect of the place, but of the duration. They suppose no Jew, unless guilty of heresy, or certain crimes specified by the rabbins, shall continue in purgatory above a twelvemonth; and that there are but few who suffer eternal punishment. Almost all the modern Jews are Pharisees, and are as much attached to tradition as their ancestors were; and assert that whoever rejects the oral law deserves death. Hence they entertain an implacable hatred to the Caraites, who adhere to the text of Moses, rejecting the rabbinistical interpretation.
See CARAITES. There are still some of the Sadducees in Africa, and in several other places; but they are few in number: at least there are but very few who declare openly for these opinions.
There are to this day some remains of the ancient sect of the Samaritans, who are zealous for the law of Moses, but are despised by the Jews, because they receive only the Pentateuch, and observe different ceremonies from theirs. They declare they are no Sadducees, but acknowledge the spirituality and immortality of the soul. There are numbers of this sect at Gaza, Damascus, Grand Cairo, and in some other places of the east; but especially at Sichem, now called Naplouse, which is risen out of the ruins of the ancient Samaria, where they sacrificed not many years ago, having a place for this purpose on Mount Genzim. David Levi, a learned Jew, who in 1796 published "Dissertations on the Phrophecies of the Old Testament, " observes in that work, that deism and infidelity have made such large strides in the world, that they have at length reached even to the Jewish nation; many of whom are at this time so greatly infected with scepticism, by reading Bolingbroke, Hume, Voltaire, &c. that they scarcely believe in a revelation; much less have they any hope in their future restoration. 3. Jews, calamities of.
All history cannot furnish us with a parallel to the calamities and miseries of the Jews; rapine and murder, famine and pestilence, within; fire and sword, and all the terrors of war, without. Our Saviour wept at the foresight of these calamities; and it is almost impossible for persons of any humanity to read the account without being affected. The predictions concerning them were remarkable, and the calamities that came upon them were the greatest the world ever saw. Deuteronomy 28:1-68 : Matthew 24:1-51 : Now, what heinous sin was it that could be the cause of such heavy judgments? Can any other be assigned than what the Scripture assigns? 1 Thessalonians 2:15-16 . "They both killed the Lord Jesus and their own prophets, and persecuted the apostles: and so filled up their sins, and wrath came upon them to the uttermost." It is hardly possible to consider the nature and extent of their sufferings, and not conclude the Jews' own imprecation to be singularly fulfilled upon them, Matthew 27:25 . "His blood be on us and our children." At Cesarea twenty thousand of the Jews were killed. At Damascus ten thousand unarmed Jews were killed: and at Bethshan the Heathen inhabitants caused their Jewish neighbours to assist them against their brethren, and then murdered thirteen thousand of these inhabitants.
At Alexandria the Jews murdered multitudes of the Heathens, and were murdered in their turn to about fifty thousand. The Romans under Vespasian invaded the country, and took the cities of Galilee, Chorazen, Bethsaida, Capernaum, &c. where Christ had been especially rejected, and murdered numbers of the inhabitants. At Jerusalem the scene was most wretched of all. At the passover, when there might be two or three millions of people in the city, the Romans surrounded it with troops, trenches, and walls, that none might escape. The three different factions within murdered one another. Titus, one of the most merciful generals that ever breathed, did all in his power to persuade them to an advantageous surrender, but they scorned every proposal. The multitudes of unburied carcases corrupted the air, and produced a pestilence. The people fed on one another; and even ladies, it is said, broiled their sucking infants, and ate them. After a siege of six months, the city was taken. They murdered almost every Jew they met with. Titus was bent to save the temple, but could not: there were six thousand Jews who had taken shelter in it, all burnt or murdered! The outcries of the Jews, when they saw it, were most dreadful: the whole city, except three towers and a small part of the wall, was razed to the ground, and the foundations of the temple and other places were ploughed up. Soon after the forts of Herodian and Macheron were taken the garrison of Massada murdered themselves rather than surrender.
At Jerusalem alone, it is said, one million one hundred thousand perished by sword, famine, and pestilence. In other places we hear of two hundred and fifty thousand that were cut off, besides vast numbers sent into Egypt to labour as slaves. About fifty years after, the Jews murdered about five hundred thousand of the Roman subjects, for which they were severely punished by Trajan. About 130, one Barocaba pretended that he was the Messiah, and raised a Jewish army of two hundred thousand, who murdered all the Heathens and Christians who came in their way; but he was defeated by Adrian's forces. In this war, it is said, about sixty thousand Jews were slain, and perished. Adrian built a city on Mount Calvary, and erected a marble statue of swine over the gate that led to Bethlehem. No Jew was allowed to enter the city, or to look to it at a distance, under pain of death. In 360 they began to rebuild their city and temple; but a terrible earthquake and flames of fire issuing from the earth, killed the workmen, and scattered their materials.
Nor till the seventh century durst they so much as creep over the rubbish to bewail it, without bribing the guards. In the third, fourth, and fifth centuries, there were many of them furiously harassed and murdered. In the sixth century twenty thousand of them were slain, and as many taken and sold for slaves. In 602 they were severly punished for their horrible massacre of the Christians at Antioch. In Spain, in 700, they were ordered to be enslaved. In the eighth and ninth centuries they were greatly derided and abused; in some places they were made to wear leathern girdles, and ride without stirrups on asses and mules. In France and Spain they were much insulted. In the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth centuries, their miseries rather increased: they were greatly persecuted in Egypt. Besides what they suffered in the East by the Turkish and sacred war, it is shocking to think what multitudes of them the eight croisades murdered in Germany, Hungary, Lesser Asia, and elsewhere. In France multitudes were burnt.
In England, in 1020, they were banished; and at the coronation of Richard I. the mob fell upon them, and murdered a great many of them. About one thousand five hundred of them were burnt in the palace in the city of York, which they set fire to, themselves, after killing their wives and children. In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries their condition was no better. In Egypt, Canaan, and Syria, the croisaders still harassed them. Provoked with their mad running after pretended Messiahs, Califf Nasser scarce left any of them alive in his dominions of Mesopotamia. In Persia, the Tartars murdered them in multitudes. In Spain, Ferdinand persecuted them furiously. About 1349, the terrible massacre of them at Toledo forced many of them to murder themselves, or change their religion. About 1253, many were murdered, and others banished from France, but in 1275 recalled. In 1320 and 1330, the croisades of the fanatic shepherds, who wasted the south of France, massacred them; besides fifteen hundred that were murdered on another occasion.
In 1358 they were totally banished from France, since which few of them have entered that country. In 1291 king Edward expelled them from England, to the number of one hundred and sixty thousand. In the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries, their misery continued. In Persia they have been terribly used: from 1663 to 1666, the murder of them was so universal, that but a few escaped to Turkey. In Portugal and Spain they have been miserably handled. About 1392, six or eight hundred thousand were banished from Spain. Some were drowned in their passage to Africa; some by hard usage; and many of their carcasses lay in the fields till the wild beasts devoured them. In Germany they have endured many hardships. They have been banished from Bohemia, Bavaria, Cologne, Nuremberg, Augsburg, and Vienna: they have been terribly massacred in Moravia, and plundered in Bonn and Bamberg. Except in Portugal and Spain, their present condition is generally tolerable. In Holland, Poland, and at Frankfort and Hamburgh they have their liberty. They have repeatedly, but in vain, attempted to obtain a naturalization in England, and other nations among whom they are scattered. 4. Jews, preservation of.
"The preservation of the Jews, " says Basnage, "in the midst of the miseries which they have undergone during 1700 years, is the greatest prodigy that can be imagined. Religions depend on temporal prosperity; they triumph under the protection of a conqueror: they languish and sink with sinking monarchies. Paganism which once covered the earth, is extinct. The Christian church, glorious in its martyrs, yet was considerably diminished by the persecutions to which it was exposed; nor was it easy to repair the breaches in it made by those acts of violence. But here we behold a church hated and persecuted for 1700 years, and yet sustaining itself, and widely extended. Kings have often employed the severity of edicts and the hand of executioners to ruin it. The seditious multitudes, by murders and massacres, have committed outrages against it still more violent and tragical. Princes and people, Pagans, Mahometans, Christians, disagreeing in so many things, have united in the design of exterminating it, and have not been able to succeed. The bush of Moses, surrounded with flames, ever burnt, and is never consumed. The Jews have been expelled, in different times, from every part of the world, which hath only served to spread them in all regions.
From age to age they have been exposed to misery and persecution; yet still they subsist, in spite of the ignominy and the hatred which hath pursued them in all places, whilst the greatest monarchies are fallen, and nothing remains of them besides the name. "The judgments which God has exercised upon this people are terrible, extending to the men, the religion, and the very land in which they dwelt. The ceremonies essential to their religion can no more be observed: the ritual law, which cast a splendour on the national worship, and struck the Pagans so much that they sent their presents and their victims to Jerusalem, is absolutely fallen, for they have no temple, no altar, no sacrifices. Their land itself seems to lie under a never-ceasing curse. Pagans, Christians, Mohammedians, in a word, almost all nations have by turns seized and held Jerusalem. To the Jew only hath God refused the possession of this small tract of ground, so supremely necessary for him, since he ought to worship on this mountain.
A Jewish writer hath affirmed, that it is long since any Jew has been settled near Jerusalem: scarcely can they purchase there six feet of land for a burying-place. "In all this there is no exaggeration: I am only pointing out known facts: and, far from having the least design to raise an odium against the nation from its miseries, I conclude that it ought to be looked upon as one of those prodigies which we admire without comprehending: since, in spite of evils so durable, and a patience so long exercised, it is preserved by a particular providence. The Jew ought to be weary of expecting a Messiah, who so unkindly disappoints his vain hopes: and the Christian ought to have his attention and his regard excited towards men whom God preserves, for so great a length of time, under calamities which would have been the total ruin of any other people." 5. Jews, number and dispersion of
They are looked upon to be as numerous at present as they were formerly in the land of Canaan. Some have rated them at three millions, and others more than double that number. Their dispersion is a remarkable particular in this people. They swarm all over the east, and are settled, it is said, in the remotest parts of China. The Turkish empire abounds with them. There are more of them at Constantinople and Salonichi than in any other place: they are spread through most of the nations of Europe and Africa, and many families of them are estabished in the West Indies; not to mention whole nations bordering on Prester John's country, and some discovered in the inner parts of America, if we may give any credit to their own writers. Their being always in rebellions (as Addison observes) while they had the Holy Temple in view, has excited most nations to banish them. Besides, the whole people are now a race of such merchants as are wanderers by profession; and at the same time are in most, if not in all places, incapable of either lands or offices, that might engage them to make any part of the world their home. In addition to this, we may consider what providential reasons may be assigned for their numbers and dispersion. Their firm adherence to their religion, and being dispersed all over the earth, has furnished every age and every nation with the strongest arguments for the Christian faith; not only as these very particulars are foretold of them, but as they themselves are the depositories of these and all other prophecies which tend to their own confusion and the establishment of Christianity. Their number furnishes us with a sufficient cloud of witnesses that attest the truth of the Bible, and their dispersion spreads these witnesses through all parts of the world. 6. Jews, restoration of.
From the declarations of Scripture we have reason to suppose the Jews shall be called to a participation of the blessings of the Gospel, Romans 11:1-36 : 2 Corinthians 3:16 . Hosea 1:11 , and some suppose shall return to their own land, Hosea 3:5 . Is. 65: 17, &c. Ezekiel 36:1-38 : As to the time, some think about 1866 or 2016; but this, perhaps, is not so easy to determine altogether, though it is probable it will not be before the fall of Antichrist and the Ottoman empire. Let us, however, avoid putting stumbling- blocks in their way. If we attempt any thing for their conversion, let it be with peace and love. Let us, says one, propose Christianity to them as Christ proposed it to them. Let us lay before them their own prophecies. Let us show them their accomplishment in Jesus. Let us applaud their hatred of idolatry. Let us show them the morality of Jesus in our lives and tempers. Let us never abridge their civil liberty, nor ever try to force their consciences. Josephus's History of the Jews; Spect. No. 495. vol. 4:; Levi's Ceremonies of the Jewish Religion; Buxtorf de Synagoga Judiaca; Spencer de Legibus Heb. Rit.; Newton on Proph.; Warburton's Address to the Jews, in the Dedication of the 2d vol. of his Legation; Sermons preached to the Jews at Berry-street, by Dr. Haweis and others; Basnage's and Orckley's Hist. of the Jews; Shaw's Philosophy of Judiasm; Hartley on Man, vol. 2: prop. 8. vol. 3: p. 455, 487; Bicheno's Restoration of the Jews; Jortin's Rem. on Ecc. Hist. vol. 3: p. 427, 447; Dr. H. Jackson's works, vol. 1: p. 153; Neale's History of the Jews; Pirie's Posth. Works, vol. 1:; Fuller's Serm. on the Messiah.
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Jews
So called from Judah. The account of this most singular people would form a wonderful history, could it be gathered into one mass of particulars. Mingled, as they now are, with all the known nations of the earth, and yet incorporated with none; carrying with them in their very countenance, customs and manners, one uniform singularity, so as to be known by all, and yet connected with none; despised, hated, persecuted, attached to their own religion, supporting it in spite of all opposition, and pertinacious still to preserve what the most learned of them do not understand; surely they are, as the Lord hath marked them, and as they are designated to be, living evidences of the truth of the gospel. Blessed be God, there is a promise concerning them, which all the faithful in Christ Jesus long to see fulfilled: "The Redeemer shall come to Zion, and unto them that turn from transgression in Jacob, saith the Lord." (Isaiah 59:20)
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Jews
the appropriate denomination of the descendants of Judah, which soon included under it the Benjamites, who joined themselves to the tribe of Judah, on the revolt of the other ten tribes from the house of David. After the Babylonish captivity, when many individuals of these ten tribes returned with the men of Judah and Benjamin to rebuild Jerusalem, the term JEWS included them also, or rather was then extended to all the descendants of Israel who retained the Jewish religion, whether they belonged to the two or to the ten tribes, whether they returned into Judea or not. Hence, not only all the Israelites of future times have been called Jews, but all the descendants of Jacob, from the earliest times, are frequently so called by us at present, and we speak even of their original dispensation as the Jewish dispensation. The history of this singular people is recorded in the sacred books of the Old Testament; and in place of epitomizing the accounts of the sacred writers, it will be more useful to fill up the chasm between the close of the historical books there contained, and the coming of our Lord.
When the kingdom of Judah had been seventy years in captivity, and the period of their affliction was completed, Cyrus, (B.C. 536,) under whom were united the kingdoms of Persia, Media, and Babylon, issued a decree, permitting all the Jews to return to their own land, and to rebuild their temple at Jerusalem. This decree had been expressly foretold by the Prophet Isaiah, who spoke of Cyrus by name, above a hundred years before his birth, as the deliverer of God's chosen people from their predicted captivity. Though the decree issued by Cyrus was general, a part only of the nation took advantage of it. The number of persons who returned at this time was forty-two thousand three hundred and sixty, and seven thousand three hundred and thirty-seven servants. They were conducted by Zerubbabel and Joshua. Zerubbabel, frequently called in Scripture Shashbazzar, was the grandson of Jeconias, and consequently descended from David. He was called "the prince of Judah," and was appointed their governor by Cyrus, and with his permission carried back a part of the gold and silver vessels which Nebuchadnezzar had taken out the temple of Jerusalem. The rest of the treasures of the temple were carried thither afterward by Ezra. Joshua was the son of Josedec, the high priest, and grandson of Seraiah, who was high priest when the temple was destroyed. Darius, the successor of Cyrus, confirmed this decree, and favoured the reestablishment of the people. But it was in the reign of Artaxerxes Longimanus, called in Scripture Ahasuerus, that Ezra obtained his commission, and was made governor of the Jews in their own land, which government he held thirteen years: then Nehemiah was appointed with fresh powers, probably through the interest of Queen Esther; and Ezra applied himself solely to correcting the canon of the Scriptures, and restoring and providing for the continuance of the worship of God in its original purity. The first care of the Jews, after their arrival in Judea, was to build an altar for burnt-offerings to God: they then collected materials for rebuilding the temple; and all necessary preparations being made, in the beginning of the second year after their return under Zerubbabel, they began to build it upon the old foundations. The Samaritans, affirming that they worshipped the God of Israel, offered to assist the Jews; but their assistance being refused, they did all in their power to impede the work; and hence originated that enmity which ever after subsisted between the Jews and Samaritans. The temple, after a variety of obstructions and delays, was finished and dedicated, in the seventh year of King Darius, B.C. 515, and twenty years after it was begun. Though this second temple, or, as it is sometimes called, the temple of Zerubbabel, who was at that time governor of the Jews, was of the same size and dimensions as the first, or Solomon's temple, yet it was very inferior to it in splendour and magnificence; and the ark of the covenant, the Shechinah, the holy fire upon the altar, the Urim and Thummim, and the spirit of prophecy, were all wanting to this temple of the remnant of the people. At the feast of the dedication, offerings were made for the twelve tribes of Israel, which seems to indicate that some of all the tribes returned from captivity; but by far the greater number were of the tribe of Judah, and therefore from this period the Israelites were generally called Judaei or Jews, and their country Judea. Many, at their own desire, remained in those provinces where they had been placed by the kings of Assyria and Babylon. The settlement of the people, "after their old estate," according to the word of the Lord, together with the arrangement of all civil and ecclesiastical matters, and the building of the walls of Jerusalem, were completed by Ezra and Nehemiah. But we soon after find Malachi, the last of the prophets under the Old Testament, reproving both priests and people very severely, not for idolatry, but for their scandalous lives and gross corruptions.
The Scriptural history ends at this period, B.C. 430; and we must have recourse to uninspired writings, principally to the books of the Maccabees, and to Josephus, for the remaining particulars of the Jewish history, to the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans. Judea continued subject to the kings of Persia about two hundred years; but it does not appear that it had a separate governor after Nehemiah. From his time it was included in the jurisdiction of the governor of Syria, and under him the high priest had the chief authority. When Alexander the Great was preparing to besiege Tyre, he sent to Jaddua, the high priest at Jerusalem, to supply him with that quantity of provisions which he was accustomed to send to Persia. Jaddua refused, upon the ground of his oath of fidelity to the king of Persia. This refusal irritated Alexander; and when he had taken Tyre, he marched toward Jerusalem to revenge himself upon the Jews. Jaddua had notice of his approach, and, by the direction of God, went out of the city to meet him, dressed in his pontifical robes and attended by the Levites in white garments. Alexander, visibly struck with this solemn appearance, immediately laid aside his hostile intentions, advanced toward the high priest, embraced him, and paid adoration to the name of God, which was inscribed upon the frontlet of his mitre: he afterward went into the city with the high priest, and offered sacrifices in the temple to the God of the Jews. This sudden change in the disposition of Alexander excited no small astonishment among his followers; and when his favourite Parmenio inquired of him the cause, he answered, that it was occasioned by the recollection of a remarkable dream he had in Macedonia, in which a person, dressed precisely like the Jewish high priest, had encouraged him to undertake the conquest of Persia, and had promised him success: he therefore adored the name of that God by whose direction he believed he acted, and showed kindness to his people. It is also said, that while he was at Jerusalem the prophecies of Daniel were pointed out to him, which foretold that "the king of Grecia" should conquer Persia, Daniel 8:21 . Before he left Jerusalem he granted the Jews the same free enjoyment of their laws and their religion, and exemption from tribute every sabbatical year, which they had been allowed by the kings of Persia; and when he built Alexandria, he placed a great number of Jews there, and granted them many favours and immunities. Whether any Jews settled in Europe so early as while the nation was subject to the Macedonian empire, is not known; but it is believed that they began to Hellenize about this time. The Greek tongue became more common among them, and Grecian manners and opinions were soon introduced. See ALEXANDER .
At the death of Alexander, (B.C. 323,) in the division of his empire among his generals, Judea fell to the share of Laomedon. But Ptolemy Soter, son of Lagus, king of Egypt, soon after made himself master of it by a stratagem: he entered Jerusalem on a Sabbath day, under pretence of offering sacrifice, and took possession of the city without resistance from the Jews, who did not on this occasion dare to transgress their law by fighting on a Sabbath day. Ptolemy carried many thousands captive into Egypt, both Jews and Samaritans, and settled them there: he afterward treated them with kindness, on account of their acknowledged fidelity to their engagements, particularly in their conduct toward Darius, king of Persia; and he granted them equal privileges with the Macedonians themselves at Alexandria. Ptolemy Philadelphus is said to have given the Jews who were captives in Egypt their liberty, to the number of a hundred and twenty thousand. He commanded the Jewish Scriptures to be translated into the Greek language, which translation is called the Septuagint. ( See ALEXANDRIA. ) After the Jewish nation had been tributary to the kings of Egypt for about a hundred years, it became subject to the kings of Syria. They divided the land, which now began to be called Palestine, into five provinces, three of which were on the west side of the Jordan, namely, Galilee, Samaria, and Judea, and two on the east side, namely, Trachonitis and Persia; but they suffered them to be governed by their own laws, under the high priest and council of the nation. Seleucus Nicanor gave them the right of citizens in the cities which he built in Asia Minor and Coelo-Syria, and even in Antioch, his capital, with privileges, which they continued to enjoy under the Romans. Antiochus the Great granted considerable favours and immunities to the city of Jerusalem; and, to secure Lydia and Phrygia, he established colonies of Jews in those provinces. In the series of wars which took place between the kings of Syria and Egypt, Judea, being situated between those two countries, was, in a greater or less degree, affected by all the revolutions which they experienced, and was frequently the scene of bloody and destructive battles. The evils to which the Jews were exposed from these foreign powers were considerably aggravated by the corruption and misconduct of their own high priests, and other persons of distinction among them. To this corruption and misconduct, and to the increasing wickedness of the people, their sufferings ought indeed to be attributed, according to the express declarations of God by the mouth of his prophets. It is certain that about this time a considerable part of the nation was become much attached to Grecian manners and customs, though they continued perfectly free from the sin of idolatry. Near Jerusalem places were appropriated to gymnastic exercises; and the people were led by Jason, who had obtained the high priesthood from Antiochus Epiphanes by the most dishonourable means, to neglect the temple worship, and the observance of the law, in a far greater degree than, at any period since their return from the captivity. It pleased God to punish them for this defection, by the hand of the very person whom they particularly sought to please. Antiochus Epiphanes, irritated at having been prevented by the Jews from entering the holy place when he visited the temple, soon after made a popular commotion the pretence for the exercise of tyranny: he took the city, (B.C. 170,)
plundered the temple, and slew or enslaved great numbers of the inhabitants, with every circumstance of profanation and of cruelty which can be conceived. For three years and a half, the time predicted by Daniel, the daily sacrifice was taken away, the temple defiled and partly destroyed, the observance of the law prohibited under the most severe penalties, every copy burned which the agents of the tyrant could procure, and the people required to sacrifice to idols, under pain of the most agonizing death. Numerous as were the apostates, (for the previous corruption of manners had but ill prepared the nation for such a trial,) a remnant continued faithful; and the complicated miseries which the people endured under this cruel yoke excited a general impatience. At length the moment of deliverance arrived. Mattathias, a priest, (B.C. 167,) eminent for his piety and resolution, and the father of five sons, equally zealous for their religion, encouraged the people by his example and exhortations, "to stand up for the law:" and having soon collected an army of six thousand men, he eagerly undertook to free Judea from the oppression and persecution of the Syrians, and to restore the worship of the God of Israel; but being very old when he engaged in this important and arduous work, he did not live to see its completion. At his death, his son, Judas Maccabaeus, succeeded to the command of the army; and having defeated the Syrians in several engagements, he drove them out of Judea, and established his own authority in the country. His first care was to repair and purify the temple for the restoration of divine worship; and, to preserve the memory of this event, the Jews ordained a feast of eight days, called the feast of the dedication, to be yearly observed. Judas Maccabaeus was slain in battle, and his brother Jonathan succeeded him in the government. He was also made high priest, and from that time the Maccabaean princes continued to be high priests. Judas Maccabaeus and his brothers were so successful, by their valour and conduct, in asserting the liberty of their country, that in a few years they not only recovered its independence, but regained almost all the possessions of the twelve tribes, destroying at the same time the temple on Mount Gerizim, in Samaria. But they and their successors were almost always engaged in wars, in which, though generally victorious, they were sometimes defeated, and their country for a short time oppressed. Aristobulus was the first of the Maccabees who assumed the name of king. About forty-two years after, a contest arising between the two brothers, Hyrcanus and Aristobulus, the sons of Alexander Jaddaeus, relative to the succession of the crown, both parties applied to the Romans for their support and assistance. Scaurus, the Roman general, suffered himself to be bribed by Aristobulus, and placed him on the throne, Not long after, Pompey returned from the east into Syria, and both the brothers applied to him for protection, and pleaded their cause before him, (B.C. 63.) Pompey considered this as a favourable opportunity for reducing Palestine under the power of the Romans, to which the neighbouring nations had already submitted; and therefore, without deciding the points in dispute between the two brothers, he marched his army into Judea, and, after some pretended negotiation with Aristobulus and his party, besieged and took possession of Jerusalem. He appointed Hyrcanus high priest, but would not allow him to take the title of king; he gave him, however, the specious name of prince, with very limited authority. Pompey did not take away the holy utensils or treasures of the temple, but he made Judea subject and tributary to the Romans; and Crassus, about nine years after, plundered the temple of every thing valuable belonging to it. Julius Caesar confirmed Hyrcanus in the pontificate, and granted fresh privileges to the Jews; but about four years after the death of Julius Caesar, Antigonus, the son of Aristobulus, with the assistance of the Parthians, while the empire of Rome was in an unsettled state, deposed his uncle Hyrcanus, (B.C. 41,) seized the government, and assumed the title of king.
Herod, by birth an Idumean, but of the Jewish religion, whose father, Antipater, as well as himself, had enjoyed considerable posts of honour and trust under Hyrcanus, immediately set out for Rome, and prevailed upon the senate, through the interest of Antony and Augustus, to appoint him king of Judea. Armed with this authority, he returned, and began hostilities against Antigonus. About three years after, he took Jerusalem, and put an end to the government of the Maccabees or Asmonaeans, after it had lasted nearly a hundred and thirty years. Antigonus was sent prisoner to Rome, and was there put to death by Antony. Herod married Mariamne, who lived to be the only representative of the Asmonaean family, and afterward caused her to be publicly executed from motives of unfounded jealousy. Herod considerably enlarged the kingdom of Judea, but it continued tributary to the Romans; he greatly depressed the civil power of the high priesthood, and changed it from being hereditary and for life to an office granted and held at the pleasure of the monarch; and this sacred office was now often given to those who paid the highest price for it, without any regard to merit: he was an inexorable, cruel tyrant to his people, and even to his children, three of whom he put to death; a slave to his passions, and indifferent by what means he gratified his ambition; but to preserve the Jews in subjection, and to erect a lasting monument to his own name, he repaired the temple of Jerusalem at a vast expense, and added greatly to its magnificence.
At this time there was a confident expectation of the Messiah among the Jews; and indeed, a general idea prevailed among the Heathen, also, that some extraordinary conqueror or deliverer would soon appear in Judea. In the thirty-sixth year of the reign of Herod, while Augustus was emperor of Rome, the Saviour of mankind was born of the virgin Mary, of the lineage of David, in the city of Bethlehem of Judea, according to the word of prophecy. Herod, misled by the opinion, which was then common among the Jews, that the Messiah was to appear as the temporal prince, and judging from the inquiries of the wise men of the east, that the child was actually born, sent to Bethlehem, and ordered that all the children of two years old and under should be put to death, with the hope of destroying one whom he considered as the rival of himself, or at least of his family. He was soon after smitten with a most loathsome and tormenting disease, and died, a signal example of divine justice, about a year and a quarter after the birth of our Saviour, and in the thirty-seventh year of his reign, computing from the time he was declared king by the Romans. See HEROD .
Herod made his will not long before his death, but left the final disposal of his dominions to Augustus. The emperor ratified this will in all its material points, and suffered the countries over which Herod had reigned to be divided among his three sons. Archelaus succeeded to the largest share, namely, to Judea Propria, Samaria, and Idumea. Herod Antipas, called Herod the Tetrarch, who afterward beheaded John the Baptist, succeeded to Galilee and Peraea; and Philip, to Trachonitis, and to the neighbouring region of Iturea. The sons of Herod the Great were not suffered to take the title of king: they were only called ethnarchs or tetrarchs. Beside the countries already mentioned, Abilene, which had belonged to Herod during the latter part of his life, and of which Lysanias is mentioned in Luke 3:1 , as tetrarch, and some cities were given to Salome, the sister of Herod the Great, (A.D. 7.) Archelaus acted with great cruelty and injustice; and in the tenth year of his government, upon a regular complaint being made against him by the Jews, Augustus banished him to Vienne, in Gaul, where he died.
After the banishment of Archelaus, Augustus sent Publius Sulpitius Quirinus, who, according to the Greek way of writing that name, is by St. Luke called Cyrenius, president of Syria, to reduce the countries over which Archelaus had reigned, to the form of a Roman province; and appointed Coponius, a Roman of the equestrian order, to be governor, under the title of procurator of Judea, but subordinate to the president of Syria. The power of life and death was now taken out of the hands of the Jews, and taxes were from this time paid immediately to the Roman emperor. Justice was administered in the name and by the laws of Rome; though in what concerned their religion, their own laws, and the power of the high priest, and sanhedrim, or great council, were continued to them; and they were allowed to examine witnesses, and exercise an inferior jurisdiction in other causes, subject to the control of the Romans, to whom their tetrarchs or kings were also subject; and it may be remarked that, at this very period of time, our Saviour, who was now in the twelfth year of his age, being at Jerusalem with Joseph and Mary upon occasion of the passover, appeared first in the temple in his prophetic office, and in the business of his Father, on which he was sent, sitting among the doctors of the temple, and declaring the truth of God to them. After Coponius, Ambivius, Annius Rufus, Valerius Gratus, and Pontius Pilate, were successively procurators; and this was the species of government to which Judea and Samaria were subject during the ministry of our Saviour. Herod Antipas was still tetrarch of Galilee, and it was he to whom our Saviour was sent by Pontius Pilate. Lardner is of opinion that there was no procurator in Judea after Pontius Pilate, who was removed A.D. 36, but that it was governed for a few years by the presidents of Syria, who occasionally sent officers into Judea. Philip continued tetrarch of Trachonitis thirty-seven years, and died in the twentieth year of the reign of Tiberius. Caligula gave his tetrarchy to Agrippa, the grandson of Herod the great, with the title of king; and afterward he added the tetrarchy of Herod Antipas, whom he deposed and banished after he had been tetrarch forty- three years. The Emperor Claudius gave him Judea, Samaria, the southern parts of Idumea, and Abilene; and thus at last the dominions of Herod Agrippa became nearly the same as those of his grandfather, Herod the Great. It was this Agrippa, called also Herod Agrippa, and by St. Luke Herod only, who put to death James, the brother of John, and imprisoned Peter. He died in the seventh year of his reign, and left a son called also Agrippa, then seventeen years old; and Claudius, thinking him too young to govern his father's extensive dominions, made Cuspus Fadus governor of Judea. Fadus was soon succeeded by Tiberius, and he was followed by Alexander Cumanus, Felix, and Festus; but Claudius afterward gave Trachonitis and Abilene to Agrippa, and Nero added a part of Galilee and some other cities. It was this younger Agrippa, who was also called king, before whom Paul pleaded at Caesarea, which was at that time the place of residence of the governor of Judea. Several of the Roman governors severely oppressed and persecuted the Jews; and at length, in the reign of Nero, and in the government of Florus, who had treated them with greater cruelty than any of his predecessors, they openly revolted from the Romans. Then began the Jewish war, which was terminated, after an obstinate defence and unparalleled sufferings on the part of the Jews, by the total destruction of the city and temple of Jerusalem, by the overthrow of their civil and religious polity, and the reduction of the people to a state of the most abject slavery; for though, in the reign of Adrian, numbers of them collected together, in different parts of Judea, it is to be observed, they were then considered and treated as rebellious slaves; and these commotions were made a pretence for the general slaughter of those who were taken, and tended to complete the work of their dispersion into all countries under heaven. Since that time the Jews have no where subsisted as a nation.
2. JEWS, MODERN. The Jews divide the books of the Old Testament into three classes: the law, the prophets, and the hagiographa, or holy writings. They have counted not only the large and small sections, the verses and the words, but even the letters in some of the books; and they have likewise reckoned which is the middle letter of the Pentateuch, which is the middle clause of each book, and how often each letter of the alphabet occurs in the Hebrew Scriptures. Beside the Scriptures, the Jews pay great attention to the Targums, or Chaldee paraphrases of them. It seems probable that these were written either during the Babylonish captivity, or immediately afterward, when the Jews had forgotten their own language, and acquired the Chaldee of the Targums, at present received by the Jews. The most ancient are that of Onkelos on the law, and that of Jonathan Ben Uzziel on the prophets: the former is supposed to be of greater antiquity than the latter, and it approaches, in simplicity and purity of style, to the Chaldee of Daniel and Ezra. The Targum on the prophets is believed to have been written before the birth of Christ; and, though inferior in respect of style to the Targum of Onkelos, is much superior to any other Targum.
The Jews also regard with great veneration, what is called the Talmud. This work consists of two parts: the Mishna, which signifies a second law; and the Gemara, which means either a supplement or a commentary. The Jews suppose that God first dictated the text of the law to Moses, which he commanded to be put in writing, and which exists in the Pentateuch, and then gave him an explication of every thing comprehended in it, which he ordered to be committed to memory. Hence the former is called the written, and the latter the oral, law. These two laws were recited by Moses to Aaron four times, to his sons three times, to the seventy elders twice, and to the rest of the people once: after this, the repetition was renewed by Aaron, his two sons, and the seventy elders. The last month of Moses's life was spent, according to the Jews, in repeating and explaining the law to the people, and especially to Joshua, his successor. A prophet might suspend any law, or authorize the violation of any precept, except those against idolatry. If there was any difference of opinion respecting the meaning of any law or precept, it was determined by the majority. When Joshua died, all the interpretations he had received from Moses, as well as those made in his time, were transmitted to the elders: they conveyed them to the prophets, and by one prophet they were delivered to another. This law was only oral till the days of Rabbi Jehuda, who, perceiving that the students of the law were gradually decreasing, and that the Jews were dispersed over the face of the earth, collected all the traditions, arranged them under distinct heads, and formed them into a methodical code of traditional law; thus the Mishna was formed. It is written in a concise style, chiefly in the form of aphorisms, which admit of a variety of interpretations. On this account, a Gemara or commentary was written by a president of a school in Palestine, which, together with the Mishna, forms the Jerusalem Talmud. The Jews in Chaldea, however, not being satisfied with this Gemara, one of their rabbies compiled another; which, together with the Mishna, forms the Babylonian Talmud.
One of the principal branches of modern Judaism is the cabala, the study of which is regarded as the sublimest of all sciences. By the cabala, the Jews mean those mystical interpretations of the Scripture, and metaphysical speculations concerning the Deity, angels, &c, which they regard as having been handed down by a secret tradition from the earliest ages. In the eleventh century, the famous Rabbi Maimonides drew up a summary of the doctrines of Judaism, which every Jew is required to believe, on pain of excommunication in this world, and condemnation in the next. This summary consists of thirteen articles, which he calls foundations or roots of the faith. The articles are as follows:
1. That God is the Creater and active Supporter of all things.
2. That God is one, and eternally unchangeable.
3. That God is incorporeal, and cannot have any material properties.
4. That God must eternally exist.
5. That God alone is to be worshipped.
6. That whatever is taught by the prophets is true.
7. That Moses is the head and father of all contemporary doctors, and of all those who lived before or shall live after him.
8. That the law was given by Moses.
9. That the law shall always exist, and never be altered.
10. That God knows all the thoughts and actions of men.
11. That God will reward the observance, and punish the breach, of the laws.
12. That the Messiah is to come, though he tarry a long time.
13. That there shall be a resurrection of the dead, when God shall think fit.
The Jewish religion is, perhaps, more a religion of minute and trifling rites and ceremonies than even the Catholic religion. The minutest circumstances in dressing and undressing, washing and wiping the face and hands, and other necessary actions of common and daily life, are enjoined by the rabbies to be performed exactly according to the prescribed regulations. Their prayers also are numerous, and some of them relate to the most trifling circumstances. Those esteemed the most solemn and imortant are called Shemoneh Esreh or the eighteen prayers, though they actually consist of nineteen, the last having been added against heretics and apostates. They are enjoined to be said by all Jews above the age of thirteen, wherever they may be, three times a day. The members of the synagogue are required to repeat at least a hundred benedictions every day. A son who survives his father is enjoined to attend the nocturnal service in the synagogue every evening for a year, and to repeat the Kodesh, in order that his father may be delivered from hell. This service may be suspended by any person going up to the desk and closing the book. This is not unfrequently done in case of quarrels; and the prayers cannot be renewed till a reconciliation takes place.
Nothing is to be undertaken on Friday which cannot be finished before the evening. In the afternoon they wash and clean themselves, trim their hair, and pare their nails. Every Jew, of whatever rank, must assist in the preparation for the Sabbath. Two loaves, baked on the Friday, are set on a table. This is done in memory of the manna, of which a double portion fell on the sixth day of the week. The table remains spread all the Sabbath. Before the sun is set the candles are to be lighted; one, at least, with seven wicks, in allusion to the number of days in a week, is to be lighted in each house. The Talmudical directions respecting the wicks and oil form part of the Sabbath evening service; they are most ridiculously and childishly minute. The lesson appointed for the Sabbath is divided into seven parts, and read to seven persons at the altar. The first called up to hear it is a descendant of Aaron, the second of Levi, the third an Israelite of any tribe; the same order is then repeated: the seventh may be of any tribe. The portion read from the law is followed by a portion from the prophets. There are three services; morning, afternoon, and evening.
Of the festivals of the Jews we can mention only a few, and those merely in a cursory manner. The principal are those of the new report, of the passover, of pentecost, of the new year, the fast of atonement, and the feast of tabernacles. That the festival of the new moon might be celebrated as nearly as possible on the day of the moon's conjunction with the sun, most of the months contain alternately twenty-nine and thirty days; and the feast of the new moon is held on the first, or on the first and second days of the month. The women are not allowed to work: the men may. Good eating and drinking particularly distinguish this festival. The feast of the passover commences on the fifteenth day of the month Nisan, and continues among Jews who live in or near Jerusalem seven days, and elsewhere eight days. The Sabbath prece
Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words - Jew, Jews, Jewess, Jewish, Jewry, Jews' Religion
A — 1: Ἰουδαῖος (Strong's #2453 — Adjective — ioudaios — ee-oo-dah'-yos ) is used (a) adjectivally, with the lit. meaning, "Jewish," sometimes with the addition of aner, "a man," Acts 10:28 ; 22:3 ; in Acts 21:39 with anthropos, in some mss. (a man in the generic sense); the best mss. omit the phrase here; in Acts 13:6 , lit., "a Jewish false-prophet;" in John 3:22 , with the word chora, "land" or "country," signifying "Judean," lit., "Judean country;" used by metonymy for the people of the country; (b) as a noun, "a Jew, Jews," e.g., Matthew 2:2 ; Mark 7:3 . The name "Jew" is primarily tribal (from Judah). It is first found in 2 Kings 16:6 , as distinct from Israel, of the northern kingdom. After the Captivity it was chiefly used to distinguish the race from Gentiles, e.g., John 2:6 ; Acts 14:1 ; Galatians 2:15 , where it denotes Christians of Jewish race; it distinguishes Jews from Samaritans, in John 4:9 ; from proselytes, in Acts 2:10 . The word is most frequent in John's Gospel and the Acts; in the former "it especially denotes the typical representatives of Jewish thought contrasted with believers in Christ ... or with other Jews of less pronounced opinions, e.g., John 3:25 ; 5:10 ; 7:13 ; 9:22 " (Lukyn Williams, in Hastings' Bib. Dic.); such representatives were found, generally, in opposition to Christ; in the Acts they are chiefly those who opposed the Apostles and the Gospel. In Romans 2:28,29 the word is used of ideal Jews, i.e., Jews in spiritual reality, believers, whether Jews or Gentiles by natural birth. The feminine, "Jewess," is found in Acts 16:1 ; 24:24 .
It also denotes Judea, e.g., Matthew 2:1 ; Luke 1:5 ; John 4:3 , the word "country" being understood [1]. In Luke 23:5 ; John 7:1 , where the AV has "Jewry," the RV translates it as usual, "Judea."
A — 2: Ἰουδαϊκός (Strong's #2451 — Adjective — ioudaikos — ee-oo-dah-ee-kos' ) denotes "Jewish," Titus 1:14 .
B — 1: Ἰουδαϊσμός (Strong's #2454 — Noun Masculine — ioudaismos — ee-oo-dah-is-mos' ) "Judaism," denotes "the Jews' religion," Galatians 1:13,14 , and stands, not for their religious beliefs, but for their religious practices, not as instituted by God, but as developed and extended from these by the traditions of the Pharisees and scribes. In the Apocrypha it denotes comprehensively "the Government, laws, institutions and religion of the Jews."
C — 1: Ἰουδαΐζω (Strong's #2450 — Verb — ioudaizo — ee-oo-dah-id'-zo ) lit., "to Judaize," i.e., to conform to "Jewish" religious practices and manners, is translated "to live as do the Jews," in Galatians 2:14 .
D — 1: φυτεύω (Strong's #5452 — Verb — ioudaikos — foot-yoo'-o ) "in Jewish fashion," is translated "as do the Jews," in Galatians 2:14 .
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Jews
The name borne by the Hebrews among foreign nations, especially after the return from Babylon; from Judah their ancestor. See HEBREWS .
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Dispersion, the Jews of the,
or simply THE DISPERSION, was the general title applied to those Jews who remained settled in foreign countries after the return from the Babylonian exile, and during the period of the second temple. At the beginning of the Christian era the Dispersion was divided into three great sections, the Babylonian, the Syrian, the Egyptian. From Babylon the Jews spread throughout Persia, Media and Parthia. Large settlements of Jews were established in Cyprus, in the islands of the AEgean, and on the western coast of Asia Minor. Jewish settlements were also established at Alexandria by Alexander and Ptolemy I. The Jewish settlements in Rome, were consequent upon the occupation of Jerusalem by Pompey, B.C. 63. The influence of the Dispersion on the rapid promulgation of Christianity can scarcely be overrated. The course of the apostolic preaching followed in a regular progress the line of Jewish settlements. The mixed assembly from which the first converts were gathered on the day of Pentecost represented each division of the Dispersion. (Acts 2:9-11 ) (1) Parthians...Mesopotamia; (2) Judea (i.e. Syria)...Pamphylia; (3) Egypt...Greece; (4) Romans..., and these converts naturally prepared the way for the apostles int he interval which preceded the beginning of the separate apostolic missions. St. James and St. Peter wrote to the Jews of the Dispersion. (James 1:1 ; 1 Peter 1:1 )
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Jews' Language
The Hebrew language, common to the Jews. Rab-shakeh was asked to speak in the Syrian language (the Aramaic); but he, wishing the people of Jerusalem to understand him, spoke in Hebrew. 2 Kings 18:28 ; Nehemiah 13:21 ; Isaiah 36:13 .
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Captivities of the Jews
The present article is confined to the forcible deportation of the Jew; from their native land, and their forcible detention, under the Assyrian or Babylonian kings. Captives of Israel. --The kingdom of Israel was invaded by three or four successive kings of Assyria. Pul or Surdanapalus, according to Rawlinson, imposed a tribute (B.C. 771 or 712), Rawl.) upon Menahem. ( 2 Kings 15:19 ) and 1 Chronicles 5:26 Tiglath-pileser carried away (B.C. 740) the trans-Jordanic tribes, ( 1 Chronicles 5:26 ) and the inhabitants of Galilee, (2 Kings 15:29 ) comp. Isai 9:1 To Assyria. Shalmaneser twice invaded, (2 Kings 17:3,5 ) the kingdom which remained to Hoshea, took Samaria (B.C. 721) after a siege of three years, and carried Israel away into Assyria. This was the end of the kingdom of the ten tribes of Israel. Captivities of Judah .--Sennacherib (B.C. 713) is stated to have carried into Assyria 200,000 captives from the Jewish cities which he took. ( 2 Kings 18:13 ) Nebuchadnezzar, in the first half of his reign (B.C. 606-562), repeatedly invaded Judea, besieged Jerusalem, carried away the inhabitants to Babylon, and destroyed the temple. The 70 years of captivity predicted by Jeremiah, (Jeremiah 25:12 ) are dated by Prideaux from B.C. 606. The captivity of Ezekiel dates from B.C. 598, when that prophet, like Mordecai the uncle of Esther (Esther 2:6 ) accompanied Jehoiachin. The captives were treated not as slaves but as colonists. The Babylonian captivity was brought to a close by the decree, (Ezra 1:2 ) of Cyrus (B.C. 536), and the return of a portion of the nation under Sheshbazzar or Zerubbabel (B.C. 535), Ezra (B.C. 458) and Nehemiah (B.C. 445). Those who were left in Assyria, (Esther 8:9,11 ) and kept up their national distinctions, were known as The Dispersion. (John 7:35 ; 1:1; James 1:1 ) The lost tribes. --Many attempts have been made to discover the ten tribes existing as a distinct community; but though history bears no witness of the present distinct existence, it enables us to track the footsteps of the departing race in four directions after the time of the Captivity.
Some returned and mixed with the Jews. (Luke 2:36 ; Philippians 3:5 ) etc.
Some were left in Samaria, mingled with the Samaritans, (Ezra 6:21 ; John 4:12 ) and became bitter enemies of the Jews.
Many remained in Assyria, and were recognized as an integral part of the Dispersion; see (Acts 2:1 ; 26:7 )
Most, probably, apostatized in Assyria, adopted the usages and idolatry of the nations among whom they were planted, and became wholly swallowed up in them.

Sentence search

Ashkenazi - Jews of European origin, descendant originally from Jews of France and Germany; pertaining to such Jews
Sephardim - ) Jews who are descendants of the former Jews of Spain and Portugal. They are as a rule darker than the northern Jews, and have more delicate features
Jewry - ) Judea; also, a district inhabited by Jews; a Jews' quarter
Sephardi - Sephardi: Jews of South European or North African origin; pertaining to such Jews
Grecians - Hellenists, Greek-Jews; Jews born in a foreign country, and thus did not speak Hebrew (Acts 6:1 ; 9:29 ), nor join in the Hebrew services of the Jews in Palestine, but had synagogues of their own in Jerusalem
Assidean - ) One of a body of devoted Jews who opposed the Hellenistic Jews, and supported the Asmoneans
Jewish - ) Of or pertaining to the Jews or Hebrews; characteristic of or resembling the Jews or their customs; Israelitish
Pur - Pur, Phur, or Purim, was a solemn feast of the Jews, instituted in memory of the lots cast by Haman, the enemy of the Jews, Esther 3:7 . These lots were cast in the first month of the year, and gave the twelfth month of the same year for the execution of Haman's design, to destroy all the Jews in Persia. Thus the superstition of Haman, in crediting these lots, caused his own ruin, and the preservation of the Jews, who, by means of Esther, had time to avert this blow. The Jews have exactly kept this feast down to our times
Sephardic - ) Of, pertaining to, or designating, the Jews (the Sephardim, also called Spanish or Portuguese Jews) descended from Jewish families driven from Spain by the Inquisition
Festus, Porcius - The Jews at once informed Festus against Paul, but he did not consent to their request that Paul should be fetched to Jerusalem; he said he should be tried at Caesarea. When Festus had come thither and the Jews from Jerusalem also, he, wishing to please the Jews, asked Paul if he would go to Jerusalem and be judged there. Paul, knowing the plots of the Jews to kill him, appealed to Caesar. ...
Festus had a dispute with the Jews: they had built up a high wall, that the courts of the temple should not be seen from the palace. The emperor was appealed to, who decided in favour of the Jews
Aridai - Son of Haman, Esther, and the Jews' archenemy. He died as the Jews reversed Haman's scheme and gained revenge (Esther 9:9 )
Judaism - The religious doctrines and rites of the Jews, the descendants of Abraham. The principal sects among the Jews were the Pharisees, who placed religion in external ceremony; the Sadducees, who were remarkable for their incredulity; and the Essenes, who were distinguished for their austere sanctity. At present, the Jews have two sects; the Caraites, who admit no rule of religion but the law of Moses; and the Rabbinists, who add to the law the traditions of the Talmud. ...
See those articles, and books recommended under article Jews, in this work
Hebrews - See Jews
Talmud - See Jews
Targum - See Jews
Proselyte - Throughout the cities of the Roman Empire there were communities of Jews who kept the traditions of their ancestors and attended synagogues regularly. These were known as Jews of the Dispersion, or the scattered Jews (see DISPERSION). ...
Many Gentiles in these cities, being attracted to the Jewish religion by the morally upright lives of the Jews, attended the synagogue services and kept some of the Jewish sabbath and food laws. Some went even further and were circumcised and baptized as Jews
Hellenist - Many Jews no longer spoke their native language, Hebrew, nor the related language, Aramaic, that had largely replaced it. ...
Within Palestine, however, there were still many Aramaic-speaking Jews. In the early Jerusalem church the Greek-speaking Jews complained that their widows were being unfairly treated in the daily distribution of food. ...
When the Jerusalem Jews began to persecute the Christians, the Hellenist Christians were driven from Jerusalem. They preached the gospel wherever they went, to non-Jews as well as to Jews, and were the chief cause of the church’s early expansion. Meanwhile the Aramaic-speaking Jews back in Jerusalem became a source of further trouble to the church (Acts 21:20-21; Acts 21:40)
Pharisee - ) One of a sect or party among the Jews, noted for a strict and formal observance of rites and ceremonies and of the traditions of the elders, and whose pretensions to superior sanctity led them to separate themselves from the other Jews
Chaggai - The book of Tanach containing Haggai's prophecies, admonishing the Jews to build the Second Holy Temple. ...
Chaggai: (4th century BCE) A contemporary of Zechariah and Malachi, the last of the prophets; member of the Great Assembly; urged the Jews to build the Second Temple
Haggai - (4th century BCE) A contemporary of Zechariah and Malachi, the last of the prophets; member of the Great Assembly; urged the Jews to build the Second Temple. ...
Haggai, the book of: The book of Tanach containing Haggai's prophecies, admonishing the Jews to build the Second Holy Temple
Exorcist - Many of these professional exorcists were disreputable Jews, like Simon in Samaria and Elymas in Cyprus (8:9; 13:6). " Other references to exorcism as practised by the Jews are found in Matthew 12:27 ; Mark 9:38 ; Luke 9:49,50 . It would seem that it was an opinion among the Jews that miracles might be wrought by invoking the divine name. Thus also these "vagabond Jews" pretended that they could expel daemons
Claudius - Though in general he treated the Jews, especially those in Asia and Egypt, with great indulgence, yet about the middle of his reign (A. In this edict the Christians were included, as being, as was supposed, a sect of Jews. The Jews, however soon again returned to Rome. During the reign of this emperor, several persecutions of the Christians by the Jews took place in the dominions of Herod Agrippa, in one of which the apostle James was "killed" (12:2)
Schnorrer - ) Among the Jews, a beggar
Claudius - He expelled Jews from Rome in about A. 49 (Acts 18:2 ), probably due to conflict between Jews and Christians in Rome. Roman army captain who protected Paul from Jews who wanted to assassinate him (Acts 23:26 )
Spar'ta, - a celebrated city of Greece, between whose inhabitants and the Jews a relationship was believed to subsist. The act of the Jews and Spartans, 2 Maccabees 5:9 is an ethnological error, which it is difficult to trace to its origin
Decalogue - The Jews call these precepts, The Ten Words. The usual division of the Ten Commandments among Protestants is that which Josephus tells us was employed by the Jews in his day
Eliud - ("God of the Jews"
Judaical - ) Of or pertaining to the Jews
Middle Wall - The law which separated the Jews from the Gentiles is called a 'middle wall. ' In the cross this was removed for believers, and both were made one, no longer remaining Jews or Gentiles
Ladino - a Spanish dialect spoken by many Sephardic Jews...
Sepharad - Place where the Jews were in captivity, but from whence they would be brought to possess 'the cities of the south. ' Jerome considered the word signified 'boundary,' and referred to the dispersion of the Jews in any region
Berea - ” City in Macedonia to which Paul escaped after the Jews of Thessalonica rioted (Acts 17:10 ). The Jews searched the Scriptures as Paul preached, and many believed. Jews came from Thessalonica and forced Paul out, and so he continued his second missionary journey
Synagogue - A place where the Jews meet to worship God
Anti-Semitism - Jews
Bath-Kol - the daughter of a voice, ) an oracle among the Jews, frequently mentioned in their books, especially the Talmud. It was a fantastical way of divination invented by the Jews, though called by them a revelation from God's will, which he made to his chosen people after all verbal prophesies had ceased in Israel
Severus, Bishop of Monorca - Stephen in the church at Magona (Port Mahon), where there were a large number of Jews, one of whom, the rabbi Theodorus, was defensor civitatis. The arrival of the relics caused great religious excitement among Minorcan Christians, which led to constant arguments between them and the Jews, ending in riots in which the synagogue was set on fire and burnt to the bare walls. The conversion of a great number of Jews, including Theodorus himself, followed. On the site of the destroyed synagogue the Jews erected a church
Israelites - See also, Jews
Jewish - Pertaining to the Jews or Hebrews
Aaronical - ) Pertaining to Aaron, the first high priest of the Jews
Offense - The offense of the cross is the idea that equality of Jews and Gentiles is established through faith. It is interesting that Paul, the apostle to the Gentiles, applies the notion of stumbling to the Jews as those who stumbled; in 1Peter, the "apostle to the Jews" applies the concept to disobedient ones who were "destined" for stumbling. ...
In 1 Peter 2:12 the admonition is to "conduct yourselves honorably among the Gentiles"a reference to Jews living holy and separate in terms of moral purity, which was always the design for Jews. Therefore, the "scandal" of the cross was that both Jews and Gentiles stumbled over the rock because they did not approach him by faith. Some Jews were prideful in their nationalistic heritage, which Paul addresses in Romans 9-11 , and some Gentiles were disobedient as they had always been, which may be what is addressed in 1 Peter 2 . Because faith equalized both Jews and Gentiles, the offense of the cross was that one could not approach Christ pridefully or in terms of nationalistic superiority. " In other words, the offense to the Jews is that there is no favoritism of Jews over Gentiles; they are equal. Paul says in 1 Corinthians 1:23 : "We preach Christ crucified, a stumbling block (scandalon [1]) to the Jews and foolishness to Gentiles" (NRSV)
Haman - as the enemy of the Jews, and the chief minister of Ahasuerus. On his plot against the Jews and its frustration by Esther see art. ...
In later times, at the Feast of Purim, it seems to have been customary to hang an effigy of Haman; but as the gibbet was sometimes made in the form of a cross, riots between Jews and Christians were the result, and a warning against insults to the Christian faith was issued by the emperor Theodosius ii
Dispersion - Dispersion, Jews of the. The "dispersed," or the "dispersion," was the term applied to those Jews who continued in other countries after the return from Babylon. Babylon thus became a centre from which offshoots spread; and colonies of Jews established themselves in Persia, Media, and other neighboring countries. And, after the capture of Jerusalem by Pompey, Jews were introduced at Rome
Haman - In order to revenge himself upon Mordecai the Jew, he plotted the extermination of all the Jews in the kingdom; but in the providence of God he as thwarted by Esther, fell into disgrace with the king, and wrought his own ruin and the upbuilding of the Jews. He is called an Agaite; and as Agag was a common name of the Amalekite kings, the Jews believe he was of that race. This would help to explain his malice against the Jews
Bnei noah - " The halachic term for non-Jews
Hellenist - , a person of Jewish extraction who used the Greek language as his mother tongue, as did the Jews of Asia Minor, Greece, Syria, and Egypt; distinguished from the Hebraists, or native Jews (Acts vi
Mordecai - (4th century BCE) Leader of the Jews during the time of King Ahasuerus, first cousin of Esther. Encouraged Esther to beseech the king to annul Haman's decree calling for the extermination of the Jews, as recorded in the Scroll of Esther, which is read every year on Purim
Allar - One of the leaders of those Jews who could not show their pedigree as Israelites at the return from captivity under Zerubbabel. The name seems to correspond to Immer in Ezra 2:59 , Nehemiah 7:61 , one of the places from which these Jews returned
Barabbas - It was a custom of the Roman government, for the sake of conciliating the Jews, to release one Jewish prisoner, whom they might choose, at the yearly Passover. Pilate desired thus to release Jesus, but the Jews demanded Barabbas, Matthew 27:16-26
Sosthenes - The chief of the synagogue at Corinth, who was beaten by the Gentiles when the Jews carried Paul before Gallio the proconsul, Acts 18:17 . He appears to have been the leader of the Jews in this attempt to destroy Paul
Ahasuerus - At the advice of his minister Haman, he issued a decree that all Jews should be killed. At Esther's insistence, he issued a second decree, allowing the Jews to defend themselves, rendering the first decree ineffective, as recorded in the Scroll of Esther which is read every year on Purim
Jew, Jews, Jewess, Jewish, Jewry, Jews' Religion - , "Judean country;" used by metonymy for the people of the country; (b) as a noun, "a Jew, Jews," e. , John 2:6 ; Acts 14:1 ; Galatians 2:15 , where it denotes Christians of Jewish race; it distinguishes Jews from Samaritans, in John 4:9 ; from proselytes, in Acts 2:10 . or with other Jews of less pronounced opinions, e. In Romans 2:28,29 the word is used of ideal Jews, i. , Jews in spiritual reality, believers, whether Jews or Gentiles by natural birth. ...
B — 1: Ἰουδαϊσμός (Strong's #2454 — Noun Masculine — ioudaismos — ee-oo-dah-is-mos' ) "Judaism," denotes "the Jews' religion," Galatians 1:13,14 , and stands, not for their religious beliefs, but for their religious practices, not as instituted by God, but as developed and extended from these by the traditions of the Pharisees and scribes. In the Apocrypha it denotes comprehensively "the Government, laws, institutions and religion of the Jews. , to conform to "Jewish" religious practices and manners, is translated "to live as do the Jews," in Galatians 2:14 . ...
D — 1: φυτεύω (Strong's #5452 — Verb — ioudaikos — foot-yoo'-o ) "in Jewish fashion," is translated "as do the Jews," in Galatians 2:14
Yiddish - the dialect of German spoken by the Jews that became their mother tongue
Alexandrians - The Jews of Alexandria, who had a synagogue at Jerusalem
Parasceve - ) Among the Jews, the evening before the Sabbath
Tabeel - Persian officer, who, with others, wrote to Artaxerxes against the Jews
Monotheism - The principal present day forms of non-Christian Monotheism are: ...
Jewish Monotheism which among the orthodox Jews of today is the same as the monotheism of tne Jews in the pre-Christian era
Mohammedan Monotheism in which Allah, the one and only God, is practically the same as Jehovah of the Jews
Jews in the New Testament - Mordecai, who is called a “Jew” in Esther 2:5 ) were those from Judah, hence the name Jews (Ephesians 2:8-9 ). This is the name used in the treaty between Judas Maccabeus and the Romans, described in 1 Maccabees 8:23-32 : “May all go well with the Romans and with the nation of the Jews”...
Matthew, Mark, Luke The term Ioudaios occurs relatively rarely in the Synoptic Gospels, the first three Gospels which are closely parallel to each other. The word occurs but five times in Matthew, seven times in Mark, and five times in Luke, usually in the expression “King of the Jews” (12 of the total of 17). Of the remaining occurrences only Matthew 28:15 designates Jews as contrasted to Christian believers. In John 4:9 the woman says to Jesus, “thou, being a Jew,” and in John 4:22 Jesus says, “salvation is of the Jews. ” Many of the Jews believed in Jesus ( John 8:31 ; John 11:45 ; John 12:11 ). Other references are neutral as in John 3:1 , where Nicodemus is described as a ruler of the Jews. Whereas the former names Jesus' enemies as scribes and Pharisees, high priests and Sadducees, the Gospel of John simply uses the general term “Jews. ...
The Jews impugned Jesus' birth and His sanity (John 8:48 ), and even alleged that He was demon possessed (John 8:52 ). The Jews questioned His statements about the Temple (John 2:20 ) and were scandalized at His claim to be the bread from heaven (John 6:41 ). ...
The heightened use of the term “Jews” in John to serve as a general designation for those who denied that Jesus was the Christ may be explained by the fact that John's Gospel was composed at a later date than the Synoptics—after such events as the destruction of Jerusalem in A. 80 had increased mutual hostilities between Jews and Christians. After his dramatic conversion on the road to Damascus, his fellow Jews sought to kill him (Acts 9:23 ). King Herod Agrippa I arrested Peter and killed the Apostle James, believing this would please the Jews (Acts 12:1-3 ). ...
Following his conviction that the gospel should be preached first to the Jews (Romans 1:16 ), Paul on his missionary journeys began his preaching in the Jewish synagogues—at Salamis on Cyprus (Acts 13:5 ), at Iconium (Acts 14:1 ), at Thessalonica (Acts 17:1 ), at Athens (Acts 17:15-17 ), and at Corinth (Acts 18:1 ). Though he made some converts among the Jews, even converting the synagogue ruler at Corinth (Acts 18:8 ), and no doubt had success among the “god fearers” or proselytes who were interested in converting to Judaism (Acts 13:43 ; Acts 17:4 ), the majority of the Jews reacted violently against Paul's message (Acts 13:50 ; Acts 14:2 ; Acts 17:5 ; Acts 18:12 ). Paul therefore turned his efforts increasingly toward the Gentiles, the non-Jews. ...
Pauline Letters As the “apostle to the Gentiles,” Paul argued against “Judaizers” that Gentile converts did not have to be circumcized, that is, become Jews first, before they became christians (Acts 15:1-5 ). In spite of his grief that most of his fellow Jews did not accept his message, Paul did not teach that God had abandoned the Jews but believed that God still has a plan for them (Romans 9-11 ). )...
Revelation The two references in the Book of Revelation are to the church at Smyrna (Revelation 2:9 ) and the church at Philadelphia (Revelation 3:9 ), where there were those who claimed to be Jews but who were denounced as the “synagogue of Satan” because they opposed Christians
Door-Posts - The Jews were commanded to write the divine name on the posts (mezuzoth') of their doors (Deuteronomy 6:9 ). The Jews, misunderstanding this injunction, adopted the custom of writing on a slip of parchment these verses (Deuteronomy 6:4-9 , and 11:13-21), which they enclosed in a reed or cylinder and fixed on the right-hand door-post of every room in the house
Callisthenes - A Syrian, captured by the Jews in a small house, where he had taken refuge after the great victory over Nicanor and Gorgias, in b. At a festival in celebration of the victory, the Jews burnt Callisthenes to death, because he had set fire to the portals of the Temple (cf
Hel'Lenist - (Grecian ), the term applied in the New Testament to Greek-speaking or "Grecian" Jews. Jews who, by settling in foreign countries, had adopted the prevalent form of the current Greek civilization, and with it the use of the common Greek dialect
Herodians - The Herodians appear to have been a group of Jews who, unlike most of the Jews, were favourable to the rule of the Herods
Shtetl - �village�) the Eastern European townships where many Jews lived in the previous centuries...
Raca - ) A term of reproach used by the Jews of our Savior's time, meaning "worthless
Schatchen - among certain Jews
Pilpul - ) Among the Jews, penetrating investigation, disputation, and drawing of conclusions, esp
Aspatha - Son of Haman killed by Jews (Esther 9:10 )
Dalphon - The second son of Haman, put to death by the Jews
Aridai - The ninth of Haman’s sons, put to death by the Jews
Aridatha - The sixth son of Haman, put to death by the Jews
Arisai - The eighth son of Haman, put to death by the Jews
Aspatha - The third son of Haman, put to death by the Jews
Bikurim - (first fruits): the first fruits which the Jews would bring to the Temple in Jerusalem ...
Bnei noach - �descendants of Noah�); non-Jews, individuals not obligated to observe the Torah�s laws...
Jewish, - of or belonging to Jews; an epithet applied to their rabbinical legends
Carpenter's Son - Designation of Our Lord by Jews when scandalized by His wisdom and miracles (Matthew 13:55)
Anti-Semitism - The agitation in European countries to oppose the commercial, political, and financial influence of the Jews
Tabernacle - the temporary Sanctuary in which the Divine Presence dwelled during the Jews’ journeys through the desert ...
Matzoth - ) A cake of unleavened bread eaten by the Jews at the feast of the Passover
Son, Carpenter's - Designation of Our Lord by Jews when scandalized by His wisdom and miracles (Matthew 13:55)
Israelites, Captivities of the - 70 and scattered the Jews over all the provinces of the Roman Empire (Josephus, "Wars of the Jews," VI, 9,2)
Captivities of the Israelites - 70 and scattered the Jews over all the provinces of the Roman Empire (Josephus, "Wars of the Jews," VI, 9,2)
Drams - Αdarconim , the Persian daric , from dara "a king," a gold coin circulated among the Jews during their subjection to Medo-Persia; the earliest coined money used by the Jews, and the oldest gold coin of which specimens are extant; a crowned archer is impressed on it; heavier than an English guinea; or 25 shillings
Nebuchadnezzar - During the reign of Joiakim and Jehoiachin, Nebuchadnezzar exiled to Babylon many of the politically powerful Jews and members of the royal family, including Daniel and his colleagues Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah. When the last Jewish monarch, Zedekiah, revolted, Nebuchadnezzar destroyed the Temple, and exiled most of the remaining Jews
Adonai - The Jews, who either out of respect or superstition, do not pronounce the name of Jehovah, read Adonai in the room of it, as often as they meet with Jehovah in the Hebrew text. But the ancient Jews were not so scrupulous
Stranger - Such persons enjoyed many privileges in common with the Jews, but still were separate from them. The relation of the Jews to strangers was regulated by special laws (Deuteronomy 23:3 ; 24:14-21 ; 25:5 ; 26:10-13 ). The Jews were allowed to purchase strangers as slaves (Leviticus 25:44,45 ), and to take usury from them (Deuteronomy 23:20 )
Adalia - The fifth of the sons of Haman, put to death by the Jews
Hebrews - (Acts 6:1 ) were the Hebrew-speaking Jews, as distinguished from those who spoke Greek
King of the Jews - KING OF THE Jews
Manna - The: the food from heaven provided to the Jews in the desert after the exodus from Egypt ...
Parmashta - The seventh of the sons of Haman, put to death by the Jews ( Esther 9:3 )
Parshandatha - The eldest of the sons of Haman, put to death by the Jews ( Esther 9:7 )
Jewry - Judea also, a district inhabited by Jews, whence the name of a street in London
Dispersion - diaspora, "scattered," James 1:1 ; 1 Peter 1:1 ) of the Jews. At various times, and from the operation of divers causes, the Jews were separated and scattered into foreign countries "to the outmost parts of heaven" (Deuteronomy 30:4 ). ...
...
Many Jews migrated to Egypt and took up their abode there. Alexander the Great placed a large number of Jews in Alexandria, which he had founded, and conferred on them equal rights with the Egyptians. 284), for the use of the Alexandrian Jews. The Jews in Egypt continued for many ages to exercise a powerful influence on the public interests of that country. 280), one of the captains of Alexander the Great, large numbers of Jews migrated into Syria, where they enjoyed equal rights with the Macedonians. Antiochus the Great, king of Syria and Asia, removed 3,000 families of Jews from Mesopotamia and Babylonia, and planted them in Phrygia and Lydia. ...
...
From Asia Minor many Jews moved into Greece and Macedonia, chiefly for purposes of commerce. 63) numbers of Jews from Palestine and Greece went to Rome, where they had a separate quarter of the city assigned to them. ...
Thus were the Jews everywhere scattered abroad
Hellenists - The authors of the Vulgate version render it like our Graeci; but Messieurs Du Port Royal, more accurately, Juifs Greca, Greek or Grecian Jews; it being the Jews who spoke Greek that are here treated of, and who are hereby distinguished from the Jews called Hebrews, that is, who spoke the Hebrew tongue of that time. The Hellenists, or Grecian Jews, were those who lived in Egypt, and other parts where the Greek tongue prevailed: it is to them we owe the Greek version of the Old Testament, commonly called the Septuagint, or that of the Seventy. Scaliger is represented in the Scaligerana as asserting the Hellenists to be the Jews who lived in Greece and other places, and who read the Greek Bible in their synagogues, and used the Greek language in sacris; and thus they were opposed to the Hebrew Jews, who performed their public worship in the Hebrew tongue; and in this sense St
Jew - After the captivity, all members of the one new state were "Jews," i. Greek speaking Jews. John uses "Jews" of the faction hostile to the Lord Jesus. ...
By the time that he wrote the Jews had definitely rejected the gospel offered to them by the apostles at home and abroad (1 Thessalonians 2:14-16); so they are no longer regarded as the covenant people, the kingdom of God having passed from them to the Gentiles (Acts 13:45-46) The destruction of Jerusalem and the temple formally effected the transference, forever since the Jew professes a religion enjoining what God's providence makes it impossible for him to fulfil, namely, the observance of the great feasts and the sacrificial system in the temple at Jerusalem. Westcott (Smith's Bible Dictionary) notices the preparation for the last or gospel revelation by the disciplining of the Jews under...
(1) the Persian supremacy (536-333 B. "The Jews' language" signifies both the Hebrew (2 Kings 18:26) and the Aramaic Hebrew acquired in the captivity (Nehemiah 13:24), "the language (lip) of Canaan" (Isaiah 19:18)
Tikkun chatzot - �midnight service�); a prayer recited by pious Jews at midnight, lamenting the destruction of the Holy Temple...
Por'Atha, - one of the ten sons of Haman slain by the Jews in Shushan the palace
Esther - ...
Features of the book...
When an earlier Persian king gave the Jews permission to return to their homeland, many preferred not to go. ...
This attitude is reflected in the book of Esther, whose story is built around Jews in Persia. Haman hated the Jews, and when Mordecai refused to bow to him, he determined to destroy all Jews throughout the Empire (3:1-15). While Haman cast lots (purim) to find the right day for the Jews’ slaughter, Mordecai persuaded Esther to appeal to the king to have mercy on her people (4:1-5:14). The day that had been chosen by the casting of lots (purim) for the slaughter of the Jews now became the day when the Jews took revenge on their enemies. The Jews’ celebration of their victory was the origin of an annual Jewish festival known as the Feast of Purim (8:1-9:32). Through Mordecai the Jews enjoyed increased freedom and prosperity (10:1-3)
Hellenists - But if this be all that the phrase imports, there seems to be very little occasion for the Apostle's using it immediately after having declared, that he was "of the stock of Israel, and the tribe of Benjamin;" which, on Godwin's supposition, is the same as a Hebrew of the Hebrews; for the Jews were not allowed to marry out of their own nation; or if they sometimes married proselytes, yet their number was comparatively so small among them, especially while they were under oppression, as they were at that time by the Romans, that methinks Paul would hardly have mentioned it as a distinguishing privilege and honour, that neither of his parents were proselytes. It is therefore a much more probable sense, that a Hebrew of the Hebrews signifies a Hebrew both by nation and language, which multitudes of Abraham's posterity, in those days, were not; or one of the Hebrew Jews, who performed their public worship in the Hebrew tongue; for such were reckoned more honourable than the Hellenistic Jews, who in their dispersion having, in a manner, lost the Hebrew, used the Greek language in sacris, and read the Scripture out of the Septuagint version. We meet with this distinction among the converted Jews, in the Acts of the Apostles: "In those days, when the number of the disciples was multiplied, there arose a murmuring of the Grecians or Hellenists against the Hebrews," Acts 6:1 . In one sense, these were convertible terms, both signifying Jews by nation and religion; but in the sense just mentioned, there were many, in those days, who were Israelites, but not Hebrews. Godwin expresses himself inaccurately, when he says that those who lived in Palestine, and who, as using the Hebrew text in their public worship, were opposed to the ‘Ελληνισται , are called Hebrews, or Jews. For, though Hebrew and Jew are convertible terms, when opposed to Gentiles, as denoting the seed of Abraham, and professors of the Mosaic religion, see Jeremiah 34:9 ; yet, as opposed to the ‘Ελληνισται , they are not convertible terms, there being Hebrew Jews and Hellenistic Jews; for it is said, that when "they, who were scattered by the persecution that arose about Stephen, travelled into several countries, preaching the word to none but Jews only," yet they spoke, προς τους ‘Ελληνιστας , to the Hellenists or Grecians, Acts 11:19-20 . The former were Greeks by nation, and as such distinguished from Jews, Acts 16:1 ; Acts 19:10 ; and the Greek empire having been rendered by Alexander in a manner universal, and their language being then the most common and general, the appellation Greeks is sometimes given to the whole Heathen world, or to all who were not Jews, Romans 1:16 ; Romans 2:9 . And this is decisive against it—that from the words immediately preceding, it is evident that these Grecians were by nation Jews, and not Greeks; it being expressly said, that those who were scattered on the persecution "preached the Gospel to the Jews only. John's Gospel, as being come to Jerusalem at the passover to worship in the temple, John 12:20 , and likewise those mentioned in the Acts, as worshipping along with the Jews in the synagogues, Acts 14:1 ; Acts 18:4 ; they were doubtless Greeks by birth and nation, yet proselytes to the Jewish religion. There is a distinction made between Jews and proselytes, Acts 2:10 ; but none between Hebrews and proselytes, because a proselyte might be either a Hebrew or a Hellenist, according to the language in which he performed public worship. That the Hellenists or Grecians were Jews, is farther argued from the account we have, that when at Jerusalem St. Paul "disputed against the Grecians, they went about to slay him," Acts 9:29 , as the Jews at Damascus had done before, Acts 9:23 . Upon the whole, the ‘Ελληνισται , or Grecians being Jews, who used the Greek tongue in their sacred exercises, the Hebrew Jews and Grecian Jews were distinguished in those days, in like manner as the Portuguese and Dutch Jews are among us, not so much by the place of their birth, (many being born in England, others abroad,) as by the language they use in their public prayers and sermons. Neander, by which the coming of Christianity was prepared, must be placed the spreading of the Jews among the Greeks and Romans. Reverence for the national God of the Jews, as a mighty Being, and reverence for the secret sanctuary of the splendid temple of Jerusalem, had long gained admittance among the Heathen. Confidence in Judaism had in consequence made such wide progress, especially in large capital towns, that the Roman writers in the time of the first emperors openly complain of it; and Seneca, in his book upon superstition, said of the Jews, "The conquered have given laws to the conquerors. The former often embraced all the fanaticism and superstition of the Jews, and allowed themselves to be blindly led by their Jewish teachers. What Justin Martyr says to the Jews, holds good of these proselytes: "The proselytes not only do not believe, but they calumniate the name of Christ twice as much as you, and they wish to murder and torture us who believe on him, because they are desirous to resemble you in every thing. Without becoming entirely Jews, they had become acquainted with the Holy Scriptures of the Jews, they had heard of the promised messenger from God, of the King armed with power from God, of whom a report had been spread, as Suetonius says in the life of Vespasian, over the whole of the east. By the notions which they had received from the Jews, of one God, of the divine government of the world, of God's judgment, and of the Messiah, they were more prepared for the Gospel than other Heathens; and because they still thought that they had too little, because they had no determined religious system, and were curious after more instruction in divine things, and because they had not received many of the prejudices which swayed the Jews, they were more fitted to receive the Gospel than many of the Jews. From the very beginning they must have been attentive to the preaching of the Gospel, which secured to them, without making them Jews, a full share in the fulfilment of those promises of which the Jews had spoken to them. To these proselytes of the gate, (the φοβουμενοι τον Θεον , the ευσεβεις of the New Testament,) passed therefore, according to the Acts, the preaching of the Gospel, when it had been rejected by the blinded Jews; and here the seed of the divine word found a fitting soil in hearts desirous of holiness. There were, however, doubtless, among the proselytes of the gate, some who, wanting in proper earnestness in their search after religious truth, only desired, in every case, an easy road to heaven, which did not require any self-denial; and who, in order to be sure of being on the safe side, whether power and truth lay with the Jews or the Heathens, sometimes worshipped in the synagogue of Jehovah, sometimes in the temples of the gods, and who, therefore, fluttered in suspense between Judaism and Heathenism
Little Saint Hugh of Lincoln - 1246-1255), supposed to have been tortured, crowned with thorns, and crucified by the Jews. Whether there was any truth in the accusation against the Jews, there is now no means of ascertaining
Hugh, Saint - 1246-1255), supposed to have been tortured, crowned with thorns, and crucified by the Jews. Whether there was any truth in the accusation against the Jews, there is now no means of ascertaining
Mortgage, to - On the return of the Jews from exile, there were many poor, and in order to get food they borrowed money on their land, which gave the lender a claim on the property, even as mortgages are now negotiated. The money was lent by rich Jews, and Nehemiah was very angry at their exacting usury and strongly condemned them
Israelites - the descendants of Israel, who were first called Hebrews by reason of Abraham, who came from the other side of the Euphrates; and afterward Israelites, from Israel, the father of the twelve tribes; and, lastly, Jews, particularly after their return from the captivity of Babylon; because the tribe of Judah was then much stronger and more numerous than the other tribes, and foreigners had scarcely any knowledge but of this tribe. See Jews
ha'Man - ) After the failure of his attempt to cut off all the Jews in the Persian empire, he was hanged on the gallows which he had erected for Mordecai. The Jews hiss whenever his name is mentioned on the day of Purim
Mizpar - Number, one of the Jews who accompanied Zerubbabel from Babylon (Ezra 2:2 ); called also Mispereth (Nehemiah 7:7 )
Zachariah - The book of Tanach containing Zechariah's prophecies, exhorting the Jews to serve G-d and foretelling the future redemption
Azymes - (Greek: a, without; zyme, leaves) ...
Unleavened or unfermented cakes used by the Jews in their sacrifices and religious rites
Taled - ) A kind of quadrangular piece of cloth put on by the Jews when repeating prayers in the synagogues
Parmash'ta - (superior ), one of the ten sons of Haman slain by the Jews in Shushan
Maccabees, Books of the - Its object is to encourage and admonish the Jews to be faithful to the religion of their fathers. Its design is to comfort the Alexandrian Jews in their persecution. The fifth contains a history of the Jews from B
Sepharad - The modern Jews think that Spain is meant, and hence they designate the Spanish Jews "Sephardim," as they do the German Jews by the name "Ashkenazim," because the rabbis call Germany Ashkenaz
Festus - Felix his predecessor, to oblige the Jews, when he resigned his government, left St. Festus, at his first coming to Jerusalem, was entreated by the principal Jews to condemn St. Paul appealed to Caesar, and by this means secured himself from the prosecution of the Jews, and the wicked intentions of Festus, whom they had corrupted
Holofernes - Only the Jews resisted (5). Holofernes besieged Bethulia, a city of the Jews. The heroine celebrated the victory of the Jews by a canticle (16) and all the people thanked God
Gentile - The origin of this word is deduced from the Jews, who called all those who were not of their name gojim, 1:e. But the word gentes soon got another signification, and no longer mean: all such as were not Jews, but those only who were neither Jews nor Christians, but followed the superstitions of the Greeks and Romans, &c. , in treatises or laws concerning religion, they signified Pagans, neither Jews nor Christians; and in civil affairs they are used for all such as were not Romans
Sanhedrin or Sanhedrim - The Jews trace its origin to the seventy elders chosen to assist Moses, Numbers 11:16,17 ; but nothing is said of such a council in the time of the kingdom; and it is probable that it was instituted in the time of the Maccabees. It was the highest court of the Jews, acting 'in all causes, and over all persons, ecclesiastical and civil. ' Its decisions were binding on Jews everywhere. Its powers were curtailed by Herod and afterwards by the Romans, who prevented the Jews from putting any one to death legally
Felix - ...
After a riot by the Jews in Jerusalem, Paul was sent to Caesarea to be judged by Felix (Acts 23:26-35). Felix knew the Jews well, for he had a Jewish wife (Acts 24:24). He also knew sufficient of Christianity to realize that Paul was innocent of the charges the Jews laid against him (Acts 23:29; Acts 24:22). Yet he kept Paul imprisoned for two years, simply to please the Jews and so prevent any further unrest (Acts 24:23; Acts 24:27)
Vajezatha - Purity; worthy of honour, one of Haman's sons, whom the Jews slew in the palace of Shushan (Esther 9:9 )
Zealot - An ancient sect of the Jews, so called from their pretended zeal for God's law, and the honour of religion
Essene - ) One of a sect among the Jews in the time of our Savior, remarkable for their strictness and abstinence
Aberdine - ) A coarse frock or loose upper garment formerly worn by Jews; a mean dress
Casiphia - The home of many of the exiled Jews, was probably in the vicinity of the Caspian sea, Ezra 8:17
Gedaliah ben ahikam - 423 BCE) After Nebuchadnezzar exiled most of the Jews from Israel, he appointed Gedaliah to govern those who remained. When he was assassinated by political rivals, the Jews scattered and all remaining vestiges of Jewish autonomy were lost
Tables - (Mark 7:4 ) means banqueting-couches or benches, on which the Jews reclined when at meals. This custom, along with the use of raised tables like ours, was introduced among the Jews after the Captivity
Pur, Purim - A lot, lots, a festival instituted by the Jews (Esther 9:24-32 ) in ironical commemoration of Haman's consultation of the Pur (a Persian word), for the purpose of ascertaining the auspicious day for executing his cruel plot against their nation. It became a national institution by the common consent of the Jews, and is observed by them to the present day, on the 14th and 15th of the month Adar, a month before the Passover
Smyrna - A large contingent of Jews lived there, and out of these people sprang the Christian church. In Revelation 2:8-11 , the Lord praised the believers for their perseverance in the face of poverty and satanic attacks by the Jews
Smyrna - A large contingent of Jews lived there, and out of these people sprang the Christian church. In Revelation 2:8-11 , the Lord praised the believers for their perseverance in the face of poverty and satanic attacks by the Jews
Improperia - (Latin: reproach) ...
Reproaches of the Saviour to the Jews sung by the choir during Veneration of the Cross on Good Friday
Hagiographia - A name given to part of the books of the Scriptures, called by the Jews cetuvim
Vajesatha - One of Haman's ten sons, slain by the Jews in Shushan (Esther 9:9); from Ζend vatija "better," and zata "born
Neshamah kelalit - Nasi HaDor: the comprehensive soul of a Rebbe which is bonded with the souls of all the Jews of his generation ...
Iscah - According to Josephus the Jews believed she was Sarai, Abraham's wife
Sadducee - ) One of a sect among the ancient Jews, who denied the resurrection, a future state, and the existence of angels
Traditionary - ) One, among the Jews, who acknowledges the authority of traditions, and explains the Scriptures by them
Ahavat yisrael - "love for one�s fellow Jews"); as enjoined by the Biblical precept �Love your fellow like yourself� (Leviticus 19:18)
Parshan'Datha - (given by prayer ), the eldest of Haman's ten sons who were slain by the Jews in Shushan
Tel-Haresha - Hill of the wood, a place in Babylon from which some captive Jews returned to Jerusalem (Ezra 2:59 ; Nehemiah 7:61 )
Golden calf - The: the idol made by the Jews when it appeared to them that Moses would not be coming down from Mount Sinai ...
Vajez'Atha - (strong as the wind ), one of the ten sons of Haman whom the Jews slew in Shushan
Purification - Purifications are common to Jews, Pagans, and Mahometans
Herodian - ) One of a party among the Jews, composed of partisans of Herod of Galilee
Zonar - ) A belt or girdle which the Christians and Jews of the Levant were obliged to wear to distinguish them from Mohammedans
Claudius - It was Claudius who, on account of a tumult of the Jews, banished all Jews from Rome
Zechariah - Zechariah, the Book of: The book of Tanach containing Zechariah's prophecies, exhorting the Jews to serve G-d and foretelling the future redemption
Hetto - ) The Jews'quarter in an Italian town or city. ) A quarter of a city where Jews live in greatest numbers
Herodians - A sect among the Jews,which took this name from Herod but authors are not agreed as to their peculiar notions
Kitniyot - (Legumes): Ashkenazi Jews refrain from eating kitniyot (legumes) on Passover
Tinokot shenishbu - �captive infants�); Jews who are unaware of Torah laws and values because they are victims of environmental duress, such as educational deprivation...
Telharsa, Telharesha - Place from whence Jews returned from exile
Tatnai - The king of Persia's satrap in Palestine, who sought to stop the Jews from rebuilding the temple
Purim - ) A Jewish festival, called also the Feast of Lots, instituted to commemorate the deliverance of the Jews from the machinations of Haman
Litter - Sedan or light coach, mentioned among the various means by which the Jews will be conveyed to the promised land
Stephen - When some of the Greek-speaking Jews in the early Jerusalem church complained that their widows were being neglected, Stephen was one of seven men chosen to help sort out the problem. ...
Being a Greek-speaking Jew himself, Stephen went to the synagogue for Greek-speaking Jews in Jerusalem to try to turn his fellow Jews to Christ. When Stephen preached these things, the Jews accused him of blasphemy and brought him before their Council, the Sanhedrin (Acts 6:12-15). He applied these two points to the Jews of his time by saying that they were mistaken in thinking God dwelt in the Jerusalem temple, and that their rejection of Christ was in keeping with the stubbornness of their forefathers (Acts 7:48-53). ...
Furious at Stephen’s words, the Jews rushed upon him, dragged him out of the city and stoned him to death (Acts 7:54-60)
Dispersion - During the centuries immediately before the New Testament era, Jews had become widely scattered across western Asia, eastern Europe and northern Africa. All these people were known as ‘Jews of the Dispersion’ or ‘the scattered Jews’ (John 7:35; James 1:1; 1 Peter 1:1). ...
By New Testament times many of these Jews had lived in foreign countries so long that they had little or no knowledge of Palestinian languages such as Hebrew and Aramaic
Enrimmon - Reinhabited by the Jews who returned from Babylon (Nehemiah 11:29)
Decalogue - The Jews call these precepts, the ten words
Preparation - A term applied by the Jews to the day preceding the Sabbath, or any of the sacred festivals, especially the Passover
Libertine - In this case the name probably denotes those descendants of Jews who had been carried captives to Rome as prisoners of war by Pompey and other Roman generals in the Syrian wars, and had afterwards been liberated. 19 these manumitted Jews were banished from Rome
Barabbas - ") A contrast to the true Son of the Father! The Jews asked the murderous taker of life to be given as a favor to them (it being customary to release one prisoner at the passover), and killed the Prince of life! (Acts 3:14-15. (See PILATE for the probable reason of the Jews' keenness for his release
Hero'Dians - Canon Cook describes these persons as "that party among the Jews who were supporters of the Herodian family as the last hope of retaining for the Jews a fragment of national government, as distinguished from absolute dependence upon Rome as a province of the empire
Cyrene - It contained latterly a large number of Jews, who were introduced into the city by Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, because he thought they would contribute to the security of the place. Jews from Cyrene were in Jerusalem at Pentecost (Acts 2:10 ); and Cyrenian Jews had a synagogue at Jerusalem (6:9)
Susanchites - The inhabitants of Shushan, who joined the other adversaries of the Jews in the attempt to prevent the rebuilding of the temple (Ezra 4:9 )
Lessau - A village where an encounter took place between the Jews and Nicanor ( 2Ma 14:16 )
Rabbinist - ) One among the Jews who adhered to the Talmud and the traditions of the rabbins, in opposition to the Karaites, who rejected the traditions
Semitic - ) Of or pertaining to Shem or his descendants; belonging to that division of the Caucasian race which includes the Arabs, Jews, and related races
Sanhedrim - ) the great council of the Jews, which consisted of seventy members, to whom the high priest was added
Gerah - The smallest weight or coin among the Jews, the twentieth part of a shekel, and worth about two and a half cents, Exodus 30:13
Josephus, Flavius - (joh ssee' fuhss, flay' vee uhss) Early historian of Jewish life and our most important source for the history of the Jews in the Roman period. 73), The Antiquities of the Jews (about A. Following the conflict between Rome and the Jews of Palestine (A. Against Apion defends the Jews against charges of the grammarian Apion as well as against other common assaults on the antiquity and moral virtue of the Jews
Jews - JEWS. —This term, originally perhaps applied only to men of the tribe of Judah, ‘men of Judaea,’ is employed in the Gospels (1) in opposition to Gentiles, proselytes, or Samaritans: Mark 7:3, John 2:6; John 2:13; John 4:9; John 4:22; John 5:1; John 6:4; John 7:2; John 19:40; John 19:42; (2) specially of Jews as antagonistic to our Lord, a usage which is characteristic of Jn. ‘The Jews’ in this sense were blind followers of the Pharisees, and bitter opponents of Christ. ‘For fear of the Jews’ men hesitated to confess Christ (John 7:13; John 9:22). ...
For customs of the Jews see art
Beelzebub - ) The title of a heathen deity to whom the Jews ascribed the sovereignty of the evil spirits; hence, the Devil or a devil
Beelsarus - One of the leaders of those Jews who returned to Jerus
Yiddish - ) A language used by German and other Jews, being a Middle German dialect developed under Hebrew and Slavic influence
Shekel - ) An ancient weight and coin used by the Jews and by other nations of the same stock
Archevites - They joined in the petition to Artaxerxes against the Jews
Miphkad - One of the gates of Jerusalem when the walls were rebuilt on the return of the Jews from exile: its position is unknown
Judaism - ) The religious doctrines and rites of the Jews as enjoined in the laws of Moses
Tatnai - A governor of Samaria under Darius, whose administration was characterized by great justice and moderation towards the Jews, Ezra 5:1-6:22 , B
Lacedaemo'Nians, - in Greece the inhabitants of Sparta or Lacedaemon, with whom the Jews claimed kindred
Jew - The most common title for Jews in the Old Testament is "Israel" or "Israelites," but in the New Testament "Jews" is most frequently used. The terms "Israel" and "Israelites" occur in Scriptures about 2460 times; "Jew" and "Jews" about 275 times, and "Hebrew" or "Hebrews" about 50 times. "Jew" is a broader title than Hebrews, as it may include Hellenists, Greek proselytes who became Jews, Acts 6:1; Acts 24:18, and less specific than Israelites. The favorite name was "Israelites," and after the captivity the title "Jews" came into vogue, but the title "Hebrews" was still used for the more strict Jews, who preferred the Hebrew language, in distinction from the Hellenists or Grecian Jews. They were separated from the world by most stringent laws; and it was necessary during all that time for the rest of mankind, through the Jews, to learn the way to be saved. The Jews have not only undergone the horrors of the siege and the loss of their country, so graphically foretold and described in the 28th chapter of Deuteronomy; but they are at this day, living witnesses to the truth of God's word. Besides these foretold judgments upon the Jews there are also in the word of God promises of blessings yet to be enjoyed by them. And he informs us that the world is again to be indebted to the Jews; he says: "Now if the fall of them be the riches of the world and the diminishing of them the riches of the Gentiles; how much more their fulness?" Romans 11:11-12. The restoration and conversion of the Jews is thus connected with the great ingathering of all nations into the Church of Christ; and the time of this is at hand. The Jews by their talents and industry exert great influence among Christian nations. The Jews have furnished great scholars and statesmen. Neander, the church historian, and Stahl, the jurist, were converted Jews; the great musicians, Mendelssohn, Meyerbeer, Spinoza, Edersheim and Lord Beaconsfield, were of Jewish extraction. They are divided into orthodox and liberal or reform Jews, who differ from each other as the Pharisees and Sadducees of old. Many of the Jews today are deists, or rationalists. The number of Jews in the world is estimated at 9,000,000, of whom 50,000 live in New York city, where they accumulate great wealth. We are indebted to the Jews for our knowledge of God, and of the way of salvation. All of the Scriptures were written by Jews. Moses, the prophets, and the apostles were all Jews. Jesus Christ, our Lord, "was made of the seed of David according to the flesh;" and he says: "Salvation is of the Jews
Bether - Bether is celebrated for the resistance of the Jews to Hadrian under Bar Cochba in a. The site was recognized by Canon Williams at Bittîr , south-west of Jerusalem a village on a cliff in a strong position, with a ruin near it called ‘Ruin of the Jews,’ from a tradition of a great Jewish massacre at this place
Week - For the Jews, any seven consecutive days ending with the sabbath (Genesis 2:1-3 ). It was shared with the ancient world through the Bible and the religious practice of both Jews and Christians
Salamis - The "synagogues" (implying the presence of many Jews) account for their going there first. Herod the Great farmed the Cyprian copper mines, this would bring many Jews there (Josephus, Adonai - The Jews, who either out of respect or superstition do not pronounce the name of Jehovah, read Adonai in the room of it, as often as they meet with Jehovah in the Hebrew text. But the ancient Jews were not so scrupulous; nor is there any law which forbids them to pronounce the name of God
Herodians - Canon Cook describes these persons as "that party among the Jews who were supporters of the Herodian family as the last hope of retaining for the Jews a fragment of national government, as distinguished from absolute dependence upon Rome as a province of the empire
Archelaus - Josephus relates that soon after his accession he put to death 3,000 Jews: eventually, for his tyranny to the Jews and the Samaritans he was deposed and banished to Vienne in Gaul
Bernice - the daughter of Agrippa, surnamed the Great, king of the Jews, and sister to young Agrippa, also king of the Jews
Bul - the eighth month of the ecclesiastical year of the Jews, and the second month of the civil year. On the sixth day of this month the Jews fasted, because on that day Nebuchadnezzar put to death the children of Zedekiah in the presence of their unhappy father, whose eyes, after they had been witnesses of this sad spectacle, he ordered to be put out, 2 Kings 25:7
Shabbethai - Sabbath-born, a Levite who assisted in expounding the law and investigating into the illegal marriages of the Jews (Ezra 10:15 ; Nehemiah 8:7 ; 11:16 )
Zif - " It was called Iyar by the later Jews
Raca - The Jews used it as a word of contempt
Measure - Concerning the measures and weights of the Jews, they are all placed together at the end of the Bible in general, to which the reader may refer
Jabneh - It was conquered by the Jews, 2 Chronicles 26:6
Unbelieving - Infidel discrediting divine revelation, or the mission, character and doctrines of Christ as the unbelieving Jews
Perea - ...
In New Testament times Perea was occupied mainly by Jews. For this reason Jews travelling between Judea and Galilee often detoured across Jordan and through Perea, rather than go through the territory of the Samaritans. Jews commonly referred to the area as ‘beyond Jordan’ (Matthew 4:25; John 3:26)
Exorcism - ) Practiced with spells, as the name of Solomon, magic charms, and incantations among the Jews. Acts 19:13-16; the profane use of Jesus' name as a mere spell was punished by the demon turning on the would be exorcists; these "vagabond Jews" were pretenders. But our Lord implies that some Jews actually cast out demons (Matthew 12:27), probably by demoniacal help; others in the name of Jesus, without saving faith in Him (Matthew 7:22; Mark 9:38)
Sepharad - The modern Jews think Spain. In favor of Spain is the fact that the Spanish Jews are called Sephardim , the German Jews Αshkenazim
Grecians - omits "the Greeks" and reads "they all;" or else Gentiles as opposed to Jews, Romans 2:9-10, "Gentile" A. " But Grecians were foreign Jews as distinct from those in Palestine, who were called "Hebrews. The Greeks and Hebrews first met when the Tyrians sold the Jews to the Greeks
Greeks - omits "the Greeks" and reads "they all;" or else Gentiles as opposed to Jews, Romans 2:9-10, "Gentile" A. " But Grecians were foreign Jews as distinct from those in Palestine, who were called "Hebrews. The Greeks and Hebrews first met when the Tyrians sold the Jews to the Greeks
Purim - Lots, a Jewish festival instituted by Esther and Mordecai, during the reign of Ahasuerus king of Persia, in memory of the providential deliverance of the Jews from the malignant designs of Haman. The propriety of the name appears form the fact that the lot was cast in the presence of Haman for every day from the first month to the twelfth, before an auspicious day was found for destroying the Jews; and thus the superstition of Haman was made the means of giving them time to turn his devices against himself, Proverbs 16:33 Esther 3:7 9:20-32 . It is still observed by the Jews, in the month of March
Dogs - Were held in great contempt by the Jews, but were worshipped, as well as cats, by the Egyptians. Among the Jews, to compare a person to a dog was the most degrading expression possible, 1 Samuel 17:43 24:14 2 Samuel 9:8 . The state of dogs among the Jews was the same that now prevails in the East, where, having no owners, they run about the streets in troops, and are fed by charity or caprice, or live on such offal as they can pick up
Beelzebul - Jews of New Testament times used ‘Beelzebul’ as a name for Satan, the prince of demons (Matthew 10:25; Matthew 12:24-27). This was the meaning the Jews had in mind when they used the name as a title for Satan. (Concerning the Jews’ accusation that Jesus cast out demons by Beelzebul, see BLASPHEMY
Berea - )...
The Jews of the local synagogue, unlike many of the Jews Paul met on his travels, were prepared to listen to Paul’s teaching and test it against the Scriptures. However, Paul was forced to leave the young church when Jews from neighbouring Thessalonica forced him out of the town (Acts 17:11-14)
Phylacteries - Our blessed Lord condemned the Jews for making broad their phylacteries. It should seem that the Jews had a superstition, that by wearing certain amulets or borders with words of Scripture upon them, they would act like so many charms, and preserve them from danger. The Jews, it is said by some, justified this from what was commanded in Scripture. " (Exodus 33:3) But had the Jews observed the pure sense of this precept, it was their wonderful deliverance from Egypt that was to be the memorial, and not the preservation from future dangers to which this command had respect
Thessalonica - It was inhabited by Greeks, Romans, and Jews, from among whom the apostle Paul gathered a numerous church. There was a large number of Jews resident in their city, where they had a synagogue, in which Paul, A. Some of the Jews determined to maltreat the apostle, and surrounded the house in which they believed he was lodging. Thessalonica, now called Saloniki, is at present a wretched town, but has a population of about 70,000 persons, one-third of whom are Jews
Dispersion, the Jews of the, - or simply THE DISPERSION, was the general title applied to those Jews who remained settled in foreign countries after the return from the Babylonian exile, and during the period of the second temple. From Babylon the Jews spread throughout Persia, Media and Parthia. Large settlements of Jews were established in Cyprus, in the islands of the AEgean, and on the western coast of Asia Minor. Peter wrote to the Jews of the Dispersion
Shetharboznai - One of the king of Persia's princes who accused the Jews
Adalia - One of ten sons of Haman, villain of Book of Esther, who was slain by Jews (Esther 9:8 )
ba'Ruch, Book of - The book was held in little esteem by the Jews, and both its date and authorship are very uncertain
Zechariah - ZECHARIAH, son of Jehoiada, high priest of the Jews; probably the same as Azariah, 1 Chronicles 6:10-11 . He was born during the captivity, and came to Jerusalem when the Jews were permitted by Cyrus to return to their own country. Like his contemporary Haggai, Zechariah begins with exhorting the Jews to proceed in the rebuilding of the temple; he promises them the aid and protection of God, and assures them of the speedy increase and prosperity of Jerusalem; he then emblematically describes the four great empires, and foretels the glory of the Christian church when Jews and Gentiles shall be united under their great High Priest and Governor, Jesus Christ, of whom Joshua the high priest, and Zerubbabel the governor, were types; he predicts many particulars relative to our Saviour and his kingdom, and to the future condition of the Jews. The style of Zechariah is so remarkably similar to that of Jeremiah, that the Jews were accustomed to observe, that the spirit of Jeremiah had passed into him
Pilate - ...
Early records indicate that Pilate hated the Jews, and on occasions deliberately provoked them to riot by displaying images of Roman gods in Jerusalem. In one incident he massacred some of the Galilean Jews who had created a disturbance while in Jerusalem for one of the festivals (Luke 13:1-2). The Jews therefore worded their accusation to try to convince Pilate that Jesus was a traitor to Rome and should be executed (Luke 22:66-71; Luke 23:1-5). ...
Pilate knew that Jesus was not a political rebel and that the Jews had handed him over because they were jealous of his religious following (Luke 23:4-5; Luke 23:14-15; Matthew 27:18). He had tried to calm the Jews with offers that he hoped would please them while enabling him to release Jesus, but the Jews refused his offers (Luke 23:16; Matthew 27:15-23). Therefore, to satisfy the Jews and protect his own interests, he crucified the man he knew to be innocent, and released the man he knew to be a murderer (John 19:12; John 19:16; Luke 23:24-25)
Cyrene - ...
Jews were very numerous and influential there. The first Ptolemy, ‘wishing to secure the government of Cyrene and the other cities of Libya for himself, sent a party of Jews to inhabit them’ (Josephus, circa (about) Apion. Cyrenian Jews are mentioned in 1 Maccabees 15:23, 2 Maccabees 2:23 (Jason of Cyrene). native Libyans), sojourners (μέτοικοι), and Jews. The Jews enjoyed equality of civil rights (Ant. 13, shows that the Jews there formed a civic community (πολίτευμα) of their own, under nine rulers (CIG [3]), 13:1 (Lucius of Cyrene, probably one of these preachers, a prophet or teacher at Antioch)
Dispersion - Here the Jewish religion was maintained; prophets like Ezekiel and priests like Ezra sprang up, the old laws were studied and worked over, the Pentateuch elaborated, and from this centre Jews radiated to many parts of the East ( Nehemiah 1:1 ff. Thus the Jews reached Media, Persia, Cappadocia, Armenia, and the Black Sea. Only a few of these Babylonian Jews returned to Palestine. In this general period colonies of Jews were living at Memphis, Migdol, Tahpanhes, and Pathros in Egypt (Jeremiah 44:1 ). Other Jews seem to have followed Alexander the Great to Egypt (Jos. Philo estimated the number of Jews in Egypt in the reign of Caligula (a. (312 280) gave the Jews rights in all the cities founded by him in Syria and Asia ( Ant . This has been doubted by some, who suppose that the spread of Jews over Syria occurred after the Maccabæan uprising (168 143). Jews were in all this region, as well as in Greece and Rome, in the most important centres about the Mediterranean, and had also penetrated to Arabia ( Acts 2:11 ). All Jews paid the annual half-shekel tax for the support of the Temple-worship, and at the great feasts made pilgrimages to Jerusalem from all parts of the world (Acts 2:10-11 ). Contact with the world gave them a broader outlook and a wider thought than the Palestinian Jews, and they conceived the idea of converting the world to Judaism
Cerinthian - ) One of an ancient religious sect, so called from Cerinthus, a Jew, who attempted to unite the doctrines of Christ with the opinions of the Jews and Gnostics
Jacob - ) A Hebrew patriarch (son of Isaac, and ancestor of the Jews), who in a vision saw a ladder reaching up to heaven (Gen
Karaite - ) A sect of Jews who adhere closely to the letter of the Scriptures, rejecting the oral law, and allowing the Talmud no binding authority; - opposed to the Rabbinists
Telabib - A place on the river Chebar in Mesopotamia, where a colony of captive Jews was located, Ezekiel 3:15
Regem-Melech - Friend of the king, one of the two messengers sent by the exiled Jews to Jerusalem in the time of Darius (Zechariah 7:2 ) to make inquiries at the temple
Hieronymus - Eupator, who harassed the Jews after the withdrawal of Lysias in b
Pontus - of Asia Minor, where many Jews were located: it was the native place of Aquila
Divorce - The Jews, after the Captivity, were reguired to dismiss the foreign women they had married contrary to the law (Ezra 10:11-19 ). It seems that it was not uncommon for the Jews at that time to dissolve the union on very slight pretences (Matthew 5:31,32 ; 19:1-9 ; Mark 10:2-12 ; Luke 16:18 )
Abomination - The Jews were an abomination to the Egyptians and the sacred animals of the Egyptians were an abomination to the Jews
Gentile - gentes, and imitated the Jews in giving the name gentiles to all nations who were not Jews nor christians
Exodus - (Greek: ex, out; odos, way) ...
The second book of the Bible, thus named because it relates the departure of the Jews from Egypt and a part of their wanderings through the wilderness, as far as Mount Sinai. The most convenient division is the following: ...
events preceding the going out of Egypt (1-12)
the going out of Egypt and the journey to Mount Sinai (13-18)
the promulgation of the first instalments of the Mosaic Law (19-31)
the apostasy of the Jews (the golden calf), reconciliation, and renewal of the Covenant (32-34)
construction of the Tabernacle (35-40)
Rabbi - A title of respect among the Jews, signifying 'master, teacher,' but is not known to have been used till the time of Herod the Great. According to the Jews the gradations of honour rose from Rab to Rabbi, and thence to Rabban or Rabboni
Ekron - The most northern city of the Philistines, allotted to Judah by Joshua 15:45 , but afterwards given to Daniel 12:13 , though it does not appear that the Jews ever peaceably possessed it. It is memorable for its connection with the captivity of the ark and its restoration to the Jews, 1 Samuel 5:10 6:1-18
Exercise, Bodily - An ascetic mortification of the flesh and denial of personal gratification (Compare Colossians 2:23 ) to which some sects of the Jews, especially the Essenes, attached importance
Andrew of Rinn, Blessed - At the age of three, he was cruelly put to death by Jews, through hatred of the Faith
Hay - The Jews did not prepare and store up hay for winter use, as is customary in cold climates
Uproar - ...
The Jews who believed not - set all the city in an uproar
Hinnom - It had been the place where the idolatrous Jews burned their children alive to Moloch and Baal. After the Exile, in order to show their abhorrence of the locality, the Jews made this valley the receptacle of the offal of the city, for the destruction of which a fire was, as is supposed, kept constantly burning there. The Jews associated with this valley these two ideas, (1) that of the sufferings of the victims that had there been sacrificed; and (2) that of filth and corruption. "It might be shown by infinite examples that the Jews expressed hell, or the place of the damned, by this word
Samaritans - These strangers (Compare Luke 17:18 ) amalgamated with the Jews still remaining in the land, and gradually abandoned their old idolatry and adopted partly the Jewish religion. After the return from the Captivity, the Jews in Jerusalem refused to allow them to take part with them in rebuilding the temple, and hence sprang up an open enmity between them. The bitter enmity between the Jews and Samaritans continued in the time of our Lord: the Jews had "no dealings with the Samaritans" (John 4:9 ; Compare Luke 9:52,53 )
Archelaus - Aware of the hostility of the Jews toward his family, Archelaus did not attempt to ascend the throne immediately. First, he tried to win the Jews over. His efforts were not successful; as the Jews revolted, and Archelaus ordered his army to retaliate. ...
Archelaus interfered in the high priesthood, married against Jewish law, and oppressed the Samaritans and Jews through brutal treatment
Jew - John speaks of 'the Jews,' 'the Jews' passover,' etc. ...
In the addresses to the seven churches we twice read of those who "say they are Jews, and are not. In a similar way the Jews prided themselves in being 'sons of Abraham,' whereas, the Lord declared that they were not such morally
Leo Vii, Pope - He encouraged monastic reform, favored the Cluny foundation and condemned the forced baptism of Jews in Germany
Old Law - The Mosaic dispensation, the "Old Covenant"; also the books of the Old Testament; the institutions, laws, religious rites, and traditional customs which prevailed among the Jews, prior to the coming of Christ
Tebeth - (Esther 2:16 ), a word probably of Persian origin, denoting the cold time of the year; used by the later Jews as denoting the tenth month of the year
Tel-Harsa - A Babylonian town from which certain Jews who "could not show
Shetharboznai - An official of the king of Persia who, instead of hindering the Jews, was ordered by Darius to help them in the building of the temple
Judaizer - ), those Jews who accepted Christianity but still adhered to the law of Moses and worshiped in the temple at Jerusalem
Lots - The feast of Pur, in honour of the destruction of Haman the Aggagite, was so great a festival among the Jews, that even to this day it hath been handed down, and is kept. And the reason assigned wherefore they called this festival Pur, or Purlin, casting lots, was, because when Haman planned the destruction of the Jews, he had lots cast before him from day to day. (See Esther 3:7-15) The Jews, therefore, when through God's mercy they had caused the ruin of Haman, appointed this feast on the same month in every year, and called it Pur
Corban - The Jews sometimes swore by corban, or by gifts offered to God, Matthew 23:18 . Theophrastus says that the Tyrians forbad the use of such oaths as were peculiar to foreigners, and particularly of corban, which, Josephus informs us, was used only by the Jews. Jesus Christ reproaches the Jews with cruelty toward their parents, in making a corban of what should have been appropriated to their use
Bamah - A height, a name used simply to denote a high place where the Jews worshipped idols (Ezekiel 20:29 )
Supper - The principal meal of the day among the Jews
Arathes - 139 the Romans wrote letters to Arathes and certain other eastern sovereigns in favour of the Jews ( 1Ma 15:22 )
Judaize - ) To conform to the doctrines, observances, or methods of the Jews; to inculcate or impose Judaism
Pannag - In Ezekiel 27:17 , is the Hebrew word for some unknown product of Palestine, which the Jews sold to the Tyrians
i.n.r.i. - Letters found on the "title" or sign board of crucifix, which are the initials of the superscription placed thereon by order of Pilate: Iesus Nazarenus, Rex Iudaeorum (Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews)
Bishlam - ” Apparently representative of Persian government in Palestine who complained about building activities of the returned Jews to Artaxerxes, king of Persia (464-423 B
i.n.r.i. - Letters found on the "title" or sign board of crucifix, which are the initials of the superscription placed thereon by order of Pilate: Iesus Nazarenus, Rex Iudaeorum (Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews)
Chisleu - The name adopted from the Babylonians by the Jews after the Captivity for the third civil, or ninth ecclesiastical, month (Nehemiah 1:1 ; Zechariah 7:1 )
Urim - ) A part or decoration of the breastplate of the high priest among the ancient Jews, by which Jehovah revealed his will on certain occasions
Dedication - Dedications of persons, temples, and houses, were frequent among the Jews
Anise - The plant mentioned in Matthew 23:23 was no doubt the dill, which grows in Palestine, and was tithed by scrupulous Jews
Diaspora - (Greek: exile) ...
The name given to the dispersion of countless Jews, scattered through pagan lands. They kept aloof from pagan rites and practises; but in commercial and social life mixed more freely with non-Jews than their Palestinian brethren approved
Prophet - It is particularly applied to such inspired persons among the Jews as were commissioned by God to declare his will and purposes to that people. of the Jews
Leather - " (Leviticus 11:32 ; 13:48 ; Numbers 31:20 ) Though the material itself is seldom noticed, yet we cannot doubt that it was extensively used by the Jews; shoes, bottles, thongs, garments, ropes and other articles were made of it. The art of tanning, however, was held in low esteem by the Jews
Lazarus - He was raised from the tomb by Christ in the presence of the family and a number of Jews, after he had been dead four days. So incensed were the Jews at this that they sought to kill not only Christ, but even Lazarus
Mig'Dol - (Ezekiel 29:10 ; 30:6 ) In the prophecy of Jeremiah the Jews in Egypt are spoken of as dwelling at Migdol. (Jeremiah 44:1 ) It seems plain, from its being spoken of with Memphis, and from Jews dwelling there, that this Midgol was an important town
Malcham - An idol worshipped by some Jews who also professed to worship Jehovah
Dorcas - She was a Hellenistic Jewess, called Tabitha by the Jews and Dorcas by the Greeks
Hathach - By his means Esther learned from Mordecai the details of Haman’s plot against the Jews ( Esther 4:5-6 ; Esther 4:9-10 )
Pentecost - A solemn festival of the Jews, so called, because it was celebrated fifty days after the feast of the passover, Leviticus 23:15
Vajezatha - ” One of Haman's ten sons the Jews killed after Esther gained permission to retaliate against Haman's deadly plan (Esther 9:9 )
Unholy - Hebrews 10:29 (a) Certain Jews considered the Blood of JESUS to be in direct apposition to the blood of the sacrifices, and was therefore not of GOD and not to be accepted by them
Shephatiah - The name of seven distinguished Jews, alluded to in the following passages: 2 Samuel 3:4 1 Chronicles 12:5 27:16 2 Chronicles 21:2 Ezra 2:4,57 Nehemiah 11:4 Jeremiah 38:1
Lawyer - Among the Jews, was one versed in the laws of Moses, which he expounded in the schools and synagogues (Matthew 22:35 ; Luke 10:25 )
Mordecai - A Jew in the Persian court who caused the deliverance of the Jews from the destruction plotted by Haman
Zionism - ) Among the Jews, a theory, plan, or movement for colonizing their own race in Palestine, the land of Zion, or, if that is impracticable, elsewhere, either for religious or nationalizing purposes; - called also Zion movement
Barabbas - A well-known name, rendered memorable from being preferred by the Jews to the Lord Jesus Christ, though a murderer and a thief
Ethanim - After the Jews returned from the captivity, the month Ethanim was called Tisri, which answers to our September
Seventy - 277, the Old Testament was translated into Greek, by the united labours of about seventy learned Jews, and that translation has been since known by the version of the LXX
Addon - This, with similar instances (verse 63), indicates the importance the Jews attached to their genealogies
Trophimus - Convert of Ephesus who accompanied Paul to Jerusalem, and whom the Jews thought Paul had taken into the temple
Telmelah - Place from whence Jews returned from exile
Genealogy - The Jews were particular to an excess, to record their families; no doubt, with an eye to Christ
Charoset - (from the Hebrew "cheres-clay"); a paste similar to clay reminiscent of the clay the Jews used while enslaved in Egypt, made of apples, nuts and wine, into which the maror is dipped at the Passover seder ...
Lucius - His name is Latin, but his birthplace seems to indicate that he was one of the Jews of Cyrene, in North Africa
Jashen - 2 Samuel 23:32; but in 1 Chronicles 11:34 HASHEM ("the Name"' used by Othordox Jews instead of uttering the ineffable name of Υahweh
Attalus - He was one of the kings to whom the Roman Senate is said to have written in support of the Jews in the time of Simon the Maccabee ( 1Ma 15:22 )
Jason - A Thessalonian, and probably a relative of Paul, whom he entertained, and in consequence received rough treatment at the Hands of the unbelieving Jews
Malachi - ...
Malachi, the book of: The book of Tanach containing Malachi's prophecies, admonishing the Jews to serve G-d
Sanballat - the governor of the Cuthites or Samaritans, and an enemy to the Jews
Eshbaal - The word BAAL , the name of an idol, was not pronounced by scrupulous Jews; they substituted BOSHETH, confusion
i. n. r. i - : "Jesus NazarenusRex Judaeorum," and meaning "Jesus of Nazareth (the) King of (the)Jews
Religion, Religious - The Jews' religion, in which Paul was very strict
Nebuzaradan - ) Took the chief Jews for judgment to Nebuchadnezzar at Riblah. By Nebuchadnezzar's direction, Nebuzaradan "looked well to Jeremiah," gave him his choice of going to Babylon or staying, then sent him with victuals and a present, to be protected by Gedaliah the governor left over Judah, after having first told the Jews "Jehovah hath done according as He hath said, because ye have sinned against Jehovah" (Jeremiah 39:11-14; Jeremiah 40:2-5). How humiliating to the Jews to be admonished of their sin by a Gentile ruler!...
Hebrew of the Hebrews - But if it meant no more than this, there was little occasion for the Apostle's using it immediately after having declared that he was "of the stock of Israel, and the tribe of Benjamin," which, on Godwin's supposition, is the same as a Hebrew of the Hebrews; for the Jews were not allowed to marry out of their own nation. It is more probable that a Hebrew of the Hebrews signifies a Hebrew both by nation and language, which many of Abraham's posterity, in those days, were not; or one of the Hebrew Jews who performed their public worship in the Hebrew tongue; for such were reckoned more honourable than the Jews born out of Judea, and who spoke the Greek tongue
Holocaust - Sacrifices of this sort are often mentioned by the heathens as well as Jews. On this account, the Jews, who would not allow the Gentiles to offer on their altar any other sacrifices peculiarly enjoined by the law of Moses, admitted them by the Jewish priests to offer holocausts, because these were a sort of sacrifices prior to the law, and common to all nations. Holocausts were deemed by the Jews the most excellent of all their sacrifices
Thessalonica - This naturally attracted Jews to the place, and they had a synagogue. When Paul had preached there, some Jews and many Greeks believed. Many Jews still reside there [1]
Asmonaeans - After the death of Ezra and Nehemiah, the Jews were governed by their high priest, in subjection, however, to the Persian kings, to whom they paid tribute; but with full enjoyment of their liberties, civil and religious. Under the able conduct of Judas, surnamed Maccabaeus, and his valiant brothers, the Jews maintained a religious war for twenty-six years with five successive kings of Syria; and after destroying upwards of two hundred thousand of their best troops, the Maccabees finally established the independence of their own country, and the aggrandisement of their family. This illustrious house, whose princes united the regal and pontifical dignity in their own persons, administered the affairs of the Jews during a period of a hundred and twenty-six years; until, disputes arising between Hyrcanus II, and his brother Aristobulus, the latter was defeated by the Romans, who captured Jerusalem, and reduced Judea to a military province, B
Festus - The Jews knew that Festus was inexperienced in Jewish affairs and tried to take advantage of this to win their case against Paul. However, wanting to win the goodwill of the Jews, he refused to release Paul. He did not understand what made the Jews hate Paul
Tertullus - This name (a diminutive of Tertius ) is that of the advocate hired by the Jews to speak for them against St. It is a gross piece of flattery, for the Jews were in constant opposition to Felix
Libertines - Descendants of Jews who, having been taken prisoners by Pompey and other Roman generals in the Syrian wars, were enslaved and afterward emancipated, and who returned to their native land. Many Jews at Rome were freedmen allowed by Augustus to settle beyond the Tiber
Holofernes - The Jews alone would not yield; and Holofernes accordingly blockaded their city of Bethulia. ...
Holofernes has been variously identified with Ashurbanipal, Cambyses, Orophernes of Cappadocia (a friend of Demetrius Soter, the enemy of the Jews), Nicanor (the Syrian general conquered by Judas Maccahæus), Scaurus (Pompey’s lieutenant in Syria), and Severus (Hadrian’s general)
Publican - In New Testament times these taxes were paid to the Romans, and hence were regarded by the Jews as a very heavy burden, and hence also the collectors of taxes, who were frequently Jews, were hated, and were usually spoken of in very opprobrious terms
Pentecost - ) A solemn festival of the Jews; - so called because celebrated on the fiftieth day (seven weeks) after the second day of the Passover (which fell on the sixteenth of the Jewish month Nisan); - hence called, also, the Feast of Weeks. By the Jews it was generally regarded as commemorative of the gift of the law on the fiftieth day after the departure from Egypt
Sheshach - According to Jerome the name Babylon, from Babel, was made up of the letters B B L (the 2nd and the 12th letters of the Hebrew alphabet) these were changed into SH SH CH (the 2nd and the 12th letters reckoning from the end of the same alphabet), a mode well known to later Jews. It has been supposed that the Jews made this alteration in the name in order that they might speak of the judgements coming upon Babylon without giving offence to those who had carried them away captive
Apostasy - Paul by the Jews, viz. , that he taught that the Jews should abandon Mosaism
Gallio - His residence was at Corinth; and when the Jews of the city made an insurrection against Paul, and dragged him before the judgment seat, Gallio refused to entertain their clamorous and unjust demands. The Greeks who were present, pleased with the rebuff the persecuting Jews had received, fell upon Sosthenes their leader, and beat him upon the spot, a mode of retribution that Gallio ought not to have allowed
Bab'Ylon - (Revelation 14:8 ; 17:18 ) The power of Rome was regarded by the later Jews as was that of Babylon by their forefathers. The most natural supposition of all is that by Babylon is intended the old Babylon of Assyria, which was largely inhabited by Jews at the time in question
Anise - The plant mentioned in Matthew 23:23 was no doubt the dill, which grows in Palestine, and was tithed by the Jews
Esther - At Mordecai's behest, she brought about Ahasuerus's annulment of Haman's decree calling for the extermination of the Jews
Hen - Common in later times among the Jews in Palestine (Matthew 23:37 ; Luke 13:34 )
Jason - The host of Paul and Silas at Thessalonica, whose house was attacked by the Jews, and himself arrested
Garlic - The Jews acquired a liking for it in Egypt, Numbers 11:5
Hem of Garment - The importance which the later Jews, especially the Pharisees, (Matthew 23:5 ) attached to the hem or fringe of their garments was founded upon the regulation in (Numbers 15:38,39 ) which gave a symbolical meaning to it
Captivities of Judah - The captivities of Judah are generally reckoned four: the first, in the year of the world 3398, under King Jehoiakim, when Daniel and others were carried to Babylon; the second, in the year of the world 3401, and in the seventh year of the reign of Jehoiakim, when Nebuchadnezzar carried three thousand and twenty-three Jews to Babylon; the third, in the year of the world 3406, and in the fourth of Jehoiachin, when this prince, with part of people, was sent to Babylon; and the fourth in the year 3416, under Zedekiah, from which period begins the captivity of seventy years, foretold by the Prophet Jeremiah. The Jews were removed to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar, who, designing to render that city the capital of the east, transplanted thither very great numbers of people, subdued by him in different countries. In Babylon the Jews had judges and elders, who governed them, and who decided matters in dispute juridically, according to their laws. Cyrus, in the year of the world 3457, and in the first year of his reign at Babylon, permitted the Jews to return to their own country, Ezra 1:1 . The Jews assert that only the refuse of their nation returned from the captivity, and that the principal of them continued in and near Babylon, where they had been settled, and where they became very numerous. It appears from incidental observations in Scripture that some remained; and Major Rennell has offered several reasons for believing that only certain classes of the Jews were deported to Babylon, as well as into Assyria
Jews - ...
After a period of approximately 70 years, Cyrus, King of Persia, gave the exiles permission to return, and about 50,000 Jews followed Zorobabel to Palestine in 538 BC. Antiochus IV (Epiphanes), King of Syria, made a violent attempt to hellenize the Jews; but a priest of Modin named Mattathias, and his sons, Judas Machabeus, Jonathan, and Simon, carried on a long and successful struggle against the armies of Syria, and at length, in 143 BC, gained complete independence for Judea. The rapacity and cruelty of these procurators led at length to an organized revolt against Rome, which terminated in the destruction of Jerusalem and of its Temple in the year 70 AD, and in the dispersion of the Jews of Palestine throughout the civilized world. Josephus (Antiquities, xiv,7,2) quotes Strabo as saying: "Now these Jews are already in all cities, and it is hard to find a place on the habitable earth that hath not admitted this trihe of men, and is not possessed by it. " Since the Jews were forbidden by the Law to mingle with Gentiles, these colonies remained distinct, and formed "a nation within a nation. " As a rule, the colonial Jews obtained the rights of citizenship, along with religious liberty and the privilege of governing themselves according to their Law. What happened in the Roman Empire was repeated in every state where the Jews settled. In Germany the Jews had settlements since 321 AD, principally along the Rhine, where Jew was synonymous with merchant. Universal persecution of the Jews broke out in Europe at the beginning of the First Crusade, 1096. The Crusaders massacred the Jews of the various German cities through which they passed. In the course of the 13th century the Jews were exiled from France and England, and in the 14th, severe laws were passed against them and bloody assaults made on them in France (where they had been readmitted), in Spain, Germany, and Bohemia. During this and earlier centuries, the popes were the staunchest defenders of the Jews, and by a series of Bulls tried to protect them from oppression and mob violence. In 1492 all Jews were banished from Spain, and in 1496 from Portugal. The following religious sects exist today: ...
Orthodox Jews, who believe in the inspiration of Scripture and who cling to the prescriptions of the Mishna and Talmud
Conservative Jews, who also hold the inspiration of Scripture, but who have adapted the prescriptions of tradition to modern Conditions
Liberal or Reformed Jews, who have very lax views about the inspiration of Scripture, who try to make their beliefs conform to modern rationalistic theories, and who have abandoned many of the ancient customs and practises
Zionism is a movement to make Palestine the national home of the Jews and the chief center of Jewish culture. It also aims at restoring the ancient Hebrew language among the Jews
Religion - 1: θρησκεία (Strong's #2356 — Noun Feminine — threseia — thrace-ki'-ah ) signifies "religion" in its external aspect (akin to threskos, see below), "religious worship," especially the ceremonial service of "religion;" it is used of the "religion" of the Jews, Acts 26:5 ; of the "worshiping" of angels, Colossians 2:18 , which they themselves repudiate (Revelation 22:8,9 ); "there was an officious parade of humility in selecting these lower beings as intercessors rather than appealing directly to the Throne of Grace" (Lightfoot); in James 1:26,27 the writer purposely uses the word to set in contrast that which is unreal and deceptive, and the "pure religion" which consists in visiting "the fatherless and widows in their affliction," and in keeping oneself "unspotted from the world. " That is how Festus regarded the Jews' "religion," Acts 25:19 , AV and RV marg. (2) For "the Jews' religion," Galatians 1:13,14 , see Jews , B
Michael - When, in the time of Daniel, the Jews suffered a number of setbacks because of opposition from the ruling Persian authorities, Michael came to the Jews’ rescue. ...
The messenger knew that later he would be opposed by an evil spirit working on behalf of Greece (the nation that would succeed Persia as the Jews’ ruler), but he was confident that Michael’s help would again bring him victory (Daniel 10:20-21). Opposition to the Jews would increase, but God’s people could always depend on Michael to fight for them (Daniel 12:1)
Alexander the Great - 333), rival embassies from the Jews and the Samaritans solicited his protection. He then entered the city, offered sacrifice, was shown the passages in Daniel relating to himself, granted the people unmolested use of their customs, promised to befriend their eastern settlements, and welcomed Jews to his army ( Ant . It is also most likely that when Josephus declares that Alexander gave to the Jews in Alexandria equal privileges with the Macedonians ( c. But his real importance to the Biblical student consists in this he brought the Jews into contact with Greek literature and life
Dalphon - The sons were killed when the Jews protected themselves against the Persian attack (Esther 9:7 )
Achzib - A city of Asher, from which, however, the Jews were unable to expel the Canaanites, Judges 1:31
Consolation of Israel - A name for the Messiah in common use among the Jews, probably suggested by Isaiah 12:1 ; 49:13
Host of Heaven - When the Jews fell into idolatry they worshipped these (Deuteronomy 4:19 ; 2 Kings 17:16 ; 21:3,5 ; 23:5 ; Jeremiah 19:13 ; Zephaniah 1:5 ; Acts 7:42 )
Drown - Drowning was a mode of capital punishment in use among the Syrians, and was known to the Jews in the time of our Lord
Jokshan - He links the Jews and Arabs together as belonging to a common ancestor—Abraham
Sanhedrim - A council or assembly of persons sitting together; the name whereby the Jews called the great council of the nation, assembled in an apartment of the temple of Jerusalem, to determine the most important affairs both of church and state
Tel-Harsha - ” Home of Babylonian Jews unable to demonstrate their lineage (Ezra 2:59 ; Nehemiah 7:61 )
Hazar-Shual - Judah ( Joshua 15:28 = 1 Chronicles 4:28 ) or Simeon ( Joshua 19:3 ), re-peopled by Jews after the Captivity ( Nehemiah 11:27 )
Numenius - 144) by the Jews to Rome and Sparta ( 1Ma 12:1-18 )
Scroll of esther - Scroll of Esther, The: The book of Tanach describing Haman's plot to annihilate the Jews, Mordecai and Esther's successful foiling thereof, and the institution of the holiday of Purim
Tzephaniah - ...
Tzephaniah The book of Tanach containing Zephaniah's prophecies, foretelling the destruction of Jerusalem as well the Jews' eventual return from exile
Lamentations - the Book of: The book of Tanach authored by Jeremiah, lamenting the destruction of the Holy Temple, the suffering the Jews experienced at that time, and the ensuing exile
Gentile - Those who are not Jews
Zizith - ) The tassels of twisted cords or threads on the corners of the upper garment worn by strict Jews
Tertullus - A Roman orator or advocate, whom the Jews employed to bring forward their accusation against Paul, before the Roman procurator at Caesarea, probably because they were themselves unacquainted with the modes of proceeding in the Roman courts, Acts 24:1-2
Lysias - In the honorable discharge of his duty, he repeatedly saved Paul from the malice of the Jews, Acts 21:27-40 22:1-23:35
ca'Iaphas, - (depression ), in full JOSEPH CAIAPHAS, high priest of the Jews under Tiberius
Elamites - Some of the same name, 550 years after, were present at Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost, but these were doubtless Jews from Elam
Gre'Cian - It is used chiefly of foreign Jews and proselytes in contrast with the Hebrews speaking the vernacular Hebrew or Aramaean
Mordecai - A cousin (?) of queen Esther, who thwarted Haman’s plot against the Jews
Geshem - Or Gashmu, firmness, probably chief of the Arabs south of Palestine, one of the enemies of the Jews after the return from Babylon (Nehemiah 2:19 ; 6:1,2 )
Tel-Melah - ” Babylonian home of a group of Jews unable to demonstrate their lineage (Ezra 2:59 ; Nehemiah 7:61 )
Shemit'ic Languages, - The Jews in their earlier history spoke the Hebrew, but in Christ's time they spoke the Aramaic, sometimes called the Syro-Chaldaic
Zephaniah - ...
Zephaniah, the book of: The book of Tanach containing Zephaniah's prophecies, foretelling the destruction of Jerusalem as well the Jews' eventual return from exile
Moshiach - One of the 13 principles of the Jewish faith is that G-d will send the Messiah to return the Jews to the land of Israel, rebuild the Holy Temple and usher in the utopian Messianic Era
Asmonean - The Asmoneans were leaders and rulers of the Jews from 168 to 35 b
May Laws - ...
(2):...
In Russia, severe oppressive laws against Jews, which have given occasion for great persecution; - so called because they received the assent of the czar in May, 1882, and because likened to the Prussian May laws (see Kulturkampf)
Levitical - Belong to the Levites, or descendants of Levi as the levitical law, the law given by Moses, which prescribed the duties and rights of the priests and Levites, and regulated the and religious concerns of the Jews
Fable - An idle, groundless, and worthless story, like the mythological legends of the heathen and the vain traditions of the Jews
Potter's Field, the, - Matthew, (Matthew 27:7 ) was purchased by the Priests with the thirty pieces of silver rejected by Judas, and converted into a burial-place for Jews not belonging to the city
Jews' Language - The Hebrew language, common to the Jews
Frontlets - Leo of Modena thus describes them: The Jews take four pieces of parchment, and write, with an ink made on purpose, and in square letters, these four passages, one on each piece:...
1. The most devout Jews put it on both at morning and noon-day prayer; but the generality of the Jews wear it only at morning prayer. On the contrary, others maintain that these precepts should be taken figuratively and allegorically, as denoting that the Jews should very carefully preserve the remembrance of God's law, and observe his commands; that they should always have them before them, and never forget them. Prior to the Babylonish captivity, no traces of them appear in the history of the Jews. The Caraite Jews, who adhere to the letter of the law, and despise traditions, call the rabbinical Jews bridled asses, because they wear these tephilim and frontlets
Baldness - With the Jews artificial baldness was a sign of mourning (Isaiah 22:12 ; Jeremiah 7:29 ; 16:6 ); it also marked the conclusion of a Nazarite's vow (Acts 18:18 ; 21:24 ; Numbers 6:9 ). The Jews were forbidden to follow the customs of surrounding nations in making themselves bald (Deuteronomy 14:1 )
Freedmen, Synagogue of the - Some early versions have Libyans in place of “libertines,” giving three groups of North African Jews. The second party in the dispute was composed of Greek-speaking Jews of Asia and Cilicia
Partition - The Jews were redeemed by the blood of the Passover lamb, but the Gentiles were not. The Jews had GOD for their Father, but the Gentiles did not
Talmud - Although we do not meet with this word in the Bible, yet as the Jews are very tenacious of what they called their Talmud, I thought it might not be amiss just to notice it in a short way. And the Talmud contains the substance of the Jews' doctrine and traditions in religion and morality
Barabbas - Yet the Jews, led by the chief priests and elders, requested the release of this man rather than the release of the Lord Jesus. Peter did not fail to charge this home upon the Jews, "Ye denied the Holy One and the Just, and desired a murderer to be granted unto you
Pur, Purim - ' Haman cast lots to find an auspicious day for the destruction of the Jews. The feast is still kept by the Jews: the Book of Esther is read, and curses are pronounced on Haman and on his wife; and blessings on Mordecai, and on Harbonah
Kiss - It was also in ordinary use among the Jews; hence Judas in this way saluted his Master. The Jews called it the kiss of majesty
Cyrene - In profane writers, it is mentioned as the birthplace of Eratosthenes the mathematician, and Callimachus the poet; and in holy writ, of Simon, whom the Jews compelled to bear our Saviour's cross, Matthew 27:32 ; Luke 23:26 . At Cyrene resided many Jews, a great part of whom embraced the Christian religion; but others opposed it with much obstinacy
Thessalonica - On his second missionary journey, Paul preached in the synagogue here, the chief synagogue of the Jews in that part of Macedonia, and laid the foundations of a church (Acts 17:1-4 ; 1 Thessalonians 1:9 ). The violence of the Jews drove him from the city, when he fled to Berea (Acts 17:5-10 ). The "rulers of the city" before whom the Jews "drew Jason," with whom Paul and Silas lodged, are in the original called politarchai, an unusual word, which was found, however, inscribed on an arch in Thessalonica
Magi - They had come from the East, and inquired for one who was born King of the Jews, for they had seen His star in the East, and had come with their gifts to do Him homage. How the magi connected the star with 'the King of the Jews' is not known. By the scattering of the Jews they may have heard of the prophecy of Balaam (Numbers 24:17 ) or of Daniel's prophecy
Greeks, Grecians - -speaking Jews (RV [6] ‘ Grecian Jews ’). Were those to whom the men of Cyprus and Cyrene preached, Grecians or Greeks? In other words, were they Jews or Gentiles? The weight of MS authority is in favour of ‘Grecians,’ but it is held by many that internal evidence necessitates ‘Greeks
Gentiles - Ἕλλην (in plural) is translated 'Gentiles' in John 7:35 ; Romans 2:9,10 ; Romans 3:9 ; 1 Corinthians 10:32 ; 1 Corinthians 12:13 , in contrast to the Jews; but would be better translated 'Greeks,' as it is in most places. ...
God had raised a wall between the Jews and the Gentiles, which in Christ's death was broken down for believers, "to make in himself of twain one new man. This does not touch unbelieving Jews and Gentiles, who are kept separate in God's present and future dealings
Zerubbabel or Zorobabel - Zerubbabel, as his name imports, was born in Babylon, and was the leader of the first colony of Jews which returned from the Babylonish captivity, 536 B. He is always named first, as being chief of the Jews that returned to their own country, Ezra 2:2 3:8 5:2 Haggai 1:1 2:1-9,21-23 . ...
When the Samaritans offered to assist in rebuilding the temple, Zerubbabel and the principal men of Judah refused them this honor, since Cyrus had granted his commission to the Jews only, Ezra 4:2,3
Festus, Portius - To oblige the Jews, Felix, when he resigned his government, left Paul in bonds at Caesarea in Palestine, Acts 24:27 ; and when Festus arrived, he was entreated by the principal Jews to condemn the apostle, or to order him up to Jerusalem-they having conspired to assassinate him in the way. But Paul appealed to Caesar; and so secured himself from the prosecution of the Jews, and the intentions of Festus
Circumcision - The biblical notice of the rite describes it as distinctively Jewish; so that in the New Testament "the circumcision" and "the uncircumcision" are frequently used as synonyms for the Jews and the Gentiles. Though Mohammed did not enjoin circumcision in the Koran, he was circumcised himself, according to the custom of his country; and circumcision is now as common among the Mohammedans as among the Jews. Some of the Jews in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, wishing to assimilate themselves to the heathen around them, "made themselves uncircumcised
Purim - ) From a Persian word, "lots"; because Haman had east lots to find an auspicious day for destroying the Jews (Esther 3:6-7; Esther 9:24). An introductory fast was subsequently appointed on the 13th, commemorating that of Esther and of the Jews by her desire before she ventured into Abasuerus' presence (Esther 4:16). The feast began among the Jews of their own accord; Mordecai wrote confirming it, and Esther joined with him in "writing with all authority to confirm this second letter of Purlin. "...
(See JESUS CHRIST on "the feast of the Jews," John 5:1, not probably Purim (which the Vaticanus and the Alexandrinus manuscripts reading, "a," favors), but the Passover (which the Sinaiticus manuscript, "the," indicates)
Diaspora - The scattering of the Jews from the land of Palestine into other parts of the world and the Jews thus scattered. ...
Adding to this impulse to leave Palestine was the good reception the Jews generally received in other lands. ...
The result of the diaspora was that by New Testament times as many Jews lived outside of Palestine as lived within the land
Ahava - A town in Chaldea, which gave name to the stream on the banks of which exiled Jews assembled their second caravan under Ezra, when returning to Jerusalem, Ezra 8:15,21,31
Azekah - A town in the tribe of Judah, about fifteen miles south-west of Jerusalem; mentioned in the narratives of Joshua and Saul, Joshua 10:10 ; 1 Samuel 17:1 ; taken by Nebuchadnezzar, Jeremiah 34:7 , but afterwards repeopled by the Jews, Nehemiah 11:30
Astrologer - It was positively forbidden to the Jews (Deuteronomy 4:19 ; 18:10 ; Isaiah 47:13 )
Judaism - (jyoo' day ihssm) The religion and way of life of the people of Judah, the Jews
Postexilic - During this period the Jews returned to Jerusalem and Palestine to rebuild what the Assyrians and Babylonians had destroyed
Circumcision - ) The Jews, as a circumcised people
Beth-Pelet - After the return from Exile in Babylon, the Jews lived there (Nehemiah 11:26 )
Pur - PUR, PURIM...
Feasts of the Jews, so called, Esther 3:7
Shekinah - ) The visible majesty of the Divine Presence, especially when resting or dwelling between the cherubim on the mercy seat, in the Tabernacle, or in the Temple of Solomon; - a term used in the Targums and by the later Jews, and adopted by Christians
Glean - The Jews were not allowed to glean their fields, but were to leave this to the poor, Leviticus 19:10 ; Leviticus 23:22 ; Deuteronomy 24:21 ; Ruth 2:3
Sabbath - On this day the Jews were obliged to attend services in the synagogue, and refrain from all kinds of work, because God had finished the work of creation and rested on this day
Zadok - The son of Ahitub, and father of Ahimaaz, high-priest of the Jews in the reigns of Saul and David
e'li, e'li, Lama Sabachthani - , is the Syro-Chaldaic (the common language in use by the Jews in the time of Christ) of the first words of the twenty-second Psalm; they mean "My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?"
Mint - This name occurs only in (Matthew 23:23 ) and Luke 11:42 As one of those herbs the tithe of which the Jews were most scrupulously exact in paying
Jushab Hesed - ("loving kindness is returned") (The name expressing the gratitude to God of pious Jews at the return from Babylon: 1 Chronicles 3:20
Judaism - the religious doctrines and rites of the Jews, the descendants of Abraham. The Mosiac dispensation consisted of three parts; the religious faith and worship of the Jews, their civil polity, and precepts for the regulation of their moral conduct. The laws of the Jews, religious and moral, civil, political, and ritual, that is, a complete system of pure Judaism, are contained in the books of the Old Testament, and chiefly in the five books of Moses . ...
The religion of the ancestors of the Jews, before the time of Moses, consisted in the worship of the one living and true God, under whose immediate direction they were; in the hope of a Redeemer; in a firm reliance on his promises under all difficulties and dangers; and in a thankful acknowledgment for all his blessings and deliverances. Notwithstanding God's prophets, and oracles, and ordinances, and the symbol of his presence, were among them, the Jews were ever very prone to idolatry, till the Babylonish furnace served to purify them from that corruption. See Jews
Example - Of Christ (1 Peter 2:21 ; John 13:15 ); of pastors to their flocks (Philippians 3:17 ; 2 th 3:9 ; 1 Timothy 4:12 ; 1 Peter 5:3 ); of the Jews as a warning (Hebrews 4:11 ); of the prophets as suffering affliction (James 5:10 )
Marcheshvan - The post-biblical name of the month which was the eighth of the sacred and the second of the civil year of the Jews
Cabbala - A Hebrew word, signifying tradition: it is used for a mysterious kind of science pretended to have been delivered by revelation to the ancient Jews, and transmitted by oral tradition to those of our times; serving for interpretation of the books both of nature and Scripture
Rabbi - My master, a title of dignity given by the Jews to their doctors of the law and their distinguished teachers
Date - Palm branches were carried by the Jews on festive occasions, and especially at the feast of Tabernacles (Leviticus 23:40 ; Nehemiah 8:15 )
Dulcimer - ) An ancient musical instrument in use among the Jews
Hare - Of the same genus as the rabbit, prohibited to the Jews for food, Leviticus 11:6 , because, though it "cheweth the cud," it "divideth not the hoof
Anti'Ochus - (an opponent ), the name of a number of kings of Syria who lived during the interval between the Old and New Testaments, and had frequent connection with the Jews during that period
Kab'ze-el - (2 Samuel 23:20 ; 1 Chronicles 11:22 ) After the captivity it was reinhabited by the Jews, and appears as Jekabzeel
Amphipolis - Their not staying there may have been because there were few, if any, Jews in it: and they hastened on to Thessalonica, "where was a synagogue of Jews," affording the suitable starting point for a Christian church
Palmer Worm - The Jews support this idea by deriving the word from גוז or גזן , to cut, to shear, or mince, Notwithstanding the unanimous sentiments of the Jews that this is a locust, yet the LXX read καμπη , and the Vulgate eruca, "a caterpillar;" which rendering is supported by Fuller
he'Brew - ( Genesis 10:24 ) The term Israelite was used by the Jews of themselves among themselves; the term Hebrew was the name by which they were known to foreigners. The latter was accepted by the Jews in their external relations; and after the general substitution of the word Jew, it still found a place in that marked and special feature of national contradistinction, the language
Claudius - He put an end to the dispute which had for some time existed between the Jews of Alexandria and the other freemen of that city, and confirmed the Jews in the possession of their right of freedom, which they had enjoyed from the beginning, and every where maintained them in the free exercise of their religion. Claudius, in the ninth year of his reign, published an edict for expelling all Jews out of Rome, Acts 18:2 . It is very probable that the Christians, who were at that time confounded with the Jews, were banished likewise. He however neither condemned Paul, nor set him at liberty, when the Jews accused him; but adjourned the determination of this affair till the arrival of Lysias, who commanded the troops at Jerusalem, where he had taken Paul into custody, and who was expected at Cesarea, Acts 23:26-27 , &c; Acts 24:1-3 , &c. He farther detained him two years at Cesarea, in compliance with the wishes of the Jews, and in order to do something to propitiate them, because they were extremely dissatisfied with his government. 60; and many Jews going thither to complain of the extortions and violence committed by him in Judea, he would have been put to death, if his brother Pallas, who had been Claudius's slave, and was now his freedman, had not preserved him
Esther - ...
Mordecai, refusing to bow to Haman the Agagite, roused the wrath of the latter, who procured an edict for the destruction on a certain day of all the Jews in the empire. She therefore called all the Jews in Shushan to fast with her three days and nights, saying she would go in to the king unbidden, and if she perished she perished. Esther had again to endanger her life by appearing before the king unbidden; but again the king received her graciously and gave her the desired authority to rescue the Jews from their threatened calamity: they were allowed to defend themselves when attacked by their enemies. This gave the Jews great advantage, for the provincial rulers all stood in fear of Mordecai. When the appointed day arrived, instead of the Jews being destroyed, they were able, not only to defend themselves, but avenge themselves on their enemies, ending with a day of feasting and gladness
Sheet - Such a cloth held all the clean and unclean animals in the vision that taught Peter that God loved and offered salvation to people who were not Jews (Acts 10:11 ; Acts 11:5 )
Formation - �formation�); the third of the four spiritual worlds, the realm of spiritual existence in which the limited nature of the created beings takes on form and definition; the abode of the lower classes of angelic beings and of the souls of ordinary Jews ...
Gortyna - It is named ( 1Ma 15:23 ) among the autonomous States and communes to which were sent copies of the decree of the Roman Senate in favour of the Jews
Mishkan - The (Tabernacle): a) the tabernacle or temporary Sanctuary in which the Divine Presence dwelled during the Jews� journeys through the desert; b) the portion of the tabernacle and the Temple building before the Holy of Holies which contained the inner altar, the table for the showbread, and the menorah ...
Cappadocia - Visitors from thence were at Jerusalem at the feast of Pentecost, and Peter includes this district when he addresses his first Epistle to the dispersed Jews
Pathros - Place situate in Egypt, probably a part of Upper Egypt, where there were many Jews who set Jeremiah at defiance
Ahava - (ay' hay' vuh) River in Babylon and town located beside the river where Ezra assembled Jews to return to Jerusalem from Exile (Ezra 8:15 ,Ezra 8:15,8:21 ,Ezra 8:21,8:31 )
Alexandrians - It was reasonable, therefore, to expect that Alexandria, where so many Jews dwelt, would have a special synagogue for their worship in Jerusalem
Eglon - A king of Moab, who, with the help of Ammon and Amalek, subdued the southern and eastern tribes of the Jews
Nicolas - A proselyte of Antioch, that is, one converted from paganism to the religion of the Jews
Christs, False - One of them named Coziba lived within followers, and occasioned the death of more than half a million of Jews
Fat - The Jews were forbidden to eat either, Leviticus 3:16,17 ; 7:23-27
be-el'Zebul - (lord of the house ), the title of a heathen deity, to whom the Jews ascribed the sovereignty of the evil spirits; Satan, the prince of the devils
Battlement - Among the Jews a battlement was required by law to be built upon every house
Galileans - (Acts 1:11 ) It appears also that the pronunciation of those Jews who resided in Galilee had become peculiar, probably from their contact with their Gentile neighbors
Septuagint Chronology - Kennicott, in the dissertation prefixed to his Hebrew Bible, has shown it to be very probable that the chronology of the Hebrew Scriptures, since the period just mentioned, was corrupted by the Jews between the years 175 and 200; and that the chronology of the Septuagint is more agreeable to truth. It is a fact, that during the second and third centuries, the Hebrew Scriptures were almost entirely in the hands of the Jews, while the Septuagint was confined to the Christians. The Jews had, therefore, a very favourable opportunity for this corruption
Septuagint Chronology - Kennicott, in the dissertation prefixed to his Hebrew Bible, has shown it to be very probable, that the chronology of the Hebrew Scriptures, since the period just mentioned, was corrupted by the Jews between A. It is a fact, that, during the second and third centuries, the Hebrew Scriptures were almost entirely in the hands of the Jews, while the Septuagint was confined to the Christians. The Jews had, therefore, a very favourable opportunity for this corruption
Jew, Jewess - The Jews themselves divided the whole world into Jews and Gentiles; and we find the Apostle Paul using this contrast in speaking of God’s judgment on sin: ‘tribulation and anguish, upon every soul of man that doeth evil, of the Jew first, and also of the Gentile’ (Romans 2:9). Again the term is used in contrasting Jews and Samaritans (John 4:9), the latter being descended from the mixed race of ancient Israelites and the settlers introduced by the Assyrian conquerors (cf. In the Fourth Gospel we find the term ‘Jews’ applied to those who opposed the teaching of Jesus, as contrasted with believers in Christ, whatever their nationality might be; but generally the Jewish rulers seem to be indicated by the name in this Gospel. Thus ‘the Jews’ censure the man for carrying his bed on the Sabbath (Acts 5:10), and contend with the man born blind (Acts 9:22). Perhaps this usage of the Fourth Gospel arose from the influence of later times, when the Jews, and especially the Jewish authorities, were bitterly opposed to the teaching of Jesus. Thus in Galatians 2:13 ‘the Jews’ are the Christians of Jewish race. In the passage where the writer of the Apocalypse (Revelation 2:9; Revelation 3:9) speaks of those ‘who say they are Jews, and are not, but are the synagogue of Satan,’ he may be referring to men who made a false claim to belong to the Jewish nation, or to Jews by race who were far from belonging to the true Israel of God. ...
One of the most remarkable features in connexion with the Jews in the apostolic times was their world-wide dispersion. From Spain in the West to the Persian Gulf in the East Jews had settled in every large city. Probably, however, the popular hatred of the Jews, which was always smouldering and ready to burst forth at any moment among the excitable populace, was one of the first causes of Christian persecution, as it took some considerable time before Christianity was fully recognized as an independent religion. The Jews themselves became the most persistent and implacable persecutors of the Christians. Probably the expulsion of the Jews from Rome by Claudius (Acts 18:2) was the result of dissensions regarding the new religion, which had sprung from Judaism and threatened to overwhelm it. ...
In Rome, as well as in many other cities of the Empire, Jews obtained considerable influence, in spite of the popular aversion to them. Jews, and especially Jewesses, were to be found in many prominent Roman families, and intermarriage between Jewish women and Gentiles was by no means uncommon. Milman, History of the Jews3, 1863; J
Gallio - " How exactly and undesignedly this independent testimony coincides with Acts 18:12-17!...
The Jews plotted to destroy Paul by bringing him before Gallio's judgment seat. But he was not to be entrapped into persecuting Christians by the Jews' spiteful maneuver: "if it were a matter of wrong or wicked lewdness, O ye Jews," said he without waiting even to hear Paul's defense, just as the apostle was about to open his mouth, "reason would that I should bear with you; but since it is (Greek) a question of word and names (namely, whether Jesus is the Christ) and your law, look ye to it; for I will be no judge of such matters. " So the Greeks, sympathizing with the deputy's disgust at the Jews' intolerance, beat Sosthenes the chief ruler of the Jews' synagogue "before the judgment seat. "...
"Gallio cared for none of these things" does not mean he was careless about the thirsts of God (that probably he was from his easy Epicurean-like temper), but with characteristic indifference to an outbreak provoked by the spite of the Jews he took no notice of the assault
Hanes - A place in Egypt mentioned only in Isaiah 30:4 in connection with a reproof given to the Jews for trusting in Egypt
Theatre - Theatres, as places of amusement, were unknown to the Jews
Barren - For a woman to be barren was accounted a severe punishment among the Jews (Genesis 16:2 ; 30:1-23 ; 1 Samuel 1:6,27 ; Isaiah 47:9 ; 49:21 ; Luke 1:25 )
Haman - He plotted to annihilate the Jews, but was thwarted by Mordecai and Esther
Yetzirah - �formation�); the third of the four spiritual worlds, the realm of spiritual existence in which the limited nature of the created beings takes on form and definition; the abode of the lower classes of angelic beings and of the souls of ordinary Jews ...
Hobah - The Muslims point out Burzeh, 33 32' N, 36 8' E , as the ancient Hobah; but the Jews prefer Jobar , about two miles N
Adin - Ancestor of Jews who returned from Exile with Zerubbabel and Joshua (Ezra 2:15 ; Nehemiah 7:20 )
Concision - Hence, In scripture, the Jews or those who adhered to circumcision, which, after our Saviors death, was no longer a seal of the covenant, but a mere cutting of the flesh
Diaspora - Biblically, it refers to the dispersion of the Jews outside of Israel from the time of the Babylonian Captivity until now
Bier - 1: σορός (Strong's #4673 — Noun Feminine — soros — sor-os' ) originally denoted a receptacle for containing the bones of the dead, "a cinerary urn;" then "a coffin," Genesis 50:26 ; Job 21:32 ; then, "the funeral couch of bier" on which the Jews bore their dead to burial, Luke 7:14
Tiberias - 2,3) that to build Tiberias many tombs had to be taken away, which made it ceremonially an unclean place, so that no Jews would live there except those who were compelled, and others who were bribed by the founder. In later days, however, along with Jerusalem, Hebron, and Safed, Tiberias was classed by the Jews as one of their four holy cities, renowned as seats of learning
Hassideans - Or ASSIDEANS, those Jews who resorted to Mattathias, to fight for the laws of God and the liberties of their country. For, after the return of the Jews from the Babylonish captivity, there were two sorts of men in their church; those who contented themselves with that obedience only which was prescribed by the law of Moses, and who were called Zadikin, 1:e
Abba - In the Gemara (a Rabbinical commentary on the Mishna, the traditional teaching of the Jews) it is stated that slaves were forbidden to address the head of the family by this title. This is probably due to the fact that, abba having practically become a proper name, Greek-speaking Jews added the Greek word pater, "father," from the language they used
Dionysus - His worship was widely disseminated over Greek lands, and it was assumed that the Jews would have no objection to it ( 2Ma 6:7 ; 2Ma 14:33 ). Ptolemy Philopator also attempted to force the worship of Dionysus, the god of his family, upon the Jews ( 3Ma 2:29 )
Samaritans - an ancient sect among the Jews, still subsisting in some parts of the Levant, under the same name. ...
Upon the return of the Jews from the Babylonish captivity, and the rebuilding of Jerusalem and the temple, the religion of the Samaritans received another alteration on the following occasion; one of the sons of Jehoiada, the high priest, whom Josephus calls Manasseh, married the daughter of Sanballat the Horonite; but the law of God having forbidden the intermarriages of the Israelites with any other nation, Nehemiah set himself to reform this corruption, which had spread into many Jewish families, and obliged all that had taken strange wives immediately to part with them, Nehemiah 13:23-30 . Manasseh brought with him some other apostate priests, with many other Jews, who disliked the regulations made by Nehemiah at Jerusalem; and now the Samaritans, having obtained a high priest, and other priests of the descendants from Aaron, were soon brought off from the worship of the false gods, and became as much enemies to idolatry as the best of the Jews. From that time the worship of the Samaritans came much nearer to that of the Jews, and they afterward obtained leave of Alexander the Great to build a temple on Mount Gerizim, near the city of Samaria, in imitation of the temple at Jerusalem, where they practised the same forms of worship. The Samaritans soon after revolted from Alexander, who drove them out of Samaria, introduced Macedonians in their room, and gave the province of Samaria to the Jews. When the affairs of the Jews were prosperous, the Samaritans did not fail to call themselves Hebrews, and of the race of Abraham. But when the Jews suffered persecution, the Samaritans disowned them, and alleged that they were Phenicians originally, or descended from Joseph, or Manasseh his son. It is certain, the modern Samaritans are far from idolatry; some of the most learned among the Jewish doctors own, that they observe the law of Moses more rigidly than the Jews themselves. They have a Hebrew copy of the Pentateuch, differing in some respects from that of the Jews; and written in different characters, commonly called Samaritan characters; which Origen, Jerom, and other fathers and critics, ancient and modern, take to be the primitive character of the ancient Hebrews, though others maintain the contrary. They add farther, that they never defer circumcision beyond the eighth day; never marry their nieces, as the Jews do; have but one wife; and, in fine, do nothing but what is commanded in the law; whereas the Jews frequently abandon the law to follow the inventions of their rabbins. At the time when they wrote to Scaliger, they reckoned one hundred and twenty-two high priests; affirmed that the Jews had no high priests of the race of Phinehas; and that the Jews belied them in calling them Cutheans; for that they are descended from the tribe of Joseph by Ephraim
Sanhedrim - ) to denote the supreme judicial and administrative council of the Jews, which, it is said, was first instituted by Moses, and was composed of seventy men (Numbers 11:16,17 ). This council is with greater probability supposed to have originated among the Jews when they were under the domination of the Syrian kings in the time of the Maccabees. As the highest court of judicature, "in all causes and over all persons, ecclesiastical and civil, supreme," its decrees were binding, not only on the Jews in Palestine, but on all Jews wherever scattered abroad
Genealogy - " No nation was ever more careful to preserve their genealogies than the Jews. Wherever placed, the Jews were particularly careful not to marry below themselves; and to prevent this, they kept tables of genealogy in their several families, the originals of which were lodged at Jerusalem, to be occasionally consulted. But to this the Jews reply, that either Elias, or some other inspired priest or prophet, shall come, and restore their genealogical tables before the Messiah's appearance; a tradition, which they ground on a passage in Nehemiah 7:64-65 , to this effect: the genealogical register of the families of certain priests being lost, they were not able to make out their lineal descent from Aaron; and therefore, "as polluted, were put from the priesthood;" the "Tirshatha said unto them, that they should not eat of the most holy things till there stood up a priest with Urim and Thummim. " From hence the Jews conclude, that such a priest will stand up, and restore and complete the genealogies of their families: though others suppose these words to import, that they should never exercise their priesthood any more; and that, "till there shall stand up a priest with Urim and Thummim," amounts to the same as the Roman proverb, ad Graecas calendas, [1] since the Urim and Thummim were now absolutely and for ever lost
Hazar-Shual - Jews returning from Exile in Babylon lived there (Nehemiah 11:27 )
Shethar-Bozenai - ” Persian provincial official who questioned Zerubbabel's right to begin rebuilding the Temple (Ezra 5:3 ,Ezra 5:3,5:6 ) but responded to King Darius' answer by helping the Jews build (Ezra 6:13 )
Pathros - After the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, colonies of Jews settled "in the country of Pathros" and other parts of Egypt
Altar, Stripping of the - A ceremony which takes place on Holy Thursday symbolizing the moment in the Passion of Christ when He was stripped of His garments by the Jews
Cage - It is said symbolically that as a cage or trap is full of birds, so the houses of the Jews were full of deceit
Parthians - Some Jews from thence were present in Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost
Garlic - The familiar Allium sativum , still a very great favourite in Palestine, especially with the Jews
Seraiah - " He bore to the Jews in Babylon a message from the prophet Jeremiah
Coal - Mineral coal is now procured in mount Lebanon, eight hours from Beirut; but we have no certainty that it was known and used by the Jews
Jailer - The conversion of the Roman jailer, a man belonging to a class "insensible as a rule and hardened by habit, and also disposed to despise the Jews, who were the bearers of the message of the gospel," is one of those cases which illustrate its universality and power
Calf - The calf was held in high esteem by the Jews as food
Grecian - In the New Testament this refers to Jews who had adopted the Greek culture and language
Mount of Evil Counsel - Tradition of the 12th century says that Caiphas here owned a house in which the Jews held their first meeting to take counsel against Jesus and "prophesied that Jesus should die for the nation" (John 11)
Demetrius Nikator - , but was forced by Jonathan Machabeus to release the Jews from taxation and to increase their territory
Vagabond - ]'>[1] Acts 19:12 ‘certain of the vagabond Jews,’ RV Pannag - RSV, "perhaps a kind of confection") the Jews explain as the name of a kind of sweet pastry
Gaonim - During this period, many decrees were passed, thousands of responsa were sent to Jews throughout the civilized world of the time, and many important books were compiled
Hem - The Jews attached much importance to these, because of the regulations in Numbers 15:38,39
Rite - ) For the rites of the Jews, see Lowman's Hebrew Ritual; Spencer de Heb
Azekah - It was one of the places re-occupied by the Jews on their return from the Captivity (Nehemiah 11:30 )
Gishpa - It does not appear in the lists in Chronicles and Ezra, so some Bible students think the name is a copyist's change from Hasupha, which the Jews would pronounce similarly (Ezra 2:43 ; Nehemiah 7:46 )
Nikator, Demetrius - , but was forced by Jonathan Machabeus to release the Jews from taxation and to increase their territory
Passover - ) A feast of the Jews, instituted to commemorate the sparing of the Hebrews in Egypt, when God, smiting the firstborn of the Egyptians, passed over the houses of the Israelites which were marked with the blood of a lamb
Frankincense - The frankincense of the ancient Jews is still unidentified
Entile - ) Belonging to the nations at large, as distinguished from the Jews; ethnic; of pagan or heathen people
Evil Counsel, Mount of - Tradition of the 12th century says that Caiphas here owned a house in which the Jews held their first meeting to take counsel against Jesus and "prophesied that Jesus should die for the nation" (John 11)
Adytum - The adytum of the Greeks and Romans answered to the sanctum sanctorum of the Jews, and was the place from whence oracles were delivered
Cos, - This small island of the Grecian Archipelago has several interesting points of connection with the Jews
Madness - In one passage alone, (John 10:20 ) is madness expressly connected with demoniacal possession by the Jews in their cavil against our Lord; in none is it referred to any physical causes
Jehohanan - ...
...
The son of Tobiah, an enemy of the Jews (Nehemiah 6:18 )
Scourge - The punishment of scourging was very common among the Jews. The Jews afterwards, in order to avoid in any case exceeding forty, and thus breaking the law, were accustomed to give only thirty-nine stripes, or thirteen blows with a scourge of three thongs. ...
Paul informs us, 2 Corinthians 11:24 , that at five different times he received thirty-nine stripes from the Jews; and in the next verse, shoes that correction with rods was different from that with a whip; for he says, "Thrice was I beaten with rods
Esther - By her influence the plot of Haman to destroy the Jews was frustrated. The Jews revenged themselves on their foes, and Mordecai was advanced to a high place in the empire
Alexander - The Jews put him forward to plead their cause before the mob. It was probably intended that he should show that he and the other Jews had no sympathy with Paul any more than the Ephesians had
Jason - (Ἰάσων)...
Jason is a Greek name, often adopted by Jews of the Dispersion, sometimes as not unlike the names Joseph or Joshua. fellow-Jews or perhaps members of the same tribe
Tradition - Among the Jews, they had certain sayings and opinions supposed to be received from the earliest fathers, and handed down from one generation to another, which they called traditions. ) It were to be devoutly wished that the weakness, and in some instances the wickedness, of traditions had ceased with Jews and Christians
Generation - In a much wider sense, as when the Lord said of the unbelieving Jews, "This generation shall not pass away till all these things be fulfilled. The unbelieving Jews still exist and will until the events take place
Tribulation - These verses refer to a great tribulation that shall fall upon the Jews in a future day: cf. In Revelation 7:14 a great multitude is referred to that have come out of the great tribulation, but these are from the nations, hence this tribulation is not the same as that which will fall specially on the Jews, though both may take place at the same time
Swine - One of the animals classed among the unclean, and which is supposed to have been held in abhorrence as food by the Jews. It is not recorded whether the Gadarenes were Jews or Gentiles, who lost their swine by the demons' possession of them
Scourge - This punishment was very common among the Jews, Deuteronomy 25:1-3 . Paul informs us, that at five different times he received thirty-nine stripes from the Jews, 2 Corinthians 11:24 , namely, in their synagogues, and before their courts of judgment
Circumcision - The biblical notice of the rite describes it as distinctively Jewish; so that in the New Testament "the circumcision" and "the uncircumcision" are frequently used as synonyms for the Jews and the Gentiles. Some of the Jews in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, wishing to assimilate themselves to the heathen around them, "made themselves uncircumcised
Schoolmaster - ...
Little is known respecting the schools of the Jews, nor when and how far they took the place of domestic instruction, Deuteronomy 6:7-9 11:18-20 . At the time of Christ, it would appear that the Jews in general were able at least to read and write
Libertines - It is, however, most probable that this word denotes Jews who had been taken captive by the Romans in war, and carried to Italy; and having there been manumitted, were accustomed to visit Jerusalem in such numbers as to erect a synagogue for their particular use; as was the case with Jews from other cities mentioned in the context
Harp - Hebrew KINNOR, the most ancient and common stringed instrument of the Jews, more properly translated lyre. The Jews had other stringed instruments, like the guitar and lute, but little can be accurately determined respecting their form, etc
Grecians Greeks - ...
The term ‘Grecians’ (Ἑλληνισταί), on the other hand (Acts 6:1; Acts 9:29), is applied to Greek-speaking Jews as opposed to the Jews of Palestine, who spoke Aramaic and are designated Hebrews. In Alexandria in particular a great number had settled, but in all the cities of the West, in all the centres of trade, Jews found a home. They were free from the narrowness and provincialism of the native Jews of Palestine, and the message of the Christian missionaries found much more willing hearers among this class than among the prejudiced and exclusive Palestine Jews. Are we to read here ‘Grecians’ or ‘Greeks’? Were those to whom the men of Cyprus and Cyrene preached Jews or Gentiles, Grecians or Greeks? Internal evidence and the mass of manuscript authority seem to conflict
Grecians Greeks - ...
The term ‘Grecians’ (Ἑλληνισταί), on the other hand (Acts 6:1; Acts 9:29), is applied to Greek-speaking Jews as opposed to the Jews of Palestine, who spoke Aramaic and are designated Hebrews. In Alexandria in particular a great number had settled, but in all the cities of the West, in all the centres of trade, Jews found a home. They were free from the narrowness and provincialism of the native Jews of Palestine, and the message of the Christian missionaries found much more willing hearers among this class than among the prejudiced and exclusive Palestine Jews. Are we to read here ‘Grecians’ or ‘Greeks’? Were those to whom the men of Cyprus and Cyrene preached Jews or Gentiles, Grecians or Greeks? Internal evidence and the mass of manuscript authority seem to conflict
Abba - When the Jews came to speak Greek, this word may have been retained from their ancient language, as being easier to pronounce, especially for children, than the Greek pater
Onolatry - Onolatry (ass-worship) was attributed by Roman writers to the Jews and later to the Christians
Noadiah - ...
...
A false prophetess who assisted Tobiah and Sanballat against the Jews (Nehemiah 6:14 )
Birth-Day - There is no recorded instance in Scripture of the celebration of birth-days among the Jews
Drink - ...
The Jews carefully strained their drinks through a sieve, through fear of violating the law of Leviticus 11:20,23,41,42
Desolation, Abomination of - (Matthew 24:15 ; Mark 13:14 ; Compare Luke 21:20 ), is interpreted of the eagles, the standards of the Roman army, which were an abomination to the Jews
Tradition - Thus the Jews pretended that, besides their written law contained in the Old Testament, Moses had delivered an oral law, which had been conveyed down from father to son; and thus the Roman Catholics are said to value particular doctrines, supposed to have descended from the apostolic times by tradition
Salome alexandra - After her second husband's death, she ruled for nine years, during which the Jews prospered both politically and spiritually
Shalomtzion - After her second husband's death, she ruled for nine years, during which the Jews prospered both politically and spiritually
Diaspora - " - applied collectively: (a) To those Jews who, after the Exile, were scattered through the Old World, and afterwards to Jewish Christians living among heathen
Caria - of Asia Minor) is mentioned only in 1Ma 15:23 as one of the districts to which the Roman Senate sent a letter in favour of the Jews in b
R. leib sarah's - One of the "hidden righteous," he spent his life wandering from place to place to raise money for the ransoming of imprisoned Jews
Penny, - The Lord when answering the Jews said "Show me a penny
Dispersion - ) The act or process of scattering or dispersing, or the state of being scattered or separated; as, the Jews in their dispersion retained their rites and ceremonies; a great dispersion of the human family took place at the building of Babel
Ass in Caricature of Christian Beliefs And Practic - Onolatry (ass-worship) was attributed by Roman writers to the Jews and later to the Christians
Ass Worship - Onolatry (ass-worship) was attributed by Roman writers to the Jews and later to the Christians
High Priest - The chief priest of the Jews, whose special duties were to officiate on the Day of Atonement, preside over the court of judgment, and consult the Divine oracle; his office was usually for life
Antioch in Pisidia - Paul's labour here was so successful that it roused the opposition of the Jews and he was driven to Iconium and Lystra; but he returned with Silas
Banded - : (Strong's # — — — ) Acts 23:12 , of the Jews who "banded together" with the intention of killing Paul, consists of the verb poieo, "to make," and the noun sustrophe, primarily "a twisting up together, a binding together;" then, "a secret combination, a conspiracy
Shem - The Jews are his descendants, and, besides, there are the Aramæans, Persians, Assyrians, and Arabians
Booth - The great feast of tabernacles, or booths, had its name from the circumstance that the Jews were directed by their law to dwell in booths during the seen days of this feast, Leviticus 23:40-42 ; Nehemiah 8:14
Passover - A feast of the Jews, instituted to commemorate the providential escape of the Hebrews, in Egypt, when God smiting the first-born of the Egyptians, passed over the houses of the Israelites, which were marked with the blood of the paschal lamb
Hosanna - This was also a customary acclamation at the joyful feast of tabernacles, in which the Jews repeated Psalm 118:25,26
Gen'Tiles - All the people who were not Jews were so called by them, being aliens from the worship, rites and privileges of Israel
Jason - The Jews assaulted his house in order to seize Paul, but failing to find him, they dragged Jason before the ruler of the city (Acts 17:5-9 )
Aelia Capitolina - He refused to let any Jews enter the city and sought to stamp out the very name of Jerusalem
Messiah - He was one of those banditti that infested Judea, and committed all kinds of violence against the Romans; and had become so powerful that he was chosen king of the Jews, and by them acknowledged their messiah. The Jews themselves allow, that, during this short war against the Romans in defence of this false messiah, they lost five or six hundred thousand souls. He pretended to be a second Moses, sent to deliver the Jews who dwelt in Crete, and promised to divide the sea, and give them a safe passage through it. The Jews and Samaritans rebelled against the Emperor Justinian, A. A false messiah stirred up the Jews at Corduba in Spain, A. The wiser and better sort looked upon him as a madman, but the great body of the Jews in the nation believed in him. On this occasion nearly all the Jews in Spain were destroyed. 1167, which brought great troubles and persecutions upon the Jews that were scattered throughout that country. 1174, who seduced many of the common people, and brought the Jews into great tribulation. He pretended he could make himself invisible; but he was soon taken and put to death, and a heavy fine laid upon the Jews. Vast numbers of the Jews were butchered for taking part with this impostor. 1615, and was greatly followed by the Portuguese Jews who are scattered over that country. He was born at Aleppo, and imposed on the Jews for a considerable time; but afterward, with a view of saving his life, he turned Mohammedan, and was at last beheaded
Maccabees - After the expulsion of Antiochus Epiphanes from Egypt by the Romans, he gave vent to his indignation on the Jews, great numbers of whom he mercilessly put to death in Jerusalem. 166) as the leader in directing the war of independence, which was carried on with great heroism on the part of the Jews, and was terminated in the defeat of the Syrians
Man, Son of - It was regarded by the Jews as messianic, and hence by applying it to Himself Our Lord to all appearances claimed to be the Messias; on the other hand, it did not bear that sinister anti-Roman meaning which the Jews had then given to other messianic titles
Hour - The Jews, during the Captivity, learned also from the Babylonians this method of dividing time. When Judea became subject to the Romans, the Jews adopted the Roman mode of reckoning time
Felix - 60), who proceeded to Rome, and was there accused of cruelty and malversation of office by the Jews of Caesarea. When Felix gave place to Festus, being "willing to do the Jews a pleasure," he left Paul bound
Washing - The Jews, like other Orientals, used their fingers when taking food, and therefore washed their hands before doing so, for the sake of cleanliness. Moses had commanded washings oft, but always for some definite cause; but the Jews multiplied the legal observance till they formed a large body of precepts
Galileans - A sect of the Jews which arose in Judea some years after the birth of our Saviour. They pretended that god alone should be owned as master and lord, and in other respects were of the opinion of the Pharisees; but as they judged in unlawful to pray for infidel princes, they separated themselves from the rest of the Jews, and performed their sacrifices apart
Hosanna - " There are divers of these hosannas; the Jews call them hoschamoth, 1: e. The Jews also apply the terms hosanna rabba in a more peculiar manner to the seventh day of the feast of tabernacles, because they apply themselves more immediately on that day to invoke the divine blessing, &c
Gedaliah - Ishmael, however, at the head of a party of the royal family, "Jewish irreconcilables", rose against him, and slew him and "all the Jews that were with him" (Jeremiah 41:2,3 ) at Mizpah about three months after the destruction of Jerusalem. The little remnant of the Jews now fled to Egypt
Beelzebul - The Jews, in ridicule, changed Baalzebub, the Ekronite "god of flies", into Beelzebul, "god of dung" (which however is zebel , as they changed Beth-el ("house of God") into Beth-aven ("house of vanity"), when the golden calf was set up there. As the Ekronite god was applied to by Ahaziah to east, out his disease, so the Jews taunted Jesus as using the same idol power to east out demons
Beard - The mode of wearing it was definitely prescribed to the Jews (Leviticus 19:27 ; 21:5 ). , the agents of an angry providence being used against the guilty nation of the Jews
Usury, - The Jews were forbidden by the law of Moses to take interest from their brethren, but were permitted to take it from foreigners. ) The practice of mortgaging land, sometimes at exorbitant interest, grew up among the Jews during the captivity, in direct violation of the law
Libertines - Acts 7:8 brings the Libertines forward as a group or synagogue amongst the Hellenistic Jews concerned in the prosecution of Stephen. Amongst the Libertines were found many Jews, not a few of them being the descendants of the Jerusalemites, carried away by Pompey
Felix - He showed his mercenary and unrighteous character in keeping Paul a prisoner two years in the hope of being bribed; and then leaving him a prisoner to please the Jews. Eventually he was accused before Nero by the Jews, and only escaped punishment by the intercession of his brother Pallas
Apocrypha - It is used in a general sense to describe a list of books written by Jews between 300,100 B. ...
The books accepted as inspired and included in the Catholic Bible are Tobit, Judith, 1,2Maccabees Wisdom of Solomon Sirach (also known as Ecclesiasticus), and Baruch...
The Jews never recognized these books as being canonical (inspired)
Abraham's Bosom - It was natural for the Jews to represent Abraham as welcoming his righteous descendants to the bliss of heaven. There is no clear evidence that the Jews of Jesus’ day believed in an intermediate state, and it is unsafe to see in the term any reference to such a belief
Appeal to Caesar - When Paul was brought before Festus for trial on charges made against him by Jews from Jerusalem, Festus asked him if he wanted to return to Jerusalem for trial. Paul, fearing the Jews would kill him, asked that his case be heard by the emperor as he had done nothing deserving of death (Acts 25:1-12 )
Appearing of Christ - Also on the Assyrian and the eastern powers that will oppress the Jews. The Jews and the ten tribes will be restored to their land in blessing, ushering in the Millennium
Amulet - They were very frequent among the Jews, the Greeks, and the Romans, and were made of stone, metal, animal substances, or, in short, any thing which a weak imagination suggested. The Jews were very superstitious in the use of amulets, but the Mishna forbids them, unless received from some person of whose cures, at least, three instances could be produced
Trophimus - Paul was in the temple there, the Jews laid hold of him, crying out, "Men of Israel, help; this is the man that teacheth all men every where against the people, and the law, and this place; and farther, brought Greeks also into the temple, and hath polluted this holy place," Acts 21:28-29 . And this they said, because certain Jews of Ephesus having seen Trophimus with St
Captivity - God generally punished the sins and infidelities of the Jews by different captivities or servitudes. Six captivities are reckoned during the government by judges: the first, under Chushanrishathaim, king of Mesopotamia, which continued about eight years; the second, under Eglon, king of Moab, from which the Jews were delivered by Ehud; the third, under the Philistines, from which they were rescued by Shamgar; the fourth, under Jabin, king of Hazor, from which they were delivered by Deborah and Barak; the fifth, under the Midianites, from which Gideon freed them; and the sixth, under the Ammonites and Philistines, during the judicatures of Jephthah, Ibzan, Elon, Abdon, Eli, Samson, and Samuel
Iconium - But he was obliged to flee for his life for a persecution excited by unbelieving Jews, Acts 13:51 14:1-6 . The inhabitants, 40,000 in number, are Turks, Armenians, Greeks, and Jews
Gentiles - Since the promulgation of the gospel, the true religion has been extended to all nations; God, who had promised by his prophets to call the Gentiles to the faith, with a superabundance of grace, having fulfilled his promise; so that the Christian church is composed principally of Gentile converts, the Jews being too proud of their privileges to acknowledge Jesus Christ as their Messiah and Redeemer. , preached generally to the Jews, and are called apostles of the circumcision, Galatians 2:8
Sect - Among the Jews, there were four sects, distinguished by their practices and opinions, yet united in communion with each other and with the body of their nation: namely, the Pharisees, the Sadducees, and the Essenes, and the Herodians. Christianity was originally considered as a new sect of Judaism; hence Tertullus, accusing Paul before Felix, says that he was chief of the seditious sect of the Nazarenes, Acts 24:5 ; and the Jews of Rome said to the apostle, when he arrived in this city, "As concerning this sect, we know that everywhere it is spoken against," Acts 28:22
Son of Man - It was regarded by the Jews as messianic, and hence by applying it to Himself Our Lord to all appearances claimed to be the Messias; on the other hand, it did not bear that sinister anti-Roman meaning which the Jews had then given to other messianic titles
Rabbinism - Only a small remnant of the Jews of the captivity returned. A third element also came into being in the West among the 80 Hellenist Jews who had felt the influence of Greek culture
Clean And Unclean - The Mosaic law was not merely arbitrary, but grounded on reasons connected with animal sacrifices, with health, with the separation of the Jews from other nations, and their practice of moral purity, Leviticus 11:43-45 20:24-26 Deuteronomy 14:2,3,21 . ...
Ceremonial uncleanness was contracted by the Jews in various ways, voluntarily and involuntarily
Blasphemy - Stephen were condemned to death by the Jews. Among the Jews it was a sin against God answering to treason in our times
Hagiography - This word is not used in the Bible, but, nevertheless, as it hath been used by the Jews in a way of distinction concerning certain parts of the word of God in the Old Testament Scripture, it may not be improper to notice it in a work of this kind. The word Hagiography, which means holy writings, is generally applied, by the Jews to all the books of the Old Testament, excepting the Law and the Prophets. The reason of denying that those writings were prophetical is easily seen, because they are so pointed to the person of the Lord Jesus, that when fulfilled in him, as they evidently were, and in such a way as they never could be fulfilled in any other, must have left the Jews without the least excuse, if they confessed them to have been prophetical. The reader will, I hope, clearly understand what is meant by Hagiography in the Scripture, and wherefore the Jews so distinguished them from the five books of Moses and the prophets
Messiah or Messias - Anointed, a title given principally, or by way of eminence, to that sovereign Deliverer promised to the Jews. Cyrus, who founded the empire of the Persians, and who set the Jews at liberty, is called, Isaiah 45:1 , "the anointed of the Lord;" and in Ezekiel 28:14 , the epithet "anointed" is given to the king of Tyre. As the holy unction was given to kings, priests, and prophets, by describing the promised Savior of the world under the name of Christ, Anointed, or Messiah, it was sufficiently evidenced that the qualities of king, prophet, and highpriest would eminently center in him, and that he should exercise them not only over the Jews but over all mankind, and particularly over those who should receive him as their Savior. At the time when the Savior actually came, and then only, could these predictions meet: then the seventy weeks of years were ended; and soon after, the scepter was torn forever from the hands of Judah, the only tribe that could then claim the headship of the Jews; and the temple in which the Messiah was to appear was annihilated
in Excelsis - (Latin: excellere, to raise up) ...
On high, the highest, occurring in the hymn of the angels to the shepherds at Our Lord's birth, meaning that God is eminently above all things, and perhaps alluding to the idolatrous altars, which occasionally the Jews themselves, and always the people about them, used to build on the "high places," the tops of hills
Side, - It was one of the cities addressed on behalf of the Jews by the Romans in b
Day's Journey - The typical day's journey of the Jews was between 20,30 miles, though groups generally travelled only 10 miles per day
Arimathea - A "city of the Jews" (Luke 23:51 ), the birth-place of Joseph in whose sepulchre our Lord was laid (Matthew 27:57,60 ; John 19:38 )
Paint - Paintings in the modern sense of the word were unknown to the ancient Jews
Nebuzaradan - Five years after this he again came to Jerusalem and carried captive seven hundred and forty-five more Jews
Hanes - frontier of Egypt, to which the Jews sent ambassadors with presents for the reigning Pharaoh (perhaps Zet or Sethos of the 23rd dynasty), as also to the neighbouring Zoan his capital
Berea - City of Macedonia, visited by Paul, where he found some Jews who were more noble than those of Thessalonica, inasmuch as they tested by the scriptures what Paul preached: to which is added "therefore many of them believed
Steel - " "Shall (ordinary) iron break" this? No more can the Jews break the hardier Chaldees of the N
Abib - ) On the 15th day of Nisan, the Jews began harvest by gathering a sheaf of barley firstfruits, and on the 16th day of Nisan, offered it (Leviticus 23:4-14)
Baal - The ancient Jews were often tempted to follow Baal because so much of their lives depended upon the rain that fed the crops
Haman - The Jews, on the mention of his name on the day of Purim, hiss
Thessalonica - The Jews had a synagogue here, and their number was considerable, Acts 17
Antonia - Paul out of the hands of the Jews, who had seized him in the temple, and designed to have murdered him, Acts 21:31-32
Gethsemani - (Hebrew: gat, press; semen, oil) ...
Plot of ground on the Mount of Olives, beyond the ravine of the brook Cedron, where Jesus spent much time with His disciples (John 18), suffered His agony (Mark 14; Luke 22), and was taken prisoner by the Jews (Mark 14)
Rechab - Their fidelity in obeying these commands was praised by God himself and given as an example to the Jews (Jeremias 35)
Rechabites - Their fidelity in obeying these commands was praised by God himself and given as an example to the Jews (Jeremias 35)
Jair - 1 A leader in the conquest of Bashan, probably before the Jews crossed the Jordan, B
Salchah - A city of Bashan, conquered by the Jews and assigned to Manasseh, Deuteronomy 3:10 Joshua 12:5 13:11
Chebar - On its fertile banks Nebuchadnezzar located a part of the captive Jews, and here the sublime visions of Ezekiel took place, Ezekiel 1:3 ; 3:15 ; 10:15 ; 43:3
Agrippa - During his reign, the Jews began to prosper and live comfortably
Proselyte - (a stranger, a new comer ), the name given by the Jews to foreigners who adopted the Jewish religion. The dispersion of the Jews in foreign countries, which has been spoken of elsewhere [1], enabled them to make many converts to their faith. The converts who were thus attracted joined, with varying strictness, in the worship of the Jews. In Palestine itself, even Roman centurions learned to love the conquered nation built synagogues for them, (Luke 7:5 ) fasted and prayed, and gave alms after the pattern of the strictest Jews, (Acts 10:2,30 ) and became preachers of the new faith to the soldiers under them. The Jews of Palestine were eager to spread their faith by the same weapons as those with which they had defended it
Alexandria - 332, and peopled by colonies of Greeks and Jews. The population consists of Turks, Arabs, Copts, Jews, and Armenians. ...
The Greek or Alexandrine version of the Scriptures was made here by learned Jews, seventy-two in number, and hence it is called the Septuagint, or version of the Seventy. The Jews established themselves in great numbers in this city very soon after it was founded. Philo, who himself lived there in the time of Christ, affirms that, of five parts of the city, the Jews inhabit two. According to his statements, also, there dwelt in his time, in Alexandria and the other Egyptian cities, not less than a million Jews; but this would seem exaggerated
Antioch - (an' ti ahch) names two New Testament cities one of which was home to many Diaspora Jews (Jews living outside of Palestine and maintaining their religious faith among the Gentiles) and the place where believers, many of whom were Gentiles, were first called Christians. Many Jews of the Diaspora lived in Antioch and engaged in commerce, enjoying the rights of citizenship in a free city. This was a missionary effort to both Jews and Gentiles, about which Paul says in Galatians 2:11 that he had to oppose Peter to his face at Antioch. Finally, Jews drove Paul and Barnabas from the city. These Jews from Antioch followed Paul to Lystra and stirred up trouble there (Acts 14:19 )
Coelicolae - 363) was followed by a reaction in favour of the Christians and against the Jews. In one edict they are classed with the Jews and the Samaritans, in a second with the Jews only. But it would be a mistake to consider them simply Jews. The Romans, it is well known, called the Jews worshippers of idols through a mistaken notion that the Jewish use of the word "Heaven" for "God" (Buxtorf, Lex. The Coelicolae proper would therefore be easily included by the Romans under the one general title " Jews
Samar'Itans - They then desire to be allowed to participate in the rebuilding of the temple at Jerusalem; but on being refused, the Samaritans throw off the mask, and become open enemies, frustrate the operations of the Jews through the reigns of two Persian kings, and are only effectually silenced in the reign of Darius Hystaspes, B. They are sid to have done everything in their power to annoy the Jews. To their copy of the law they arrogated an antiquity and authority greater than attached to any copy in the possession of the Jews. The Jews, on the other hand, were not more conciliatory in their treatment of the Samaritans. Very far were the Jews from admitting this claim to consanguinity on the part of these people. Such were the Samaritans of our Lord's day; a people distinct from the Jews, though lying in the very midst of the Jews; a people preserving their identity, though seven centuries had rolled away since they had been brought from Assyria by Esar-haddon, and though they had abandoned their polytheism for a sort of ultra Mosaicism; a people who, though their limits had gradually contracted and the rallying-place of their religion on Mount Gerizim had been destroyed one hundred and sixty years before by John Hyrcanus (B. 130), and though Samaria (the city) had been again and again destroyed, still preserved their nationality still worshipped from Shechem and their impoverished settlements toward their sacred hill, still retained their peculiar religion, and could not coalesce with the Jews
Alexander - At the same time he wrote to Jaddus, high priest of the Jews, that he expected to be acknowledged by him, and to receive from him the same submission which had hitherto been paid to the king of Persia. As he was marching against Jerusalem, the Jews became greatly alarmed, and had recourse to prayers and sacrifices. "For," added he, "whilst I was yet in Macedonia, I saw the God of the Jews, who appeared to me in the same form and dress as the high priest at present, and who encouraged me and commanded me to march boldly into Asia, promising that he would be my guide, and give me the empire of the Persians. At his departure, Alexander bade the Jews ask of him what they would. The high priest desired only the liberty of living under his government according to their own laws, and an exemption from tribute every seventh year, because in that year the Jews neither tilled their grounds, nor reaped their fruits. The Samaritans who dwelt at Sichem, and were apostates from the Jewish religion, observing how kindly Alexander had treated the Jews, resolved to say that they also were by religion Jews. For it was their practice, when they saw the affairs of the Jews in a prosperous state, to boast that they were descended from Manasseh and Ephraim; but when they thought it their interest to say the contrary, they failed not to affirm, and even to swear, that they were not related to the Jews. Alexander promised this at his return; but as they petitioned him for the same privileges as the Jews, he asked them if they were Jews. Alexander said that he had granted this exemption only to the Jews, and that at his return he would inquire into the affair, and do them justice. What remained of their lands he gave to the Jews, and exempted them from the payment of tribute. The above particulars of Alexander are here introduced because, from his invasion of Palestine, the intercourse of the Jews with the Greeks became intimate, and influenced many events of their subsequent history
Sicyon - This was one of the numerous places written to by the Romans on behalf of the Jews in b
Lazarus - This miracle so excited the wrath of the Jews that they sought to put both Jesus and Lazarus to death
Advocate - Tertullus "the orator" (Acts 24:1 ) was a Roman advocate whom the Jews employed to accuse Paul before Felix
Exorcist - The practice of "exorcism" was carried on by strolling Jews, who used their power in the recitation of particular names
Kirjath-Arba - The Jews interpret the name as meaning "the city of the four", i
Rehum - ...
...
The "chancellor" of Artaxerxes, who sought to stir him up against the Jews (Ezra 4:8-24 ) and prevent the rebuilding of the walls and the temple of Jerusalem
Adore - The forms of adoration among the Jews were putting off the shoes (Exodus 3:5 ; Joshua 5:15 ), and prostration (Genesis 17:3 ; Psalm 95:6 ; Isaiah 44:15,17,19 ; 46:6 )
Money Changers - They set up tables in the court of the Gentiles, to supply at a profit foreign Jews with the Jewish half shekels (1 shillings, 3 pence) required for the yearly payment into the temple treasury, in exchange for foreign coin
Abraham's Bosom - (Luke 16:22,23 ) refers to the custom of reclining on couches at table, which was prevalent among the Jews, an arrangement which brought the head of one person almost into the bosom of the one who sat or reclined above him
Kabzeel - One of the towns reoccupied by the Jews after the return from the Exile (Nehemiah 11:25 )
Leaven - The leaven among the Jews, became an object of much religious concern
Schoolmaster, - The law was a schoolmaster to the Jews (not to the Gentiles: Paul said we , Galatians 3:24 ; in contrast to ye in Galatians 3:26 ) until Christ came; but any led to Christ were no longer under that schoolmaster
Propitiatory - among the Jews, was the cover or lid of the ark of the covenant, which was lined both within and without with plates of gold, insomuch that there, was no wood to be seen
Soap - Combined with oil or fat the alkalies produced soap; but it is not known in what forms the Jews used them
Sibylline Books - In the 2century BC the Hellenistic Jews, for propaganda purposes, issued verses similar in form to the Sibylline prophecies; and later, certain Christians in the early centuries did the same, for the like purpose of disseminating the doctrines of their religion
Son of God - Christ always claimed to be the only-begotten Son of the Father, Matthew 4:3 8:29 27:54 John 3:16-18 ; and the Jews rightly understood him as thus making himself equal with God, John 5:18 10:30-33
Weaving - The Jews say that the high-priest's tunic was made without a needle, being "woven from the top throughout;" thus also "the High-priest of our profession" was clothed, John 19:23
Rest - 39,40, when the Jews were so harassed by the attempts of the emperor to force them to worship him as a god, that they forbore to afflict the followers of Christ
India - The people and the products of India were well known to the Jews, who seem to have carried on an active trade with that country (Ezekiel 27:15,24 )
Pharisees - Pharisees (far'i-sees), a religious sect among the Jews at the time of Christ. " The chief sects among the Jews during Christ's ministry were the Pharisees, the Sadducees, and the Essenes. The principle of the Pharisees, common to them with all orthodox modern Jews, is that by the side of the written law there was an oral law to complete and to explain the written law, given to Moses on Mount Sinai and transmitted by him by word of mouth
Swine - The flesh of swine was forbidden as food by the Levitical law, ( Leviticus 11:7 ; 14:8) the abhorrence which the Jews as a nation had of it may be inferred from (Isaiah 65:4 ) and 2 Maccabees 6:18,19 . Although the Jews did not breed swine during the greater period of their existence as a nation there can be little doubt that the heathen nations of Palestine used the flesh as food. At the time of our Lord's ministry it would appear that the Jews occasionally violated the law of Moses with regard to swine's flesh
Samaritans - An ancient sect among the Jews, whose origin was in the time of king Rehoboam, under whose reign the people of Israel were divided into two distinct kingdoms, that of Judah and that of Israel. Upon the return of the Jews from the Babylonish captivity, it appears that they had entirely quitted the worship of their idols. But though they were united in religion, they were not so in affection with the Jews; for they employed various calumnies and stratagems to hinder their rebuilding the temple of Jerusalem; and when they could not prevail, they erected a temple on Mount Gerizim, in opposition to that of Jerusalem
Gemara - The former was compiled, according to the Jews, about the end of the second or third century, by a celebrated rabbin, called Jochanan; but father Morinus maintains that the gemara was not finished till about the seventh century. The Jews have little value for this Jerusalem Talmud, on account of its obscurity. The Jews believe that the gemara contains nothing but the word of God, preserved in the tradition of the elders, and transmitted, without alteration, from Moses to rabbi Judah, the holy, and the other compilers of the Talmud; who did not reduce it to writing till they were afraid it would be corrupted by the several transmigrations and persecutions to which their nation was subjected
Samaritans - An origin like this would of course render the nation odious to the Jews. It was therefore in vain that, when the Jews returned from captivity and began to rebuild Jerusalem and the temple, the Samaritans requested to be acknowledged as Jewish citizens, and to be permitted to assist in their work, Ezra 4:1-24 . In consequence of this refusal, and the subsequent state of enmity, the Samaritans not only took occasion to calumniate the Jews before the Persian kings, Ezra 4:4 Nehemiah 4:1-23 , but also, recurring to the directions of Moses, Deuteronomy 27:11-13 , that on entering the promised land half of the people should stand on Mount Gerizim to respond Amen to the covenant pronounced by the Levites, they erected a temple on that mountain, and instituted sacrifices according to the prescriptions of the Mosaic law, although the original altar, according to the Hebrew Scriptures, stood on Mount Ebal, Deuteronomy 27:4 Joshua 8:30-35 . Moreover, they rejected all the sacred books of the Jews except the Pentateuch. ...
From all these and other circumstances, the national hatred between the Samaritans and Jews, instead of being at all diminished by time, was, on the contrary, fostered and augmented Luke 9:52,53 . Hence the name of Samaritan became among the Jews a term of reproach and contempt, John 8:48 , and all intercourse with them was carefully avoided, John 4:9 . The Samaritans, like the Jews, expected a Messiah, John 4:25 and many of them became the followers of Jesus, and embraced the doctrines of his religion
Darius - Smerdis was a Margian, and therefore had no sympathy with Cyrus and Cambyses in the manner in which they had treated the Jews. But soon after his death and the accession of Darius, the Jews resumed their work, thinking that the edict of Smerdis would be now null and void, as Darius was in known harmony with the religious policy of Cyrus. The enemies of the Jews lost no time in bringing the matter under the notice of Darius, who caused search to be made for the decree of Cyrus (q. It was not found at Babylon, but at Achmetha (Ezra 6:2 ); and Darius forthwith issued a new decree, giving the Jews full liberty to prosecute their work, at the same time requiring the Syrian satrap and his subordinates to give them all needed help. During his reign the Jews enjoyed much peace and prosperity
Jason - ...
(2) Jason of Cyrene, author of the history of the Jews, persecuted under Antiochus Epiphanes and Eupator. Forgetting completely his calling, he sought to introduce Greek customs among the Jews
Moon - A lunation was among the Jews the period of a month, and several of their festivals were held on the day of the new moon. The great brilliance of the moon in Eastern countries led to its being early an object of idolatrous worship (Deuteronomy 4:19 ; 17:3 ; Job 31:26 ), a form of idolatry against which the Jews were warned (Deuteronomy 4:19 ; 17:3 )
Debt - He believed also that Gentile Christians, having received the gospel by way of the Jews, owed a debt to their Jewish brothers. The Gentiles had an obligation to help the Jews in their poverty (Romans 15:27)
Hour - ) Ahaz' sundial implies the Jews' acquaintance with hours before the Babylonian captivity. In our Lord's days the Jews must have had dials, and clepsydrae or water hourglasses, as these were long known to the Persians with whom they had been so closely connected
Tobiah, the Children of - from the Jews from Babylon, typified the return of the dispersed Israelites from afar (Isaiah 60:9) to the King of the Jews at Jerusalem, and secondarily the conversion of the Gentiles "far off" (Acts 2:39; Ephesians 2:12-17; Isaiah 60:10; Isaiah 57:19; Zechariah 2:11; Zechariah 8:22-23)
Tahpanhes - ); here Jews were dwelling (Jeremiah 44:1). In Jeremiah 2:16 "the children of Noph (Memphis, the capital) and Tahapanes" (with which the Jews came most in contact) represent the Egyptians generally, who under Pharaoh Necho slew the king of Judah, Josiah, at Megiddo, and deposed Jehoahaz for Eliakim or Jehoiakim (2 Kings 23:29-30; 2 Kings 23:33-35)
Targum - This word is not in the Bible, but as the Jews very much prize their Targum, it may not be amiss, just in a cursory way to notice it. "‘ (Nehemiah 8:8)...
The Jews speak with great confidence of the Targum
Ahava - Ezra, intending to collect as many Israelites as he could, who might return to Judea, halted in the country of Ava, or Aahava, whence he sent agents into the Caspian mountains, to invite such Jews as were willing to join him, Ezra 8:16 . The history of Izates, king of the Adiabenians, and of his mother Helena, who became converts to Judaism some years after the death of Jesus Christ, sufficiently proves that there were many Jews still settled in that country
Bitter Herbs - The Jews were commanded to eat their passover with a sallad of bitter herbs; but whether one particular plant was intended, or any kind of bitter herbs, has been made a question. Forskal says, "the Jews in Sana and in Egypt eat the lettuce with the paschal lamb
Cilicia - Many Jews dwelt in Cilicia, and maintained frequent intercourse with Jerusalem, where they joined the other Jews in opposing the progress of Christianity
Moon - Conjointly with the sun, it was appointed "for signs and for seasons, and for days and years;" though in this respect it exercised a more important influence, if by the "seasons" we understand the great religious festivals of the Jews, as is particularly stated in (Psalm 104:19 ) and more at length in Sirach 43:6,7 . The worship of the heavenly bodies is referred to in (Job 31:26,27 ) and Moses directly warns the Jews against it
Ephesians, Theology of - ...
The key to the theology of Ephesians is the second chapter, where Paul sets forth the implications of the equal union of Jews and Gentiles in the one body, the church. 1) and Jews (vv. Nevertheless, the Jews had prepared the way for the Messiah and were the first to be called into the church. ...
It if foundational to the theology of Paul, in Acts and in his generally accepted letters as well as in Ephesians, that both Gentiles and Jews are made alive together with Christ, have been raised up together, and made to sit together with Christ in the heavenly places (vv. ...
A number of key theological terms and arguments in Ephesians revolve around these two concepts: (1) the historical and cosmological role of the Jews in God's redemptive history from the time of Abraham; and (2) Paul's own place in that process, that of bringing in the Gentiles as full participants in the kingdom, which evil forces in the cosmos conspired to prevent and thus to destroy the work of Christ. The first chapter asserts that the Jews, God's saints or holy ones, were "chosen" to bring the blessing of redemption to all nations in fulfillment of the promise to Abraham. It was the Jews who were foreordained unto adoption for this purpose (v. " However, unlike Romans, where Paul addresses his dual audience on the one hand as Jews "who know the law" (7:1) and then on the other as Gentiles (11:13), Paul never addresses Jews directly in Ephesians using the second-person pronoun. In the first part of the letter, down to 2:3, they refer to Jews or Jewish Christians. At this point, following Paul's declaration of the inclusion of the Gentiles with the Jews, the first-person pronouns henceforth refer to Jews and Gentiles combined. After the epistolary greeting in 1:1-2, the Gentiles are not referred to until verse 13, where they are said to have been added to God's redemptive work among the Jews, who thus far have been designated by first-person plural pronouns. Then in 2:1-5 , after the declaration that the Gentiles now have been brought together with the Jews into the body of Christ, the first-person plural pronouns henceforth refer to Jews and Gentiles together . 1) just as we Jews were (v. ...
Therefore, from this point on (2:3) the first-person plural pronouns include the Gentiles as well, who have been grafted as wild olive branches into the Jewish tree (Romans 11:17-24 ) and are henceforth, like the Jews, included among the descendants of Abraham, "in order that the blessing given to Abraham might come to the Gentiles through Jesus Christ, so that by faith we [1] might receive the promise of the Spirit" ( Galatians 3:14 ). ...
The first example and the most significant perhaps is in 2:5 where, following three compound verbs describing the uniting of Jews and Gentiles together in Christ ("made alive together, raised together, and made to sit together"—sunezoopoiesen, sunegeiren [4], and sunekathisen ), Paul states (v. The compounds themselves do not refer to any union including ChristChrist and Jews, Christ and Gentiles, or Christ and Christians but to that of Jews and Gentiles. The Jews and Gentiles thus brought together, are then together, as an entity, united with Christ. " The result is that the Gentiles are now "fellow citizens with God's people, " the Jews. Then in verses 14,15, first-person plurals are used (" we will no longer be" and " we will grow up") referring to the newly created union of Jews and Gentiles who should no longer be babes but grow up in every way into him who is the head, even Christ. ...
If this analysis is correct, 2:3 is the transition point in the letter, with all the first-person pronouns from this point on referring to the union of Jews and Gentiles. Prior to this they refer to the Jews as a people or to Jewish Christians. The third verse is the decisive point, indicated by the phrase "we all" which appears also in 4:13, in both instances expanding the first-person pronoun references to Jews to include the Gentiles as well. " Further, the mystery in 1:9, which Paul says was made known to "us" (Jews), is identified in 3:3-5 as a revelation to God's people (Jews), that the Gentiles were to be fellow participants in God's eternal purpose
Stumbling Block - )...
The crucifixion of Jesus was a stumbling block to the Jews, because they would not believe that a person who died on a cross could be the Messiah sent by God. ...
What the Jews did not understand was that when Jesus died on the cross, he bore God’s curse in the place of those who had broken God’s law. ...
The Jews refused to trust in Jesus’ death on the cross for their forgiveness, but tried instead to win God’s favour by their good deeds. Idolatry, for example, was a stumbling block to Jews of Old Testament times (Exodus 23:33; Ezekiel 7:19-20; Ezekiel 14:3-4), and to some Christians of New Testament times
Achmetha - Travelers identify it with the modern Hamadan, in which many Jews still reside, and where they profess to point out the tomb of Mordecai and Esther
Agabus - Many years after, Agabus predicted the sufferings of Paul at the hands of the Jews, Acts 21:10
Azekah - The Jews inhabited it after the return
Embroider - The art of embroidery was known to the Jews (Exodus 26:36 ; 35:35 ; 38:23 ; Judges 5:30 ; Psalm 45:14 )
Elcesaites - They kept a mean between the Jews, Christians, and Pagans: they worshipped but one God, observed the Jewish sabbath, circumcision, and the other ceremonies of the law; yet they rejected the Pentateuch and the prophets: nor had they any more respect for the writings of the apostles
Barabbas - But the Jews were so bent on the death of Jesus that they demanded that Barabbas should be pardoned (Matthew 27:16-26 ; Acts 3:14 )
Faith: the Summary of Virtue - The Jews in the Talmud have the saying, 'The whole law was given to Moses at Sinai, in six hundred and thirteen precepts
Inscription - Pilate likely intended the inscription above the cross in a derogatory sense: “See the defeated King of the Jews
Herodians - The name of a political party among the Jews, which derived its name from the support it gave to the dynasty of Herod
Ashes - We find it adopted by Job, Job 2:8 ; by many Jews when in great fear, Esther 4:3 ; and by the king of Nineveh, Jonah 3:6
Hobah - The Jews make Jobar near Burzeh to be Hobah
Cyrene - Africa ( Acts 2:10 ), the home of numerous Jews who with the ‘Libertines’ (freedmen from Rome?) and Alexandrians had a synagogue of their own at Jerusalem ( Acts 6:9 )
Giblites - (But Biblus was the seat of worship of the Syrian Adonis, Tammuz, which the Jews were seduced to worship (Ezekiel 8:14)
Proseuche - Signifies prayer; but it is taken for the places of prayer of the Jews, and was pretty near the same as their synagogues
Easter - It corresponds to the pasha or passover of the Jews, and most nations still give it this name under the various forms of pascha, pasque, paque, or pask
Ahasuerus - Complaints against the Jews were addressed to him ( Ezra 4:6 )
Sceva - His seven sons, Jews, exorcised demons in Jesus' name, whereupon the demon-possessed leaped on two of them, and prevailed against them, so that they fled out of the house naked and wounded: (Acts 19:14-16; the Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, and Alexandrinus manuscripts read "prevailed against both"
Raca - Our Saviour pronounces a censure on every person using this term to his neighbour, Matthew 5:22 , Lightfoot assures us that, in the writings of the Jews, the word raca is a term of the utmost contempt, and that it was usual to pronounce it with marked signs of indignation
Lydda - It seems to have been inhabited by the Benjamites, at the return of the Jews from the Babylonish captivity, Nehemiah 11:35
Trench - The Jews in one of their sorties destroyed this charax, after which Titus surrounded the city with a wall of masonry
na'Arath - It appears to have lain between Ataroth and Jericho, in the Jordan valley: Eusebius and Jerome speak of it as if well known to them --"Naorath, a small village of the Jews, five miles from Jericho
Gemari'ah - ...
Son of Hilkiah, was made the bearer of Jeremiah's letter to the captive Jews
Irha-Heres - The prophecy here points to a time when the Jews would so increase in number there as that the city would fall under their influence
ca'Naanite, the, - They taught that all foreign rule over Jews was unscriptural, and opposed that rule in every way
Samaritans - The enmity between Jews and Samaritans began to make its appearance immediately after the return from the Captivity. After the battle of Issus the Samaritans offered assistance to Alexander, and were allowed to build a temple on Gerizim , where they sacrificed after the manner of the Jews though they were quite ready to repudiate Jewish origin, rite, and prejudice whenever occasion arose (see Jos. The disputes between the Jews and the Samaritans were at last referred to Rome ( BJ II
Title - ...
The four inscriptions on the cross of Jesus mentioned in the Gospels are different, though the words ‘the King of the Jews’ (Mark 15:26 ) are common to all, and truly set forth the charge on which Jesus was formally condemned. The Evangelist sees, in this announcement in the three languages of the Roman Empire, a symbol of the proclamation to the world of the Messiahship of Jesus, notwithstanding the efforts of the Jews to cover Him with ignominy. alone implies that Pilate took revenge on the Jews in preparing the inscription; Mt
Herodians - A sect among the Jews, at the time of our Saviour, Matthew 22:16 . Simon, in his notes on the 22d chapter of Matthew, advances a more probable opinion: the name Herodian he imagines to have been given to such as adhered to Herod's party and interest, and were for preserving the government in his family, about which were great divisions among the Jews. Prideaux is of opinion that they derived their name from Herod the Great; and that they were distinguished from the other Jews by their concurrence with Herod's scheme of subjecting himself and his dominions to the Romans, and likewise by complying with many of their heathen usages and customs
Christian - The Jews, since they denied that Jesus is the Christ, would never originate the name "Christians," but called them "Nazarenes" (Acts 24:5). The Gentiles confounded them with the Jews, and thought them to be a Jewish sect. ...
Then the Gentiles needed a new name to designate people who were Jews, neither by birth nor religion
Agrippa - He killed James the brother of John with the sword, and because he saw it pleased the Jews he seized Peter also. The account given by Josephus as to Agrippa's administrative qualities, his exertions for the Jews whilst at Rome, and his desires to strengthen and embellish Jerusalem, may be true; but his seizing the apostles to please the Jews stamps him as one unfitted to rule, while his overweening pride in the last scene of his life made him the just object of the wrath of Him who will not give His glory to another
Acts of the Apostles, - The readers were evidently intended to be the members of the Christian Church, whether Jews or Gentiles; for its contents are such as are of the utmost consequence to the whole Church. They are the fulfillment of the promise of the Father by the descent of the Holy Spirit, and the results of that outpouring by the dispersion of the gospel among the Jews and Gentiles. The opening of the door to Jews, ch
ez'ra - It appears that Ezra's great design was to effect a religious reformation among the Palestine Jews. The principal works ascribed to him by the Jews are--
The instruction of the great synagogue; ...
The settling the canon of Scripture, and restoring, correcting and editing the whole sacred volume; ...
The introduction of the Chaldee character instead of the old Hebrew or Samaritan; ...
The authorship of the books of Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, and, some add, Esther; and, many of the Jews say, also of the books of Ezekiel, Daniel, and the twelve prophets; ...
The establishment of synagogues
Day - " The Jews are supposed, like the modern Arabs, to have adopted from an early period minute specifications of the parts of the natural day. " Before the captivity the Jews divided the night into three watches, (Psalm 63:6 ; 90:4 ) viz. (John 18:28 ) The word held to mean "hour" is first found in (Daniel 3:6,15 ; 5:5 ) Perhaps the Jews, like the Greeks, learned from the Babylonians the division of the day into twelve parts
ma'gi - (Matthew 2:1-12 ) the Magi appear as "wise men"--properly Magians --who were guided by a star from "the east" to Jerusalem, where they suddenly appeared in the days of Herod the Great, inquiring for the new-born king of the Jews, whom they had come to worship. [1] (Why should the new star lead these wise men to look for a king of the Jews? (1) These wise men from Persia were the most like the Jews, in religion, of all nations in the world. Everywhere throughout the East men were looking for the advent of a great king who was to rise from among the Jews. It had fermented in the minds of men, heathen as well as Jews, and would have led them to welcome Jesus as the Christ had he come in accordance with their expectation. (3) This expectation arose largely from the dispersion of the Jews among all nations, carrying with them the hope and the promise of a divine Redeemer
Lazarus - Many of the Jews believed in Jesus because of Lazarus
Ineffable - (Latin: in, not; effari, to express) ...
Inexpressible, used: (1) of God, meaning that His perfections are so great that it is impossible to express them in words; ...
(2) of His Name, Jehovah (Yahveh, Yahweh), which, among the Jews in the Old Testament was held in such veneration that only priests were permitted to pronounce it in the sanctuary and even then in a low tone, the people using the substitute Adonai, Lord, Ruler
Aquila - When the Jews were banished from that city by the emperor Claudius, Aquilla and his wife retired to Corinth
Dedication, Feast of the - It was on this feast that the Jews threatened to stone Our Lord (John 10)
Feast of the Dedication - It was on this feast that the Jews threatened to stone Our Lord (John 10)
Feast of Lights - It was on this feast that the Jews threatened to stone Our Lord (John 10)
Lights, Feast of - It was on this feast that the Jews threatened to stone Our Lord (John 10)
Crown of Thorns - The crown made by the Roman soldiers to mock Jesus, the “King of the Jews” (Matthew 27:29 ; Mark 15:18 ; John 19:3 ; not mentioned in Luke)
Calmet, Dom Augustine - He also wrote a history of the Old and New Testament and of the Jews, and compiled a biblical dictionary and a number of historical works
Bernice - They joined the Romans at the outbreak of the final war between them and the Jews, and lived afterwards at Rome
Jehovah - It is the very name considered by the Jews as great, glorious, terrible, hidden, mysterious, to blaspheme which merited death (Leviticus 24)
Zealots - A sect of Jews which originated with Judas the Gaulonite (Acts 5:37 )
Usury - The Jews were forbidden to exact usury (Leviticus 25:36,37 ), only, however, in their dealings with each other (Deuteronomy 23:19,20 )
Alilean - ) One of the party among the Jews, who opposed the payment of tribute to the Romans; - called also Gaulonite
Cummin - Tithes of cummin were paid by the Jews ( Matthew 23:23 )
Grecians - Greek-speaking Jews, not to be confounded with Gentile Greeks
Gad (3) - the deity of fortune, a Babylonian idol worshipped by the Jews, answering to either the moon or Jupiter, related to Syriac gado , and Arab jad "good fortune
James (2) - Its object is to comfort the dispersed Jews, commending to them patience in suffering, joy in sorrow, and prayer in trouble
Augustine Calmet - He also wrote a history of the Old and New Testament and of the Jews, and compiled a biblical dictionary and a number of historical works
Asia, Proconsular - Jews and Gentiles" (Acts 19)
Occult - are to be avoided by the Christian and Jews alike
Carve - The arts of engraving and carving were much practised among the Jews
Unpardonable Sin - The Jews are possibly lying under it at this present time
Hebrew - Genesis 10:24 See Jews
Acel'Dama - (the field of blood ) ( Akeldama in the Revised Version), the name given by the Jews of Jerusalem to a field near Jerusalem purchased by Judas with the money which he received for the betrayal of Christ, and so called from his violent death therein
Esdras - They are supposed to have been originally written in Greek by some Hellenistical Jews; though some imagine that they were first written in Chaldee, and afterward translated into Greek
Spain - In the time of Paul, it was subject to the Romans, and was frequented by many Jews
Milk - The Jews and their neighbors used not only the milk of cows, but also that of camels, sheep, and goats, Genesis 32:15 Deuteronomy 32:14 Proverbs 27:27
Tobiah - An Ammonite prince, in league with Sanballat and the Samaritans against the pious Jews, who were rebuilding the ruined temple, Nehemiah 2:10 ; 4:3
Shaving - The Jews shaved their beards and hair in time of mourning, repentance, or distress, Job 1:20 Jeremiah 48:37 , and in certain ceremonial purifications, Leviticus 14:9 Numbers 8:7
Hare - It was erroneously thought by the ancient Jews to have chewed the cud
Picture - Moveable pictures, in the modern sense, were doubtless unknown to the Jews
Septuagint - Horne, the Alexandrian or Septuagint is the most ancient and valuable, and was held in so much esteem both by the Jews as well as by the first Christians, as to be constantly read in the synagogues and churches. This version has derived its name either from the Jewish account of seventy-two persons having been employed to make it, or from its having received the approbation of the sanhedrim or great council of the Jews, which consisted of seventy, or, more correctly, of seventy-two persons. For this purpose, it is reported, that he sent Aristeas and Andreas, two distinguished officers of his court, to Jerusalem, on an embassy to Eleazar, then high priest of the Jews, to request of the latter a copy of the Hebrew Scriptures, and that there might also be sent to him seventy-two persons, six chosen out of each of the twelve tribes, who were equally well skilled in the Hebrew and Greek languages. ...
According to him, Ptolemy Philadelphus sent to Palestine for some learned Jews, whose number he does not specify; and these, going over to the island of Pharos, there executed so many distinct versions, all of which so exactly and uniformly agreed in sense, phrases, and words, as proved them to have been not common interpreters, but men prophetically inspired and divinely directed, who had every word dictated to them by the Spirit of God throughout the entire translation. He adds, that an annual festival was celebrated by the Alexandrian Jews in the isle of Pharos, where the version was made, until his time, to preserve the memory of it, and to thank God for so great a benefit. ...
It is not a little remarkable that the Samaritans have traditions in favour of their version of the Pentateuch, equally extravagant with these preserved by the Jews. In the Samaritan chronicle of Abul Phatach, which was compiled in the fourteenth century from ancient and modern authors, both Hebrew and Arabic, there is a story to the following effect: that Ptolemy Philadelphus, in the tenth year of his reign, directed his attention to the difference subsisting between the Samaritans and Jews concerning the law, the former receiving only the Pentateuch, and rejecting every other work ascribed to the prophets by the Jews. The Jews entrusted this mission to Osar, the Samaritans to Aaron, to whom several other associates were added. Thus were the law and other Scriptures translated by the Samaritans; whose version being most carefully examined, the king was convinced that their text was more complete than that of the Jews. Such is the narrative of Abul Phatach, divested, however, of numerous marvellous circumstances with which it has been decorated by the Samaritans, who are not surpassed, even by the Jews, in their partiality for idle legends. Farther, this version was neither made by the command of Ptolemy, nor at the request nor under the superintendence of Demetrius Phalereus; but was voluntarily undertaken by the Jews for the use of their countrymen. It is well known, that, at the period above noticed, there was a great number of Jews settled in Egypt, particularly at Alexandria: these, being most strictly observant of the religious institutions and usages of their forefathers, had their sanhedrim or grand council composed of seventy or seventy-two members, and very numerous synagogues, in which the law was read to them on every Sabbath; and as the bulk of the common people were no longer acquainted with Biblical Hebrew, the Greek language alone being used in their ordinary intercourse, it became necessary to translate the Pentateuch into Greek for their use. The five books of Moses, indeed, were the only books read in the synagogues until the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, king of Syria; who having forbidden that practice in Palestine, the Jews evaded his commands by substituting for the Pentateuch the reading of the prophetic books. When, afterward, the Jews were delivered from the tyranny of the kings of Syria, they read the law and the prophets alternately in the synagogues; and the same custom was adopted by the Hellenistic or Graecising Jews. This hypothesis, however ingenious and plausible, is by no means determinate; and what militates most against it is, the inveterate enmity subsisting between the Jews and Samaritans, added to the constant and unvarying testimony of antiquity, that the Greek version of the Pentateuch was executed by Jews. There is no other way by which to reconcile these conflicting opinions than by supposing either that the manuscript used by the Egyptian Jews approximated toward the letters and text of the Samaritan Pentateuch, or that the translators of the Septuagint made use of manuscripts written in ancient characters. ...
The Septuagint version, though originally made for the use of the Egyptian Jews, gradually acquired the highest authority among the Jews of Palestine, who were acquainted with the Greek language, and subsequently also among Christians: it appears, indeed, that the legend above confuted, of the translators having been divinely inspired, was invented in order that the LXX might be held in the greater estimation. How extensively this version was in use among the Jews, appears from the solemn sanction given to it by the inspired writers of the New Testament, who have in very many passages quoted the Greek version of the Old Testament
Samaritans - Josephus speaks of him as Manasseh, and relates that Sanballat built a temple for him at Gerizim, which became a refuge for apostate Jews. This naturally increased the hatred between the Jews and the Samaritans. The woman of Samaria in John 4 alluded to the differences between Jews and Samaritans, and in Luke 9:52,53 it is said of a village of the Samaritans that the inhabitants would not receive the Lord because His face was turned towards Jerusalem. The woman of Samaria said to the Lord, "Art thou greater than our father Jacob, who gave us the well?" As to their religion, she spoke of 'this mountain' as the proper place to worship; but the Lordsaid, "Ye worship ye know not what: we know what we worship: for salvation is of the Jews. ...
It is remarkable that while the Jews have lost all means of keeping their feasts at Jerusalem, a few, still calling themselves Samaritans, at Nablus, in a humble synagogue at the foot of the mountain, continue their worship, and annually ascend the mountain and keep the feast of the Passover with a roasted lamb: a marked instance of imitation, now so common in Christendom
Mordecai - The book of Esther gives the whole history of Mordecai's elevation, the punishment of Haman, and the wonderful deliverance of the Jews, in clear and regular narrative. But it may be asked, For what reason did Mordecai refuse to pay that respect to Haman, the neglect of which incensed him against the Jews? Esther 3:1-6 . And perhaps it was because Haman knew that his refusal was the result of his Jewish principles, that he determined to attempt the destruction of the Jews in general, knowing they were all of the same mind. As to another question, why Haman cast lots, in order to fix the day for the massacre of the Jews, Esther 3:7 ; from whence the feast of purim, which is a Persia word, and signifies lots, took its name, Esther 9:26 ; it was no doubt owing to the superstitious conceit which anciently prevailed, of some days being more fortunate than others for any undertaking; in short, he endeavoured to find out, by this way of divining, what month, or what day of the month, was most unfortunate to the Jews, and most fortunate for the success of his bloody design against them
Persia - The impact came through the Jews, the Bible, contacts with the Greeks, and through Alexander the Great's incorporation of ideas and architecture from the Persians. For the Jews this meant official support for keeping Jewish law in the land of the Jews. ...
The Persian Empire affected the Jews and biblical history a great deal. When Cyrus conquered Babylon, he allowed the Jews to return to Judah and encouraged the rebuilding of the Temple (Ezra 1:1-4 ). ...
The Jews had trouble under Persian rule, too. Daniel 6:1 shows a stable government but one in which Jews could still be at risk. Jews are already, apparently, hated by some. ...
Throughout the period, the Jews kept looking for the kind of restoration promised by prophets such as Isaiah (Isaiah 40-66 ) and Ezekiel (Ezekiel 40-48 ). Prophets such as Haggai and Zechariah and Malachi helped the Jews to hope, but these men of God also reminded their hearers of the importance of present faithfulness and obedience to God
Feasts - ...
There are records of Israel’s celebration of the Feast of Tabernacles after Solomon’s completion of the temple and after the Jews’ return from captivity in Babylon (2 Chronicles 8:12-13; Ezra 3:4). It was established in Persia in the fifth century BC by Mordecai, a leader of the large community of Jews that had grown up in Persia after the Babylonian captivity. When Haman’s ‘lucky day’ arrived, the Jews, instead of being slaughtered, took revenge on their enemies (Esther 9:1). Mordecai then ordered that Jews celebrate the great occasion with feasting, exchanging gifts and giving to the poor (Esther 9:20-28; see ESTHER). Jews have celebrated the festival to the present day. In a brutal attack he invaded Jerusalem and slaughtered the Jews. He then defiled the Jewish temple by setting up an altar in honour of the pagan gods and sacrificing animals that the Jews considered unclean. ...
A group of zealous Jews, the Maccabees, began a resistance movement against Antiochus, and after three years of untiring fighting won back their religious freedom (165 BC). They promptly cleansed and rededicated the temple, in celebration of which the Jews established the annual Feast of Dedication. It was the Jews’ only winter festival (John 10:22-23)
Messiah - The ancient Jews had just notions of the Messiah, which came gradually to be corrupted, by expecting a temporal monarch and conqueror; and finding Jesus Christ to be poor, humble, and of an unpromising appearance, they rejected him. Most of the modern rabbis, according to Buxtorf, believe that the Messiah is come, but that he lies concealed because of the sins of the Jews. He was one of those banditti that infested Judea, and committed all kinds of violence against the Romans; and had become so powerful, that he was chosen king of the Jews, and by them acknowledged their Messiah. The Jews themselves allow, that, during this short war against the Romans, in defense of this false Messiah, they lost five or six hundred thousand souls. He pretended to be a second Moses, sent to deliver the Jews who dwelt in Crete, and promised to divide the sea, and give them a safe passage through it. In the year 529 the Jews and Samaritans rebelled against the emperor Justinian, and set up one Julian for their king; and accounted him the Messiah. At first he professed himself to be the Messiah who was promised to the Jews. In the year 1157, a false Messiah stirred up the Jews at Corduba, in Spain. The wiser and better sort looked upon him as a madman, but the great body of the Jews in that nation believed in him. On this occasion almost all the Jews in Spain were destroyed. In the year 1167, another false Messiah rose in the kingdom of Fez, which brought great trouble and persecution upon the Jews that were scattered through that country. He pretended that he could make himself invisible; but he was soon taken and put to death, and a heavy fine laid upon his brethren the Jews. He pretended that he could make himself invisible; but he was soon taken and put to death and a heavy fine laid upon his brethren the Jews. Vast numbers of the Jews were butchered for taking part with this impostor. Here we may observe, that no less than ten false Christs arose in the twelfth century, and brought prodigious calamities and destruction upon the Jews in various quarters of the world. In the year 1497, we find another false Christ, whose name was Ismael Sophus, who deluded the Jews in Spain. In the year 1615, a false Christ arose in the East Indies, and was greatly followed by the Portuguese Jews, who were scattered over that country. He was born at Aleppo, imposed on the Jews for a considerable time; but afterwards, with a view of saving his life, turned Mahometan, and was at last beheaded. He promised the Jews deliverance and a prosperous kingdom. The Jews now attended to no business, discoursed of nothing but their return, and believed Sabatai to be the Messias as firmly as we Christians believe any article of faith. ...
At Jerusalem he began to reform the Jews' constitutions, and abolish one of their solemn fasts, and communicated his designs of professing himself tha Messias to one Nathan. " And now, throughout Turkey, the Jews were in great expectation of glorious times. All which, says the relator, were certainly true, being effects of diabolical delusions, as the Jews themselves have since confessed. Whereas the Jews, in their synagogues, were wont to pray for the Grand Seignior, he orders those prayers to be forborne for the future, thinking it an indecent thing to pray for him who was shortly to be his captive; and, instead of praying for the Turkish emperor, he appoints prayers for himself. He also elected princes to govern the Jews in their march towards the Holy Land, and to minister justice to them when they should be possessed of it. When Sabatai was before the Cadi (or justice of peace, ) some affirmed they saw a pillar of fire between him and the Cadi; and after some had affirmed it, others were ready to swear it, and did swear it also; and this was presently believed by the Jews of that city. The Jews pay him their visits; and they of this city are as infatuated as those in Smyrna. Some of our English merchants not knowing how to recover their debts from the Jews, took this occasion to visit Sabatai, and make their complaints to him against his subjects; whereupon he wrote the following letter to the Jews. "To you of the nation of the Jews, who expect the appearance of the Messias, and the salvation of Israel, peace without end. He, therefore, removed him to the Dardanelli, a better air indeed, but yet out of the way, and consequently importing less danger to the city; which occasioned the Jews to conclude that the Turks could not, or durst not, take away his life; which had, they concluded, been the surest way to have removed all jealousy. The Jews flocked in great numbers to the castle where he was a prisoner; not only those that were near, but from Poland, Germany, Leghorn, Venice, and other places: they received Sabatai's blessing, and promises of advancement. He commands the Jews to keep it on the ninth day of the month Ab, and to make it a day of great joy, to celebrate it with pleasing meats and drinks, with illuminations and music. This day was a solemn day of fasting among the Jews, formerly in memory of the burning of the temple by the Chaldees: several other sad things happened in this month, as the Jews observe; that then, and upon the same day, the second temple was destroyed; and that in this month it was decreed in the wilderness that the Israelites should not enter into Canaan, &c. ...
Sabatai was born on this day; and, therefore, the fast must be turned to a feast; whereas, in truth, it had been well for the Jews had he not been born at all; and much better for himself, as will appear from what follows. The Jews of that city paid Sabatai Sevi great respect. Upon which he consented to turn Mahometan, to the great confusion of the Jews. And yet some of the Jews were so vain as to affirm that it was not Sabatai himself, but his shadow, that professed the religion, and was seen in the habit of a Turk; so great was their obstinacy and infidelity, as if it were a thing impossible to convince these deluded and infatuated wretches. After all this, several of the Jews continued to use the forms, in their public worship prescribed by this Mahometan Messias, which obliged the principal Jews of Constantinople to send to the synagogue of Smyrna to forbid this practice. During these things, the Jews, instead of minding their trade and traffic, filled their letters with news of Sabatai their Messias, and his wonderful works. Upon the fame of these things the Jews of Italy sent legates to Smyrna, to enquire into the truth of these matters
Herodians - a sect among the Jews at the time of Jesus Christ, mentioned Matthew 22:16 ; Mark 3:6 ; Mark 8:15 ; Mark 12:13 ; but passed over in silence both by Josephus and Philo. The former opinion is favoured by the author of the Syriac version, who calls them the domestics of Herod; and also by Josephus's having passed them over in silence, though he professes to give an account of the several religious sects of the Jews. The latter opinion is countenanced by our Lord's caution against "the leaven of Herod," which implies that the Herodians were distinguished from the other Jews by some doctrinal tenets. Basnage supposes, that one thing meant by the leaven of the Herodians might be a conformity to Roman customs in some points which were forbidden the Jews: if this was the case, it is not strange that they are not mentioned by Josephus among the Jewish sects. The name Herodian, he imagines to have been given to such as adhered to Herod's party and interest, and were for preserving the government in his family, about which there were, at that time, great divisions among the Jews. Prideaux is of opinion that they derived their name from Herod the Great, and that they were distinguished from the other Jews by their concurrence with Herod's scheme of subjecting himself and his dominions to the Romans, and likewise by complying with many of their Heathen usages and customs. Herod had introduced several Heathen idolatrous usages; for, as Josephus says, he built a temple to Caesar, near the head of the river Jordan; he erected a magnificent theatre at Jerusalem, instituted Pagan games, and placed a golden eagle over the gate of the temple of Jehovah; and he furnished the temples, which he reared in several places out of Judea, with images for idolatrous worship, in order to ingratiate himself with the emperor and the people of Rome; though to the Jews he pretended that he did it against his will, and in obedience to the imperial command
Birthright -
This word denotes the special privileges and advantages belonging to the first-born son among the Jews. ...
...
The Jews attached a sacred importance to the rank of "first-born" and "first-begotten" as applied to the Messiah (Romans 8:29 ; Colossians 1:18 ; Hebrews 1:4-6 )
Nehemias - Sanaballat, his chief opponent, was unsuccessful in trying to prevent the work which had been so divided among the Jews that each family agreed to build a section of the wall as a monument to its zeal. To accomplish this he made use of an older list of Jews who had returned to Jerusalem under Zorobabel (538 B
Nehemiah - Sanaballat, his chief opponent, was unsuccessful in trying to prevent the work which had been so divided among the Jews that each family agreed to build a section of the wall as a monument to its zeal. To accomplish this he made use of an older list of Jews who had returned to Jerusalem under Zorobabel (538 B
Alexandria - Many Jews from Alexandria were in Jerusalem, where they had a synagogue (Acts 6:9 ), at the time of Stephen's martyrdom. At one time it is said that as many as 10,000 Jews resided in this city
Lycia - It was one of the self-governing states, to which the Romans sent letters in favour of the Jews in b. This proves that there were Jews there
Rejection (2) - Matthew 21:42, under the figure of the cornerstone, refers to the rejection of Jesus by the Jews; and in Mark 12:10 and Luke 20:17 the same reference occurs. When the Jews rejected Jesus, they wrote their own sentence of doom, while the Gentiles who have accepted Jesus have secured the leadership of the world
Gamaliel - His views were tolerant and large-hearted; he emphasized the humaner side of the Law, relaxing somewhat the rigour of Sabbatical observance, regulating the customs of divorce so as the more to protect helpless woman, and inculcating kindness on the part of Jews towards surrounding heathen. ...
The Clementine Recognitions absurdly state that by the advice of the Apostles he remained among the Jews as a secret believer in Christ
Latin - The Gentile names adopted by Jews were generally of Greek form (e. Throughout Palestine, while Latin was the language of the administration, Greek was the main language of commerce, and Aramaic the language of common intercourse among Jews
Herodion - Almost certainly we should understand ‘fellow-Jews’ or ‘fellow-members of my tribe’ (see Romans 9:5). He considers that Aristobulus was a member of the Herodian family, and that his ‘household’ would naturally include many Orientals and Jews, and therefore probably some Christians (Philippians4 1878, p
Heresy, Heretic - ' The same Greek word is translated 'sect' and is applied to the sects among the Jews, as the Sadducees and the Pharisees. It was employed by the Jews respecting Christianity
Apollonius - who molested the Jews ( 2Ma 12:2 ). A governor of Cœle-Syria who fought against the Jews (b
Embalming - Also the women who had followed Jesus "bought sweet spices, that they might come and anoint him," Mark 16:1; Luke 23:56; and Nicodemus "brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes," and "wound" the body "in linen clothes with the spices, as the manner of the Jews is to bury. In some instances, too, the later Jews embalmed a body in honey, after having covered it with wax
Bath-Kol - Prideaux shows, was a fantastical way of divination, invented by the Jews, like the Sortes Virgilianae [1] among the Heathen. For, as with them, the words first opened upon in the works of that poet, was the oracle whereby they prognosticated those future events which they desired to be informed of; so with the Jews when they appealed to Bath- Kol, the next words which they should hear drop from any one's mouth were taken as the desired oracle
Swine - The eating of swine's flesh was among the most odious of the idolatrous abominations charged upon some of the Jews, Isaiah 65:4 66:3,17 . The herd of swine destroyed by evil spirits in the Sea of Gennesaret, Matthew 8:32 , are supposed to have been kept by Jews for sale to the Gentiles around them, in defiance of the law
Sabbath - The day which God appointed to be observed by the Jews as a day of rest from all secular labor or employments, and to be kept holy and consecrated to his service and worship. This was originally the seventh day of the week, the day on which God rested from the work of creation and this day is still observed by the Jews and some christians, as the sabbath
Jehoiachin - To the captive Jews this was a sign of hope that one day they would all be released (2 Kings 25:27-30). When, after Persia’s conquest of Babylon in 539 BC, the Jews were released and returned to Jerusalem, a grandson of Jehoiachin, Zerubbabel, became their governor (1 Chronicles 3:17; Ezra 3:2; Haggai 1:1; Matthew 1:12)
Alexander - Alexander at the sight of the linen arrayed priests, and the high priest in blue and gold with the miter and gold plate on his head bearing Jehovah's name, adored it, and embraced him; and having been shown Daniel's prophecies concerning him, he sacrificed to God in the court of the temple, and granted the Jews liberty to live according to their own laws, and freedom from tribute in the sabbatical years. But their silence may be accounted for, as they notoriously despised the Jews. Jews were in his army. Jews were a strong element in the population of that city which he founded and which still bears his name, Alexandria. The Greek language, that most perfect medium of human thought, became widely diffused, so that a Greek version of the Old Testament was needed and made (the Septuagint) for the Greek speaking Jews at Alexandria and elsewhere in a succeeding generation; and the fittest lingual vehicle for imparting the New Testament to mankind soon came to be the language generally known by the cultivated of every land. Commerce followed the breaking down of national exclusiveness, and everywhere the Jews had their synagogues for prayer and reading of the Old Testament in the leading cities. preparing the way and the place for the proclamation of the gospel, which rests on the Old Testament, to the Jews first, and then to the Gentiles. A kinsman of Annas the high priest (Acts 4:6); supposed the same as Alexander the alabarch (governor of the Jews) at Alexandria, brother of Philo-Judaeus, an ancient friend of the emperor Claudius. A Jew whom the Jews put forward during Demetrius' riot at Ephesus to plead their cause before the mob who suspected that the Jews were joined with the Christians in seeking to overthrow Diana's worship (Acts 19:33). Calvin thought him a convert to Christianity from Judaism, whom the Jews would have sacrificed as a victim to the fury of the rabble
Exile - 598 (Jeremiah 52:28 ; 2 Kings 24:12 ), in the beginning of Jehoiachin's reign (2 Kings 24:8 ), Nebuchadnezzar carried away captive 3,023 eminent Jews, including the king (2 Chronicles 36:10 ), with his family and officers (2 Kings 24:12 ), and a large number of warriors (16), with very many persons of note (14), and artisans (16), leaving behind only those who were poor and helpless. ), there was a second general deportation of Jews by Nebuchadnezzar (Jeremiah 52:29 ; 2 Kings 25:8 ), including 832 more of the principal men of the kingdom. ...
When Cyrus granted permission to the Jews to return to their own land (Ezra 1:5 ; 7:13 ), only a comparatively small number at first availed themselves of the privilege. It cannot be questioned that many belonging to the kingdom of Israel ultimately joined the Jews under Ezra, Zerubbabel, and Nehemiah, and returned along with them to Jerusalem (Jeremiah 50:4,5,17-20,33-35 )
Israel, Spiritual - Spiritual Israel, the Christian church, has supplanted the Jews as the elect people of God (Romans 9:6-13 ; 1 Peter 2:9 ). Spiritual Israel includes Jews who believe in Jesus. Is spiritual Israel the church, Israel of all generations from Abraham to the end of time, Jews at the end of the ages, or the remnant of believing Jews included in the church or brought into the church in the last days? Many interpretations have been made
Deacons, Seven - Men elected by the original Christian community at Jerusalem and ordained by the Apostles, their office being chiefly to look after the poor, as the number of believers among the Grecian Jews had rapidly increased and their widows and children were being neglected
Adar - As the lunar year, which the Jews follow, is shorter than the solar year by eleven days, which after three years by eleven days, which, after three years, make about a month, they then insert a thirteenth month, which they call Ve- Adar, or a second Adar
Threatening - The prophets are filled with God's threatenings against the rebellious Jews
League - The Jews were forbidden to enter into an alliance of any kind (1) with the Canaanites (Exodus 23:32,33 ; 34:12-16 ); (2) with the Amalekites (Exodus 17:8,14 ; Deuteronomy 25:17-19 ); (3) with the Moabites and Ammonites (Deuteronomy 2:9,19 )
Tradition - In Mark 7:3,9,13 , Colossians 2:8 , this word refers to the arbitrary interpretations of the Jews
Wall - Among the Jews walls were built of stone, some of those in the temple being of great size (1 Kings 6:7 ; 7:9-12 ; 20:30 ; Mark 13:1,2 )
Nicodemus - A Pharisee, a ruler of the Jews, and a teacher of Israel, John 3:1; John 3:10, whose secret visit to our Lord was the occasion of the discourse recorded only by John
Lysias - A general of Antiochus Epiphanes, charged with a war of extermination against the Jews ( 1Ma 3:32 ff
Wool - was an article of the highest value among the Jews, as the staple material for the manufacture of clothing
Ephod - ) A part of the sacerdotal habit among Jews, being a covering for the back and breast, held together on the shoulders by two clasps or brooches of onyx stones set in gold, and fastened by a girdle of the same stuff as the ephod
Medeba - After the return from the captivity it was alternately in the possession of the Jews and of the Gentiles
Aramaic - , and spoken by thc Jews during and after the Babylonian exile (606-536 B
Corban - The Jews allowed, and perhaps encouraged, sons to devote their property to God, and then refuse to assist their parents under the plea that their substance was 'corban,' or devoted
Solomon's Porch - The Lord 'walked' therein, where there was room for the Jews to gather round Him
Disperse - ) To scatter abroad; to drive to different parts; to distribute; to diffuse; to spread; as, the Jews are dispersed among all nations
Abraham's Bosom - Abraham their forefather was believed by the Jews to be in the highest place of happiness, and their writings show that 'to be with Abraham' and to be in his bosom were terms they used to express the highest security and happiness
Bitter Herbs - The Jews were commanded to eat the Passover with a salad of bitter herbs; and the Rabbins tell us that such plants as wild lettuce, endives, and chicory were employed for that purpose, as they still are by the Arabs In those regions
Harosheth of the Gentiles - a city supposed to be situated near Hazor, in the northern parts of Canaan, called afterward Upper Galilee, or Galilee of the Gentiles, for the same reason that this place probably obtained that title, namely, from being less inhabited by Jews, and being near the great resorts of the Gentiles, Tyre and Sidon
Galbanum - It was an ingredient in the holy incense of the Jews
Hanani - A brother of Nehemiah, who brought to Babylon an account of the wretched state of the Jews then at Jerusalem, and afterwards had charge of the gates of the city, Nehemiah 1:1-3 7:2,3 , B
Puteoli - Such cities were specially sought by Jews and other foreigners, and Christians would early be living there, as St
Seven Deacons - Men elected by the original Christian community at Jerusalem and ordained by the Apostles, their office being chiefly to look after the poor, as the number of believers among the Grecian Jews had rapidly increased and their widows and children were being neglected
Harlot - Among the Jews, prostitutes were often foreigners; hence their name of "strange women
Hittites - They were not, however, exterminated: Uriah was a Hittite, 2 Samuel 11:3 ; Solomon used their services, 1 Kings 10:29 2 Kings 7:6 ; and they were not lost as a people until after the Jews' return from captivity, Ezra 9:1
Captive - They were kept for slaves, and often sold; but this was a modification of the ancient cruelty, and a substitute for putting them to death Although the treatment of captives by the Jews seems sometimes to be cruel, it was very much milder than that of the heathen, and was mitigated, as far as possible in the circumstances, by their civil code
Grecians - " Isaiah (Isaiah 66:19) foretells that the Jews who survive His judgments He will send as missionaries to Javan to "declare My glory among the Gentiles. The Greek of the New Testament and of the Grecians or Hellenist Jews was not Classical Greek, but Hebrew modes of thought and idiom clothed with Greek words. The Grecians or Greek-speaking Jews were at once Jewish missionaries to the pagan, witnessing everywhere against the prevalent polytheism, and pioneers to prepare unconsciously the way for the gospel missionary. They formed the connecting link between the Hebrew Jews and the Gentiles. The first church at Jerusalem was composed of these two classes, the "Hebrew" and the "Grecian" Jews; from whence, when the Grecian widows complained of being "neglected in the daily ministrations" of alms, the seven chosen to rectify matters were all "Grecians," judging from their Greek names, Stephen, Prochorus, etc. At first those scattered abroad "preached to, the Jews only" (the word is not "Hebrew" but "Jews," including "Grecians"); afterward some of them preached to pagan "Greeks. The "also" marks a further step than their "preaching unto the Jews (including 'Grecians') only
Exile - ...
There were three deportations of Jews to Babylon. Apparently, their small communities, isolated from other Jews, did not allow them to maintain much national identity. Jews loyal to the Davidic tradition assassinated Gedaliah, the governor (2 Kings 25:25 ). Many were probably not overjoyed to see Jews return from Babylon claiming land and leadership. Exiled Jews based their calendar on the exile of King Jehoichin in 597 ( Ezekiel 1:2 ; Ezekiel 33:21 ; Ezekiel 40:1 ). Babylonian documents show that eventually some Jews became successful merchants in Babylon. A Babylonian Jewish community was thus established and would exercise strong influence long after Cyrus of Persia permitted Jews to return to Judah. These Jews established their own worship, collected Scriptures, and began interpreting them in the Aramaic paraphrase and explanations which eventually became the Babylonian Talmud, but continued to support Jews in Jerusalem. Egypt Jews fled Jerusalem for Egypt (2 Kings 25:26 ) despite God's directions not to (Jeremiah 42:13-44:30 ). Many Jews apparently became part of the Egyptian army stationed in northern border fortresses to protect against Babylonian invasion. As such, they may have joined Jews who had come to Egypt earlier. (2 Chronicles 36:22-23 ; Ezra 1:1-4 ) released the Jews in Babylon to return to their homeland. Though conditions in the homeland were dismal, many Jews did return
Election - Thus the descendants of Abraham, the Jews, were chosen to receive special revelations of truth; and to be "the people of God," that is, his visible church, publicly to observe and uphold his worship. " It was especially on account of the application of the terms elect, chosen, and peculiar, to the Jewish people, that they were so familiarly used by the Apostles in their epistles addressed to the believing Jews and Gentiles, then constituting the church of Christ in various places. This change was no other than the abrogation of the church state of the Jews, which had continued for so many ages. All these were peculiar to the Jews, who were, therefore, an elected and peculiar people. Paul calls "the fellowship of the mystery" was fully explained, chiefly by the glorious ministry of that Apostle himself, were called into that church relation and visible acknowledgment as the people of God, which the Jews had formerly enjoyed, and that with even a higher degree of glory, in proportion to the superior spirituality of the new dispensation. It was this doctrine which excited that strong irritation in the minds of the unbelieving Jews, and in some partially Christianized ones, to which so many references are made in the New Testament. There was then a new election of a new people of God, to be composed of Jews, not by virtue of their natural descent, but through their faith in Christ, and of Gentiles of all nations, also believing, and put as believers, on an equal ground with the believing Jews: and there was also a rejection, a reprobation, but not an absolute one; for the election was offered to the Jews first, in every place, by offering them the Gospel. Some embraced it, and submitted to be the elect people of God, on the new ground of faith, instead of the old one of natural descent; and therefore the Apostle, Romans 11:7 , calls the believing part of the Jews, "the election," in opposition to those who opposed this "election of grace," and still clung to their former and now repealed election as Jews and the descendants of Abraham; "But the election hath obtained it, and the rest were blinded. " The offer had been made to the whole nation; all might have joined the one body of believing Jews and believing Gentiles; but the major part of them refused: they would not "come into the supper;" they made "light of it;" light of an election founded on faith, and which placed the relation of "the people of God" upon spiritual attainments, and offered to them only spiritual blessings. It was not the calling and the electing of one nation in particular to succeed the Jews; but it was the calling and the electing of believers in all nations, wherever the Gospel should be preached, to be in reality what the Jews typically, and therefore in an inferior degree, had been,—the visible church of God, "his people," under Christ "the Head;" with an authenticated revelation; with an appointed ministry, never to be lost; with authorized worship; with holy days and festivals; with instituted forms of initiation; and with special protection and favour
Tiberias - Antipas built in Tiberias a Roman stadium and palace adorned with images of animals which offended the Jews, as did also its site on an ancient burial ground. The Jews, constituting one-fourth of the population, have their quarter in the middle of the town near the lake. Jerusalem, Hebron, Safed, and Tiberias are the four holy places in which the Jews say if prayer without ceasing were not offered the world would fall into chaos. The Romans recognized the patriarch of Tiberias and empowered him to appoint his subordinate ministers who should visit all the distant colonies of Jews, and to receive contributions from the Jews of the whole Roman empire
Cock - ...
The rabbies tell us that cocks were not permitted to be kept in Jerusalem on account of the holiness of the place; and that for this reason some modern Jews cavil against this declaration of the Evangelists; but the cock is not among the birds prohibited in the law of Moses. If there was any restraint in the use and domestication of the animal, it must have been an arbitrary practice of the Jews, and could not have been binding on foreigners, of whom many resided at Jerusalem as officers or traders. Strangers would not be willing to forego an innocent kind of food in compliance with a conquered people; and the trafficking spirit of the Jews would induce them to supply aliens, if it did not expressly contradict the letter of their law. The celebrated Reland admits that it was not allowed to breed cocks in the city, but that the Jews were not prohibited from buying them to eat, and that therefore the cock mentioned in the Gospel might be in the house of a Jew who designed to kill it for his own table; or may have been kept in the precincts of Pilate, or of a Roman officer or soldier. ...
During the time of our Saviour, the night was divided into four watches, a fourth watch having been introduced among the Jews from the Romans, who derived it from the Greeks
Offence - The "offence of the cross" (Galatians 5:11 ) is the offence the Jews took at the teaching that salvation was by the crucified One, and by him alone
Publican - Hence the Jews classed them with sinners, and would not allow them to enter the temple or the synagogues, to partake of the public prayers or offices of judicature, or to give testimony in a court of justice
Cyrene - Simon of Cyrene may have belonged to the rather large population of Greek-speaking Jews who resided in the city during the first part of the first century A
Haman - He was a fierce enemy of the Jews, and he devised a plot to exterminate them
Cendebaeus - In a battle which took place in a plain not far from Modin the Jews gained a complete victory over Cendebæus, and pursued the Syrians as far as Kidron and the neighbourhood of Ashdod ( 1Ma 15:38 ; 1Ma 16:9 ; cf
Pontus - It was evidently the resort of many Jews of the Dispersion
Artaxerxes - 458) of whose reign Ezra led a second colony of Jews back to Jerusalem, was probably Longimanus, who reigned for forty years (B
Trophimus - He was with Paul in Jerusalem, and the Jews, supposing that the apostle had brought him with him into the temple, raised a tumult which resulted in Paul's imprisonment
Adar - Large, the sixth month of the civil and the twelfth of the ecclesiastical year of the Jews (Esther 3:7,13 ; 8:12 ; 9:1,15,17,19,21 )
Aceldama - The name which the Jews gave in their proper tongue, i
Lacedaemonians - It was, of course, entirely fanciful, the Hellenes and the Jews belonging respectively to the Indo-European and Semitic branches of the human race
Ferret, - The Jews' Bible (by Leeser) has 'hedgehog;' others think the 'shrew-mouse;' and others the 'gecko,' a wall-lizard
Snail - ' It was erroneously supposed by the Jews that by the slime which a snail leaves on its trail it gradually wasted away
Rose, - The bride in the Canticles calls herself a 'rose of Sharon'; and when God again brings the Jews into blessing "the desert shall rejoice and blossom as the rose
Moriah - The Jews say it was the mount bearing this name in Jerusalem
Arsaces - 5) from Rome forbidding the persecution of the Jews
Sherezer - Sent with Regem Melech by the Jews of the country to "the house of God," i
Hosanna - It is a Hebrew phrase, known in earlier times and taken from Psalms 115:1-18 which was recited as a part of the Great Hallel, Psalms 113:1-9; Psalms 114:1-8; Psalms 118:25,; Psalms 116:1-19; Psalms 117:1-2; Psalms 118:1-29, at the feast of tabernacles, and which was therefore familiar to the Jews
Tent Maker - Paul, according to the practice of the Jews, who, however opulent, always taught their children some trade, appears to have been a tent maker
Rabbi - A title given by the Jews to teachers of the law, and frequently applied to our Lord by the disciples and the people
Nicode'Mus - (conqueror of the people ), a Pharisee, a ruler of the Jews and a teacher of Israel, ( John 3:1,10 ) whose secret visit to our Lord was the occasion of the discourse recorded only by St
Huz'Zab - (fixed ), according to the general opinion of the Jews, was the queen of Nineveh at the time when Nahum delivered his prophecy
Blindness - The Jews were specially charged to treat the blind with compassion and care
Ring - The custom appears also to have prevailed among the Jews of the apostolic age
Septuagint - According to stories handed down by the Jews, the number of translators was about seventy. ...
Though the Septuagint was originally prepared for orthodox Jews of the pre-Christian era, the people who benefited most from it were the early Christians. In fact, the Septuagint’s popularity with the Christians was one reason why it lost favour with the Jews
Iconium - They preached in the synagogue first, as was Paul's wont, and with such power of the Holy Spirit "that a great multitude both of Jews and also of Greeks believed. "...
But the unbelieving Jews stirred up the Gentiles so as to be "evil affected against the brethren. " An assault of Jews and Gentiles with their rulers, to stone them, being threatened, they withdrew to Lystra and Derbe in the eastern and wilder parts of Lycaonia
Tibe'Rias, - Many of the inhabitants were Greeks and Romans, and foreign customs prevailed there: to such an extent as to give offence to the stricter Jews. It bore a conspicuous part in the wars between the Jews and the Romans. It contains now, under the Turkish rule, a mixed population of Mohammedans, Jews and Christian, variously estimated at from two to four thousand
Salt - Indispensable as salt is to ourselves, it was even more so to the Hebrews, being to them not only an appetizing condiment in the food both of man, (Job 11:6 ) and beset, (Isaiah 30:24 ) see margin, and a valuable antidote to the effects of the heat of the climate on animal food, but also entering largely into the religious services of the Jews as an accompaniment to the various offerings presented on the altar. The Jews appear to have distinguished between rock-salt and that which was gained by evaporation as the Talmudists particularize one species (probably the latter) as the "salt of Sodom. It was probably with a view to keep this idea prominently before the minds of the Jews that the use of salt was enjoined on the Israelites in their offerings to God
Shiloh - Some translate the clause, "The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, till he comes to whom it belongs;" others, "till the coming of the peacemaker, or the pacific, or prosperity;" and some, "The sceptre shall not depart from Judah till its end, its ruin," till the downfall of the kingdom of the Jews. However, this much is clear, that the ancient Jews are in this matter agreed with the Christians, in acknowledging that the word stands for Messiah, the King. The sceptre still continued among the Jews; they had still kings of their own nation, in the persons of the Herods; but soon after the sceptre was entirely taken away from them, and a people began to be gathered to Christ, out of the Gentile nations
Benediction - Neither the ancient Jews, nor Christians, ever ate without a short prayer. The Jews are obliged to rehearse a hundred benedictions every day; of which, eighty are to be spoken in the morning. Among the ancient Jews, as well as Christians, benedictions were attended with the imposition of hands; and Christians, in process of time, added the sign of the cross, which was made with the same hand, elevated or extended
he'Brews, Epistle to the - --The epistle was probably addressed to the Jews in Jerusalem and Palestine. The argument of the epistle is such as could he used with most effect to a church consisting exclusively of Jews by birth, personally familiar with and attached to the temple service. --With respect to the scope of the epistle, it should be recollected that while the numerous Christian churches scattered throughout Judea, ( Acts 9:31 ; Galatians 1:22 ) were continually exposed to persecution from the Jews, (1 Thessalonians 2:14 ) there was in Jerusalem one additional weapon in the hands of the predominant oppressors of the Christians
Collection For the Poor Saints - The Jews in Jerusalem may have isolated Christian Jews from the economic system. The fact that the Gentiles were willing to aid the Jews in this manner validated Paul's Gentile mission
Caiaphas - They feared that, if the Jews accepted Jesus as their Messiah and rebelled against Rome, the Romans would respond by crushing the Jews (John 11:47-48). ...
Acting upon the advice of Caiaphas, the Jews plotted to arrest Jesus (John 11:53; Matthew 26:3-5)
Jews - Jews, history of the. Judah was invaded by Sennacherib; but Hezekiah's piety, and Isaiah's prayer, were the means of their preservation: but under Manasseh, the Jews abandoned themselves to horrid impiety: for which they were punished by Esarhaddon, king of Assyria, who invaded and reduced the kingdom, and carried Manasseh prisoner to Babylon. In the seventieth year from the begun captivity, the Jews, according to the edict of Cyrus, king of Persia, who had overturned the empire of Chaldea, returned to their own country. About eight years after, he transported another multitude of Jews to Egypt, and gave them considerable privileges. ...
About the same time, Seleucus Nicator, having built about thirty new cities in Asia, settled in them as many Jews as he could; and Ptolemy Philadelphus, of Egypt, about 3720, bought the freedom of all the Jew slaves in Egypt. Multitudes were killed, and ten thousand prisoners carried off; the temple was dedicated to Olympius, an idol of Greece, and the Jews exposed to the basest treatment. About twenty years before our Saviour's birth, he, with the Jews' consent began to build the temple. ...
About this time the Jews had hopes of the Messiah; and about A. The Jews, however, a few excepted, rejected the Messiah, and put him to death. The Jews since that time, have been scattered, contemned, persecuted, and enslaved among all nations, not mixed with any in the common manner, but have remained as a body distinct by themselves. Jews, sentiments of. The Jews commonly reckon but thirteen articles of their faith. All the Jews are obliged to live and die in the profession of these thirteen articles, which are as follow:...
1. The modern Jews adhere still as closely to the Mosaic dispensation, as their dispersed and despised condition will permit them. They abstain from meats prohibited by the Levitical law; for which reason, whatever they eat must be dressed by Jews, and after a manner peculiar to themselves. ...
The Jews pray for the souls of the dead, because they suppose there is a paradise for the souls of good men, where they enjoy glory in the presence of God. Almost all the modern Jews are Pharisees, and are as much attached to tradition as their ancestors were; and assert that whoever rejects the oral law deserves death. ...
There are to this day some remains of the ancient sect of the Samaritans, who are zealous for the law of Moses, but are despised by the Jews, because they receive only the Pentateuch, and observe different ceremonies from theirs. Jews, calamities of. ...
All history cannot furnish us with a parallel to the calamities and miseries of the Jews; rapine and murder, famine and pestilence, within; fire and sword, and all the terrors of war, without. " It is hardly possible to consider the nature and extent of their sufferings, and not conclude the Jews' own imprecation to be singularly fulfilled upon them, Matthew 27:25 . " At Cesarea twenty thousand of the Jews were killed. At Damascus ten thousand unarmed Jews were killed: and at Bethshan the Heathen inhabitants caused their Jewish neighbours to assist them against their brethren, and then murdered thirteen thousand of these inhabitants. ...
At Alexandria the Jews murdered multitudes of the Heathens, and were murdered in their turn to about fifty thousand. Titus was bent to save the temple, but could not: there were six thousand Jews who had taken shelter in it, all burnt or murdered! The outcries of the Jews, when they saw it, were most dreadful: the whole city, except three towers and a small part of the wall, was razed to the ground, and the foundations of the temple and other places were ploughed up. About fifty years after, the Jews murdered about five hundred thousand of the Roman subjects, for which they were severely punished by Trajan. In this war, it is said, about sixty thousand Jews were slain, and perished. Jews, preservation of. ...
"The preservation of the Jews, " says Basnage, "in the midst of the miseries which they have undergone during 1700 years, is the greatest prodigy that can be imagined. The Jews have been expelled, in different times, from every part of the world, which hath only served to spread them in all regions. Jews, number and dispersion of...
They are looked upon to be as numerous at present as they were formerly in the land of Canaan. Jews, restoration of. ...
From the declarations of Scripture we have reason to suppose the Jews shall be called to a participation of the blessings of the Gospel, Romans 11:1-36 : 2 Corinthians 3:16 . Josephus's History of the Jews; Spect. ; Warburton's Address to the Jews, in the Dedication of the 2d vol. of his Legation; Sermons preached to the Jews at Berry-street, by Dr. of the Jews; Shaw's Philosophy of Judiasm; Hartley on Man, vol. 455, 487; Bicheno's Restoration of the Jews; Jortin's Rem. 153; Neale's History of the Jews; Pirie's Posth
Wailing-Place, Jews' - A section of the western wall of the temple area, where the Jews assemble every Friday afternoon to bewail their desolate condition (Psalm 79:1,4,5 ). The wailing-place of the Jews, viewed in its past spiritual and historic relations, is indeed "the saddest nook in this vale of tears
Day - The Jews reckoned the day from sunset to sunset (Leviticus 23:32 ). Before the Captivity the Jews divided the night into three watches, (1) from sunset to midnight (Lamentations 2:19 ); (2) from midnight till the cock-crowing (Judges 7:19 ); and (3) from the cock-crowing till sunrise (Exodus 14:24 )
Murder, Ritual - A false accusation frequently made against the Jews, that at the time of the Passover they sometimes kidnap a Christian male child and, after torture, put him to death in derision of the Passion of Our Lord. The incident to which the foundation of this charge may be attributed was the murder of Saint William of Norwich in 1144, a crime for which Jews were tried and which was popularly attributed to them
Gallio - The Jews of Corinth brought St. When, however, Gallio found that there was no charge of ‘villainy,’ but only of questions which the Jews as a self-administering community were competent to decide for themselves, he drove them from the judgment-seat ( Acts 18:14 f
Halicarnassus - It was one of the States to which the Roman Senate sent letters in favour of the Jews in b. , granting to the Jews religious liberty and the right to build their proseuchai beside the sea (Jos
Promise - The Jews converted to Christianity, in opposition to the obstinate Jews, who would not believe in Christ
Assideanis - " They were a kind of religious society among the Jews, whose chief and distinguishing character was, to maintain the honour of the temple, and observe punctually the traditions of the elders. This sect arose either during the captivity, or soon after the restoration of the Jews; and were probably in the commencement, and long afterward, a truly pious part of the nation; but they at length became superstitious
Ritual Murder - A false accusation frequently made against the Jews, that at the time of the Passover they sometimes kidnap a Christian male child and, after torture, put him to death in derision of the Passion of Our Lord. The incident to which the foundation of this charge may be attributed was the murder of Saint William of Norwich in 1144, a crime for which Jews were tried and which was popularly attributed to them
Sabina, Poppaea - , and Vita , 3) she exerted her influence with Nero in favour of the Jews (see Lightfoot, Philipp. It has even been conjectured that it was through her that the Christians and not Jews were selected as the victims to suffer for the burning of Rome
Jews - After the Babylonish captivity, when many individuals of these ten tribes returned with the men of Judah and Benjamin to rebuild Jerusalem, the term Jews included them also, or rather was then extended to all the descendants of Israel who retained the Jewish religion, whether they belonged to the two or to the ten tribes, whether they returned into Judea or not. Hence, not only all the Israelites of future times have been called Jews, but all the descendants of Jacob, from the earliest times, are frequently so called by us at present, and we speak even of their original dispensation as the Jewish dispensation. 536,) under whom were united the kingdoms of Persia, Media, and Babylon, issued a decree, permitting all the Jews to return to their own land, and to rebuild their temple at Jerusalem. But it was in the reign of Artaxerxes Longimanus, called in Scripture Ahasuerus, that Ezra obtained his commission, and was made governor of the Jews in their own land, which government he held thirteen years: then Nehemiah was appointed with fresh powers, probably through the interest of Queen Esther; and Ezra applied himself solely to correcting the canon of the Scriptures, and restoring and providing for the continuance of the worship of God in its original purity. The first care of the Jews, after their arrival in Judea, was to build an altar for burnt-offerings to God: they then collected materials for rebuilding the temple; and all necessary preparations being made, in the beginning of the second year after their return under Zerubbabel, they began to build it upon the old foundations. The Samaritans, affirming that they worshipped the God of Israel, offered to assist the Jews; but their assistance being refused, they did all in their power to impede the work; and hence originated that enmity which ever after subsisted between the Jews and Samaritans. Though this second temple, or, as it is sometimes called, the temple of Zerubbabel, who was at that time governor of the Jews, was of the same size and dimensions as the first, or Solomon's temple, yet it was very inferior to it in splendour and magnificence; and the ark of the covenant, the Shechinah, the holy fire upon the altar, the Urim and Thummim, and the spirit of prophecy, were all wanting to this temple of the remnant of the people. At the feast of the dedication, offerings were made for the twelve tribes of Israel, which seems to indicate that some of all the tribes returned from captivity; but by far the greater number were of the tribe of Judah, and therefore from this period the Israelites were generally called Judaei or Jews, and their country Judea. This refusal irritated Alexander; and when he had taken Tyre, he marched toward Jerusalem to revenge himself upon the Jews. Alexander, visibly struck with this solemn appearance, immediately laid aside his hostile intentions, advanced toward the high priest, embraced him, and paid adoration to the name of God, which was inscribed upon the frontlet of his mitre: he afterward went into the city with the high priest, and offered sacrifices in the temple to the God of the Jews. Before he left Jerusalem he granted the Jews the same free enjoyment of their laws and their religion, and exemption from tribute every sabbatical year, which they had been allowed by the kings of Persia; and when he built Alexandria, he placed a great number of Jews there, and granted them many favours and immunities. Whether any Jews settled in Europe so early as while the nation was subject to the Macedonian empire, is not known; but it is believed that they began to Hellenize about this time. But Ptolemy Soter, son of Lagus, king of Egypt, soon after made himself master of it by a stratagem: he entered Jerusalem on a Sabbath day, under pretence of offering sacrifice, and took possession of the city without resistance from the Jews, who did not on this occasion dare to transgress their law by fighting on a Sabbath day. Ptolemy carried many thousands captive into Egypt, both Jews and Samaritans, and settled them there: he afterward treated them with kindness, on account of their acknowledged fidelity to their engagements, particularly in their conduct toward Darius, king of Persia; and he granted them equal privileges with the Macedonians themselves at Alexandria. Ptolemy Philadelphus is said to have given the Jews who were captives in Egypt their liberty, to the number of a hundred and twenty thousand. Antiochus the Great granted considerable favours and immunities to the city of Jerusalem; and, to secure Lydia and Phrygia, he established colonies of Jews in those provinces. The evils to which the Jews were exposed from these foreign powers were considerably aggravated by the corruption and misconduct of their own high priests, and other persons of distinction among them. Antiochus Epiphanes, irritated at having been prevented by the Jews from entering the holy place when he visited the temple, soon after made a popular commotion the pretence for the exercise of tyranny: he took the city, (B. His first care was to repair and purify the temple for the restoration of divine worship; and, to preserve the memory of this event, the Jews ordained a feast of eight days, called the feast of the dedication, to be yearly observed. Julius Caesar confirmed Hyrcanus in the pontificate, and granted fresh privileges to the Jews; but about four years after the death of Julius Caesar, Antigonus, the son of Aristobulus, with the assistance of the Parthians, while the empire of Rome was in an unsettled state, deposed his uncle Hyrcanus, (B. Herod considerably enlarged the kingdom of Judea, but it continued tributary to the Romans; he greatly depressed the civil power of the high priesthood, and changed it from being hereditary and for life to an office granted and held at the pleasure of the monarch; and this sacred office was now often given to those who paid the highest price for it, without any regard to merit: he was an inexorable, cruel tyrant to his people, and even to his children, three of whom he put to death; a slave to his passions, and indifferent by what means he gratified his ambition; but to preserve the Jews in subjection, and to erect a lasting monument to his own name, he repaired the temple of Jerusalem at a vast expense, and added greatly to its magnificence. ...
At this time there was a confident expectation of the Messiah among the Jews; and indeed, a general idea prevailed among the Heathen, also, that some extraordinary conqueror or deliverer would soon appear in Judea. Herod, misled by the opinion, which was then common among the Jews, that the Messiah was to appear as the temporal prince, and judging from the inquiries of the wise men of the east, that the child was actually born, sent to Bethlehem, and ordered that all the children of two years old and under should be put to death, with the hope of destroying one whom he considered as the rival of himself, or at least of his family. ) Archelaus acted with great cruelty and injustice; and in the tenth year of his government, upon a regular complaint being made against him by the Jews, Augustus banished him to Vienne, in Gaul, where he died. The power of life and death was now taken out of the hands of the Jews, and taxes were from this time paid immediately to the Roman emperor. Several of the Roman governors severely oppressed and persecuted the Jews; and at length, in the reign of Nero, and in the government of Florus, who had treated them with greater cruelty than any of his predecessors, they openly revolted from the Romans. Then began the Jewish war, which was terminated, after an obstinate defence and unparalleled sufferings on the part of the Jews, by the total destruction of the city and temple of Jerusalem, by the overthrow of their civil and religious polity, and the reduction of the people to a state of the most abject slavery; for though, in the reign of Adrian, numbers of them collected together, in different parts of Judea, it is to be observed, they were then considered and treated as rebellious slaves; and these commotions were made a pretence for the general slaughter of those who were taken, and tended to complete the work of their dispersion into all countries under heaven. Since that time the Jews have no where subsisted as a nation. Jews, MODERN. The Jews divide the books of the Old Testament into three classes: the law, the prophets, and the hagiographa, or holy writings. Beside the Scriptures, the Jews pay great attention to the Targums, or Chaldee paraphrases of them. It seems probable that these were written either during the Babylonish captivity, or immediately afterward, when the Jews had forgotten their own language, and acquired the Chaldee of the Targums, at present received by the Jews. ...
The Jews also regard with great veneration, what is called the Talmud. The Jews suppose that God first dictated the text of the law to Moses, which he commanded to be put in writing, and which exists in the Pentateuch, and then gave him an explication of every thing comprehended in it, which he ordered to be committed to memory. The last month of Moses's life was spent, according to the Jews, in repeating and explaining the law to the people, and especially to Joshua, his successor. This law was only oral till the days of Rabbi Jehuda, who, perceiving that the students of the law were gradually decreasing, and that the Jews were dispersed over the face of the earth, collected all the traditions, arranged them under distinct heads, and formed them into a methodical code of traditional law; thus the Mishna was formed. The Jews in Chaldea, however, not being satisfied with this Gemara, one of their rabbies compiled another; which, together with the Mishna, forms the Babylonian Talmud. By the cabala, the Jews mean those mystical interpretations of the Scripture, and metaphysical speculations concerning the Deity, angels, &c, which they regard as having been handed down by a secret tradition from the earliest ages. They are enjoined to be said by all Jews above the age of thirteen, wherever they may be, three times a day. ...
Of the festivals of the Jews we can mention only a few, and those merely in a cursory manner. The feast of the passover commences on the fifteenth day of the month Nisan, and continues among Jews who live in or near Jerusalem seven days, and elsewhere eight days
Alexandrians - Others (Wendt, Zöckler, Sanday, Knowling, Winer-Moulton) think that the first three classes or Jews had one synagogue and the last two another-an idea favoured by the τῶν … τῶν after τινες. translation , 113) is disposed to accept as ‘by no means improbable,’...
The Jews of Alexandria (q. While one quarter, known as Delta, was entirely peopled by Jews (Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) ii. Till the time of Augustus the Jews were presided over by an ethnarch, who, according to Strabo (quoted by Josephus, Ant. The governor Flaccus issued an edict in which he termed the Jews of Alexandria ‘strangers,’ thus depriving them of the rights of citizenship which they had enjoyed for centuries. 90) one could still see standing in Alexandria ‘the pillar containing the privileges which the great Caesar (Julius) bestowed upon the Jews’ (τὴν στήλην … τὰ δικαιώματα περιέχουσαν ἃ Καῖσαρ ὁ μέγας τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις ἔδωκεν Artaxerxes - To him the adversaries of the Jews wrote, in order to frustrate the building of the temple. Cambyses did not act on the accusation of the Jews' enemies; Ahasuerus Smerdis did forbidding the continuation of a work commenced under Cyrus, and continued under his son and successor. The sympathy of Cyrus and Cambyses with the Jews in restoring their temple was to him just the reason for prohibiting it. He allowed Nehemiah (Nehemiah 2:1) to spend 12 years at Jerusalem to settle the affairs of the returned Jews
Persia - As a result many of the Jews returned to Jerusalem, where they soon began rebuilding the temple and the city (Ezra 1:1-4). )...
When at times non-Jewish people of the region opposed and persecuted the Jews in Jerusalem, the Persian rulers protected the Jews (Ezra 5:3-17; Ezra 6:1-12; Nehemiah 2:9-10; Esther 8:9-14). The Persian government even gave the Jews funds to help carry out their program for the reconstruction of their nation and religion (Ezra 6:8-10; Ezra 7:14-16; Ezra 7:21-24; Nehemiah 2:7-8)
Romans, Epistle to the - At this time the Jews were very numerous in Rome, and their synagogues were probably resorted to by Romans also, who in this way became acquainted with the great facts regarding Jesus as these were reported among the Jews. Thus a church composed of both Jews and Gentiles was formed at Rome. The subject is here treated argumentatively, and is a plea for Gentiles addressed to Jews
Abomination of Desolation - 3) refers to the Jews' tradition that the temple would be destroyed "if domestic hands should first pollute it. Jewish rabbis considered the prophecy fulfilled when the Jews erected an idol altar, described as "the abomination of desolation" in 1 Maccabees 1:54; 1 Maccabees 6:7. 70), is not enough to meet the requirements of the term "abomination," unless it were shown that the Jews shared in the idolatry. The last antichrist, many think, is about to set up an idol on a wing of the restored temple (compare Matthew 4:5; John 5:43) in the latter half of the last, or 70th, of Daniel's prophetic weeks; for the former three and a half days (years) of the prophetic week he keeps his covenant with the Jews; in the latter three and a half breaks it (Zechariah 11:16-17; Zechariah 11:12; Zechariah 11:13; Zechariah 11:14; Daniel 9; 11)
Festus, Porcius - To ingratiate himself with the Jews he asked Paul would he go up to Jerusalem for judgment there P But Paul, knowing there was little hope of an impartial trial there, as a Roman citizen appealed to Caesar (Acts 25-26). ...
Both certainly were touched; and Festus, forgetting that it was his own proposal to try Paul at Jerusalem, the place where already Paul's life had been conspired against (Acts 23), and virtually to deliver him up to the Jews (Acts 25:11), that drove Paul in self defense to appeal to Rome, said, "This man doeth nothing worthy of death and bonds" (why then had he not released him?); and Agrippa, in compliment to Festus, laid the blame of his detention on Paul himself instead of on Festus, "This man might have been set at liberty if he had not appealed to Caesar. Festus sided with Agrippa against the Jews as to the high wall they built to prevent Agrippa seeing from his dining room in the palace into the temple court, for it hindered the Roman guard also from seeing the temple from the castle of Antonia during the great feasts. The Roman emperor under the influence of Poppaea, a proselyte, decided on appeal in favor of the Jews
Azariah - This name was very common among the Jews, and was borne by many briefly referred to in Scripture
Daric - ), and possibly the earliest coined money used by the Jews who became acquainted with it during the Exile
Antonia - It was "the castle" from which soldiers came down to rescue Paul from the Jews in the temple; and from its stairs he addressed the multitude, Acts 21:31-40
Religion - It is thus used of one form of religion as distinguished from another; as in 2Ma 14:36 , where the same word is translated in the middle of the verse ‘Judaism,’ and in the end of it ‘the religion of the Jews
Ezekiel - (a) (5th century BCE) He prophesied during the Babylonian exile, encouraging the Jews to remain steadfast to Judaism despite their hardships
Cornelius - His residence at Caesrea probably brought him into contact with Jews who communicated to him their expectations regarding the Messiah; and thus he was prepared to welcome the message Peter brought him
Theocracy - A word first used by Josephus to denote that the Jews were under the direct government of God himself
Jabneel - Later the city was called Jamnia and became a center of scribal activity for the Jews
Bastard - From the history of Jephthah we learn that there were bastard offspring among the Jews (Judges 11:1-7 )
Passover - A solemn festival of the Jews, instituted in commemoration of their coming out of Egypt; because, the night before their departure, the destroying angel, who put to death the first-born of the Egyptians, passed over the houses of the Hebrews, without entering therein; because they were marked with the blood of the lamb, which was killed the evening before, and which for this reason was called the paschal lamb
Willow - In Babylonian captivity the Jews hung their harps on willow trees because they did not feel like singing about Jerusalem in a foreign land (Psalm 137:1-4 )
Disperse - To scatter to drive asunder to cause to separate into different parts as, the Jews are dispersed among all nations
Lasthenes - When Demetrius was endeavouring to make terms with Jonathan the Maccabæan, he wrote to Lasthenes in favour of the Jews, and forwarded a copy of his letter to the Jewish prince ( 1Ma 11:29-37 )
Sedition - Government officials in Persia's province headquartered in Samaria accused the Jews in Jerusalem of a history of rebellion as evidence against allowing Jerusalem and its Temple to be rebuilt (Ezra 4:15 )
Yechezkel - (a) (5th century BCE) He prophesied during the Babylonian exile, encouraging the Jews to remain steadfast to Judaism despite their hardships
Sackbut - But certain it is that very little hath ever been understood, even among the Jews themselves, after their return from Babylon, concerning the instruments to which their fathers had been so partial
Prophet, the - He was the perfect exponent of God's mind to the Jews (Acts 3:22 ; Acts 7:37 ), and the proclaimer of God's grace to a guilty world
Ahikam - His son Gedaliah headed the Jews left in Judah after Nebuchadnezzar destroyed Jerusalem (586 B
Titus - When his father returned to Rome upon being appointed emperor, Titus completed the destruction begun by his father, burning the Temple and massacring and exiling the Jews
Gallio - Roman proconsul of the province of Achaia, before whom Paul was accused; but who drove the Jews away, saying he would be no judge of words, and names, and of their law
Pontus - Acts 2:9-10; Acts 18:2; 1 Peter 1:1; which passages show many Jews resided there
c Sar - Such Jews as were Roman citizens had the right of appeal to Cæsar, Acts 25:11, who was their ruler
Aceldama - But it having been afterward bought with the money by which the high priest and ruler of the Jews purchased the blood of Jesus, it was called Aceldama, or the Field of Blood
Advocate - This use of the word is derived from the fact that the Jews, being largely ignorant of the Roman law and the Roman language, had to employ Roman advocates in their trials before Roman courts
Zadok - son of Ahitub, high priest of the Jews, of the race of Eleazar
Cummin - The Jews sowed it in their fields, and when ripe threshed out the seeds with a rod, Isaiah 28:25 ; Isaiah 28:27
Dedication - The Jews also practiced a certain dedication of walls, houses, etc
Religious of Notre Dame de Sion - A religious congregation founded by the brothers Marie-Theodore and Marie-Alphonse Ratisbonne in Paris, France in 1843 for the conversion of the Jews and the education of the young
Mortar - Large iron mortars, for pounding grain, have been used by the Turks in the execution of criminals; but it is not known that the Jews ever practiced this mode of punishment
Samaritan - The Jews had no dealings with the Samaritans
Salamis - This was the native isle of Barnabas, and many Jews resided there to whom the gospel had already been carried, Acts 4:36 ; 11:19,20 ; 21:16
Willing - Felix, willing to show the Jews a pleasure
Gedali'ah - Jeremiah jointed Gedaliah; and Mizpah became the resort of Jews from various quarters
Mile, - The mile of the Jews is said to have been of two kinds, long or short, dependent on the length of the pace, which varied in different parts, the long pace being double the length of the short one
Rabbi - a title of respect signifying master, teacher , given by the Jews to their doctors and teachers, and often addressed to our Lord
Corban - Jews were much addicted to rash vows; a saying of the rabbis was, "It is hard for the parents, but the law is clear, vows must be kept
Judea - That part of Palestine adjacent to Jerusalem, its capital, and inhabited by the Jews after their return from captivity
Haman - He is called an "Agagite," which seems to denote that he was descended from the royal family of the Amalekites, the bitterest enemies of the Jews, as Agag was one of the titles of the Amalekite kings
Tobiah - He was a man of great influence, which he exerted in opposition to the Jews, and "sent letters" to Nehemiah "to put him in fear" (Nehemiah 6:17-19 )
Tatnai - With others, Tatnai opposed the rebuilding of the temple (Ezra 5:6 ); but at the command of Darius, he assisted the Jews (6:1-13)
Bridle - Isaiah 37:29, "I will put My hook in thy nose and My bridle in thy lips," is illustrated in the Assyrian monuments, which represent captives with bridles attached to rings inserted in their under lip, and held in the hand of the king; some of the captives with short beards, tasseled caps, long tunics, and hosen or boots (Daniel 3:21), seem in physiognomy Jews, or Israelites of the ten tribes
Sosthenes - Safe in strength, the chief ruler of the synagogue at Corinth, who was seized and beaten by the mob in the presence of Gallio, the Roman governor, when he refused to proceed against Paul at the instigation of the Jews (Acts 18:12-17 )
Philadelphia - There is no record of how the church there was established, but it was only small and it suffered much from the persecutions of the Jews (Revelation 3:7-9)
Scourging - The punishment of scourging was common among the Jews
Hanukkah - 22, is held for eight days (beginning with the 25th day of Kislev, corresponding to December), and is celebrated everywhere, chiefly as a festival of lights, by the Jews
Jehovah - As distinct from Elohim, it signifies the God of revelation and redemption, the God of the Jews, while Elohim is the God of nature, the Creator and Preserver of all men
Iconium - Multitudes of Jews and Greeks believed the word of God's grace, and the apostles wrought many signs and wonders there
Herodians - The name comes from Herod, and refers to those who took part with him and his successors in leavening the Jews with Grecian and Roman manners and licentiousness
Sanballat - He was an enemy of the Jews, and by plots and guile hindered the work as far as he could
Abraham's Bosom - In Roman times, their custom of reclining on Couches at meals prevailed among the Jews
Agabus - Later, Agabus went to Caesarea and predicted that Paul would be arrested by the Jews in Jerusalem (Acts 21:10-11 )
Beard - Among the Jews and other Orientals the beard was cherished as a symbol of virility
Caesar - The Jews paid tribute to Caesar (Matthew 22:17 ), and all Roman citizens had the right of appeal to him (Acts 25:11 )
Gamaliel - The Jews say he died a Pharisee, but ecclesiastical tradition records that he became a Christian
Tent-Maker - All Jews learned a trade, to which they could turn if needful
Jehovah - the Jews had so great a veneration for this name, that they left off the custom of pronouncing it, whereby its true pronunciation was forgotten
Vocation - ) The bestowment of God's distinguishing grace upon a person or nation, by which that person or nation is put in the way of salvation; as, the vocation of the Jews under the old dispensation, and of the Gentiles under the gospel
Sabbath - ) A season or day of rest; one day in seven appointed for rest or worship, the observance of which was enjoined upon the Jews in the Decalogue, and has been continued by the Christian church with a transference of the day observed from the last to the first day of the week, which is called also Lord's Day
Phylactery - They are worn by Jews on the head and left arm, on week-day mornings, during the time of prayer
Esther - In this position she was able to protect her people against the plots of Aman, a royal favorite, the feast of Purim being observed by the Jews in commemoration of their delivery
Betrothment - Among the ancient Jews, the bethrothing was performed either by a writing, or by a piece of silver given to the bride
Air - "The prince of the power of the air" is the head and chief of the evil spirits, with which both Jews and Heathens thought the air was filled
Elam - Susiana, in later times, seems to have been a part of this country, Daniel 8:2 ; and before the captivity the Jews seem always to have intended Persia by the name of Elam
Temple Keeper - Josephus applies the word to Jews as worshipers, but this is not the meaning in Acts 19
Agate - Its Hebrew name is, perhaps, derived from the country whence the Jews imported it; for the merchants of Sheba brought to the market of Tyre all kinds of precious stones, Ezekiel 27:22
Cilicia - Its capital was Tarsus, and many of its people were Jews
Beelzebub - The Jews seem to have applied this appellation to Satan, as being the author of all the pollutions and abominations of idol-worship
Journey - A "sabbath-day's journey," among the Jews, seems to have been reckoned at about seven furlongs, or nearly one mile, Matthew 24:20 Acts 1:12
Hymn - They probably chanted a part of the psalms which the Jews used to sing after the Passover, which they called the Halal; that is, the Hallelujah psalms
Patriarch - A learned and distinguished character among the Jews
Parthians - But the exact form of the language of the Jews or proselytes who came to Jerusalem from Parthia, referred to in Acts 2:9 , cannot be ascertained
Gabbatha - It was not the usual judgment hall, which the Jews could not then enter, but some palace in the vicinity of the crowd without, John 18:28 ; 19:4,9,13
Partition - Christ abolished not only the hostility between Jews and Gentiles (Ephesians 2:15 ) but also made possible full fellowship of humanity with God (Ephesians 2:16 )
Ur - The city of Orfah, to which the Jews make pilgrimages as the birthplace of Abraham, is a flourishing town of 30,000 inhabitants, seventy-eight miles south-west of Diarbekir
Leah - She was the mother of seven children, among whom were Reuben- Jacob's firstborn-and Judah, the ancestor of the leading tribe among the Jews, of the royal line, and of our Lord, Genesis 29:16-35 ; 30:1 - 21
Razor - Besides other usages, the practice of shaving the head after the completion of a vow must have created among the Jews a necessity for the special trade of a barber
Exorcist, - Exorcism was frequently practiced among the Jews
Iconium - Here they were persecuted by the Jews, and being driven from the city, they fled to Lystra
Abba - ...
Jews of Old Testament times never used abba when addressing God, but Jesus used it when praying to his Father (Mark 14:36)
Lachish - It was resettled after the Jews’ return from captivity, but never regained its previous importance (Nehemiah 11:25; Nehemiah 11:30)
Esther - Esther, at the risk of her own life, uninvited entered the king's presence, and obtained a virtual reversal of the decree against the Jews. The Jews defended themselves so effectually on the day appointed by Haman for their slaughter that in Shushan the palace alone they slew 500 and Haman's ten sons on one day, and, by Esther's request granted by the king, slew 300 at Shushan; and the Jews in the provinces, "standing for their lives," slew 75,000, "but on the spoil laid they not their hand. "...
So thenceforward the feast Purlin (lots) on the 14th and 15th of the month Adar (February and March) was kept by the Jews as "a day of gladness and of sending portions to one another, and gifts to the poor. " The continuance of this feast by the Jews to our day confirms the history. It is also confirmed by the casual way in which 2 Maccabees 15:36 alludes to the feast ("Mardochaeus' day") as kept by the Jews in Nicanor's time. ...
The massacre of 75,000 by Jews (Esther 9:16) would be unlikely, if they were Persians; but they were not, they were the Jews' enemies in the provinces, idolaters, naturally hating the spiritual monotheism of the Jews, whereas the Persians sympathized with it. The Persians in the provinces would be only the officials, whose orders from court were not to take part against the Jews. Similarly, Daniel, Ezra, and Nehemiah, who held official posts in the Persian court, wrote under inspiration the books which bear their names, and which describe the relations of the Jews to the pagan world power. The Book of Esther was placed by the Jews among the Kethubim (hagiographa), in the portion called the five volumes, Megilloth. ...
The hand of Providence is to be traced palpably in the overruling of the king's reckless feastings and wanton deposing of Vashti because she shrank from violating her own self respect, to laying the train for His appointed instrument, Esther's elevation; in Mordecai's saving the king's life from the two would-be assassins, and the recording of the fact in the royal chronicles, preparing the way for his receiving the royal honors which his enemy designed for himself; in Haman's casting Pur, the lot, for an auspicious day for destroying the Jews, and the result being, by God's providence which counterworked his appeal to chance, that the feast of Purlin is perpetually kept to commemorate the Jews' preservation and his destruction; in Esther's patriotic venture before the king after previous fasting three days, and God's interposing to incline the king's heart to hold out to her the golden scepter, ensuring to her at once life and her request (Proverbs 21:1); in Haman's pride at being invited to the queen's banquet and his preparing the gallows for Haman, and Providence, the very night before it, withdrawing sleep from the king so that the chronicles were read for his pleasure, and Mordecai's service was thus brought to his remembrance, so that when Haman came to solicit that Mordecai should be hanged the king met him with the question, "What shall be done unto the man whom the king delighteth to honor?"...
Then, in Haman supposing himself to be the object of honor, and suggesting the highest royal honors (such as Joseph had from the Egyptian king, Genesis 41:43), and thus unwittingly being constrained with his own voice and hand to glorify him whom he had meant to destroy; then in the denouement at the queen's banquet, and Haman's execution on the very gallows he erected for Haman (Daniel 11:2,); and the consequent preservation from extinction of the holy race of whom Messiah must spring according to prophecy, and of whom Isaiah (Isaiah 54:17) writes, "no weapon that is formed against thee shall prosper, and every tongue that shall rise against thee thou shalt condemn. ...
Esther's own character is in the main attractive: dutiful to her adoptive father, and regardful of his counsels though a queen; having faith in the high destiny of her nation, and believing with Mordecai that even "if she held her peace at the crisis deliverance would arise to the Jews from another place," and that providentially she had "come to the kingdom for such a time as this" (Esther 4:14); brave, yet not foolhardy, but fully conscious of her peril, not having received the king's call for 30 days, with pious preparation seeking aid from above in her patriotic venture; "obtaining favor in the sight of all them that looked upon her "(Esther 2:15). At the same time Scripture does not hide from us the fact of her not being above the vindictiveness of the age and the country, in her requesting that Haman's ten sons should be hanged, and a second day given the Jews to take vengeance on the enemies who had sought to kill them
Children And Dogs - Jesus at first refuses because it is God's will that the Jews, as the chosen people, must first be served the bread of the children of the household, i. Great is the power of faith: for lack of it, the Jews who once boasted of being the chosen sons of God are cast off as the dogs of the street; for being strong in it the Gentiles, once treated as dogs, become through the good offices of Holy Mother Church sons of God and heirs of heaven
Cock - ) The Jews originally had but three. Moreover, the restriction could only apply to the Jews, not to the Romans who used fowl for food
Hemerobaptists - A sect among the ancient Jews, thus called from their washing and bathing every day, in all seasons; and performing this custom with the greatest solemnity, as a religious rite necessary to salvation. Epiphanius, who mentions this as the fourth heresy among the Jews, observes, that in other points these heretics had much the same opinion as the Scribes and Pharisees; only that they denied the resurrection of the dead, in common with the Sadducees, and retained a few other of the improprieties of these last
Deacon - " For a long period a feeling of mutual jealousy had existed between the "Hebrews," or Jews proper, who spoke the sacred language of palestine, and the "Hellenists," or Jews of the Grecian speech, who had adopted the Grecian language, and read the Septuagint version of the Bible instead of the Hebrew
Trumpets, Feast of, - The psalm is used in the service for the day by the modern Jews. Various meanings have been assigned to the Feast of Trumpets; but there seems to be no sufficient reason to call in question the common opinion of Jews and Christians, that if was the festival of the New Year's day of the civil year, the first of Tisri, the month which commenced the sabbatical year and the year of jubilee
Alleluia - ...
The Hebrew form may imply the special interest of the Jews in the destruction of antichrist (Psalms 149:8-9). Psalm 113-118 were called by the Jews the Hallel: sung on the first of the month, at the Feast of Dedication, that of Tabernacles, that of Weeks, and that of Passover
Embalming - ...
Among the Jews the body was merely wrapped round with bandages with a quantity of spices enclosed. Nicodemus furnished "a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about an hundred pound weight," and they wound the body of Jesus "in linen clothes with the spices, as the manner of the Jews is to bury
Agrippa ii - Paul said of him that he was expert in all customs and questions which were among the Jews. Agrippa had a long reign, and used his influence when the Jews were in rebellion against the Romans, to induce them to submit
Ab - ...
The first day of this month is observed as a fast by the Jews, in memory of Aaron's death; and the ninth, in commemoration of the destruction of the temple by Nebuchadnezzar, in the year before Christ 587. The same day was remarkable for Adrian's edict, which prohibited the Jews to continue in Judea, or to look toward Jerusalem and lament its desolation
Frontlets - Thus described by Leo of Modena: the Jews take four pieces of parchment, and write with an ink made on purpose, and in square letters, these four passages, one on each piece: (1. The Most devout Jews put it on both at morning and noonday prayer; but it is generally worn only at morning prayer
Noble - In its secondary sense, it is applied to the Jews of BerCEa, who were ‘nobler,’ i. The use of the comparative does not imply that the Jews of Thessalonica had any nobility of spirit
Tiberias - This circumstance made it an unclean place to the Jews, and Herod was obliged to use force in order to people it with any but the lowest of the nation. After the fall of Jerusalem many of the Jews took up their abode in Tiberias, and by a strange reversal of fate this unclean city became a most important centre of Rabbinic teaching. There is a population of about 4000, more than half of whom are Jews, principally refugees from Poland
Baruch - He was the friend to whom Jeremiah in prison entrusted the papers of the purchase of his uncle's field at Anathoth, the year before Jerusalem's destruction, to assure the Jews of the certainty of their return from Babylon. He wrote out Jeremiah's prophecies against the Jews and other nations, and, while the prophet was shut up, i. "...
On, the former occasion Baruch yielded to despondency; and as Paul subjoins epistles to individuals after epistles to churches, so Jeremiah subjoins a prophecy concerning Baruch after the prophecies and histories concerning the Jews and their kings: "Thus saith the Lord the God of Israel, unto thee, O Baruch
Alexan'Dria, - According to Josephus Alexander himself assigned to the Jews a place in his new city. Philo estimated the number of the Alexandrine Jews in his time at a little less than 1,000,000 and adds that two of the five districts of Alexandria were called "Jewish districts," and that many Jews lived scattered in the remaining three
Gentile - All who are not Jews, and circumcised, are goiim. God, who had promised by his prophets to call the Gentiles to the faith, with a superabundance of grace, has fulfilled his promise; so that the Christian church is now composed principally of Gentile converts; and the Jews, too proud of their particular privileges, and abandoned to their reprobate sense of things, have disowned Jesus Christ, their Messiah and Redeemer, for whom, during so many ages, they had looked so impatiently. Paul is commonly called the Apostle of the Gentiles, 1 Timothy 2:7 , or Greeks; because he, principally, preached Jesus Christ to them; whereas Peter, and the other Apostles, preached generally to the Jews, and are called Apostles of the circumcision, Galatians 2:8
Circumcision - The Jews have always been very exact in observing this ceremony, and it appears that they did not neglect it when in Egypt, Joshua 5:1-9 . ...
The Jews esteemed uncircumcision as a very great impurity; and the greatest offence they could receive was to be called "uncircumcised. 26 , in opposition to the Jews, whom he names "the circumcision," etc
pu'Rim - (lots ), the annual festival instituted to commemorate the preservation of the Jews in Persia from the massacre with which they were threatened through the machinations of Haman. It was probably called Purim by the Jews in irony. The 14th of Adar, as the very day of the deliverance of the Jews, is more solemnly kept than the 13th; but when the service in the synagogue is over, all give themselves up to merry making
Haggai - The outcome was that a good number of Jews moved out of Babylon and settled in Jerusalem. As the opposition increased, so did the Jews’ discouragement, till eventually they stopped building (Ezra 4:1-5; Ezra 4:24). Events soon proved Haggai to be correct; for when the people restarted building and opposition broke out afresh, the Persian king supported the Jews by giving them legal protection and financial assistance (Ezra 5:3; Ezra 6:6-12)
Purim - —A feast of the Jews occurring on the 14th and 15th of the month Adar, one month before the Passover. ...
The Book of Esther purports to give the origin of Purim in the feast kept by the Jews when the afflictions that threatened them through Haman were turned into joy and blessing. ...
The feast is not mentioned by name in the NT, but is by some supposed to be the ‘feast of the Jews’ of John 5:1
Cyprus - Yet in this unpromising soil Christianity took early root, the Jews having prepared the way. Its copper mines in the mountains were once farmed to Herod the Great; hence, the number of Jews on the island was natural. ...
Moreover those scattered abroad in the persecution whereby Stephen suffered "traveled as far as Cyprus, preaching the word to none but unto the Jews only. With John Mark as their minister they preached in the Jews' synagogue at Salamis; and then passing by the Roman road to Paphos, the proconsular residence in the W
Ethnarch - In 1 Maccabees 14:47 Simon accepts from the people the following offices-ἀρχιερατεῦσαι καὶ εἶναι στρατηγὸς καὶ ἐθνάρχης τῶν Ἰουδαίων καὶ ἰερέων καὶ τοῦ προστατῆσαι πάντων (‘to be high priest and to be general and ethnarch of the Jews and their priests and to rule over all’); and in 1 Maccabees 15:2 a letter of King Antiochus of Syria is addressed to him as ἱερεῖ μεγάλῳ καὶ ἐθνάρχῃ (‘great priest and ethnarch’). From 1 Maccabees 15:1-2 it is clear that the ἔθνος was the Jews themselves, and indeed almost everywhere where the term ‘ethnarch’ occurs, it refers to a ruler over Jews. The man there mentioned was doubtless ruler of the Jews in Damascus and its territory, who were ‘permitted to exercise their own religious law very freely and fully’ (Ramsay, Pictures of the Apostolic Church, London, 1910, p
Nero - Paul appealed after his imprisonment by Felix, and his examination by Festus, who was swayed by the Jews. We have no particular information how he cleared himself from the accusations of the Jews, whether by answering before Nero, or whether his enemies dropped their prosecutions, which seems probable, Acts 28:21 . The revolt of the Jews from the Romans happened about A. About the end of the same year, Nero gave Vespasian the command of his troops against the Jews
Gentile - ...
Since God’s purpose was that Israel take the message of his salvation to the Gentiles, Jesus announced the gospel to the Jews first. Paul likewise preached the gospel to the Jews first, but when they refused it he turned to the Gentiles and there was a great response (Acts 13:46-48; Acts 18:5-6; Acts 11:2-36; Acts 28:28; Romans 9:30-31; Romans 11:11; Romans 15:16). ...
In the eyes of the Jews, Gentiles had no hope of salvation, because they were excluded from the covenant promises that God gave to Israel (Ephesians 2:11-12). Gentiles and Jews were equals; more than that, they were united in one body (Romans 1:16; Romans 3:29; Romans 9:24; Galatians 3:28; Ephesians 2:13-22; Ephesians 3:4-6; Revelation 5:9-10)
Gallio - ]'>[1] Angered by the conversion of prominent members of the synagogue, the Jews took advantage of the new governor’s arrival to lay a charge against St. (a) It was a snub which gave the Greek bystanders grounds for venting their animus against the Jews, by seizing and beating Sosthenes, the ruler of the synagogue. This seems the true interpretation of a scene which has been supposed to describe Jews beating a Christian-or even their own leader-in revenge for their defeat. But such a savage and illegal protest against Gallio’s decision could not have passed unnoticed by him; on the other hand, a public demonstration against the unpopular and disputatious Jews whom he had just dismissed might appear to him a rough sort of justice which he could afford to overlook, especially as it put the seal of popular approval on his action (see Sosthenes). No doubt he had more than a touch of the Roman aristocrat’s contempt for religious quarrels and for all Jews
Sosthenes - In that case Sosthenes must have been recently appointed when Crispus became a Christian; and probably he took a prominent part in the proceedings when ‘the Jews with one accord rose up against Paul, and brought him before the judgement-seat’ (Acts 18:12). Revised Version , dropping οἱ Ἕλληνες, favours the idea that it was the Jews who beat Sosthenes, venting on their own leader their rage over their disappointment. Another view has been that Gallio allowed the Jews to console themselves by beating Sosthenes, who was a Christian. Paul was that ‘the Greeks, who always hated the Jews, took advantage of the marked snub which the governor had inflicted on them, to seize and beat Sosthenes, who had been appointed to replace Crispus as Archisynagogos,’-a ‘piece of “Lynch law,” which probably seemed to him [2] to be a rough sort of justice’ (Ramsay, St. Paul in Ephesus is explicable on two grounds: (a) his presence in Corinth as a Christian might irritate the Jews and make Christian work harder; (b) his social position and ability would probably mark him out as a suitable fellow-worker with St
Meats - So in Luke 24:41 ; "Have ye here any meat?" literally, anything to eat? The "meat-offerings" of the Jews were made of flour and oil, etc. As to the animal food used by the Jews, see CLEAN, and FOOD . The Jews were also forbidden to kill a cow and its calf in the same day; or a sheep, or goat, and its young one, at the same time. ...
The prohibition of eating blood, or animals that are strangled, has been always rigidly observed by the Jews. They took the same liberty in buying meat sold in the market, not regarding whether it were pure or impure according to the Jews; or whether it had been offered to idols or not
Sad'Ducees - (followers of Zadok ), ( Matthew 3:7 ; 16:1,6,11,12 ; 22:23,31 ; Mark 12:18 ; Luke 20:27 ; Acts 4:1 ; 5:17 ; 23:6,7,8 ) a religious party or school among the Jews at the time of Christ, who denied that the oral law was a revelation of God to the Israelites. An important fact in the history of the Sadducees is their rapid disappearance from history after the first century, and the subsequent predominance among the Jews of the opinions of the Pharisees. The state of the Jews after the capture of Jerusalem by Titus; and 2d. As to the first point, it is difficult to overestimate the consternation and dismay which the destruction of Jerusalem occasioned in the minds of sincerely-religious Jews. To attempt to chock the progress of this new religion among the Jews by an appeal to the temporary rewards and punishments of the Pentateuch would have been as idle as an endeavor to check an explosive power by ordinary mechanical restraints. Consciously, therefore, or unconsciously, many circumstances combined to induce the Jews who were not Pharisees, but who resisted the new heresy, to rally round the standard of the oral law, and to assert that their holy legislator, Moses, had transmitted to his faithful people by word of mouth, although not in writing, the revelation of a future state of rewards and punishments
Caesarea - The fifth of these, Pontius Pilate, ordered a massacre in the hippodrome of Cæsarea of those Jews who had flocked to implore the removal from Jerusalem of the profane eagle standards and images of the Emperor recently introduced. During that time a riot broke out between Greeks and Jews as to their respective rights, and Felix ordered a general massacre of the Jews to be carried out in the city. The wickedness of the last procurator, Gessius Florus, finally drove the Jews into revolt. The latter celebrated the birthday of his brother Domitian by forcing 2500 Jews to fight with beasts in the arena at Cæsarea. 548 the Christians were massacred by the Jews and Samaritans
Romans - Among those who witnessed the effect of the first effusion of the Holy Ghost are mentioned "strangers of Rome, Jews and proselytes," Acts 2:10 ; that is, persons of the Jewish religion, who usually resided at Rome, but who had come to Jerusalem to be present at the feast of pentecost. Paul takes occasion to enlarge upon the nature of the Mosaic institution; to explain the fundamental principles and doctrines of Christianity; and to show that the whole human race, formerly divided into Jews and Gentiles, were now to be admitted into the religion of Jesus, indiscriminately, and free from every other obligation. The Apostle, after expressing his affection to the Roman Christians, and asserting that the Gospel is the power of God unto salvation to all who believe, takes a comprehensive view of the conduct and condition of men under the different dispensations of Providence; he shows that all mankind, both Jews and Gentiles, were equally "under sin," and liable to the wrath and punishment of God; that therefore there was a necessity for a universal propitiation and redemption, which were now offered to the whole race of men, without any preference or exception, by the mercy of him who is the God of the Gentiles as well as of the Jews; that faith in Jesus Christ, the universal Redeemer, was the only means of obtaining this salvation, which the deeds of the law were wholly incompetent to procure; that as the sins of the whole world originated from the disobedience of Adam, so the justification from those sins was to be derived from the obedience of Christ; that all distinction between Jew and Gentile was now abolished, and the ceremonial law entirely abrogated; that the unbelieving Jews would be excluded from the benefits of the Gospel, while the believing Gentiles would be partakers of them; and that this rejection of the Jews, and call of the Gentiles, were predicted by the Jewish Prophets Hosea and Isaiah
Proselyte - In the language of the Jews, those were called by this name who came to dwell in their country, or who embraced their religion, being not Jews by birth. The Jews distinguish two kinds of proselytes. It is said they did not dwell in the cities, but only in the suburbs and the villages; but it is certain that the Jews often admitted into their cities, not only proselytes of habitation, but also Gentiles and idolaters, as appears by the reproaches on this account, throughout the Scriptures. " He also observes that "the term proselytes of the gate is derived from an expression frequent in the Old Testament; namely, ‘the stranger that is within thy gates;' but I think it evident that the strangers were those Gentiles who were permitted to live among the Jews under certain restrictions, and whom the Jews were forbidden ‘to vex or oppress,' so long as they live in a peaceable manner
Captivity - God often punished the sins of the Jews by captivities or servitudes. In the last year of Jehoiakim, when Nebuchadnezzar carried 3023 Jews to Babylon; or rather, under Jehoiachin, when this prince also was sent to Babylon, in the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, b. While in Babylonia, the Jews were treated more like colonists than slaves. The books of Nehemiah and Daniel describe Jews in high positions at court, and the book of Esther celebrates their numbers and power in the Persian empire. 133, a similar crushing blow fell on the Jews who had again assembled in Judæa. See Jews
Tiberias - the Jews had actually dropped the name Tiberias and reverted to the ancient name Rakkath. Ancient sepulchres were removed to make room for the new foundations, and accordingly the Jews regarded the new city as legally unclean (cf. During the struggle of the Jews with Rome, its inhabitants remained loyal to the national cause. 70), Tiberias became the chief seat of the Jews and of Jewish learning. According to Epiphanius, it was not long before the city was inhabited exclusively by Jews. To-day Tiberias has a population of approximately 4000 souls, of whom about two-thirds are Jews and the other third Mohammedans and Christians of different sects. The Jews occupy a squalid quarter in the middle of the town, adjacent to the Lake. At present it is one of the four sacred cities of the Jews in Palestine, the others being Jerusalem, Hebron, and Safed
Synagogue - Even after many of the Jews returned to Jerusalem and rebuilt the Temple, places of local worship continued. ...
Facts about synagogues Synagogues existed not only among the many Jews who lived outside Palestine but also among those who lived in Palestine. Faithful Jews continued to go to the Temple for the appointed feasts. This shows that Christian Jews were still in some synagogues, especially those outside Palestine. The exception in Philippi was probably because there were not enough Jews there to have a synagogue. Paul, therefore, went to a place where faithful Jews met to pray on the Sabbath (Acts 16:13 ). He found special interest among the Gentiles who attended the synagogue, but some Jews also believed (Acts 13:42-43 ). Jews all over the ancient world continued to maintain their distinctive faith
Trial of Jesus - ...
Roman leaders allowed conquered people such as the Jews to follow their own legal system so long as they did not abuse their privileges. The Romans did not give the Jews the right of capital punishment for the accusation of blasphemy. The Jews had to convince a Roman judge that their demand for capital punishment was justified. The Jews asked Pilate to accept their verdict against Jesus without investigation (John 18:29-31 ). ...
The Jews knew that Pilate would laugh at their charge of blasphemy. He returned to the Jews to announce that he found Jesus no threat to Rome and hence not deserving of death (John 18:38 ). The Jews responded with vehement accusations against Jesus' actions in Judea and Galilee (Luke 23:5 ). ...
When Pilate seemed to waver one more time concerning crucifixion, the Jews threatened to report his conduct to Caesar (John 19:12 )
Dispersion - ἡ διασπορά (from διασπείρω ‘to scatter,’ as ἀγορά from ἀγείρω ‘to gather’) is used collectively in the Septuagint and the NT for the Jews settled abroad. ...
The Diaspora partly originated from causes over which the Jews had no control, and was partly the result of a spontaneous movement outwards. The various trans-plantations suffered by the Jews need not be recounted here. The conquests of Alexander the Great turned what had hitherto been barred avenues and dangerous tracks into safe and open roads, and the Jews were not slow to take advantage of the openings, both in the direction of secular culture and of commercial enterprise, that lay before them. 92a), enable us to see how much at home the Jews were in Syria, Egypt, Asia Minor, and the Greek cities and islands, and all the data now available afford grounds for believing that they numbered at this period from three to four and a half millions, and that they formed about seven per cent of the population of the Roman Empire (Encyclopaedia Biblica i. Iulius Caesar, 84) reminds us of the mourning of the Jews in London for Edward VII. ...
The Jews could not carry on their sacrificial worship in foreign lands-we may let pass the schismatic attempt to do so at Leontopolis in Egypt-but they kept in full communion with Jerusalem by making pilgrimages to the great feasts, and by sending the yearly poll-tax of half a shekel for the upkeep of the Temple (cf. It was a precedent that proved of immense advantage to the Jews settled in Rome. This Emperor seems to have been as favourable to the Jews as his predecessors (Jos. ...
Long before they had acquired a political status in Rome, a great inward change had been working among the Jews of the Dispersion. ...
From the founding of Alexandria and Antioch, the Jews were πολῖται (cives), but in the older Greek cities, except those of which the constitutions were altered by Alexander or his successors (Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) v. The Jews of Rome whom Cicero mentions as possessing the Roman civitas (pro Flacco, 28) probably belonged to the class of libertini or enfranchised slaves (cf. Jews of Ephesus, Sardis, Delos, etc. The question of Romans 3:29, ‘Is God the God of the Jews only? Is he not the God of the Gentiles, also?’ was one that he must have often asked himself in his Pharisaic days; and when the sight and the call of Jesus had given him the decisive answer, ‘Yea, of the Gentiles also,’ this became the moving force of his strenuous life (cf. This brief account must be qualified, however, by the statement in Acts (18:28), that it was a gifted Alexandrian Jew, Apollos, who, after ‘the way of God had been expounded to him more carefully,’ demonstrated the Messiahship of Jesus publicly, before the Jews in Corinth, with energy and success (cf. The long list of foreign Jews present at Pentecost shows how widely scattered their settlements were. The names of Barnabas of Cyprus, Philip of Caesarea, Lucius of Cyrene, Timothy of Lystra, Jason of Thessalonica, Sopater of Berœa, Crispus of Corinth, Aquila of Pontus, illustrate how largely the Church’s assets consisted of Jews settled abroad. James may be addressing the Christian Jews of the Eastern Dispersion, and in 1 Peter 1:1 St. The rebellion against the Roman authority seems to have met with no sympathy on the part of the Jews of Rome. * [5]: ‘The Jews in the Graeco-Asiatic Cities,’ 7th ser
Dispersion - ἡ διασπορά (from διασπείρω ‘to scatter,’ as ἀγορά from ἀγείρω ‘to gather’) is used collectively in the Septuagint and the NT for the Jews settled abroad. ...
The Diaspora partly originated from causes over which the Jews had no control, and was partly the result of a spontaneous movement outwards. The various trans-plantations suffered by the Jews need not be recounted here. The conquests of Alexander the Great turned what had hitherto been barred avenues and dangerous tracks into safe and open roads, and the Jews were not slow to take advantage of the openings, both in the direction of secular culture and of commercial enterprise, that lay before them. 92a), enable us to see how much at home the Jews were in Syria, Egypt, Asia Minor, and the Greek cities and islands, and all the data now available afford grounds for believing that they numbered at this period from three to four and a half millions, and that they formed about seven per cent of the population of the Roman Empire (Encyclopaedia Biblica i. Iulius Caesar, 84) reminds us of the mourning of the Jews in London for Edward VII. ...
The Jews could not carry on their sacrificial worship in foreign lands-we may let pass the schismatic attempt to do so at Leontopolis in Egypt-but they kept in full communion with Jerusalem by making pilgrimages to the great feasts, and by sending the yearly poll-tax of half a shekel for the upkeep of the Temple (cf. It was a precedent that proved of immense advantage to the Jews settled in Rome. This Emperor seems to have been as favourable to the Jews as his predecessors (Jos. ...
Long before they had acquired a political status in Rome, a great inward change had been working among the Jews of the Dispersion. ...
From the founding of Alexandria and Antioch, the Jews were πολῖται (cives), but in the older Greek cities, except those of which the constitutions were altered by Alexander or his successors (Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) v. The Jews of Rome whom Cicero mentions as possessing the Roman civitas (pro Flacco, 28) probably belonged to the class of libertini or enfranchised slaves (cf. Jews of Ephesus, Sardis, Delos, etc. The question of Romans 3:29, ‘Is God the God of the Jews only? Is he not the God of the Gentiles, also?’ was one that he must have often asked himself in his Pharisaic days; and when the sight and the call of Jesus had given him the decisive answer, ‘Yea, of the Gentiles also,’ this became the moving force of his strenuous life (cf. This brief account must be qualified, however, by the statement in Acts (18:28), that it was a gifted Alexandrian Jew, Apollos, who, after ‘the way of God had been expounded to him more carefully,’ demonstrated the Messiahship of Jesus publicly, before the Jews in Corinth, with energy and success (cf. The long list of foreign Jews present at Pentecost shows how widely scattered their settlements were. The names of Barnabas of Cyprus, Philip of Caesarea, Lucius of Cyrene, Timothy of Lystra, Jason of Thessalonica, Sopater of Berœa, Crispus of Corinth, Aquila of Pontus, illustrate how largely the Church’s assets consisted of Jews settled abroad. James may be addressing the Christian Jews of the Eastern Dispersion, and in 1 Peter 1:1 St. The rebellion against the Roman authority seems to have met with no sympathy on the part of the Jews of Rome. * [5]: ‘The Jews in the Graeco-Asiatic Cities,’ 7th ser
Matthias, Saint - Details of his life and death vary; according to one legend he was crucified in Ethiopia; another maintains that he was stoned and beheaded by the Jews, in Jerusalem
Sheshach - (Jeremiah 25:26 ), supposed to be equivalent to Babel (Babylon), according to a secret (cabalistic) mode of writing among the Jews of unknown antiquity, which consisted in substituting the last letter of the Hebrew alphabet for the first, the last but one for the second, and so on
Spain - , the establishment of a Christian community in that country, and that this was done by Hellenistic Jews resident there
Fable - Applied in the New Testament to the traditions and speculations, "cunningly devised fables", of the Jews on religious questions (1 Timothy 1:4 ; 4:7 ; 2 Timothy 4:4 ; Titus 1:14 ; 2 Peter 1:16 )
Dove's Dung - Compare also the language of Rabshakeh to the Jews (2 Kings 18:27 ; Isaiah 36:12 )
Meni - Isaiah 65:11, "drink offering unto that number," rather to Meni, an idol worshipped by apostate Jews at Babylon
Gnat - The custom of filtering wine for this purpose was common among the Jews
Sibylline Oracles - Jorton observes, that they were composed at different times by different persons; first by Pagans, and then, perhaps, by Jews, and certainly by Christians
Agrippa i. - (Compare Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book 18, Chapter 8 )
Myndus - 139, the Romans sent messages on behalf of the Jews
Jaddua - In the reign of the last Persian king Darius and of Alexander; when he invaded Judea Jaddua is said to have gone out in priestly robes to meet Alexander, and to have implored his goodwill toward the Jews (Josephus, Jeberechiah - Josephus mentions another Zachariah, son of Baruch, slain by the Jews in the temple shortly before the last siege (B
Zaphnathpaaneah - The learned Jews translate it as a Hebrew name, 'Revealer of secrets,' as in the margin of the A
Pontiff - The Jews, too, had their pontiff; and among the Romanists the pope is styled the sovereign pontiff
Herod Agrippa i - It was he who put to death James the son of Zebedee to please the Jews, and imprisoned Peter, who was miraculously delivered
Lamentations - The Jews called it Echa, or Kinnoth, which is Lamentations
Virgin - The Jews had certainly a distinction in the meaning of this word
Antiochians - customs throughout his dominions were diligently furthered by a section of, the Jews
Canaan, the Language of - Mentioned in Isaiah 19:18 , denotes the language spoken by the Jews resident in Palestine
Libertines (1) - According to some, were such Jews as were free citizens of Rome: they had a separate synagogue at Jerusalem, and sundry of them concurred in the persecution of Stephen, Acts 6:9
a'Gag - Haman is called the AGAGITE in (Esther 3:1,10 ; 8:3,5 ) The Jews consider him a descendant of Agag the Amalekite
Angelics - The Jews of that time are also accused of worshipping angels, and probably this superstition might through them influence the Judaizing members of some of the Apostolic churches
Anathema Maranatha - They are the words with which the Jews began their greater excommunication, whereby they not only excluded sinners from their society, but delivered them up to the divine cherem, or anathema, that is, to misery in this life, and perdition in the life to come
Garlick - The Talmudists frequently mention the use of this plant among the Jews, and their fondness for it
Barabbas - The Jews were permitted to name any prisoner whose release they desired; and when the choice lay between Barabbas and Christ, they chose the robber
Usury - The law of Moses prohibited the Jews from taking any interest of each other for the loan of money or of anything else, though they were allowed to take it of foreigners
Gemariah - He was also the bearer of a letter in which Jeremiah warned the captive Jews against false prophets who promised them a speedy return, Jeremiah 29:3,4
Eli - A high priest of the Jews, the first in the line of Ithamar, 1 Samuel 2:27
Silk - It is not known how early or extensively the Jews used it
Claudius Caesar - In the ninth year of his reign, he banished all Jews from Rome, Acts 18:2
Three - The phrase "three days and three nights," Matthew 12:40 , was equivalent in Hebrew to the English "three days;" the Jews employing the expression "a day and a night" to denote our "day" of twentyfour hours
Phaselis - 139 sent letters on behalf of the Jews
Clau'Dius - ( Acts 11:28-30 ) Claudius was induced by a tumult of the Jews in Rome to expel them from the city
Mor'Deca-i - (little man , or worshipper or Mars ), the deliverer, under divine Providence, of the Jews from the destruction plotted against them by Haman the chief minister of Xerxes; the institutor of the feast of Purim
Ahasuerus - At that time the Jews had returned from exile and the temple in Jerusalem had been rebuilt (completed in 516 BC)
Cabbala - a mysterious kind of science, delivered to the ancient Jews, as they pretend, by revelation, and transmitted by oral tradition to those of our times; serving for the interpretation of the books both of nature and Scripture. As to the origin of the cabbala, the Jews relate many marvellous tales. Accordingly, the Jews believe that God gave to Moses on Mount Sinai, not only the law, but also the explication of that law; and that Moses, after his coming down, retiring to his tent, rehearsed to Aaron both the one and the other. The only warrantable inference from these accounts, which bear the obvious marks of fiction, is, that the cabbalistic doctrine obtained early credit among the Jews as a part of their sacred tradition, and was transmitted under this notion, by the Jews in Egypt to their brethren in Palestine. That this system of the cabbalistic philosophy, which we may consider as the acroamatic, esoretic, or concealed doctrine of the Jews, by way of contradistinction from the exoretic or popular doctrine, was not of Hebrew origin, we may conclude with a very great degree of probability, from the total dissimilarity of its abstruse and mysterious doctrines to the simple principles of religion taught in the Mosaic law; and that it was borrowed from the Egyptian schools, will sufficiently appear from a comparison of its tenets with those of the oriental and Alexandrian philosophy. This opinion, however, may be traced up to a prejudice which originated with the Jews, and passed from them to the Christian fathers, by which they were led to ascribe all Pagan wisdom to a Hebrew origin: a notion which very probably took its rise in Egypt, when Pagan tenets first crept in among the Jews. Philo, Josephus, and other learned Jews, in order to flatter their own vanity, and that of their countrymen, industriously propagated this opinion; and the more learned fathers of the Christian church, who entertained a high opinion of the Platonic philosophy, hastily adopted it, from an imagination that if they could trace back the most valuable doctrines of Paganism to a Hebrew origin, this could not fail to recommend the Jewish and Christian religions to the attention of the Gentile philosophers. The true state of the case seems to be, that during the prophetic ages, the traditions of the Jews consisted in a simple explanation of those divine truths which the prophets delivered, or their law exhibited, under the veil of emblems. The Jewish mysteries, thus enlarged by the accession of Pagan dogmas, were conveyed from Egypt to Palestine, at the time when the Pharisees, who had been driven into Egypt under Hyrcanus, returned with many other Jews into their own country. These mysteries were not, probably, reduced to any systematic forms in writing, till after the dispersion of the Jews; when, in consequence of their national calamities, they became apprehensive that those sacred treasures would be corrupted or lost. The generality of the Jews prefer the cabbala to the literal Scripture; comparing the former to the sparkling lustre of a precious stone, and the latter to the fainter glimmering of a candle. But it is only the Christians that call it by this name, on account of the resemblance this art bears to the explications of the Jewish cabbala: for the Jews never used the word cabbala in any such sense; but ever with the utmost respect and veneration. It is not, however, the magic of the Jews alone which we call cabbala: but the word is also used for any kind of magic
Mordecai - The Jews were delivered from destruction, Mordecai was raised to a high rank, and Haman was executed on the gallows he had by anticipation erected for Mordecai ((6:2-7:10). In memory of the signal deliverance thus wrought for them, the Jews to this day celebrate the feast (9:26-32) of Purim (q
Magic - The Jews seem early to have consulted the teraphim (q. The Jews were commanded not to learn the "abomination" of the people of the Promised Land (Leviticus 19:31 ; Deuteronomy 18:9-14 )
Tax Collector - ...
Jews hated both the Romans who ruled them and those who collected taxes for Rome, particularly if those tax collectors were Jews
Mosiac Law - The ceremonial was received by Moses in private in the tabernacle, as being of peculiar concern, belonging to the Jews only, and destined to cease when the tabernacle was down, and the veil of the temple rent. This was held by the Jews in such veneration, that they would not allow it to be laid upon the bed of any sick person lest it should be polluted by touching the dead
Hem of Garment - The Jews adjusted the threads and knots so as to represent the 613 precepts of which the law was thought to consist. In later times, the Jews have worn the talit or fringed garment of a smaller size and as an underdress
Abistobulus - (Ἀριστόβουλος, a Greek name frequently adopted by Romans and Jews, and borne by several members of the Maccabaean and Herodian families)...
In Romans 16:10 St. The ‘household of Aristobulus’ would naturally include many Orientals and Jews, and therefore probably some Christians
Apelles - (Ἀπελλῆς, a Greek name possibly contracted from Apollodorus, and apparently common among Jews of the Dispersion [1])
Blasphemy - That assumption was true; but the Jews accused him of blasphemy because they knew not who he was. In regard to blasphemy against the Holy Ghost, the essence of this fearful sin seems to have been that the Jews, shutting their eyes to the proof of miracles which Christ gave, daringly attributed those good works to an unclean spirit
Ahasue'Rus - Five years after this, Haman, one of his counsellors, having been slighted by Mordecai, prevailed upon the king to order the destruction of all the Jews in the empire. But before the day appointed for the massacre, Esther and Mordecai influenced the king to put Haman to death and to give the Jews the right of self-Defence
Tobiah - an Ammonite, an enemy to the Jews. This Tobiah married the daughter of Shechaniah, one of the principal Jews of Jerusalem, Nehemiah 6:18 , and had a powerful party in Jerusalem itself, who were opposed to that of Nehemiah
Gentiles - A little before the last rebellion of the Jews, some mutineers would have persuaded the priests to accept no victim not presented by a Jew; and obliged them to reject those which were offered by command of the emperor, for the Roman people. ...
From the above particulars, we learn the meaning of what the Apostle Paul calls "the middle wall of partition," between Jews and Gentiles, broken down by the Gospel
Calamus - It was used for this purpose by the Jews. The third book of Maccabees states, that the writers employed in making a list of the Jews in Egypt, produced their reeds quite worn out
Ahasuerus - Five years after this, Hainan, one of his counsellors, having been slighted by Mordecai, prevailed upon the king to order the destruction of all the Jews in the empire. But before the day appointed for the massacre, Esther and Mordecai induced the king to put Haman to death, and to give the Jews the right of self-defence
Son of God - " For the Jews rightly judged that by the assumption of this title he laid claim to equality with God, and, regarding it as blasphemy, and a breach of the first commandment, they determined to put him to death. And that it was not in the lower and common sense that Christ claimed God as his Father is evident from the fact that he did not correct the Jews' opinion; which most unquestionably be would have done, bad they been under a mistake in supposing him to have broken the great commandment of the law
Dari'us - ) Only one year of his reign is mentioned, (Daniel 9:1 ; 11:1 ) but that was of great importance for the Jews. With regard to the Jews, Darius Hystaspes pursued the same policy as Cyrus, and restored to them the privileges which they had lost
Hour - The early Jews appear to have divided the day into four parts, ( Nehemiah 9:3 ) and the night into three watches, (Judges 7:19 ) and even in the New Testament we find a trace of this division in (Matthew 20:1-5 ) At what period the Jews first became acquainted with the division of the day into twelve hours is unknown, but it is generally supposed they learned it from the Babylonians during the captivity
Son of God - ...
The Jews might have known Messiah's Godhead from Psalms 45:6-7, and Isaiah 9:6, "a Son . The Jews thrice took up stones to kill Him for blasphemy...
(1) in unequivocally claiming God to be peculiarly "His own Father" (idion patera ): John 5:18. His acknowledged purity of character forbids the possibility of His claiming this, as He certainly did and as the Jews understood Him, if the claim were untrue; He never would have left them under the delusion that He claimed it if delusion it were. But the Jews from Deuteronomy 13:1-11 (some thought Jesus specially meant, "if the son of thy mother entice thee," for He had a human mother, He said, but not a human father) inferred that His miracles, which they could not deny, did not substantiate His claim, and that their duty was to kill with holy zeal One who sought to draw them to worship as divine another beside God. The Jews ought to have searched the Scriptures and then they would have known. Deniers of Jesus' Godhead on the plea of God's unity copy the Jews, who crucified Him because of His claim to be God. , against the Jews, afford admirable arguments against modern Socinians; the Jews sinned against the dimmer light of the Old Testament, Socinians against the broad light of both Old and New Testament The combination in One, the Son of God and the Son of man, was such as no human mind could have devised. The Jews could not ascend to the idea of Christ's divine Sonship, nor descend to the depth of Christ's sufferings as the Son of man; so they invented the figment of two Messiahs to reconcile the seemingly opposite prophecies, those of His transcendent glory and those of His exceeding sufferings. The gospel at once opposes the Jews' false monotheism by declaring Christ to be the coequal Son of God, and the pagan polytheism by declaring the unity of God
Claudius, the Emperor - The "strangers of Rome Jews and proselytes " (Act_2:10) who were at Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost or some of the "synagogue of the Libertines" (Act_6:9) yielding to the arguments of Stephen may have brought it thither. 4 5) may reasonably be connected with the indulgence then extended to the Jews by that emperor (ib. It seems legitimate therefore to assume that the name "Christ" had been heard in the disputings of Jews and Christians and that the prefects and Roman population ignorant of its true significance conceived it to be the name of some local ringleader in a seditious riot. ...
It is obvious further, (1) that the expulsion of Christians who had been Jews or proselytes would leave a certain proportion of purely Gentile Christians whom the edict would not touch; and (2) that those who returned would naturally settle, not in the Jewish trans-Tiberine quarter of the city, but in some safer locality, and that thus the church at Rome, at or soon after the death of Claudius, would gradually become more and more free from Jewish or Judaizing influences
Pilate Pontius - There the emphasis is laid upon the sin of the Jews in denying Jesus and delivering Him up to Pilate, of whom it is said, in exoneration, that he was determined to let Him go. Here, while the same view is taken of the Divine significance of Christ’s death and its fulfilment of prophecy, the sin of the Jews in not so strongly insisted upon, and on the other hand a less favourable conception of Pilate’s action seems to be implied. Of the Jews it is only asserted that, though they found no cause of death in Jesus, yet they desired Pilate that He should be slain; to Pilate no determination to release Him is ascribed, or even a disinclination to yield to their request. The Jews accused Christ wrongly through not understanding their own Scriptures; Pilate, so far as appears, callously put Him to death at their bidding
Esther - Haman was made prime minister and began to plot against Mordecai and the Jews because they would not pay homage to him. She asked Mordecai and the Jews to fast with her while she decided. At a banquet, Esther revealed Haman's plot to destroy her and her people, the Jews. Mordecai was promoted, and Esther got the king to revoke Haman's decree to destroy the Jews. The Jews killed and destroyed their enemies. It considers the question of destruction or survival of the Jews under persecution. The Purim festival was a Jewish commemoration of deliverance—deliverance of the Jews from the hands of the Babylonians. ” During the days of oppressive persecution the very survival of the people depended upon the Jews doing something
Aquila And Priscilla - 25, who, confounding Judaism with Christianity, writes: "he banished from Rome the Jews who were constantly making disturbances instigated by one Chrestus," i. ...
Aquila was a Jew, born in Pontus (as was the Aquila who translated the Old Testament into Greek); the name is Latin, assumed as Jews often took a Roman name, when thrown into much intercourse with Romans. She and he together, as true yokefellows in the Lord, to all within their reach; to Apollos, who became the mighty champion of Christianity, convincing the Jews from the Scriptures at Corinth; setting up "a church in their house" wherever they were: in Ephesus; then at Rome, risking their lives for Paul, and earning thanks of "all the churches of the Gentiles
Abomination - The Jews subsequently followed the same practice, holding it unlawful to eat or drink with foreigners (John 18:28 ; Acts 10:28 ; 11:3 ). ...
(Daniel 11:31 ), in that section of his prophecies which is generally interpreted as referring to the fearful calamities that were to fall on the Jews in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, says, "And they shall place the abomination that maketh desolate. " These ensigns were an "abomination" to the Jews, the "abomination of desolation
Esther - The combined wisdom of Mordecai and courage of Esther became the means of doing a great service to the very large number of Jews living under Persian rule; for, owing to the craft and hatred of Haman , the chief court favourite, the Jews were in danger of being massacred en bloc ; but Esther, instigated by Mordecai, revealed her Jewish nationality to the king, who realized thereby that she was in danger of losing her life, owing to the royal decree, obtained by Haman, to the effect that all those of Jewish nationality in the king’s dominions were to be put to death. Haman was put to death, and Mordecai was honoured by the king, while Esther’s position was still further strengthened; the Jews were permitted to take revenge on those who had sought their destruction
Septuagint, the - Its name has arisen from the tradition that the translation was made by seventy Jews (or seventy-two, six out of each of the twelve tribes); but this is considered improbable. The translation was by Alexandrian Jews, and by different persons. ...
The Septuagint can never take the place of the Hebrew Scriptures; but it is often useful to show how the Jews at that early period, who understood both Hebrew and Greek, translated many of the words or sentences; as well as to see how far the Lord and His apostles quoted that version verbatim, or how their citations differed from it
Baal Zebub - Some commentators think that he was called Baal Samin, or the lord of heaven; but that the Jews, from contempt, gave him the name of Baal-zebub. The Jews, who changed Beelzebub into Beelzebul, "god of a dunghill," perhaps had a reference to the Greek of pytho, which signifies putrefied. This was natural, since the Jews were taught in their own Scriptures to consider all the idols of the Heathens "devils
Jehovah - ...
The Jews, after their captivity in Babylon, out of an excessive and superstitious respect for this name, left off to pronounce it, and thus lost the true pronunciation. Jerom, and Eusebius, testify that in their time the Jews left the name of Jehovah written in their copies in Samaritan characters, instead of writing it in the common Chaldee or Hebrew characters; which shows their veneration for this holy name: and the fear they were under, lest strangers, who were not unacquainted with the Chaldee letters and language, should discover and misapply it. The Jews call this name of God the Tetragrammaton, or the name with four letters
Execution - Jews could pass the death sentence upon their own people for offences relating to Jewish law, but they could not carry it out. Yet when the Jews illegally stoned Stephen to death, the Roman authorities took no action against them. They probably thought it wise not to interfere when the Jews were so stirred up (Acts 7:58; cf
Machabeus, Judas - The books of Machabees are so called because they contain the history of the Jews
Judas Machabeus - The books of Machabees are so called because they contain the history of the Jews
Flavius Josephus - His historical works include The Jewish War, a description of the Jewish war of independence (66-73), the Jewish Antiquities, a history of the Jews from the Creation to 66 AD, and his Autobiography
Josephus, Flavius - His historical works include The Jewish War, a description of the Jewish war of independence (66-73), the Jewish Antiquities, a history of the Jews from the Creation to 66 AD, and his Autobiography
Salamis - There were very many Jews in Cyprus
Trophimus - The Jews, seeing Trophimus with the Apostle in the city, hastily concluded that St
Arrow - Used by the Jews both in hunting and in war; sometimes merely a sharpened reed, sometimes feathered, barbed, and even poisoned, Job 6:4
Money-Changer - There was a class of men, who frequented the temple courts, who exchanged at a certain premium foreign moneys for these half-shekels to the Jews who came up to Jerusalem from all parts of the world
Tah'Panhes, Tehaph'Nehes, Tahap'Anes, - " (Jeremiah 43:8-109 ) The Jews in Jeremiah's time remained here
Arimathea - Arimathea, a "city of the Jews" (Luke's vague expression for the Gentiles, to whom no more precise information seemed needful: Luke 23:51) is possibly identical with Ramah, Samuel's birthplace, called Armathaim in the Septuagint (1 Samuel 1:1; 1 Samuel 1:19); but many associate it with Ramleh, on the road from Jaffa to Jerusalem
Dog - The Jews used the term of Gentiles, under the idea of ceremonial impurity
Succorer - Among the Jews it signified a wealthy patron of the community
Powerful, Powerfully - ...
B — 1: εὐτόνως (Strong's #2159 — Adverb — eutonos — yoo-ton'-oce ) signifies "vigorously, vehemently" (eu, "well," teino, "to stretch"), Luke 23:10 , "vehemently," of the accusation of the chief priests and scribes against Christ; Acts 18:28 , RV, "powerfully" (AV, "mightily"), of Apollos in confuting Jews
Caraites - The Talmud appearing in the beginning of the sixth century, those of the best sense among the Jews were disgusted at the ridiculous fables with which it abounded
Churching - Equivalent to the Purification among the Jews, and whichin the life of the Blessed Virgin Mary is commemorated as a Feast ofthe Church on February 2
Year - The Jews reckoned the year in two ways, (1) according to a sacred calendar, in which the year began about the time of the vernal equinox, with the month Abib; and (2) according to a civil calendar, in which the year began about the time of the autumnal equinox, with the month Nisan
Maccabees, the - When Antiochus (Epiphanes) was expelled from Egypt by the Romans, he vented his anger on the Jews, and sought to abolish their worship at Jerusalem, putting multitudes to death (B
Asphaltum - ) Mineral pitch, Jews' pitch, or compact native bitumen
Money-Changers - The moneychangers whom Christ, for their impiety, avarice, and fraudulent dealing, expelled from the temple were the dealers who supplied half-shekels, for such a premium as they might be able to exact, to the Jews from all parts of the world who assembled at Jerusalem during the great festivals, and were required to pay their tribute or ransom money in the Hebrew coin
Manius - 163, sent a letter to the Jews confirming the concessions of Lysias, and offering to undertake the charge of their interests at Antioch in concert with their own envoy
Wine-Press - From the scanty notices contained in the Bible we gather that, the wine-presses of the Jews consisted of two receptacles of vats placed at different elevations, in the upper one of which the grapes were trodden, while the lower one received the expressed juice
Hanameel - Son of Shallum, Jeremiah's cousin, from whom the prophet in prison bought a field in Anathoth while Jerusalem was being besieged by the Chaldeans, as a token to assure the Jews that a time of security would hereafter come when their land would once more be a safe possession (Jeremiah 32:7-12; Jeremiah 32:44)
Watches of the Night - The Jews reckoned three military watches: the "first" or beginning of the watches (Lamentations 2:19), from sunset to ten o'clock; the second or "middle watch" was from ten until two o'clock (Judges 7:19); the third, "the morning watch," from two to sunrise (Exodus 14:24; 1 Samuel 11:11)
Lucius - He was apparently one of many Jews who adopted Greek names
Cock-Crowing - In our Lord's time the Jews had adopted the Greek and Roman division of the night into four watches, each consisting of three hours, the first beginning at six o'clock in the evening (Luke 12:38 ; Matthew 14:25 ; Mark 6:48 )
Caesarea - Paul was sent thither to protect him from the intrigues of the Jews at Jerusalem
Purple - In derision the soldiers put a crown of thorns and a 'purple' robe on the Lord, as king of the Jews
Stoning - More than once the Jews took up stones to kill the Lord, but He escaped out of their hands; His death must be by being 'lifted up' from the earth
Alexander - The would-he spokesman of the Jews in the riot at Ephesus, which endangered them as well as the Christians ( Acts 19:33 ); not improbably the same as the coppersmith ( 2 Timothy 4:14 ) who did St
Antioch, Syria - Its first community was founded by Christianized Jews, driven from Jerusalem by persecution
Adonists - A party among divines and critics, who maintain that the Hebrew points ordinarily annexed to the consonants of the word Jehovah are not the natural points belonging to that word, nor express the true pronunciation of it; but are the vowel points belonging to the words Adonai and Elohim, applied to the consonants of the ineffable name Jehovah, to warn the readers, that instead of the word Jehovah, which the Jews were forbid to pronounce, and the true pronunciation of which had long been unknown to them, they are always to read Adonai
Alexander - One of the leaders among the Jews when Peter and John were arrested
Caiaphas - A high priest of the Jews, a
Council - The Sanhedrin, the supreme court of the Jews, the fountain of their government, which sat at Jerusalem
Tobiah - He himself was the son-in-law of Shechaniah the son of Arah, Nehemiah 6:17, and these family relations created for him a strong faction among the Jews
Nature - Nature is also put for natural descent: "We who are Jews by nature," by birth, "and not Gentiles," Galatians 2:15
Bethabara - To this place, also, Jesus retired, when the Jews sought to take him at the feast of dedication; and many who resorted there to him believed on him, John 10:39-42
Age, Old - The aged occupied a prominent place in the social and political system of the Jews
in'Dia - The people and productions of that country must have been tolerably well known to the Jews
Claudius (2) - And there was an edict of his which, in consequence of a tumult, expelled the Jews from Rome
Cyrene - There were many Jews in the province of Cyrene, a great part of whom embraced the Christian religion, though others opposed it with much obstinacy, Acts 6:9 11:20 13:1
Trench - The Romans fulfilled this prediction by enclosing the entire city of Jerusalem by a wall, that the Jews might neither escape nor be relieved from without
Calamus - A sort of reed, or sweet-scented cane, used by the Jews as a perfume
Sabbatarianism - Members of a sect who, though not Jews, hold to the keeping of the Jewish Sabbath, rather than the Christian Lord's Day
Sabbatarians - Members of a sect who, though not Jews, hold to the keeping of the Jewish Sabbath, rather than the Christian Lord's Day
Samos - The Romans wrote to the governor in favor of the Jews in the time of Simon Maccabaeus
aq'Uila - D, 52,) He was a native of Pontus, but had fled with his wife Priscilla, from Rome, in consequence of an order of Claudius commanding all Jews to leave the city
Brick - (Genesis 11:3 ) The brick in use among the Jews were much larger than with us, being usually from 12 to 13 inches square and 3 1/2 inches thick; they thus possess more of the character of tiles
Money-Changers - The money-changers whom Christ, for their impiety, avarice and fraudulent dealing, expelled from the temple were the dealers who supplied half-shekels, for such a premium as they might be able to exact, to the Jews from all parts of the world who assembled at Jerusalem during the great festivals, and were required to pay their tribute or ransom money in the Hebrew coin
Immortality - It was thus a doctrine obviously well known to the Jews
James, the General Epistle of - He wrote for the Jewish Christians, whether in Jerusalem or abroad, to warn them against the sins to which as Jews they were most liable, and to console and exhort them under the sufferings to which as Christians they were most exposed
Highways - Though during the sway of the Romans over Palestine they made a few substantial roads for their carts and chariots, yet for the most of the time, as today, the Jews had nothing such as we call roads, but only footpaths through which animals walk in single file
Branch - ...
After the Jews’ return from their Babylonian captivity, the name ‘branch’ was used in relation to Zerubbabel, the Jewish governor in Jerusalem
Sabbatius, Bishop of Constantinople - of Constantinople, seceded, before 380, from the main body of that sect, with two others, Theoctistes and Macarius, maintaining that Easter ought to be celebrated on the same day and in the same manner as by the Jews
Sadducees - ...
Origins...
The influence of Greek ideas in Jewish affairs produced tension between those Jews who favoured it and those who resisted it. ) Under the leadership of a priestly family known as the Maccabees (or Hasmoneans) the Jews rebelled against Antiochus, and after three years of fighting regained religious freedom (165 BC). ...
When the Maccabees wanted to keep fighting and regain political freedom as well, the religiously strict Jews objected. ...
A clear division now existed among the Jews. ...
Most of the leading priests of New Testament times were Sadducees, and they enjoyed the support of the upper class Jews
Masora - The masora is called by the Jews, the hedge or fence of the law, because this enumeration of the verses, &c. In regard, therefore, the sacred writings had undergone an infinite number of alterations; whence various readings had arisen, and the original was become much mangled and disguised, the Jews had recourse to a canon, which they judged infallible, to fix and ascertain the reading of the Hebrew text; and this rule they call masora; "tradition, " from tradit, as if this critique were nothing but a tradition which they had received from their forefathers. According to Elias Levita, they were the Jews of a famous school at Tiberias, about five hundred years after Christ, who composed, or at least began, the masora; whence they are called masorites and masoretic doctors. The eastern Jews have followed that of Ben Naphtali, and the western that of Ben Asher: and all that has been done since is to copy after them, without making any more corrections, or masoretical criticisms. The Arabs have done the same thing by their Koran that the Masorites have done by the Bible; nor do the Jews deny their having borrowed this expedient from the Arabs, who first put it in practice in the seventh century
Abomination - For this reason, Chrysostom affirms, that every idol, and every image of a man, was called an abomination among the Jews. The horror with which the Jews regarded them, sufficiently appears from the account which Josephus gives of Pilate's introducing them into the city, when he sent his army from Caesarea into winter quarters at Jerusalem, and of Vitellius's proposing to march through Judea, after he had received orders from Tiberius to attack Aretas, king of Petra. The Jews applied the above passage of Daniel to the Romans, as we are informed by Jerome. Upon this occasion the Jews, under the conduct of Barchochab, rose up in arms against the Romans, and in the war had fifty cities demolished, nine hundred and eighty-five of their best towns destroyed, and five hundred and eighty thousand men slain by the sword; and in the end of the war, B. From this interpretation they infer, that the religion of Mohammed will prevail in the east one thousand two hundred and sixty years, and be succeeded by the restoration of the Jews, the destruction of Antichrist, the full conversion of the Gentiles to the church of Christ, and the commencement of the millennium
Cross - Crucifixion was a form of torture and execution used by the Romans, not by the Jews. Yet Jesus knew that in the end this was the way the Jews would have him killed (John 3:14; John 8:28; John 12:32-33). The Jews of Jesus’ day, being under the rule of Rome, had no power to carry out executions themselves, but had to submit requests for execution to the Roman authorities. ...
The Jews considered that Jesus’ hanging on the cross had the same meaning as hanging on a tree. Because the Jews had a wrong understanding of the curse Jesus bore in his death, his crucifixion was to them a stumbling block
Idumaea - By the law of Deuteronomy 23:7-8 they thus became full Jews in the third generation, though Herod himself was sometimes reproached as a ‘half-Jew’ (Josephus Ant. Although the Idumaeans were ‘sons of Esau,’ their interests from this time were entirely merged with those of the Jews, and their country was reckoned to Judaea, Idumaea being counted one of the eleven toparchies of Judaea in Roman times (Josephus BJ iii
Libya - This country attracted the Jews at an early period. Jews from ‘the parts of Libya about Cyrene’ (τὰ μέρη τῆς Λιβύης τῆς κατὰ Κυρήνην) were in Jerusalem at the time of the first Christian Pentecost (Acts 2:10)
Sign - I should not have paused at this word had it not been with a view to have noticed the five signs of the Jews, which they regarded as so highly important in the first temple, and which they confessed the second temple was destitute of. ...
Second, The ark of the covenant from whence the Jews observed JEHOVAH gave answers by revelation
Zerubbabel - He is always named first as being the chief of the Jews that returned to their own country, Ezra 2:2 ; Ezra 3:8 ; Ezra 5:2 ; he laid the foundations of the temple, Ezra 3:8-9 ; Zechariah 4:9 , &c; and restored the worship of the Lord, and the usual sacrifices. When the Samaritans offered to assist in rebuilding the temple, Zerubbabel and the principal men of Judah refused them this honour, since Cyrus had granted his commission to the Jews only, Ezra 4:2-3
Beni Khaibir - Samuel Brett, who wrote a narrative of the proceedings of the great council of the Jews in Hungary, A. He inquired of the rabbins at Jerusalem, relative to these wandering Jews, and received the following information: "Rabbi Mose Secot is quite certain that the Beni Khaibir are descendants of the Rechabites; at this present moment they drink no wine, and have neither vineyard, nor field, nor seed; but dwell, like Arabs, in tents, and are wandering nomades
Shem - The Jews ascribe to Shem the theological tradition of the things that Noah had learned from the first men. Lastly, the Jews say, that he taught men the law of justice, and the manner of reckoning months and years, and the intercalations of the months
Pentecost - Πεντεκοστη , a solemn festival of the Jews; so called, because it was celebrated on the fiftieth day after the sixteenth of Nisan, which was the second day of the passover. The modern Jews celebrate the pentecost for two days
Oil - As vast quantities of oil were made by the ancient Jews, it became an article of exportation. The great demand for it in Egypt led the Jews to send it thither
Hours - This mode of dividing the day prevailed among the Jews at least after the exile, and perhaps earlier, Daniel 3:6 4:19 . But after the Jews became subject to the Romans, they adopted the Roman manner of dividing the night into four watches, namely, the evening, or first quarter, after sunset; the midnight; cock-crowing, or third quarter, from midnight on; and the morning, or fourth quarter, including the dawn, Matthew 14:25 Mark 6:48 13:35 Luke 12:48
Pathros - Yet there is abundant evidence in papyri of an important settlement of Jews at the southernmost extremity at Syene before 525 b. Seveneh); and the passages in which Pathros is mentioned refer to Jews in the Upper Country more than half a century before that, after the destruction of Jerusalem
Parthians - They were probably Jews who had become naturalized in Parthia, ‘Jews of the Dispersion,’ with possibly a few Parthian proselytes
Ezra, Book of - The permanence of the Jews was threatened by opposition from non-Jews and by the Jews' careless disregard for the things of God. One is that Sheshbazzar was a real historical person who actually led a small group of anxious Jews to Jerusalem. This was a widely used language of Ezra's era, related to Hebrew, used by Jews and Gentiles alike. Establishing the legitimacy of the Jews was an important objective, and these helped do that. ...
Ezra begins with the story of Sheshbazzar and Zerubbabel and the first Jews to return to Jerusalem from captivity in 538 B. ...
Soon Ezra was informed of the most glaring sin of the Jews, intermarriage with non-Jews, those not in covenant relation with Yahweh (Ezra 9:2 ). ...
Ezra's greatest contribution was his teaching, establishing, and implementing “the book of the law of the Lord” (Nehemiah 9:3 ) among the Jews. He led Jews to divorce their foreign wives and send them and their children away. ...
The value of the contributions of Ezra to the Jews is immeasurable. He might not have been the father of Judaism, but he contributed greatly to saving the Jews' identity as a people of God
Salamis - But after a few years Cyprus was again in the possession of the Egyptian king, and it was probably during his reign that Jews began to settle in the island, to which a letter is said to have been sent by the Roman Senate on behalf of this people about 139 b. Many Jews must have made their home in Salamis, where Barnabas (himself a Cypriote, Acts 4:36) and St. 117), the Jews of Salamis, grown numerous and wealthy, rose and massacred their fellow-citizens, and the once populous city became almost a desert. He defeated the Jews, expelled them from the island, to whose beautiful coasts no Jew was ever after permitted to approach. of the Jews4, London, 1866, ii
Phylacteries - called by the Jews תפלין , are little scrolls of parchment, in which are written certain sentences of the law, enclosed in leather cases, and bound with thongs on the forehead and on the left arm. The making and wearing these phylacteries, as the Jews still do in their private devotions, is owing to a misinterpretation of those texts, on which they ground the practice, namely, God's commanding them "to bind the law for a sign on their hands, and to let it be as frontlets between their eyes," &c, Deuteronomy 6:8 . However, the Jews understanding the precept literally, wrote out the several passages wherever it occurs, and to which it seems to refer, and bound them upon their foreheads and upon their arms. These κρασπεδα were the ציצית , the fringes which the Jews are commanded to wear upon the borders of their garments, Numbers 15:38-39
Libertines - The first is that of Grotius and Vitringa, that they were Italian Jews or proselytes. Whether the libertini, mentioned in this passage of the Acts were Gentiles, who had become proselytes to Judaism, or native Jews, who having been made slaves to the Romans were afterward set at liberty, and in remembrance of their captivity called them recites libertini, and formed a synagogue by themselves, is differently conjectured by the learned. It is probable the Jews of Cyrenia, Alexandria, &c, built synagogues at Jerusalem at their own charge, for the use of their brethren who came from those countries; as the Danes, Swedes, &c, build churches for the use of their own countrymen in London; and that the Italian Jews did the same; and because the greatest number of them were libertini, their synagogue was therefore called the synagogue of the Libertines
Temple - ) thinks that ‘it may fairly be supposed that the effect of their Christian faith was to make all of the early disciples more devout and earnest Jews than they had ever been. ’ ‘We have distinct evidence that Christian Jews like other Jews frequented the temple, the sanctuary of the nation, and thereby maintained their claim to be Jews in the true sense’ (F. The reproof administered to them was as mild as their confinement was brief; and the Christian Jews, finding that they could not be excluded from the Temple precincts, continued to make Solomon’s Porch their ordinary rendezvous (Acts 5:12). Against so strict and thoroughgoing Jews the guardians of the national religion, as embodied in the Temple and its cultus, had no ground of complaint, and the apostles on their side ‘could still cherish the hope that the nation at large might be brought to turn and bow the knee to its true Messiah’ (Hort, op. Teaching of such a kind, however, would have brought Stephen into collision not only with the Hellenistic Jews, but with the whole body of Christians in Jerusalem. He is consequently accused of ‘teaching all the Jews which are among the Gentiles to forsake Moses’ (Acts 21:21). This he never did, and, to prove that the charge was groundless, he was advised, during his last visit to Jerusalem, to conciliate the great mass of Christian Jews by performing the vow of a Nazirite in the Temple. But he had long been in the habit of identifying himself in things non-essential now with Jews and now with Gentiles in order that he might ‘win some of them’ (1 Corinthians 9:20), and the last instance of conformity was merely the most striking. What impression the object-lesson actually made upon the law-abiding Christian Jews for whom it was specially intended is not recorded; but it clearly had other results which were not anticipated, for the Jews rose in arms against St
Messiah - ...
One of David’s best known psalms, Psalms 110, was interpreted by Jews of Jesus’ time as applying to the Messiah, though they consistently refused to acknowledge the messiahship of Jesus. ...
Jesus and the Jews...
Although Jesus was the Messiah, he did not at the beginning of his ministry announce his messiahship openly. This was no doubt because the Jews of his time had a wrong understanding of the Messiah and his kingdom. ...
The Jews had little interest in the spiritual work of the Messiah. When other Jews, by contrast, recognized Jesus as the Messiah in the true sense of the word, Jesus told them not to broadcast the fact. He did not place the same restrictions on non-Jews, for non-Jews were not likely to use his messiahship for political purposes (Mark 5:19; John 4:25-26). Like most Jews they knew of the Old Testament prophecies concerning God’s suffering servant (Isaiah 49:7; Isaiah 50:6; Isaiah 52:13-15; Isaiah 53; see SERVANT OF THE LORD), just as they knew of the prophecies concerning God’s Messiah, but they did not connect the two. The Jews considered the Messiah as blessed by God above all others, whereas a crucified person was cursed by God (Galatians 3:13). That is why the Christians’ belief in a crucified Jesus as the Saviour-Messiah was a stumbling block to the Jews (see STUMBLING BLOCK). ...
In the eyes of unbelieving Jews, Jesus was not the Messiah, and therefore they would not call him Jesus Christ. To unbelieving non-Jews, however, the Jewish notion of messiahship meant nothing
Winepress - The wine-presses of the Jews consisted of two receptacles or vats placed at different elevations, in the upper one of which the grapes were trodden, Isaiah 63:3; Lamentations 1:15; Job 24:11, while the lower one received the expressed juice
Demiurge - Valentinus regarded him as the offspring of a union of matter with lower wisdom, a distant emanation from the Supreme God; other Gnostics identified him with Jehovah, God of the Jews and the Old Testament from whose power, Christ of the New Testament, Son of the Good God, rescued us
Leaven - In the great solemnity of the Passover the Jews were bidden to eat unleavened bread (Exodus 12,13, 34; Numbers 12; Deuteronomy 16)
Ab - The fifth month of the sacred, and the eleventh of the civil year among the Jews
Sosthenes - 3), and the hostility of the rabble to the Jews showed itself when they were worsted in the courts
Crete - Jews from Crete were in Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost (Acts 2:11 )
Ham - The curse pronounced by Noah against Ham, properly against Canaan his fourth son, was accomplished when the Jews subsequently exterminated the Canaanites
Jason - (jay' ssuhn) Personal name often used by Jews as a substitute for Hebrew Joshua or Joseph and also used by Gentiles
Daric - It was current among the Jews after their return from Babylon, i
Excision - The Jews, Selden informs us, reckon up thirty-six crimes, to which they pretend this punishment is due
Gabbatha - Before announcing the decision, however, Pilate introduced Jesus as King of the Jews, giving the Jewish leaders one last chance to confess their Messiah
Pisidia - The New Testament does not record any missionary activity in Pisidia itself, probably because there were few Jews there with which to start a congregation
Province - Judea was a special province because the Jews so fiercely hated the Roman domination
Sal'Amis - Paul, we read expressly of "synagogues" in the plural, ( Acts 13:5 ) hence we conclude that there were many Jews in Cyprus
Chebar - Length, a river in the "land of the Chaldeans" (Ezekiel 1:3 ), on the banks of which were located some of the Jews of the Captivity (Ezekiel 1:1 ; 3:15,23 ; 10:15,20,22 )
Decalogue - The Jews, by way of eminence, call these commandments the ten words, from whence they had afterwards the name of decalogue; but they joined the first and second into one, and divided the last into two
Masada - A band of rebellious Jews held it briefly during the first revolt against Rome (A
Mightily - He mightily convinced the Jews
Uckewallists - His argument was this, that the period of time which extended from the birth of Christ to the descent of the Holy Ghost was a time of deep ignorance, during which the Jews were destitute of divine light; and that, of consequence, the sins and enormities which were committed during this interval were in a great measure excusable, and could not merit the severest displays of the divine justice
Whitsunday - As the descent of the Holy Ghost upon the apostles happened on that day which the Jews called Pentecost, this festival retained the name of Pentecost among the Christians
Phylactery - Phylactery particularly denoted a slip of parchment, wherein was written some text of holy Scripture, particularly of the decalogue, which the more devout people among the Jews wore at the forehead, the breast, or the neck, as a mark of their religion
Ark - A small close vessel, chest or coffer, such as that which was the repository of the tables of the covenant among the Jews
Ashima - The exilic Elephantine papyri from a Jewish community in Egypt mention an “Ashim-bethel” who may have been worshiped by Egyptian Jews as a counterpart to Yahweh
Star in the East - prophecies as to Messiah; but whether this be so or not, God, who provided the star, sent the Magi to find out the King of the Jews, and instructed them not to return to Herod
Adonijah - A leader of the Jews after the Exile who signed Nehemiah's covenant to obey God's law (Nehemiah 10:16 )
Expiation - Among pagans and Jews, expiation was made chiefly by sacrifices, or washings and purification
Abraham's Bosom - The Roman custom of reclining at meals was common among the Jews
Shiloah, Waters of - Isaiah (Isaiah 8:6) makes it represent the quiet confidence in Jehovah's benignant sway, exercised through David's line, to which he urged the Jews, in contrast to the overwhelming force of Assyria (like the flood of the Euphrates) which they sought as an ally
Ablution - The Egyptians, the Greeks, the Romans, the Jews, all had them
Altar - The Jews had two altars in and about their temple; 1
Antiquities - Ritualibus; Godwyn's Moses and Aaron; Bingham's Antiquities of the Christian Church; Brown's Antiquities of the Jews; Potter's and Harwood's Greek and Kennett's and Adam's Roman Antiquities; Preface to the Prussian Testament, published by L'Enfant and Beausobre; Prideaux and Shuckford's Connections; Jones's Asiatic Researches; and Maurice's Indian Antiquities
Alexandria, Cyril of, Saint - He incurred the enmity of Orestes, prefect of Egypt, by expelling the Jews and suppressing the Novatians
Anathema Maranatha - (1 Corinthians 16:22) The apostle seems to have borrowed it from the Jews, whose custom was, when they could not find a punishment sufficiently great according to their apprehension of the crime, to devote the offender to the Lord's own punishment, in his own time and way
Genesis - The general divisions of the book are as follows: ...
the creation of the world and early history of mankind (1-11), including the Fall, the promise of a Redeemer, and the Deluge; ...
the early history of the Jews (12-50), including Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and Joseph
Cassia - From a plant of this kind was extracted an aromatic oil, used as a perfume by the Jews
Hymn - He recited the hymns or psalms which the Jews were used to sing after the passover; which they called the Halal; that is, the Hallelujah Psalms
Mint - The law did not oblige the Jews to give the tithe of this sort of herbs; it only required it of those things which could be comprehended under the name of income or revenue
Doctors - or TEACHERS, of the law, a class of men in great repute among the Jews
Jeshua - ...
...
The son of Jozadak, and high priest of the Jews under Zerubbabel (Nehemiah 7:7 ; 12:1,7,10,26 ); called Joshua (Haggai 1:1,12 ; 2:2,4 ; Zechariah 3:1,3,6,8,9 )
Watches of the Night - The original division of the night was into three watches—"the beginning of the watches," from sunset to 10 o'clock, Lamentations 2:19; "the middle watch," from 10 to 2 o'clock, Judges 7:19; and "the morning watch," from 2 o'clock to sunrise, Exodus 14:24; 1 Samuel 11:11—but after the captivity the Jews adopted the custom of Rome and Greece, which divided the twelve hours of the night into four watches, beginning with 6 in the afternoon—"even," from 6 to 9 o'clock; "midnight," from 9 to 12; "cock-crowing," from 12 to 3; and "morning," from 3 to 6
Perea - Perea was the area through which the Jews traveled to avoid going through Samaria
Usury - The Jews might require interest of foreigners, Deuteronomy 23:19-20 , but were forbidden to receive it from each other, Exodus 22:25 Psalm 15:5 ; being instructed to lend money, etc
Doeg - The king gladly seized the opportunity to wreak his passion on a helpless victim; and when the Jews around him refused to slay the priests of God, infamously used the willing services of this alien and heathen
Repetitions - In prayers, which our Saviour censures, Matthew 6:7 , were short forms or particular expressions in prayer, which the Jews were accustomed to repeat a certain number of times
Cappadocia - There were many Jews residing in it, Acts 2:9
Sect - Among the Jews, the principal sects were the Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes
Sabbatical Year - Was to be celebrated among the Jews once every seven years; the land was to rest, and be left without culture, Exodus 23:10,11 Leviticus 25:17
Gad'Ara, - Gadara was captured by Vespasian on the first outbreak of the war with the Jews, all its inhabitants were massacred, and the town itself, with the surrounding villages, was reduced to ashes
Stephen - Ramsay) that presbyters had yet been appointed, though they soon followed; but in Acts 6:1-15 seven persons, commonly (but not in NT) called ‘deacons,’ all but one probably Hellenistic or Greek-speaking Jews (see art. The Jews had misunderstood their own Law. This defence provoked the Jews so much that they cast Stephen out of the city and stoned him undoubtedly an illegal murder, not sanctioned by the Roman law
Micah - The principal predictions contained in this book are, the invasions of Shalmanezer and Sennecharib; the destruction of Samaria and of Jerusalem, mixed with consolatory promises of the deliverance of the Jews from the Babylonian captivity and of the downfall of the power of their Assyrian and Babylonian oppressors; the cessation of prophecy in consequence of their continued deceitfulness and hypocrisy; and a desolation in a then distant period, still greater than that which was declared to be impending. The birth of the Messiah at Bethlehem is also expressly foretold; and the Jews are directed to look to the establishment and extent of his kingdom, as an unfailing source of comfort amidst general distress. " It carefully distinguishes his human nativity from his divine nature and eternal existence; foretels the casting off of the Israelites and Jews for a season; their ultimate restoration; and the universal peace which should prevail in the kingdom and under the government of the Messiah
Sign - , Matthew 12:38,39 (1st part); John 2:11 , RV, "signs;" John 3:2 (ditto); 4:54, "(the second) sign," RV; Acts 19:1-20 (ditto); 20:30; in 1 Corinthians 1:22 , "the Jews ask for signs," RV, indicates that the Apostles were met with the same demand from Jews as Christ had been: "signs were vouchsafed in plenty, signs of God's power and love, but these were not the signs which they sought . ...
"Signs" confirmatory of what God had accomplished in the atoning sacrifice of Christ, His resurrection and ascension, and of the sending of the Holy Spirit, were given to the Jews for their recognition, as at Pentecost, and supernatural acts by apostolic ministry, as well as by the supernatural operations in the churches, such as the gift of tongues and prophesyings; there is no record of the continuance of these latter after the circumstances recorded in John 10:41
Sanhedrin - With the re-establishment of the Jewish nation after the Jews’ return from captivity in Babylon, there were significant developments in the Jewish religion. The Jews’ execution of Stephen was also illegal, but the Roman authorities probably considered it safer to ignore the incident and so avoid trouble with the Jews (Acts 7:57-58; cf
Thessaloni'ca - ( Acts 17:2,3 ) It is stated that the ministrations among the Jews continued for three weeks. ...
The circumstance noted in (Acts 17:1 ) that here was the synagogue of the Jews in this part of Macedonia, had evidently much to do with the apostle's plans,and also doubtless with his success. Trade would inevitably bring Jews to Thessalonica; and it is remarkable that they have ever since had a prominent place in the annals of the city
Deuterocanonical - The Jews, it is certain, acknowledged several books in their canon, which were put there later than the rest. And the Romish church has since added others to the canon, that were not, and could not be, in the canon of the Jews, by reason some of them were not composed till after: such as the book of Ecclesiasticus, with several of the apocryphal books, as the Macabees, Wisdom, &c. But since that church has pronounced as to the canonicity of those books, there is no more room now for her members to doubt of them, than there was for the Jews to doubt of those of the canon of Esdras
Antioch - The Christians dispersed by Stephen's martyrdom preached at Antioch to idolatrous Greeks, not "Grecians" or Greekspeaking Jews, according to the Alexandrine manuscript (Acts 11:20; Acts 11:26), whence a church having been formed under Barnabas and Paul's care, the disciples were first called "Christians" there. ...
Antioch was founded by Seleucus Nicator, and Jews were given the same political privileges as Greeks. The Jews therefore raised a persecution by the wealthy women of the place, and drove him from Antioch to Iconium, and followed him even to Lystra (Acts 13:14; Acts 13:50-51; Acts 14:19; Acts 14:21)
Marcionites - These two conflicting powers exercised oppressions upon rational and immortal souls; and therefore the supreme God, to deliver them from bondage, sent to the Jews a Being more like unto himself, even his Son Jesus Christ, clothed with a certain shadowy resemblance of a body: this celestial messenger was attacked by the prince of darkness, and by the god of the Jews, but without effect. ...
Those who followed the directions of this celestial conductor, mortify the body by fastings and austerities, and renounce the precepts of the god of the Jews and of the prince of darkness, shall after death ascend to the mansions of felicity and perfection
Corban - (Mark 7:11) But it should seem, from the manner in which it is spoken of by our blessed Lord, that the Jews were much in the habit of using it. The word Corban applied by the Jews to all voluntary gifts. ...
The manner in which our Lord hath condemned the Jews, for the use of the word Corban, plainly shews what a pretext, or covering, they made it to evade important duties
Concise Chronological Table of Bible History - ...
536...
First return of Jews—Zerubbabel. ...
457...
Return of Jews (second company) with Ezra. ...
141...
Simon Maccabæus frees the Jews
On - " But notwithstanding its being the seat of the sciences, such were its egregious idolatries, that it was nicknamed Aven, or Beth-Aven, "the house of vanity," or idolatry, by the Jews. Here, also, in the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus, leave was obtained of that king by Onias, high priest of the Jews, to build a temple, when dispossessed of his office by Antiochus; which was long used by the Hellenist Jews
Tradition - The Jews had numerous unwritten traditions, which they affirmed to have been delivered to Moses on Mount Sinai, and by him transmitted to Joshua, the judges, and the prophets. After their wars with the Romans under Adrian and Severus, in view of their increasing dispersion over the earth, the Jews desired to secure their traditions by committing them to writing. The traditions of the Romish church, with less apology than the ancient Jews had before the New Testament was written, are still more in conflict with the word of God, and still more deserving of the Savior's condemnation
Nehemiah - Touched with the calamitous state of the colony of Jews, which had formerly returned to Jerusalem, he besought the king of Persia to permit him to go to Jerusalem and aid in rebuilding it. ...
The enmity of the Samaritans, under which the colony had formerly suffered, was now increased; and under Sanballat, the governor of the country, they cast all possible hindrances in the way of the Jews. He required of those Jews who had married heathen wives, that they should either abandon them, or else they quit the country
Blasphemy - ...
Jews of New Testament times accused Jesus of blasphemy because he claimed for himself powers that belonged to God only (Mark 2:7; Mark 14:61-64). In fact, the Jews themselves were the ones guilty of blasphemy; for in speaking evil of Jesus they were speaking evil of God (1 Timothy 1:13). Jesus realized that many Jews did not clearly understand the nature of his messiahship, and did not know what he meant by referring to himself as ‘the Son of man’
Bar-Kochba - At first, the Jews prepared for war secretly. He forbid the Jews even to enter the territory around the city
Commandments, the Ten - The Jews make the "Preface" one of the commandments, and then combine the first and second. The Jews and Josephus divide them equally
Christian - In time there grew up a church there, a mixedsociety of Jews and Gentiles, and the citizens of Antioch naturallyasked, "What are they?" "What name do they bear?" "What is theirobject?" While they were acquainted with the Jews and theirpeculiarities, they saw that this was not a Jewish organization,for it embraced Gentiles as well
Sopater - He is described as a native of that place (Βεροιαῖος), and was perhaps a Hellenistic Jew, one of those who contrasted so favourably with the Jews of Thessalonica, one of the ‘many’ who believed during the Apostle’s visit (Acts 17:10-14). fellow-Jews
Proselyte - The Jews held that on a Gentile becoming a proselyte, all his natural relationships were annulled: he was 'a new creature. This, with other abuses, caused the emperors to interfere; the stricter Jews also were scandalized, and repudiated such proselytes
Pharisees - This name was given to a religious school among the Jews; it is supposed to have been derived from the Hebrew word parash, signifying 'to separate'; it was given to them by others, their chosen name being chasidim, 'pious ones. It may have been that because of the great laxity of the Jews generally, some at first devoutly sought for greater sanctity
Ark of the Covenant - Here the Shechinah rested both in the tabernacle and temple in a visible cloud; hence were issued the Divine oracles by an audible voice; and the high priest appeared before the mercy-seat once every year on the great day of expiation; and the Jews, wherever they worshipped, turned their faces towards the place where the ark stood. It was used as a representative of the former on the day of expiation, and a repository of the original copy of the holy Scriptures, collected by Ezra and the men of the great synagogue after the captivity; and, in imitation of this, the Jews, to this day, have a kind of ark in their synagogues, wherein their sacred books are kept
Antonia, Tower of - Capable of accommodating at least a Roman cohort (500-600 men), the tower housed portions of the Roman army used to guard the Jews inside the Temple court. Herod required that the vestments of the high priest be kept in the tower to maintain control over the worship festivals of the Jews
Abaddon - Hammond understand by the locusts in this passage, the zealots and robbers who infested and desolated Judea before Jerusalem was taken by the Romans; and by Abaddon, John of Gischala, who having treacherously left that town before it was surrendered to Titus, came to Jerusalem and headed those of the zealots who acknowledged him as their king, and involved the Jews in many grievous calamities. The learned Grotius concurs in opinion, that the locusts are designed to represent the sect of the zealots, who appeared among the Jews during the siege, and at the time of the destruction of Jerusalem
Gallio - The Jews were enraged at St. Paul being about to speak, Gallio told the Jews, that if the matter in question were a breach of justice, or an action of a criminal nature, he should think himself obliged to hear them; but, as the dispute was only concerning their law, he would not determine such differences, nor judge them
Smyrna - It was one of the richest and most powerful cities of that region, and was frequented by great numbers of Jews. ...
It's population is nearly 150,000; of whom one-half are Turks, one-forth Greeks, and the remainder chiefly Armenians, Jews, and Franks
Proselyte - ...
According to the later rabbins, there were two species of proselytes among the Jews. The first were called "proselytes of the gate," and were foreigners, either bond or free, who lived among the Jews and conformed to their customs in regard to what the rabbins call "the seven precepts of Noah;" that is, they abstained from injurious language in respect to God, from idolatry, homicide, incest, robbery, resistance to magistrates, and from eating blood, or the flesh of animals killed without shedding their blood
Targum - They are written in the Chaldee tongue, which became familiar to the Jews after the time of their captivity in Babylon, and was more known to them than the Hebrew itself; so that when the Hebrew text was read in the synagogue, or in the temple, they generally added to it an explication in the Chaldee tongue for the service of the people, who had but a very imperfect knowledge of the Hebrew tongue. As to the Old Testament, they serve to vindicate the genuineness of the present Hebrew text, by proving it to be the same that was in use when these Targums were made; contrary to the opinion of those who think the Jews corrupted it after our Saviour's time. They help to explain many words and phrases in the Hebrew original, and they hand down to us many of the ancient customs of the Jews. And some of them, with the phraseologies, idioms, and peculiar forms of speech, which we find in them, do, in many instances, help as much for the better illustration and better understanding of the New Testament, as of the Old; the Jerusalem Chaldee dialect, in which they are written, being the vulgar language of the Jews in our Saviour's time. They also very much serve the Christian cause against the Jews, by interpreting many of the prophecies of the Messiah in the Old Testament in the same manner as the Christians do
Septuagint - The Greek version of Old Testament, made for the Greek speaking (Hellenistic) Jews at Alexandria. * Its wide circulation among Hellenistic Jews before Christ providentially prepared the way for the gospel. The Jews in Justin Martyr's Apology questioned its accuracy. The Alexandrian Macedonic Greek forms in the Septuagint disprove the coming of 72 interpreters from Jerusalem, and show that the translators were Alexandrian Jews. " The Septuagint is an impartial witness, being ages before the controversy between Jews and Christians
Antiochus - Some think that it was on the following occasion: The Galatians having marched to attack the Jews in Babylon, whose army consisted only of eight thousand men, reinforced with four thousand Macedonians, the Jews defended themselves with so much bravery, that they killed one hundred and twenty thousand men, 2Ma_8:20 . It was perhaps, too, on this occasion, that Antiochus Soter made the Jews of Asia free of the cities belonging to the Gentiles, and permitted them to live according to their own laws. After a victory which he had obtained over Scopas, near the springs of Jordan, he became master of the strong places in Coelo-Syria and Samaria; and the Jews submitted freely to him, received him into their city and furnished his army plentifully with provisions. He exempted the senators, scribes, and singing men of the temple, from the capitation tax; and he permitted the Jews to live according to their own laws in every part of his dominions. The ambition of those Jews who sought the high priesthood, and bought it of Antiochus, was the beginning of those calamities which overwhelmed their nation under this prince. The inhabitants of Jerusalem testifying their joy at this news, Antiochus, when returning from Egypt, entered this city by force, treated the Jews as rebels, and commanded his troops to slay all they met. The year following, he sent Apollonius into Judea, with an army of twenty-two thousand men, and commanded him to kill all the Jews who were of full age, and to sell the women and young men, 2Ma_5:24-25 . These misfortunes were only preludes of what they were to suffer; for Antiochus, apprehending that the Jews would never be constant in their obedience to him, unless he obliged them to change their religion, and to embrace that of the Greeks, issued an edict, enjoining them to conform to the laws of other nations, and forbidding their usual sacrifices in the temple, their festivals and their Sabbath. Many corrupt Jews complied with these orders; but others resisted them. Mattathias being dead, Judas Maccabaeus headed those Jews who continued faithful, and opposed with success the generals whom king Antiochus sent into Judea. On receiving this intelligence, the king was transported with indignation; and, threatening to make Jerusalem a grave for the Jews, commanded the driver of his chariot to urge the horses forward, and to hasten his journey. In this condition he wrote to the Jews very humbly, promised them many things, and engaged even to turn Jew, if God would restore him to health. He therefore proposed an accommodation with the Jews, that he might return speedily to Antioch and oppose Philip. Antiochus Theos, to strengthen himself in his new acquisition, sent letters to Jonathan Maccabaeus, high priest and prince of the Jews, confirming him in the high priesthood, and granting him four toparchies, or four considerable places, in Judea. Antiochus pursued him, and sent Cendebeus with troops into the maritime parts of Palestine, and commanded him to rebuild Cedron, and fight the Jews. Simon Maccabaeus, prince and high priest of the Jews, being treacherously murdered by Ptolemy, his son-in-law, in the castle of Docus, near Jericho, the murderer immediately sent to Antiochus Sidetes to demand troops, that he might recover for him the country and cities of the Jews. It being the time for celebrating the feast of tabernacles, the Jews desired of Antiochus a truce for seven days. This courtesy of the king so won the hearts of the Jews, that they sent ambassadors to treat of peace, and to desire that they might live according to their own laws. To these conditions, except the last, the Jews consented; for they could not be induced to see an army of strangers in their capital, and chose rather to give hostages and five hundred talents of silver. He was accompanied in these expeditions by John Hircanus, high priest of the Jews, who, it is supposed, obtained the surname of Hircanus from some gallant action which he performed
Babylon, Mystical - Moreover the literal Babylon was the center from which the Asiatic "dispersion" (dispersed Jews), whom Peter addresses, was derived. Babylon contained many Jews in the apostolic age ("one of the greatest knots of Jews in the world:" Lightfoot, quoted in Smith's Dictionary), and doubtless "the apostle of the circumcision," Peter, who had among his hearers on Pentecost (Acts 2) "the dwellers of Mesopotamia," would visit the Jews there. The later Jews regarded Rome in the same light as their fathers regarded Babylon (Jeremiah 51:7, compare Revelation 14:8. Our turn shall come next; as in the case of Israel first, then Judah (Ezekiel 23), then the restored Jews at the destruction of Jerusalem by Rome, for whom Jerusalem gave up the true "King of the Jews" (John 11:48; John 11:50; John 19:15)
Neighbor - ...
Thus, when we enter into the New Testament period we are to understand the biblical laws of the Old Testament that speak of neighborliness as injunctions for special treatment of fellow Jews. Jews showed special love for fellow Jews because they were covenantally and racially bound together. Social realities also reveal that Jews were kind to Gentiles in general and for those Jews who lived in the diaspora there was also a general social friendliness to be observed. Early Christianity showed a similar kind of "prejudiced love" (Galatians 6:10 ) and it would be wrong to vilify either Jews or Christians for their "prejudiced love" unless that love becomes neglect, or even contempt, of outsiders in need. ...
Jesus sought to expand the concept of "neighbor" to include non-Jews; while this is not contrary to Jewish law or to Jewish practice, it clearly was challenging to many in Judaism
Bible - Also, the book which is made up of writings similarly accepted by the Jews; as, a rabbinical Bible
Frontlet - (Greek: phylakterion, safeguard, charm) ...
Two small square leather cases worn by Jews during prayer, one on the forehead, the other on the left upper arm
Onias - He fled into Egypt where he built, near Heliopolis, a new temple for the use of the many Jews in Egypt (160 B
Apollos - Passing thence into Achia, he preached with great power and success, especially among the Jews, Acts 19:1 1 Corinthians 3:6
Adullam - It was one of the cities rebuilt and fortified by Rehoboam, 2 Chronicles 11:7 Micah 1:15 , and was reoccupied by the Jews after the captivity, Nehemiah 11:30
Lawrence of Brindisi, Saint - He was most successful as a missionary, particularly among the Jews, and by his address to the Christian soldiers, whom he led, crucifix in hand, he contributed to the great defeat of the Turks at Stuhlweissenburg
Hallelujah - In later Christian use it was attached to the Paschal Feast as among the Jews to the Passover
Magdala - The Jews used "Magdala" to denote a person with twisted or platted hair; a usage of women of loose character
Tahapanes - The Jews from Jerusalem fled to this place after the death of Gedaliah (q
Easter - The Asiatic churches kept their Easter upon the very same day that the Jews observed their passover, and others on the first Sunday after the first full moon in the new year
Smyrna - They were also persecuted, mainly by the Jews, who throughout Asia were bitterly anti-Christian (Revelation 2:9; cf
Lucius - ), who transmitted the decree of the senate in favour of the Jews
Accuser - He was regarded by the Jews as the accuser of men before God, laying to their charge the violations of the law of which they were guilty, and demanding their punishment
Wills - Under a system of close inheritance like that of the Jews, the scope forbid bequest in respect of land was limited by the right of redemption and general re-entry in the jubilee year; but the law does not forbid bequests by will of such limited interest in land as was consistent with those rights
Magic - Of the religion of the Jews magic did not only not form a part, but the law forbade the consulting of magicians, under penalty of death
Holocaust - (Greek: kolos, whole; kaustos, burnt) ...
An offering entirely consumed by fire, in use among the Jews and some pagan nations of antiquity
Moladah - The city was among those repopulated by Jews returning from Exile (Nehemiah 11:26 )
Cuth, Cuthah - These colonists intermingled with the Israelite inhabitants who were left by Sargon; and their descendants, the Samaritans, were in consequence termed by the Jews ‘Cuthæans
Cilicia - The Jews of Cilicia had a synagogue at Jerusalem (Acts 6:9 )
Wilhelminians - According to her doctrines none were saved by the blood of Jesus but true and pious Christians; while the Jews, Saracens, and unworthy Christians, were to obtain salvation through the Holy Spirit which dwelt in her, and that, in consequence thereof, all which happened in Christ during his appearance upon earth in the human nature, was to be exactly renewed in her person, or rather in that of the Holy Ghost, which was united to her
Elisha - It is clear, however, that in this warning our Lord was looking far beyond Nazareth, and that He had in view the casting away of the Jews through unbelief, and the call of the Gentiles
Archangel, Gabriel the - The Jews venerated Gabriel as the angel of judgment and placed him after Michael; Christian tradition holds that it was he who appeared to Saint Joseph and the angels, and who strengthened Our Lord in the garden at Gethsemane
Gabriel the Archangel - The Jews venerated Gabriel as the angel of judgment and placed him after Michael; Christian tradition holds that it was he who appeared to Saint Joseph and the angels, and who strengthened Our Lord in the garden at Gethsemane
Assassins - “Sicarii” was used by the Romans to refer to those Jews who engaged in the organized killing of political figures
Chamber - , chambers painted with images, as used by (Ezekiel 8:12 ), is an expression denoting the vision the prophet had of the abominations practised by the Jews in Jerusalem
Fishers - Jeremiah 16:16 (a) These are messengers of GOD sent throughout the world to find His people, the Jews, and bring them to Him for judgment
Crown of Thorns - Though applied to His sacred head by the rough soldiers, it was connived at by Pilate, who presented the Lord in this garb to the Jews, but which only drew forth their cry, 'Crucify Him
Smyrna - Christian writers have often pointed out in connection with the allusion to "the synagogue of Satan" in Revelation 2:9 , the eagerness with which the Jews sought to aid in the martyrdom of Polycarp
Conformable - The Gentiles were not made conformable to the Jews, in that which was to cease at the coming of Christ
Captive - Captives were sometimes carried away into foreign countries, as was the case with the Jews (Jeremiah 20:5 ; 39:9,10 ; 40:7 )
Habakkuk - The very Jews themselves deny the tale
Antioch of Pisidia - Here Paul and Barnabas preached; but the Jews, jealous, as usual, of the reception of the Gospel by the Gentiles, raised a sedition against them, and obliged them to leave the city, Acts 13:14 , to the end
Phinehas - son of Eleazar, and grandson of Aaron, third high priest of the Jews, A
Romans - This epistle is designed to correct certain misapprehensions, and to show that the system of Jewish rites and ceremonies is done away by the gospel dispensation, and that the way of salvation through Christ is opened alike to Jews and Gentiles, and that whosoever will may come directly and hopefully to Jesus Christ for salvation and pardon from sin
Salute - The salutations of the Jews were usually of a religious character—at least, in form—and were attended with much ceremony, as they are to this day among the orientals
Tahapanes - To this city Johanan and many of the Jews retired, after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Chaldeans, taking with them the prophet Jeremiah, Jeremiah 43:7-9 44:1
Tephillim - (Greek: phylakterion, safeguard, charm) ...
Two small square leather cases worn by Jews during prayer, one on the forehead, the other on the left upper arm
Badger - " Others think it was an animal of the antelope species, the skins of which the Jews had obtained in Egypt
Leaven - During the seven days of the passover, no leaven was permitted to be in the houses of the Jews
Mouse - Moses, Leviticus 11:29 , declared it to be unclean, yet it was sometimes eaten; and Isaiah 66:17 , reproaches the Jews with this practice
Tittle - In transcribing the Hebrew Scriptures, the Jews exacted the utmost accuracy
Hobab - When the Hebrews were about leaving mount Sinai, Moses requested him to cast in his lot with the people of God, both for his own sake and because his knowledge of the desert its inhabitants might often be of service to the Jews
Crete, - It seems likely that a very early acquaintances existed between the Cretans and the Jews
Pitch - (Exodus 2:3 ) The Jews and Arabians got their supply in large quantities from the Dead Sea, which hence received its classical name of Lacus Asphaltites
Samaria, Samaritans - There seems, however, good reason to fix it farther north at this point, as Karn Sartabeh seems to have been in the hands of the Jews (M. 4), unless, indeed, it was a border hill accessible alike to Jews and Samaritans. This seems the more likely, as it was the only signalling station in the neighbourhood of Samaritan territory where false lights could be kindled to deceive the Jews on the occasion of the new moons, and this the Samaritans are accused of having done (Bab. ’ But, notwithstanding its superiority in richness and beauty to the south country, the Jews of the 1st cent, were very unwilling to admit that Samaria was part of the Holy Land. History of the Samaritans in their relationship to the Jews. ...
For their rejection from all participation in the rebuilding of the Temple the Samaritans never forgave the Jews (Ezra 4:3-4, Nehemiah 2:20), and for their attempted hindrance of that work the Jews bore the Samaritans no less a grudge. 198), the Samaritans, being then in a flourishing condition, are accused of having harassed the Jews and carried away captives to serve as slaves (Ant. In his account of Maccabaean times Josephus continually accuses them of denying all kinship with the Jews, when they see them in suffering and difficulties, and of claiming to be Sidonians (Ant. 5); but, on the contrary, when good fortune befalls the Jews, they claim to belong to that race, and to derive their descent from Joseph (ib. This led to civil war for a time, then to the intervention of the Roman authorities, and ultimately to a decision in favour of the Jews by Claudius himself (a. At a still later period we find the Jews excluding the Samaritans, as also Christians and pagans, from Capernaum, Nazareth, and Sepphoris (Epiphanius, adv. Alexander and Ptolemy Lagi had taken many Jews and Samaritans to Egypt (Ant. They use the designation ‘Israelite’ for themselves alone, and refuse it to the Jews. They have an intense dislike to Jerusalem, and the bitterness of their hate culminates in their play upon its name, when they describe the Jews as אדורי שלם—‘accursed to perfection’ or ‘perfectly cursed’ (el-Tolidoth). The more moderate attitude of which we have spoken seems to have been, on the whole, later than the days of the Gospels, and may have been caused by the Samaritans having made common cause with the Jews against Vespasian (BJ iii. Some twenty years ago, the Samaritans, fearing the extinction of their sect, sought to arrange for intermarriage with the Jews, but this was refused. —The basis of the Samaritan religion is the Pentateuch, as they read and understand it; and to this they have been as loyal as the Jews to their Law. For some centuries, however, they have been accustomed to pronounce it Shima (‘the name’), just as the Jews use hasshem in conversation (Letter to Ludolf). As among the Sephardic Jews also, a second wife is allowed during the life of the first when she has had no children. They were never called upon to go through a stirring national crisis, like the Jews during the Maccabaean times, and so they never rose to the same vigour and intellectual life. It is discussed in the Talmud as to whether they are to be classed with the Sadducees in belief, and the Jews seem to have had some ground for thinking so, for they are represented as saying that ‘no resurrection is recorded in the Law’ (Bab. In John 4:25 we find that the woman of Samaria looked forward to the coming of a prophet whom she, like the Jews, designated ‘the Messiah. From the Jews they adopted the synagogue system; and, apart from the feast days kept on Gerizim, all their worship is conducted in Kenîset es-Sâmiré, the synagogue of the Samaritans, in the S. The Jews were wont to accuse the Samaritans of having corrupted the Law; and the charge was well founded. ...
The synagogue system, which among the Jews led to the formation of the Targums, was also the means of producing an Aramaic-Samaritan Pentateuch (תרגום שמרוני), which, however, Nöldeke dates at not earlier than the 4th cent. In addition to these they possess a few historical works:—Kitab es-Satir, a history of the period from Adam to Moses; et-Tabakh, an account of judgments which befell the Jews; the Book of Joshua (in Arabic, but probably in parts from a Heb. ...
Samaritan books are all un-vowelled, and in their pronunciation of both Hebrew and Aramaic this people differs widely from the Jews and Syrians. However, when we come to compare the modern Samaritan pronunciation of both Hebrew and Aramaic with that of the Jews and the Syrians, we see that the former in nearly every detail bears to the latter the same relationship as the vulgar Palestinian Arabic dialects bear to the older classical speech. It was the one Samaritan and not the nine Jews who returned to give thanks (Luke 17:16), and who was contented to wait for the official verdict, and the freedom it would bring, that he might continue in the company of Jesus; and all that is related of the conversation at the well, and of the relations with the villagers of Sychar, reveals the same attractiveness and consideration
Feasts - —The religious Feasts of the Jews in our Lord’s time were not so many as the religious Feasts of the Christian Church of to-day as enumerated in the English Book of Common Prayer, but they meant very much more in the way of outward observance. Feasts at which all male Jews above the age of 12 years were required to appear before the Lord in Jerusalem. Attendance at the Feasts was not confined to those who lived within easy reach, but Jews came as well from great distances, although naturally they could not attend so often as three times a year. ): ‘There was nothing that contributed so much to cement the bond of union between the dispersion and the mother country as the regular pilgrimages which Jews from all quarters of the world were in the habit of making to Jerusalem on festival occasions. 1) as saying: ‘Many thousands of people from many thousands of towns made pilgrimages to the Temple at every festival, some by land, some by sea, and coming from the east and the west, from the north and the south,’ and refers to Josephus’ estimate of the number of Jews in Jerusalem at the time of the Feasts as being so many as 2,700,000 (BJ vi. In all the Gospel references to Passover and Tabernacles the impression is given of large crowds of Jews in Jerusalem. He did not go up to Jerusalem on purpose for it, since no pilgrimages were made except at the three great Feasts; but being close at hand He liked to mark the occasion by a visit to the Temple, and there found a considerable number of Jews resident in the neighbourhood who had been attracted thither like Himself. If the correct reading were ἡ ἑορτή, it would most naturally he the Feast of Tabernacles, which was above all the Feast of the Jews (Cheyne on Isaiah 30:29); but if the article be omitted, as almost certainly it should be, the expression is quite indefinite, and might refer to either Tabernacles or Passover or Pentecost, or to any of the smaller Feasts. The one is that the introductory words are such as to suggest that the only reason for mentioning the Feast at all is to explain our Lord’s presence in Jerusalem,—‘After these things there was a Feast of the Jews, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem. ’ Since there were only three Feasts at which even the strictest Jews went up to Jerusalem, it appears that this must be one of those three, i. At the smaller Feasts many of those Jews who were in or near Jerusalem would naturally congregate in the Temple courts (cf
ir-ha-Heres - ) to let him build the temple, in order to tempt the Jews to reside there. The conversion (through the Jewish settlement in Egypt and the Greek Septuagint translation of the Old Testament) of many Ethiopians to the God of the Jews (Acts 2:6; Acts 2:10-11), e
Ashdod - Ashdod had been originally assigned to Judah (Joshua 15:47), but never occupied by the Jews, nay, made a point of attack on them: not until King Uzziah was its "wall broken down and cities built about it," i. ...
In Nehemiah's time Ashdod still retained its distinctive language and race, and ensnared by marriages the Jews returned from Babylon, after vainly striving to prevent the walls of Jerusalem being built (Nehemiah 4:7-8; Nehemiah 13:23-24)
Tabernacles, Feast of - The third of the great annual festivals of the Jews (Leviticus 23:33-43 ). The Jews, at a later time, introduced two appendages to the original festival, viz
Proselytes - Converts to a religion; non-Jews who accepted the Jewish faith and completed the rituals to become Jews
Middle Wall - Investigation of the term has yielded several possible interpretations: (1) The wall that separated the inner and outer courts of the Temple and prevented Jews and Gentiles from worshiping together. In reality, the fenced-in law generated hostility between Jews and Gentiles and further divided them, as well as furthering the enmity between God and humanity
Rabshakeh - This is favored by his familiarity with the Hebrew language, in which he addresses fluently (to the annoyance of Hezekiah's officers sent to meet him) the Jews on the wall, and with Isaiah's prophecy (Isaiah 8:7-8; Isaiah 10:5-6): "am I now come up without the Lord to destroy it? The Lord said, Go up against this land" (2 Kings 18:25). "...
Rabshakeh was a zealous pleader for his master, reckless of truth, glossing over the real miseries of deportation by Assyria (Isaiah 36:16-17), pretending to have Jehovah on his side, yet classing Jehovah with the idols of other lands overthrown by Assyria (Isaiah 36:18-20, liars need to have good memories), trying to rob the godly of their one only but sure trust in trouble, misrepresenting Hezekiah's faithful act in removing forbidden high places to Jehovah, as though he thereby had dishonored and so forfeited the favor of Jehovah (Isaiah 36:7), boasting of Assyria's might, as if, because Judah could not supply 2,000 riders if even Assyria supplied the horses, it were impossible the Jews could repel one of the least of Assyria's captains (Isaiah 36:8-9); in filthy and blasphemous language he threatens to reduce them to eat their own excrement in the extremity of famine (Isaiah 36:12; 2 Chronicles 32:11): a sample of the true nature of the pagan attack on Jerusalem, at once arrogant, blasphemous, and reckless of all decency
Zealot - A group of Jews, led by a man called Judas the Galilean, rebelled against this direct taxation, claiming that God’s people should not pay taxes to a pagan emperor. The Jews were divided among themselves, with various extremists competing for leadership
Nicodemus - ” John identifies Nicodemus as a Pharisee, “a ruler of the Jews” (John 3:1 ), that is, a member of the Sanhedrin, the Jewish ruling council, and as “a teacher of Israel” (John 3:10 ), that is, an authority on the interpretation of the Hebrew scriptures. On a deeper level, it recognized that in His suffering and death, Christ fulfilled His role as King of the Jews
Zerubbabel - ) granted the Jews permission to continue rebuilding the Temple (Ezra 6:1-12 ). He was a Davidic prince, so it is possible that the Jews tried to crown him king during the civil war surrounding the rise of Darius as emperor (522/21)
Seraiah - Son of Tanhumeth the Netophathite; came to the Babylonian viceroy Gedaliah to Mizpah, who promised security to the Jews who should dwell in the land, serving the king of Babylon (2 Kings 25:23; Jeremiah 40:8). Jeremiah gave a special copy of the prophecy to Seraiah where with to console the Jews in their Babylonian exile
Jehoshaphat, Valley of - Moslems and Jews have also for centuries looked upon this valley as the scene of the Last Judgment. The Jews especially consider this of all places on earth the most suitable for burial, as it is taught that all bodies buried elsewhere must find their way thither at the last day
Pul (2) - The Jews called him "king of Assyria," that being the dominant empire at the time; so Nabopolassar of Babylon is called "king of Assyria," (2 Kings 23:29), and Darius Hystaspes Ezra 6:22. He being thus master of the Assyrian portion next Palestine appeared to the Jews to be "king of Assyria," about 763-760 B
Apochrypha - " They seem most of them to have been composed by Jews. They were written after the days of Malachi, in whom, according to the universal testimony of the Jews, the spirit of prophecy ceased, Malachi 4:4-6
Tribute - the Jews paid tribute to the Romans in the shape of taxes. in another signification, as when the Jews asked Peter if his teacher paid 'tribute
Accubation - The same custom, of lying upon couches at their entertainments, prevailed among the Jews also in our Saviour's time; for having been lately conquered by Pompey, they conformed in this, and in many other respects, to the example of their masters. The manner of lying at meat among the Romans, Greeks, and more modern Jews, was the same in all respects
Mouse - " Moses declares it to be unclean, which insinuates that it was sometimes eaten; and, indeed, it is affirmed that the Jews were so oppressed with famine during the siege of Jerusalem by the Romans, that, notwithstanding this prohibition, they were compelled to eat dogs, mice, and rats. Isaiah 66:17 , justly reproaches the Jews with eating the flesh of mice and other things that were impure and abominable
Almah - The Apostles and Evangelists, and the Jews of our Saviour's time, explained it in the same sense, and expected a Messiah born of a virgin. ...
The Jews, that they may obscure this plain text, and weaken this proof of the truth of the Christian religion, pretend that the Hebrew word signifies a young woman, and not a virgin
Micah - His prophecy relates to the sins and judgments of Israel and Judah, the destruction of Samaria and Jerusalem, the return of the Jews from captivity, and the punishment of their enemies. The prediction was thus understood by the Jews, Matthew 2:6 John 7:41,42
Fire - The Jews had occasion for fires, except for cooking, only during a small part of the year. The were forbidden to kindle a fire on the Sabbath, Exodus 35:3 a prohibition perhaps only of cooking on that day, but understood by many Jews even now in the fullest extent; it is avoided by employing gentile servants
Month - ; and the names by which they are now known are believed to be of Persian origin, and to have been adopted by the Jews during the captivity. To recover the equinoctial points, from which this difference of the solar and lunar year would separate the new moon of the first month, the Jews every three years intercalated a thirteenth month, which they called Veadar, the second Adar
Write - Josephus wrote of the wars of the Jews. He wrote for all the Jews concerning their freedom
Cornerstone - ...
In rejecting Jesus, the Jews were likened to builders who rejected the best stone of all. And just as a stone lying in the builders’ path can be an obstacle to them, so Jesus was an obstacle to the Jews
Dispersion - , took with him, and settled, many Jews in the trans-Tiberine quarter of Rome. The apostles in every city followed God's order, as Paul told the Jews at Antioch in Pisidia, "it was necessary that the word of God should first have been spoken unto you" (Acts 3:26; Acts 13:46); so Romans 1:16, "to the Jew first, and also to the Greek. Besides the Jews, in the several cities there were the "devout" Gentiles who in some degree acknowledged the God of Israel
Samaritan Pentateuch - the generality of divines hold, that the Samaritan Pentateuch, and that of the Jews, are one and the same work, written in the same language, only in different characters; and that the difference between the two text is owing to the inadvertency and inaccuracy of transcribers, or to the affectation of the Samaritans, by interpolating what might promote their interests and pretensions; that the two copies were originally the very same, and that the additions were afterwards inserted. ...
And in this respect the Pentateuch of the Jews must be allowed the preference to that of the Samaritans; whereas others prefer the Samaritan as an original, preserved in the same character and the same condition in which Moses left it. Some of these interpolations serve to illustrate the text; others are a kind of paraphrase, expressing at length what was only hinted at in the original; and others, again, such as favour their pretensions against the Jews; namely, the putting Gerizim for Ebal
Alexandria - ...
The population of Alexandria had three prominent elements, Jews, Greeks, Egyptians. The Jews enjoyed equal privileges with the Macedonians, so that they became fixed there, and while regarding Jerusalem as "the holy city," the metropolis of the Jews throughout the world, and having a synagogue there (Acts 6:9), they had their own Greek version of the Old Testament
Report - It is reported among the heathen, and Gashmu saith it, that thou and the Jews think to rebel. ...
In this form of expression, it refers to the subsequent clause of the sentence "that thou and the Jews think to rebel, is reported. Cornelius was of good report among the Jews
Peter, First Epistle of - This was addressed to believing Jews dispersed in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia. It was apparently sent from Babylon on the Euphrates, where many Jews were located. The teaching of the epistle is based upon a living hope by the resurrection of Christ, in contrast to the portion of the Jews on earth. ...
And further, though suffering under the government of God, they had, in coming to Christ as the Living Stone (disallowed of men but chosen of God and precious), acquired in a spiritual way privileges which, after a carnal sort, the Jews had lost
Christ - "Christ," says Lactantius, "is no proper name, but one denoting power; for the Jews used to give this appellation to their kings, calling them Christ, or anointed, by reason of their sacred unction. " Accordingly, Suetonius, speaking of Claudius, and of his expelling the Jews from Rome, says, that "he banished them because they were continually promoting tumults, under the influence of one Chrestus: " "Judaeos, impulsore Chresto, assidue tumultuantes, Roma expulit," taking Christ to be a proper name. It should therefore be, "Paul testified to the Jews that Jesus was the Christ," or the Messiah, &c. It would also very much accelerate this effect, that the name Jesus was common among the Jews at that time, and this rendered an addition necessary for distinguishing the person
Greece - ...
The Jews and the Greeks appear to have had little intercourse with each other, until after Alexander the Great overran Egypt, Syria, and the East. The Jews extended the name of Greeks to include the people conquered and ruled by Greeks; and the word is thus nearly synonymous in the New Testament with Gentiles, Mark 7:26 Acts 20:21 Romans 1:16 . It is used chiefly of foreign Jews and proselytes, in contrast with the Hebrews, that is, those speaking the vernacular Hebrew, or Aramaean, Acts 6:1 9:29 . The Greeks were a vivacious, acute, and polished, but superficial people, compared with the Jews
Crucifixion - Whether this mode of execution was known to the ancient Jews is a matter of dispute. Probably the Jews borrowed it from the Romans. Fracture of the legs was especially adopted by the Jews to hasten death. Sepulture was generally therefore forbidden; but in consequence of (21:22,23) an express national exception was made in favor of the Jews
James the Brother of Jesus - ...
After Paul’s first missionary journey, a group of Jews from the Jerusalem church came to Antioch teaching that Gentile converts had to be circumcised and keep the law of Moses (Acts 15:1; Acts 15:5). But it would be helpful, he suggested, if Gentile Christians respected their Jewish brothers by not engaging in practices that Jews considered repulsive (Acts 15:13; Acts 15:19-21). ...
Opposition from fellow Jews...
In spite of James’ efforts, many in the Jerusalem church still refused to accept Gentile Christians as equals unless the Gentiles kept the law of Moses. History records that a few years later, in the early AD 60s, James himself was murdered by the Jews
ir-ha-Heres - ]'>[4] , in which the ancient rites of his people might be carried on without molestation, and which might form a religions centre for the Jews settled in Egypt. MSS), being the original reading, which was altered afterwards by the Jews of Palestine into heres , ‘destruction,’ in order to obtain a condemnation of the Egyptian temple, and by the Jews of Egypt into tsedek , ‘righteousness’ (LXX [11] ), and then further, by the Jews of Palestine, as a counter-blow, into ‘city of destruction’ (Heb
Proselyte - , foreigners, dwelling among the Jews, who, without being circumcised, conformed to certain Jewish laws and customs
Cornelius - It also helped to set the stage for an important early controversy in the church, for it raised the question of the possibility of salvation for those who were not Jews
Shelemiah - Two Jews who married foreign women (Ezra 10:39 ,Ezra 10:39,10:41 )
Guardian - Paul earlier pictured the Jews as under the charge of the law (Galatians 3:22-25 )
Tam'Muz - A festival in honor of Adonis was celebrated at Byblus in Phoenicia and in most of the Grecian cities, and even by the Jews when they degenerated into idolatry
Branch - , the song of victory shall be brought low by the destruction of Babylon and the return of the Jews from captivity
Elements - In this sense it is used in Galatians 4:3,9 ; Colossians 2:8,20 , where the expressions, "elements of the world," "week and beggarly elements," denote that state of religious knowledge existing among the Jews before the coming of Christ, the rudiments of religious teaching
Adultery - An apostate church is an adulteress (Isaiah 1:21 ; Ezekiel 23:4,7,37 ), and the Jews are styled "an adulterous generation" (Matthew 12:39 )
Embalming - The embalming of Jacob and Joseph was according to the Egyptian custom, which was partially followed by the Jews (2 Chronicles 16:14 ), as in the case of king Asa, and of our Lord (John 19:39,40 ; Luke 23:56 ; 24:1 )
Essenes - Some of them held the possibility of appeasing the Deity by sacrifices, though different from that of the Jews; and others maintained that no offering was acceptable to God but that of a serene and composed mind, addicted to the contemplation of divine things
Ahithophel - Brother of insipidity or impiety, a man greatly renowned for his sagacity among the Jews
Caesar - Though Caesar did not call himself "king," the Jews did (John 19:15), in which respect Josephus (B
Gallio - When the Jews brought Paul before his tribunal on the charge of persuading "men to worship God contrary to the law" (18:13), he refused to listen to them, and "drave them from the judgment seat" (18:16)
Cleopatra - She greatly favoured the Jews in Egypt (Jos
Providence - An old authority assures us that 'the Jews fancy, concerning the cloud that conducted Israel through the wilderness, that it did not only show them the way, but also plane it; that it did not only lead them in the way which they must go, but also fit the way for them to go upon it; that it cleared all the mountains and smoothed all the rocks; that it cleared all the bushes and removed all the rubs
Corban - The Jews are reproached with defeating, by means of the corban, the precept of the fifth commandment, which enjoins the respect due to parents; for when a child had no mind to relieve the wants of his father or mother, he would say to them...
"It is a gift (corban) by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me;" 1: e
Ring - Rings on the fingers were among the ornaments worn by Jews, both by men (Genesis 38:18; Genesis 38:25; Genesis 41:42, Luke 15:22) and by women (Isaiah 3:21)
Holy Sepulcher - It was situated in a garden in the place of the Crucifixion (John 19) outside the city (Hebrews 13), because the Jews did not permit burial inside the city except for their kings
Congregation, Mount of the - But here the king of Babylon must be taken as expressing himself according to his own heathen notions, and not according to those of the Jews
Anathema - Applied to the enemies of the Jews, it meant they were to be outcast and even exterminated
Altar - The principal altars of the Jews were, the altar of incense, of burnt-offerings, and of shewbread all of shittim wood, and covered with gold or brass
Blessing - Among the Jews,a present a gift either because it was attended with kind wishes for the welfare of the giver, or because it was the means of increasing happiness
Decision, Valley of - The scene of this judgment has been fixed by Jews, Roman Catholics, and Mohammedans in the Valley of the Kidron
on - The Jews say he separated from the guilty company and was saved
Aquila - Aquila and Priscilla had been driven from Rome as Jews by an edict of the emperor Claudius
Potter's Field - Or it is possible that as the Jews anciently placed Jeremiah at the beginning of the Book of the Prophets (Ezekiel, Isaiah, and the twelve minor prophets following), 'Jeremiah' may have been a sort of heading for the whole
Israel - See Jews
Augustus, Caius Julius Caesar Octavianus - He confirmed Herod as King of the Jews, and on Herod's death divided his territory among his sons
Hanani - , who brought tidings to Susa of the distressed condition of the Jews in Pal
Gentiles, the Fulness of the - It therefore follows that as the admission of the Gentiles to privilege is linked with the failure of Israel, so the taking up of the Jews again for blessing is linked with the apostasy of the Gentiles
Shethar Boznai - Shethar Boznai with Tatnai and the Apharsachites tried to hinder the building of the temple under Zerubbabel, writing to Darius (Ezra 5) that search should be made whether the decree of Cyrus for its restoration, which the Jews alleged, was to be found in the house of the rolls at Babylon
Poison - The Jews never adopted the barbarous custom
Accommodation of Scripture - Paul afterwards accommodates to the Jews of his time, Is
Pinnacle - Tregelles translated Daniel 9:27, "upon the wing (kenaph ) of abominations shall be that which causeth desolation," namely, an idol set up on a wing or pinnacle of the temple by antichrist, who covenants with the restored Jews for the last of the 70 weeks of years (John 5:43) and breaks the covenant in the midst of the week, causing the daily sacrifices to cease
Esther, Book of - The Jews read it on the feast of Purim
Achmetha - Travellers state that the Jews exhibit a tomb in their charge in the midst of the city, which is the reputed tomb of Mordecai and Esther
Gaza - One of the five cities of the Philistines, who constantly molested the Jews, when Samson arose and avenged his people; Gaza was the scene of his last triumph and death (Judges 16)
Adul'Lam - (Genesis 38:1,12,20 ) Fortified by Rehoboam, (2 Chronicles 11:7 ) it was one of the towns reoccupied by the Jews after their return from Babylon, (Nehemiah 11:30 ) and still a city in the time of the Macabees
Obadiah - His book, which consists of a single chapter, is written with great beauty and elegance, and contains predictions of the utter destruction of the Edomites, and of the future restoration and prosperity of the Jews
Bind - By binding and loosing, in the language of the Jews, is understood, likewise, permitting and forbidding; or declaring any thing in a judicial manner to be permitted or forbidden; and on the promotion of their doctors, they put the keys into their hands with these words, "Receive the power of binding and loosing
Tares - It was credited among the Jews with being degenerate wheat
Aquila - He had fled, with his wife Priscilla, from Rome, in consequence of an order of Claudius commanding all Jews to leave the city
Felix - At the end of that time Porcius Festus superseded Felix, who, on his return to Rome, was accused by the Jews in Cæsarea, and would have suffered for his crimes had not his brother Pallas prevailed with the emperor Nero to spare him
Zerubbabel - , was the leader of the first colony of Jews that returned from the captivity in Babylon, Ezra 2:2, and was of the family of David, a son of Salathiel or Shealtiel, Haggai 1:1; Matthew 1:12, but called a son of Pedaiah, the brother or son of Salathiel, in 1 Chronicles 3:17-19
Sophonias - His prophecy contaius three chapters on the evils that were to befall various nations, promising the coming of Christ, the conversion of the nations, and the final conversion of the Jews
Gomer - A harlot whom the prophet Hosea appears to have married in prophetic vision, as directed by God, that the Jews might be led to reflect on the guilt of their spiritual uncleanness or idolatry, Hosea 1:1-11
Weeks - The Jews called Sunday "one of the Sabbath
Zaccheus - As he held office under the Romans, he was called "a sinner" by the Jews, Luke 19:1-10
Dung - The word is used ( a ) to express contempt and abhorrence, as in the case of the carcase of Jezebel ( 2 Kings 9:37 ); and in that of the Jews ( Jeremiah 9:22 , Zephaniah 1:17 )
Sepulcher, Holy - It was situated in a garden in the place of the Crucifixion (John 19) outside the city (Hebrews 13), because the Jews did not permit burial inside the city except for their kings
Cup - The cups of the Jews, whether of metal or earthenware, were possibly borrowed, in point of shape and design, from Egypt and from the Phoenicians, who were celebrated in that branch of workmanship
Sep'Tuagint - [1] The Jews of Alexandria had probably still less knowledge of Hebrew than their brethren in Palestine their familiar language was Alexandrian Greek. They would naturally follow the same practice as the Jews in Palestine; and hence would arise in time an entire Greek version. The Septuagint version was highly esteemed by the Hellenistic Jews before the coming of Christ. Wherever, by the conquests of Alexander or by colonization, the Greek language prevailed wherever Jews were settled and the attention of the neighboring Gentiles was drawn to their wondrous history and law there was found the Septuagint, which thus became, by divine Providence the means of spreading widely the knowledge of the one true God and his promises of it Saviour to come, throughout the nations. To the wide dispersion of this version we may ascribe in great measure that general persuasion which prevailed over the whole East of the near approach of the Redeemer, and led the Magi to recognize the star which, reclaimed the birth of the King of the Jews
Per'Sia - This victory first brought the Persians into contact with the Jews. This prince appears to be the Ahasuerus of (Ezra 4:6 ) Gomates, Cambyses' successor, reversed the policy of Cyrus with respect to the Jews, and forbade by an edict the further building of the temple. Appealed to, in his second year, by the Jews, who wished to resume the construction of their temple, Darius not only granted them this privilege, but assisted the work by grants from his own revenues, whereby the Jews were able to complete the temple as early as his sixth year. He is the last of the Persian kings who had any special connection with the Jews, and the last but one mentioned in Scripture
Ptolemies - ...
Ptolemaic rule directly impacted Jews both inside and outside of Palestine. During the campaigns to secure Palestine for Egypt, Ptolemy I transported large numbers of Jews from Palestine to Alexandria for settlement. The Alexandrian Jews imbibed Hellenism much more deeply than their counterparts in Judea as evidenced by the need to translate the Old Testament writings into Greek
Remnant - ...
The Apostle is expressing, in language adapted from the OT, his conviction that only a remnant of the Jews will be saved, a conviction forced upon him by the repeated experiences of his missionary journeys. To show, as he does here, that not only the calling of the Gentiles, but also the partial rejection of the Jews, was foretold in the prophetic writings, was both a ground of assurance to himself and an effective answer to Jewish criticism. The ‘remnant’ in the time of Elijah and that in the time of Isaiah are prototypes of the believing minority of Jews who accepted Jesus as the Messiah
Zerubbabel - When Persia conquered Babylon in 539 BC, the Persian king Cyrus released the captive Jews to return to their homeland and rebuild Jerusalem. The original leader of the Jews was Sheshbazzar (Ezra 1:8; Ezra 5:14), but his leadership was soon replaced by the joint leadership of the governor Zerubbabel and the high priest Joshua (Ezra 2:2; Haggai 1:1). )...
Rebuilding the temple...
The year after they arrived in Jerusalem, the Jews began rebuilding the temple
Judaizers - In the Septuagint this verb is used in relation to the Gentiles in Persia who adopted Jewish practices in order to avoid the consequences of Esther's decree (Esther 8:13 ), which permitted Jews to avenge the wrongs committed against them. ...
In Galatians 2:14 it means to "live like Jews" (RSV, neb, NASB, Phillips), "follow Jewish customs" ( NIV ), or "live by the Jewish law" (Barclay). Thus, Paul interprets Peter's withdrawal in terms of its effect in compelling Gentile Christians to live like Jews
Corinth - Paul, who resided here eighteen months, between the years 51 and 53; during which time he enjoyed the friendship of Aquila and his wife Priscilla, two Jewish Christians, who had been expelled from Italy, with other Jews, by an edict of Claudius. The church consisted both of Jews and of Gentiles; but St. Paul began, as usual, by preaching in the synagogue, until the Jews violently opposed him, and blasphemed the name of Christ; when the Apostle, shaking his garment, and declaring their blood to be upon their own heads, left them, and made use afterward of a house adjoining the synagogue, belonging to a man named Justus. The rage of the Jews, however, did not stop here; but, raising a tumult, they arrested Paul, and hurrying him before the tribunal of the pro-consul Gallio, the brother of the famous Seneca, accused him of persuading men to worship God contrary to the law. The Jews being thus disappointed in their malicious designs, St. Paul was at liberty to remain some time longer at Corinth; and after his departure, Apollos, a zealous and eloquent Jewish convert of Alexandria, was made a powerful instrument in confirming the church, and in silencing the opposition of the Jews, Acts 18
Phinehas - A son of Eleazar and grandson of Aaron, Exodus 6:25; 1 Chronicles 6:4; 1 Chronicles 6:50, was high priest of the Jews for nearly 20 years
Bible in Public Schools - It is opposed by non-Christian parents as proselytism for the Christian religion; by Jews, as only Christian versions are used; and by Catholics because the version used is in nearly every instance the Protestant version and the principle involved is that the Bible is the sole rule of faith
Merchant - After the Exile it again expanded into wider foreign relations, because now the Jews were scattered in many lands
Nero - In his reign that war commenced between the Jews and Romans which terminated later in the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus and the overthrow of the Jewish polity
Jehozadak - Father of Jeshua the high priest, who with Zerubbabel led the returning Jews from Babylon (Ezra 3:2; Nehemiah 12:26)
Berechiah - A descendant of David in period after Jews returned from Exile in Babylon (1 Chronicles 3:20 )
Festus, Porcius - ), whom he would not give up to the Jews untried; it was, however, from fear of being eventually given up that St
Jeremiah - He was carried to Egypt by the rebellious Jews and his end is not recorded
Baruch - He continued consistently to bear witness against the melancholy unfaithfulness of the Jews and to point to the day when Jerusalem, purged by penitence, should rise from her desolation and reclaim her scattered children
Gazelle - ...
Ghazaleh (‘female gazelle’) is a favourite name for a girl among the Yemin Jews, as Dorcas and Tabitha , with the same meaning, were in NT times ( Acts 9:36 ; Acts 9:40 )
Taxes, Taxation, Taxing - Though ordered by the Roman emperor, it appears that the Jews were allowed to carry out the census as to city and lineage in their own way
Hallel - This term, which signifies 'praise,' is used by the Jews in reference to certain of the Psalms
Heaven - Grotius said that the Jews divided the heaven into three parts, viz
Key - To Peter were given the keys of the kingdom of heaven, Matthew 16:19 , which he opened to the Jews in Acts 2 , and to the Gentiles in Acts 10
Tradition - The Jews had really contradicted God's law by their traditions, which they pretended were of equal or even superior authority
Fable - By these fables some understand the reveries of the Gnostics; but the fathers generally, and after them most of the modern commentators, interpret them of the vain traditions of the Jews; especially concerning meats, and other things, to be abstained from as unclean, which our Lord also styles "the doctrines of men," ...
Matthew 15:9
Cyprus - Barnabas is considered as the principal Apostle, and first bishop, of Cyprus; where it is said he was martyred, being stoned to death by the Jews of Salamis
Rabshakeh - He was the chief spokesman; and from the fact of his being able to speak in the Jews' language, he is supposed to have been either a proselyte or an apostate Jew
Anathema - This Greek word represents a Hebrew phrase which generally denoted among the Jews the absolute, irrevocable and entire separation of a person from the communion of the faithful, or from the privileges of society, or from the number of the living; or the devoting of any man, animal, city or thing, to be extirpated, destroyed, consumed, and, as it were, annihilated
Artaxerxes - Ezra 4:7-24, the king who stopped the rebuilding of the temple because he listened to the malicious report of the enemies of the Jews
Son of Man - The Jews perfectly understood it to denote the Messiah
Zacharias - Son of Barachias, who, our Lord says, was slain by the Jews between the altar and the temple
Viper - As such the term was applied by Christ and by John to certain classes of the Jews, Matthew 3:7 12:34 23:33 Luke 3:7
Cohort - An infantry cohort was stationed in Jerusalem and protected Paul from zealous Jews ( Acts 21:31 )
Star in the East - It is a fact of great interest, that when the Savior appeared, not only were the Jews eagerly expecting the Messiah, but many in various heathen lands were cherishing similar hopes: in part through the diffusion of the Hebrew prophecies; in part through the felt need of a Savior; and in part perhaps through direct divine intimations
Esther, the Book of - Has always been esteemed canonical, both by Jews and Christians, though certain additions to it, found in some versions and manuscripts, are apocryphal
Pontus - Many Jews resided there, and from time to time "went up to Jerusalem unto the feast," Acts 2:9
Sack, Sackcloth - In great calamities, in penitence, in trouble, the Jews, etc
Vocation - Among divines, a calling by the will of God or the bestowment of God's distinguishing grace upon a person or nation, by which that person or nation is put in the way of salvation as the vocation of the Jews under the old dispensation, and of the Gentiles under the gospel
Ger'Izim - [3] Gerizim is still to the Samaritans what Jerusalem is to the Jews and Mecca to the Mohammedans
Chain - (Isaiah 3:16,18 ) ...
The means adopted for confining prisoners among the Jews were fetters similar to our handcuffs
Tread, Trode, Trodden - 1: πατέω (Strong's #3961 — Verb — pateo — pat-eh'-o ) is used (a) intransitively and figuratively, of "treading" upon serpents, Luke 10:19 ; (b) transitively, of "treading" on, down or under, of the desecration of Jerusalem by its foes, Luke 21:24 ; Revelation 11:2 ; of the avenging, by the Lord in Person hereafter, of this descration and of the persecution of the Jews, in Divine retribution, metaphorically spoken of as the "treading" of the winepress of God's wrath, Revelation 14:20 ; 19:15 (cp
Joseph of Arimathea - Though he feared the Jews, he was bold enough to ask Pilate for the body of Jesus so that he might give Jesus an honourable burial
Pilate - A deputation of Jews waited on Pilate for five days, and refused to desist though threatened with instant death. From this time onwards we must regard the trial as a series of attempts on Pilate’s part to release Jesus without too great offence to the Jews. If Herod ‘claimed jurisdiction’ over the prisoner he might have released Him, but he had no more power to condemn a man to death in Jerusalem than the Jews had. But when Jesus came forth from the scourging, the Jews for the first time brought forward the cry that He ‘made himself the Son of God’ ( John 19:7 ). But at length the Jews prevailed with the cry, ‘If thou let this man go, thou art not Cæsar’s friend’ ( John 19:12 ). But in the taunting words, ‘Behold your king!’ and ‘Shall I crucify your king?’ as well as in the inscription on the cross, which he refused to alter in spite of protest, he wreaked upon the Jews such revenge as lay in his power. He had probably not taken the trouble to understand the fierce passions of the people whom he was sent to govern, and when worsted by them in early encounters, the scorn which Romans felt for Jews became in him something like hatred, and a strong desire to be avenged on their leaders at all costs save one, namely, disgrace at Rome. The province of Judæa included not only Judæa proper, but Samaria and Idumæa; and in addition to its normal population there was at the time of great feasts, particularly the Passover, an influx of Jews from other provinces, which made the temporary population of Jerusalem sometimes between two and three millions. The fault would seem to rest with the central authority, which did not realize that in administering the small province of Judæa it had to deal not with the province alone, but with all the millions of Jews scattered throughout the Empire, profoundly earnest in religious convictions, regarding Judæa as the holy centre of all they held dearest, and maintaining direct communication with the Sanhedrin, to which the Romans themselves had allowed a certain authority over all Jews throughout the Empire
Libertines - Was there a synagogue in Jerusalem of which it is more likely that Saul of Tarsus had been a member or a leader than that which Cilician Jews frequented? The Apostle had, in the days of his unbelief, been one of the bitterest opponents of the Christian movement, and the part he had taken in St. ...
The synagogue of the Λιβερτῖνοι doubtless consisted, at least in the first instance, of Jews who had been prisoners of war, and had afterwards been set free and admitted to Roman citizenship (Chrysostom, Hom. ad Caium, 23) that most of the Jews of Rome were enfranchised captives, and the passages usually quoted from Tacitus (Ann. Those freedmen who had returned to Palestine, and their descendants, must have formed a synagogue to which they gave their name, and most probably Jews from other parts of the world came in time to be affiliated to them. A large part of the population of Jerusalem consisted of foreign Jews, who had come to reside permanently there, that they might be near the Temple, and might be buried in the land of their fathers. Those Jews were most zealous in fulfilling their ritual obligations, and attached themselves to ‘the straitest sect’ of the Jews of Palestine (Acts 26:5, Galatians 1:14; cf
Persia - 538 over Babylon, where the Persians came into contact with the captive Jews. Xerxes, who was probably the Ahasuerus of the book of Esther, succeeded him, and was defeated by the Greeks, assassinated, and succeeded by his son Artaxerxes Longimanus, who was friendly to the Jews
Decapolis - ...
Traditionally the Decapolis is assumed to be a league of cities which preserved the stronghold of Greek thought and life in Palestine and resisted the Semitic influences of the Jews. These cities do seem to have much in common; they were centers for the spread of Greco-Roman culture and had no great love for the Jews
Abiathar - Son of Ahimelech, and tenth high priest of the Jews. The most probable solution is, that both father and son each bore the two names Ahimelech and Abiathar, as was not at all unusual among the Jews
Bread - Among the Jews was generally made of wheat (Exodus 29:2 ; Judges 6:19 ), though also sometimes of other grains (Genesis 14:18 ; Judges 7:13 ). ...
In Leviticus 2 there is an account of the different kinds of bread and cakes used by the Jews
Esther - Soon after this he gave Haman the Agagite, his prime minister, power and authority to kill and extirpate all the Jews throughout the Persian empire. Haman was hanged on the gallows he had intended for Mordecai (Esther 7 ); and the Jews established an annual feast, the feast of Purim (q
Deal With, Have Dealings With - , "to use with" (sun, "with," chraomai, "to use"), "to have in joint use, and hence to have dealings with," is said, in John 4:9 , of Jews and Samaritans. ...
Notes: (1) In Acts 25:24 , entunchano, "to fall in with, meet and talk with," and hence "to make suit to a person" by way of pleading with him, is translated "have dealt with" in the AV; correctly in the RV, "have made suit to," of the Jews in appealing to Festus against Paul
Diotrephes - But Neander thinks that the missionaries were Christian Jews who "took nothing of the Gentiles" (3 John 1:7), in contrast to the Jews who elsewhere abused ministers' right of maintenance (2 Corinthians 11:22; Philippians 3:2; Philippians 3:5; Philippians 3:19); and that Diotrephes stood at the head of an ultra-Pauline party of anti-Jewish tendency, forerunners of Marcion
Disperse, Dispersion - 4, "a scattering, a dispersion," was used of the Jews who from time to time had been scattered among the Gentiles, John 7:35 ; later with reference to Jews, so "scattered," who had professed, or actually embraced, the Christian faith, "the Dispersion," James 1:1 , RV; especially of believers who were converts from Judaism and "scattered" throughout certain districts, "sojourners of the Dispersion," 1 Peter 1:1 , RV
Aretas - " The ethnarch did it to please the Jews, who (Acts 9:24) "watched the gates day and night to kill Paul. " His office was to exercise authority under the king, over the many Jews in large cities: compare Acts 9:25
Carnal - Paul said that Gentiles had received the spiritual gospel through the Jews and should thus minister to the fleshly or material needs of the Jews (Romans 15:27 )
Chaldean Language - The Hebrew language is held to be closely related to the Aramaic: that the two are not the same is evident from Isaiah 36:11 , where the Jewish leaders asked Rabshakeh to speak in the Syrian language, and not in the Jews' language, that the Jews generally should not understand what was said
Mordecai - ...
This led to Haman's plotting in his pride, the destruction, not of Mordecai only, but of the Jews generally. The plot against the Jews was nullified and they became the victors, as it will be in a future day when God's set time has arrived
Stones - The Jews "fell" on Messiah "the rock of offense and were broken"; the rock shall fall on antichrist who "burdens himself with it" by his assault on the restored Jews, and "grind him to powder" (Zechariah 13; 14)
Months - The months were reckoned by the Jews from the moon. It is remarkable that the Jews now begin their year on the first day of Tisri (in September),which stands the first month of the civil year
Weeks - The Jews, accordingly, in designating the successive days of the week, were accustomed to say, the first day of the Sabbath, that is, of the week; the second day of the Sabbath, that is, Sunday, Monday, &c, Mark 16:2 ; Mark 16:9 ; Luke 24:1 ; John 1:19 . In addition to the week of days, the Jews had three other seasons, denominated weeks, Leviticus 25:1-17 ; Deuteronomy 16:9-10 :...
1
Key - 1: κλείς (Strong's #2807 — Noun Feminine — kleis — klice ) "a key," is used metaphorically (a) of "the keys of the kingdom of heaven," which the Lord committed to Peter, Matthew 16:19 , by which he would open the door of faith, as he did to Jews at Pentecost, and to Gentiles in the person of Cornelius, acting as one commissioned by Christ, through the power of the Holy Spirit; he had precedence over his fellow disciples, not in authority, but in the matter of time, on the ground of his confession of Christ (Matthew 18:16 ); equal authority was committed to them (Matthew 18:18 ); (b) of "the key of knowledge," Luke 11:52 , i. , knowledge of the revealed will of God, by which men entered into the life that pleases God; this the religious leaders of the Jews had presumptuously "taken away," so that they neither entered in themselves, nor permitted their hearers to do so; (c) of "the keys of death and of Hades," Revelation 1:18 , RV (see HADES), indicative of the authority of the Lord over the bodies and souls of men; (d) of "the key of David," Revelation 3:7 , a reference to Isaiah 22:22 , speaking of the deposition of Shebna and the investiture of Eliakim, in terms evidently Messianic, the metaphor being that of the right of entrance upon administrative authority; the mention of David is symbolic of complete sovereignty; (e) of "the key of the pit of the abyss," Revelation 9:1 ; here the symbolism is that of competent authority; the pit represents a shaft or deep entrance into the region (see ABYSS), from whence issued smoke, symbolic of blinding delusion; (f) of "the key of the abyss," Revelation 20:1 ; this is to be distinguished from (e): the symbolism is that of the complete supremacy of God over the region of the lost, in which, by angelic agency, Satan is destined to be confined for a thousand years
Sidon - The gospel was proclaimed to the Jews at Sidon after the martyrdom of Stephen, Acts 11:19 , and there was a Christian church there, when Paul visited it on his voyage to Rome, Acts 27:3 . Our Savior refers to both cities, in reproaching the Jews as more highly favored and less excusable than they, Matthew 11:22
Laodice'a - But the preaching of the gospel at Ephesus, ( Acts 18:19 ; Acts 19:41 ) must inevitably have resulted in the formation of churches in the neighboring cities, especially where Jews were settled; and there were Jews in Laodicea
Aquila - ...
Aquila and Priscilla were living in Rome at the time of an outbreak of anti-Jewish feeling when the Emperor expelled all Jews from the city. ...
Some time after this, when Jews were allowed back in Rome, Aquila and Priscilla returned to live there for a time
Blindness - That God had rejected the Jews as a whole was for the Apostle abundantly evident. God’s purpose was universal, embracing Gentiles as well as Jews, and if it appeared to pass from the Jews to the Gentiles, this was not the whole truth, nor was it final. For, firstly, some Jews had always remained faithful to the election, and secondly, the blindness of the remainder was only temporary-until the ‘fullness of the Gentiles,’ when all Israel, beholding the salvation of the Gentiles, should once more turn to God
Publican - Judea being added to the provinces of the Roman empire, and the taxes paid by the Jews directly to the emperor, the publicans were the officers appointed to collect them. But as for the common publicans, the collectors or receivers, as many of the socii were, they are spoken of with great contempt, by Heathens as well as Jews; and particularly by Theocritus, who said, that "among the beasts of the wilderness, bears and lions are the most cruel; among the beasts of the city, the publican and parasite. Beside, publicans were particularly odious to the Jews, who looked upon them to be the instruments of their subjection to the Roman emperors, to which they generally held it sinful for them to submit. The Jews reproached our Saviour for showing kindness to these persons, Luke 7:34 ; and he himself ranks them with harlots, Matthew 21:31
Ezekiel - The boldness with which he censured the idolatry and wickedness of his countrymen is said to have cost him his life; but his memory was greatly revered, not only by the Jews, but also by the Medes and Persians. From the beginning of the twenty-fifth to the end of the thirty- second chapter, the prophet foretels the conquest and ruin of many nations and cities, which had insulted the Jews in their affliction; of the Ammonites, the Moabites, the Edomites, and Philistines; of Tyre, of Sidon, and Egypt; all of which were to be punished by the same mighty instrument of God's wrath against the wickedness of man; and in these prophecies he not only predicts events which were soon to take place, but he also describes the condition of these several countries in the remote periods of the world. From the thirty-second to the fortieth chapter, he inveighs against the accumulated sins of the Jews collectively, and the murmuring spirit of his captive brethren; exhorts them earnestly to repent of their hypocrisy and wickedness, upon the assurance that God will accept sincere repentance; and comforts them with promises of approaching deliverance under Cyrus; subjoining intimations of some far more glorious, but distant, redemption under the Messiah, though the manner in which it is to be effected is deeply involved in mystery. This obscurity arises, in part at least, from the nature and design of the prophecies themselves; they were delivered amidst the gloom of captivity; and though calculated to cheer the drooping spirits of the Jews, and to keep alive a watchful and submissive confidence in the mercy of God, yet they were intended to communicate only such a degree of encouragement as was consistent with a state of punishment, and to excite an indistinct expectation of future blessings, upon condition of repentance and amendment
Nehemi'ah - 445, certain Jews arrived from Judea, and gave Nehemiah a deplorable account of the state of Jerusalem. During his government Nehemiah firmly repressed the exactions of the nobles and the usury of the rich, and rescued the poor Jews from spoliation and slavery. He refused to receive his lawful allowance as governor from the people, in consideration of their poverty, during the whole twelve years that he was in office but kept at his own charge a table for 150 Jews, at which any who returned from captivity were welcome. With no less firmness and impartiality he expelled from all sacred functions those of the high priest's family who had contracted heathen marriages, and rebuked and punished those of the common people who had likewise intermarried with foreigners; and lastly, he provided for keeping holy the Sabbath day, which was shamefully profaned by many both Jews and foreign merchants, and by his resolute conduct succeeded in repressing the lawless traffic on the day of rest
Damascus, Damascenes - During a tumult in the reign of Nero 10,000 Jews were massacred. There were doubtless Syrian Jews in Jerusalem at every feast of Pentecost, though none are mentioned in Acts 2. Paul came to it as a voluntary inquisitor, to call the Christian Jews to account for their apostasy. Luke ascribes the plot against him to the Jews. The two versions of the story can be reconciled by supposing that the governor turned out the garrison and set a watch at the instigation of influential Jews, who represented St
Less, James the, Saint - He was stoned by the Jews and killed with a fuller's club
Hugh of Lincoln, Saint - His episcopate was a model; conspicuous for his unbounded charity to the poor, he was also a protector of the Jews, and vigorously opposed the unjust taxation of Richard I
Lincoln, Hugh of, Saint - His episcopate was a model; conspicuous for his unbounded charity to the poor, he was also a protector of the Jews, and vigorously opposed the unjust taxation of Richard I
Migdol - In Jeremiah 44:1 ; Jeremiah 46:14 Migdol is mentioned with Tahpanhes and Noph (Memphis) as a habitation of the Jews, and is probably the same as No
Aretas - 39, at the instigation of the Jews, attempted to put Paul in prison, 2 Corinthians 11:32
Father - ...
As denoting his covenant relation to the Jews (Jeremiah 31:9 ; Isaiah 63:16 ; 64:8 ; John 8:41 , etc
Captivity, Babylonian - Cyrus gave permission for the exiles to return to Palestine to rebuild Jerusalem and the Temple, and a large number (42,360 Jews and 7,357 servants) availed themselves of it (1 Esdras 2)
Veil - (Genesis 38:14 ) Among the Jews of the New Testament age it appears to have been customary for the women to cover their heads (not necessarily their faces) when engaged in public worship
Gehenna - , "the valley of the sons of Hinnom"), a deep, narrow glen to the south of Jerusalem, where the idolatrous Jews offered their children in sacrifice to Molech (2 Chronicles 28:3 ; 33:6 ; Jeremiah 7:31 ; 19:2-6 )
Divorce, Divorcement - The Lord also used it of the case of a wife putting away her husband, Mark 10:12 , a usage among Greeks and Romans, not among Jews
Apostasy - The primitive Christian church distinguished several kinds of apostacy; the first, of those who went entirely from Christianity to Judaism; the second, of those who complied so far with the Jews, as to communicate with them in many of their unlawful practices, without making a formal profession of their religion; thirdly, of those who mingled Judaism and Christianity together; and, fourthly, of those who voluntarily relapsed into paganism
Anathoth - The Jews, as a rule, did not change the names of the towns they found in Palestine; hence this town may be regarded as deriving its name from the goddess Anat
Fringe - Tassels of twisted cords fastened to the four corners of the outer garment, worn by observant Jews as a reminder of covenant obligations (Numbers 15:38-39 ; Deuteronomy 22:12 ; compare Zechariah 8:23 )
Watches of Night - The Jews, like the Greeks and Romans, divided the night into military watches instead of hours, each watch representing the period for which sentinels or pickets remained on duty
Tetragrammaton (Yhwh) - The true pronunciation of God's name has been lost through lack of use, because the Jews, who were first given the name of God, would not pronounce it out of their awe and respect for God
Year - Under the word MONTHS it has been stated that the Jews reckoned the months to consist alternately of twenty-nine and thirty days, being therefore in twelve months eleven and a quarter days short of the year
Money - ...
On the return of the Jews, B
Sadducees - Next to the Pharisees, the Sadducees were the most prominent sect of the Jews
Jew - ...
On the special meaning of ‘the Jews’ in Jn
Ephesus - Its inhabitants are supposed to have been of Greek origin, with also a large number of Jews engaged in commerce
Gerizim, Mount - History records that after the rebuilding of the temple in the time of Ezra a Samaritan temple was built on this mountain, where they had priests and sacrifices, which was the cause of great animosity between the Jews and the Samaritans
Province - The Jews had their "governor" (tirsbatha' ), of their own race (Ezra 2:63; Nehemiah 5:14; Nehemiah 8:9), subject to the "satrap" (pathath ) of the provinces W
Anathema - It is probable in this passage there is an allusion to the form of the Jews, who when unable to inflict so great a punishment as the crime deserved, devoted the culprit to the immediate vindictive retribution of divine vengeance, both in this life and in a future state
Usury - On the return of the Jews, Nehemiah sharply rebuked the nobles and the rulers for taking interest of their poorer brethren
Gentile - This was the name by which the Jews designated all men but themselves—i
Agabus - Paul and his company, he took this Apostle's girdle, and binding himself hand and feet, he said, "Thus saith the Holy Ghost, So shall the Jews at Jerusalem bind the man that owneth this girdle, and shall deliver him into the hands of the Gentiles," Acts 21:10
Finger - Our Saviour says he cast out devils by the finger and Spirit of God, which he intimates was a sign that the kingdom of God was come; that God's spiritual government of his church was begun to be exercised among the Jews, by the Messiah, Luke 11:20
Cock, Cock-Crowing - In these watches the Jews followed the Roman method of dividing the night
Barbarian, Barbarous - So in Romans 1:14 , where it stands in distinction from Greeks, and in implied contrast to both Greeks and Jews
Inform - Here it is used of the large numbers of Jewish believers at Jerusalem whose zeal for the Law had been stirred by information of accusations made against the Apostle Paul, as to certain anti-Mosaic teaching he was supposed to have given the Jews
Remphan - Grotius thinks it to have been some deity, as Rimmon; and Capellus and Hammond take this Remphan to be a king of Egypt, deified by his subjects; a late writer is of opinion, that God here refers to the idolatries to which in succeeding ages the Jews were gradually given up, after having begun to revolt in the wilderness by the sin of the golden calf
Mule - It is very certain the Jews did not breed mules, because it was forbidden them to couple together two creatures of different species, Leviticus 19:19
Samaria - In the time of Christ there was great hostility between the Jews and the Samaritans, which explains the episode of the Samaritan Woman, and Our Lord's command to His disciples not to enter any of their cities (Matthew 10), and makes all the more noble the deed of the Good Samaritan
Shemaiah - A false prophet among the exiled Jews in Babylon, who opposed the prophet Jeremiah, and incurred divine judgments on himself and his family
Magi or Wise Men - The captivity of the Jews beyond the Euphrates had dispersed throughout the East much knowledge of the true God; and these philosophers and astronomers, in their search after wisdom, had found and believed the prophecies respecting the Messiah, and were divinely guided to his presence at Bethlehem
East - Besides the ordinary meanings of the word east, Joshua 4:19 ; Psalm 103:12 , the Jews often used it to designate a large region lying northeast and southeast of Palestine, including Syria and Arabia near at hand, and Babylonia, Assyria, Armenia, etc
Babylonian Captivity - Cyrus gave permission for the exiles to return to Palestine to rebuild Jerusalem and the Temple, and a large number (42,360 Jews and 7,357 servants) availed themselves of it (1 Esdras 2)
Peter, Epistles of - It appears to have been addressed to Christian churches in Asia Minor, composed primarily of converted Jews and proselytes, but including many converts from paganism, 1 Peter 4
fe'Lix - ( Acts 24:26,27 ) At the end of that time Porcius Festus [1] was appointed to supersede Felix, who, on his return to Rome, was accused by the Jews in Caesarea, and would have suffered the penalty due to his atrocities had not his brother Pallas prevailed with the emperor Nero to spare him
Cooking - As meet did not form an article of ordinary diet among the Jews, the art of cooking was not carried to any perfection
Jehoshaphat, Valley of - This valley has from ancient times been used by the Jews as a burial-ground
Winepress, Wine-Vat - , "the winepress of the wine") the word is used metaphorically with reference to the execution of Divine judgment upon the gathered foes of the Jews at the close of this age preliminary to the establishment of the Millennial kingdom
Ring - The custom of the Wedding Ring was probably adopted by theearly Church from the marriage customs of the Jews and also of theheathen, as its use has been almost universal
Darius - During the reign of Darius Hystaspes the prophets Haggai and Zechariah aroused the Jews from their spiritual laziness, with the result that the temple in Jerusalem was rebuilt (Ezra 4:24; Ezra 5:6; Ezra 6:15; Haggai 1:1; Zechariah 1:1; see EZRA; PERSIA)
Cappadocia - Jews had found their way into the country before the Maccabaean period, and in 139 b. ad Gaium, 36) also refers to Jews in Cappadocia. ...
Jews of Cappadocia were sojourning in Jerusalem at the time of the first Christian Pentecost (Acts 2:9)
Jude - And, as his life seems to have been prolonged, it is probable that he afterward left Judea, and went abroad preaching the Gospel to Jews and Gentiles in other countries. Jude quoted a book called Enoch or Enoch's prophecies; and even allowing that he did quote it, he gives it no authority; it was no canonical book of the Jews; and if such a book existed among the Jews, it was apocryphal, and yet there might be in it some right things
Swine - To these precepts and threatenings, which were often enforced by severe judgments, may be traced the habitual and unconquerable aversion of the latter Jews to the use of swine's flesh; an aversion which the most alluring promises and the most cruel sufferings have been found alike insufficient to subdue. ...
In such detestation was the hog held by the Jews, that they would not so much as pronounce its name, but called it "the strange thing;" and we read in the history of the Maccabees, that Eleazer, a principal scribe, being compelled by Antiochus Epiphanes to open his mouth and receive swine's flesh, spit it forth, and went of his own accord to the torment, choosing rather to suffer death than to break the law of God, and give offence to his nation, 2Ma_6:18 ; 2Ma_7:1 . It is observed that when Adrian rebuilt Jerusalem, he set up the image of a hog, in bas-relief, upon the gates of the city, to drive the Jews away from it, and to express the greater contempt for that miserable people
Hinnom - It has been a common opinion that the later Jews, in imitation of Josiah, threw into this place all manner of filth, as well as the carcasses of animals and the dead bodies of malefactors; and that with reference to either the baleful idolatrous fires in the worship of Moloch, or to the fires afterwards maintained there to consume the mass of impurities that might otherwise have occasioned a pestilence, came the figurative use of the fires of Gehenna, that is, valley of Hinnom, to denote the eternal fire in which wicked men and fallen spirits shall be punished. ...
It seems clear that the later Jews borrowed their usage of the fire of the valley of Hinnom (Gehenna) to represent the punishment of the wicked in the future world directly from two passages of Isaiah: "For Tophet is ordained of old; yea, for the king it is prepared; he hath made it deep and large: the pile thereof is fire and much wood; the breath of the Lord, like a stream of brimstone, doth kindle it," Isaiah 66:24 . But however this may be, it is certain that the Jews transferred the name Gehenna, that is the valley of Hinnom, to the place in which devils and wicked men are to be punished in eternal fire, and which in the New Testament is always translated hell, Matthew 5:22,29,30 10:28 Mark 9:43,45,47 Luke 12:5 James 3:6
Zechariah, Theology of - After a time God raised up Cyrus, the Persian king, to defeat Babylon (539) and to release the Jews from captivity by issuing an edict in 538 allowing them to return to their land. When the Jews returned from Babylon, they followed the restoration program of the earlier prophets, Ezekiel and Jeremiah. Sheshbazzar led the first group of Jews home. In order for the Jews to reestablish themselves in the land, they had to rebuild the temple and restore the priesthood; they also had to set up a form of governance. One of the reasons for the punishment of exile was that the Jews had been participating in the Canaanite fertility cult. Because some of the local peoples opposed the Jews, the returnees were concerned about their security. Zechariah exhorts the Jews not to repeat the past. ...
There is also a warning not to mistreat God's chosen people, the Jews, for they are "the apple of his eye" (Zechariah 2:8 ). Today, however, God's people is a more inclusive group comprised of Jews and Gentiles who have believed in Jesus (Romans 11:13-24 ). But God has not rejected the Jews (Romans 11:2 ) who will one day return to the Lord as a people (Romans 11:26 ). Zechariah anticipated the day when the door of salvation would be opened to non-Jews. The Jews were to be a light to the nations (Isaiah 42:6 ; 49:6 ); they were to be God's witnesses (Isaiah 43:12 ). Foreign peoples, including some of their rulers, would come to the Jews bringing their wealth and acknowledging the God of Israel to be the only deity (Isaiah 45:14 ; 49:7,22-23 ). ...
Although Judaism has not been a missionary religion throughout most of its history, there were those Jews in the second temple period who endeavored to convert Gentiles to Judaism (Matthew 23:15 ). They could enter the court of the Gentiles in the Jerusalem temple but were forbidden upon pain of death from going beyond the wall of partition between Jews and Gentiles. As mentioned above, the postexilic Jews were following the restoration plan of Ezekiel
Smyrna - 9); she is reviled by a powerful synagogue of Jews, but they are only ‘a synagogue of Satan’ (v. It was not for intellectual errors that the name of ‘Jews’ was denied to the synagogue of Smyrna, while that of ‘synagogue of Satan’ was attached to it (Revelation 2:9). It was because the Jews of Smyrna were morally wrong-hating instead of loving-that they forfeited their traditional titles and privileges (cf. When he was sentenced to death ‘the whole multitude both of the heathen and Jews, who dwelt in Smyrna, cried out with uncontrollable fury and in a loud voice,’ and the sentence ‘was carried into effect with greater speed than it was spoken, the multitudes immediately gathering together wood and faggots out of the shops and baths, the Jews especially, according to custom, eagerly assisting them in it’ (προθύμως, ὡς ἤθος αὐτοῖς). It was ‘at the suggestion and urgent persuasion of the Jews’ that the body of the martyr was refused to the Christians, ‘lest, forsaking Him that was crucified, they should begin to worship this one’ (Mart
Synagogue - " It is recorded that the people were in the habit of freely expressing their opinions respecting what was taught, and here they said, "Is not this Joseph's son?" In Acts 13:45 the Jews "spake against those things which were spoken by Paul, contradicting and blaspheming. "...
Paul also was permitted to speak in the synagogue at Damascus, when he showed the Jews that Jesus was the Son of God, Acts 9:20 ; and often afterwards he 'reasoned' or 'disputed' (διαλέγομαι)with the Jews in their synagogues. ...
It is evident from what Pilate said to the Jews in reference to the Lord — "Take ye him, and judge him according to your law" — that they were allowed to judge certain matters and to inflict limited punishments. Some who professed, like Jews, to have a claim to be considered the people of God on the ground of hereditary right. In both cases they may be Jews actually, though disowned of God
Maccabees - This name, formed by abbreviation according to the common practice of the Jews, distinguished Judas Maccabaeus by way of eminence, as he succeeded his father, B. It is supposed to have been written by John Hyrcanus, the son of Simon, who was prince and high priest of the Jews near thirty years, and began his government at the time where this history ends. The second book of the Maccabees begins with two epistles sent from the Jews of Jerusalem to the Jews of Egypt and Alexandria, to exhort them to observe the feast of the dedication of the new altar erected by Judas, on his purifying the temple. For a farther account of Judas Maccabaeus, and of his brothers, whose history is recorded in the first and second books of the Maccabees, and also by Josephus, we refer to the article Jews. The third book of the Maccabees contains the history of the persecution of Ptolomy Philopater against the Jews in Egypt, and their sufferings under it; and seems to have been written by some Alexandrian Jew in the Greek language, not long after the time of Siracides
Esther, Book of - The petition was that a royal decree should be put forth to the effect that all Jews were to be killed, and their belongings treated as spoil. On this becoming known, there is great grief among the Jews. During this Esther makes her petition to the king on behalf of her people, as well as for her own life, which is threatened, for the royal decree is directed against all Jews and Jewesses within his domains; she also discloses Haman’s plot against Mordecai. Esther then has letters sent in all directions in order to avert the threatened destruction of her people; but the attempt is yet made by the enemies of the Jews to carry out Haman’s intentions. The Jews defend themselves with success, and a great feast is held on the 14th of Adar, on which the Jews ‘rested, and made it a day of feasting and gladness. ’ Moreover, two days of feasting are appointed to be observed for all time; they are called Purim , because of the lot ( pûr ) which Haman cast for the destruction of the Jews (chs. Purim may, in this case, have been, as Jensen suggests, a feast commemorating the victory of Babylonian over Elamite gods which was taken over and adapted by the Jews
Arimathea, or Ramah - But its site is rather to be sought a few miles east of Lydda, from Samaria to Judea, which may account for Luke's calling it "a city of the Jews," Luke 23:51
Amorites - " Ezekiel 16:3 , God reminds the Jews that they were naturally no more worthy of divine favor than the worst of the heathen Canaanites
Judas Thaddeus, Saint - His Epistle, addressed to all the churches in the East, and to the Jews in particular, is in some parts coincident with 2Peter
Jude, Saint - His Epistle, addressed to all the churches in the East, and to the Jews in particular, is in some parts coincident with 2Peter
Peter, First Epistle of - ...
It was written from Babylon, on the Euphrates, which was at this time one of the chief seats of Jewish learning, and a fitting centre for labour among the Jews
Phylacteries - , "defences" or "protections"), called by modern Jews tephillin (i
Face - The Jews prayed with their faces toward the temple and Jerusalem (1 Kings 8:38,44,48 ; Daniel 6:10 )
Ezion-Geber - It became a populous town, many of the Jews settling in it (2 Kings 16:6 , "Elath")
Frankincense - This frankincense, or olibanum, used by the Jews in the temple services is not to be confounded with the frankincense of modern commerce, which is an exudation of the Norway spruce fir, the Pinus abies
Sinner - In Galatians 2:15 , in the clause "not sinners of the Gentiles," the Apostle is taking the Judaizers on their own ground, ironically reminding them of their claim to moral superiority over Gentiles; he proceeds to show that the Jews are equally sinners with Gentiles
Advance - , to make progress, is translated "advanced" in Luke 2:52 , RV, of the Lord Jesus (AV, "increased"); in Galatians 1:14 "advanced," of Paul's former progress in the Jews' religion (AV, "profited"); in Romans 13:12 , "is far spent," of the "advanced" state of the "night" of the world's spiritual darkness; in 2 Timothy 2:16 , "will proceed further," of profane babblings; in 2 Timothy 3:9 , "shall proceed no further," of the limit Divinely to be put to the doings of evil men; in 2 Timothy 3:13 , of the progress of evil men and impostors, "shall wax," lit
Aquila - 50) by Claudius commanding all Jews to leave the city
Zerubbabel - In the first year of Cyrus, king of Persia, he led the first band of Jews, numbering 42,360 (Ezra 2:64 ), exclusive of a large number of servants, who returned from captivity at the close of the seventy years
Annas - By the Mosaic law the high-priesthood was held for life (Numbers 3:10 ); and although Annas had been deposed by the Roman procurator, the Jews may still have regarded him as legally the high priest
Tahpanhes - Following the destruction of Jerusalem and continuing unrest in Judah, a large group of Jews took Jeremiah with them and fled to Tahpanhes ( Jeremiah 43:7 ; Jeremiah 44:1 )
Murmur - The Jews murmured at him
Frontlets - Jews followed scriptural commands, literally, writing Exodus 13:1-10 ,Exodus 13:1-10,13:11-16 ; Deuteronomy 6:4-9 ; Deuteronomy 11:13-21 on small scrolls, placing these in leather containers and placing these on their forehead and left arm
Sele-u'Cus iv - The general policy of Seleucus toward the Jews, like that of his father, 2 Maccabees 3:2,3 , was conciliatory, and he undertook a large share of expenses of the temple service
Timnath Heres - The fact that the Jews venerate a place in Samaria as Joshua's tomb is a presumption in favor of this site
Manna - ...
New Testament Jesus assured the Jews that He, and not the wilderness food, was the true Bread from heaven which conferred eternal life on those who partook of it (John 6:30-58 )
Citizenship - Under the Mosaic law non-Israelites, with the exception of the Moabites and the Ammonites and others mentioned in Deuteronomy 23:1-3 , were admitted to the general privileges of citizenship among the Jews (Exodus 12:19 ; Leviticus 24:22 ; Numbers 15:15 ; 35:15 ; Deuteronomy 10:18 ; 14:29 ; 16:10,14 )
Artificer - It would seem that the Jews never afterwards lost this skill, as the remains of the walls of Jerusalem indicate
Betrothment - Among the Jews this was looked upon as being as binding as marriage, and could not be dissolved except by divorce
Corinth - The Jews plotted against his life, and he left the city
Artaxerxes - When appealed to by the adversaries of the Jews, he stopped the building of the temple
Stranger - Those called strangers in 1 Peter 1:1 were Jews away from their own land: sojourners of the dispersion
Heathen - In the Scriptures, the word seems to comprehend all nations except the Jews or Israelites, as they were all strangers to the true religion, and all addicted to idolatry
Galatia - Though the inhabitants were principally Gentiles, we learn from 1 Peter 1:1 that there were Jews there also
Parthians - Jews settled in Parthia
Judaising Christians - For when this emperor had at length razed Jerusalem, entirely destroyed its very foundations, and enacted laws of the severest kind against the whole body of the Jewish people, the greatest part of the Christians who lived in Palestine, to prevent their being confounded with the Jews, abandoned entirely the Mosaic rites, and chose a bishop, namely, Mark, a foreigner by nation, and an alien from the commonwealth of Israel
Galatia - The Galatians were originally Gauls or Celts who 800 years before Christ moved from the regions of the Rhine back toward the east, and there mingled with Greeks and Jews
Galatia - Here the apostle Paul preached, and it should seem that the apostle Peter had done the same, for he directs his first Epistle to the Jews scattered there
Draughts - The Jews, according to the custom of their country, gave our Lord wine mingled with myrrh at his crucifixion
Joel - The principal predictions contained in this book are the Chaldean invasion, under the figurative representation of locusts; the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus; the blessings of the Gospel dispensation; the conversion and restoration of the Jews to their own land; the overthrow of the enemies of God; and the glorious state of the Christian church in the end of the world
Dari'us - He confirmed the decree of Cyrus in favour of the Jews, and the building of the temple
Shekel - Some are of the opinion that the Jews had two kinds of shekels, namely, the common one already noticed, and the shekel of the sanctuary, which last they make double the former
Ptol'Emee, - On the accession of Antiochus Eupator his conciliatory policy toward the Jews brought him into suspicion at court
Elath - It was again recovered by the Idumeans; and once more subdued by Uzziah, king of Judah; but Rezin, king of Syria, took it at length from the Jews, who seem never again to have recovered it
Law - It was the title applied by the Jews to the first five books of the Bible
Obadiah - It cannot indeed be decided with certainty when he lived, but it is probable that he was contemporary with Jeremiah and Ezekiel, who denounced the same dreadful judgments on the Edomites, as the punishment of their pride, violence, and cruel insulting over the Jews after the destruction of their city
Caesarea-Philippi - After the destruction of Jerusalem, Titus here made the captive Jews fight and kill each other in gladiatorial shows
Gibeon - Five neighboring kings unitedly fell upon them; but were defeated by the Jews in a great battle, during which "the sun stood still upon Gibeon," Joshua 9:10
Libya - In these cities great numbers of Jews dwelt in the time of Christ; and they, with their Libyan proselytes, resorted to Jerusalem to worship, Acts 2:10
Trophimus - When the apostle was in the temple there, the Jews laid hold of him, crying out, "He hath brought Greeks into the temple, and hath polluted this holy place;" because, having seen him in the city accompanied by Trophimus, they imagined that he had introduced him into the temple
Gideon or Jerubbaal - In punishing the refractory cities Succoth and Penuel, and the fratricides Zeba and Zalmunna- in soothing the jealousy of the Ephraimites, and in declining the crown offered him by the Jews, he evinced those qualities which made him a successful judge
Reading - The Jews had their weekly readings of the law
Esther - Their deliverance is still celebrated by the Jews in the yearly festival called Purim, which was instituted at that time
Corban - Our Savior reproaches the Jews with cruelty towards their parents, in making a corbon of what should have been appropriated to their use
Loans - Jehovah, as the sole proprietor of the land occupied by the Jews, required them, as one condition of its use, to grant liberal loans to their poor brethren; and every seven years, the outstanding loans were to become gifts, and could not be reclaimed
Thaddeus, Judas, Saint - His Epistle, addressed to all the churches in the East, and to the Jews in particular, is in some parts coincident with 2Peter
Weights - Ezekiel 45:12 , speaking of the ordinary weights and measures used in traffic among the Jews, says that the shekel weighed twenty gerahs: it was therefore equal to the weight of the sanctuary
Jehovah - The Jews never pronounced this name; and wherever it occurs in the Hebrew Scriptures, the substituted for it, in reading, the word ADONAI, Lord, or ELOHIM, God
Heaven - Grotius said that the Jews divided the heaven into three parts, viz
Gabriel - He assured Daniel that God would now restore the Jews to their land and bring his age-long purposes to fulfilment with the coming of the Messiah (Daniel 9:20-27)
Matthew, Feast of Saint - It was firstwritten in Hebrew, especially for the Jews, but was afterwards,probably by St
Christian - )...
To people who were neither Jews nor believers, ‘the anointed one’ (‘Christ’) had no significance
Jews, Judaism - The Judahites became the Jews in Babylon. The first Jews to return from the Babylonian exile to Jerusalem rebuilt the temple; however, the religious practices of the next generation did not conform to the vision of Judaism that the Babylonian Jewish community held. Thereafter the Jews were identified as the people of the Book, a people committed to keeping the law of Moses. ...
Despite the departure of the prophetic spirit, certain devout Jews were inspired to write religious works during the intertestamental period. Jews thought much about the cause and manifestation of human sin and conflict between good and evil. High priests continued to control the temple until its destruction in the first revolt of the Jews against the Romans in a. The first revolt of the Jews against the Romans deeply affected both Judaism and Christianity. ...
References to Jews and Judaism, however, bear a range of negative, neutral, and positive connotations. For example, John's Gospel contains sixty-three references to the Jews, of which approximately 60 percent are negative in nature, with another 20 percent neutral and a group of 20 percent that reflect a positive image. When Luke refers to Jews in Acts, the references tend toward anti-Judaism. Overall, when Jews are mentioned in the New Testament, the connotation usually is negative, reflecting the developing rift between the church and the synagogue. And in exile the people of Judah became the Jews, the people of the Book, transforming the territorial temple-centered religion of their forefathers into a uNIVersal religion devoted to the worship of the one true God. This environment stimulated Jews to develop ideas that would be important in the rise of Christianity. , Evangelicals and Jews in Conversation ; R
Swine - The heathen frequently tried to compel the Jews to eat swine’s flesh ( e. Swine’s flesh is loathed by Jews and Moslems; the latter, who otherwise eat the same food as Christians, are always very suspicious that any unknown food may be contaminated with it
Kabbala - It attained prominence in Spain in the 13th century, was disseminated at the time of the expulsion of the Jews from that country, and became identified with Palestine. It has often erroneously been used as an argument to induce Jews to accept Christianity
Tal'Mud - doctrine , from the Hebrew word "to learn") is a large collection of writings, containing a full account of the civil and religious laws of the Jews. It was a fundamental principle of the Pharisees, common to them with all orthodox modern Jews, that by the side of the written law, regarded as a summary of the principles and general laws of the Hebrew people, there was an oral law, to complete and to explain the written law
Tiberias - The population of the city is now about six thousand, nearly the one-half being Jews. 70), Tiberias became one of the chief residences of the Jews in Palestine
Pharisees - Thus the Hellenizers were a political sect, while the Hasidaens, whose fundamental principle was complete separation from non-Jewish elements, were the strictly legal party among the Jews, and were ultimately the more popular and influential party. ...
While the Jews continued to be divided into these two parties, the spread of the testimony of the Gospel must have produced what in the public eye seemed to be a new sect, and in the extensive development which took place at Antioch, Acts 11:19-26 , the name "Christians" seems to have become a popular term applied to the disciples as a sect, the primary cause, however, being their witness to Christ (see CALL , A, No
Grave-Clothes - The body of Jesus, doubtless after being bathed, after the manner of the Jews as well as of the Greeks (Acts 9:37, cf. At the present day, among Jews as well as Mohammedans, the corpse is attired in the ordinary holiday attire of life
Benediction - The Jews, it is said, are obliged to rehearse a hundred benedictions per day, of which eighty are to be spoken in the morning. Benedictions were likewise given among the ancient Jews as well as Christians, by imposition of hands
Nicolas - Among the Seven chosen in Acts 6:1-15 to minister to the Hellenists or Greek-speaking Jews, was Nicolas, a ‘proselyte of Antioch. At a later age the Jews divided converts to Judaism into two classes, ‘proselytes of righteousness,’ who were circumcised and who kept the whole Law, and ‘proselytes of the gate,’ who had only a somewhat undefined connexion with Israel
Trades - —It had long been a custom, which almost had the force of law, among the Jews, that every youth, of whatever station, must have a trade. ...
While mechanical labour was regarded with honour among the Jews, all the trades were not looked upon with equal respect
Hebrew Bible - Comparatively lately some MSS of the Karaite Jews in the East have shown that there was another system of vocalisation and accentuation very different from that found in the common Hebrew Bible. ...
God has watched over His own book, and doubtless He helped the Jewish copyists: to the Jews "were committed the oracles of God
Apion - His literary triumphs and critical labours on Homer do not fall within our scope, but his conflict with Jews and Jewish Christians entitles him to a place here. These attacks were contained in two works especially in his Egyptian History (Αἰγυπτιακά ), and in a separate treatise Against the Jews ( κατὰ Ἰουδαίων βίβλος , Justin
Aera - ...
The ancient Jews made use of several aeras in their computation; sometimes they reckoned from the deluge, sometimes from the division of tongues; sometimes from their departure out of Egypt; and at other times from the building of the temple; and sometimes from the restoration after the Babylonish captivity: but their vulgar aera was from the creation of the world, which falls in with the year of the Julian period 953; and consequently they supposed the world created 294 years sooner than according to our computation. But when the Jews became subject to the Syro-Macedonian kings, they were obliged to make use of the aera of the Seleucidae in all their contracts, which from thence was called the aera of contracts
Abstinence - The Jews were commanded to abstain from several sorts of animals. ) The Jews also abstained from the sinew which is upon the hollow of the thigh, Genesis 32:25 ; because of the shrinking of the sinew of Jacob's thigh when touched by the angel, as though by that the part had been made sacred
Stephen - Stephen appeared in the midst of this assembly, with a countenance like that of an angel; and the high priest asking him what he had to answer, in his defence, he rapidly traced the history of the Jews, showing that they had always opposed themselves to God and his prophets; faithfully upbraided them with the hardness of their hearts, with their putting the prophets to death, and, lastly, with slaying Christ himself. " Then the Jews cried out, and stopped their ears as though they had heard blasphemy, and falling on him, they drew him out of the city, and stoned him
Ahasuerus - was the king of Persia, who advanced Esther to be queen, and at her request delivered the Jews from the destruction plotted for them by Haman. The extraordinary favour shown to the Jews by this king, first in sending Ezra, and afterward Nehemiah, to relieve this people, and restore them to their ancient prosperity, affords strong presumptive evidence that they had near his person and high in his regard such an advocate as Esther
Sanhedrin - Or BETHDIN, house of judgment, was a council of seventy senators among the Jews, usually with the addition of the high priest as president, who determined the most important affairs of the nation. Jews in foreign cities appear to have been amenable to this court in matters of religion, Acts 9:2
Galilee - The Galileans were accounted brave and industrious; though other Jews affected to consider them as not only stupid and unpolished, but also seditious, and therefore proper objects of contempt, Luke 13:1 23:6 John 1:47 7:52 . They appear to have used a peculiar dialect, by which they were easily distinguished from the Jews of Jerusalem, Mark 14:70
Publican - " Among the Jews, the name and profession of a publican were especially odious. The Jews reproached Jesus with being a "friend of publicans and sinners, and eating with them," Luke 7:34 ; but he, knowing the self-righteousness, unbelief and hypocrisy of his accusers, replied, "The publicans and harlots go into the kingdom of God before you," Matthew 21:31
Grapes - Robinson says, "No wine is made from the very extensive vineyards of Hebron, except a little by the Jews. Besides the law which protected the first three years' growth of the vine, (see FRUITS,) there was another law requiring the Jews to leave the gleanings of their vineyards for the poor, Leviticus 19:10,23
Purple - All these were sacred colors among the Jews; and the latter was used for the highpriest's ephod, and for veils, ribbons, and cloths, Exodus 26:1,4,31,36 28:31 Numbers 4:6-12 15:38 . Our Savior was clothed with a royal robe of purple, in mockery of his title, "The King of the Jews" John 19:2,5
Pilate or Pontius Pilate - Pilate became odious both to the Jews and to the Samaritans for the severity and cruelty of his administration, Luke 13:1 ; and being accused by the latter before Vitellius, the governor of Syria, he was removed from his office and sent to Rome to answer to their accusations before the emperor. All that he saw of Christ deepened this feeling; and he tried every method to soften the obduracy of the Jews
Synagogue - In after years, when the Jews were dispersed abroad, wherever they went they erected synagogues and kept up the stated services of worship (Acts 9:20 ; 13:5 ; 17:1 ; 17:17 ; 18:4 ). The form and internal arrangements of the synagogue would greatly depend on the wealth of the Jews who erected it, and on the place where it was built. ...
The establishment of synagogues wherever the Jews were found in sufficient numbers helped greatly to keep alive Israel's hope of the coming of the Messiah, and to prepare the way for the spread of the gospel in other lands
Demon Possession - He was neither putting on a performance nor pretending to agree with superstitious attitudes of the Jews. In His discussions with the Jews He assumed the reality of demon possession when He affirmed that His casting out of devils showed that the kingdom of God had come to His hearers (Matthew 12:23-27 ). The Jews of Jesus' time superstitiously believed that demons were lurking at every corner
Ashkelon - During the Maccabean Period the city flourished and apparently did not have hostilities with the Jews ( 1 Maccabees 10:36 ; 1 Maccabees 11:60 ). In fact, many Jews lived there. The city was attacked by the Jews in the first Roman Revolt (66 A
Publican - " Still more odious to the Jews was the common publican, with whom most they came in contact. Most Jews thought it unlawful to pay tribute to pagan. ...
To crown all, the publicans were often Jews, in the eyes of their countrymen traitors to Israel's high calling and hopes; to be spoiled by foreigners was bad, but to be plundered by their own countrymen was far worse
Targum - It was made professedly because the Jews who returned from exile knew that language well. It is easy to understand that pious Jews who did not return under Ezra and Nehemiah, and were gradually losing the use of the Hebrew tongue (as well as their descendants born in captivity) would value such a translation; and it has been stated that for centuries the Targums were publicly read on the Sabbaths, festivals, etc. , their language being the only one understood by the greater part of the Jews even in Palestine
Antichrist - This latter event the Jews term the “abomination of desolation. ” Many Jews viewed the arrival of Antiochus Epiphanes IV as the embodiment of these verses. Yet in the mind of many Jews, the rule of Antiochus did not meet the full expectations of these Scriptures
Mishna - The Mishna consists of various traditions of the Jews, and of explanations of several passages of Scripture. Thus the book called the Mishna was formed; a book which was received by the Jews with great veneration, and which has been always held in high esteem among them. See CABBALA , See GEMARA , See Jews
Acts of the Apostles - For the object of the evangelist was neither to give a complete history of the church during the period comprised, nor to record the labors of all the apostles: it was rather to exhibit the fulfillment of promise in the descent of the Holy Spirit, and the consequent planting and growth of the Christian church among Jews and Gentiles by the establishment of centres of influence in various provinces of the empire, beginning at Jerusalem and ending at Home. The planting and extension of the church among the Jews by the ministry of Peter. For it is Peter who first introduces a Gentile convert into the church; and Paul, during the whole of his administrations, is careful to proclaim the gospel, in every place where he has opportunity, first to the Jews and afterwards to the Gentiles
Idolatry - ...
The idolatry learned in Egypt was probably rooted out from among the people during the forty years' wanderings; but when the Jews entered Palestine, they came into contact with the monuments and associations of the idolatry of the old Canaanitish races, and showed a constant tendency to depart from the living God and follow the idolatrous practices of those heathen nations. That exile finally purified the Jews of all idolatrous tendencies. On taking possession of the land, the Jews were commanded to destroy all traces of every kind of the existing idolatry of the Canaanites (Exodus 23:24,32 ; 34:13 ; Deuteronomy 7:5,25 ; 12:1-3 )
Captivity - God often punished the sins of the Jews be captivities or servitudes, according to his threatenings, Deuteronomy 28:1-68 . In the last year of Jehoiakim, when Nebuchadnezzar carried 3,023Jews to Babylon; or rather, under Jehoiachin, when this prince also was sent to Babylon, that is, in the seventh and eighth years of Nebuchadnezzar, B. While at Babylon the Jews had judges and elders who governed them, and decided matters in dispute juridically according to their laws. ...
The last captivity of the Jews, A. 133, a similar crushing blow fell on the Jews who had again assembled in Judea; and at this day they are scattered all over the world, yet distinct from the people among whom they dwell, suffering under the woe which unbelief has brought upon their fathers and themselves, and awaiting the time when Christ "shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob," Romans 11:25,26
Pentecost, Feast of - In Christ’s time the Jews understood this to mean 16th Nisan, treating the first day of Unleavened Bread as a Sabbath, since it was a day of holy convocation. , the Jews usually celebrated the sheaf-waving on 16th Nisan and Pentecost on 6th Sivan. ...
The festival lasted for one day (though the later Jews allowed two days for it, because in the Dispersion it was difficult to determine accurately the Palestinian month); it was a day of holy convocation, and no servile work might be done. The presence of multitudes at Jerusalem shows the generality of the observance which the Jews paid to this feast
Darius - ) As he restored the Magian faith, effecting a religious as well as political revolution, he readily gave ear to the enemies of the Jews whose restorer Cyrus had been (Ezra 4:7-24). As soon as Darius was on the throne the Jews treated Smerdis' edict as null and void. "...
The Jews so counted on his sympathy as not to wait for his express edict. Their enemies, hoping that Smerdis had destroyed Cyrus' decree, informed the king of the Jews' proceeding and proposed that the archives at Babylon should be searched to see whether Cyrus had ever really given such a decree. ...
Darius in his decree in Ezra (Ezra 6) writes as might have been expected from the Zoroastrian Darius of secular history; he calls the Jews' temple "the house of God," Jehovah "the God of heaven," and solicits their prayers "for the life of the king and of his sons
Esther, Theology of - Although the Amalekite king Agag was captured, Saul spared him (he was ultimately slain by Samuel); thus his descendant Haman survived to contend with the Jews. The Jews did not take the spoils of Haman because of the dictum of not dividing the booty of Amalek (1 Samuel 15:21 ). The Jews were saved, not so much for their sake, but for the fulfillment of the destruction of the Amalekites. The Jews lived in such a culture in Persia; they needed to theologically comprehend a belief in the power of God to overrule the way the dice fell. Purim answered questions the Jews had about their future as scattered groups in alien cultures
Corinth - , the local aristocracy; (2) resident Romans, government officials and business men; (3) a large Greek population; (4) other resident strangers, of whom Jews would form a large number (their synagogue Acts 18:4 ). The church, however, consisted chiefly of non-Jews (see 1 Corinthians 12:2 ). The Jews brought an action before him against St. Paul’s preaching was thus declared to he in no way an offence against Roman law, and in future he relied more on his relation to the State, against the enmity of the Jews. After the examination Gallio permitted the populace to show their hatred to the Jews ( Acts 18:17 )
Supper - In commemoration of it, the Jews observed the annual festival of the passover, when all the males of Judea assembled before the Lord in Jerusalem. Like the Jews, we have the original sacrifice: "Christ our passover is sacrificed for us," and by his substitution our souls are delivered from death. Like the Jews, we have a feast in which that sacrifice, and the deliverance purchased by it, are remembered. To Christians, as to Jews, there is "a night to be much observed unto the Lord," in all generations. To Christians, as to Jews, the manner of observing the night is appointed
Phrygia - A striking feature in the life of these cities was the presence of Jews in large numbers. ‘The Jews also obtained honours from the kings of Asia, when they became their auxiliaries; for Seleucus Nicator made them citizens of those cities which he built in Asia … and gave them privileges equal to those of the Macedonians and Greeks, who were the inhabitants, insomuch that these privileges continue to this very day. ) ‘thought proper to remove 2000 families of Jews, with their effects, out of Mesopotamia and Babylon’ to Lydia and Phrygia (XII. ...
In these Hellenistic cities the Jews relaxed their strictness so much that the orthodox counted them degenerate. This very liberalism, however, probably made the reaction of the Jews on their environment all the greater, and St
Israel - It differs from both ‘Hebrew’ and ‘Jew,’ the former standing, at least in NT times, for Jews of purely national sympathies who spoke the Hebrew or Aramaic dialect (Acts 6:1); the latter, a term originally applied to all who belonged to the province of Judah, and, after the Babylonian captivity, to all of the ancient race wherever located. ...
In the Acts of the Apostles we find the word used historically with reference to the ancestors of the Jews of apostolic times and also applied to these Jews themselves. It is usually assumed or suggested in the Acts that the Jews of the time, to whom the gospel was being preached, are the Israel of the day, the people for whom God had a special favour and who might expect special blessings (Acts 5:31; Acts 13:23). ...
But the refusal of the message of the apostles by many of those who by birth were Jews led to a change in the use of the term, which gives us what we may call the metaphorical or spiritual significance of the word. The Apostle Paul’s contention with the legalistic Jews of his day led him to draw a distinction between the actual historical Israel and the true Israel of God. He speaks on the one hand of ‘Israel after the flesh’ (1 Corinthians 10:18), or of those who belong to the ‘stock of Israel’ (Philippians 3:5), and on the other hand of a ‘commonwealth of Israel’ (Ephesians 2:12), from which many, even Jews by birth, are aliens, and into which the Ephesians have been admitted (v
Pilate - The Jews crowded to Caesarea and besought him to remove them He was about to kill the petitioners after a five days' discussion, giving a signal to concealed soldiers to surround them; but their resolve to die rather than cease resisting the idolatrous innovation caused him to yield (Josephus, Jews' scruples influence the Roman authorities that no coin is stamped with a god or emperor before Nero (DeSaulcy, Numism. )...
He had a fear of offending the Jews, who already had grounds of accusation against him, and of giving color to a charge of lukewarmness to Caesar's kingship, and on the other hand a conviction of Jesus' innocence (for the Jewish council, Pilate knew well, would never regard as criminal an attempt to free Judas from Roman dominion), and a mysterious awe of the Holy Sufferer and His majestic mien and words, strengthened by his wife's (Claudia Procula, a proselyte of the gate: Evang. Jesus' question, "sayest thou this of thyself, or did others tell it thee of Me?" implies suspicion existed in Pilate's mind of the reality of His being "King of the Jews" in some mysterious sense. ...
When the Jews said "He ought to die for making Himself Son of God" Pilate was the more afraid; Christ's testimony (
John 18:37) and bearing, and his wife's message, rising afresh before his mind in hearing of His claim to be "the Son of God" His suspicion betrays itself in the question, "from whence art Thou?" also in his anxiety, so unlike his wonted cruelty, to release Jesus; also in his refusal to alter the inscription over the cross (John 18; 19). Fear of man, the Jews' accusations, and the emperor's frown, and consequent loss of place and power, led him to condemn Him whom he knew to be innocent and desired to deliver. His compromises and delays were vain when once the determined Jews saw him vacillating
Pharisees - a sect of the Jews. They were the most numerous, distinguished, and popular sect among the Jews; the time when they first appeared is not known, but it is supposed to have been not long after the institution of the Sadducees, if, indeed, the two sects did not gradually spring up together. They derived their name from the Hebrew word pharash, which signifies "separated," or "set apart;" because they separated themselves from the rest of the Jews to superior strictness in religious observances. ...
Lastly: the Pharisees contended that God stood engaged to bless the Jews, to make them all partakers of the terrestrial kingdom of the Messiah, to justify them, and make them eternally happy. Paul has some allusions in those parts of his Epistle to the Romans, in which he combats the erroneous suppositions of the Jews, Romans 1-11. And their wearing broader phylacteries and larger fringes to their garments than the rest of the Jews, Matthew 23:5 . The greater part of the Jews are still Pharisees, being as much devoted to traditions, or the oral law, as their ancestors were
Unbelief - One of the great problems of the Apostolic Age was to account for the unbelief of the Jews. Unhappily, it was only too clear that the Jews not only had brought Jesus Christ to the Cross through their representative leaders, but also after Pentecost had refused to listen to the gospel preached by the apostles, and had become the main opponents of the Christian faith. ...
Three chief questions were raised by this unbelief of the Jews. From the earliest times His plan looked forward to embracing the Gentiles within its scope, and through the very unbelief and defection of the Jews there had come a marvellous fulfilment of this wider purpose. Paul believed with all his heart that the Kingdom of God would not be complete apart from the Jews. Paul represented the Jews as being subjects of unbelief and disobedience, so that in the gracious purpose of God they might be objects of the Divine mercy. ...
The same problem of the unbelief of the Jews was treated in the Epistle to the Hebrews. Paul-that unbelief marked the Jews in all their history, and that their unbelief opened the way to the receiving of the Gentiles. Even the Jews exercised jurisdiction over internal affairs, and reckoned as guilty of impiety any of their number who brought a matter of law before idolatrous judges; much more should Christians shun heathen courts, and seek rather the judgment of their fellow-Christians, especially when they remembered that to believers was given by God the judgment of the world, and even of the angels in heaven (1 Corinthians 6:1-6)
Essenes - or ESSENIANS, one of the three ancient sects of the Jews. Jahn has thus described the difference between them: The principal ground of difference between the Essenes or Essaei, and Therapeutae consisted in this; the former were Jews, who spoke the Aramean; the latter were Greek Jews, as the names themselves intimate, namely, אסיא and Θεραπευται . But it is evident, from the accounts of Josephus and Philo, that the Essenes were not Christians, but Jews. The Essenes were, no doubt, distinguished from the mass of ordinary Jews by this, that they knew and loved something higher than the outward ceremonial and a dead faith, that they did really strive after holiness of heart, and inward communion with God. But according to Josephus they certainly considered sacrifice as something peculiarly holy, but they thought that from its peculiar holiness it must have been desecrated by the profane Jews in the temple of Jerusalem, and that it could be worthily celebrated only in their holy community, just as mystic sects of this nature are constantly accustomed to make the objective acts of religion dependent on the subjective condition of those who perform or take part in them. In the troublesome and superstitious observance of the rest of the Sabbath, according to the letter, and not according to the spirit, they went even farther than the other Jews, only with this difference, that they were in good earnest in the matter, while the Pharisees by their casuistry relaxed their rules, or drew them tighter, just as it suited their purpose. The Essenes, not only strenuously abhorred, like the other Jews, contact with the uncircumcised, but, having divided themselves into four classes, the Essenes of a higher grade were averse from contact with those of a lower, as if they were rendered unclean by it, and when any thing of this kind did happen, they purified themselves after it. Like many other Jews, they attributed great value, in general, to lustration by bathing in cold water
Daniel, the Book of - But the forgery of a prophecy, if Daniel were spurious, would never have been received by the Jews from an age when confessedly there were no prophets. The miracles, like those of Moses in Egypt, were designed to show to the seemingly victorious world power the really superior might of the seemingly prostrate kingdom of God, and so to encourage the captive Jews to patient trustfulness in God. ...
Daniel's place in the Septuagint shows it was received by the Jews before the Maccabean times. 7:11, section 8) records that Alexander the Great had designed to punish the Jews for their fidelity, to Darius; but Jaddua (332 B. Josephus' statement, if true, accounts for the fact that Alexander favored the Jews; it certainly proves that the Jews of Josephus' time believed in the existence of Daniel's book in Alexander's time long before the Maccabees. The rest is Hebrew generally, as the subject concerns the Jews and their ultimately restored theocratic kingdom. ...
3 1/2 years, afterward, of gospel preaching to the Jews only. The closing one week (or seven years) includes the 3 1/2, years of Jesus' own preaching to the Jews, and 3 1/2 of the apostles' preaching to the Jews only; then the persecution as to Stephen drove the evangelists from Jerusalem to Samaria. ...
The universal expectation of a Savior existed even in the Gentile world at the very time He came; doubtless due to Daniel's prophecy carried far and wide by the Jews (Tacitus, Hist
Sabbath - So in the Acts of the Apostles the synagogue is the main scene of the first appeal of Christian preachers to the Jews, and the Sabbath was the special day on which they carried on their propaganda. ...
Moreover, the observance of the Sabbath by cessation from labour was one outstanding peculiarity of the Jews which most forcibly struck the heathen observer. Augustine as ignorantly condemning the Sabbath-keeping of the Jews: ‘quod per illos singulos septem interpositos dies septimam fere partem aetatis suae perdant vacando et multa in tempore urgentia non agendo laedantur’ (de Civ. ...
This shows indubitably how well Sabbath was kept by the Jews. At an earlier period, indeed, we read of certain Jews who perished rather than violate the Sabbath by fighting on that day (1 Maccabees 2:34-38). Ultimately the Romans were obliged to release the Jews from military service, and that, among other things, on account of the great inconveniences attendant on Sabbath observance (Jos. ...
Beside this we have the enormous importance attached to the Sabbath by tradition and instruction amongst the Jews themselves. -As far as we can see, there was no thought on the part of the first ‘disciples’ of ever discontinuing an observance to which as Jews they had been accustomed all their lives. What mainly marked them off from their fellow-Jews was their testimony and declaration that ‘Jesus was the Christ’ (Acts 5:42; Acts 17:3; Acts 18:5). ...
The inclusion of the Gentiles within the scope of the gospel brought with it inevitable complications-this among the rest: How far were the religious customs of the Jews to be considered as binding upon them? St. Paul, who was certainly revolutionary and advanced in his teaching in comparison with the Church at Jerusalem, was even openly taxed with advising Jews who lived amongst Gentiles to abandon Moses and ‘the customs’ (see Acts 21:17 ff. ...
Where Jews continued to form the main personnel of Christian communities, Sabbath observance still lived on. ...
The Jews have long suffered special disabilities in Christian countries in this respect, but this has not availed to cause them to abandon Sabbath-keeping
Sabbath - So in the Acts of the Apostles the synagogue is the main scene of the first appeal of Christian preachers to the Jews, and the Sabbath was the special day on which they carried on their propaganda. ...
Moreover, the observance of the Sabbath by cessation from labour was one outstanding peculiarity of the Jews which most forcibly struck the heathen observer. Augustine as ignorantly condemning the Sabbath-keeping of the Jews: ‘quod per illos singulos septem interpositos dies septimam fere partem aetatis suae perdant vacando et multa in tempore urgentia non agendo laedantur’ (de Civ. ...
This shows indubitably how well Sabbath was kept by the Jews. At an earlier period, indeed, we read of certain Jews who perished rather than violate the Sabbath by fighting on that day (1 Maccabees 2:34-38). Ultimately the Romans were obliged to release the Jews from military service, and that, among other things, on account of the great inconveniences attendant on Sabbath observance (Jos. ...
Beside this we have the enormous importance attached to the Sabbath by tradition and instruction amongst the Jews themselves. -As far as we can see, there was no thought on the part of the first ‘disciples’ of ever discontinuing an observance to which as Jews they had been accustomed all their lives. What mainly marked them off from their fellow-Jews was their testimony and declaration that ‘Jesus was the Christ’ (Acts 5:42; Acts 17:3; Acts 18:5). ...
The inclusion of the Gentiles within the scope of the gospel brought with it inevitable complications-this among the rest: How far were the religious customs of the Jews to be considered as binding upon them? St. Paul, who was certainly revolutionary and advanced in his teaching in comparison with the Church at Jerusalem, was even openly taxed with advising Jews who lived amongst Gentiles to abandon Moses and ‘the customs’ (see Acts 21:17 ff. ...
Where Jews continued to form the main personnel of Christian communities, Sabbath observance still lived on. ...
The Jews have long suffered special disabilities in Christian countries in this respect, but this has not availed to cause them to abandon Sabbath-keeping
Nations - ]'>[2] the word ‘Greeks’ is rightly substituted, though the sense is the same, for to the Jews of the time Greek culture and religion stood for the culture and religion of the non-Jewish world. This reformation, as also the Rechabite movement ( Jeremiah 35:1-19 ), had a profound influence upon the thoughts and feelings of Jews, widening the gulf between them and alien nations. ...
The feeling of national exclusiveness and antipathy was intensified by the captivity in Babylon, when the prophetic and priestly instructors of the exiled Jews taught them that their calamities came upon them on account of their disloyalty to Jahweh and the ordinances of His religion, and because they compromised with idolatrous practices and heathen nations. Some time after the Return, Ezra and Nehemiah had to contend with the laxity to which Jews who had remained in the home land and others had yielded; but they were uncompromising, and won the battle for nationalism in religion. ...
The NT reveals the same attitude towards foreign nations on the part of the Jews (see Acts 10:45 et passim ). But, as in the OT a broader spirit shows itself constantly, culminating in the universalism of Christianity, so enlightened and broadminded Jews in all ages have deprecated the fanatical race-hatred which many of their compatriots have displayed
Calendars - It was in the rabbinical period that the written treatise on Jewish traditions, Rosh Hashanah , a part of the Mishna, organized the biblical data into the detailed calendrical system that the Jews observe today. We can assume that what the rabbis codified was in general practice among the Jews of the first century, the time of Christ and the apostles, but the New Testament offers little direct calendrical data. The New Testament offers no evidence that the Jews inside or outside Palestine observed the Roman calendar commencing on January 1, but the apocryphal book 1Maccabees and the Jewish historian Josephus do substitute Greek (Macedonian) month names for Jewish month names. We may assume that in business dealings Greek-speaking Jews made free use of them. In the exilic and postexilic periods, the Jews shifted to the spring new year, but since rabbinic times the fall new year has been observed. ...
When the Jews returned from Babylonian Exile, they brought with them the names of the Babylonian calendar, at the same time counting the new year from the spring
Pentateuch - That the Jews have acknowledged the authenticity of the Pentateuch, from the present time back to the era of their return from the Babylonish captivity, a period of more than two thousand three hundred years, admits not a possibility of doubt. In truth, the veneration of the Jews for their Scriptures, and above all for the Pentateuch, seems to have risen almost to a superstitious reverence. Thus also the translation, first of the Pentateuch, and afterward of the remaining works of the Old Testament, into Greek, for the use of the Alexandrian Jews, disseminated this sacred volume over a great part of the civilized world, in the language most universally understood, and rendered it accessible to the learned and inquisitive in every country; so as to preclude all suspicion that it could be materially altered by either Jews or Christians, to support their respective opinions as to the person and character of the Messiah; the substance of the text being, by this translation, fixed and authenticated at least two hundred and seventy years before the appearance of our Lord. Can any clearer proof than this be desired of the constant and universal acknowledgment of the divine authority of the Pentateuch throughout the entire nation of the Jews, notwithstanding the idolatries and corruptions which so often prevented its receiving such obedience as that acknowledgment ought to have produced? The argument from this certain antiquity of the Pentateuch, a copy of which existed in the old Samaritan