The Meaning of Revelation 20:1 Explained

Revelation 20:1

KJV: And I saw an angel come down from heaven, having the key of the bottomless pit and a great chain in his hand.

YLT: And I saw a messenger coming down out of the heaven, having the key of the abyss, and a great chain over his hand,

Darby: And I saw an angel descending from the heaven, having the key of the abyss, and a great chain in his hand.

ASV: And I saw an angel coming down out of heaven, having the key of the abyss and a great chain in his hand.

What does Revelation 20:1 Mean?

Verse Meaning

The first word, "And," supports the idea of chronological sequence. It implies a continuation from what John just revealed (cf. Revelation 19:11; Revelation 19:17; Revelation 19:19; Revelation 20:4; Revelation 20:11-12; Revelation 21:1-2; Revelation 21:22). Amillennial interpreters disagree. [1]
"John says nothing to place this chapter in the time sequence." [2]
It is logical that having judged the beast and the false prophet ( Revelation 19:20) Jesus Christ should next deal with Satan. God assigned an angel to bind Satan. Previously God cast Satan out of heaven ( Revelation 12:9), and now He cast him out of the earth. This is the end of Satan"s "short time" in which God allowed him to spread havoc on the earth ( Revelation 12:12). This angel now has the key to the abyss (cf. Revelation 9:1-2; Revelation 9:11; Revelation 11:7; Revelation 17:8; Luke 8:31; Romans 10:7). The binding of Satan is real, though the chain must be figurative since it is impossible to bind spirit beings with physical chains (cf. Revelation 9:14). Though Jesus Christ defeated Satan at the Cross ( Luke 10:18; John 12:31; John 16:11), He did not bind him then nor will He bind him until the beginning of the Millennium. Presently Satan has considerable freedom to attack God"s people and oppose His work (cf. Revelation 2:13; Revelation 3:9; Ephesians 2:2; Ephesians 6:10-18; 1 Peter 5:8).

Context Summary

Revelation 20:1-6 - The Millennial Reign
In the preceding chapter the beast and the false prophet are depicted as meeting their punishment in the lake of fire. In this, the devil, death, and Hades are consigned to a similar fate. The imagery is apparently drawn from that fearful tragedy which left so deep an impression on the ancient world. See Genesis 14:10; Genesis 19:24; Judges 1:7. The last reference is especially interesting, because there the fate of the cities of the plain is quoted as an example of eternal fire. May it be ours to participate in the first resurrection!
Let our loins be girded and our lamps trimmed, that we may be found of Christ in peace, at our posts, and prepare to enter with Him into the bridal feast. This is a more solemn and critical consideration than the majority of Christians seem to suppose. In fellowship with their Lord, His people are to exert in a godly direction the same kind of influence over the affairs of men, as the rulers of darkness in an ungodly sense now exercise. Thank God, every morning brings that blessed day nearer. [source]

Chapter Summary: Revelation 20

1  Satan bound for a thousand years
6  The first resurrection;
7  Satan let loose again
8  Gog and Magog
10  The demons cast into the lake of fire and brimstone
11  The last and general resurrection

Greek Commentary for Revelation 20:1

Coming down out of heaven [καταβαινοντα εκ του ουρανου]
As in Revelation 10:1; Revelation 18:1. [source]
The key of the abyss [την κλειν της αβυσσου]
As in Revelation 9:1.A great chain (αλυσιν μεγαλην — halusin megalēn). Paul wore a αλυσις — halusis (alpha privative and λυω — luō to loose) in Rome (2 Timothy 1:16, as did Peter in prison in Jerusalem (Acts 12:6).In his hand “Upon his hand,” ready for use. See επι — epi with the genitive in Revelation 1:20. [source]
A great chain [αλυσιν μεγαλην]
Paul wore a αλυσις — halusis (alpha privative and λυω — luō to loose) in Rome (2 Timothy 1:16, as did Peter in prison in Jerusalem (Acts 12:6). [source]
In his hand [επι την χειρα αυτου]
“Upon his hand,” ready for use. See επι — epi with the genitive in Revelation 1:20. [source]
Of the bottomless pit []
See on Revelation 9:1. This is to be distinguished from the lake of fire. Compare Revelation 20:10. [source]
Chain [ἅλυσιν]
See on Mark 5:4. Only here in John's writings. [source]
In his hand [ἐπί]
Lit., upon: resting on or hanging upon. [source]

Reverse Greek Commentary Search for Revelation 20:1

Matthew 16:18 Thou art Peter [οὺ εἶ Πέτρος]
Christ responds to Peter's emphatic thou with another, equally emphatic. Peter says, “Thou art the Christ.” Christ replies, “Thou art Peter.” Πέτρος (Peter ) is used as a proper name, but without losing its meaning as a common noun. The name was bestowed on Simon at his first interview with Jesus (John 1:42) under the form of its Aramaic equivalent, CephasIn this passage attention is called, not to the giving of the name, but to its meaning. In classical Greek the word means a piece of rock, as in Homer, of Ajax throwing a stone at Hector (“Iliadvii., 270), or of Patroclus grasping and hiding in his hand a jagged stone (“Iliadxvi., 784).On this rock ( ἐπὶ ταύτῃ τῇ πέρᾳ )The word is feminine, and means a rock, as distinguished from a stone or a fragment of rock ( πέτρος , above). Used of a ledge of rocks or a rocky peak. In Homer (“Odyssey,” ix., 243), the rock ( πέτρην ) which Polyphemus places at the door of his cavern, is a mass which two-and-twenty wagons could not remove; and the rock which he hurled at the retreating ships of Ulysses, created by its fall a wave in the sea which drove the ships back toward the land (“Odyssey,” ix., 484). The word refers neither to Christ as a rock, distinguished from Simon, a stone, nor to Peter's confession, but to Peter himself, in a sense defined by his previous confession, and as enlightened by the “Father in Heaven.” The reference of πέτρα to Christ is forced and unnatural. The obvious reference of the word is to Peter. The emphatic this naturally refers to the nearest antecedent; and besides, the metaphor is thus weakened, since Christ appears here, not as the foundation, but as the architect: “On this rock will I build.” Again, Christ is the great foundation, the “chief corner-stone,” but the New Testament writers recognize no impropriety in applying to the members of Christ's church certain terms which are applied to him. For instance, Peter himself (1 Peter 2:4), calls Christ a living stone, and, in 1 Peter 2:5, addresses the church as living stones. In Revelation 21:14, the names of the twelve apostles appear in the twelve foundation-stones of the heavenly city; and in Ephesians 2:20, it is said, “Ye are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets (i.e., laid by the apostles and prophets), Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner-stone.” Equally untenable is the explanation which refers πέτρα to Simon's confession. Both the play upon the words and the natural reading of the passage are against it, and besides, it does not conform to the fact, since the church is built, not on confessions, but on confessors - living men. “The word πέτρα ,” says Edersheim, “was used in the same sense in Rabbinic language. According to the Rabbins, when God was about to build his world, he could not rear it on the generation of Enos, nor on that of the flood, who brought destruction upon the world; but when he beheld that Abraham would arise in the future, he said' 'Behold, I have found a rock to build on it, and to found the world,' whence, also, Abraham is called a rock, as it is said' 'Look unto the rock whence ye are hewn.' The parallel between Abraham and Peter might be carried even further. If, from a misunderstanding of the Lord's promise to Peter, later Christian legend represented the apostle as sitting at the gate of heaven, Jewish legend represents Abraham as sitting at the gate of Gehenna, so as to prevent all who had the seal of circumcision from falling into its abyss” (“Life and Times of Jesus”). The reference to Simon himself is confirmed by the actual relation of Peter to the early church, to the Jewish portion of which he was a foundation-stone. See Acts, Acts 1:15; Acts 2:14, Acts 2:37; Acts 3:12; Acts 4:8; Acts 5:15, Acts 5:29; Acts 9:34, Acts 9:40; Acts 10:25, Acts 10:26; Galatians 1:15.Church ( ἐκκλησίαν ) ἐκ out, καλέω , to call or summon. This is the first occurrence of this word in the New Testament. Originally an assembly of citizens, regularly summoned. So in New Testament, Acts 19:39. The Septuagint uses the word for the congregation of Israel, either as summoned for a definite purpose (Acts 7:38); but for this there is more commonly employed συναγωγή , of which synagogue is a transcription; σύν , together, ἄγω , to bring (Acts 13:43). In Christ's words to Peter the word ἐκκλησία acquires special emphasis from the opposition implied in it to the synagogue. The Christian community in the midst of Israel would be designated as ἐκκλησία , without being confounded with the συναγωγή , the Jewish community. See Acts 5:11; Acts 8:1; Acts 12:1; Acts 14:23, Acts 14:27, etc. Nevertheless συναγωγή is applied to a Christian assembly in James 2:2, while ἐπισυναγωγή (gathering or assembling together ) is found in 2 Thessalonians 2:1; Hebrews 10:25. Both in Hebrew and in New Testament usage ἐκκλησία implies more than a collective or national unity; rather a community based on a special religious idea and established in a special way. In the New Testament the term is used also in the narrower sense of a single church, or a church confined to a particular place. So of the church in the house of Aquila and Priscilla (Romans 16:5); the church at Corinth, the churches in Judea, the church at Jerusalem, etc.Gates of hell ( πύλαι ᾅδου )Rev., Hades. Hades was originally the name of the god who presided over the realm of the dead - Pluto or Dis. Hence the phrase, house of Hades. It is derived from ἀ , not, and; ἰδεῖν , to see; and signifies, therefore, the invisible land, the realm of shadow. It is the place to which all who depart this life descend, without reference to their moral character. By this word the Septuagint translated the Hebrew Sheol, which has a similar general meaning. The classical Hades embraced both good and bad men, though divided into Elysium, the abode of the virtuous, and Tartarus, the abode of the wicked. In these particulars it corresponds substantially with Sheol; both the godly and the wicked being represented as gathered into the latter. See Genesis 42:38; Psalm 9:17; Psalm 139:8; Isaiah 14:9; Isaiah 57:2; Ezekiel 32:27; Hosea 13:14. Hades and Sheol were alike conceived as a definite place, lower than the world. The passage of both good and bad into it was regarded as a descent. The Hebrew conception is that of a place of darkness; a cheerless home of a dull, joyless, shadowy life. See Psalm 6:5; Psalm 94:17; Psalm 115:17; Psalm 88:5, Psalm 88:6, Psalm 88:10; Job 10:21; Job 3:17-19; Job 14:10, Job 14:11; Ecclesiastes 9:5. Vagueness is its characteristic. In this the Hebrew's faith appears bare in contrast with that of the Greek and Roman. The pagan poets gave the popular mind definite pictures of Tartarus and Elysium; of Styx and Acheron; of happy plains where dead heroes held high discourse, and of black abysses where offenders underwent strange and ingenious tortures. There was, indeed, this difference between the Hebrew and the Pagan conceptions; that to the Pagan, Hades was the final home of its tenants, while Sheol was a temporary condition. Hence the patriarchs are described (Hebrews 11:16) as looking for a better, heavenly country; and the martyrs as enduring in hope of “a better resurrection.” Prophecy declared that the dead should arise and sing, when Sheol itself should be destroyed and its inmates brought forth, some to everlasting life, and others to shame and contempt (Isaiah 26:19; Hosea 13:14; Daniel 12:2). Paul represents this promise as made to the fathers by God, and as the hope of his countrymen (Acts 26:7). God was the God of the dead as well as of the living; present in the dark chambers of Sheol as well as in heaven (Psalm 139:8; Psalm 16:10). This is the underlying thought of that most touching and pathetic utterance of Job (Job 14:13-15), in which he breathes the wish that God would hide him with loving care in Hades, as a place of temporary concealment, where he will wait patiently, standing like a sentinel at his post, awaiting the divine voice calling him to a new and happier life. This, too, is the thought of the familiar and much-disputed passage, Job 19:23-27. His Redeemer, vindicator, avenger, shall arise after he shall have passed through the shadowy realm of Sheol. “A judgment in Hades, in which the judge will show himself his friend, in which all the tangled skein of his life will be unravelled by wise and kindly hands, and the insoluble problem of his strange and self-contradicting experience will at last be solved - this is what Job still looks for on that happy day when he shall see God for himself, and find his Goel (vindicator) in that Almighty Deliverer” (Cox, “Commentary on the Book of Job”). In the New Testament, Hades is the realm of the dead. It cannot be successfully maintained that it is, in particular, the place for sinners (so Cremer, “Biblico-Theological Lexicon”). The words about Capernaum (Matthew 11:23), which it is surprising to find Cremer citing in support of this position, are merely a rhetorical expression of a fall from the height of earthly glory to the deepest degradation, and have no more bearing upon the moral character of Hades than the words of Zophar (Job 11:7, Job 11:8) about the perfection of the Almighty. “It is high as heaven - deeper than Sheol. ” Hades is indeed coupled with Death (Revelation 1:18; Revelation 6:8; Revelation 20:13, Revelation 20:14), but the association is natural, and indeed inevitable, apart from all moral distinctions. Death would naturally be followed by Hades in any case. In Revelation 20:13, Revelation 20:14, the general judgment is predicted, and not only Death and Hades, but the sea give tip their dead, and only those who are not written in the book of life are cast into the lake of fire (Revelation 20:15). The rich man was in Hades (Luke 16:23), and in torments, but Lazarus was also in Hades, “in Abraham's bosom.” The details of this story “evidently represent the views current at the time among the Jews. According to them, the Garden of Eden and the Tree of Life were the abode of the blessed. We read that the righteous in Eden see the wicked in Gehenna and rejoice; and similarly, that the wicked in Gehenna see the righteous sitting beatified in Eden, and their souls are troubled (Edersheim, “Life and Times of Jesus”). Christ also was in Hades (Acts 2:27, Acts 2:31). Moreover, the word γέεννα , hell (see on Matthew 5:22), is specially used to denote the place of future punishment. Hades, then, in the New Testament, is a broad and general conception, with an idea of locality bound up with it. It is the condition following death, which is blessed or the contrary, according to the moral character of the dead, and is therefore divided into different realms, represented by Paradise or Abraham's bosom, and Gehenna. The expression Gates of Hades is an orientalism for the court, throne, power, and dignity of the infernal kingdom. Hades is contemplated as a mighty city, with formidable, frowning portals. Some expositors introduce also the idea of the councils of the Satanic powers, with reference to the Eastern custom of holding such deliberations in the gates of cities. Compare the expression Sublime Porte, applied to the Ottoman court. The idea of a building is maintained in both members of the comparison. The kingdom or city of Hades confronts and assaults the church which Christ will build upon the rock. See Job 38:17; Psalm 9:13; Psalm 107:18; Isaiah 38:10. [source]
Luke 4:17 Opened [ἀναπτύξας]
Lit., unrolled. Both this and the simple verb πτύσσω , to close (Luke 4:20), occur only once in the New Testament. The former word was used in medical language of the opening out of various parts of the body, and the latter of the rolling up of bandages. The use of these terms by Luke the physician is the more significant from the fact that elsewhere in the New Testament ἀνοίγω is used for the opening of a book (Revelation 5:2-5; Revelation 10:2, Revelation 10:8; Revelation 20:12); and εἰλίσσω , for rolling it up (Revelation 6:14). [source]
Luke 6:20 Kingdom of God [ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ]
Matthew has kingdom of heaven, or of the heavens ( τῶν οὐρανῶν )a phrase used by him only, and most frequently employed by Christ himself to describe the kingdom; though Matthew also uses, less frequently, kingdom of God. The two are substantially equivalent terms, though the pre-eminent title was kingdom of God, since it was expected to be fully realized in the Messianic era, when God should take upon himself the kingdom by a visible representative. Compare Isaiah 40:9, “Behold your God. ” The phrase kingdom of Heaven was common in the Rabbinical writings, and had a double signification: the historical kingdom and the spiritual and moral kingdom. They very often understood by it divine worship; adoration of God; the sum of religious duties; but also the Messianic kingdom. The kingdom of God is, essentially, the absolute dominion of God in the universe, both in a physical and a spiritual sense. It is “an organic commonwealth which has the principle of its existence in the will of God” (Tholuck). It was foreshadowed in the Jewish theocracy. The idea of the kingdom advanced toward clearer definition from Jacob's prophecy of the Prince out of Judah (Genesis 49:10), through David's prophecy of the everlasting kingdom and the king of righteousness and peace (Daniel 7:14-27; Daniel 4:25; Daniel 2:44). In this sense it was apprehended by John the Baptist. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
The ideal kingdom is to be realized in the absolute rule of the eternal Son, Jesus Christ, by whom all things are made and consist (John 1:3; Colossians 1:16-20), whose life of perfect obedience to God and whose sacrificial offering of love upon the cross reveal to men their true relation to God, and whose spirit works to bring them into this relation. The ultimate idea of the kingdom is that of “a redeemed humanity, with its divinely revealed destiny manifesting itself in a religious communion, or the Church; asocial communion, or the state; and an aesthetic communion, expressing itself in forms of knowledge and art.”-DIVIDER-
This kingdom is both present (Matthew 11:12; Matthew 12:28; Matthew 16:19; Luke 11:20; Luke 16:16; Luke 17:21; see, also, the parables of the Sower, the Tares, the Leaven, and the Drag-net; and compare the expression “theirs, or yours, is the kingdom,” Matthew 5:3; Luke 6:20) and future (Daniel 7:27; Matthew 13:43; Matthew 19:28; Matthew 25:34; Matthew 26:29; Mark 9:47; 2 Peter 1:11; 1 Corinthians 6:9; Revelation 20:1-15 sq.). As a present kingdom it is incomplete and in process of development. It is expanding in society like the grain of mustard seed (Matthew 13:31, Matthew 13:32); working toward the pervasion of society like the leaven in the lump (Matthew 13:33). God is in Christ reconciling the world unto himself, and the Gospel of Christ is the great instrument in that process (2 Corinthians 5:19, 2 Corinthians 5:20). The kingdom develops from within outward under the power of its essential divine energy and law of growth, which insures its progress and final triumph against all obstacles. Similarly, its work in reconciling and subjecting the world to God begins at the fountain-head of man's life, by implanting in his heart its own divine potency, and thus giving a divine impulse and direction to the whole man, rather than by moulding him from without by a moral code. The law is written in his heart. In like manner the State and the Church are shaped, not by external pressure, like the Roman empire and the Roxnish hierarchy, but by the evolution of holy character in men. The kingdom of God in its present development is not identical with the Church. It is a larger movement which includes the Church. The Church is identified with the kingdom to the degree in which it is under the power of the spirit of Christ. “As the Old Testament kingdom of God was perfected and completed when it ceased to be external, and became internal by being enthroned in the heart, so, on the other hand, the perfection of the New Testament kingdom will consist in its complete incarnation and externalization; that is, when it shall attain an outward manifestation, adequately expressing, exactly corresponding to its internal principle” (Tholuck). The consummation is described in Revelation 21,22. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
[source]

Luke 8:31 Into the abyss [εις την αβυσσον]
Rare old word common in lxx from α — a privative and βατς — bathūs (deep). So bottomless place (supply χωρα — chōra). The deep sea in Genesis 1:2; Genesis 7:11. The common receptacle of the dead in Romans 10:7 and especially the abode of demons as here and Revelation 9:1-11; Revelation 11:7; Revelation 17:8; Revelation 20:1, Revelation 20:3. [source]
John 5:24 Hath eternal life [εχει ζωην αιωνιον]
Has now this spiritual life which is endless. See John 3:36. In John 5:24, John 5:25 Jesus speaks of spiritual life and spiritual death. In this passage (John 5:21-29) Jesus speaks now of physical life and death, now of spiritual, and one must notice carefully the quick transition. In Revelation 20:14 we have the phrase “the second death” with which language compare Revelation 20:4-6. But hath passed out of death into life Perfect active indicative of μεταβαινω — metabainō to pass from one place or state to another. Out of spiritual death into spiritual life and so no judgment (κρισις — krisis). [source]
2 Thessalonians 1:9 From the presence [ἀπὸ προσώπου]
Or face. Ἁπὸ fromhas simply the sense of separation. Not from the time of the Lord's appearing, nor by reason of the glory of his presence. Πρόσωπον is variously translated in A.V. Mostly face: also presence, Acts 3:13, Acts 3:19; Acts 5:41: person, Matthew 22:16; Luke 20:21; Galatians 2:6: appearance, 2 Corinthians 5:12; 2 Corinthians 10:1: fashion, James 1:11. The formula ἀπὸ προσώπου or τοῦ προσώπου occurs Acts 3:19; Acts 5:41; Acts 7:45; Revelation 6:16; Revelation 12:14; Revelation 20:11. In lxx, Genesis 3:8; Genesis 4:14, Genesis 4:16; Exodus 14:25, and frequently. [source]
1 Timothy 4:1 Seducing [πλάνοις]
Primarily, wandering, roving. Ὁ πλάνος avagabond, hence deceiver or seducer. See 2 John 1:7, and comp. ὁ πλανῶν thedeceiver, used of Satan, Revelation 12:9; Revelation 20:10; τὸ πνεῦμα τῆς πλάνης thespirit of error, 1 John 4:6. Once in Paul, 2 Corinthians 6:8, and in lxx, Job 19:4; Jeremiah 23:32. Evil spirits animating the false teachers are meant. [source]
1 John 4:1 False prophets [ψευδοπροφῆται]
The term is applied in the New Testament to rivals of true prophets under the old dispensation (Luke 6:26; 2 Peter 2:1), and to rivals of the apostles under the gospel economy (Matthew 7:15; Matthew 24:11, Matthew 24:24; Mark 13:22). In Revelation to “the embodied power of spiritual falsehood” (Revelation 16:13; Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:10). The false prophet supports his claims by signs and portents (Matthew 24:24; Acts 13:6; Revelation 19:20) and is thus distinguished from the false teacher. See 2 Peter 2:1, where the two terms occur together. [source]
1 John 3:14 From death [ἐκ τοῦ θανάτου]
Lit., out of the death. The article marks it as one of the two spheres in which men must be; death or life. The death, the life, present one of those sharp oppositions which are characteristic of the Epistle; as love, hatred; darkness, light; truth, a lie. Ὁ θάνατος thedeath, occurs in John's Epistles only here and in the next clause. In the Gospel, only John 5:24. Personified in Revelation 1:18; Revelation 6:8; Revelation 9:6; Revelation 20:13. [source]
1 John 4:1 Many false prophets [πολλοι πσευδοπροπηται]
Jesus had warned people against them (Matthew 7:15), even when they as false Christs work portents (Matthew 24:11, Matthew 24:24; Mark 13:22). It is an old story (Luke 6:26) and recurs again and again (Acts 13:6; Revelation 16:13; Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:10) along with false teachers (2 Peter 2:1).Are gone out (εχεληλυτασιν — exelēluthasin). Perfect active indicative of εχερχομαι — exerchomai Cf. aorist in 1 John 2:19. They are abroad always. [source]
1 John 4:1 Believe not every spirit [μη παντι πνευματι πιστευετε]
“Stop believing,” as some were clearly carried away by the spirits of error rampant among them, both Docetic and Cerinthian Gnostics. Credulity means gullibility and some believers fall easy victims to the latest fads in spiritualistic humbuggery.Prove the spirits (δοκιμαζετε τα πνευματα — dokimazete ta pneumata). Put them to the acid test of truth as the metallurgist does his metals. If it stands the test like a coin, it is acceptable (δοκιμος — dokimos 2 Corinthians 10:18), otherwise it is rejected (αδοκιμος — adokimos 1 Corinthians 9:27; 2 Corinthians 13:5-7).Many false prophets Jesus had warned people against them (Matthew 7:15), even when they as false Christs work portents (Matthew 24:11, Matthew 24:24; Mark 13:22). It is an old story (Luke 6:26) and recurs again and again (Acts 13:6; Revelation 16:13; Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:10) along with false teachers (2 Peter 2:1).Are gone out (εχεληλυτασιν — exelēluthasin). Perfect active indicative of εχερχομαι — exerchomai Cf. aorist in 1 John 2:19. They are abroad always. [source]
Revelation 21:1 There was no more sea [ἡ θάλασσα οὐκ ἔστιν ἔπι]
Lit., as Rev., the sea is no more. Here as in Revelation 20:13. Some explain the sea as the ungodly world. I cannot help thinking this interpretation forced. According to this explanation, the passage is in the highest degree tautological. The first earth was passed away, and the ungodly world was no more. [source]
Revelation 20:1 Of the bottomless pit []
See on Revelation 9:1. This is to be distinguished from the lake of fire. Compare Revelation 20:10. [source]
Revelation 2:17 A white stone [ψῆφον λευκὴν]
See on counteth, Luke 14:28; and see on white, Luke 9:29. The foundation of the figure is not to be sought in Gentile but in Jewish customs. “White is everywhere the color and livery of heaven” (Trench). See Revelation 1:14; Revelation 3:5; Revelation 7:9; Revelation 14:14; Revelation 19:8, Revelation 19:11, Revelation 19:14; Revelation 20:11. It is the bright, glistering white. Compare Matthew 28:3; Luke 24:4; John 20:12; Revelation 20:11; Daniel 7:9. It is impossible to fix the meaning of the symbol with any certainty. The following are some of the principal views: The Urim and Thummim concealed within the High-Priest's breastplate of judgment. This is advocated by Trench, who supposes that the Urim was a peculiarly rare stone, possibly the diamond, and engraven with the ineffable name of God. The new name he regards as the new name of God or of Christ (Revelation 3:12); some revelation of the glory of God which can be communicated to His people only in the higher state of being, and which they only can understand who have actually received. -DIVIDER-
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Professor Milligan supposes an allusion to the plate of gold worn on the High-Priest's forehead, and inscribed with the words “Holiness to the Lord,” but, somewhat strangely, runs the figure into the stone or pebble used in voting, and regards the white stone as carrying the idea of the believer's acquittal at the hands of God. -DIVIDER-
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Dean Plumptre sees in the stone the signet by which, in virtue of its form or of the characters inscribed on it, he who possessed it could claim from the friend who gave it, at any distance of time, a frank and hearty welcome; and adds to this an allusion to the custom of presenting such a token, with the guest's name upon it, of admission to the feast given to those who were invited to partake within the temple precincts - a feast which consisted wholly or in part of sacrificial meats. -DIVIDER-
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Others, regarding the connection of the stone with the manna, refer to the use of the lot cast among the priests in order to determine which one should offer the sacrifice. -DIVIDER-
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Others, to the writing of a candidate's name at an election by ballot upon a stone or bean. -DIVIDER-
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In short, the commentators are utterly divided, and the true interpretation remains a matter of conjecture. [source]

Revelation 2:11 Second death []
An expression peculiar to the Revelation. See Revelation 20:6, Revelation 20:14; Revelation 21:8. In those two passages it is defined as the lake of fire. The death awaiting the wicked after judgment. [source]
Revelation 1:9 Patmos []
Now called Patmo and Palmosa. In the Aegean, one of the group of the Sporades, about twenty-eight miles S. S.W. of Samos. It is about ten miles long by six in breadth. The island is volcanic, and is bare and rocky throughout; the hills, of which the highest rises to nearly a thousand feet, commanding a magnificent view of the neighboring sea and islands. The bay of La Scala, running into the land on the east, divides the island into two nearly equal parts, a northern and a southern. The ancient town, remains of which are still to be seen, occupied the isthmus which separates La Scala from the bay of Merika on the western coast. The modern town is on a hill in the southern half of the island, clustered at the foot of the monastery of St. John. A grotto is shown called “the grotto of the Apocalypse,” in which the apostle is said to have received the vision. “The stern, rugged barrenness of its broken promontories well suits the historical fact of the relegation of the condemned Christian to its shores, as of a convict to his prison. The view from the topmost peak, or, indeed, from any lofty elevation in the islands, unfolds an unusual sweep such as well became the Apocalypse, the unveiling of the future to the eyes of the solitary seer. Above, there was always the broad heaven of a Grecian sky; sometimes bright with its 'white cloud' (Revelation 14:14), sometimes torn with 'lightnings and thunderings,' and darkened by 'great hail,' or cheered with 'a rainbow like unto an emerald' (Revelation 4:3; Revelation 8:7; Revelation 11:19; Revelation 16:21). Over the high tops of Icaria, Samos, and Naxos rise the mountains of Asia Minor; amongst which would lie, to the north, the circle of the Seven Churches to which his addresses were to be sent. Around him stood the mountains and islands of the Archipelago (Revelation 6:14; Revelation 16:20). When he looked round, above or below, 'the sea' would always occupy the foremost place … the voices of heaven were like the sound of the waves beating on the shore, as 'the sound of many waters' (Revelation 14:2; Revelation 19:6); the millstone was 'cast into the sea' (Revelation 18:21); the sea was to 'give up the dead which were in it' (Revelation 20:13)” (Stanley, “Sermons in the East”). [source]
Revelation 1:18 The keys of Hell and Death []
Rev., correctly, of Death and of Hades. Conceived as a prison-house or a walled city. See on Matthew 16:18. The keys are the symbol of authority. See Matthew 16:19; Revelation 3:7; Revelation 9:1; Revelation 20:1. The Rabbinical proverb said: “There are four keys lodged in God's hand, which He committeth neither to angel nor to seraph: the key of the rain, the key of food, the key of the tombs, and the key of a barren woman.” [source]
Revelation 2:17 Of the hidden manna [τοῦ μάννα τοῦ κεκρυμμένου]
The allusion may be partly to the pot of manna which was laid up in the ark in the sanctuary. See Exodus 16:32-34; compare Hebrews 9:4. That the imagery of the ark was familiar to John appears from Revelation 11:19. This allusion however is indirect, for the manna laid up in the ark was not for food, but was a memorial of food once enjoyed. Two ideas seem to be combined in the figure: 1. Christ as the bread from heaven, the nourishment of the life of believers, the true manna, of which those who eat shall never die (John 6:31-43, John 6:48-51); hidden, in that He is withdrawn from sight, and the Christian's life is hid with Him in God (Colossians 3:3). 2. The satisfaction of the believer's desire when Christ shall be revealed. The hidden manna shall not remain for ever hidden. We shall see Christ as He is, and be like Him (1 John 3:2). Christ gives the manna in giving Himself “The seeing of Christ as He is, and, through this beatific vision, being made like to Him, is identical with the eating of the hidden manna, which shall, as it were, be then brought forth from the sanctuary, the holy of holies of God's immediate presence where it was withdrawn from sight so long, that all may partake of it; the glory of Christ, now shrouded and concealed, being then revealed to His people” (Trench). -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
This is one of numerous illustrations of the dependence of Revelation upon Old Testament history and prophecy. “To such an extent is this the case,” says Professor Milligan, “that it may be doubted whether it contains a single figure not drawn from the Old Testament, or a single complete sentence not more or less built up of materials brought from the same source.” See, for instance, Balaam (Revelation 2:14); Jezebel (Revelation 2:20); Michael (Revelation 12:7, compare Daniel 10:13; Daniel 12:1); Abaddon (Revelation 9:11); Jerusalem, Mt. Zion, Babylon, the Euphrates, Sodom, Egypt (Revelation 21:2; Revelation 14:1; Revelation 16:19; Revelation 9:14; Revelation 11:8); Gog and Magog (Revelation 20:8, compare Revelation href="/desk/?q=re+2:7&sr=1">Revelation 2:7, Revelation 2:17, Revelation 2:27, Revelation 2:28). Heaven is described under the figure of the tabernacle in the wilderness (Revelation 11:1, Revelation 11:19; Revelation 6:9; Revelation 8:3; Revelation 11:19; Revelation 4:6). The song of the redeemed is the song of Moses (Revelation 15:3). The plagues of Egypt appear in the blood, fire, thunder, darkness and locusts (Revelation 8:1-13). “The great earthquake of chapter 6 is taken from Haggai; the sun becoming black as sackcloth of hair and the moon becoming blood (Revelation 8:1-13) from Joel: the stars of heaven falling, the fig-tree casting her untimely figs, the heavens departing as a scroll (Revelation 8:1-13) from Isaiah: the scorpions of chapter 9 from Ezekiel: the gathering of the vine of the earth (chapter 14) from Joel, and the treading of the wine-press in the same chapter from Isaiah.” So too the details of a single vision are gathered out of different prophets or different parts of the same prophet. For instance, the vision of the glorified Redeemer (Revelation 1:12-20). The golden candlesticks are from Exodus and Zechariah; the garment down to the foot from Exodus and Daniel; the golden girdle and the hairs like wool from Isaiah and Daniel; the feet like burnished brass, and the voice like the sound of many waters, from Ezekiel; the two-edged sword from Isaiah and Psalms; the countenance like the sun from Exodus; the falling of the seer as dead from Exodus, Isaiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel; the laying of Jesus' right hand on the seer from Daniel. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
“Not indeed that the writer binds himself to the Old Testament in a slavish spirit. He rather uses it with great freedom and independence, extending, intensifying, or transfiguring its descriptions at his pleasure. Yet the main source of his emblems cannot be mistaken. The sacred books of his people had been more than familiar to him. They had penetrated his whole being. They had lived within him as a germinating seed, capable of shooting up not only in the old forms, but in new forms of life and beauty. In the whole extent of sacred and religious literature there is to be found nowhere else such a perfect fusion of the revelation given to Israel with the mind of one who would either express Israel's ideas, or give utterance, by means of the symbols supplied by Israel's history, to the present and most elevated thoughts of the Christian faith “(this note is condensed from Professor Milligan's “Baird Lectures on the Revelation of St. John”).A white stone ( ψῆφον λευκὴν )See on counteth, Luke 14:28; and see on white, Luke 9:29. The foundation of the figure is not to be sought in Gentile but in Jewish customs. “White is everywhere the color and livery of heaven” (Trench). See Revelation 1:14; Revelation 3:5; Revelation 7:9; Revelation 14:14; Revelation 19:8, Revelation 19:11, Revelation 19:14; Revelation 20:11. It is the bright, glistering white. Compare Matthew 28:3; Luke 24:4; John 20:12; Revelation 20:11; Daniel 7:9. It is impossible to fix the meaning of the symbol with any certainty. The following are some of the principal views: The Urim and Thummim concealed within the High-Priest's breastplate of judgment. This is advocated by Trench, who supposes that the Urim was a peculiarly rare stone, possibly the diamond, and engraven with the ineffable name of God. The new name he regards as the new name of God or of Christ (Revelation 3:12); some revelation of the glory of God which can be communicated to His people only in the higher state of being, and which they only can understand who have actually received. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
Professor Milligan supposes an allusion to the plate of gold worn on the High-Priest's forehead, and inscribed with the words “Holiness to the Lord,” but, somewhat strangely, runs the figure into the stone or pebble used in voting, and regards the white stone as carrying the idea of the believer's acquittal at the hands of God. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
Dean Plumptre sees in the stone the signet by which, in virtue of its form or of the characters inscribed on it, he who possessed it could claim from the friend who gave it, at any distance of time, a frank and hearty welcome; and adds to this an allusion to the custom of presenting such a token, with the guest's name upon it, of admission to the feast given to those who were invited to partake within the temple precincts - a feast which consisted wholly or in part of sacrificial meats. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
Others, regarding the connection of the stone with the manna, refer to the use of the lot cast among the priests in order to determine which one should offer the sacrifice. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
Others, to the writing of a candidate's name at an election by ballot upon a stone or bean. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
In short, the commentators are utterly divided, and the true interpretation remains a matter of conjecture.A new nameSome explain the new name of God or of Christ (compare Revelation 3:12); others, of the recipient's own name. “A new name however, a revelation of his everlasting title as a son of God to glory in Christ, but consisting of and revealed in those personal marks and signs of God's peculiar adoption of himself, which he and none other is acquainted with” (Alford). Bengel says: “Wouldst thou know what kind of a new name thou wilt obtain? Overcome. Before that thou wilt ask in vain, and after that thou wilt soon read it inscribed on the white stone.” [source]

Revelation 1:18 I am alive [ζων ειμι]
Periphrastic present active indicative, “I am living,” as the words ο ζων — ho zōn just used mean.Forevermore (εις τους αιωνας των αιωνων — eis tous aiōnas tōn aiōnōn). “Unto the ages of the ages,” a stronger expression of eternity even than in Revelation 1:6.The keys One of the forms for the accusative plural along with κλειδας — kleidas the usual one (Matthew 16:19).Of death and of Hades (του τανατου και του αιδου — tou thanatou kai tou hāidou). Conceived as in Matthew 16:18 as a prison house or walled city. The keys are the symbol of authority, as we speak of honouring one by giving him the keys of the city. Hades here means the unseen world to which death is the portal. Jesus has the keys because of his victory over death. See this same graphic picture in Revelation 6:8; Revelation 20:13. For the key of David see Revelation 3:7, for the key of the abyss see Revelation 9:1; Revelation 20:1. [source]
Revelation 1:18 The keys [τας κλεις]
One of the forms for the accusative plural along with κλειδας — kleidas the usual one (Matthew 16:19).Of death and of Hades (του τανατου και του αιδου — tou thanatou kai tou hāidou). Conceived as in Matthew 16:18 as a prison house or walled city. The keys are the symbol of authority, as we speak of honouring one by giving him the keys of the city. Hades here means the unseen world to which death is the portal. Jesus has the keys because of his victory over death. See this same graphic picture in Revelation 6:8; Revelation 20:13. For the key of David see Revelation 3:7, for the key of the abyss see Revelation 9:1; Revelation 20:1. [source]
Revelation 1:18 Of death and of Hades [του τανατου και του αιδου]
Conceived as in Matthew 16:18 as a prison house or walled city. The keys are the symbol of authority, as we speak of honouring one by giving him the keys of the city. Hades here means the unseen world to which death is the portal. Jesus has the keys because of his victory over death. See this same graphic picture in Revelation 6:8; Revelation 20:13. For the key of David see Revelation 3:7, for the key of the abyss see Revelation 9:1; Revelation 20:1. [source]
Revelation 10:1 Coming down out of heaven [καταβαινοντα εκ του ουρανου]
Present active participle of καταβαινω — katabainō picturing the process of the descent as in Revelation 20:1 (cf. Revelation 3:12).Arrayed with a cloud (περιβεβλημενον νεπελην — peribeblēmenon nephelēn). Perfect passive participle of περιβαλλω — periballō with accusative case retained as in Revelation 7:9, Revelation 7:13. Not proof that this angel is Christ, though Christ will come on the clouds (Revelation 1:7) as he ascended on a cloud (Acts 1:9). God‘s chariot is in the clouds (Psalm 104:3), but this angel is a special messenger of God‘s.The rainbow See Revelation 4:3 for this word. The construction here is changed from the accusative to the nominative.As the sun (ως ο ηλιος — hōs ho hēlios). The very metaphor applied to Christ in Revelation 1:16.As pillars of fire Somewhat like the metaphor of Christ in Revelation 1:15, but still no proof that this angel is Christ. On στυλος — stulos see Revelation 3:12; Galatians 2:9. [source]
Revelation 11:18 The time of the dead to be judged [ο καιρος των νεκρων κριτηναι]
For this use of καιρος — kairos see Mark 11:13; Luke 21:24. By “the dead” John apparently means both good and bad (John 5:25; Acts 24:21), coincident with the resurrection and judgment (Mark 4:29; Revelation 14:15.; Revelation 20:1-15). The infinitive κριτηναι — krithēnai is the first aorist passive of κρινω — krinō epexegetic use with the preceding clause, as is true also of δουναι — dounai (second aorist active infinitive of διδωμι — didōmi), to give. [source]
Revelation 11:18 The small and the great [τους μικρους και τους μεγαλους]
The accusative here is an anacoluthon and fails to agree in case with the preceding datives after δουναι τον μιστον — dounai ton misthon though some MSS. have the dative τοις μικροις — tois mikrois etc. John is fond of this phrase “the small and the great” (Revelation 13:16; Revelation 19:5, Revelation 19:18; Revelation 20:12). [source]
Revelation 12:8 Neither was their place found any more [ουδε τοπος ευρετη αυτων ετι]
First aorist passive indicative of ευρισκω — heuriskō to find. Probably αυτων — autōn is the objective genitive (place for them), just as in Revelation 20:11 αυτοις — autois (dative, for them) is used with τοπος ουχ ευρετη — topos ouch heurethē The phrase occurs in Daniel 2:35 Theod. and Zechariah 10:10. The dragon is finally expelled from heaven (cf. Job 1:6), though to us it seems a difficult conception to think of Satan having had access to heaven. [source]
Revelation 14:10 With fire and brimstone [εν πυρι και τειωι]
See Revelation 9:17 for fire and brimstone and also Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:10; Revelation 21:8. The imagery is already in Genesis 19:24; Isaiah 30:33; Ezekiel 38:22.In the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb (ενωπιον αγγελων αγιων και ενωπιον του αρνιου — enōpion aggelōn hagiōn kai enōpion tou arniou). This holy environment adds to the punishment. [source]
Revelation 11:18 Thy wrath came [ηλτεν η οργη σου]
Second aorist active indicative of ερχομαι — erchomai the prophetic aorist again. The Dies Irae is conceived as already come.The time of the dead to be judged (ο καιρος των νεκρων κριτηναι — ho kairos tōn nekrōn krithēnai). For this use of καιρος — kairos see Mark 11:13; Luke 21:24. By “the dead” John apparently means both good and bad (John 5:25; Acts 24:21), coincident with the resurrection and judgment (Mark 4:29; Revelation 14:15.; Revelation 20:1-15). The infinitive κριτηναι — krithēnai is the first aorist passive of κρινω — krinō epexegetic use with the preceding clause, as is true also of δουναι — dounai (second aorist active infinitive of διδωμι — didōmi), to give.Their reward This will come in the end of the day (Matthew 20:8), from God (Matthew 6:1), at the Lord‘s return (Revelation 22:12), according to each one‘s work (1 Corinthians 3:8).The small and the great (τους μικρους και τους μεγαλους — tous mikrous kai tous megalous). The accusative here is an anacoluthon and fails to agree in case with the preceding datives after δουναι τον μιστον — dounai ton misthon though some MSS. have the dative τοις μικροις — tois mikrois etc. John is fond of this phrase “the small and the great” (Revelation 13:16; Revelation 19:5, Revelation 19:18; Revelation 20:12).To destroy First aorist active infinitive of διαπτειρω — diaphtheirō carrying on the construction with καιρος — kairos Note τους διαπτειροντας — tous diaphtheirontas “those destroying” the earth (corrupting the earth). There is a double sense in διαπτειρω — diaphtheirō that justifies this play on the word. See Revelation 19:2. In 1 Timothy 6:5 we have those “corrupted in mind” God will destroy the destroyers (1 Corinthians 3:16.). [source]
Revelation 11:18 Their reward [τον μιστον]
This will come in the end of the day (Matthew 20:8), from God (Matthew 6:1), at the Lord‘s return (Revelation 22:12), according to each one‘s work (1 Corinthians 3:8).The small and the great (τους μικρους και τους μεγαλους — tous mikrous kai tous megalous). The accusative here is an anacoluthon and fails to agree in case with the preceding datives after δουναι τον μιστον — dounai ton misthon though some MSS. have the dative τοις μικροις — tois mikrois etc. John is fond of this phrase “the small and the great” (Revelation 13:16; Revelation 19:5, Revelation 19:18; Revelation 20:12).To destroy First aorist active infinitive of διαπτειρω — diaphtheirō carrying on the construction with καιρος — kairos Note τους διαπτειροντας — tous diaphtheirontas “those destroying” the earth (corrupting the earth). There is a double sense in διαπτειρω — diaphtheirō that justifies this play on the word. See Revelation 19:2. In 1 Timothy 6:5 we have those “corrupted in mind” God will destroy the destroyers (1 Corinthians 3:16.). [source]
Revelation 13:8 Whose [ουαυτου]
Redundant use of genitive ου — autou (his) with ων — hou (whose) as common in this book, and singular instead of plural παντες — hōn with antecedent ου γεγραπται — pantes (all, plural), thus calling attention to the responsibility of the individual in emperor-worship.Hath not been written (γραπω — ou gegraptai). Perfect passive indicative of εν τωι βιβλιωι της ζωης του αρνιου — graphō permanent state, stands written.In the book of life of the Lamb See Revelation 3:5 for this phrase and the O.T. references. It occurs again in Revelation 17:8; Revelation 20:12, Revelation 20:15; Revelation 21:27. “Here and in Revelation 21:27, the Divine Register is represented as belonging to ‹the Lamb that was slain‘” (Swete).That hath been slain from the foundation of the world (απο καταβολης κοσμου — tou esphagmenou (for which see Revelation 5:6) απο καταβολης κοσμου — apo katabolēs kosmou). For the phrase κοσμου — apo katabolēs kosmou (not in the lxx) there are six other N.T. uses (Matthew 13:35 without προ καταβολης κοσμου — kosmou Matthew 25:34; Luke 11:50; Hebrews 4:3; Hebrews 9:26; Revelation 17:8), and for του εσπαγμενου — pro katabolēs kosmou three (John 17:24; Ephesians 1:4; 1 Peter 1:20). It is doubtful here whether it is to be taken with γεγραπται — tou esphagmenou (cf. 1 Peter 1:20) or with εσπαγμενου — gegraptai as in Revelation 17:8. Either makes sense, and here the most natural use is with esphagmenou At any rate the death of Christ lies in the purpose of God, as in John 3:16. [source]
Revelation 14:11 The smoke of their torment [ο καπνος του βασανισμου αυτων]
See Revelation 9:5 for βασανισμος — basanismos only there it was a limited penalty, here it is “for ever and ever” See also Revelation 18:9; Revelation 19:3; Revelation 20:10. [source]
Revelation 16:20 Were not found [ουχ ευρετησαν]
First aorist passive indicative of ευρισκω — heuriskō See Revelation 20:11 for the same idea. [source]
Revelation 18:1 Coming down out of heaven [καταβαινοντα εκ του ουρανου]
Present active predicate participle. Not the angel of Revelation 17:1, Revelation 17:7, Revelation 17:15 (John‘s guide), but one announcing the doom of Babylon (Rome). As in Revelation 10:1; Revelation 20:1. [source]
Revelation 19:18 That ye may eat [ινα παγητε]
Purpose clause with ινα — hina and the second aorist active subjunctive of εστιω — esthiō flesh of kings “Pieces of flesh” (plural of σαρχ — sarx flesh) and of all classes and conditions of men who fell in the battle (Revelation 6:8; Revelation 11:13; Revelation 13:16; Revelation 19:5; Revelation 20:12). War is no respecter of persons. [source]
Revelation 19:20 Into the lake of fire [εις την λιμνην του πυρος]
Genitive πυρος — puros describes this λιμνην — limnēn (lake, cf. Luke 5:1) as it does γεεννα — gehenna in Matthew 5:22. See also Revelation 20:10; Revelation 21:8. It is a different figure from the “abyss” in Revelation 9:1; Revelation 20:1. This is the final abode of Satan, the beast, the false prophet, and wicked men. [source]
Revelation 19:20 That burneth with brimstone [της καιομενης εν τειωι]
Note the genitive here in place of the accusative λιμνην — limnēn perhaps because of the intervening genitive πυρος — puros (neuter, not feminine). The agreement is regular in Revelation 21:8. For εν τειωι — en theiōi (with brimstone) see Revelation 14:10; Revelation 20:10; Revelation 21:8. The fact of hell is clearly taught here, but the imagery is not to be taken literally any more than that of heaven in chapters Revelation 4:1-11; Revelation 5:1-14; 21; 22 is to be so understood. Both fall short of the reality. [source]
Revelation 13:8 In the book of life of the Lamb [του εσπαγμενου]
See Revelation 3:5 for this phrase and the O.T. references. It occurs again in Revelation 17:8; Revelation 20:12, Revelation 20:15; Revelation 21:27. “Here and in Revelation 21:27, the Divine Register is represented as belonging to ‹the Lamb that was slain‘” (Swete).That hath been slain from the foundation of the world (απο καταβολης κοσμου — tou esphagmenou (for which see Revelation 5:6) απο καταβολης κοσμου — apo katabolēs kosmou). For the phrase κοσμου — apo katabolēs kosmou (not in the lxx) there are six other N.T. uses (Matthew 13:35 without προ καταβολης κοσμου — kosmou Matthew 25:34; Luke 11:50; Hebrews 4:3; Hebrews 9:26; Revelation 17:8), and for του εσπαγμενου — pro katabolēs kosmou three (John 17:24; Ephesians 1:4; 1 Peter 1:20). It is doubtful here whether it is to be taken with γεγραπται — tou esphagmenou (cf. 1 Peter 1:20) or with εσπαγμενου — gegraptai as in Revelation 17:8. Either makes sense, and here the most natural use is with esphagmenou At any rate the death of Christ lies in the purpose of God, as in John 3:16. [source]
Revelation 14:10 Of the wine of the wrath of God [εκ του οινου του τυμου του τεου]
Note εκ — ek (partitive) after πιεται — pietai In Revelation 16:19; Revelation 19:15 we have both τυμου — thumou and οργης — orgēs (wrath of the anger of God). The white heat of God‘s anger, held back through the ages, will be turned loose.Prepared unmixed (του κεκερασμενου ακρατου — tou kekerasmenou akratou). A bold and powerful oxymoron, “the mixed unmixed.” Ακρατος — Akratos is an old adjective (alpha privative and κεραννυμι — kerannumi to mix) used of wine unmixed with water (usually so mixed), here only in N.T. So it is strong wine mixed (perfect passive participle of κεραννυμι — kerannumi) with spices to make it still stronger (cf. Psalm 75:9).In the cup of his anger Both τυμος — thumos (vehement fury) and οργη — orgē (settled indignation).He shall be tormented (βασανιστησεται — basanisthēsetai). Future passive of βασανιζω — basanizō See Revelation 9:5; Revelation 11:10.With fire and brimstone See Revelation 9:17 for fire and brimstone and also Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:10; Revelation 21:8. The imagery is already in Genesis 19:24; Isaiah 30:33; Ezekiel 38:22.In the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb (ενωπιον αγγελων αγιων και ενωπιον του αρνιου — enōpion aggelōn hagiōn kai enōpion tou arniou). This holy environment adds to the punishment. [source]
Revelation 14:10 In the cup of his anger [εν τωι ποτηριωι της οργης αυτου]
Both τυμος — thumos (vehement fury) and οργη — orgē (settled indignation).He shall be tormented (βασανιστησεται — basanisthēsetai). Future passive of βασανιζω — basanizō See Revelation 9:5; Revelation 11:10.With fire and brimstone See Revelation 9:17 for fire and brimstone and also Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:10; Revelation 21:8. The imagery is already in Genesis 19:24; Isaiah 30:33; Ezekiel 38:22.In the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb (ενωπιον αγγελων αγιων και ενωπιον του αρνιου — enōpion aggelōn hagiōn kai enōpion tou arniou). This holy environment adds to the punishment. [source]
Revelation 16:13 Of the dragon [του δρακοντος]
That is Satan (Revelation 12:3, Revelation 12:9).Of the beast (του τηριου — tou thēriou). The first beast (Revelation 13:1, Revelation 13:12) and then just the beast (Revelation 13:14.; Revelation 14:9, Revelation 14:11; Revelation 15:2; Revelation 16:2, Revelation 16:10), the brute force of the World-power represented by the Roman Empire” (Swete).Of the false prophet Cf. Matthew 7:15; Acts 13:6; 1 John 2:22; 1 John 4:3; 2 John 1:7. Identified with the second beast (Revelation 13:11-14) in Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:10. So the sixth bowl introduces the dragon and his two subalterns of chapters Rev 12; 13 (the two beasts).Three unclean spirits (πνευματα τρια ακαταρτα — pneumata tria akatharta). Out of the mouths of each of the three evil powers (the dragon and the two beasts) comes an evil spirit. See the use of mouth in Revelation 1:16 (Revelation 9:17.; Revelation 11:5; Revelation 12:15; Revelation 19:15, Revelation 19:21) as a chief seat of influence. In 2 Thessalonians 2:8 we have “the breath of his mouth” (the other sense of πνευμα — pneuma). For ακαταρτον — akatharton (unclean) with πνευμα — pneuma see Mark 1:23.; Mark 3:11; Mark 5:2.; Acts 5:16; Acts 8:7. Christ expelled unclean spirits, but His enemies send them forth” (Swete). See Zechariah 13:2 “the false prophets and the unclean spirits.”As it were frogs Cf. Exodus 8:5; Leviticus 11:10. Old word, here alone in N.T. Like loathsome frogs in form. [source]
Revelation 2:11 Of the second death [εκ του τανατου του δευτερου]
Εκ — Ek here used for the agent or instrument as often (Revelation 3:18; Revelation 9:2; Revelation 18:1). See Revelation 20:6, Revelation 20:14; Revelation 21:8 where “the second death” is explained as “the lake of fire.” The idea is present in Daniel 12:3; John 5:29 and is current in Jewish circles as in the Jerusalem Targum on Deuteronomy 33:6 and in Philo. It is not annihilation. The Christians put to death in the persecution will at least escape this second death (eternal punishment). [source]
Revelation 20:4 And they lived [και εζησαν]
First aorist active indicative of ζαω — zaō If the ingressive aorist, it means “came to life” or “lived again” as in Revelation 2:8 and so as to Revelation 20:5. If it is the constative aorist here and in Revelation 20:5, then it could mean increased spiritual life. See John 5:21-29 for the double sense of life and death (now literal, now spiritual) precisely as we have the second death in Revelation 2:11; Revelation 20:6, Revelation 20:14. [source]
Revelation 20:7 Shall be loosed [λυτησεται]
Future passive of λυω — luō no longer bound as in Revelation 20:2. He uses the future as a prophet in Revelation 20:7, Revelation 20:8, but in Revelation 20:9, and Revelation 20:10 he uses the aorist as a seer.Out of his prison (εκ της πυλακης αυτου — ek tēs phulakēs autou). For πυλακη — phulakē in this sense see Revelation 2:10. Out of the abyss of Revelation 20:2, Revelation 20:3. [source]
Revelation 20:8 To deceive the nations [πλανησαι τα ετνη]
First aorist active infinitive of purpose of πλαναω — planaō Satan‘s chief task (chapter 12 to chapter 18, in particular Revelation 12:9; Revelation 13:14; Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:3, Revelation 20:10). [source]
Revelation 20:12 The dead, the great and the small [τους νεκρους τους μεγαλους και τους μικρους]
The general resurrection of Revelation 20:13 is pictured by anticipation as already over. No living are mentioned after the battle of Revelation 20:7-10, though some will be living when Jesus comes to judge the quick and the dead (2 Timothy 4:1; 1 Thessalonians 4:13.). All classes and conditions (Revelation 11:18; Revelation 13:16; Revelation 19:5, Revelation 19:18) John saw “standing before the throne” (εστωτας ενωπιον του τρονου — hestōtas enōpion tou thronou). [source]
Revelation 16:13 Of the false prophet [του πσευδοπροπητου]
Cf. Matthew 7:15; Acts 13:6; 1 John 2:22; 1 John 4:3; 2 John 1:7. Identified with the second beast (Revelation 13:11-14) in Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:10. So the sixth bowl introduces the dragon and his two subalterns of chapters Rev 12; 13 (the two beasts).Three unclean spirits (πνευματα τρια ακαταρτα — pneumata tria akatharta). Out of the mouths of each of the three evil powers (the dragon and the two beasts) comes an evil spirit. See the use of mouth in Revelation 1:16 (Revelation 9:17.; Revelation 11:5; Revelation 12:15; Revelation 19:15, Revelation 19:21) as a chief seat of influence. In 2 Thessalonians 2:8 we have “the breath of his mouth” (the other sense of πνευμα — pneuma). For ακαταρτον — akatharton (unclean) with πνευμα — pneuma see Mark 1:23.; Mark 3:11; Mark 5:2.; Acts 5:16; Acts 8:7. Christ expelled unclean spirits, but His enemies send them forth” (Swete). See Zechariah 13:2 “the false prophets and the unclean spirits.”As it were frogs Cf. Exodus 8:5; Leviticus 11:10. Old word, here alone in N.T. Like loathsome frogs in form. [source]
Revelation 19:20 The false prophet [ο πσευδοπροπητης]
Possibly the second beast of Revelation 13:11-17; Revelation 16:13; Revelation 20:10. Charles takes him to be “the priesthood of the Imperial cult, which practised all kinds of magic and imposture to beguile men to worship the Beast.”That wrought the signs in his sight (ο ποιεσας τα σημεια ενωπιον αυτου — ho poiesas ta sēmeia enōpion autou). As in Revelation 13:14.Wherewith “In which” signs.He deceived (επλανησεν — eplanēsen). First aorist active indicative of πλαναω — planaō He was only able to deceive “them that had received” (τους λαβοντας — tous labontas articular second aorist active participle of λαμβανω — lambanō “those receiving”) “the mark of the beast” (Revelation 13:16; Revelation 14:9.; Revelation 16:2; Revelation 20:4) “and them that worshipped his image” (τους προσκυνουντας τηι εικονι αυτου — tous proskunountas tēi eikoni autou) as in Revelation 13:15.They twain “The two.”Were cast (εβλητησαν — eblēthēsan). First aorist passive Indicative of βαλλω — ballō They fall together as they fought together. “The day that sees the end of a false statecraft will see also that of a false priestcraft” (Swete).Alive Present active participle of ζαω — zaō predicative nominative, “living.”Into the lake of fire (εις την λιμνην του πυρος — eis tēn limnēn tou puros). Genitive πυρος — puros describes this λιμνην — limnēn (lake, cf. Luke 5:1) as it does γεεννα — gehenna in Matthew 5:22. See also Revelation 20:10; Revelation 21:8. It is a different figure from the “abyss” in Revelation 9:1; Revelation 20:1. This is the final abode of Satan, the beast, the false prophet, and wicked men.That burneth with brimstone Note the genitive here in place of the accusative λιμνην — limnēn perhaps because of the intervening genitive πυρος — puros (neuter, not feminine). The agreement is regular in Revelation 21:8. For εν τειωι — en theiōi (with brimstone) see Revelation 14:10; Revelation 20:10; Revelation 21:8. The fact of hell is clearly taught here, but the imagery is not to be taken literally any more than that of heaven in chapters Revelation 4:1-11; Revelation 5:1-14; 21; 22 is to be so understood. Both fall short of the reality. [source]
Revelation 19:20 Wherewith [εν οις]
“In which” signs.He deceived (επλανησεν — eplanēsen). First aorist active indicative of πλαναω — planaō He was only able to deceive “them that had received” (τους λαβοντας — tous labontas articular second aorist active participle of λαμβανω — lambanō “those receiving”) “the mark of the beast” (Revelation 13:16; Revelation 14:9.; Revelation 16:2; Revelation 20:4) “and them that worshipped his image” (τους προσκυνουντας τηι εικονι αυτου — tous proskunountas tēi eikoni autou) as in Revelation 13:15.They twain “The two.”Were cast (εβλητησαν — eblēthēsan). First aorist passive Indicative of βαλλω — ballō They fall together as they fought together. “The day that sees the end of a false statecraft will see also that of a false priestcraft” (Swete).Alive Present active participle of ζαω — zaō predicative nominative, “living.”Into the lake of fire (εις την λιμνην του πυρος — eis tēn limnēn tou puros). Genitive πυρος — puros describes this λιμνην — limnēn (lake, cf. Luke 5:1) as it does γεεννα — gehenna in Matthew 5:22. See also Revelation 20:10; Revelation 21:8. It is a different figure from the “abyss” in Revelation 9:1; Revelation 20:1. This is the final abode of Satan, the beast, the false prophet, and wicked men.That burneth with brimstone Note the genitive here in place of the accusative λιμνην — limnēn perhaps because of the intervening genitive πυρος — puros (neuter, not feminine). The agreement is regular in Revelation 21:8. For εν τειωι — en theiōi (with brimstone) see Revelation 14:10; Revelation 20:10; Revelation 21:8. The fact of hell is clearly taught here, but the imagery is not to be taken literally any more than that of heaven in chapters Revelation 4:1-11; Revelation 5:1-14; 21; 22 is to be so understood. Both fall short of the reality. [source]
Revelation 20:12 Another book which is the book of life [αλλο βιβλιον ο εστιν της ζωης]
This book has already been mentioned (Revelation 3:5; Revelation 13:8; Revelation 17:8). “It is the roll of living citizens of Jerusalem” (Swete), “the church of the first born enrolled in heaven” (Hebrews 12:23). The books are “the vouchers for the book of life” (Alford). We are saved by grace, but character at last (according to their works) is the test as the fruit of the tree (Matthew 7:16, Matthew 7:20; Matthew 10:32.; 25:31-46; John 15:6; 2 Corinthians 5:10; Romans 2:10; Revelation 2:23; Revelation 20:12; Revelation 22:12). [source]
Revelation 20:14 Were cast [εβλητησαν]
As the devil (Revelation 20:10) followed the two beasts (Revelation 19:20) into the same dread lake of fire. Death is personified and is disposed of, “the last enemy” (1 Corinthians 15:26) and Paul sings the paean of victory over death (1 Corinthians 15:54., from Hosea 13:14). Hades has no more terrors, for the saints are in heaven. There is no more fear of death (Hebrews 2:15), for death is no more (Revelation 21:4). The second death (Revelation 2:11; Revelation 20:6; Revelation 21:8) is here identified as in Revelation 21:8 with the lake of fire. [source]
Revelation 21:1 The first heaven and the first earth [ο πρωτος ουρανος και η πρωτη γη]
“Fled away” The sea had given up its dead (Revelation 20:13). There were great risks on the sea (Revelation 18:17.). The old physical world is gone in this vision. It is not a picture of renovation of this earth, but of the disappearance of this earth and sky (not heaven where God dwells). It is a glorious picture here in Revelation 21:1-8 in sharp contrast to the lake of fire in Revelation 20:11-15. The symbolism in neither case is to be pressed too literally, but a stern and a glorious reality exists behind it all. [source]
Revelation 19:20 They twain [οι δυο]
“The two.”Were cast (εβλητησαν — eblēthēsan). First aorist passive Indicative of βαλλω — ballō They fall together as they fought together. “The day that sees the end of a false statecraft will see also that of a false priestcraft” (Swete).Alive Present active participle of ζαω — zaō predicative nominative, “living.”Into the lake of fire (εις την λιμνην του πυρος — eis tēn limnēn tou puros). Genitive πυρος — puros describes this λιμνην — limnēn (lake, cf. Luke 5:1) as it does γεεννα — gehenna in Matthew 5:22. See also Revelation 20:10; Revelation 21:8. It is a different figure from the “abyss” in Revelation 9:1; Revelation 4:1-11. This is the final abode of Satan, the beast, the false prophet, and wicked men.That burneth with brimstone Note the genitive here in place of the accusative λιμνην — limnēn perhaps because of the intervening genitive πυρος — puros (neuter, not feminine). The agreement is regular in Revelation 21:8. For εν τειωι — en theiōi (with brimstone) see Revelation 14:10; Revelation 20:10; Revelation 21:8. The fact of hell is clearly taught here, but the imagery is not to be taken literally any more than that of heaven in chapters Revelation 20:1; Revelation 5:1-14; 21; 22 is to be so understood. Both fall short of the reality. [source]
Revelation 19:20 Alive [ζωντες]
Present active participle of ζαω — zaō predicative nominative, “living.”Into the lake of fire (εις την λιμνην του πυρος — eis tēn limnēn tou puros). Genitive πυρος — puros describes this λιμνην — limnēn (lake, cf. Luke 5:1) as it does γεεννα — gehenna in Matthew 5:22. See also Revelation 20:10; Revelation 21:8. It is a different figure from the “abyss” in Revelation 9:1; Revelation 20:1. This is the final abode of Satan, the beast, the false prophet, and wicked men.That burneth with brimstone Note the genitive here in place of the accusative λιμνην — limnēn perhaps because of the intervening genitive πυρος — puros (neuter, not feminine). The agreement is regular in Revelation 21:8. For εν τειωι — en theiōi (with brimstone) see Revelation 14:10; Revelation 20:10; Revelation 21:8. The fact of hell is clearly taught here, but the imagery is not to be taken literally any more than that of heaven in chapters Revelation 4:1-11; Revelation 5:1-14; 21; 22 is to be so understood. Both fall short of the reality. [source]
Revelation 20:4 Judgment was given unto them [κριμα εδοτη αυτοις]
First aorist passive of διδωμι — didōmi Picture of the heavenly court of assizes.The souls (τας πσυχας — tas psuchas). Accusative after ειδον — eidon at the beginning of the verse.Of them that had been beheaded Genitive of the articular perfect passive participle of πελεκιζω — pelekizō old word (from πελεκυς — pelekus an axe, the traditional instrument for execution in republican Rome, but later supplanted by the sword), to cut off with an axe, here only in N.T. See Revelation 6:9; Revelation 18:24; Revelation 19:2 for previous mention of these martyrs for the witness of Jesus (Revelation 1:9; Revelation 12:17; Revelation 19:10). Others also besides martyrs shared in Christ‘s victory, those who refused to worship the beast or wear his mark as in Revelation 13:15; Revelation 14:9.; Revelation 16:2; Revelation 19:20.And they lived (και εζησαν — kai ezēsan). First aorist active indicative of ζαω — zaō If the ingressive aorist, it means “came to life” or “lived again” as in Revelation 2:8 and so as to Revelation 20:5. If it is the constative aorist here and in Revelation 20:5, then it could mean increased spiritual life. See John 5:21-29 for the double sense of life and death (now literal, now spiritual) precisely as we have the second death in Revelation 2:11; Revelation 20:6, Revelation 20:14.And reigned with Christ Same use of the first aorist active indicative of βασιλευω — basileuō but more clearly constative. Beckwith and Swete take this to apply solely to the martyrs, the martyrs‘ reign with Christ. [source]
Revelation 20:4 Of them that had been beheaded [των πεπελεκισμενων]
Genitive of the articular perfect passive participle of πελεκιζω — pelekizō old word (from πελεκυς — pelekus an axe, the traditional instrument for execution in republican Rome, but later supplanted by the sword), to cut off with an axe, here only in N.T. See Revelation 6:9; Revelation 18:24; Revelation 19:2 for previous mention of these martyrs for the witness of Jesus (Revelation 1:9; Revelation 12:17; Revelation 19:10). Others also besides martyrs shared in Christ‘s victory, those who refused to worship the beast or wear his mark as in Revelation 13:15; Revelation 14:9.; Revelation 16:2; Revelation 19:20.And they lived (και εζησαν — kai ezēsan). First aorist active indicative of ζαω — zaō If the ingressive aorist, it means “came to life” or “lived again” as in Revelation 2:8 and so as to Revelation 20:5. If it is the constative aorist here and in Revelation 20:5, then it could mean increased spiritual life. See John 5:21-29 for the double sense of life and death (now literal, now spiritual) precisely as we have the second death in Revelation 2:11; Revelation 20:6, Revelation 20:14.And reigned with Christ Same use of the first aorist active indicative of βασιλευω — basileuō but more clearly constative. Beckwith and Swete take this to apply solely to the martyrs, the martyrs‘ reign with Christ. [source]
Revelation 21:1 are passed away [απηλταν]
“Fled away” The sea had given up its dead (Revelation 20:13). There were great risks on the sea (Revelation 18:17.). The old physical world is gone in this vision. It is not a picture of renovation of this earth, but of the disappearance of this earth and sky (not heaven where God dwells). It is a glorious picture here in Revelation 21:1-8 in sharp contrast to the lake of fire in Revelation 20:11-15. The symbolism in neither case is to be pressed too literally, but a stern and a glorious reality exists behind it all. [source]
Revelation 21:1 And the sea is no more [και η ταλασσα ουκ εστιν ετι]
The sea had given up its dead (Revelation 20:13). There were great risks on the sea (Revelation 18:17.). The old physical world is gone in this vision. It is not a picture of renovation of this earth, but of the disappearance of this earth and sky (not heaven where God dwells). It is a glorious picture here in Revelation 21:1-8 in sharp contrast to the lake of fire in Revelation 20:11-15. The symbolism in neither case is to be pressed too literally, but a stern and a glorious reality exists behind it all. [source]
Revelation 21:5 Behold, I make all things new [Ιδου καινα ποιω παντα]
The first time since Revelation 1:8 that God has been represented as speaking directly, though voices have come out of the throne before (Revelation 21:3) and out of the sanctuary (Revelation 16:1, Revelation 16:17), which may be from God himself, though more likely from one of the angels of the Presence. This message is not addressed to John (Revelation 7:14; Revelation 17:7; Revelation 21:6; Revelation 22:6), but to the entire world of the blessed. See Isaiah 43:18. for the words The idea of a new heaven and a new earth is in Isaiah 65:17; Isaiah 66:22; Psalm 102:25. For the locative here with επι — epi See Revelation 20:11 for the picture. [source]
Revelation 20:5 Lived not until the thousand years should be finished [ουκ εζησαν αχρι τελεστηι τα χιλια ετη]
See Revelation 20:4 for the items here. “To infer from this statement, as many expositors have done, that the εζησαν — ezēsan of Revelation 20:4 must be understood of bodily resuscitation, is to interpret apocalyptic prophecy by methods of exegesis which are proper to ordinary narrative” (Swete). I sympathize wholly with that comment and confess my own ignorance therefore as to the meaning of the symbolism without any predilections for post-millennialism or premillennialism.This is the first resurrection (αυτη η αναστασις η πρωτη — hautē hē anastasis hē prōtē). Scholars differ as to the genuineness of this phrase. Accepting it as genuine, Swete applies it to “the return of the martyrs and confessors to life at the beginning of the Thousand Years.” According to this view the first resurrection is a special incident in the present life before the Parousia. It has no parallel with 1 Thessalonians 4:16, where the dead in Christ are raised before those living are changed. Some think that John here pictures the “Regeneration” (παλινγενεσια — palingenesia) of Matthew 19:28 and the “Restoration” (αποκαταστασις — apokatastasis) of Acts 3:21. No effort is here made to solve this problem, save to call attention to the general judgment out of the books in Revelation 20:12 and to the general resurrection in John 5:29; Acts 24:15. [source]
Revelation 20:5 This is the first resurrection [αυτη η αναστασις η πρωτη]
Scholars differ as to the genuineness of this phrase. Accepting it as genuine, Swete applies it to “the return of the martyrs and confessors to life at the beginning of the Thousand Years.” According to this view the first resurrection is a special incident in the present life before the Parousia. It has no parallel with 1 Thessalonians 4:16, where the dead in Christ are raised before those living are changed. Some think that John here pictures the “Regeneration” (παλινγενεσια — palingenesia) of Matthew 19:28 and the “Restoration” (αποκαταστασις — apokatastasis) of Acts 3:21. No effort is here made to solve this problem, save to call attention to the general judgment out of the books in Revelation 20:12 and to the general resurrection in John 5:29; Acts 24:15. [source]
Revelation 20:6 Blessed and holy [μακαριος και αγιος]
A fifth beatitude (Revelation 1:3; Revelation 14:13; Revelation 16:15; Revelation 19:9) already and two more to come (Revelation 22:7, Revelation 22:14, seven in all). Here αγιος — hagios is added to the usual μακαριος — makarios The second death The spiritual death of Revelation 2:11; Revelation 20:14; Revelation 21:8 in contrast to the first or physical death. This language raises a question about the interpretation of the first and the second resurrections, whether both are of the body or one of the spirit. There seems no way to reach a solid conception about it. In 1 Corinthians 15:23 there is no mention of the resurrection of any save “those of Christ” However, Paul elsewhere (Acts 24:15) speaks of the resurrection of the just and of the unjust as if one event. [source]
Revelation 20:12 Books were opened [βιβλια ηνοιχτησαν]
First aorist passive of ανοιγω — anoigō Like Daniel 7:10. The record of each human being has been kept in God‘s books.Were judged (εκριτησαν — ekrithēsan). First aorist passive indicative of κρινω — krinō The sentence upon each rests upon written evidence.Another book which is the book of life This book has already been mentioned (Revelation 3:5; Revelation 13:8; Revelation 17:8). “It is the roll of living citizens of Jerusalem” (Swete), “the church of the first born enrolled in heaven” (Hebrews 12:23). The books are “the vouchers for the book of life” (Alford). We are saved by grace, but character at last (according to their works) is the test as the fruit of the tree (Matthew 7:16, Matthew 7:20; Matthew 10:32.; 25:31-46; John 15:6; 2 Corinthians 5:10; Romans 2:10; Revelation 2:23; Revelation 20:12; Revelation 22:12). [source]
Revelation 20:13 Death and Hades [ο τανατος και ο αιδης]
“An inseparable pair” (Swete) as in Revelation 1:18; Revelation 6:8; Revelation 20:14. So in Matthew 16:18 “the gates of Hades” means the power of death. Etymologically Hades is the unseen world where all who die are as opposed to this visible world, but in actual use Hades is sometimes treated as the abode of the unrighteous (Luke 16:23). Charles thinks that this is true here, though there is nothing to show it apart from the personification of death and Hades and the casting of both into the lake of fire in Revelation 20:14. Here again “each man” (εκαστος — hekastos) receives judgment according to his deeds (Matthew 16:27; 1 Corinthians 3:13; 2 Corinthians 5:10; Romans 2:6; Romans 14:12; 1 Peter 1:17; Revelation 2:23). [source]
Revelation 21:8 Their part shall be [το μερος αυτων]
In contrast to the state of the blessed (Revelation 21:3-7) the state of “those who have disfranchised themselves from the Kingdom of God” (Charles) is given. They are with Satan and the two beasts, and are the same with those not in the book of life (Revelation 20:15) in the lake of fire and brimstone (Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:10, Revelation 20:14.), that is the second death (Revelation 2:11; Revelation 20:6, Revelation 20:14). See also Revelation 14:10. There are eight epithets here used which apply to various sections of this direful list of the doomed and the damned, all in the dative (case of personal interest). [source]
Revelation 21:27 But only they which are written [ει μη οι γεγραμμενοι]
“Except those written.” For “the book of life” see Revelation 3:5; Revelation 13:8; Revelation 20:15. Cf. Daniel 12:1. [source]
Revelation 3:5 Of the book of life [εκ της βιβλου της ζωης]
Ablative case with εκ — ek This divine register first occurs in Exodus 32:32. and often in the O.T. See Luke 10:20; Philemon 4:3; Revelation 13:8; Revelation 20:15; Revelation 21:27. The book is in Christ‘s hands (Revelation 13:8; Revelation 21:27).His name (το ονομα αυτου — to onoma autou). The name of the one who overcomes (ο νικων — ho nikōn). Clear reminiscence of the words of Christ about confessing to the Father those who confess him here (Matthew 10:32; Mark 8:38; Luke 9:26; Luke 12:8). Whether John knew the Synoptic Gospels (and why not?) he certainly knew such sayings of Jesus. [source]
Revelation 3:18 Be not made manifest [μη πανερωτηι]
Continued purpose clause with negative μη — mē and first aorist passive subjunctive of πανεροω — phaneroō Late and rare word from γυμνος — gumnos naked, in N.T. only here, 2 Corinthians 11:27; Romans 8:35. Cf. Revelation 16:15; Revelation 20:13; 2 Corinthians 5:2. [source]
Revelation 21:27 Anything unclean [παν κοινον]
Common use of παν — pān with negative like ουδεν — ouden and the use of κοινος — koinos for defiled or profane as in Mark 7:2; Acts 10:14, not just what is common to all (Titus 1:4).Or he that (και ο — kai ho). “And he that.”Maketh an abomination and a lie Like Babylon (Revelation 17:4 which see for βδελυγμα — bdelugma) and Revelation 21:8 for those in the lake of fire and brimstone, and Revelation 22:15 for “every one loving and doing a lie.” These recurrent glimpses of pagan life on earth and of hell in contrast to heaven in this picture raise the question already mentioned whether John is just running parallel pictures of heaven and hell after the judgment or whether, as Charles says: “The unclean and the abominable and the liars are still on earth, but, though the gates are open day and night, they cannot enter.” In apocalyptic writing literalism and chronology cannot be insisted on as in ordinary books. The series of panoramas continue to the end.But only they which are written (ει μη οι γεγραμμενοι — ei mē hoi gegrammenoi). “Except those written.” For “the book of life” see Revelation 3:5; Revelation 13:8; Revelation 20:15. Cf. Daniel 12:1. [source]
Revelation 21:27 Maketh an abomination and a lie [ποιων βδελυγμα και πσευδος]
Like Babylon (Revelation 17:4 which see for βδελυγμα — bdelugma) and Revelation 21:8 for those in the lake of fire and brimstone, and Revelation 22:15 for “every one loving and doing a lie.” These recurrent glimpses of pagan life on earth and of hell in contrast to heaven in this picture raise the question already mentioned whether John is just running parallel pictures of heaven and hell after the judgment or whether, as Charles says: “The unclean and the abominable and the liars are still on earth, but, though the gates are open day and night, they cannot enter.” In apocalyptic writing literalism and chronology cannot be insisted on as in ordinary books. The series of panoramas continue to the end.But only they which are written (ει μη οι γεγραμμενοι — ei mē hoi gegrammenoi). “Except those written.” For “the book of life” see Revelation 3:5; Revelation 13:8; Revelation 20:15. Cf. Daniel 12:1. [source]
Revelation 3:5 In white garments [εν ιματιοις λευκοις]
Apparently the spiritual bodies in the risen life as in 2 Corinthians 5:1, 2 Corinthians 5:4 and often in Revelation (Revelation 3:4, Revelation 3:5; Revelation 6:11; Revelation 7:9, Revelation 7:13.; Revelation 19:8).I will in no wise blot out (ου μη εχαλειπσω — ou mē exaleipsō). Strong double negative ου μη — ou mē and the first aorist active (or future) of εχαλειπω — exaleiphō old word, to wipe out (Acts 3:19).Of the book of life Ablative case with εκ — ek This divine register first occurs in Exodus 32:32. and often in the O.T. See Luke 10:20; Philemon 4:3; Revelation 13:8; Revelation 20:15; Revelation 21:27. The book is in Christ‘s hands (Revelation 13:8; Revelation 21:27).His name (το ονομα αυτου — to onoma autou). The name of the one who overcomes (ο νικων — ho nikōn). Clear reminiscence of the words of Christ about confessing to the Father those who confess him here (Matthew 10:32; Mark 8:38; Luke 9:26; Luke 12:8). Whether John knew the Synoptic Gospels (and why not?) he certainly knew such sayings of Jesus. [source]
Revelation 3:18 To buy [αγορασαι]
First aorist active infinitive of αγοραζω — agorazō (from αγορα — agora market-place), rich as they think themselves to be.From me (παρ εμου — par' emou). From my side, emphatic.Refined by fire Perfect passive participle of πυροω — puroō (as in Revelation 1:15) and the metaphor carried on by εκ πυρος — ek puros “fired by fire.” Purity by removing dross (Psalm 66:10) like 1 Peter 1:7.That thou mayest become rich (ινα πλουτησηις — hina ploutēsēis). Purpose clause with ινα — hina and the ingressive first aorist active of πλουτεω — plouteō spiritual riches.That thou mayest clothe thyself Purpose clause with ινα — hina and second aorist middle (direct) subjunctive of περιβαλλω — periballō to fling round one as in Revelation 3:5.Be not made manifest (μη πανερωτηι — mē phanerōthēi). Continued purpose clause with negative μη — mē and first aorist passive subjunctive of πανεροω — phaneroō (γυμνοτητος — gumnotētos). Late and rare word from γυμνος — gumnos naked, in N.T. only here, 2 Corinthians 11:27; Romans 8:35. Cf. Revelation 16:15; Revelation 20:13; 2 Corinthians 5:2.Eye-salve Diminutive of κολλυρα — kollura (coarse bread of cylindrical shape), object of αγορασαι — agorasai name for a famous Phrygian powder for the eyes made in Laodicea (Charles), Latin collyrium (used for eye-salve by Horace and Juvenal).To anoint (εγχρισαι — egchrisai). First aorist active infinitive (epexegetic) of εγχριω — egchriō late compound (εν χριω — enινα βλεπηις — chriō Strabo, Epictetus), to rub in, here only in N.T.That thou mayest see Another purpose clause with hina and the present active subjunctive (keep on seeing). [source]
Revelation 3:18 Refined by fire [πεπυρωμενον εκ πυρος]
Perfect passive participle of πυροω — puroō (as in Revelation 1:15) and the metaphor carried on by εκ πυρος — ek puros “fired by fire.” Purity by removing dross (Psalm 66:10) like 1 Peter 1:7.That thou mayest become rich (ινα πλουτησηις — hina ploutēsēis). Purpose clause with ινα — hina and the ingressive first aorist active of πλουτεω — plouteō spiritual riches.That thou mayest clothe thyself Purpose clause with ινα — hina and second aorist middle (direct) subjunctive of περιβαλλω — periballō to fling round one as in Revelation 3:5.Be not made manifest (μη πανερωτηι — mē phanerōthēi). Continued purpose clause with negative μη — mē and first aorist passive subjunctive of πανεροω — phaneroō (γυμνοτητος — gumnotētos). Late and rare word from γυμνος — gumnos naked, in N.T. only here, 2 Corinthians 11:27; Romans 8:35. Cf. Revelation 16:15; Revelation 20:13; 2 Corinthians 5:2.Eye-salve Diminutive of κολλυρα — kollura (coarse bread of cylindrical shape), object of αγορασαι — agorasai name for a famous Phrygian powder for the eyes made in Laodicea (Charles), Latin collyrium (used for eye-salve by Horace and Juvenal).To anoint (εγχρισαι — egchrisai). First aorist active infinitive (epexegetic) of εγχριω — egchriō late compound (εν χριω — enινα βλεπηις — chriō Strabo, Epictetus), to rub in, here only in N.T.That thou mayest see Another purpose clause with hina and the present active subjunctive (keep on seeing). [source]
Revelation 3:18 That thou mayest clothe thyself [ινα περιβαληι]
Purpose clause with ινα — hina and second aorist middle (direct) subjunctive of περιβαλλω — periballō to fling round one as in Revelation 3:5.Be not made manifest (μη πανερωτηι — mē phanerōthēi). Continued purpose clause with negative μη — mē and first aorist passive subjunctive of πανεροω — phaneroō (γυμνοτητος — gumnotētos). Late and rare word from γυμνος — gumnos naked, in N.T. only here, 2 Corinthians 11:27; Romans 8:35. Cf. Revelation 16:15; Revelation 20:13; 2 Corinthians 5:2.Eye-salve Diminutive of κολλυρα — kollura (coarse bread of cylindrical shape), object of αγορασαι — agorasai name for a famous Phrygian powder for the eyes made in Laodicea (Charles), Latin collyrium (used for eye-salve by Horace and Juvenal).To anoint (εγχρισαι — egchrisai). First aorist active infinitive (epexegetic) of εγχριω — egchriō late compound (εν χριω — enινα βλεπηις — chriō Strabo, Epictetus), to rub in, here only in N.T.That thou mayest see Another purpose clause with hina and the present active subjunctive (keep on seeing). [source]
Revelation 6:8 His name was Death [ονομα αυτωι ο τανατος]
Anacoluthon in grammatical structure like that in John 3:1 (cf. Revelation 2:26) and common enough. Death is the name of this fourth rider (so personified) and there is with Death “his inseparable comrade, Hades (Revelation 1:16; Revelation 20:13.)” (Swete). Hades Imperfect active of ακολουτεω — akoloutheō kept step with death, whether on the same horse or on another horse by his side or on foot John does not say.Over the fourth part of the earth Partitive genitive γης — gēs after τεταρτον — tetarton Wider authority First aorist active infinitive of αποκτεινω — apokteinō explanation of the εχουσια — exousia (authority). The four scourges of Ezekiel 14:21 are here reproduced with instrumental εν — en with the inanimate things (ρομπαιαι λιμωι τανατωι — romphaiāiυπο — limōi thanatōi) and τηριων — hupo for the beasts (τανατωι — thēriōn). Death here (λοιμος — thanatōi) seems to mean pestilence as the Hebrew does (λιμος — loimos - cf. limos famine). Cf. the “black death” for a plague. [source]
Revelation 9:1 Fallen [πεπτωκοτα]
Perfect active participle of πιπτω — piptō already down. In Luke 10:18 note πεσοντα — pesonta (constative aorist active, like a flash of lightning) after ετεωρουν — etheōroun and in Revelation 7:2 note αναβαινοντα — anabainonta (present active and linear, coming up, picturing the process) after ειδον — eidon the pit of the abyss Αβυσσος — Abussos is an old adjective (alpha privative and βυτος — buthos depth, without depth), but η αβυσσος — hē abussos (supply χωρα — chōra place), the bottomless place. It occurs in Romans 10:7 for the common receptacle of the dead for Hades (Sheol), but in Luke 8:31 a lower depth is sounded (Swete), for the abode of demons, and in this sense it occurs in Revelation 9:1, Revelation 9:2, Revelation 9:11; Revelation 11:7; Revelation 17:8; Revelation 20:1, Revelation 20:3. Πρεαρ — Phrear is an old word for well or cistern (Luke 14:5; John 4:11.) and it occurs in Revelation 9:1. for the mouth of the abyss which is pictured as a cistern with a narrow orifice at the entrance and this fifth angel holds the key to it. [source]
Revelation 9:5 But that they should be tormented [αλλ ινα βασανιστησονται]
Sub-final clause again with ινα — hina but this time with the first future passive indicative (like Revelation 3:9; Revelation 6:4; Revelation 8:3; Revelation 13:12) of βασανιζω — basanizō old verb, to test metals (from βασανος — basanos Matthew 4:24) by touchstone, then to torture like Matthew 8:29, further in Revelation 11:10; Revelation 12:2; Revelation 14:10; Revelation 20:10.Five months (μηνας πεντε — mēnas pente). Accusative of extent of time. The actual locust is born in the spring and dies at the end of summer (about five months).Torment Late word for torture, from βασανιζω — basanizō in N.T. only in Revelation 9:5; Revelation 14:11; Revelation 18:7, Revelation 18:10, Revelation 18:15. The wound of the scorpion was not usually fatal, though exceedingly painful.When it striketh a man (οταν παισηι αντρωπον — hotan paisēi anthrōpon). Indefinite temporal clause with οταν — hotan and the first aorist active subjunctive of παιω — paiō (Matthew 26:51), old verb, to smite, “whenever it smites a man.” [source]

What do the individual words in Revelation 20:1 mean?

And I saw an angel descending out of - heaven holding the key of the Abyss a chain great in hand of him
Καὶ εἶδον ἄγγελον καταβαίνοντα ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ἔχοντα τὴν κλεῖν τῆς ἀβύσσου ἅλυσιν μεγάλην ἐπὶ χεῖρα αὐτοῦ

εἶδον  I  saw 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Active, 1st Person Singular
Root: εἶδον 
Sense: to see with the eyes.
ἄγγελον  an  angel 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Masculine Singular
Root: ἄγγελος  
Sense: a messenger, envoy, one who is sent, an angel, a messenger from God.
καταβαίνοντα  descending 
Parse: Verb, Present Participle Active, Accusative Masculine Singular
Root: καταβαίνω  
Sense: to go down, come down, descend.
ἐκ  out  of 
Parse: Preposition
Root: ἐκ 
Sense: out of, from, by, away from.
τοῦ  - 
Parse: Article, Genitive Masculine Singular
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
οὐρανοῦ  heaven 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Masculine Singular
Root: οὐρανός  
Sense: the vaulted expanse of the sky with all things visible in it.
ἔχοντα  holding 
Parse: Verb, Present Participle Active, Accusative Masculine Singular
Root: ἔχω  
Sense: to have, i.e. to hold.
κλεῖν  key 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Feminine Singular
Root: κλείς  
Sense: a key.
τῆς  of  the 
Parse: Article, Genitive Feminine Singular
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
ἀβύσσου  Abyss 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Feminine Singular
Root: ἄβυσσος  
Sense: bottomless.
ἅλυσιν  a  chain 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Feminine Singular
Root: ἅλυσις  
Sense: a chain, bond by which the body or any part of it (hands, feet) is bound.
μεγάλην  great 
Parse: Adjective, Accusative Feminine Singular
Root: μέγας  
Sense: great.
χεῖρα  hand 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Feminine Singular
Root: χείρ  
Sense: by the help or agency of any one, by means of any one.
αὐτοῦ  of  him 
Parse: Personal / Possessive Pronoun, Genitive Masculine 3rd Person Singular
Root: αὐτός  
Sense: himself, herself, themselves, itself.