What does David mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
דָּוִ֔ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 73
דָּוִד֙ youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 62
דָּוִ֑ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 52
דָּוִ֖ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 50
דָּוִ֗ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 39
δαυὶδ second king of Israel 36
דָּוִ֣ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 32
לְדָוִֽד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 31
דָּוִ֛ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 31
דָּוִיד֙ youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 29
דָּוִ֔יד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 28
דָּוִ֣יד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 26
דָּוִ֜ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 25
דָוִ֖ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 25
דָּוִ֖יד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 24
דָּוִ֑יד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 23
דָּוִֽד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 22
δαυίδ second king of Israel 22
דָּוִ֤ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 18
דָוִד֙ youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 18
דָּוִ֨ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 17
דָוִ֔ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 17
דָוִ֗ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 15
דָּוִ֛יד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 15
לְדָ֫וִ֥ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 15
לְדָוִ֑ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 14
דָּוִ֥ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 14
דָּוִ֥יד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 13
דָוִ֜ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 12
דָּוִ֤יד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 11
לְדָוִ֔ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 11
לְדָוִ֣ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 10
וְדָוִ֖ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 10
דָּוִֽיד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 10
לְדָוִ֗ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 10
לְדָוִ֖ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 10
דָּוִ֜יד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 9
דָוִ֑ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 8
לְדָוִ֥ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 8
דָוִֽד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 7
דָוִיד֙ youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 7
דָּוִד֒ youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 7
לְדָוִ֨ד ׀ youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 7
לְדָוִד֙ youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 6
לְדָוִ֔יד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 6
וְדָוִד֙ youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 6
דָּוִ֗יד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 6
דָוִ֔יד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 6
דָוִ֖יד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 5
דָוִ֛ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 5
דָּוִד֮ youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 5
לְדָוִ֑יד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 4
דָוִ֤ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 4
וְדָוִ֣ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 4
דָוִ֑יד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 4
וְדָוִ֛ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 4
דָּוִיד֒ youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 3
דָוִֽיד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 3
דָּ֠וִד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 3
וְדָוִ֨ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 3
דָּוִ֧יד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 3
לְדָוִ֡ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 3
בְּדָוִ֣ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 3
לְדָוִֽיד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 3
כְּדָוִ֥ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 3
לְדָוִ֜ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 3
דָוִ֛יד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 2
דָוִ֥ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 2
דָּוִיד֮ youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 2
דָּוִ֡ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 2
לְדָוִ֛ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 2
וְדָוִ֗ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 2
כְּדָוִ֣ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 2
וְדָוִ֥ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 2
דָּוִ֧ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 2
؟ דָוִ֑ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 2
דָוִ֨ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 2
לְדָוִ֗יד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 2
דָּוִ֨יד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 2
וְדָוִ֖יד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 2
דָוִ֜יד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 2
דָ֝וִ֗ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 2
לְדָוִ֣יד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 2
דָוִ֣ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 2
לְדָוִ֤יד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 2
בְּדָוִ֔ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 2
דָוִ֤יד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 2
לְדָוִ֛יד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 2
דָּוִיד֩ youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 2
דָּֽוִיד־ youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
בְּדָוִ֔יד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
וַיַּֽעַשׂ־ to do 1
דָּ֝וִ֗ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
לְדָוִ֪ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
דָּוִ֡יד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
בְּדָוִ֑ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
כְּדָוִ֑יד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
לְ֝דָוִ֗ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
וְדָוִ֡ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
לְדָוִ֤ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
בְּדָוִד֮ youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
יְעָדֽוֹ to fix 1
בְּדָוִ֗ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
לְדָוִ֨ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
כְּדָוִ֕יד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
דָוִיד֮ to go out 1
הַכֹּ֥ל all 1
וְדָוִ֣ד ׀ youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
דָוִיד֒ youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
בְדָוִ֖ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
כְּדָוִ֥יד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
וְדָוִד֩ youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
וְדָוִ֣יד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
וְדָוִ֞יד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
דָּ֠וִיד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
דָוִ֥יד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
דָוִ֗יד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
וְדָוִ֥יד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
וְדָוִיד֙ youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
דָויִ֔ד‪‬ youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
לְדָֽוִיד־ youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
؟ בְּדָוִ֜ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
כְּדָוִ֖ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
וּלְדָוִ֡ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
לְדָוִ֖יד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר to say 1
לְדָוִ֨יד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
בְּדָוִ֜ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
בְּדָוִ֖ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
בְּדָוִד֙ youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
בְדָוִ֗ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
؟ וְדָוִ֑ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
וְדָוִ֔ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
דָּוִד֩ youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
דָוִ֔ד‪‬ youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
דָ֠וִד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
וְדָוִ֧ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
וַיִּתְאַבֵּ֥ל to mourn 1
؟ דָוִ֖ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
דָוִ֧ד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
؟ בְּדָוִ֜יד youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel. 1
עָשִׂ֖יתִי to do 1

Definitions Related to David

H1732


   1 youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel.
   Additional Information: David = “beloved”.
   

G1138


   1 second king of Israel, and ancestor of Jesus Christ.
   

H559


   1 to say, speak, utter.
      1a (Qal) to say, to answer, to say in one’s heart, to think, to command, to promise, to intend.
      1b (Niphal) to be told, to be said, to be called.
      1c (Hithpael) to boast, to act proudly.
      1d (Hiphil) to avow, to avouch.
      

H3259


   1 to fix, appoint, assemble, meet, set, betroth.
      1a (Qal) to appoint, assign, designate.
      1b (Niphal).
         1b1 to meet.
         1b2 to meet by appointment.
         1b3 to gather, assemble by appointment.
      1c (Hiphil) to cause to meet.
      1d (Hophal) to be set, be placed before, be fixed.
      

H56


   1 to mourn, lament.
      1a (Qal) to mourn, lament.
         1a1 of humans.
         1a2 of inanimate objects (fig.
         ).
            1a2a of gates.
            1a2b of land.
      1b (Hiphil).
         1b1 to mourn, cause to mourn (fig.
         ).
      1c (Hithpael).
         1c1 to mourn.
         1c2 play the mourner.
         

H6213


   1 to do, fashion, accomplish, make.
      1a (Qal).
         1a1 to do, work, make, produce.
            1a1a to do.
            1a1b to work.
            1a1c to deal (with).
            1a1d to act, act with effect, effect.
         1a2 to make.
            1a2a to make.
            1a2b to produce.
            1a2c to prepare.
            1a2d to make (an offering).
            1a2e to attend to, put in order.
            1a2f to observe, celebrate.
            1a2g to acquire (property).
            1a2h to appoint, ordain, institute.
            1a2i to bring about.
            1a2j to use.
            1a2k to spend, pass.
      1b (Niphal).
         1b1 to be done.
         1b2 to be made.
         1b3 to be produced.
         1b4 to be offered.
         1b5 to be observed.
         1b6 to be used.
      1c (Pual) to be made.
   2 (Piel) to press, squeeze.
   

Frequency of David (original languages)

Frequency of David (English)

Dictionary

Easton's Bible Dictionary - David, City of
David took from the Jebusites the fortress of Mount Zion. He "dwelt in the fort, and called it the city of David" (1 Chronicles 11:7 ). This was the name afterwards given to the castle and royal palace on Mount Zion, as distinguished from Jerusalem generally (1 Kings 3:1 ; 8:1 ), It was on the south-west side of Jerusalem, opposite the temple mount, with which it was connected by a bridge over the Tyropoeon valley. (2) Bethlehem is called the "city of David" (Luke 2:4,11 ), because it was David's birth-place and early home (1 Samuel 17:12 ).
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Beaton, David
(c.1494-1546) Cardinal, Archbishop of Saints Andrews, and statesman, died Saint Andrews, Scotland. He negotiated the renewal of the French alliance, and the marriage of James V, and for his services received the Bishopric of Mirepoix, 1537, and the cardinal's hat. In 1539 he succeeded to the See of Saint Andrews. As regent for James's daughter, Mary, he opposed the schemes of Henry VIII to detach Scotland from its allegiance to the Holy See and bring it into subjection to himself. He was therefore assassinated by Henry's agents.
Holman Bible Dictionary - David
(day' vihd) Personal name probably meaning, “favorite” or “beloved.” The first king to unite Israel and Judah and the first to receive the promise of a royal messiah in his line. David was pictured as the ideal king of God's people. He ruled from about 1005 to 965 B.C.
Selection as King When Saul failed to meet God's standards for kingship (1Samuel 15:23,1 Samuel 15:35 ; 1 Samuel 16:1 ), God sent Samuel to anoint a replacement from among the sons of Jesse, who lived in Bethlehem (1 Samuel 16:1 ). God showed Samuel He had chosen the youngest who still tended sheep for his father (1 Samuel 16:11-12 ). David's good looks were noteworthy.
In Saul's Court David's musical talent, combined with his reputation as a fighter, led one of Saul's servants to recommend David as the person to play the harp for Saul when the evil spirit from God troubled him (1 Samuel 16:18 ). Saul grew to love David and made him armorbearer for the king (1 Samuel 16:21-22 ).
At a later date the Philistines with the giant Goliath threatened Israel (1 Samuel 17:1 ). David returned home to tend his father's sheep (1 Samuel 17:15 ). Jesse sent David to the battlefield with food for his warrior brothers. At least one brother did not think too highly of him (1 Samuel 17:28 ). Saul tried to persuade David, the youth, from challenging Goliath; but David insisted God would bring victory, which He did.
Saul's son Jonathan became David's closest friend (1 Samuel 18:1 ). David became a permanent part of Saul's court, not returning home (1 Samuel 18:2 ). Saul gave David a military commission, which he fulfilled beyond expectations, defeating the Philistines and winning the hearts of the people. This stirred Saul's jealousy (1 Samuel 18:8 ). Moved by the evil spirit from God, Saul tried to kill David with his spear; but God's presence protected David (1 Samuel 18:10-12 ). David eventually earned the right to marry Michal, Saul's daughter, without being killed by the Philistines as Saul had hoped (1 Samuel 18:17-27 ). With the help of Michal and Jonathan, David escaped from Saul and made contact with Samuel, the prophet (1 Samuel 19:18 ). Jonathan and David made a vow of eternal friendship, and Jonathan risked his own life to protect David (1 Samuel 20:1 ).
Independent Warrior David gathered a band of impoverished and discontented people around him. He established relationships with Moab and other groups and gained favor with the people by defeating the Philistines (1 Samuel 22-23 ), but all Saul's efforts to capture him failed. God protected David, and David refused to injure Saul, instead promising not to cut off Saul's family (1 Samuel 24:21-22 ).
Abigail of Maon intervened with David to prevent him from punishing her foolish husband Nabal. God brought Nabal's death, and David married Abigail. He also married Ahinoam of Jezreel, but Saul gave Michal, David's first wife, to another man (1 Samuel 25:1 ).
After again refusing to kill Saul, the Lord's anointed, David attached himself to Achish, the Philistine king of Gath. Saul finally quit chasing him. Achish gave Ziklag to David, who established a headquarters there and began destroying Israel's southern neighbors (1 Samuel 27:1 ). Despite the wishes of Achish, the other Philistine leaders would not let David join them in battle against Saul (1 Samuel 29:1 ). Returning home, David found the Amalekites had destroyed Ziklag and captured his wives. David followed God's leading and defeated the celebrating Amalekites, recovering all the spoils of war. These he distributed among his followers and among the peoples of Judah (1 Samuel 30:1 ).
King of Judah Hearing of the deaths of Saul and Jonathan, David avenged the murderer of Saul and sang a lament over the fallen (2 Samuel 1:1 ). He moved to Hebron, where the citizens of Judah crowned him king (2 Samuel 2:1 ). This led to war with Israel under Saul's son Ishbosheth. After much intrigue, Ishbosheth's commanders assassinated him. David did the same to them (2 Samuel 4:1 ).
King of Israel The northern tribes then crowned David king at Hebron, uniting all Israel under him. He led the capture of Jerusalem and made it his capital. After defeating the Philistines, David sought to move the ark of the covenant to Jerusalem, succeeding on his second attempt (2 Samuel 6:1 ). He then began plans to build a temple but learned from Nathan, the prophet, that he would instead build a dynasty with eternal dimensions (2 Samuel 7:1 ). His son would build the Temple.
David then organized his administration and subdued other nations who opposed him, finally gaining control of the land God had originally promised the forefathers. He also remembered his promise to Jonathan and cared for his lame son Mephibosheth (2 Samuel 9:1 ).
A Sinner David was a giant among godly leaders, but he remained human as his sin with Bathsheba and Uriah showed. He spied Bathsheba bathing, desired her, and engineered the death of her faithful warrior husband, after committing adultery with her (2 Samuel 11:1 ). Nathan, the prophet, confronted David with his sin, and David confessed his wrongdoing. The newborn child of David and Bathsheba died. David acknowledged his helplessness in the situation, confessing faith that he would go to be with the child one day. Bathsheba conceived again, bearing Solomon (2 Samuel 12:1-25 ).
Family Intrigue Able to rule the people but not his family, David saw intrigue, sexual sins, and murder rock his own household, resulting in his isolation from and eventual retreat before Absalom. Still, David grieved long and deep when his army killed Absalom (2 Samuel 18:19-33 ). David's kingdom was restored, but the hints of division between Judah and Israel remained (2 Samuel 19:40-43 ). David had to put down a northern revolt (2 Samuel 20:1 ). The last act the Books of Samuel report about David is his census of the people, bringing God's anger but also preparing a place for the Temple to be built (2 Samuel 24:1 ). The last chapters of 1Chronicles describe extensive preparations David made for the building and the worship services of the Temple. David's final days involved renewed intrigue among his family, as Adonijah sought to inherit his father's throne, but Nathan and Bathsheba worked to insure Solomon became the next king (1 Kings 1:1;b12:12 ).
Prophetic Hope David thus passed from the historical scene but left a legacy never to be forgotten. He was the role model for Israelite kings (1 Kings 3:14 ; 1 Kings 9:14 ; 1Kings 11:4,1Kings 11:6,1Kings 11:33,1 Kings 11:38 ; 1 Kings 14:8 ; 1Kings 15:3,1 Kings 15:11 ; 2 Kings 14:3 ; 2 Kings 16:2 ; 2 Kings 22:2 ). David was the “man of God” (2 Chronicles 8:14 ), and God was “the God of David thy father” (2 Kings 20:5 ). God's covenant with David was the deciding factor as God wrestled with David's disobedient successors on the throne (2 Chronicles 21:7 ). Even as Israel rebuilt the Temple, they followed “the ordinance of David king of Israel (Ezra 3:10 ).
God's prophets pointed to a future David who would restore Israel's fortunes. “Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgment and with justice from henceforth even forever” (Isaiah 9:7 ). Jeremiah summed up the surety of the hope in David: “If ye can break my covenant of the day, and my covenant of the night, and that there should not be day and night in their season; Then may also my covenant be broken with David my servant, that he should not have a son to reign upon his throne As the host of heaven cannot be numbered, neither the sand of the sea measured: so will I multiply the seed of David my servant” (Jeremiah 33:20-22 ). For further references, compare Jeremiah 33:15 , Jeremiah 33:17 , Jeremiah 33:25-26 ; Ezekiel 34:23-24 ; Ezekiel 37:24-25 ; Hosea 3:5 ; Amos 9:11 ; Zechariah 12:6-10 .
In the New Testament The New Testament tells the story of Jesus as the story of the Son of God but also as the story of the Son of David from His birth (Matthew 1:1 ) until His final coming (Revelation 22:16 ). At least twelve times the Gospels refer to Him as “Son of David.” David was cited as an example of similar behavior by Jesus (Matthew 12:3 ); and David called Him, “Lord” (Luke 20:42-44 ). David thus took his place in the roll call of faith (Hebrews 11:32 ). This was “David the son of Jesse, a man after mine own heart, which shall fulfill all my will” (Acts 13:22 ).
Holman Bible Dictionary - David, City of
1. The most ancient part of Jerusalem on its southeast corner representing the city occupied by the Jebusites and conquered by David (2 Samuel 5:7 ). The Kidron Valley bordered it on the east, and the Tyropoeon Valley on the west. The entire area occupied no more than ten acres. It is also called Zion. See Jerusalem ; Zion . This part of Jerusalem dates back at least to about 2500 B.C., when it is mentioned in the Ebla documents. See Ebla . Its strong defense walls on which the Jebusites prided themselves originated about 1750 B.C.
David moved the ark of the covenant into the city of David (2 Samuel 6:12 ) and built houses in the city, including a place for the ark (1 Chronicles 15:1 ). David was buried there (1 Kings 2:10 ), establishing the burial place for all kings of Judah (1 Kings 11:43 ; 1 Kings 14:31 ; 1 Kings 15:8 ; 2 Kings 8:24 ; 2 Kings 9:28 ; 2 Kings 12:21 ; 2 Kings 14:20 ; 2Kings 15:7,2 Kings 15:38 ; 2 Kings 16:20 ). Solomon lived there until he built his own palace and the Temple outside the traditional city of David (1 Kings 3:1 ). At that time he moved the ark of the covenant from the city of David to the new Temple (1 Kings 8:1 ) and moved his wife to the new palace (1 Kings 9:24 ). Solomon did repair the defense system of the old city (1 Kings 11:27 ).
Both Hezekiah (2Chronicles 32:5,2 Chronicles 32:30 ) and Manasseh strengthened the defenses of the city of David, concerned especially with the water supply provided by the Gihon spring (2 Chronicles 33:14 ). See Gihon .
Nehemiah's day saw “stairs that go down from the city of David,” presumably to the rest of the city (Nehemiah 3:15 ; compare Nehemiah 12:37 ). 2 . Luke used “city of David” to refer to Bethlehem, where both David and Jesus were born (Luke 2:4 ,Luke 2:4,2:11 ).
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - David, Key of
Christ according to Apocalypse 1, has the Key of David. The expression is suggested by Isaias 22, where Eliacim is represented as having "the Key of the house of David" slung over his shoulder, as a symbol of power. Christ is set over the House of God (Ephesians 1; Hebrews 3), and exercises all authority in heaven and on earth (Matthew 28) and even in the nether world (Apocalypse 1). The reference to David recalls the prophecies fulfilled in the exaltation of Christ.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Key of David
Christ according to Apocalypse 1, has the Key of David. The expression is suggested by Isaias 22, where Eliacim is represented as having "the Key of the house of David" slung over his shoulder, as a symbol of power. Christ is set over the House of God (Ephesians 1; Hebrews 3), and exercises all authority in heaven and on earth (Matthew 28) and even in the nether world (Apocalypse 1). The reference to David recalls the prophecies fulfilled in the exaltation of Christ.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - David, Saint
Confessor, Archbishop of Menevia, born probably Cardiganshire, Wales, c.544;died Menevia, Pembrokeshire, 601. Little historical information exists concerning David, although there are many elaborate legends about him. He was present at the synods of Brevi, 519, and Lucus Victorire, 569. Welshmen wear leeks on Saint David's Day, to commemorate a great victory over the Saxons, when, by David's advice, they wore leeks in their head-gear to distinguish themselves from the enemy. Patron of Wales. He is usually represented standing on a hill, with a dove on his shoulder. Canonized, 1120. Relics at Glastonbury. Feast, March 1,.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - David, King
Prophet and king of Israel, born Bethlehem, c.1085B.C.; died Jerusalem, c.1015B.C.. The son of Jesse, and a shepherd-boy, he was anointed by the prophet Samuel in place of Saul, whom God had rejected. When Saul was ill,David was brought to soothe him by playing on his harp; in reward he was made Saul's armor-bearer. During the Philistine war, David, relying on God, slew the giant Goliath and won the friendship of Jonathan, son of Saul. He then received a permanent position at court, and married Michol, daughter of Saul, but Saul's jealousy of his popularity forced him into exile. He married Abigail as his second wife. When Saul and Jonathan fell at Gilboa, David, by God's command, went up to Hebron to claim the throne. He was supported by Juda, but the rest of Israel, led by Abner, was faithful to Isobeth, son of Saul. At Hebron six sons were born to him, including Amnon, Absalom, and Adonias. At Isobeth's death David was accepted by all Israel. By his successful wars David made Israel an independent state, established his capital in Jerusalem, and transported thither the Ark of the Covenant. During the Ammonite war David sinned with Bethsabee, wife of Urias, and married her after indirectly murdering Urias. The intensity of his contrition for this crime brought him God's pardon and made him a model for penitents. His pardon was followed, however, by heavy crosses; Amnon's incest and Absalom's fratricide, rebellion, and death caused him shame and sorrow. The last days of his thirty-three years' reign in Jerusalem were disturbed by the ambition of Adonias to prevent the succession of Solomon, his son by Bethsabee. He was buried on Mount Sion. His prophecies embodied in the Psalms are literally Messianic, and he himself as a great theocratic king typifies the Messias. Feast, December 29,.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - David Brewster, Sir
Scottish writer, scientist, physicist, and mineralogist. Born December 11, 1781 at Jedburgh, Scotland; died February 10, 1868. Made renowned investigations and examination of crystals and discovered crystals which had two axes of double refraction. Discovered fluorescence. Invented the kaleidoscope and the lensed spectroscope.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - David, Root of
Title of Christ in Apocalypse 5,22, where the word "offspring" is added to make its meaning clearer. It is borrowed from Isaias 11 where it designates the future Messias. "As the Prophet foresaw, the stump of the old tree of the House of David sent forth a new David to rule the nations."
Chabad Knowledge Base - King David
(a) (907-837 BCE) A Bethlehem native, youngest son of Jesse and Nitzevet. A shepherd boy, he rose to fame after slaying the Philistine hero Goliath. This earned him the hand of King Saul�s daughter Michal in marriage. Anointed by Samuel to succeed Saul after the latter failed to annihilate Amalek. This aroused Saul's jealousy, who then pursued him relentlessly. David became king after Saul�s death. During his monarchy, David successfully secured and expanded Israel�s borders, but was beset by a series of revolts and personal tribulations. Compiled the Book of Psalms. Succeeded by his son Solomon. (b) A common Jewish name.
Chabad Knowledge Base - David, king
(a) (907-837 BCE) A Bethlehem native, youngest son of Jesse and Nitzevet. A shepherd boy, he rose to fame after slaying the Philistine hero Goliath. This earned him the hand of King Saul�s daughter Michal in marriage. Anointed by Samuel to succeed Saul after the latter failed to annihilate Amalek. This aroused Saul's jealousy, who then pursued him relentlessly. David became king after Saul�s death. During his monarchy, David successfully secured and expanded Israel�s borders, but was beset by a series of revolts and personal tribulations. Compiled the Book of Psalms. Succeeded by his son Solomon. (b) A common Jewish name.
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - David
David was the founder of a dynasty that would rule in Jerusalem for over 350 years. His impact on the history of Israel is seen from the extensive interest in him and his successors as reflected in the Deuteronomic history, the prophets, the Chronicler's history, the psalms, and the New Testament.
David in the Deuteronomic History . The books from Joshua through Kings are often called the Deuteronomic history (DH) because the authors/compilers of these books used provisions and emphases unique to Deuteronomy in order to evaluate the history of Israel. Deuteronomy had authorized the nation to have a king (17:14-20), and the DH traces life in Israel both without a king (Joshua, Judges) and with a king (Samuel, Kings).
The majority of what we learn about David's life and times is contained in the accounts in Samuel. In Samuel the writer forges a contrast between Saul and David, "a man after his [1] own heart" (1 Samuel 13:14 ). D. M. Gunn's analysis of the narratives about David focuses on two primary themes: David as king and David as a man. In his first role as king, David acquires the kingdom and assures his tenure in office (the accounts about David and Saul, the rebellions of Absalom and Sheba) and founds a dynasty (the birth of Solomon, the rebellion of Adonijah, the elimination of other contenders and factions). These narratives are intertwined with the theme of David as a man: a husband and father (Michal, Bathsheba, Amnon, Absalom, Solomon, Adonijah). The accounts are overlaid with themes of sexuality and political intrigue. Sexuality is a motif in the accounts of the sin with Bathsheba, the death of the child from an adulterous union, one son's rape of a daughter, the competition for the father's bedmate Abishag, Uriah's refusal to visit his wife, the seizure of David's concubines, and the childlessness of Saul's daughter Michal. Violence and political intrigue are interspersed in the accounts of David's wars, Saul's attempts on David's life, the violence of Joab and his brothers, the murder of Uriah, fratricide among David's sons, the slaughter of the helpless Absalom, and David's plans for the deaths of his enemies soon after his own death. The account of David's relationship with Bathsheba not only prepares for the eventual accession of Solomon, but it also sets in motion a curse that will dog the remainder of David's life: death and sexual outrage will follow, and "the sword will never depart from [2] house" (2 Samuel 12:10 ). The one word "sword" becomes a key term unifying aspects of the narrative from Samuel through Kings. The entire account of David is presented as the interplay of his public (kingship) and private (father, husband) roles as they impinge on the question of who will succeed him to the throne. Gunn also accents the themes of giving and grasping: whereas some accounts present David or other characters as somewhat passive in their roles, in others they seize or grasp at favor and power. For example, the king who will not seize the kingdom from Saul (2 Samuel 2-5 ) is nevertheless willing to seize a woman who is the object of his desire (Bathsheba); she who is seemingly passive in her seduction will later seize the kingdom for Solomon. Overall it is the story of how David gains the throne, loses it temporarily in the face of rebellions, only to regain it again, and then lose it in death. It is an intricate picture of human greatness and folly, of wisdom and sin, of faith and faithlessness, of contrasting perspectives and conflicting desires. The narratives about David also abound in irony. For example, the faithful Uriah unknowingly honors a king who has been unfaithful to him; Uriah retains his ritual purity during warfare by refraining from sexual intercourse during time of war, only to be sent to his death in battle by a king who enjoyed sexual congress with Uriah's wife instead of going to the battle (2 Samuel 11 ).
Within the larger DH, the writer is concerned to trace the faithfulness of God in his promise to David that he would never lack a descendant sitting on this throne (2 Samuel 7 ). This theme is played out in Kings: there were twenty kings in the southern kingdom, and twenty kings in the northern. But the northern kingdom lasted only two centuries while the southern kingdom endured for three and a half centuries. Why was life expectancy so much greater for a king in the South? In the North, there were nine different dynasties, most inaugurated by regicide or coup d'etat. In the South, by contrast, a single dynasty ruled until the Babylonian exile. God had indeed "maintained a lamp" for David (1 Kings 11:36 ; 15:4 ; 2 Kings 8:19 ).
David in the Psalms . The historical books recall David's skill as a musician and his concern with music in worship (1 Samuel 16:14-21 ; 1 Chronicles 25 ; 2 Chronicles 23:18 ; 29:25-30 ; 35:15 ). The many psalms assigned to David reflect this skill and interest. However, the psalms do not just record the compositions of David; they also celebrate the promises God made to him and his descendants (18:50; 78:70,72; 89:3,20, 35,49). The royal psalms (2,45, 72,84, 89,110) join with the prophets in giving voice to Israel's messianic hopes for another king like David. The royal psalms center on a king who meets universal opposition, is victorious, and establishes righteous rule from Zion over the nations. His kingdom is peaceful, prosperous, everlasting, and faithful to the Lord. He is the friend of the poor and the enemy of the oppressor. He is the heir of the promises to David. He is himself divine (Psalm 45:6 ); like the angel of the Lord, he is both God and distinct from God.
David in the Prophets . One of the recurring themes in the Book of Samuel is reference to the "Lord's anointed" (1 Samuel 16:3,6 , 12-13 ; 24:6 ; 26:9,11 , 16,23 ; 2 Samuel 1:14,16 ; 3:39 ; 19:21 ). The term "messiah" means "anointed one, " and the idea of a messiah for Israel grows out of her ideology about a righteous king, one who would be like David. The messiah as a figure is integrally involved in Israel's unique understanding of her place in history: their awareness from the beginning that God had chosen them to bring blessing to the nations. God had raised up great leaders and deliverers for Israel during her history, and he would yet do so again in the person of a messiah. The failures of the kings who followed David set him in an increasingly favorable light, so that Israel's hopes crystallized around the coming of a future king like David (Isaiah 16:5 ; 55:3-5 ; Jeremiah 23:5 ; 33:17-26 ; 36:30 ; Ezekiel 34:23 ; Zechariah 9:9 ; 12:8,10 ). In the book of Immanuel (Isaiah 7-12 ), the prophet speaks about the appearance of a wonder child who will be deliverer, world ruler, and righteous king.
David in the Chronicler's History . Chronicles is among the latest books of the Old Testament; it was written no earlier than the later decades of the fourth century b.c. When comparing the Chronicler's account of David and Solomon with that in Samuel/Kings, perhaps the most striking difference is the material that the Chronicler has chosen to omit. With the exception of the account of David's census (1 Chronicles 21 // 2 Samuel 24 ), the Chronicler has not recorded incidents that would in any way tarnish the image of David or Solomon. The Chronicler does not report the rival kingdom in the hands of a descendant of Saul during David's seven years at Hebron or David's negotiations for rule over the northern tribes. He omits any account of the rebellion of Absalom and Adonijah and the actions of Amnon and Shimei; he makes no mention of David's sins in connection with Bathsheba and Uriah. The Chronicler deletes the narrative of Solomon's taking vengeance on David's enemies (1 Kings 2 ) and does not report the sins of Solomon which, according to Kings, were ultimately the reason for the break-up of the kingdom (1 Kings 11 ). Even the blame for the schism is shifted from Solomon to Jeroboam (2 Chronicles 13:6-7 ).
In Chronicles David and Solomon are portrayed as glorious, obedient, all-conquering figures who enjoy not only divine blessing, but also the support of all the nation. Instead of an aged, bed-ridden David who only saves the kingdom for Solomon at the last minute due to the promptings of Bathsheba and Nathan (1 Kings 1 ), the Chronicler shows a smooth transition of power without a ripple of dissent (1 Chronicles 21,28-29 ). David himself publicly announces Solomon's appointment as his successor, an announcement greeted with enthusiastic and total support on the part of the people (1 Chronicles 28:1-29:25 ), including the other sons of David, the officers of the army, and others who had supported Adnoijah's attempted coup (1 Chronicles 29:24 ; 1 Kings 1:7-10 ). Whereas in Kings Solomon's sins are a reason for the schism and Solomon is contrasted to his father David (1 Kings 11 ), in Chronicles Rehoboam is commended for "walking in the ways of David and Solomon" (2 Chronicles 11:17 ).
This idealization of the reigns of David and Solomon could be dismissed as a kind of glorification of the "good old days." Yet when coupled with the Chronicler's emphasis on God's promise to David of an enduring dynasty (1 Chronicles 17:11-14 ; 2 Chronicles 13:5,8 ; 21:7 ; 23:3 ), the Chronicler's treatment of David and Solomon reflects a "messianic historiography." David and Solomon in Chronicles are not just the David and Solomon who were, but the David and Solomon of the Chronicler's eschatological hope. At a time when subject to the Persians the Chronicler still cherished hopes of a restoration of Davidic rule, and he describes the glorious rule of David and Solomon in the past in terms of his hopes for the future.
David in the New Testament . David's sins do not seem that much greater than Saul's. How is it that David can be described by the narrator as "a man after his [1] own heart" (1 Samuel 13:14 )? Israel had looked at Saul's height and build— there was no one like him among all the people (1 Samuel 10:24 ); although God had chosen Saul, he knew what was in his heart. Human beings might look at appearance and height, but God saw David's heart. David's heart was such that he would face Goliath virtually unarmed and would triumph through his faith, while Saul cowered in his tent (1 Samuel 17 ). The central demand of life in covenant with God, both from the mouth of Moses and Jesus, was to love him with the whole heart (Deuteronomy 6:5 ; Mark 12:30 ).
Yet something happened to David along the way. When we first meet him in Samuel he has taken a club to kill a bear and a lion for the sake of sheep (1 Samuel 17:34-35 ), but by the end of the book, he has decided that the sheep should die for him, although this time the sheep were people (2 Samuel 24:14,17 ). David will not be the good shepherd who will give his life for the sheep.
The writers of the New Testament see in Jesus the embodiment of a righteous king for Israel. They take pains to point to his descent from David (Matthew 1:1,6,17 ). The crowds and even the demons recognize him as the son of David, the Messiah of Israel (Matthew 12:23 ; 20:30-31 ; 21:9,15 ). The title "Christ" is a Greek translation of the Hebrew anointed one or messiah. Jesus comes like David, as "the Lord's anointed."
Hannah's longing for a child and for a righteous king and anointed one (1 Samuel 2:10 ) is heard again in Mary's own magnificat as she anticipates the birth of Israel's king and Messiah (Luke 2:32-33,46-55,69 ). David had become the heir of God's promise to Abraham that he would give him a great name (Genesis 12:2 ; 2 Samuel 7:9 ). David's greater son receives a names above all others (Philippians 2:9-10 ). Just as David had once gone into singlehanded combat with the great enemy of Israel so Jesus would singlehandedly triumph over the enemy of our souls. He would establish an everlasting kingdom.
Raymond B. Dillard
See also Jesus Christ, Name and Titles of
Bibliography . J. Flanagan, David's Social Drama: A Hologram of Israel's Early Iron Age ; J. P. Fokkelman, Narrative Art and Poetry in the Book of Samuel, 3 vols.; K. R. R. Gros Louis, Semeia 8 (1977): 15-33; D. M. Gunn, The Story of King David ; J. A. Wharton, Int 35 (1981): 341-54; R. N. Whybray, The Succession Narrative: A Study of 2 Samuel 9-20 and 1 Kings 1,2 .
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - David
("beloved".) His outer life is narrated in the histories of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles; his inner life is unfolded by himself in the Psalms. The verbal coincidences in Psalms and the allusions incidentally to facts which the histories detail are evidently undesigned, and therefore confirm the genuineness of both. The youngest of the eight sons of Jesse of Bethlehem (1 Samuel 16:11); great grandson of Ruth and Boaz, "a mighty man of wealth" (Ruth 2:1; Ruth 4:21;Ruth 4:22). Born, according to the common chronology, 1085 B.C. Began to reign when 30 years of age. but over Judah alone, 1055 B.C. (2 Samuel 5:4; Psalms 18:33-34; Psalms 17:3-4); over all Israel, seven years and six months later, 1048 B.C. He died in 1015 B.C., 70 years old. In early life he tended Jesse's flocks, thereby being trained for his subsequent career, for he had ample scope for quiet and prayerful meditations such as Moses had in his 40 years retirement in Midian before his call to public life, and as Paul had in the Arabian sojourn (Galatians 1:17) before his worldwide ministry.
Those who are to be great public men often need first to be men of privacy. His intimate acquaintance with the beauties of nature, alike water, field, hill, and forest below, and the sun, moon, and glorious heavens above, gives coloring to many of his psalms (Psalm 29; Psalm 8; Psalm 19, etc.). His shepherd life, exposed to wild beasts, yet preserved by God amidst green pastures and still waters, furnishes imagery to Psalms 22:20-21; Psalm 23; Psalms 7:2. His active energies were at the same time exercised in adventures amidst the hills and dales of Judah, in one of which his courage was tested by a close encounter with a lion, and in another with a bear, both of which he slew, grasping the beast by the beard and rescuing a lamb out of his mouth. These encounters nerved him for his first great victory, the turning point of his life, the slaying of Goliath of Gath (1 Samuel 17:35). Moreover, his accurate acquaintance with all the hiding places in the cavern-pierced hills, e.g. the cave of Adullam, proved of great service to him afterwards in his pursuit by Saul.
The Bible authorities for his biography are the Davidic psalms and poetic fragments in the histories (2 Samuel 1:19-27; 2 Samuel 3:33-34; 2 Samuel 3:22; 2 Samuel 23:1-7); next the chronicles or state annals of David (1 Chronicles 27:24); the book (history) of Samuel the seer, that of Nathan the prophet, and that of Gad the seer (1 Chronicles 29:29). Jesse had a brother, Jonathan, whom David made one of his counselors (1 Chronicles 27:32). Jesse's wife, David's mother, is not named; but Nahash her former husband is the one by whom she had two daughters, David's half-sisters: Zeruiah, mother of Abishai, Joab and Asahel; and Abigail, mother of Amasa by Jether or Ithra (1 Chronicles 2:13-17; 2 Samuel 17:25). Jesse was an old man when David was a mere youth (1 Chronicles 17:12). His sisters were much older than David, so that their children, David's nephews, were his contemporaries and companions more than his own brothers. David shared some of their war-like determined characteristics, but shrank from their stern recklessness of bloodshed in whatever object they sought (2 Samuel 3:39; 2 Samuel 19:7).
His oldest brother, Eliab, behaved unkindly and imperiously toward him when he went like a second Joseph, sent by his father to seek his brethren's welfare (1 Samuel 17:17-18; 1 Samuel 17:28-29). Eliab's "command," as head of Jesse's sons, was regarded by the rest as authoritative (1 Samuel 20:29), and the youngest, David, was thought scarcely worth bringing before the prophet Samuel (1 Samuel 16:11). Hence, he had assigned to him the charge of the flock, ordinarily assigned to the least esteemed of the family, women, and servants, as was the case with Moses, Zipporah, Jacob, Rachel. When David became king, instead of returning evil for evil he made Eliab head of the tribe of Judah (1 Chronicles 27:18), Elihu = Eliab. His brother Shimeah had two sons connected with his subsequent history, Jonadab, the subtle, bad, selfish adviser of incestuous Amnon (2 Samuel 13:3; 2 Samuel 13:32-33), and Jonathan who killed a giant of Gath (2 Samuel 21:21). Nahash was probably one of the royal family of Ammon, which will account for David's friendship with the king of the same name, as also with Shobi, son of Nahash, from both of whom he received "kindness" in distress (2 Samuel 10:2; 2 Samuel 17:27).
Ammon and David had a common enemy, Saul (1 Samuel 11); besides David's Moabite great grandmother, Ruth, connected him with Moab, Ammon's kinsmen. Hence, it was most natural to him to repair to Moab and Ammon when pursued by Saul. At first sight, we wonder at his leaving his father and mother for safe-keeping with the king of Moab (1 Samuel 22); but the Book of Ruth shows how coincident with probability this is, and yet how little like the harmony contrived by a forger! His Gentile connection gave him somewhat enlarged views of the coming kingdom of Messiah, whose type and ancestor he was privileged to be (Psalms 2:8; Matthew 1:5). His birthplace was Bethlehem (as it was of his Antitype, Messiah: Luke 2:4, etc.); and of his patrimony there he gave to Chimham a property which long retained Chimham's name, in reward for the father Barzillai's loyalty and help in Absalom's rebellion (2 Samuel 19:37-38; Jeremiah 41:17). His early associations with Bethlehem made him when in a hold desire a drink of water from its well while the Philistines held it.
Three of his 30 captains broke through and brought it; but David, with the tender conscientiousness which characterized him (compare 1 Samuel 24:5; 2 Samuel 24:10), and which appreciated the deep spirituality of the sixth commandment, would not drink it but poured it out to the Lord, saying, "My God forbid it me: shall I drink the blood of these men that have put their lives in jeopardy?" (1 Chronicles 10:15-19). Saul, the people's choice, having been rejected from being king for disobedience, God manifested His sovereignty by choosing one, the very last thought of by his own family or even by the prophet; not the oldest, but the youngest; not like Saul, taller than the people by head and shoulders, but of moderate stature. (See SAUL.) A yearly sacrificial feast used to be held at Bethlehem, whereat Jesse, as chief landowner, presided with the elders (1 Samuel 16; 1 Samuel 20:6; compare at Saul's selection, 1 Samuel 9:12). But now suddenly at God's command, Samuel, though fearful of Saul's deadly enmity, appears there driving a heifer before him, to offer an extraordinary sacrifice.
The elders trembling, lest his visit should be for judicial punishment of some sin, inquired, "Comest thou peaceably?" He answered, "Peaceably." Then inviting them and Jesse's sons he caused the latter to pass successively before him. Seven sons passed by but were rejected, notwithstanding Samuel's pre-possession in favor of Eliab's countenance and stature, since Jehovah, unlike man, "looks not on the outward appearance but on the heart." David, seemingly the least likely and the youngest, was fetched from the sheep; and his unction with oil by the prophet previous to the feast was accompanied with the unction of the Spirit of the Lord from that day forward. Simultaneously, the Spirit of Jehovah left Saul and an evil spirit from Jehovah troubled him. David was "a man after the Lord's own heart" (1 Samuel 13:14; Acts 13:22). Moreover, he did not lack those outward graces which were looked for in a king; "ruddy," i.e. with auburn hair, esteemed to be a beauty in the South and East, where black hair is usual; with "bright eyes" (margin, 1 Samuel 16:12; 1 Samuel 16:18); goodly in countenance, and comely in person (1 Samuel 17:42); besides being "mighty, valiant, a man of war," and altogether "prudent."
Like his nephew, Asahel, his feet were by his God made "like hinds' feet." David adds (1 Kings 2:11): "He teacheth my hands to war, so that a bow of steel is broken by mine arms." Nothing could be more homely than his outward attire, with a staff or wand in hand used for dogs, and a pouch around his neck for carrying a shepherd's necessaries (1 Samuel 17:40-43). But God gave him "integrity of heart and skillfulness of hands," qualifying him for "feeding and guiding Israel," after that he was "taken from the sheepfolds" (Psalms 78:70-72), and "from the sheepcote" (2 Chronicles 29:25-26). Nor was he ashamed of his early life, but he delighted gratefully to acknowledge before God that he was "the man raised up on high" (2 Samuel 23:1; compare Psalm 89). The first glimpse we have of David's taste in music and sacred poetry, which afterward appears so preeminent in his psalms, is in his having been chosen as the best minstrel to charm away the evil spirit when it came upon Saul (1 Samuel 16:15-23).
Thus, the evil spirit departed, but the good Spirit did not come to Saul; and the result was, when David was driven away, the evil returned worse than ever. (Compare 1 Samuel 28 with Matthew 12:43-45). David doubtless received further training in the schools of the prophets, who connected their prophesying with the soothing and elevating music of psaltery, tabret, pipe, and harp (1 Samuel 10:5); for he and Samuel (who also feared Saul's wrath for his having anointed David: 1 Samuel 16:2) dwelt together in Naioth near Ramah, i.e. in the "habitations" of the prophets there, connected together by a wall or hedge round; a school over which Samuel presided, as Elisha did over those at Gilgal and Jericho; schools not for monastic separation from life's duties, but for mental and spiritual training with a view to greater usefulness in the world. (See NAIOTH.) Thus, he became "the sweet singer of Israel" (2 Samuel 23:1), "the inventor of instruments of music" (Amos 6:5). Compare 1 Chronicles 23:5; 1 Chronicles 15:16; 1 Chronicles 15:19-21; 1 Chronicles 15:24; 1 Chronicles 25:1; 1 Samuel 16:20-213.
The use of cymbals, psalteries, and harps, in a form suitable for the temple worship, was by his command; the kinnor (the lyre) and the nebel (the psaltery, a stringed instrument played by the hand) being improved by him and added to the cymbals, as distinguished from the "trumpets." The portion 1 Samuel 17 - 18:2 has been thought a parenthesis explaining how David became first introduced to Saul. But 1 Samuel 17:12; 1 Samuel 17:15 show that Saul already had David in attendance upon him, for Jesse his father is called "that Ephrathite" (namely, that one spoken of above), and it is said before David's going forth to meet Goliath that "David went and returned from Saul to feed his father's sheep at Bethlehem." How then shall we account for Saul's question just before the encounter, "Abner, whose son is this youth?" and after it," Whose son art thou, young man?" (1 Samuel 17:55-58.) Also, is this question consistent with his being already "Saul's armor-bearer and loved greatly" by him (1 Samuel 19:11.)
The title "armor-bearer" was honorary, like our aide-de-camp, e.g. Joab had ten (2 Samuel 18:15). David merely attended Saul for a time, and returned to tend his father's sheep, where he was when the war broke out in which Goliath was the Philistine champion. Saul's question (1 Samuel 17:55-58), "Whose son art thou?" must therefore imply more than asking the name of David's father. Evidently, he entered into a full inquiry about him, having lost sight of him since the time David had been in attendance. The words (1 Samuel 18:1) "when David made an end of speaking unto Saul, the soul of Jonathan was knit unto the soul of David," imply a lengthened detail of all concerning his father and himself. The sacred writer of 1 Samuel probably embodied in his narrative some fragments of the authoritative documents mentioned above, stamping them with divine sanction; hence arises a variation between the different documents which would be cleared up if we knew more fully the circumstances. Both are true, though the explanation of how they harmonize can only be conjectured with more or less probability.
The battle was at Ephes-Dammim in the boundary hills of Judah; Saul's army on one side of the valley, the Philistines on the other, the brook Elah (i.e. the Terebinth) running between. Goliath's complete armor contrasted with the ill-armed state of Israel, whose king alone was well armed (1 Samuel 17:38). (See EPHES-DAMMIM.) For, as Porsena imposed on the Romans the stipulation that they should use no iron except in farm work (Pliny, 34:14), so the Philistines forced the Israelites to have "no smith throughout all their land, lest the Hebrew make them swords or spears" (1 Samuel 13:19-20). David at this moment, when all the Israelites were dismayed, came to bring supplies for his brethren and to get from them a "pledge" that they were alive and well. Arriving at the wagon rampart (not "the trench" as KJV) round Israel's camp, he heard their well-known war shout (Numbers 23:21, compare Numbers 10:35). Leaving his Carriage (the vessels of supplies which he carried) in the hand of the baggage-master, he ran to greet his brethren in the midst of the lines, and there heard Goliath's challenge repeated on the 40th day for the 40th time. (See CARRIAGE.)
The meekness with which David conquered his own spirit, when Eliab charged him with pride, the very sin which prompted Eliab's own angry and uncharitable imputation, was a fit prelude to his conquest of Goliath; self must be overcome before we can overcome others (Proverbs 16:32; Proverbs 13:10). The same principle," judge not according to the appearance" (John 7:24), as. at his anointing (1 Samuel 16:7), is set forth in the victory of this "youth" over "a man of war from his youth." Physical strength and size, severed from God; is mere beast strength, and must fall before the seemingly feeblest whose God is the Lord. This is the force of his words: "thy servant slew both the lion and the bear, and this uncircumcised Philistine shall be as one of them, seeing he hath defied the armies of the living God." Man becomes beastlike when severed from God, and is only manly when he is godly. (See BEAST; DANIEL.) Confidence in God, not self, grounded on past deliverance, and on God's honor being at stake before the assembled people of God and the enemies of God (1 Samuel 17:45-48), filled him with such alacrity that he "ran" toward the enemy, and with his simple sling and stone smote him to the ground.
His armor David took first to his tent, and afterward to the tabernacle at Nob; his head David brought to Jerusalem (the city, not the citadel, which was then a Jebusite possession). At this point begins the second era of David's life, his persecution by Saul. A word is enough to rouse the jealous spirit, especially in a king towards a subject. That word was spoken by the women, unconscious of the effect of their words while they sang in responsive strains before the king and his champion, "Saul has slain his thousands, and David his ten thousands." "They have ascribed unto David ten thousands, and to me but thousands, and what can he have more but the kingdom?" Conscience told him he had forfeited his throne; and remembering Samuel's word after his disobedience as to the Amalekites (1 Samuel 15:28), "the Lord hath rent the kingdom of Israel from thee this day, and hath given it to a neighbor of thine that is better than thou," he "eyed David" as possibly the "neighbor" meant. Envy moved Saul under the evil spirit to cast his javelin at him, but twice he eluded it.
His already noted (1 Samuel 16:18) prudence, whereby "he behaved himself wisely in all his ways," was now brought into play; a quality which in dependence upon Jehovah, its Giver (Psalms 5:8), he in Psalms 101:1, by an undesigned coincidence, professes in the same words his determination to exercise, and which as it was the characteristic of Jacob, Israel's forefather, so it has been prominent in his descendants in all ages, modern as well as ancient, especially in times of persecution; analogous to the instinctive sagacity of hunted animals. So wisely did he behave, and so manifestly was the Lord with him, that Saul the king was afraid of David his subject; "therefore Saul removed him from him and made him captain over a thousand" (1 Samuel 18:13). Subsequently, he was captain of the king's bodyguard, next to Abner the captain of the host and Jonathan the heir apparent, and sat with the king at table daily (1 Samuel 20:25; 1 Samuel 22:14). Next, after Saul broke his promise of giving Merab his older daughter to be David's wife, by giving her to Adriel instead, Michal, Saul's second daughter, became attached to David.
Saul used her as a "snare" that David might fall by the Philistines. The dowry Saul required was 100 foreskins of the Philistines. David brought him 200, which, so far from abating his malice, seeing that the Lord was so manifestly, with David, made him only the more bitter "enemy." But God can raise up friends to His people in their enemy's house; and as Pharaoh's daughter saved Moses, so Saul's son Jonathan and daughter Michal saved David. After having promised in the living Jehovah's name David's safety to Jonathan, and after David had "slain the Philistines with a great slaughter" from which they did not recover until the battle in which Saul fell, Saul hurled his javelin at David with such force that it entered into the wall and then would have killed David in his own house, but that by Michal's help he escaped through a window. Jonathan, his bosom friend, he saw once again and never after. Michal was given to Phaltiel, and was not restored to him until he made her restoration a condition of peace with Abner (1 Samuel 19; 2 Samuel 3:13-16).
How striking a retribution by the righteous God it was, that Saul himself fell by the very enemy by whom he hoped to kill David! How evidently this and kindred cases must have been in David's mind when he wrote of the sinner, "he made a pit and digged it, and is fallen into the ditch which he made" (Psalms 7:15-16); the title of this psalm probably refers to Saul, the black-hearted son of Kish the Benjamite, enigmatically glanced at as "Cush (Ethiopia; compare Jeremiah 13:23; Amos 9:7) the Benjamite." This first act in his long wanderings forms the subject of Psalm 59. The title states the occasion: "when Saul sent and they watched the house to kill him." The "bloody men" are Saul and his minions (Psalms 59:2). "The mighty are gathered against me, not for my transgression; ... they run and prepare themselves without my fault" (Psalms 59:3-4); herein he appeals to the all-knowing Jehovah, since the earthly king will not believe his protestations of innocence of the treason laid to his charge.
This psalm harmonizes with the independent history, 1 Samuel 18:8-30; 1 Samuel 20:30-31; 1 Samuel 22:8; 1 Samuel 24:9. This is the "lying" alluded to (Psalms 59:12). Saul's "pride" would not brook that David's exploits should be extolled above his; hence flowed the "lying" and malice. His minions, "like a dog returning at evening," thirsting for prey which they had in vain sought throughout the day, came tumultuously besieging David's house "that night" after Saul's vain attempt to destroy him in the day. His doom answered to his sin. Greatly trembling at the Philistine hosts, war-like though he was, but cowed by a guilty conscience, he who had made David to "wander up and down" now in his turn wanders hither and there for that spiritual guidance which Jehovah withheld and at last by night in disguise was a suppliant before the witch of Endor, which sealed his destruction (1 Samuel 28; 1 Chronicles 10:13). As David was "watched" by Saul's messengers (1618255464_66) so David's remedy was, "because of his (Saul's) strength will I wait upon (watch unto, Hebrew) Thee."
David, seeing no hope of safety while within Saul's reach, fled to Samuel and dwelt with him at the prophet's school in Naioth. Saul sent messengers to apprehend him; but they and even Saul himself, when he followed, were filled with the spirit of prophecy; and they who came to seize the servant of God joined David in Spirit-taught praises of God; so, God can turn the hearts of His people's foes (Proverbs 16:7; Proverbs 21:1); compare Acts 18:17 with 1 Corinthians 1:1, especially Saul's namesake (Acts 7:58 with Acts 9). After taking affectionate leave of Jonathan, David fled to Nob, where the tabernacle was, in order to inquire God's will concerning his future course, as was David's custom. Herein Psalms 16:7 undesignedly coincides with 1 Samuel 22:10; 1 Samuel 22:15. Ahimelech, alarmed at David's sudden appearance alone, lest he should be charged with some unwelcome commission, asked, "Why art thou alone?" (1 Samuel 21.) (See AHIMELECH.) David, whom neither beast nor giant had shaken from his trust in the Lord, now through temporary unbelief told a lie, which involved the unsuspecting high priest and all his subordinates in one indiscriminate massacre, through Doeg's information to Saul.
Too late David acknowledged to the only survivor, Abiathar, that he had thereby occasioned their death (1 Samuel 22); so liable are even believers to vacillation and to consequent punishment. (See ABIATHAR.) By the lie he gained his immediate object, the 12 shewbread loaves just removed from the table to make place for the new bread on the sabbath, and also Goliath's sword wrapped up in cloth behind the high priest's own ephod (shoulder dress), so precious a dedicatory offering was it deemed. One gain David derived and Saul lost by his slaughter of the priests; Abiathar, the sole survivor of the line of Ithamar, henceforth attended David, and through him David could always inquire of God, in God's appointed way (Psalms 16:7, in undesigned coincidence with 1 Samuel 23:2; 1 Samuel 23:4; 1 Samuel 23:6; 1 Samuel 23:9; 1 Samuel 30:7-8). Saul on the contrary had bereft himself of those through whom he might have consulted the Lord. So at last, "when the Lord answered him, neither by dreams, by Urim, nor by prophets," he filled up the measure of his guilt by repairing to the witch of Endor.
Surely men's "sin will find them out" (1 Samuel 28:6-7; Numbers 32:23). The title of Psalm 52 informs us that it was composed in reference to Saul's cruel act on Doeg's officious tale-telling information. The "boaster in mischief, the mighty man" (the very term used of Saul, 2 Samuel 1:19), is not the herdsman Doeg, the ready tool of evil, but the master of hero might in animal courage, Saul. True hero might belongs to the godly alone, as Psalms 18:25 saith, "with an upright hero (Hebrew for 'man') Thou wilt show Thyself upright." Saul's "lying and all devouring words" (Psalms 5:3) are, with undesigned coincidence, illustrated by the independent history (1 Samuel 24:9), "wherefore hearest thou men's words, ... Behold, David seeketh thy hurt?" Saul's courtiers knew the road to his favor was to malign David. Saul was thus the prime mover of the lying charge. Doeg, for mischief and to curry favor, told the fact; it was Saul who put on it the false construction of treason against David and the innocent priests; compare David's similar language, 1 Chronicles 29:27.
Saul was "the man that made not God his strength, but trusted in the abundance of his riches and strengthened himself in his wickedness" (Psalms 52:7). For in undesigned coincidence with this the history (1 Samuel 22:7-9) represents him saying, "Will the son of Jesse give every one of you fields and vineyards?" etc., implying that he had all these (as Samuel foretold would be "the manner of the king," 1 Samuel 8:14) to give, which David had not. Singularly prophetic of Saul's own doom are the Words (Psalms 52:5) hinting at his having rooted out Ahimelech's family, "God shall likewise ... pluck thee out of try dwelling-place, and root thee out of the land of the living." Not only Saul, but all his bloody house save Mephibosheth, died by a violent death, by a righteous retribution in kind (1 Samuel 31:6; 2 Samuel 21:1-14; Psalms 18:25-26). Unbelieving calculation of probabilities, instead of doing the right thing in prayerful faith, led David to flee to Israel's enemies, the Philistines and Achish of Gath.
(See ACHISH.) As Psalm 56 represents him praying for deliverance at this crisis, so Psalm 34 (in alphabetical acrostic arr
Easton's Bible Dictionary - David
Beloved, the eighth and youngest son of Jesse, a citizen of Bethlehem. His father seems to have been a man in humble life. His mother's name is not recorded. Some think she was the Nahash of 2 Samuel 17:25 . As to his personal appearance, we only know that he was red-haired, with beautiful eyes and a fair face (1 Samuel 16:12 ; 17:42 ). His early occupation was that of tending his father's sheep on the uplands of Judah. From what we know of his after history, doubtless he frequently beguiled his time, when thus engaged, with his shepherd's flute, while he drank in the many lessons taught him by the varied scenes spread around him. His first recorded exploits were his encounters with the wild beasts of the field. He mentions that with his own unaided hand he slew a lion and also a bear, when they came out against his flock, beating them to death in open conflict with his club (1 Samuel 17:34,35 ).
While David, in the freshness of ruddy youth, was thus engaged with his flocks, Samuel paid an unexpected visit to Bethlehem, having been guided thither by divine direction (1 Samuel 16:1-13 ). There he offered up sacrifice, and called the elders of Israel and Jesse's family to the sacrificial meal. Among all who appeared before him he failed to discover the one he sought. David was sent for, and the prophet immediately recognized him as the chosen of God, chosen to succeed Saul, who was now departing from the ways of God, on the throne of the kingdom. He accordingly, in anticipation, poured on his head the anointing oil. David went back again to his shepherd life, but "the Spirit of the Lord came upon David from that day forward," and "the Spirit of the Lord departed from Saul" (1 Samuel 16:13,14 ).
Not long after this David was sent for to soothe with his harp the troubled spirit of Saul, who suffered from a strange melancholy dejection. He played before the king so skilfully that Saul was greatly cheered, and began to entertain great affection for the young shepherd. After this he went home to Bethlehem. But he soon again came into prominence. The armies of the Philistines and of Israel were in battle array in the valley of Elah, some 16 miles south-west of Bethlehem; and David was sent by his father with provisions for his three brothers, who were then fighting on the side of the king. On his arrival in the camp of Israel, David (now about twenty years of age) was made aware of the state of matters when the champion of the Philistines, Goliath of Gath, came forth to defy Israel. David took his sling, and with a well-trained aim threw a stone "out of the brook," which struck the giant's forehead, so that he fell senseless to the ground. David then ran and slew him, and cut off his head with his own sword (1 Samuel 17 ). The result was a great victory to the Israelites, who pursued the Philistines to the gates of Gath and Ekron.
David's popularity consequent on this heroic exploit awakened Saul's jealousy (1 Samuel 18:6-16 ), which he showed in various ways. He conceived a bitter hatred toward him, and by various stratagems sought his death (1 Samuel 1830-30 ). The deep-laid plots of the enraged king, who could not fail to observe that David "prospered exceedingly," all proved futile, and only endeared the young hero the more to the people, and very specially to Jonathan, Saul's son, between whom and David a life-long warm friendship was formed.
A fugitive. To escape from the vengeance of Saul, David fled to Ramah (1 Samuel 19:12-18 ) to Samuel, who received him, and he dwelt among the sons of the prophets, who were there under Samuel's training. It is supposed by some that the sixth, seventh, and eleventh Psalms were composed by him at this time. This place was only 3 miles from the residence of Saul, who soon discovered whither the fugitive had gone, and tried ineffectually to bring him back. Jonathan made a fruitless effort to bring his father to a better state of mind toward David (1 Samuel 20 ), who, being made aware of the fact, saw no hope of safety but in flight to a distance. We accordingly find him first at Nob (21:1-9) and then at Gath, the chief city of the Philistines. The king of the Philistines would not admit him into his service, as he expected that he would, and David accordingly now betook himself to the stronghold of Adullam (22:1-4; 1 Chronicles 12:8-18 ). Here in a short time 400 men gathered around him and acknowledged him as their leader. It was at this time that David, amid the harassment and perils of his position, cried, "Oh that one would give me drink of the water of the well of Bethlehem;" when three of his heroes broke through the lines of the Philistines and brought him the water for which he longed (2 Samuel 23:13-17 ), but which he would not drink.
In his rage at the failure of all his efforts to seize David, Saul gave orders for the massacre of the entire priestly family at Nob, "persons who wore a linen ephod", to the number of eighty-five persons, who were put to death by Doeg the Edomite. The sad tidings of the massacre were brought to David by Abiathar, a son of Ahimelech, the only one who escaped. Compare Psalm 52 .
Hearing that Keilah, a town on the western frontier, was harassed by the Philistines, David with his men relieved it (1 Samuel 23:1-14 ); and then, for fear of Saul, he fled to the strongholds in the "hill country" of Judah. Compare Psalm 31 . While encamped there, in the forest in the district of Ziph, he was visited by Jonathan, who spoke to him words of encouragement (23:16-18). The two now parted never to meet again. Saul continued his pursuit of David, who narrowly escaped from him at this time, and fled to the crags and ravines of Engedi, on the western shore of the Dead Sea (1 Samuel 23:29 ). Here Saul, who still pursued him with his army, narrowly escaped, through the generous forbearance of David, and was greatly affected by what David had done for him. He returned home from pursuing him, and David betook himself to Maon, where, with his 600 men, he maintained himself by contributions gathered from the district. Here occurred the incident connected with Nabal and his wife Abigail (1 Samuel 25 ), whom David married after Nabal's death.
Saul again went forth (1 Samuel 26 ) in pursuit of David, who had hid himself "in the hill Hachilah, which is before Jeshimon," in the wilderness of Ziph, and was a second time spared through his forbearance. He returned home, professing shame and penitence for the way in which he had treated David, and predicting his elevation to the throne.
Fighting against Israel. Harassed by the necessity of moving from place to place through fear of Saul, David once more sought refuge among the Philistines (1 Samuel 27 ). He was welcomed by the king, who assigned him Ziklag as his residence. Here David lived among his followers for some time as an independent chief engaged in frequent war with the Amalekites and other tribes on the south of Judah.
Achish summoned David with his men to join his army against Saul; but the lords of the Philistines were suspicious of David's loyalty, and therefore he was sent back to Ziklag, which he found to his dismay may had been pillaged and burnt during his brief absence. David pursued after the raiders, the Amalekites, and completely routed them. On his return to Ziklag tidings reached him of Saul's death (2 Samuel 1 ). An Amalekite brought Saul's crown and bracelet and laid them at his feet. David and his men rent their clothes and mourned for Saul, who had been defeated in battle near Mount Gilboa. David composed a beautiful elegy, the most beautiful of all extant Hebrew odes, a "lamentation over Saul and over Jonathan his son" (2 Samuel 1:18-27 ). It bore the title of "The Bow," and was to be taught to the children, that the memory of Saul and Jonathan might be preserved among them. "Behold, it is written in the book of Jasher" (q.v.).
David king over Judah. David and his men now set out for Hebron under divine direction (2 Samuel 2:1-4 ). There they were cordially welcomed, and he was at once anointed as king. He was now about thirty years of age.
But his title to the throne was not undisputed. Abner took Ish-bosheth, Saul's only remaining son, over the Jordan to Mahanaim, and there crowned him as king. Then began a civil war in Israel. The first encounter between the two opposing armies, led on the one side by Abner, and on the other by Joab, took place at the pool of Gibeon. It resulted in the defeat of Abner. Other encounters, however, between Israel and Judah followed (2 Samuel 3:1,5 ), but still success was on the side of David. For the space of seven and a half years David reigned in Hebron. Abner now sided with David, and sought to promote his advancement; but was treacherously put to death by Joab in revenge for his having slain his brother Asahel at Gibeon (3:22-39). This was greatly to David's regret. He mourned for the death of Abner. Shortly after this Ish-bosheth was also treacherously put to death by two Canaanites of Beeroth; and there being now no rival, David was anointed king over all Israel (4:1-12).
David king over all Israel (2 Samuel 5:1-5 ; 1 Chronicles 11:1-3 ). The elders of Israel now repaired to Hebron and offered allegiance to David in name of all the people, among whom the greatest enthusiasm prevailed. He was anointed king over all Israel, and sought out a new seat of government, more suitable than Hebron, as the capital of his empire. At this time there was a Jebusite fortress, "the stronghold", on the hill of Zion, called also Jebus. This David took from the Jebusites, and made it Israel's capital, and established here his residence, and afterwards built for himself a palace by the aid of Tyrian tradesmen. The Philistines, who had for some time observed a kind of truce, now made war against David; but were defeated in battle at a place afterwards called, in remembrance of the victory, Baal-perazim. Again they invaded the land, and were a second time routed by him. He thus delivered Israel from their enemies.
David now resolved to bring up the ark of the covenant to his new capital (2 Samuel 6 ). It was in the house of Abinadab at Kirjath-jearim, about 7 miles from Jerusalem, where it had been for many years, from the time when the Philistines had sent it home (1 Samuel 6 ; 7 ). In consequence of the death of Uzzah (for it was a divine ordinance that only the Levites should handle the ark, Numbers 4 ), who had put forth his hand to steady the ark when the cart in which it was being conveyed shook by reason of the roughness of the road, David stayed the procession, and conveyed the ark into the house of Obed-edom, a Philistine from Gath. After three months David brought the ark from the house of Obed-edom up to Jerusalem. Compare Psalm 24 . Here it was placed in a new tent or tabernacle which David erected for the purpose. About seventy years had passed since it had stood in the tabernacle at Shiloh. The old tabernacle was now at Gibeah, at which Zadok ministered. David now (1 Chronicles 16 ) carefully set in order all the ritual of divine worship at Jerusalem, along with Abiathar the high priest. A new religious era began. The service of praise was for the first time introduced into public worship. Zion became henceforth "God's holy hill."
David's wars. David now entered on a series of conquests which greatly extended and strengthened his kingdom (2 Samuel 8 ). In a few years the whole territory from the Euphrates to the river of Egypt, and from Gaza on the west to Thapsacus on the east, was under his sway (2 Samuel 8:3-13 ; 10 ).
David's fall. He had now reached the height of his glory. He ruled over a vast empire, and his capital was enriched with the spoils of many lands. But in the midst of all this success he fell, and his character became stained with the sin of adultery (2 Samuel 11:2-27 ). It has been noted as characteristic of the Bible that while his military triumphs are recorded in a few verses, the sad story of his fall is given in detail, a story full of warning, and therefore recorded. This crime, in the attempt to conceal it, led to anoter. He was guilty of murder. Uriah, whom he had foully wronged, an officer of the Gibborim, the corps of heros (23:39), was, by his order, "set in the front of the hottest battle" at the siege of Rabbah, in order that he might be put to death. Nathan the prophet (2 Samuel 7:1-17 ; 12:1-23 ) was sent by God to bring home his crimes to the conscience of the guilty monarch. He became a true penitent. He bitterly bewailed his sins before God. The thirty-second and fifty-first Psalms reveal the deep struggles of his soul, and his spiritual recovery.
Bathsheba became his wife after Uriah's death. Her first-born son died, according to the word of the prophet. She gave birth to a second son, whom David called Solomon, and who ultimately succeeded him on the throne (2 Samuel 12:24,25 ).
Peace. After the successful termination of all his wars, David formed the idea of building a temple for the ark of God. This he was not permitted to carry into execution, because he had been a man of war. God, however, sent Nathan to him with a gracious message (2 Samuel 7:1-16 ). On receiving it he went into the sanctuary, the tent where the ark was, and sat before the Lord, and poured out his heart in words of devout thanksgiving (18-29). The building of the temple was reserved for his son Solomon, who would be a man of peace (1 Chronicles 22:9 ; 28:3 ).
A cloudy evening. Hitherto David's carrer had been one of great prosperity and success. Now cloudy and dark days came. His eldest son Amnon, whose mother was Ahinoam of Jezreel, was guilty of a great and shameful crime (2 Samuel 13 ). This was the beginning of the disasters of his later years. After two years Absalom terribly avenged the crime against Tamar, and put Amnon to death. This brought sore trouble to David's heart. Absalom, afraid of the consequences of his guilt, fled to Geshur beyond Jordan, where he remained for three years, when he was brought back through the intrigue of Joab (2 Samuel 14 ).
After this there fell upon the land the calamity of three years' famine (2 Samuel 21:1-14 ). This was soon after followed by a pestilence, brought upon the land as a punishment for David's sinful pride in numbering the people (2 Samuel 24 ), in which no fewer than 70,000 perished in the space of three days.
Rebellion of Absalom. The personal respect for David was sadly lowered by the incident of Bathsheba. There was a strong popular sentiment against the taking of the census, and the outburst of the plague in connection with it deepened the feeling of jealously that had begun to manifest itself among some of the tribes against David. Absalom, taking full advantage of this state of things, gradually gained over the people, and at length openly rebelled against his father, and usurped the throne. Ahithophel was Absalom's chief counsellor. The revolt began in Hebron, the capital of Judah. Absalom was there proclaimed king. David was now in imminent danger, and he left Jerusalem (2 Samuel 15:13-20 ), and once more became a fugitive. It was a momentous day in Israel. The incidents of it are recorded with a fulness of detail greater than of any other day in Old Testament history. David fled with his followers to Mahanarm, on the east of Jordan. An unnatural civil war broke out. After a few weeks the rival armies were mustered and organized. They met in hostile array at the wood of Ephraim (2 Samuel 18:1-8 ). Absalom's army was defeated, and himself put to death by the hand of Joab (9-18). The tidings of the death of his rebellious son filled the heart of David with the most poignant grief. He "went up to the chamber over the gate, and wept" (33), giving utterance to the heart-broken cry, "Would God I had died for thee, O Absalom, my son, my son!" Peace was now restored, and David returned to Jerusalem and resumed the direction of affairs. An unhappy dispute arose between the men of Judah and the men of Israel (19:41-43). Sheba, a Benjamite, headed a revolt of the men of Israel. He was pursued to Abelbeth-maachah, and was there put to death, and so the revolt came to an end.
The end. After the suppression of the rebellion of Absalom and that of Sheba, ten comparatively peaceful years of David's life passed away. During those years he seems to have been principally engaged in accumulating treasures of every kind for the great temple at Jerusalem, which it was reserved to his successor to build (1 Chronicles 22 ; 28 ; 29 ), a house which was to be "exceeding magnifical, of fame and of glory throughout all countries" (22:5). The exciting and laborious life he had spent, and the dangers and trials through which he had passed, had left him an enfeebled man, prematurely old. It became apparent that his life was now drawing to its close. A new palace conspiracy broke out as to who should be his successor. Joab favoured Adonijah. The chiefs of his party met at the "Fuller's spring," in the valley of Kidron, to proclaim him king; but Nathan hastened on a decision on the part of David in favour of Solomon, and so the aim of Adonijah's party failed. Solomon was brought to Jerusalem, and was anointed king and seated on his father's throne (1 Kings 1:11-53 ). David's last words are a grand utterance, revealing his unfailing faith in God, and his joyful confidence in his gracious covenant promises (2 Samuel 23:1-7 ).
After a reign of forty years and six months (2 Samuel 5:5 ; 1 Chronicles 3:4 ) David died (B.C. 1015) at the age of seventy years, "and was buried in the city of David." His tomb is still pointed out on Mount Zion.
Both in his prophetical and in his regal character David was a type of the Messiah (1 Samuel 16:13 ). The book of Psalms commonly bears the title of the "Psalms of David," from the circumstance that he was the largest contributor (about eighty psalms) to the collection. (See PSALMS .)
"The greatness of David was felt when he was gone. He had lived in harmony with both the priesthood and the prophets; a sure sign that the spirit of his government had been throughly loyal to the higher aims of the theocracy. The nation had not been oppressed by him, but had been left in the free enjoyment of its ancient liberties. As far as his power went he had striven to act justly to all ( 2 Samuel 8:15 ). His weak indulgence to his sons, and his own great sin besides, had been bitterly atoned, and were forgotten at his death in the remembrance of his long-tried worth. He had reigned thirty-three years in Jerusalem and seven and a half at Hebron (2 Samuel 5:5 ). Israel at his accession had reached the lowest point of national depression; its new-born unity rudely dissolved; its territory assailed by the Philistines. But he had left it an imperial power, with dominions like those of Egypt or Assyria. The sceptre of Solomon was already, before his father's death, owned from the Mediterranean to the Euphrates, and from the Orontes to the Red Sea.", Geikie's Hours etc., iii.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Chronicles of King David
(1 Chronicles 27:24 ) were statistical state records; one of the public sources from which the compiler of the Books of Chronicles derived information on various public matters.
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Son of David
See Jesus Christ, Name and Titles of
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Son of David
SON OF DAVID.—The phrase is used in the NT as a title of the Messiah, except in Matthew 1:1; Matthew 1:20 (cf. Luke 1:27), where it has the ordinary genealogical force. For the general discussion of the Messiahship of Jesus, and of the Messiah as king, see Messiah; the present article concerns only the use of this particular title.
1. The Messianic value of the title comes out forcibly in the puzzling question put by Jesus to the Pharisees (Matthew 22:42 f., Mark 12:35, Luke 20:41)—a question that they were unable to answer: ‘The scribes say that the Christ is (to be) the Son of David; but David calls him Lord; how then is he his son?’ The passage is not to be interpreted as a repudiation of the title on the part of Jesus. Of such a repudiation there is no evidence either in His own teaching, or in other parts of the NT. On the contrary, the relationship is specifically taught by St. Paul (Romans 1:3, 2 Timothy 2:8), seemingly as of some importance, and it is assumed of the Messiah in the Apocalypse (Revelation 5:5; Revelation 22:16). The passage is a repudiation of the notion of the Jews—implied in their use of the title—that it fully expresses the functions of the Messiah. The Messiah does not owe His dignity to His Davidic descent. His work far surpasses that of the great king of Israel. The proper answer to Jesus’ question would have involved an entire reconstruction of the ideas of the Jews concerning the Messiah, of which they were, of course, utterly incapable. If Jesus did not expect this result to follow from His question, He could at least show by it the logical absurdity of the emphasis they put upon the Davidic sonship. The connexion of the Messiah with the royal house and city was deemed so essential, that Jesus, of Galilaean extraction, was declared by some to be ineligible to the high office.
2. The particular phase of Messiahship which the title properly expresses is, of course, the royal estate and function. Such was the case when it was applied to Jesus on the occasion of His triumphal entry into Jerusalem (Matthew 21:9; Matthew 21:15). It was so understood, and the anger of the priests and scribes was aroused in consequence. Compare also the Annunciation (Luke 1:32), where it is said that Jesus shall be given the throne of His father David.
3. There is, however, no reason to suppose that, as used in NT times, the title alluded to military prowess, or to a career of conquest on the part of the Messiah. Indeed, the Hosannas of the people were in praise of very different qualities. Such a conception of the force of the phrase is entirely inconsistent with the cry of the blind men (Matthew 20:30 f. [1] and Luke 9:27) and of the Canaanitish woman (Matthew 15:22), ‘Son of David, have mercy.’ The title came naturally to the lips of those who sought Jesus’ aid in their great distress. Likewise the works of healing which He had wrought called forth—so characteristic were they of the Messiah who was expected—the query whether this might not be the Son of David (Matthew 12:23).
4. These NT applications of the title are in close harmony with the OT description of the Messiah. David was the founder of the kingdom of Israel. Whenever in later centuries the nation and its welfare were in the mind, the thought naturally turned to David. When the house of David no longer ruled, and the kingdom was shattered, prophets and singers lamented the misfortunes that had overtaken David and his house. When their hopefulness and faith in God expressed itself in visions of a bright future, they naturally spoke of a second David, a branch of his house, who should restore the nation to its former prosperity. As the past, and especially David’s rule, grew fairer by contrast with the dismal present, so the new kingdom of David in the future was pictured in extravagant colours. The Kingdom should extend over the whole earth, irresistibly, triumphantly. But this conquest was not conquest for conquest’s sake. It was a process without which the longed-for prosperity could, in their imagination, not be realized. It was but an incident in the larger blessedness of the future. To the Jew of the later pre-Christian centuries, David stood for much else besides military prowess and political prestige. If this element had been predominant, it would have been incongruous to ascribe to him so large a part of the Psalms as bear his name. If we seek for the cause of this change of emphasis, it is doubtless to be found in the very distress that they suffered. That distress was personal, individual. Character became the condition of enjoying the benefits of the new Kingdom, and in turn the new Kingdom—Messianic, ideal—was to exist for the sake of the individual, to save him from his woes, and to lead him to righteousness. Psalms 72, in spite of its warlike sentiments, is the utterance of one to whom, after all, the welfare of the people, the oppressed and the defenceless, is paramount. These are the poor and the blind to whom Jesus gave salvation, by such ministry proving, even to His contemporaries, that He was worthy to be called the Son of David.
See also art. Names and Titles of Christ.
Literature.—Briggs, Messianic Prophecy, pp. 492–496; Wendt, Lehre Jesu, ii. 434 ff.; Schürer, HJP [2] ii. ii. § 29.
O. H. Gates.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - David
DAVID (‘beloved’). The second and greatest of the kings of Israel; the youngest of the eight sons of Jesse the Bethlehemite; he belonged to the tribe of Judah. The details of his life are gathered from 1 Samuel 16:3 1 Kings 2:11 , 1 Chronicles 11:1 to 1 Chronicles 29:30 (besides some scattered notices in the earlier chapters of 1 Ch.), the Psalms which bear on this period, and Bk. VII of the Antiquities of Josephus, though this latter adds but little to our knowledge. It is necessary to bear in mind two points of importance in dealing with the records of the life of David: firstly, the Hebrew text is, in a number of cases, very corrupt (notably in the books of Samuel), and in not a few passages the Alexandrian (Greek) version is to be preferred; secondly, our records have been gathered together from a variety of sources, and therefore they do not present a connected whole; that they are for this reason sometimes at variance with each other stands in the natural order of things.
1. Early years . David was a shepherd by calling, and he continued this occupation until he had reached full manhood; the courage and strength sometimes required for the protection of flocks make it clear that he was more than a mere youth when he first appeared upon the scene of public life ( 1 Samuel 17:34-35 ). There are altogether three different accounts of David’s entry upon the stage of life.
(i) 1 Samuel 16:1-13 . David is here represented as having been designated by Jahweh as Saul’s successor; Samuel is sent to Bethlehem to anoint him; all the seven sons of Jesse pass before the prophet, but the Spirit does not move him to anoint any of them; in perplexity he asks the father if he has any more children, whereupon the youngest is produced, and Samuel anoints him. Graphic as the story is, it strikes one as incomplete. Samuel does not even know of the existence of Jesse’s youngest son; the future king of Israel is introduced as a mere stripling whom nobody seems to know or care about, and he is left as abruptly as he is introduced. From all we know of Israel’s early heroes, a man was not raised to be a leader of the people unless or until he had first proved himself in some way to be the superior of his fellows. It was, of course, different when the monarchy had been securely established and the hereditary succession had come into vogue; though even then there were exceptions, e.g. in the case of Jehu. This was clearly so in the case of Saul, who had the reputation of being a ‘mighty man of valour’ ( 1 Samuel 9:2 ); and in the parallel case of the anointing of one to be king while the throne was still occupied, viz. Jehu, it is not an unknown man who is anointed (see 1 Kings 19:16 , 1 Samuel 20:1-42 ff.). The story, therefore, of David’s anointing by Samuel strikes one as being an incomplete fragment.
(ii) 1 Samuel 16:14-23 . In this second account, the servants of Saul recommend that the king should send for someone who is a ‘cunning player on the harp,’ in order that by means of music the mental disorder from which he is suffering may be allayed. The son of Jesse is proposed, and forthwith sent for; when Saul is again attacked by the malady said to be occasioned by ‘an evil spirit from the Lord’ David plays upon the harp, and Saul ‘is refreshed’ in spirit. In this account David is represented as a grown man, for it is said that Saul made him his armour-bearer.
(iii) 1 Samuel 17:1-58 . The Greek version omits a large part of this account ( 1 Samuel 17:12-31 ; 1 Samuel 17:55-58 ), which seems itself to have been put together from different sources. According to it, David’s first appearance was on the eve of a battle between the Israelites and the Philistines. His father is in the habit of sending him to the Israelite camp with provisions for his three eldest brothers, who are among the warriors of the Israelite army; on one such occasion he finds the camp in consternation on account of the defiance of a Philistine hero, the giant Goliath. This man offers to fight in single combat with any Israelite who will come out and face him, but in spite of the high reward offered by the king to any one who will slay him namely, great riches and the king’s daughter in marriage nobody appears to answer the challenge. David gathers these details from different people in the camp, and, feeling sure of the help of Jahweh, determines to fight the giant. He communicates his purpose to Saul, who at first discourages him, but on seeing his firmness and confidence arms him and bids him go forth in the name of Jahweh. David, however, finds the armour too cumbersome, and discards it, taking instead nothing but five smooth stones and a sling. After mutual defiance, David slings one of his stones; the giant is hit, and falls down dead; David rushes up, draws the sword of the dead warrior, and cuts off his head. Thereupon panic takes hold of the Philistine host, and they flee, pursued by the Israelites, who thus gain a complete victory (see Elhanan).
It is worthy of note that each of these three accounts which introduce David to history connects with him just those three characteristics which subsequent ages loved to dwell upon. The first presents him as the beloved of Jahweh (cf. his name, ‘beloved’), who was specially chosen, the man after God’s own heart, the son of Jesse; the second presents him as the harpist, who was known in later ages as the ‘sweet psalmist of Israel’; while the third, which is probably the nearest to actual history, presents him as the warrior-hero, just as, in days to come, men would have pictured him whose whole reign from beginning to end was characterized by war.
David’s victory over Goliath had a twofold result; firstly, the heroic deed called forth the admiration, which soon became love, of the king’s son Jonathan; a covenant of friendship was made between the two, in token of which, and in ratification of which, Jonathan took off his apparel and armour and presented David with them. This friendship lasted till the death of Jonathan, and David’s pathetic lamentation over him (2 Samuel 1:25-27 ) points to the reality of their love. But secondly, it had the effect of arousing Saul’s envy; a not wholly unnatural feeling, considering the estimation in which David was held by the people in consequence of his victory; the adage assuredly one of the most ancient authentic fragments of the history of the time
‘Saul hath slain his thousands,
And David his ten thousands’
was not flattering to one who had, in days gone by, been Israel’s foremost warrior. For the present, however, Saul conceals his real feelings (1 Samuel 18:10-11 are evidently out of place), intending to rid himself of David in such a way that no blame would seem to attach itself to him. In fulfilment of his promise to the slayer of Goliath, he expresses his intention of giving his daughter Michal to David for his wife; but as David brings no dowry, according to Hebrew custom, Saul lays upon him conditions of a scandalous character ( 1 Samuel 18:25-26 ), hoping that, in attempting to fulfil them, David may lose his life. The scheme fails, and David receives Michal to wife. A further attempt to be rid of David is frustrated by Jonathan ( 1 Samuel 19:1-7 ), and at last Saul himself tries to kill him by throwing a javelin at him whilst playing on his harp; again he fails, for David nimbly avoids the javelin, and escapes to his own house. Thither Saul sends men to kill him, but with the help of his wife he again escapes, and flees to Ramah to seek counsel from Samuel. On Samuel’s advice, apparently, he goes to Jonathan by stealth to see if there is any possibility of a reconciliation with the king; Jonathan does his best, but in vain ( 2 Kings 9:3 ), and David realizes that his life will be in danger so long as he is anywhere within reach of Saul or his emissaries.
2. David as an outlaw . As in the case of the earlier period of David’s life, the records of this second period consist of a number of fragments from different sources, not very skilfully put together. We can do no more here than enumerate briefly the various localities in which David sought refuge from Saul’s vindictiveness, pointing out at the same time the more important episodes of his outlaw life.
David flies first of all to Nob , the priestly city; his stay here is, however, of short duration, for he is seen by Doeg, one of Saul’s followers. Taking the sword of his late antagonist, Goliath, which was wrapped in a cloth behind the ephod, he makes for Gath , hoping to find refuge on foreign soil; but he is recognized by the Philistines, and fearing that they would take vengeance on him for killing their hero Goliath, he simulates madness (cf. Psalms 34:1-22 title), a disease which by the Oriental (even to-day by the Bedouin) is looked upon as something sacrosanct. By this means he finds it easy enough to make his escape, and comes to the ‘ cave of Adullam .’ Here his relations come to him, and he gathers together a band of desperadoes, who make him their captain. Finding that this kind of life is unfitted for his parents, he takes them to Mizpeh and confides them to the care of the king of Moab. On his return he is advised by the prophet Gad (doubtless because he had found out that Saul had received information of David’s whereabouts) to leave the stronghold; he therefore takes refuge in the forest of Hereth . While hiding here, news is brought to him that the Philistines are fighting against Keilah; he hastens to succour the inhabitants by attacking the Philistines; these he overcomes with great slaughter, and thereupon he takes up his abode in Keilah . In the meantime Saul’s spies discover the whereabouts of the fugitive, and David, fearing that the men of Keilah will deliver him up to his enemy, escapes with his followers to the hill-country in the wilderness of Ziph . A very vigorous pursuit is now undertaken by Saul, who seems determined to catch the elusive fugitive, and the chase is carried on among the wilds of Ziph, Maon , and Engedi . [1] It is during these wanderings that Saul falls into the power of David, but is magnanimously spared. The episode connected with David’s dealings with Nabal, and his taking Abigail and Ahinoam for his wives, also falls within this period ( 1Sa 24:1-22 ; 1 Samuel 25:1-44 ; 1 Samuel 26:1-25 ). At one time there seemed to be some hope of reconciliation between Saul and David ( 1 Samuel 26:24-25 ), but evidently this was short-lived, for soon afterwards David escapes once more, and comes with six hundred followers to the court of Achish, king of Gath. This time Achish welcomes him as an ally and gives him the city of Ziklag . David settles in Ziklag, and stays there for a year and four months ( 1 Samuel 27:7 ), occupying the time by fighting against the enemies of his country, the Geshurites, Amalekites, etc. At the end of this time, war again breaks out between the Israelites and the Philistines. The question arises whether David shall join with the forces of Achish against the Israelites; David himself seems willing to fight on the side of the Philistines ( 1 Samuel 29:8 ), but the princes of the Philistines, rightly or wrongly, suspect treachery on his part, and at the request of Achish he returns to Ziklag . On his arrival here he finds that the place has been sacked by the Amalekites, and forthwith he sets out to take revenge. This is ample and complete; part of the spoil which he acquires he sends as a present to the elders of Judah and to his friends ( 1 Samuel 30:26-31 ), a fact which shows that there was a party favourable to him in Judah; and this was possibly the reason and justification of the mistrust of the Philistine princes just mentioned. In the meantime the war between Israel and the Philistines ends disastrously for the former, and Saul and Jonathan are slain. David receives news of this during his sojourn in Ziklag. With this ends the outlaw life of David, for, leaving Ziklag, he comes to Hebron, where the men of Judah anoint him king ( 2 Samuel 2:4 ).
3. David as king
( a ) Internal affairs . For the first seven years of his reign David made Hebron his capital. In spite of his evident desire to make peace with the followers of Saul ( 2 Samuel 9:1-13 ), it was but natural that a vigorous attempt should be made to uphold the dynasty of the late king, at all events in Israel, as distinct from Judah (see Ishbosheth). It is therefore just what we should expect when we read that ‘there was long war between the house of Saul and the house of David’ ( 2 Samuel 3:1 ). The final victory lay with David, and in due time the elders of Israel came to him in Hebron and anointed him their king. As ruler over the whole land David realized the need of a more central capital; he fixed on Jerusalem, which he conquered from the Jebusites, and founded the royal city on Mt. Zion, ‘the city of David’ ( 2 Samuel 5:7 ). Thither he brought up the ark with great ceremony ( 2 Samuel 6:1 ff.), intending to build a permanent temple for it ( 2 Samuel 7:2 ), but the prophet Nathan declares to him that this is not Jahweh’s will. David’s disappointment is, however, soothed, for the prophet goes on to tell him that though he may not build this house, Jahweh will establish the house of David ( i.e. in the sense of lineage) for ever ( 2 Samuel 7:11 ). David then enters in before Jahweh and offers up his thanksgiving ( 2 Samuel 7:18-29 ).
One of the darker traits of David’s character is illustrated by the detailed account of the Bathsheba episode (2 Samuel 11:2 ; 2 Samuel 12:25 ); so far from seeking to curb his passion for her on hearing that she is married, he finds ways and means of ridding himself of the husband, after whose death Bathsheba becomes his queen. The marriage was destined to influence materially the history of Israel (see Adonijah). But the most serious event in the history of the reign of David, so far as the internal affairs of the kingdom were concerned, was the rebellion of his son Absalom. Of an ambitious nature, Absalom sought the succession, even at the expense of dethroning his father. How he set about preparing the ground for the final coup is graphically described in 2 Samuel 15:1-6 . After four [2] should be read ‘four’] years of suchlike crafty preparation, the rebellion broke out; a feast at Hebron, the old capital, given by Absalom to the conspirators, was the signal for the outbreak. At first Absalom was successful; he attacked Jerusalem, from which David bad to flee; here, following the advice of Ahithophel, he took possession of the royal harem, a sign (in the eyes of the people of those days) of the right of heritage. The most obvious thing to do now would have been for Absalom to pursue David before he had time to gather an army; but, against the advice of Ahithophel, he follows that of Hushai a secret friend of David who succeeds in inducing Absalom to waste time by lingering in Jerusalem. Ahithophel, enraged at the failure of his plans, and probably foreseeing what the final result must be, leaves Absalom and goes to his home in Giloh and hangs himself ( 2 Samuel 17:23 ). In the meantime David, hearing what is going on in Jerusalem, withdraws across the Jordan, and halts at Mahanaim; here he gathers his forces together under the leadership of Joab. The decisive battle follows not long after, in the ‘forest of Ephraim’; Absalom is completely defeated, and loses his life by being caught in a tree by the head whilst fleeing. Whilst thus hanging he is pierced by Joab, in spite of David’s urgent command that he should not be harmed. The touching account of David’s sorrow, on hearing of Absalom’s death, is given in 2 Samuel 18:23-33 . A second rebellion, of a much less serious character, was that of Sheba, who sought to draw the northern tribes from their allegiance; it was, however, easily quelled by Joab (ch. 20).
The rebellion (if such it can be called) of Adonijah occurred at the very end of David’s reign. This episode is dealt with elsewhere (see Adonijah), and need not, therefore, be described here.
( b ) External affairs . Unlike most of his dealings with foreigners, David’s first contact, as king, with those outside of his kingdom, viz. with the Syrians, was of a peaceful character. Hiram, king of Tyre, sent (according to 2 Samuel 5:11 , 1 Chronicles 14:1 ) artificers of different kinds to assist David in building. But this was the exception. One of the characteristics of David’s reign was its large number of foreign wars. It is, however, necessary to bear in mind that in the case of a newly-established dynasty this is only to be expected. The following is, very briefly, a list of David’s foreign wars; they are put in the order found in 2Sam., but this order is not strictly chronological; moreover, it seems probable that in one or two cases duplicate, but varying, accounts appear: Philistines ( 2 Samuel 5:17-25 ), Moabites ( 2 Samuel 8:2 ), Zobah ( 2 Samuel 8:3-4 ), Syrians ( 2 Samuel 8:5-13 ), Edomites ( 2 Samuel 8:14 ), Ammonites, Syrians ( 2 Samuel 10:1 , 2 Samuel 11:1 , 2 Samuel 12:26-31 ), and Philistines ( 2 Samuel 21:15-22 ). David was victorious over all these peoples, the result being a great extension of his kingdom, which reached right up to the Euphrates (cf. Exodus 23:31-33 , Deuteronomy 11:23-25 ). Wars of this kind presuppose the existence of a, comparatively speaking, large army; that David had a constant supply of troops may be gathered from the details given in 1 Chronicles 27:1-34 .
While it is impossible to deny that the rôle of musician in which we are accustomed to picture David is largely the product of later ages, there can be no doubt that this rôle assigned to him is based on fact (cf. e.g. 1 Samuel 1:17-27 , 2 Samuel 22:2-51 = Psalms 18:1-50 , Amos 6:5 ), and he must evidently be regarded as one of the main sources of inspiration which guided the nation’s musicians of succeeding generations (see art. Psalms).
The character of David offers an intensely interesting complex of good and bad, in which the former largely predominates. As a ruler, warrior, and organizer, he stands pre-eminent among the heroes of Israel. His importance in the domain of the national religion lies mainly in his founding of the sanctuary of Zion, with all that that denotes. While his virtues of open-heartedness, generosity, and valour, besides those already referred to, stand out as clear as the day, his faults are to a large extent due to the age in which be lived, and must be discounted accordingly.
W. O. E. Oesterley.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - David, City of
DAVID, CITY OF . See Jerusalem.
Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - David
Ruth 4:22 (c) He is a type of the Christian and of CHRIST who lives for GOD in his youth, is persecuted and rejected by his brethren, is tempted in the wilderness, but finally is exalted on the throne.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - David
DAVID
For the student of the Gospels the most important OT passage concerning David is 2 Samuel 7. David expressed to Nathan a strong desire to build a temple for Jehovah in his new capital, a wish indicative of worldly wisdom as well as piety on the part of the king. Jehovah denies David’s request, but promises to build for him an everlasting house, a dynasty without end. David’s throne is to stand for ever. Psalms 2, 110 are founded on this notable promise, and the author of Psalms 89 in a far later time, when David’s throne had been overturned by the heathen, reminds Jehovah of His ancient promise, and pleads earnestly for the speedy passing of His wrath. The early prophets, Amos (Amos 9:11), Hosea (Hosea 3:5), Isaiah (Isaiah 9:7; Isaiah 16:5; Isaiah 37:35), unite with the author of Kings (1 Kings 2:45; 1 Kings 6:12 etc.) in the expectation that the promise made to David in 2 Samuel 7 will not fail. The prophetic hopes for the future of Israel spring from Nathan’s message as branches from the trunk that gives them life. Jeremiah (Jeremiah 23:5 f., Jeremiah 33:15 ff.) carries forward the work of his predecessors of the 8th cent. b.c., asserting the perpetuity of David’s dynasty in most emphatic terms. Ezekiel (Ezekiel 34:23 f., Ezekiel 37:24 f.) cheers the discouraged exiles with the picture of a glorious restoration of the throne of David. The great ruler of the future will be a second David. In the period after the return from Babylon, the author of the last section of Zechariah (Zechariah 12:7 to Zechariah 13:1) describes the glories of the coming time in connexion with the Davidic dynasty: ‘The house of David shall be as God, as the angel of Jehovah before them.’ The Messianic hope in the inter-Biblical period, like that of the OT, attached itself to David. The author of Ecclesiasticus (Sirach 47:11) reminds his readers that the Lord exalted David’s horn for ever, entering into a covenant and promising him a throne of glory in Israel. About a century later the author of 1 Mac. (2:57) says, ‘David for heing merciful inherited the throne of a kingdom for ever and ever.’ Most important for the student of the Gospel history is Psalms 17 of the Psalms of Solomon, a collection of patriotic hymns belonging to the period immediately following Pompey’s capture of Jerusalem (63–48 b.c.). Psalms 17 is a notable Messianic prophecy, prayer and prediction being freely inter-mingled after the fashion of the OT prophets and poets. The Messianic King is to be David’s son (Psalms 17:4). Jehovah Himself is Israel’s King for ever and ever (Psalms 17:1); but the Son of David is His chosen to overthrow the heathen, and institute a righteous reign in Israel (17:30, 42f.).
The four Evangelists unite in the view that the Messiah was to come from the seed of David (Matthew 1:1, Mark 10:47, Luke 2:4, John 7:42). ‘The Son of David’ was synonymous in the time of our Lord’s earthly ministry with ‘Messiah’ or ‘Christ.’ Both the scribes and the common people held this view. When the children cried in the temple, ‘Hosanna to the Son of David’ (Matthew 21:15), both the rulers and the multitude looked upon the words as a distinct recognition of the Messiahship of Jesus. The Epistles (Romans 1:3, 2 Timothy 2:8) and the Revelation (Revelation 5:5; Revelation 22:16) concur in calling attention to the Davidic origin of Jesus. The interest of NT writers in David is confined almost exclusively to his relation to our Lord Jesus as His ancestor and type.
Jesus refers to one incident in the life of David in reply to the accusation of His enemies as to His observance of the Sabbath (Mark 2:25, cf. 1 Samuel 21:1-6). This incident is said to have taken place ‘when Abiathar was high priest.’ [1]
During the week preceding our Lord’s crucifixion, perhaps on Tuesday, He asked the Pharisees a question which put them to silence and confusion. Having drawn from them a statement of their belief that the Christ would be the son of David, He at once quoted David’s words in Psalms 110:1 to show that the Messiah would also be David’s Lord (Matthew 22:41 ||). Jesus wished to show His foes and the multitude that the orthodox view of the time overlooked the exalted dignity of the Messiah. He was to be far greater than David, for He was his Lord. See, further, Broadus on Mt. ad loc., and, for the meaning of ‘David’ and ‘Moses’ in our Lord’s citations from the OT, art. Moses.
Literature.—Gore, BL [2] 196ff.; Gould, ‘St. Mark,’ and Plummer, ‘St. Luke,’ in Internal. Crit. Com. in loc.; Expos. Times, iii. [3] 292 ff., viii. [4] 365 ff.; Expositor, v. iii. [5] 445 ff.
John R. Sampey.
Hitchcock's Bible Names - David
Well-beloved
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - David
The very important figure which David, king of Israel, makes in Scripture, demands, that in a work of this kind, he should not be overlooked. His services, as a prophet of the Lord, and his labours in the Scriptural writings which come to the church with his name, render it highly needful to notice him. But added to this, as a type of the Lord Jesus, and the great Mediator bearing his name, renders him still more endearing to our view. His very name from Dud, to love, means, dear and well-beloved; and as a type of the ever-dear and well-beloved Jesus, nothing could be more suited. I only beg the reader to observe concerning types in general, and of him in particular, that it is only in this very precise instance, in which the agreement runs, that the word of God considers them; and consequently, ought to be considered by the church. The Lord Jesus Christ after the flesh, is spoken of as the seed of David; and as such, the covenant runs in his name. (See Psalms 89:34-35; 2 Timothy 2:8)
Whyte's Dictionary of Bible Characters - David - in His Races
A MAN AFTER MINE OWN HEART
DR. THOMAS GOODWIN says that David's youthful virtues differed from his old-age graces somewhat as wild marjoram differs from sweet. Now, the wild marjoram is little better to begin with than a useless wandering weed; whereas the sweet is a planted, a protected, and a most precious herb. Your meekness, and your humility, and your industry, and so on, proceeds the incomparable Puritan preacher, must spring up, not only out of your constitution and your temperament; it must spring up out of your heart, as your heart is more and more softened, and tamed, and humbled, and sweetened by the grace of God and by the indwelling Spirit of Christ, Many a man, the sometime President of Magdalene is continually warning us, may live and die a model and a praise of 'civil virtues,' who never all his days comes within sight of the first principles of gospel holiness. At the same time, marjoram is marjoram, whether it is found running wild on the sides of the hills, or is watched over, and weeded, and watered, and gathered till it makes our whole house full of sweetness and health with its odorous fragrance. And teachableness, and meekness, and gentleness, and submissiveness, and thankfulness, and suchlike, are what they are, even before they are engrafted on Him who is the true and original root both of our wild and fast-fading flowers, as well as of our most fragrant and most fruitful herbs.
I would fain begin David's shining graces by saying that faith in God is the true and real and living root of them all. I would fain begin with David's faith, were it not that there is no word in all our tongue that carries less meaning and less vision to most people's minds and hearts than just this so frequent sound-faith. As Pascal says, We all believe in that dead word God; but there is only one here and another there who really and truly believes in the living, ever-present, and all-present God. But this is David's shining distinction above all God's saints-unless there are two or three in the New Testament who equal and excel David. In his pure, courageous, noble youth; all through his hunted-down days; fallen and broken and full of the pains of hell; filling up his dreary gift of years,-David is always the same unconquered miracle of faith in God. Take and read and hear what David says to the Philistine giant about God, and you will see somewhat of his youthful faith in God. Then pass on to far on in his life, and open the hundred and thirty-ninth psalm; and I am safe to say that David, the author of that psalm, and Jesus of Nazareth, whom I may call the finisher of it, have been the only two saints and sons of God on the face of this earth who have ever taken, up, understood, and imaginatively and unceasingly employed in their prayers that great believing psalm. And therefore it has been that they are the only two, father and son, to whom a voice came from heaven saying, Thou art a man after Mine own heart, and, This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. Jesus Christ was out of sight the greatest and the best believer this earth has ever seen. But the best of it is that He was beholden to David's psalms of faith, and trust, and resignation, and assurance to support and to give utterance to His faith in His Father. The psalms of David, says Isaac Williams, were our Lord's constant prayer-book. When, therefore, you begin to ask after and to enter on the life of faith, open and read David's life and David's psalms, comparing them together; and then pass on to Jesus Christ, and then to the Apostle Paul. 'Faith is the modestest of all the graces,' says the princely preacher I began with, 'and, at the same time, it is the most masterful. Wherever true faith is, it frameth the heart to the most childlike and friendlike dispositions towards God. Faith, my brethren, is a passion; it is a strong and a commanding instinct of our hearts after Christ, and after mystical union with Christ, so that we cannot be at peace and satisfied without Him.'
But, who is that roaring all the day long on the murderous wheel? Who is that stretched and stretched again on the rack all night till all his bones are out of joint-out of joint and broken in pieces with the hammer and the anger of God? The voice of whose roaring is that-According to the multitude of Thy tender mercies blot out my transgressions? And that-For I acknowledge my transgressions, and my sin is ever before me? Do you ask who that is? Do you not know? That is the prodigal son of the Old Testament. That is the same man who sometime went out against the giant, and against the bear, and against the lion in the name and in the strength of God. That is the anointed of the Lord. That is the King of Israel. That is the man after God's own heart. And he lies roaring on the rack-
Thus on us to impress
The portent of a blood-stained holiness.
For, holiness it still is; a true, a great, and an ever-growing holiness, though a holiness ever after to be stained with blood; but, also, to the end to be washed whiter than the snow in better blood. And a holiness, too, with a height, and a depth, and a fire, and an inwardness, and a solemnity, and a far-sounding psalmody in it, all of which would seem scarcely to be attainable in this life unless under the stain of blood, or of something that stains still worse than blood. Dreadful sin! that can only be propitiated by blood, and then washed off heart and life by blood upon blood! Dreadful holiness! that can only be attained through tears and blood! But, blessed holiness that is still attainable by us all at that, or at any other price possible to be paid by God or man! As David's holiness was, and as all their holiness is, to whom David is set forth as a portent, and at the same time as an encouragement.
I was always exceedingly pleased with that saying of Chrysostom, says Calvin, 'The foundation of our philosophy is humility.' And yet more pleased with that of Augustine: 'As,' says he, 'the rhetorician being asked what was the first thing in the rules of eloquence, he answered, Delivery. What was the second? Delivery. What was the third? still he answered, Delivery. So if you ask me concerning the graces of the Christian character, I would answer firstly, secondly, and thirdly, and for ever, Humility.' And thus it is that God sets open His school for teaching us humility every day. Humility is the grace of graces for us sinners to learn. There is nothing again like it, and we must have a continual training and exercise in it. You learn to pronounce by your patrons complaining that they cannot hear you, and that they must carry their cases to another advocate unless you learn to speak better. And, as you must either please your patrons or die of starvation, you put pebbles in your mouth and you go out to recite to yourself by the river-side till your rhetoric is fit for a Greek judge and jury to sit and hear. And so with humility, which is harder to learn than the best Greek accent. You must go to all the schools, and put yourself under all the disciplines that the great experts practise, if you would put on true humility. And the schools of God to which He puts His great saints are such as these. You will be set second to other men every day. Other men will be put over your head every day. Rude men will ride roughshod over your head every day. God will set his rudest men, of whom He has whole armies, upon you every day to judge you, and to find fault with you, and to correct you, and to blame you, and to take their business away from you to a better-to a better than you can ever be with the best pebbles that ever river rolled. Ay, He will take you in hand Himself, and He will set you and will keep you in a low place. He will set your sins in battle-array before your face. He will exact silence, and your mouth in the dust, and a rope on your head, and your heart a pool of tears, long after you had thought that you were to be set in a wealthy place. But let me say David at once. For it is David who rises before me as I speak of injuries, and insults, and detractions, and depreciations, and threats, and yet sorer, and yet severer and more immediate handlings by God Himself. David might have put Joab, and Shimei, and all the rest of his tutors and governors, in the front of the battle as he put Uriah; but he could not cast a piece of a millstone on his Maker from the walls of Rabbah, and he would not now if he could. And no more will he seek to silence a single one of his many reminders and accusers; no, not the most malignant, insolent, and unceasing of them all.
Once let David, or any other man, begin to taste the heavenly sweetness of true humility over against pride, and over against rebellion, and over against retaliation, and he will become positively enamoured and intoxicated with his humiliations. What once was death and hell to him will now be life and peace and salvation to him. What at one time he had almost committed murder to cover up, he will now hearken for from every housetop. When I was a child I used every Sabbath-day to read David's challenge to the giant, and I thought I was sanctifying the Sabbath over that Scripture. But for many years now, and more and more of late years, my Bible opens of itself to me at the place where Shimei casts stones and dirt at David, till David says, So let him curse, because the Lord hath said to him, Curse David. My children still read Goliath on Sabbath evenings, but I am on the watch to see how soon I can safely introduce them to Shimei. Shimei is the man for me and mine! Only, may I endure my schoolmaster to the bitter end better than even David did. Let me take insults, and injuries, and slights, and slings from men, and God's hand itself, as David that day took Shimei's curses. Nay, things that would seem to you to have nothing in the world to do either with my past sins or with my present sinfulness-let me have David's holy instinct, let me lay down David's holy rule, to look at everything of that kind that comes to me as so many divine calls and divinely opened doors to a deeper humility. Graces also grow by what they feed on; and humility grows by deliberately dieting itself on such humiliations as these, both human and divine. And evangelical humility grows by being fed, and by feeding itself on evangelical humiliations. If any one has the steadiness of eye and the strength of head, and the spiritual ambition and enterprise, to penetrate into this region of things, he will find a field rich in these and in many suchlike spiritual blessings in Jonathan Edwards's Religious Affections. I shall close up this grace of David by this specimen of mighty Edwards: 'Evangelical humiliation is the sense that a Christian man has of his own utter despicableness and odiousness, with an always answerable frame of heart. This humiliation is peculiar to true saints, for it is always accompanied with a sight of the transcendent beauty of divine things. And then, God's true saints all see, more or less, their own odiousness on account of sin, and the exceedingly hateful nature of all sin. Evangelical humiliation consists in a mean esteem of ourselves, as in ourselves nothing, and altogether contemptible and odious. This, indeed,' Edwards goes so far as to say, 'is the greatest and the most essential thing in all true religion.'
'The grey-haired saint may fail at last'; and the last sight we see of David is his deathbed shipwreck on that very same sunken rock he had steered past so often in the stormy voyage of his life. On his deathbed, David failed in that very grace which had been such a strength and such an ornament to his character on till now, and such a pride and such a boast to us. But the truth is, the only saint whose path has ever been as the shining light was not David, but David's far-off Son. And it was exactly where David so sadly struck and sank that his divine Son touched and attained to the top of His obedience, and gave to Himself the finishing touch of His full sanctification. Father, forgive them, He said, and gave up the ghost. I do not know that of all the bad blood of which all our hearts are full there is any that lasts longer than anger, and resentment, and ill-will at our enemies, at our detractors, and at those who despise and deride us. It is only the cold, firm fingers of death that will squeeze the last dregs of that worst of all bad blood out of our hearts. We would draw the curtains of David's deathbed if we dared. But we dare not, and we would not if we could. For, after all, David is not our surety. David is not our righteousness. David did not die the just for the unjust. Nor at his very youngest and best is David set forward as an example to the disciples of Jesus Christ. David at his best, as at his worst, is one of ourselves. David is a man of like passions with ourselves. David was cut out of the same web, and he was shaped out of the same substance as ourselves. He was a man of like passions with us, and, like our passions, his were sometimes at his heel, but more often at his throat. David held back his bad passions at Saul, and at Shimei, and at Joab, occasion after occasion, till we were almost worshipping David. But, all the time, and all unknown to us, they were there. Till, of all times and of all places in the world, David's banked-up passions burst out on his deathbed, that no flesh might glory in God's presence. But that, according as it is written, He that glorieth, let him glory in the Lord. And, like David, we sometimes master somewhat and smother down our passions of resentment and retaliation and ill-will. But with us as with David, at our best it is only a semblance and a surface of self-mastery. The bad blood is there still. And if it is not roaring in every vein as it used to do, the thick pestiferous dregs of it are all the more settled deep down in our hearts. Jeremiah is entirely right about us. He is divinely and entirely right about us. He is divinely and entirely right about the resentment, and the hatred, and the ill-will of our hearts at all who have ever hindered us, or injured us, or detracted from us, or rebuked us, or refused to flatter us. Yes, we will put our mouth in the dust, and a rope upon our head; and, as at the day of judgment, we will tell the truth, and will say it in words which the Holy Ghost teacheth: Yes, we will say, my injured and resentful heart is desperately and deceivingly wicked. Desperately, and deceivingly, and down to death wicked. But no longer than that. No longer after death. After death we shall be done both with death and hell; and after death we shall awake in His likeness who died, not cursing Judas, and Annas, and Caiaphas, and Herod, and the soldier with the spear, but saying over them all with His last breath, Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do. For even hereunto were we called.
There is one thing, so far as I remember, that David never failed or came short in. 'My honest scholar,' says Isaac Walton, when he is giving his companion a lesson in making a line and in colouring a rod, 'all this is told you to incline you to thankfulness; and, to incline you the more, let me tell you that though the prophet David was guilty of murder and adultery, and many others of the most deadly sins, yet he was said to be a man after God's own heart, because he abounded more and more with thankfulness than any other that is mentioned in Holy Scripture. As may appear in his book of Psalms, where there is such a commixture of his confessing of his sins and unworthiness, and such thankfulness for God's pardon and mercies as did make him to be accounted, and that by God Himself, to be a man after His own heart. And let us, in that, labour to be as like David as we can. Let us not forget to praise Him for the innocent mirth and pleasure we have met with since we met together.' Would you know? asks William Law in his beautiful chapter on singing psalms-would you know who is the greatest saint in the world? Well, it is not he who prays most or fasts most; it is not he who gives most alms, or is most eminent for temperance, chastity, or justice; but it is he who is always thankful to God, who wills everything that God wills, and who receives everything as an instance of God's goodness, and has a heart always ready to praise God for His goodness. And then Law winds up with this, and I wish it would send you all to the golden works of that holiness-laden writer-Sometimes, he adds, imagine to yourselves that you saw holy David with his hands upon his harp, and his eyes fixed upon heaven, calling in transport upon all creation, sun and moon, light and darkness, day and night, men and angels, to join with his rapturous soul in praising the Lord of heaven. Dwell upon this imagination till you think you are singing with this divine musician; and let such a companion teach you to exalt your heart unto God every new morning in his thanksgiving psalms. Or make a morning psalm suitable to your own circumstance out of David's great thanksgiving psalms. You should take the finest and the selectest parts of David's finest and selectest psalms, and adding them together make them every morning more and more fit to express your own thankful hearts. And, till you have had time to compose a psalm exactly suitable to your own standing in grace, you might meantime sing this psalm of David every morning with a spiritual mind and a thankful heart:
Bless, O my soul, the Lord thy God,
And not forgetful be
Of all His gracious benefits
He hath bestow'd on thee.
For Thou art God that dost
To me salvation send,
And I upon Thee all the day
Expecting do attend.
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - David, Welsh Saint
David (5) , St. (Degui ; Welsh, Dewi ), the most eminent Welsh saint.
His Period. —The Annales Cambriae , our earliest authority for his existence, date his death a.d. 601; and one reading, which the Monumenta only gives in brackets, under a.d. 458, is: "St. Dewi nascitur anno tricesimo post discessum Patricii de Menevia" (M. H. B. 830, 831). Geoffrey of Monmouth dates his death a.d. 542, and William of Malmesbury a.d. 546. Ussher argues that he died a.d. 544, at the age of 82 ( Brit. Eccl. Ant. Works, 1847; vi. 43, 44, Chron. Index, ad ann. 544); but Rice Rees, who has followed him in his computations, places his birth 20 years later, and fixes a.d. 566 as the last date possible for his death. The a.d. 601 of the Ann. Camb. is the date adopted by Haddan and Stubbs ( Councils , i. 121, 143, 148), who remark that David would thus come into view just as the history of Wales emerges from the darkness that conceals it for a century after the departure of the Romans.
A résumé of authorities for his Life is given by Jones and Freeman ( Hist. of St. David's , 240), and a full and careful list of all known materials, manuscript and printed, by Hardy (Descr. Catal. i. 766).
The Story of his Life. —The asserted facts of St. David's life, omitting such as are clearly legendary, meet with various degrees of credence from authors of repute. Rees, in his Essay on Welsh Saints , while rejecting several circumstances as manifestly fabulous or incredible, such as his going to Jerusalem to be consecrated, is disposed to accept enough to make a biographical narrative.
His father was (in medieval Latin) Xantus or Sanctus, prince of Keretica—i.e. modern Cardiganshire. David is said to have been educated first under St. Iltutus in his college (afterwards called from him Llanilltyd Fawr, or Lanwit Major), and subsequently in the college of Paulinus (a pupil of Germanus and one of the great teachers of the age), at Tygwyn ar Dâf (Rees, Welsh Saints , 178), or at Whitland in Carmarthenshire (Jones and Freeman); and here he spent ten years in the study of Holy Scripture. In course of time David became head of a society of his own, founding or restoring a monastery or college at a spot which Giraldus calls Vallis Rosina (derived, as is generally supposed, from a confusion between Rhos , a swamp, and Rhosyn , a rose), near Hen-Meneu, and this institution was subsequently named, out of respect to his memory, Ty Dewi, House of David, or St. David's. In those days, remarks Rees, abbats of monasteries were looked upon in their own neighbourhoods as bishops, and were styled such, while it is probable that they also exercised chorepiscopal rights in their societies (Welsh Saints , 182, 266; cf. Haddan and Stubbs, i. 142, 143). Such dignity David enjoyed before his elevation to the archbishopric of the Cambrian church. It was the Pelagian controversy that occasioned his advancement. To pronounce upon the great heresy then troubling the church, archbp. Dubricius convened a synod at Brefi, and David, whose eloquence put the troublers to confusion, made such an impression that the synod at once elected him archbp. of Caerleon and primate of the Cambrian church, Dubricius himself resigning in his favour. The locality of this synod, which holds a marked place in Welsh ecclesiastical traditions, was on the banks of the Brefi, a tributary of the Teifi; Llanddewi Brefi it was afterwards called, from the dedication of its church to St. David. It is 8 miles from Lampeter, and from recent archaeological discoveries has been identified with an important Roman station, the Loventium of the itineraries (Lewis, Top. Dict. of Wales ; cf. Haddan and Stubbs, Councils , i. 117). The Pelagian heresy, however, still survived, and the new archbishop convened another synod, the issue of which was so decided as to gain it the name of the Synod of Victory. It is entered in the Annales Cambriae , "Synodus Victoriae apud Britones congregatur," under a.d. 569, but not with full confidence (M. H. B. 831). It is also mentioned, without a date, in the Annales Menevenses (Wharton, Angl. Sac. ii. 648). After residing for a while at Caerleon on Usk, where the seat of the primate was then established, David, by permission of king Arthur, removed to Menevia, the Menapia of the Itineraries, one of the ports for Ireland (Wright, Celt, Roman, and Saxon , 138). The Roman road Via Julia led to it; the voyage across was 45 miles; the Menapii, one of the tribes which held the E. coast of Ireland, were no doubt a colony from the opposite shore of Britain (ib. 43); David's baptism by the bp. of Munster indicates a religious connexion between Menevia and Ireland. The tradition of a mission of the British church to Ireland to restore the faith there, under the auspices of David, Gildas, and Cadoc (Haddan and Stubbs, Councils , i. 115) points the same way. May we not, therefore, assume that the see was removed because the tide of Saxon conquest drove the British church to cultivate closer relations with their Celtic brethren opposite?
As primate, David distinguished himself by saintly character and apostolic zeal, a glowing, not to say an overcharged, description of which is given in Giraldus. It is generally agreed that Wales was divided into dioceses in his time. Rees, in his learned essay on the Welsh saints, shews that of the dedications and localities of the churches of the principality, a large number terminate in David's native name, ddewi, or are otherwise connected with his memory (Welsh Saints , p. 52). These instances, moreover, abound in a well-defined district; and Rees has ingeniously used these circumstances as indicating the limits of the diocese of archbp. David's immediate jurisdiction (ib. pp. 197-199). David's successor was Cynog.
Jones and Freeman (St. David's , 246 seq.) conclude that we may safely accept as historical facts: that St. David established a see and monastery at Menevia early in the 7th cent., the site being chosen for the sake of retirement; that his diocese was co-extensive with the Demetae; that he had no archiepiscopal jurisdiction; that a synod was held at Brefi, in which he probably played a conspicuous part, but that its objects are unknown; and finally that of his immediate successors nothing is recorded (ib. 257). These writers convey a vivid impression of the "strange and desolate scenery" of the spot now named after St. David, and give some curious antiquarian details. Haddan and Stubbs ( Councils , i. 115-120) give dates to the synod of Brefi and the synod of Victory, a little before 569 and in 569, later than Rees's latest possible date for David's death; and they regard the accounts given of the synods by Ricemarchus, and Giraldus after him, as purely fabulous, and directed to the establishment of the apocryphal supremacy of St. David and his see over the entire British church. They express much doubt as to the purpose of those assemblies being to crush Pelagianism. Valuable documentary information and references as to the whole subject of the early Welsh episcopate are given in Appendix C (op. cit. ), and it is maintained that "there is no real evidence of the existence of any archiepiscopate at all in Wales during the Welsh period, if the term is held to imply jurisdiction admitted or even claimed (until the 12th cent.) by one see over another."
David was canonized by pope Calixtus c. a.d. 1120, and commemorated on Mark 1 (Rees, op. cit. 201).
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Whyte's Dictionary of Bible Characters - David - in His Services
WELL DONE, GOOD AND FAITHFUL SERVANT
GOD is the only master with servants who accepts the intention for the action. God alone of all paymasters pays as good wages for the good intentions of His servants as He pays for their best performances. One of David's greatest and best services to God and man never went further than the good intention. But David was as much praised and as much paid for his good intention to build the temple as if he had lived to see the golden towers of God's house shining in the Sabbath sun. It will help on your salvation to lay it to heart that hell is paved with good intentions; and it will, at the same time, comfort every good and honest heart to be told that good intentions form some of the surest of stepping-stones to heaven. Think much about intentions. Give, and it shall be given you; good measure, pressed down, and shaken together, and running over, shall men give into your bosom. For with the same measure that you mete withal it shall be measured to you again. After which Bengel acutely annotates that it is by our hearts that we both mete out to others and have it meted out to ourselves. It would have gone hard with the poor widow if she had only had a farthing meted out to her in her Lord's judgment on her. But her Lord looked on her heart. And thus it is that she sits in heaven today among the queens who sit there on their thrones of gold, because she had such a queenly heart that day in the temple porch. Both from David's intended temple; from the poor widow's actual collection at the door of David's temple; and from Bengel's spiritual annotation let us learn this spiritual lesson, that our hearts are the measure both of our work and of our wages in the sight of God. You cannot build and repair all the churches and mission-houses and manses at home and abroad you would like to build and repair. You cannot endow all the chairs of sacred learning you would like. You cannot contribute to the sustentation and spread of the Christian ministry as you would like. You cannot visit and relieve all the fatherless and widows in their affliction as you would like. You cannot stop all the sources of sin and misery in this world as you would like. You cannot make the reading, or the religion, or the devotional life of your people what your heart is full of. You wish you could. So did David. David had magnificent dreams about the temple. He built the temple every night in his sleep. And had he been permitted he would not have slept with his fathers till he had dedicated a most magnifical house to the name of the Lord. But it stands in God's true and faithful word that it was all in David's heart. And He who looks not so much on the action as on the intention, He saw in this also a man after His own heart. May all David's good intentions, and generous preparations be found in all our rich people; and may all the widow's love and goodwill be found in all our poor people. For the heart is the measure. And as we measure out good words, and good wishes, and good purposes, and good preparations, and good performances in our heart, so will it be measured back to us by Him who sees and weighs and measures the heart and nothing but the heart.
'Thou hast shed blood abundantly, and hast made great wars; thou shalt not build an house to My name, because thou hast shed much blood upon the earth in My sight. But, behold, a son shall be born to thee, and his name shall be Solomon, and he shall build an house for My name.' When I first read that sentence of such terrible disappointment to David, I looked to see David all that night on his face on the earth. But I did not know David; I had not yet got into all the depths of David's deep heart. For, instead of refusing to rise up and eat bread with the elders of his house, David was never in a happier frame of mind than he was all that night. David not only said, 'It is the Lord,' but his heart broke forth in a psalm such that there is nothing nobler in his whole book of Psalms. David not only consented that it was both good, and right, and seemly, that hands like his should not touch a stone of the house of God; but, that his son should be chosen of God to build Him an house-that set David's heart on fire as never Old Testament heart was set on fire like David's heart. As we read the psalm that poured out of David's heart that chastised and disappointed day, David is a man after our own heart. A psalm of resignation, and self-sacrifice, and thanksgiving, and many other virtues and graces like that psalm, covers a multitude of David's sins. Then went David in, and sat before the Lord; and he said, Who am I, O Lord God, and what is my house, that Thou hast brought me hitherto? And this was yet a small thing in Thy sight, O Lord God; but Thou hast spoken also of Thy servant's house for a great while to come. And is this the manner of man, O Lord God? Would God we all had a heart like that! I have found David, my servant.
It makes it possible, and, more than possible, pleasant to a father to lie down and leave his work unfinished when he sees his son standing at his bedside ready to take up his father's unfinished work to finish it. Nay, I suppose a father who loved his son aright and enough would almost rather leave all his work and all his hope unfinished if he saw his son able and willing and chosen and called to take it up. This, no doubt, greatly helped David to resign his great hope of being spared to build the temple, that Solomon, his greatly-gifted, wise-hearted, pure, and noble-minded son was standing ready to take up and to carry out his father's long-intended task. Judging David that day by myself, David must have been a happy father and a thankful, as, indeed, the fine psalm he sang that day lets us see that he was. I myself would willingly lie down tonight and leave all my mismanaged and mangled life; all the mistakes and misfortunes and mishaps of my ministry; all the obstacles and offences I have been to so many of my people; all my wrong dividing of the word of truth; and all else that you know so well and sorrow so much over. I declare to you that I would lie down with a good will tonight and wrap my head out of sight in my winding-sheet, if I saw my son standing ready to take up and repair and redeem my lost life. I would say, Lord, now lettest Thou Thy unfaithful and unfruitful and offensive and injurious servant depart in pardon, since mine eyes have seen Thy salvation begun in my son. And if I saw all my sons preparing for the ministry of Christ in the Church of Christ I would die in a far greater triumph than David's death-bed could possibly be. Well, why not?
Come, my soul, thy suit prepare.-Thou art coming to a king;Large petitions with thee bring;For His grace and power are such,None can ever ask too much.David did many other services, both intended and executed, both in the field, and on the throne, and in the house of God; but by far and away David's greatest service was his Psalms. The temple was built, and built again, and built again; but for two thousand years now not one stone of that so sacred and so stately structure has stood upon another. The very foundations of the temple have been razed out, sown with salt, and for ever lost. But the Psalms of David shine to this day with a greater splendour than on the day they were first sung. And long after the foundations of this whole earth shall have been ploughed up and removed out of their place, David's Psalms will be sounding out for ever beside the song of Moses and the Lamb. 'I have reared a monument of myself more lasting than brass.' And time, which has ground to powder so many temples of marble and of brass, has only set a more shining seal to the poet's proud boast. But how poor was his boast, and how short-lived will be his best work beside David's immortal Psalms! What a service has David done, not knowing that he was doing it; and not to his own nation only, but to the whole Israel of God. And not to Israel only, but to the God of Israel, and to the Redeemer of Israel. 'I have found David My servant, with My holy oil have I anointed him. I have exalted one chosen out of the people.'
I have said that David did a great service to the Redeemer of Israel, and I intended to say it. When I think of that service, all the other services that David has done by his Psalms shine out in a far diviner glory. I bless David's name for the blessing my own soul gets out of his Psalms every day I live. But when I trace that blessing up to its true source, I find that true and grace-gushing source in Jesus of Nazareth, whom I see growing in grace every day as He goes about in Galilee with David's Psalms never out of His hands. Think, people of God, of the honour to David, higher far than all the thrones on earth and in heaven,-the unparalleled and immortal honour of being able to teach Jesus Christ to sing and to pray. For, when the Holy Child said to Mary, Mother, teach Me to sing and to pray, what did Mary do, hiding all that in her heart, but put into her Child's hands David's golden Psalm beginning thus: The Lord is my Shepherd, I shall not want. And then, think of Him as He grew in wisdom, and in stature, and in strength of spirit beginning to discover Himself in this Psalm of David and in that. Think of the sweet start, the overpowering surprise, the solemnity, the rejoicing with trembling, the resignation, the triumph with which the growing Saviour was led of the Spirit from Psalm to Psalm till He had searched out all David's Psalms in which David had prophesied and sung concerning his Messiah Son. See Jesus of Nazareth on His knees in the Sabbath synagogue with this place open before Him for the first time,-Lo, I come; in the volume of the book it is written of Me, I delight to do Thy will, O My God; yea, Thy law is within my heart. And, having once begun to read and to think in that way you will go on till you come to the cross, where you will see and hear your dying Redeemer with one of David's Psalms on His lips when He can no longer hold it in His hands. And He said unto them, These are the words which I spake unto you while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the Psalms, concerning Me. And they said one to another, did not our heart burn within us while He talked with us by the way, and while He opened to us the Scriptures?
O two disciples, on your way that same day to Emmaus, how I envy you your travelling Companion that day! My heart burns to think of your Divine Companion opening up to you David's Messianic Psalms that memorable day. And when I think also of the multitudes that no man can number to whom David's Psalms have been their constant song in the house of their pilgrimage; in the tabernacle as they fell for the first time hot from David's heart and harp; in the temple of Solomon his son with all the companies of singers and all their instruments of music; in the synagogues of the captivity; in the wilderness as the captives returned to the New Jerusalem; in the New Jerusalem every Sabbath-day and every feast-day; in the upper room, both before and after supper; in Paul's prison at Philippi; in the catacombs; in Christian churches past number; in religious houses all over Christendom at all hours of the day and the night; in deserts, in mountains, in dens and caves of the earth; in our churches; in our Sabbath-schools; in our families morning and evening; in our sickrooms; on our death-beds; and in the night-watches when the disciples of Christ watch and pray lest they enter into temptation. A service like all that is surely too much honour for any mortal man! Then David went in and sat before the Lord; and he said, Who am I, O Lord God? and what is my house? And is this the manner of man, O Lord God? And what can David say more unto thee! for Thou, Lord God, knowest thy servant.
Then, take David's knowledge of God, and his communion with God. There is nothing like it in the whole world again. There are many mysteries of godliness not yet revealed to us; but, to me, the mystery of David's knowledge of God and his communion with God is one of the most mysterious. Had Paul sung David's Psalms, and sent, now the twenty-third Psalm to the Philippians, and now the thirty-second and the hundred and thirtieth to the Romans, and now the forty-fifth and the seventy-second to the Colossians, and so on, I would not have wondered. I would wonder at nothing after the coming of Christ, and after His death and His ascension. But it baffles me to silence to see such Psalms as David's before the day of Christ. And I have never, with all my search, seen an intelligent attempt made to face that mystery.
No; David is scarcely second to the Man Jesus Christ Himself in this mystery of mysteries, the mystical communion of the soul of man with the Living God. Such knowledge is too wonderful for us; it is so high that we cannot attain to it. 'O God, Thou art my God. Early will I seek Thee. My soul thirsteth for Thee; my flesh longeth for Thee in a dry and thirsty land where no water is; to see Thy power and Thy glory, so as I have seen Thee in the sanctuary. Because Thy loving-kindness is better than life, my lips shall praise Thee. My soul shall be satisfied as with marrow and fatness, and my mouth shall praise Thee with joyful lips when I remember Thee upon my bed, and meditate on Thee in the night watches. My soul followeth hard after Thee.' That would not have stumbled me had I come on it in the heart of the seventeenth of John itself. To David in the sixty-second, and in its sister Psalms, there is only I AM and David himself, in all heaven and earth. Against Thee, Thee only, have I sinned, David says in another Psalm. And, 'Thee, Thee only,' is the sum and the substance, the marrow and the fatness, the beauty and the sweetness of all David's communion Psalms. To know God, and to be in constant communion with God, this is life to David; this is better than life; this is love; this is blessedness. Then, again, it is told of Luther in his 'Table Talk,' that being asked one day which were his favourite Psalms-Why, to be sure, he answered, Paul's four Psalms,-'Blessed is the man whose transgressions are forgiven, whose sin is covered,' 'Have mercy upon me, O God,' 'Out of the depths,' and 'Enter not into judgment with Thy servant.' Do you not see, he demanded, that all these Psalms tell us that forgiveness comes without the law and without works? Forgiveness and peace come to him that believeth. 'That Thou mayest be feared.' That dusts away all merit; that teaches us to uncover our heads before God and to confess that forgiveness is of His grace and not of our desert at all. 'Even as David describeth the righteousness of the man unto whom God imputeth righteousness without works, saying, Blessed is that man.' David knew it experimentally. It was Paul's privilege to know it both historically and experimentally, as we say, and then to set it forth doctrinally, as we say also. And it is our privilege to have it in all these three ways, if we love and value such things above all other love and value. Even David without Paul was not made perfect. Nor will we be without them both. 'I have found David, My servant. And My mercy will I keep for him for evermore, and My covenant shall stand fast with him. My covenant will I not break, nor alter the thing that is gone out of My lips. Once have I sworn by My holiness that I will not lie unto David.'
But, with all that, the half, and the best half for you, has not yet been told you. After all that, listen to this. He that hath ears to hear, let him give ear to this. 'In that day he that is feeble in Jerusalem shall be as David, and the house of David shall be as God.' Does Feeble-mind hear that? Then let him receive and rest on that. Let him wake up psaltery and harp at the hearing of that. And let all that is within him sing and play like David. Let him sing and play, and that with the mind and the heart and the spirit like David. Let him sing and play to God, and to God only, like David. Let him who is feeble in faith, and in repentance, and in holiness, and in communion with God, be much in the Psalms. Let the Psalms dwell richly in the feeblest among us, and the feeblest among us will yet be a man of more spiritual strength than David. Sing a heart-strengthening Psalm every morning, and a heart-cleansing and a heart-quieting Psalm every night. Seven times every remaining day of your earthly pilgrimage sing a Psalm. Let no place, and no conversation, and no occupation delude you out of your heart-refreshing Psalm. Fill the house of your pilgrimage with the sound of Psalms. Let the prisoners hear you. Let the angels hear you. Let God hear you. Let Him bow down His ear and hear you. And let Him say to His Son, and to His angels, and to His saints, over you and over your house, I have found a man after Mine own heart; with My holy oil have I anointed him.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - David, Tower of
Doubtless part of the castle in Zion, wherein armour was stored: it is mentioned only symbolically in Song of Solomon 4:4 .
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - David
the celebrated king of Israel, was the youngest son of Jesse, of the tribe of Judah, and was born 1085 years before Christ. The following is an abstract of his history: He was chosen of God to be king of Israel, and at his command was anointed to this dignity by the hands of Samuel, a venerable prophet, in the room of Saul; who had been rejected for his disobedience to the divine orders, in feloniously seizing, to his own use, the prey of an enemy, which God, the supreme King of Israel, had devoted to destruction. He was introduced to court as a man expert in music, a singularly valiant man, a man of war, prudent in matters, of a comely person, and one favoured of the Lord. By his skill in music, he relieved Saul under a melancholy indisposition that had seized him, was highly beloved by his royal master, and made one of his guards. In a war with the Philistines he accepted the challenge of a gigantic champion, who defied the armies of Israel, and being skilful at the sling, he slew him with a stone, returned safely with his head, and thus secured to his prince an easy victory over his country's enemies. The reputation he gained, by this glorious action, raised an incurable jealousy and resentment against him, in the mind of the king his master; who made two unsuccessful attempts to murder him. In his exalted station, and amidst the dangers that encompassed him, he behaved with singular prudence, so that he was in high esteem both in the court and camp. The modesty and prudence of his behaviour, and his approved courage and resolution, gained him the confidence and friendship of Jonathan, the king's eldest son, "Who loved him as his own soul," became his advocate with his father, and obtained from him a promise, confirmed by an oath, that he would no more attempt to destroy him. But Saul's jealousy returned by a fresh victory David gained over the Philistines; who, finding the king was determined to seek his life, retired from court, and was dismissed in peace by Jonathan, after a solemn renewal of their friendship, to provide for his own safety. In this state of banishment, there resorted to him companies of men, who were uneasy in their circumstances, oppressed by their creditors, or discontented with Saul's tyrannical government, to the number of six hundred men. These he kept in the most excellent order, and by their valour he gained signal advantages for his country; but never employed them in rebellion against the king, or in a single instance to distress or subvert his government. On the contrary such was the veneration he paid him, and such the generosity of his temper that though it was thrice in his power to have him cut off, he spared him, and was determined never to destroy him, whom God had constituted the king of Israel. His friendship with Jonathan, the king's son, was a friendship of strict honour, for he never seduced him from his allegiance and filial duty. Being provoked by a churlish farmer, who evil treated and abused his messengers, he, in the warmth of his temper, swore he would destroy him and his family; but was immediately pacified by the address and prudence of a wife, of whom the wretch was unworthy: her he sent in peace and honour to her family, and blessed for her advice, and keeping him from avenging himself with his own hand. Being forced to banish himself into an enemy's country, he was faithful to the prince who protected him: and, at the same time, mindful of the interest of his own nation, he cut off many of those who had harassed and plundered his fellow subjects. When pressed by the king, into whose dominions he retired, to join in a war against his own country and father-in-law, he prudently gave him such an answer as his situation required; neither promising the aid demanded of him, nor tying up his hands from serving his own prince, and the army that fought under him; only assuring him in general, that he had never done any thing that could give him just reason to think he would refuse to assist him against his enemies. Upon the death of Saul, he cut off the Amalekite who came to make a merit of having slain him; and by the immediate direction of God, who had promised him the succession, went up to Hebron, where, on a free election, he was anointed king over the house of Judah; and after about a seven years' contest, he was unanimously chosen king by all the tribes of Israel, "according to the word of the Lord by Samuel." As king of Israel, he administered justice and judgment to all his people, was a prince of courage, and great military prudence and conduct; had frequent wars with the neighbouring nations, to which he was generally forced by their invading his dominions, and plundering his subjects. Against them he never lost a battle; he never besieged a city without taking it; nor, as for any thing that can be proved, used any severities against those he conquered, beyond what the law of arms allowed, his own safety required, or the cruelties of his enemies rendered just, by way of retaliation; enriching his people by the spoils he took, and providing large stores of every thing necessary for the magnificent temple he intended to erect, in honour of the God of Israel. Having rescued Jerusalem out of the hands of the Jebusites, he made it the capital of his kingdom, and the place of his residence; and being willing to honour it with the presence of the ark of God, he brought it to Jerusalem in triumph, and divesting himself of his royal robes, out of reverence to God, he clothed himself in the habit of his ministers, and with them expressed his joy by dancing and music; contemned only by one haughty woman; whom, as a just punishment of her insolence, he seems ever after to have separated from his bed. Though his crimes were heinous, and highly aggravated in the affair of Uriah and Bathsheba, he patiently endured reproof, humbly submitted to the punishment appointed him, deeply repented, and obtained mercy and forgiveness from God, though not without some severe marks of his displeasure, for the grievous offences of which he had been guilty. A rebellion was raised against him by his son Absalom. When forced by it to depart from Jerusalem, a circumstance most pathetically described by the sacred historian, he prevented the just punishment of Shimei, a wretch who cursed and stoned him. When restored to his throne, he spared him upon his submission, and would not permit a single man to be put to death in Israel upon account of this treason. He, with a noble confidence, made the commander of the rebel forces general of his own army, in the room of Joab, whom he intended to call to an account for murder and other crimes. After this, when obliged, by the command of God, to give up some of Saul's family to justice, for the murder of the Gibeonites, he spared Mephibosheth, Micah, and his family, the male descendants of Saul and Jonathan, who alone could have any pretence to dispute the crown with him, and surrendered only Saul's bastard children, and those of his daughter by Adriel, who had no right or possible claim to the throne, and could never give him any uneasiness in the possession of it; and thus showed his inviolable regard for his oaths, his tenderness to Saul, and the warmth of his gratitude and friendship to Jonathan. In the close of his life, and in the near prospect of death, to demonstrate his love of justice, he charged Solomon to punish with death Joab, for the base murder of two great men, whom he assassinated under the pretence of peace and friendship. To this catalogue of his noble actions must be added, that he gave the most shining and indisputable proofs of an undissembled reverence for, and sincere piety to, God; ever obeying the direction of his prophets, worshipping him alone, to the exclusion of all idols, throughout the whole of his life, and making the wisest settlement to perpetuate the worship of the same God, through all succeeding generations.
To this abstract a few miscellaneous remarks may be added.
1. When David is called "the man after God's own heart," a phrase which profane persons have often perverted, his general character, and not every particular of it, is to be understood as approved by God; and especially his faithful and undeviating adherence to the true religion, from which he never deviated into any act of idolatry.
2. He was chosen to accomplish to their full extent the promises made to Abraham, to give to his seed the whole country from the river of Egypt to the great river Euphrates. He had succeeded to a kingdom distracted with civil dissensions, environed on every side by powerful and victorious enemies, without a capital, almost without an army, without any bond of union between the tribes. He left a compact and united state, stretching from the frontier of Egypt to the foot of Lebanon, from the Euphrates to the sea. He had crushed the power of the Philistines, subdued or curbed all the adjacent kingdoms: he had formed a lasting and important alliance with the great city of Tyre. He had organized an immense disposable force; for every month 24,000 men, furnished in rotation by the tribes, appeared in arms, and were trained as the standing militia of the country. At the head of his army were officers of consummate experience, and, what was more highly esteemed in the warfare of the time, extraordinary personal activity, strength, and valour. The Hebrew nation owed the long peace of Solomon the son's reign to the bravery and wisdom of the father.
3. As a conqueror he was a type of Christ, and the country "from the river to the ends of the earth," was also the prophetic type of Christ's dominion over the whole earth.
4. His inspired psalms not only place him among the most eminent prophets; but have rendered him the leader of the devotions of good men, in all ages. The hymns of David excel no less in sublimity and tenderness of expression than in loftiness and purity of religious sentiment. In comparison with them the sacred poetry of all other nations sinks into mediocrity. They have embodied so exquisitely the universal language of religious emotion, that they have entered with unquestioned propriety into the ritual of the higher and more perfect religion of Christ. The songs which cheered the solitude of the desert caves of Engedi, or resounded from the voice of the Hebrew people as they wound along the glens or the hill sides of Judea, have been repeated for ages in almost every part of the habitable world, in the remotest islands of the ocean, among the forests of America or the sands of Africa. How many human hearts have these inspired songs softened, purified, exalted! Of how many wretched beings have they been the secret consolation! On how many communities have they drawn down the blessings of Divine providence, by bringing the affections into unison with their deep devotional fervour, and leading to a constant and explicit recognition of the government, rights, and mercies of God!
Morrish Bible Dictionary - David
The name signifies 'well-beloved.' David was the son of Jesse, a descendant of Boaz and Ruth, a Jew and a Gentile: both Jews and Gentiles are to be blessed in the Christ whom David typified. David was anointed when in humility, 'keeping the sheep.' His seven brothers had passed before Samuel, but the one to be anointed must be one after God's own heart, one that would care for and feed God's people. The spirit of Jehovah came upon him from that day. Christ was the true Messiah, whom David prefigured, being anointed at His baptism by the Holy Spirit before entering on His service toward Israel. David's spirit was stirred within him when he heard the boasting of Goliath against the God of Israel, and he then told how in secret he had protected the sheep and had slain the lion and the bear: in the name of God the giant would also be overcome. His faith was in Israel's God, and the giant was slain.
The women's song in praise of David raised the jealousy of Saul, who had more sense of his own importance than care for the Lord's people. He gave his daughter Michal to be David's wife, and thought thus to entrap him; but his wife became his deliverer. This called forth Psalm 59 . He had faith that God would laugh at his enemies: God was his defence and the God of his mercy. Though the Psalms show the experiences of David's inner man, it must not be forgotten that they are prophetic, and his language is often that of the remnant of Israel in the future, and sometimes that of Christ. Psalm 59 : speaks of the heathen who will oppose Christ.
The love of Jonathan and David is beautiful, but Jonathan could not protect David from the hatred of Saul, and David resorted to the priest, who gave him the hallowed bread. The sovereign grace of God rises above the ordinances that are connected with blessing when that blessing is rejected. God's anointed one was rejected and the showbread was considered common. He received the sword of Goliath, and fled to the Philistines. Apparently he was seized by them (cf. the heading of Psalm 56 ); he cried for mercy, for man sought to swallow him up. "Put thou my tears into thy bottle: are they not in thy book?" he said; yet he knew he should escape, for God was for him. He changed his behaviour before the Philistines and assumed madness: connected with this is Psalm 34 . David would bless the Lord at all times: he cried, and the Lord heard him; but the psalm is manifestly prophetic of Christ: see Psalm 34:20 and others. David escaped to the cave of Adullam, and his brethren and his father's house went to him, also those in distress, and those in debt, and the discontented; the prophet Gad was with him, and soon afterwards Abiathar the priest. But the enemy was not inactive, Doeg the Edomite informed Saul of how Ahimelech the priest had helped David, which led Saul to employ even Doeg to slay the family of Ahimelech. This drew forth Psalm 52 : God would destroy the wicked, and the man who had not made God his strength. It must be remembered that the circumstances through which David passed are used by the prophetic Spirit to develop the experiences in the conflict between good and evil, which are to culminate in final deliverance and glory.
When the Philistines attacked and robbed the Israelites, David inquired of the Lord, and smote them with great slaughter. It is beautiful to see how David could inquire of God and receive an immediate answer. Even the city Keilah which he had relieved was against him, the king anointed of God to feed them. He was obliged to wander elsewhere, but Jonathan met him in a wood and encouraged him, assuring David that he knew he would surely be king; and there they made a covenant together: cf. Psalm 63 .
When Nabal had repulsed David's messengers Abigail brought a present, and rehearsed what God would do for David, and appeased his wrath. God smote Nabal, and Abigail became David's wife. Now the Ziphites or Ziphim engaged to aid Saul to capture David. This called forth Psalm 54 , in which David cries earnestly to be saved: strangers had risen up against him; but his faith could say that God had delivered him out of all trouble. David must wander hither and thither, sometimes in the wilderness, sometimes in the mountains, and sometimes in the caves: cf. Psalm 57 and 142. He twice saved Saul's life, for he would not allow his followers to slay the Lord's anointed. He could wait God's time for deliverance, yet, alas, his faith failed him, and at length he said in his heart, "I shall now perish one day by the hand of Saul," 1 Samuel 27:1 , and he fled to the Philistines: strange place for David! The Philistines prepared for war with Israel, and apparently David would have joined them, but he was prevented by some of the lords of the Philistines objecting to him, and he was sent back. In this the providential hand of God was seen. But chastisement from the Lord had fallen upon him, for the Amalekites had smitten Ziklag and carried off his family and those of his followers. Recourse was had to God, who never forsook David, and He graciously answered, and told him to pursue. All was recovered, and David was able to send presents of the spoil to his friends. Both Saul and Jonathan were slain in the contest that followed.
David now went up with his followers to Hebron, and the throne being vacant, the men of Judah came and anointed him king over their tribe. Ish-bosheth, son of Saul, was afterwards chosen king by the other tribes. For a time there was continual war between the two houses, but David grew stronger and stronger, and Ish-bosheth weaker and weaker. After David had reigned seven years and six months at Hebron, Abner revolted from Ish-bosheth, who was soon after slain by two of his officers, and David was anointed king over all Israel. All was now changed for David; but, alas, the first thing recorded after getting possession of Zion is "David took more concubines and wives out of Jerusalem, after he had come from Hebron." 2 Samuel 5:13 .
Hiram king of Tyre sent messengers to David with timber and workmen, and a house was built for David. Psalm 30 would appear to have been indited on its dedication. It was God who had brought up his soul from the grave, had lifted him up and healed him.
Again and again David fought with the Philistines. He burned their idols, and smote them from Geba, to Gazer. He followed on to smite Moab; then extended his border to the river Euphrates, and put garrisons in Syria of Damascus; he smote of the Syrians in the valley of Salt 18,000. All they of Edom became David's servants: cf. Psalm 60 : written after one of these victories, when apparently it had been a hard time for them: but it is also prophetic of the future.
David's great thought, when established in the kingdom, was to find a resting place for the ark, to bring God into the midst of His people. He attempted to bring up the ark, but at first not in God's way, and Uzzah was smitten, which displeased David and made him afraid; but he learned better, and the ark was carried up on the shoulders of the Levites, with sacrifices and much rejoicing. David, girded with a linen ephod, danced before the ark, and as the anointed of God he blessed the people and distributed his good things. Nature in Michal thought it shameful; but David was ready to be 'more vile' and 'base' in his own eyes.
David thought to build a house to Jehovah, for the ark was only within curtains; but God's message by Nathan was that God would build David a house: his kingdom should be established for ever. David's son should build God a house: cf. Psalm 132 , and David's prayer in 2 Samuel 7:18-29 . David's heart went forth in thanksgiving, as he sat before the Lord. David showed grace to Mephibosheth, a descendant of Saul, and brought him to his table; typical of the grace that will in the futurebe shown to the remnant that own their Messiah. His kindness to the Gentile king of Ammon was refused and his messengers were insulted, which brought punishment upon the Ammonites and their allies.
David, now at his ease instead of fighting the Lord's battles, falls into great sin respecting Bath-sheba and Uriah. He had to hear that the sword should not depart from his house, and evil should rise against him in his own family. David confessed his sin, and was told at once that it had been put away; but God's government must be fulfilled, and the child should surely die. David, knowing how gracious God was, remained prostrate while the child lived, but the child died; and Absalom's rebellion followed: cf. Psalm 51 : for the exercises of David respecting his sin.
Sin followed in David's house: the defilement of Tamar, the murder of Amnon, and the flight of Absalom. On Absalom's return he ingratiated himself with the people and rebelled against his father. David fled from Jerusalem and toiled up Mount Olivet. Psalm 3 tells out his heart. He did not lose confidence in God: Jehovah was his shield: he lay down and slept, and awaked, for Jehovah sustained him. God was taking care of him, though he had to drink the cup of sorrow. The counsel of Ahithophel was disregarded, and David was saved. He bore the curses of Shimei, saying in his piety, "The Lord hath bidden him." David was deeply grieved at the death of Absalom, and had to be reasoned into submitting to what was seemly. He returned to Jerusalem and pardoned Shimei. The revolt of Sheba followed, and David feared it might be worse than that of Absalom; but by the wisdom of a woman Sheba alone was destroyed. There were still wars with the Philistines, in one of which David nearly lost his life: four giants were slain, and a song of thanksgiving was rendered to God. 2 Samuel 22 ; Psalm 18 .
In the last words of David he confessed that his house was not as it should be with God. He had signally failed in punishing sin in his family, especially in the case of Amnon and Absalom; yet he counted on the everlasting covenant that God had made with him, ordered in all things and sure . And he looked forward to that morning without clouds. The 'sure mercies of David' will reach Israel through Christ risen. Isaiah 55:3 : cf. Acts 13:34 .
David was tempted by Satan to number Israel: it was allowed of God, for his anger was kindled against Israel, though we are not told what was the occasion of it. The number was no sooner told to David than his heart smote him, and he confessed that he had sinned greatly. A choice of three punishments was offered to him, and he piously chose to be dealt with by God, for he knew His tender mercies were great, rather than to fall into the hands of his enemies. The pestilence broke forth, and 70,000 men fell, and as the angel was about to smite Jerusalem, Jehovah stayed his hand; and David erected an altar on the spot, and offered burnt offerings and peace offerings. The Lord was entreated for the land and the plague was stayed.
Though David was not allowed to build the temple, he made great preparations for it, with patterns or plans of the various parts, which he had by the Spirit, and he stored up abundance of silver, gold, and other materials. He also charged the princes to aid Solomon in the great work. David also arranged the details of the service, the priests, Levites, singers, etc. He established Solomon as his successor, and his work was done.
Only a few Psalms have been alluded to, those in which the circumstances of David are mentioned in the headings. The Psalms which bear his name were written by him, but only as an instrument; for it was by the Holy Spirit that they were indited: and thus are eminently prophetic. See PSALMS. Psalm 72 ends thus: "Blessed be the Lord God, the God of Israel, who only doeth wondrous things. And blessed be his glorious name for ever: and let the whole earth be filled with his glory. Amen and Amen. The prayers of David the son of Jesse are ended."
David is a remarkable type of Christ: when he was hunted by Saul, he foreshadowed Christ in His rejection; and when on the throne he was a type of Christ as a man of war, putting down His enemies previous to His peaceful reign in the millennium, typified in Solomon. The Lord Jesus is often called the Son of David, and yet He is David's Lord, about which fact He Himself asked the Jews. Luke 20:41-44 . In like manner He is called the root and the offspring of David, Revelation 22:16 : being God as well as man He could be both. He also has the key of David. Revelation 3:7 ; cf. Isaiah 22:22-24 . He has the disposal of all things for the church, for the future kingdom on earth, and for the nations generally.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - David, City of
1. 2 Samuel 5:7 : same as ZION,q.v.
2. BETHLEHEM, Luke 2:11 : so called because David was born there.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - David
David (dâ'vid), beloved. The great king of Israel. He was the eighth and youngest son of Jesse, of Bethlehem and of the tribe of Judah. Six of his brothers are named in Scripture, 1 Chronicles 2:13-15; of the other, we know only the fact of his existence, 1 Samuel 17:12; and it is needless to mention the conjectures which have been formed of him. David had also two sisters. 1 Chronicles 2:16-17. His mother's name is not recorded, unless, as some have believed, she was the Nahash of 2 Samuel 17:25. When the Lord, because of the ungodly conduct of Saul, had determined to choose another king, Samuel was directed to go to Bethlehem: and from the sons of Jesse anoint another as king over Israel. Dean Stanley thus describes David's appearance and physique as he stood before Samuel: "He was short of stature, had red hair and bright eyes. He was remarkable for the grace of his figure and countenance, well made, and of immense strength and agility. In swiftness and activity he could only be compared to a wild gazelle, with feet like harts' feet, with arms strong enough to break a bow of steel or bend a bow of brass." R. V. Psalms 18:33-34. Samuel anointed David "in the midst of his brethren," 1 Samuel 16:13; and the Spirit of God was from that day specially upon him. David returned to the care of his flocks. Such education as the times afforded he doubtless had, and God's law was his study. He had poetic genius, too; and music was his delight. When Saul, afflicted now with that black spirit of melancholy which his sins had justly brought upon him, might, it was thought, be soothed by a minstrel's music, David took his harp to the palace; and his music calmed Saul's distemper; and Saul was gratified and became attached to his skilful attendant. David was not indeed altogether removed from home. He went backwards and forwards, as the king's dark hour was upon him, and his services were needed. In 1 Samuel 16:21 it is said that Saul made David his armor-hearer. And this has puzzled commentators exceedingly. For it then would have been strange if neither Saul nor any one about his person had recognized David when he came, as we find in the next chapter, to accept Goliath's challenge. And so all sorts of devices have been contrived to get the history into chronological order; some imagining that the fight with the Philistine was before David was attached to Saul as the minstrel. David offers to engage Goliath; but Saul doubts whether the young man was equal to such a perilous encounter; and David of course makes no allusion to his having previously stood before the king. Had it come out then that he was but the minstrel, the discovery would have been enough to prevent his being allowed the combat: he tells, therefore, how he killed the lion and the bear; and his evident enthusiasm wrings a consent from Saul that he shall go to battle. Saul accordingly arms him—not with his own personal armor, as some have not very wisely supposed: the stalwart king would have known better than to encumber the stripling with his own coat of mail—but with weapons—plenty were no doubt in the royal tent—more suited to his size. With these, however, unaccustomed as he was to such harness (an additional proof that he had never yet been Saul's armor-bearer), David refuses to go. He will rather take his shepherd's sling, and choose him out pebbles from the brook. David was successful; the huge Philistine fell; and the Israelitish troops pealed out their shouts of victory. Then Abner was willing to appear as a patron, and took the conqueror to Saul. And, in answer to the king's query, David replies, "I am the son of thy servant Jesse the Bethlehemite, 1 Samuel 17:58, adopting the style by which he was first named to the king. 1 Samuel 16:18. He is now fully recognize! found both a skilful musician and a valiant soldier, and attains the position mentioned before. 2 Samuel 3:2-59. Saul loves him, and makes him his armor-bearer, and sends a second message to Jesse, 1 Samuel 16:22, which, if not explained in this way, would seem unnecessary. See 1 Samuel 16:19. David is now established in the king's favor: he is specially beloved by Jonathan; he is set over the men of war, 1 Samuel 18:5, perhaps made captain of the body-guard, and employed in various services the rest of the campaign; by which his popularity was increased. But the king's mind began ere long to change. The rejoicings at the re-establishment of peace provoked his jealousy. For the chief praise in the songs of the women was given to David. 1 Samuel 18:6-9. And speedily the evil spirit resumed his sway. David did not then refuse to take up again his harp; though once or twice the maddened king strove to kill him with his javelin, and, because he could no longer bear his constant presence, removed him from the body-guard to a separate command, l Sam. 18:13. After he had married Saul's younger daughter Michal, instead of the elder Merab, who had been promised him, Saul, further enraged by David's increasing credit with the nation, and understanding, it is likely, by this time, that the young Bethlehemite was the chosen of the Lord, to whom the kingdom was to be transferred, sent to arrest him in his house. By Michal's stratagem he escaped, and fled to Samuel at Naioth in Ramah. Hither, however, he was followed, 1 Samuel 19:1-24, and again he fled; his stay with Samuel, whom he had perhaps not seen since the anointing, being in all probability not longer than a day or two. Convinced by an interview with Jonathan that Saul's enmity was no mere transient passion, 1 Samuel 20:1-42, David went to Nob, where his duplicity cost the high priest his life, and thence to Achish, king of Gath, where, to escape the jealousy of the Philistines, he simulated madness. 1 Samuel 21:1-15. Returning into Judah, he gathered a band of men, and maintained himself sometimes in the wilderness, sometimes hiding in caves, sometimes occupying a town, as Keilah. His father and mother he had placed with the king of Moab, 1 Samuel 22:3; and he had now the presence of the prophet Gad. 1 Sara. 22:5. At Keilah, too, Abiathar, become high priest on his father's murder, joined him, 2 Samuel 12:1-31; 1 Samuel 23:4, and various warriors: eleven Gadite chiefs are particularly specified, and some of Judah and Benjamin. 1 Chronicles 12:8-18. To this period, belong the circumstances narrated in the concluding chapters of the first book of Samuel—the adventure with Nabal, and David's marriage with Abigail; his twice sparing Saul's life; perhaps the battle for the water of the well of Bethlehem, 1 Chronicles 11:15-19; and also the residence with Achish, who gave him Ziklag. David's conduct at this time cannot be justified. He laid waste the country of Philistine, allies, and pretended that he had destroyed only the tribes dependent upon Judah; and he joined Achish's army when marching to the battle of Gilboa. Here he was reinforced by some Manassites, 1 Chronicles 12:19-20, but was dismissed from the expedition through the renewed jealousy of the Philistine lords. He returned, therefore, to Ziklag, to find it plundered and burnt However, he recovered what was lost, and obtained greater spoil, which he politicly sent to his friends in Judah, and, on the news of Saul's defeat and death just after, he repaired, by God's direction, to Hebron, and was anointed king. 2 Samuel 2:2-4. He reigned as yet over only a part of the nation: for Abner established Ish-bosheth, Saul's son, on the west of the Jordan, and over Israel generally. But gradually the tribes were flocking to David, 1 Chronicles 12:23-40; and Saul's house was weakening as he was strengthened; till at length Abner himself came with a proposal to transfer to him the whole kingdom. 2 Samuel 3:1-39. But Abner was murdered by Joab, David's nephew and commander-in-chief, a man too powerful to be punished; and shortly after Ish-bosheth was assassinated by two of his officers; and then the nation was reunited; and David reigned over the kingdom of Israel; seven years and six months having elapsed since he had taken the crown of Judah. 2 Samuel 4:5. He was now "one of the great men of the earth." 2 Samuel 7:9. He consolidated his power at home, took Jerusalem and made it his capital, removing thither the ark of God, 2 Samuel 6:1-23, organized his army, 1 Chronicles 11:1-47, and regulated the services of the sanctuary, 15:16, enlarged his harem, 1618255464_73; 2 Samuel 5:13-16, opened commercial intercourse with the king of Tyre, 2 Samuel 5:11, and also extended his power abroad, subduing the Philistines, Syrians, Moabites, and Ammonites. His dominion was an empire, extending far as the large promise made originally to Abraham, and repeated again and again to the chosen people. Genesis 15:18-21; Exodus 23:31; Deuteronomy 11:24. He had lingered at Jerusalem, while Joab was besieging Rabbah of the children of Ammon. And then occurred those shameful deeds, the adultery with Bath-sheba, and the murder of Uriah, which at first, it seems, did not touch his conscience, but which, when charged home upon him by the prophet Nathan, humbled the guilty monarch in the dust. 2 Samuel 11:1-27; 1 Samuel 22:20. He repented deeply, see Psalms 51:1-19, which is ascribed to this period, and he obtained pardon by God's mercy. But he was not again the David of former days. The sword was never to depart from his house. 2 Samuel 12:10. And it never did. There was the defilement of Tamar, and the murder of his first-born Amnon, 2 Samuel 13:1-39; and then Absalom's unnatural rebellion and death, 2 Samuel 15:1-37; 2 Samuel 18:1-33; and Sheba's insurrection, 2 Samuel 20:1-26; and the plague for the numbering of the people, 2 Samuel 24:1-25; and Adonijah's seizure of the government, when the most long-tried counsellors of David deserted him, a movement that could be crushed only by the aged monarch's devolving his crown upon Solomon, 1 Kings 1:1-53; with various other griefs. He transmitted a magnificent heritage to Solomon, to whom he left the carrying out of that purpose he had long before conceived, 2 Samuel 7:1-29; 1 Chronicles 28:1-21; 1 Chronicles 29:1-30, of erecting a temple. David's character is clearly shown in the events of his life—whose strains of inspired song intertwine with all the devotional and joyful feelings of God's people in every age. The Psalms are a rich heritage to the church. Very many were from David's pen. And, though we cannot with precision point out all he wrote, or describe the times and circumstances under which those were penned that we know did come from him, yet we delight to couple particular compositions with various crises of David's life—as Psalms 42:1-11 with his flight across the Jordan in Absalom's rebellion; Psalms 24:1-10 with the bringing up of the ark to Jerusalem; Psalms 18:1-50 with David's deliverance from his enemies, and to see his emotions of praise, and hope, and repentance, and gratitude, and faith, at the wonderful dealings of God with him. Of the children of David many are mentioned in Scripture; and there were probably more; twenty-one sons are enumerated and one daughter. 2 Samuel 3:2-5; 2 Samuel 5:13-16; 2 Samuel 12:1-31; 2 Samuel 15:1-37; 2 Samuel 24:1-25; 1 Chronicles 3:1-9; 1 Chronicles 14:3-7; 2 Chronicles 11:18.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Baker, David Augustine
(1575-1641) Mystic and ascetical writer, born Abergavenny, England; died London. He became a Catholic, and later a Benedictine (1605), first, of the Cassinese Congregation in England, but afterward of the English Congregation. In collaboration with Father Jones and Father Clement Reyner, he published Apostolatus Benedictinorum in Anglia (Benedictine Apostolate in England). While spiritual director of a Benedictine convent of nuns at Cambrai (1624-1633), he wrote many ascetical treatises, an abstract of which is contained in his Sancta Sophia. In 1633 he removed to Douai, whence he proceeded to London, where he was subjected to persecution, and died of the plague.
New Catholic Dictionary
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - David
Beloved, the youngest son of Jesse, of the tribe of Judah, born in Bethlehem B. C. 1085; one of the most remarkable men in either sacred of secular history. His life is fully recorded in 1 Samuel 16:1 1 Kings 2:46 . He was "the Lord's anointed," chosen by God to be king of Israel instead of Saul, and consecrated to that office by the venerable prophet Samuel long before he actually came to the throne, 1 Samuel 16:1-13 , for which God prepared him by the gift of his Spirit, and a long course of vicissitudes and dangers. In his early pastoral life he distinguished himself by his boldness, fidelity, and faith in God; and while yet a youth was summoned to court, as one expert in music, valiant, prudent in behavior, and comely in person. He succeeded in relieving from time to time the mind of king Saul, oppressed by a spirit of melancholy and remorse, and became a favorite attendant; but on the breaking out of war with the Philistines he seems to have been released, and to have returned to take care of his father's flock. Providence soon led him to visit the camp, and gave to his noble valor and faith the victory over the giant champion Goliath. He returned to court crowned with honor, received a command in the army, acquitted himself well on all occasions, and rapidly gained the confidence and love of the people. The jealousy of Saul, however, at length drove him to seek refuge in the wilderness of Judea; where he soon gathered a band of six hundred men, whom he kept in perfect control and employed only against the enemies of the land. He was still pursued by Saul with implacable hostility; and as he would not lift his hand against his king, though he often had him in his power, he at length judged it best to retire into the land of the Philistines. Here he was generously received; but had found the difficulties of his position such as he could not honorably meet, when the death of Saul and Jonathon opened the way for him to the promised throne.
He was at once chosen king over the house of Judah, at Hebron; and after about seven years of hostilities was unanimously chosen king by all the tribes of Israel, and established himself at Jerusalem-the founder of a royal family which continued till the downfall of the Jewish state. His character as a monarch is remarkable for fidelity to God, and to the great purposes for which he was called to so responsible a position. The ark of God he conveyed to the Holy City with the highest demonstrations of honor and of joy. The ordinances of worship were remodeled and provided for with the greatest care. He administered justice to the people with impartiality, and gave a strong impulse to the general prosperity of the nation. His wisdom and energy consolidated the Jewish kingdom; and his warlike skill enabled him not only to resist with success the assaults of invaders, but to extend the bounds of the kingdom over the whole territory promised in prophecy-from the Red sea and Egypt to the Euphrates, Genesis 15:18 Joshua 1:3 . With the spoils he took in war he enriched his people, and provided abundant materials for the magnificent temple he purposed to build in honor of Jehovah, but which it was Solomon a privilege to erect.
David did not wholly escape the demoralizing influences of prosperity and unrestricted power. His temptations were numerous and strong; and though his general course was in striking contrast with that of the kings around him, he fell into grievous sins. Like others in those days, he had embittered by the evil results of polygamy. His crimes in the case of Uriah and Bathsheba were heinous indeed; but on awaking from his dream of folly, he repented in dust and ashes, meekly submitted to reproof and punishment, and sought and found mercy from God. Thenceforth frequent afflictions reminded him to be humble and self-distrustful. There were discords, profligacy, and murder in his own household. The histories of Tamar, Amnon, and Absalom show what anguish must have rent their father's heart. The rebellions of Absalom, Sheba, and Adonijah, the famine and plague that afflicted his people, the crimes of Joab, etc., led him to cry out, "O that I had wings, like a dove; then would I fly away, and be at rest." Yet his trials bore good fruit. His firmness and decision of character, his humility, nobleness, and piety shine in his last acts, on the occasion of Adonijah's rebellion. His charge to Solomon respecting the forfeited lives of Joab and Shimei, was the voice of justice and not of revenge. His preparations for the building of the temple, and the public service in which he devoted all to Jehovah, and called on all the people to bless the Lord God of their fathers, crown with singular beauty and glory the life of this eminent servant of God. After a reign of forty years, he died at the age of seventy-one.
The mental abilities and acquirements of David were of a high order; his general conduct was marked by generosity, integrity, fortitude, activity, and perseverance; and his religious character eminently adorned by sincere, fervent, and exalted piety. He was statesman, warrior, and poet all in one. In his Psalms he frankly reveals his whole heart. They are inspired poems, containing many prophetic passages, and wonderfully fitted to guide the devotions of the people of God so long as he has a church on earth. Though first sung by Hebrew tongues in the vales of Bethlehem and on the heights of Zion, they sound as sweetly in languages then unknown, and are dear to Christian hearts all around the world. In introducing them into the temple service, David added an important and edification to the former ritual.
In his kingly character, David was a remarkable type of Christ; and his conquests foreshadowed those of Christ's kingdom. His royal race was spiritually revived in the person of our Savior, who was descended from him after the flesh, and who is therefore called "the Son of David," and is said to sit upon his throne.
Holman Bible Dictionary - City of David
In the Old Testament, the phrase “the city of David” refers to Jerusalem. The name was given to the fortified city of the Jebusites after it was captured by David (2 Samuel 5:6-10 ). Its original reference may have been only to the southeastern hill and the Jebusites' military fortress there. In Luke 2:4 ,Luke 2:4,2:11 the reference is to Bethlehem, the birth place of David (see John 7:42 ). See Jerusalem ; Zion .
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Root of David
Title of Christ in Apocalypse 5,22, where the word "offspring" is added to make its meaning clearer. It is borrowed from Isaias 11 where it designates the future Messias. "As the Prophet foresaw, the stump of the old tree of the House of David sent forth a new David to rule the nations."
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - David
DAVID
For the student of the Gospels the most important OT passage concerning David is 2 Samuel 7. David expressed to Nathan a strong desire to build a temple for Jehovah in his new capital, a wish indicative of worldly wisdom as well as piety on the part of the king. Jehovah denies David’s request, but promises to build for him an everlasting house, a dynasty without end. David’s throne is to stand for ever. Psalms 2, 110 are founded on this notable promise, and the author of Psalms 89 in a far later time, when David’s throne had been overturned by the heathen, reminds Jehovah of His ancient promise, and pleads earnestly for the speedy passing of His wrath. The early prophets, Amos (Amos 9:11), Hosea (Hosea 3:5), Isaiah (Isaiah 9:7; Isaiah 16:5; Isaiah 37:35), unite with the author of Kings (1 Kings 2:45; 1 Kings 6:12 etc.) in the expectation that the promise made to David in 2 Samuel 7 will not fail. The prophetic hopes for the future of Israel spring from Nathan’s message as branches from the trunk that gives them life. Jeremiah (Jeremiah 23:5 f., Jeremiah 33:15 ff.) carries forward the work of his predecessors of the 8th cent. b.c., asserting the perpetuity of David’s dynasty in most emphatic terms. Ezekiel (Ezekiel 34:23 f., Ezekiel 37:24 f.) cheers the discouraged exiles with the picture of a glorious restoration of the throne of David. The great ruler of the future will be a second David. In the period after the return from Babylon, the author of the last section of Zechariah (Zechariah 12:7 to Zechariah 13:1) describes the glories of the coming time in connexion with the Davidic dynasty: ‘The house of David shall be as God, as the angel of Jehovah before them.’ The Messianic hope in the inter-Biblical period, like that of the OT, attached itself to David. The author of Ecclesiasticus (Sirach 47:11) reminds his readers that the Lord exalted David’s horn for ever, entering into a covenant and promising him a throne of glory in Israel. About a century later the author of 1 Mac. (2:57) says, ‘David for heing merciful inherited the throne of a kingdom for ever and ever.’ Most important for the student of the Gospel history is Psalms 17 of the Psalms of Solomon, a collection of patriotic hymns belonging to the period immediately following Pompey’s capture of Jerusalem (63–48 b.c.). Psalms 17 is a notable Messianic prophecy, prayer and prediction being freely inter-mingled after the fashion of the OT prophets and poets. The Messianic King is to be David’s son (Psalms 17:4). Jehovah Himself is Israel’s King for ever and ever (Psalms 17:1); but the Son of David is His chosen to overthrow the heathen, and institute a righteous reign in Israel (17:30, 42f.).
The four Evangelists unite in the view that the Messiah was to come from the seed of David (Matthew 1:1, Mark 10:47, Luke 2:4, John 7:42). ‘The Son of David’ was synonymous in the time of our Lord’s earthly ministry with ‘Messiah’ or ‘Christ.’ Both the scribes and the common people held this view. When the children cried in the temple, ‘Hosanna to the Son of David’ (Matthew 21:15), both the rulers and the multitude looked upon the words as a distinct recognition of the Messiahship of Jesus. The Epistles (Romans 1:3, 2 Timothy 2:8) and the Revelation (Revelation 5:5; Revelation 22:16) concur in calling attention to the Davidic origin of Jesus. The interest of NT writers in David is confined almost exclusively to his relation to our Lord Jesus as His ancestor and type.
Jesus refers to one incident in the life of David in reply to the accusation of His enemies as to His observance of the Sabbath (Mark 2:25, cf. 1 Samuel 21:1-6). This incident is said to have taken place ‘when Abiathar was high priest.’ [1]
During the week preceding our Lord’s crucifixion, perhaps on Tuesday, He asked the Pharisees a question which put them to silence and confusion. Having drawn from them a statement of their belief that the Christ would be the son of David, He at once quoted David’s words in Psalms 110:1 to show that the Messiah would also be David’s Lord (Matthew 22:41 ||). Jesus wished to show His foes and the multitude that the orthodox view of the time overlooked the exalted dignity of the Messiah. He was to be far greater than David, for He was his Lord. See, further, Broadus on Mt. ad loc., and, for the meaning of ‘David’ and ‘Moses’ in our Lord’s citations from the OT, art. Moses.
Literature.—Gore, BL [2] 196ff.; Gould, ‘St. Mark,’ and Plummer, ‘St. Luke,’ in Internal. Crit. Com. in loc.; Expos. Times, iii. [3] 292 ff., viii. [4] 365 ff.; Expositor, v. iii. [5] 445 ff.
John R. Sampey.
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - David
From humble beginnings as the youngest son of a Bethlehem shepherd named Jesse, David rose to become Israel’s greatest king. He established a dynasty out of which, according to God’s plan, came the great Messiah, the son of David, who was Jesus Christ, Saviour of the world (1 Samuel 16:1; 1 Samuel 16:11; 2 Samuel 5:3-4; 2 Samuel 5:12; Isaiah 9:7; Luke 1:32-33; Luke 2:11).
Early progress
After the failure of Saul as king, God directed Samuel to the young man David, whom Samuel marked out to be Israel’s next king (1 Samuel 13:14; 1 Samuel 15:28; 1 Samuel 16:11-14). Many years passed before David became king, and during those years he steadily matured in mind and body. He became skilled in speech, writing and music, and grew into a brave fighter through having to defend his flocks against wild animals and raiding Philistines (1 Samuel 16:18; 1 Samuel 17:34-36; cf. Psalms 23).
David’s introduction to Saul’s court was as one whose music relaxed the king’s troubled nerves (1 Samuel 16:16). After his victory over the Philistines’ champion fighter, he became Saul’s armour-bearer and full-time court musician (1 Samuel 16:21; 1 Samuel 17:50; 1 Samuel 18:2). At this time a close friendship began to develop between David and Saul’s son Jonathan. It lasted many years, and was ended only by Jonathan’s tragic death in battle (1 Samuel 18:1; see JONATHAN). David’s successes in battle won him promotion, but further successes and growing popularity so stirred up Saul’s jealousy against him that Saul tried to kill him (1 Samuel 18:5-11).
By this time David had no doubt begun the psalm-writing activity for which he is well known. The biblical book of Psalms contains many of the songs and poems he wrote during his long and eventful career. In these writings David gives his personal views of many of the incidents that another writer records in the books of 1 and 2 Samuel (see PSALMS, BOOK OF).
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Abigail - (9th century BCE) Appeased David after her husband Nabal had angered him, stopping David from killing Nabal. After Nabal's death, David married Abigail
Ziba - When David desired to show kindness to surviving members of Jonathan's family, Ziba directed David to Mephibosheth (2 Samuel 9:1-8 ). David placed Ziba in charge of Mephibosheth's restored property (2 Samuel 9:9-13 ). During Absalom's rebelliion, Ziba assisted David with supplies and (falsely) accused Mephibosheth of treason (2 Samuel 16:1-4 ). David rewarded Ziba with Mephibosheth's property. Mephibosheth met David on his return to power in Jerusalem and accused Ziba of deception (2 Samuel 19:24-29 ). David, either uncertain whom to believe or else desiring to leave no strong rivals, divided Saul's property between Ziba and Mephibosheth
Michal - When Michal, the younger daughter of King Saul, fell in love with David, Saul promised her to David as wife, provided David could kill one hundred Philistines as the bride-price. Saul, being jealous of David, hoped David would be killed in the attempt, but David was spectacularly successful (1 Samuel 18:20-27). ...
Not long after the marriage, Saul laid a plot to kill David in David’s house, but Michal’s quick thinking saved him (1 Samuel 19:11-17). When David was forced to flee from Saul, Saul took Michal and gave her as wife to another man, Paltiel (1 Samuel 25:44). ...
After Saul died, David came out of hiding and was proclaimed king, though some of Saul’s former followers disputed his right to the throne. David then forced Michal’s return to him as his wife. There seems to have been no revival of Michal’s original love for David
Joab - ” Military commander during most of David's reign. He was the oldest son of Zeruiah, the sister of David (2 Samuel 2:13 ; 1 Chronicles 2:16 ). He was loyal to David and ruthless in achieving his objectives. After Saul's death, David was negotiating with Abner, Saul's military commander. David publicly lamented this assassination (2 Samuel 2-3 ). Joab's exploits in the capture of Jerusalem led David to name him commander (1 Chronicles 11:4-8 ). Joab successfully led David's armies against the Ammonites (2 Samuel 10:1 ). During this campaign David sent his infamous order to have Uriah, the husband of Bathsheba, killed (2 Samuel 11:1 ). ...
Joab was instrumental in the reconciliation of David and Absalom (2 Samuel 14:1 ). When Absalom led a rebellion, Joab remained loyal to David. Joab killed Absalom against the clear orders of David (2 Samuel 18:14 ). He also convinced David to end his obsessive grieving for Absalom (2 Samuel 19:4-8 ). Joab murdered Amasa, whom David had named commander (2 Samuel 20:10 ). He opposed David's plan for a census, but carried it out when ordered to do so (2 Samuel 24:1-9 ). ...
When David was dying, Joab supported Adonijah's claim to the throne (1 Kings 1:1 ). David named Solomon king and told him to avenge Abner and Amasa by killing Joab
Nitzevet bat adel - (mother of King David): (c. 10th century BCE) Wife of Jesse and mother of King David
Gad (2) - The "seer" of king David (1 Chronicles 29:29). "The acts of David" were recorded "in the book of Gad the seer. " He joined David while in "the hold," having probably first become acquainted with David in the latter's visits to Samuel and the schools of the prophets, and by his advice David left it for the forest of Hareth (1 Samuel 22:5). At the numbering of the people Gad was Jehovah's monitor to David (2 Samuel 24:11-19; 1 Chronicles 21:9)
David - David was pictured as the ideal king of God's people. David's good looks were noteworthy. ...
In Saul's Court David's musical talent, combined with his reputation as a fighter, led one of Saul's servants to recommend David as the person to play the harp for Saul when the evil spirit from God troubled him (1 Samuel 16:18 ). Saul grew to love David and made him armorbearer for the king (1 Samuel 16:21-22 ). David returned home to tend his father's sheep (1 Samuel 17:15 ). Jesse sent David to the battlefield with food for his warrior brothers. Saul tried to persuade David, the youth, from challenging Goliath; but David insisted God would bring victory, which He did. ...
Saul's son Jonathan became David's closest friend (1 Samuel 18:1 ). David became a permanent part of Saul's court, not returning home (1 Samuel 18:2 ). Saul gave David a military commission, which he fulfilled beyond expectations, defeating the Philistines and winning the hearts of the people. Moved by the evil spirit from God, Saul tried to kill David with his spear; but God's presence protected David (1 Samuel 18:10-12 ). David eventually earned the right to marry Michal, Saul's daughter, without being killed by the Philistines as Saul had hoped (1 Samuel 18:17-27 ). With the help of Michal and Jonathan, David escaped from Saul and made contact with Samuel, the prophet (1 Samuel 19:18 ). Jonathan and David made a vow of eternal friendship, and Jonathan risked his own life to protect David (1 Samuel 20:1 ). ...
Independent Warrior David gathered a band of impoverished and discontented people around him. God protected David, and David refused to injure Saul, instead promising not to cut off Saul's family (1 Samuel 24:21-22 ). ...
Abigail of Maon intervened with David to prevent him from punishing her foolish husband Nabal. God brought Nabal's death, and David married Abigail. He also married Ahinoam of Jezreel, but Saul gave Michal, David's first wife, to another man (1 Samuel 25:1 ). ...
After again refusing to kill Saul, the Lord's anointed, David attached himself to Achish, the Philistine king of Gath. Achish gave Ziklag to David, who established a headquarters there and began destroying Israel's southern neighbors (1 Samuel 27:1 ). Despite the wishes of Achish, the other Philistine leaders would not let David join them in battle against Saul (1 Samuel 29:1 ). Returning home, David found the Amalekites had destroyed Ziklag and captured his wives. David followed God's leading and defeated the celebrating Amalekites, recovering all the spoils of war. ...
King of Judah Hearing of the deaths of Saul and Jonathan, David avenged the murderer of Saul and sang a lament over the fallen (2 Samuel 1:1 ). David did the same to them (2 Samuel 4:1 ). ...
King of Israel The northern tribes then crowned David king at Hebron, uniting all Israel under him. After defeating the Philistines, David sought to move the ark of the covenant to Jerusalem, succeeding on his second attempt (2 Samuel 6:1 ). ...
David then organized his administration and subdued other nations who opposed him, finally gaining control of the land God had originally promised the forefathers. ...
A Sinner David was a giant among godly leaders, but he remained human as his sin with Bathsheba and Uriah showed. Nathan, the prophet, confronted David with his sin, and David confessed his wrongdoing. The newborn child of David and Bathsheba died. David acknowledged his helplessness in the situation, confessing faith that he would go to be with the child one day. ...
Family Intrigue Able to rule the people but not his family, David saw intrigue, sexual sins, and murder rock his own household, resulting in his isolation from and eventual retreat before Absalom. Still, David grieved long and deep when his army killed Absalom (2 Samuel 18:19-33 ). David's kingdom was restored, but the hints of division between Judah and Israel remained (2 Samuel 19:40-43 ). David had to put down a northern revolt (2 Samuel 20:1 ). The last act the Books of Samuel report about David is his census of the people, bringing God's anger but also preparing a place for the Temple to be built (2 Samuel 24:1 ). The last chapters of 1Chronicles describe extensive preparations David made for the building and the worship services of the Temple. David's final days involved renewed intrigue among his family, as Adonijah sought to inherit his father's throne, but Nathan and Bathsheba worked to insure Solomon became the next king (1 Kings 1:1;b12:12 ). ...
Prophetic Hope David thus passed from the historical scene but left a legacy never to be forgotten. David was the “man of God” (2 Chronicles 8:14 ), and God was “the God of David thy father” (2 Kings 20:5 ). God's covenant with David was the deciding factor as God wrestled with David's disobedient successors on the throne (2 Chronicles 21:7 ). Even as Israel rebuilt the Temple, they followed “the ordinance of David king of Israel (Ezra 3:10 ). ...
God's prophets pointed to a future David who would restore Israel's fortunes. “Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgment and with justice from henceforth even forever” (Isaiah 9:7 ). Jeremiah summed up the surety of the hope in David: “If ye can break my covenant of the day, and my covenant of the night, and that there should not be day and night in their season; Then may also my covenant be broken with David my servant, that he should not have a son to reign upon his throne As the host of heaven cannot be numbered, neither the sand of the sea measured: so will I multiply the seed of David my servant” (Jeremiah 33:20-22 ). ...
In the New Testament The New Testament tells the story of Jesus as the story of the Son of God but also as the story of the Son of David from His birth (Matthew 1:1 ) until His final coming (Revelation 22:16 ). At least twelve times the Gospels refer to Him as “Son of David. ” David was cited as an example of similar behavior by Jesus (Matthew 12:3 ); and David called Him, “Lord” (Luke 20:42-44 ). David thus took his place in the roll call of faith (Hebrews 11:32 ). This was “David the son of Jesse, a man after mine own heart, which shall fulfill all my will” (Acts 13:22 )
Ahinoam - Wife of David from Jezreel (1 Samuel 25:43 ) who lived with him under the Philistines at Gath (1 Samuel 27:3 ). When she and Abigail, David's other wife, were captured by the Amalekites, the people threatened to stone David. David followed God's word, defeated the Amalekites, and recovered his wives and the other captives (1 Samuel 30:1-20 ). Ahinoam then moved to Hebron with David, where the people crowned him king (2 Samuel 2:2-4 ). She gave David his first son, Amnon (2 Samuel 3:2 )
Zoba(h) - ” First Saul (1 Samuel 14:47 ), then David (2 Samuel 8:3 ) fought the kings of Zobah. At one time, the Ammonites hired mercenaries from Zoba (2 Samuel 10:6 ) to help them fight David. The Ammonites came from the South while the Zobaites came from the North causing David to fight on two fronts. David won, and the people of Zobah served him (2 Samuel 10:13-19 ). See David ; Syria
Michal - (David's wife): (a) (9th century BCE) Daughter of King Saul, her hand in marriage was given to David after he killed Goliath. While David was fleeing Saul’s wrath, Michal was wedded to Paltiel ben Laish. After established his kingship, David brought her back to his home
Abner - Commander of Saul's army and for a time enemy of David, afterwards reconciled, but treacherously slain by David's commander Joab, David bewailed his death
Abishai - ) Nephew of David by his sister Zeruiah; brother of Joab and Asahel. Joab was more of the experienced general, Abishai the devoted champion for David. Thus, when David proposed to Ahimelech the Hittite and Abishai the perilous visit to Saul's camp, Abishai instantly volunteered, reckless of personal danger. His impulsive nature needed occasional checking, in his zeal for David. We find the consistency of character maintained throughout the history; the same spirit prompting the request at Hachilah," Let me smite Saul" (1 Samuel 26:8), as subsequently at Bahurim, when Shimei cursed David, prompted his exclamation "Why should this dead dog curse my Lord the king? let me take off his head" (2 Samuel 16:9). ...
He commanded one third of David's army at the battle with Absalom (2 Samuel 18), and rescued David when waxing faint and in imminent peril from the giant Ishbi-benob (2 Samuel 21:15-17). In the same war probably he, as chief of the three "mighties," chivalrously broke through the Philistine host to procure water for David from the well of his native Bethlehem (2 Samuel 23:14-17). In 2 Samuel 8:13 the victory over the 15,000 Edomites or Syrians in the Valley of Salt is ascribed to David; in 1 Chronicles 18:12, to Abishai. Probably the commander in chief was David, but the victory actually gained by Abishai
Jesse - (meaning uncertain; rich; powerful; my present) ...
Grandson of Booz and Ruth, father of King David. He was an old man, when Samuel came to Bethlehem to anoint David, the new King of Israel (1 Kings 16). In the time of Saul, the family of Jesse occupied a humble condition; for David calls himself poor and unimportant (1 Kings 18). As descendant of David the Messias is called the "root of Jesse" (Isaias 11)
Tamar - Tamar, Daughter of David: (9th century BCE) Daughter of David, sister of Absalom. Absalom killed Amnon to avenge his sister's honor, creating a rift between David and Absalom. After Onan, too, she seduced Judah and bore him twin sons, Zerach and Peretz (progenitor of King David)
Abigail - The Carmelitess who became the wife of David after the death of her churlish husband Nabal. This gracious woman humbled herself, confessed the 'iniquity' of her husband, and appeased David. She showed wonderful faith in recognising the counsels of God as resting upon David, and called him 'lord' whilst in rejection and being hunted by Saul. By Abigail David had a son named Chileab 2 Samuel 3:3 ; but called Daniel in 1 Chronicles 3:1 . A sister or half sister of David: she was the mother of Amasa by a man named Ithra or Jether, described both as an Israelite and an Ishmeelite
Bathsheba - David took many wives for himself (2 Samuel 3:2-5; 2 Samuel 3:14), but the circumstances surrounding his taking of Bathsheba brought him trouble for the rest of his life. While her husband Uriah was out fighting battles for David (he was one of David’s leading soldiers; 2 Samuel 11:3; 2 Samuel 23:39), David made love to her and she became pregnant (2 Samuel 11:2-5). ...
Nathan the prophet condemned David for murder and adultery, assuring David that his own family would be torn apart by murder and adultery (2 Samuel 12:1-12). David repented of his sin (2 Samuel 12:13; Psalms 51), but God’s forgiveness did not remove the evil example that David had already set before his family. ...
The child born to David and Bathsheba died (2 Samuel 12:14-23), but later they had another son, Solomon (2 Samuel 12:24). This son was the one chosen by God to succeed David as king (1 Chronicles 22:9-10). In David’s closing years another son, Adonijah, tried to outdo Solomon in their claims for the throne, but Bathsheba’s influence ensured that Solomon became king (1 Kings 1:11-31)
Sela-Hammahlekoth - of Judah, in the wilderness of Maon, where David was on one side of the mountain, Saul on the other. A message announcing a Philistine invasion caused "divisions" in Saul's mind, whether to pursue David still or go after the invaders. David narrowly escaped
Nathan - Prophet in royal court during reign of David and early years of Solomon. David consulted Nathan about building a Temple. That night the Lord spoke to Nathan with instructions for David that his successor would build the Temple. Nathan included the words of the Lord that David would have a house, a great name, and a kingdom forever. David responded with gratitude to the Lord (2 Samuel 7:1 ; 1 Chronicles 17:1 ). ...
David committed adultery with Bathsheba and had her husband, Uriah, slain in battle. David said the rich man should die. ” David repented, but his first child born to Bathsheba died (2 Samuel 11-12 ). ...
Adonijah tried unsuccessfully to become king in the closing days of David's life. Nathan, along with Zadok, the priest, Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, Shimei, Rei, and David's mighty men, opposed Adonijah. Bathsheba and Nathan spoke to David about an earlier decision to appoint Solomon as the next king. David declared Solomon to be king (1 Kings 1:5-53 ). ...
Later references indicate that Nathan wrote the chronicles for David (1 Chronicles 29:29 ) and a history of Solomon (2 Chronicles 9:29 ). Nathan advised David in arranging the musical instruments played by the Levites (2 Chronicles 29:25 ). See Books; David ; Prophets. See David ; Solomon ; Bathsheba . Son of David, born in Jerusalem (2 Samuel 5:14 ; 1 Chronicles 14:4 ). Nathan of Zobah, father of Igal, one of David's mighty men (2 Samuel 23:36 ). He may be the same as Nathan the brother of Joel (1 Chronicles 11:38 ), within another list of David's mighty men
Uriah the hitite - As per King David�s orders, he was killed in a battle against the Ammonites. David was rebuked and punished for this act
Shaphat - A descendant of David, 1 Chronicles 3:22 . A chief herdsmen of David in Bashan, 1 Chronicles 27:29
Bathsheba - She was a beautiful woman with whom David the king had an adulterous relationship (2 Samuel 11:4 ). When David learned that she had become pregnant as a result of the intrigue, he embarked on a course of duplicity that led finally to the violent death of Uriah. David then took Bathsheba as his wife. See David
Jaasiel - Leader of tribe of Benjamin under David, apparently in charge of census in his tribe when David numbered the people (1 Chronicles 27:21 ). His father Abner may be Saul's general who became David's general. Army hero under David whose home town was Zobah (1 Chronicles 11:47 )
Azarael, Azareel - One who resorted to David at Ziklag. One in the service of song in the time of David. Danite ruler in the time of David
Absalom - (Hebrew: father of peace) ...
Beloved son of David, renowned for personal beauty (2 Kings 13-18). Ambitious to attain the throne, he afterwards plotted against David; pursued by the royal forces, he was caught by his hair to the branches of a tree and there slain. David was inconsolable when he heard of his death
Nathan -
A prophet in the reigns of David and Solomon (2 Chronicles 9:29 ). He is first spoken of in connection with the arrangements David made for the building of the temple (2 Samuel 7:2,3,17 ), and next appears as the reprover of David on account of his sin with Bathsheba (12:1-14). He last appears in assisting David in reorganizing the public worship (2 Chronicles 29:25 ). He seems to have written a life of David, and also a life of Solomon (1 Chronicles 29:29 ; 2 Chronicles 9:29 ). ...
...
A son of David, by Bathsheba (2 Samuel 5:14 ), whose name appears in the genealogy of Mary, the mother of our Lord (Luke 3:31 )
Jesse Window - Favorite subject of the glass painters of 12th to 16th centuries, was the representation of the genealogical tree springing from Jesse, father of David, with figures of David and others down to Christ
Window, Jesse - Favorite subject of the glass painters of 12th to 16th centuries, was the representation of the genealogical tree springing from Jesse, father of David, with figures of David and others down to Christ
Ezel - ) Near Saul's house, the scene of David and Jonathan's parting (1 Samuel 20:19). " Smith's Bible Dictionary reads, "David arose from close to the stone heap" ('argob for negeb ; so Septuagint). , in relation to Jonathan's position; accordingly David next flees southward, to Nob
Hadadezer - He was defeated by David with great loss, and driven across the Euphrates. David took much spoil and the shields of gold he dedicated to the Lord. Hadadezer was also again totally defeated by David
David, City of - The most ancient part of Jerusalem on its southeast corner representing the city occupied by the Jebusites and conquered by David (2 Samuel 5:7 ). ...
David moved the ark of the covenant into the city of David (2 Samuel 6:12 ) and built houses in the city, including a place for the ark (1 Chronicles 15:1 ). David was buried there (1 Kings 2:10 ), establishing the burial place for all kings of Judah (1 Kings 11:43 ; 1 Kings 14:31 ; 1 Kings 15:8 ; 2 Kings 8:24 ; 2 Kings 9:28 ; 2 Kings 12:21 ; 2 Kings 14:20 ; 2Kings 15:7,2 Kings 15:38 ; 2 Kings 16:20 ). Solomon lived there until he built his own palace and the Temple outside the traditional city of David (1 Kings 3:1 ). At that time he moved the ark of the covenant from the city of David to the new Temple (1 Kings 8:1 ) and moved his wife to the new palace (1 Kings 9:24 ). ...
Both Hezekiah (2Chronicles 32:5,2 Chronicles 32:30 ) and Manasseh strengthened the defenses of the city of David, concerned especially with the water supply provided by the Gihon spring (2 Chronicles 33:14 ). ...
Nehemiah's day saw “stairs that go down from the city of David,” presumably to the rest of the city (Nehemiah 3:15 ; compare Nehemiah 12:37 ). Luke used “city of David” to refer to Bethlehem, where both David and Jesus were born (Luke 2:4 ,Luke 2:4,2:11 )
Jonathan - ...
When David became a member of Saul’s court and then of his army, he and Jonathan became close friends (1 Samuel 18:1-4). David’s victories stirred up Saul’s jealousy and hatred, but Jonathan defended him and intervened on his behalf. He successfully pleaded with his father to stop trying to kill David (1 Samuel 19:1-7). ...
Unknown to Jonathan, Saul renewed his attacks on David (1 Samuel 19:8-11). When Jonathan heard about this, he determined to find out Saul’s real intentions towards David (1 Samuel 20:1-23). Unlike his father, Jonathan showed no jealousy of David, even when his father reminded him that David was a threat to his own chances of becoming king (1 Samuel 20:30-34). ...
Jonathan helped David escape, but neither he nor David plotted against the king. Their sole purpose was to save David’s life. While remaining loyal to the king, Jonathan reassured David that nothing could change the relationship between them. He knew that David would be the next king, and he would be happy to serve under him as chief minister (1 Samuel 23:16-18). David’s love for him is seen in the song of remembrance he wrote after his friend’s premature death (1 Samuel 31:2; 2 Samuel 1:17-27)
Abigail - Wife of David after being wife of Nabal. Nabal held a feast for his sheep shearers while David was hiding from Saul in the wilderness of Paran. David and his six hundred men were camped near the town of Maon. Nabal, in a drunken state, refused the request and insulted David's ten messengers. In anger, David determined to kill all of Nabal's household. Abigail anticipated David's reaction and loaded a convoy of donkeys with food to feed all of David's men. As soon as she met David, she impressed him with her beauty, humility, praise, and advice (1 Samuel 25:32-33 ). After Nabal became sober and heard about David's plans to kill him, he had a heart attack. Following Nabal's death, David married Abigail, the second of his eight wives. Later, Abigail was taken captive by the Amalekites when they captured Ziklag, but David rescued her (1 Samuel 30:1-18 ). Sister of David and the mother of Amasa (1 Chronicles 2:16-17 ), married to Jether, an Ishmaelite (also called Ithra). Amasa, her son, was at one time the commander of David's army (2 Samuel 17:25 ). See David
David - ' David was the son of Jesse, a descendant of Boaz and Ruth, a Jew and a Gentile: both Jews and Gentiles are to be blessed in the Christ whom David typified. David was anointed when in humility, 'keeping the sheep. Christ was the true Messiah, whom David prefigured, being anointed at His baptism by the Holy Spirit before entering on His service toward Israel. David's spirit was stirred within him when he heard the boasting of Goliath against the God of Israel, and he then told how in secret he had protected the sheep and had slain the lion and the bear: in the name of God the giant would also be overcome. ...
The women's song in praise of David raised the jealousy of Saul, who had more sense of his own importance than care for the Lord's people. He gave his daughter Michal to be David's wife, and thought thus to entrap him; but his wife became his deliverer. Though the Psalms show the experiences of David's inner man, it must not be forgotten that they are prophetic, and his language is often that of the remnant of Israel in the future, and sometimes that of Christ. ...
The love of Jonathan and David is beautiful, but Jonathan could not protect David from the hatred of Saul, and David resorted to the priest, who gave him the hallowed bread. David would bless the Lord at all times: he cried, and the Lord heard him; but the psalm is manifestly prophetic of Christ: see Psalm 34:20 and others. David escaped to the cave of Adullam, and his brethren and his father's house went to him, also those in distress, and those in debt, and the discontented; the prophet Gad was with him, and soon afterwards Abiathar the priest. But the enemy was not inactive, Doeg the Edomite informed Saul of how Ahimelech the priest had helped David, which led Saul to employ even Doeg to slay the family of Ahimelech. It must be remembered that the circumstances through which David passed are used by the prophetic Spirit to develop the experiences in the conflict between good and evil, which are to culminate in final deliverance and glory. ...
When the Philistines attacked and robbed the Israelites, David inquired of the Lord, and smote them with great slaughter. It is beautiful to see how David could inquire of God and receive an immediate answer. He was obliged to wander elsewhere, but Jonathan met him in a wood and encouraged him, assuring David that he knew he would surely be king; and there they made a covenant together: cf. ...
When Nabal had repulsed David's messengers Abigail brought a present, and rehearsed what God would do for David, and appeased his wrath. God smote Nabal, and Abigail became David's wife. Now the Ziphites or Ziphim engaged to aid Saul to capture David. This called forth Psalm 54 , in which David cries earnestly to be saved: strangers had risen up against him; but his faith could say that God had delivered him out of all trouble. David must wander hither and thither, sometimes in the wilderness, sometimes in the mountains, and sometimes in the caves: cf. He could wait God's time for deliverance, yet, alas, his faith failed him, and at length he said in his heart, "I shall now perish one day by the hand of Saul," 1 Samuel 27:1 , and he fled to the Philistines: strange place for David! The Philistines prepared for war with Israel, and apparently David would have joined them, but he was prevented by some of the lords of the Philistines objecting to him, and he was sent back. Recourse was had to God, who never forsook David, and He graciously answered, and told him to pursue. All was recovered, and David was able to send presents of the spoil to his friends. ...
David now went up with his followers to Hebron, and the throne being vacant, the men of Judah came and anointed him king over their tribe. For a time there was continual war between the two houses, but David grew stronger and stronger, and Ish-bosheth weaker and weaker. After David had reigned seven years and six months at Hebron, Abner revolted from Ish-bosheth, who was soon after slain by two of his officers, and David was anointed king over all Israel. All was now changed for David; but, alas, the first thing recorded after getting possession of Zion is "David took more concubines and wives out of Jerusalem, after he had come from Hebron. ...
Hiram king of Tyre sent messengers to David with timber and workmen, and a house was built for David. ...
Again and again David fought with the Philistines. All they of Edom became David's servants: cf. ...
David's great thought, when established in the kingdom, was to find a resting place for the ark, to bring God into the midst of His people. He attempted to bring up the ark, but at first not in God's way, and Uzzah was smitten, which displeased David and made him afraid; but he learned better, and the ark was carried up on the shoulders of the Levites, with sacrifices and much rejoicing. David, girded with a linen ephod, danced before the ark, and as the anointed of God he blessed the people and distributed his good things. Nature in Michal thought it shameful; but David was ready to be 'more vile' and 'base' in his own eyes. ...
David thought to build a house to Jehovah, for the ark was only within curtains; but God's message by Nathan was that God would build David a house: his kingdom should be established for ever. David's son should build God a house: cf. Psalm 132 , and David's prayer in 2 Samuel 7:18-29 . David's heart went forth in thanksgiving, as he sat before the Lord. David showed grace to Mephibosheth, a descendant of Saul, and brought him to his table; typical of the grace that will in the futurebe shown to the remnant that own their Messiah. ...
David, now at his ease instead of fighting the Lord's battles, falls into great sin respecting Bath-sheba and Uriah. David confessed his sin, and was told at once that it had been put away; but God's government must be fulfilled, and the child should surely die. David, knowing how gracious God was, remained prostrate while the child lived, but the child died; and Absalom's rebellion followed: cf. Psalm 51 : for the exercises of David respecting his sin. ...
Sin followed in David's house: the defilement of Tamar, the murder of Amnon, and the flight of Absalom. David fled from Jerusalem and toiled up Mount Olivet. The counsel of Ahithophel was disregarded, and David was saved. " David was deeply grieved at the death of Absalom, and had to be reasoned into submitting to what was seemly. The revolt of Sheba followed, and David feared it might be worse than that of Absalom; but by the wisdom of a woman Sheba alone was destroyed. There were still wars with the Philistines, in one of which David nearly lost his life: four giants were slain, and a song of thanksgiving was rendered to God. ...
In the last words of David he confessed that his house was not as it should be with God. The 'sure mercies of David' will reach Israel through Christ risen. ...
David was tempted by Satan to number Israel: it was allowed of God, for his anger was kindled against Israel, though we are not told what was the occasion of it. The number was no sooner told to David than his heart smote him, and he confessed that he had sinned greatly. The pestilence broke forth, and 70,000 men fell, and as the angel was about to smite Jerusalem, Jehovah stayed his hand; and David erected an altar on the spot, and offered burnt offerings and peace offerings. ...
Though David was not allowed to build the temple, he made great preparations for it, with patterns or plans of the various parts, which he had by the Spirit, and he stored up abundance of silver, gold, and other materials. David also arranged the details of the service, the priests, Levites, singers, etc. ...
Only a few Psalms have been alluded to, those in which the circumstances of David are mentioned in the headings. The prayers of David the son of Jesse are ended. "...
David is a remarkable type of Christ: when he was hunted by Saul, he foreshadowed Christ in His rejection; and when on the throne he was a type of Christ as a man of war, putting down His enemies previous to His peaceful reign in the millennium, typified in Solomon. The Lord Jesus is often called the Son of David, and yet He is David's Lord, about which fact He Himself asked the Jews. In like manner He is called the root and the offspring of David, Revelation 22:16 : being God as well as man He could be both. He also has the key of David
Ziba - Post; statue, "a servant of the house of Saul" (2 Samuel 9:2 ), who informed David that Mephibosheth, a son of Jonathan, was alive. He afterwards dealt treacherously toward Mephibosheth, whom he slanderously misrepresented to David
Jehde'Iah -
The representative of the Bene-Shubael, in the time of David. (1 Chronicles 24:20 ) ...
A Meronothite who had charge of the she-asses of David
Jesse - ” Father of David the king (1 Samuel 16:1 ). He had eight sons, of whom David was the youngest, and two daughters. See David
mi'Chal - (who is like God? ), the younger of Saul's two daughters, ( 1 Samuel 14:49 ) who married David. David by a brilliant feat doubled the tale of victims, and Michal became his wife. Shortly afterward she saved David from the assassins whom her father had sent to take his life. (1 Samuel 19:11-17 ) When the rupture between Saul and David had become open and incurable, she was married to another man, Phalti or Phaltiel of Gallim. (1 Samuel 25:44 ) After the death of her father and brothers at Gilboa, David compelled her new husband to surrender Michal to him. (2 Samuel 3:13-16 ) How Michal comported herself in the altered circumstances of David's household we are not told; but it is plain from the subsequent occurrences that something had happened to alter the relations of herself and David, for on the day of David's greatest triumph, when he brought the ark of Jehovah to Jerusalem, we are told that "she despised him in her heart. " All intercourse between her and David ceased from that date
Ishmaiah -
A Gibeonite who joined David at Ziklag, "a hero among the thirty and over the thirty" (1 Chronicles 12:4 ). ...
...
Son of Obadiah, and viceroy of Zebulun under David and Solomon (1 Chronicles 27:19 )
Hachilah - After his reconciliation with Saul at Engedi (24:1-8), David returned to Hachilah, where he had fixed his quarters. The Ziphites treacherously informed Saul of this, and he immediately (26:1-4) renewed his pursuit of David, and "pitched in the hill of Hachilah. " David and his nephew Abishai stole at night into the midst of Saul's camp, when they were all asleep, and noiselessly removed the royal spear and the cruse from the side of the king, and then, crossing the intervening valley to the height on the other side, David cried to the people, and thus awoke the sleepers. Saul professed to be penitent; but David could not put confidence in him, and he now sought refuge at Ziklag. David and Saul never afterwards met
Rephaim, Valley of - When David became king over all Israel, the Philistines, judging that he would now become their uncompromising enemy, made a sudden attack upon Hebron, compelling David to retire from it. While David and his army were encamped here, there occurred that incident narrated in 2 Samuel 23:15-17 . Having obtained divine direction, David led his army against the Philistines, and gained a complete victory over them. Again warned by a divine oracle, David led his army to Gibeon, and attacked the Philistines from the south, inflicting on them another severe defeat, and chasing them with great slaughter to Gezer (q. There David kept in check these enemies of Israel
Gad, the Prophet - He was with David when he fled from Saul, and gave him counsel. Whether he continued with David during his rejection is not recorded. He was with him at the close of his reign, and to him was given the painful duty of announcing God's judgements upon David for numbering the people. He is called David's 'seer,' which would seem to imply that he had been with him all along. The acts of David were written in "THE BOOK OF GAD the seer," of which there is no further record, and which has not been handed down
Abner - He was Saul's 'captain of the host' when David slew Goliath, and he presented David to Saul. He was with Saul when David took away the spear and cruse of water while they slept: for which David reproached him, saying he was worthy of death because he had not more faithfully guarded his master. After the death of Saul (apparently about 5 years after) Abner made Ish-bosheth king over Israel; but this did not include Judah over which David was king. This so incensed Abner that he revolted from his master and made overtures to David. David demanded that Abner should bring with him Michal, Saul's daughter, David's former wife. This he accomplished, and he and the men with him were well received by David, who made a feast for them. David was much grieved at this murder, and followed the bier and fasted till the sun went down. " ...
David further said that in Abner's death a prince and a great man hadfallen, and that Jehovah would avenge his death. This last was accomplished, according to David's dying injunction, by the direction of King Solomon, and Joab was slain by Benaiah. Personal pique turned him round to David, and yet he knew well, while upholding the house of Saul, that David was God's anointed king
Toi - King of Hamath on the Orontes; sent his son Hadoram or Joram with presents of gold, silver, and brass, to congratulate David on his victory over Hadadezer, king of Zobah, whose kingdom bordered on Hamath and who probably had tried to reduce Toi to vassalage. Toi's aim was to secure the protection of so powerful an ally as David. David consecrated his presents to Jehovah
City of David - In the Old Testament, the phrase “the city of David” refers to Jerusalem. The name was given to the fortified city of the Jebusites after it was captured by David (2 Samuel 5:6-10 ). In Luke 2:4 ,Luke 2:4,2:11 the reference is to Bethlehem, the birth place of David (see John 7:42 )
Nathan - A Hebrew prophet, Zechariah 12:12 ; a friend and counselor of David. By a fine parable, pointedly applied, he convicted David of his guilt in respect to Uriah and Bathsheba, 2 Samuel 12:1-31 Psalm 51:1-19 ; and his bold fidelity here seems to have been appreciated by David, see 2 Samuel 12:25 ; and was effectually aided by him in his peaceful succession to the throne, 1 Kings 1. He wrote some memorials, long since lost, of both David and Solomon, 1 Chronicles 29:29 2 Chronicles 9:29 . A son of David, by Bathsheba, 1 Chronicles 3:5 14:4 ; an ancestor of Christ, Luke 3:21
Eliph'Eleh - (whom God makes distinguished ), a Merarite Levite, one of the gate-keepers appointed by David to play on the harp "on the Sheminith" on the occasion of bringing up the ark to the city of David
David, Key of - Christ according to Apocalypse 1, has the Key of David. The expression is suggested by Isaias 22, where Eliacim is represented as having "the Key of the house of David" slung over his shoulder, as a symbol of power. The reference to David recalls the prophecies fulfilled in the exaltation of Christ
Key of David - Christ according to Apocalypse 1, has the Key of David. The expression is suggested by Isaias 22, where Eliacim is represented as having "the Key of the house of David" slung over his shoulder, as a symbol of power. The reference to David recalls the prophecies fulfilled in the exaltation of Christ
Uriah -
A Hittite, the husband of Bathsheba, whom David first seduced, and then after Uriah's death married. He was one of the band of David's "mighty men. " The sad story of the curel wrongs inflicted upon him by David and of his mournful death are simply told in the sacred record (2 Samuel 11:2-12:26 ). (See BATHSHEBA; David
Yoav - (9th century BCE) Nephew of King David and general of his armies, brother of warriors Abishai, and Asahel. Helped David secure his kingship, and loyally served him for the duration of his reign, leading the troops into battle time and again; fighting foreign enemies as well as quashing internal revolts. Before his passing, David instructed Solomon to kill Joab to avenge the blood of two innocent generals � Abner and Amasa � whom Joab slew
Joab ben zeruiah - (9th century BCE) Nephew of King David and general of his armies, brother of warriors Abishai, and Asahel. Helped David secure his kingship, and loyally served him for the duration of his reign, leading the troops into battle time and again; fighting foreign enemies as well as quashing internal revolts. Before his passing, David instructed Solomon to kill Joab to avenge the blood of two innocent generals � Abner and Amasa � whom Joab slew
Jonathan - 877 BCE BCE) Son of Saul and sworn friend of David. Helped David escape Saul’s designs on his life
Phalti - (See MICHAL; David. ) Saul had wrested her from David and given her to Phalti to attach him to his house (1 Samuel 25:44; 2 Samuel 3:15-16)
Baal-Perazim - At this spot, the Philistines were put to flight by David, (2 Samuel 5:20; 1 Chronicles 14:11) The margin of the Bible hath rendered this name, the plain of breaches. And, consequently, David was the lord or master of it
Adonijah - 837 BCE) Son of King David. Toward the end of David's life, Adonijah proclaimed himself his father’s successor–an act that was immediately countermanded by David
Goliath - He was slain by David with a sling and a stone in the name of Jehovah. David cut off his head and carried it to Jerusalem. Goliath's sword was preserved and eventually restored to David. He was a type of Satan, too strong for any to conquer except the one in the power of Jehovah, David being a type of the Lord Jesus
Achish - King of Gath, a Philistine city, to whom David fled in fear of Saul (1 Samuel 21:10 ). David played the madman to escape from Achish (1 Samuel 21:13 ). Later David became a soldier for Achish, but cunningly expanded his own influence around Ziklag (1 Samuel 27:1 ). David joined Achish to fight Saul (1 Samuel 28:1-2 ), but the Philistine leaders forced him to leave without fighting (1 Samuel 29:1-11 )
Achish - The Philistine king of Gath with whom David twice took shelter from Saul. The first time the servants of Achish reminded him that of David it had been said that he had slain his ten thousands. When David heard this he was afraid and feigned himself mad, and Achish sent him away. The second occasion was when David's heart failed him, and he said, "I shall now perish one day by the hand of Saul. " Achish dealt well with David, gave him Ziklag to dwell in, and would have had him go to war with him against Israel, saying, "I will make thee keeper of my head for ever" 1 Samuel 27 ; 1 Samuel 28:2 . The lords of the Philistines however objected, and Achish begged David to return. See David
Samuel, Second Book of - This gives the definite establishment of David in the kingdom, with the history of the kingdom and his own personal history to near the close of his life. See David. David lamented over the death of Saul, and did not seek to grasp the kingdom immediately. There were wars between the two houses, but David does not appear in them; they were conducted by Joab and Abner. The house of David waxed stronger and stronger. Abner, taking affront at the rebuke of Ish-bosheth concerning Rizpah, Saul's concubine, revolted to David; but as he had previously killed Asahel, Joab's brother, in one of the wars, Joab treacherously slew him, doubtless as much out of jealousy as to avenge the death of his brother. Two of Saul's captains then killed Ish-bosheth, and brought his head to David, but David only condemned them to lose their own lives for their wickedness. This was followed by the whole of the tribes anointing David as their king. David, now king of all Israel, went to reside at Jerusalem, where he took more wives and concubines, and children were born to him. Then David thought to have built a house for God; but this was not God's will: God would build him a house, and his son should build a house for God. David prays and gives thanks. David subdued all the enemies of Israel, and executed judgement and justice unto all the people. Hanun, king of the Ammonites, by insulting the ambassadors sent to him in kindness by David, drew upon the Ammonites sore punishment, and upon the Syrians who went to their aid: a vivid illustration of the solemn fact that those who refuse grace will be dealt with in judgement...
2 Samuel 11 ; 2 Samuel 12 record the sad story of David's sin respecting Bathsheba, and the way he brought about the death of her husband. Disorders in David's house are related: his son Amnon is killed. Absalom is obliged to go into exile, but returns unrepentant; his revolt follows, and David seeks safety in flight. David returns to Jerusalem. David is again established on the throne, and his officers in the kingdom are duly recorded: see 2 Samuel 8:16,18 . David sought to make reparation, and the Gibeonites asked that seven of the descendants of Saul should be given them, and they would hang them up before the Lord. Rizpah, the mother of some of them, defended the bodies day and night, until David buried them with the remains of Saul and his sons. ...
The Philistines again war with Israel, and now the descendants of the giants are slain by David's valiant men. This is followed by a psalm of thanksgiving by David in which he celebrates what God had been for him in his necessities and dangers. ...
2 Samuel 23 gives "the last words of David," wherein he exults in the infallibility of God's covenant, notwithstanding the failure in his house. Then follows a list of David's worthies, with their deeds of valour and devotedness. It is sad that the last public act of David should be one of sin, but it must be observed that the anger of Jehovah was kindled against Israel, and God punished their rebellion by allowing Satan to act upon the pride of David's heart to number Israel. David then saw that he had sinned greatly, and confessed it to God, and asked Him to take away his iniquity. Three punishments were offered to David by the mouth of the prophet, and he chose to fall "into the hand of the Lord, for his mercies are great. David bought the threshing floor of Araunah and his oxen, erected an altar, and offered up burnt offerings and peace offerings, and the plague was stayed. ...
The Second Book of Samuel gives the reign of David. David's sins are not hidden, but his heart always turned to God, and his faith was answered by grace and restoration, though for his good the governmental chastisement was not withheld
Joab - was the son of Zeruiah, David's sister, and brother to Abishai and Asahel. He was one of the most valiant soldiers and greatest generals in David's time; but he was also cruel, revengeful, and imperious. He performed great services for David, to whose interests he was always firm, and was commander-in-chief of his troops, when David was king of Judah only. See David , See ABNER , and See AMASA
David, City of - David, CITY OF
Jesse - See David and See RUTH
Joshaphat - Military hero under David (1 Chronicles 11:43 ). Priest who sounded the trumpet before the Ark of the Covenant as David brought it to Jerusalem (1 Chronicles 15:24 ; KJV, Jehoshaphat)
Jasho'be-am - (to whom the people turn ), named first among the chief of the mighty men of David. ) He came to David at Ziklag
Michal - King Saul's younger daughter (1 Samuel 14:49 ) given to David in marriage for the price of one hundred dead Philistines (1 Samuel 18:20-29 ). (Saul may have thought David would be killed in the attempt). The king continued to set traps for David, but on one occasion Michal helped her husband escape (1 Samuel 19:11-17 ). Following Saul's death at Gilboa, David made a treaty with Abner, Saul's general. One of the points of the pact was that Michal would be returned to David, much to Paltiel's regret (2 Samuel 3:14-16 ). David's dancing before the ark of the covenant as he brought the sacred box to Jerusalem enraged Michal, who criticized the king to his face
Michal - Younger daughter of Saul, offered to David, as a snare, on condition that he would slay one hundred Philistines. The popularity of David led Saul to seek his life. He had David’s house surrounded, but Michal deceived the messengers, and contrived David’s escape by the window ( 1 Samuel 19:11-17 ). When Abner negotiated with David to deliver Israel to him, the king stipulated for Michal’s return. This was accomplished, though the record does not make it clear whether directly from Ishbaal (Ishbosheth) at the Instance of David, or through Abner ( 2 Samuel 3:14 f. The closing scene between Michal and David is pathetic. David’s dance before the ark was unseemly in the eyes of Michal, and she rebuked him. The estrangement was probably due to the numerous wives that now shared David’s prosperity and Michal’s authority
Ziba - When Mephibosheth was invited to the court of David, and the possessions of Saul were made over to him, Ziba was instructed with his fifteen sons and twenty servants, to manage the estates for Mephibosheth. On the insurrection of Absalom, Ziba went with provisions for David, and said that Mephibosheth, hoping to have the kingdom restored to him, had remained in Jerusalem. Whereupon David gave to Ziba all the inheritance of Mephibosheth. On David's return Mephibosheth declared that Ziba had deceived him and slandered him to the king, and the sacred historian says Mephibosheth had neglected his person and his clothes all the while that David had been from Jerusalem. Having given all that was Mephibosheth's to Ziba, David now divided the possessions between the two
Engedi - David resorted to the strongholds at this place when pursued by Saul. The king sought David 'upon the rocks of the wild goats,' and then lay down to rest in the mouth of the very cave in which David and his men were. David out off the skirt of Saul's robe, but would not allow his men to injure him
Joab - It seems that Joab and his brothers were among the several hundred people who joined David during his flight from Saul. The private army that David formed from these people later became the central fighting force in his royal army (1 Samuel 22:1-2; 1 Samuel 26:6; 1 Samuel 30:9; 2 Samuel 2:13). (For map covering the region of David’s activities see David. )...
In the two-year civil war that followed Saul’s death, Joab quickly established himself as David’s military leader (2 Samuel 2:28). He was also a close relative of David (1 Chronicles 2:13-16). When Saul’s former commander, Abner, defected to David, Joab saw him as a threat and murdered him. But David saw it as murder and never forgave Joab (2 Samuel 2:12-23; 2 Samuel 3:23-39; 1 Kings 2:5-6). ...
Not long after these events, David became undisputed king of Israel. In response to David’s declaration that he wanted to take Jerusalem from its Canaanite inhabitants, Joab led a victorious assault on the city and was rewarded by being appointed commander-in-chief of the Israelite army (1 Chronicles 11:6; 1 Chronicles 18:15). ...
When, as a consequence of David’s wrongdoing, his family started to break up, Joab tried to preserve the dynasty by ensuring that there was a recognized heir to the throne. He considered that the most suitable of David’s sons for the position was Absalom, but Absalom had committed murder and fled to a neighbouring country. When Absalom rebelled against David and seized the throne, Joab again upheld David. He brought the rebellion to a swift end by killing Absalom, even though it was against David’s wishes (2 Samuel 18:2; 2 Samuel 18:5; 2 Samuel 18:9-16). He then rebuked David for his lack of gratitude to those who had saved him (2 Samuel 19:1-8). ...
Upon resuming his rule in Jerusalem, David appointed Absalom’s general, Amasa, chief of the army in place of Joab. This was clearly unfair to Joab, who had been loyal to David and won him the victory (2 Samuel 19:13). Soon there was another uprising against David. ...
In the palace conflict to decide which son would succeed the ageing David as king, Joab supported Adonijah in opposition to Solomon, who was David’s choice (1 Kings 1:5-8; 1 Kings 1:13; 1 Kings 1:19; 1 Chronicles 28:5)
Pelethites - Mentioned always along with the Cherethites, and only in the time of David. The word probably means "runners" or "couriers," and may denote that while forming part of David's bodyguard, they were also sometimes employed as couriers (2 Samuel 8:18 ; (2 Samuel 1:38,44 ; 1 Chronicles 18:17 ). Some, however, think that these are the names simply of two Philistine tribes from which David selected his body-guard. They are mentioned along with the Gittites (2 Samuel 15:18 ), another body of foreign troops whom David gathered round him
Hushai - When David fled from Jerusalem, on account of the rebellion of Absalom, and had reached the summit of Olivet, he there met Hushai, whom he sent back to Jerusalem for the purpose of counteracting the influence of Ahithophel, who had joined the ranks of Absalom (2 Samuel 15:32,37 ; 16:16-18 ). It was by his advice that Absalom refrained from immediately pursuing after David. By this delay the cause of Absalom was ruined, for it gave David time to muster his forces
Eliab - ...
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The son of Jesse, and brother of David (1 Samuel 16:6 ). It was he who spoke contemptuously to David when he proposed to fight Goliath (1 Samuel 17:28 ). ...
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One of the Gadite heroes who joined David in his stronghold in the wilderness (1 Chronicles 12:9 )
Ahinoam - David's wife a woman of Jezreel: she accompanied David in his flight from Saul; and, while residing at Ziklag, was taken captive when the city was burned by the Amalekites; but was recovered. She was with David when he came to the kingdom, and while at Hebron bare to David, Amnon his first-born
Mephibosheth - When David came into power he inquired if there were any of Saul's descendants to whom he could show the kindness of God for Jonathan's sake, and Mephibosheth was found. David and Jonathan had made a league together as to their seed. David fully respected this and far exceeded it, for it was true grace in him to bring Mephibosheth to sit at his table. ...
When Absalom revolted, Ziba brought presents to David, and slandered Mephibosheth, saying that he sought the kingdom. David thereupon gave to Ziba all the possessions of Mephibosheth; but on hearing subsequently Mephibosheth's explanations, David divided the inheritance between them. His doing this, and the way he answered Mephibosheth, "Why speakest thou any more of thy matters? I have said, Thou and Ziba divide the land," makes it doubtful whether David was quite convinced of Mephibosheth's innocence. While the king was away Mephibosheth had not dressed his feet, nor trimmed his beard, nor washed his clothes; and when David decided that the land should be divided, he said, "Yea, let him take all, forasmuch as my lord the king is come again in peace. " When Saul's descendants were required for a recompense to the Gibeonites David spared Mephibosheth for Jonathan's sake, nor was he mentioned when the king died. Rizpah protected the bodies by day and by night, until David caused their remains to be buried with those of Saul and Jonathan
a'Dri-el - (flock of God ), son of Barzillai, to whom Saul gave his daughter Merab, although he had previously promised her to David. ) His five sons were amongst the seven descendants of Saul whom David surrendered to the Gibeonites
Absalom - 840 BCE) Son of King David. He then fled to avoid their father David’s wrath
Arnan - Descendant of David
David - David was the founder of a dynasty that would rule in Jerusalem for over 350 years. ...
David in the Deuteronomic History . ...
The majority of what we learn about David's life and times is contained in the accounts in Samuel. In Samuel the writer forges a contrast between Saul and David, "a man after his [1] own heart" (1 Samuel 13:14 ). Gunn's analysis of the narratives about David focuses on two primary themes: David as king and David as a man. In his first role as king, David acquires the kingdom and assures his tenure in office (the accounts about David and Saul, the rebellions of Absalom and Sheba) and founds a dynasty (the birth of Solomon, the rebellion of Adonijah, the elimination of other contenders and factions). These narratives are intertwined with the theme of David as a man: a husband and father (Michal, Bathsheba, Amnon, Absalom, Solomon, Adonijah). Sexuality is a motif in the accounts of the sin with Bathsheba, the death of the child from an adulterous union, one son's rape of a daughter, the competition for the father's bedmate Abishag, Uriah's refusal to visit his wife, the seizure of David's concubines, and the childlessness of Saul's daughter Michal. Violence and political intrigue are interspersed in the accounts of David's wars, Saul's attempts on David's life, the violence of Joab and his brothers, the murder of Uriah, fratricide among David's sons, the slaughter of the helpless Absalom, and David's plans for the deaths of his enemies soon after his own death. The account of David's relationship with Bathsheba not only prepares for the eventual accession of Solomon, but it also sets in motion a curse that will dog the remainder of David's life: death and sexual outrage will follow, and "the sword will never depart from [2] house" (2 Samuel 12:10 ). The entire account of David is presented as the interplay of his public (kingship) and private (father, husband) roles as they impinge on the question of who will succeed him to the throne. Gunn also accents the themes of giving and grasping: whereas some accounts present David or other characters as somewhat passive in their roles, in others they seize or grasp at favor and power. Overall it is the story of how David gains the throne, loses it temporarily in the face of rebellions, only to regain it again, and then lose it in death. The narratives about David also abound in irony. ...
Within the larger DH, the writer is concerned to trace the faithfulness of God in his promise to David that he would never lack a descendant sitting on this throne (2 Samuel 7 ). God had indeed "maintained a lamp" for David (1 Kings 11:36 ; 15:4 ; 2 Kings 8:19 ). ...
David in the Psalms . The historical books recall David's skill as a musician and his concern with music in worship (1 Samuel 16:14-21 ; 1 Chronicles 25 ; 2 Chronicles 23:18 ; 29:25-30 ; 35:15 ). The many psalms assigned to David reflect this skill and interest. However, the psalms do not just record the compositions of David; they also celebrate the promises God made to him and his descendants (18:50; 78:70,72; 89:3,20, 35,49). The royal psalms (2,45, 72,84, 89,110) join with the prophets in giving voice to Israel's messianic hopes for another king like David. He is the heir of the promises to David. ...
David in the Prophets . The term "messiah" means "anointed one, " and the idea of a messiah for Israel grows out of her ideology about a righteous king, one who would be like David. The failures of the kings who followed David set him in an increasingly favorable light, so that Israel's hopes crystallized around the coming of a future king like David (Isaiah 16:5 ; 55:3-5 ; Jeremiah 23:5 ; 33:17-26 ; 36:30 ; Ezekiel 34:23 ; Zechariah 9:9 ; 12:8,10 ). ...
David in the Chronicler's History . When comparing the Chronicler's account of David and Solomon with that in Samuel/Kings, perhaps the most striking difference is the material that the Chronicler has chosen to omit. With the exception of the account of David's census (1 Chronicles 21 // 2 Samuel 24 ), the Chronicler has not recorded incidents that would in any way tarnish the image of David or Solomon. The Chronicler does not report the rival kingdom in the hands of a descendant of Saul during David's seven years at Hebron or David's negotiations for rule over the northern tribes. He omits any account of the rebellion of Absalom and Adonijah and the actions of Amnon and Shimei; he makes no mention of David's sins in connection with Bathsheba and Uriah. The Chronicler deletes the narrative of Solomon's taking vengeance on David's enemies (1 Kings 2 ) and does not report the sins of Solomon which, according to Kings, were ultimately the reason for the break-up of the kingdom (1 Kings 11 ). ...
In Chronicles David and Solomon are portrayed as glorious, obedient, all-conquering figures who enjoy not only divine blessing, but also the support of all the nation. Instead of an aged, bed-ridden David who only saves the kingdom for Solomon at the last minute due to the promptings of Bathsheba and Nathan (1 Kings 1 ), the Chronicler shows a smooth transition of power without a ripple of dissent (1 Chronicles 21,28-29 ). David himself publicly announces Solomon's appointment as his successor, an announcement greeted with enthusiastic and total support on the part of the people (1 Chronicles 28:1-29:25 ), including the other sons of David, the officers of the army, and others who had supported Adnoijah's attempted coup (1 Chronicles 29:24 ; 1 Kings 1:7-10 ). Whereas in Kings Solomon's sins are a reason for the schism and Solomon is contrasted to his father David (1 Kings 11 ), in Chronicles Rehoboam is commended for "walking in the ways of David and Solomon" (2 Chronicles 11:17 ). ...
This idealization of the reigns of David and Solomon could be dismissed as a kind of glorification of the "good old days. " Yet when coupled with the Chronicler's emphasis on God's promise to David of an enduring dynasty (1 Chronicles 17:11-14 ; 2 Chronicles 13:5,8 ; 21:7 ; 23:3 ), the Chronicler's treatment of David and Solomon reflects a "messianic historiography. " David and Solomon in Chronicles are not just the David and Solomon who were, but the David and Solomon of the Chronicler's eschatological hope. At a time when subject to the Persians the Chronicler still cherished hopes of a restoration of Davidic rule, and he describes the glorious rule of David and Solomon in the past in terms of his hopes for the future. ...
David in the New Testament . David's sins do not seem that much greater than Saul's. How is it that David can be described by the narrator as "a man after his [1] own heart" (1 Samuel 13:14 )? Israel had looked at Saul's height and build— there was no one like him among all the people (1 Samuel 10:24 ); although God had chosen Saul, he knew what was in his heart. Human beings might look at appearance and height, but God saw David's heart. David's heart was such that he would face Goliath virtually unarmed and would triumph through his faith, while Saul cowered in his tent (1 Samuel 17 ). ...
Yet something happened to David along the way. David will not be the good shepherd who will give his life for the sheep. They take pains to point to his descent from David (Matthew 1:1,6,17 ). The crowds and even the demons recognize him as the son of David, the Messiah of Israel (Matthew 12:23 ; 20:30-31 ; 21:9,15 ). Jesus comes like David, as "the Lord's anointed. David had become the heir of God's promise to Abraham that he would give him a great name (Genesis 12:2 ; 2 Samuel 7:9 ). David's greater son receives a names above all others (Philippians 2:9-10 ). Just as David had once gone into singlehanded combat with the great enemy of Israel so Jesus would singlehandedly triumph over the enemy of our souls. Flanagan, David's Social Drama: A Hologram of Israel's Early Iron Age ; J. Gunn, The Story of King David ; J
Shim'ea -
Son of David by Beth-shean. ) ...
The brother of David, (1 Chronicles 20:7 ) elsewhere called Shamma, Shimma and Shimeah
Chim'Ham - (longing ), a follower and probably a son, of Barzillai the Gileadite, who returned from beyond Jordan with David. ) David appears to have bestowed on him a possession at Bethlehem, on which, in later times, an inn or khan was standing
Jesse - Son of Obed and father of David. He was a grandson of Ruth the Moabitess, and in he native land he found an asylum while David was most in danger from the jealous pursuit of Saul, Ruth 4:17 1 Samuel 16:1-23 17:12 22:3 Matthew 1:5
s.j.c. - = Congrégation du Sacré-Coeur; Pères de Timon David ...
Ahinoam - A woman of Jezreel, wife of David and mother Amnon. She was taken captive by the Amalekites, at Ziklag, 1 Samuel 30:5 ; but was recovered by David, and accompanied him to Hebron, 2 Samuel 2:2 ; 3:2
David, Root of - "As the Prophet foresaw, the stump of the old tree of the House of David sent forth a new David to rule the nations
Ish bosheth - Following his father's death, he ruled for two years, fighting with David for the right to the throne. He gradually lost the support of the people, until his own general, Abner, swore allegiance to David
Amasa - A kinsman of David, and chief captain in Absalom's rebel army. David pardoned Amasa, but he was assassinated by Joab
Root of David - "As the Prophet foresaw, the stump of the old tree of the House of David sent forth a new David to rule the nations
Achitofel - (873-840 BCE) An advisor to King David renowned for his sagacious advice, a great Torah scholar who later abandoned the path of Torah. Ahithophel was a key protagonist in Absalom's revolt against David
Ahithophel - (873-840 BCE) An advisor to King David renowned for his sagacious advice, a great Torah scholar who later abandoned the path of Torah. Ahithophel was a key protagonist in Absalom's revolt against David
David, City of -
David took from the Jebusites the fortress of Mount Zion. He "dwelt in the fort, and called it the city of David" (1 Chronicles 11:7 ). (2) Bethlehem is called the "city of David" (Luke 2:4,11 ), because it was David's birth-place and early home (1 Samuel 17:12 )
Nathan - ...
Nathan the Prophet: (a) Prophesied during the times of Kings David and Solomon, in the 9th century BCE. Famous for his rebuke of David after the Batsheba debacle as well as ensuring that Solomon would be named as David’s successor
Achish - The king of Gath to whom David fled for refuge after the massacre of the priests at Nob ( 1 Samuel 21:10 ). He received David with his band of 600 men, and assigned him the city of Ziklag in the S. princes refused to let David take part in the final campaign against Saul
Millo - "David built round about from Millo and inward," 2 Samuel 5:9 ; that is, he built round about from the place where Millo was afterward erected by Solomon, or where more probably the senate house, or Millo of the Jebusites, had stood, which was pulled down to make room for the more sumptuous edifice of Solomon, to his own house; so that David built from Mount Zion, quite round to the opposite point. Hence, the residence of David, even in the reign of that renowned monarch, began to assume the size and splendour of a city
Eli'hu - (1 Samuel 1:1 ) ...
In (1 Chronicles 27:18 ) Elihu "of the brethren of David" is mentioned as the chief of the tribe of Judah. ...
One of the captains of the thousands of Manasseh, (1 Chronicles 12:20 ) who followed David to Ziklag after he had left the Philistine army on the eve of the battle of Gilboa. ...
A Korhite Levite in the time of David
Hashubah - , a descendant of David (1 Chronicles 3:20 )
Hoshama - A descendant of David ( 1 Chronicles 3:18 )...
Nedabiah - A descendant of David ( 1 Chronicles 3:18 )
Arnan - A descendant of David ( 1 Chronicles 3:21 )
Joab - The son of Zeruiah, and nephew of David, and commander-in-chief of his army. When Absalom rebelled Joab adhered to David; and contrary to express orders he put Absalom to death. David then made Amasa general of his army, but Joab was so offended that he also assassinated Amasa, as he had done Abner. Joab combined in the plot to set Adonijah on the throne, in defiance of the will of David, who had, by divine direction, resolved to make Solomon king. After the death of David, Joab was slain at the altar, whither he had fled for protection; and was buried in his own domain in the wilderness
Goliath - Name of a famous giant of Geth, against whom David fought, and whom he killed. David alone dared to accept the challenge; advancing with only staff, sling, and stones, towards Goliath, he struck the giant in the forehead wlth a stone, with such force that the latter fell to the earth. David rushed up, drew the sword of Goliath, and cut off his head. The Philistines fled in rout, and David returned in triumph to Jerusalem. Convinced that the honor of victory belonged to God alone, David saw that the sword of Goliath was placed in sanctuary at Nob, wrapped in a cloth behind the ephod of the high priest (1 Kings 21)
Azaziah - Levite David appointed to play the harp for the Temple worship (1 Chronicles 5:21 ). Father of leader of tribe of Ephraim under David (1 Chronicles 27:20 )
Hachilah - David resorted there when pursued by Saul, and there David spared Saul when he was in his power
Hanun - A king of the Ammonites, whose father Nahash had befriended David in his early troubles. Upon the death of Nahash, David sent an embassage to condole with his son
Abner ben ner - Later, realizing that Ish Bosheth's rule could not last, he negotiated a peace agreement with Ish Bosheth's rival, David�but was treacherously killed by Joab. David repudiated the murder and ordered all of Israel to mourn Abner's death
Joab - AND David SAID, I AM WEAK THIS DAY THOUGH ANOINTED KING...
JOAB, the son of David's sister, was a man of the very foremost ability. Had it not been for David, Joab would have climbed up into the throne of Israel. Notwithstanding their family relationship, David and Joab were much of an age, and that, no doubt, helps to account for a good deal that went on between the uncle and the nephew Joab was a stern, haughty, imperious, revengeful man. After his own contemptuous way, Joab was always true to David. That is to say, he made short work with any one else who was false to David. And he performed some splendid services both as a soldier and a statesman in the extension and consolidation of David's kingdom. Jonathan gave over to David all that he possessed, and all that he ever expected to possess, and died a king. Joab envied David and every one else all that they had, and died an outcast. ...
David was all heart, and passion, and sensibility; while Joab was all self-will, and pride, and as hard as a stone. David's sudden and unparalleled exaltation was never forgiven him at home. His brothers and his sisters were sufficiently proud of David toward all their neighbours; at the same time they could never enough let him see how much they thought themselves as good as he was when they were alone together. David and Joab were by far the ablest members of a very able household; but David was hampered with his heart, till Joab, having no heart, got the mastery. And thus it is that, already, and before David has well sat down on the throne, we hear him saying such things as these: 'The sons of Zeruiah,' David burst out, 'be too hard for me. ' And you may be sure that when that so unkingly speech was reported to the sons of Zeruiah, it did not make them any the less hard for David. Joab's temper was not any sweeter, nor his hand any lighter, after that and many suchlike deplorably foolish speeches of David. Already David lay and writhed in a net of ten thousand invisible threads and stings; and a chain of iron is soon to be forged for David by his own besotted hands. To keep much of a heart with all diligence every moment-what a superhuman task is that! To keep much of a heart, to keep it in, to keep it down, to keep it open, but not too open-who is sufficient for these things? David yielded to Joab out of simple good-nature yesterday, and again today, and he will yield something far more important tomorrow, and so on. In any other world but this, and to any other man but Joab, David's heart would be an open heaven. But as it is, David wakens up too late to find out that he is king in nothing but in name. Let both look at David and Joab, and learn, and lay to heart. ' And though it was a clear enough crime in David to pass by Joab's murder of Abner, it came out afterwards to be a most terrible blunder. All David's after-life might well have been different but for that blunder. There might have been no 'matter of Uriah,' and no rebellion of Absalom, and none of the many other miseries that so desolated David's house, had he not committed this fatal blunder of letting Joab live. David knew his duty quite well. 'The Lord shall reward the doer of evil according to his wickedness,' David proclaimed over Abner's mangled body. Yes; but David held the sword for no other purpose than to be the Lord's right hand in rewarding all the evil that was done in Israel in his day. But, then, Joab was the most powerful and the most necessary man in Israel, and Abner had no friends, and David contented himself with pronouncing an eloquent requiem over Abner, and leaving his murderer to go free in all his offices and all his honours. He knew quite well that it was fear and not love that had moved David to let him live. It was a diplomatic act of David to spare Joab, but David was playing with a far deeper diplomatist than himself. Very soon we shall see this respited assassin ordering David about and dictating to him, till we shall pity David as well as blame him. Joab's impunity speedily shot up into an increased contempt for David, till secret contempt became open insolence, and open insolence open and unavenged rebellion. 'And it came to pass in the morning that David wrote a letter to Joab, and sent it by the hand of Uriah. ' That dreadful letter shows us David's desperation, indeed; but it shows us also David's estimate of Joab. Had Jonathan been spared to be second to David this would never have happened. David would never have dared to send such a letter as that to Jonathan. But Jonathan was taken and Joab was left, and David had Joab for his tool to impress on our hearts the terrible portent of a bloodstained holiness. Joab had some sufficient motive for following out David's detestable orders. And David said to Joab's messenger, Let not this thing displease thee. But the thing that David had done displeased the Lord. And the Lord had Joab in His hand henceforth as the rod of his displeasure, and Joab had David's letter in his hand till, if there is a man on the face of the earth to be pitied from that time forward, it is David. David was the first lion of the tribe of Judah, and it is sad to see how his teeth and his claws were broken, and his sinews cut, by his tormentors. You are but a dog beside David. Only, you have this, that you are still alive, and young, and free, and unsold as yet, whereas David is dead. 'Destroy this letter as soon as you have read it,' David wrote at the top of it. 'Read and burn instantly,' wrote David in state cipher. Joab recollected what prices such letters bring in the auction rooms, and, instead of burning David's letter, he folded it carefully, and buttoned it up in his breast-pocket. That letter was still deep down in Joab's breast-pocket when Benaiah at David's demand fell upon him and slew him in spite of the horns of the altar. ...
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Tool turned tyrant-that shortly sums up Joab and David for the next thirty years. Only an insult here and a humiliation there has been preserved to us out of the daily insults and humiliations that Joab heaped upon David. Joab had no more pity than a tiger, and the tiger's claws were never out of David's flesh from the matter of Uriah down to David's death. David had said unto Nathan, I have sinned against the Lord. And Nathan had said unto David, The Lord also hath put away thy sin, thou shalt not die. But David had far better have died and been buried beside his sin. 'Joab insolently falls foul of David,' is one of Matthew Henry's plain-spoken remarks. And again, 'He calls David a fool to his face. ' We have only one in a thousand of Joab's insolent speeches to David's face. Joab ran Absalom three times through the heart right in the teeth of David's command to spare and save Absalom alive. And then, when David broke out in that terrible sorrow which sounds in our hearts to this day, Joab would not have it. There has been enough weeping now for Absalom, said Joab to David. And David dried his eyes on the spot like a cowed child, and turned to the business of the kingdom, cursing Joab all the time in his heart. It was David's sad case that made our Lord say in David's city a thousand years after, Verily, verily, I say unto you, whosoever committeth sin is the servant of sin. All this of David and Joab is only the life of some of ourselves sold for nought, and written out with all plainness of speech, and put of God into our hands. Those two thorns in David's flesh-and there are more like them-so suit into the secretest depths of our own spiritual experience. Those two bad men were, each in his own wicked way, of such rich and indispensable use to David, if David was to be searched out, hunted down, laid low, and saved at last. They so struck in, made of God and kept of God for the very purpose, to tempt, and to vex, and to humiliate, and to weaken, and to keep broken David's broken heart. They, Joab especially, were ever with David. Joab with his insolence, and his cruelty, and his family familiarity, and his equality in years, and all that eating in and growing, on to David's deathbed-I declare it is another parable of that cunning Nathan, and not a true and honest history at all! It is a subtle allegory all the time; and that, too, of our own life. Under forgiveness, and then under vengeance, as David says, and had such a good right to say. Only, come, all ye who would learn beforehand the ways of God, and we will tell you as good as anything that ever was told even of David
Jesse - A Bethlehemite, best known as the father of David. The earliest historical mention of him ( 1 Samuel 17:12 ; see David, § 1) represents him as already an old man. On this occasion he sends David to the Israelite camp with provisions for his brothers; this was destined to be a long separation between Jesse and his son, for after David’s victory over the Philistine giant he entered definitely into Saul’s service. , in which Samuel is sent to Bethlehem to anoint David; and 1 Samuel 16:18 , in which Jesse’s son is sent for to play the harp before Saul. Nothing further is heard of Jesse until we read of him and his ‘house’ coming to David in the ‘cave’ of Adullam; David then brings his father and mother to Mizpeh of Moab, and entrusts them to the care of the king of Moab ( 1 Samuel 22:3-4 )
Ahimaaz - When Absalom revolted and David had to flee from Jerusalem, Zadok continuing true to David, returned to the city, and Ahimaaz, and Jonathan son of Abiathar, remained at En-rogel; to whom Zadok sent word of the counsel of Ahithophel and of Hushai by a 'wench,' and they hastened to David with the news. The spies then hastened to David, and reached him in safety. On the defeat and death of Absalom, Ahimaaz begged that he might run with the news to David. Joab at first refused; but after Cushi had started, he allowed Ahimaaz to go also; who, being swift of foot, reached David first and told him of the defeat of Absalom, but let Cushi tell of his death
Abner - Abner first met David on the occasion of Goliath’s defeat (1 Samuel 17:55-57). David served under Abner as a loyal officer (1 Samuel 18:5), but later Abner led Saul’s troops in trying to capture the fleeing, yet innocent, David (1 Samuel 26:5; 1 Samuel 26:14-15). ...
After Saul’s death, Abner appointed Saul’s son Ishbosheth as king in opposition to David (2 Samuel 2:8). Although Abner was a strong leader, his troops were not as good as David’s and they steadily lost ground over the next two years (2 Samuel 3:1; 2 Samuel 3:6). When Ishbosheth accused Abner of wanting the throne for himself, Abner deserted Ishbosheth and joined David (2 Samuel 3:7-11). ...
Abner then set to work to win allegiance to David from all the previous supporters of Ishbosheth (2 Samuel 3:17-21). But he was treacherously murdered by David’s commander Joab, in retaliation for Abner’s earlier killing of Joab’s brother in battle (2 Samuel 3:24-30; cf
Jerimoth - Warrior of Saul's tribe Benjamin who joined David as he fled from Saul at Ziklag (1 Chronicles 12:5 ). Temple musician under David and Solomon (1 Chronicles 25:4 ; compare 1 Chronicles 25:22 ). Leader of tribe of Naphtali under David (1 Chronicles 27:19 ). Son of David, whose daughter married King Rehoboam (931-913 B. Jerimoth does not appear in any list of David's sons
Eliel - Military leader under David (1 Chronicles 11:46 ), not listed in 1 Samuel 23:1 . Another military leader under David not listed in 1 Samuel 23:1 ( 1 Chronicles 11:47 ). A warrior from the tribe of Gad who served under David in the wilderness (1 Chronicles 12:11 ). A chief Levite in the time of David (1Chronicles 15:9,1 Chronicles 15:11 )
Nabal - His shepherds and his flocks had been protected in the wilderness by David and his followers. David, therefore, during the sheep-shearing festivities, sent to greet Nabal and to ask for a share of his abundance — anything he liked to send him. Nabal, however, railed on David's men and refused to give them anything. He had no faith to discern in David the anointed of Jehovah. Abigail hastened to appease David's wrath. David accepted her person and her present, and left Nabal in God's hands
Bealiah - Benjamite who joined David at Ziklag
Bariah - Son of Shemaiah, descendant of David
Obil - An Ishmaelite, camel-herdsman of David
Eluzai - Benjamite who joined David at Ziklag
Mishmannah - Gadite who joined David at Ziklag
Chil'Eab - (like his father ), a son of David by Abigail
Saul, King of Israel - ...
Saul and David...
God chose David as the man who would one day replace Saul as king. As David grew in experience and maturity, the special power of God’s Spirit began to work through him rather than Saul (1 Samuel 16:13-14). After David’s victory over Goliath, Saul, unaware of God’s purposes for David, made him his armour-bearer and full-time court musician (1 Samuel 16:21-23; 1 Samuel 18:2). Over the next few years Saul became more and more unstable, emotionally and mentally, while David became a popular hero through his military victories. Saul became suspicious that David might be the man to replace him, and in a fit of jealousy tried to kill him (1 Samuel 18:5-11). ...
This began a long conflict between Saul and David. Saul tried by every possible means to get rid of David, but David steadfastly refused to do anything against Saul. Saul sent David on dangerous missions, hoping he might get killed, but his plans repeatedly failed (1 Samuel 18:13-17; 1 Samuel 18:25). He sent his servants to kill David, and he himself tried to spear him, but all his efforts were without success (1 Samuel 19:1; 1 Samuel 19:10-11). When David sought safety with Samuel, Saul and his servants pursued him, but the Spirit of God protected David by overpowering Saul and his men (1 Samuel 19:18-24). The mad Saul slaughtered any he thought had helped David (1 Samuel 22:18-19), whereas David on two occasions spared Saul’s life when he could easily have killed him (1 Samuel 24; 1 Samuel 26:6-25). (For details of events in this period of Saul’s life see David. Loyal Israelites gave him an honourable burial (1 Samuel 31:8-13), and David wrote a song in memory of him
Double Heart - These men were not partly for David and partly for Saul. They were all for David only
Araunah - A Jebusite whose threshing floor David purchased as a site for sacrifice, following the prophetic command of God, holding back a divine plague after David disobeyed by taking a census (2 Samuel 24:15-25 )
Chimham - A follower, and probably a son, of Barzillai the Gileadite, who returned from beyond Jordan with David. David appears to have bestowed on him a possession at Bethlehem, on which, in later times, an inn or khan was standing
Baanah And Rechab - Thinking to obtain a reward from David, they secretly slew their master while reposing at noon, and carried his head to David at Hebron
Joelah - A Benjamite who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chronicles 12:7 )
Jairite - Designation of Ira, a ruler under David
Hodaiah - Son of Elioenai, a descendant of David
Igeal - Son of Shemaiah, a descendant of David
Machbanai - A Gadite who joined David at Ziklag
Hareth - Forest where David hid himself from Saul
Hasadiah - Son of Zerubbabel, a descendant of David
Hashubah - Son of Zerubbabel, a descendant of David
Dalaiah - Son of Elioenai, a descendant of David
Raddai - Son of Jesse and brother of David
David - DAVID...
For the student of the Gospels the most important OT passage concerning David is 2 Samuel 7. David expressed to Nathan a strong desire to build a temple for Jehovah in his new capital, a wish indicative of worldly wisdom as well as piety on the part of the king. Jehovah denies David’s request, but promises to build for him an everlasting house, a dynasty without end. David’s throne is to stand for ever. Psalms 2, 110 are founded on this notable promise, and the author of Psalms 89 in a far later time, when David’s throne had been overturned by the heathen, reminds Jehovah of His ancient promise, and pleads earnestly for the speedy passing of His wrath. ) in the expectation that the promise made to David in 2 Samuel 7 will not fail. , asserting the perpetuity of David’s dynasty in most emphatic terms. ) cheers the discouraged exiles with the picture of a glorious restoration of the throne of David. The great ruler of the future will be a second David. In the period after the return from Babylon, the author of the last section of Zechariah (Zechariah 12:7 to Zechariah 13:1) describes the glories of the coming time in connexion with the Davidic dynasty: ‘The house of David shall be as God, as the angel of Jehovah before them. ’ The Messianic hope in the inter-Biblical period, like that of the OT, attached itself to David. The author of Ecclesiasticus (Sirach 47:11) reminds his readers that the Lord exalted David’s horn for ever, entering into a covenant and promising him a throne of glory in Israel. (2:57) says, ‘David for heing merciful inherited the throne of a kingdom for ever and ever. The Messianic King is to be David’s son (Psalms 17:4). Jehovah Himself is Israel’s King for ever and ever (Psalms 17:1); but the Son of David is His chosen to overthrow the heathen, and institute a righteous reign in Israel (17:30, 42f. ...
The four Evangelists unite in the view that the Messiah was to come from the seed of David (Matthew 1:1, Mark 10:47, Luke 2:4, John 7:42). ‘The Son of David’ was synonymous in the time of our Lord’s earthly ministry with ‘Messiah’ or ‘Christ. When the children cried in the temple, ‘Hosanna to the Son of David’ (Matthew 21:15), both the rulers and the multitude looked upon the words as a distinct recognition of the Messiahship of Jesus. The Epistles (Romans 1:3, 2 Timothy 2:8) and the Revelation (Revelation 5:5; Revelation 22:16) concur in calling attention to the Davidic origin of Jesus. The interest of NT writers in David is confined almost exclusively to his relation to our Lord Jesus as His ancestor and type. ...
Jesus refers to one incident in the life of David in reply to the accusation of His enemies as to His observance of the Sabbath (Mark 2:25, cf. Having drawn from them a statement of their belief that the Christ would be the son of David, He at once quoted David’s words in Psalms 110:1 to show that the Messiah would also be David’s Lord (Matthew 22:41 ||). He was to be far greater than David, for He was his Lord. , and, for the meaning of ‘David’ and ‘Moses’ in our Lord’s citations from the OT, art
David - DAVID...
For the student of the Gospels the most important OT passage concerning David is 2 Samuel 7. David expressed to Nathan a strong desire to build a temple for Jehovah in his new capital, a wish indicative of worldly wisdom as well as piety on the part of the king. Jehovah denies David’s request, but promises to build for him an everlasting house, a dynasty without end. David’s throne is to stand for ever. Psalms 2, 110 are founded on this notable promise, and the author of Psalms 89 in a far later time, when David’s throne had been overturned by the heathen, reminds Jehovah of His ancient promise, and pleads earnestly for the speedy passing of His wrath. ) in the expectation that the promise made to David in 2 Samuel 7 will not fail. , asserting the perpetuity of David’s dynasty in most emphatic terms. ) cheers the discouraged exiles with the picture of a glorious restoration of the throne of David. The great ruler of the future will be a second David. In the period after the return from Babylon, the author of the last section of Zechariah (Zechariah 12:7 to Zechariah 13:1) describes the glories of the coming time in connexion with the Davidic dynasty: ‘The house of David shall be as God, as the angel of Jehovah before them. ’ The Messianic hope in the inter-Biblical period, like that of the OT, attached itself to David. The author of Ecclesiasticus (Sirach 47:11) reminds his readers that the Lord exalted David’s horn for ever, entering into a covenant and promising him a throne of glory in Israel. (2:57) says, ‘David for heing merciful inherited the throne of a kingdom for ever and ever. The Messianic King is to be David’s son (Psalms 17:4). Jehovah Himself is Israel’s King for ever and ever (Psalms 17:1); but the Son of David is His chosen to overthrow the heathen, and institute a righteous reign in Israel (17:30, 42f. ...
The four Evangelists unite in the view that the Messiah was to come from the seed of David (Matthew 1:1, Mark 10:47, Luke 2:4, John 7:42). ‘The Son of David’ was synonymous in the time of our Lord’s earthly ministry with ‘Messiah’ or ‘Christ. When the children cried in the temple, ‘Hosanna to the Son of David’ (Matthew 21:15), both the rulers and the multitude looked upon the words as a distinct recognition of the Messiahship of Jesus. The Epistles (Romans 1:3, 2 Timothy 2:8) and the Revelation (Revelation 5:5; Revelation 22:16) concur in calling attention to the Davidic origin of Jesus. The interest of NT writers in David is confined almost exclusively to his relation to our Lord Jesus as His ancestor and type. ...
Jesus refers to one incident in the life of David in reply to the accusation of His enemies as to His observance of the Sabbath (Mark 2:25, cf. Having drawn from them a statement of their belief that the Christ would be the son of David, He at once quoted David’s words in Psalms 110:1 to show that the Messiah would also be David’s Lord (Matthew 22:41 ||). He was to be far greater than David, for He was his Lord. , and, for the meaning of ‘David’ and ‘Moses’ in our Lord’s citations from the OT, art
Jediael - A patriarch of Benjamite heads of houses whose sons numbered 17,200 mighty men in David's days (1 Chronicles 7:6; 1 Chronicles 7:11). Tabernacle doorkeeper under David (1 Chronicles 26:1-2). Joined David, from Manasseh, on his way to Ziklag just before the battle of Gilboa; he helped David against the Amalekites (1 Chronicles 12:20; 1 Chronicles 12:1 Samuel 29-30)
Abigail, - She dissuaded David from avenging himself on the surly farmer, and soon after the latter’s death married David ( 1 Samuel 25:39-42 ), and accompanied him to Gath and Ziklag ( 1Sa 27:3 ; 1 Samuel 30:5 ; 1 Samuel 30:18 ). Step-sister of David, mother of Amasa ( 2 Samuel 17:25 , 1 Chronicles 2:16 f
Shimel - A Benjamite kinsman of Saul, who insulted king David when fleeing before Absalom, and humbled himself on David's return. On both occasions David spared and forgave him; but when dying he cautioned Solomon against a man who knew no restraints but those of fear. An officer under David, and perhaps under Solomon, 1 Kings 1:8 ; 4:18
Barzillai - Man from Gilead east of the Jordan who met David at Mahanaim as he fled from Absalom. Barzillai and others gave needed supplies for David's company (1 Samuel 17:27-29 ). When David returned to Jerusalem, the eighty-year-old Barzillai accompanied him across the Jordan but refused to go to Jerusalem (1 Samuel 19:31-39 ). Barzillai may have served as David's host while he stayed east of the Jordan. His sons went to Jerusalem, and the dying David ensured their welfare (1 Kings 2:7 ). Father of Adriel whose sons David delivered to the Gibeonites for execution in payment for Saul's inhumane slaying of Gibeonites (1 Samuel 21:8 )
Abishai - ” Son of David's sister Zeruiah and brother of Joab, David's general (1 Chronicles 2:15-16 ). He was with David when he spared Abner (1 Samuel 26:7 ) and with Joab pursuing Abner (2 Samuel 2:24 ) and killing Abner (2 Samuel 3:30 ). He sought to kill Shimei for cursing David, but the king restrained him (2 Samuel 16:1 ; 2 Samuel 19:21 ). He led a third of David's troops against David's son Absalom (2 Samuel 18:1 ). He commanded forces against Sheba, who led a northern rebellion against David (2 Samuel 20:1 ). He killed Isbi-benob, the Philistine giant who threatened David (2 Samuel 21:15-17 ). A mighty captain, he was still not among David's elite three (2 Samuel 23:8-19 )
Shiggaion - In consonance with this the Hebrew root of Shiggaion occurs in Saul's address to David (1 Samuel 26:21), "behold I have played the fool and erred exceedingly" (compare Psalms 119:21; Psalms 119:118). Psalm 7 refers to David's being accused by Saul (the Benjamite, Cush the Ethiopian unchangeably black at heart toward David: Jeremiah 13:23; Amos 9:7; Cush similar to Kish, Saul's father) of plotting evil against him, whereas he returned good for evil in sparing Saul his deadly foe, when in his power (1 Samuel 24:7); "concerning the words" i. on account of the calumnies which men uttered against David to ingratiate themselves with the king, and which Saul gave ear to (1 Samuel 24:9; 1 Samuel 26:19). These David rebuts (Psalms 7:3-5)
Michal - Younger daughter of Saul, and wife of David. She helped David to escape when her father sought his death. When David was being persecuted she was given as wife to Phaltiel; but when David came into power he demanded of Abner that she should be restored to him. She did not share David's zeal for the Lord, for when he brought up the ark and danced in joy before it, she not only despised him in her heart but reproached him for it
Nathan - a prophet of the Lord, who appeared in Israel in the time of King David, and had a great share in the confidence of this prince. The first time we find him mentioned, is when David designed to build the temple, 2 Samuel 7:3 , &c. We find him mentioned again in the affair of David and Bathsheba, when he faithfully reproved the king for his wicked conduct, 2 Samuel 12:1-14 . And when Adonijah began to take upon him the state, and to assume the dignity of a sovereign, and to form a party in opposition to his brother Solomon, Nathan repaired to Bathsheba, and sent her immediately to the king with instructions what to say and while she was yet discoursing with the king, Nathan came in, reminded David of his promise, that Solomon should be his successor, and procured Solomon to be immediately anointed king of Israel
Jonath Elem Rechokim, Upon - Instead of impatient self justification David in meek silence committed his cause to God (Psalms 38:13; compare as to his being like a "dove" far from home Psalms 55:6-7). David's being "sore afraid" because of the Philistine question, "is not this David the king of the land? Did they not sing . David hath slain his ten thousands? answers to Psalms 56:3. Meek, dumb trust, and prayer to God, were David's resource. In Psalm 34 David gives thanks for the deliverance here prayed for
Machbannai - A Gadite who joined David at Ziklag ( 1 Chronicles 12:13 )
Shammu'ah, - son of David, (2 Samuel 5:14 ) elsewhere called Shammua and Shimea
Bichri - Father of Sheba who rose against David
Joelah - A warrior who joined David at Ziklag ( 1 Chronicles 12:7 )
Hup'Pah - (protected ), a priest in the time of David
Jeziel - A Benjamite who resorted to David at Ziklag
Joezer - A Korhite who resorted to David at Ziklag
Josabad - The Gederathite who resorted to David at Ziklag
Nathan - Several men named Nathan are mentioned in the Bible, one of them being a son of David in the line of descent that produced the Messiah (2 Samuel 5:14; Zechariah 12:12; Luke 3:31). But the best known Nathan is the prophet who belonged to David’s court. It was he who revealed that the permanent temple David desired to build was not necessary, and that God was more concerned with building a permanent dynasty for David (2 Samuel 7:1-17). God allowed the temple to be built, though by David’s son, not by David himself (2 Samuel 7:12-13; 1 Chronicles 28:3; 1 Chronicles 28:6). ...
Nathan was again God’s spokesman when he announced God’s judgment on David because of his sin with Bathsheba (2 Samuel 12:1-15). Nathan seems also to have been the person through whom God revealed that Solomon would be David’s successor as king (2 Samuel 12:24-25; 1 Chronicles 28:5-6; 1 Kings 1:17)
Goliath - He was slain, in single combat, by David (or, according to another tradition, by Elhanan) at Ephes-dammim, before an impending battle between the Philistines and the Israelites. That this ‘duel’ was of a religious character comes out clearly in 1 Samuel 17:43 ; 1 Samuel 17:45 , where we are told that the Philistine cursed David by his gods , while David replies: ‘ And I come to thee in the name of the Lord of hosts . ’ The fact that David brings the giant’s sword as an offering into the sanctuary at Nob points in the same direction. ); see, further, David, Elhanan
Ziklag - City in the south of Judah given to David by Achish, one of the Philistine kings. It was burned down by the Amalekites, and the inhabitants carried away during the absence of David; but the captives and the spoil were recovered. A list is given of the warriors who resorted to David at Ziklag while Saul was yet alive, and therefore while David was in rejection by the nation. Amasai, chief of the captains, said "Thine are we, David, and on thy side, thou son of Jesse: peace, peace be unto thee, and peace be to thine helpers; for thy God helpeth thee
Zoba - ) So wealthy had his kingdom been then that some of his servants bare shields of gold, which David took. Its cities Betah or Tibhath, and Berothai or Chun, yielded David "exceeding much brass
Nabal - He treated David very churlishly, and was saved from the disastrous consequence by his wife Abigail, whom David married after Nabal's death
Saul - When he failed to destroy Amalek as commanded by G-d, Samuel anointed David in his stead. Overcome with jealousy, Saul pursued David until he himself was killed in battle by the Philistines
Naioth - David sought refuge from Saul at Naioth. Three groups of royal messengers and finally Saul himself fell victim to prophetic frenzy when they attempted to capture David there
Sadoc - (Hebrew: just) ...
High priest chosen by David while Abiathar was high priest in Jerusalem (2 Kings 8). During Absalom's revolt, he brought the Ark back to Jerusalem, and stood by David during the crisis (id. To foil Adonias' plans, he anointed Solomon king before David's death (3Kings 1), and as a reward was appointed sole high priest (id
Jonathan - ...
The next four accounts about Jonathan focus on his friendship with David. First, Jonathan formed a close friendship with David by giving him his robe, armor, sword, bow, and girdle (1 Samuel 18:1-5 ). Second, Jonathan pleaded successfully with Saul to reinstate David (1 Samuel 19:1-7 ). Third, Jonathan left Saul's table angrily to inform David that the king would never receive David again (1 Samuel 20:1-42 ). Fourth, Jonathan held a final meeting with David at Horesh. They made covenant with one another as Jonathan acknowledged David as the next king (1 Samuel 23:16-18 ). Eventually, David had the bones buried in the land of Benjamin, in Zela in the tomb of Kish, Jonathan's grandfather (2 Samuel 21:12-14 ). See Saul ; David ; Mephibosheth . Son of Abiathar the priest in service to David (2 Samuel 15:24 ; 2Samuel 17:17,2 Samuel 17:20 ; 1 Kings 1:42-43 ). An uncle of David who functioned as counselor and scribe in the royal court (1 Chronicles 27:32 ). Son of Shimea or Shimeah, David's brother; slew a Philistine giant (2 Samuel 21:21 ; 1 Chronicles 20:7 ). Son of Shammah; one of David's thirty mighty men (2 Samuel 23:32-33 ; 1 Chronicles 11:34 ). Son of Uzziah, a royal treasurer in reign of David; called Jehonathan in 1 Chronicles 27:25
Anani - One of the sons of Elioenai, descendant of David
Haruphite - Designation of Shephatiah who resorted to David in Ziklag
Mattatha - —A grandson of David, named in our Lord’s genealogy, Luke 3:31
Rachal - Place where David was 'wont to haunt
Shemaah - Rumour, a Benjamite whose sons "came to David to Ziklag" (1 Chronicles 12:3 )
Mattatha - (mat' tuh thuh) Grandson of King David and ancestor of Christ (Luke 3:31 )
Ithream - Sixth son of David, by Eglah
Shitrai - The Sharonite who was chief herdsman of David at Sharon
Nogah - Son of David, born at Jerusalem
Nogah - One of the sons of David
Nathan - —A son of king David, named in our Lord’s genealogy, Luke 3:31
Bethsabee - Wife of Urias the Hethite, and afterwards wife of David and mother of Solomon (2 Kings 11). At the height of his glory David committed adultery with Bethsabee; had her husband placed in the thick of battle so that he might be killed; and then married her. In David's old age she prevailed upon him to have her son Solomon crowned king in place of his older brother Adonias (3Kings 1), who had proclaimed himself king without the knowledge of David
Ziba - He appears before David ( 2 Samuel 9:1-11 ), possessing 15 sons and 20 servants, and is consulted as to the existence of any members of the house of Saul. He informs David of the retreat of Mephibosheth , to whom David restores the lands of his father and appoints Ziba steward. On David’s flight from Jerusalem ( 2 Samuel 16:1-4 ) Ziba followed him with provisions, and accused Mephibosheth of treachery. He received a grant of his master’s lands, but on David’s return Mephibosheth was able to clear himself and was allowed to retain a half ( 2 Samuel 19:24-30 )
Salt, Valley of - A place where it is said David smote the Syrians (2 Samuel 8:13 ). It is conjectured that while David was leading his army against the Ammonites and Syrians, the Edomites invaded the south of Judah, and that David sent Joab or Abishai against them, who drove them back and finally subdued Edom
Maon - Pottery finds at tell Ma'in demonstrate occupation from the time of David. David took refuge from Saul in the wilderness to the east of Maon (1 Samuel 23:24-25 ). Nabal, who foolishly refused hospitality to David, was a resident of Maon (1 Samuel 25:2 )
Ahith'Ophel - (brother of foolishness ), a native of Giloh, was a privy councillor of David, whose wisdom was highly esteemed, though his name had an exactly opposite signification. (2 Samuel 11:3 ) with 2 Samuel 23:34 Ahithophel joined the conspiracy of Absalom against David, and persuaded him to take possession of the royal harem, ( 2 Samuel 16:21 ) and recommended an immediate pursuit of David
ab'Igail - ) When David's messengers were slighted by Nabal, Abigail supplies David and his followers with provisions, and succeeded in appeasing his anger. The days after this Nabal died, and David sent for Abigail and made her his wife. By her he had a son, called Chileab in (2 Samuel 3:3 ) but Daniel in (1 Chronicles 3:1 ) ...
A sister of David, married to Jether the Ishmaelite , and mother, by him , of Amasa
Abigail - When David's messengers were slighted by Nabal, Abigail supplied David and his followers with provisions, and succeeded in appeasing his anger. Ten days after this Nabal died, and David sent for Abigail and made her his wife. A sister of David, married to Jether the Ishmaelite, and mother, by him, of Amasa
Bath-Sheba - David first committed adultery with her, then caused her husband to be slain, and afterwards took her to wife. These sins displeased Jehovah, who sent the prophet Nathan to David, with the parable of the ewe lamb, 2 Samuel 12:1 . David bitterly repented, but was yet punished, 2 Samuel 11:12
Hushai - The Archite, David's friend. Being informed of Absalom's rebellion and that David was obliged to fly from Jerusalem, he met him on an eminence without the city, with his clothes rent and his head covered with earth. David suggested that if he went with him he would be a burden to him; but that he might do him important service if he should remain in Absalom's suite as an adviser. And gaining time for David, to whom he sent advices, was the cause of Ahithophel's suicide and of Absalom's miscarriage, 2 Samuel 15:32-37 ; 16:16-19 ; 17:1-29
Aza're-el, -
A Korhite who joined David in his retreat at Ziklag. ) ...
A Levite musician of the family of Heman in the time of David, (1 Chronicles 25:18 ) called 1 Chronicles 25:4 ) (B. ) ...
Son of Jeroham, and prince of the tribe of Dan when David numbered the people
Cherethites - They were such good soldiers that David, upon conquering the Philistines, used them to form his personal bodyguard, under the command of the tough Benaiah (2 Samuel 8:18; 2 Samuel 20:23). They were fiercely loyal to David through the rebellions of Absalom and Sheba, and they supported David’s chosen successor, Solomon, when there was an attempted coup against him (2 Samuel 15:18; 2 Samuel 20:7; 1 Kings 1:38). There is no mention of them after the death of David
Jeshaiah - Priest who used music to prophesy under David (1 Chronicles 25:3 ). Member of family of Levites with responsibility for treasury of God's house under David (1 Chronicles 26:25 )
Barzillai - ...
...
A Gileadite of Rogelim who was distinguished for his loyalty to David. David on his death-bed, remembering his kindness, commended Barzillai's children to the care of Solomon (1 Kings 2:7 )
Hushai - Friend and counsellor of David, who, by returning to Jerusalem at the revolt of Absalom, was able to frustrate the advice given by Ahithophel, and thus give David time to escape, and arrange his army for the war
Judah - Progenitor of King David, all the kings of the House of David, and the Moshiach
Jediael - Military leader under David (1 Chronicles 11:45 ). The same or a different warrior from the tribe of Manasseh joined David when he moved to Ziklag (1 Chronicles 12:20 )
Rizpah - Concubine of Saul, whose two sons Armoni and Mephibosheth were given up by David to avenge the deeds of Saul against the Gibeonites. Rizpah protected the bodies from the birds and the beasts day and night, until David had their remains interred
Jaziz - A Hagrite who was ‘over the flocks’ of king David ( 1 Chronicles 27:31 )
Berachah - One of Saul's brethren, yet attached himself to David at Ziklag (1 Chronicles 12:3)
Shoham - ” Levite in time of David (1 Chronicles 24:27 )
Eluzai - One of the mighty men who joined David at Ziklag ( 1 Chronicles 12:5 )
Shobi - Showed hospitality to David when fleeing from Absalom
Joelah - Son of Jeroham of Gedor: he resorted to David at Ziklag
Amasa - Captain of Judah's army replacing Joab during Absalom's rebellion against his father David (2 Samuel 17:25 ). He is related to David, but the texts leave some question as to the exact relationship. She was sister of Zeruiah, Joab's mother (2 Samuel 17:25 ) or sister to David and to Zeruiah, Joab's mother (1 Chronicles 2:16 ). When he defeated the rebel forces and Joab murdered Absalom (2 Samuel 18:14 ), David made peaceful overtones to Judah by inviting Amasa as his relative to assume command of his army (2 Samuel 19:13 ). Joab marched among David's army and cunningly killed Amasa (2 Samuel 20:10 ). This served as reason for David to advise Solomon to do away with Joab (1 Kings 2:5 ) and thus reason for Solomon to kill Joab (1 Kings 2:28-34 )
Michal - "Attracted by the graces of his person and the gallantry of his conduct, she fell in love with David and became his wife" (18:20-28). After this she did not see David for many years. Meanwhile she was given in marriage to another man, Phalti or Phaltiel of Gallim (1 Samuel 25:44 ), but David afterwards formally reclaimed her as his lawful wife (2 Samuel 3:13-16 ). The relation between her and David soon after this was altered. In David's conduct on that occasion she saw nothing but a needless humiliation of the royal dignity (1 Chronicles 15:29 ). She remained childless, and thus the races of David and Saul were not mixed
Eliab - David's oldest brother (1 Chronicles 2:13; 1 Samuel 16:6; 1 Samuel 17:13; 1 Samuel 17:28). Eliab betrayed anger without a cause toward David, when seeking his brethren's welfare ("Why camest thou down hither, and with whom hast thou left those few sheep in the wilderness?"); also "pride and naughtiness of heart," the very sins he charged David with ("I know thy pride," etc. ; he knew himself still less than he did David); uncharitable surmising instead of the love that thinketh no evil ("thou art come down that thou mightest see the battle". ) David meekly replied, "Is there not a cause?" (see Matthew 5:22; 1 Corinthians 13:4-7. A Gadite leader who joined David in the wilderness in his flight from Saul (1 Chronicles 12:9)
Abi'Athar - ) Abiathar was the only one of the all the sons of Ahimelech the high priest who escaped the slaughter inflicted upon his father's house by Saul, in revenge for his father's house by Saul, in revenge of his having inquired of the Lord for David and given him the shew-bread to eat. Abiathar having become high priest fled to David, and was thus enabled to inquire of the Lord for him. He adhered to David in his wanderings while pursued by Saul; he was with him while he reigned in Hebron, and afterwards in Jerusalem. (2 Samuel 15;24,29,35,36 ; 17:15-17 ; 19:11 ) When, however, Adonijah set himself up fro David's successor on the throne, in opposition to Solomon, Abiathar sided with him, while Zadok was on Solomon's side. Zadok had joined David at Hebron, (1 Chronicles 12:28 ) so that there was henceforth who high priests in the reign of David, and till the deposition of Abiathar by Solomon, when Zadok became the sole high priest
Achish -
The king with whom David sought refuge when he fled from Saul (1Samuel 21:10-15). It was probably this same king to whom David a second time repaired at the head of a band of 600 warriors, and who assigned him Ziklag, whence he carried on war against the surrounding tribes (1Samuel 27:5-12). Achish had great confidence in the valour and fidelity of David (1Samuel 28:1,2), but at the instigation of his courtiers did not permit him to go up to battle along with the Philistine hosts (1Samuel 29:2-11). David remained with Achish a year and four months
Araunah - The Jebusite from whom David purchased the place on which to build the altar of the Lord. In Samuel it is stated that David bought the threshing floor and the oxen for fifty shekels of silver. He there built an altar, and offered burnt offerings and peace offerings, without anything being said of his building a house for the Lord on the spot: whereas in Chronicles David gave to Ornan 600 shekels of gold by weight for the place. 3:1,2 we learn that the threshing floor was on Mount Moriah, and that the site was prepared by David for the temple, which was built by Solomon. Doubtless therefore 'the place' included a much larger area than was needed for David's altar, and perhaps included the homestead of Araunah
Ahithophel - a native of Giloh, who, after having been David's counsellor, joined in the rebellion of Absalom, and assisted him with his advice. Hushai, the friend of David, was employed to counteract the counsels of Ahithophel, and to deprive Absalom, under a pretence of serving him, of the advantage that was likely to result from the measures which he proposed. One of these measures was calculated to render David irreconcilable, and was immediately adopted; and the other to secure, or to slay him. Before the last counsel was followed, Hushai's advice was desired; and he recommended their assembling together the whole force of Israel, putting Absalom at their head, and overwhelming David by their number. He probably foresaw Absalom's defeat, and dreaded the punishment which would be inflicted on himself as a traitor, when David was resettled on the throne, A
na'Than -
An eminent Hebrew prophet in the reigns of David and Solomon. ) He first appears in the consultation with David about the building of the temple. (2 Samuel 7:2,3,17 ) He next comes forward as the reprover of David for the sin with Bathsheba; and his famous apologue on the rich man and the ewe lamb, which is the only direct example of his prophetic power, shows it to have been of a very high order. (2 Samuel 12:1-12 ) ...
A son of David; one of the four who were borne to him by Bathsheba. (1 Chronicles 3:5 ) comp, 1 Chronicles 14:4 and 2 Samuel 5:14 ...
Son or brother of one of the members of David's guard
Adonijah - During what appeared to be the last days of the aged king David, his son Adonijah decided to establish himself as king before David died. He was the eldest of David’s surviving sons (cf. But God had showed David that Solomon was to succeed him (1 Chronicles 28:5), and Solomon had the support of the commander of the royal bodyguard Benaiah, the other leading priest Zadok, and the prophet Nathan (1 Kings 1:8). As a result of swift action by Nathan, David promptly declared Solomon to be king. ...
Soon after David’s death, however, Solomon executed Adonijah for treason. He considered Adonijah’s request for Abishag as wife was a claim to David’s concubines, and therefore a claim to David’s throne (1 Kings 2:13-25; see ABISHAG)
Shama - ” Military hero under David (1 Chronicles 11:44 )
Mishmannah - Fatness, one of the Gadite heroes who gathered to David at Ziklag (1 Chronicles 12:10 )
Elishua - God his salvation, a son of David, 2 Samuel 5:15 = Elishama, 1 Chronicles 3:6
Shemariah -
One who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chronicles 12:5 )
Rei - Friendly, one who maintained true allegiance to king David (1 Kings 1:8 ) when Adonijah rebelled
Sihim'ma, - the third son of Jesse, and brother of David
Beno - ” A Levite under David (1 Chronicles 24:26-27 )
Machbanai - (mk' buh nee) Military captain of tribe of Gad who served David (1 Chronicles 12:13 )
Raavad - Rabbi Avraham ben David of Provence, Posquieres, Provence; author of critical glosses on Maimonides' Mishneh Torah ...
Davidic - ) Of or pertaining to David, the king and psalmist of Israel, or to his family
Shemaah - A Benjamite, father of Ahiezer and Joash who joined David at Ziklag
Turei zahav - David HaLevi (1586-1667) in Poland...
Elipheleh - Levite appointed as musician and door-keeper in the time of David
Ber'Achah - (blessing ), a Benjamite who attached himself to David at Ziklag
Shimea - Son of David (1 Chronicles 3:5 ; spelled Shammuah in 2 Samuel 5:14 ). Older brother of David (1 Chronicles 2:13 ; 1 Chronicles 20:7 ; spelled Shammah in 1 Samuel 16:9 ; 1 Samuel 17:13 )
Shephatiah -
A son of David by Abital (2 Samuel 3:4 ). ...
...
A Benjamite who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chronicles 12:5 ). ...
...
A Simeonite prince in David's time (1 Chronicles 27:16 )
Amasa -
The son of Abigail, a sister of king David (1 Chronicles 2:17 ; 2 Samuel 17:25 ). He was appointed by David to command the army in room of his cousin Joab (2 Samuel 19:13 ), who afterwards treacherously put him to death as a dangerous rival (2 Samuel 20:4-12 )
Besor - ” Brook where David left 200 weary soldiers while he and the remaining 400 pursued the Amalekites after they had burned Ziklag and captured David's wives (1 Samuel 30:9-10 ). David rewarded those who stayed as well as those who fought (1 Samuel 30:21-24 )
Zadok - Son of Ahitub, and one of the two high priests in the time of David, Abiathar being the other. He joined David at Hebron, 1 Chronicles 12:28, and subsequently anointed Solomon king, 1 Kings 1:39, and was rewarded by Solomon for his faithful service by being made sole high priest
Chimham - Apparently the son of Barzillai, the patron of David when he fled to Mahanaim east of the Jordan before Absalom (2 Samuel 19:37 ). Chimham returned with David to Jerusalem when Barzillai refused to leave his home
Ziba - A rich steward of Saul, whom David charged with similar duties towards Mephibosheth, son of Jonathan, 2 Samuel 9:2-10 . By a false representation David was induced to transfer to Ziba the lands he had given to Mephibosheth, but afterwards divided them between the two, being convinced that he had acted hastily, and unable to decide with certainty for either, 2 Samuel 16:1-4 ; 19:24-30
hu'Sha-i, - He is called the "friend" of David. 1 Chronicles 27:33 To him David confided the delicate and dangerous part of a pretended adherence to the cause of Absalom
Nathan - A distinguished prophet of Judæa, in the reigns of David and Solomon. Nathan was to tell David that he could not build the temple, and to point out David's sin against Uriah, which he conveyed under the striking allegory of the rich man and the ewe-lamb. Nathan was one of David's biographers, 1 Chronicles 29:29, and also Solomon's. One of the sons of David by Bathsheba. Father of one of David's warriors
Abigail - Formerly the wife of Nabal of Carmel, and afterwards of David. Upon receiving information of Nabal's ingratitude to David, 1 Samuel 25:14 , she loaded several asses with provisions, and attended by some of here domestics went out to meet him. A sister of David, and mother of Amasa, 1 Chronicles 2:16,17
Adonijah - The fourth son of David, by Haggith, 2 Samuel 3:4 . Having gained over Joab and Abiathar and other adherents, he at length openly revolted and claimed the crown while David was yet living. But soon after the death of David, he applied for the hand of Abishag, thus renewing his pretensions to the throne, for which he was put to death, 1 Kings 1:1-2:46
Shephati'ah -
The fifth son of David. ) ...
One of the Benjamite warriors who joined David in his retreat at Ziklag. ) ...
Chief of the Simeonites in the reign of David
Abigail - "
The sister of David, and wife of Jether an Ishmaelite (1Chronicles 2:16,17). " After Nabal's death she became the wife of David (1Samuel 25:14-42), and was his companion in all his future fortunes (1Samuel 27:3; 30:5; 2 Samuel 2:2 ). By her David had a son called Chileab (2Samuel 3:3), elsewhere called Daniel (1Chronicles 3:1)
Jer'Imoth - (1 Chronicles 7:7 ) He is perhaps the same as ...
who joined David at Ziklag. ) ...
Son of Zariel, ruler of the tribe of Naphtali in the reign of David. (1 Chronicles 27:19 ) ...
Son of King David, whose daughter Mahalath was one of the wives of Rehoboam, her cousin Abihail being the other
Abishai - With his brothers Joab and Asahel, Abishai joined David during David’s flight from Saul. The brothers, though related to David and strong supporters of him, were a constant worry to David because of their hotheadedness. He became one of the highest ranked officers in David’s army, being commander of that group of ‘mighty men’ known as The Thirty (2 Samuel 23:18-19)
Ibri - ” A Levite under King David (1 Chronicles 24:27 )
Bealiah - A Benjamite who joined David at Ziklag ( 1 Chronicles 12:5 )
Abital - ” Wife of David (2 Samuel 3:4 )
je'zi-el - (the assembly of God ), a Benjamite who joined David at Ziklag
ma'Och - (oppression ) the father of Achish king of Gath, with whom David took refuge
Ben - (son ), a Levite, one of the porters appointed by David for the ark
Rei - A friend of David, mentioned when Adonijah set himself up to be king
David, King - When Saul was ill,David was brought to soothe him by playing on his harp; in reward he was made Saul's armor-bearer. During the Philistine war, David, relying on God, slew the giant Goliath and won the friendship of Jonathan, son of Saul. When Saul and Jonathan fell at Gilboa, David, by God's command, went up to Hebron to claim the throne. At Isobeth's death David was accepted by all Israel. By his successful wars David made Israel an independent state, established his capital in Jerusalem, and transported thither the Ark of the Covenant. During the Ammonite war David sinned with Bethsabee, wife of Urias, and married her after indirectly murdering Urias
Nathan - Third son of David by Bath-sheba ( 2 Samuel 5:14 , but note 2 Samuel 12:24 ). In Zechariah 12:12 the Nathan who is recognized as head of a house is probably David’s son. In Luke 3:31 the genealogy of Jesus is traced through Nathan to David. The prophet, a confidential adviser of David. The next appearance of Nathan is in connexion with the parable of the ewe lamb, by which David was self-convicted of his sin with Bath-sheba ( 2 Samuel 12:1-15 ). The third service was rendered alike to David and to Solomon. It was fitting that a Life of David should come from this friendly hand ( 1 Chronicles 29:29 ). Father of Igal, one of David’s heroes ( 2 Samuel 23:36 )
Sim'ri - (vigilant ), properly Shimri, son of Hosah, a Merarite Levite in the reign of David
Hizkiah - A son of Neariah, a descendant of David ( 1 Chronicles 3:23 )
Neariah - A descendant of David ( 1 Chronicles 3:22 f
Jesse - —The father of king David, named in our Lord’s genealogy (Matthew 1:5 f
Ismaiah - A Gibeonite, the head of David's thirty valiant men: he joined David at Ziklag
Ibhar - Son of David, born at Jerusalem
Hagrite - Jaziz the Hagrite was ‘over the flocks’ of king David ( 1 Chronicles 27:31 )
Elpalet - Son of David born at Jerusalem
Hagerite - Designation of Jaziz, whom David set over his flocks
Jaziz - ” Chief shepherd under David
ze'ri - (built ), one of the sons of Jeduthun in the reign of David
Mishman'Nah - (fatness ), the fourth of the twelve lion-faced Gadites who joined David at Ziklag
Beali'ah - (Jehovah is lord ), a Benjamite who went over to David at Ziklag
Jesse - —The father of king David, named in our Lord’s genealogy (Matthew 1:5 f
Jonathan - This valiant and generous prince, "strong like a lion and swift like an eagle," 2 Samuel 1:23, loved David as his own soul. When he knew that David was chosen of God for the throne, he nobly yielded his own claims, and while holding to his father he had a pure and disinterested friendship for David. The beauty and pathos of the elegy in which David laments his friend are unsurpassed in literature. David found and cared for the only son Mephibosheth
Hereth - ” Forest in which David hid from Saul after settling his parents with the king of Moab (1 Samuel 22:5 ). From Hereth, David attacked the Philistines at Keilah (1 Samuel 23:1-5 )
Horesh - As David hid there from Saul, Jonathan, Saul's son, came out to help him and made a covenant of mutual help (1 Samuel 23:15-18 ). The people of Ziph revealed David's hideout, but David still escaped
Ishmaiah - Military hero from Gibeon in charge of David's select “thirty” warriors (1 Chronicles 12:4 ), though he is not listed among the “thirty” in 2 Samuel 23:1 or 1 Chronicles 11:1 . He does illustrate early support for David from Saul's tribe of Benjamin. Head of tribe of Zebulun under David (1 Chronicles 27:19 )
Jedidiah - A name God told David to give to his son Solomon (2 Samuel 12:25 ). Despite David's sin with Bathsheba and the death of the child of their sinful relationship, God showed His love to their child Solomon, thus underlining God's forgiving nature and His continued commitment to David and his royal house
Shmuel - Anointed Saul and David, the first two Israelite monarchs. ...
Shmuel: The (two-part) book of Tanach relating the history of the Israelites during Samuel's lifetime and during the reigns of Saul and David (931-c
Jesse - Son of Obed, a Bethlehemite, and father of David. Little is recorded of Jesse, but his name constantly occurs in the description of David as 'the son of Jesse
Palti - Second husband of Michal, King Saul's daughter who had previously been given in marriage to David (1 Samuel 25:44 ; KJV, Phalti). Michal was later returned to David in consequence of Abner's defection from Ishbosheth (2 Samuel 3:15-16 )
Ziklag - A city of Judah and Simeon, on the borders of the Philistines, Joshua 15:31 ; 19:5 , who held it until the time of Saul, when Achish king of Gath gave it to David. Hither many other refugees from Judah resorted, and David was thus enabled to aid Achish, and to chastise the Amalekites who had sacked Ziklag during his absence, 1 Samuel 27:1 - 6 ; 30:1-31 ; Nehemiah 11:28
Hasadiah - Favoured by Jehovah, one of the sons of Pedaiah (1 Chronicles 3:20 ), of the royal line of David
Jeribai - ” Military leader under David (1 Chronicles 11:46 )
Ishbi-Benob - A Philistine giant, who attacked David and was slain by Abishai (2 Samuel 21:16-17)
Raddai - ” Son of Jesse and brother of David (1 Chronicles 2:14 )
Ithream - The sixth son of David, born to him at Hebron ( 2 Samuel 3:5 , 1 Chronicles 3:3 )
Beeliada - Son of David, 1 Chronicles 14
Scrabble - To make marks': it is what David did on the door when he feigned madness
Abital - Wife of David and mother of Shephatiah ( 2 Samuel 3:4 = 1 Chronicles 3:3 )
Eli'Athah - (to whom God comes ), a musician in the temple in the time of King David
Abiathar - He survived the slaughter of the priests at Nob and fled to David, hiding in the cave of Adullam from King Saul (1 Samuel 22:1 ). Having escaped with the ephod, Abiathar became the high priest and chief counselor for David (1 Samuel 23:6 ). Repeatedly, he inquired of the Lord for David (1 Samuel 23:9 ; 1 Samuel 30:7 ; 2 Samuel 2:1 ; 2 Samuel 5:19 ). While Abiathar remained faithful to David during Absalom's rebellion (2 Samuel 15:1 ), he later supported Adonijah as successor of King David instead of Solomon (1 Kings 1:7 ). Only because of his faithful service to Solomon's father, King David, was he spared the death penalty (1 Kings 2:26-27 ). ...
Mark 2:26 records Jesus' statement that David took the showbread from the place of worship when Abiathar was high priest at Nob
Abiathar - Abiathar was the only one of all the sons of Ahimelech the high priest who escaped the slaughter inflicted upon his father's house by Saul, in revenge for his having inquired of the Lord for David and given him the shewbread to eat. Abiathar having become high priest fled to David, and was thus enabled to inquire of the Lord for him. He adhered to David in his wanderings while pursued by Saul; he was with him while he reigned in Hebron, and afterwards in Jerusalem. When, however, Adonijah set himself up for David's successor on the throne, in opposition to Solomon, Abiathar sided with him, while Zadok was on Solomon's side. Zadok had joined David at Hebron, 1 Chronicles 12:28, so that there were henceforth two high priests in the reign of David, and till the deposition of Abiathar by Solomon, when Zadok became the sole high priest, thus fulfilling the prophecy of 1 Samuel 2:30. The Lord Jesus, Mark 2:26, names Abiathar as the high priest in whose time David ate the shewbread. Perhaps too the loaves, being his perquisite, Leviticus 24:9, were actually handed by Abiathar to David
Hushai - Hushai was “David's friend” (2 Samuel 15:37 ), probably referring to an official government post as in Egypt, a close personal adviser somewhat like the secretary of state. As David escaped, leaving Jerusalem to his son Absalom, Hushai joined him, mourning (2 Samuel 15:32 ). David sent him back to deceive Absalom (2 Samuel 15:34 ; 2 Samuel 16:16-19 ). His counsel to Absalom bought time for David to establish new headquarters and gather forces for new strategy (2 Samuel 17:1 ). ...
Solomon's commissioner in charge of collecting royal provisions in Asher was the son of Hushai, perhaps the same as “David's friend” (1 Kings 4:16 )
Keilah - David rescued it from the attack of the Philistines (1 Samuel 23:1-8 ); but the inhabitants proving unfaithful to him, in that they sought to deliver him up to Saul (13), he and his men "departed from Keilah, and went whithersoever they could go. "And David was in the wilderness of Ziph, in a wood" (1 Samuel 23:15 ). " This was the last interview between David and Jonathan (23:16-18)
Nabal - David, while living as an outlaw and freebooter, demanded at Nabal’s sheepshearing his reward for defending his flocks ( 1 Samuel 25:5 ff. Nabal, inflamed with wine, returned an insolent answer, and David was prevented from wreaking terrible vengeance only by the timely arrival of Abigail, Nabal’s wife, with large gifts and abundant flattery. The word Nabal means ‘fool,’ and Abigail, with wifely candour, says to David, ‘Fool is his name and fool is he. Abigail then became David’s wife
Ahithophel - A Gilonite, grandfather of Bathsheba, and a very wise counsellor of David, of whom it is said that all his counsel was "as if a man had inquired at the oracle of God. " He joined in the rebellion of Absalom, and advised him to go in publicly to David's concubines, and to let him make an immediate attack on David. The latter counsel not being followed, and a preference being given to the advice of Hushai, who was acting for David, Ahithophel returned to his house, set his household in order, and hanged himself
Abishai - Son of David's sister Zeruiah, and brother of Joab. He was one of David's officers and served him many years. He accompanied David into Saul's camp while he slept. In his zeal for David he asked permission to slay Shimei. In the rebellion of Absalom he commanded a third of David's army. He rescued David from Ishbi-benob the giant. He was captain of the second three of David's 'mighty men,' and slew three hundred men
it'ta-i - the native of Gath, a Philistine in the army of King David. ) We first discern him on the morning of David's flight. Accordingly he is allowed by David to proceed. When the army was numbered and organized by David at Mahanaim, Ittai again appears, now in command of a third part of the force. ( 2 Samuel 18:2,5,12 ) ...
Son of Ribai, from Gibeah of Benjamin; one of the thirty heroes of David's guard
Gath - It also became well known as the place where David took refuge from Saul (1 Samuel 21:10-15; 1 Samuel 27). Certain men of Gath became close friends of David. When David became king of Israel, he entrusted some of these men with important responsibilities (2 Samuel 6:10-11; 2 Samuel 15:19-21; 2 Samuel 18:2). Others became full-time soldiers in David’s army (2 Samuel 15:18)
Jebusites - ...
When David came to Jerusalem he was defied by the Jebusite inhabitants, who apparently held it by a strong fort; but 'David took the stronghold of Zion,' and called it the city of David. Some of the Jebusites were however in Jerusalem long after; for it was the threshing floor of Araunah, or Ornan, the Jebusite, that David bought at the time of the plague
Haziel - ” A leading Levite in the time of David (1 Chronicles 23:9 )
Ibhar - ” Son born to David after he moved to Jerusalem (2 Samuel 5:15 )
Obil - A keeper of camels, an Ishmaelite who was "over the camels" in the time of David (1 Chronicles 27:30 )
Pelet - ...
...
A Benjamite who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chronicles 12:3 )
Ozem - An elder brother of David ( 1 Chronicles 2:15 )
Ohel - ” Descendant of David (1 Chronicles 3:20 )
Elzabad - A Gadite chief who joined David ( 1 Chronicles 12:12 )
Betah - City of Hadadezer, from which David took much brass
Ezel - Some stone, or cairn, near Saul's residence, the scene of the interview of David and Jonathan
Perazim, Mount - A place probably connected with BAAL-PERAZIM,where David smote the Philistines
Shobach - Killed by David
Jesse - (10th century BCE) Father of King David, grandson of Ruth, husband of Nitzevet
Achitophel - An able counselor of King David, who shared in Absalom's rebellion; being defeated, he withdrew to Gilo and strangled himself
ja'Irite - The IRA THE JAIRITE was a priest (Authorized Version "chief ruler") to David (2 Samuel 20:26 )
ib'ri - (Hebrew ), a Merarite Levite of the family of Jaaziah, ( 1 Chronicles 24:27 ) in the time of David
ja'Ziz - (whom God moves ), a Hagarite who had charge of the flocks of King David
Eglah - One of the wives of David, and mother of Ithream ( 2 Samuel 3:5 , 1 Chronicles 3:3 )
Jesiah - ” Member of Saul's tribe of Benjamin who joined David at Ziklag as David fled before Saul (1 Chronicles 12:6 )
Samuel - Anointed Saul and David, the first two Israelite monarchs. ...
Samuel, the book of: The (two-part) book of Tanach relating the history of the Israelites during Samuel's lifetime and during the reigns of Saul and David (931-c
Hadadezer - He was twice defeated by king David's armies. Among the spoils were shields of gold, 1 Chronicles 18:4-7, which David took to Jerusalem. Some years afterward they became tributary to David
David - ...
While David, in the freshness of ruddy youth, was thus engaged with his flocks, Samuel paid an unexpected visit to Bethlehem, having been guided thither by divine direction (1 Samuel 16:1-13 ). David was sent for, and the prophet immediately recognized him as the chosen of God, chosen to succeed Saul, who was now departing from the ways of God, on the throne of the kingdom. David went back again to his shepherd life, but "the Spirit of the Lord came upon David from that day forward," and "the Spirit of the Lord departed from Saul" (1 Samuel 16:13,14 ). ...
Not long after this David was sent for to soothe with his harp the troubled spirit of Saul, who suffered from a strange melancholy dejection. The armies of the Philistines and of Israel were in battle array in the valley of Elah, some 16 miles south-west of Bethlehem; and David was sent by his father with provisions for his three brothers, who were then fighting on the side of the king. On his arrival in the camp of Israel, David (now about twenty years of age) was made aware of the state of matters when the champion of the Philistines, Goliath of Gath, came forth to defy Israel. David took his sling, and with a well-trained aim threw a stone "out of the brook," which struck the giant's forehead, so that he fell senseless to the ground. David then ran and slew him, and cut off his head with his own sword (1 Samuel 17 ). ...
David's popularity consequent on this heroic exploit awakened Saul's jealousy (1 Samuel 18:6-16 ), which he showed in various ways. The deep-laid plots of the enraged king, who could not fail to observe that David "prospered exceedingly," all proved futile, and only endeared the young hero the more to the people, and very specially to Jonathan, Saul's son, between whom and David a life-long warm friendship was formed. To escape from the vengeance of Saul, David fled to Ramah (1 Samuel 19:12-18 ) to Samuel, who received him, and he dwelt among the sons of the prophets, who were there under Samuel's training. Jonathan made a fruitless effort to bring his father to a better state of mind toward David (1 Samuel 20 ), who, being made aware of the fact, saw no hope of safety but in flight to a distance. The king of the Philistines would not admit him into his service, as he expected that he would, and David accordingly now betook himself to the stronghold of Adullam (22:1-4; 1 Chronicles 12:8-18 ). It was at this time that David, amid the harassment and perils of his position, cried, "Oh that one would give me drink of the water of the well of Bethlehem;" when three of his heroes broke through the lines of the Philistines and brought him the water for which he longed (2 Samuel 23:13-17 ), but which he would not drink. ...
In his rage at the failure of all his efforts to seize David, Saul gave orders for the massacre of the entire priestly family at Nob, "persons who wore a linen ephod", to the number of eighty-five persons, who were put to death by Doeg the Edomite. The sad tidings of the massacre were brought to David by Abiathar, a son of Ahimelech, the only one who escaped. ...
Hearing that Keilah, a town on the western frontier, was harassed by the Philistines, David with his men relieved it (1 Samuel 23:1-14 ); and then, for fear of Saul, he fled to the strongholds in the "hill country" of Judah. Saul continued his pursuit of David, who narrowly escaped from him at this time, and fled to the crags and ravines of Engedi, on the western shore of the Dead Sea (1 Samuel 23:29 ). Here Saul, who still pursued him with his army, narrowly escaped, through the generous forbearance of David, and was greatly affected by what David had done for him. He returned home from pursuing him, and David betook himself to Maon, where, with his 600 men, he maintained himself by contributions gathered from the district. Here occurred the incident connected with Nabal and his wife Abigail (1 Samuel 25 ), whom David married after Nabal's death. ...
Saul again went forth (1 Samuel 26 ) in pursuit of David, who had hid himself "in the hill Hachilah, which is before Jeshimon," in the wilderness of Ziph, and was a second time spared through his forbearance. He returned home, professing shame and penitence for the way in which he had treated David, and predicting his elevation to the throne. Harassed by the necessity of moving from place to place through fear of Saul, David once more sought refuge among the Philistines (1 Samuel 27 ). Here David lived among his followers for some time as an independent chief engaged in frequent war with the Amalekites and other tribes on the south of Judah. ...
Achish summoned David with his men to join his army against Saul; but the lords of the Philistines were suspicious of David's loyalty, and therefore he was sent back to Ziklag, which he found to his dismay may had been pillaged and burnt during his brief absence. David pursued after the raiders, the Amalekites, and completely routed them. David and his men rent their clothes and mourned for Saul, who had been defeated in battle near Mount Gilboa. David composed a beautiful elegy, the most beautiful of all extant Hebrew odes, a "lamentation over Saul and over Jonathan his son" (2 Samuel 1:18-27 ). ...
David king over Judah. David and his men now set out for Hebron under divine direction (2 Samuel 2:1-4 ). Other encounters, however, between Israel and Judah followed (2 Samuel 3:1,5 ), but still success was on the side of David. For the space of seven and a half years David reigned in Hebron. Abner now sided with David, and sought to promote his advancement; but was treacherously put to death by Joab in revenge for his having slain his brother Asahel at Gibeon (3:22-39). This was greatly to David's regret. Shortly after this Ish-bosheth was also treacherously put to death by two Canaanites of Beeroth; and there being now no rival, David was anointed king over all Israel (4:1-12). ...
David king over all Israel (2 Samuel 5:1-5 ; 1 Chronicles 11:1-3 ). The elders of Israel now repaired to Hebron and offered allegiance to David in name of all the people, among whom the greatest enthusiasm prevailed. This David took from the Jebusites, and made it Israel's capital, and established here his residence, and afterwards built for himself a palace by the aid of Tyrian tradesmen. The Philistines, who had for some time observed a kind of truce, now made war against David; but were defeated in battle at a place afterwards called, in remembrance of the victory, Baal-perazim. ...
David now resolved to bring up the ark of the covenant to his new capital (2 Samuel 6 ). In consequence of the death of Uzzah (for it was a divine ordinance that only the Levites should handle the ark, Numbers 4 ), who had put forth his hand to steady the ark when the cart in which it was being conveyed shook by reason of the roughness of the road, David stayed the procession, and conveyed the ark into the house of Obed-edom, a Philistine from Gath. After three months David brought the ark from the house of Obed-edom up to Jerusalem. Here it was placed in a new tent or tabernacle which David erected for the purpose. David now (1 Chronicles 16 ) carefully set in order all the ritual of divine worship at Jerusalem, along with Abiathar the high priest. " ...
David's wars. David now entered on a series of conquests which greatly extended and strengthened his kingdom (2 Samuel 8 ). ...
David's fall. She gave birth to a second son, whom David called Solomon, and who ultimately succeeded him on the throne (2 Samuel 12:24,25 ). After the successful termination of all his wars, David formed the idea of building a temple for the ark of God. Hitherto David's carrer had been one of great prosperity and success. This brought sore trouble to David's heart. This was soon after followed by a pestilence, brought upon the land as a punishment for David's sinful pride in numbering the people (2 Samuel 24 ), in which no fewer than 70,000 perished in the space of three days. The personal respect for David was sadly lowered by the incident of Bathsheba. There was a strong popular sentiment against the taking of the census, and the outburst of the plague in connection with it deepened the feeling of jealously that had begun to manifest itself among some of the tribes against David. David was now in imminent danger, and he left Jerusalem (2 Samuel 15:13-20 ), and once more became a fugitive. David fled with his followers to Mahanarm, on the east of Jordan. The tidings of the death of his rebellious son filled the heart of David with the most poignant grief. He "went up to the chamber over the gate, and wept" (33), giving utterance to the heart-broken cry, "Would God I had died for thee, O Absalom, my son, my son!" Peace was now restored, and David returned to Jerusalem and resumed the direction of affairs. After the suppression of the rebellion of Absalom and that of Sheba, ten comparatively peaceful years of David's life passed away. The chiefs of his party met at the "Fuller's spring," in the valley of Kidron, to proclaim him king; but Nathan hastened on a decision on the part of David in favour of Solomon, and so the aim of Adonijah's party failed. David's last words are a grand utterance, revealing his unfailing faith in God, and his joyful confidence in his gracious covenant promises (2 Samuel 23:1-7 ). ...
After a reign of forty years and six months (2 Samuel 5:5 ; 1 Chronicles 3:4 ) David died (B. 1015) at the age of seventy years, "and was buried in the city of David. ...
Both in his prophetical and in his regal character David was a type of the Messiah (1 Samuel 16:13 ). The book of Psalms commonly bears the title of the "Psalms of David," from the circumstance that he was the largest contributor (about eighty psalms) to the collection. ) ...
"The greatness of David was felt when he was gone
Jehdeiah - An officer of David ( 1 Chronicles 27:30 )
Zillethai - A Manassite who joined David at Ziklag ( 1 Chronicles 12:20 )
Siph'Moth - (fruitful ), one of the places in the south of Judah which David frequented during his freebooting life
Haruphite - A native of Hariph; an epithet given to Shephatiah, one of those who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chronicles 12:5 )
Jaaziah - (jay uh zi uh) A Levitical priest in the time of David (1 Chronicles 24:26 )
Jeriah - ” Priest under David and Solomon (1 Chronicles 23:19 ; 1 Chronicles 24:23 )
Siphmoth - Fruitful places, some unknown place in the south, where David found friends when he fled from Saul (1 Samuel 30:28 )
Naioth - Place near Ramah, where Samuel resided, and whither David resorted
Hashubah - ” Son of Zerubbabel in the royal line of David (1 Chronicles 3:20 )
Helam - of Euphrates, where Hadarezer and the Syrians were defeated by David (2 Samuel 10:16-17)
Shiza - Member of tribe of Reuben in time of David (1 Chronicles 11:42 )
Flea - 1 Samuel 24:14 (a) David thus describes his own insignificance, weakness and worthlessness in his own sight
Shimea, Shimeah - Son of Jesse and brother of David
Elishua - Son of David born in Jerusalem
Chenani'ah - (established by the Lord ), chief of the Levites when David carried the ark to Jerusalem
Goliath - a famous giant of the city of Gath, who was slain by David, 1 Samuel 17:4-5 , &c
David, City of - BETHLEHEM, Luke 2:11 : so called because David was born there
Zeruiah - Sister of David, and mother of his famous generals, Joab, Abishai, and Asahel, 1 Chronicles 2:16
Elu'za-i - (God is my praise ), one of the warriors of Benjamin who joined David at Ziklag
Eli'am -
Father of Bath-sheba, the wife of David. (11:3) ...
One of David's "thirty" warriors
Ahithophel - I shall do my best to put myself first into Ahithophel's place, and then into David's place, and then I shall tell you exactly and honestly what I see and what I feel, first as to Ahithophel, and then as to David. The counsel of Ahithophel was a proverb in Israel in David's day. There was no one fit to hold the candle to Ahithophel in that day, unless it was Hushai the Archite, another of David's astutest counsellors. 'For the counsel of Ahithophel,' says the sacred writer, 'which he counselled in those days, was as if a man had inquired at the oracle of God: so was all the counsel of Ahithophel both with David and with Absalom. If the traditional interpretation of the fifty-fifth and some other Ahithophel psalms is true and is to be taken, David and Ahithophel had been bosom friends from their boyhood up. David and Ahithophel were such close companions, indeed, that had it not been for Jonathan, the proverb might have run thus-David and Ahithophel: so was the soul of David knit to the soul of Ahithophel. Jonathan strengthened David's hand in God, it is true; but this out of David and about Ahithophel is almost as good. ' Till, when David's time came to be lifted up of God into the throne of Israel, Ahithophel was proud to lay all his magnificent gifts of sound advice and incomparable counsel at David's feet. And Ahithophel continued to do that for all the best and most shining years of David's kingdom. David never made a law, nor gave a judgment, nor proclaimed a war, nor negotiated a truce, nor signed a peace, till Ahithophel had been heard, and till his advice had been taken. ...
All that Ahithophel was to David in the council-chamber, all that Eliam, Ahithophel's only son, was in the army. The father's splendid talents for counsel came out in the shape of soldierly service in the son; and the son was as devoted to David in the field as his father was in the chamber. This Uriah was not an Israelite-he was a Hittite; but he was as brave and as loyal to David as if he had been an Hebrew of the Hebrews. David's devoted bodyguard had their quarters built for them in the city of David, and just under the walls of David's palace; and when Uriah came home on furlough, he was the happiest man in all Jerusalem with such a wife, and with Eliam and with Ahithophel. As time went on, and as Ahithophel counselled for David, and as Eliam and Uriah fought for David, David's power increased till the King of Israel denied himself nothing on which he had once set his heart. Ahithophel would have been Jesus Christ Himself to have continued after all that to take sweet counsel with David, and to walk with David unto the house of God in company. I do not like to listen to all the names you would have called Ahithophel and Eliam had they still remained in David's service, and had they still eaten David's bread, with Bathsheba in David's bed and with her husband in his grave. I do not know what all you would have called Eliam and Ahithophel had they winked in that way at David's adultery and blood-guiltiness. ...
It was all that Ahithophel could do: he shook the dust off his feet, and Ahithophel returned home out of the city of David to his own city of Giloh. And no sooner had Ahithophel left David than the Lord sent Nathan to David. And Nathan said to David, Thus saith the Lord God of Israel, I anointed thee king over Israel, and I delivered thee out of the hand of Saul. And, after that, our hearts stand still as we watch how the vengeance of God came down on David's head, and how the vengeance of God travelled, as it always does, on stepping-stones which David laid for it with his own hands. … But David did not trouble the spirit of Amnon, because he was his first-born. … And David said, Let him return to Jerusalem, but let him not see my face. … And Absalom sent for Ahithophel the Gilonite, David's counsellor, from his city, even from Giloh. For the counsel of Ahithophel, which he counselled in those days, was as if a man inquired at the oracle of God; so was all the counsel of Ahithophel with Absalom as it had been wont to be with David. And with Ahithophel's head like the oracle of God, and with his heart rankling against David like hell, the conspiracy was strong, and the people increased continually with Absalom. Ahithophel was worth ten thousand men to Absalom, and no one knew that better than David. And one told David, saying, Ahithophel is among the conspirators with Absalom. And David said, O Lord, I pray thee, turn the counsel of Ahithophel into foolishness. And then David took Hushai, his next astutest counsellor to Ahithophel, and filled him with guile and sent him back to deceive Absalom and to counteract all the counsels of Ahithophel. Something, possibly, like this: 'Has not David cast himself completely out of the throne? Has he not destroyed himself? Has he not thrown down the sceptre? Has not the Lord turned against him? And did not the Lord's righteous servant say that the Lord would do this same thing to David that David had done before all Israel and before the sun? I am only counselling Absalom to fulfil as the hand of the Lord what the Lord swore that He would do Himself to David. ' Ahithophel's extraordinary and superhuman subtlety may honestly enough have led him to think that he saw in his counsel both prophecy, and policy, and payment back again into David's own bosom of all that David had done to other men, and to no man more than to Ahithophel himself. He has David and Absalom so much on his mind and on his heart that he draws a black border round Ahithophel's deathbed in these terrible words, and then leaves him: And when Ahithophel saw that his counsel was not followed, he saddled his ass, and arose, and gat him home to his own house, to his city, and put his household in order, and hanged himself, and died, and was buried in the sepulchre of his father. ...
Now, as you know, Ahithophel, from that day to this, has been stoned in his grave at Giloh, and all manner of names called at him as he lies there: Deserter, traitor, apostate, Judas Iscariot, suicide, and all manner of evil names, because he left David and joined Absalom. And, no doubt, had Ahithophel seen to the end, as he should have seen; had Ahithophel known all that we know,-and if he had been a better man he would have known more than even he was let know,-had he known the half of what we know, Ahithophel would have held fast to David, let David do what he liked. But Ahithophel lived in the day of David and not yet in the day of Christ; and he suffered at the hand of David what neither you nor I have ever suffered at any man's hand. And if he did not live and die in David's service, and if you will never forgive him for that; then, if it will do you any good, you can go home casting stones all thy way at Bathsheba's broken-hearted grandfather. My business tonight is neither to whitewash Ahithophel nor blacken David, even were that possible, but to let you see yourselves in them both as in a glass. Ahithophel should have gone on with his work in the city of David. I have eaten David's bread when he had plenty, Ahithophel should have said, and he shall come to Giloh now and eat my bread. Yes, Ahithophel, like the oracle of God he was, should have called to mind this psalm of David, and said: It shall be an excellent oil, which shall not break my head; for yet my prayer shall be for David in all his calamities. ...
And, then, on the other hand, though it is not written out, I for one shall continue to believe it, that David in his best moments took it all home to himself that Ahithophel was gone over to Absalom. David knew quite well all the time whose grandchild Uriah's wife was. As soon as David came to himself he must have foreseen all this. David was not so quick in the uptake as Ahithophel, but he was not a fool,-when he came to himself. David knew as well as all Jerusalem did what it was that had thrown Ahithophel over to Absalom's side. Why is he no longer here? Why is he where he now is?...
And, then, what did David think when Ahithophel's terrible end was told him? And what did Bathsheba think? Did she curse David to his face when it was told her what her grandfather had done to himself? Did Uriah's wife fling David's psalms in his face in her agony of horror and self-disgust? Did she scream in her sleep till all Jerusalem heard her as she saw in her sleep her grandfather's gallows at Giloh? Or was this prophecy fulfilled before it was spoken: In that day there shall be a great mourning in Jerusalem, the house of David apart, and their wives apart, till there shall be a fountain opened to the house of David for sin and for uncleanness? And then did David go out to Giloh, and over the sepulchre of the suicide did David fall down and cry, past all consolation, O Ahithophel, the friend of my youth and my best counsellor, Ahithophel! Would God I had died for thee! O Ahithophel, mine equal, my guide, and mine acquaintance! If he did-then this would come in, The sacrifices of God are a broken heart. What did David think, and what did Bathsheba think? True. Pray, lest the newspaper run blood on your hands some morning, as the letters from Giloh ran Ahithophel's blood on David's hands
Nathan - Son of David and Bathsheba. The prophet, who held an influential position during the reigns of David and Solomon. He is first mentioned when David had in his heart to build a house to Jehovah. Nathan at first encouraged the proposition, but afterwards had a special message from God to direct David otherwise. It was Nathan who had to condemn David's conduct with respect to Bathsheba and her husband; he delicately brought the sin home to his conscience by means of a suited parable. He wrote a 'book' containing the Acts of David the king and of Solomon, which does not form a part of scripture. Brother of Joel, one of David's mighty men
Haggith - ” Wife of David and mother of Adonijah, who was born at Hebron (1 Samuel 3:4 )
Hoshama - ” Descendant of David during the Exile (1 Chronicles 3:18 )
Ithmah - A Moabite of David's guard (1 Chronicles 11:46). Probably joined David during his sojourn in Moab (1 Samuel 22:3-4)
Saph - ” A giant the men of David killed (2 Samuel 21:18 )
Shobi - Ammonite who helped David as he fled across Jordan from Absalom (2 Samuel 17:27 )
Arnan - ” Person in messianic line of King David after the return from Exile (1 Chronicles 3:21 )
Shemariah - A Benjamite who joined David at Ziklag
Jesaiah - Son of Hananiah, a descendant of David
Ishbibenob - A giant who was on the point of killing David in battle, but was slain by Abishai, 2 Samuel 21:16-17
o'Bil - (chief of the camels ), a keeper of the herds of camels in the reign of David
Describe - ...
2: λέγω (Strong's #3004 — Verb — lego, — leg'-o ) "to say," is rendered "describeth" in Romans 4:6 , AV, "David describeth the blessedness . ;" this the RV corrects to, "David pronounceth blessing upon . " This might be regarded as the meaning, if David is considered as the human agent acting for God as the real pronouncer of blessing
Millo - " On taking the Jehusites' citadel David "built the city (Jerusalem) from the Millo round about" (2 Samuel 5:9; 1 Chronicles 11:8). It was part of "the city of David". " The name may mean filling; it filled up (completed) the fortification of the city of David
Michal - The younger of Saul's two daughters, in love with David, and whom Saul reluctantly gave to him in marriage, 1 Samuel 14:49 18:20-29 . Her father then gave her in marriage to Phalti, 1 Samuel 25:44 , from whom David some years after recovered her, 2 Samuel 3:12-21 . ...
When David brought the ark of God to Jerusalem, she conceived and expressed great disgust at his pious joy, and the affections of the king remained alienated from her till her death, 2 Samuel 6:16-23
Ishbosheth - (See ABNER; David. This was after a five years' interregnum during which the Philistines and David had the country divided between them; for David had reigned according to 2 Samuel 2:10-11 "seven years and six months" over Judah in the old capital Hebron, while Ishbosheth reigned only "two years. "...
Even northern and eastern Israel, but for Abner, was inclined to have accepted David (2 Samuel 2:7; 2 Samuel 3:17). Abner in a passion vowed to transfer the kingdom to David. Ishbosheth did not dare to answer; and when David, sending the message to Ishbosheth direct, required him to restore his former wife Michal, Ishbosheth, constrained by Abner, forced his sister to leave her weeping husband Phaltiel and accompany Abner to David (2 Samuel 3:13-16), for her restoration was demanded by David as the first preliminary in treating with Abner. ...
Presenting it to David, as though it would be a welcome gift because Saul the father had been David's "enemy who sought his life," and suppressing mention of their own murderous treachery, they with hypocritical profanation of God's name said: "Behold . " But David reproached them with their wicked murder of "a righteous person in his own house upon his bed," and commanded his young men to slay them, and to hang up over the pool in Hebron their severed hands and feet
Eliada - Son born to David after he established his rule in Jerusalem (2 Samuel 5:16 ). Father of Rezon, who established himself as king of Damascus after David conquered Zobah ( 1 Kings 11:23 )
Shiggaion - Some suppose it means a Song of David. But as both prophets, David and Habakkuk, are celebrating things of higher moment than what relates to themselves, I cannot but be led to believe the word itself hath a reference, and the Scriptures connected with this title, to the Lord Jesus Christ
Ahiezer - The chief warrior who joined David at Ziklag. He was skilled with both hands and represented Benjamin, the tribe of King Saul, who threatened David (1 Chronicles 12:1-3 )
Ahin'o-am - ) ...
A native of Jezreel who was married to David during his wandering life. ) She lived with him and his other wife Abigail at the court of Achish, (1 Samuel 27:3 ) was taken prisoner with her by the Amalekites when they plundered Ziklag, (1 Samuel 30:5 ) but was rescued by David
az'Maveth -
One of David's mighty men, a native of Bahurim, (2 Samuel 23:31 ; 1 Chronicles 11:33 ) and therefore probably a Benjamite. (1 Chronicles 8:36 ; 9:42 ) ...
The father of Jeziel and Pelet, two of the skilled Benjamite slingers and archers who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chronicles 10:3 ) perhaps identical with No. ...
Overseer of the royal treasures in the reign of David
Ishbosheth - 2949, while David reigned at Hebron, over the tribe of Judah, 2 Samuel 2:8-9 , &c; 3. He reigned two years in peace, but the remaining eight years were spent in perpetual wars between his troops and those of David, till in the end he perished, and with him ended the royal dignity of the house of Saul
Jonathan - the son of Saul, a prince of an excellent disposition, and in all varieties of fortune a sincere and steady friend to David. The death of Jonathan was lamented by David, in one of the noblest and most pathetic odes ever uttered by genius consecrated by pious friendship
Shammah - One of the three chiefs of David's thirty heroes, who shared with David and Eleazar the honor of the exploit recorded in 2 Samuel 23:11,12 ; 1 Chronicles 11:12-14 . A brother of David, 1 Samuel 16:9 ; 17:13 ; elsewhere called Shimeah, 2 Samuel 13:3,22 ; 1 Chronicles 2:13
az'Maveth -
One of David's mighty men, a native of Bahurim, (2 Samuel 23:31 ; 1 Chronicles 11:33 ) and therefore probably a Benjamite. (1 Chronicles 8:36 ; 9:42 ) ...
The father of Jeziel and Pelet, two of the skilled Benjamite slingers and archers who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chronicles 10:3 ) perhaps identical with No. ...
Overseer of the royal treasures in the reign of David
Amasai - A Levite, who joined David with thirty gallant men, while in the desert flying from Saul, 1 Chronicles 6:25 ; 12:16-18
Jeziel - He was one of the Benjamite archers who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chronicles 12:3 )
Flea - The well-known small insect, to which David compared himself when being hunted by Saul
Rachal - Traffic, a town in the tribe of Judah, to which David sent presents from the spoils of his enemies (1 Samuel 30:29 )
Hasadiah - ” Son of Zerubbabel and descendant of David (1 Chronicles 3:20 )
Seorim - ” Head of fourth division of priests appointed under David (1 Chronicles 24:8 )
Zadok - A memorable name in the history of David
Raddai - One of the sons of Jesse, and brother of David
Pelet - A Benjamite chief who joined David at Ziklag ( 1 Chronicles 12:3 )
ra'Mathite, the - a native of Ramah, had charge of the royal vineyards of King David
Nethan'e-el - ) ...
The fourth son of Jesse and brother of David. (1 Chronicles 2:14 ) ...
A priest in the reign of David who blew the trumpet before the ark when it was brought from the house of Obededom. ) ...
A Levite, father of Shemaiah the scribe, in the reign of David. ) ...
A Levite, of the sons of Asaph, who with his brethren played upon the musical instruments of David at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem under Ezra and Nehemiah
Machbanai - Clad with a mantle, or bond of the Lord, one of the Gadite heroes who joined David in the wilderness (1 Chronicles 12:13 )
Mikloth -
An officer under Dodai, in the time of David and Solomon (1 Chronicles 27:4 )
Jasiel - ” Military leader under David (1 Chronicles 11:27 KJV)
Shobi - He showed kindness to David when he fled from Jerusalem to Mahanaim (2 Samuel 17:27 )
Ammizabad - People of the giver, the son of Benaiah, who was the third and chief captain of the host under David (1 Chronicles 27:6 )
Mikloth - An officer of David ( 1 Chronicles 27:4 )
Chenaniah - Officer of David, an Izharite
Shobi - Son of Nahash of Rabbah, of the children of Ammon: he sent succour to David when he fled from Absalom
Neariah - Son of Shemaiah and descendant of David
Ishma'Iah - (Jehovah hears ), son of Obadiah; the ruler of the tribe of Zebulun in the time of King David
ja-a'zi-el - (whom Jehovah comforts ), one of the Levites appointed by David to perform the musical service before the ark
Naioth - The place where David fled from Saul
Betah, or Tibhath - A city of Syria-Zobath, taken by David, 2 Samuel 8:8 ; 1 Chronicles 18:8 ; perhaps the modern Taibeh, between Aleppo and Tadmor
Obed - Son of Boaz and Ruth, and grandfather of David, Ruth 4:17
no'Gah - (brightness ), one of the thirteen sons of David who were born to him in Jerusalem, ( 1 Chronicles 3:7 ; 14:6 ) (B
Har'Phite - (native of Hariph ) , The, the designation of Shephatiah, one of the Korhites who repaired to David at Ziklag
o'Zem -
The sixth son of Jesse, the next eldest above David
Jos'Abad - (whom Jehovah bestows ), properly JOZABAD the Gederathite, one of the warriors of Benjamin who joined David at Ziklag
Joash - ...
...
One of the Benjamite archers who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chronicles 12:3 ). ...
...
One who had charge of the royal stores of oil under David and Solomon (1 Chronicles 27:28 )
Metheg-Ammah - Rather it is figurative: "David took the bridle of the mother (Gath the metropolis, i. " Gath became tributary to David
Jahaziel - A Benjamite who joined David at Ziklag ( 1 Chronicles 12:4 ). One of the two priests who blew trumpets before the ark when it was brought by David to Jerusalem ( 1 Chronicles 16:6 )
Azmaveth - The 'Barhumite,' one of David's valiant men. One whose two sons resorted to David at Ziklag. Treasurer of David
Amasa - Son of Ithra,or Jether, by David's sister Abigail, whom Absalom in his revolt made captain of his army. David forgave him and promised him the command of the army, but he was treacherously slain by Joab. David left it to his son Solomon to revenge this act
Azazi'ah - (whom the Lord strengthens )
A Levite musician in the reign of David, appointed to play the harp in the service which attended the procession by which the ark was brought up from the house of Obed-edom. ) ...
The father of Hoshea, prince of the tribe of Ephraim when David numbered the people
Hushai - He is further described as ‘the friend of David’ ( Joshua 15:37 ), while at 2 Samuel 16:16 the two titles are united. At the rebellion of Absalom he was induced by David to act as if he favoured the cause of the king’s son. By so doing he was enabled both to defeat the plans of Ahithophel and to keep David informed (by means of Ahimaaz and Jonathan, the sons of Zadok and Abiathar the priests) of the progress of events in Jerusalem ( 2 Samuel 16:16 to 2 Samuel 17:23 )
Ittai - A Gittite leader who, with a following of six hundred Philistines, attached himself to David at the outbreak of Absalom’s rebellion. In spite of being urged by David to return to his home, he determined to follow the king in his misfortune, affirming his faithfulness in the beautiful words: ‘As the Lord liveth, and as my lord the king liveth, surely in what place my lord the king shall be, whether for death or for life, even there also will thy servant be’ ( 2 Samuel 15:21 ). He therefore remained in the service of David, and soon rose to a position of great trust, being placed in command of a third part of the people ( 2 Samuel 18:2 ). A Benjamite, son of Ribai, who was one of David’s mighty men ( 2 Samuel 23:29 , 1 Chronicles 11:31 [1])
Psalms - only in connection with the Psalms of David and those in the Book of Psalms. David is called "the sweet psalmist of Israel. days, for a time at least, the Psalms of David may have been sung by believers, but there were also hymns and spiritual songs, and it is to be remarked that in the singing at the institution of the Lord's supper a hymn (ὑμνέω) is spoken of, not a psalm (ψαλμός)
Uriah - A Hittite in David's army, with whose wife, Bathsheba, David committed adultery. The simple faithfulness of Uriah foiled David in his endeavour to cover his sin. David added to his iniquity by securing Uriah's death, with the connivance of Joab, at the hands of the children of Ammon
Eliab - Eldest son of Jesse, and brother of David. A Gadite leader who was with David in the wilderness. Levite musician and doorkeeper in the time of David
Ishbi-Benob - One of the four Philistines of the giant stock who were slain by the mighty men of David ( 2 Samuel 21:15-17 )
Rei - A person of some eminency in the house of David
Jesiah - One of the Korhites who resorted to David at Ziklag
Unni - Levite musician and door-keeper when David brought up the ark
Zilthai - A captain of Manasseh who resorted to David at Ziklag
ib'Har - (whom God chooses ), one of the sons of David, ( 2 Samuel 5:15 ; 1 Chronicles 3:6 ; 14:6 ) (born in Jerusalem
Meshelemi'ah - (whom Jehovah repays ), a Korhite porter or gate-keeper of the house of Jehovah in the reign of David
Batsheba - Married King David after Uriah's death
Odollam - ...
(2) Cave which sheltered David and his followers (1 Kings 22), said to be situated 6 miles southeast of Bethlehem
Shemaah - ” Father of Benjaminite military leaders who deserted Saul to join David at Ziklag (1 Chronicles 12:3 )
Joshaviah - Military hero under David (1 Chronicles 11:46 )
Nagge - The same name was borne by a son of David (1 Chronicles 3:7)
Eliphelehu - ” Levite and musician in Temple under David (1Chronicles 15:18,1 Chronicles 15:21 )
Jaaziel - A Levite who assisted when David brought up the ark
Helam - Place situate between the Jordan and the Euphrates, where David defeated the Syrians under Hadarezer
Elzabad - Gadite who joined David at Ziklag
Adullam - ...
(2) Cave which sheltered David and his followers (1 Kings 22), said to be situated 6 miles southeast of Bethlehem
Merab - Eldest daughter of Saul: she was promised to David, but was given to Adriel the Meholathite
zi'ba - (statue ), a servant of Saul whom David made steward of Saul's son Mephibosheth
Tyropoeon Valley - A narrow depression between Jerusalem's Ophel (Hill of David) and the western or upper hill of the city. When David captured the city, the valley served as one of the natural defensive barriers
Hattush - A descendant of David, who returned with Ezra from Babylon ( Ezra 8:2 [1]); see also 1 Chronicles 3:22 (but if we accept the LXX Zobah - An Aramæan community, the most powerful of the coalition of ‘Syrian’ States which made war upon king David while he was engaged with the Ammonites ( 2 Samuel 8:10 ff. 1 Samuel 14:47 , which states that Saul fought against Zobah, is probably based on a confusion with the wars of David
Nathan (2) - ...
Nathan the Prophet: (a) Prophesied during the times of Kings David and Solomon, in the 9th century BCE. Famous for his rebuke of David after the Batsheba debacle as well as ensuring that Solomon would be named as David's successor
Barzillai - Gileaditeof Rogelim, who liberally supplied David with provisions when he fled from Absalom. For his faithful services David invited him to return with him to Jerusalem; but being 80 years old he pleaded his great age and declined the honour, but requested that Chimham might go in his stead
Cherethims, Cherethites - Body-guard of David and officers sent to do service, doubtless originally the same as No. They were faithful to David at the revolt of Absalom
Ahimelech - He received David when fleeing from Saul, gave him the showbread and the sword of Goliath. A Hittite, companion of David when persecuted by Saul
Ahim'a-az -
Son of Zadok the high priest in David's reign, and celebrated for his swiftness of foot. During Absalom's rebellion he carried to David the important intelligence that Ahithophel had counselled an immediate attack upon David and his followers
Jaha'zi-el - (whom God watches over )
One of the heroes of Benjamin who joined David at Ziklag. ) ...
A priest in the reign of David
Ahimelech - He dwelt at Nob, and was the intimate friend of David; on this account he was put to death by Saul, together with all the priests that were with him, except his son Abiathar, who fled to David
Ruth (2) - The object of the writer was to trace the genealogy of David, and his descent from a Moabitish mother, who had been reduced to extreme poverty. The simplicity, integrity, and kind feelings of the principal persons exhibited are altogether remarkable; and the narrative shows that David had at least some ancestors who were nature's noblemen
Pelethites - ” Foreign mercenaries King David employed as body guards and special forces. These two groups probably were sea peoples who formed a loyalty to David during his days in the Philistine country while evading Saul. Following his death, they helped Solomon purge the kingdom of David's enemies
Elah (1) - A valley in the Shephçlah, the scene of the battle between David and Goliath ( 1 Samuel 17:21 :9). In the middle of the valley is a watercourse which runs in winter only; the bottom is full of small stones such as David might have selected for his sling
Ishbosheth - Abner, Saul's kinsman and general so managed that Ishbosheth was acknowledged king at Mahanaim by the greater part of Israel, while David reigned at Hebron over Judah. He was forty-four years of age when he began to reign, and he reigned two years peaceably; after which he was involved in a long and unsuccessful war against David
Sela-Hammahlekoth - A rock or cliff in the wilderness of Maon, at which Saul ‘returned from pursuing after David’ ( 1 Samuel 23:28 )
Betah - Spoiled by David of its "exceeding much brass" (2 Samuel 8:8)
Adnah -
A chief of the tribe of Manasseh who joined David at Ziklag (1Chronicles 12:20)
Gamul - ” Head of one of the priestly divisions in the Temple under David and Solomon (1 Chronicles 24:17 )
Eliphal - ” Military hero under David (1 Chronicles 11:35 )
Chileab - The second son of David by Abigail, the widow of Nabal the Carmelite ( 2 Samuel 3:3 )
Adnah - A Manassite officer of Saul who deserted to David at Ziklag ( 1 Chronicles 12:20 )
Zilthai - A captain of thousands of Manasseh; joined David at Ziklag (1 Chronicles 12:20)
Haggith - One of the wives of David and the mother of Adonijah
Jehiah - ” Guard of the ark when David brought it up from Philistine territory (1 Chronicles 15:24 )
City of Waters - Joab captured it for David (2 Samuel 12:27 )
el'Zabad -
One of the Gadite heroes who came across the Jordan to David
Bahurim - When David left the summit of Olivet behind and was descending the eastern slopes to the Jordan valley below, in his flight front Absalom, Shimei came forth from Bahurim and ran along the side ("rib") of the hill, abusing David and flinging stones and dust, in a manner common in the East in the case of fallen greatness. Here Phaltiel parted with his wife Michal, when she was claimed by David (2 Samuel 3:16). Azmaveth, one of David's valiant men, was a Baharumite (1 Chronicles 11:33), or Barhumite (2 Samuel 23:31)
Jebusites - (jehb' yoo ssihtess) Clan who originally controlled Jerusalem before David conquered the city. Centuries later David captured the city and made it his capital. David purchased a stone threshing-floor from a Jebusite named Araunah (2 Samuel 24:16-24 ), and this later became the site of Solomon's Temple
Abiathar - He joined David and the others who were fleeing from Saul, and acted as priest for them (1 Samuel 23:6; 1 Samuel 23:9; 1 Samuel 30:7). ...
Later, when David became king, Abiathar and another priest, Zadok, became part of David’s royal court (2 Samuel 8:17). At the time of Absalom’s rebellion, when David was forced to flee Jerusalem, the two priests stayed behind to become spies on David’s behalf (2 Samuel 15:24-29; 2 Samuel 15:35; 2 Samuel 19:11)
Absalom - Only son of David by Maacah, 2 Samuel 3:3 . After three years, at the intercession of Joab, David permitted him to return to Jerusalem, and at length received him again into favor, 2 Samuel 14:1-33 . David retired from Jerusalem; Absalom followed him; and in the battle, which ensued, the troops of the latter were defeated, and he himself, being caught by his head in a tree, was found and slain by Joab. David was much affected by his death, and uttered bitter lamentations over him, 2 Samuel 18:33
Jehonathan - He helped King David learn Absalom's plans when Absalom drove his father from Jerusalem. King David's nephew who slew a giant from Gath (2 Samuel 21:22 ). Uncle of King David who served as royal counselor and scribe (1 Chronicles 27:32 ). Military leader under David (2 Samuel 23:32 ). Supervisor of royal storehouses under David (1 Chronicles 27:25 )
Rizpah - It happened that a grievous famine, which lasted for three years, fell upon the land during the earlier half of David's reign at Jerusalem. " David inquired of the Gibeonites what satisfaction they demanded, and was answered that nothing would compensate for the wrong Saul had done to them but the death of seven of Saul's sons. David accordingly delivered up to them the two sons of Rizpah and five of the sons of Merab (q. ), and for five months watched the suspended bodies of her children, to prevent them from being devoured by the beasts and birds of prey, till they were at length taken down and buried by David. ...
Her marriage to Abner was the occasion of a quarrel between him and Ishbosheth, which led to Abner's going over to the side of David (2 Samuel 3:17-21 )
Eliab - The eldest brother of David, and thought by Samuel to have been destined for kingship in Israel on account of his beauty and stature ( 1 Samuel 16:6-7 ). He is mentioned as being a warrior in the Israelite camp on the occasion of Goliath’s challenge to and defiance of the armies of Israel; he rebukes his younger brother David for his presumption in mixing himself up with the affairs of the army; his attitude towards David, after the victory of the latter over Goliath, is not mentioned. One of the musicians who were appointed by the Levites, at David’s command, to accompany the procession which was formed on the occasion of bringing the ark from the house of Obededom up to Jerusalem ( 1 Chronicles 15:18 ). One of the Gadites who joined David, during his outlaw life, in the hold in the wilderness ( 1 Chronicles 12:9 )
Avoid - This verb is used intransitively in 1 Samuel 18:11 ‘David avoided out of his presence twice
Perazim, Mount - ), where David gained a victory over the Philistines (2 Samuel 5:20 )
Eliathah - To whom God will come, one of the foureen sons of the Levite Heman, and musician of the temple in the time of David (1 Chronicles 25:4 )
Jozabad -
One of the Benjamite archers who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chronicles 12:4 )
Beeliada - A son of David, 1 Chronicles 14:7 , changed in conformity with later usage (see Ishbosheth) into Eliada (‘El knows’) in 2 Samuel 5:16
Cheek Bone - Psalm 3:7 (b) David is indicating that GOD has already whipped Absalom and broken his power
Jashobeam - A Hachmonite, chief of David's captains. A Korhite who resorted to David at Ziklag
Shimea - Son of David and Bathsheba
Michal - Her history we have in the Scriptures of David
Ziph - A city of Judah, four miles south-east of Hebron; near it were wild fastness in which David for a long time lay hid, 1 Samuel 23:14,15
Chimham - He may have received from David the place near Bethlehem called Chimham, Jeremiah 41:17
Mach-Bana-i - (bond of the Lord ), one of the lion-faced warriors of Gad, who joined the fortunes of David when living in retreat at Ziklag
el'Iphalet - (the god of deliverance ), the last of the thirteen sons born to David after his establishment in Jerusalem
Amasa - Son (seemingly illegitimate) of Jether or Ithra, an Ishmaelite, by Abigail, David's sister (2 Samuel 17:25; 1 Chronicles 2:15-17). ) Joined his rebellion, probably because neglected by David (as appears from his not being mentioned previously) on account of his Ishmaelite parentage (Zeruiah occurs always without mention of her husband; but Abigail always with her husband Jether, as though in disparagement). ...
David, to atone for past neglect, pardoned, and even promoted him to command the army in the room of the overbearing Joab. Amasa's slowness in crushing Sheba's rebellion, perhaps owing to the disinclination of the troops to be under his command, obliged David to dispatch Abishai with the household guards, and Joab accompanied them. AMASAI, leader of a body of men of Judah and Benjamin, to join David in the hold at Ziklag; David's apprehension of treachery on the part of his own tribe was dispelled by Amasa's words under the spirit which "clothed" him: "Thine are we, David, and on thy side, thou son of Jesse; peace, peace be unto thee, and peace be to thine helpers, for thy God helpeth thee
Abigail - Taking on herself the blame of Nabal's insult to David's messengers, she promptly, and with a discreet woman's tact, averted David's just anger by liberally supplying the wants of his forces, and by deprecating in person at his feet the shedding of blood in vengeance. At Nabal's death by God's visitation David made her his wife, and by her David had a son, Chileab (2 Samuel 3:3), or Daniel (1 Chronicles 3:1), i. A sister of David, daughter of Nahash; wife of Jether or Ithra, an Ishmaelite, rather seduced by him (See ITHRA); mother of Amasa (1 Chronicles 2:15-17). David was probably her and Zeruiah's half brother, born of the same mother, but he having Jesse, she and Zeruiah Nahash, for their father. This accounts for the phrase "Abigail, daughter of Nahash, and sister of Zeruiah," not of David
Abner - After Saul's death, he made Ishbosheth king; and for seven years supported the family of Saul, in opposition to David; but in most of his skirmishes came off with loss. While Ishbosheth's and David's troops lay near each other, hard by Gibeon, Abner challenged Joab to select twelve of David's warriors to fight with an equal number of his. ...
Not long after, Abner, taking it highly amiss for Ishbosheth to charge him with lewd behaviour toward Rizpah, Saul's concubine, vowed that he would quickly transfer the whole kingdom into the hands of David. He therefore commenced a correspondence with David, and had an interview with him at Hebron. Abner had just left the feast at which David had entertained him, when Joab, informed of the matter, warmly remonstrated, asserting, that Abner had come as a spy. David, to show how heartily he detested the act, honoured Abner with a splendid funeral, and composed an elegy on his death, 2 Samuel 3
Tower - The church is beautifully compared by Christ to a tower in one of the Songs, Song of Song of Solomon 4:4 "Thy neck (said Jesus) is like the tower of David, builded for an armoury; whereon there hang a thousand bucklers, all shields of mighty men. " What a gracious act in the Lord Jesus was it thus to speak of his church under such a comparison! The tower of David, it is well known, was the strong hold of Zion which he took from the Jebusites, which anciently possessed what was not their right, Jerusalem. Now then as David here typified Christ driving out the strong man armed, who possessed the Lord's Zion not by right, but by deceit; so when the church was put in possession by her conquering Lord, her neck, by which may be considered all her members united to the head, even the Lord Jesus, becomes like a tower, impregnable, and which Christ, the true David, builded for an armoury (for it is Christ that builds all, and supports and gives life and strength, to all). Here then on him and his building they hang all their bucklers and shields, even to a thousand and ten thousand; for all is founded in him, and to him, and by him; on him himself they hang all the glory of his Father's house? And what endears the whole is, that the humblest and east, as well as the highest and the best, are like this neck, like the tower of David, united to the head. For in this gospel day to which the whole refers; he that is feeble among them at that day shall be as David, and the house of David shall be as God, as the Angel of the Lord before them, (Isaiah 22:22-25; Zechariah 12:8) It is very blessed to behold Jesus using such strong and beautiful figures to shew his people's union and oneness with him, and their everlasting safety and security in him
Joab - Son of Zeruiah the sister of David. He was a bold and successful warrior, and was made David's commander-in-chief; but he is not mentioned as associated with David until he was established at Hebron, and he is not classed among David's valiant men. He was the unscrupulous instrument of David's sin in causing the death of Uriah. The return of Absalom was brought about by his means, but when Absalom revolted Joab remained faithful to David, and with his own hand slew Absalom. Though David on this occasion needed to be reminded that his life and throne had been saved, yet Joab's arrogant and threatening language to the king was unjustifiable; and Amasa was made captain of the host in the room of Joab. David had said before this, "These men, the sons of Zeruiah, be too hard for me;" but his own sin in the matter of Uriah made him feeble in the presence of Joab's murder of Amasa. ...
When David wished the people to be numbered, Joab endeavoured to dissuade him from it. When Solomon was declared king, David reminded him of what Joab had done to him, and how he had slain two captains in time of peace, and asked that his hoar head should not go down to the grave in peace
Nahash - If he perished, then the Nahash who befriended David was his son. Jewish tradition makes the service to David consist in Nahash having protected David's brother, when he escaped from the massacre perpetrated by the treacherous king of Moab on David's family, who had been entrusted to him (1 Samuel 22:3-4). ...
Nahash the younger would naturally help David in his wanderings from the face of Saul, their common foe. Hence at Nahash's death David sent a message of condolence to his son. Yet we read Nahash's son Shobi (2 Samuel 17:27-29) was one of the three trans-jordanic chieftains who rendered munificent hospitality to David in his hour of need, at Mahanaim, near Jabesh Gilead, when fleeing from Absalom. The old kindness between Nahash and David, and the consciousness that Hanun his brother's insolence had caused the war which ended so disastrously for Ammon, doubtless led Shobi gladly to embrace the opportunity of showing practical sympathy toward David in his time of distress. Father of the sisters Abigail and Zeruiah, whose mother on Nahash's death married Jesse, to whom she bore David (2 Samuel 17:25). 1 Chronicles 2:16 accordingly names Abigail and Zeruiah as "David's sisters," but not as Jesse's daughters. Nahash is made by Stanley the king of Ammon, which is not impossible, considering Jesse's descent from Ruth a Moabitess, and also David's connection with Nahash of Ammon; but is improbable, since if the Nahash father of Abigail were the king of Ammon it would have been stated. But if so, how is it that only in 2 Samuel 17:25 "Nahash" stands for Jesse, whereas in all other places "Jesse" is named as David's father
Nathan - The prophet who gave David God's assurance of the perpetuity of his seed and throne (notwithstanding temporary chastening for iniquity). God by Nathan commended David's desire to build the temple, but reserved the accomplishment for his son Solomon, the type of Him who should build the true temple (2 Samuel 7; 1 Chronicles 17). Nathan convicted David of his sin in the case of Uriah by the beautiful parable of the poor man's lamb (2 Samuel 12:1-15; 2 Samuel 12:25; Psalm 51). ...
Nathan conveyed Jehovah's command to David, to name Solomon" Jedidiah," not as a mere appellation, but an assurance that Jehovah loved him. Nathan was younger than David, as he wrote with Ahijah the Shilonite and Iddo the seer" the acts of Solomon first and last" (2 Chronicles 9:29). To Nathan David refers as having forbidden his building the temple on account of his having had "great wars" (2 Chronicles 22:1-10; 2 Chronicles 28:2). Nathan secured the succession of Solomon by advising Bathsheba to remind David of his promise (1 Chronicles 22:9, etc. Nathan by David's direction with Zadok the priest brought Solomon to Gihon on the king's own mule, and anointed him king (1 Kings 1:10-38). Nathan along with Gad wrote "the acts of David first and last" (1 Chronicles 29:29). Son of David and Bathsheba (1 Chronicles 3:5; 1 Chronicles 14:4; 2 Samuel 5:14). Luke traces Christ's genealogy to David through Nathan (2 Samuel 3:31); as Matthew gives the succession to the throne, so Luke the parentage of Joseph, Jeconiah's line having failed as he died childless. ) "The family of the house of David and the family of the house of Nathan" represent the highest and lowest of the royal order; as "the family of the house of Levi and the family of Shimei" represent the highest and lowest of the priestly order (Zechariah 12:12-13). Father of Igal, one of David's heroes, of Zobah, 2 Samuel 23:36, but in 1 Chronicles 11:38 "Joel, brother of Nathan" Kennicott prefers "brother
Abiathar - ) The only son of Ahimelech, the high priest, who escaped the slaughter committed by Saul at Nob, on Doeg's information that Ahimelech had inquired of the Lord for David, and given him the shewbread and the sword of Goliath (1 Samuel 22). Abiathar, with an ephod (the high priest's mystic scarf) in his hand, escaped to David. David, on the contrary, by sheltering Abiathar was enabled to inquire of the Lord in the ordained way (1 Samuel 23:6-9; 1 Samuel 30:7; 1 Chronicles 16:39-40; 2 Samuel 5:19; 2 Samuel 21:1, an undesigned coincidence with Psalms 16:7, and so a proof of genuineness). ...
Abiathar adhered to David during all his wanderings, and was afflicted in all wherein David was afflicted; also when he assumed the throne in Hebron, the Aaronite priestly city of refuge. He bore the ark before David when it was brought up from Obed-Edom's house to Jerusalem (1 Chronicles 15:11-12; 1 Kings 2:26). But in Adonijah's attempt to be David's successor, instead of Solomon, Abiathar, probably from jealousy of Zadok, who was on Solomon's side, took Adonijah's part. David had evidently for some time previous given the first place in his confidence to Zadok, a preference the more galling as Abiathar was the high priest and Zadok only his vicar, or sagan; thus it was to Zadok he gave the command to take the ark back in Absalom's rebellion. David on succeeding, to conciliate his subjects, allowed him conjointly to hold office with Abiathar. Zadok had joined David in Hebron after Saul's death, with 22 captains of his father's house (1 Chronicles 12:28). Abiathar had the first place, with the ephod, Urim and Thummim, and the ark, in the tent pitched by David at Jerusalem Zadok officiated before the tabernacle and brazen altar made by Moses and Bezaleel in the wilderness, which were now in Gibeon (1 Chronicles 16:1-7; 1 Chronicles 16:37; 2 Samuel 2:1; 1 Chronicles 27:38; 1 Chronicles 27:34; 2 Chronicles 1:3-5). The Lord Jesus (Mark 2:26) names Ahimelech as the high priest in whose time David ate the shewbread. Perhaps too the loaves being his perquisite (Leviticus 24:9) were actually handed by Ahimelech to David
Joezer - ” Warrior from Saul's tribe of Benjamin who joined David at Ziklag as he fled from Saul (1 Chronicles 12:6 )
Zilthai - ...
One of the captains of the tribe of Manasseh who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chronicles 12:20 )
Elnaam - ” Father of military leaders under David (1 Chronicles 11:46 )
Mered - ” Descendant of King David who married Bithiah, a daughter of Pharoah (1 Chronicles 4:17-18 ), perhaps as part of a political alliance
Eder - A Levite of Merari's family in the time of David (1 Chronicles 23:23)
Tahpenes - Wife of the Pharaoh (conjectured to be Psusennes of the Tanitic line) who received Hadad the Edomite, when fleeing from David (1 Kings 11:19)
Merab - The eldest daughter of Saul, 1 Samuel 14:49, promised to David, but given to Adriel in marriage
Bichri - ” Father of Sheba, who led revolt against David after Absalom's revolt (2 Samuel 20:1 )
Chafed - 2 Samuel 17:8 (a) By this word is represented the condition of mind of David and his soldiers because of the great loss they had suffered in Jerusalem
Siphmoth - City in the south of Judah, to the elders of which David sent some of the spoil he had taken from the Amalekites
Toi - King of Hamath in Syria, sent his son to rejoice with David on his victories over Hadadezer king of Zobah, 2 Samuel 8:9-11 ; 1 Chronicles 18:9
Attai - A Gadite who joined David at Ziklag ( 1 Chronicles 12:11 )
Othni - A lion of Jehovah, a son of Shemaiah, and one of the temple porters in the time of David (1 Chronicles 26:7 )
Betah - Confidence, a city belonging to Hadadezer, king of Zobah, which yielded much spoil of brass to David (2 Samuel 8:8 )
Ithream - Sixth son of David; by Eglah, whom Jewish tradition identifies with Mirhal (since she is emphatically designated "David's wife"), adding that she died at Ithream's birth (2 Samuel 3:5)
Beth-Rehob - A town or district near Laish ( Judges 18:28 ), whose inhabitants joined the Ammonites against David ( 2 Samuel 10:6 )
Flea - Translated "(thou pursuest) after one flea," David implying his extreme insignificance, fleas in Palestine abounding in a degree not known with us
Shobab - Son of David and Bathsheba
Nepheg - Son of David, born at Jerusalem
Hough - The horse taken by David from the Syrians were thus disabled, Joshua 11:6,9 ; 2 Samuel 8:4
Helkathhazzurim - Field of heroes, a place near Gibeon, so named from a fatal duel- like combat, preceding a battle between the armies of David and Ish- bosheth, 2 Samuel 2:16
Bahurim - It is several times mentioned in the history of David, 2 Samuel 3:16 ; 16:5 ; 17:18
ha'zi-el - (union of God ), a Levite in the time of David, of the family of Shi-mei or Shimi, the younger branch of the (Gershonites
Cruse, - a small vessel for holding water, such as was carried by Saul when on his night expedition after David, (1 Samuel 26:11,12,16 ) and by Elijah
e'Phra-im, the Wood of, - a wood, or rather a forest, on the east of Jordan, in which the fatal battle was fought between the armies of David and of Absalom
Elah, Valley of - Where David slew Goliath in the presence of the two armies
Joram - Toi's son, sent from Hamath to congratulate David on his victories over Hadadezer (2 Samuel 8:10)
David - David (‘beloved’). It is necessary to bear in mind two points of importance in dealing with the records of the life of David: firstly, the Hebrew text is, in a number of cases, very corrupt (notably in the books of Samuel), and in not a few passages the Alexandrian (Greek) version is to be preferred; secondly, our records have been gathered together from a variety of sources, and therefore they do not present a connected whole; that they are for this reason sometimes at variance with each other stands in the natural order of things. David was a shepherd by calling, and he continued this occupation until he had reached full manhood; the courage and strength sometimes required for the protection of flocks make it clear that he was more than a mere youth when he first appeared upon the scene of public life ( 1 Samuel 17:34-35 ). There are altogether three different accounts of David’s entry upon the stage of life. David is here represented as having been designated by Jahweh as Saul’s successor; Samuel is sent to Bethlehem to anoint him; all the seven sons of Jesse pass before the prophet, but the Spirit does not move him to anoint any of them; in perplexity he asks the father if he has any more children, whereupon the youngest is produced, and Samuel anoints him. The story, therefore, of David’s anointing by Samuel strikes one as being an incomplete fragment. The son of Jesse is proposed, and forthwith sent for; when Saul is again attacked by the malady said to be occasioned by ‘an evil spirit from the Lord’ David plays upon the harp, and Saul ‘is refreshed’ in spirit. In this account David is represented as a grown man, for it is said that Saul made him his armour-bearer. According to it, David’s first appearance was on the eve of a battle between the Israelites and the Philistines. David gathers these details from different people in the camp, and, feeling sure of the help of Jahweh, determines to fight the giant. David, however, finds the armour too cumbersome, and discards it, taking instead nothing but five smooth stones and a sling. After mutual defiance, David slings one of his stones; the giant is hit, and falls down dead; David rushes up, draws the sword of the dead warrior, and cuts off his head. ...
It is worthy of note that each of these three accounts which introduce David to history connects with him just those three characteristics which subsequent ages loved to dwell upon. ...
David’s victory over Goliath had a twofold result; firstly, the heroic deed called forth the admiration, which soon became love, of the king’s son Jonathan; a covenant of friendship was made between the two, in token of which, and in ratification of which, Jonathan took off his apparel and armour and presented David with them. This friendship lasted till the death of Jonathan, and David’s pathetic lamentation over him (2 Samuel 1:25-27 ) points to the reality of their love. But secondly, it had the effect of arousing Saul’s envy; a not wholly unnatural feeling, considering the estimation in which David was held by the people in consequence of his victory; the adage assuredly one of the most ancient authentic fragments of the history of the time ...
‘Saul hath slain his thousands,...
And David his ten thousands’...
was not flattering to one who had, in days gone by, been Israel’s foremost warrior. For the present, however, Saul conceals his real feelings (1 Samuel 18:10-11 are evidently out of place), intending to rid himself of David in such a way that no blame would seem to attach itself to him. In fulfilment of his promise to the slayer of Goliath, he expresses his intention of giving his daughter Michal to David for his wife; but as David brings no dowry, according to Hebrew custom, Saul lays upon him conditions of a scandalous character ( 1 Samuel 18:25-26 ), hoping that, in attempting to fulfil them, David may lose his life. The scheme fails, and David receives Michal to wife. A further attempt to be rid of David is frustrated by Jonathan ( 1 Samuel 19:1-7 ), and at last Saul himself tries to kill him by throwing a javelin at him whilst playing on his harp; again he fails, for David nimbly avoids the javelin, and escapes to his own house. On Samuel’s advice, apparently, he goes to Jonathan by stealth to see if there is any possibility of a reconciliation with the king; Jonathan does his best, but in vain ( 1 Kings 19:16 ), and David realizes that his life will be in danger so long as he is anywhere within reach of Saul or his emissaries. David as an outlaw . As in the case of the earlier period of David’s life, the records of this second period consist of a number of fragments from different sources, not very skilfully put together. We can do no more here than enumerate briefly the various localities in which David sought refuge from Saul’s vindictiveness, pointing out at the same time the more important episodes of his outlaw life. ...
David flies first of all to Nob , the priestly city; his stay here is, however, of short duration, for he is seen by Doeg, one of Saul’s followers. On his return he is advised by the prophet Gad (doubtless because he had found out that Saul had received information of David’s whereabouts) to leave the stronghold; he therefore takes refuge in the forest of Hereth . In the meantime Saul’s spies discover the whereabouts of the fugitive, and David, fearing that the men of Keilah will deliver him up to his enemy, escapes with his followers to the hill-country in the wilderness of Ziph . ]'>[1] It is during these wanderings that Saul falls into the power of David, but is magnanimously spared. The episode connected with David’s dealings with Nabal, and his taking Abigail and Ahinoam for his wives, also falls within this period ( 1Sa 24:1-22 ; 1 Samuel 25:1-44 ; 1 Samuel 26:1-25 ). At one time there seemed to be some hope of reconciliation between Saul and David ( 1 Samuel 26:24-25 ), but evidently this was short-lived, for soon afterwards David escapes once more, and comes with six hundred followers to the court of Achish, king of Gath. David settles in Ziklag, and stays there for a year and four months ( 1 Samuel 27:7 ), occupying the time by fighting against the enemies of his country, the Geshurites, Amalekites, etc. The question arises whether David shall join with the forces of Achish against the Israelites; David himself seems willing to fight on the side of the Philistines ( 1 Samuel 29:8 ), but the princes of the Philistines, rightly or wrongly, suspect treachery on his part, and at the request of Achish he returns to Ziklag . David receives news of this during his sojourn in Ziklag. With this ends the outlaw life of David, for, leaving Ziklag, he comes to Hebron, where the men of Judah anoint him king ( 2 Samuel 2:4 ). David as king...
( a ) Internal affairs . For the first seven years of his reign David made Hebron his capital. It is therefore just what we should expect when we read that ‘there was long war between the house of Saul and the house of David’ ( 2 Samuel 3:1 ). The final victory lay with David, and in due time the elders of Israel came to him in Hebron and anointed him their king. As ruler over the whole land David realized the need of a more central capital; he fixed on Jerusalem, which he conquered from the Jebusites, and founded the royal city on Mt. Zion, ‘the city of David’ ( 2 Samuel 5:7 ). David’s disappointment is, however, soothed, for the prophet goes on to tell him that though he may not build this house, Jahweh will establish the house of David ( i. David then enters in before Jahweh and offers up his thanksgiving ( 2 Samuel 7:18-29 ). ...
One of the darker traits of David’s character is illustrated by the detailed account of the Bathsheba episode (2 Samuel 11:2 ; 2 Samuel 12:25 ); so far from seeking to curb his passion for her on hearing that she is married, he finds ways and means of ridding himself of the husband, after whose death Bathsheba becomes his queen. But the most serious event in the history of the reign of David, so far as the internal affairs of the kingdom were concerned, was the rebellion of his son Absalom. At first Absalom was successful; he attacked Jerusalem, from which David bad to flee; here, following the advice of Ahithophel, he took possession of the royal harem, a sign (in the eyes of the people of those days) of the right of heritage. The most obvious thing to do now would have been for Absalom to pursue David before he had time to gather an army; but, against the advice of Ahithophel, he follows that of Hushai a secret friend of David who succeeds in inducing Absalom to waste time by lingering in Jerusalem. In the meantime David, hearing what is going on in Jerusalem, withdraws across the Jordan, and halts at Mahanaim; here he gathers his forces together under the leadership of Joab. Whilst thus hanging he is pierced by Joab, in spite of David’s urgent command that he should not be harmed. The touching account of David’s sorrow, on hearing of Absalom’s death, is given in 2 Samuel 18:23-33 . ...
The rebellion (if such it can be called) of Adonijah occurred at the very end of David’s reign. Unlike most of his dealings with foreigners, David’s first contact, as king, with those outside of his kingdom, viz. Hiram, king of Tyre, sent (according to 2 Samuel 5:11 , 1 Chronicles 14:1 ) artificers of different kinds to assist David in building. One of the characteristics of David’s reign was its large number of foreign wars. The following is, very briefly, a list of David’s foreign wars; they are put in the order found in 2Sam. David was victorious over all these peoples, the result being a great extension of his kingdom, which reached right up to the Euphrates (cf. Wars of this kind presuppose the existence of a, comparatively speaking, large army; that David had a constant supply of troops may be gathered from the details given in 1 Chronicles 27:1-34 . ...
While it is impossible to deny that the rôle of musician in which we are accustomed to picture David is largely the product of later ages, there can be no doubt that this rôle assigned to him is based on fact (cf. ...
The character of David offers an intensely interesting complex of good and bad, in which the former largely predominates
Just Branch - God says: "I will raise up to David a just branch: and a king shall reign, and shall be wise: and shall execute judgment and justice in the earth" (Jeremiah 23). The use of this expression for the future son of David is probably suggested by Isaiah 11, where the Messias is represented, "a rod out of the root of Jesse, and a flower shall rise up out of his root
Zion - When David took it from the Jebusites (Joshua 15:63 ; 2 Samuel 5:7 ) he built on it a citadel and a palace, and it became "the city of David" (1 Kings 8:1 ; 2 Kings 19:21,31 ; 1 Chronicles 11:5 )
Ahimaaz - On the occasion of the revolt of Absalom he remained faithful to David, and was of service to him in conveying to him tidings of the proceedings of Absalom in Jerusalem (2Samuel 15:24-37; 17:15-21). He was swift of foot, and was the first to carry to David tidings of the defeat of Absalom, although he refrained, from delicacy of feeling, from telling him of his death (2Samuel 18:19-33)
o Antiphons - Their opening words are: ...
O Sapientia (O Wisdom), O Adonai, O Radix Jesse (O Root of Jesse), O Clavis David (O Key of David), O Oriens (O Orient), O Rex Gentium (O King of the Gentiles), O Emmanuel
Abner - Abner transferred loyalty to David. Joab, David's general, went into a jealous rage when David welcomed Abner
Antiphons, Great - Their opening words are: ...
O Sapientia (O Wisdom), O Adonai, O Radix Jesse (O Root of Jesse), O Clavis David (O Key of David), O Oriens (O Orient), O Rex Gentium (O King of the Gentiles), O Emmanuel
Antiphons, o - Their opening words are: ...
O Sapientia (O Wisdom), O Adonai, O Radix Jesse (O Root of Jesse), O Clavis David (O Key of David), O Oriens (O Orient), O Rex Gentium (O King of the Gentiles), O Emmanuel
Gad - A prophet and particular friend of David, the history of whose reign he wrote. He came to David when the latter was in the cave of Adullam
Nob - It was visited by David when he fled from Saul, and he and his followers ate the hallowed bread. David said it "is in a manner common": cf
Ziklag - a city of the Philistines, first assigned to the tribe of Judah, and afterward to that of Simeon, Joshua 15:31 ; Joshua 19:5 ; but it does not appear that the Philistines were ever driven out; as, when David fled into their country from Saul, Achish gave the city to him, 1 Samuel 27:5-6 . But it appears to have been rebuilt, as the author of the First Book of Samuel, when relating its being given to David, adds, that it pertained to the kings of Judah in his time
Ziklag - Achish, king of Gath, gave it to David, and it subsequently belonged to Judah. Its chief interest is in connection with the life of David
Hado'Ram - ...
Son of Tou or Toi king of Hamath; his father's ambassador to congratulate David on his victory over Hadarezer king of Zobah. ) ...
The form assumed in Chronicles by the name of the intendant of taxes under David, Solomon and Rehoboam
Pha'Rez - From Hezron's second son Ram, or Aram, sprang David and the kings of Judah, and eventually Jesus Christ. In the reign of David the house of Pharez seems to have been eminently distinguished
Jon'Adab -
Son of Shimeah and nephew of David. ch (2 Samuel 13:5,6 ) Again, when, in a later stage of the same tragedy, Amnon was murdered by Absalom, and the exaggerated report reached David that all the princes were slaughtered, Jonadab was already aware of the real state of the case
Meshelemiah - He was a temple gate-keeper in the time of David
Shav'Sha - (nobility ), the royal secretary in the reign of David, ( 1 Chronicles 18:16 ) called also 2 Samuel 8:17 ) And 2 Samuel 20:25 ) End in (1 Kings 4:3 ) SHISHA
Rei - Remained faithful to David in Adonijah's rebellion. Ewald makes Rei as Shimei, David's brother
Nepheg - Son born to David in Jerusalem (2 Samuel 5:15 ; 1 Chronicles 3:7 ; 1 Chronicles 14:6 )
Salma - Father of Boaz and ancestor of David (1 Chronicles 2:11 )
Bathshua - Another name for BATHSHEBA, the wife of David
Toi - King of Hamath on the Orontes, who sent costly presents and congratulated David on his victory over Hadadezer
Ahi'Moth - (brother of death ), a Levite apparently in the time of David
Ish'bi-be'Nob - (he that dwells at Nobl ), son of Rapha, one of the race of Philistine giants, who attacked David in battle, but was slain by Abishai
Ishi'ah - (whom Jehovah lends ), the fifth of the five sons of Izrahiah, one of the heads of the tribe of Issachar in the time of David
Pelet - Benjaminite warrior who defected from Saul to David (1 Chronicles 12:3 )
he'Lam - (stronghold ), a place east of the Jordan but west of the Euphrates at which the Syrians were collected by Hadarezer, and where David met and defeated them
Hachilah - A place in Judah near Ziph, and where David with his 600 followers hid
Armoni - He was delivered up to the Gibeonites by David, and hanged by them (2 Samuel 21:8,9 )
Obed -
A son of Boaz and Ruth (Ruth 4:21,22 ), and the grandfather of David (Matthew 1:5 )
Jesaiah - Descendant of David in postexilic period (1 Chronicles 3:21 ) and thus part of keeping messianic hope alive in Israel
Baale of Judah - Lords of Judah, a city in the tribe of Judah from which David brought the ark into Jerusalem (2 Samuel 6:2 )
Sho'Bach - (expansion ), the general of Hadarezer king of the Syrians of Zoba, who was defeated by David
Sheva - Scribe or secretary to David
Pelaiah - Son of Elioenai, a descendant of David
Muthlabben - The LXX has "A psalm of David, concerning the secrets of the Son
Zil'Tha-i - (1 Chronicles 8:20 ) ...
One of the captains of thousands of Manasseh who deserted to David at Ziklag
Tamar - A daughter of David
Mikne'Iah - (possession of Jehovah ), one of the Levites of the second rank, gatekeepers of the ark, appointed by David to play in the temple band "with harps upon Sheminith
ra'Chal - (trade ), ( 1 Samuel 30:29 ) a town in the southern part of the tribe of Judah, one of the towns to which David sent presents out of the spoil of the Amalekites
Shimei - AND David SAID, LET HIM ALONE, LET HIM CURSE...
SHIMEI was a reptile of the royal house of Saul. When Shimei saw David escaping for his life out of Jerusalem, Satan entered into Shimei, and he came forth and cursed at David as he passed by. And he cast stones at David, and cried, Thou bloody man, thou man of Belial, he cried. Why should that dead dog curse the king in that way? said Abishai to David. But the king answered to Abishai, So let him curse, because the Lord hath said unto him, Curse David. And still as David went on his way, Shimei also went along on the hillside over against David, and he cursed as he went, and he threw stones at David and cast dust. But David held his peace; for David had said to Abishai, It is the Lord. Shimei knew as well as you do that David had never shed a single drop of Saul's blood. So far from that, David's men were astonished and offended at David that he had let Saul go scot-free again and again when he had him in his power. He would not let the truth light on his mind for one moment, especially about David. Nothing was right that David did. Everything was wrong that David had any hand in. If you had a word to say for David, Shimei would follow you about also with curses and stones and dust. Shimei had everything to expect from Saul, and he knew that he had nothing to expect from David; and, therefore, David was a bloody man and a son of Belial. But it was the Lord to David. David had nothing to do with the fall of Saul on Mount Gilboa; but the fall of Uriah in the front of the battle before Rabbah was ever before David, and never more so than it was that day as he crossed the Kedron, and passed through Gethsemane, and descended upon Bahurim. So let him curse, for the Lord hath said to him, Curse David. To such a divine use was Shimei put of God that greatest day of David's life. For Shimei that day perfected the good work on David that Absalom and Ahithophel had so well begun. Shimei was David's crowning means of grace that day. That day adorns and seals all David's psalms, and it was Shimei that did it. David had only to point with his finger to the hillside, and Shimei's insult and injury would have ceased for ever. But what profit would Shimei's blood have been to David? David had more sense. David had more grace. David knew himself better than that. And when any of his friends, for his protection, or for his peace, or for his comfort would fain remove out of his life aught that tempts and tries him; aught that tramples on him and humbles him; aught that plagues him and vexes him and leads him into sin, like David to Abishai at Bahurim he says to him, Let it alone, for it is the Lord. He is set upon my humility, my submissiveness, my meekness, my gentleness, my resignation, my contentment, my detachment, my self-denial, my cross, my death to sin, my death to myself, my unearthliness, my heavenly-mindedness, my conformity to Christ, and my acceptance of Him-and what a splendid use is all that to which to put all the things that otherwise would be so much against me! And David said to Abishai, and to all his servants, Let this Benjamite alone, and let him curse; for the Lord hath bidden him. And as David and his men went by the way, Shimei went on the hill's side over against David, and cursed David, and threw stones at him, and cast dust. This brings us to David's deathbed; and David's deathbed has never been without its own difficulties to thoughtful and reverential readers. For Shimei with all his good and all his bad uses comes back again to David's deathbed to tempt and to try David, and to discover what is in David's dying heart. The deathbed sayings of God's saints have a special interest and a delightful edification to us; but David's last words to Solomon about Shimei-we would pass them by if we could. Three or four several explanations of those terrible words of David have been offered to the distressed reader by able men and men of authority in such matters. Well, some students of the Old Testament are bold to take David's dreadful words about Shimei out of David's mouth altogether, and to put them into the mouth of the prophet who has preserved to us David's life and death. Those awful words, they say, are that righteous prophet's explanation and vindication of the too late execution of Shimei by Solomon after his reprieve had come to an end with the death of David. But the heart has its reasons, as Pascal says, and my heart would stretch a considerable point in textual criticism to get Shimei's blood wiped off David's deathbed. Another interpretation is to take the text as it stands, and to hear David judicially charging Solomon about a case of too long delayed justice against a blasphemer of God and the king. And then the last explanation is the most painful one of all, and it is this, that David had never really and truly, and at the bottom of his heart, forgiven Shimei for his brutality and malignity at Bahurim. And that all David's long-suppressed revenge rushed out of his heart against his old enemy when he lay on his bed and went back on the day on which he had fled from Jerusalem. You can choose your own way of looking at David's deathbed. We shall have, God helping us, David's Bahurim-mind always in us henceforth amid all those who insult and injure us, and say all manner of evil against us falsely; and amid all manner of adverse and sore circumstances, so as to see the Lord in it all, and so as to work out our salvation amid it all
Bahurim - David demanded Ishbosheth, Saul's son, send back Michal, Saul's daughter and David's wife. When David fled from his son Absalom, a kinsman of Saul named Shimei met him at Bahurim, cursed him, and threw stones at his party. David prevented immediate punishment (2 Samuel 16:5 ; 2 Samuel 19:16 ). Solomon followed David's orders and had Shimei of Bahurim killed (1Kings 2:8-9,1 Kings 2:36-46 ). Azmaveth, one of David's valiant soldiers, was from Bahurim (1 Chronicles 11:33 )
Kidron Valley - ” The deep ravine beside Jerusalem separating the Temple mount and the city of David on the west from the Mount of Olives on the east. David crossed the brook when he fled Jerusalem to escape from Absalom (2 Samuel 15:23 ). See City of David ; Jerusalem ; Mount of Olives; Spring of Gihon; Valley of Hinnom
Jesse - The father of David, the son of Obed, and grandson of Boaz and the Moabitess Ruth. Jesse's wealth seems to have consisted of sheep and goats, which were under the care of David. After David was compelled to leave the court of Saul, he took his father and his mother into the country of Moab, and there they disappear from the records of Scripture, b
Ophel - ” It became the proper name of a portion of the hill on which the city of David was built (2 Chronicles 27:3 ). The hill has been inhabited since pre-Israelite times by peoples such as the Jebusites from whom David took the site. David and later kings further fortified Ophel
Teraphim - Michal the wife of David had one in her house, and laid it in the bed when David escaped. But the prophecy speaks also of a coming day when they will seek Jehovah their God, and David their king, and enter into blessing
Amasa - the son of Ithra and Abigail, David's sister, whom Absalom, when he rebelled against his father, appointed general of his army, 2 Samuel 17:25 . Amasa having thus received the command of Absalom's troops, engaged his cousin Joab, general of David's army, and was worsted. But, after the defeat of Absalom's party, David, being angry at Joab for killing Absalom, pardoned Amasa, and gave him the command of his own army. Upon the revolt of Sheba, the son of Bichri, David gave orders to Amasa to assemble all Judah and march against Sheba. Amasa not being able to form his army in the time prescribed, David directed Abishai to pursue Sheba with the guards
Mephibosheth - When David found himself in peaceable possession of the kingdom, he sought for all that remained of the house of Saul, that he might show them kindness, in consideration of the friendship between him and Jonathan. Of a part of this, however, he was afterwards deprived by the treachery of his steward Zeba, and the hasty injustice, as it appears, of David towards and unfortunate but noble and loyal prince, 2 Samuel 9:1-13 16:1-4 19:24-30 . David subsequently took care to exempt him from the number of the descendants of Saul given up to the vengeance of the Gibeonites, 2 Samuel 21:1-14 , though another Mephibosheth, a son of Saul was slain, 2 Samuel 21:8
Adonijah - Fourth son of David by Haggith, born at Hebron. He was apparently the oldest of David's sons at the close of David's life, and may have supposed that he would succeed to the throne; but without consulting his father he said, "I will be king," and both Joab and Abiathar helped him. David at once proclaimed Solomon as king. He afterwards asked to have as wife Abishag with whom David had shared his bed
Jesse - Obed's son, father of David; sprung from the Moabitess Ruth and the Canaanite Rahab of Jericho; and from Nahshon, at the Exodus chief of Judah, and so from the great house of Pharez, through Hezron. (On his removal to Moab in David's flight from Saul see David, also see ABIGAIL on Jesse's connection with her and Joab, Abishai and Asahel, and Zeruiah. ) His own name is immortalized, probably because of his faith in the coming Messiah, "the rod out of the stem (stump) of Jesse" even long after David had eclipsed him (Isaiah 11:1; Isaiah 11:10), expressing the depressed state of David's royal line when Messiah was to be born of it (Luke 2)
Lindores - 1191,by David, Earl of Huntingdon and inhabited by Tironensian Benedictines
Elipheleh - God will distinguish him, one of the porters appointed to play "on the Sheminith" on the occasion of the bringing up of the ark to the city of David (1 Chronicles 15:18,21 )
Jushab-Hesed - ” Royal son of Zerubbabel and descendant of David, thus a part of keeping messianic hope alive (1 Chronicles 3:20 )
Miphkad - A gate of Jerusalem (Nehemiah 3:31), in the wall of Zion, the city of David
Adiel -
The father of Azmaveth, who was treasurer under David and Solomon (1Chronicles 27:25)
Sho'bi - ( 2 Samuel 17:27 ) He was one of the first to meet David at Mahanaim on his flight from Absalom
Shu'Nammite, the, - the native of Shunem , is applied to two persons: Abishag, the nurse of King David, ( 1 Kings 1:3,15 ; 2:17,21,22 ) and the nameless hostess of Elisha
Bealiah - ” Soldier who joined David at Ziklag while he fled from Saul and served the Philistines (1 Chronicles 12:5 )
Chorashan - City in Judah where David was wont to haunt, and to which he sent some of his spoils taken in war
Gob - Place where David had two encounters with the Philistines
Uriah - A name memorable in the history of David
Ith're-am - (abundance of people ), son of David, born to him in Hebron, and distinctly specified as the sixth, and as the child of Eglah, David's wife
ma-Azi'ah - (Nehemiah 10:8 ) ...
A priest in the reign of David, head of the twenty-fourth course
am'Non -
Eldest son of David
ha'Reth - (thicket ) , The forest of, in which David took refuge, after at the instigation of the prophet Gad, he had quitted the "hold" or fastness of the cave of Adullam
Jehdeiah - ...
...
A Meronothite, herdsman of the asses under David and Solomon (1 Chronicles 27:30 )
Son of David - SON OF David. , Mark 12:35, Luke 20:41)—a question that they were unable to answer: ‘The scribes say that the Christ is (to be) the Son of David; but David calls him Lord; how then is he his son?’ The passage is not to be interpreted as a repudiation of the title on the part of Jesus. The Messiah does not owe His dignity to His Davidic descent. If Jesus did not expect this result to follow from His question, He could at least show by it the logical absurdity of the emphasis they put upon the Davidic sonship. Compare also the Annunciation (Luke 1:32), where it is said that Jesus shall be given the throne of His father David. ]'>[1] and Luke 9:27) and of the Canaanitish woman (Matthew 15:22), ‘Son of David, have mercy. Likewise the works of healing which He had wrought called forth—so characteristic were they of the Messiah who was expected—the query whether this might not be the Son of David (Matthew 12:23). David was the founder of the kingdom of Israel. Whenever in later centuries the nation and its welfare were in the mind, the thought naturally turned to David. When the house of David no longer ruled, and the kingdom was shattered, prophets and singers lamented the misfortunes that had overtaken David and his house. When their hopefulness and faith in God expressed itself in visions of a bright future, they naturally spoke of a second David, a branch of his house, who should restore the nation to its former prosperity. As the past, and especially David’s rule, grew fairer by contrast with the dismal present, so the new kingdom of David in the future was pictured in extravagant colours. To the Jew of the later pre-Christian centuries, David stood for much else besides military prowess and political prestige. These are the poor and the blind to whom Jesus gave salvation, by such ministry proving, even to His contemporaries, that He was worthy to be called the Son of David
Mephibosheth - ’...
David, on succeeding to the throne, instead of destroying all the family of Saul, as was usual on such occasions, spared Mephibosheth out of regard for his father Jonathan (2 Samuel 9:1 ). In that warlike age such a bodily weakness prevented him from becoming a rival of David, and no doubt inclined the latter to mercy. David was informed of his place of concealment in Lo-debar, on the east of the Jordan, by Ziba , who had been steward of Saul ( 2 Samuel 9:1 ff. The king restored to Mephibosheth all the estates of Saul, Ziba became his steward, and Mephibosheth himself was maintained as a permanent guest at David’s table ( 2 Samuel 9:13 ). ...
At the flight of David from Jerusalem after Absalom’s rebellion, Ziba met him on the Mount of Olives with provisions. Notwithstanding the doubtful nature of the story, David said, ‘Behold, thine is all that pertaineth to Mephibosheth’ (2 Samuel 16:4 ). On David’s return, Mephibosheth came out to meet him, and declared that Ziba had accused him falsely, taking advantage of his lameness. David seems to have doubted the truthfulness of Mephibosheth or did not wish to alienate Ziba, who had also been faithful, and divided the land of Saul between the two
za'Dok -
Son of Ahitub and one of the two chief priests in the time of David, Abiathar being the other. (1 Chronicles 12:28 ) He joined David at Hebron after Saul's death, (1 Chronicles 12:28 ) and thenceforth his fidelity to David was inviolable. When Absalom revolted and David fled from Jerusalem, Zadok and all the Levites bearing the ark accompanied him. When Absalom was dead, Zadok and Abiathar were the persons who persuaded the elders of Judah to invite David to return. (2 Samuel 19:11 ) When Adonijah, in David's old age, set up for king, and had persuaded Joab, and Abiathar the priest, to join his party, Zadok was unmoved, and was employed by David to anoint Solomon to be king in his room
Meronothite - A name given to Jehdeiah, the herdsman of the royal asses in the time of David and Solomon (1 Chronicles 27:30 ), probably as one being a native of some unknown town called Meronoth
Haggith - Festive; the dancer, a wife of David and the mother of Adonijah (2 Samuel 3:4 ; 1 Kings 1:5,11 ; 2:13 ; 1 Chronicles 3:2 ), who, like Absalom, was famed for his beauty
Ismaiah - A Gibeonite chief of the men who left Saul, the head of their tribe, to join David at Ziklag (1 Chronicles 12:1-4); "a mighty man among the 30 and over the 30
Hereth - A forest which was one of the hiding-places of David ( 1 Samuel 22:5 )
Ephes-Dammim - The place in Judah where the Philistines were encamped at the time when David slew Goliath ( 1 Samuel 17:1 )
Shemiramoth - Levite appointed as musician and doorkeeper when David brought up the ark
Fatling - ...
David sacrificed oxen and fatlings
Rezon - The founder of a dynasty in Syria-Damascus in the time of David, and a great annoyance to Solomon, 1 Kings 11:23-25
Eliab - The oldest brother of David, towards whom his conduct was passionate and jealous, thus confirming the judgment of Him who looks not on the appearance, but the heart, 1 Samuel 16:6,7 ; 17:28
Arau'Nah - (ark ), a Jebusite who sold his threshing floor on Mount Moriah to David as a site for an altar to Jehovah, together with his oxen
Numbering of the People - Besides the numbering of the tribes mentioned in the history of the wanderings in the wilderness, we have an account of a general census of the whole nation from Dan to Beersheba, which David gave directions to Joab to make (1 Chronicles 21:1 ). This act of David in ordering a numbering of the people arose from pride and a self-glorifying spirit. While Joab was engaged in the census, David's heart smote him, and he became deeply conscious of his fault; and in profound humiliation he confessed, "I have sinned greatly in what I have done. Two of these David had already experienced. In his "strait" David said, "Let me fall into the hands of the Lord. At David's intercession the plague was stayed, and at the threshing-floor of Araunah (q. ), where the destroying angel was arrested in his progress, David erected an altar, and there offered up sacrifies to God (2 Chronicles 3:1 )
Abner - He first introduced David to the court of Saul after the victory over Goliath (1Samuel 17:57). After the death of Saul, David was made king over Judah, and reigned in Hebron. A battle fatal to Abner, who was the leader of Ish-boseth's army, was fought with David's army under Joab at Gibeon (2Samuel 2:12). Being rebuked by Ish-bosheth for the impropriety of taking to wife Rizpah, who had been a concubine of King Saul, he found an excuse for going over to the side of David, whom he now professed to regard as anointed by the Lord to reign over all Israel. David received him favourably, and promised that he would have command of the armies. David lamented in pathetic words the death of Abner, "Know ye not that there is a prince and a great man fallen this day in Israel?" (2Samuel 3:33-38
Doeg - At Nob (1 Samuel 21:7) "detained before the Lord" by some act of purification or vow, which as a proselyte he was performing, when Ahimelech gave David Goliath's sword and the shewbread. He was but the accomplice and ready tool; Saul, the "mighty man" (Psalms 52:1) who "trusted in the abundance of his riches" (Psalms 52:7) as means of destroying David, was the real" boaster in mischief," for this was the very appeal that Saul made, and that induced Doeg to inform (1 Samuel 22:7): "Hear now, ye Benjamites, will the son of Jesse (as I can) give every one of you fields and vineyards?" (compare 1 Samuel 8:14. )...
On Doeg's information, and by Doeg's own sacrilegious hand, at Saul's command, when the king's "footmen" declined in reverential awe to kill Jehovah's priests, eighty-five of them fell, and Saul "boasted" (Psalms 52:1) of it as a sample of the fate of all who should help David. The cruel sycophancy of Doeg was so well known to David that he said unto Abiathar, the only survivor of the slaughter, "I knew it that day, when Doeg the Edomite was there, that he would surely tell Saul;" therefore with characteristic sensitiveness of conscience David adds, "I have occasioned the death of all the persons of thy father's house
Abner - For seven years after Saul's death, he supported Ish-bosheth; but being reproved by him for his conduct towards Rizpah, he undertook to unite the whole kingdom under David. David abhorred this perfidious act, and composed an elegy on his death, 2 Samuel 2:8 3:33
King david - David became king after Saul�s death. During his monarchy, David successfully secured and expanded Israel�s borders, but was beset by a series of revolts and personal tribulations
David, king - David became king after Saul�s death. During his monarchy, David successfully secured and expanded Israel�s borders, but was beset by a series of revolts and personal tribulations
Ittai - Gittite (from Gath) soldier who demonstrated loyalty to David by accompanying the latter in flight from Jerusalem after the outbreak of a rebellion led by David's son Absalom (2 Samuel 15:19-22 ). Thus, this man was a Philistine who had cast his lot with the Israelite David. Later, Ittai shared command of David's army with Joab and Abishai (2 Samuel 18:2 )
Jahaziel - Benjaminite military hero who supported David against Saul, also of the tribe of Benjamin (1 Chronicles 12:4 ). Priest whom David appointed to blow the trumpet before the ark (1 Chronicles 16:6 )
Bath-Sheba - David committed adultery with her (2 Samuel 11:4,5 ; Psalm 51:1 ). After her husband was slain (11:15) she was married to David (11:27), and became the mother of (Song of Solomon 12:24 ; 1 Kings 1:11 ; 2:13 )
Azarel - David's soldier at Ziklag, skilled with bow and arrow and able to sling stones with either hand (1 Chronicles 12:6 ). Leader of a course of priests selected by lot under David (1 Chronicles 25:18 ). Leader of tribe of Dan under David (1 Chronicles 27:22 )
Doeg - He was present at Nob at the time David arrived there during the course of his flight from Saul. Doeg subsequently reported to Saul that the priest Ahimelech had given assistance to David
Michal - The second daughter of Saul, 1 Samuel 14:49, and the wife of David. During David's exile she was married to another, Phalti, or Palti, 1 Samuel 25:44; 2 Samuel 3:15, with whom she lived for ten years. After the accession of David to the throne she was restored to him, 2 Samuel 3:13-14; but an estrangement soon took place between them, and on the occasion of one of the greatest triumphs of David's life—the bringing up of the ark to Jerusalem—it came to an open rupture between them, after which her name does not again occur
Moriah - The rocky outcropping in Jerusalem located just north of the ancient city of David. After David captured the site, he purposed to build there a Temple for the ark of the covenant
Barzillai - The name of a chieftain of Gilead who brought supplies to David and his army at Mahanaim ( 2 Samuel 17:27 ff. On his deathbed David charged Solomon to ‘shew kindness to the sons of Barzillai’ ( 1 Kings 2:7 )
Shephatiah - Fifth son of David by Abital. The Haruphite who joined David at Ziklag
Amasa - The son of Ithra an Ishmaelite, and of Abigail the sister of king David. David not only pardoned him, but gave him the command of the army in place of Joab ( 2 Samuel 19:13 )
Adullam - It is frequently mentioned in the history of Saul and David; and is chiefly memorable from the cave in its neighbourhood, where David retired from Achish, king of Gath, when he was joined by the distressed and discontented, to the number of four hundred, over whom he became captain, 1 Samuel 22:1
Nabal - He was under great obligations to David, for protecting him from the robbers of the desert; and yet, in the very hour most suggestive of a grateful generosity, he churlishly refused David's modest request of provisions for his needy troop. Indignant at this ingratitude and inhospitality, David was soon on his way to put him and his men to the sword
Mil'lo - Both name and place seem to have been already in existence when the city was taken from the Jebusites by David. (2 Chronicles 32:5 ) The last passage seems to show that "the Milo" was part of the "city of David," that is, of Zion
Asai'ah - ) ...
A Levite in the reign of David, chief of the family of Merari. (1 Chronicles 6:30 ) With 120 of his brethren he took part in bringing the ark from the house of Obed-edom to the city of David
Jesse - He was the father of eight sons, the youngest of whom was David (1 Samuel 17:12 ). The phrase "stem of Jesse" is used for the family of David (Isaiah 11:1 ), and "root of Jesse" for the Messiah (Isaiah 11:10 ; Revelation 5:5 ). The last reference to him is of David's procuring for him an asylum with the king of Moab (1 Samuel 22:3 )
Abigail - Nabal almost brought disaster upon his household by his insulting refusal to supply David and his men with food in return for their service in protecting his farmlands against the raiding Philistines. ...
When Nabal unexpectedly died, David married Abigail (1 Samuel 25:39-42). She became the mother of David’s second son, Chileab (2 Samuel 3:3)
Tahpenes - Her sister was given in marriage to Hadad the Edomite, an enemy of David, and later of Solomon
Shi'Sha - ( 1 Kings 4:3 ) He is apparently the same as Shavsha, who held the same position under David
Unni - A Levite doorkeeper; played the psaltery on (See ALAMOTH in the Zion tabernacle erected by David (1 Chronicles 15:18; 1 Chronicles 15:20)
Zabdiel - Descendant of David (1 Chronicles 27:2 )
Armoni - ” Son of Rizpah and Saul, whom David gave to the Gibeonites in revenge for Saul's earlier killing of Gibeonites (2 Samuel 21:7-9 )
Chun - City in the North captured by David, from whence he took much brass, which was used by Solomon in the Temple
ja'Kim -
Head of the twelfth course of priests in the reign of David
Keilah - A city in the plains of Judah, which David once relieved from a siege by the Philistines, but which afterwards sought to deliver him up to Saul, 1 Samuel 23:1-13 ; Nehemiah 3:17
el-Tolad - (God's kindred ), one of the cities in the south of Judah, ( Joshua 15:30 ) allotted to Simeon, (Joshua 19:4 ) and in possession of that tribe until the time of David
Jeri'ah, - a Kohathite Levite, chief of the great house of Hebron when David organized the service
Psalms - "Only a portion of the Book of Psalms claims David as its author. " But it is specially to David and his contemporaries that we owe this precious book. In the "titles" of the psalms, the genuineness of which there is no sufficient reason to doubt, 73 are ascribed to David. About two-thirds of the whole collection have been ascribed to David. ...
The Psalter is divided, after the analogy of the Pentateuch, into five books, each closing with a doxology or benediction: ...
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The first book comprises the first 41 psalms, all of which are ascribed to David except 1,2,10, and 33, which, though anonymous, may also be ascribed to him. ...
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Book second consists of the next 31 psalms Psalm 18 of which are ascribed to David and 1 to Solomon (the 72nd). ...
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The third book contains 17 psalms (73-89), of which the 86th is ascribed to David, the 88th to Heman the Ezrahite, and the 89th to Ethan the Ezrahite. ...
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The fourth book also contains 17 psalms (90-106), of which the 90th is ascribed to Moses, and the 101st and 103to David. Of these, 15 are ascribed to David, and the 127th to Solomon. ...
"It is presumed that these several collections were made at times of high religious life: the first, probably, near the close of David's life; the second in the days of Solomon; the third by the singers of Jehoshaphat (2 Chronicles 20:19 ); the fourth by the men of Hezekiah (29,30,31); and the fifth in the days of Ezra. David first taught the Church to sing the praises of the Lord
Nabal - " During his wanderings David came into that district, and hearing that Nabal was about to shear his sheep, he sent ten of his young men to ask "whatsoever cometh unto thy hand for thy servants. " Nabal insultingly resented the demand, saying, "Who is David, and who is the son of Jesse?" (1 Samuel 25:10,11 ). One of the shepherds that stood by and saw the reception David's messengers had met with, informed Abigail, Nabal's wife, who at once realized the danger that threatened her household. She forthwith proceeded to the camp of David, bringing with her ample stores of provisions (25:18). She so courteously and persuasively pled her cause that David's anger was appeased, and he said to her, "Blessed be the Lord God of Israel which sent thee this day to meet me. Not long after David married Abigail (q
Hothir - ” Priestly musician in the clan of Heman under David (1 Chronicles 25:4 )
Amnon - The eldest son of David, by Ahimoam of Jezreel
Goliath - He was slain by the youthful David
Chimham - 1 Kings 2:7 ) of Barzillai the Gileadite, who returned with David from beyond Jordan to Jerusalem after the death of Absalom ( 2 Samuel 19:31 f
Shobab - Son of David (2 Samuel 5:14 )
Psalmist - ) A writer or composer of sacred songs; - a title particularly applied to David and the other authors of the Scriptural psalms
Baalperazim - Name given by David to a place in Judah near the valley of Rephaim, where he defeated an army of the Philistines
Phalti, Phaltiel - Son of Laish, of Gallim: Saul gave him Michal, David's wife. When she was restored to David, Phalti followed weeping behind her, till abruptly sent back by Abner
Joab - One of the captains in David's army. His history begins 2 Samuel 2:1-32 and runs through the greater part of the life of David...
Jehez'Ekel - (whom God makes strong ), a priest to whom was given by David the charge of the twentieth of the twenty-four courses in the service of the house of Jehovah
Giloh - A city of Judah, Joshua 15:50 ; where Ahithophel, David's counselor dwelt; and where, after his treason against David, and the rejection of his counsel by Absalom, he hung himself, 2 Samuel 15:12 ; 17:23
e'Lah, the Valley of - (valley of the terebinth ), the valley in which David killed Goliath
Joab - One of the sons of Zeruiah the eldest according to 2 Samuel 2:18 , the second according to 1 Chronicles 2:16 and thus the nephew of David. It is perhaps not too much to say that, humanly speaking, the Davidic dynasty would not have been established had it not been for the military genius and the loyalty of Joab. So consistently loyal was Joab to the royal house (see Adonijah), that one is tempted to question whether the passage, 1 Kings 2:5-6 , which describes David’s ingratitude, is genuine; certain it is that if David really felt with regard to Abner and Amasa as he is described as feeling in this passage, it is surprising that he should have left to the wisdom of Solomon the duty of inflicting the punishment due; Joab’s death would seem to have been due rather to his loyalty in supporting David’s rightful heir, Adonijah. These are specifically mentioned, but there must have been very many more, for those which are spoken of generally as David’s victories were in all probability due to Joab, who is repeatedly spoken of as David’s commander-in-chief ( e. ...
Secondly, his loyalty to the house of David is Illustrated by his whole life of devoted service, and especially by such conspicuous instances as his desire to make his victory over the Ammonites appear to have been gained by David ( 2 Samuel 12:20 ff. ); his slaying of Abner [1]; the reconciliation which he brought about between David and Absalom ( 2 Samuel 14:1 ff. ); his slaying of Absalom when he realized his treachery to David ( 2 Samuel 18:14 ff. , 2 Samuel 19:6 ); his words to David in 2 Samuel 19:5-7 one of the most striking instances of his attachment; and lastly, his championship of the rightful heir to the throne, which cost him his life ( 1 Kings 1:7 ; 1 Kings 2:34 ). How close was the tie between David and Joab may be seen, further, in the blind obedience of the latter, who was willing to be partaker in David’s sin ( 2 Samuel 11:6-26 )
Antitype - Adam, Noe, Moses, David are some of the Old Testament types of Christ
Shemariah - A Beojamite who joined David at Ziklag ( 1 Chronicles 12:5 )
Gera - ...
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The father of Shimei, who so grossly abused David (2 Samuel 16:5 ; 19:16,18 )
South Ramoth - of Judah; resorted to by David toward the close of his wanderings, and rewarded with a share of the Amalekite spoil (1 Samuel 30:27)
Cushi - Joab's messenger to David on the death of Absalom
Moriah - See Genesis 22:1-2 ; and where David interceded for his people at the threshing-floor of Araunah, 2 Samuel 24:16-25
pe'Rez-uz'za - (breaking of Uzzah ), ( 1 Chronicles 13:11 ) and PEREZ-UZZAH (2 Samuel 6:8 ) the title which David conferred on the threshing-floor of Nachon or Cidon, in commemoration of the sudden death of Uzzah
Michal, Saul's Daughter - SHE DESPISED HIM IN HER HEART...
NEVER, surely, were man and wife more unequally yoked together than was David, the man after God's own heart, with Michal, Saul's daughter. What was David's meat was Michal's poison. What was sweeter than honey to David was gall and wormwood to Michal. The things that had become dearer and dearer to David's heart every day, those were the very things that drove Michal absolutely mad; furiously and ungovernably mad that day on which the ark of God was brought up to the city of David. ...
It was the greatest day of David's life. And, sad to say, it was the very greatness of the day to David that made it such a day of death to Michal, Saul's daughter. A deep distaste that had grown to be a deep dislike at David, till that deep distaste and settled dislike burst out that day into downright hatred and deliberate insult. You must understand all that the ark of God was to David, and the home-bringing of the ark, before you can fully understand the whole catastrophe of that day. It would take me till midnight to tell you all that was in David's heart as he sacrificed oxen and fatlings at six paces, and leaped and danced before the ark of God all the way up to the city of David. And, even then, you would need to be a kind of David yourself before you would look with right reverence and love at David that day. For David was beside himself that day. David never did anything by halves, and least of all his worship of God. With all his might, then-and you know something of what all David's might in such matters was-with all his might David leaped and danced before the Lord till Michal despised him in her heart. David could not understand how Michal could sit still that day. She had not been brought up to it, and it was not her custom to go up to the house of the Lord to sing and play like David. Had Michal been married in the Lord; had Michal reverenced her husband; had she cared to please her husband; had she played on the psaltery and harp sometimes, if only for his sake-what a happy wife Michal would have been, and David what a happy husband! Had her heart been right with her husband's heart when he blessed his household every night; had she been wont with all her heart to unite with her husband when he blessed them every night and sang psalms with them; had she sung with him and said, We will not go up into our bed till we have found out a place for the Lord, an habitation for the mighty God of Jacob: how well it would have been. Lo! sang David alone with the handmaids of his servants, Lo! we heard of it at Ephratah; we found it in the fields of the wood. Had David not been so unequally yoked, Michal would have put on David's shoulder that day an ephod that she had worked for that day with her own hands; and as she put it on him she would have sung and said, I will clothe her priests with salvation, and her saints shall shout aloud for joy. And thus it was that she despised David in her heart when the very gates of brass and iron were lifting up their heads at David's psalm to let the King of Glory come in. ...
Not to speak of the past, had Michal done that day what any woman with any sense of decency left in her would have done-had she put on her royal garments and set out with David to the house of Obed-Edom, how differently for her and for David that day would have ended! For, once on the ground; once surrounded with the assembled people, the magnificent scene would have carried Michal away. The fast-dying ashes of her first love for David would have been blown up into all their former flame as she shared in the splendid salutation that David received from the assembled land. Her proud and unsympathetic temper got the better of her that morning, till David had to set out on the royal duties of that day alone. Harder and darker and fiercer at David, and at all the ordinances and delights of that day. And then, when all Jerusalem rang with the ark just at her door, Michal stole to her shut window and saw nothing but David dancing before the Lord. What a pity that David did not better prevail with Michal to accompany him to the fields of the wood that day!...
The wife see that she reverence her husband, says the apostle. Yes; but even Paul himself would have allowed that it was impossible for Michal to reverence David all at once that day. It is to tell a waterfall to flow uphill to tell Michal at this time of day to reverence David. But, when all is said for her, and all allowance made, she should not have spoken to David as it is recorded she did speak. She could not command her proud heart when she saw David dancing, but by the time he came home she should have had her tongue tamed and under a bridle. David was, no doubt, a great provocation and a constant cross to Michal. David was all emotion, especially in divine things; whereas Michal was as proud and cold as if she had been a daughter of Lucifer, as indeed she was. David that day was like one of our own ministers coming home from the communion table. And if he were met with a blow in the face about his sermon or his prayer or his table service as he opened his own door, that was exactly the reception that poor David met with at Michal's hands that day. ...
'It was before the Lord,' was David's noble answer to Michal's taunting and insulting words. That was the whole explanation of David's emotion and the sufficient justification of it. David's overflowing joy that day had its deep and full spring in that far-off but never-to-be-forgotten day when Samuel came to Bethlehem with his horn of oil. To understand David and to sing David's psalms, you must have come through David's experiences. You must have had David's birth and upbringing; David's election and anointing and call; David's sins and David's salvation; David's falls and David's restorations; David's offices and David's services in the church of God. No wonder, then, that so many of David's psalms are as much beyond your depth today as his dancing was beyond Michal's depth that day. Michal thought of her royal father Saul that day, and despised David. David thought of his poor father Jesse that day, and danced before the Lord. 'Both less and more than king,' is Dante's whole remark on David's dance. As we shall be on that day when we look down at the hole of the pit from whence we were digged, and cast our crowns at His feet who took us from the dung-hill and set us beside David. ...
And then, the truly noble, the truly humble, and the terribly lonely man that he was, David took up the taunt of his godless and heartless wife, and wore it as a badge of honour before the Lord that day. And who can tell how many husbands here are in David's desolate case? Who can tell how many have to go out of their own homes to find the finest sympathy, and the fullest utterance, and the completest rest for their hearts? The wife see that her husband has not to go abroad to find his best friend, his most sympathetic and fellow-feeling friend, and, above all, in his religion. What a gulf there was between David and Michal; between Jesus and His brethren, not to say His mother; and between my desolate friend and his wife! My brethren, the Holy Ghost knew what He was doing, and for whom He was doing it, when He moved the sacred writer to put that day in David's life into our Bible
Baal-Hanan - ...
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An overseer of "the olive trees and sycomore trees in the low plains" (the Shephelah) under David (1 Chronicles 27:28 )
Toi - ” King of Hammath on the Orontes who sent tribute to David following his defeat of their mutual foe, Hadadezer of Zobah (2 Samuel 8:9-11 ; Tou, 1 Chronicles 18:9-10 )
Shir'Amoth -
A Levite of the second degree in the choir formed by David
Radak - Rav David Kimchi, thirteenth century grammarian and author of one of the foremost biblical commentaries; played a major rule in defending Judaism against the church and authored Teshuvoth Lanotzrim (Refutation to the Christians); defended Maimonides Guide against detractors
Ahilud - Father of Jehoshaphat the 'recorder' of David and Solomon, 2 Samuel 8:16 ; 2 Samuel 20:24 ; 1 Kings 4:3,12 ; 1 Chronicles 18:15 , and father of Baana, one of Solomon's commissariat officers
Abishag - The Shunammite damsel who cherished David in his old age. After David's death, his son Adonijah asked to have Abishag for wife, for which Solomon put him to death
Daniel - Second son of David, by Abigail the Carmelitess
Adnah - One of the captains of thousands, of the tribe of Manasseh, who joined David in Ziklag
Ziklag - A town in the Negeb, or south country of Judah (Joshua 15:31 ), in the possession of the Philistines when David fled to Gath from Ziph with all his followers. During his absence with his army to join the Philistine expedition against the Israelites (29:11), it was destroyed by the Amalekites (30:1,2), whom David, however, pursued and utterly routed, returning all the captives (1 Samuel 30:26-31 ). Two days after his return from this expedition, David received tidings of the disastrous battle of Gilboa and of the death of Saul (2 Samuel 1:1-16 )
Achish - Kin of Gath, a city of the Philistines, to whom David twice fled for protection from Saul. Achish gave him Ziklag for a residence; and being deceived as to the views and operations of David, expected his assistance in a war with Israel, but was persuaded by his officers to send him home to Ziklag, 1 Samuel 27:1-29:11
Elhanan -
A warrior of the time of David famed for his exploits. " Goliath the Gittite was killed by David (1 Samuel 17 ). The exploit of Elhanan took place late in David's reign. ...
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The son of Dodo, and one of David's warriors (2 Samuel 23:24 )
Elihu - ...
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One of the captains of thousands of Manasseh who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chronicles 12:20 ). ...
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One of the family of Obed-edom, who were appointed porters of the temple under David (1 Chronicles 26:7 )
Hadoram - Son of Tou or Toi, king of Hamath; sent to congratulate David on his victory over Hadarezer (1 Chronicles 28:10), bearing costly presents in gold, silver, and brass (antiques according to Josephus). Over the tribute, under David, Solomon, and Rehoboam
Ephraim, Forest of - The densely wooded site of the battle between the forces of King David and the rebel army of Absalom (2Samuel 18:6,2 Samuel 18:8 ). The account in 2Samuel suggests a site on the east side of the Jordan near enough to the city of Mahanaim in the Jabbok valley to allow David to send reinforcements
Jerimoth - One who resorted to David at Ziklag. Son of David: his daughter Mahalath was wife of Rehoboam
Ish-Bosheth - Son and successor of Saul, who was persuaded by Abner to go up to Mahanaim and assume the government while David reigned at Hebron, 2 Samuel 2:8; 2 Samuel 2:11; and all Israel except Judah acknowledged him as kins. A severe battle soon after occurred at Gibeon, between the army of David, under Joab, and the army of Ish-bosheth, under Abner, in which the latter was utterly defeated
Hadadezer - see) in the time of David, 2 Samuel 8:3 ff. He was at the head of the combination of the Aramæans of Northern Palestine against David, was repeatedly defeated, and finally made tributary
Doeg - At Nob he witnessed the relief kindly furnished to David when fleeing from Saul, by Ahimelech the high priest, and carried a malicious and distorted report of it to his master. David forebodes his wretched fate, Psalm 52:1-9 120:1-7 140:1-13
Gad - David's (1 Chronicles 29:29 ; 2 Chronicles 29:25 ) was a "prophet" who appears to have joined David when in the old. (2 Samuel 24:11-19 ; 1 Chronicles 21:9-19 ) He wrote a book of the Acts of David, (1 Chronicles 29:29 ) and also assisted in the arrangements for the musical service of the "house of God
Goliath - Young David accepted the challenge and killed Goliath with his slingshot, leading to the Philistines’ defeat
Nethaniah -
One of Asaph's sons, appointed by David to minister in the temple (1 Chronicles 25:2,12 )
Elizaphan - Numbers 3:30; his descendants took a lead in religion under David and Hezekiah (1 Chronicles 15:8; 2 Chronicles 29:13)
Gittite - Six hundred Gittites came with David from Gath into Israel (15:18,19)
Shechani'ah -
The tenth in order of the priests who were appointed by lot in the reign of David
Tehinnah - Father or founder of In Nahash (city of Natash, probably father of Abigail, and step sister of David: 2 Samuel 17:25; 1 Chronicles 2:16); Eshton's son; of Judah, of the men of Rechab
Sechu - ” Otherwise unknown site where Saul searched for David (1 Samuel 19:22 )
Jedidiah - This, following on the great sin of David with Bathsheba, is a remarkable instance of how grace can abound over sin
Bahurim - It is several times mentioned in the history of David
Jehdeiah - Keeper of the royal donkeys under David (1 Chronicles 27:30 )
Shechani'ah -
The tenth in order of the priests who were appointed by lot in the reign of David
Keilah - " David in dependence on Jehovah's promise, notwithstanding his men's protest on the ground of their weakness, rescued it from the Philistines (1 Samuel 23); here Abiathar joined him with the ephod, having escaped from the massacre of priests at Nehemiah The proximity of Hareth, where David was, accounts for his helping it though he did not help other towns when robbed by the Philistines. ) Saul too looked to God, as if His providence had "delivered" David to him by David's entering a town with "gates and bars," Saul's hope was presumption, for God would never be the minister to gratuitous and murderous malice. David again consulted God in sincere faith, whether the men of Keilah would betray him. Like the Antitype, David was being betrayed by the ungrateful men whom he came to save. " All "the inhabitants of Keilah" probably did not join in the treachery against David, only the Baalites, Hebrew: Baali for "men" of Keilah (Joshua 15:11-12), i. the Canaanite portion, votaries of Baal, to whom David's devotion to Jehovah and the presence of the sacred ephod with the priest Abiathar were an offense. "...
"Thou hast known my soul in adversities" (David's phrase in the independent history, 2 Samuel 4:9)
Moriah - Jehovah's vision to David in the same spot, before the preparation for building the temple there, revived the name Moriah (2 Samuel 24:16; 2 Samuel 24:24-25. ) The threshing floor of Araunah the Jebusite was the spot on which David reared an altar by Gad's direction from Jehovah. The Angel of Jehovah had stood by Araunah's threshing floor; there David saw Him, and Araunah (Ornan) also, subsequently on turning back, saw Him and hid himself. Then Ornan saw David, and made over to him the threshing floor (1 Chronicles 21:15-16; 1 Chronicles 21:18-26). ...
Jehovah testified His acceptance of David's sacrifice there by sending down fire to consume it (Leviticus 9:24; 1 Kings 18:24; 1 Kings 18:38; 2 Chronicles 7:1). So thenceforth David sacrificed there, and no longer on the altar at Gibeon where the tabernacle was, separate from the ark, which was at Zion; for he could not go to Gibeon on account of the sword of the Angel, i. God's answer to his sacrifice at this altar of the threshing floor, and God's removal of the plague, determined David's choice of it as the site of the temple (1 Chronicles 28:2; 1 Chronicles 21:28; 1 Chronicles 22:1; 2 Chronicles 3:1, etc. Evidently the threshing floor on Moriah was near the real Mount Zion, the city of David (on the eastern not the western half of Jerusalem)
Zadok - Son of Ahitub and father of Ahimaaz, descended from Aaron through Eleazar and was a priest in the time of David (2 Samuel 8:17 ; 1 Chronicles 6:3-8 ). ...
In a touching scene Zadok with Abiathar carried the ark to go with David in his flight from Absalom (2 Samuel 15:24 ). David sent them back to carry on their worship in Jerusalem and be spies for him. Zadok's son Ahimaaz was the go-between and was also the first to bring David news of Absalom's defeat (2 Samuel 18:27 ). David then appealed to Zadok and Abiathar to arrange a welcome for him to come back to Jerusalem. This statement agrees with the genealogies of Chronicles which list only two families as far as the captivity—David of Judah and Zadok the descendant of Aaron through Eleazar
Absalom - The third son of David, by Maacah, daughter of Talmai, king of Geshur. ) It was declared to Davidthat his successor was not yet born. 2 Samuel 7:12 This was told to David by Nathan the prophet, and probably became known to Absalom. The rebellion was so strong that David fled from Jerusalem. The latter advised Absalom to go in publicly to the concubines of David who were left at Jerusalem, that all hopes of a reconciliation might be abandoned — though this had been foretold as a punishment to David. By the advice of Hushai the further counsel of Ahithophel of an immediate pursuit was set aside, and David had time to collect an army, and reach a place of safety. David's grief was extreme, but he was recalled to his duties by Joab
Genealogy of Jesus Christ - Abraham and David in Matthew's Gospel are singled out to prove the fulfillment in Christ of the promises made to Abraham 2,000 years previously, and to David 1,000. Matthew's Gospel contains, not Joseph's direct ancestors, but the succession of heirs to David's and Solomon's throne. The promise was, Messiah was to be "of the fruit of the loins of David" (Acts 2:30), but to Solomon only that "his throne should be established evermore" (1 Chronicles 17:14). Hence attention is drawn to Joseph's being "son of David" (Matthew 1:20), "of the house and lineage of David" (Luke 2:4, compare Luke 1:32). From Abraham to David both agree, thenceforward the names differ. Luke has 42 names from David, Matthew only 27 names. Isaiah 11:1 implies that Messiah was the seed of David by natural as well as legal descent. The period from Abraham to David is that of patriarchs; from David to the Babylonian captivity that of kings; from the captivity to Christ private individuals. Abraham and ending with David, the receivers of the promise; the second adumbrates Christ's eternal kingdom through the temporary kingdom of David's line; the third period is that of expectation. The name Jehoiakim seemingly has dropped out, Josiah's son and Jeconiah's father; otherwise David would have to be counted twice to make up the second 14. Five females are in Matthew's Gospel: incestuous Tamar, Rahab the Moabitess and a harlot, Ruth, Uriah's wife Bathsheba the object of David's adulterous love, and above all Mary; all extraordinary monuments of God's grace, that chooses out of the vilest to make vessels unto honor, for the bringing forth of the promised Seed, who was to save sinners of every type and race
Teraphim - In order to deceive the guards sent by Saul to seize David, Michal his wife prepared one of the household teraphim, putting on it the goat's-hair cap worn by sleepers and invalids, and laid it in a bed, covering it with a mantle. She pointed it out to the soldiers, and alleged that David was confined to his bed by a sudden illness (1 Samuel 19:13-16 ). Thus she gained time for David's escape. It seems strange to read of teraphim, images of ancestors, preserved for superstitious purposes, being in the house of David. "Perhaps," says Bishop Wordsworth, "Saul, forsaken by God and possessed by the evil spirit, had resorted to teraphim (as he afterwards resorted to witchcraft); and God overruled evil for good, and made his very teraphim (by the hand of his own daughter) to be an instrument for David's escape. ", Deane's David, p
Gad - Prophet who advised David as he fled from Saul (1 Samuel 22:5 ) and who brought God's options for punishment after David took a census of Israel (2 Samuel 24:11-14 ). Gad also brought David God's orders to build an altar, apparently on the site of the future Temple (2 Samuel 24:18-19 ). The Chronicler pointed his readers to records of David's reign by Gad (1 Chronicles 29:29 ) and of Gad's assistance in showing David God's plan for Temple worship (2 Chronicles 29:25 )
Benaiah - Captain of David's professional soldiers (2 Samuel 8:18 ; 2 Samuel 20:23 ), known for heroic feats such as disarming an Egyptian and killing him with his own sword as well as killing a lion in the snow (2 Samuel 23:20-23 ). Still he was not among the top three military advisors of David (2 Samuel 20:23 ). His unquestioned loyalty to David led Adonijah not to include him as he attempted to replace David as king instead of Solomon (1 Kings 1:8-26 ). He followed David's orders and helped annoint Solomon as king (1 Kings 1:32-47 ). Pirathonite who is listed among the elite warriors of David known as the “thirty” (2 Samuel 23:30 )
Adoni'Jah -
The fourth son of David by Haggith, born at Hebron while his father was king of Judah. Adonijah's cause was espoused by Abiathar and by Joab the famous commander of David's army. " [2] Apprised of these proceedings, David immediately caused Solomon to be proclaimed king, (1 Kings 1:33,34 ) at Gihon. " (1 Kings 1:52 ) The death of David quickly followed on these events; and Adonijah begged Bath-sheba to procure Solomon's consent to his marriage with Abishag, who had been the wife of David in his old age
Abishag - A beautiful virgin of Shunem, in Issachar, chosen to marry David in his old age and cherish him
Archite - , he held office under David similar to that of our modern privy councillor
Joshbekashah - ” A Levite musician from clan of Heman, the seer, under David (1 Chronicles 25:4 )
Ahiezer - ...
The chief of the Benjamite slingers that repaired to David at Ziklag (1Chronicles 12:3)
Sho'Bab -
Son of David by Bath-sheba
Ben - ” A Levite who became head of a clan of Temple porters under David (1 Chronicles 15:18 NAS, KJV)
Eliada - A son of David ( 2 Samuel 5:16 ); called Beeliada in 1 Chronicles 14:7
Amnon - David's oldest son by Ahinoam the Jezreelitess, born in Hebron while David reigned there over Judah only
Ahilud - Father of Jehoshaphat, the chronicler under David and Solomon ( 2 Samuel 8:16 ; 2Sa 20:24 , 1 Kings 4:3 , 1 Chronicles 18:15 )
Pharez - The same word as David afterwards used from the breach made at Uzzah's touching the ark
Adnah - A military leader from the tribe of Manasseh who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chronicles 12:20 )
Ahohite - In time of David and Solomon military figures of this clan or place became military leaders
Zion - ) A hill in Jerusalem, which, after the capture of that city by the Israelites, became the royal residence of David and his successors
Amnon - Eldest son of David by Ahinoam: he was slain by Absalom for the violence done to his sister Tamar
Ahi-e'Zer - ...
The Benjamite chief of a body of archers in the time of David
Sling - It was a formidable weapon in hands like those of David and the Benjamites, Judges 20:16 1 Samuel 17:48-50 1 Chronicles 12:2 2 Chronicles 26:14
Baal-Perazim - Place of breaches, a name given by David to the scene of a battle with the Philistines, 2 Samuel 5:20 ; 1 Chronicles 14:11 ; Isaiah 28:21
Naioth - It appears to have been a suburb of Ramah; and David, having sought refuge there with Samuel, was pursued by Saul
Hak'Koz - (thorn ), a priest, the chief of the seventh course in the service of the sanctuary, as appointed by David
Genealogy of Jesus Christ - Only as the son and heir of David should he be the Messiah. Matthew is Joseph's genealogy as legal successor to the throne of David. Luke's is Joseph's private Genealogy, exhibiting his real birth as David's son, and thus showing why he was heir to Solomon's crown. The simple principle that one evangelist exhibits that genealogy which contained the successive heir to David's and Solomon's throne, while the other exhibits the paternal stem of him who was the heir, explains all the anomalies of the two pedigrees, their agreements as well as their discrepancies, and the circumstance of there being two at all. This view has this greatly in its favor, that it shows that Jesus was not merely the legal but the actual descendant of David; and it would be very strange that in the gospel accounts, where so much is made of Jesus being the son and heir of David and of his kingdom his real descent from David should not be given
David - in His Services - One of David's greatest and best services to God and man never went further than the good intention. But David was as much praised and as much paid for his good intention to build the temple as if he had lived to see the golden towers of God's house shining in the Sabbath sun. Both from David's intended temple; from the poor widow's actual collection at the door of David's temple; and from Bengel's spiritual annotation let us learn this spiritual lesson, that our hearts are the measure both of our work and of our wages in the sight of God. So did David. David had magnificent dreams about the temple. But it stands in God's true and faithful word that it was all in David's heart. May all David's good intentions, and generous preparations be found in all our rich people; and may all the widow's love and goodwill be found in all our poor people. ' When I first read that sentence of such terrible disappointment to David, I looked to see David all that night on his face on the earth. But I did not know David; I had not yet got into all the depths of David's deep heart. For, instead of refusing to rise up and eat bread with the elders of his house, David was never in a happier frame of mind than he was all that night. David not only said, 'It is the Lord,' but his heart broke forth in a psalm such that there is nothing nobler in his whole book of Psalms. David not only consented that it was both good, and right, and seemly, that hands like his should not touch a stone of the house of God; but, that his son should be chosen of God to build Him an house-that set David's heart on fire as never Old Testament heart was set on fire like David's heart. As we read the psalm that poured out of David's heart that chastised and disappointed day, David is a man after our own heart. A psalm of resignation, and self-sacrifice, and thanksgiving, and many other virtues and graces like that psalm, covers a multitude of David's sins. Then went David in, and sat before the Lord; and he said, Who am I, O Lord God, and what is my house, that Thou hast brought me hitherto? And this was yet a small thing in Thy sight, O Lord God; but Thou hast spoken also of Thy servant's house for a great while to come. And is this the manner of man, O Lord God? Would God we all had a heart like that! I have found David, my servant. This, no doubt, greatly helped David to resign his great hope of being spared to build the temple, that Solomon, his greatly-gifted, wise-hearted, pure, and noble-minded son was standing ready to take up and to carry out his father's long-intended task. Judging David that day by myself, David must have been a happy father and a thankful, as, indeed, the fine psalm he sang that day lets us see that he was. And if I saw all my sons preparing for the ministry of Christ in the Church of Christ I would die in a far greater triumph than David's death-bed could possibly be. David did many other services, both intended and executed, both in the field, and on the throne, and in the house of God; but by far and away David's greatest service was his Psalms. But the Psalms of David shine to this day with a greater splendour than on the day they were first sung. And long after the foundations of this whole earth shall have been ploughed up and removed out of their place, David's Psalms will be sounding out for ever beside the song of Moses and the Lamb. But how poor was his boast, and how short-lived will be his best work beside David's immortal Psalms! What a service has David done, not knowing that he was doing it; and not to his own nation only, but to the whole Israel of God. 'I have found David My servant, with My holy oil have I anointed him. '...
I have said that David did a great service to the Redeemer of Israel, and I intended to say it. When I think of that service, all the other services that David has done by his Psalms shine out in a far diviner glory. I bless David's name for the blessing my own soul gets out of his Psalms every day I live. But when I trace that blessing up to its true source, I find that true and grace-gushing source in Jesus of Nazareth, whom I see growing in grace every day as He goes about in Galilee with David's Psalms never out of His hands. Think, people of God, of the honour to David, higher far than all the thrones on earth and in heaven,-the unparalleled and immortal honour of being able to teach Jesus Christ to sing and to pray. For, when the Holy Child said to Mary, Mother, teach Me to sing and to pray, what did Mary do, hiding all that in her heart, but put into her Child's hands David's golden Psalm beginning thus: The Lord is my Shepherd, I shall not want. And then, think of Him as He grew in wisdom, and in stature, and in strength of spirit beginning to discover Himself in this Psalm of David and in that. Think of the sweet start, the overpowering surprise, the solemnity, the rejoicing with trembling, the resignation, the triumph with which the growing Saviour was led of the Spirit from Psalm to Psalm till He had searched out all David's Psalms in which David had prophesied and sung concerning his Messiah Son. And, having once begun to read and to think in that way you will go on till you come to the cross, where you will see and hear your dying Redeemer with one of David's Psalms on His lips when He can no longer hold it in His hands. And they said one to another, did not our heart burn within us while He talked with us by the way, and while He opened to us the Scriptures?...
O two disciples, on your way that same day to Emmaus, how I envy you your travelling Companion that day! My heart burns to think of your Divine Companion opening up to you David's Messianic Psalms that memorable day. And when I think also of the multitudes that no man can number to whom David's Psalms have been their constant song in the house of their pilgrimage; in the tabernacle as they fell for the first time hot from David's heart and harp; in the temple of Solomon his son with all the companies of singers and all their instruments of music; in the synagogues of the captivity; in the wilderness as the captives returned to the New Jerusalem; in the New Jerusalem every Sabbath-day and every feast-day; in the upper room, both before and after supper; in Paul's prison at Philippi; in the catacombs; in Christian churches past number; in religious houses all over Christendom at all hours of the day and the night; in deserts, in mountains, in dens and caves of the earth; in our churches; in our Sabbath-schools; in our families morning and evening; in our sickrooms; on our death-beds; and in the night-watches when the disciples of Christ watch and pray lest they enter into temptation. A service like all that is surely too much honour for any mortal man! Then David went in and sat before the Lord; and he said, Who am I, O Lord God? and what is my house? And is this the manner of man, O Lord God? And what can David say more unto thee! for Thou, Lord God, knowest thy servant. ...
Then, take David's knowledge of God, and his communion with God. There are many mysteries of godliness not yet revealed to us; but, to me, the mystery of David's knowledge of God and his communion with God is one of the most mysterious. Had Paul sung David's Psalms, and sent, now the twenty-third Psalm to the Philippians, and now the thirty-second and the hundred and thirtieth to the Romans, and now the forty-fifth and the seventy-second to the Colossians, and so on, I would not have wondered. But it baffles me to silence to see such Psalms as David's before the day of Christ. ...
No; David is scarcely second to the Man Jesus Christ Himself in this mystery of mysteries, the mystical communion of the soul of man with the Living God. To David in the sixty-second, and in its sister Psalms, there is only I AM and David himself, in all heaven and earth. Against Thee, Thee only, have I sinned, David says in another Psalm. And, 'Thee, Thee only,' is the sum and the substance, the marrow and the fatness, the beauty and the sweetness of all David's communion Psalms. To know God, and to be in constant communion with God, this is life to David; this is better than life; this is love; this is blessedness. 'Even as David describeth the righteousness of the man unto whom God imputeth righteousness without works, saying, Blessed is that man. ' David knew it experimentally. Even David without Paul was not made perfect. 'I have found David, My servant. Once have I sworn by My holiness that I will not lie unto David. 'In that day he that is feeble in Jerusalem shall be as David, and the house of David shall be as God. And let all that is within him sing and play like David. Let him sing and play, and that with the mind and the heart and the spirit like David. Let him sing and play to God, and to God only, like David. Let the Psalms dwell richly in the feeblest among us, and the feeblest among us will yet be a man of more spiritual strength than David
Shamma - Spelling of name of a military hero under David (2 Samuel 23:11 ; compare 2Samuel 23:25,2 Samuel 23:33 where Hebrew spelling is “Shammah”)
Mizar - Smallness, a summit on the eastern ridge of Lebanon, near which David lay after escaping from Absalom (Psalm 42:6 )
Hodaviah - A descendant of David ( 1 Chronicles 3:24 )
un'ni -
One of the Levite doorkeepers in the time of David
se'la-Hammahle'Koth - (the cliff of escapes or of divisions ), a rock or cliff in the wilderness of Maon, southeast of Hebron, the scene of one of those remarkable escapes which are so frequent in the history of Saul's pursuit of David
Chun - David procured brass (i
Betah - ” City from which King David took brass after defeating King Hadadezer (2 Samuel 8:8 )
Nob - When David was fleeing Saul, Ahimelech, a priest in Nob, provided him with food and weapons
Pen - Psalm 45:1 (a) As the pen writes upon the parchment, so David said that his tongue would write upon the hearts and memories of others
Hosah - A Levite and doorkeeper in the time of David
Adriel - He married Merab, the eldest daughter of Saul, who should have been given to David as the slayer of Goliath ( 1 Samuel 18:19 , 2 Samuel 21:8 [1])
Hattush - Son of Shemaiah, a descendant of David
Selahammahlekoth - It is a rock in the wilderness of Maon, where David escaped from Saul
Amnon - Eldest son of David by Ahinoam the Jezreelitess
Ascent of Blood - ...
David Smith
Uriel - Descendant of Kohath, employed by David when he brought up the ark
Shobach - David crossed Jordan and defeated Shobach at Helam
Abinadab - Saul had a son of this name; and David a brother
Ahiezer - Benjamite, chief of the armed men that flocked to David at Ziklag 1 Chronicles 12:3
Nob - A city of priests, in Benjamin, near Jerusalem; its inhabitants were once put to the sword by command of Saul, for their hospitality to David, 1 Samuel 21:2 ; 22:9-23 ; Nehemiah 11:32 ; Isaiah 10:32
Bil'Gah -
A priest in the time of David; the head of the fifteenth course for the temple service
Mij'Amin -
The chief of the sixth of the twenty-four courses of priests established by David
Eliada - Oneof the sons of David born at Jerusalem
David - ...
The Bible authorities for his biography are the Davidic psalms and poetic fragments in the histories (2 Samuel 1:19-27; 2 Samuel 3:33-34; 2 Samuel 3:22; 2 Samuel 23:1-7); next the chronicles or state annals of David (1 Samuel 16:15-2338); the book (history) of Samuel the seer, that of Nathan the prophet, and that of Gad the seer (1 Chronicles 29:29). Jesse had a brother, Jonathan, whom David made one of his counselors (1 Chronicles 27:32). Jesse's wife, David's mother, is not named; but Nahash her former husband is the one by whom she had two daughters, David's half-sisters: Zeruiah, mother of Abishai, Joab and Asahel; and Abigail, mother of Amasa by Jether or Ithra (1 Chronicles 2:13-17; 2 Samuel 17:25). Jesse was an old man when David was a mere youth (1 Samuel 17:55-580). His sisters were much older than David, so that their children, David's nephews, were his contemporaries and companions more than his own brothers. David shared some of their war-like determined characteristics, but shrank from their stern recklessness of bloodshed in whatever object they sought (2 Samuel 3:39; 2 Samuel 19:7). Eliab's "command," as head of Jesse's sons, was regarded by the rest as authoritative (1 Samuel 20:29), and the youngest, David, was thought scarcely worth bringing before the prophet Samuel (1 Samuel 16:11). When David became king, instead of returning evil for evil he made Eliab head of the tribe of Judah (1 Chronicles 27:18), Elihu = Eliab. Nahash was probably one of the royal family of Ammon, which will account for David's friendship with the king of the same name, as also with Shobi, son of Nahash, from both of whom he received "kindness" in distress (2 Samuel 10:2; 2 Samuel 17:27). ...
Ammon and David had a common enemy, Saul (1 Samuel 11); besides David's Moabite great grandmother, Ruth, connected him with Moab, Ammon's kinsmen. ...
Three of his 30 captains broke through and brought it; but David, with the tender conscientiousness which characterized him (compare 1 Samuel 24:5; 2 Samuel 24:10), and which appreciated the deep spirituality of the sixth commandment, would not drink it but poured it out to the Lord, saying, "My God forbid it me: shall I drink the blood of these men that have put their lives in jeopardy?" (1 Chronicles 10:15-19). " David, seemingly the least likely and the youngest, was fetched from the sheep; and his unction with oil by the prophet previous to the feast was accompanied with the unction of the Spirit of the Lord from that day forward. David was "a man after the Lord's own heart" (1 Samuel 13:14; Acts 13:22). " David adds (Psalms 18:33-34): "He teacheth my hands to war, so that a bow of steel is broken by mine arms. The first glimpse we have of David's taste in music and sacred poetry, which afterward appears so preeminent in his psalms, is in his having been chosen as the best minstrel to charm away the evil spirit when it came upon Saul (1618255464_5). ...
Thus, the evil spirit departed, but the good Spirit did not come to Saul; and the result was, when David was driven away, the evil returned worse than ever. David doubtless received further training in the schools of the prophets, who connected their prophesying with the soothing and elevating music of psaltery, tabret, pipe, and harp (1 Samuel 10:5); for he and Samuel (who also feared Saul's wrath for his having anointed David: 1 Samuel 16:2) dwelt together in Naioth near Ramah, i. " The portion 1 Samuel 17 - 18:2 has been thought a parenthesis explaining how David became first introduced to Saul. But 1 Samuel 17:12; 1 Samuel 17:15 show that Saul already had David in attendance upon him, for Jesse his father is called "that Ephrathite" (namely, that one spoken of above), and it is said before David's going forth to meet Goliath that "David went and returned from Saul to feed his father's sheep at Bethlehem. David merely attended Saul for a time, and returned to tend his father's sheep, where he was when the war broke out in which Goliath was the Philistine champion. Saul's question (1618255464_84), "Whose son art thou?" must therefore imply more than asking the name of David's father. Evidently, he entered into a full inquiry about him, having lost sight of him since the time David had been in attendance. The words (1 Samuel 18:1) "when David made an end of speaking unto Saul, the soul of Jonathan was knit unto the soul of David," imply a lengthened detail of all concerning his father and himself. David at this moment, when all the Israelites were dismayed, came to bring supplies for his brethren and to get from them a "pledge" that they were alive and well. )...
The meekness with which David conquered his own spirit, when Eliab charged him with pride, the very sin which prompted Eliab's own angry and uncharitable imputation, was a fit prelude to his conquest of Goliath; self must be overcome before we can overcome others (Proverbs 16:32; Proverbs 13:10). ...
His armor David took first to his tent, and afterward to the tabernacle at Nob; his head David brought to Jerusalem (the city, not the citadel, which was then a Jebusite possession). At this point begins the second era of David's life, his persecution by Saul. That word was spoken by the women, unconscious of the effect of their words while they sang in responsive strains before the king and his champion, "Saul has slain his thousands, and David his ten thousands. " "They have ascribed unto David ten thousands, and to me but thousands, and what can he have more but the kingdom?" Conscience told him he had forfeited his throne; and remembering Samuel's word after his disobedience as to the Amalekites (1 Samuel 15:28), "the Lord hath rent the kingdom of Israel from thee this day, and hath given it to a neighbor of thine that is better than thou," he "eyed David" as possibly the "neighbor" meant. So wisely did he behave, and so manifestly was the Lord with him, that Saul the king was afraid of David his subject; "therefore Saul removed him from him and made him captain over a thousand" (1 Samuel 18:13). Next, after Saul broke his promise of giving Merab his older daughter to be David's wife, by giving her to Adriel instead, Michal, Saul's second daughter, became attached to David. ...
Saul used her as a "snare" that David might fall by the Philistines. David brought him 200, which, so far from abating his malice, seeing that the Lord was so manifestly, with David, made him only the more bitter "enemy. " But God can raise up friends to His people in their enemy's house; and as Pharaoh's daughter saved Moses, so Saul's son Jonathan and daughter Michal saved David. After having promised in the living Jehovah's name David's safety to Jonathan, and after David had "slain the Philistines with a great slaughter" from which they did not recover until the battle in which Saul fell, Saul hurled his javelin at David with such force that it entered into the wall and then would have killed David in his own house, but that by Michal's help he escaped through a window. ...
How striking a retribution by the righteous God it was, that Saul himself fell by the very enemy by whom he hoped to kill David! How evidently this and kindred cases must have been in David's mind when he wrote of the sinner, "he made a pit and digged it, and is fallen into the ditch which he made" (1618255464_16); the title of this psalm probably refers to Saul, the black-hearted son of Kish the Benjamite, enigmatically glanced at as "Cush (Ethiopia; compare Jeremiah 13:23; Amos 9:7) the Benjamite. Saul's "pride" would not brook that David's exploits should be extolled above his; hence flowed the "lying" and malice. His minions, "like a dog returning at evening," thirsting for prey which they had in vain sought throughout the day, came tumultuously besieging David's house "that night" after Saul's vain attempt to destroy him in the day. Greatly trembling at the Philistine hosts, war-like though he was, but cowed by a guilty conscience, he who had made David to "wander up and down" now in his turn wanders hither and there for that spiritual guidance which Jehovah withheld and at last by night in disguise was a suppliant before the witch of Endor, which sealed his destruction (1 Samuel 28; 1 Chronicles 10:13). As David was "watched" by Saul's messengers (1 Samuel 19:11) so David's remedy was, "because of his (Saul's) strength will I wait upon (watch unto, Hebrew) Thee. "...
David, seeing no hope of safety while within Saul's reach, fled to Samuel and dwelt with him at the prophet's school in Naioth. Saul sent messengers to apprehend him; but they and even Saul himself, when he followed, were filled with the spirit of prophecy; and they who came to seize the servant of God joined David in Spirit-taught praises of God; so, God can turn the hearts of His people's foes (Proverbs 16:7; Proverbs 21:1); compare Acts 18:17 with 1 Corinthians 1:1, especially Saul's namesake (Acts 7:58 with Acts 9). After taking affectionate leave of Jonathan, David fled to Nob, where the tabernacle was, in order to inquire God's will concerning his future course, as was David's custom. Ahimelech, alarmed at David's sudden appearance alone, lest he should be charged with some unwelcome commission, asked, "Why art thou alone?" (1 Samuel 21. ) David, whom neither beast nor giant had shaken from his trust in the Lord, now through temporary unbelief told a lie, which involved the unsuspecting high priest and all his subordinates in one indiscriminate massacre, through Doeg's information to Saul. ...
Too late David acknowledged to the only survivor, Abiathar, that he had thereby occasioned their death (1 Samuel 22); so liable are even believers to vacillation and to consequent punishment. One gain David derived and Saul lost by his slaughter of the priests; Abiathar, the sole survivor of the line of Ithamar, henceforth attended David, and through him David could always inquire of God, in God's appointed way (Psalms 16:7, in undesigned coincidence with 1 Samuel 23:2; 1 Samuel 23:4; 1 Samuel 23:6; 1 Samuel 23:9; 1 Samuel 30:7-8). Behold, David seeketh thy hurt?" Saul's courtiers knew the road to his favor was to malign David. Doeg, for mischief and to curry favor, told the fact; it was Saul who put on it the false construction of treason against David and the innocent priests; compare David's similar language, Psalms 17:3-4. , implying that he had all these (as Samuel foretold would be "the manner of the king," 1 Samuel 8:14) to give, which David had not. Unbelieving calculation of probabilities, instead of doing the right thing in prayerful faith, led David to flee to Israel's enemies, the Philistines and Achish of Gath
Genealogy of the Lord Jesus - According to the distinctive character of Matthew in which Christ is emphatically the Messiah and Son of David, the genealogy commences with Abraham; whereas in Luke, in which Christ is displayed as the Son of man, the list is traced up to "Adam who was the son of God. " Both lists are the same from Abraham to David; then they differ until they reach Salathiel and Zorobabel, which names are in both lists; and then they again differ. The list in Luke is much fuller, having from David to Joseph forty-one names, where Matthew has only twenty-six. The list in Matthew is clearly the royal line; between David and Salathiel twelve kings are given, all of whom are omitted from Luke. ...
There is more difficulty as to the genealogy in Luke: is it the lineal line of Joseph or Mary? Women are never quoted as forming a line of succession, yet Christ is spoken of as the 'seed' of the woman, Genesis 3:15 ; 'come of woman,' Galatians 4:4 ; 'the seed of Abraham,' Hebrews 2:16 ; 'the seed of David according to flesh,' Romans 1:3 ; 2 Timothy 2:8 ; 'the offspring of David. And as the Lord was not really the son of Joseph, these scriptures can only be fulfilled through His mother, who must have been a lineal descendant of David and Abraham
Adullam - ...
When David withdrew from Achish, king of Gath, he retired to the "cave of Adullam," 1 Samuel 22:1 2 Samuel 23:13 . Tradition places it in the hill country, about six miles south-east of Bethlehem, the city of David; a large and fine cave, visited by many travellers
Uzzah - He with his brother Ahio drove the cart on which the ark was placed when David sought to bring it up to Jerusalem. David on this feared to proceed further, and placed the ark in the house of Obed-edom the Gittite (2 Samuel 6:2-11 ; 1 Chronicles 13:6-13 )
Elihu - A member of tribe of Manasseh who defected to David (1 Chronicles 12:20 ). Mighty military hero under David (1 Chronicles 26:7 ). David's brother in charge of the tribe of Judah (1 Chronicles 27:18 )
el-Hanan - The proper reconciliation of these two passages, along with their relationship to 1 Samuel 17:1 (according to which Goliath was slain by David), constitutes one of the Old Testament's more baffling puzzles. See David
Maschil - a title, or inscription, at the head of several psalms of David and others, in the book of Psalms. Thus Psalms 32 is inscribed, "A Psalm of David, Maschil;" and Psalms 42, "To the chief musician, Maschil, for the sons of Korah
Perez - His importance consists in his being the ancestor of David through Boaz and Ruth, and then of Jesus Christ. From Hezron, according to 1 Chronicles 2:1-55 , came Jerahmeel and Ram and Caleb, and through Ram was traced the line of the royal house of David
Hadare'Zer - (Hadad's help ), son of Rehob, ( 2 Samuel 8:3 ) the king of the Aramite state of Zobah, who was pursued by David and defeated with great loss. David himself came from Jerusalem to take the command of the Israelite army
Eliph'Elet -
The name of a son of David, one of the children born to him after his establishment in Jerusalem. ) ...
Another son of David, belonging also to the Jerusalem family, and apparently the last of his sons. (1 Chronicles 3:8 ) ...
One of the thirty warriors of David's guard
Elish'Ama - ...
A son of King David. (1 Samuel 5:16 ; 1 Chronicles 3:8 ; 14:7 ) ...
Another son of David, (1 Chronicles 3:6 ) who in the other lists is called ELISHUA
Barzillai - of Rogelim, whose friendship David probably made during his flight from Saul in that trans-Jordanic region. He ministered disinterestedly, sympathizingly, and liberally, to David's wants during the whole time of his stay at, Mahanaim in his flight from Absalom (2 Samuel 17:27-29; 2 Samuel 19:32-40). David in prosperity did not forget the friend of his adversity: "Come thou over with me, and I will feed thee with me in Jerusalem. In the father's stead Chimham and other sons of his shared David's favor, and were commended by him to Solomon (1 Kings 2:7). Chimham's name appears ages subsequently in Jeremiah's time, "the habitation of Chimham by Bethlehem" being the gift of David to him out of his own patrimony, and bearing that name to late generations: an undesigned coincidence and mark of truth (Jeremiah 41:17)
Mephibosheth - A son of Jonathan, who was granted special position and privilege in David's court (2 Samuel 9:1 ). When David invited Mephibosheth to be a part of his court, he entrusted the family property to a steward, Ziba. During the Absalom rebellion Ziba tried unsuccessfully to turn David against Mephibosheth. A son of Saul, who with six other members of Saul's household, was delivered by David to the Gibeonites to be hanged
Ziklag - The town was given to David by Achish, king of Gath, during David's “outlaw” period. ...
David made the town his headquarters as he gathered his private army and made raids against the Amalekites. On returning to his base following Philistia's refusal to allow him to fight with them against Saul, David found the town had been raided and burned by the Amalekites and his family taken hostage
Jonathan - This valiant and generous prince loved David as his own soul, 1 Samuel 18:1-4 19:2 20:1-42 ; and though convinced that his friend was chosen of God for the throne, nobly yielded his own pretensions, and reconciled fidelity to his father with the most pure and disinterested friendship for David. He perished with his father, in battle with the Philistines at mount Gilboa; and nothing can surpass the beauty and pathos of the elegy in which David laments his friend, 2 Samuel 1:1-27 , whose son Mephibosheth he afterwards sought out and befriended, 2 Samuel 9:1-13
Jonathan - ...
The first time that Jonathan and David ever saw one another was on the day when Goliath fell under David's sling. And when the five thousand shekels of brass rang on the open plain no voice shouted over David so soon or so long as the voice of Jonathan, the king's son. And when Saul sent for David and talked with him, Jonathan's heart went out to David, and the soul of Jonathan was knit to the soul of David, and Jonathan loved David as his own soul. And from that day on till the day when David sang his splendid elegy over Saul and over Jonathan his son, the mutual love of Jonathan and David is described all along in words of such warmth and such beauty that there is nothing like them in literature again, if we leave out the love of Christ. ...
'And it came to pass that the soul of Jonathan was knit to the soul of David. Now Jonathan's soul was a chain of gold, of the same size, and strength, and purity, and beauty as David's soul. Jonathan, as being the elder man, had for long been looking and longing for a soul like David's soul to which his own soul might be knit; and before the sun set that day the son of Saul had found in the son of Jesse a soul after his own soul, and he was at rest. And that pattern of friendship, knit that day between Jonathan and David, has been the ensample and the seal of all true friendships among men ever since. All human souls came into existence already knit together like the souls of Adam and Eve, like the souls of David and Jonathan, like the souls of Jesus and John, like the souls of Christ and His church. And had Plato read Hebrew, how he would have hailed Jonathan and David as another example of two long-lost and disconsolate souls, finding rest in their primogenial, spousal, re-knit, and never-again-to-be-separated soul. ...
...
'And Jonathan loved David as his own soul. But when I read again and again and again that Jonathan loved David as his own soul, till I come down to David's splendid hyperbolical elegy over the slaughter of Saul and Jonathan; and then, when I go back and read Jonathan's whole dealing with David in the light of that golden chain of hyperboles, I stop, and think, and say to myself that there must be much more here than stands on the surface. Yes; happy, happy Jonathan! For it was not of thee that David spake in that bitter psalm. 'Yea, mine own familiar friend,' David said, but not of thee, 'in whom I trusted, which did eat of my bread, hath lifted up his heel against me. Nor did David's Son after thou hadst kissed Him say to thee, Friend, wherefore art thou come? Nor did Hamlet ever say to thee, 'O villain, villain, smiling, damned villain! My tables-meet it is I set it down, that one may smile, and smile, and be a villain. Till thy great Antitype comes we shall see no man born of woman again like thee!...
'Then Jonathan and David made a covenant because he loved him as his own soul. ' Jonathan's love was like the love of women in this, that it led Jonathan to leave his father's house behind him and to give his hand and his heart in a covenant to David. David, in the warmth of his heart and in the sharpness of his sorrow, said that the love of Jonathan to him was still more wonderful than that. And it was because Jonathan's love had so much of a woman's love in it; and, added to that, so much of God's love, that David's rapture rose to such a sublime height over it. There was something in Jonathan's love that David had never met with in any of the women whose love he had ever been blessed with, Abigail's, or Michal's, or Solomon's mother's love, or any love his fathers had told him of in their days. Under Samuel's ministry, Jonathan's heart had early been knit to God, and thus it was that his heart so knit itself round David's heart, in whom he found a man after God's own heart. And thus it was that father, and mother, and crown of Israel, and all, were counted loss to Jonathan as soon as he found David who had been so found of God. Jonathan made a covenant with David, and with the house of David; and in making that covenant, and in the very terms of it, Jonathan, as we see in the Scriptures of it, spake less to David than he spake to David's God, the Lord God of Israel. ...
'And Jonathan stripped himself of the robe that was upon him, and gave it to David, and his garments, even to his sword, and to his bow, and to his girdle. And, in like manner, Jonathan's robe, and his garments, and his sword, and his bow, and his girdle, were the signs and the seals of Jonathan's covenant that he made that day with David. And in Jonathan's robe, and raiment, and sword, and bow, and girdle, the kingdom of Israel, and all its honour and power and glory, were represented and sealed to David by this extraordinary action of Jonathan. Jonathan was such a miraculous and sacramental friend to David, that he stripped himself bare in order to clothe, and adorn, and seal David to the throne of Israel. Well, all that Jonathan does to David. And Saul sought David every day. And David saw that Saul was come out to seek his life. And David was in the wilderness of Ziph in a wood. And Jonathan, Saul's son, arose and went to David into the wood, and strengthened David's hand in God. Here is Jonathan's defence and shield, this: 'And Saul's son arose and went to David in the wood, and strengthened his hand in God. David was in danger of losing his faith in God. And Jonathan seeing that, came to the wood of Ziph to strengthen David in God lest his faith should fail. Was there ever a nobler deed done on the face of the earth till the Son of God came to do such deeds, and to show us all the way? If I had been Jonathan, I would have looked to David to strengthen me. And Jonathan said to David, 'Fear not, for thou shalt be king over Israel, and I shall be next unto thee
Hadarezer - Helped by the Damascus Syrians (See HADAD); driven by David beyond the river Euphrates (2 Samuel 8:3; 2 Samuel 8:5; 2 Samuel 10:6-9; 1 Chronicles 18:3; 1 Chronicles 19:7-19). After Joab's first repulse of Ammon and their Syrian allies Hadarezer, undaunted by defeat twice (2 Samuel 8:3; 2 Samuel 8:5), sent a host under the command of Shophach to assist his kinsmen of Maachah, Rehob, and Ishtob; David in person routed them completely at Helam; thus, the Syrian confederacy was overthrown, Hadarezer's subordinate princes submitted to David who dedicated to Jehovah the 1000 "shields" or "weapons (shelet ) of gold" taken in the first war; these were long known as king David's (Song of Solomon 4:4; 2 Chronicles 23:9). ) Edom invaded Israel during David's absence at the Euphrates; Psalm 44 by the sons of Korah alludes to this. Psalm 60 by David was composed after victory in part had been gained over Aram Naharaim (Syria of the two floods) and Aram (Syria) of Zobah the kingdom of Hadarezer, who had come to help his vassals of Mesopotamia, the region of the two rivers Tigris and Euphrates; after having conquered the two Syrias, Joab returned and smote Edom in the valley of Salt; Psalm 60 refers to the expedition subsequently undertaken to occupy Edom in revenge for Edom's invasion of Israel
Shimei - Relative of King Saul who cursed and opposed David as he fled from Absalom (2 Samuel 16:1 ). When David returned after Absalom's death, Shimei met him and pleaded for forgiveness and mercy, which David granted because of the festive occasion (2 Samuel 19:1 ). Solomon followed David's advice and had Shimei slain (1 Kings 2:1 ). Temple musician under David (1 Chronicles 25:17 ; perhaps also in 1 Chronicles 25:3 with a Hebrew manuscript and some Greek manuscripts as in NRSV, REB, NAS, NIV, TEV). Supervisor of David's vineyards ( 1 Chronicles 27:27 )
Bethlehem - A celebrated city, the birthplace of David and of Christ. Its memory is delightfully associated with the names of Boaz and Ruth; it is celebrated as the birthplace and city of David, 1 Samuel 17:12,15 20:6 2 Samuel 23:14-17 but above all, it is hallowed as the place where the Redeemer was born. Over that lovely spot the guiding star hovered; there the eastern sages worshipped the King of kings, and there where David watched his flock and praised God, were heard the songs of the angelic host at the Savior's birth, Luke 2:8 . An unknown place in Zebulun, Joshua 19:15 Judges 12:10 , in distinction from which the city of David was often called Bethlehem-Judah
Absalom - Absalom, the third son of David, first features in the Bible story when his sister Tamar was raped by Amnon, their older brother by a different mother (2 Samuel 3:2-3; 2 Samuel 13:1-22). ...
After three years without a recognized heir to David in Jerusalem, David’s army commander Joab was worried about the stability of David’s dynasty. Although Absalom returned from exile, David refused to receive him into the palace. He then launched a surprise attack, seizing the throne and forcing David to flee for his life (2 Samuel 15:8-18; 2 Samuel 16:20-23). But one of David’s chief advisers stayed behind as a spy in Absalom’s court. As a result Absalom decided to glorify himself in a full-scale battle with David’s army. His troops were no match for David’s hardened soldiers, and he himself was killed (2 Samuel 18:1-15)
Beeliada - ” Son of David born in Jerusalem (1 Chronicles 14:7 )
Sheva - Scribe for David (2 Samuel 20:25 ), perhaps the transliteration of an Egyptian title meaning, “writer of letters
Tou - King of Hamath on the Orontes, who sent an embassy to congratulate David on his defeat of Hadadezer ( 1 Chronicles 18:9 f
Helam - Place of abundance, a place on the east of Jordan and west of the Euphrates where David gained a great victory over the Syrian army (2 Samuel 10:16 ), which was under the command of Shobach
Ezer - ...
One of the Gadite champions who repaired to David at Ziklag (12:9)
Joelah - ” Warrior from Saul's tribe of Benjamin who joined David at Ziklag as he fled from Saul (1 Chronicles 12:7 )
Unni -
A Levite whom David appointed to take part in bringing the ark up to Jerusalem from the house of Obed-edom by playing the psaltery on that occasion (1 Chronicles 15:18,20 )
Beans - Among the supplies brought to David at Mahanaim (2 Samuel 17:28)
Ahinoam - ...
A Jezreelitess, the first wife of David (1Samuel 25:43; 27:3)
Tibhath - ” City from which David took spoils (or received tribute) of bronze (1 Chronicles 18:8 )
Mary, Psalter of - Also, the Rosary, because of the 150 Hail Marys, corresponding to the number of the psalms of David
Baal-Hanan - Official under David in charge of olive and sycamore trees growing in Judean plain or Shephalah (1 Chronicles 27:28 )
Bethlehem-Ephratah - (KJV) or BETHLEHEM-EPHRATHAH (NAS, NIV, NRSV) Place name used by Micah 5:2 to designate birthplace of new David who would come from Bethlehem, David's birthplace, and of the clan of Ephratah, that of Jesse, David's father ( 1 Samuel 17:12 )
Ahimelech - The Hittite who, with Abishai, was asked by David: "Who will go down with me to Saul to the camp?" He lost a precious opportunity of serving the king (Isaiah 6:8); Abishai alone volunteered (1 Samuel 26:6)
Bethrehob - Place in thenorth near Dan, from which perhaps Syrians were hired by the Ammonites against David, Judges 18:28 ; 2 Samuel 10:6
Perezuzzah, or Perezuzza - Place signifying 'Breach of Uzzah,' thus named by David, in his anger, because God there smote Uzzah for putting his hand to the ark, which by the law should not have been touched except by the priests
Abishag - A beautiful young Shunammitess who attended upon David in his extreme old age ( 1 Kings 1:2 ff. After David’s death, Abishag was asked in marriage by Adonijah; the request cost him his life ( 1 Kings 2:13-25 )
Adonijah - The fourth son of David
Japhia - There was a city of this name, (Joshua 19:12) and there was a king of this name, Japhia king of Lachish, (Joshua 10:3) And David had a son named Japhia
Abishag - Abishag (ăb'i-shăg or a-bî'shăg), father of error, a beautiful virgin of Shunem, in Issachar, chosen to cherish David in his old age
Pelaiah - Descendant of David (1 Chronicles 3:24 )
Uriah - A Hittie in David's army, renowned for his valor. To save Bathsheba Uriah's wife from death for adultery, and secure her for himself, David caused Uriah to be exposed to death, 2 Samuel 11:1-27 ; 12:9 ; 23:29 ; 1 Kings 15:5
Zadok - The son of Ahitub, and father of Ahimaaz, high-priest of the Jews in the reigns of Saul and David
he'Zir -
A priest in the time of David, leader of the seventeenth monthly course in the service
Ittai - Last in the host that defiled past David, while standing beneath the olive tree below Jerusalem (2 Samuel 15:18, Septuagint) on the morning of his flight from Absalom, were 600 Gathites who had emigrated with him to Gath (1 Samuel 27:2-3; 1 Samuel 27:8; 1 Samuel 30:9-10), and returned thence. ...
David with characteristic generosity said to Ittai: "Wherefore goest thou also with me? return to thy place, and abide with the king (not that David recognizes Absalom as king, but he means 'with whoever shall prove king,' with the king de facto; whether he be rightful king you as a recent settler here are not called on to decide), for thou art a stranger (not an Israelite) and also an exile (not yet having a fixed fatherland) . Ittai with unflinching loyalty, which David's misfortunes could not shake, replied: "As the Lord liveth . "...
So David desired him to pass forward over the Kedron, and Ittai the Gittite, and all his men, and all the little ones with him (for he and his men brought their whole families: 1 Samuel 27:3; 1 Samuel 30:3; 1 Samuel 30:6), passed on. His resolution foreshadows the like resolution, though not so faithfully kept, of the disciples of the Son of David almost on the same spot (Matthew 26:30; Matthew 26:35). Ittai typifies the gospel truth that from the Gentile world some of the most devoted heroes of the cross should join the Son of David, and so share in His triumphs (Mark 10:29-30; Matthew 8:11-12). Ittai or Ithai, of the heroes of David's body guard; from the Benjamite Gibeah, son of Ribai (2 Samuel 23:29; 1 Chronicles 11:31)
Michal - Saul had promised David the elder, but gave her to Adriel. ) Meanwhile, Michal loved David; and Saul on hearing of it from his attendants made it a trap for David (1 Samuel 18:21), saying, "thou shalt be my son in law in a second way," and requiring, instead of the dowry paid to the father according to Eastern usage, 100 Philistines' foreskins. The courtiers, by Saul's secret instructions, urged on David, who at first shrank from again subjecting himself to the king's caprice. David killed 200 Philistines, and Saul gave him Michal. Like "dogs" prowling about for prey "at evening," so they besieged David's house, awaiting his coming forth in the morning (Psalms 59:6; Psalms 59:14-15; agreeing naturally with 1 Samuel 19:11). David sets his "watching" and "waiting upon God" against their "watching" and waiting to kill him. ...
The title of Psalms 59:9, "because of his (the enemy's) strength"; see Psalms 59:12 on Saul's "pride" roused to jealousy of David's fame, and Saul's "lying" accusation of treason against David. Saul's "wandering up and down" for help, when he sought the Endor witch, was the retribution in kind for his wandering up and down persecuting David (Psalms 59:14-15). Thus, time was allowed for his escape to Samuel; and when Saul, impatient of waiting until he should come forth in the morning, sent messengers in the evening to take him, she first said he was sick; then on their return, with Saul's command to see and bring him in the bed, her trick was detected and Saul upbraided her; but she said she was constrained by David's threats. Thence she was brought to David by Abner, as the king made her restoration the one condition of a league and demanded her from Ishbosheth; so in spite of the tears of Phaltiel, who followed behind to Bahurim on the road up from the Jordan valley to Olivet, and was thence turned back by Abner, David's messenger; and the 20 men with Abner, whose puppet Ishbosheth was, escorted her. The forced parting with her last husband, and David's accession of wives, Abigail and Ahinoam, caused a coolness on her part after an interval of 14 years since she had enabled David to escape at Gibeah. David replied, mortifying her pride as a king's daughter: "it was before Jehovah who chose me before thy father and before all his house, to appoint me ruler over the people of Jehovah, Israel; therefore will I play (or, have I played) before Jehovah, and I will be yet more vile . Probably a band of damsels playing on timbrels accompanied David while dancing in procession, as in Psalms 68:25, "among the damsels playing with timbrels"; the words "them were" of KJV should be omitted, as not in the Hebrew. Saul's pride and disregard of Jehovah caused his rejection, as now the same sins cause the rejection of Michal; just as, on the contrary, David's humility and piety toward Jehovah brought him honor before Jehovah
David, Welsh Saint - David (5) , St. 121, 143, 148), who remark that David would thus come into view just as the history of Wales emerges from the darkness that conceals it for a century after the departure of the Romans. David's , 240), and a full and careful list of all known materials, manuscript and printed, by Hardy (Descr. David's life, omitting such as are clearly legendary, meet with various degrees of credence from authors of repute. David is said to have been educated first under St. In course of time David became head of a society of his own, founding or restoring a monastery or college at a spot which Giraldus calls Vallis Rosina (derived, as is generally supposed, from a confusion between Rhos , a swamp, and Rhosyn , a rose), near Hen-Meneu, and this institution was subsequently named, out of respect to his memory, Ty Dewi, House of David, or St. David's. Such dignity David enjoyed before his elevation to the archbishopric of the Cambrian church. Dubricius convened a synod at Brefi, and David, whose eloquence put the troublers to confusion, made such an impression that the synod at once elected him archbp. David. After residing for a while at Caerleon on Usk, where the seat of the primate was then established, David, by permission of king Arthur, removed to Menevia, the Menapia of the Itineraries, one of the ports for Ireland (Wright, Celt, Roman, and Saxon , 138). 43); David's baptism by the bp. The tradition of a mission of the British church to Ireland to restore the faith there, under the auspices of David, Gildas, and Cadoc (Haddan and Stubbs, Councils , i. May we not, therefore, assume that the see was removed because the tide of Saxon conquest drove the British church to cultivate closer relations with their Celtic brethren opposite?...
As primate, David distinguished himself by saintly character and apostolic zeal, a glowing, not to say an overcharged, description of which is given in Giraldus. Rees, in his learned essay on the Welsh saints, shews that of the dedications and localities of the churches of the principality, a large number terminate in David's native name, ddewi, or are otherwise connected with his memory (Welsh Saints , p. David's immediate jurisdiction (ib. David's successor was Cynog. David's , 246 seq. David established a see and monastery at Menevia early in the 7th cent. David, and give some curious antiquarian details. 115-120) give dates to the synod of Brefi and the synod of Victory, a little before 569 and in 569, later than Rees's latest possible date for David's death; and they regard the accounts given of the synods by Ricemarchus, and Giraldus after him, as purely fabulous, and directed to the establishment of the apocryphal supremacy of St. David and his see over the entire British church. "...
David was canonized by pope Calixtus c
Ephraim, Wood of - A forest in which a fatal battle was fought between the army of David and that of Absalom, who was killed there (2 Samuel 18:6,8 )
Ezel - A separation, (1 Samuel 20:19 ), a stone, or heap of stones, in the neighbourhood of Saul's residence, the scene of the parting of David and Jonathan (42)
Berachah - ") ...
...
One of the Benjamite warriors, Saul's brethren, who joined David when at Ziklag (1 Chronicles 12:3 )
Pharez - From him the royal line of David sprang (Ruth 4:18-22 )
Pethahiah -
The chief of one of the priestly courses (the nineteenth) in the time of David (1 Chronicles 24:16 )
Akkub - ...
A descendant of David (1Chronicles 3:24)
Jeziel - ” Military leader from tribe of Benjamin, Saul's tribe, who joined David at Ziklag as he fled from Saul (1 Chronicles 12:3 )
Baal-Perazim - Baal having rents, bursts, or destructions, the scene of a victory gained by David over the Philistines (2 Samuel 5:20 ; 1 Chronicles 14:11 )
Raisin Cakes - David gave raisin cakes (“flagon,” KJV) to those who accompanied the ark to Jerusalem (2 Samuel 6:19 ; 1 Chronicles 16:3 NRSV)
Siphmoth - (shf' mohth) Town in southern Judah that received booty of war from David for befriending him (1Samuel 30:26,1 Samuel 30:28 )
Isshiah - A Korahite who joined David at Ziklag ( 1 Chronicles 12:6 )
Athach - ” Town in southern Judah to which David sent spoils of victory while he fled Saul among the Philistines (1 Samuel 30:30 )
Chimham - 1 Kings 2:7 ), who commended him to David on his return to Jerusalem, after the death of Absalom
Asarelah - Son of Asaph appointed by David to the service of song
Aaronites - Jehoiada, the father of Benaiah, led 3,700 Aaronites as "fighting men" to the support of David at Hebron (1 Chronicles 12:27 )
Kaleidoscope - ) An instrument invented by Sir David Brewster, which contains loose fragments of colored glass, etc
a'Chish - David twice found a refuge with him when he fled from Saul
Eliab - The eldest son of Jesse, 1 Samuel 17:13, and a man of angry and envious temper, as appears from his treatment of his brother David
Pahath-Moab - ” A family of returned Exiles likely descended from the Hebrew governor of Moab in the time of David (2 Samuel 8:2 ; Ezra 2:6 ; Ezra 8:4 ; Ezra 10:30 ; Nehemiah 7:11 ; Nehemiah 10:14 )
Hadadezer or Hadarezer - He was thrice defeated and his power overthrown by David, 2 Samuel 8:3,4 10:6-14 16:1-19:43 1 Chronicles 18:3 19:6
Maon - A town in the edge of the hill-country of Judah, Joshua 15:55 , near which Nabal lived and David took refuge from Saul, 1 Samuel 23:24 - 25 ; 25:2
Sisters of Charity of Nazareth - David at Nazareth, Kentucky in 1812, for the care of the poor and the sick, and the teaching of children
Miph'Kad - ( Nehemiah 3:31 ) It was probably not in the wall of Jerusalem proper, but in that of the city of David, or Zion, and somewhere near to the junction of the two on the north side
Kei'Lah - ( Joshua 15:44 ) Its main interest consists in its connection with David
Mat'Tathah -
Son of Nathan and grandson of David, in the genealogy of Christ
Gen'Ubath, - the son of Hadad, an Edomite of the royal family, by an Egyptian princess, the sister of Tahpenes, the queen of the Pharaoh who governed Egypt in the latter part of the reign of David
Mephibosheth - He had been for a considerable time living in obscurity with Machir in Lodebar beyond Jordan, near Mahanaim, his uncle Ishbosheth's seat of government, when David through Ziba heard of him, and for the sake of Jonathan, and his promise respecting Jonathan's seed (1 Samuel 20:15; 1 Samuel 20:42), restored to him all the land of Saul and admitted him to eat bread at his table at Jerusalem continually. )...
Ziba, from being a menial of Saul's house, had managed to become master himself of 20 servants; with these and his 15 sons he, by David's command, tilled the land for Mephibosheth, for though Mephibosheth was henceforth David's guest, and needed no provision, he had a son Micha (1 Samuel 9; 1 Chronicles 8:34-35) and a retinue to maintain as a prince. It is a retribution in kind that the representative of Saul's family now calls himself before David by the contemptuous title which once David in self abasement used before Saul, "dead dog" (2 Samuel 9:8; 1 Samuel 24:14). Seventeen years subsequently, in Absalom's rebellion, Ziba rendered important service to David by meeting him as he crossed Olivet, with two strong "he donkeys" (chamor ) ready saddled for the king's use, bread, raisins, fruits, and wine. With shrewd political forecast, guessing the failure of the rebellion, Ziba gained David's favor at the cost of Mephibosheth, whom he misrepresented as staying at Jerusalem in expectation of regaining the kingdom (2 Samuel 16:1-4). David in hasty credulity (Proverbs 18:13; John 7:51 on the spot assigned all Mephibosheth's property to Ziba. On David's return to Jerusalem Mephibosheth made known the true state of the case, that Ziba had deceived him when he desired to saddle the donkey and go to the king, and had slandered him (2 Samuel 19:24-30). ...
David saw his error, but had not the courage to rectify it altogether. Impatiently (for conscience told him he had been unjust to Mephibosheth and still was only half just) David replied, "why speakest thou any more of thy matters? Thou and Ziba divide the land. A cripple and a Benjamite could never dream of being preferred by Judah to the handsome Absalom; interest and gratitude bound him to David. So not merely servility, but sincere satisfaction at David's return, prompted his reply: "let Ziba take all, forasmuch as my lord is come again in peace. " David's non-mention of Mephibosheth on his death bed is doubtless because Mephibosheth had died in the eight years that intervened between David's return and his death. Bearing a name of reproach like Mephibosheth, instead of his name of innocence; banished to the outskirts of the moral wilderness, like Mephibosheth in Lodebar; liable to perish by the sword of justice, as Saul's other sons (2 Samuel 21); paralyzed by original sin, as Mephibosheth lamed from infancy in both feet; invited by the Lord and Savior, after having spoiled principalities, to sit down at the royal table (Matthew 8:11; Revelation 19:7; Revelation 19:9), as Mephibosheth was by David after conquering all his foes, on the ground of the everlasting covenant (Jeremiah 31:3); as David regarded Mephibosheth because of his covenant with Jonathan (1 Samuel 20:15; 1 Samuel 20:42). Fear is man's first feeling in the Lord's presence (Luke 5:8); but He reassures the trembling sinner (Isaiah 43:1; Revelation 2:7), as David did Mephibosheth, restoring him to a princely estate
Jonathan -
Eldest son of Saul and friend of David, noted for his bravery against the Philistines (1 Kings 13; 14), his loyalty to David, and his glorious death on Mount Gelboe (1 Kings 31; 2 Kings 19)
Hilkiah - He was a Levite who lived before the time of David the king. Levite and Temple servant who lived during the time of David (1 Chronicles 26:11 )
Abishai - A son of Zeruiah, David's sister, brother of Joab and Asahel, one of the bravest of David's mighty men, 1 Chronicles 2:16 , and always faithful to his royal uncle. In a battle with the Philistines, he rescued David, and slew Ishbi-benob the giant, 2 Samuel 21:16,17 . He lifted up his spear against three hundred, and slew them, 2 Samuel 23:18 ; and was with David in the affairs of Shimei, Absalom, and Sheb, 2 Samuel 16:9 18:2 20:6,7
Tekoa, Tekoah - From this place Joab procured a "wise woman," who pretended to be in great affliction, and skilfully made her case known to David. The object of Joab was, by the intervention of this woman, to induce David to bring back Absalom to Jerusalem (2 Samuel 14:2,4,9 )
Machir - ...
...
A descendant of the preceding, residing at Lo-debar, where he maintained Jonathan's son Mephibosheth till he was taken under the care of David (2 Samuel 9:4 ), and where he afterwards gave shelter to David himself when he was a fugitive (17:27)
Ezel - ” Rock where David hid from Saul and watched for Jonathan's signal (1 Samuel 20:19 ). He had hidden there previously, an apparent reference to David's escape in 1 Samuel 19:2 . The point of the narrative is clear: David used a natural hiding place to escape Saul and to gain vital information from his friend, the king's son
Araunah - The destroying angel, sent to punish David for his vanity in taking a census of the people, was stayed in his work of destruction near a threshing-floor belonging to Araunah which was situated on Mount Moriah. Araunah offered it to David as a free gift, together with the oxen and the threshing instruments; but the king insisted on purchasing it at its full price (2 Samuel 24:24 ; 1 Chronicles 21:24,25 ), for, according to the law of sacrifices, he could not offer to God what cost him nothing
Ahithophel - At the time of Absalom's revolt he deserted David (Psalm 41:9 ; 55:12-14 ) and espoused the cause of Absalom (2 Samuel 15:12 ). David sent his old friend Hushai back to Absalom, in order that he might counteract the counsel of Ahithophel (2 Samuel 15:31-37 )
Hart - Psalm 42:1 (a) David uses this animal and its habit to describe his own deep longing for the living GOD from whom comes the living water. This heart desire of David is expressed in several ways, and by several figures
Enrogel - It was whereJonathan and Ahimaaz stayed in secret, to carry to David any message from Hushai, on the revolt of Absalom; and close to this spring Adonijah called the king's sons together when he exalted himself to succeed David as king
Achish - David fled twice to him. The second time Achish treated David kindly, gave him Ziklag, and took him to the campaign against Saul, but was persuaded by his officers to send him home again
Jeb'Usites - Joshua 12:10 Was sacked and burned by the men of Judah, ( Judges 1:21 ) and its citadel finally scaled and occupied by David. (2 Samuel 5:6 ) After this they emerge from the darkness but once, in the person of Araunah the Jebusite, "Araunah the king," who appears before us in true kingly dignity in his well-known transaction with David
Ahimaaz - Zadok the priest's son; the messenger in Absalom's rebellion, with Jonathan, Abiathar's son, to carry tidings from Hushai, David's friend and spy. Zadok and Abiathar, who took back the ark to the city at David's request, were to tell them while staying outside the city at Enrogel whatever Hushai directed. They told David the counsel of Ahlthophel for an immediate attack, which David should baffle by crossing Jordan at once. " Bahurim, the scene of Shimei's cursing of David, was thus made the scene of David's preservation by God, who heard his prayer (1 Samuel 16:12; Psalms 109:28). ...
David's estimate of Ahimaaz appears in his remark on his approach after the battle (2 Samuel 18:27): "he is a good man, and cometh with good tidings. " Though Cushi was later in arriving he announced the fate of Absalom, which Ahimaaz with courtier-like equivocation evaded announcing, lest he should alloy his good news with what would be so distressing to David. Joab, knowing David's fondness for Absalom, had not wished Ahimaaz to go at all on that day, but youths will hardly believe their elders wiser than themselves. of Jordan, and Ahimaaz ran by the plain of the Jordan to David at Mahanaim
Gihon - Manasseh built a wall outside the city of David from the W. side of the city of David" (2 Chronicles 33:14). of Gihon to the fish gate (near the Jaffa gate, Jerome) would be the course of a wall enclosing the city of David (2 Chronicles 33:14). It is suggested that the city of David was on the eastern hill, so Hezekiah by bringing it W. of the city of David brought it within the city, and so out of the enemy's reach
Nativity of Our Lord in Art - Among the many masters who have represented the subject are: Alberti, Caedi, Civerchio, Correggio, David, A
Metheg-Ammah - Bridle of the mother, a figurative name for a chief city, as in 2 Samuel 8:1 , "David took Metheg-ammah out of the hand of the Philistines" (RSV, "took the bridle of the mother-city"); i
Eliel - ...
...
A Gadite who joined David in the hold at Ziklag (1 Chronicles 12:11 )
Azmaveth -
One of David's thirty warriors (2 Samuel 23:31 ). ...
...
An overseer over the royal treasury in the time of David and Solomon (1 Chronicles 27:25 )
Giddalti - ” Son of Heman to whom David gave the task of prophesying through playing musical instruments (1 Chronicles 25:4 )
Talmon - Levite whom David and Samuel appointed a gatekeeper (1 Chronicles 9:17 ), ancestor of a family of Temple gatekeepers who returned from Exile (Ezra 2:42 ; Nehemiah 7:45 ); 2
Patriarch - David also is thus designated
Salt, Valley of - Place where battles were fought by David and Amaziah against their enemies
Jerimoth - A son of David and father of Rehoboam’s wife ( 2 Chronicles 11:18 )
Geshur - David married the daughter of the king of Geshur, and she was the mother of Absalom
Absalom - the son of David by Maachah, daughter of the king of Geshur; distinguished for his fine person, his vices, and his unnatural rebellion
Rezon - Son of Eliadah, a Syrian, who when David defeated Hadadezer king of Zobah, put himself at the head of a band of adventurers and set up a petty kingdom at Damascus
e'Der - ...
A Levite of the family of Merari, in the time of David
Zadok -
A son of Ahitub, of the line of Eleazer (2 Samuel 8:17 ; 1 Chronicles 24:3 ), high priest in the time of David (2 Samuel 20:25 ) and Solomon (1 Kings 4:4 ). He is first mentioned as coming to take part with David at Hebron (1 Chronicles 12:27,28 ). Zadok and Abiathar acted as high priests on several important occasions (1 Chronicles 15:11 ; 2 Samuel 15:24-29,35,36 ); but when Adonijah endeavoured to secure the throne, Abiathar went with him, and therefore Solomon "thrust him out from being high priest," and Zadok, remaining faithful to David, became high priest alone (1 Kings 2:27,35 ; 1 Chronicles 29:22 )
Maacah or Maachah - The portion of Manesseh beyond Jordan reached to this country, like that of Og king of Bashan, Deuteronomy 3:13,14 ; but it does not appear to have become subject to Israel, Joshua 12:4-6 13:13 , except during the reign of David, Solomon, and Jeroboam II. The king of Maachah, with other Syrians, joined the Ammonites in a war with David, and were defeated and made tributary, 2 Samuel 10:6-8,19 . A wife of David, and the mother of Absalom
She'va -
The scribe or royal secretary of David
Jehozabad - Porter or doorkeeper under King David (1 Chronicles 26:4 )
Amasai - Chief of the captains of those who resorted to David at Ziklag
Besor - of Ziklag, where David left 200 men so faint as not to be able to accompany him in pursuing the Amalekites into the desert whither they had withdrawn after burning Ziklag (1 Samuel 30:9-10; 1 Samuel 30:21),...
Ram - Ancestor of David (Ruth 4:19 ; 1 Chronicles 2:9 ) and Jesus (Matthew 1:3-4 )
Nogah - ” Son born to David in Jerusalem (1 Chronicles 3:7 ; 1 Chronicles 14:6 )
Pestilence - When David had numbered the people, the Lord sent a pestilence upon Israel, and there died 70,000 men
Abia - In Luke 1:5 , the name refers to the head of the eighth of the twenty-four courses into which David divided the priests (1 Chronicles 24:10 )
Absalom - Son of David
Goliath - A celebrated giant of Gath, who challenged the armies of Israel, and was encountered and slain by David
Patriarch - ); (3) in the NT it is extended to the sons of Jacob ( Acts 7:8-9 ), and to David ( Acts 2:29 )
ge'ra - ( Genesis 46:21 ) Gera, who is named, (Judges 3:15 ) as the ancestor of Ehud, and in (2 Samuel 16:5 ) as the ancestor of Shimei who cursed David, is probably also the same person (though some consider them different persons)
Amasa - David's nephew, the son of Abigail, David's sister, and Jether an Ishmaelite. His percentage may have led David to show him less favor than his other nephews, and this may have disposed him to join in the rebellion of Absalom. David afterwards offered him a pardon and the command of his troops in the place of Joab, whose overbearing conduct he could no longer endure, 2 Samuel 19:13
Aroer - It was famous in the history of Jephthah (Judges 11:33 ) and of David (2 Samuel 24:5 ). ) ...
...
A city in the south of Judah, 12 miles south-east of Beersheba, to which David sent presents after recovering the spoil from the Amalekites at Ziklag (1 Samuel 30:26,28 ). It was the native city of two of David's warriors (1 Chronicles 11:44 )
Berechiah - A descendant of David in period after Jews returned from Exile in Babylon (1 Chronicles 3:20 ). A Levite in charge of the ark when David moved it to Jerusalem (1 Chronicles 15:23 )
Branch, the - In two of the passages the words 'unto David' are added, which coincides with the Lord Jesus being the 'offspring' (which is a similar word to 'branch') as well as the 'root' of David
Jeremiah - One who resorted to David at Ziklag. Two of the Gadites who resorted to David at Ziklag
Swallow - Balaam could not curse Israel whom God had blessed (Deuteronomy 23:5), nor Shimei David, nay God requited David good instead (2 Samuel 16:5-12; Psalms 109:28)
Absalom - They, in turn, gladly proclaimed him king in Hebron (2 Samuel 15:10 ), where David was first crowned (2 Samuel 2:4 ). David left Jerusalem and sent his army to find Absalom but not to hurt him (2 Samuel 15:5 ), but Joab murdered him (2 Samuel 15:14 ). David's lament over Absalom shows the depth of a father's love over the loss of a son as well as regret for personal failures which led to family and national tragedies
Ahimelech - Ahimelech also gave Goliath's gigantic sword to David. A Hittite warrior in David's wilderness army (1 Samuel 26:6 ). and son of Abiathar who served with Zadok as priests under David (2 Samuel 8:17 )
Abisha'i, - (father of a gift ), The eldest of the three sons of Zeruiah, David's sister, and brother to Joab and Asahel. ( 1 Chronicles 2:16 ) Like his two brothers he was the devoted follower of David. He rescued David from the hands of the gigantic Philistine, Ishbi-benob. (2 Samuel 21:17 ) His personal prowess on this, as on another occasion, when he fought singlehanded against three hundred, won for him a place as captain of the second three of David's mighty men
Araunah - A Jebusite, it has been supposed of royal race, from whom David purchased a threshing-floor as a site for an altar to the Lord. There is an apparent discrepancy in the two accounts in respect to the price paid by David
Barzillai - An aged and wealthy Gileadite, a friend of David when he was in exile during Absalom's rebellion. On David's return, Barzillai accompanied him as far as Jordan, but declined, in consequence of his great age, to proceed to Jerusalem, and receive the favors the king had intended for him. David, in his final charge to Solomon, enjoined upon him to show kindness to Barzillai's family, and to make them members of the royal household, 1 Kings 2:7 ...
3
na'Hash - Nahash the father of Hanun had rendered David some special and valuable service, which David was anxious for an opportunity of requiting
Bethlehem - It was the home of Israel’s greatest king, David (1 Samuel 17:12; 1 Samuel 20:6; 2 Samuel 23:14-16; cf. Ruth 4:11-17), and the birthplace of the great ‘son of David’, the promised Messiah, Jesus (Micah 5:2; Matthew 2:1-6; Luke 2:4; Luke 2:11; Luke 2:15; John 7:42)
David - David (dâ'vid), beloved. David had also two sisters. Dean Stanley thus describes David's appearance and physique as he stood before Samuel: "He was short of stature, had red hair and bright eyes. Samuel anointed David "in the midst of his brethren," 1 Samuel 16:13; and the Spirit of God was from that day specially upon him. David returned to the care of his flocks. When Saul, afflicted now with that black spirit of melancholy which his sins had justly brought upon him, might, it was thought, be soothed by a minstrel's music, David took his harp to the palace; and his music calmed Saul's distemper; and Saul was gratified and became attached to his skilful attendant. David was not indeed altogether removed from home. In 1 Samuel 16:21 it is said that Saul made David his armor-hearer. For it then would have been strange if neither Saul nor any one about his person had recognized David when he came, as we find in the next chapter, to accept Goliath's challenge. And so all sorts of devices have been contrived to get the history into chronological order; some imagining that the fight with the Philistine was before David was attached to Saul as the minstrel. David offers to engage Goliath; but Saul doubts whether the young man was equal to such a perilous encounter; and David of course makes no allusion to his having previously stood before the king. With these, however, unaccustomed as he was to such harness (an additional proof that he had never yet been Saul's armor-bearer), David refuses to go. David was successful; the huge Philistine fell; and the Israelitish troops pealed out their shouts of victory. And, in answer to the king's query, David replies, "I am the son of thy servant Jesse the Bethlehemite, 1 Samuel 17:58, adopting the style by which he was first named to the king. David is now established in the king's favor: he is specially beloved by Jonathan; he is set over the men of war, 1 Samuel 18:5, perhaps made captain of the body-guard, and employed in various services the rest of the campaign; by which his popularity was increased. For the chief praise in the songs of the women was given to David. David did not then refuse to take up again his harp; though once or twice the maddened king strove to kill him with his javelin, and, because he could no longer bear his constant presence, removed him from the body-guard to a separate command, l David's increasing credit with the nation, and understanding, it is likely, by this time, that the young Bethlehemite was the chosen of the Lord, to whom the kingdom was to be transferred, sent to arrest him in his house. Convinced by an interview with Jonathan that Saul's enmity was no mere transient passion, 1 Samuel 20:1-42, David went to Nob, where his duplicity cost the high priest his life, and thence to Achish, king of Gath, where, to escape the jealousy of the Philistines, he simulated madness. To this period, belong the circumstances narrated in the concluding chapters of the first book of Samuel—the adventure with Nabal, and David's marriage with Abigail; his twice sparing Saul's life; perhaps the battle for the water of the well of Bethlehem, 1 Chronicles 11:15-19; and also the residence with Achish, who gave him Ziklag. David's conduct at this time cannot be justified. But gradually the tribes were flocking to David, 1 Chronicles 12:23-40; and Saul's house was weakening as he was strengthened; till at length Abner himself came with a proposal to transfer to him the whole kingdom. But Abner was murdered by Joab, David's nephew and commander-in-chief, a man too powerful to be punished; and shortly after Ish-bosheth was assassinated by two of his officers; and then the nation was reunited; and David reigned over the kingdom of Israel; seven years and six months having elapsed since he had taken the crown of Judah. But he was not again the David of former days. There was the defilement of Tamar, and the murder of his first-born Amnon, 2 Samuel 13:1-39; and then Absalom's unnatural rebellion and death, 2 Samuel 15:1-37; 2 Samuel 18:1-33; and Sheba's insurrection, 2 Samuel 20:1-26; and the plague for the numbering of the people, 2 Samuel 24:1-25; and Adonijah's seizure of the government, when the most long-tried counsellors of David deserted him, a movement that could be crushed only by the aged monarch's devolving his crown upon Solomon, 1 Kings 1:1-53; with various other griefs. David's character is clearly shown in the events of his life—whose strains of inspired song intertwine with all the devotional and joyful feelings of God's people in every age. Very many were from David's pen. And, though we cannot with precision point out all he wrote, or describe the times and circumstances under which those were penned that we know did come from him, yet we delight to couple particular compositions with various crises of David's life—as Psalms 42:1-11 with his flight across the Jordan in Absalom's rebellion; Psalms 24:1-10 with the bringing up of the ark to Jerusalem; Psalms 18:1-50 with David's deliverance from his enemies, and to see his emotions of praise, and hope, and repentance, and gratitude, and faith, at the wonderful dealings of God with him. Of the children of David many are mentioned in Scripture; and there were probably more; twenty-one sons are enumerated and one daughter
Hiram - King of Tyre, associated with David and Solomon in building the Temple. ...
When David became king of Israel, Hiram sent congratulatory gifts to him, including men and materials to build a palace (2 Samuel 5:11 ). His friendship with David and Solomon undoubtedly explains, at least in part, the prosperity and success of their reigns. See David ; Phoenicia ; Solomon ; Tyre
Abiathar - When Saul sent his emissaries to Nob, to destroy all the priests there, Abiathar, who was young, fled to David in the wilderness, 1 Samuel 22:11-23 , with whom he continued in the character of priest, 1 Samuel 23:9 30:7 . Being confirmed in the high priesthood on David's accession to the throne, he aided in bringing up the ark to Jerusalem, 1 Corinthians 15:11,12 , and adhered to David during the rebellion of Absalom, 2 Samuel 15:35 , but afterwards was led to follow Adonijah, thus strangely betraying his royal friend in his old age. Thus there were, at the same time, two high priests in Israel; Abiathar with David, and Zadok with Saul. See under Mark 2:26 , where Abiathar is said to have given David the showbread, in allusion to 1 Samuel 21:1-6 , where it is Ahimelech
Melchizedek - ...
Several centuries later, when the nation Israel had settled in Canaan, David conquered Jerusalem and made it his national capital. It was as if David had become a successor to Melchizedek and heir to all Melchizedek’s titles. ...
When the psalm was applied literally to David, it was extravagant, but in later times Jews applied it to the expected Messiah. A song of lavish praise, extravagant when applied to David, was fitting when applied to Jesus Christ
Abiathar - When his father was slain with the priests of Nob, he escaped, and bearing with him the ephod, he joined David, who was then in the cave of Adullam (1 Samuel 22:20-23 ; 23:6 ). He remained with David, and became priest of the party of which he was the leader (1 Samuel 30:7 ). When David ascended the throne of Judah, Abiathar was appointed high priest (1 Chronicles 15:11 ; 1 Kings 2:26 ) and the "king's companion" (1 Chronicles 27:34 ). These appointments continued in force till the end of David's reign (1 Kings 4:4 ). Others, however, think that the loaves belonged to Abiathar, who was at that time (Leviticus 24:9 ) a priest, and that he either himself gave them to David, or persuaded his father to give them
Araunah - A Jebusite, residing on Mount Moriah after the Jebusites were dispossessed by David, 2 Samuel 5:6 24:18
Gittith - " The Targum explains by "on the harp which David brought from Gath
Beans - Mentioned in 2 Samuel 17:28 as having been brought to David when flying from Absalom
Elzabad - Soldier who fought for David while he was a fugitive in Ziklag (1 Chronicles 12:12 )
Eliehoenai - One of the Temple porters or gatekeepers under David (1 Chronicles 26:3 )
to'i - (erring ), king of Hamath on the Orontes, who, after the defeat of his powerful enemy the Syrian king Hadadezer by the army of David, sent his son Joram or Hadoram to congratulate the victory and do him homage with presents of gold and silver and brass
Shemari'ah -
A Benjamite warrior who came to David at Ziklag
Azriel - Head of tribe of Naphtali under David (1 Chronicles 27:19 )
Goath - outside the city of David, as Gareb was N
Armourbearer - When Saul loved David he made him his armourbearer
Marrow - The rich and delicious blessings of the gospel are figuratively set forth as marrow; hence David speaks of them as such to his soul
Shammua, Shammuah - Son of David
Abishalom - But in 2 Chronicles 11:20 we read that Maachah was the daughter of Absalom; therefore Abishalom appears to be a fuller way of writing Absalom, and refers to the son of David
Obed-Edom - A Levite, whose special prosperity while keeper of the ark after the dreadful death of Uzziah encouraged David to carry it up to Jerusalem
Elha'Nan -
A distinguished warrior in the time of King David, who performed a memorable exploit against the Philistines. ) ...
One of "the thirty" of David's guard, and named first on the list
Hach'Ilah, the Hill, - a hill apparently situated in a wood in the wilderness or waste land in the neighborhood of Ziph, in Judah, in the fastnesses or passes of which David and his six hundred followers were lurking when the Ziphites informed Saul of his whereabouts
David - in His Races - THOMAS GOODWIN says that David's youthful virtues differed from his old-age graces somewhat as wild marjoram differs from sweet. ...
I would fain begin David's shining graces by saying that faith in God is the true and real and living root of them all. I would fain begin with David's faith, were it not that there is no word in all our tongue that carries less meaning and less vision to most people's minds and hearts than just this so frequent sound-faith. But this is David's shining distinction above all God's saints-unless there are two or three in the New Testament who equal and excel David. In his pure, courageous, noble youth; all through his hunted-down days; fallen and broken and full of the pains of hell; filling up his dreary gift of years,-David is always the same unconquered miracle of faith in God. Take and read and hear what David says to the Philistine giant about God, and you will see somewhat of his youthful faith in God. Then pass on to far on in his life, and open the hundred and thirty-ninth psalm; and I am safe to say that David, the author of that psalm, and Jesus of Nazareth, whom I may call the finisher of it, have been the only two saints and sons of God on the face of this earth who have ever taken, up, understood, and imaginatively and unceasingly employed in their prayers that great believing psalm. But the best of it is that He was beholden to David's psalms of faith, and trust, and resignation, and assurance to support and to give utterance to His faith in His Father. The psalms of David, says Isaac Williams, were our Lord's constant prayer-book. When, therefore, you begin to ask after and to enter on the life of faith, open and read David's life and David's psalms, comparing them together; and then pass on to Jesus Christ, and then to the Apostle Paul. Dreadful sin! that can only be propitiated by blood, and then washed off heart and life by blood upon blood! Dreadful holiness! that can only be attained through tears and blood! But, blessed holiness that is still attainable by us all at that, or at any other price possible to be paid by God or man! As David's holiness was, and as all their holiness is, to whom David is set forth as a portent, and at the same time as an encouragement. But let me say David at once. For it is David who rises before me as I speak of injuries, and insults, and detractions, and depreciations, and threats, and yet sorer, and yet severer and more immediate handlings by God Himself. David might have put Joab, and Shimei, and all the rest of his tutors and governors, in the front of the battle as he put Uriah; but he could not cast a piece of a millstone on his Maker from the walls of Rabbah, and he would not now if he could. ...
Once let David, or any other man, begin to taste the heavenly sweetness of true humility over against pride, and over against rebellion, and over against retaliation, and he will become positively enamoured and intoxicated with his humiliations. When I was a child I used every Sabbath-day to read David's challenge to the giant, and I thought I was sanctifying the Sabbath over that Scripture. But for many years now, and more and more of late years, my Bible opens of itself to me at the place where Shimei casts stones and dirt at David, till David says, So let him curse, because the Lord hath said to him, Curse David. Shimei is the man for me and mine! Only, may I endure my schoolmaster to the bitter end better than even David did. Let me take insults, and injuries, and slights, and slings from men, and God's hand itself, as David that day took Shimei's curses. Nay, things that would seem to you to have nothing in the world to do either with my past sins or with my present sinfulness-let me have David's holy instinct, let me lay down David's holy rule, to look at everything of that kind that comes to me as so many divine calls and divinely opened doors to a deeper humility. I shall close up this grace of David by this specimen of mighty Edwards: 'Evangelical humiliation is the sense that a Christian man has of his own utter despicableness and odiousness, with an always answerable frame of heart. '...
'The grey-haired saint may fail at last'; and the last sight we see of David is his deathbed shipwreck on that very same sunken rock he had steered past so often in the stormy voyage of his life. On his deathbed, David failed in that very grace which had been such a strength and such an ornament to his character on till now, and such a pride and such a boast to us. But the truth is, the only saint whose path has ever been as the shining light was not David, but David's far-off Son. And it was exactly where David so sadly struck and sank that his divine Son touched and attained to the top of His obedience, and gave to Himself the finishing touch of His full sanctification. We would draw the curtains of David's deathbed if we dared. For, after all, David is not our surety. David is not our righteousness. David did not die the just for the unjust. Nor at his very youngest and best is David set forward as an example to the disciples of Jesus Christ. David at his best, as at his worst, is one of ourselves. David is a man of like passions with ourselves. David was cut out of the same web, and he was shaped out of the same substance as ourselves. David held back his bad passions at Saul, and at Shimei, and at Joab, occasion after occasion, till we were almost worshipping David. Till, of all times and of all places in the world, David's banked-up passions burst out on his deathbed, that no flesh might glory in God's presence. And, like David, we sometimes master somewhat and smother down our passions of resentment and retaliation and ill-will. But with us as with David, at our best it is only a semblance and a surface of self-mastery. ...
There is one thing, so far as I remember, that David never failed or came short in. 'My honest scholar,' says Isaac Walton, when he is giving his companion a lesson in making a line and in colouring a rod, 'all this is told you to incline you to thankfulness; and, to incline you the more, let me tell you that though the prophet David was guilty of murder and adultery, and many others of the most deadly sins, yet he was said to be a man after God's own heart, because he abounded more and more with thankfulness than any other that is mentioned in Holy Scripture. And let us, in that, labour to be as like David as we can. And then Law winds up with this, and I wish it would send you all to the golden works of that holiness-laden writer-Sometimes, he adds, imagine to yourselves that you saw holy David with his hands upon his harp, and his eyes fixed upon heaven, calling in transport upon all creation, sun and moon, light and darkness, day and night, men and angels, to join with his rapturous soul in praising the Lord of heaven. Or make a morning psalm suitable to your own circumstance out of David's great thanksgiving psalms. You should take the finest and the selectest parts of David's finest and selectest psalms, and adding them together make them every morning more and more fit to express your own thankful hearts. And, till you have had time to compose a psalm exactly suitable to your own standing in grace, you might meantime sing this psalm of David every morning with a spiritual mind and a thankful heart:...
Bless, O my soul, the Lord thy God,...
And not forgetful be...
Of all His gracious benefits...
He hath bestow'd on thee
Dunfermline Abbey - 1070;remodelled as a Benedictine abbey by David I
Ahimaaz - During the reign of David, he revealed to him the counsels of Absalom and his advisers in rebellion, 2 Samuel 17:15-21 ; and conveyed to him also the tidings of Absalom's defeat and death, 2 Samuel 18:1-33
Tal'ma-i - (2 Samuel 3:3 ; 13:37 ; 1 Chronicles 3:2 ) He was probably a petty chieftain, dependent on David
Edar - , "Edar"), and is used as a designation of Bethlehem, which figuratively represents the royal line of David as sprung from Bethlehem
Songs - Of Moses (Exodus 15 ; Numbers 21:17 ; Deuteronomy 32 ; Revelation 15:3 ), Deborah (Judges 5 ), Hannah (1 Samuel 2 ), David (2 Samuel 22 , and Psalms), Mary (Luke 1:46-55 ), Zacharias (Luke 1:68-79 ), the angels (Luke 2:13 ), Simeon (Luke 2:29 ), the redeemed (Revelation 5:9 ; 19 ), Solomon (see SOLOMON , SONGS OF)
Chor-Ashan - Smoking furnace, one of the places where "David himself and his men were wont to haunt" (1 Samuel 30:30,31 )
Jattir - David sent presents there, from the Amalekite spoil (1 Samuel 30:27)
Kushaiah - A Levite of the Merarite family listed as one of the sanctuary singers during the reign of David
Abbey, Dunfermline - 1070;remodelled as a Benedictine abbey by David I
Ishtob - A state which supplied 12,000 men to the children of Ammon to fight against David
Gold - Until long after the time of David gold was not coined, but was sold by weight as a precious article of commerce
Maon - City in the highlands of Judah, to the 'wilderness' of which David and his men resorted when pursued by Saul
Leave - ...
David earnestly asked leave of me
Talmai - David married Maacha his daughter, the mother of Tamar and Absalom
Saint David's, Wales, Diocese of - Founded by Saint David of Wales
ma'on - ( Joshua 15:55 ) Its interest for us lies in its connection with David
mi'Zar - (It is probably a summit of the eastern ridge of Lebanon, not far from Mahanaim, where David lay after escaping from the rebellion of Absalom
Jonadab - Son of Shimeah and nephew of David: he subtly led his cousin Amnon into sin
Samuel, Books of - Gad, the companion of David (1 Samuel 22:5 ), continued the history thus commenced; and Nathan completed it, probably arranging the whole in the form in which we now have it (1 Chronicles 29:29 ). It contains (1) the history of Eli (1-4); (2) the history of Samuel (5-12); (3) the history of Saul, and of David in exile (13-31). The second book, comprising a period of perhaps fifty years, contains a history of the reign of David (1) over Judah (1-4), and (2) over all Israel (5-24), mainly in its political aspects. It is noticeable that the section (2 Samuel 11:2-12 : 29 ) containing an account of David's sin in the matter of Bathsheba is omitted in the corresponding passage in 1 Chronicles 20
Ahimelech - David, being reformed by his friend Jonathan that Saul was determined to destroy him, thought it prudent to retire. One day, when Saul was complaining of his officers, that no one was affected with his misfortunes, or gave him any intelligence of what was carrying on against him, 1 Samuel 22:9 , &c, Doeg related to him what had occurred when David came to Ahimelech the high priest. Only one son of Ahimelech, named Abiathar, escaped the carnage and fled to David
Ruth, Book of - Booz and Ruth were ancestors of David (Matthew 1), of whom a genealogy is given at the end of the book. The purpose of the book was doubtless to preserve an edifying story relating to the origins of the great king, David, not to recommend levirate marriage nor to combat the rigor of Esdras and Nehemias in regard to marriage with foreigners. As regards the date of composition, the first verse makes it evident that it was written after the times of the Judges; and the genealogy comes down to the time of David
Hadoram - Hadoram brought tribute to David after David had defeated Hadad-ezer of Zobah (1 Chronicles 18:10 )
Gath - David fled from Saul to Achish, king of Gath (1 Samuel 21:10 ; 27:2-4 ; Psalm 56 ), and his connection with it will account for the words in 2 Samuel 1:20 . It was afterwards conquered by David (2 Samuel 8:1 )
Bud - ...
Psalm 132:17 (b) Here is a beautiful way of saying that the throne of David would again be set up and dead Israel would again become a living nation. ...
Ezekiel 16:7 (a) Here is a type of the freshness and loveliness with which GOD endowed the nation of Israel under the reign of David and Solomon
Johanan - 1 Chronicles 3:24 a post-exilic prince of the line of David. 1 Chronicles 12:4 ; 1 Chronicles 12:12 two warriors who came to David to Ziklag, a Benjamite and a Gadite respectively
Hiram - He was contemporary with, David and Solomon, and on terms of political and personal friendship with them, under his reign the city of Tyre became celebrated for its wealth and magnificence, and the vast supplies he furnished to the kings of Israel show the greatness of his resources. He aided David with materials for a palace, 2 Samuel 5:11; 1 Chronicles 14:1, and Solomon in the construction of the temple, 1 Kings 5:1-12; 1 Kings 9:11-14, furnishing workmen as well as materials
Abishag - David, at the age of seventy, finding no warmth in his bed, was advised by his physicians to procure some young person, who might communicate the heat required. Adonijah was his elder brother, an intriguing man, and had aspired to be king before the death of David, and had had his life spared only upon the condition of his peaceable conduct
o'Bed-e'Dom - ) After the death of Uzzah, the ark, which was being conducted from the house of Abinadab in Gibeah to the city of David, was carried aside into the house of Obed edom, where it continued three months. It was brought thence by David
Hiram - Sent carpenters, masons, and cedars to David to build his palace (2 Samuel 5:11). 18), apparently on the authority of Dius and Menunder of Ephesus in file time of Alexander the Great, states, "David reduced the Syrians near the Euphrates, and Commagene, the Assy. Hiram was "ever a lover of David" (1 Kings 5:1; 1 Kings 5:10-12). ...
The mention that "there was peace between Hiram and Solomon" may hint at there having been once war between Hiram and David, before Hiram became "a lover of David. ...
Tyre is threatened with punishment for delivering the Jewish captives to Edom, and not remembering "the brotherly covenant," namely, between Hiram and David and Solomon
Saul - ...
The second stage of Saul’s life concerns his relations with David . ’ David, a skilled harper and celebrated soldier, is engaged. The lad David, who had come to the camp to visit his brethren, learns of the proffered reward, meets the boaster in single combat, and kills him. In this story Saul seems weak, irresolute, and unacquainted with David (ch. David’s growing popularity and prowess lead Saul to attempt his life. Then David’s house is surrounded, but Michal manages David’s escape through a window ( 1 Samuel 18:6-9 , 1 Samuel 20:29 , 1 Samuel 19:11-17 ). Merab, Saul’s elder daughter, was also offered to David, but withdrawn when he should have had her. This seems to be an effort to explain why David did not receive Saul’s daughter after he had slain the giant. David flees to Ramah, and Saul, seeking him there, is seized with the prophetic frenzy and rendered powerless ( 1 Samuel 19:18-24 ). David again flees, and receives help from the priests at Nob. Saul had David all but captured in the hills of Ziph, when a raid of the Philistines c