The Meaning of Revelation 9:1 Explained

Revelation 9:1

KJV: And the fifth angel sounded, and I saw a star fall from heaven unto the earth: and to him was given the key of the bottomless pit.

YLT: And the fifth messenger did sound, and I saw a star out of the heaven having fallen to the earth, and there was given to it the key of the pit of the abyss,

Darby: And the fifth angel sounded his trumpet: and I saw a star out of the heaven fallen to the earth; and there was given to it the key of the pit of the abyss.

ASV: And the fifth angel sounded, and I saw a star from heaven fallen unto the earth: and there was given to him the key of the pit of the abyss.

What does Revelation 9:1 Mean?

Study Notes

angel
.
angels
Angel, Summary: Angel, "messenger," is used of God, of men, and of an order of created spiritual beings whose chief attributes are strength and wisdom. 2 Samuel 14:20 ; Psalms 103:20 ; Psalms 104:4 . In the O.T. the expression "the angel of the Lord" (sometimes "of God") usually implies the presence of Deity in angelic form.; Genesis 16:1-13 ; Genesis 21:17-19 ; Genesis 22:11-16 ; Genesis 31:11-13 ; Exodus 3:2-4 ; Judges 2:1 ; Judges 6:12-16 ; Judges 13:3-22 (See Scofield " Malachi 3:1 ") . The word "angel" is used of men in; Luke 7:24 ; James 2:25 ; Revelation 1:20 ; Revelation 2:1 ; Revelation 2:8 ; Revelation 2:12 ; Revelation 2:18 ; Revelation 3:1 ; Revelation 3:7 ; Revelation 3:14 In Revelation 8:3-5 . Christ is evidently meant. Sometimes angel is used of the spirit of man.; Matthew 18:10 ; Acts 12:15 . Though angels are spirits; Psalms 104:4 ; Hebrews 1:14 power is given them to become visible in the semblance of human form. Genesis 19:1 cf; Genesis 19:5 ; Exodus 3:2 ; Numbers 22:22-31 ; Judges 2:1 ; Judges 6:11 ; Judges 6:22 ; Judges 13:3 ; Judges 13:6 ; 1 Chronicles 21:16 ; 1 Chronicles 21:20 ; Matthew 1:20 ; Luke 1:26 ; John 20:12 ; Acts 7:30 ; Acts 12:7 ; Acts 12:8 etc.). The word is always used in the masculine gender, though sex, in the human sense, is never ascribed to angels.; Matthew 22:30 ; Mark 12:25 . They are exceedingly numerous.; Matthew 26:53 ; Hebrews 12:22 ; Revelation 5:11 ; Psalms 68:17 . The power is inconceivable. 2 Kings 19:35 . Their place is about the throne of God.; Revelation 5:11 ; Revelation 7:11 . Their relation to the believer is that of "ministering spirits, sent forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation," and this ministry has reference largely to the physical safety and well-being of believers.; 1 Kings 19:5 ; Psalms 34:7 ; Psalms 91:11 ; Daniel 6:22 ; Matthew 2:13 ; Matthew 2:19 ; Matthew 4:11 ; Luke 22:43 ; Acts 5:19 ; Acts 12:7-10 . From; Hebrews 1:14 ; Matthew 18:10 ; Psalms 91:11 it would seem that this care for the heirs of salvation begins in infancy and continues through life. The angels observe us; 1 Corinthians 4:9 ; Ephesians 3:10 ; Ecclesiastes 5:6 a fact which should influence conduct. They receive departing saints. Luke 16:22 . Man is made "a little lower than the angels," and in incarnation Christ took "for a little "time" this lower place.; Psalms 8:4 ; Psalms 8:5 ; Hebrews 2:6 ; Hebrews 2:9 that He might lift the believer into His own sphere above angels. Hebrews 2:9 ; Hebrews 2:10 . The angels are to accompany Christ in His second advent. Matthew 25:31 . To them will be committed the preparation of the judgment of the nations. Matthew 13:30 ; Matthew 13:39 ; Matthew 13:41 ; Matthew 13:42 . See Scofield " Matthew 25:32 ". The kingdom-age is not to be subject to angels, but to Christ and those for whom He was made a little lower than the angels. Hebrews 2:5 An archangel, Michael, is mentioned as having a particular relation to Israel and to the resurrections.; Daniel 10:13 ; Daniel 10:21 ; Daniel 12:1 ; Daniel 12:2 ; Judges 1:9 ; 1 Thessalonians 4:16 . The only other angel whose name is revealed Gabriel, was employed in the most distinguished services.; Daniel 8:16 ; Daniel 9:21 ; Luke 1:19 ; Luke 1:26 .
Fallen angels. Two classes of these are mentioned:
(1) "The angels which kept not their first estate place, but left their own habitation," are "chained under darkness," awaiting judgment. 2 Peter 2:4 ; Judges 1:6 ; 1 Corinthians 6:3 ; John 5:22 .
(See Scofield " Genesis 6:4 ")
(2) The angels who have Satan Genesis 3:1 as leader.
(See Scofield " Revelation 20:10 ") .
The origin of these is nowhere explicitly revealed. They may be identical with the demons.
(See Scofield " Matthew 7:22 ") . For Satan and his angels everlasting fire is prepared. Matthew 25:41 ; Revelation 20:10 .

Verse Meaning

Again John saw a "star" (cf. Revelation 6:13; Revelation 8:10), but this time the "star" was an intelligent being. If "fallen" (Gr. peptokota) has theological connotations, the "star" may refer to Satan ( Revelation 9:2; Revelation 9:11; cf. Revelation 1:20; Job 38:7; Luke 10:18) or some other fallen angel. If, on the other hand, "fallen" simply describes his condition as having come to earth from heaven, an unfallen angel is probably in view. Since this angelic being simply carries out God"s instructions faithfully, I tend to think he is an unfallen angel. The "bottomless pit" (lit. shaft of the abyss) is the abode of Satan ( Revelation 9:11; Revelation 20:1-3), some demons (cf. Luke 8:31; 2 Peter 2:4; Jude 1:6), and the beast ( Revelation 11:7; Revelation 17:8). It is evidently a preliminary prison, not their final abode, which is the lake of fire (i.e, hell, Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:10; cf. Matthew 25:41), from which this angel is about to release some of them temporarily. The angel received the key to the door of this pit from a greater authority, possibly God Himself.

Context Summary

Revelation 9:1-11 - "out Of The Smoke Of The Pit"
This chapter reminds us of the prophet Joel who, under the imagery of a swarm of locusts, depicted the coming invasion of hostile nations. Whether these warriors are intended for barbarian hordes which swept over the Roman Empire previous to its fall, or whether they represent the Saracens, between whose appearance and the details of this vision there is much in common, is not within our province to determine. The point which specially concerns us is that only those escaped who had received the imprint of God's seal. Of old the destroying angel passed over the houses, on the lintels of which the blood was visible.
But there are spiritual foes, against whose invasion we must seek the sealing of God's Spirit. "Grieve not the Holy Spirit of God, in whom ye were sealed unto the day of redemption," Ephesians 4:30. What is impressed with the royal seal is under special protection; and when temptation assails you, you may assuredly claim that divine protection, which shall surround you as an impenetrable shield. "The angel of the Lord encampeth round about them that fear Him, and delivereth them," Psalms 34:7. We fight not against flesh and blood, but against wicked spirits in heavenly places, and only the spiritual can secure for us immunity against the spiritual. [source]

Chapter Summary: Revelation 9

1  At the sounding of the fifth angel, a star falls from heaven, to whom is given the key to the bottomless pit
2  He opens the pit, and there come forth locusts like scorpions
12  The first woe past
13  The sixth trumpet sounds
14  Four angels who were bound are let loose

Greek Commentary for Revelation 9:1

Fallen [πεπτωκοτα]
Perfect active participle of πιπτω — piptō already down. In Luke 10:18 note πεσοντα — pesonta (constative aorist active, like a flash of lightning) after ετεωρουν — etheōroun and in Revelation 7:2 note αναβαινοντα — anabainonta (present active and linear, coming up, picturing the process) after ειδον — eidon the pit of the abyss Αβυσσος — Abussos is an old adjective (alpha privative and βυτος — buthos depth, without depth), but η αβυσσος — hē abussos (supply χωρα — chōra place), the bottomless place. It occurs in Romans 10:7 for the common receptacle of the dead for Hades (Sheol), but in Luke 8:31 a lower depth is sounded (Swete), for the abode of demons, and in this sense it occurs in Revelation 9:1, Revelation 9:2, Revelation 9:11; Revelation 11:7; Revelation 17:8; Revelation 20:1, Revelation 20:3. Πρεαρ — Phrear is an old word for well or cistern (Luke 14:5; John 4:11.) and it occurs in Revelation 9:1. for the mouth of the abyss which is pictured as a cistern with a narrow orifice at the entrance and this fifth angel holds the key to it. [source]
Fall [πεπτωκότα]
Lit., fallen. The star had fallen before and is seen as fallen. Rev., properly construes star with from heaven instead of with fallen. Compare Isaiah 14:12; Luke 10:18. [source]
Of the bottomless pit [τοῦ φρέατος τῆς ἀβύσσου]
Rev., of the pit of the abyss. See on John 4:6, and compare Luke 14:5. It is not however a pit that is locked, but the long shaft leading to the abyss, like a well-shaft, which, in the East, is oftener covered and locked. [source]

Reverse Greek Commentary Search for Revelation 9:1

Luke 8:31 Into the abyss [εις την αβυσσον]
Rare old word common in lxx from α — a privative and βατς — bathūs (deep). So bottomless place (supply χωρα — chōra). The deep sea in Genesis 1:2; Genesis 7:11. The common receptacle of the dead in Romans 10:7 and especially the abode of demons as here and Revelation 9:1-11; Revelation 11:7; Revelation 17:8; Revelation 20:1, Revelation 20:3. [source]
John 4:6 Well [πηγὴ]
Strictly, spring. The word for cistern or well is φρέαρ , which John uses at John 4:11, John 4:12. Elsewhere in the New Testament always of a pit. See Luke 14:5; Revelation 9:1, Revelation 9:2. There is no mention of Jacob's Well in the Old Testament. The traditional well still remains. “At the mouth of the valley of Schechem two slight breaks are visible in the midst of the vast plain of corn - one a white Mussulman chapel; the other a few fragments of stone. The first of these covers the alleged tomb of Joseph, … the second marks the undisputed site of the well, now neglected and choked up by the ruins which have fallen into it; but still with every claim to be considered the original well” (Stanley, “Sinai and Palestine”). Dr. Thomson says: “I could see nothing like a well - nothing but a low, modern wall, much broken down, and never, apparently, more than ten feet high. The area enclosed by it is fifty-six paces from east to west, and sixty-five from north to south. The surface is covered by a confused mass of shapeless rubbish, overgrown with weeds and nettles … . The well is near the southeastern corner of the area, and, to reach the mouth of it, one must let himself down, with some risk, about ten feet into a low vault” (“Land and Book”). Dr. Thomson also remarks upon the great discrepancy in the measurements of the well by different tourists, owing to the accumulations of stones and debris from the ruins of the buildings which formerly covered it. “All confirm the saying of the Samaritan woman that 'the well is deep.'” Maundrell, in 1697, makes the depth one hundred and five feet, with fifteen feet of water. Mr. Calhoun, in 1838, found nearly the same depth of water. Dr. Wilson, in 1841, found the depth only seventy-five feet, which is confirmed by the later measurements of Captain Anderson in 1866, and of Lieutenant Conder in 1875. [source]
John 5:2 There is [εστιν]
Bengel argues that this proves a date before the destruction of Jerusalem, but it is probably only John‘s vivid memory. By the sheep gate Supply πυληι — pulēi (gate) which occurs with the adjective προβατικη — probatikē (pertaining to sheep, προβατα — probata) in Nehemiah 3:1, Nehemiah 3:22. A pool A diving or swimming pool (from κολυμβαω — kolumbaō to swim, Acts 27:43), old word, only here in N.T. Which is called “The surnamed” (present passive participle, only N.T. example except Acts 15:40 first aorist middle participle επιλεχαμενος — epilexamenos). In Hebrew “In Aramaic” strictly as in John 19:13, John 19:17, John 19:20; John 20:16; Revelation 9:11; Revelation 16:16. Bethesda Aleph D L 33 have ετζατα — Bethzatha or House of the Olive, while B W Vulg. Memph. have ετσαιδα — Bethsaida Having five porches Στοα — Stoa was a covered colonnade where people can gather from which Stoic comes (Acts 17:18). See John 10:23; Acts 3:11. Schick in 1888 found twin pools north of the temple near the fortress of Antonia one of which has five porches. It is not, however, certain that this pool existed before a.d. 70 when the temple was destroyed (Sanday, Sacred Sites of the Gospels, p. 55). Some have identified it with the Pool of Siloam (John 9:7), though John distinguishes them. There is also the Virgin‘s Well, called the Gusher, because it periodically bubbles over from a natural spring, a kind of natural siphon. This is south of the temple in the Valley of Kedron and quite possibly the real site. [source]
Acts 2:17 I will pour forth [εκχεω]
Future active indicative of εκχεω — ekcheō This future like εδομαι — edomai and πιομαι — piomai is without tense sign, probably like the present in the futuristic sense (Robertson, Grammar, p. 354). Westcott and Hort put a different accent on the future, but the old Greek had no accent. The old Greek had εκχευσω — ekcheusō This verb means to pour out. Of my Spirit (απο του πνευματος — apo tou pneumatos). This use of απο — apo (of) is either because of the variety in the manifestations of the Spirit (1 Corinthians 12) or because the Spirit in his entirety remains with God (Holtzmann, Wendt). But the Hebrew has it: “I will pour out my Spirit” without the partitive idea in the lxx. And your daughters Anna is called a prophetess in Luke 2:36 and the daughters of Philip prophesy (Acts 21:9) and Acts 2:18 (handmaidens). See also 1 Corinthians 11:5 Visions (ορασεις — horaseis). Late word for the more common οραμα — horama both from οραω — horaō to see. In Revelation 4:3 it means appearance, but in Revelation 9:17 as here an ecstatic revelation or vision. Dream dreams Shall dream with (instrumental case) dreams. First future passive of ενυπνιαζω — enupniaz from ενυπνιος — enupnios Intensive particle γε — ge added to και — kai (and), an emphatic addition (=Hebrew vegam). Servants Slaves, actual slaves of men. The humblest classes will receive the Spirit of God (cf. 1 Corinthians 1:26-31). But the word “prophesy” here is not in the lxx (or the Hebrew). [source]
Acts 2:17 And your daughters [και αι τυγατερες μων]
Anna is called a prophetess in Luke 2:36 and the daughters of Philip prophesy (Acts 21:9) and Acts 2:18 (handmaidens). See also 1 Corinthians 11:5 Visions (ορασεις — horaseis). Late word for the more common οραμα — horama both from οραω — horaō to see. In Revelation 4:3 it means appearance, but in Revelation 9:17 as here an ecstatic revelation or vision. Dream dreams Shall dream with (instrumental case) dreams. First future passive of ενυπνιαζω — enupniaz from ενυπνιος — enupnios Intensive particle γε — ge added to και — kai (and), an emphatic addition (=Hebrew vegam). Servants Slaves, actual slaves of men. The humblest classes will receive the Spirit of God (cf. 1 Corinthians 1:26-31). But the word “prophesy” here is not in the lxx (or the Hebrew). [source]
Acts 2:17 Visions [ορασεις]
Late word for the more common οραμα — horama both from οραω — horaō to see. In Revelation 4:3 it means appearance, but in Revelation 9:17 as here an ecstatic revelation or vision. [source]
Acts 21:20 How many thousands [ποσαι μυριαδες]
Old word for ten thousand (Acts 19:19) and then an indefinite number like our “myriads” (this very word) as Luke 12:1; Acts 21:20; Judges 1:14; Revelation 5:11; Revelation 9:16. But it is a surprising statement even with allowable hyperbole, but one may recall Acts 4:4 (number of the men--not women--about five thousand); Acts 5:14 (multitudes both of men and women); Acts 6:7. There were undoubtedly a great many thousands of believers in Jerusalem and all Jewish Christians, some, alas, Judaizers (Acts 11:2; Acts 15:1, Acts 15:5). This list may include the Christians from neighbouring towns in Palestine and even some from foreign countries here at the Feast of Pentecost, for it is probable that Paul arrived in time for it as he had hoped. But we do not have to count the hostile Jews from Asia (Acts 21:27) who were clearly not Christians at all. All zealous for the law (παντες ζηλωται του νομου — pantes zēlōtai tou nomou). Zealots (substantive) rather than zealous (adjective) with objective genitive (του νομου — tou nomou). The word zealot is from ζηλοω — zēloō to burn with zeal, to boil. The Greek used ζηλωτης — zēlōtēs for an imitator or admirer. There was a party of Zealots (developed from the Pharisees), a group of what would be called “hot-heads,” who brought on the war with Rome. One of this party, Simon Zelotes (Acts 1:13), was in the number of the twelve apostles. It is important to understand the issues in Jerusalem. It was settled at the Jerusalem Conference (Acts 15; Galatians 2) that the Mosaic ceremonial law was not to be imposed upon Gentile Christians. Paul won freedom for them, but it was not said that it was wrong for Jewish Christians to go on observing it if they wished. We have seen Paul observing the passover in Philippi (Acts 20:6) and planning to reach Jerusalem for Pentecost (Acts 20:16). The Judaizers rankled under Paul‘s victory and power in spreading the gospel among the Gentiles and gave him great trouble in Galatia and Corinth. They were busy against him in Jerusalem also and it was to undo the harm done by them in Jerusalem that Paul gathered the great collection from the Gentile Christians and brought it with him and the delegates from the churches. Clearly then Paul had real ground for his apprehension of trouble in Jerusalem while still in Corinth (Romans 15:25) when he asked for the prayers of the Roman Christians (Romans 15:30-32). The repeated warnings along the way were amply justified. [source]
Romans 10:7 Into the abyss [εις την αβυσσον]
See note on Luke 8:31 for this old Greek word (α — a privative and βυσσος — bussos) bottomless like sea (Psalm 106:26), our abyss. In Revelation 9:1 it is the place of torment. Paul seems to refer to Hades or Sheol (Acts 2:27, Acts 2:31), the other world to which Christ went after death. [source]
1 Corinthians 15:55 O death [τανατε]
Second instance. Here Paul changes Hades of the lxx for Hebrew Sheol (Hosea 13:14) to death. Paul never uses Hades. Thy sting (σου το κεντρον — sou to kentron). Old word from κεντρεω — kentreō to prick, as in Acts 26:14. In Revelation 9:10 of the sting of locusts, scorpions. The serpent death has lost his poison fangs. [source]
1 Corinthians 15:55 Thy sting [σου το κεντρον]
Old word from κεντρεω — kentreō to prick, as in Acts 26:14. In Revelation 9:10 of the sting of locusts, scorpions. The serpent death has lost his poison fangs. [source]
Galatians 4:6 Abba, Father []
Comp. Mark 14:36; Romans 8:15. Ὁ πατήρ theFather, is not added in order to explain the Aramaic Abba for Greek readers. Rather the whole phrase Ἁββά ὁ πατήρ had passed into the early Christian prayers, the Aramaic title by which Christ addressed his Father (Mark 14:36) being very early united with the Greek synonym. Such combinations of Hebrew and Greek addresses having the same meaning were employed in rabbinical writings. Comp. also Revelation 9:11; Revelation 12:9. [source]
Revelation 9:17 In the vision [ἐν τῇ ὁπάσει]
Or “in my vision.” See on Acts 2:17. The reference to sight may be inserted because of I heard in Revelation 9:16. [source]
Revelation 8:3 At the altar [ἐπὶ τὸ θυσιαστήριον]
The best texts read θυσιαστηρίου , which justifies the Rev., “over the altar.” For altar, see on Revelation 6:9. Interpreters differ as to whether the altar meant is the brazen altar, as in Revelation 6:9, or the altar of incense, as in Revelation 9:13. There seems to be no reason for changing the reference from the brazen altar (see on Revelation 6:9), especially as both altars are mentioned in this verse. The officiating priest in the tabernacle or temple took the fire for his censer from the brazen altar, and then offered the incense upon the golden altar. [source]
Revelation 6:8 Pale [χλωρὸς]
Only in Revelation, except Mark 6:39. Properly, greenish-yellow, like young grass or unripe wheat. Homer applies it to honey, and Sophocles to the sand. Generally, pale, pallid. Used of a mist, of sea-water, of a pale or bilious complexion. Thucydides uses it of the appearance of persons stricken with the plague (ii., 49). In Homer it is used of the paleness of the face from fear, and so as directly descriptive of fear (“Iliad,” x., 376; xv., 4). Of olive wood (“Odyssey,” ix., 320,379) of which the bark is gray. Gladstone says that in Homer it indicates rather the absence than the presence of definite color. In the New Testament, always rendered green, except here. See Mark 6:39; Revelation 8:7; Revelation 9:14. [source]
Revelation 21:20 Jacinth [ὑάκινθος]
See on Revelation 9:17. [source]
Revelation 20:1 Of the bottomless pit []
See on Revelation 9:1. This is to be distinguished from the lake of fire. Compare Revelation 20:10. [source]
Revelation 2:7 Of the tree [ἐκ ξύλου]
The preposition ἐκ outof occurs one hundred and twenty-seven times in Revelation, and its proper signification is almost universally out of; but this rendering in many of the passages would be so strange and unidiomatic, that the New Testament Revisers have felt themselves able to adopt it only forty-one times out of all that number, and employ of, from, by, with, on, at, because of, by reason of, from among. See, for instance, Revelation 2:7, Revelation 2:21, Revelation 2:22; Revelation 6:4, Revelation 6:10; Revelation 8:11; Revelation 9:18; Revelation 14:13; Revelation 15:2; Revelation 16:21. Compare John 3:31; John 4:13, John 6:13, John 6:39, John 6:51; John 8:23, John 8:44; John 9:6; John 11:1; John 12:3, John 12:27, John 12:32; John 17:5. Tree, lit., wood. See on Luke 23:31; see on 1 Peter 2:24. Dean Plumptre notes the fact that, prominent as this symbol had been in the primeval history, it had remained unnoticed in the teaching where we should most have looked for its presence - in that of the Psalmist and Prophets of the Old Testament. Only in the Proverbs of Solomon had it been used, in a sense half allegorical and half mystical (Proverbs 3:18; Proverbs 13:12; Proverbs 11:30; Proverbs 15:4). The revival of the symbol in Revelation is in accordance with the theme of the restitution of all things. “The tree which disappeared with the disappearance of the earthly Paradise, reappears with the reappearance of the heavenly.” To eat of the tree of life expresses participation in the life eternal. The figure of the tree of life appears in all mythologies from India to Scandinavia. The Rabbins and Mohammedans called the vine the probation tree. The Zend Avesta has its tree of life called the Death-Destroyer. It grows by the waters of life, and the drinking of its sap confers immortality. The Hindu tree of life is pictured as growing out of a great seed in the midst of an expanse of water. It has three branches, each crowned with a sun, denoting the three powers of creation, preservation, and renovation after destruction. In another representation Budha sits in meditation under a tree with three branches, each branch having three stems. One of the Babylonian cylinders discovered by Layard, represents three priestesses gathering the fruit of what seems to be a palm-tree with three branches on each side. Athor, the Venus of the Egyptians, appears half-concealed in the branches of the sacred peach-tree, giving to the departed soul the fruit, and the drink of heaven from a vial from which the streams of life descend upon the spirit, a figure at the foot of the tree, like a hawk, with a human head and with hands outstretched. -DIVIDER-
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In the Norse mythology a prominent figure is Igdrasil, the Ash-tree of Existence; its roots in the kingdom of Eels or Death, its trunk reaching to heaven, and its boughs spread over the whole universe. At its foot, in the kingdom of Death, sit three Nornas or Fates, the Past, the Present, and the Future, watering its roots from the sacred well. Compare Revelation 22:2, Revelation 22:14, Revelation 22:19. Virgil, addressing Dante at the completion of the ascent of the Purgatorial Mount, says:“That apple sweet, which through so many branchesThe care of mortals goeth in pursuit of, Today shall put in peace thy hungerings.”“Purgatorio,” xxvii., 115-117. ParadiseSee on Luke 23:43. Omit in the midst of. Παράδεισος Paradise“passes through a series of meanings, each one higher than the last. From any garden of delight, which is its first meaning, it comes to be predominantly applied to the garden of Eden, then to the resting-place of separate souls in joy and felicity, and lastly to the very heaven itself; and we see eminently in it, what we see indeed in so many words, how revealed religion assumes them into her service, and makes them vehicles of far higher truth than any which they knew at first, transforming and transfiguring them, as in this case, from glory to glory” (Trench). [source]

Revelation 16:12 Euphrates []
See on Revelation 9:14. [source]
Revelation 11:7 The beast [θηρίον]
Wild beast. See on Revelation 4:6. A different word from that wrongly translated beast, Revelation 4:6, Revelation 4:7; Revelation 5:6, etc. Compare Revelation 13:1; Revelation 17:8, and see Revelation href="/desk/?q=re+9:1&sr=1">Revelation 9:1. [source]
Revelation 1:18 The keys of Hell and Death []
Rev., correctly, of Death and of Hades. Conceived as a prison-house or a walled city. See on Matthew 16:18. The keys are the symbol of authority. See Matthew 16:19; Revelation 3:7; Revelation 9:1; Revelation 20:1. The Rabbinical proverb said: “There are four keys lodged in God's hand, which He committeth neither to angel nor to seraph: the key of the rain, the key of food, the key of the tombs, and the key of a barren woman.” [source]
Revelation 2:17 Of the hidden manna [τοῦ μάννα τοῦ κεκρυμμένου]
The allusion may be partly to the pot of manna which was laid up in the ark in the sanctuary. See Exodus 16:32-34; compare Hebrews 9:4. That the imagery of the ark was familiar to John appears from Revelation 11:19. This allusion however is indirect, for the manna laid up in the ark was not for food, but was a memorial of food once enjoyed. Two ideas seem to be combined in the figure: 1. Christ as the bread from heaven, the nourishment of the life of believers, the true manna, of which those who eat shall never die (John 6:31-43, John 6:48-51); hidden, in that He is withdrawn from sight, and the Christian's life is hid with Him in God (Colossians 3:3). 2. The satisfaction of the believer's desire when Christ shall be revealed. The hidden manna shall not remain for ever hidden. We shall see Christ as He is, and be like Him (1 John 3:2). Christ gives the manna in giving Himself “The seeing of Christ as He is, and, through this beatific vision, being made like to Him, is identical with the eating of the hidden manna, which shall, as it were, be then brought forth from the sanctuary, the holy of holies of God's immediate presence where it was withdrawn from sight so long, that all may partake of it; the glory of Christ, now shrouded and concealed, being then revealed to His people” (Trench). -DIVIDER-
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This is one of numerous illustrations of the dependence of Revelation upon Old Testament history and prophecy. “To such an extent is this the case,” says Professor Milligan, “that it may be doubted whether it contains a single figure not drawn from the Old Testament, or a single complete sentence not more or less built up of materials brought from the same source.” See, for instance, Balaam (Revelation 2:14); Jezebel (Revelation 2:20); Michael (Revelation 12:7, compare Daniel 10:13; Daniel 12:1); Abaddon (Revelation 9:11); Jerusalem, Mt. Zion, Babylon, the Euphrates, Sodom, Egypt (Revelation 21:2; Revelation 14:1; Revelation 16:19; Revelation 9:14; Revelation 11:8); Gog and Magog (Revelation 20:8, compare Revelation href="/desk/?q=re+2:7&sr=1">Revelation 2:7, Revelation 2:17, Revelation 2:27, Revelation 2:28). Heaven is described under the figure of the tabernacle in the wilderness (Revelation 11:1, Revelation 11:19; Revelation 6:9; Revelation 8:3; Revelation 11:19; Revelation 4:6). The song of the redeemed is the song of Moses (Revelation 15:3). The plagues of Egypt appear in the blood, fire, thunder, darkness and locusts (Revelation 8:1-13). “The great earthquake of chapter 6 is taken from Haggai; the sun becoming black as sackcloth of hair and the moon becoming blood (Revelation 8:1-13) from Joel: the stars of heaven falling, the fig-tree casting her untimely figs, the heavens departing as a scroll (Revelation 8:1-13) from Isaiah: the scorpions of chapter 9 from Ezekiel: the gathering of the vine of the earth (chapter 14) from Joel, and the treading of the wine-press in the same chapter from Isaiah.” So too the details of a single vision are gathered out of different prophets or different parts of the same prophet. For instance, the vision of the glorified Redeemer (Revelation 1:12-20). The golden candlesticks are from Exodus and Zechariah; the garment down to the foot from Exodus and Daniel; the golden girdle and the hairs like wool from Isaiah and Daniel; the feet like burnished brass, and the voice like the sound of many waters, from Ezekiel; the two-edged sword from Isaiah and Psalms; the countenance like the sun from Exodus; the falling of the seer as dead from Exodus, Isaiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel; the laying of Jesus' right hand on the seer from Daniel. -DIVIDER-
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“Not indeed that the writer binds himself to the Old Testament in a slavish spirit. He rather uses it with great freedom and independence, extending, intensifying, or transfiguring its descriptions at his pleasure. Yet the main source of his emblems cannot be mistaken. The sacred books of his people had been more than familiar to him. They had penetrated his whole being. They had lived within him as a germinating seed, capable of shooting up not only in the old forms, but in new forms of life and beauty. In the whole extent of sacred and religious literature there is to be found nowhere else such a perfect fusion of the revelation given to Israel with the mind of one who would either express Israel's ideas, or give utterance, by means of the symbols supplied by Israel's history, to the present and most elevated thoughts of the Christian faith “(this note is condensed from Professor Milligan's “Baird Lectures on the Revelation of St. John”).A white stone ( ψῆφον λευκὴν )See on counteth, Luke 14:28; and see on white, Luke 9:29. The foundation of the figure is not to be sought in Gentile but in Jewish customs. “White is everywhere the color and livery of heaven” (Trench). See Revelation 1:14; Revelation 3:5; Revelation 7:9; Revelation 14:14; Revelation 19:8, Revelation 19:11, Revelation 19:14; Revelation 20:11. It is the bright, glistering white. Compare Matthew 28:3; Luke 24:4; John 20:12; Revelation 20:11; Daniel 7:9. It is impossible to fix the meaning of the symbol with any certainty. The following are some of the principal views: The Urim and Thummim concealed within the High-Priest's breastplate of judgment. This is advocated by Trench, who supposes that the Urim was a peculiarly rare stone, possibly the diamond, and engraven with the ineffable name of God. The new name he regards as the new name of God or of Christ (Revelation 3:12); some revelation of the glory of God which can be communicated to His people only in the higher state of being, and which they only can understand who have actually received. -DIVIDER-
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Professor Milligan supposes an allusion to the plate of gold worn on the High-Priest's forehead, and inscribed with the words “Holiness to the Lord,” but, somewhat strangely, runs the figure into the stone or pebble used in voting, and regards the white stone as carrying the idea of the believer's acquittal at the hands of God. -DIVIDER-
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Dean Plumptre sees in the stone the signet by which, in virtue of its form or of the characters inscribed on it, he who possessed it could claim from the friend who gave it, at any distance of time, a frank and hearty welcome; and adds to this an allusion to the custom of presenting such a token, with the guest's name upon it, of admission to the feast given to those who were invited to partake within the temple precincts - a feast which consisted wholly or in part of sacrificial meats. -DIVIDER-
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Others, regarding the connection of the stone with the manna, refer to the use of the lot cast among the priests in order to determine which one should offer the sacrifice. -DIVIDER-
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Others, to the writing of a candidate's name at an election by ballot upon a stone or bean. -DIVIDER-
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In short, the commentators are utterly divided, and the true interpretation remains a matter of conjecture.A new nameSome explain the new name of God or of Christ (compare Revelation 3:12); others, of the recipient's own name. “A new name however, a revelation of his everlasting title as a son of God to glory in Christ, but consisting of and revealed in those personal marks and signs of God's peculiar adoption of himself, which he and none other is acquainted with” (Alford). Bengel says: “Wouldst thou know what kind of a new name thou wilt obtain? Overcome. Before that thou wilt ask in vain, and after that thou wilt soon read it inscribed on the white stone.” [source]

Revelation 1:1 The Revelation [ἀποκάλυψις]
The Greek word is transcribed in Apocalypse. The word occurs only once in the Gospels, Luke 2:32, where to lighten should be rendered for revelation. It is used there of our Lord, as a light to dispel the darkness under which the heathen were veiled. It occurs thirteen times in Paul's writings, and three times in first Peter. It is used in the following senses: (a.) The unveiling of something hidden, which gives light and knowledge to those who behold it. See Luke 2:32(above). Christianity itself is the revelation of a mystery (Romans 16:25). The participation of the Gentiles in the privileges of the new covenant was made known by revelation (Ephesians 3:3). Paul received the Gospel which he preached by revelation (Galatians 1:12), and went up to Jerusalem by revelation (Galatians 2:2). -DIVIDER-
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(b.) Christian insight into spiritual truth. Paul asks for Christians the spirit of revelation (Ephesians 1:17). Peculiar manifestations of the general gift of revelation are given in Christian assemblies (1 Corinthians 14:6, 1 Corinthians 14:26). Special revelations are granted to Paul (2 Corinthians 12:1, 2 Corinthians 12:7). -DIVIDER-
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(c.) The second coming of the Lord (1 Peter 1:7, 1 Peter 1:13; 2 Thessalonians 1:7; 1 Corinthians 1:7) in which His glory shall be revealed (1 Peter 4:13), His righteous judgment made known (Romans 2:5), and His children revealed in full majesty (Romans 8:19). -DIVIDER-
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The kindred verb ἀποκαλύπτω is used in similar connections. Following the categories given above,-DIVIDER-
(a.) Galatians 1:16; Galatians 3:23; Ephesians 3:5; 1 Peter 1:12. -DIVIDER-
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(b.) Matthew 11:25, Matthew 11:27; Matthew 16:17; Luke 10:21, Luke 10:22; 1 Corinthians 2:10; 1 Corinthians 14:30; Philemon 3:15. -DIVIDER-
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(c.) Matthew 10:26; Luke 2:35; Luke 12:2; Luke 17:30; Romans 1:17, Romans 1:18; Romans 8:18; 1 Corinthians 3:13; 2 Thessalonians 2:3, 2 Thessalonians 2:6, 2 Thessalonians 2:8; 1 Peter 1:5; 1 Peter 5:1. -DIVIDER-
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The word is compounded with ἀπό fromand καλύπτω tocover. Hence, to remove the cover from anything; to unveil. So of Balaam, the Lord opened or unveiled his eyes ( ἀπεκάλυψεν τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς : Numbers 22:31, Sept.). So Boaz to Naomi's kinsman: “I thought to advertise thee:” Rev., “disclose it unto thee” ( ἀποκαλύψω τὸ οὖς σου : Rth 4:4 , Sept.). Lit., I will uncover thine ear. -DIVIDER-
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The noun ἀποκάλυψις revelationoccurs only once in the Septuagint (1 Samuel 20:30), in the physical sense of uncovering. The verb is found in the Septuagint in Daniel 2:19, Daniel 2:22, Daniel 2:28. -DIVIDER-
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In classical Greek, the verb is used by Herodotus (i., 119) of uncovering the head; and by Plato: thus, “reveal ( ἀποκαλύψας ) to me the power of Rhetoric” (“Gorgias,” 460): “Uncover your chest and back” (“Protagoras,” 352). Both the verb and the noun occur in Plutarch; the latter of uncovering the body, of waters, and of an error. The religious sense, however, is unknown to heathenism. -DIVIDER-
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The following words should be compared with this: Ὀπτασία avision (Luke 1:22; Acts 26:19; 2 Corinthians 12:1). Ὅραμα avision (Matthew 17:9; Acts 9:10; Acts 16:9). Ὅρασις avision (Acts 2:17; Revelation 9:17. Of visible form, Revelation 4:3). These three cannot be accurately distinguished. They all denote the thing seen or shown, without anything to show whether it is understood or not. -DIVIDER-
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As distinguished from these, ἀποκάλυψις includes, along with the thing shown or seen, its interpretation or unveiling. -DIVIDER-
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Ἐπιφάνεια appearing(hence our epiphany ), is used in profane Greek of the appearance of a higher power in order to aid men. In the New Testament by Paul only, and always of the second appearing of Christ in glory, except in 2 Timothy 1:10, where it signifies His first appearing in the flesh. See 2 Thessalonians 2:8; 1 Timothy 6:14; Titus 2:13. As distinguished from this, ἀπολάλυψις is the more comprehensive word. An apocalypse may include several ἐπιφάνειαι appearingsThe appearings are the media of the revealings. -DIVIDER-
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Φανέρωσις manifestationonly twice in the New Testament; 1 Corinthians 12:7; 2 Corinthians 4:2. The kindred verb φανερόω tomake manifest, is of frequent occurrence. See on John 21:1. It is not easy, if possible, to show that this word has a less dignified sense than ἀποκάλυψις . The verb φανερόω is used of both the first and the second appearing of our Lord (1 Timothy 3:16; 1 John 1:2; 1 Peter 1:20; Colossians 3:4; 1 Peter 5:4). See also John 2:11; John 21:1. -DIVIDER-
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Some distinguish between φανέρωσις as an external manifestation, to the senses, but single and isolated; while ἀποκάλυψις is an inward and abiding disclosure. According to these, the Apocalypse or unveiling, precedes and produces the φανέρωσις or manifestation. The Apocalypse contemplates the thing revealed; the manifestation, the persons to whom it is revealed. -DIVIDER-
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The Revelation here is the unveiling of the divine mysteries.Of Jesus ChristNot the manifestation or disclosure of Jesus Christ, but the revelation given by Him.To shew ( δεῖξαι )Frequent in Revelation (Revelation 4:1; Revelation 17:1; Revelation 21:9; Revelation 22:1). Construe with ἔδωκεν gavegave him to shew. Compare “I will give him to sit” (Revelation 3:21): “It was given to hurt” (Revelation 7:2): “It was given him to do;” (A.V. “had power to do;” Revelation 13:14).Servants ( δούλοις )Properly, bond-servants. See on Matthew 20:26; see on Mark 9:35.Must ( δεῖ )As the decree of the absolute and infallible God.Shortly come to pass ( γενέσθαι ἐν τάχει )For the phrase ἐν τάχει shortlysee Luke 18:8, where yet long delay is implied. Expressions like this must be understood, not according to human measurement of time, but rather as in 2 Peter 3:8. The idea is, before long, as time is computed by God. The aorist infinitive γενέσθαι is not begin to come to pass, but denotes a complete fulfilment: must shortly come to pass in their entirety. He sent ( ἀποστείλας )See on Matthew 10:2, Matthew 10:16.Signified ( ἐσήμανεν )From σῆμα asign. Hence, literally, give a sign or token. The verb occurs outside of John's writings only in Acts 11:28; Acts 25:27. See John 12:33; John 18:32; John 21:19. This is its only occurrence in Revelation. The word is appropriate to the symbolic character of the revelation, and so in John 12:33, where Christ predicts the mode of His death in a figure. Compare sign, Revelation 12:1.Angel ( ἀγγέλου )Strictly, a messenger. See Matthew 11:10; Luke 8:24; Luke 9:52. Compare the mediating angel in the visions of Daniel and Zechariah (Daniel 8:15, Daniel 8:16; Daniel 9:21; Daniel 10:10; Zechariah 1:19). See on John 1:51.ServantDesignating the prophetic office. See Isaiah 59:5; Amos 3:7; compare Revelation 19:10; Revelation 22:9.JohnJohn does not name himself in the Gospel or in the Epistles. Here “we are dealing with prophecy, and prophecy requires the guarantee of the individual who is inspired to utter it” (Milligan). Compare Daniel 8:1; Daniel 9:2. [source]

Revelation 1:18 The keys [τας κλεις]
One of the forms for the accusative plural along with κλειδας — kleidas the usual one (Matthew 16:19).Of death and of Hades (του τανατου και του αιδου — tou thanatou kai tou hāidou). Conceived as in Matthew 16:18 as a prison house or walled city. The keys are the symbol of authority, as we speak of honouring one by giving him the keys of the city. Hades here means the unseen world to which death is the portal. Jesus has the keys because of his victory over death. See this same graphic picture in Revelation 6:8; Revelation 20:13. For the key of David see Revelation 3:7, for the key of the abyss see Revelation 9:1; Revelation 20:1. [source]
Revelation 1:18 Of death and of Hades [του τανατου και του αιδου]
Conceived as in Matthew 16:18 as a prison house or walled city. The keys are the symbol of authority, as we speak of honouring one by giving him the keys of the city. Hades here means the unseen world to which death is the portal. Jesus has the keys because of his victory over death. See this same graphic picture in Revelation 6:8; Revelation 20:13. For the key of David see Revelation 3:7, for the key of the abyss see Revelation 9:1; Revelation 20:1. [source]
Revelation 10:1 Another strong angel [αλλον αγγελον ισχυρον]
But the seventh trumpet does not sound till Revelation 11:15. This angel is not one of the seven or of the four, but like the other strong angel in Revelation 5:2; Revelation 18:21 or the other angel in Revelation 14:6, Revelation 14:15. The sixth trumpet of Revelation 9:13 ends in Revelation 9:21. The opening of the seventh seal was preceded by two visions (chapter Rev 7) and so here the sounding of the seventh trumpet (Revelation 11:15) is preceded by a new series of visions (10:1-11:14). [source]
Revelation 1:18 I am alive [ζων ειμι]
Periphrastic present active indicative, “I am living,” as the words ο ζων — ho zōn just used mean.Forevermore (εις τους αιωνας των αιωνων — eis tous aiōnas tōn aiōnōn). “Unto the ages of the ages,” a stronger expression of eternity even than in Revelation 1:6.The keys One of the forms for the accusative plural along with κλειδας — kleidas the usual one (Matthew 16:19).Of death and of Hades (του τανατου και του αιδου — tou thanatou kai tou hāidou). Conceived as in Matthew 16:18 as a prison house or walled city. The keys are the symbol of authority, as we speak of honouring one by giving him the keys of the city. Hades here means the unseen world to which death is the portal. Jesus has the keys because of his victory over death. See this same graphic picture in Revelation 6:8; Revelation 20:13. For the key of David see Revelation 3:7, for the key of the abyss see Revelation 9:1; Revelation 20:1. [source]
Revelation 11:13 Were killed [απεκταντησαν]
First aorist passive indicative of αποκτεινω — apokteinō as in Revelation 9:18. [source]
Revelation 11:14 Is past [απηλτεν]
Second aorist active indicative of απερχομαι — aperchomai See Revelation 9:12 for this use and Revelation 21:1, Revelation 21:4. The second woe (η ουαι η δευτερα — hē ouai hē deutera) is the sixth trumpet (Revelation 9:12) with the two episodes attached (10:1-11:13). [source]
Revelation 11:14 The third woe [η ουαι η τριτη]
(η ουαι η τριτη — hē ouai hē tritē feminine as in Revelation 9:12) is the seventh trumpet, which now “cometh quickly” (ερχεται ταχυ — erchetai tachu), for which phrase see Revelation 2:16; Revelation 3:11; Revelation 22:7, Revelation 22:12, Revelation 22:20. Usually pointing to the Parousia. [source]
Revelation 12:4 His tail [η ουρα αυτου]
See Revelation 9:10, Revelation 9:19. [source]
Revelation 12:6 Prepared [ετοιμαζω]
Perfect passive predicate participle of τοπος — hetoimazō for which verb see Matthew 20:23; Revelation 8:6; Revelation 9:7, Revelation 9:15; Revelation 16:12; Revelation 19:7; Revelation 21:2, and for its use with απο του τεου — topos John 14:2. and for the kind of fellowship meant by it (Psalm 31:21; 2 Corinthians 13:13; Colossians 3:3; 1 John 1:3). [source]
Revelation 12:14 There were given [εδοτησαν]
As in Revelation 8:2; Revelation 9:1, Revelation 9:3. [source]
Revelation 14:10 With fire and brimstone [εν πυρι και τειωι]
See Revelation 9:17 for fire and brimstone and also Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:10; Revelation 21:8. The imagery is already in Genesis 19:24; Isaiah 30:33; Ezekiel 38:22.In the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb (ενωπιον αγγελων αγιων και ενωπιον του αρνιου — enōpion aggelōn hagiōn kai enōpion tou arniou). This holy environment adds to the punishment. [source]
Revelation 11:7 The beast [το τηριον]
“The wild beast comes out of the abyss” of Revelation 9:1. He reappears in Revelation 13:1; Revelation 17:8. In Daniel 7:3 τηρια — thēria occurs. Nothing less than antichrist will satisfy the picture here. Some see the abomination of Daniel 7:7; Matthew 24:15. Some see Nero redivivus.He shall make war with them (ποιησει μετ αυτων πολεμον — poiēsei met' autōn polemon). This same phrase occurs in Revelation 12:17 about the dragon‘s attack on the woman. It is more the picture of single combat (Revelation 2:16).He shall overcome them Future active of νικαω — nikaō The victory of the beast over the two witnesses is certain, as in Daniel 7:21.And kill them (και αποκτενει — kai apoktenei). Future active of αποκτεινω — apokteinō Without attempting to apply this prophecy to specific individuals or times, one can agree with these words of Swete: “But his words cover in effect all the martyrdoms and massacres of history in which brute force has seemed to triumph over truth and righteousness.” [source]
Revelation 11:13 Fell [επεσεν]
Second aorist active indicative of πιπτω — piptō to fall. Only the tenth First aorist passive indicative of αποκτεινω — apokteinō as in Revelation 9:18.Seven thousand persons This use of ονοματα — onomata (names of men here) is like that in Revelation 3:4; Acts 1:15 and occurs in the papyri (Deissmann, Bible Studies, p. 196f.).Were affrighted (εμποβοι εγενοντο — emphoboi egenonto). “Became terrified,” old adjective (εν ποβος — enεδωκαν δοχαν — phobos fear) as in Luke 24:5; Acts 10:4; Acts 24:5. “A general movement toward Christianity, induced by fear or despair - a prediction fulfilled more than once in ecclesiastical history” (Swete).Gave glory First aorist active indicative of didōmi when they saw the effect of the earthquake, recognition of God‘s power (John 9:24; Acts 12:23; Romans 4:20). [source]
Revelation 12:6 Where [οπουεκει]
Hebrew redundancy (where - there) as in Revelation 3:8; Revelation 8:9, Revelation 8:9; Revelation 13:8, Revelation 13:12; Revelation 17:9; Revelation 20:8.Prepared (ετοιμαζω — hētoimasmenon). Perfect passive predicate participle of τοπος — hetoimazō for which verb see Matthew 20:23; Revelation 8:6; Revelation 9:7, Revelation 9:15; Revelation 16:12; Revelation 19:7; Revelation 21:2, and for its use with απο του τεου — topos John 14:2. and for the kind of fellowship meant by it (Psalm 31:21; 2 Corinthians 13:13; Colossians 3:3; 1 John 1:3).Of God “From (by) God,” marking the source as God (Revelation 9:18; James 1:13). This anticipatory symbolism is repeated in Revelation 12:13.That there they may nourish her (ινα — hina ekei trephōsin autēn). Purpose clause with τρεπουσιν — hina and the present for continued action: active subjunctive according to A P though C reads τρεπεται — trephousin present active indicative, as is possible also in Revelation 13:17 and certainly so in 1 John 5:20 (Robertson, Grammar, p. 984), a solecism in late vernacular Greek. The plural is indefinite “they” as in Revelation 10:11; Revelation 11:9. One MSS. has trephetai (is nourished). The stereotyped phrase occurs here, as in Revelation 11:2., for the length of the dragon‘s power, repeated in Revelation 12:14 in more general terms and again in Revelation 13:5. [source]
Revelation 12:6 Of God [ινα εκει τρεπωσιν αυτην]
“From (by) God,” marking the source as God (Revelation 9:18; James 1:13). This anticipatory symbolism is repeated in Revelation 12:13.That there they may nourish her (ινα — hina ekei trephōsin autēn). Purpose clause with τρεπουσιν — hina and the present for continued action: active subjunctive according to A P though C reads τρεπεται — trephousin present active indicative, as is possible also in Revelation 13:17 and certainly so in 1 John 5:20 (Robertson, Grammar, p. 984), a solecism in late vernacular Greek. The plural is indefinite “they” as in Revelation 10:11; Revelation 11:9. One MSS. has trephetai (is nourished). The stereotyped phrase occurs here, as in Revelation 11:2., for the length of the dragon‘s power, repeated in Revelation 12:14 in more general terms and again in Revelation 13:5. [source]
Revelation 14:10 Of the wine of the wrath of God [εκ του οινου του τυμου του τεου]
Note εκ — ek (partitive) after πιεται — pietai In Revelation 16:19; Revelation 19:15 we have both τυμου — thumou and οργης — orgēs (wrath of the anger of God). The white heat of God‘s anger, held back through the ages, will be turned loose.Prepared unmixed (του κεκερασμενου ακρατου — tou kekerasmenou akratou). A bold and powerful oxymoron, “the mixed unmixed.” Ακρατος — Akratos is an old adjective (alpha privative and κεραννυμι — kerannumi to mix) used of wine unmixed with water (usually so mixed), here only in N.T. So it is strong wine mixed (perfect passive participle of κεραννυμι — kerannumi) with spices to make it still stronger (cf. Psalm 75:9).In the cup of his anger Both τυμος — thumos (vehement fury) and οργη — orgē (settled indignation).He shall be tormented (βασανιστησεται — basanisthēsetai). Future passive of βασανιζω — basanizō See Revelation 9:5; Revelation 11:10.With fire and brimstone See Revelation 9:17 for fire and brimstone and also Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:10; Revelation 21:8. The imagery is already in Genesis 19:24; Isaiah 30:33; Ezekiel 38:22.In the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb (ενωπιον αγγελων αγιων και ενωπιον του αρνιου — enōpion aggelōn hagiōn kai enōpion tou arniou). This holy environment adds to the punishment. [source]
Revelation 16:12 Upon the great river, the river Euphrates [επι τον ποταμον τον μεγαν τον Ευπρατην]
The sixth trumpet brings up the river Euphrates also (Revelation 9:14), only there επι — epi with the locative, while here επι — epi with the accusative. Note triple use of the article τον — ton here. [source]
Revelation 16:12 Was dried up [εχηραντη]
First aorist (prophetic) passive of χηραινω — xērainō (Revelation 14:15). Cf. Zechariah 10:11.That may be made ready (ινα ετοιμαστηι — hina hetoimasthēi). Purpose clause with ινα — hina and the first aorist passive of ετοιμαζω — hetoimazō Common verb in Rev (Revelation 8:6; Revelation 9:7, Revelation 9:15; Revelation 12:6; Revelation 19:7; Revelation 21:2).The way for the kings Objective genitive βασιλεων — basileōn come from the sunrising “Those from the rising of the sun,” the kings from the east (cf. Matthew 2:2) in their march against Rome. Parthia in particular resisted Rome before Trajan‘s day. [source]
Revelation 16:12 That may be made ready [ινα ετοιμαστηι]
Purpose clause with ινα — hina and the first aorist passive of ετοιμαζω — hetoimazō Common verb in Rev (Revelation 8:6; Revelation 9:7, Revelation 9:15; Revelation 12:6; Revelation 19:7; Revelation 21:2). [source]
Revelation 14:10 In the cup of his anger [εν τωι ποτηριωι της οργης αυτου]
Both τυμος — thumos (vehement fury) and οργη — orgē (settled indignation).He shall be tormented (βασανιστησεται — basanisthēsetai). Future passive of βασανιζω — basanizō See Revelation 9:5; Revelation 11:10.With fire and brimstone See Revelation 9:17 for fire and brimstone and also Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:10; Revelation 21:8. The imagery is already in Genesis 19:24; Isaiah 30:33; Ezekiel 38:22.In the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb (ενωπιον αγγελων αγιων και ενωπιον του αρνιου — enōpion aggelōn hagiōn kai enōpion tou arniou). This holy environment adds to the punishment. [source]
Revelation 14:18 Out from the altar [εκ του τυσιαστηριου]
From the altar of incense where he is in charge of the fire If it is the altar of burnt offering (Revelation 6:9; Revelation 11:1), we are reminded of the blood of the martyrs (Swete), but if the altar of incense (Revelation 8:3, Revelation 8:5; Revelation 9:13; Revelation 16:7), then of the prayers of the saints.The sharp sickle (το δρεπανον το οχυ — to drepanon to oxu). Useful for vintage as for harvesting. So “send forth” (πεμπσον — pempson) as in Revelation 14:15.Gather First aorist active imperative of τρυγαω — trugaō old verb (from τρυγη — trugē dryness, ripeness), in N.T. only Revelation 14:18. and Luke 6:44.The clusters (τους βοτρυας — tous botruas). Old word βοτρυς — botrus here only in N.T. (Genesis 40:10).Her grapes Old word again for grapes, bunch of grapes, in N.T. only here, Matthew 7:16; Luke 6:44.Are fully ripe (ηκμασαν — ēkmasan). Old and common verb (from ακμη — akmē Matthew 15:16), to come to maturity, to reach its acme, here only in N.T. [source]
Revelation 16:13 Of the dragon [του δρακοντος]
That is Satan (Revelation 12:3, Revelation 12:9).Of the beast (του τηριου — tou thēriou). The first beast (Revelation 13:1, Revelation 13:12) and then just the beast (Revelation 13:14.; Revelation 14:9, Revelation 14:11; Revelation 15:2; Revelation 16:2, Revelation 16:10), the brute force of the World-power represented by the Roman Empire” (Swete).Of the false prophet Cf. Matthew 7:15; Acts 13:6; 1 John 2:22; 1 John 4:3; 2 John 1:7. Identified with the second beast (Revelation 13:11-14) in Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:10. So the sixth bowl introduces the dragon and his two subalterns of chapters Rev 12; 13 (the two beasts).Three unclean spirits (πνευματα τρια ακαταρτα — pneumata tria akatharta). Out of the mouths of each of the three evil powers (the dragon and the two beasts) comes an evil spirit. See the use of mouth in Revelation 1:16 (Revelation 9:17.; Revelation 11:5; Revelation 12:15; Revelation 19:15, Revelation 19:21) as a chief seat of influence. In 2 Thessalonians 2:8 we have “the breath of his mouth” (the other sense of πνευμα — pneuma). For ακαταρτον — akatharton (unclean) with πνευμα — pneuma see Mark 1:23.; Mark 3:11; Mark 5:2.; Acts 5:16; Acts 8:7. Christ expelled unclean spirits, but His enemies send them forth” (Swete). See Zechariah 13:2 “the false prophets and the unclean spirits.”As it were frogs Cf. Exodus 8:5; Leviticus 11:10. Old word, here alone in N.T. Like loathsome frogs in form. [source]
Revelation 16:13 Of the false prophet [του πσευδοπροπητου]
Cf. Matthew 7:15; Acts 13:6; 1 John 2:22; 1 John 4:3; 2 John 1:7. Identified with the second beast (Revelation 13:11-14) in Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:10. So the sixth bowl introduces the dragon and his two subalterns of chapters Rev 12; 13 (the two beasts).Three unclean spirits (πνευματα τρια ακαταρτα — pneumata tria akatharta). Out of the mouths of each of the three evil powers (the dragon and the two beasts) comes an evil spirit. See the use of mouth in Revelation 1:16 (Revelation 9:17.; Revelation 11:5; Revelation 12:15; Revelation 19:15, Revelation 19:21) as a chief seat of influence. In 2 Thessalonians 2:8 we have “the breath of his mouth” (the other sense of πνευμα — pneuma). For ακαταρτον — akatharton (unclean) with πνευμα — pneuma see Mark 1:23.; Mark 3:11; Mark 5:2.; Acts 5:16; Acts 8:7. Christ expelled unclean spirits, but His enemies send them forth” (Swete). See Zechariah 13:2 “the false prophets and the unclean spirits.”As it were frogs Cf. Exodus 8:5; Leviticus 11:10. Old word, here alone in N.T. Like loathsome frogs in form. [source]
Revelation 16:13 Three unclean spirits [πνευματα τρια ακαταρτα]
Out of the mouths of each of the three evil powers (the dragon and the two beasts) comes an evil spirit. See the use of mouth in Revelation 1:16 (Revelation 9:17.; Revelation 11:5; Revelation 12:15; Revelation 19:15, Revelation 19:21) as a chief seat of influence. In 2 Thessalonians 2:8 we have “the breath of his mouth” (the other sense of πνευμα — pneuma). For ακαταρτον — akatharton (unclean) with πνευμα — pneuma see Mark 1:23.; Mark 3:11; Mark 5:2.; Acts 5:16; Acts 8:7. Christ expelled unclean spirits, but His enemies send them forth” (Swete). See Zechariah 13:2 “the false prophets and the unclean spirits.” [source]
Revelation 19:20 Into the lake of fire [εις την λιμνην του πυρος]
Genitive πυρος — puros describes this λιμνην — limnēn (lake, cf. Luke 5:1) as it does γεεννα — gehenna in Matthew 5:22. See also Revelation 20:10; Revelation 21:8. It is a different figure from the “abyss” in Revelation 9:1; Revelation 20:1. This is the final abode of Satan, the beast, the false prophet, and wicked men. [source]
Revelation 2:11 Shall not be hurt [ου μη αδικητηι]
Strong double negative with first aorist passive subjunctive of αδικεω — adikeō old verb, to act unjustly (from αδικος — adikos), here to do harm or wrong to one, old usage as in Revelation 6:6; Revelation 7:2.; Revelation 9:4, Revelation 9:10; Revelation 11:5. [source]
Revelation 2:13 Was killed [αποκτεινω]
First aorist passive indicative of παρ υμιν — apokteinō this passive form common in the Apocalypse (Revelation 2:13; Revelation 6:11; Revelation 9:5, Revelation 9:15, Revelation 9:18, Revelation 9:20; Revelation 11:13; Revelation 13:10; Revelation 19:21).Among you (οπου ο Σατανας κατοικει — par humin). By your side. Proof of the throne of Satan, “where Satan dwells” (hopou ho Satanās katoikei), repeated for emphasis. [source]
Revelation 20:1 The key of the abyss [την κλειν της αβυσσου]
As in Revelation 9:1.A great chain (αλυσιν μεγαλην — halusin megalēn). Paul wore a αλυσις — halusis (alpha privative and λυω — luō to loose) in Rome (2 Timothy 1:16, as did Peter in prison in Jerusalem (Acts 12:6).In his hand “Upon his hand,” ready for use. See επι — epi with the genitive in Revelation 1:20. [source]
Revelation 19:20 The false prophet [ο πσευδοπροπητης]
Possibly the second beast of Revelation 13:11-17; Revelation 16:13; Revelation 20:10. Charles takes him to be “the priesthood of the Imperial cult, which practised all kinds of magic and imposture to beguile men to worship the Beast.”That wrought the signs in his sight (ο ποιεσας τα σημεια ενωπιον αυτου — ho poiesas ta sēmeia enōpion autou). As in Revelation 13:14.Wherewith “In which” signs.He deceived (επλανησεν — eplanēsen). First aorist active indicative of πλαναω — planaō He was only able to deceive “them that had received” (τους λαβοντας — tous labontas articular second aorist active participle of λαμβανω — lambanō “those receiving”) “the mark of the beast” (Revelation 13:16; Revelation 14:9.; Revelation 16:2; Revelation 20:4) “and them that worshipped his image” (τους προσκυνουντας τηι εικονι αυτου — tous proskunountas tēi eikoni autou) as in Revelation 13:15.They twain “The two.”Were cast (εβλητησαν — eblēthēsan). First aorist passive Indicative of βαλλω — ballō They fall together as they fought together. “The day that sees the end of a false statecraft will see also that of a false priestcraft” (Swete).Alive Present active participle of ζαω — zaō predicative nominative, “living.”Into the lake of fire (εις την λιμνην του πυρος — eis tēn limnēn tou puros). Genitive πυρος — puros describes this λιμνην — limnēn (lake, cf. Luke 5:1) as it does γεεννα — gehenna in Matthew 5:22. See also Revelation 20:10; Revelation 21:8. It is a different figure from the “abyss” in Revelation 9:1; Revelation 20:1. This is the final abode of Satan, the beast, the false prophet, and wicked men.That burneth with brimstone Note the genitive here in place of the accusative λιμνην — limnēn perhaps because of the intervening genitive πυρος — puros (neuter, not feminine). The agreement is regular in Revelation 21:8. For εν τειωι — en theiōi (with brimstone) see Revelation 14:10; Revelation 20:10; Revelation 21:8. The fact of hell is clearly taught here, but the imagery is not to be taken literally any more than that of heaven in chapters Revelation 4:1-11; Revelation 5:1-14; 21; 22 is to be so understood. Both fall short of the reality. [source]
Revelation 19:20 Wherewith [εν οις]
“In which” signs.He deceived (επλανησεν — eplanēsen). First aorist active indicative of πλαναω — planaō He was only able to deceive “them that had received” (τους λαβοντας — tous labontas articular second aorist active participle of λαμβανω — lambanō “those receiving”) “the mark of the beast” (Revelation 13:16; Revelation 14:9.; Revelation 16:2; Revelation 20:4) “and them that worshipped his image” (τους προσκυνουντας τηι εικονι αυτου — tous proskunountas tēi eikoni autou) as in Revelation 13:15.They twain “The two.”Were cast (εβλητησαν — eblēthēsan). First aorist passive Indicative of βαλλω — ballō They fall together as they fought together. “The day that sees the end of a false statecraft will see also that of a false priestcraft” (Swete).Alive Present active participle of ζαω — zaō predicative nominative, “living.”Into the lake of fire (εις την λιμνην του πυρος — eis tēn limnēn tou puros). Genitive πυρος — puros describes this λιμνην — limnēn (lake, cf. Luke 5:1) as it does γεεννα — gehenna in Matthew 5:22. See also Revelation 20:10; Revelation 21:8. It is a different figure from the “abyss” in Revelation 9:1; Revelation 20:1. This is the final abode of Satan, the beast, the false prophet, and wicked men.That burneth with brimstone Note the genitive here in place of the accusative λιμνην — limnēn perhaps because of the intervening genitive πυρος — puros (neuter, not feminine). The agreement is regular in Revelation 21:8. For εν τειωι — en theiōi (with brimstone) see Revelation 14:10; Revelation 20:10; Revelation 21:8. The fact of hell is clearly taught here, but the imagery is not to be taken literally any more than that of heaven in chapters Revelation 4:1-11; Revelation 5:1-14; 21; 22 is to be so understood. Both fall short of the reality. [source]
Revelation 19:20 They twain [οι δυο]
“The two.”Were cast (εβλητησαν — eblēthēsan). First aorist passive Indicative of βαλλω — ballō They fall together as they fought together. “The day that sees the end of a false statecraft will see also that of a false priestcraft” (Swete).Alive Present active participle of ζαω — zaō predicative nominative, “living.”Into the lake of fire (εις την λιμνην του πυρος — eis tēn limnēn tou puros). Genitive πυρος — puros describes this λιμνην — limnēn (lake, cf. Luke 5:1) as it does γεεννα — gehenna in Matthew 5:22. See also Revelation 20:10; Revelation 21:8. It is a different figure from the “abyss” in Revelation 9:1; Revelation 20:1. This is the final abode of Satan, the beast, the false prophet, and wicked men.That burneth with brimstone Note the genitive here in place of the accusative λιμνην — limnēn perhaps because of the intervening genitive πυρος — puros (neuter, not feminine). The agreement is regular in Revelation 21:8. For εν τειωι — en theiōi (with brimstone) see Revelation 14:10; Revelation 20:10; Revelation 21:8. The fact of hell is clearly taught here, but the imagery is not to be taken literally any more than that of heaven in chapters Revelation 4:1-11; Revelation 5:1-14; 21; 22 is to be so understood. Both fall short of the reality. [source]
Revelation 20:3 Into the abyss [εις την αβυσσον]
The one in Revelation 9:1. and the one spoken of by the legion of demons in Luke 8:31 under the charge of the angel of the abyss (Apollyon, Revelation 9:11) who is either Satan himself or a kindred power. “Already he has been cast out of Heaven (Revelation 12:9), now he is cast out of the earth, and returns to his own place” (Swete). [source]
Revelation 21:15 To measure [ινα μετρησηι]
Purpose clause with ινα — hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of μετρεω — metreō The rod of gold was in keeping with the dignity of the service of God (Revelation 1:12; Revelation 5:8; Revelation 8:3; Revelation 9:13; Revelation 15:7). [source]
Revelation 6:9 Under the altar [υποκατω του τυσιαστηριου]
“Under” The altar of sacrifice (Exodus 39:39; Exodus 40:29), not of incense. The imagery, as in Hebrews, is from the tabernacle. For the word see Matthew 5:23., often in Rev (Revelation 8:3, Revelation 8:5; Revelation 9:13; Revelation 11:1; Revelation 14:18; Revelation 16:7). This altar in heaven is symbolic, of course, the antitype for the tabernacle altar (Hebrews 8:5). The Lamb was slain (Revelation 5:6, Revelation 5:9, Revelation 5:12) and these martyrs have followed the example of their Lord. [source]
Revelation 19:20 Alive [ζωντες]
Present active participle of ζαω — zaō predicative nominative, “living.”Into the lake of fire (εις την λιμνην του πυρος — eis tēn limnēn tou puros). Genitive πυρος — puros describes this λιμνην — limnēn (lake, cf. Luke 5:1) as it does γεεννα — gehenna in Matthew 5:22. See also Revelation 20:10; Revelation 21:8. It is a different figure from the “abyss” in Revelation 9:1; Revelation 20:1. This is the final abode of Satan, the beast, the false prophet, and wicked men.That burneth with brimstone Note the genitive here in place of the accusative λιμνην — limnēn perhaps because of the intervening genitive πυρος — puros (neuter, not feminine). The agreement is regular in Revelation 21:8. For εν τειωι — en theiōi (with brimstone) see Revelation 14:10; Revelation 20:10; Revelation 21:8. The fact of hell is clearly taught here, but the imagery is not to be taken literally any more than that of heaven in chapters Revelation 4:1-11; Revelation 5:1-14; 21; 22 is to be so understood. Both fall short of the reality. [source]
Revelation 2:13 Holdest fast my name [κρατεω]
Present active indicative of Κυριος Καισαρ — krateō “dost keep on holding,” as in Revelation 2:25, Revelation 3:11. This church refused to say Κυριος Ιησους — Kurios Kaisar (Martyrd. Polyc. 8f.) and continued to say ουκ ηρνησω — Kurios Iēsous (1 Corinthians 12:3). They stood true against the emperor-worship.Didst not deny (αρνεομαι — ouk ērnēsō). First aorist middle second person singular of την πιστιν μου — arneomai Reference to a specific incident not known to us.My faith Objective genitive, “thy faith in me.”Of Antipas (Αντιπα — Antipas). Indeclinable in this form. It is possible that ο μαρτυς μου — Antipa (genitive) was really written, though unimportant as the nominative follows in apposition. Nothing is really known of this early martyr in Pergamum before the writing of the Apocalypse. One legend is that he was burnt to death in a brazen bull. Other martyrs followed him at Pergamum (Agathonice, Attalus, Carpus, Polybus).My witness Nominative in apposition with a genitive as in Revelation 1:5 (with ablative), common solecism in the Apocalypse. “Witness” as Jesus had said they should be (Acts 1:8) and Stephen was (Acts 22:20) and others were (Revelation 17:6). The word later (by third century) took on the modern meaning of martyr.My faithful one (μου — ho pistos mou). Nominative also, with απεκταντη — mou also. Jesus gives Antipas his own title (Swete) as in Revelation 1:5; Revelation 3:14. Faithful unto death.Was killed First aorist passive indicative of παρ υμιν — apokteinō this passive form common in the Apocalypse (Revelation 2:13; Revelation 6:11; Revelation 9:5, Revelation 9:15, Revelation 9:18, Revelation 9:20; Revelation 11:13; Revelation 13:10; Revelation 19:21).Among you (οπου ο Σατανας κατοικει — par humin). By your side. Proof of the throne of Satan, “where Satan dwells” (hopou ho Satanās katoikei), repeated for emphasis. [source]
Revelation 2:13 My faith [Αντιπας]
Objective genitive, “thy faith in me.”Of Antipas (Αντιπα — Antipas). Indeclinable in this form. It is possible that ο μαρτυς μου — Antipa (genitive) was really written, though unimportant as the nominative follows in apposition. Nothing is really known of this early martyr in Pergamum before the writing of the Apocalypse. One legend is that he was burnt to death in a brazen bull. Other martyrs followed him at Pergamum (Agathonice, Attalus, Carpus, Polybus).My witness Nominative in apposition with a genitive as in Revelation 1:5 (with ablative), common solecism in the Apocalypse. “Witness” as Jesus had said they should be (Acts 1:8) and Stephen was (Acts 22:20) and others were (Revelation 17:6). The word later (by third century) took on the modern meaning of martyr.My faithful one (μου — ho pistos mou). Nominative also, with απεκταντη — mou also. Jesus gives Antipas his own title (Swete) as in Revelation 1:5; Revelation 3:14. Faithful unto death.Was killed First aorist passive indicative of παρ υμιν — apokteinō this passive form common in the Apocalypse (Revelation 2:13; Revelation 6:11; Revelation 9:5, Revelation 9:15, Revelation 9:18, Revelation 9:20; Revelation 11:13; Revelation 13:10; Revelation 19:21).Among you (οπου ο Σατανας κατοικει — par humin). By your side. Proof of the throne of Satan, “where Satan dwells” (hopou ho Satanās katoikei), repeated for emphasis. [source]
Revelation 2:13 My witness [ο πιστος μου]
Nominative in apposition with a genitive as in Revelation 1:5 (with ablative), common solecism in the Apocalypse. “Witness” as Jesus had said they should be (Acts 1:8) and Stephen was (Acts 22:20) and others were (Revelation 17:6). The word later (by third century) took on the modern meaning of martyr.My faithful one (μου — ho pistos mou). Nominative also, with απεκταντη — mou also. Jesus gives Antipas his own title (Swete) as in Revelation 1:5; Revelation 3:14. Faithful unto death.Was killed First aorist passive indicative of παρ υμιν — apokteinō this passive form common in the Apocalypse (Revelation 2:13; Revelation 6:11; Revelation 9:5, Revelation 9:15, Revelation 9:18, Revelation 9:20; Revelation 11:13; Revelation 13:10; Revelation 19:21).Among you (οπου ο Σατανας κατοικει — par humin). By your side. Proof of the throne of Satan, “where Satan dwells” (hopou ho Satanās katoikei), repeated for emphasis. [source]
Revelation 8:3 Over the altar [επι του τυσιαστηριου]
See Revelation 6:9 for the word for the burnt-offering, here apparently the altar of incense (clearly so in Luke 1:11; possibly also Revelation 9:13), but it is not clear that in apocalyptic the distinction between the two altars of the tabernacle and temple is preserved. Aleph C Q have the genitive, while A P have the accusative επι το τυσιαστηριον — epi to thusiastērion golden censer Old word for frankincense (from λιβανος — libanos Matthew 2:11; Revelation 18:13), but here alone in N.T. and for censer, as is plain by the use of χρυσουν — chrusoun (golden) with it. Cf. 1 Kings 7:50. [source]
Revelation 8:4 The smoke [ο καπνος]
Old word, in N.T. only Acts 2:19; Revelation 8:4; Revelation 9:2., Revelation 9:17.; Revelation 14:11; Revelation 15:8; Revelation 18:9, Revelation 18:18; Revelation 19:3. Here from the incense in the angel‘s hand. [source]
Revelation 8:7 Sounded [εσαλπισεν]
First aorist active indicative of σαλπιζω — salpizō repeated with each angel in turn (Revelation 8:8, Revelation 8:10, Revelation 8:12; Revelation 9:1, Revelation 9:13; Revelation 11:15). [source]
Revelation 9:3 The scorpions [οι σκορπιοι]
Old name for a little animal somewhat like a lobster that lurks in stone walls in warm regions, with a venomous sting in its tail, in N.T. in Luke 10:19; Luke 11:12; Revelation 9:3, Revelation 9:5, Revelation 9:10. The scorpion ranks with the snake as hostile to man. [source]
Revelation 21:20  []
Sardonyx ( σαρδονυχ — sardonux ), here only in N.T., white with layers of red, from sardion (red carnelian) and onyx (white); for sardius ( σαρδιον — sardion ) see Revelation 4:3 ; chrysolite ( χρυσολιτος — chrusolithos ), here only in N.T. ( Exodus 28:20 ), stone of a golden colour like our topaz or amber or a yellow beryl or golden jasper; beryl ( βηρυλλος — bērullos ), again here only in N.T. ( Exodus 28:20 ), note the difficulty of identification, much like the emerald according to Pliny; for topaz ( τοπαζιον — topazion ), here only in N.T. ( Exodus 28:17 ), a golden-greenish stolle; chrysoprase (chrusoprasos), here only in N.T. (not in lxx), in colour like a teek, translucent golden-green; jacinth ( υακιντος — huakinthos ), of the colour of the hyacinth, a violet colour (Pliny), already in Revelation 9:17 like blue smoke, like achates in lxx; amethyst ( αμετυστος — amethustos ), only here in N.T. ( Exodus 28:19 ), of a violet and purple colour, more brilliant than the υακιντος — huakinthos Swete sums up the colours thus: blue (sapphire, jacinth, amethyst), green (jasper, chalcedony, emerald, beryl, topaz, chrysoprase), red (sardonyx, sardius), yellow (chrysolite). But even so there is great variety in hue and brilliancy and in the reaction on each other. Clement of Alexandria argues that this variety illustrates the variety of gifts and graces in the twelve apostles. Possibly so. [source]
Revelation 8:3 Stood [εστατη]
Ingressive first aorist passive of ιστημι — histēmi (intransitive), “took his place.”Over the altar (επι του τυσιαστηριου — epi tou thusiastēriou). See Revelation 6:9 for the word for the burnt-offering, here apparently the altar of incense (clearly so in Luke 1:11; possibly also Revelation 9:13), but it is not clear that in apocalyptic the distinction between the two altars of the tabernacle and temple is preserved. Aleph C Q have the genitive, while A P have the accusative επι το τυσιαστηριον — epi to thusiastērion golden censer (λιβανωτον χρυσουν — libanōton chrusoun). Old word for frankincense (from λιβανος — libanos Matthew 2:11; Revelation 18:13), but here alone in N.T. and for censer, as is plain by the use of χρυσουν — chrusoun (golden) with it. Cf. 1 Kings 7:50.Much incense See Revelation 5:8 for τυμιαμα — thumiama (the aromatic substance burnt, also in Revelation 18:13), but here for the live coals on which the incense falls.That he should add (ινα δωσει — hina dōsei). Sub-final clause (subject of εδοτη — edothē was given, singular because τυμιαματα — thumiamata neuter plural) with ινα — hina and the future active indicative of διδωμι — didōmi to give, instead of δωι — dōi the second aorist subjunctive.Unto the prayers Dative case. In Revelation 5:8 the τυμιαματα — thumiamata are the prayers.Upon the golden altar (επι το τυσιαστηριον το χρυσουν το — epi to thusiastērion to chrusoun to). Accusative case here, not genitive as above, and apparently the altar of incense as indicated by the word golden (Exodus 30:1.; Leviticus 4:17). Note triple article here το — to (once before the substantive, once before the adjective, once before the adjunct “the one before the throne”). [source]
Revelation 9:1 Fallen [πεπτωκοτα]
Perfect active participle of πιπτω — piptō already down. In Luke 10:18 note πεσοντα — pesonta (constative aorist active, like a flash of lightning) after ετεωρουν — etheōroun and in Revelation 7:2 note αναβαινοντα — anabainonta (present active and linear, coming up, picturing the process) after ειδον — eidon the pit of the abyss Αβυσσος — Abussos is an old adjective (alpha privative and βυτος — buthos depth, without depth), but η αβυσσος — hē abussos (supply χωρα — chōra place), the bottomless place. It occurs in Romans 10:7 for the common receptacle of the dead for Hades (Sheol), but in Luke 8:31 a lower depth is sounded (Swete), for the abode of demons, and in this sense it occurs in Revelation 9:1, Revelation 9:2, Revelation 9:11; Revelation 11:7; Revelation 17:8; Revelation 20:1, Revelation 20:3. Πρεαρ — Phrear is an old word for well or cistern (Luke 14:5; John 4:11.) and it occurs in Revelation 9:1. for the mouth of the abyss which is pictured as a cistern with a narrow orifice at the entrance and this fifth angel holds the key to it. [source]
Revelation 9:7 Unto horses [ιπποις]
Associative-instrumental case, as is the rule with ομοιος — homoios (Revelation 1:15; Revelation 2:18; Revelation 4:6.; Revelation 9:10, Revelation 9:19; Revelation 11:1; Revelation 13:2, Revelation 13:11), but with the accusative in Revelation 1:13; Revelation 14:14. So also ομοιοι χρυσωι — homoioi chrusōi (like gold) in this same verse.Prepared for war (ητοιμασμενοις εις πολεμον — hētoimasmenois eis polemon). Perfect passive participle of ετοιμαζω — hetoimazō This imagery of war-horses is like that in Joel 2:4. “The likeness of a locust to a horse, especially to a horse equipped with armour, is so striking that the insect is named in German heupferd (hay horse), and in Italian cavalett a little horse” (Vincent).As it were crowns Not actual crowns, but what looked like crowns of gold, as conquerors, as indeed they were (Revelation 4:4; Revelation 6:2; Revelation 12:1; Revelation 14:14). These locusts of the abyss have another peculiar feature.As men‘s faces (ως προσωπα αντρωπων — hōs prosōpa anthrōpōn). Human-looking faces in these demonic locusts to give added terror, “suggesting the intelligence and capacity of man” (Swete). Vincent actually sees “a distinct resemblance to the human countenance in the face of the locust.” [source]
Revelation 9:9 As it were breastplates of iron [ως τωρακας σιδερους]
The τωραχ — thōrax was originally the breast (from the neck to the navel), then the breastplate, only N.T. usage (Revelation 9:9, Revelation 9:17; 1 Thessalonians 5:8; Ephesians 6:14). The armour for the breastplate was usually of iron However, the scaly backs and flanks of the locusts do resemble coats of mail. “The locusts of the Abyss may be the memories of the past brought home at times of Divine visitation” (Swete). [source]
Revelation 9:10 Tails [ουρας]
Old word, in N.T. only in Revelation 9:10, Revelation 9:19; Revelation 12:4. [source]
Revelation 9:11 As king [βασιλεα]
Predicate accusative and anarthrous. In Proverbs 30:27 it is stated that the locust has no king, but this is not true of these demonic locusts. Their king is “the angel of the abyss (Revelation 9:1) whose orders they obey.” [source]
Revelation 9:14 Loose [λυσον]
First aorist (ingressive) active imperative of λυω — luō “let loose.” Another group of four angels (Revelation 7:1) like Acts 12:4, described here “which are bound” Perfect passive articular participle of δεω — deō evidently the leaders of the demonic horsemen (Revelation 9:15.) as the four angels let loose the demonic locusts (Revelation 7:1.), both quaternions agents of God‘s wrath. [source]
Revelation 9:14 Which had the trumpet [ο εχων την σαλπιγγα]
Nominative case in apposition with αγγελωι — aggelōi (dative), the same anomalous phenomenon in Revelation 2:20; Revelation 3:12; Revelation 14:12. Swete treats it as a parenthesis, like Revelation 4:1; Revelation 11:15.Loose (λυσον — luson). First aorist (ingressive) active imperative of λυω — luō “let loose.” Another group of four angels (Revelation 7:1) like Acts 12:4, described here “which are bound” (τους δεδεμενους — tous dedemenous). Perfect passive articular participle of δεω — deō evidently the leaders of the demonic horsemen (Revelation 9:15.) as the four angels let loose the demonic locusts (Revelation 7:1.), both quaternions agents of God‘s wrath.At the great river Euphrates A regular epithet of the Euphrates (Revelation 16:12; Genesis 15:18; Deuteronomy 1:7). It rises in Armenia and joins the Tigris in lower Babylonia, a total length of nearly 1800 miles, the eastern boundary of the Roman Empire next to Parthia. [source]

What do the individual words in Revelation 9:1 mean?

And the fifth angel sounded [his] trumpet I saw a star out of - heaven having fallen to the earth was given to it the key of the pit of the Abyss
Καὶ πέμπτος ἄγγελος ἐσάλπισεν εἶδον ἀστέρα ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ πεπτωκότα εἰς τὴν γῆν ἐδόθη αὐτῷ κλεὶς τοῦ φρέατος τῆς ἀβύσσου

πέμπτος  fifth 
Parse: Adjective, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root: πέμπτος  
Sense: fifth.
ἄγγελος  angel 
Parse: Noun, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root: ἄγγελος  
Sense: a messenger, envoy, one who is sent, an angel, a messenger from God.
ἐσάλπισεν  sounded  [his]  trumpet 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Active, 3rd Person Singular
Root: σαλπίζω  
Sense: to sound a trumpet.
εἶδον  I  saw 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Active, 1st Person Singular
Root: εἶδον 
Sense: to see with the eyes.
ἀστέρα  a  star 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Masculine Singular
Root: ἀστήρ  
Sense: a star.
ἐκ  out  of 
Parse: Preposition
Root: ἐκ 
Sense: out of, from, by, away from.
τοῦ  - 
Parse: Article, Genitive Masculine Singular
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
οὐρανοῦ  heaven 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Masculine Singular
Root: οὐρανός  
Sense: the vaulted expanse of the sky with all things visible in it.
πεπτωκότα  having  fallen 
Parse: Verb, Perfect Participle Active, Accusative Masculine Singular
Root: πίπτω 
Sense: to descend from a higher place to a lower.
γῆν  earth 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Feminine Singular
Root: γῆ  
Sense: arable land.
ἐδόθη  was  given 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Passive, 3rd Person Singular
Root: διδῶ 
Sense: to give.
αὐτῷ  to  it 
Parse: Personal / Possessive Pronoun, Dative Masculine 3rd Person Singular
Root: αὐτός  
Sense: himself, herself, themselves, itself.
κλεὶς  key 
Parse: Noun, Nominative Feminine Singular
Root: κλείς  
Sense: a key.
τοῦ  of  the 
Parse: Article, Genitive Neuter Singular
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
φρέατος  pit 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Neuter Singular
Root: φρέαρ  
Sense: a well.
τῆς  of  the 
Parse: Article, Genitive Feminine Singular
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
ἀβύσσου  Abyss 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Feminine Singular
Root: ἄβυσσος  
Sense: bottomless.