The Meaning of Galatians 5:1 Explained

Galatians 5:1

KJV: Stand fast therefore in the liberty wherewith Christ hath made us free, and be not entangled again with the yoke of bondage.

YLT: In the freedom, then, with which Christ did make you free -- stand ye, and be not held fast again by a yoke of servitude;

Darby: Christ has set us free in freedom; stand fast therefore, and be not held again in a yoke of bondage.

ASV: For freedom did Christ set us free: stand fast therefore, and be not entangled again in a yoke of bondage.

What does Galatians 5:1 Mean?

Verse Meaning

Paul"s mainly Gentile readers were in danger of returning to slavery, not to the slavery of their heathen sins as before but to the slavery of the Mosaic Law. The false teachers were evidently telling them that they needed to submit to circumcision to be truly acceptable to God.
"Before plunging into this third section of his letter, Paul interjects a verse that is at once a summary of all that has gone before and a transition to what follows. It Isaiah , in fact, the key verse of the entire Epistle. Because of the nature of the true gospel and of the work of Christ on his behalf, the believer is now to turn away from anything that smacks of legalism and instead rest in Christ"s triumphant work for him and live in the power of Christ"s Spirit.... The appeal is for an obstinate perseverance in freedom as the only proper response to an attempt to bring Christians once more under legalism." [1]
In the quotation above, Boice used the term "legalism" as it is commonly used to describe both legalism and nomism.
In what sense has God liberated Christians from the "yoke of slavery" ( Genesis 9:1-1706) that is the Mosaic Law (cf. Romans 10:4; 2 Corinthians 3:7-11; Hebrews 7:12; Galatians 3:24)?
Calvin and many reformed theologians have answered this question this way. They have said the ceremonial laws (e.g, animal sacrifices, dietary restrictions, feast days, etc.) are no longer binding on Christians because of the death of Christ. Nevertheless the moral laws (the Ten Commandments) are still binding. God has done away with the moral laws only in the sense that they no longer condemn us ( Romans 8:11). [2] The problem with this explanation is that it makes a distinction between two parts of the Law that the text does not make. The text simply states that Christ is the end of "the Law" ( Romans 10:4), not the ceremonial part of the Law. Furthermore if the Ten Commandments are all still binding on us, why have Christians throughout history ( Acts 20:7; cf. 1 Corinthians 16:2) met to worship on Sunday rather than on the Sabbath? Some reformed theologians, following Calvin, believe that God abolished Sabbath worship along with the ceremonial laws. [3] This seems somewhat inconsistent. Others, following the Westminster Confession, regard Sunday worship as a continuation of Sabbath worship. [4] Nevertheless it Isaiah , of course, very different.
Dispensational theologians have suggested another answer to this question that to me seems more consistent with what Scripture says. They say that God did away with the Mosaic Law completely, both the ceremonial and the moral parts. He terminated it as a code and has replaced it with a new code, "the Law of Christ" ( Galatians 6:2). Some commandments in the Law of Christ are the same as those in the Law of Moses (e.g, nine of the Ten Commandments, excluding the command to observe the Sabbath day). God-given codes of laws that governed people"s behavior existed before God gave the Law of Moses (e.g, Genesis 1:28-30; Genesis 2:16-17; Genesis 3:14-19; 1620784403_5). God incorporated some specific commands from these former codes into the Law of Christ even though they were not part of the Law of Moses (e.g, 1 Timothy 4:3; cf. Genesis 9:3). He also incorporated nine of the Ten Commandments from the Mosaic Code.
"May this procedure not be likened to the various codes in a household with growing children? At different stages of maturity new codes are instituted, but some of the same commandments appear often. To say that the former code is done away and all its commandments is no contradiction. It is as natural as growing up. So it is with the Mosaic Law and the law of Christ." [5]
"The "yoke" was used in current Jewish parlance in an honorable sense for the obligation to keep the law of Moses, and the Judaizers may well have urged the Galatians to "take the yoke of the law" upon themselves. But Paul bluntly points out that the ordinances of the law as demanded by the Judaizers constitute a slave"s yoke, so that he uses the word in the bad sense of an imposed burden, like slavery (cf. Acts 15:10; 1 Timothy 6:1)." [6]

Context Summary

Galatians 5:1-12 - Hold Fast Your Freedom
We are free. The Son has made us free, and we are free indeed, though not free to disobey the dictates and promptings of our new nature. We are set free from minute prescriptions, from priestly rules and requisitions, from all that would cramp and hinder our spiritual development; but we are still under the law of Christ, who will see to it that the essential righteousness of the Mosaic law is fulfilled in us, "who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit," Romans 8:1.
If the Mosaic law is kept as a means of salvation, we must fulfill it all, Galatians 5:3. For himself, as "we" suggests, Galatians 5:5, Paul had an assured confidence that his hope could not be disappointed. Christ is ever calling us upward, Galatians 5:8. Be on guard against the ferment of false teaching, Galatians 5:9. The Apostle shows the absurdity of supposing that he was in favor of circumcision, since, if that were the case, the long persecution of his life would cease, Galatians 5:11. These verses were in Bunyan's mind when he depicted Mr. Worldly Wiseman, of the town of Carnal Policy, as endeavoring to turn Christian out of the Way of the Cross to the house of Mr. Legality. [source]

Chapter Summary: Galatians 5

1  He wills them to stand in their liberty,
3  and not to observe circumcision;
13  but rather love, which is the sum of the law
19  He lists the works of the flesh,
22  and the fruits of the Spirit,
25  and exhorts to walk in the Spirit

Greek Commentary for Galatians 5:1

With freedom [τηι ελευτεριαι]
Rather dative case instead of instrumental, “for freedom,” “for the (article) freedom that belongs to us children of the freewoman” (Galatians 4:31). [source]
Did Christ set us free [ημας Χριστος ηλευτερωσεν]
Effective aorist active indicative of ελευτεροω — eleutheroō (from ερχομαι — erchomai to go, go free). Stand fast therefore (στηκετε ουν — stēkete oun). See Mark 3:31; 1 Corinthians 16:13 for this late word from perfect stem of ιστημι — histēmi “keep on standing therefore,” “stay free since Christ set you free.” Be not entangled again “Stop being held in by a yoke of bondage.” Common word for ensnare by trap. The Judaizers were trying to lasso the Galatians for the old yoke of Judaism. [source]
Stand fast therefore [στηκετε ουν]
See Mark 3:31; 1 Corinthians 16:13 for this late word from perfect stem of ιστημι — histēmi “keep on standing therefore,” “stay free since Christ set you free.” [source]
Be not entangled again [μη παλιν ενεχεστε]
“Stop being held in by a yoke of bondage.” Common word for ensnare by trap. The Judaizers were trying to lasso the Galatians for the old yoke of Judaism. [source]
[]
d In the liberty wherewith. This is according to the reading τῆ ἐλευθερίᾳ ᾗ . Different connections are proposed, as with stand fast, as A.V.: or with the close of chapter 4, as, “we are not children of the bondwoman but of the free with the freedom with which Christ freed us”: or, “of her who is free with the freedom with which,” etc. But ᾗ wherewithmust be omitted. A new clause begins with τῇ ἐλευθερίᾳ . Rend. for freedom did Christ set us free. For, not with freedom. It is the dative of advantage; that we might be really free and remain free. Comp. Galatians 5:13, and John 8:36. [source]
Made [ἠλευθέρωσεν]
With the exception of John 8:32, John 8:36, only in Paul. [source]
Stand fast [στήκετε]
Used absolutely, as 2 Thessalonians 2:15. Mostly in Paul. See on 1 Thessalonians 3:8. [source]
Be not entangled [μὴ ἐνέχεσθε]
Or, held ensnared. By Paul only here and 2 Thessalonians 1:4. Lit. to be held within. For an elliptical usage see on Mark 6:19. [source]
Yoke [ζυγῷ]
Metaphorical, of a burden or bondage. Comp. Matthew 11:29, Matthew 11:30; Acts 15:10; 1 Timothy 6:1. Similarly lxx, Genesis 27:40; Leviticus 26:13; 2 Chronicles 10:4, 2 Chronicles 10:9, 2 Chronicles 10:10, 2 Chronicles 10:11, 2 Chronicles 10:14. So always in N.T. except Revelation 6:5, where it means a pair of scales. See note, and comp. Leviticus 19:35, Leviticus 19:36; Proverbs 11:1; Proverbs 16:11; Hosea 12:7. [source]

Reverse Greek Commentary Search for Galatians 5:1

John 1:26 Standeth [ἕστηκεν]
The best texts read στήκει , a verb which is kindred to ἕστηκεν , but with the added sense of firm, persistent standing. Thus, stand fast (1 Corinthians 16:13; Galatians 5:1: Philemon 1:27). The verb emphasizes the firm, dignified attitude of Christ. [source]
John 12:38 That might be fulfilled [ινα πληρωτηι]
It is usually assumed that ινα — hina here with the first aorist passive subjunctive of πληροω — plēroō has its full telic force. That is probable as God‘s design, but it is by no means certain since ινα — hina is used in the N.T. with the idea of result, just as ut in Latin is either purpose or result, as in John 6:7; John 9:2; 1 Thessalonians 5:4; Galatians 5:17; Romans 11:11 (Robertson, Grammar, p. 998). Paul in Romans 10:16 quotes Isaiah 53:1 as John does here but without ινα — hina See note on Romans 10:16 for discussion of the quotation. The next verse adds strength to the idea of design. [source]
John 8:32 And ye shall know the truth [και γνωσεστε την αλητειαν]
Truth is one of the marks of Christ (John 1:14) and Jesus will claim to Thomas to be the personification of truth (John 14:6). But it will be for them knowledge to be learned by doing God‘s will (John 7:17). The word is from αλητης — alēthēs See also John 8:40, John 8:44, John 8:45. And the truth shall make you free Future active indicative of ελευτεροω — eleutheroō old verb from ελευτερος — eleutheros (from ερχομαι — erchomai to go where one wishes and so free). One of Paul‘s great words for freedom from the bondage of the law (Romans 6:18; Galatians 5:1). The freedom of which Jesus here speaks is freedom from the slavery of sin as Paul in Romans 8:2. See John 8:36. This freedom is won alone by Christ (John 8:36) and we are sanctified in truth (John 17:19). In John 1:17 truth is mentioned with grace as one of the marks of the gospel through Christ. Freedom (intellectual, moral, spiritual) is only attainable when we are set free from darkness, sin, ignorance, superstition and let the Light of the World shine on us and in us. [source]
Acts 21:38 Madest an uproar []
Better, as Rev., stirred up to sedition. The rendering of the A. V. is too vague. The verb means to unsettle or upset, and the true idea is given in the A. V. of Acts 17:6, have turned the world upside down. Compare Galatians 5:12, and kindred words in Mark 15:7; Luke 23:19. [source]
Acts 15:10 A yoke upon the neck [ζυγον επι τον τραχηλον]
Familiar image of oxen with yokes upon the necks. Paul‘s very image for the yoke of bondage of the Mosaic law in Galatians 5:1. It had probably been used in the private interview. Cf. the words of Jesus about the Pharisees (Matthew 23:4) and how easy and light his own yoke is (Matthew 11:30). [source]
Acts 15:10 That ye should put [επιτειναι]
Second aorist active infinitive of επιτιτημι — epitithēmi epexegetic, explaining the tempting. A yoke upon the neck (ζυγον επι τον τραχηλον — zugon epi ton trachēlon). Familiar image of oxen with yokes upon the necks. Paul‘s very image for the yoke of bondage of the Mosaic law in Galatians 5:1. It had probably been used in the private interview. Cf. the words of Jesus about the Pharisees (Matthew 23:4) and how easy and light his own yoke is (Matthew 11:30). Were able to bear Neither our fathers nor we had strength (ισχυω — ischuō) to carry this yoke which the Judaizers wish to put on the necks of the Gentiles. Peter speaks as the spiritual emancipator. He had been slow to see the meaning of God‘s dealings with him at Joppa and Caesarea, but he has seen clearly by now. He takes his stand boldly with Paul and Barnabas for Gentile freedom. [source]
Acts 17:6 They dragged [εσυρον]
Imperfect active, vivid picture, they were dragging (literally). See note on Acts 8:3; and note on Acts 16:19. If they could not find Paul, they could drag Jason his host and some other Christians whom we do not know. Before the rulers of the city (επι τους πολιταρχας — epi tous politarchas). This word does not occur in Greek literature and used to be cited as an example of Luke‘s blunders. But now it is found in an inscription on an arch in the modern city preserved in the British Museum. It is also found in seventeen inscriptions (five from Thessalonica) where the word or the verb πολιταρχεω — politarcheō occurs. It is a fine illustration of the historical accuracy of Luke in matters of detail. This title for city officers in Thessalonica, a free city, is correct. They were burgomasters or “rulers of the city.” Crying Yelling as if the house was on fire like the mob in Jerusalem (Acts 21:28). These that have turned the world upside down (οι την οικουμενην αναστατωσαντες — hoi tēn oikoumenēn anastatōsantes). The use of οικουμενην — oikoumenēn (supply γεν — genō or χωραν — chōran the inhabited earth, present passive participle of οικεω — oikeō) means the Roman Empire, since it is a political charge, a natural hyperbole in their excitement, but the phrase occurs for the Roman Empire in Luke 2:1. It is possible that news had come to Thessalonica of the expulsion of the Jews from Rome by Claudius. There is truth in the accusation, for Christianity is revolutionary, but on this particular occasion the uproar (Acts 17:5) was created by the rabbis and the hired loafers. The verb αναστατοω — anastatoō (here first aorist active participle) does not occur in the ancient writers, but is in lxx and in Acts 17:6; Acts 21:38; Galatians 5:12. It occurs also in Harpocration (a.d. 4th cent.) and about 100 b.c. εχαναστατοω — exanastatoō is found in a fragment of papyrus (Tebtunis no. 2) and in a Paris Magical Papyrus l. 2243f. But in an Egyptian letter of Aug. 4, 41 a.d. (Oxyrhynchus Pap. no. 119, 10) “the bad boy” uses it = “he upsets me” or “ he drives me out of my senses” (αναστατοι με — anastatoi me). See Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East, pp. 84f. It is not a “Biblical word” at all, but belongs to the current Koiné. It is a vigorous and graphic term. [source]
Acts 17:6 Crying [βοωντες]
Yelling as if the house was on fire like the mob in Jerusalem (Acts 21:28). These that have turned the world upside down (οι την οικουμενην αναστατωσαντες — hoi tēn oikoumenēn anastatōsantes). The use of οικουμενην — oikoumenēn (supply γεν — genō or χωραν — chōran the inhabited earth, present passive participle of οικεω — oikeō) means the Roman Empire, since it is a political charge, a natural hyperbole in their excitement, but the phrase occurs for the Roman Empire in Luke 2:1. It is possible that news had come to Thessalonica of the expulsion of the Jews from Rome by Claudius. There is truth in the accusation, for Christianity is revolutionary, but on this particular occasion the uproar (Acts 17:5) was created by the rabbis and the hired loafers. The verb αναστατοω — anastatoō (here first aorist active participle) does not occur in the ancient writers, but is in lxx and in Acts 17:6; Acts 21:38; Galatians 5:12. It occurs also in Harpocration (a.d. 4th cent.) and about 100 b.c. εχαναστατοω — exanastatoō is found in a fragment of papyrus (Tebtunis no. 2) and in a Paris Magical Papyrus l. 2243f. But in an Egyptian letter of Aug. 4, 41 a.d. (Oxyrhynchus Pap. no. 119, 10) “the bad boy” uses it = “he upsets me” or “ he drives me out of my senses” (αναστατοι με — anastatoi me). See Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East, pp. 84f. It is not a “Biblical word” at all, but belongs to the current Koiné. It is a vigorous and graphic term. [source]
Acts 17:6 These that have turned the world upside down [οι την οικουμενην αναστατωσαντες]
The use of οικουμενην — oikoumenēn (supply γεν — genō or χωραν — chōran the inhabited earth, present passive participle of οικεω — oikeō) means the Roman Empire, since it is a political charge, a natural hyperbole in their excitement, but the phrase occurs for the Roman Empire in Luke 2:1. It is possible that news had come to Thessalonica of the expulsion of the Jews from Rome by Claudius. There is truth in the accusation, for Christianity is revolutionary, but on this particular occasion the uproar (Acts 17:5) was created by the rabbis and the hired loafers. The verb αναστατοω — anastatoō (here first aorist active participle) does not occur in the ancient writers, but is in lxx and in Acts 17:6; Acts 21:38; Galatians 5:12. It occurs also in Harpocration (a.d. 4th cent.) and about 100 b.c. εχαναστατοω — exanastatoō is found in a fragment of papyrus (Tebtunis no. 2) and in a Paris Magical Papyrus l. 2243f. But in an Egyptian letter of Aug. 4, 41 a.d. (Oxyrhynchus Pap. no. 119, 10) “the bad boy” uses it = “he upsets me” or “ he drives me out of my senses” See Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East, pp. 84f. It is not a “Biblical word” at all, but belongs to the current Koiné. It is a vigorous and graphic term. [source]
Acts 21:37 Dost thou know Greek? [ελληνιστι γινωσκεισ]
Old Greek adverb in ι — ̇i from ελληνιζω — Hellēnizō meaning “in Greek.” “Do you know it in Greek?” In the N.T. only here and John 19:20. Art thou not then the Egyptian? (Ουκ αρα συ ει ο Αιγυπτιοσ — Ouk ara su ei ho Aiguptioṡ). Expects the answer Yes and αρα — ara argues the matter (therefore). The well-known (ο — ho) Egyptian who had given the Romans so much trouble. Stirred up to sedition First aorist active participle of αναστατοω — anastatoō a late verb from αναστατος — anastatos outcast, and so to unsettle, to stir up, to excite, once known only in lxx and Acts 17:6 (which see); Acts 21:38; Galatians 5:12, but now found in several papyri examples with precisely this sense to upset. Of the Assassins (των σικαριων — tōn sikariōn). Latin word sicarius, one who carried a short sword σιχα — sica under his cloak, a cutthroat. Josephus uses this very word for bands of robbers under this Egyptian (War II. 17, 6 and 13, 5; Ant. XX. 8, 10). Josephus says that there were 30,000 who gathered on the Mount of Olives to see the walls of Jerusalem fall down and not merely 4,000 as Lysias does here. But Lysias may refer to the group that were armed thus (banditti) the core of the mob of 30,000. Lysias at once saw by Paul‘s knowledge of Greek that he was not the famous Egyptian who led the Assassins and escaped himself when Felix attacked and slew the most of them. [source]
Acts 21:37 Stirred up to sedition [αναστατωσας]
First aorist active participle of αναστατοω — anastatoō a late verb from αναστατος — anastatos outcast, and so to unsettle, to stir up, to excite, once known only in lxx and Acts 17:6 (which see); Acts 21:38; Galatians 5:12, but now found in several papyri examples with precisely this sense to upset. Of the Assassins (των σικαριων — tōn sikariōn). Latin word sicarius, one who carried a short sword σιχα — sica under his cloak, a cutthroat. Josephus uses this very word for bands of robbers under this Egyptian (War II. 17, 6 and 13, 5; Ant. XX. 8, 10). Josephus says that there were 30,000 who gathered on the Mount of Olives to see the walls of Jerusalem fall down and not merely 4,000 as Lysias does here. But Lysias may refer to the group that were armed thus (banditti) the core of the mob of 30,000. Lysias at once saw by Paul‘s knowledge of Greek that he was not the famous Egyptian who led the Assassins and escaped himself when Felix attacked and slew the most of them. [source]
Romans 8:4 The Spirit [πνεῦμα]
From πνέω tobreathe or blow. The primary conception is wind or breath. Breath being the sign and condition of life in man, it comes to signify life. In this sense, physiologically considered, it is frequent in the classics. In the psychological sense, never. In the Old Testament it is ordinarily the translation of ruach It is also used to translate chai life, Isaiah 38:12; nbreath, 1 Kings 17:17. In the New Testament it occurs in the sense of wind or breath, John 3:8; 2 Thessalonians 2:8; Hebrews 1:7. Closely related to the physiological sense are such passages as Luke 8:55; James 2:26; Revelation 13:15. Pauline Usage: 1. Breath, 2 Thessalonians 2:8. 2. The spirit or mind of man; the inward, self-conscious principle which feels and thinks and wills (1 Corinthians 2:11; 1 Corinthians 5:3; 1 Corinthians 7:34; Colossians 2:5). In this sense it is distinguished from σῶμα bodyor accompanied with a personal pronoun in the genitive, as my, our, his spirit (Romans 1:9; Romans 8:16; 1 Corinthians 5:4; 1 Corinthians 16:18, etc.). It is used as parallel with ψυχή souland καρδία heartSee 1 Corinthians 5:3; 1 Thessalonians 2:17; and compare John 13:21and John 12:27; Matthew 26:38and Luke 1:46, Luke 1:47. But while ψυχή soulis represented as the subject of life, πνεύμα spiritrepresents the principle of life, having independent activity in all circumstances of the perceptive and emotional life, and never as the subject. Generally, πνεύμα spiritmay be described as the principle, ψυχή soulas the subject, and καρδία heartas the organ of life. 3. The spiritual nature of Christ. Romans 1:4; 1 Corinthians 15:45; 1 Timothy 3:16. 4. The divine power or influence belonging to God, and communicated in Christ to men, in virtue of which they become πνευματικοί spiritual - recipientsand organs of the Spirit. This is Paul's most common use of the word. Romans 8:9; 1 Corinthians 2:13; Galatians 4:6; Galatians 6:1; 1 Thessalonians 4:8. In this sense it appears as: a. Spirit of God. Romans 8:9, Romans 8:11, Romans 8:14; 1 Corinthians 2:10, 1 Corinthians 2:11, 1 Corinthians 2:12, 1 Corinthians 2:14; 1 Corinthians 3:16; 1 Corinthians 6:11; 1 Corinthians 7:40; 2 Corinthians 3:3; Ephesians 3:16. b. Spirit of Christ. Romans 8:9; 2 Corinthians 3:17, 2 Corinthians 3:18; Galatians 4:6; Philemon 1:19. c. Holy Spirit. Romans 5:5; 1 Corinthians 6:19; 1 Corinthians 12:3; Ephesians 1:13; 1 Thessalonians 1:5, 1 Thessalonians 1:6; 1 Thessalonians 4:8, etc. d. Spirit. With or without the article, but with its reference to the Spirit of God or Holy Spirit indicated by the context. Romans 8:16, Romans 8:23, Romans 8:26, Romans 8:27; 1 Corinthians 2:4, 1 Corinthians 2:10; 1 Corinthians 12:4, 1 Corinthians 12:7, 1 Corinthians 12:8, 1 Corinthians 12:9; Ephesians 4:3; 2 Thessalonians 2:13, etc. 5. A power or influence, the character, manifestations, or results of which are more peculiarly defined by qualifying genitives. Thus spirit of meekness, faith, power, wisdom. Romans 8:2, Romans 8:15; 1 Corinthians 4:21; 2 Corinthians 4:13; Galatians 6:1; Ephesians 1:17; 2 Timothy 1:7, etc. These combinations with the genitives are not mere periphrases for a faculty or disposition of man. By the spirit of meekness or wisdom, for instance, is not meant merely a meek or wise spirit; but that meekness, wisdom, power, etc., are gifts of the Spirit of God. This usage is according to Old Testament analogy. Compare Exodus 28:3; Exodus 31:3; Exodus 35:31; Isaiah 11:2. 6. In the plural, used of spiritual gifts or of those who profess to be under spiritual influence, 1 Corinthians 12:10; 1 Corinthians 14:12. 7. Powers or influences alien or averse from the divine Spirit, but with some qualifying word. Thus, the spirit of the world; another spirit; spirit of slumber. Romans 11:8; 1 Corinthians 2:12; 2 Corinthians 11:4; Ephesians 2:2; 2 Timothy 1:7. Where these expressions are in negative form they are framed after the analogy of the positive counterpart with which they are placed in contrast. Thus Romans 8:15: “Ye have not received the spirit of bondage, but of adoption. In other cases, as Ephesians 2:2, where the expression is positive, the conception is shaped according to Old-Testament usage, where spirits of evil are conceived as issuing from, and dependent upon, God, so far as He permits their operation and makes them subservient to His own ends. See Judges 9:23; 1 Samuel 16:14-16, 1 Samuel 16:23; 1 Samuel 18:10; 1 Kings 22:21sqq.; Isaiah 19:4. Spirit is found contrasted with letter, Romans 2:29; Romans 7:6; 2 Corinthians 3:6. With flesh, Romans 8:1-13; Galatians 5:16, Galatians 5:24. It is frequently associated with the idea of power (Romans 1:4; Romans 15:13, Romans 15:19; 1 Corinthians 2:4; Galatians 3:5; Ephesians 3:16; 2 Timothy 1:7); and the verb ἐνεργεῖν , denoting to work efficaciously, is used to mark its special operation (1 Corinthians 12:11; Ephesians 3:20; Philemon 2:13; Colossians 1:29). It is also closely associated with life, Romans 8:2, Romans 8:6, Romans 8:11, Romans 8:13; 1 Corinthians 15:4, 1 Corinthians 15:5; 2 Corinthians 3:6; Galatians 5:25; Galatians 6:8. It is the common possession of the Church and its members; not an occasional gift, but an essential element and mark of the christian life; not appearing merely or mainly in exceptional, marvelous, ecstatic demonstrations, but as the motive and mainspring of all christian action and feeling. It reveals itself in confession (1 Corinthians 12:3); in the consciousness of sonship (Romans 8:16); in the knowledge of the love of God (Romans 5:5); in the peace and joy of faith (Romans 14:17; 1 Thessalonians 1:6); in hope (Romans 5:5; Romans 15:13). It leads believers (Romans 8:14; Galatians 5:18): they serve in newness of the Spirit (Romans 7:6) They walk after the Spirit (Romans 8:4, Romans 8:5; Galatians 5:16-25). Through the Spirit they are sanctified (2 Thessalonians 2:13). It manifests itself in the diversity of forms and operations, appearing under two main aspects: a difference of gifts, and a difference of functions. See Romans 8:9; 1 Corinthians 3:16; 1 Corinthians 5:1, 1 Corinthians 5:11; 1 Corinthians 12:13; Ephesians 1:13; Ephesians 4:3, Ephesians 4:4, Ephesians 4:30; Philemon 2:1; [source]
Romans 7:8 Occasion [ἀφορμὴν]
Emphatic, expressing the relation of the law to sin. The law is not sin, but sin found occasion in the law. Used only by Paul. See 2 Corinthians 5:12; Galatians 5:13; 1 Timothy 5:14. The verb ἀφορμάω means to make a start from a place. Ἁφορμή is therefore primarily a starting-point, a base of operations. The Lacedaemonians agreed that Peloponnesus would be ἀφορμὴν ἱκανὴν agood base of operations (Thucydides, i., 90). Thus, the origin, cause, occasion, or pretext of a thing; the means with which one begins. Generally, resources, as means of war, capital in business. Here the law is represented as furnishing sin with the material or ground of assault, “the fulcrum for the energy of the evil principle.” Sin took the law as a base of operations. [source]
Romans 7:5 In the flesh [ἐν τῇ σαρκί]
Σάρξ fleshoccurs in the classics in the physical sense only. Homer commonly uses it in the plural as denoting all the flesh or muscles of the body. Later the singular occurs in the same sense. Paul's use of this and other psychological terms must be determined largely by the Old-Testament usage as it appears in the Septuagint. 1. In the physical sense. The literal flesh. In the Septuagint τὰ κρέα flesh(plural) is used where the reference is to the parts of animals slain, and αἱ σάρκες , flesh (plural) where the reference is to flesh as the covering of the living body. Hence Paul uses κρέα in Romans 14:21; 1 Corinthians 8:13, of the flesh of sacrificed animals. Compare also the adjective σάρκιμος fleshy 2 Corinthians 3:3; and Ezekiel 11:19; Ezekiel 36:26, Sept. -DIVIDER-
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2. Kindred. Denoting natural or physical relationship, Romans 1:3; Romans 9:3-8; Romans 11:14; Galatians 4:23, Galatians 4:29; 1 Corinthians 10:18; Philemon 1:16. This usage forms a transition to the following sense: the whole human body. Flesh is the medium in and through which the natural relationship of man manifests itself. Kindred is conceived as based on community of bodily substance. Therefore:-DIVIDER-
3. The body itself. The whole being designated by the part, as being its main substance and characteristic, 1 Corinthians 6:16; 1 Corinthians 7:28; 2 Corinthians 4:11; 2 Corinthians 7:5; 2 Corinthians 10:3; 2 Corinthians 12:7. Romans 2:28; Galatians 6:13, etc. Paul follows the Septuagint in sometimes using σῶμα bodyand sometimes σάρξ fleshin this sense, so that the terms occasionally seem to be practically synonymous. Thus 1 Corinthians 6:16, 1 Corinthians 6:17, where the phrase one body is illustrated and confirmed by one flesh. See Genesis 2:24; Ephesians 5:28, Ephesians 5:31, where the two are apparently interchanged. Compare 2 Corinthians 4:10, 2 Corinthians 4:11; 1 Corinthians 5:3, and Colossians 2:5. Σάρξ , however, differs from σῶμα in that it can only signify the organism of an earthly, living being consisting of flesh and bones, and cannot denote “either an earthly organism that is not living, or a living organism that is not earthly” (Wendt, in Dickson). Σῶμα not thus limited. Thus it may denote the organism of the plant (1 Corinthians 15:37, 1 Corinthians 15:38) or the celestial bodies (1 Corinthians 15:40). Hence the two conceptions are related as general and special: σῶμα bodybeing the material organism apart from any definite matter (not from any sort of matter), σάρξ , flesh, the definite, earthly, animal organism. The two are synonymons when σῶμα is used, from the context, of an earthly, animal body. Compare Philemon 1:22; 2 Corinthians 5:1-8. -DIVIDER-
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Σῶμα bodyand not σάρξ fleshis used when the reference is to a metaphorical organism, as the church, Romans 12:4sqq.; 1 Corinthians 10:16; 12:12-27; Ephesians 1:23; Ephesians 2:16; Colossians 1:18, etc. -DIVIDER-
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The σάρξ is described as mortal (2 Corinthians 4:11); subject to infirmity (Galatians 4:13; 2 Corinthians 12:7); locally limited (Colossians 2:15); an object of fostering care (Ephesians 5:29). -DIVIDER-
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4. Living beings generally, including their mental nature, and with a correlated notion of weakness and perishableness. Thus the phrase πᾶσα σάρξ allflesh (Genesis 6:12; Isaiah 49:26; Isaiah 49:23). This accessory notion of weakness stands in contrast with God. In Paul the phrase all flesh is cited from the Old Testament (Romans 3:20; Galatians 2:16) and is used independently (1 Corinthians 1:29). In all these instances before God is added. So in Galatians 1:16, flesh and blood implies a contrast of human with divine wisdom. Compare 1 Corinthians 15:50; Ephesians 6:12. This leads up to-DIVIDER-
5. Man “either as a creature in his natural state apart from Christ, or the creaturely side or aspect of the man in Christ.” Hence it is correlated with ἄνθρωπος man 1 Corinthians 3:3; Romans 6:19; 2 Corinthians 5:17. Compare Romans 6:6; Ephesians 4:22; Colossians 3:9; Galatians 5:24. Thus the flesh would seem to be interchangeable with the old man. -DIVIDER-
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It has affections and lusts (Galatians 5:24); willings (Ephesians 2:3; Romans 8:6, Romans 8:7); a mind (Colossians 2:18); a body (Colossians 2:11). -DIVIDER-
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It is in sharp contrast with πνεῦμα spirit(Galatians 3:3, Galatians 3:19; Galatians 5:16, Galatians 5:17, Galatians 5:19-24; Galatians 6:8; Romans 8:4). The flesh and the spirit are thus antagonistic. Σάρξ fleshbefore or in contrast with his reception of the divine element whereby he becomes a new creature in Christ: the whole being of man as it exists and acts apart from the influence of the Spirit. It properly characterizes, therefore, not merely the lower forms of sensual gratification, but all - the highest developments of the life estranged from God, whether physical, intellectual, or aesthetic. -DIVIDER-
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It must be carefully noted:-DIVIDER-
1. That Paul does not identify flesh and sin. Compare, flesh of sin, Romans 8:3. See Romans 7:17, Romans 7:18; 2 Corinthians 7:1; Galatians 2:20. -DIVIDER-
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2. That Paul does not identify σάρξ withthe material body nor associate sin exclusively and predominantly with the body. The flesh is the flesh of the living man animated by the soul ( ψυχή ) as its principle of life, and is distinctly used as coordinate with ἄνθρωπος manAs in the Old Testament, “it embraces in an emphatic manner the nature of man, mental and corporeal, with its internal distinctions.” The spirit as well as the flesh is capable of defilement (2 Corinthians 7:1; compare 1 Corinthians 7:34). Christian life is to be transformed by the renewing of the mind (Romans 12:2; compare Ephesians 4:23). -DIVIDER-
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3. That Paul does not identify the material side of man with evil. The flesh is not the native seat and source of sin. It is only its organ, and the seat of sin's manifestation. Matter is not essentially evil. The logical consequence of this would be that no service of God is possible while the material organism remains. See Romans 12:1. The flesh is not necessarily sinful in itself; but as it has existed from the time of the introduction of sin through Adam, it is recognized by Paul as tainted with sin. Jesus appeared in the flesh, and yet was sinless (2 Corinthians 5:21).The motions of sins ( τὰ παθήματα τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν )Motions used in earlier English for emotions or impulses. Thus Bacon: “He that standeth at a stay where others rise, can hardly avoid motions of envy” (“Essay” xiv.). The word is nearly synonymous with πάθος passion(Romans 1:26, note). From πάθειν tosuffer; a feeling which the mind undergoes, a passion, desire. Rev., sinful passions: which led to sins.Did work ( ἐνηργεῖτο )Rev., wrought. See 2 Corinthians 1:6; 2 Corinthians 4:12; Ephesians 3:20; Galatians 5:6; Philemon 2:13; Colossians 1:29. Compare Mark 6:14, and see on power, John 1:12. [source]

Romans 11:11 Did they stumble that they might fall? [μη επταισαν ινα πεσωσιν]
Negative answer expected by μη — mē as in Romans 11:1. First aorist active indicative of πταιω — ptaiō old verb, to stumble, only here in Paul (see note on James 3:2), suggested perhaps by σκανδαλον — skandalon in Romans 11:9. If ινα — hina is final, then we must add “merely” to the idea, “merely that they might fall” or make a sharp distinction between πταιω — ptaiō to stumble, and πιπτω — piptō to fall, and take πεσωσιν — pesōsin as effective aorist active subjunctive to fall completely and for good. ινα — Hina as we know, can be either final, sub-final, or even result. See note on 1 Thessalonians 5:4; 1 Corinthians 7:29; Galatians 5:17. Paul rejects this query in Romans 11:11 as vehemently as he did that in Romans 11:1. [source]
Romans 13:9 And if there be any other [και ει τις ετερα]
Paul does not attempt to give them all. It is summed up (ανακεπαλαιουται — anakephalaioutai). Present passive indicative of ανακεπαλαιοω — anakephalaioō late literary word or “rhetorical term” (ανα κεπαλαιον — anaκεπαλαιον — kephalaion head or chief as in Hebrews 8:1). Not in the papyri, but εν τωι — kephalaion quite common for sum or summary. In N.T. only here and Ephesians 1:10. Namely See βασιλικος νομος — to gar at the beginning of the verse, though omitted by B F. The quotation is from Leviticus 19:18. Quoted in Matthew 5:43; Matthew 22:39; Mark 12:31; Luke 10:27; Galatians 5:14; James 2:8 it is called τον πλησιον σου — basilikos nomos (royal law). Thy neighbour (Πλησιον — ton plēsion sou). Plēsion is an adverb and with the article it means “the one near thee.” See note on Matthew 5:43. [source]
Romans 13:9 Namely [το γαρ]
See βασιλικος νομος — to gar at the beginning of the verse, though omitted by B F. The quotation is from Leviticus 19:18. Quoted in Matthew 5:43; Matthew 22:39; Mark 12:31; Luke 10:27; Galatians 5:14; James 2:8 it is called τον πλησιον σου — basilikos nomos (royal law). Thy neighbour (Πλησιον — ton plēsion sou). Plēsion is an adverb and with the article it means “the one near thee.” See note on Matthew 5:43. [source]
Romans 13:13 Not in revelling [μη κωμοις]
Plural “revellings.” See Galatians 5:21. Drunkenness (methais). Plural again, “drunkennesses.” See Galatians 5:21. In chambering Plural also. See Romans 9:10. Wantonness (μεταις — aselgeiais). Plural likewise. See 2 Corinthians 12:21; Galatians 5:19. Not in strife and jealousy Singular here, but some MSS. have the plural like the previous words. Quarrelling and jealousy go with the other vices (Shedd). [source]
Romans 13:13 In chambering [koitais)]
Plural also. See Romans 9:10. Wantonness (μεταις — aselgeiais). Plural likewise. See 2 Corinthians 12:21; Galatians 5:19. Not in strife and jealousy Singular here, but some MSS. have the plural like the previous words. Quarrelling and jealousy go with the other vices (Shedd). [source]
Romans 13:13 Wantonness [μεταις]
Plural likewise. See 2 Corinthians 12:21; Galatians 5:19. [source]
Romans 6:13 Instruments [οπλα]
Old word for tools of any kind for shop or war (John 18:3; 2 Corinthians 6:7; 2 Corinthians 10:4; Romans 13:12). Possibly here figure of two armies arrayed against each other (Galatians 5:16-24), and see οπλα δικαιοσυνης — hopla dikaiosunēs below. The two sets of οπλα — hopla clash. But present yourselves unto God (αλλα παραστησατε εαυτους τωι τεωι — alla parastēsate heautous tōi theōi). First aorist active imperative of παριστημι — paristēmi same verb, but different tense, do it now and completely. Our “members” (μελη — melē) should be at the call of God “as alive from the dead.” [source]
Romans 7:8 Finding occasion [απορμην λαβουσα]
See note on 2 Corinthians 5:12; 2 Corinthians 11:12; Galatians 5:13 for απορμην — aphormēn a starting place from which to rush into acts of sin, excuses for doing what they want to do. Just so drinking men use the prohibition laws as “occasions” for violating them. [source]
Romans 8:2 Made me free [ηλευτερωσεν με]
First aorist active indicative of the old verb ελευτεροω — eleutheroō for which see note on Galatians 5:1. Aleph B have σε — se (thee) instead of με — me It matters little. We are pardoned, we are free from the old law of sin and death (7:7-24), we are able by the help of the Holy Spirit to live the new life in Christ. [source]
Romans 8:5 Do mind [προνουσιν]
Present active indicative of προνεω — phroneō to think, to put the mind (πρην — phrēn) on. See note on Matthew 16:23; note on Romans 12:16. For the contrast between σαρχ — sarx and πνευμα — pneuma see Galatians 5:16-24. [source]
1 Corinthians 1:11 By them of Chloe [υπο των Χλοης]
Ablative case of the masculine plural article των — tōn by the (folks) of Chloe (genitive case). The words “which are of the household” are not in the Greek, though they correctly interpret the Greek, “those of Chloe.” Whether the children, the kinspeople, or the servants of Chloe we do not know. It is uncertain also whether Chloe lived in Corinth or Ephesus, probably Ephesus because to name her if in Corinth might get her into trouble (Heinrici). Already Christianity was working a social revolution in the position of women and slaves. The name Chloe means tender verdure and was one of the epithets of Demeter the goddess of agriculture and for that reason Lightfoot thinks that she was a member of the freedman class like Phoebe (Romans 16:1), Hermes (Romans 16:14), Nereus (Romans 16:15). It is even possible that Stephanas, Fortunatus, Achaicus (1 Corinthians 16:17) may have been those who brought Chloe the news of the schisms in Corinth. Contentions Unseemly wranglings (as opposed to discussing, διαλεγομαι — dialegomai) that were leading to the schisms. Listed in works of the flesh (Galatians 5:19.) and the catalogues of vices (2 Corinthians 12:20; Romans 1:19.; 1 Timothy 6:4). [source]
1 Corinthians 1:11 Contentions [εριδες]
Unseemly wranglings (as opposed to discussing, διαλεγομαι — dialegomai) that were leading to the schisms. Listed in works of the flesh (Galatians 5:19.) and the catalogues of vices (2 Corinthians 12:20; Romans 1:19.; 1 Timothy 6:4). [source]
2 Corinthians 11:20 Bringeth you into bondage [καταδουλοῖ]
Only here and Galatians 2:4, where it is used of the efforts of the Jewish party to bring the christian Church under the ceremonial law. Compare Galatians 5:1. [source]
2 Corinthians 11:1 Would that ye could bear with me [οπελον ανειχεστε μου]
Koiné{[28928]}š way of expressing a wish about the present, οπελον — ophelon (as a conjunction, really second aorist active indicative of οπειλω — opheilō without augment) and the imperfect indicative instead of ειτε — eithe or ει γαρ — ei gar (Robertson, Grammar, p. 1003). Cf. Revelation 3:15. See note on Galatians 5:12 for future indicative with οπελον — ophelon and note on 1 Corinthians 4:8 for aorist. Μου — Mou is ablative case after ανειχεστε — aneichesthe (direct middle, hold yourselves back from me). There is a touch of irony here. [source]
Galatians 6:18 Brethren []
Rev. rightly puts the word at the end of the verse. The position is unusual. It would seem as if Paul intended to close this severe letter with an assurance that the “foolish Galatians” were still his brethren: They are addressed as “brethren,” Galatians 4:12; Galatians 5:11; Galatians 6:1. Comp. 1 Corinthians 16:24. [source]
Galatians 6:12 For the cross [τῷ σταυρῷ]
Better, by reason of the cross. Because of preaching a crucified Messiah. See on Galatians 5:11. The Judaisers attempted to cover with the law - the requirement of circumcision - the “offense” of a crucified Messiah. [source]
Galatians 6:1 Spiritual [πνευματικοὶ]
Comp. 1 Corinthians 3:1. Mostly in Paul. See 1 Peter 2:5. Those who have received the Spirit and are led by him. See Galatians 3:2, Galatians 3:3, Galatians 3:5, Galatians 3:14; Galatians 4:6; Galatians 5:5, Galatians 5:16, Galatians 5:18, Galatians 5:25. He leaves it to the readers' own conscience whether or not they answer to this designation. [source]
Galatians 5:6 By love [δἰ ἀγάπης]
Not that justification is through love; but the faith of the justified, which is their subjective principle of life, exhibits its living energy through love in which the whole law is fulfilled (Galatians 5:14). See 1 Timothy 1:5; 1 Thessalonians 1:3; 1 Corinthians 13:1-13. [source]
Galatians 5:25 In the Spirit [πνεύματι]
Better, by the Spirit, the dative being instrumental as Galatians 5:16. [source]
Galatians 5:25 Walk [στοιχῶμεν]
A different word from that in Galatians 5:16. Only in Paul, except Acts 21:24. From στοίχος arow. Hence, to walk in line; to march in battle order (Xen. Cyr. vi. 3,34). Συνστοιχεῖ answerethto, Galatians 4:25(note). See also on στοιχεία elements Galatians 4:3. Paul uses it very graphically, of falling into line with Abraham's faith, Romans 4:12. [source]
Galatians 5:25  []
d Lipsius makes this verse the beginning of ch. 6. Weizsäcker begins that chapter with Galatians 5:26. There seems to be no sufficient reason. Galatians 5:25is connected naturally with the immediately preceding line of thought. “Such being your principle of life, adapt your conduct (walk) to it.” The hortatory form of Galatians 5:26, and its contents, fall in naturally with the exhortation to walk by the Spirit, and with the reference to biting and devouring, Galatians 5:15, and envyings, Galatians 5:21. The connection of the opening of ch. 6 with the close of ch. 5 is not so manifest; and the address brethren and the change to the second person (Galatians 6:1) seem to indicate a new section. [source]
Galatians 5:3 To do the law [ποιῆσαι]
Rare in N.T. See John 7:19; Romans 2:13, Romans 2:25( πράσσῃς ). Τηρεῖν toobserve the law, the tradition, the commandment, Matthew 19:17; Mark 7:9; John 14:15; Acts 15:5James 2:10: πληροῦν tofulfill the law, Romans 13:8; Galatians 5:14; comp. ἀναπληροῦν Galatians 6:2: φυλάσσειν tokeep or guard the law, Acts 7:53; Acts 21:24; Galatians 6:13: also with commandments, word of God or of Christ, ordinances of the law, Matthew 19:20; Mark 10:20; Luke 11:28; John 12:47; Romans 2:26. Τελεῖν tocarry out the law, Romans 2:27; James 2:8. Ποιῆσαι is to perform what the law commands: τηρεῖν toobserve, keep an eye on with the result of performing: φυλάσσειν toguard against violation: τελεῖν tobring to fulfillment in action. [source]
Galatians 5:22 Love [ἀγάπη]
Comp. love of the Spirit, Romans 15:30. In Class. φιλεῖν is the most general designation of love, denoting an inner inclination to persons or things, and standing opposed to μισεῖν or ἐχθαίρειν tohate. It occasionally acquires from the context a sensual flavor, as Hom. Od. xviii. 325; Hdt. iv. 176, thus running into the sense of ἐρᾶν which denotes sensual love. It is love to persons and things growing out of intercourse and amenities or attractive qualities. Στέργειν (not in N.T., lxx, Sirach 27:17) expresses a deep, quiet, appropriating, natural love, as distinguished from that which is called out by circumstances. Unlike φιλεῖν , it has a distinct moral significance, and is not applied to base inclinations opposed to a genuine manly nature. It is the word for love to parents, wife, children, king or country, as one's own. Aristotle (Nic. ix. 7,3) speaks of poets as loving ( στέργοντες ) their own poems as their children. See also Eurip. Med. 87. Ἁγαπᾶν is to love out of an intelligent estimate of the object of love. It answers to Lat. diligere, or Germ. schatzen to prize. It is not passionate and sensual as ἐρᾶν . It is not, like φιλεῖν , attachment to a person independently of his quality and created by close intercourse. It is less sentiment than consideration. While φιλεῖν contemplates the person, ἀγαπᾶν contemplates the attributes and character, and gives an account of its inclination. Ἁγαπᾶν is really the weaker expression for love, as that term is conventionally used. It is judicial rather than affectionate. Even in classical usage, however, the distinction between ἀγαπᾶν and φιλεῖν is often very subtle, and well-nigh impossible to express. In N.T. ἐπιθυμαῖν todesire or lust is used instead of ἐρᾶν . In lxx ἀγαπᾶν is far more common than φιλεῖν . Φιλεῖν occurs only 16 times in the sense of love, and 16 times in the sense of kiss; while ἀγαπᾶν is found nearly 300 times. It is used with a wide range, of the love of parent for child, of man for God, of God for man, of love to one's neighbor and to the stranger, of husband for wife, of love for God's house, and for mercy and truth; but also of the love of Samson for Delilah, of Hosea for his adulterous wife, of Amnon's love for Tamar, of Solomon's love for strange women, of loving a woman for her beauty. Also of loving vanity, unrighteousness, devouring words, cursing, death, silver. -DIVIDER-
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The noun ἀγάπη , oClass., was apparently created by the lxx, although it is found there only 19 times. It first comes into habitual use in Christian writings. In N.T. it is, practically, the only noun for love, although compound nouns expressing peculiar phases of love, as brotherly love, love of money, love of children, etc., are formed with φίλος , as φιλαδελφία, φιλαργυρία, φιλανθρωπία . Both verbs, φιλεῖν and ἀγαπᾶν occur, but ἀγαπᾶν more frequently. The attempt to carry out consistently the classical distinction between these two must be abandoned. Both are used of the love of parents and children, of the love of God for Christ, of Christ for men, of God for men, of men for Christ and of men for men. The love of man for God and of husband for wife, only ἀγαπᾶν . The distinction is rather between ἀγαπᾶν and ἐπιθυμεῖν than between ἀγαπᾶν and φιλεῖν . Love, in this passage, is that fruit of the Spirit which dominates all the others. See Galatians 5:13, Galatians 5:14. Comp. 1 Corinthians 13:1-13; 1 John 2:5, 1 John 2:9-11; 1 John 3:11, 1 John 3:14-16; 1 John 4:7-11, 1 John 4:16-21; 1 John 5:1-3. [source]

Galatians 5:1  []
d In the liberty wherewith. This is according to the reading τῆ ἐλευθερίᾳ ᾗ . Different connections are proposed, as with stand fast, as A.V.: or with the close of chapter 4, as, “we are not children of the bondwoman but of the free with the freedom with which Christ freed us”: or, “of her who is free with the freedom with which,” etc. But ᾗ wherewithmust be omitted. A new clause begins with τῇ ἐλευθερίᾳ . Rend. for freedom did Christ set us free. For, not with freedom. It is the dative of advantage; that we might be really free and remain free. Comp. Galatians 5:13, and John 8:36. [source]
Galatians 4:1 Now I say [λέγω δὲ]
Introducing a continued, explanatory discussion. Comp. Galatians 3:17; Galatians 5:16; 1 Corinthians 1:12. [source]
Galatians 1:7 Some that trouble [οἱ ταράσσοντες]
The article with the participle marks these persons as characteristically troublesome - the troublers. Comp. Luke 18:9, of those who were characteristically self-righteous. For trouble in the sense of disturbing faith and unsettling principle, see Galatians 5:10; Acts 15:24. Not necessarily, as Lightfoot, raising seditions. [source]
Galatians 5:10 Whosoever he be [οστις εαν ηι]
Indefinite relative clause with εαν — ean and subjunctive. It seems unlikely that Paul knew precisely who the leader was. In Galatians 1:6 he uses the plural of the same verb ταρασσω — tarassō and see also αναστατουντες — anastatountes in Galatians 5:12. [source]
Galatians 5:13 Ye were called for freedom [επ ελευτεριαι εκλητητε]
The same point as in Galatians 5:1 made plainer by the use of επ — ep' (on the basis of, for the purpose of). See note on 1 Thessalonians 4:7 for this use of επι — epi [source]
Galatians 5:22 The fruit of the Spirit [ο καρπος του πνευματος]
Paul changes the figure from works (εργα — erga) in Galatians 5:19 to fruit as the normal out-cropping of the Holy Spirit in us. It is a beautiful tree of fruit that Paul pictures here with nine luscious fruits on it: [source]
Galatians 5:24 Crucified the flesh [την σαρκα εσταυρωσαν]
Definite event, first aorist active indicative of σταυροω — stauroō as in Galatians 2:19 (mystical union with Christ). Paul uses σαρχ — sarx here in the same sense as in Galatians 5:16, Galatians 5:17, Galatians 5:19, “the force in men that makes for evil” (Burton). [source]
Galatians 6:1 Ye which are spiritual [οι πνευματικοι]
See note on 1 Corinthians 3:1. The spiritually led (Galatians 5:18), the spiritual experts in mending souls. [source]
Galatians 4:3 We were held in bondage [ημεις ημετα δεδουλωμενοι]
Periphrastic past perfect of δουλοω — douloō to enslave, in a permanent state of bondage. Under the rudiments of the world (υπο τα στοιχεια του κοσμου — hupo ta stoicheia tou kosmou). Στοιχος — Stoichos is row or rank, a series. So στοιχειον — stoicheion is any first thing in a στοιχος — stoichos like the letters of the alphabet, the material elements in the universe (2 Peter 3:10), the heavenly bodies (some argue for that here), the rudiments of any act (Hebrews 5:12; Acts 15:10; Galatians 5:1; Galatians 4:3, Galatians 4:9; Colossians 2:8, Colossians 2:20). The papyri illustrate all the varieties in meaning of this word. Burton has a valuable excursus on the word in his commentary. Probably here (Lightfoot) Paul has in mind the rudimentary character of the law as it applies to both Jews and Gentiles, to all the knowledge of the world (κοσμος — kosmos as the orderly material universe as in Colossians 2:8, Colossians 2:20). See note on Matthew 13:38; note on Acts 17:24; note on 1 Corinthians 3:22. All were in the elementary stage before Christ came. [source]
Galatians 4:3 Under the rudiments of the world [υπο τα στοιχεια του κοσμου]
Στοιχος — Stoichos is row or rank, a series. So στοιχειον — stoicheion is any first thing in a στοιχος — stoichos like the letters of the alphabet, the material elements in the universe (2 Peter 3:10), the heavenly bodies (some argue for that here), the rudiments of any act (Hebrews 5:12; Acts 15:10; Galatians 5:1; Galatians 4:3, Galatians 4:9; Colossians 2:8, Colossians 2:20). The papyri illustrate all the varieties in meaning of this word. Burton has a valuable excursus on the word in his commentary. Probably here (Lightfoot) Paul has in mind the rudimentary character of the law as it applies to both Jews and Gentiles, to all the knowledge of the world See note on Matthew 13:38; note on Acts 17:24; note on 1 Corinthians 3:22. All were in the elementary stage before Christ came. [source]
Galatians 5:19 Manifest [πανερα]
Opposed to “hidden” Ancient writers were fond of lists of vices and virtues. Cf. Stalker‘s sermons on The Seven Cardinal Virtues and The Seven Deadly Sins. There are more than seven in this deadly list in Galatians 5:19-21. He makes the two lists in explanation of the conflict in Galatians 5:17 to emphasize the command in Galatians 5:13. There are four groups in Paul‘s list of manifest vices:(1)Sensual sins like fornication (πορνεια — porneia prostitution, harlotry), uncleanness (ακαταρσια — akatharsia moral impurity), lasciviousness (ασελγεια — aselgeia wantonness), sexual vice of all kinds prevailed in heathenism.(2)Idolatry (ειδωλατρεια — eidōlatreia worship of idols) and witchcraft (παρμακεια — pharmakeia from παρμακον — pharmakon a drug, the ministering of drugs), but the sorcerers monopolized the word for a while in their magical arts and used it in connection with idolatry. In N.T. only here and Revelation 18:23. See note on Acts 19:19 περιεργα — perierga curious arts. [source]
Galatians 6:1 Trespass [παραπτωματι]
Literally, a falling aside, a slip or lapse in the papyri rather than a wilful sin. In Polybius and Diodorus. Koiné{[28928]}š word. Ye which are spiritual (οι πνευματικοι — hoi pneumatikoi). See note on 1 Corinthians 3:1. The spiritually led (Galatians 5:18), the spiritual experts in mending souls. Restore Present active imperative of katartizō the very word used in Matthew 4:21 of mending nets, old word to make καταρτιζετε — artios fit, to equip thoroughly. Looking to thyself (καταρτιζω — skopōn seauton). Keeping an eye on as in 2 Corinthians 4:18 like a runner on the goal. Lest thou also be tempted Negative purpose with first aorist passive subjunctive. Spiritual experts (preachers in particular) need this caution. Satan loves a shining mark. [source]
Ephesians 5:11 Unfruitful works [ἔργοις τοῖς ἀκάρποις]
Compare fruit, Ephesians 5:9, and Galatians 5:19, Galatians 5:22, works of the flesh, fruit of the Spirit. Works which bring no blessing with them. Compare Romans 6:21; Romans 8:13; Galatians 5:21; Galatians 6:8. [source]
Ephesians 4:19 To lasciviousness [τηι ασελγειαι]
Unbridled lust as in 2 Corinthians 12:21; Galatians 5:19. To work all uncleanness (εις εργασιαν ακαταρσιας πασης — eis ergasian akatharsias pasēs). Perhaps prostitution, “for a trading (or work) in all uncleanness.” Certainly Corinth and Ephesus could qualify for this charge. With greediness From πλεονεκτης — pleonektēs one who always wants more whether money or sexual indulgence as here. The two vices are often connected in the N.T. [source]
Philippians 3:2 Concision [κατατομήν]
Only here in the New Testament. The kindred verb occurs in the Septuagint only, of mutilations forbidden by the Mosaic law. See Leviticus 21:5. The noun here is a play upon περιτομή circumcisionIt means mutilation. Paul bitterly characterizes those who were not of the true circumcision (Romans 2:28, Romans 2:29; Colossians 2:11; Ephesians 2:11) as merely mutilated. Compare Galatians 5:12, where he uses ἀποκόπτειν tocut off, of those who would impose circumcision upon the Christian converts: “I would they would cut themselves off who trouble you;” that is, not merely circumcise, but mutilate themselves like the priests of Cybele. [source]
Philippians 1:14 Brethren in the Lord []
In the Lord should be rather connected with being confident. The expression brethren in the Lord does not occur in the New Testament; while to have confidence in one in the Lord is found Galatians 5:10; 2 Thessalonians 3:4; compare Phlippians 2:24. In the Lord is thus emphatic. It may be correlative with in Christ, Phlippians 1:13; but this is not certain. In the Lord trusting my bonds, signifies that the bonds awaken confidence as being the practical testimony to the power of the Gospel for which Paul is imprisoned, and therefore an encouragement to their faith. [source]
Philippians 2:1 Comfort of love [παραμύθιον]
Rev., consolation. Only here in the New Testament. From παρά besideand μῦθος speechor word. Παρὰ has the same force as in παράκλησις exhortation(see on Luke 6:24); a word which comes to the side of one to stimulate or comfort him; hence an exhortation, an encouragement. So Plato: “Let this, then, be our exhortation concerning marriage” (“Laws,” 773). A motive of persuasion or dissuasion. Plato, speaking of the fear of disgrace, or of ill-repute, says. “The obedient nature will readily yield to such incentives ” (“Laws,” 880). Also an assuagement or abatement. So Sophocles: “Offspring of the noble, ye are come as the assuagement of my woes” (“Electra,” 130). Plato: “They say that to the rich are many consolations ” (“Republic,” 329). Plato also calls certain fruits stimulants ( παραμυθία ) of a sated appetite (“Critias,” 115). Here in the sense of incentive. As related to exhortation, exhortation uses incentive as a ground of appeal. Christ exhorts, appealing to love. Compare Phlippians 1:9sqq. See Romans 5:8; 1 Corinthians 13:4; 2 Corinthians 5:14; Galatians 5:13; Ephesians 5:2; 1 John 4:16, etc. The two verbs kindred to exhortation and incentive occur together at 1 Thessalonians 2:11. See on 1 Corinthians 14:3. Render here, if any incentive of love. [source]
Philippians 3:3 For we [ημεις γαρ]
We believers in Christ, the children of Abraham by faith, whether Jew or Gentile, the spiritual circumcision in contrast to the merely physical (Romans 2:25-29; Colossians 2:11; Ephesians 2:11). See note on Galatians 5:12 for αποτεμνειν — apotemnein (to cut off) in sense of mutilation also. [source]
Philippians 3:18 Even weeping [και κλαιων]
Deep emotion as he dictated the letter and recalled these recreant followers of Christ (cf. 2 Corinthians 2:4). The enemies of the cross of Christ (τους εχτρους του σταυρου του Χριστου — tous echthrous tou staurou tou Christou). Either the Judaizers who denied the value of the cross of Christ (Galatians 5:11; Galatians 6:12, Galatians 6:14) or Epicurean antinomians whose loose living gave the lie to the cross of Christ (1 John 2:4). [source]
Philippians 3:18 The enemies of the cross of Christ [τους εχτρους του σταυρου του Χριστου]
Either the Judaizers who denied the value of the cross of Christ (Galatians 5:11; Galatians 6:12, Galatians 6:14) or Epicurean antinomians whose loose living gave the lie to the cross of Christ (1 John 2:4). [source]
Colossians 2:23 Which things [ἅτινα]
The double relative classifies, putting these precepts and teachings, and all that are like them, in one category: a class of things which. For similar usage, see Galatians 4:24; Galatians 5:19; Philemon 4:3. [source]
Colossians 3:5 Mortify [νεκρωσατε]
First aorist active imperative of νεκροω — nekroō late verb, to put to death, to treat as dead. Latin Vulgate mortifico, but “mortify” is coming with us to mean putrify. Paul boldly applies the metaphor of death (Colossians 2:20; Colossians 3:3) pictured in baptism (Colossians 2:12) to the actual life of the Christian. He is not to go to the other Gnostic extreme of license on the plea that the soul is not affected by the deeds of the body. Paul‘s idea is that the body is the temple of the Holy Spirit (1 Corinthians 6:19). He mentions some of these “members upon the earth” like fornication See the longer list of the works of the flesh in Galatians 5:19-21, though covetousness is not there named, but it is in Ephesians 4:19; Ephesians 5:5. [source]
1 Thessalonians 4:5 Not in the lust of concupiscence [μὴ ἐν πάθει ἐπιθυμίας]
Lit. in passion of desire. Not with avaricious greed. For ἐπιθυμία see on Mark 4:19. Its meaning is by no means limited to sensual lust; see, for instance, Luke 22:15. It is used as including all kinds of worldly desires, as Galatians 5:16, Galatians 5:24; 1 John 2:17. In Romans 7:7, especially of covetousness. [source]
1 Thessalonians 4:7 Unto uncleanness [ἐπὶ ἀκαθαρσίᾳ]
Better, for uncleanness; ἐπὶ denoting aim or intention. The intention is viewed as the basis of the act ( ἐπὶ upon). Comp. Galatians 5:13; Ephesians 2:10. [source]
2 Thessalonians 1:4 Which ye endure [αις ανεχεστε]
B here reads ενεχεστε — enechesthe to be entangled in, to be held in as in Galatians 5:1, but ανεχεστε — anechesthe is probably correct and the αις — hais is probably attracted to locative case of τλιπσεσιν — thlipsesin from the ablative ων — hōn after ανεχεστε — anechesthe from which ye hold yourselves back (cf. Colossians 3:13). [source]
2 Thessalonians 1:4 We ourselves [αυτους ημας]
Accusative of general reference with the infinitive, but not merely ημας — hēmās (or εαυτους — heautous), perhaps in contrast with εν υμιν — en humin (in you), as much as to say, “so that we ourselves, contrary to your expectations, are boasting” (Frame). Ενκαυχαομαι — Enkauchaomai occurs here alone in N.T., but is found in the lxx and in Aesop‘s Fables, proof enough of its vernacular use. Paul was not above praising one church to other churches, to provoke them to good works. Here he is boasting of Thessalonica in Macedonia to the Corinthians as he did later to the Corinthians about the collection (2 Corinthians 8:1-15) after having first boasted to the Macedonians about the Corinthians (2 Corinthians 9:1-5). There were other churches in Achaia besides Corinth (2 Corinthians 1:1). For (υπερ — huper). Over, about, like περι — peri (1 Thessalonians 1:2). In all your persecutions Their patience and faith had already attracted Paul‘s attention (1 Thessalonians 1:3) and their tribulations τλιπσεσιν — thlipsesin (1 Thessalonians 1:6). Here Paul adds the more specific term διωγμος — diōgmos old word from διωκω — diōkō to chase, to pursue, a word used by Paul of his treatment in Corinth (2 Corinthians 12:10). Which ye endure (αις ανεχεστε — hais anechesthe). B here reads ενεχεστε — enechesthe to be entangled in, to be held in as in Galatians 5:1, but ανεχεστε — anechesthe is probably correct and the αις — hais is probably attracted to locative case of τλιπσεσιν — thlipsesin from the ablative ων — hōn after ανεχεστε — anechesthe from which ye hold yourselves back (cf. Colossians 3:13). [source]
2 Thessalonians 1:4 In all your persecutions [εν πασιν τοις διωγμοις υμων]
Their patience and faith had already attracted Paul‘s attention (1 Thessalonians 1:3) and their tribulations τλιπσεσιν — thlipsesin (1 Thessalonians 1:6). Here Paul adds the more specific term διωγμος — diōgmos old word from διωκω — diōkō to chase, to pursue, a word used by Paul of his treatment in Corinth (2 Corinthians 12:10). Which ye endure (αις ανεχεστε — hais anechesthe). B here reads ενεχεστε — enechesthe to be entangled in, to be held in as in Galatians 5:1, but ανεχεστε — anechesthe is probably correct and the αις — hais is probably attracted to locative case of τλιπσεσιν — thlipsesin from the ablative ων — hōn after ανεχεστε — anechesthe from which ye hold yourselves back (cf. Colossians 3:13). [source]
1 Timothy 6:2 Partakers of the benefit [οἱ τῆς εὐεργεσίας ἀντιλαμβανόμενοι]
The verb means to take hold of; hence, to take hold for the purpose of helping; to take up for, as Luke 1:54; Acts 20:35. oP. Ἑυεργεσία , benefit only here and Acts 4:9. Better, kindly service. Rend. they that busy themselves in the kindly service. The reference is to the kindly acts which the masters do to their slaves; not to the benefits received by the slaves. Comp. Galatians 5:13. [source]
1 Timothy 6:1 As many servants as are under the yoke [ὅσοι εἰσὶν ὑπὸ ζυγὸν δοῦλοι]
Incorrect. Rather, as many as are under the yoke as bondservants. As bondservants is added in explanation of under the yoke, which implies a hard and disagreeable condition. Yoke is used only here of the state of slavery. In Galatians 5:1; Acts 15:10, of the Mosaic law. See on Matthew 11:29. [source]
1 Timothy 5:12 Having damnation [ἔχουσαι κρίμα]
The phrase only here. See on 1 Timothy 3:6. Damnation is an unfortunate rendering in the light of the present common understanding of the word, as it is also in 1 Corinthians 11:29. Better, judgment or condemnation, as Romans 3:8; Romans 13:2. The meaning is that they carry about with them in their new, married life a condemnation, a continuous reproach. Comp. 1 Timothy 4:2; Galatians 5:10. It should be said for the translators of 1611 that they used damnation in this sense of, judgment or condemnation, as is shown by the present participle having. In its earlier usage the word implied no allusion to a future punishment. Thus Chaucer“For wel thou woost (knowest) thyselven verrailyThat thou and I be dampned to prisoun.”Knight's T. 1175.Wiclif: “Nethir thou dredist God, that thou art in the same dampnacioun?” Luke 23:40. Laud.: “Pope Alexander III. condemned Peter Lombard of heresy, and he lay under that damnation for thirty and six years.” “A legacy by damnation” was one in which the testator imposed on his heir an obligation to give the legatee the thing bequeathed, and which afforded the legatee a personal claim against the heir. [source]
1 Timothy 1:10 Is contrary to [ἀντίκειται]
Lit. Lies opposite to. Used by Paul and Luke. See Luke 13:17; Galatians 5:17. [source]
1 Timothy 1:10 Men-stealers [ανδραποδισταις]
Old word from ανδραποδιζω — andrapodizō (from ανηρ — anēr man, πους — pous foot, to catch by the foot), to enslave. So enslavers, whether kidnappers (men-stealers) of free men or stealers of the slaves of other men. So slave-dealers. By the use of this word Paul deals a blow at the slave-trade (cf. Philemon). Liars (πσευσταις — pseustais). Old word, see Romans 3:4. False swearers Old word Perjurers. Only here in N.T. For similar lists, see note on 1 Corinthians 5:11; 1 Corinthians 6:9.; Galatians 5:19.; Romans 1:28.; Romans 13:13; Colossians 3:5; Ephesians 5:5; 2 Timothy 3:2. The sound doctrine (αντικειται — tēi hugiainousēi didaskaliāi). Dative case after υγιαινω — antikeitai for which verb see Galatians 5:17 for the conflict between the Spirit and the flesh. “The healthful (hugiainō old word for being well, as Luke 5:31; 3 John 1:2, in figurative sense in N.T. only in the Pastorals) teaching.” See Titus 1:9; 2 Timothy 4:3. [source]
1 Timothy 1:10 False swearers [επιορκοις]
Old word Perjurers. Only here in N.T. For similar lists, see note on 1 Corinthians 5:11; 1 Corinthians 6:9.; Galatians 5:19.; Romans 1:28.; Romans 13:13; Colossians 3:5; Ephesians 5:5; 2 Timothy 3:2. The sound doctrine (αντικειται — tēi hugiainousēi didaskaliāi). Dative case after υγιαινω — antikeitai for which verb see Galatians 5:17 for the conflict between the Spirit and the flesh. “The healthful (hugiainō old word for being well, as Luke 5:31; 3 John 1:2, in figurative sense in N.T. only in the Pastorals) teaching.” See Titus 1:9; 2 Timothy 4:3. [source]
1 Timothy 1:10 The sound doctrine [αντικειται]
Dative case after υγιαινω — antikeitai for which verb see Galatians 5:17 for the conflict between the Spirit and the flesh. “The healthful (hugiainō old word for being well, as Luke 5:31; 3 John 1:2, in figurative sense in N.T. only in the Pastorals) teaching.” See Titus 1:9; 2 Timothy 4:3. [source]
1 Timothy 5:14 The younger widows [νεωτερας]
No article and no word for widows, though that is clearly the idea. Νεωτερας — Neōteras is accusative of general reference with γαμειν — gamein (to marry) the object (present infinitive active) of βουλομαι — boulomai Bear children (τεκνογονειν — teknogonein). A compound verb here only in N.T. and nowhere else save in Anthol. See τεκνογονια — teknogonia in 1 Timothy 2:15. Rule the household Late verb from οικοδεσποτης — oikodespotēs (Mark 14:14), twice in the papyri, only here in N.T. Note that the wife is here put as ruler of the household, proper recognition of her influence, “new and improved position” (Liddon). Occasion (απορμην — aphormēn). Old word (απο ορμη — apoτωι αντικειμενωι — hormē), a base to rush from, Pauline use in 2 Corinthians 5:12; 2 Corinthians 11:12; Galatians 5:13. To the adversary Dative case of the articular participle of λοιδοριας — antikeimai a Pauline idiom (Philemon 1:28). Reviling (λοιδορεω — loidorias). Old word (from χαριν — loidoreō), in N.T. only here and 1 Peter 3:9. Genitive case with charin f0). [source]
1 Timothy 5:14 Occasion [απορμην]
Old word (απο ορμη — apoτωι αντικειμενωι — hormē), a base to rush from, Pauline use in 2 Corinthians 5:12; 2 Corinthians 11:12; Galatians 5:13. [source]
1 Timothy 5:14 Rule the household [οικοδεσποτειν]
Late verb from οικοδεσποτης — oikodespotēs (Mark 14:14), twice in the papyri, only here in N.T. Note that the wife is here put as ruler of the household, proper recognition of her influence, “new and improved position” (Liddon). Occasion (απορμην — aphormēn). Old word (απο ορμη — apoτωι αντικειμενωι — hormē), a base to rush from, Pauline use in 2 Corinthians 5:12; 2 Corinthians 11:12; Galatians 5:13. To the adversary Dative case of the articular participle of λοιδοριας — antikeimai a Pauline idiom (Philemon 1:28). Reviling (λοιδορεω — loidorias). Old word (from χαριν — loidoreō), in N.T. only here and 1 Peter 3:9. Genitive case with charin f0). [source]
2 Timothy 3:6 Laden [σεσωρευμένα]
Only here and Romans 12:20, citation. In lxx, see Romans href="/desk/?q=ro+8:14&sr=1">Romans 8:14; Galatians 5:18. [source]
2 Timothy 2:25 Those that oppose themselves [τοὺς ἀντιδιατιθέμενους]
N.T. olxx. Class. only late Greek. Themselves is wrong. The meaning is, those who oppose the servant of the Lord; Who carry on the ἀντιθέσεις oppositions(1 Timothy 6:20); = gainsayers ( ἀντιλέγοντες Titus 1:9). Paul's word is ἀντίκεισθαι tooppose: see 1 Corinthians 16:9; Galatians 5:17; Philemon 1:28; 2 Thessalonians 2:4. [source]
Hebrews 12:29 For our God is a consuming fire [καὶ γὰρ ὁ θεὸς ἡμῶν πῦρ καταναλίσκον]
See Exodus 24:17; Deuteronomy 4:24; Deuteronomy 9:3; Malachi 3:2; Malachi 4:1. The verb N.T.oa few times in lxx. Often in Class., especially Xenophon. Originally to use up, spend, lavish, as property: thence to consume as with fire. The simple verb ἀναλίσκειν toexpend occurs Luke 9:54; Galatians 5:15; 2 Thessalonians 2:8. Ὁ θεὸς ἡμῶν is not our God as compared with the God of the Jews. He is the God of both covenants (see Hebrews 1:1, Hebrews 1:2, and notes); but though now revealed in Jesus Christ, and offering all the privileges of the new covenant (Hebrews 12:22-24), his anger burns against those who reject these privileges. [source]
James 2:8 Fulfil the royal law [νόμον τελεῖτε βασιλικὸν]
The phrase occurs only here and Romans 2:27. Τελεῖν , fulfil, is stronger than the more common word τηρεῖν , observe or keep, which appears in James 2:10. Compare, also, Matthew 19:17; Matthew 23:3; John 14:15, etc. James here speaks of a single commandment, the proper word for which is ἐντολή , while νόμος is the body of commandments. It is appropriate here, however, since this special commandment sums up the entire law. See Romans 13:10; Galatians 5:14. It is the royal law; the king of all laws. The phrase royal law is of Roman origin (lex regia )In the kingly period of Roman history it did not signify a law promulgated by the absolute authority of the king, but a law passed by a popular assembly under the presidency of the king. In later times the term was applied to all laws the origin of which was attributed to the time of the kings. Gradually the term came to represent less of the popular will, and to include all the rights and powers which the Roman people had formerly possessed, so that the emperor became what formerly the people had been, sovereign. “It was not,” says Gibbon, “before the ideas and even the language of the Romans had been corrupted, that a royal law (lex regia )-DIVIDER-
and an irrevocable gift of the people were created … .The pleasure of the emperor, according to Justinian, has the vigor and effect of law, since the Roman people, by the royal law, have transferred to their prince the full extent of their own power and sovereignty. The will of a single man, of a child, perhaps, was allowed to prevail over the wisdom of ages and the inclinations of millions; and the degenerate Greeks were proud to declare that in his hands alone the arbitrary exercise of legislation could be safely deposited” (“Decline and Fall,” ch. xliv.). -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
[source]

James 4:5 The Scripture [η γραπη]
Personification as in Galatians 3:8; James 2:23. But no O.T. passage is precisely like this, though it is “a poetical rendering” (Ropes) of Exodus 20:5. The general thought occurs also in Genesis 6:3-5; Isaiah 63:8-16, etc. Paul has the same idea also (Galatians 5:17, Galatians 5:21; Romans 8:6, Romans 8:8). It is possible that the reference is really to the quotation in James 4:6 from Proverbs 3:34 and treating all before as a parenthesis. There is no way to decide positively. [source]
1 Peter 2:16 Cloke [ἐπικάλυμμα]
Only here in New Testament. Lit., a veil. The idea is that of using Christian freedom as a mask for ungodly license. Paul uses the kindred verb (Romans 4:7) of the covering of sins. On the sentiment, compare Galatians 5:13. [source]
1 Peter 1:12 Desire [ἐπιθυμοῦσιν]
The word commonly denotes intense desire. It is used by Christ in expressing his wish to eat the passover (Luke 22:15); of the prodigal's desire to satisfy his hunger with the husks (Luke 15:16); and of the flesh lusting against the spirit (Galatians 5:17). [source]
1 Peter 2:11 To abstain from [απεχεσται]
Present middle (direct) infinitive of απεχω — apechō old verb, to hold back from (1 Thessalonians 4:3). In indirect command (to keep on abstaining from) after παρακαλω — parakalō (I beseech). With the ablative case των σαρκικων επιτυμιων — tōn sarkikōn epithumiōn the grosser sins of the flesh (for σαρκικος — sarkikos see 1 Corinthians 3:3) like the list in 1 Peter 4:3.Which (αιτινες — haitines). “Which very ones.” Like Latin quippe qui.War against the soul Present middle indicative of στρατευω — strateuō to carry on a campaign (James 4:1). See this struggle between the flesh and the spirit vividly pictured by Paul in Galatians 5:16-24. [source]
1 Peter 2:11 War against the soul [στρατευονται κατα της πσυχης]
Present middle indicative of στρατευω — strateuō to carry on a campaign (James 4:1). See this struggle between the flesh and the spirit vividly pictured by Paul in Galatians 5:16-24. [source]
2 Peter 2:19 Liberty [ελευτεριαν]
Promising “personal liberty,” that is license, after the fashion of advocates of liquor today, not the freedom of truth in Christ (John 8:32; Galatians 5:1, Galatians 5:13). [source]
2 Peter 3:10 As a thief [ως κλεπτης]
That is suddenly, without notice. This very metaphor Jesus had used (Luke 12:39; Matthew 24:43) and Paul after him (1 Thessalonians 5:2) and John will quote it also (Revelation 3:3; Revelation 16:15).In the which (εν ηι — en hēi). The day when the Lord comes.Shall pass away Future middle of παρερχομαι — parerchomai old verb, to pass by.With a great noise (ροιζηδον — roizēdon). Late and rare adverb (from ροιζεω ροιζος — roizeōτα στοιχεια — roizos) - Lycophron, Nicander, here only in N.T., onomatopoetic, whizzing sound of rapid motion through the air like the flight of a bird, thunder, fierce flame.The elements Old word (from λυτησεται — stoichos a row), in Plato in this sense, in other senses also in N.T. as the alphabet, ceremonial regulations (Hebrews 5:12; Galatians 4:3; Galatians 5:1; Colossians 2:8).Shall be dissolved (λυω — luthēsetai). Future passive of στοιχεια — luō to loosen, singular because καυσουμενα — stoicheia is neuter plural.With fervent heat Present passive participle of καυσος — kausoō late verb (from καυσομενα — kausos usually medical term for fever) and nearly always employed for fever temperature. Mayor suggests a conflagration from internal heat. Bigg thinks it merely a vernacular (Doric) future for καιω — kausomena (from κατακαησεται — kaiō to burn).Shall be burned up (κατακαιω — katakaēsetai). Repeated in 2 Peter 3:12. Second future passive of the compound verb ευρετησεται — katakaiō to burn down (up), according to A L. But Aleph B K P read ευρισκω — heurethēsetai (future passive of heuriskō to find) “shall be found.” There are various other readings here. The text seems corrupt. [source]
2 Peter 3:10 Shall pass away [παρελευσονται]
Future middle of παρερχομαι — parerchomai old verb, to pass by.With a great noise (ροιζηδον — roizēdon). Late and rare adverb (from ροιζεω ροιζος — roizeōτα στοιχεια — roizos) - Lycophron, Nicander, here only in N.T., onomatopoetic, whizzing sound of rapid motion through the air like the flight of a bird, thunder, fierce flame.The elements Old word (from λυτησεται — stoichos a row), in Plato in this sense, in other senses also in N.T. as the alphabet, ceremonial regulations (Hebrews 5:12; Galatians 4:3; Galatians 5:1; Colossians 2:8).Shall be dissolved (λυω — luthēsetai). Future passive of στοιχεια — luō to loosen, singular because καυσουμενα — stoicheia is neuter plural.With fervent heat Present passive participle of καυσος — kausoō late verb (from καυσομενα — kausos usually medical term for fever) and nearly always employed for fever temperature. Mayor suggests a conflagration from internal heat. Bigg thinks it merely a vernacular (Doric) future for καιω — kausomena (from κατακαησεται — kaiō to burn).Shall be burned up (κατακαιω — katakaēsetai). Repeated in 2 Peter 3:12. Second future passive of the compound verb ευρετησεται — katakaiō to burn down (up), according to A L. But Aleph B K P read ευρισκω — heurethēsetai (future passive of heuriskō to find) “shall be found.” There are various other readings here. The text seems corrupt. [source]
2 Peter 3:10 The elements [στοιχος]
Old word (from λυτησεται — stoichos a row), in Plato in this sense, in other senses also in N.T. as the alphabet, ceremonial regulations (Hebrews 5:12; Galatians 4:3; Galatians 5:1; Colossians 2:8).Shall be dissolved (λυω — luthēsetai). Future passive of στοιχεια — luō to loosen, singular because καυσουμενα — stoicheia is neuter plural.With fervent heat Present passive participle of καυσος — kausoō late verb (from καυσομενα — kausos usually medical term for fever) and nearly always employed for fever temperature. Mayor suggests a conflagration from internal heat. Bigg thinks it merely a vernacular (Doric) future for καιω — kausomena (from κατακαησεται — kaiō to burn).Shall be burned up (κατακαιω — katakaēsetai). Repeated in 2 Peter 3:12. Second future passive of the compound verb ευρετησεται — katakaiō to burn down (up), according to A L. But Aleph B K P read ευρισκω — heurethēsetai (future passive of heuriskō to find) “shall be found.” There are various other readings here. The text seems corrupt. [source]
1 John 5:6 He that came [ο ελτων]
Second aorist active articular participle of ερχομαι — erchomai referring to the Incarnation as a definite historic event, the preexistent Son of God “sent from heaven to do God‘s will” (Brooke).By water and blood (δι υδατος και αιματος — di' hudatos kai haimatos). Accompanied by (δια — dia used with the genitive both as instrument and accompaniment, as in Galatians 5:13) water (as at the baptism) and blood (as on the Cross). These two incidents in the Incarnation are singled out because at the baptism Jesus was formally set apart to his Messianic work by the coming of the Holy Spirit upon him and by the Father‘s audible witness, and because at the Cross his work reached its culmination (“It is finished,” Jesus said). There are other theories that do not accord with the language and the facts. It is true that at the Cross both water and blood came out of the side of Jesus when pierced by the soldier, as John bore witness (John 19:34), a complete refutation of the Docetic denial of an actual human body for Jesus and of the Cerinthian distinction between Jesus and Christ. There is thus a threefold witness to the fact of the Incarnation, but he repeats the twofold witness before giving the third. The repetition of both preposition (εν — en this time rather than δια — dia) and the article (τωι — tōi locative case) argues for two separate events with particular emphasis on the blood (“not only” ουκ μονον — ouk monon “but” αλλ — all') which the Gnostics made light of or even denied.It is the Spirit that beareth witness Present active articular participle of μαρτυρεω — martureō with article with both subject and predicate, and so interchangeable as in 1 John 3:4. The Holy Spirit is the third and the chief witness at the baptism of Jesus and all through his ministry.Because (οτι — hoti). Or declarative “that.” Either makes sense. In John 15:26 Jesus spoke of “the Spirit of truth” (whose characteristic is truth). Here John identifies the Spirit with truth as Jesus said of himself (John 14:6) without denying personality for the Holy Spirit. [source]
Revelation 3:15 Nor hot [ουτε ζεστος]
Late verbal from ζεω — zeō to boil, (Romans 12:11), boiling hot, here only in N.T.I would thou wert (οπελον ης — ophelon ēs). Wish about the present with οπελον — ophelon (really ωπελον — ōphelon second aorist active indicative of οπειλω — opheilō without augment) with the imperfect ης — ēs (instead of the infinitive) as in 2 Corinthians 11:1, when the old Greek used ειτε — eithe or ει γαρ — ei gar See 1 Corinthians 4:8 for the aorist indicative and Galatians 5:12 for the future. [source]
Revelation 3:15 I would thou wert [οπελον ης]
Wish about the present with οπελον — ophelon (really ωπελον — ōphelon second aorist active indicative of οπειλω — opheilō without augment) with the imperfect ης — ēs (instead of the infinitive) as in 2 Corinthians 11:1, when the old Greek used ειτε — eithe or ει γαρ — ei gar See 1 Corinthians 4:8 for the aorist indicative and Galatians 5:12 for the future. [source]
Revelation 6:5 Had [εχων]
Literally, a yoke (old word from ζευγνυμι — zeugnumi to join), of slavery (Acts 15:10; Galatians 5:1), of teaching (Matthew 11:29), of weight or measure like a pair of scales evenly balancing as here (Ezekiel 5:1; Ezekiel 45:10). The rider of this black horse, like the spectral figure of hunger, carries in his hand a pair of scales. This is also one of the fruits of war. [source]
Revelation 6:5 A balance [ζυγον]
Literally, a yoke (old word from ζευγνυμι — zeugnumi to join), of slavery (Acts 15:10; Galatians 5:1), of teaching (Matthew 11:29), of weight or measure like a pair of scales evenly balancing as here (Ezekiel 5:1; Ezekiel 45:10). The rider of this black horse, like the spectral figure of hunger, carries in his hand a pair of scales. This is also one of the fruits of war. [source]

What do the individual words in Galatians 5:1 mean?

In freedom us Christ has set free stand firm therefore and not again in a yoke of slavery entangle yourselves
Τῇ ἐλευθερίᾳ ἡμᾶς Χριστὸς ἠλευθέρωσεν στήκετε οὖν καὶ μὴ πάλιν ζυγῷ δουλείας ἐνέχεσθε

ἐλευθερίᾳ  freedom 
Parse: Noun, Dative Feminine Singular
Root: ἐλευθερία  
Sense: liberty to do or to omit things having no relationship to salvation.
ἡμᾶς  us 
Parse: Personal / Possessive Pronoun, Accusative 1st Person Plural
Root: ἐγώ  
Sense: I, me, my.
Χριστὸς  Christ 
Parse: Noun, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root: Χριστός  
Sense: Christ was the Messiah, the Son of God.
ἠλευθέρωσεν  has  set  free 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Active, 3rd Person Singular
Root: ἐλευθερόω  
Sense: to make free.
στήκετε  stand  firm 
Parse: Verb, Present Imperative Active, 2nd Person Plural
Root: στήκω  
Sense: to stand firm.
πάλιν  again 
Parse: Adverb
Root: πάλιν  
Sense: anew, again.
ζυγῷ  in  a  yoke 
Parse: Noun, Dative Masculine Singular
Root: ζυγός  
Sense: a yoke.
δουλείας  of  slavery 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Feminine Singular
Root: δουλεία  
Sense: slavery, bondage, the condition of a slave.
ἐνέχεσθε  entangle  yourselves 
Parse: Verb, Present Imperative Middle or Passive, 2nd Person Plural
Root: ἐνέχω  
Sense: to have within, to hold in.