The Meaning of 2 Samuel 8:3 Explained

2 Samuel 8:3

KJV: David smote also Hadadezer, the son of Rehob, king of Zobah, as he went to recover his border at the river Euphrates.

YLT: And David smiteth Hadadezer son of Rehob, king of Zobah, in his going to bring back his power by the River Euphrates;

Darby: And David smote Hadadezer, the son of Rehob, king of Zobah, as he went to recover his dominion by the river Euphrates.

ASV: David smote also Hadadezer the son of Rehob, king of Zobah, as he went to recover his dominion at the River.

What does 2 Samuel 8:3 Mean?

Context Summary

2 Samuel 8:1-18 - Victorious On Every Side
Twice in this chapter we are told that the Lord gave victory to David "whithersoever he went," 2 Samuel 8:6; 2 Samuel 8:14. Indeed, he was more than a conqueror, for he obtained not only victory but the spoils of his foes, of which he afterward made large donations to the house of God. We are reminded of those great words: "Now thanks be unto God, who always leadeth us in triumph in Christ;" and, "They also shall overcome that are with Him [1], called and chosen and faithful," 2 Corinthians 2:14 and Revelation 17:14, r.v.
Never in this world shall we be able to lay down our weapons. Often temptations that we thought had passed out of our lives, will revive in their old vigor and present themselves with even greater subtlety and force. Resolutions and vows will fail us. We shall be constantly kept in mind of our weakness and dependence. The only victory which is permanent is our faith, which receives from Him what we cannot achieve for ourselves. It is a very humbling experience, but it is our safeguard against overweening pride. [source]

Chapter Summary: 2 Samuel 8

1  David subdues the Philistines and the Moabites
3  He smites Hadadezer, and the Syrians
9  Toi sends Joram with presents to bless him
11  David dedicates the presents and the spoil to God
14  He puts garrisons in Edom
16  David's officers

What do the individual words in 2 Samuel 8:3 mean?

And defeated David - Hadadezer son of Rehob king of Zobah as he went to recover his territory at the River Euphrates
וַיַּ֣ךְ דָּוִ֔ד אֶת־ הֲדַדְעֶ֥זֶר בֶּן־ רְחֹ֖ב מֶ֣לֶךְ צוֹבָ֑ה בְּלֶכְתּ֕וֹ לְהָשִׁ֥יב יָד֖וֹ בִּֽנְהַר־ (פְּרָֽת‪‬)

וַיַּ֣ךְ  And  defeated 
Parse: Conjunctive waw, Verb, Hifil, Consecutive imperfect, third person masculine singular
Root: נָכָה  
Sense: to strike, smite, hit, beat, slay, kill.
דָּוִ֔ד  David 
Parse: Proper Noun, masculine singular
Root: דָּוִד  
Sense: youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel.
אֶת־  - 
Parse: Direct object marker
Root: אֹות 
Sense: sign of the definite direct object, not translated in English but generally preceding and indicating the accusative.
הֲדַדְעֶ֥זֶר  Hadadezer 
Parse: Proper Noun, masculine singular
Root: הֲדַדְעֶזֶר  
Sense: son of Rehob, a king of Syria-Zobah defeated by David’s army.
בֶּן־  son 
Parse: Noun, masculine singular construct
Root: בֵּן 
Sense: son, grandson, child, member of a group.
רְחֹ֖ב  of  Rehob 
Parse: Proper Noun, masculine singular
Root: רְחֹב 
Sense: father of Hadadezer the king of Zobah who was killed by David.
מֶ֣לֶךְ  king 
Parse: Noun, masculine singular construct
Root: מֶלֶךְ 
Sense: king.
צוֹבָ֑ה  of  Zobah 
Parse: Proper Noun, feminine singular
Root: צֹובָא 
Sense: the name of a portion of Syria which formed a separate kingdom in the times of Saul, David, and Solomon; located northeast of Damascus.
בְּלֶכְתּ֕וֹ  as  he  went 
Parse: Preposition-b, Verb, Qal, Infinitive construct, third person masculine singular
Root: הָלַךְ  
Sense: to go, walk, come.
לְהָשִׁ֥יב  to  recover 
Parse: Preposition-l, Verb, Hifil, Infinitive construct
Root: שׁוּב  
Sense: to return, turn back.
יָד֖וֹ  his  territory 
Parse: Noun, feminine singular construct, third person masculine singular
Root: יָד  
Sense: hand.
בִּֽנְהַר־  at  the  River 
Parse: Preposition-b, Noun, masculine singular construct
Root: נָהָר  
Sense: stream, river.
(פְּרָֽת‪‬)  Euphrates 
Parse: Proper Noun, feminine singular
Root: פְּרָת  
Sense: the largest and longest river of western Asia; rises from two chief sources in the Armenian mountains and flows into the Persian Gulf.