The Meaning of 1 Corinthians 3:1 Explained

1 Corinthians 3:1

KJV: And I, brethren, could not speak unto you as unto spiritual, but as unto carnal, even as unto babes in Christ.

YLT: And I, brethren, was not able to speak to you as to spiritual, but as to fleshly -- as to babes in Christ;

Darby: And I, brethren, have not been able to speak to you as to spiritual, but as to fleshly; as to babes in Christ.

ASV: And I, brethren, could not speak unto you as unto spiritual, but as unto carnal, as unto babes in Christ.

What does 1 Corinthians 3:1 Mean?

Study Notes

carnel
.
carnal
Cf. 1 Corinthians 3:1 ; 1 Corinthians 3:4 . "Carnal" = "fleshly" is Paul's word for the Adamic nature, and for the believer who "walks," i.e. lives, under the power of it. "Natural" is his characteristic word for the unrenewed man 1 Corinthians 2:14 as "spiritual" designates the renewed man who walks in the Spirit; 1 Corinthians 3:1 ; Galatians 6:1 .
sin Sin. (See Scofield " Romans 5:21 ") .

Verse Meaning

Here Paul introduced a third category of humanity, namely, the "fleshen" (Gr. sarkinos) or immature Christian. The Corinthians were not spiritually mature even though they possessed the Holy Spirit. Paul said he could not speak to them as spiritual men. He explained the reason in 1 Corinthians 3:3. Instead he had to address them as fleshen people, even as babes in Christ. Immaturity is not blameworthy if one is very young. However if a person has been a Christian for some time and is still immature, his or her condition is blameworthy (cf. 1 Corinthians 2:6). Such was the condition of the Corinthians.

Context Summary

1 Corinthians 3:1-9 - Prosperity Comes From God
In all our relations with our fellow-men, Christ's followers must realize their obligations as members of one great family, with one God. A man may be in Christ, truly regenerate and forgiven for his past sins, and yet be carnal; that is, according to Romans 7:18, he may be ruled by me, I, self. The marks of this inward disposition are set out here. He is a babe who needs to be fed with milk, little and often, because unable to digest solid food. He is a sectarian, throwing contempt on those who do not belong to his own school of thought. He allows himself to be infected with jealousy and strife. Let us test our Christian life by these symptoms. Where are we? And if we are conscious that self has become enthroned as the governing motive of life, let us not rest till Christ takes its place.
It is not easy to learn that the planter or the waterer is just nothing at all, and that God is all. Let us think of ourselves only as God's instruments, and in a humble way as God's fellow-workers. It is a most helpful thought. Constantly when engaged in tilling the soil as evangelists or in building character as preachers and teachers, let us count on success, because of the all-power of our great Partner. He must give the policy and direction; it is our part to conform wholly to His will and guidance. [source]

Chapter Summary: 1 Corinthians 3

1  Milk is fit for children
3  Strife and division, arguments of a fleshly mind
7  He who plants and He who waters are nothing
9  The ministers are God's fellow workmen
11  Christ the only foundation
16  You are the temples of God, which must be kept holy
19  The wisdom of this world is foolishness with God

Greek Commentary for 1 Corinthians 3:1

But as unto carnal [αλλ ως σαρκινοις]
Latin carneus. “As men o‘flesh,” Braid Scots; “as worldlings,” Moffatt. This form in ινος — ̇inos like λιτινος — lithinos in 2 Corinthians 3:3 means the material of flesh, “not on tablets of stone, but on fleshen tablets on hearts.” So in Hebrews 7:16. But in Romans 7:14 Paul says, “I am fleshen It is not culpable to a babe in Christ It is one of the tragedies of the minister‘s life that he has to keep on speaking to the church members “as unto babes in Christ” (ως νηπιοις εν Χριστωι — hōs nēpiois en Christōi), who actually glory in their long babyhood whereas they ought to be teachers of the gospel instead of belonging to the cradle roll. Paul‘s goal was for all the babes to become adults (Colossians 1:28). [source]
Carnal [σαρκίνοις]
Made of flesh. See on Romans 7:14, and see on flesh, Romans 7:5. [source]
Babes [νηπίοις]
From νη notand ἔπος aword. Strictly, non-speakers. Compare the Latin infans. Strongly contrasted with perfect; see on 1 Corinthians 2:6. [source]

Reverse Greek Commentary Search for 1 Corinthians 3:1

Luke 15:8 Ten pieces of silver [δραχμας δεκα]
The only instance in the N.T. of this old word for a coin of 65.5 grains about the value of the common δηναριυς — dēnarius (about eighteen cents), a quarter of a Jewish shekel. The double drachma (διδραχμον — didrachmon) occurs in the N.T. only in Matthew 17:24. The root is from δρασσομαι — drassomai to grasp with the hand (1 Corinthians 3:19), and so a handful of coin. Ten drachmas would be equal to nearly two dollars, but in purchasing power much more. [source]
John 2:18 Destroy this temple [λύσατε τὸν ναὸν τοῦτον]
Destroy, Literally, loosen. Wyc., undo. See on Mark 13:2; see on Luke 9:12; see on Acts 5:38. Notice that the word for temple is ναὸν , sanctuary (see on John 2:14). This temple points to the literal temple, which is truly a temple only as it is the abode of God, hence sanctuary, but with a typical reference to Jesus' own person as the holy dwelling-place of God who “was in Christ.” Compare 1 Corinthians 3:16, 1 Corinthians 3:17. Christ's death was therefore the pulling down of the temple, and His resurrection its rebuilding. The imperative in destroy is of the nature of a challenge. Compare fill ye up, Matthew 23:32. [source]
John 14:21 Will manifest [ἐμφανίσω]
Properly, of manifestation to the sight, as distinguished from δηλόω , to make evident to the mind (1 Corinthians 3:13; Colossians 1:8, etc.). A clear, conspicuous manifestation is indicated. Compare ye see me (John 14:19). “It conveys more than the disclosing of an undiscovered presence ( ἀποκαλύπτω ), or the manifesting of a hidden one ( φανερόω )” (Westcott). [source]
John 14:23 If a man love me [εαν τις αγαπαι με]
Condition of third class with εαν — ean and present active subjunctive, “if one keep on loving me.” That is key to the spiritual manifestation We will come Future middle of ερχομαι — erchomai and first person plural (the Father and I), not at the judgment, but here and now. And make our abode with him See John 14:2 for the word μονη — monē (dwelling, abiding place). If the Holy Spirit “abides” (μενει — menei John 14:17) in you, that heart becomes a temple (ναος — naos) of the Holy Spirit (1 Corinthians 3:16.), and so a fit dwelling place for the Father and the Son, a glorious and uplifting reality. [source]
John 16:12 But ye cannot bear them now [αλλ ου δυναστε βασταζειν αρτι]
The literal sense of βασταζω — bastazō to bear, occurs in John 12:6. For the figurative as here see Acts 15:10. The untaught cannot get the full benefit of teaching (1 Corinthians 3:1; Hebrews 5:11-14). The progressive nature of revelation is a necessity. [source]
John 6:10 Sit down [αναπεσειν]
Literally, “fall back,” lie down, recline. Second aorist active infinitive of αναπιπτω — anapiptō Much grass Old word for pasture, green grass (Mark 6:39) or hay (1 Corinthians 3:12). It was spring (John 6:4) and plenty of green grass on the hillside. The men Word for men as distinct from women, expressly stated in Matthew 14:21. In number Adverbial accusative (of general reference). About General estimate, though they were arranged in orderly groups by hundreds and fifties, “in ranks” like “garden beds” (πρασιαι — prasiai Mark 6:40). [source]
John 2:19 Destroy this temple [λυσατε τον ναον τουτον]
First aorist active imperative of λυω — luō to loosen or destroy. It is the permissive imperative, not a command to do it. Note also ναος — naos not ιερον — hieron the sanctuary, symbol of God‘s ναος — naos in our hearts (1 Corinthians 3:16.). There is much confusion about this language since Jesus added: “And in three days I will raise it up” Those who heard Jesus, including the disciples till after the resurrection (John 2:22), understood the reference to be to Herod‘s temple. Certainly that is the obvious way to take it. But Jesus often spoke in parables and even in enigmas. He may have spoken of the literal temple as a parable for his own body which of course they would not understand, least of all the resurrection in three days. [source]
Acts 18:27 Helped them much [συνεβαλετο πολυ]
Second aorist middle indicative of συνβαλλω — sunballō used in Acts 17:18 for “dispute,” old verb to throw together, in the N.T. always in the active save here in the middle (common in Greek writers) to put together, to help. Through grace (δια της χαριτος — dia tēs charitos). This makes sense if taken with “believed,” as Hackett does (cf. Acts 13:48; Acts 16:14) or with “helped” (1 Corinthians 3:10; 1 Corinthians 15:10; 2 Corinthians 1:12). Both are true as the references show. [source]
Acts 18:27 Through grace [δια της χαριτος]
This makes sense if taken with “believed,” as Hackett does (cf. Acts 13:48; Acts 16:14) or with “helped” (1 Corinthians 3:10; 1 Corinthians 15:10; 2 Corinthians 1:12). Both are true as the references show. [source]
Acts 20:32 I commend [παρατιτεμαι]
Present middle indicative of παρατιτημι — paratithēmi old verb to place beside, middle, to deposit with one, to interest as in 1 Timothy 1:18; 2 Timothy 2:2. Paul can now only do this, but he does it hopefully. Cf. 1 Peter 4:19. The word of his grace (τωι λογωι της χαριτος αυτου — tōi logōi tēs charitos autou). The instrumentality through preaching and the Holy Spirit employed by God. Cf. Colossians 4:6; Ephesians 4:29. Which is able to build up God works through the word of his grace and so it is able to build up (edify); a favourite Pauline word (1 Corinthians 3:10-14; 1 Corinthians 3:9; 2 Corinthians 5:1; Ephesians 2:20-22; 2 Timothy 3:15; etc.), and James 1:21. The very words “build” and “inheritance among the sanctified” will occur in Ephesians 1:11; Ephesians 3:18 and which some may recall on reading. Cf. Colossians 1:12. Stephen in Acts 7:5 used the word “inheritance” (κληρονομιαν — klēronomian), nowhere else in Acts, but in Ephesians 1:14, Ephesians 1:18; Ephesians 5:5. In Ephesians 1:18 the very expression occurs “his inheritance among the saints “ (την κληρονομιαν αυτου εν τοις αγιοις — tēn klēronomian autou en tois hagiois). [source]
Acts 20:32 Which is able to build up [τωι δυναμενωι οικοδομησαι]
God works through the word of his grace and so it is able to build up (edify); a favourite Pauline word (1 Corinthians 3:10-14; 1 Corinthians 3:9; 2 Corinthians 5:1; Ephesians 2:20-22; 2 Timothy 3:15; etc.), and James 1:21. The very words “build” and “inheritance among the sanctified” will occur in Ephesians 1:11; Ephesians 3:18 and which some may recall on reading. Cf. Colossians 1:12. Stephen in Acts 7:5 used the word “inheritance” (κληρονομιαν — klēronomian), nowhere else in Acts, but in Ephesians 1:14, Ephesians 1:18; Ephesians 5:5. In Ephesians 1:18 the very expression occurs “his inheritance among the saints “ (την κληρονομιαν αυτου εν τοις αγιοις — tēn klēronomian autou en tois hagiois). [source]
Romans 8:4 The Spirit [πνεῦμα]
From πνέω tobreathe or blow. The primary conception is wind or breath. Breath being the sign and condition of life in man, it comes to signify life. In this sense, physiologically considered, it is frequent in the classics. In the psychological sense, never. In the Old Testament it is ordinarily the translation of ruach It is also used to translate chai life, Isaiah 38:12; nbreath, 1 Kings 17:17. In the New Testament it occurs in the sense of wind or breath, John 3:8; 2 Thessalonians 2:8; Hebrews 1:7. Closely related to the physiological sense are such passages as Luke 8:55; James 2:26; Revelation 13:15. Pauline Usage: 1. Breath, 2 Thessalonians 2:8. 2. The spirit or mind of man; the inward, self-conscious principle which feels and thinks and wills (1 Corinthians 2:11; 1 Corinthians 5:3; 1 Corinthians 7:34; Colossians 2:5). In this sense it is distinguished from σῶμα bodyor accompanied with a personal pronoun in the genitive, as my, our, his spirit (Romans 1:9; Romans 8:16; 1 Corinthians 5:4; 1 Corinthians 16:18, etc.). It is used as parallel with ψυχή souland καρδία heartSee 1 Corinthians 5:3; 1 Thessalonians 2:17; and compare John 13:21and John 12:27; Matthew 26:38and Luke 1:46, Luke 1:47. But while ψυχή soulis represented as the subject of life, πνεύμα spiritrepresents the principle of life, having independent activity in all circumstances of the perceptive and emotional life, and never as the subject. Generally, πνεύμα spiritmay be described as the principle, ψυχή soulas the subject, and καρδία heartas the organ of life. 3. The spiritual nature of Christ. Romans 1:4; 1 Corinthians 15:45; 1 Timothy 3:16. 4. The divine power or influence belonging to God, and communicated in Christ to men, in virtue of which they become πνευματικοί spiritual - recipientsand organs of the Spirit. This is Paul's most common use of the word. Romans 8:9; 1 Corinthians 2:13; Galatians 4:6; Galatians 6:1; 1 Thessalonians 4:8. In this sense it appears as: a. Spirit of God. Romans 8:9, Romans 8:11, Romans 8:14; 1 Corinthians 2:10, 1 Corinthians 2:11, 1 Corinthians 2:12, 1 Corinthians 2:14; 1 Corinthians 3:16; 1 Corinthians 6:11; 1 Corinthians 7:40; 2 Corinthians 3:3; Ephesians 3:16. b. Spirit of Christ. Romans 8:9; 2 Corinthians 3:17, 2 Corinthians 3:18; Galatians 4:6; Philemon 1:19. c. Holy Spirit. Romans 5:5; 1 Corinthians 6:19; 1 Corinthians 12:3; Ephesians 1:13; 1 Thessalonians 1:5, 1 Thessalonians 1:6; 1 Thessalonians 4:8, etc. d. Spirit. With or without the article, but with its reference to the Spirit of God or Holy Spirit indicated by the context. Romans 8:16, Romans 8:23, Romans 8:26, Romans 8:27; 1 Corinthians 2:4, 1 Corinthians 2:10; 1 Corinthians 12:4, 1 Corinthians 12:7, 1 Corinthians 12:8, 1 Corinthians 12:9; Ephesians 4:3; 2 Thessalonians 2:13, etc. 5. A power or influence, the character, manifestations, or results of which are more peculiarly defined by qualifying genitives. Thus spirit of meekness, faith, power, wisdom. Romans 8:2, Romans 8:15; 1 Corinthians 4:21; 2 Corinthians 4:13; Galatians 6:1; Ephesians 1:17; 2 Timothy 1:7, etc. These combinations with the genitives are not mere periphrases for a faculty or disposition of man. By the spirit of meekness or wisdom, for instance, is not meant merely a meek or wise spirit; but that meekness, wisdom, power, etc., are gifts of the Spirit of God. This usage is according to Old Testament analogy. Compare Exodus 28:3; Exodus 31:3; Exodus 35:31; Isaiah 11:2. 6. In the plural, used of spiritual gifts or of those who profess to be under spiritual influence, 1 Corinthians 12:10; 1 Corinthians 14:12. 7. Powers or influences alien or averse from the divine Spirit, but with some qualifying word. Thus, the spirit of the world; another spirit; spirit of slumber. Romans 11:8; 1 Corinthians 2:12; 2 Corinthians 11:4; Ephesians 2:2; 2 Timothy 1:7. Where these expressions are in negative form they are framed after the analogy of the positive counterpart with which they are placed in contrast. Thus Romans 8:15: “Ye have not received the spirit of bondage, but of adoption. In other cases, as Ephesians 2:2, where the expression is positive, the conception is shaped according to Old-Testament usage, where spirits of evil are conceived as issuing from, and dependent upon, God, so far as He permits their operation and makes them subservient to His own ends. See Judges 9:23; 1 Samuel 16:14-16, 1 Samuel 16:23; 1 Samuel 18:10; 1 Kings 22:21sqq.; Isaiah 19:4. Spirit is found contrasted with letter, Romans 2:29; Romans 7:6; 2 Corinthians 3:6. With flesh, Romans 8:1-13; Galatians 5:16, Galatians 5:24. It is frequently associated with the idea of power (Romans 1:4; Romans 15:13, Romans 15:19; 1 Corinthians 2:4; Galatians 3:5; Ephesians 3:16; 2 Timothy 1:7); and the verb ἐνεργεῖν , denoting to work efficaciously, is used to mark its special operation (1 Corinthians 12:11; Ephesians 3:20; Philemon 2:13; Colossians 1:29). It is also closely associated with life, Romans 8:2, Romans 8:6, Romans 8:11, Romans 8:13; 1 Corinthians 15:4, 1 Corinthians 15:5; 2 Corinthians 3:6; Galatians 5:25; Galatians 6:8. It is the common possession of the Church and its members; not an occasional gift, but an essential element and mark of the christian life; not appearing merely or mainly in exceptional, marvelous, ecstatic demonstrations, but as the motive and mainspring of all christian action and feeling. It reveals itself in confession (1 Corinthians 12:3); in the consciousness of sonship (Romans 8:16); in the knowledge of the love of God (Romans 5:5); in the peace and joy of faith (Romans 14:17; 1 Thessalonians 1:6); in hope (Romans 5:5; Romans 15:13). It leads believers (Romans 8:14; Galatians 5:18): they serve in newness of the Spirit (Romans 7:6) They walk after the Spirit (Romans 8:4, Romans 8:5; Galatians 5:16-25). Through the Spirit they are sanctified (2 Thessalonians 2:13). It manifests itself in the diversity of forms and operations, appearing under two main aspects: a difference of gifts, and a difference of functions. See Romans 8:9; 1 Corinthians 3:16; 1 Corinthians 5:1, 1 Corinthians 5:11; 1 Corinthians 12:13; Ephesians 1:13; Ephesians 4:3, Ephesians 4:4, Ephesians 4:30; Philemon 2:1; [source]
Romans 6:19 After the manner of men [ἀνθρώπινον]
Lit., what is human, popularly. He seems to have felt that the figures of service, bondage, etc., were unworthy of the subject, and apologizes for his use of the image of the slave mart to enforce such a high spiritual truth, on the ground of their imperfect spiritual comprehension. Compare 2 Corinthians 2:6; 1 Corinthians 3:1, 1 Corinthians 3:2. [source]
Romans 11:2 Wot ye not [οὐκ οἴδατε]
Why should the Revisers have retained the obsolete wot here, when they have rendered elsewhere, know ye not? See Romans 6:16; 1 Corinthians 3:16; 1 Corinthians 5:6, 1 Corinthians 6:2, etc. The phrase indicates that this cannot be thought of as true. [source]
Romans 15:20 ambition [ambio, to go on both sides to carry one‘s point)]
(ambio, to go on both sides to carry one‘s point). Not where (ουχ οπου — ouch hopou). Paul was a pioneer preacher pushing on to new fields after the manner of Daniel Boone in Kentucky. That I might now build upon another man‘s foundation For αλλοτριος — allotrios (not αλλος — allos) see note on Romans 14:4. For τεμελιον — themelion see notes on Luke 6:48. and note on 1 Corinthians 3:11. This noble ambition of Paul‘s is not within the range of some ministers who can only build on another‘s foundation as Apollos did in Corinth. But the pioneer preacher and missionary has a dignity and glory all his own. [source]
Romans 15:20 That I might now build upon another man‘s foundation [ινα μη επ αλλοτριον τεμελιον οικοδομω]
For αλλοτριος — allotrios (not αλλος — allos) see note on Romans 14:4. For τεμελιον — themelion see notes on Luke 6:48. and note on 1 Corinthians 3:11. This noble ambition of Paul‘s is not within the range of some ministers who can only build on another‘s foundation as Apollos did in Corinth. But the pioneer preacher and missionary has a dignity and glory all his own. [source]
Romans 16:18 By their smooth and fair speech [δια της χρηστολογιας και ευλογιας]
Two compounds of λογος — logos (speech), the first (from χρηστος — chrēstos and λογος — logos) is very rare (here only in N.T.), the second is very common Beguile (εχαπατωσιν — exapatōsin). Present active indicative of the double compound verb εχαπαταω — exapataō (see note on 2 Thessalonians 2:3; 1 Corinthians 3:18). Of the innocent Old adjective (α — a privative and κακος — kakos), without evil or guile, in N.T. only here and Hebrews 7:26 (of Christ). [source]
Romans 16:18 Beguile [εχαπατωσιν]
Present active indicative of the double compound verb εχαπαταω — exapataō (see note on 2 Thessalonians 2:3; 1 Corinthians 3:18). [source]
Romans 7:11 Beguiled me [εχηπατησεν με]
First aorist active indicative of εχαπαταω — exapataō old verb, completely See note on 1 Corinthians 3:18; 2 Corinthians 11:3. Only in Paul in N.T. [source]
Romans 7:14 But I am carnal [εγω δε σαρκινος ειμι]
“Fleshen” as in 1 Corinthians 3:1 which see, more emphatic even than σαρκικος — sarkikos a creature of flesh.” Sold under sin (πεπραμενος υπο την αμαρτιαν — pepramenos hupo tēn hamartian). Perfect passive participle of πιπρασκω — pipraskō old verb, to sell. See note on Matthew 13:46 and note on Acts 2:45, state of completion. Sin has closed the mortgage and owns its slave. [source]
Romans 15:20 Making it my aim [πιλοτιμουμενον]
Present middle participle (accusative case agreeing with με — me) of πιλοτιμεομαι — philotimeomai old verb, to be fond of honour In N.T. only here and 1 Thessalonians 4:11; 2 Corinthians 5:9. A noble word in itself, quite different in aim from the Latin word for ambition (ambio, to go on both sides to carry one‘s point). Not where (ουχ οπου — ouch hopou). Paul was a pioneer preacher pushing on to new fields after the manner of Daniel Boone in Kentucky. That I might now build upon another man‘s foundation For αλλοτριος — allotrios (not αλλος — allos) see note on Romans 14:4. For τεμελιον — themelion see notes on Luke 6:48. and note on 1 Corinthians 3:11. This noble ambition of Paul‘s is not within the range of some ministers who can only build on another‘s foundation as Apollos did in Corinth. But the pioneer preacher and missionary has a dignity and glory all his own. [source]
1 Corinthians 6:19 Temple [ναὸς]
Better, as Rev., in margin, sanctuary. It is not only a temple, but the very shrine. See on 1 Corinthians 3:16. [source]
1 Corinthians 3:3 Carnal [σαρκικοί]
Here the milder word is used (see 1 Corinthians 3:1), having the nature of flesh. In 1 Corinthians 3:1, Paul would say that he was compelled to address the Corinthians as unspiritual, made of flesh. Here he says that though they have received the Spirit in some measure, they are yet under the influence of the flesh. [source]
1 Corinthians 13:11 A child []
See on 1 Corinthians 3:1, and see on 1 Corinthians 2:6. [source]
1 Corinthians 1:11 It hath been declared [ἐδηλώθη]
Rev., signified, which is hardly strong enough. The word means to make clear, or manifest ( δῆλος ). Compare 1 Corinthians 3:13. It may imply that Paul was reluctant to believe the reports, but was convinced by unimpeachable testimony. [source]
1 Corinthians 1:18 Foolishness [μωρια]
Folly. Old word from μωρος — mōros foolish. In N.T. only in 1 Corinthians 1:18, 1 Corinthians 1:21, 1 Corinthians 1:23; 1 Corinthians 2:14; 1 Corinthians 3:19. [source]
1 Corinthians 13:11 A child [νηπιος]
See note on 1 Corinthians 3:1 for νηπιος — nēpios in contrast with τελειος — teleios (adult). [source]
1 Corinthians 3:9 Building [οἰκοδομή]
Paul's metaphors are drawn from the works and customs of men rather than from the works of nature. “In his epistles,” says Archdeacon Farrar, “we only breathe the air of cities and synagogues.” The abundance of architectural metaphors is not strange in view of the magnificent temples and public buildings which he was continually seeing at Antioch, Athens, Corinth, and Ephesus. His frequent use of to build and building in a moral and spiritual sense is noteworthy. In this sense the two words οἰκοδομέω and οἰκοδομή occur twenty-six times in the New Testament, and in all but two cases in Paul's writings. Peter uses build in a similar sense; 1 Peter 2:5. See edify, edification, build, Acts 9:31; Romans 15:20; 1 Corinthians 8:1; 1 Corinthians 8:10, where emboldened is literally built up, and is used ironically. Also Romans 14:19; Romans 15:2; 1 Corinthians 14:3; Ephesians 2:21, etc. It is worth noting that in the Epistle to the Hebrews, while the same metaphor occurs, different words are used. Thus in Hebrews 3:3, Hebrews 3:4, built, builded, represent κατασκευάζω toprepare. In Hebrews 11:10, τεχνίτης artificerand δημιουργὸς , lit., a workman for the public: A.V., builder and maker. This fact has a bearing on the authorship of the epistle. In earlier English, edify was used for build in the literal sense. Thus Piers Ploughman: “I shal overturne this temple and a-down throwe it, and in thre daies after edifie it newe.” See on Acts 20:32. In the double metaphor of the field and the building, the former furnishes the mould of Paul's thought in 1 Corinthians 3:6-9, and the latter in 1 Corinthians 3:10-17. Edwards remarks that the field describes the raw material on which God works, the house the result of the work. [source]
1 Corinthians 3:15 Yet so as through fire [ουτως δε ως δια πυρος]
Clearly Paul means with his work burned down (1 Corinthians 3:15). It is the tragedy of a fruitless life, of a minister who built so poorly on the true foundation that his work went up in smoke. His sermons were empty froth or windy words without edifying or building power. They left no mark in the lives of the hearers. It is the picture of a wasted life. The one who enters heaven by grace, as we all do who are saved, yet who brings no sheaves with him. There is no garnered grain the result of his labours in the harvest field. There are no souls in heaven as the result of his toil for Christ, no enrichment of character, no growth in grace. [source]
1 Corinthians 4:3 Or of man‘s judgement [η υπο αντρωπινης ημερας]
Or “by human day,” in contrast to the Lord‘s Day (der Tag) in 1 Corinthians 3:13. “That is the tribunal which the Apostle recognizes; a human tribunal he does not care to satisfy” (Robertson and Plummer). Yea, I judge not mine own self (αλλ ουδε εμαυτον ανακρινω — all' oude emauton anakrinō). Αλλα — Alla here is confirmatory, not adversative. “I have often wondered how it is that every man sets less value on his own opinion of himself than on the opinion of others” (M. Aurelius, xii. 4. Translated by Robertson and Plummer). Paul does not even set himself up as judge of himself. [source]
1 Corinthians 4:5 Before the time [προ καιρου]
The day of the Lord in 1 Corinthians 3:13. “Do not therefore anticipate the great judgment (κρισις — krisis) by any preliminary investigation (ανακρισις — anakrisis) which must be futile and incomplete” (Lightfoot). [source]
1 Corinthians 3:12 If any man build, etc. []
It is important to have a clear conception of Paul's figure, which must be taken in a large and free sense, and not pressed into detail. He speaks of the body of truth and doctrine which different teachers may erect on the one true foundation - Jesus Christ. This body is the building. The reference is to a single building, as is shown by 1 Corinthians 3:16; not to a city with different buildings of different materials. The figure of Christ as the foundation of a city does not occur in the New Testament. To this structure different teachers (builders) bring contributions of more or less value, represented by gold, wood, hay, etc. These are not intended to represent specific forms of truth or of error, but none of them are to be regarded as anti-Christian, which would be inconsistent with building on the true foundation. It is plainly implied that teachers may build upon the true foundation with perishable or worthless materials. This appears in the history of the Church in the false interpretations of scripture, and the crude or fanatical preaching of sincere but ignorant men. The whole structure will be brought to a final and decisive test at the day of judgment, when the true value of each teacher's work shall be manifested, and that which is worthless shall be destroyed. The distinction is clearly made between the teacher and the matter of his teaching. The sincere but mistaken teacher's work will be shown to be worthless in itself, but the teacher himself will be saved and will receive the reward of personal character, and not of good building. Luther alluded to this verse in his unfortunate description of the Epistle of James as “an epistle of straw.” [source]
1 Corinthians 1:18 To them that are perishing [τοις μεν απολλυμενοις]
Dative of disadvantage (personal interest). Present middle participle is here timeless, those in the path to destruction (not annihilation. See note on 2 Thessalonians 2:10). Cf. 2 Corinthians 4:3. Foolishness (μωρια — mōria). Folly. Old word from μωρος — mōros foolish. In N.T. only in 1 Corinthians 1:18, 1 Corinthians 1:21, 1 Corinthians 1:23; 1 Corinthians 2:14; 1 Corinthians 3:19. But unto us which are being saved Sharp contrast to those that are perishing and same construction with the articular participle. No reason for the change of pronouns in English. This present passive participle is again timeless. Salvation is described by Paul as a thing done in the past, “we were saved” (Romans 8:24), as a present state, “ye have been saved” (Ephesians 2:5), as a process, “ye are being saved” (1 Corinthians 15:2), as a future result, “thou shalt be saved” (Romans 10:9). The power of God (δυναμις τεου — dunamis theou). So in Romans 1:16. No other message has this dynamite of God (1 Corinthians 4:20). God‘s power is shown in the preaching of the Cross of Christ through all the ages, now as always. No other preaching wins men and women from sin to holiness or can save them. The judgment of Paul here is the verdict of every soul winner through all time. [source]
1 Corinthians 2:6 Among the perfect [εν τοις τελειοις]
Paul is not here drawing a distinction between exoteric and esoteric wisdom as the Gnostics did for their initiates, but simply to the necessary difference in teaching for babes (1 Corinthians 3:1) and adults or grown men (common use of τελειος — teleios for relative perfection, for adults, as is in 1 Corinthians 14:20; Philemon 3:15; Ephesians 4:13; Hebrews 5:14). Some were simply old babes and unable in spite of their years to digest solid spiritual food, “the ample teaching as to the Person of Christ and the eternal purpose of God. Such ‹wisdom‘ we have in the Epistles to the Ephesians and the Colossians especially, and in a less degree in the Epistle to the Romans. This ‹wisdom‘ is discerned in the Gospel of John, as compared with the other Evangelists” (Lightfoot). These imperfect disciples Paul wishes to develop into spiritual maturity. [source]
1 Corinthians 3:10 Another buildeth thereon [αλλος εποικοδομει]
Note the preposition επι — epi with the verb each time (1 Corinthians 3:10, 1 Corinthians 3:11, 1 Corinthians 3:12, 1 Corinthians 3:14). The successor to Paul did not have to lay a new foundation, but only to go on building on that already laid. It is a pity when the new pastor has to dig up the foundation and start all over again as if an earthquake had come. Take heed how he buildeth thereon (βλεπετω πως εποικοδομει — blepetō pōs epoikodomei). The carpenters have need of caution how they carry out the plans of the original architect. Successive architects of great cathedrals carry on through centuries the original design. The result becomes the wonder of succeeding generations. There is no room for individual caprice in the superstructure. [source]
1 Corinthians 5:5 That the spirit may be saved [ινα το πνευμα σωτηι]
The ultimate purpose of the expulsion as discipline. Note the use of το πνευμα — to pneuma in contrast with σαρχ — sarx as the seat of personality (cf. 1 Corinthians 3:15). Paul‘s motive is not merely vindictive, but the reformation of the offender who is not named here nor in 2 Corinthians 2:5-11 if the same man is meant, which is very doubtful. The final salvation of the man in the day of Christ is the goal and this is to be attained not by condoning his sin. [source]
1 Corinthians 6:19 Your body is a temple [το σωμα υμων ναος εστιν]
A sanctuary as in 1 Corinthians 3:16 which see. Our spirits dwell in our bodies and the Holy Spirit dwells in our spirits. Some of the Gnostics split hairs between the sins of the body and fellowship with God in the spirit. Paul will have none of this subterfuge. One‘s body is the very shrine for the Holy Spirit. In Corinth was the temple to Aphrodite in which fornication was regarded as consecration instead of desecration. Prostitutes were there as priestesses of Aphrodite, to help men worship the goddess by fornication. [source]
1 Corinthians 3:15 He shall suffer loss [ζημιωτησεται]
First future passive indicative of ζημιω — zēmiō old verb from ζημια — zēmia (damage, loss), to suffer loss. In Matthew 16:26; Mark 8:36; Luke 9:25 the loss is stated to be the man‘s soul But he himself shall be saved (αυτος δε σωτησεται — autos de sōthēsetai). Eternal salvation, but not by purgatory. His work is burned up completely and hopelessly, but he himself escapes destruction because he is really a saved man a real believer in Christ. Yet so as through fire Clearly Paul means with his work burned down (1 Corinthians 3:15). It is the tragedy of a fruitless life, of a minister who built so poorly on the true foundation that his work went up in smoke. His sermons were empty froth or windy words without edifying or building power. They left no mark in the lives of the hearers. It is the picture of a wasted life. The one who enters heaven by grace, as we all do who are saved, yet who brings no sheaves with him. There is no garnered grain the result of his labours in the harvest field. There are no souls in heaven as the result of his toil for Christ, no enrichment of character, no growth in grace. [source]
1 Corinthians 3:18 Thinketh that he is wise [δοκει σοπος ειναι]
Condition of first class and assumed to be true. Predicate nominative σοπος — sophos with the infinitive to agree with subject of δοκει — dokei (Robertson, Grammar, p. 1038). Paul claimed to be “wise” himself in 1 Corinthians 3:10 and he desires that the claimant to wisdom may become wise (ινα γενηται σοπος — hina genētai sophos purpose clause with ινα — hina and subjunctive) by becoming a fool (μωρος γενεστω — mōros genesthō second aorist middle imperative of γινομαι — ginomai) as this age looks at him. This false wisdom of the world (1 Corinthians 1:18-20, 1 Corinthians 1:23; 1 Corinthians 2:14), this self-conceit, has led to strife and wrangling. Cut it out. [source]
1 Corinthians 4:3 It is a very small thing [εις ελαχιστον εστιν]
This predicate use of εις — eis is like the Hebrew, but it occurs also in the papyri. The superlative ελαχιστον — elachiston is elative, very little, not the true superlative, least. “It counts for very little with me.” That I should be judged of you (ινα υπ υμων ανακριτω — hina huph' humōn anakrithō). Same use of ινα — hina as in 1 Corinthians 4:2. For the verb (first aorist passive subjunctive of ανακρινω — anakrinō) see note on 1 Corinthians 2:14. Paul does not despise public opinion, but he denies “the competency of the tribunal” in Corinth (Robertson and Plummer) to pass on his credentials with Christ as his Lord. Or of man‘s judgement Or “by human day,” in contrast to the Lord‘s Day (der Tag) in 1 Corinthians 3:13. “That is the tribunal which the Apostle recognizes; a human tribunal he does not care to satisfy” (Robertson and Plummer). Yea, I judge not mine own self (αλλ ουδε εμαυτον ανακρινω — all' oude emauton anakrinō). Αλλα — Alla here is confirmatory, not adversative. “I have often wondered how it is that every man sets less value on his own opinion of himself than on the opinion of others” (M. Aurelius, xii. 4. Translated by Robertson and Plummer). Paul does not even set himself up as judge of himself. [source]
1 Corinthians 4:5 Judge nothing [μη τι κρινετε]
Stop passing judgment, stop criticizing as they were doing. See the words of Jesus in Matthew 7:1. The censorious habit was ruining the Corinthian Church. Before the time (προ καιρου — pro kairou). The day of the Lord in 1 Corinthians 3:13. “Do not therefore anticipate the great judgment (κρισις — krisis) by any preliminary investigation (ανακρισις — anakrisis) which must be futile and incomplete” (Lightfoot). Until the Lord come Common idiom of εως — heōs and the aorist subjunctive with or without αν — an for a future event. Simple futurity, but held forth as a glorious hope, the Second Coming of the Lord Jesus as Judge. Who will both bring to light (ος και πωτισει — hos kai phōtisei). Future indicative of this late verb (in papyri also) from πως — phōs (light), to turn the light on the hidden things of darkness. And make manifest (Ionic and late) causative verb πανεροω — phaneroō from πανερος — phaneros By turning on the light the counsels of all hearts stand revealed. His praise (ο επαινος — ho epainos). The praise (note article) due him from God (Romans 2:29) will come to each then (τοτε — tote) and not till then. Meanwhile Paul will carry on and wait for the praise from God. [source]
1 Corinthians 4:6 That in us ye may learn [ινα εν ημιν ματητε]
Final clause with ινα — hina and the second aorist active subjunctive of μαντανω — manthanō to learn. As an object lesson in our cases It is no more true of Paul and Apollos than of other ministers, but the wrangles in Corinth started about them. So Paul boldly puts himself and Apollos to the fore in the discussion of the principles involved. Not to go beyond the things which are written (το Μη υπερ α γεγραπται — to Mē huper ha gegraptai). It is difficult to reproduce the Greek idiom in English. The article το — to is in the accusative case as the object of the verb ματητε — mathēte (learn) and points at the words “Μη υπερ α γεγραπται — Mē huper ha gegraptai apparently a proverb or rule, and elliptical in form with no principal verb expressed with μη — mē whether “think” (Auth.) or “go” (Revised). There was a constant tendency to smooth out Paul‘s ellipses as in 2 Thessalonians 2:3; 1 Corinthians 1:26, 1 Corinthians 1:31. Lightfoot thinks that Paul may have in mind O.T. passages quoted in 1 Corinthians 1:19, 1 Corinthians 1:31; 1 Corinthians 3:19, 1 Corinthians 3:20. That ye be not puffed up Sub-final use of ινα — hina (second use in this sentence) with notion of result. It is not certain whether πυσιουστε — phusiousthe (late verb form like πυσιαω πυσαω — phusiaōινα — phusaō to blow up, to inflate, to puff up), used only by Paul in the N.T., is present indicative with ζηλουτε — hina like ινα γινωσκομεν — zēloute in Galatians 4:17 (cf. Πυσιοω — hina ginōskomen in 1 John 5:20) or the present subjunctive by irregular contraction (Robertson, Grammar, pp. 203, 342f.), probably the present indicative. πυσις — Phusioō is from πυσαω — phusis (nature) and so meant to make natural, but it is used by Paul just like πυσιαω — phusaō or πυσα — phusiaō (from εις υπερ του ενος κατα του ετερου — phusa a pair of bellows), a vivid picture of self-conceit. One for the one against the other (υπερ — heis huper tou henos kata tou heterou). This is the precise idea of this idiom of partitive apposition. This is the rule with partisans. They are “for” (κατα — huper) the one and “against” (του ετερου — kata down on, the genitive case) the other (ετεροδοχ — tou heterou not merely another or a second, but the different sort, heterodox). [source]
1 Corinthians 4:6 Not to go beyond the things which are written [το Μη υπερ α γεγραπται]
It is difficult to reproduce the Greek idiom in English. The article το — to is in the accusative case as the object of the verb ματητε — mathēte (learn) and points at the words “Μη υπερ α γεγραπται — Mē huper ha gegraptai apparently a proverb or rule, and elliptical in form with no principal verb expressed with μη — mē whether “think” (Auth.) or “go” (Revised). There was a constant tendency to smooth out Paul‘s ellipses as in 2 Thessalonians 2:3; 1 Corinthians 1:26, 1 Corinthians 1:31. Lightfoot thinks that Paul may have in mind O.T. passages quoted in 1 Corinthians 1:19, 1 Corinthians 1:31; 1 Corinthians 3:19, 1 Corinthians 3:20. [source]
1 Corinthians 5:5 For the destruction of the flesh [εις ολετρον της σαρκος]
Both for physical suffering as in the case of Job (Job 2:6) and for conquest of the fleshly sins, remedial punishment. That the spirit may be saved (ινα το πνευμα σωτηι — hina to pneuma sōthēi). The ultimate purpose of the expulsion as discipline. Note the use of το πνευμα — to pneuma in contrast with σαρχ — sarx as the seat of personality (cf. 1 Corinthians 3:15). Paul‘s motive is not merely vindictive, but the reformation of the offender who is not named here nor in 2 Corinthians 2:5-11 if the same man is meant, which is very doubtful. The final salvation of the man in the day of Christ is the goal and this is to be attained not by condoning his sin. [source]
1 Corinthians 6:13 But the body is not for fornication, but for the Lord, and the Lord for the body [το δε σωμα ου τηι πορνειαι αλλα τωι κυριωι και ο κυριος τωι σωματι]
Paul here boldly shows the fallacy in the parallel about appetite of the belly for food. The human body has a higher mission than the mere gratification of sensual appetite. Sex is of God for the propagation of the race, not for prostitution. Paul had already stated that God dwells in us as the sanctuary of the Holy Spirit (1 Corinthians 3:16.). This higher function of the body he here puts forward against the debased Greek philosophy of the time which ignored completely Paul‘s idea, “the body for the Lord and the Lord for the body” (dative of personal interest in both cases). “The Lord Jesus and πορνεια — porneia contested for the bodies of Christian men; loyal to him they must renounce that, yielding to that they renounce him” (Findlay). [source]
1 Corinthians 8:2 That he knoweth anything [egnōkenai ti)]
Perfect active infinitive in indirect discourse after οικοδομεω — dokei (condition of first class with εγνωκεναι τι — ei). So “has acquired knowledge” (cf. 1 Corinthians 3:18), has gone to the bottom of the subject. He knoweth not yet (δοκει — oupō egnō). Second aorist active indicative, timeless aorist, summary (punctiliar) statement of his ignorance. As he ought to know Second aorist active infinitive, ingressive aorist (come to know). Newton‘s remark that he was only gathering pebbles on the shore of the ocean of truth is pertinent. The really learned man knows his ignorance of what lies beyond. Shallow knowledge is like the depth of the mud hole, not of the crystal spring. [source]
2 Corinthians 3:3 Not with ink [ου μελανι]
Instrumental case of μελας — melas black. Plato uses το μελαν — to melan for ink as here. See also 2 John 1:12; 3 John 1:13. Of stone (λιτιναις — lithinais). Composed of stone (λιτος — lithos and ending ινος — ̇inos). Of flesh “Fleshen” as in 1 Corinthians 3:1; Romans 7:14. [source]
2 Corinthians 3:3 Of flesh [σαρκιναις]
“Fleshen” as in 1 Corinthians 3:1; Romans 7:14. [source]
2 Corinthians 6:16 For we are the temple of the living God [ημεις γαρ ναος τεου εσμεν ζωντος]
We, not temples (Acts 7:48; Acts 17:24; 1 Corinthians 3:16; 1 Corinthians 6:19). As God said (κατως ειπεν ο τεος — kathōs eipen ho theos). A paraphrase and catena of quotations, what J. Rendel Harris calls Testimonia (from Leviticus 26:11.; Isaiah 52:11; Ezekiel 20:34; Ezekiel 37:27; 2 Samuel 7:8, 2 Samuel 7:14). Plummer notes that at the beginning “I will dwell in them” (ενοικησω εν αυτοις — enoikēsō en autois) is not in any of them. “As God said” points to Leviticus 26:12; Ezekiel 37:27. [source]
Galatians 6:4 Prove [δοκιμαζέτω]
In Class. of assaying metals Comp. lxx, Proverbs 8:10; Proverbs 17:3; 1Corinthians href="/desk/?q=1co+3:13&sr=1">1 Corinthians 3:13; 1 Peter 1:7. It is the classical verb for testing money; see Plato, Tim. 65 C. Δοκιμάζειν and πυροῦσθαι toburn or try by fire occur together, Jeremiah 9:7; Psalm 11:6; Psalm 65:10. Generally, to prove or examine, as 1 Corinthians 11:28; 1 Thessalonians 5:21. To accept that which is approved, 1 Corinthians 16:3; 2 Corinthians 8:22; 1 Thessalonians 2:4. [source]
Galatians 6:1 Spiritual [πνευματικοὶ]
Comp. 1 Corinthians 3:1. Mostly in Paul. See 1 Peter 2:5. Those who have received the Spirit and are led by him. See Galatians 3:2, Galatians 3:3, Galatians 3:5, Galatians 3:14; Galatians 4:6; Galatians 5:5, Galatians 5:16, Galatians 5:18, Galatians 5:25. He leaves it to the readers' own conscience whether or not they answer to this designation. [source]
Galatians 4:1 A child [νήπιος]
A minor. See on 1 Corinthians 3:1. Used by Paul in contrast with τέλειος fullgrown. See Ephesians 4:13; 1 Corinthians 14:20; Philemon 3:15. The Jews called proselytes or novices babes. See Romans 2:20. [source]
Galatians 3:8 Would justify [δικαιοῖ]
Better justifieth. The present tense. The time foreseen was the Christian present. Comp. 1 Corinthians 3:13; Matthew 26:2. [source]
Galatians 1:16 To reveal his Son in me [ἀποκαλύψαι τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ ἐν ἐμοὶ]
In N.T. ἀποκαλύπτειν toreveal is habitually used with the simple dative of the subject of the revelation, as Luke 10:21. Once with εἰς unto Romans 8:18: with ἐν inof the sphere in which the revelation takes place, only here, unless Romans 1:17be so explained; but there ἐν is probably instrumental. Render ἐν here by the simple in: in my spirit, according to the familiar N.T. idea of God revealing himself, living and working in man's inner personality. See, for instance, Romans 1:19; Romans 5:5; Romans 8:10, Romans 8:11; 1 Corinthians 3:16; 1 Corinthians 14:25; 2 Corinthians 4:6; 1 John 2:5, 1 John 2:14, etc. Lightfoot explains, to reveal his Son by or through me to others. But apart from the doubtful use of ἐν , this introduces prematurely the thought of Paul's influence in his subsequent ministry. He is speaking of the initial stages of his experience. [source]
Galatians 2:6 Hopoioi []
is a qualitative word (1 Thessalonians 1:9; 1 Corinthians 3:13; James 1:24). Lightfoot thinks that these three leaders were the ones who suggested the compromise about Titus. That is a possible, but not the natural, interpretation of this involved sentence. The use of δε — de (but) in Galatians 2:6 seems to make a contrast between the three leaders and the pleaders for compromise in Galatians 2:4. [source]
Galatians 4:1 The heir [ο κληρονομος]
Old word Illustration from the law of inheritance carrying on the last thought in Galatians 3:29. A child (νηπιος — nēpios). One that does not talk (νη επος — nēτελειοι — epos word). That is a minor, an infant, immature intellectually and morally in contrast with δουλου — teleioi full grown (1 Corinthians 3:1; 1 Corinthians 14:20; Philemon 3:15; Ephesians 4:13). From a bondservant Slave. Ablative case of comparison after Κυριος παντων ων — diapherei for which verb see Matthew 6:26. Though he is lord of all (ων — Kurios pantōn ōn). Concessive participle ο εχων κυρος — ōn “being legally owner of all” (one who has the power, ho echōn kuros). [source]
Galatians 4:1 A child [νηπιος]
One that does not talk That is a minor, an infant, immature intellectually and morally in contrast with δουλου — teleioi full grown (1 Corinthians 3:1; 1 Corinthians 14:20; Philemon 3:15; Ephesians 4:13). [source]
Galatians 6:1 Ye which are spiritual [οι πνευματικοι]
See note on 1 Corinthians 3:1. The spiritually led (Galatians 5:18), the spiritual experts in mending souls. [source]
Galatians 2:6 Whatsoever they were [οποιοι ποτε ησαν]
Literally, “What sort they once were.” Hopoioi is a qualitative word (1 Thessalonians 1:9; 1 Corinthians 3:13; James 1:24). Lightfoot thinks that these three leaders were the ones who suggested the compromise about Titus. That is a possible, but not the natural, interpretation of this involved sentence. The use of δε — de (but) in Galatians 2:6 seems to make a contrast between the three leaders and the pleaders for compromise in Galatians 2:4. They, I say, imparted nothing to me He starts over again after the two parentheses and drops the construction απο των δοκουντων — apo tōn dokountōn and changes the construction (anacoluthon) to οι δοκουντες — hoi dokountes (nominative case), the men of reputation and influences whom he names in Galatians 2:8. See the same verb in Galatians 1:16. They added nothing in the conference to me. The compromisers tried to win them, but they finally came over to my view. Paul won his point, when he persuaded Peter, James, and John to agree with him and Barnabas in their contention for freedom for the Gentile Christians from the bondage of the Mosaic ceremonial law. [source]
Galatians 6:1 Trespass [παραπτωματι]
Literally, a falling aside, a slip or lapse in the papyri rather than a wilful sin. In Polybius and Diodorus. Koiné{[28928]}š word. Ye which are spiritual (οι πνευματικοι — hoi pneumatikoi). See note on 1 Corinthians 3:1. The spiritually led (Galatians 5:18), the spiritual experts in mending souls. Restore Present active imperative of katartizō the very word used in Matthew 4:21 of mending nets, old word to make καταρτιζετε — artios fit, to equip thoroughly. Looking to thyself (καταρτιζω — skopōn seauton). Keeping an eye on as in 2 Corinthians 4:18 like a runner on the goal. Lest thou also be tempted Negative purpose with first aorist passive subjunctive. Spiritual experts (preachers in particular) need this caution. Satan loves a shining mark. [source]
Ephesians 4:14 Children [νήπιοι]
See on 1 Corinthians 2:6; see on 1 Corinthians 3:1. As to the connection, Ephesians 4:13states the ultimate goal of christian training; Ephesians 4:14that which is pursued with a view to the attainment of that goal. Ephesians 4:14is subordinate to Ephesians 4:13, as is shown by the retention of the same figure, and is remotely dependent on Ephesians 4:11, Ephesians 4:12. The remote end, Ephesians 4:13, is placed before the more immediate one, as in Ephesians 4:12. See note. [source]
Ephesians 2:20 Being built upon [εποικοδομητεντες]
First aorist passive participle of εποικοδομεω — epoikodomeō for which double compound verb see note on 1 Corinthians 3:10; 2 Corinthians 2:17. [source]
Ephesians 2:20 The foundation [επι τωι τεμελιωι]
Repetition of επι — epi with the locative case. See note on 1 Corinthians 3:11 for this word. Of the apostles and prophets (τον αποστολων και προπητων — ton apostolōn kai prophētōn). Genitive of apposition with τεμελιωι — themeliōi consisting in. If one is surprised that Paul should refer so to the apostles, he being one himself, Peter does the same thing (2 Peter 3:2). Paul repeats this language in Ephesians 3:5. Christ Jesus himself being the chief corner stone Genitive absolute. The compound ακρογωνιαιος — akrogōniaios occurs only in the lxx (first in Isa 28:16) and in the N.T. (here, 1 Peter 2:6). Λιτος — Lithos (stone) is understood. Jesus had spoken of himself as the stone, rejected by the Jewish builders (experts), but chosen of God as the head of the corner (Matthew 21:42), εις κεπαλην γωνιας — eis kephalēn gōnias “The ακρογωνιαιος — akrogōniaios here is the primary foundation-stone at the angle of the structure by which the architect fixes a standard for the bearings of the walls and cross-walls throughout” (W. W. Lloyd). [source]
Ephesians 2:21 Each several building [πασα οικοδομη]
So without article Aleph B D G K L. Οικοδομη — Oikodomē is a late word from οικος — oikos and δεμω — demō to build for building up (edification) as in Ephesians 4:29, then for the building itself as here (Mark 13:1.). Ordinary Greek idiom here calls for “every building,” not for “all the building” (Robertson, Grammar, p. 772), though it is not perfectly clear what that means. Each believer is called a ναος τεου — naos theou (1 Corinthians 3:16). One may note the plural in Mark 13:1 (οικοδομαι — oikodomai) of the various parts of the temple. Perhaps that is the idea here without precise definition of each οικοδομη — oikodomē But there are examples of πας — pās without the article where “all” is the idea as in πασης κτισεως — pāsēs ktiseōs (all creation) in Colossians 1:15. [source]
Philippians 1:6 Until the day of Jesus Christ [αχρι ημερας Χριστου Ιησου]
The second coming as in Phlippians 1:10. See note on 1 Thessalonians 5:2, 1 Thessalonians 5:4; 2 Thessalonians 1:10; 2 Thessalonians 2:2; 1 Corinthians 1:18; 1 Corinthians 3:13; 2 Corinthians 1:14; Romans 13:12. Paul never sets the time for the Lord‘s return, but he is cheered by that blessed hope. [source]
Philippians 1:6 This very thing [αυτο τουτο]
Accusative of the inner object with πεποιτως — pepoithōs “this thing itself.” Will perfect it (επιτελεσει — epitelesei). Future active indicative of επιτελεω — epiteleō will fully (επι — epi̇) finish. God began and God will consummate it (see note on 2 Corinthians 8:6 and note on Galatians 3:3 where both words occur together as here), but not without their cooperation and partnership. Until the day of Jesus Christ The second coming as in Phlippians 1:10. See note on 1 Thessalonians 5:2, 1 Thessalonians 5:4; 2 Thessalonians 1:10; 2 Thessalonians 2:2; 1 Corinthians 1:18; 1 Corinthians 3:13; 2 Corinthians 1:14; Romans 13:12. Paul never sets the time for the Lord‘s return, but he is cheered by that blessed hope. [source]
Colossians 2:7 Rooted - built up [ἐῤῥιζωμένοι - ἐποικοδομούμενοι]
Note the change of metaphor from the solidity of military array to walking, rooting of a tree, and then to building. The metaphors of rooting and being founded occur together, Ephesians 3:17. Compare 1 Corinthians 3:9. In Jeremiah 1:10, ἐκριζοῦν toroot out is applied to a kingdom, and the words to build and to plant follow. It must be said that ῥιζόω tocause to take root is often used in the sense of firmness or fixedness without regard to its primary meaning. Built up. The preposition ἐπί uponindicates the placing of one layer upon another. See on Acts 20:32, and see on 1 Corinthians 3:9. Compare 1 Corinthians 3:10-14; Ephesians 2:20. note also the change of tenses: having been rooted (perfect participle), being (in process of) built up and strengthened (present participle). [source]
Colossians 1:23 Grounded [τετεμελιωμενοι]
Perfect passive participle of τεμελιοω — themelioō old verb from τεμελιος — themelios (adjective, from τεμα — thema from τιτημι — tithēmi laid down as a foundation, substantive, 1 Corinthians 3:11.). Picture of the saint as a building like Ephesians 2:20. [source]
Colossians 1:23 Pistei []
is in the locative case (in faith). Grounded (τετεμελιωμενοι — tethemeliōmenoi). Perfect passive participle of τεμελιοω — themelioō old verb from τεμελιος — themelios (adjective, from τεμα — thema from τιτημι — tithēmi laid down as a foundation, substantive, 1 Corinthians 3:11.). Picture of the saint as a building like Ephesians 2:20. Steadfast Old adjective from εδρα — hedra (seat). In N.T. only here, 1 Corinthians 7:37; 1 Corinthians 15:58. Metaphor of seated in a chair. Not moved away (μη μετακινουμενοι — mē metakinoumenoi). Present passive participle (with negative μη — mē) of μετακινεω — metakineō old verb, to move away, to change location, only here in N.T. Negative statement covering the same ground. From the hope of the gospel Ablative case with απο — apo The hope given by or in the gospel and there alone. Which ye heard (ου ηκουσατε — hou ēkousate). Genitive case of relative either by attraction or after ηκουσατε — ēkousate The Colossians had in reality heard the gospel from Epaphras. Preached First aorist passive participle of κηρυσσω — kērussō to herald, to proclaim. In all creation (εν πασηι κτισει — en pasēi ktisei). Κτισις — Ktisis is the act of founding (Romans 1:20) from κτιζω — ktizō (Colossians 1:16), then a created thing (Romans 1:25), then the sum of created things as here and Revelation 3:14. It is hyperbole, to be sure, but Paul does not say that all men are converted, but only that the message has been heralded abroad over the Roman Empire in a wider fashion than most people imagine. A minister General term for service Our “deacon” is this word transliterated and given a technical meaning as in Philemon 1:1. [source]
Colossians 2:7 Builded up in him [εποικοδομουμενοι εν αυτωι]
Present passive participle (rooted to stay so) of εποικοδομεω — epoikodomeō old verb, to build upon as in 1 Corinthians 3:10, 1 Corinthians 3:12. The metaphor is changed again to a building as continually going up (present tense). Stablished (βεβαιουμενοι — bebaioumenoi). Present passive participle of βεβαιοω — bebaioō old verb from βεβαιος — bebaios (from βαινω βαιω — bainōτηι πιστει — baiō), to make firm or stable. In your faith Locative case, though the instrumental case, by your faith, makes good sense also. Even as ye were taught (διδασκω — kathōs edidachthēte). First aorist passive indicative of παρελαβετε — didaskō an allusion to εματετε — parelabete in Colossians 2:6 and to εν ευχαριστιαι — emathete in Colossians 1:7. In thanksgiving Hence they had no occasion to yield to the blandishments of the Gnostic teachers. [source]
1 Thessalonians 5:2 The day of the Lord [ἡμέρα κυρίου]
The day of Christ's second coming. In Paul's Epistles this is expressed by ἡ ἡμέρα theday, absolutely, 1 Thessalonians 5:4; 1 Corinthians 3:13; Romans 13:12: ἡ ἡμέρα ἐκείνη thatday, 2 Thessalonians 1:10: ἡμέρα χριστοῦ theday of Christ, Philemon 1:10; Philemon 2:16: ἡμέρα κυρίου or τοῦ κυρίου dayof the Lord, 1 Corinthians 5:5; 1 Thessalonians 5:2; 2 Thessalonians 2:2: ἡμέρα τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἱησοῦ ( Χριστοῦ ), 1 Corinthians 1:8; 2 Corinthians 1:14. These expressions refer to a definite time when the Lord is expected to appear, and Paul expects this appearance soon. Attempts to evade this by referring such expressions to the day of death, or to the advance toward perfection after death until the final judgment, are forced, and are shaped by dogmatic conceptions of the nature of Biblical inspiration. In the O.T. the phrase day of the Lord denotes a time in which God will conspicuously manifest his power and goodness or his penal justice. See Isaiah 2:12; Ezekiel 13:5; Joel 1:15; Joel 2:11; and comp. Romans 2:5. The whole class of phrases is rare in N.T. outside of Paul's Epistles. [source]
2 Thessalonians 1:9 Who [οιτινες]
Qualitative use, such as. Vanishing in papyri though surviving in Paul (1 Corinthians 3:17; Romans 1:25; Galatians 4:26; Philemon 4:3). [source]
1 Timothy 3:15 House of God [οἴκῳ θεοῦ]
An O.T. phrase, used of the temple. More frequently, house of the Lord ( κυρίου ); see 1 Kings 3:1; 1 Kings 6:1; 1 Chronicles 22:2, 1 Chronicles 22:11; 1 Chronicles 29:2, etc. Applied to the church only here. Paul has οἰκείους τῆς πίστεως Hebrews householders of the faith (Galatians 6:10), and οἰκεῖοι τοῦ θεοῦ householdersof God (Ephesians 2:19), signifying members of the church. Christians are called ναὸς θεοῦ sanctuaryof God (1 Corinthians 3:16, 1 Corinthians 3:17; 2 Corinthians 6:16); and the apostles are οἰκονόμοι householdstewards (1 Corinthians 4:1). So of a Bishop (Titus 1:7). See also Hebrews 3:6. [source]
1 Timothy 6:9 Foolish [ἀνοήτους]
Foolish answers to several words in N.T., ἀνοήτος, ἀσύνετος, ἄφρων, μωρός. Ἁνοήτος notunderstanding; a want of proper application of the moral judgment or perception, as Luke 24:25, note; Galatians 3:1, note. Ἄφρων is senseless, stupid, of images, beasts. Comp. Luke 12:20, note. Ἁσύνετος approaches the meaning of ἀνοήτος unintelligentSee 27:12. It also implies a moral sense, wicked, Wisd. 1:5; 11:15; Sirach 15:7. On the etymological sense, see on Matthew href="/desk/?q=mt+11:25&sr=1">Matthew 11:25; see on Mark 12:33; see on Luke 2:47. Μωρός is without forethought, as Matthew 7:26; Matthew 25:3; without learning, as 1 Corinthians 1:27; 1 Corinthians 3:18; with a moral sense, empty, useless, 2 Timothy 2:23; Titus 3:9; and impious, godless, Matthew 5:22; Psalm 94:8; Jeremiah 5:21. [source]
1 Timothy 2:14 Being beguiled [εχαπατητεισα]
First aorist passive participle of εχαπατεω — exapateō old compound verb, in N.T. only by Paul (2 Thessalonians 2:3; 1 Corinthians 3:18; 2 Corinthians 11:3; Romans 7:11; Romans 16:18; 1 Timothy 2:14). Not certain that εχ — eẋ here means “completely deceived” in contrast to simplex (ουκ ηπατητη — ouk ēpatēthē) used of Adam, though possible. [source]
1 Timothy 3:15 In the house of God [εν οικωι τεου]
Probably here “household of God,” that is “the family of God” rather than “the house (or temple) of God.” Christians as yet had no separate houses of worship and οικος — oikos commonly means “household.” Christians are the ναος — naos (sanctuary) of God (1 Corinthians 3:16.; 2 Corinthians 6:16), and Paul calls them οικειοι του τεου — oikeioi tou theou (Ephesians 2:19) “members of God‘s family.” It is conduct as members of God‘s family (οικος — oikos) that Paul has in mind. [source]
1 Timothy 3:15 That thou mayest know [ινα ειδηις]
Final clause with ινα — hina and second perfect active subjunctive of οιδα — oida to know. How men ought (πως δει — pōs dei). “How it is necessary for thee” (supply σε — se more naturally than τινα — tina any one). Indirect question. To behave themselves Present middle (direct) infinitive of αναστρεπω — anastrephō old verb, to turn up and down. See note on 2 Corinthians 1:12; Ephesians 2:3. In the house of God (εν οικωι τεου — en oikōi theou). Probably here “household of God,” that is “the family of God” rather than “the house (or temple) of God.” Christians as yet had no separate houses of worship and οικος — oikos commonly means “household.” Christians are the ναος — naos (sanctuary) of God (1 Corinthians 3:16.; 2 Corinthians 6:16), and Paul calls them οικειοι του τεου — oikeioi tou theou (Ephesians 2:19) “members of God‘s family.” It is conduct as members of God‘s family (οικος — oikos) that Paul has in mind. Which “Which very house of God,” agreeing (feminine) with the predicate word εκκλησια — ekklēsia (church). The church of the living God (εκκλησια τεου ζωντος — ekklēsia theou zōntos). Probably here the general church or kingdom as in Colossians and Ephesians, though the local church in 1 Timothy 3:5. The pillar and ground of the truth Paul changes the metaphor again as he often does. Those words are in apposition to εκκλησια — ekklēsia and οικος — oikos On στυλος — stulos old word for pillar, see note on Galatians 2:9; Revelation 3:12 (only other N.T. examples). εδραιωμα — Hedraiōma late and rare word (from εδραιοω — hedraioō to make stable) occurs here first and only in ecclesiastical writers later. Probably it means stay or support rather than foundation or ground. See 1 Corinthians 1:23; 2 Timothy 2:19 for similar idea. See also Matthew 16:18. [source]
1 Timothy 3:15 To behave themselves [αναστρεπεσται]
Present middle (direct) infinitive of αναστρεπω — anastrephō old verb, to turn up and down. See note on 2 Corinthians 1:12; Ephesians 2:3. In the house of God (εν οικωι τεου — en oikōi theou). Probably here “household of God,” that is “the family of God” rather than “the house (or temple) of God.” Christians as yet had no separate houses of worship and οικος — oikos commonly means “household.” Christians are the ναος — naos (sanctuary) of God (1 Corinthians 3:16.; 2 Corinthians 6:16), and Paul calls them οικειοι του τεου — oikeioi tou theou (Ephesians 2:19) “members of God‘s family.” It is conduct as members of God‘s family (οικος — oikos) that Paul has in mind. Which “Which very house of God,” agreeing (feminine) with the predicate word εκκλησια — ekklēsia (church). The church of the living God (εκκλησια τεου ζωντος — ekklēsia theou zōntos). Probably here the general church or kingdom as in Colossians and Ephesians, though the local church in 1 Timothy 3:5. The pillar and ground of the truth Paul changes the metaphor again as he often does. Those words are in apposition to εκκλησια — ekklēsia and οικος — oikos On στυλος — stulos old word for pillar, see note on Galatians 2:9; Revelation 3:12 (only other N.T. examples). εδραιωμα — Hedraiōma late and rare word (from εδραιοω — hedraioō to make stable) occurs here first and only in ecclesiastical writers later. Probably it means stay or support rather than foundation or ground. See 1 Corinthians 1:23; 2 Timothy 2:19 for similar idea. See also Matthew 16:18. [source]
2 Timothy 2:23 Foolish [μωρὰς]
In Pastorals only here and Titus 3:9. Μωρός means dull, sluggish, stupid: applied to the taste, flat, insipid: comp. μωρανθῇ havelost his savor, Matthew 5:13. In Pastorals never substantively, a fool, but so in 1 Corinthians 3:18; 1 Corinthians 4:10. Comp. ἄφρων , 1 Corinthians 15:36. [source]
2 Timothy 2:20 Of wood and of earth [ξύλινα καὶ ὀστράκινα]
Ξύλινος woodenonly here and Revelation 9:20. Ὁστράκινος ofbaked clay, only here and 2 Corinthians 4:7(note). Comp. the different metaphor, 1 Corinthians 3:12. [source]
2 Timothy 1:9 Grace which was given [χάριν τὴν δοθεῖσαν]
Comp. Romans 12:3, Romans 12:6; Romans 15:15; 1 Corinthians 3:10; Ephesians 3:8; Ephesians 4:7. The phrase only here in Pastorals. [source]
2 Timothy 2:19 The foundation of God standeth sure [ὁ στερεὸς θεμέλιος τοῦ θεοῦ ἕστηκεν]
Wrong. Στερεὸς sureis attributive, not predicative. Rend. the firm foundation of God standeth. The phrase foundation of God, N.T.o Θεμέλιος foundationis an adjective, and λίθος stoneis to be supplied. It is not to be taken by metonymy for οἰκία house(2 Timothy 2:20), but must be interpreted consistently with it, and, in a loose way, represents or foreshadows it. So we speak of an endowed institution as a foundation. By “the sure foundation of God” is meant the church, which is “the pillar and stay of the truth” (1 Timothy 3:15), by means of which the truth of God is to withstand the assaults of error. The church has its being in the contents of “the sound teaching” (1 Timothy 1:10), which is “according to godliness” (1 Timothy 6:3), and which is deposited in it. “The mystery of godliness “ is intrusted to it (1 Timothy 3:16). Its servants possess “the mystery of the faith” (1 Timothy 3:9). In 1 Corinthians 3:11, Christ is represented as “ the chief corner-stone.” In Ephesians 2:20, the church is built “upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets,” with Christ as the corner-stone, and grows into a “holy temple ( ναὸν ) in the Lord.” Here, the church itself is the foundation, and the building is conceived as a great dwelling-house. While the conception of the church here does not contradict that of Paul, the difference is apparent between it and the conception in Ephesians, where the church is the seat of the indwelling and energy of the Holy Spirit. Comp. 1 Corinthians 3:16, 1 Corinthians 3:17. Στερεός firmonly here, Hebrews 5:12, Hebrews 5:14, and 1 Peter 5:9(note). Ἕστηκεν standethin contrast with overthrow (2 Timothy 2:18). [source]
2 Timothy 1:12 That day [ἐκείνην τὴν ἡμέραν]
The day of Christ's second appearing. See on 1 Thessalonians 5:2. In this sense the phrase occurs in the N.T. Epistles only 2 Timothy 1:18; 2 Timothy 4:8; 2 Thessalonians 1:10; but often in the Gospels, as Matthew 7:22; Matthew 26:29; Mark 13:32, etc. The day of the Lord's appearing is designated by Paul as ἡ ἡμέρα , absolutely, the day, Romans 13:12; 1 Corinthians 3:13; 1 Thessalonians 5:4: ἡμέρα τοῦ κυρίου theday of the Lord, 1 Corinthians 1:8; 2 Corinthians 1:14; 1 Thessalonians 5:2; 2 Thessalonians 2:2: the day of Jesus Christ or Christ, Philemon 1:6, Philemon 1:10; Philemon 2:16day when God shall judge, Romans 2:16: the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God, Romans 2:5: the day of redemption, Ephesians 4:30. [source]
2 Timothy 1:9 Purpose [προτεσιν]
See note on Romans 9:11; Ephesians 1:11 for προτεσιν — prothesin Which was given (την δοτεισαν — tēn dotheisan). First aorist passive articular participle agreeing with χαρις — charis (grace), a thoroughly Pauline expression (1 Corinthians 3:10; Romans 12:3, Romans 12:6, etc.), only here in Pastoral Epistles. Before times eternal See note on Titus 1:2. [source]
2 Timothy 1:9 Which was given [την δοτεισαν]
First aorist passive articular participle agreeing with χαρις — charis (grace), a thoroughly Pauline expression (1 Corinthians 3:10; Romans 12:3, Romans 12:6, etc.), only here in Pastoral Epistles. [source]
2 Timothy 1:12 Against that day [εις εκεινην την ημεραν]
The day of Christ‘s second coming. See also 2 Timothy 1:18; 2 Timothy 4:8; 2 Thessalonians 1:10, and often in the Gospels. Elsewhere, the day of the Lord (1 Thessalonians 5:2; 2 Thessalonians 2:2; 1 Corinthians 1:8; 2 Corinthians 1:14), the day of Christ or Jesus Christ (Philemon 1:6, Philemon 1:10; Philemon 2:16), the day (1 Thessalonians 5:4; 1 Corinthians 3:13; Romans 13:12), the day of redemption (Ephesians 4:20), the day of judgment (Romans 2:5, Romans 2:16). [source]
2 Timothy 1:12 Yet I am not ashamed [αλλ ουκ επαισχυνομαι]
Plain reference to the exhortation to Timothy in 2 Timothy 1:8. Him whom I have believed (ωι πεπιστευκα — hōi pepisteuka). Dative case of the relative (ωι — hōi) with the perfect active of πιστευω — pisteuō the antecedent to the relative not expressed. It is not an indirect question. Paul knows Jesus Christ whom he has trusted. I am persuaded See 2 Timothy 1:5. To guard (πυλαχαι — phulaxai). First aorist active infinitive of πυλασσω — phulassō the very word used in 1 Timothy 6:20 with παρατηκην — parathēkēn as here, to guard against robbery or any loss. That which I have committed unto him Literally, “my deposit,” as in a bank, the bank of heaven which no burglar can break (Matthew 6:19.). See this word also in 2 Timothy 1:14. Some MSS. have the more common παρακατατηκη — parakatathēkē (a sort of double deposit, παρα — para beside, down, κατα — kata). Against that day (εις εκεινην την ημεραν — eis ekeinēn tēn hēmeran). The day of Christ‘s second coming. See also 2 Timothy 1:18; 2 Timothy 4:8; 2 Thessalonians 1:10, and often in the Gospels. Elsewhere, the day of the Lord (1 Thessalonians 5:2; 2 Thessalonians 2:2; 1 Corinthians 1:8; 2 Corinthians 1:14), the day of Christ or Jesus Christ (Philemon 1:6, Philemon 1:10; Philemon 2:16), the day (1 Thessalonians 5:4; 1 Corinthians 3:13; Romans 13:12), the day of redemption (Ephesians 4:20), the day of judgment (Romans 2:5, Romans 2:16). [source]
2 Timothy 1:12 I am persuaded [πεπεισμαι]
See 2 Timothy 1:5. To guard (πυλαχαι — phulaxai). First aorist active infinitive of πυλασσω — phulassō the very word used in 1 Timothy 6:20 with παρατηκην — parathēkēn as here, to guard against robbery or any loss. That which I have committed unto him Literally, “my deposit,” as in a bank, the bank of heaven which no burglar can break (Matthew 6:19.). See this word also in 2 Timothy 1:14. Some MSS. have the more common παρακατατηκη — parakatathēkē (a sort of double deposit, παρα — para beside, down, κατα — kata). Against that day (εις εκεινην την ημεραν — eis ekeinēn tēn hēmeran). The day of Christ‘s second coming. See also 2 Timothy 1:18; 2 Timothy 4:8; 2 Thessalonians 1:10, and often in the Gospels. Elsewhere, the day of the Lord (1 Thessalonians 5:2; 2 Thessalonians 2:2; 1 Corinthians 1:8; 2 Corinthians 1:14), the day of Christ or Jesus Christ (Philemon 1:6, Philemon 1:10; Philemon 2:16), the day (1 Thessalonians 5:4; 1 Corinthians 3:13; Romans 13:12), the day of redemption (Ephesians 4:20), the day of judgment (Romans 2:5, Romans 2:16). [source]
2 Timothy 1:12 That which I have committed unto him [την παρατηκην μου]
Literally, “my deposit,” as in a bank, the bank of heaven which no burglar can break (Matthew 6:19.). See this word also in 2 Timothy 1:14. Some MSS. have the more common παρακατατηκη — parakatathēkē (a sort of double deposit, παρα — para beside, down, κατα — kata). Against that day (εις εκεινην την ημεραν — eis ekeinēn tēn hēmeran). The day of Christ‘s second coming. See also 2 Timothy 1:18; 2 Timothy 4:8; 2 Thessalonians 1:10, and often in the Gospels. Elsewhere, the day of the Lord (1 Thessalonians 5:2; 2 Thessalonians 2:2; 1 Corinthians 1:8; 2 Corinthians 1:14), the day of Christ or Jesus Christ (Philemon 1:6, Philemon 1:10; Philemon 2:16), the day (1 Thessalonians 5:4; 1 Corinthians 3:13; Romans 13:12), the day of redemption (Ephesians 4:20), the day of judgment (Romans 2:5, Romans 2:16). [source]
2 Timothy 2:19 Firm [στερεος]
Old adjective, solid, compact, in N.T. only here, 1 Peter 5:9; Hebrews 5:12, Hebrews 5:14. See στερεωμα — stereōma in Colossians 2:5. For τεμελιος — themelios see note on 1 Corinthians 3:11; Romans 15:20; 1 Timothy 6:19. Cf. εδραιωμα — hedraiōma in 1 Timothy 3:15. Seal (σπραγις — sphragis). See 1 Corinthians 9:2; Romans 4:11. Knoweth Timeless aorist active indicative of γινωσκω — ginōskō Quotation from Numbers 16:5. Let every one depart (αποστητω πας — apostētō pās). Paraphrase of Numbers 16:27; Isaiah 26:13; Isaiah 52:11; Jeremiah 20:9. Second aorist active imperative of απιστημι — aphistēmi (intransitive use), “Let every one stand off from.” Probably another echo of the rebellion of Korah. [source]
Titus 2:2 Aged men [πρεσβυτας]
See note on Philemon 1:9 for this word. For discussion of family life see also 1 Corinthians 3:18-4:1; Ephesians 5:22-6:9; 1 Timothy 5:1-6:2. For the adjectives here see note on 1 Timothy 3:2, 1 Timothy 3:8; for the substantives see note on 1 Timothy 6:11. [source]
Hebrews 5:13 A babe [νήπιος]
See on Romans 2:20; see on 1 Corinthians 3:1; see on Ephesians 4:14. [source]
Hebrews 5:14 Strong meat belongeth to them that are of full age [τελείων δέ ἐστιν ἡ στερεὰ τροφή]
This rendering is clumsy. Rend. solid food is for full-grown men. For τελείων full-grownsee on 1 Corinthians 2:6. Often by Paul, as here, in contrast with νήπιοι immatureChristians. See 1 Corinthians 2:6; 1 Corinthians 3:1; 1 Corinthians 13:11; Ephesians 4:4. Paul has the verb νηπιάζειν tobe a child in 1 Corinthians 14:20. [source]
Hebrews 3:6 We [ἡμεῖς]
Even as was the house in which Moses served. The Christian community is thus emphatically designated as the house of God, implying the transitoriness of the Mosaic system. Comp. 1 Corinthians 3:16, 1 Corinthians 3:17; 2 Corinthians 6:16; Ephesians 2:22; 1 Peter 4:17. [source]
Hebrews 13:4 Marriage is honorable in all [τίμιος ὁ γάμος ἐν πᾶσιν]
Γάμος everywhere else in N.T. a wedding or wedding feast, often in the plural, as Matthew 22:2, Matthew 22:3, Matthew 22:4; Luke 12:36. Τίμιος honorableor held in honor. Often in N.T. precious, of gold, stones, etc., as 1 Corinthians 3:12; Revelation 17:4; Revelation 18:12; of life, Acts 20:24; the fruits of the earth, James 5:7; the blood of Christ, 1 Peter 1:19; the divine promises, 2 Peter 1:4. Rend. “let marriage be had in honor.” The statement is hortatory, as suiting the character of the entire context, and especially the γὰρ for“for whoremongers,” etc. Ἑν πᾶσιν in all respects,” as 1 Timothy 3:11; 2 Timothy 4:5; Titus 2:9; Colossians 1:18; Philemon 4:12. If as A.V., the more natural expression would be παρὰ πᾶσιν as Matthew 19:26; Acts 26:8; Romans 2:13; 2 Thessalonians 1:6; James 1:27. Ἑν πᾶσιν inall things appears in this chapter, Hebrews 13:18. There are many points in which marriage is to be honored besides the avoidance of illicit connections. See on 1 Thessalonians 4:6. [source]
Hebrews 12:27 Signifieth [δηλοῖ]
From δῆλος manifestevident. To make manifest to the mind. Used of indications which lead the mind to conclusions about the origin or character of things. See Thucyd. i. 3; Aesch. Pers. 518. Comp. 1 Corinthians 3:13; Hebrews 9:8; 1 Peter 1:11. Appropriate to prophetic revelations. [source]
Hebrews 10:21 House of God [οἶκον τοῦ θεοῦ]
In the Gospels always of the temple. Not found in Paul. Once in the Pastorals, of the church, 1 Timothy 3:15, and so 1 Peter 4:17. Here the whole Christian family. Comp. 1 Corinthians 3:16, 1 Corinthians 3:17; 2 Corinthians 6:16; Ephesians 2:22. [source]
Hebrews 7:16 Carnal [σαρκινης]
“Fleshen” as in 1 Corinthians 3:1, not σαρκικης — sarkikēs (fleshlike, 1 Corinthians 3:3). The Levitical priests became so merely by birth. Of an endless life Late compound (alpha privative and verbal adjective from καταλυω — kataluō to dissolve, as in 2 Corinthians 4:1), indissoluble. Jesus as priest lives on forever. He is Life. [source]
Hebrews 6:1 Wherefore [διο]
Because of the argument already made about the difficulty of the subject and the dulness of the readers. Let us cease to speak Second aorist active participle of απιημι — aphiēmi to leave off or behind. Of the first principles of Christ Objective genitive Χριστου — Christou (about Christ). “Leaving behind the discussion of the beginning about Christ,” another way of saying again τα στοιχεια της αρχης των λογιων του τεου — ta stoicheia tēs archēs tōn logiōn tou theou of Hebrews 5:12. And press on Volitive present subjunctive passive, “Let us be borne on” (both the writer and the readers). The Pythagorean Schools use περωμετα — pherōmetha in precisely this sense of being borne on to a higher stage of instruction. Bleek quotes several instances of Greek writers using together as here of απεντες περωμετα — aphentes pherōmetha (Eurip., Androm. 393, for instance). Unto perfection Old word from τελειος — teleios mature, adults as in Hebrews 5:14. Only twice in N.T. (here and Colossians 3:14). Let us go on to the stage of adults, not babes, able to masticate solid spiritual food. The writer will assume that the readers are adults in his discussion of the topic. Not laying again the foundation The regular idiom for laying down the foundation of a building The metaphor is common (1 Corinthians 3:11) and the foundation is important, but one cannot be laying the foundation always if he is to build the house. There are six items mentioned here as part of the “foundation,” though the accusative διδαχην — didachēn in apposition with τεμελιον — themelion may mean that there are only four included in the τεμελιον — themelion Two are qualitative genitives after τεμελιον — themelion What is meant by “dead works” There are frequent allusions to the deadening power of sin (James 2:17, James 2:26; John 7:25; Romans 6:1, Romans 6:11; Romans 7:8; Colossians 2:13; Ephesians 2:1, Ephesians 2:5). The use of repentance and faith together occurs also elsewhere (Mark 1:15; Acts 20:21; 1 Thessalonians 1:9). [source]
1 Peter 1:11 Did signify [ἐδήλου]
Imperfect tense: better, was declaring, all along through the prophetic age, in successive prophets. See the same verb in 1 Corinthians 3:13; 2 Peter 1:14:. [source]
1 Peter 1:7 Though it be tried [δοκιμαζομένου]
Kindred with δοκίμιον , proof, and better rendered by Rev., proved. The verb is used in classical Greek of assaying or testing metals, and means, generally, to approve or sanction upon test. It is radically akin to δέχεσθαι , to receive, and hence implies a proof with a view to determine whether a thing be worthy to be received. Compare 1 Corinthians 3:13; Galatians 6:4; 1 John 4:1. It thus differs from πειράζειν , to try or tempt (see on πειρασμοῖς , 1 Peter 1:6), in that that verb indicates simply a putting to proof to discover what good or evil is in a person; and from the fact that such scrutiny so often develops the existence and energy of evil, the word acquired a predominant sense of putting to the proof with the design or hope of breaking down the subject under the proof - in other words, of temptation in the ordinary sense. Hence Satan is called ὁ πειράζων , the tempter, Matthew 4:3; 1 Thessalonians 3:5. See on Matthew 6:13. Archbishop Trench observes that “ δοκιμάζειν could not be used of Satan, since he never proves that he may approve, nor tests that he may accept.” [source]
1 Peter 2:24 Upon the tree [επι το χυλον]
Not tree here as in Luke 23:31, originally just wood (1 Corinthians 3:12), then something made of wood, as a gibbet or cross. So used by Peter for the Cross in Acts 5:30; Acts 10:39; and by Paul in Galatians 3:13 (quoting Deuteronomy 21:23). [source]
1 Peter 2:24 Bare our sins [ανηνεγκεν τας αμαρτιας ημων]
Second aorist active indicative of αναπερω — anapherō common verb of bringing sacrifice to the altar. Combination here of Isaiah 53:12; Deuteronomy 21:23. Jesus is the perfect sin offering (Hebrews 9:28). For Christ‘s body Not tree here as in Luke 23:31, originally just wood (1 Corinthians 3:12), then something made of wood, as a gibbet or cross. So used by Peter for the Cross in Acts 5:30; Acts 10:39; and by Paul in Galatians 3:13 (quoting Deuteronomy 21:23).Having died unto sins Second aorist middle participle of απογινομαι — apoginomai old compound to get away from, with dative (as here) to die to anything, here only in N.T.That we might live unto righteousness (ινα τηι δικαιοσυνηι ζησωμεν — hina tēi dikaiosunēi zēsōmen). Purpose clause with ινα — hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of ζαω — zaō with the dative (cf. Romans 6:20). Peter‘s idea here is like that of Paul in Rom 6:1-23, especially Romans 6:2 and Romans 6:10.).By whose stripes ye were healed From Isaiah 53:5. First aorist passive indicative of ιαομαι — iaomai common verb to heal (James 5:16) and the instrumental case of μωλωπς — mōlōps rare word (Aristotle, Plutarch) for bruise or bloody wound, here only in N.T. Cf. 1 Peter 1:18. Writing to slaves who may have received such stripes, Peter‘s word is effective. [source]
2 Peter 1:11 Shall be ministered abundantly [πλουσίως ἐπιχορηγηθήσεται]
On the verb see 2 Peter 1:5. Rev., shall be richly supplied. We are to furnish in our faith: the reward shall be furnished unto us. Richly, indicating the fulness of future blessedness. Professor Salmond observes that it is the reverse of “saved, yet so as by fire” (1 Corinthians 3:15). [source]
Revelation 1:1 The Revelation [ἀποκάλυψις]
The Greek word is transcribed in Apocalypse. The word occurs only once in the Gospels, Luke 2:32, where to lighten should be rendered for revelation. It is used there of our Lord, as a light to dispel the darkness under which the heathen were veiled. It occurs thirteen times in Paul's writings, and three times in first Peter. It is used in the following senses: (a.) The unveiling of something hidden, which gives light and knowledge to those who behold it. See Luke 2:32(above). Christianity itself is the revelation of a mystery (Romans 16:25). The participation of the Gentiles in the privileges of the new covenant was made known by revelation (Ephesians 3:3). Paul received the Gospel which he preached by revelation (Galatians 1:12), and went up to Jerusalem by revelation (Galatians 2:2). -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
(b.) Christian insight into spiritual truth. Paul asks for Christians the spirit of revelation (Ephesians 1:17). Peculiar manifestations of the general gift of revelation are given in Christian assemblies (1 Corinthians 14:6, 1 Corinthians 14:26). Special revelations are granted to Paul (2 Corinthians 12:1, 2 Corinthians 12:7). -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
(c.) The second coming of the Lord (1 Peter 1:7, 1 Peter 1:13; 2 Thessalonians 1:7; 1 Corinthians 1:7) in which His glory shall be revealed (1 Peter 4:13), His righteous judgment made known (Romans 2:5), and His children revealed in full majesty (Romans 8:19). -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
The kindred verb ἀποκαλύπτω is used in similar connections. Following the categories given above,-DIVIDER-
(a.) Galatians 1:16; Galatians 3:23; Ephesians 3:5; 1 Peter 1:12. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
(b.) Matthew 11:25, Matthew 11:27; Matthew 16:17; Luke 10:21, Luke 10:22; 1 Corinthians 2:10; 1 Corinthians 14:30; Philemon 3:15. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
(c.) Matthew 10:26; Luke 2:35; Luke 12:2; Luke 17:30; Romans 1:17, Romans 1:18; Romans 8:18; 1 Corinthians 3:13; 2 Thessalonians 2:3, 2 Thessalonians 2:6, 2 Thessalonians 2:8; 1 Peter 1:5; 1 Peter 5:1. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
The word is compounded with ἀπό fromand καλύπτω tocover. Hence, to remove the cover from anything; to unveil. So of Balaam, the Lord opened or unveiled his eyes ( ἀπεκάλυψεν τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς : Numbers 22:31, Sept.). So Boaz to Naomi's kinsman: “I thought to advertise thee:” Rev., “disclose it unto thee” ( ἀποκαλύψω τὸ οὖς σου : Rth 4:4 , Sept.). Lit., I will uncover thine ear. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
The noun ἀποκάλυψις revelationoccurs only once in the Septuagint (1 Samuel 20:30), in the physical sense of uncovering. The verb is found in the Septuagint in Daniel 2:19, Daniel 2:22, Daniel 2:28. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
In classical Greek, the verb is used by Herodotus (i., 119) of uncovering the head; and by Plato: thus, “reveal ( ἀποκαλύψας ) to me the power of Rhetoric” (“Gorgias,” 460): “Uncover your chest and back” (“Protagoras,” 352). Both the verb and the noun occur in Plutarch; the latter of uncovering the body, of waters, and of an error. The religious sense, however, is unknown to heathenism. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
The following words should be compared with this: Ὀπτασία avision (Luke 1:22; Acts 26:19; 2 Corinthians 12:1). Ὅραμα avision (Matthew 17:9; Acts 9:10; Acts 16:9). Ὅρασις avision (Acts 2:17; Revelation 9:17. Of visible form, Revelation 4:3). These three cannot be accurately distinguished. They all denote the thing seen or shown, without anything to show whether it is understood or not. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
As distinguished from these, ἀποκάλυψις includes, along with the thing shown or seen, its interpretation or unveiling. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
Ἐπιφάνεια appearing(hence our epiphany ), is used in profane Greek of the appearance of a higher power in order to aid men. In the New Testament by Paul only, and always of the second appearing of Christ in glory, except in 2 Timothy 1:10, where it signifies His first appearing in the flesh. See 2 Thessalonians 2:8; 1 Timothy 6:14; Titus 2:13. As distinguished from this, ἀπολάλυψις is the more comprehensive word. An apocalypse may include several ἐπιφάνειαι appearingsThe appearings are the media of the revealings. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
Φανέρωσις manifestationonly twice in the New Testament; 1 Corinthians 12:7; 2 Corinthians 4:2. The kindred verb φανερόω tomake manifest, is of frequent occurrence. See on John 21:1. It is not easy, if possible, to show that this word has a less dignified sense than ἀποκάλυψις . The verb φανερόω is used of both the first and the second appearing of our Lord (1 Timothy 3:16; 1 John 1:2; 1 Peter 1:20; Colossians 3:4; 1 Peter 5:4). See also John 2:11; John 21:1. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
Some distinguish between φανέρωσις as an external manifestation, to the senses, but single and isolated; while ἀποκάλυψις is an inward and abiding disclosure. According to these, the Apocalypse or unveiling, precedes and produces the φανέρωσις or manifestation. The Apocalypse contemplates the thing revealed; the manifestation, the persons to whom it is revealed. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
The Revelation here is the unveiling of the divine mysteries.Of Jesus ChristNot the manifestation or disclosure of Jesus Christ, but the revelation given by Him.To shew ( δεῖξαι )Frequent in Revelation (Revelation 4:1; Revelation 17:1; Revelation 21:9; Revelation 22:1). Construe with ἔδωκεν gavegave him to shew. Compare “I will give him to sit” (Revelation 3:21): “It was given to hurt” (Revelation 7:2): “It was given him to do;” (A.V. “had power to do;” Revelation 13:14).Servants ( δούλοις )Properly, bond-servants. See on Matthew 20:26; see on Mark 9:35.Must ( δεῖ )As the decree of the absolute and infallible God.Shortly come to pass ( γενέσθαι ἐν τάχει )For the phrase ἐν τάχει shortlysee Luke 18:8, where yet long delay is implied. Expressions like this must be understood, not according to human measurement of time, but rather as in 2 Peter 3:8. The idea is, before long, as time is computed by God. The aorist infinitive γενέσθαι is not begin to come to pass, but denotes a complete fulfilment: must shortly come to pass in their entirety. He sent ( ἀποστείλας )See on Matthew 10:2, Matthew 10:16.Signified ( ἐσήμανεν )From σῆμα asign. Hence, literally, give a sign or token. The verb occurs outside of John's writings only in Acts 11:28; Acts 25:27. See John 12:33; John 18:32; John 21:19. This is its only occurrence in Revelation. The word is appropriate to the symbolic character of the revelation, and so in John 12:33, where Christ predicts the mode of His death in a figure. Compare sign, Revelation 12:1.Angel ( ἀγγέλου )Strictly, a messenger. See Matthew 11:10; Luke 8:24; Luke 9:52. Compare the mediating angel in the visions of Daniel and Zechariah (Daniel 8:15, Daniel 8:16; Daniel 9:21; Daniel 10:10; Zechariah 1:19). See on John 1:51.ServantDesignating the prophetic office. See Isaiah 59:5; Amos 3:7; compare Revelation 19:10; Revelation 22:9.JohnJohn does not name himself in the Gospel or in the Epistles. Here “we are dealing with prophecy, and prophecy requires the guarantee of the individual who is inspired to utter it” (Milligan). Compare Daniel 8:1; Daniel 9:2. [source]

Revelation 11:18 To destroy [διαπτειραι]
First aorist active infinitive of διαπτειρω — diaphtheirō carrying on the construction with καιρος — kairos Note τους διαπτειροντας — tous diaphtheirontas “those destroying” the earth (corrupting the earth). There is a double sense in διαπτειρω — diaphtheirō that justifies this play on the word. See Revelation 19:2. In 1 Timothy 6:5 we have those “corrupted in mind” God will destroy the destroyers (1 Corinthians 3:16.). [source]
Revelation 21:14 Names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb [ονοματα των δωδεκα αποστολων του αρνιου]
Jesus had spoken of twelve thrones for the apostles (Matthew 19:28); names of all twelve are here written, not just that of Peter, as some would argue from Matthew 16:18. As a matter of fact, Christ is the corner stone or ακρογωνιαιον — akrogōniaion (1 Peter 2:6; 1 Corinthians 3:10; Ephesians 2:20), though rejected by the Sanhedrin (Matthew 21:42.). One may wonder if the name of Judas is on that stone or that of Matthias. [source]
Revelation 11:1 Like a rod [ομοιος ραβδωι]
See Revelation 2:27; Mark 6:8 for ραβδος — rabdos one said “Saying” (present active masculine participle of λεγω — legō) is all that the Greek has. The participle implies εδωκεν — edōken (he gave), not εδοτη — edothē a harsh construction seen in Genesis 22:20; Genesis 38:24, etc.Rise and measure (εγειρε και μετρησον — egeire kai metrēson). Present active imperative of εγειρω — egeirō (intransitive, exclamatory use as in Mark 2:11) and first aorist active imperative of μετρεω — metreō In Ezekiel 42:2. the prophet measures the temple and that passage is probably in mind here. But modern scholars do not know how to interpret this interlude (Revelation 11:1-13) before the seventh trumpet (Revelation 11:15). Some (Wellhausen) take it to be a scrap from the Zealot party before the destruction of Jerusalem, which event Christ also foretold (Mark 13:2; Matthew 24:2; Luke 21:6) and which was also attributed to Stephen (Acts 6:14). Charles denies any possible literal interpretation and takes the language in a wholly eschatological sense. There are three points in the interlude, however understood: the chastisement of Jerusalem or Israel (Revelation 11:1, Revelation 11:2), the mission of the two witnesses (Revelation 11:3-12), the rescue of the remnant (Revelation 11:13). There is a heavenly sanctuary (Revelation 7:15; Revelation 11:19; Revelation 14:15, etc.), but here ναος — naos is on earth and yet not the actual temple in Jerusalem (unless so interpreted). Perhaps here it is the spiritual (Revelation 3:12; 2 Thessalonians 2:4; 1 Corinthians 3:16.; 2 Corinthians 6:16; Ephesians 2:19.). For altar (τυσιαστηριον — thusiastērion) see Revelation 8:3. Perhaps measuring as applied to “them that worship therein” (τους προσκυνουντας εν αυτωι — tous proskunountas en autōi) implies a word like numbering, with an allusion to the 144,000 in chapter 7 (a zeugma). [source]
Revelation 11:1 Rise and measure [εγειρε και μετρησον]
Present active imperative of εγειρω — egeirō (intransitive, exclamatory use as in Mark 2:11) and first aorist active imperative of μετρεω — metreō In Ezekiel 42:2. the prophet measures the temple and that passage is probably in mind here. But modern scholars do not know how to interpret this interlude (Revelation 11:1-13) before the seventh trumpet (Revelation 11:15). Some (Wellhausen) take it to be a scrap from the Zealot party before the destruction of Jerusalem, which event Christ also foretold (Mark 13:2; Matthew 24:2; Luke 21:6) and which was also attributed to Stephen (Acts 6:14). Charles denies any possible literal interpretation and takes the language in a wholly eschatological sense. There are three points in the interlude, however understood: the chastisement of Jerusalem or Israel (Revelation 11:1, Revelation 11:2), the mission of the two witnesses (Revelation 11:3-12), the rescue of the remnant (Revelation 11:13). There is a heavenly sanctuary (Revelation 7:15; Revelation 11:19; Revelation 14:15, etc.), but here ναος — naos is on earth and yet not the actual temple in Jerusalem (unless so interpreted). Perhaps here it is the spiritual (Revelation 3:12; 2 Thessalonians 2:4; 1 Corinthians 3:16.; 2 Corinthians 6:16; Ephesians 2:19.). For altar (τυσιαστηριον — thusiastērion) see Revelation 8:3. Perhaps measuring as applied to “them that worship therein” (τους προσκυνουντας εν αυτωι — tous proskunountas en autōi) implies a word like numbering, with an allusion to the 144,000 in chapter 7 (a zeugma). [source]
Revelation 11:18 Thy wrath came [ηλτεν η οργη σου]
Second aorist active indicative of ερχομαι — erchomai the prophetic aorist again. The Dies Irae is conceived as already come.The time of the dead to be judged (ο καιρος των νεκρων κριτηναι — ho kairos tōn nekrōn krithēnai). For this use of καιρος — kairos see Mark 11:13; Luke 21:24. By “the dead” John apparently means both good and bad (John 5:25; Acts 24:21), coincident with the resurrection and judgment (Mark 4:29; Revelation 14:15.; Revelation 20:1-15). The infinitive κριτηναι — krithēnai is the first aorist passive of κρινω — krinō epexegetic use with the preceding clause, as is true also of δουναι — dounai (second aorist active infinitive of διδωμι — didōmi), to give.Their reward This will come in the end of the day (Matthew 20:8), from God (Matthew 6:1), at the Lord‘s return (Revelation 22:12), according to each one‘s work (1 Corinthians 3:8).The small and the great (τους μικρους και τους μεγαλους — tous mikrous kai tous megalous). The accusative here is an anacoluthon and fails to agree in case with the preceding datives after δουναι τον μιστον — dounai ton misthon though some MSS. have the dative τοις μικροις — tois mikrois etc. John is fond of this phrase “the small and the great” (Revelation 13:16; Revelation 19:5, Revelation 19:18; Revelation 20:12).To destroy First aorist active infinitive of διαπτειρω — diaphtheirō carrying on the construction with καιρος — kairos Note τους διαπτειροντας — tous diaphtheirontas “those destroying” the earth (corrupting the earth). There is a double sense in διαπτειρω — diaphtheirō that justifies this play on the word. See Revelation 19:2. In 1 Timothy 6:5 we have those “corrupted in mind” God will destroy the destroyers (1 Corinthians 3:16.). [source]
Revelation 11:18 Their reward [τον μιστον]
This will come in the end of the day (Matthew 20:8), from God (Matthew 6:1), at the Lord‘s return (Revelation 22:12), according to each one‘s work (1 Corinthians 3:8).The small and the great (τους μικρους και τους μεγαλους — tous mikrous kai tous megalous). The accusative here is an anacoluthon and fails to agree in case with the preceding datives after δουναι τον μιστον — dounai ton misthon though some MSS. have the dative τοις μικροις — tois mikrois etc. John is fond of this phrase “the small and the great” (Revelation 13:16; Revelation 19:5, Revelation 19:18; Revelation 20:12).To destroy First aorist active infinitive of διαπτειρω — diaphtheirō carrying on the construction with καιρος — kairos Note τους διαπτειροντας — tous diaphtheirontas “those destroying” the earth (corrupting the earth). There is a double sense in διαπτειρω — diaphtheirō that justifies this play on the word. See Revelation 19:2. In 1 Timothy 6:5 we have those “corrupted in mind” God will destroy the destroyers (1 Corinthians 3:16.). [source]
Revelation 20:13 Death and Hades [ο τανατος και ο αιδης]
“An inseparable pair” (Swete) as in Revelation 1:18; Revelation 6:8; Revelation 20:14. So in Matthew 16:18 “the gates of Hades” means the power of death. Etymologically Hades is the unseen world where all who die are as opposed to this visible world, but in actual use Hades is sometimes treated as the abode of the unrighteous (Luke 16:23). Charles thinks that this is true here, though there is nothing to show it apart from the personification of death and Hades and the casting of both into the lake of fire in Revelation 20:14. Here again “each man” (εκαστος — hekastos) receives judgment according to his deeds (Matthew 16:27; 1 Corinthians 3:13; 2 Corinthians 5:10; Romans 2:6; Romans 14:12; 1 Peter 1:17; Revelation 2:23). [source]
Revelation 21:14 Twelve foundations [τεμελιους δωδεκα]
Foundation stones, old adjective (from τεμα — thema from τιτημι — tithēmi), here as in 1 Corinthians 3:11.; 2 Timothy 2:19, with λιτους — lithous (stones understood), though often neuter substantive to τεμελιον — themelion (Luke 6:48.; Acts 16:26). See Isaiah 28:16; Hebrews 11:10. Twelve because of the twelve apostles as foundation stones (Ephesians 2:20).On them (επ αυτων — ep' autōn). On the twelve foundation stones.Names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb Jesus had spoken of twelve thrones for the apostles (Matthew 19:28); names of all twelve are here written, not just that of Peter, as some would argue from Matthew 16:18. As a matter of fact, Christ is the corner stone or ακρογωνιαιον — akrogōniaion (1 Peter 2:6; 1 Corinthians 3:10; Ephesians 2:20), though rejected by the Sanhedrin (Matthew 21:42.). One may wonder if the name of Judas is on that stone or that of Matthias. [source]

What do the individual words in 1 Corinthians 3:1 mean?

And I brothers not was able to speak to you as to spiritual but to fleshly to infants in Christ
Κἀγώ ἀδελφοί οὐκ ἠδυνήθην λαλῆσαι ὑμῖν ὡς πνευματικοῖς ἀλλ’ σαρκίνοις νηπίοις ἐν Χριστῷ

Κἀγώ  And  I 
Parse: Personal / Possessive Pronoun, Nominative 1st Person Singular
Root: κἀγώ  
Sense: and I.
ἀδελφοί  brothers 
Parse: Noun, Vocative Masculine Plural
Root: ἀδελφός  
Sense: a brother, whether born of the same two parents or only of the same father or mother.
ἠδυνήθην  was  able 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Passive, 1st Person Singular
Root: δύναμαι  
Sense: to be able, have power whether by virtue of one’s own ability and resources, or of a state of mind, or through favourable circumstances, or by permission of law or custom.
λαλῆσαι  to  speak 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Infinitive Active
Root: ἀπολαλέω 
Sense: to utter a voice or emit a sound.
ὑμῖν  to  you 
Parse: Personal / Possessive Pronoun, Dative 2nd Person Plural
Root: σύ  
Sense: you.
πνευματικοῖς  to  spiritual 
Parse: Adjective, Dative Masculine Plural
Root: πνευματικός  
Sense: relating to the human spirit, or rational soul, as part of the man which is akin to God and serves as his instrument or organ.
σαρκίνοις  to  fleshly 
Parse: Adjective, Dative Masculine Plural
Root: σάρκινος  
Sense: fleshly, consisting of flesh, composed of flesh.
νηπίοις  to  infants 
Parse: Adjective, Dative Masculine Plural
Root: νήπιος  
Sense: an infant, little child.
Χριστῷ  Christ 
Parse: Noun, Dative Masculine Singular
Root: Χριστός  
Sense: Christ was the Messiah, the Son of God.