The Meaning of Luke 22:17 Explained

Luke 22:17

KJV: And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and said, Take this, and divide it among yourselves:

YLT: And having taken a cup, having given thanks, he said, 'Take this and divide to yourselves,

Darby: And having received a cup, when he had given thanks he said, Take this and divide it among yourselves.

ASV: And he received a cup, and when he had given thanks, he said, Take this, and divide it among yourselves:

What does Luke 22:17 Mean?

Context Summary

Luke 22:14-23 - The Feast Of Love And Its Shadow
The human soul of Jesus needed this sweet fellowship with loyal friends to nerve it for its sorrows; and He desired to transmit it as a perpetual legacy for His Church in after-days. We may think of that table being elongated till it reaches down the centuries to where we are seated. Look down the long vista and at the end behold the Master Himself!
These two allusions to the kingdom of God, Luke 22:16; Luke 22:18, point onward to the marriage supper when the full purpose of redemption will be consummated. As we partake of bread for our natural strength, so spiritual strength to suffer, to resist temptation and to serve is possible only in proportion as we feed on Christ by meditation and appropriation. And let us never forget that the wine is the emblem of His blood, by which the new covenant was sealed. See Hebrews 9:18. When therefore at the sacred feast we place the wine to our lips, we may quote the provisions of that covenant, and hold God pledged to fulfill them. See Hebrews 8:8, etc. [source]

Chapter Summary: Luke 22

1  The leaders conspire against Jesus
3  Satan prepares Judas to betray him
7  The apostles prepare the Passover
19  Jesus institutes his holy supper;
21  covertly foretells of the traitor;
24  rebukes the rest of his apostles from ambition;
31  assures Peter his faith should not fail;
34  and yet he should deny him thrice
39  He prays in the mount, and sweats blood;
47  is betrayed with a kiss;
50  he heals Malchus' ear;
54  he is thrice denied by Peter;
63  shamefully abused;
66  and confesses himself to be the Son of God

Greek Commentary for Luke 22:17

He received a cup [δεχαμενος ποτηριον]
This cup is a diminutive of ποτηρ — potēr It seems that this is still one of the four cups passed during the passover meal, though which one is uncertain. It is apparently just before the formal introduction of the Lord‘s Supper, though he gave thanks here also It is from this verb ευχαριστεω — eucharisteō (see also Luke 22:19) that our word Eucharist comes. It is a common verb for giving thanks and was used also for “saying grace” as we call it. [source]

Reverse Greek Commentary Search for Luke 22:17

Mark 14:23 A cup [ποτηριον]
Probably the ordinary wine of the country mixed with two-thirds water, though the word for wine See notes on Matthew 26:26-29 for discussion of important details. Mark and Matthew give substantially the same account of the institution of the Supper by Jesus, while Luke 22:17-20 agrees closely with 1 Corinthians 11:23-26 where Paul claims to have obtained his account by direct revelation from the Lord Jesus. [source]
Luke 22:20 After the supper [μετα το δειπνησαι]
Preposition μετα — meta and the accusative articular infinitive. The textual situation here is confusing, chiefly because of the two cups (Luke 22:17, Luke 22:20). Some of the documents omit the latter part of Luke 22:19 and all of Luke 22:20. It is possible, of course, that this part crept into the text of Luke from 1 Corinthians 11:24. But, if this part is omitted, Luke would then have the order reversed, the cup before the bread. So there are difficulties whichever turn one takes here with Luke‘s text whether one cup or two cups. [source]
1 Corinthians 11:23 For I received of the Lord [εγο γαρ παρελαβον απο του Κυριου]
Direct claim to revelation from the Lord Jesus on the origin of the Lord‘s Supper. Luke‘s account (Luke 22:17-20) is almost identical with this one. He could easily have read 1 Corinthians before he wrote his Gospel. See note on 1 Corinthians 15:3 for use of both παρελαβον — parelabon and παρεδωκα — paredōka Note παρα — para in both verbs. Paul received the account from (παρααπο — parȧ̇apo) the Lord and passed it on from himself to them, a true παραδοσις — paradosis (tradition) as in 1 Corinthians 11:2. [source]

What do the individual words in Luke 22:17 mean?

And having received [the] cup having given thanks He said Take this divide [it] among yourselves
Καὶ δεξάμενος ποτήριον εὐχαριστήσας εἶπεν Λάβετε τοῦτο διαμερίσατε εἰς ἑαυτούς

δεξάμενος  having  received 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Participle Middle, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root: δέχομαι  
Sense: to take with the hand.
ποτήριον  [the]  cup 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Neuter Singular
Root: ποτήριον  
Sense: a cup, a drinking vessel.
εὐχαριστήσας  having  given  thanks 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Participle Active, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root: εὐχαριστέω  
Sense: to be grateful, feel thankful.
εἶπεν  He  said 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Active, 3rd Person Singular
Root: λέγω  
Sense: to speak, say.
Λάβετε  Take 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Imperative Active, 2nd Person Plural
Root: λαμβάνω  
Sense: to take.
τοῦτο  this 
Parse: Demonstrative Pronoun, Accusative Neuter Singular
Root: οὗτος  
Sense: this.
διαμερίσατε  divide  [it] 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Imperative Active, 2nd Person Plural
Root: διαμερίζω  
Sense: to cleave asunder, cut in pieces.
ἑαυτούς  yourselves 
Parse: Reflexive Pronoun, Accusative Masculine 3rd Person Plural
Root: ἑαυτοῦ  
Sense: himself, herself, itself, themselves.