What does Sin mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
ἁμαρτίας equivalent to 264. / that which is done wrong 34
ἁμαρτίαν equivalent to 264. / that which is done wrong 26
ἁμαρτία equivalent to 264. / that which is done wrong 23
לְחַטָּֽאת sin 17
חַטָּ֖את sin 14
הֶחֱטִ֖יא to sin 11
לְחַטָּ֑את sin 10
הַֽחַטָּאת֙ sin 7
חֵֽטְא sin. 7
ἁμαρτίᾳ equivalent to 264. / that which is done wrong 7
חַטָּ֑את sin 6
חַטָּֽאת sin 5
הַֽחַטָּ֑את sin 5
חַטָּ֔את sin 5
לְחַטָּ֔את sin 4
לְחַטַּ֖את sin 4
הֶחֱטִ֥יא to sin 4
חַטַּ֥את sin 3
הַֽחַטָּ֗את sin 3
יֶחֱטָ֔א to sin 3
חֲטָאָ֣ה sin 3
חַטָּאת֖וֹ sin 3
הַֽחַטָּ֖את sin 3
לְחַטָּ֖את sin 3
הַ֣חַטָּ֔את sin 3
בְּחֶטְא֖וֹ sin. 3
הַֽחַטָּ֔את sin 3
הֶחֱטִ֣יא to sin 3
חַטָּאתֽוֹ sin 3
ἁμαρτάνετε to be without a share in. / to miss the mark. / to err 3
כַּֽחַטָּאת֙ sin 2
חֲטָאָ֥ה sin 2
וְחַטָּאתָ֖ם sin 2
סִ֔ין a town in eastern Egypt. 2
חַטָּאתוֹ֩ sin 2
מֵחַטָּאת֖וֹ sin 2
חַטָּ֜את sin 2
הַחַטָּ֖את sin 2
חַטַּ֣את sin 2
וּ֨בְחַטָּאת֔וֹ sin 2
ἁμάρτανε to be without a share in. / to miss the mark. / to err 2
חַטָּאת֑וֹ sin 2
הַֽחַטָּ֛את sin 2
ἁμαρτάνει to be without a share in. / to miss the mark. / to err 2
חֵ֖טְא sin. 2
וְהַחַטָּ֣את sin 2
σκανδαλίζεται to put a stumbling block or impediment in the way 2
σκανδαλίζει to put a stumbling block or impediment in the way 2
ἁμάρτῃ to be without a share in. / to miss the mark. / to err 2
חַטַּאת־ sin 2
חַטָּאת֣וֹ sin 2
חַטָּאתִ֔י sin 2
חַטָּאתִ֣י sin 2
חַטָּאתִי֙ sin 2
חַטָּ֥את sin 2
חֵ֔טְא sin. 2
לְחַטַּ֤את sin 2
וְחַטָּאתָ֛ם sin 2
וְחַ֨טָּאתָ֔ם sin 1
؟ חַטָּאתִֽי sin 1
וְחַטָּ֕את sin 1
חַטָּ֣את sin 1
וְ֝חַטָּאתִ֗י sin 1
חַטָּאָֽה sin 1
וְחַטָּאתָם֙ sin 1
וּ֭לְחַטָּאתִ֥י sin 1
וּלְחַטָּאתָ֖ם sin 1
וּלְחַטָּאתָֽם sin 1
הַחַטָּ֑את sin 1
הַחַטָּ֗את sin 1
חַטָּאתֵ֔נוּ sin 1
הַחַטָּ֣את sin 1
וְחַטָּאתָ֔ם sin 1
חַטַּאת֙ sin 1
בְּחַטָּ֖את sin 1
וְחַטָּאתְךָ֖ sin 1
הַֽחַטָּ֜את sin 1
מֵֽחַטַּ֖את sin 1
מֵֽחַטָּאתִֽי sin 1
חַטָּאתָם֮ sin 1
לְחַטָּאת֙ sin 1
לְחַטָּֽאת‪‬ sin 1
؟ מֵחַטָּאתִֽי sin 1
חַ֝טָּאת֗וֹ sin 1
וְחַטַּ֥את sin 1
חַטָּאתִ֨י sin 1
חַטָּאתִֽי sin 1
וּֽמֵחַטָּאתִ֥י sin 1
חַטַּאתְכֶ֔ם sin 1
וְחַטָּאתִ֖י sin 1
חַטָּאתָ֣ם sin 1
סִ֛ין a town in eastern Egypt. 1
סִ֖ין a town in eastern Egypt. 1
סִֽין a town in eastern Egypt. 1
סִ֑ין a town in eastern Egypt. 1
עֲוֺנִ֖י perversity 1
פָּ֑שַׁע transgression 1
שִׁגְגָתָֽם sin 1
חַטֹּ֣את sin 1
חַטַּ֤את sin 1
חַטָּאתָ֤ם sin 1
מֵחַטָּאת֥וֹ sin 1
חַטָּאת֙ sin 1
כַּ֠חַטָּאת sin 1
חַטָּ֛את sin 1
מֵֽחַטָּאת֔וֹ sin 1
חַטָּאת֔וֹ sin 1
חַטָּאת֥וֹ sin 1
מֵחַטָּאתֽוֹ sin 1
לַחַטָּ֖את sin 1
הַחַטָּאת֙ sin 1
חַטָּאת֧וֹ sin 1
חַטָּאתָ֗ם sin 1
כַּחַטָּ֖את sin 1
: הַֽחַטָּ֑את sin 1
חַטָּ֡את sin 1
וְלַֽחַטָּ֖את sin 1
הַֽחַטָּֽאת sin 1
לְחַטָּ֛את sin 1
חַטָּֽאתְךָ֙ sin 1
וְלַ֣חַטָּא֔וֹת sin 1
לְחַטָּֽת sin 1
וְהַחַטָּ֖את sin 1
וְחַטָּאת֖וֹ sin 1
בְּחַטָּאת֣וֹ sin 1
תֶחֱטָֽאוּ to sin 1
וַֽיְחַטְּא֤וּ to sin 1
יֶחֶטְאוּ־ to sin 1
(הֶחֱטִ֥יא) to sin 1
וַיַּחֲטִ֥א to sin 1
וַחֲטָאתֶ֖ם to sin 1
תַחֲטִיא֙ to sin 1
לַחֲטִ֣יא to sin 1
יֶחֱטָֽא to sin 1
יַחֲטִ֥יאוּ to sin 1
יֶחֱטָ֨א to sin 1
חֲטֹ֛א to sin 1
חָטָ֑א to sin 1
וְחָטָ֖אתִי to sin 1
תֶּחֶטְא֥וּ to sin 1
וְחוֹטֵ֥א to sin 1
לַחֲטֹ֗א to sin 1
לַחֲטֹ֑א to sin 1
(הַחֲטִ֥יא) to sin 1
תֶֽחֱטָא֙ to sin 1
תֶחֶטְא֥וּ to sin 1
חָטָ֥אתִי to sin 1
σκάνδαλα the movable stick or trigger of a trap 1
ἁμαρτήσει to be without a share in. / to miss the mark. / to err 1
ἥμαρτες to be without a share in. / to miss the mark. / to err 1
ἥμαρτεν to be without a share in. / to miss the mark. / to err 1
ἁμάρτητε to be without a share in. / to miss the mark. / to err 1
ἁμαρτήσωμεν to be without a share in. / to miss the mark. / to err 1
ἁμαρτανόντων to be without a share in. / to miss the mark. / to err 1
ἁμαρτήματος sin 1
ἁμάρτημα sin 1
σκανδάλων the movable stick or trigger of a trap 1
מֵחֲטֹ֣א to sin 1
אָשָׁם֙ guilt 1
אָשָׁ֔ם guilt 1
אָשָׁ֑ם guilt 1
בְּאַשְׁמַ֣ת guiltiness 1
וַֽתַּחֲטִא֙ to sin 1
הֶחֱטִ֙יאוּ֙ to sin 1
לְהַחֲטִ֖יא to sin 1
וַֽתַּחֲטִ֖א to sin 1
יֶֽחֶטְאוּ־ to sin 1
חָטָ֣א to sin 1
חָטָ֥א to sin 1
וּבְחַטָּאת֥וֹ sin 1
מֵֽחַטָּאתוֹ֙ sin 1
(וּבְחַטָּאת֔וֹ) sin 1
וּמֵחַטָּאתָ֥ם sin 1
הַחַטָּ֥את sin 1
חַטָּאתִ֑י sin 1
חַטַּ֧את sin 1
וְהַחַטָּֽאת sin 1
מֵחַטָּאתָ֥ם sin 1
לְחַטָּאתָ֔ם sin 1
ἁμαρτήσῃ to be without a share in. / to miss the mark. / to err 1
(לְחַטָּאָ֤ה) sin offering. 1
חַטָּאתְךָ֖ sin 1
וְחַטַּ֖את sin 1
חַטַּאתְכֶם֙ sin 1
חַטַּאתְכֶ֞ם sin 1
חַטַּאתְכֶֽם sin 1
חַטָּאתָ֑ם sin 1
חַטָּאתָֽם sin 1
וְחַטָּאָ֑ה sin 1
וּלְחַטָּאתֵ֖נוּ sin 1
וּבְחַטָּאתוֹ֙ sin 1
וַ֝חֲטָאָ֗ה sin 1
לַחֲטֹ֣א to sin 1
תֶּ֫חֱטָ֥אוּ to sin 1
חָ֭טָאתָ to sin 1
הַֽמְחַטֵּ֥א to sin 1
וַֽיְחַטְּאֵ֖הוּ to sin 1
חָטָֽא־ to sin 1
הֶחֱטִ֔יאוּ to sin 1
וְחָטָ֑אתִי to sin 1
אֶֽחֱטָא־ to sin 1
מֵחֲט֪וֹא to sin 1
חַטָּא֔וֹת sin. 1
חֲטָאָֽה sin 1
חֵ֛טְא sin. 1
חֵ֣טְא sin. 1
חֵטְא־ sin. 1
חֶטְאָ֥ם sin. 1
חֶטְאֽוֹ sin. 1
בְחֶטְא֣וֹ sin. 1
חֶטְא֥וֹ sin. 1
וּ֝בְחֵ֗טְא sin. 1
לַֽחֲטָאָֽה sin 1
תִשְׁגּ֔וּ to go astray 1

Definitions Related to sin

G266


   1 equivalent to 264.
      1a to be without a share in.
      1b to miss the mark.
      1c to err, be mistaken.
      1d to miss or wander from the path of uprightness and honour, to do or go wrong.
      1e to wander from the law of God, violate God’s law, sin.
   2 that which is done wrong, sin, an offence, a violation of the divine law in thought or in act.
   3 collectively, the complex or aggregate of sins committed either by a single person or by many.
   

H2403


   1 sin, sinful.
   2 sin, sin offering.
      2a sin.
      2b condition of sin, guilt of sin.
      2c punishment for sin.
      2d sin-offering.
      2e purification from sins of ceremonial uncleanness.
      

H2398


   1 to sin, miss, miss the way, go wrong, incur guilt, forfeit, purify from uncleanness.
      1a (Qal).
         1a1 to miss.
         1a2 to sin, miss the goal or path of right and duty.
         1a3 to incur guilt, incur penalty by sin, forfeit.
      1b (Piel).
         1b1 to bear loss.
         1b2 to make a sin-offering.
         1b3 to purify from sin.
         1b4 to purify from uncleanness.
      1c (Hiphil).
         1c1 to miss the mark.
         1c2 to induce to sin, cause to sin.
         1c3 to bring into guilt or condemnation or punishment.
      1d (Hithpael).
         1d1 to miss oneself, lose oneself, wander from the way.
         1d2 to purify oneself from uncleanness.
         

H2399


   1 sin.
      1a sin.
      1b guilt for sin.
      1c punishment for sin.
      [4]

G264


   1 to be without a share in.
   2 to miss the mark.
   3 to err, be mistaken.
   4 to miss or wander from the path of uprightness and honour, to do or go wrong.
   5 to wander from the law of God, violate God’s law, sin.
   

H2401


   1 sin, sin offering.
      1a sin.
      1b sin offering.
      

G4625


   1 the movable stick or trigger of a trap, a trap stick.
      1a a trap, snare.
      1b any impediment placed in the way and causing one to stumble or fall, (a stumbling block, occasion of stumbling) i.e. a rock which is a cause of stumbling.
      1c fig.
      applied to Jesus Christ, whose person and career were so contrary to the expectations of the Jews concerning the Messiah, that they rejected him and by their obstinacy made shipwreck of their salvation.
   2 any person or thing by which one is (entrapped) drawn into error or sin.
   

H7684


   1 sin, sin of error or inadvertence, inadvertent sin.
      1a error.
      

G4624


   1 to put a stumbling block or impediment in the way, upon which another may trip and fall, metaph.
   to offend.
      1a to entice to sin.
      1b to cause a person to begin to distrust and desert one whom he ought to trust and obey.
         1b1 to cause to fall away.
         1b2 to be offended in one, i.e. to see in another what I disapprove of and what hinders me from acknowledging his authority.
         1b3 to cause one to judge unfavourably or unjustly of another.
      1c since one who stumbles or whose foot gets entangled feels annoyed.
         1c1 to cause one displeasure at a thing.
         1c2 to make indignant.
         1c3 to be displeased, indignant.
         

H5512


   1 a town in eastern Egypt.
   2 the tract of wilderness between Elim and Sinai.
   Additional Information: sin = “thorn” or “clay”.
   

G265


   1 sin, evil deed.
   

H7686


   1 to go astray, stray, err.
      1a (Qal).
         1a1 to err, stray.
         1a2 to swerve, meander, reel, roll, be intoxicated, err (in drunkenness).
         1a3 to go astray (morally).
         1a4 to commit sin of ignorance or inadvertence, err (ignorantly).
      1b (Hiphil).
         1b1 to lead astray.
         1b2 to lead astray, mislead (mentally).
         1b3 to lead astray (morally).
         

H6588


   1 transgression, rebellion.
         1a1 transgression (against individuals).
         1a2 transgression (nation against nation).
         1a3 transgression (against God).
            1a3a in general.
            1a3b as recognised by sinner.
            1a3c as God deals with it.
            1a3d as God forgives.
         1a4 guilt of transgression.
         1a5 punishment for transgression.
         1a6 offering for transgression.
         

H817


   1 guilt, offense, guiltiness.
      1a offense, trespass, fault.
      1b guilt, guiltiness.
      1c compensation (for offense).
      1d trespass offering, guilt offering.
      

H819


   1 guiltiness, guilt, offense, sin, wrong-doing.
      1a doing wrong, committing a trespass or offense.
      1b becoming guilty, guilt.
      1c bringing a guilt-offering.
      

H5771


   1 perversity, depravity, iniquity, guilt or punishment of iniquity.
      1a iniquity.
      1b guilt of iniquity, guilt (as great), guilt (of condition).
      1c consequence of or punishment for iniquity.
      

H2402


   1 sin offering.
   

Frequency of sin (original languages)

Frequency of sin (English)

Dictionary

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Mortal sin
(Latin: mors, death)
A grievous offense against the law of God. This sin is called mortal because it deprives us of supernatural life and brings damnation and death of the soul. Three conditions are necessary for a mortal sin: gravity of matter, sufficient reflection, and full consent of the will. The gravity of matter is determined by Holy Scripture, by the definitions of the Church, by the testimony of the Fathers, Doctors, and theologians, by the universal belief of the faithful, and by reason enlightened by faith. Mortal sin is a revolt against God, supreme Lord, contempt of His adorable majesty, an act of monstrous ingratitudc. It is an offense against Christ who redeemed us, and against the Holy. Ghost who sanctifies us. It deprives one of sanctifying grace and thus prevents one from acquiring merit or sharing in the satisfying merits of the Church. It tarnishes the soul, and causes remorse of conscience, an inclination to evil, darkening of the intellect, weakening of the will. It deprives one of the right to heaven, and entails penalties, some of which are incurred in this life, and the loss of God forever as well as eternal punishment.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Occasion of sin
An external circumstance which of its own nature or because of man's frailty inclines and leads to sin. An occasion is proximate if the danger of sinning is certain or probable, remote if such danger is slight. It is absolute if of itself it leads us to sin, relative if only on account of weakness it becomes an occasion of evil-doing. It is voluntary if it may easily be shunned, otherwise it is involuntary. It is present if we have it with us without seeking it; otherwise it is absent. There is no obligation to avoid a remote occasion, unless we foresee that it will soon be proximate. But there is a positive obligation to avoid a voluntary proximate occasion, whether it be absolute or relative, present or absent.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Man of sin
Antichrist, as described by Paul in 2Thessalonians; interpreted by founders of Protestantism as descriptive of the pope, and so explained by Protestant writers of the time on the, Continent and in England.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Holy Spirit, sin Against the
Attributing the work of the Holy Spirit to the devil (Matthew 12:32 ; Mark 3:29 ; Luke 12:10 ). See Unpardonable Sin.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - lo! Mary is Exempt From Stain of sin
Hymn for Vespers (II) on February 11, Feast of the Apparition of the Blessed Virgin Mary Immaculate, composed by an unknown author. It has two translations. The English title given is by the Benedictines of Stanbrook.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Original sin
Not sin in the ordinary sense of a transgression of the law of God which one commits deliberately. It is one of the consequences of the sin of our first parent, Adam. As father of the human race, he was endowed with immortality, with reason and will in perfect control of the lower appetites, and with Divine grace enabling him to know and serve God in a manner far beyond the capacity of his natural powers, and therefore in a state above nature: the supernatural state. Through him these endowments were to be transmitted to the entire human race. When by his sin he lost them for himself, they were lost also for his descendants. Now the loss or privation of Divine grace, the chief consequence of sin, means the privation of the supernatural goodness to which God destined us, and therefore it is called our original stain or sin. Other consequences of Adam's sin are death, and concupiscence, or the rebellion of our lower appetites against reason and will. This concupiscence, though often the occasion of sin, is not in itself sinful; it is not original sin, as the early Protestants held, nor does it consist, as Luther believed, in such a decadence of our nature as to leave our reason incapable of understanding, our will without freedom, and our whole nature evil. Original sin does not so corrupt our natural powers as to render them incapable of natural virtues: it deprives us of the grace needed for virtues beyond our natural powers. All this is based on Holy Scripture, particularly on Saint Paul's Epistle to the Romans 5: "Wherefore as by one man sin entered into this world, and by sin death; and so death passed upon all men, in whom all have sinned." It is the subject of the Fifth Session of the Council of Trent.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - sin
SIN . The teaching of the Bible with regard to the doctrine of sin may be said to involve a desire, on the part of the leaders of Jewish thought, to give a rational account of the fact, the consciousness, and the results of human error. Whatever be the conclusion arrived at respecting the compilation of the early chapters of Genesis, one thought, at least, clearly emerges: the narratives are saturated through and through with religious conceptions. Omnipotence, sovereignty, condescending active love, and perfect moral harmony, all find their place in the narratives there preserved, as attributes of the Divine character. The sublime conception of human dignity and worth is such that, in spite of all temptation to the contrary belief, it remains to-day as a firmly rooted, universally received verity, that man is made ‘in the image of God’ ( Genesis 1:27 ).
I. The Old Testament
1. The early narratives . It is remarkable that in the story of the Fall the writer (J [1] ) attributes the sin to a positive act of conscious disobedience to God, and not only so, but he regards it as an entity standing over against ‘good’ ( Genesis 2:17 ), This is more clearly brought out in the same writer’s narrative of the murder of Abel, where sin is represented as ‘couching at the door,’ lying in wait for the overthrow of the sullen homicide ( Genesis 4:7 ). The profound psychological truth that the power of sin grows in the character of him who yields to its dictates is also noticed in this story. Falsehood and selfishness and defiance of God are heard in Cain’s answer to the Divine voice. These stories are the beginning of the history of a long process of development which resulted in the Flood. From individual acts of wrong-doing we are brought face to face with the condition, ‘every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually’ ( Genesis 6:5 ). Hitherto God is represented as commanding, punishing, pleading with man, and even encouraging him with hopes of future restoration ( Genesis 3:15 ). The growth and arrogance of sin in the human race became so pronounced and universal that He is said to have rejected man completely, and in His wrath to have destroyed His creation, which was infected by man’s corruption. He is ‘grieved at his heart,’ and is repentant for having ‘made man on the earth’ ( Genesis 6:6 f.). The same narrator, in giving the current explanation of the diversity of human language, notes another racial rebellion against God, which was punished by the overthrow of Babel ( Genesis 11:1-9 ).
A change in the Divine method of dealing with sinful man is now noticeable. The writers lead gradually up to this, beginning with Noah, whose righteousness (walk with God, cf. Genesis 6:9 ) stands in solitary contrast to the universal decadence. The educative elective principle enters into the relationships of God and man. A covenant is established by which these relationships are defined, and by consequence human consciousness is gradually deepened. As a result, temptation to sin becomes more formidable and many-sided. In Individual cases outside the covenant we see, indeed, evidences of a higher standard of moral obligation than that reached by the Patriarchs (cf. Genesis 12:18 f., Genesis 20:9 f.). At the same time, the history of Esau furnishes us with proof that already glimmerings of a more profound ethical basis upon which to build human character, than that recognized elsewhere, had begun to obtrude themselves. If in the case of Abraham ‘faith was reckoned for righteousness’ ( Romans 4:9 ), and belief in the fidelity of God’s promises, in the face of the most untoward conditions, constituted the foundation-stone of the patriarch’s noble character, so in Esau’s case it was the lack of this belief, with the consequent inability to appreciate the dignity to which he was born, that lay at the root of his great and pathetic failure. The secret of Joseph’s power to resist temptation lay, not merely in his natural inability to be guilty of a breach of trust towards his master, but still more in his intense realization that to yield would be a ‘great wickedness and sin against God’ ( Genesis 39:9 ). Thus, while it is true to say that the dominant conception of sin in the OT is that it is the great disturbing element in the personal relations of God and man, it seems to have been realized very early that the chief scope for its exercise lay in the domain of human intercourse. The force of Abimelech’s complaint against Abraham lay in the fact that the former was guiltless of wronging the latter, whereas he was in serious danger of sinning against God in consequence of the patriarch’s duplicity.
2. The Sinaitic Law . The next great critical point in the evolution of human consciousness of sin is reached in the promulgation of the Law from Sinai. Here the determinative process of Divine election is seen in its widest and most elaborate working. The central purpose of the Law may be considered as of a twofold character. Not only are the restrictions tabulated in order to the erection of barriers against the commission of sin (‘God is come to prove you, and that his fear may be before you, that ye sin not,’ Exodus 20:20 ), but positive enactments regulating the personal communion of God and Israel provide frequently recurring opportunities of loving and joyful service ( Exodus 23:14 ff.). The law of restitution, as given in Exodus 21:1-36 ; Exodus 22:1-31 , may be regarded as harsh in some of its enactments, hut it may be easily conceived as an immense stride forward on the road to ‘the royal law. Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself ( James 2:8 ). Nor can it be said that restitution and mutual service between God and His people are left out of sight in those chapters of Exodus which are universally recognized as containing the oldest part of the Mosaic Code. These anthropopathic conceptions of God abound, and are seen in the idea of His jealousy being roused by idolatrous practices ( Exodus 20:5 ), in the promises made to Israel that, in return for services to Jehovah, He will save His people in the face of their enemies ( Exodus 23:25 ff.). Thus it will be easily understood that, as the Levitical and Priestly Codes were gradually elaborated into a somewhat intricate system of legal and ceremonial obligations, the nomenclature of sin in its various aspects came to he accordingly enlarged. For example, in one verse three distinct words occur in connexion with Divine forgiveness (‘forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin ,’ Exodus 34:7 ), and though there is a certain vagueness in the precise meaning to be attached to each of these words, whether it be guilt or punishment, rebellion or sin-offering, wickedness considered as a condition, or trespass, which is in the writers’ minds, the thoughts underlying each have to do with the relations between God and His people. It must not be forgotten, moreover, that the ceremonial enactments provided a circle of ideas of permanent importance in the Hebrew conception of Jehovah’s character. The law of clean and unclean animals and things paved the way for truer and nobler thoughts of God’s holiness, and of the uncleanness of sin as being its contradiction. The ‘trespass’ of Achan, involving as it did the whole of Israel in his guilt and punishment, did not consist so much in his stealing of the common spoil taken from the enemy, as in his appropriating what was ‘holy,’ or ‘devoted’ unto the service of God ( Joshua 7:1 ; Joshua 7:11 ff.). The presence of ‘the devoted thing’ with the common property of the army dragged the whole people into a position of guilt, which could be expiated only by the death of the offender. In this way alone could they be restored to Divine favour, and their army receive Divine succour.
3. Deuteronomy and the Historical Books . In the Deuteronomic summary of the Law, whatever be the date at which it was edited, a loftier ground of obedience is attained. Love, of God and of their fellow-men, is more explicitly dwelt on as the motive power of human life ( Deuteronomy 6:5 ; Deuteronomy 10:12 etc.), and the heart is again and again referred to as the seat of that love, both passively and actively ( Deuteronomy 11:18 , Deuteronomy 6:6 , Deuteronomy 10:16 ). The basis upon which it is rested is the fact of God’s love for them and their fathers evidenced in many vicissitudes and in spite of much to hinder its activity ( Deuteronomy 4:37 , Amos 6:1-7 f., Deuteronomy 10:15 ). Though there are numerous echoes of the older conception that the keeping of God’s commandments is one side of a bargain which conditions men’s happiness and prosperity ( Deuteronomy 4:24 ; Deuteronomy 4:40 , Deuteronomy 6:15 ), yet we observe a lofty range of thought bringing in its train truer ideas of sin and guilt. The sternness of God is insisted on, but as having for its objective the good of His people ( Deuteronomy 10:13 , Deuteronomy 6:24 ). It is a necessary phase of His love, compelling them to recognize that sin against God is destructive of the sinner. The ultimate aim of the Deuteronomist is the leading of men to hate sin as God hates it, and to love mercy and righteousness as and because God loves them (cf. Deuteronomy 10:18 f., Leviticus 19:33 f.), by establishing the closest relationship and communion between Him and His people (cf. Deuteronomy 14:1 f., Deuteronomy 7:6 , Deuteronomy 26:18 f., Deuteronomy 27:9 , Deuteronomy 28:9 etc.).
One sin is specially insisted on by the Deuteronomist, namely, the sin of idolatry . No doubt this is largely due to the experience of the nation under the judges, and during the history of Israel subsequent to the great schism. The national disasters which recur so frequently during the former of these periods are always attributed to this sin; while the return of the people, under the guidance of a great representative hero, is always marked by the blessings of peace and prosperity. So in the story of the Northern Kingdom the constant refrain meets us in each succeeding reign: ‘He cleaved unto the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, wherewith he made Israel to sin’ ( 2 Kings 3:3 ; 2 Kings 10:29 ; 2 Kings 13:2 etc.). During the vigorous and successful reign of Ahab and Jezebel, the seeds of national decay were sown, and the historian neglects not to point out the source to which the later mournful decline may be traced ( 1 Kings 16:31 ). On the other hand, there is little reference to this sin during the reigns of Saul and David, and, in spite of the weaknesses of character displayed by the former, the historian pictures for us a great advance in national vigour and growth under these kings and their successors in the Southern Kingdom. The great rebellion against the Davidic dynasty is itself attributed to the declension of Solomon in his old age from the pure Jehovah-worship so zealously and consistently advocated by his father. We must remember also that, side by side with the introduction of foreign religious ideas, vice peculiar to Oriental despotism invaded the royal court and the nation of Israel. We are not, however, altogether limited to what is here inferentially taught as to national sin, with its consequent national punishment. David himself is represented as guilty of a sin which marred his character as an individual, and of an act of indiscretion which seems to have been regarded as a breach of that trust held by him as God’s vicegerent on earth. Both these cases are of interest for the light which they throw on the doctrine of sin and its consequences. In the case of Bathsheba, which was a purely personal transgression, the prophet Nathan comes not only as the hearer of a message of Divine pardon to the repentant sinner, but also as the stern judge pronouncing sentence of severe and protracted punishment. The death of the newly born child and the subsequent distractions arising out of the affair of Absalom are looked on as expressions of God’s wrath and of retributive justice (see 2 Samuel 12:10-18 ). Whatever the contemporary reasons may have been for regarding his public act as sinful, and even the reckless Joah considered it an act of wanton folly, we find the same features of repentance and forgiveness, and the same inclusion of others in the suffering consequent on its commission. The prophet Gad comes to the king as the revealer of God’s wrath and the messenger of God’s pardon ( 2 Samuel 24:1-25 ). Into this narrative, however, another element is introduced, telling of the difficulty which was felt, even at this early stage of human history, as to the origin of sin. God is said by the early historian of David’s reign to have been the author of the king’s act, because ‘His anger was kindled against Israel’ ( 2 Samuel 24:1 ). It is difficult to avoid the conclusion that at one stage of Hebrew thought God was looked on as, in some respects at least, the author of evil (cf. Exodus 4:21 ; Exodus 7:3 ; Exodus 14:8 , Judges 9:23 , 1 Samuel 16:14 ; 1 Samuel 18:10 ; 1 Samuel 19:9 ). Nor ought we to be surprised at this, for the problem is one which was sure to present itself very early to the minds of thoughtful men; while the numerous instances where the commission of a sin seemed to have been made subservient by God to the exhibiting of His power and love afforded presumptive prima facie evidence that He Himself willed the act as the minister of His glory (see the history of Joseph with the writer’s comments thereon, Genesis 45:5 ; Genesis 50:20 , Psalms 105:17 ; cf. Job 1:6-12 ; Job 2:1-7 , Hosea 2:1-23 ). It is interesting to note the advance made in speculative thought with regard to this still unsolved, and perhaps insoluble, problem, between the time of the above-mentioned historian and that of the later Chronicler ( 1 Chronicles 21:1 ). Here the name of Satan or ‘Adversary’ is boldly inserted as the author of the sin, a fact which reminds us of the categorical denial of the Son of Sirach, ‘He hath not commanded any man to be ungodly; and he hath not given any man licence to sin’ ( Sir 15:20 ). That the origin of sin continued to be debated and speculated upon down to a very late period is evidenced by the vehement warning of St. James against imputing to God the temptation to evil ( James 1:13 ), and by the counter assertion that God is the Author of nothing but good ( James 1:17 ).
4. The Prophets . By far the most important stage in the history of the OT doctrine of sin is that which is marked by the teaching of the Prophets. The four practically contemporary prophets of the 8th cent. are Amos, Hosea, Micah, and Isaiah. The first named reveals a wide outlook on the world at large, and a recognition of the prevalence and power of sin in other nations than Israel. Damascus, Philistia, Tyre, Edom, Ammon, and Moab, as well as Judah and Israel, all come under the displeasure of the prophet Amos. Each had been guilty of cruelty and wrong to the people of Jehovah. The characteristic faults of these heathen peoples lust and tyranny of the strong over the weak had invaded Israel too. The love of money, with its attendant evils of injustice, and robbery of the poor by the wealthy, is inveighed against by both Amos and Hosea as deserving of the wrath of God (cf. Hosea 12:7 f., Amos 4:1 ; Amos 8:4 ff.). This degeneracy of the people of the Northern Kingdom during the reign of Jeroboam ii. was as much in evidence in the ranks of prophets and priests as among the other ruling classes, and to it, as the cause, is assigned the downfall which so speedily followed ( Amos 3:11 ; Deuteronomy 7:7 ; Amos 2:7 ; Amos 9:1 ff., Hosea 4:9 ; Hosea 9:7 f., Hosea 5:1 , Micah 3:5 ; Micah 3:11 etc.). Both Isaiah and Micah mourn over the same moral deciension ( Isaiah 5:8 ; Isaiah 1:18 f., Micah 2:2 etc.), and it may be said that it is owing to the preaching of these four prophets that the centre of gravity, as it were, of sin is changed, and the principles of universal justice and love, as the fundamental attributes of Jehovah’s character and rule, are established. It was the prophetic function to deepen the consciousness of sin by revealing a God of moral righteousness to a people whose peculiar relationship to Jehovah involved both immense privileges and grave responsibilities ( Amos 3:2 , Hosea 3:5 ff., Micah 3:1 ff. etc.). Terrible, however, as were the denunciations, and emphatic as were the declarations of the prophets against the vices of greed, oppression, and lust, they were no less clear in their call to repentance, and in promises of restoration and pardon ( Isaiah 1:18 f., Micah 7:18 , Hosea 6:1 , Amos 9:11 ff.). The story of Jonah of Gath-hepher is the revelation of a growing feeling that the righteous dominion of Jehovah was not, in the exercise of its moral influence, confined exclusively to Israel. The consciousness of sin and the power of repentance have now their place in the lives of nations outside the Abrahamic covenant.
Hitherto the prophetic teaching was largely confined to national sin and national repentance. It is not till the days of Jeremiah that the importance, in this respect, of the individual begins to manifest itself. The lament of Jeremiah, it is true, frequently expresses itself in terms of national infidelity (
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - sin-Offering
SIN-OFFERING . See Sacrifice and Offering, § 14 .
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - sin, Wilderness of
SIN, WILDERNESS OF (name probably derived from the moon-god Sin). A region on the route of the Hebrews from Egypt to Mt. Sinai. It is usually identified with the plain lying S. of the Ras Abu Zenimeh . Upon the view held in many quarters that Mt. Sinai must be located somewhere in the Negeb, the wilderness of Sin was on the more direct route from Egypt to Kadesh, near to if not identical with the desert of Zin ( Numbers 13:21 ; Numbers 20:1 ; Numbers 27:14 ; Numbers 33:36 ; Numbers 34:3 , Deuteronomy 32:51 , Joshua 15:1-3 ). Cf. Zin.
H. L. Willett.
Smith's Bible Dictionary - sin,
a city of Egypt, mentioned only by Ezekiel. (Ezekiel 30:15,16 ) The name is Hebrew, or at least Semitic, perhaps signifying clay . It is identified in the Vulgate with Pelusium, "the clayey or muddy" town. Its antiquity may perhaps be inferred from the mention of "the wilderness of Sin" in the journeys of the Israelites. ( Exodus 16:1 ; Numbers 33:11 ) Ezekiel speaks of Sin as "Sin the strongholds of Egypt." (Ezekiel 30:15 ) This place was held by Egypt from that time until the period of the Romans. Herodotus relates that Sennacherib advanced against Pelusium, and that near Pelusium Cambyses defeated Psammenitus. In like manner the decisive battle in which Ochus defeated the last native king, Nectanebes, was fought near this city.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Man of sin
A designation of Antichrist given in 2 Thessalonians 2:3-10 , usually regarded as descriptive of the Papal power; but "in whomsoever these distinctive features are found, whoever wields temporal and spiritual power in any degree similar to that in which the man of sin is here described as wielding it, he, be he pope or potentate, is beyond all doubt a distinct type of Antichrist."
Smith's Bible Dictionary - sin, Wilderness of,
a tract of the wilderness which the Israelites reached after leaving the encampment by the Red Sea. (Numbers 33:11,23 ) Their next halting-place, (Exodus 16:1 ; 17:1 ) was Rephidim, probably the Wady Feiran [1]; on which supposition it would follow that Sin must lie between that way and the coast of the Gulf of Suez, and of course west of Sinai. In the wilderness of Sin the manna was first gathered, and those who adopt the supposition that this was merely the natural product of the tarfa bush find from the abundance of that shrub in Wady es-Sheikh , southeast of Wady Ghurundel , a proof of local identity.
Smith's Bible Dictionary - sin Offering
The sin offering among the Jews was the sacrifice in which the ideas of propitiation and of atonement for sin were most distinctly marked. The ceremonial of the sin offering is described in Levi 4,6. The trespass offering is closely connected with the sin offering in Leviticus, but at the same time clearly distinguished from it, being in some cases offered with it as a distinct part of the same sacrifice; as, for example, in the cleansing of the leper. Levi 14. The distinction of ceremonial clearly indicates a difference in the idea of the two sacrifices. The nature of that difference is still a subject of great controversy. We find that the sin offerings were --
Regular . (a) For the whole people, at the New Moon, Passover, Pentecost, Feast of Trumpets and Feast of Tabernacles, ( Numbers 28:15-29 ; 38:1 ) ... besides the solemn offering of the two goats on the Great Day of Atonement. Levi 16 (B) For the priests and Levites at their consecration, (Exodus 29:10-14,36 ) besides the yearly sin offering (a, bullock) for the high priest on the Great Day of Atonement. (Leviticus 16:2 ) Special . For any sin of "ignorance" and the like recorded in Levi 4,5. It is seen that in the law most of the sins which are not purely ceremonial are called sins of "ignorance," see ( Hebrews 9:7 ) and in Numb 15:30 It is expressly said that while such sins call be atoned for by offerings, "the soul that doeth aught presumptuously " (Heb. with a high hand ) "shall be cut off from among his people." "His iniquity shall he upon him." Comp. ( Hebrews 10:20 ) But here are sufficient indications that the sins here called "of ignorance" are more strictly those of "negligence" or "frailty" repented of by the unpunished offender, as opposed to those of deliberate and unrepentant sin. It is clear that two classes of sacrifices, although distinct, touch closely upon each other. It is also evident that the sin offering was the only regular and general recognition of sin in the abstract and accordingly was for more solemn and symbolical in it's ceremonial; the trespass offering was confined to special cases, most of which related to the doing of some material damage, either to the holy things or to man. Josephus declares that the sin offering is presented by those "who fall into sin in ignorance." and the trespass offering by "one who has sinned and is conscious of his sin. But has no one to convict him thereof." Without attempting to decide so difficult and so controverted a question, we may draw the following conclusions. First, that the sin offering was for the more solemn and comprehensive of the two sacrifices. Secondly, that the sin offering looked more to the guilt of the sin done, irrespective of its consequences, while the trespass offering looked to the evil consequences of sin, either against the service of God or against man, and to the duty of atonement, as far as atonement was possible. Thirdly, that in the sin offering especially we find symbolized the acknowledgment of sinfulness as inherent in man, and of the need of expiation by sacrifice to renew the broken covenant between man and God. In considering this subject, it must he remembered that the sacrifices of the law had a temporal as well as a spiritual significance and effect. They restored sin offender to his place in the commonwealth of Israel; they were therefore an atonement to the King of Israel for the infringement of his low.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - sin-Offering
(Heb. hattath), the law of, is given in detail in Leviticus 4-6:13 ;; 9:7-11,22-24 ; 12:6-8 ; 15:2,14,25-30 ; 14:19,31 ; Numbers 6:10-14 . On the day of Atonement it was made with special solemnity (Leviticus 16:5,11,15 ). The blood was then carried into the holy of holies and sprinkled on the mercy-seat. Sin-offerings were also presented at the five annual festivals (Numbers 2829,29 ), and on the occasion of the consecration of the priests (Exodus 29:10-14,36 ). As each individual, even the most private member of the congregation, as well as the congregation at large, and the high priest, was obliged, on being convicted by his conscience of any particular sin, to come with a sin-offering, we see thus impressively disclosed the need in which every sinner stands of the salvation of Christ, and the necessity of making application to it as often as the guilt of sin renews itself upon his conscience. This resort of faith to the perfect sacrifice of Christ is the one way that lies open for the sinner's attainment of pardon and restoration to peace. And then in the sacrifice itself there is the reality of that incomparable worth and preciousness which were so significantly represented in the sin-offering by the sacredness of its blood and the hallowed destination of its flesh. With reference to this the blood of Christ is called emphatically "the precious blood," and the blood that "cleanseth from all sin" (1 John 1:7 ).
Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words - sin
A — 1: ἁμαρτία (Strong's #266 — Noun Feminine — hamartia — ham-ar-tee'-ah ) is, lit., "a missing of the mark," but this etymological meaning is largely lost sight of in the NT. It is the most comprehensive term for moral obliquity. It is used of "sin" as (a) a principle or source of action, or an inward element producing acts, e.g., Romans 3:9 ; 5:12,13,20 ; 6:1,2 ; 7:7 (abstract for concrete); 7:8 (twice),9,11,13, "sin, that it might be shown to be sin," i.e., "sin became death to me, that it might be exposed in its heinous character:" in the clause, "sin might become exceeding sinful," i.e., through the holiness of the Law, the true nature of sin was designed to be manifested to the conscience;
(b) a governing principle or power, e.g., Romans 6:6 ; "(the body) of sin," here "sin" is spoken of as an organized power, acting through the members of the body, though the seat of "sin" is in the will (the body is the organic instrument); in the next clause, and in other passages, as follows, this governing principle is personified, e.g., Romans 5:21 ; 6:12,14,17 ; 7:11,14,17,20,23,25 ; 8:2 ; 1 Corinthians 15:56 ; Hebrews 3:13 ; 11:25 ; 12:4 ; James 1:15 (2nd part);
(c) a generic term (distinct from specific terms such as No. 2 yet sometimes inclusive of concrete wrong doing, e.g., John 8:21,34,46 ; 9:41 ; 15:22,24 ; 19:11 ); in Romans 8:3 , "God, sending His own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh," lit., "flesh of sin," the flesh stands for the body, the instrument of indwelling "sin" [1], and as an offering for sin," i.e., "a sin offering" (so the Sept. e.g., in Leviticus 4:32 ; 5:6-9 ), "condemned sin in the flesh," i.e., Christ, having taken human nature, "sin" apart (Hebrews 4:15 ), and having lived a sinless life, died under the condemnation and judgment due to our "sin;" for the generic sense see further, e.g., Hebrews 9:26 ; 10:6,8,18 ; 13:11 ; 1 John 1:7,8 ; 3:4 (1st part; in the 2nd part, "sin" is defined as "lawlessness," RV),8,9; in these verses the AV use of the verb to commit is misleading; not the committal of an act is in view, but a continous course of "sin," as indicated by the RV, "doeth." The Apostle's use of the present tense of poieo, "to do," virtually expresses the meaning of prasso, "to practice," which John does not use (it is not infrequent in this sense in Paul's Epp., e.g., Romans 1:32 , RV; 2:1; Galatians 5:21 ; Philippians 4:9 ); 1 Peter 4:1 (singular in the best texts), lit., "has been made to cease from sin," i.e., as a result of suffering in the flesh, the mortifying of our members, and of obedience to a Savior who suffered in flesh. Such no longer lives in the flesh, "to the lusts of men, but to the will of God;" sometimes the word is used as virtually equivalent to a condition of "sin," e.g., John 1:29 , "the sin (not sins) of the world;" 1 Corinthians 15:17 ; or a course of "sin," characterized by continuous acts, e.g., 1 Thessalonians 2:16 ; in 1 John 5:16 (2nd part) the RV marg., is probably to be preferred, "there is sin unto death," not a special act of "sin," but the state or condition producing acts; in 1 John 5:17 , "all unrighteousness is sin" is not a definition of "sin" (as in 1 John 3:4 ), it gives a specification of the term in its generic sense;
(d) a sinful deed, an act of "sin," e.g., Matthew 12:31 ; Acts 7:60 ; James 1:15 (1st part); 2:9; 4:17; 5:15,20; 1 John 5:16 (1st part).
Notes: (1) Christ is predicated as having been without "sin" in every respect, e.g., (a), (b), (c) above, 2 Corinthians 5:21 (1st part); 1 John 3:5 ; John 14:30 ; (d) John 8:46 ; Hebrews 4:15 ; 1 Peter 2:22 . (2) In Hebrews 9:28 (2nd part) the reference is to a "sin" offering. (3) In 2 Corinthians 5:21 , "Him ... He made to be sin" indicates that God dealt with Him as He must deal with "sin," and that Christ fulfilled what was typified in the guilt offering. (4) For the phrase "man of sin" in 2 Thessalonians 2:3 , see INIQUITY , No. 1.
A — 2: ἁμάρτημα (Strong's #265 — Noun Neuter — hamartema — ham-ar'-tay-mah ) akin to No. 1, denotes "an act of disobedience to Divine law" [2]; plural in Mark 3:28 ; Romans 3:25 ; 2 Peter 1:9 , in some texts; sing. in Mark 3:29 (some mss. have krisis, AV, "damnation"); 1 Corinthians 6:18 .
Notes: (1) For paraptoma, rendered "sins" in the AV in Ephesians 1:7 ; 2:5 ; Colossians 2:13 (RV, "trespass"), see TRESPASS. In James 5:16 , the best texts have No. 1 (RV, "sins"). (2) For synonymous terms see DISOBEDIENCE , ERROR , FAULT , INIQUITY , TRANSGRESSION , UNGODLINESS.
B — 1: ἀναμάρτητος (Strong's #361 — Adjective — anamartetos — an-am-ar'-tay-tos ) "without sin" (a, negative, n, euphonic, and C, No. 1), is found in John 8:7 . In the Sept., Deuteronomy 29:19 .
C — 1: ἁμαρτάνω (Strong's #264 — Verb — hamartano — ham-ar-tan'-o ) lit., "to miss the mark," is used in the NT (a) of "sinning" against God, (1) by angels, 2 Peter 2:4 ; (2) by man, Matthew 27:4 ; Luke 15:18,21 (heaven standing, by metonymy, for God); John 5:14 ; 8:11 ; 9:2,3 ; Romans 2:12 (twice); 3:23; 5:12,14,16; 6:15; 1 Corinthians 7:28 (twice),36; 15:34; Ephesians 4:26 ; 1 Timothy 5:20 ; Titus 3:11 ; Hebrews 3:17 ; 10:26 ; 1 John 1:10 ; in 1 John 2:1 (twice), the aorist tense in each place, referring to an act of "sin;" on the contrary, in 1 John 3:6 (twice),8,9, the present tense indicates, not the committal of an act, but the continuous practice of "sin" [3]; in 1 John 5:16 (twice) the present tense indicates the condition resulting from an act, "unto death" signifying "tending towards death;" (b) against Christ, 1 Corinthians 8:12 ; (c) against man, (1) a brother, Matthew 18:15 , RV, "sin" (AV, "tresspass"); Matthew 18:21 ; Luke 17:3,4 , RV, "sin" (AV, "trespass"); 1 Corinthians 8:12 ; (2) in Luke 15:18,21 , against the father by the Prodigal Son, "in thy sight" being suggestive of befitting reverence; (d) against Jewish law, the Temple, and Caesar, Acts 25:8 , RV, "sinned" (AV, "offended"); (e) against one's own body, by fornication, 1 Corinthians 6:18 ; (f) against earthly masters by servants, 1 Peter 2:20 , RV, "(when) ye sin (and are buffeted for it)," AV, "(when ye be buffeted) for your faults," lit., "having sinned."
C — 2: προαμαρτάνω (Strong's #4258 — Verb — proamartano — pro-am-ar-tan'-o ) "to sin previously" (pro, "before," and No. 1), occurs in 2 Corinthians 12:21 ; 13:2 , RV in each place, "have sinned heretofore" (so AV in the 2nd; in the 1st, "have sinned already").
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - Age: no Care For sin
According to AEsop, an old woman found an empty jar which had lately been full of prime old wine, and which still retained the fragrant smell of its former contents. She greedily placed it several times to her nose, and drawing it backwards and forwards said, 'Oh, most delicious! How nice must the wine itself have been, when it leaves behind in the very vessel which contained it so sweet a perfume!'
Men often hug their vices when their power to enjoy them is gone. The memories of reveling and wantonness appear to be sweet to the ungodly in their old age. They sniff the empty bottles of their follies, and only wish they could again be drunken with them. Age cures not the evil heart, but exhibits in a ridiculous but deeply painful light the indelible perversity of human nature.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - sin
Is "any want of conformity unto or transgression of the law of God" (1 John 3:4 ; Romans 4:15 ), in the inward state and habit of the soul, as well as in the outward conduct of the life, whether by omission or commission (Romans 6:12-17 ; 7:5-24 ). It is "not a mere violation of the law of our constitution, nor of the system of things, but an offence against a personal lawgiver and moral governor who vindicates his law with penalties. The soul that sins is always conscious that his sin is (1) intrinsically vile and polluting, and (2) that it justly deserves punishment, and calls down the righteous wrath of God. Hence sin carries with it two inalienable characters, (1) ill-desert, guilt (reatus); and (2) pollution (macula).", Hodge's Outlines. The moral character of a man's actions is determined by the moral state of his heart. The disposition to sin, or the habit of the soul that leads to the sinful act, is itself also sin (Romans 6:12-17 ; Galatians 5:17 ; James 1:14,15 ).
The origin of sin is a mystery, and must for ever remain such to us. It is plain that for some reason God has permitted sin to enter this world, and that is all we know. His permitting it, however, in no way makes God the author of sin.
Adam's sin (Genesis 3:1-6 ) consisted in his yielding to the assaults of temptation and eating the forbidden fruit. It involved in it, (1) the sin of unbelief, virtually making God a liar; and (2) the guilt of disobedience to a positive command. By this sin he became an apostate from God, a rebel in arms against his Creator. He lost the favour of God and communion with him; his whole nature became depraved, and he incurred the penalty involved in the covenant of works.
Original sin. "Our first parents being the root of all mankind, the guilt of their sin was imputed, and the same death in sin and corrupted nature were conveyed to all their posterity, descending from them by ordinary generation." Adam was constituted by God the federal head and representative of all his posterity, as he was also their natural head, and therefore when he fell they fell with him (Romans 5:12-21 ; 1 Corinthians 15:22-45 ). His probation was their probation, and his fall their fall. Because of Adam's first sin all his posterity came into the world in a state of sin and condemnation, i.e., (1) a state of moral corruption, and (2) of guilt, as having judicially imputed to them the guilt of Adam's first sin.
"Original sin" is frequently and properly used to denote only the moral corruption of their whole nature inherited by all men from Adam. This inherited moral corruption consists in, (1) the loss of original righteousness; and (2) the presence of a constant proneness to evil, which is the root and origin of all actual sin. It is called "sin" (Romans 6:12,14,17 ; 7:5-17 ), the "flesh" (Galatians 5:17,24 ), "lust" (James 1:14,15 ), the "body of sin" (Romans 6:6 ), "ignorance," "blindness of heart," "alienation from the life of God" (Ephesians 4:18,19 ). It influences and depraves the whole man, and its tendency is still downward to deeper and deeper corruption, there remaining no recuperative element in the soul. It is a total depravity, and it is also universally inherited by all the natural descendants of Adam (Romans 3:10-23 ; 5:12-21 ; 8:7 ). Pelagians deny original sin, and regard man as by nature morally and spiritually well; semi-Pelagians regard him as morally sick; Augustinians, or, as they are also called, Calvinists, regard man as described above, spiritually dead (Ephesians 2:1 ; 1 John 3:14 ).
The doctrine of original sin is proved,
From the fact of the universal sinfulness of men. "There is no man that sinneth not" (1 Kings 8:46 ; Isaiah 53:6 ; Psalm 130:3 ; Romans 3:19,22,23 ; Galatians 3:22 ).
From the total depravity of man. All men are declared to be destitute of any principle of spiritual life; man's apostasy from God is total and complete (Job 15:14-16 ; Genesis 6:5,6 ).
From its early manifestation (Psalm 58:3 ; Proverbs 22:15 ).
It is proved also from the necessity, absolutely and universally, of regeneration (John 3:3 ; 2 co 5:17 ).
From the universality of death (Romans 5:12-20 ). Various kinds of sin are mentioned,
"Presumptuous sins," or as literally rendered, "sins with an uplifted hand", i.e., defiant acts of sin, in contrast with "errors" or "inadvertencies" (Psalm 19:13 ).
"Secret", i.e., hidden sins (19:12); sins which escape the notice of the soul.
"Sin against the Holy Ghost" (q.v.), or a "sin unto death" (Matthew 12:31,32 ; 1 John 5:16 ), which amounts to a wilful rejection of grace. Sin, a city in Egypt, called by the Greeks Pelusium, which means, as does also the Hebrew name, "clayey" or "muddy," so called from the abundance of clay found there. It is called by Ezekel (Ezekiel 30:15 ) "the strength of Egypt, "thus denoting its importance as a fortified city. It has been identified with the modern Tineh, "a miry place," where its ruins are to be found. Of its boasted magnificence only four red granite columns remain, and some few fragments of others.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - sin, Wilderness of
Lying between Elim and sinai (Exodus 16:1 ; Compare Numbers 33:11,12 ). This was probably the narrow plain of el-Markha, which stretches along the eastern shore of the Red Sea for several miles toward the promontory of Ras Mohammed, the southern extremity of the Sinitic Peninsula. While the Israelites rested here for some days they began to murmur on account of the want of nourishment, as they had by this time consumed all the corn they had brought with them out of Egypt. God heard their murmurings, and gave them "manna" and then quails in abundance.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Forgiveness of sin
One of the constituent parts of justification. In pardoning sin, God absolves the sinner from the condemnation of the law, and that on account of the work of Christ, i.e., he removes the guilt of sin, or the sinner's actual liability to eternal wrath on account of it. All sins are forgiven freely (Acts 5:31 ; 13:38 ; 1 John 1:6-9 ). The sinner is by this act of grace for ever freed from the guilt and penalty of his sins. This is the peculiar prerogative of God (Psalm 130:4 ; Mark 2:5 ). It is offered to all in the gospel. (See JUSTIFICATION .)
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - sin
The Bible refers to sin by a variety of Hebrew and Greek words. This is partly because sin may appear in many forms, from deliberate wrongdoing and moral evil to accidental failure through weakness, laziness or ignorance (Exodus 32:30; Proverbs 28:13; Matthew 5:22; Matthew 5:28; Romans 1:29-32; James 4:17). But the common characteristic of all sin is that it is against God (Psalms 51:4; Romans 8:7). It is the breaking of God’s law, that law being the expression of the perfection that God’s absolute holiness demands (Isaiah 1:2; 1 John 3:4). It is the ‘missing of the mark’, that ‘mark’ being the perfect standard of the divine will (John 3:3-87; Romans 3:23). It is unbelief, for it rejects the truth God has revealed (Deuteronomy 9:23; Psalms 78:21-22; John 3:18-19; John 8:24; John 16:9). It is ungodliness, and it makes a person guilty before God (Psalms 1:5-6; Romans 1:18; James 2:10).
Origin of sin
From the activity of Satan in the Garden of Eden, it is clear that sin was present in the universe before Adam and Eve sinned. But the Bible does not record how evil originated. What it records is how evil entered the human race (see EVIL).
Because human beings were made in the image of God, the highest part of their nature can be satisfied only by God. They cannot be independent of God, just as the image of the moon on the water cannot exist independently of the moon (Genesis 1:26-28; see HUMANITY, HUMANKIND). Therefore, when God gave the created world to them, he placed a limit; for complete independence would not be consistent with their status as being in God’s image (Genesis 2:15-17).
But the human beings God created went beyond the limit he set, and so they fell into sin. Because of their ability to know God, they were tempted to put themselves in the place of God. They wanted to rule their lives independently of him and be the final judge of what was good and what was evil (Genesis 3:1-6). Pride was at the centre of human sin (Romans 1:21-23; 1 John 2:16; cf. Isaiah 10:15; Isaiah 14:13-14; Obadiah 1:3 a; see PRIDE).
Sin entered human life because people doubted God, then ceased to trust him completely, and finally were drawn away by the desire to be their own master (James 1:14; cf. Ezekiel 28:2; Galatians 5:17-213; John 16:9). Human sin originated in the human heart; the act of disobedience was the natural outcome (Proverbs 4:23; Jeremiah 17:9; Mark 7:21-23).
Above all, sin was against God – the rejection of his authority, wisdom and love. It was rebellion against God’s revealed will (Genesis 3:17; Romans 1:25; 1 John 3:4). And the more clearly God’s will was revealed, the more clearly it showed human sinfulness (Romans 3:20; Romans 5:20; cf. John 15:22-24).
Results of sin
As a result of their sin, human beings have fallen under the judgment of God. They have come into a state of conflict with the natural world (Genesis 3:17-19; Matthew 24:39), with their fellow human beings (Genesis 3:12-13; 1 John 3:12), with their inner selves (Genesis 3:7; Genesis 3:11-13; Romans 7:15; Romans 7:19) and with God (Genesis 3:8-10; Genesis 3:22-24; Romans 3:10-18). The penalty they have brought upon themselves is death (Genesis 2:17; Genesis 3:19; Genesis 3:22-24; Romans 6:23). This involves not only physical death but also spiritual death. It means separation from God, who is the source of spiritual life (John 3:3; John 3:7; Romans 6:16; Romans 7:5; Romans 7:13; 1 Corinthians 15:56; Ephesians 2:1-5; see DEATH).
Ever since Adam’s sin, the human story is one of people running from God, loving themselves instead of God, and doing their will instead of God’s (Romans 1:19-23). The more they reject God, the more they confirm their own stubbornness and hardness of heart (Matthew 11:20-24; Matthew 13:12-13; Romans 1:28-32; Ephesians 4:18). Sin has placed them in the hopeless position of being separated from God and unable to bring themselves back to God (Isaiah 59:2; Romans 3:19-20; Galatians 3:10). God, however, has not left sinners in this helpless condition, but through the one fully obedient human being, Jesus Christ, has reversed the effects of Adam’s sin (Romans 5:6; Romans 5:8; Romans 5:15; Romans 5:18).
All sinned in Adam (‘Original sin’)
In Romans 5:12-21 the whole human race is viewed as having existed originally in Adam, and therefore as having sinned originally in Adam (Romans 5:12; cf. Acts 17:26). Adam is humankind; but because of his sin he is humankind separated from God and under his condemnation.
Because of Adam’s sin (his ‘one act of disobedience’) the penalty of sin, death, passes on to all people; but because of Christ’s death on the cross (his ‘one act of obedience’) the free gift of God, life, is available to all people. Adam, by his sin, brings condemnation; Christ, by his death, brings justification (Romans 5:17-20; Romans 6:23; 1 Corinthians 6:9-11). If ‘condemn’ means ‘declare guilty’, ‘justify’ means ‘declare righteous’; and this is what God, in his immeasurable grace, has done for sinners who turn in faith to Jesus Christ (Romans 5:16; Romans 8:33; see JUSTIFICATION).
Just as Adam is the representative head of humankind as sinful and separated from God, so Jesus Christ is the representative head of humankind as declared righteous and brought back to God. All who die, die because of their union with Adam; all who are made alive, are made alive because of their union with Christ (Romans 5:16; 1 Corinthians 15:22). Christ bears sin’s penalty, but more than that he brings repentant sinners into a right relationship with a just and holy God (Romans 4:24-25; Romans 5:8; 2 Corinthians 5:21; Galatians 3:10-13; Philippians 3:9).
Human nature is corrupt (‘Total depravity’)
In addition to being sinners because of their union with Adam, people are sinners because of what they themselves do. They are born with a sinful nature inherited from Adam, and the fruits of this sinful nature are sinful thoughts and actions (Psalms 51:5; John 3:6; Ephesians 4:17-18).
People do not need to be taught to do wrong; they do it naturally, from birth. Sinful words and deeds are only the outward signs of a much deeper evil – a sinful heart, mind and will (Proverbs 4:23; Jeremiah 17:9; Mark 7:21-23; Galatians 5:19-21; Ephesians 2:3). Every part of a person is affected by this sinful nature. The corruption is total (Genesis 6:5; Genesis 8:21; Isaiah 64:6; Romans 3:13-18; Romans 7:18; Romans 7:21; Romans 7:23) and it affects all people (Romans 3:9-12; Romans 3:23; 1 John 1:8; 1 John 1:10).
Total depravity means not that the whole of humanity is equally sinful, but that the whole of each person’s nature is affected by sin. All people are sinners, but not all show their sinful condition equally. The strong influences of conscience, will-power, civil laws and social customs may stop people from doing all that their hearts are capable of, and may even cause them to do good (Luke 6:33; Luke 11:13; Romans 2:14-15; Romans 13:3). But in spite of the good that people may do, human nature is still directed by sin. It has a natural tendency to rebel against God’s law (Romans 7:11-13; Romans 8:7-8; 1635336367_53; Colossians 2:23;). (See also FLESH.)
A hopeless position apart from God
Since human nature is in such a sinful condition, people are unable to make themselves into something that is pleasing to God (Isaiah 64:6; Romans 8:7-8). The disease of sin has affected all that they are (their nature) and all that they do (their deeds). Every person is a sinner by nature and a sinner in practice (Psalms 130:3; Romans 3:23; 1 John 1:8; 1 John 1:10).
The position of sinners before God is hopeless. Their sin has cut them off from God, and there is no way he can bring themselves back to God (Isaiah 59:2; Habakkuk 1:13; Colossians 1:21). They are slaves to sin and cannot free themselves (John 8:34; Romans 7:21-23). They are under God’s condemnation, and have no way of saving themselves (Romans 3:19-20). They are the subjects of the wrath of God and cannot avoid it (Romans 1:18). (See also JUDGMENT; PROPITIATION.)
This complete hopelessness may be summarized under the word ‘dead’. People are dead in their sin and unable to make themselves alive. But God in his grace gives them new life, so that they can be spiritually ‘born again’ (1635336367_21; Ephesians 2:1; see REGENERATION). This is entirely the work of God. It is made possible through the death of Jesus Christ, and is effectual in the lives of all those who in faith turn from their sin to God (John 1:13; John 1:29; John 6:44-45; Acts 3:19; Romans 3:24-25; Ephesians 2:8-9). (See also ATONEMENT; RECONCILIATION; REDEMPTION.)
Having been forgiven their sin and freed from its power, believers then show it to be true by the way they live (Romans 6:1; Romans 6:14; Romans 6:18; Galatians 5:1). Because of the continued presence of the old sinful nature (the flesh) they will not be sinless, but neither will they sin habitually (Romans 6:6-13). They can expect victory over sin, and even when they fail they can be assured that genuine confession brings God’s gracious forgiveness (Matthew 6:12-15; 1 John 1:6-10; 1 John 2:1-2; 1 John 3:10). (See also CONFESSION; FORGIVENESS; SANCTIFICATION.)
Morrish Bible Dictionary - sin, Wilderness of
The district lying between the Red Sea and Sinai, in some part of which the Israelites encamped. Exodus 16:1 ; Exodus 17:1 ; Numbers 33:11,12 .
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - Fear of sin
The old naturalist, Ulysses Androvaldus, tells us that a dove is so afraid of a hawk, that she will be frightened at the sight of one of its feathers. Whether it be so or not, I cannot tell; but this I know, that when a man has had a thorough shaking over the jaws of hell, he will be so afraid of sin, that even one of its feathers: any one sin: will alarm and send a thrill of fear through his soul. This is a part of the way by which the Lord turns us when we are turned indeed.
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - sin
The transgression of the law, or want of conformity to the will of God, 1 John 3:4 .
1. Original sin is that whereby our whole nature is corrupted, and rendered contrary to the law of God; or, according to the 9th article of the church of England, "It is that whereby man is very far gone from original righteousness, and is, of his own nature, inclined to evil." This is sometimes called indwelling sin, Romans 7:1-25 : The imputation of the sin of Adam to his posterity is also what divines generally call, with some latitude of expression, original sin.
2. Actual sin is a direct violation of God's law, and generally applied to those who are capable of committing moral evil; as opposed to idiots, or children, who have not the right use of their powers.
3. Sins of omission consist in the leaving those things undone which ought to be done.
4. Sins of commission are those which are committed against affirmative precepts, or doing what should not be done.
5. Sins of infirmity are those which arise from the infirmity of the flesh, ignorance, surprise, snares of the world, &c.
See INFIRMITY.
6. Secret sins are those committed in secret, or those which we, through blindness or prejudice, do not see the evil of, Psalms 19:12 .
7. Presumptuous sins are those which are done boldly, and against light and conviction.
See PRESUMPTION.
8. Unpardonable sin is the denial of the truths of the Gospel; with an open and malicious rejection of it. The reason why this sin is never forgiven, is not because of any want of sufficiency in the blood of Christ, nor in the pardoning mercy of God, but because such as commit it never repent of it, but continue obstinate and malignant until death. The corruption of human nature is,
1. Universal as to the subjects of it. Rom.iii.23. Isaiah 53:6 .
2. General, as to all the powers of man, Isaiah 1:6 .
3. Awful, filling the mind with constant rebellion against God and his law.
4. Hateful to God, Job 15:16 ; and,
5. Punishable by him, 1 Samuel 2:9-10 . Romans 2:9 . Why the Almighty permitted it, when his power could have prevented it, and how it is conveyed from parents to their children, form some of those deep things of God, of which we can know but little in the present state; only this we are assured of, that he is a God of truth, and that whatever he does, or permits, will ultimately tend to promote his glory. While we contemplate, therefore, the nature, the evil, the guilt, the consequence of sin, it is our happiness to reflect, that he who permitted it hath provided a remedy for it; and that he "so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth on him should not perish, but have everlasting life."
See ATONEMENT, REDEMPTION; and Edwards, Wesley, and Taylor, on Original Sin; Gill's Body of Div. article Sin; King's and Jenyns's Origin of Evil; Burroughs' Exceeding Sinfulness of Sin; Dr. Owen on Indwelling Sin; Dr. Wright's Deceitfulness of Sin; Fletcher's appeal to Matter of Fact; Williams's Answer to Belsham; Watts's Ruin and Recovery; Howe's Living Temple, p. 2. 100: 4; Dr. Smith's Sermon on the Permission of Evil.
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - Conviction: of sin
There is something to be learned from the conduct of the Papists to our sires. If any poor wretch recanted and so escaped the fire, they were accustomed to make him carry a fagot at the next burning, as if to let him see what he had escaped, and make him confess what he had deserved. Depend upon it, conviction of sin is much like this carrying of the fagot. Well do I remember when I felt the sentence of death within me, and trembled lest it should be executed; my conscience was a minor hell, a fagot of the pile of Tophet. But, blessed be God, we are thus judged and sentenced in ourselves that we may not be condemned with the world. We bear the fagot that we may not be burned with it
Morrish Bible Dictionary - sin, Original
This term is often used by theologians, but they are not agreed as to its signification. It is not found in scripture. Man has derived an evil nature from Adam, but his sins are his own. Death passed upon all men because of Adam's sin, but all have sinned. Romans 5:12 .
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - sin (2)
Viewed as chatha ', "coming short of our true end," the glory of God (Romans 3:23), literally, "missing the mark"; Greek hamartanoo . 'awen , "vanity," "nothingness"; after all the scheming and labour bestowed on sin nothing comes of it. "Clouds without water" (Judges 1:12; Proverbs 22:8; Jeremiah 2:5; Romans 8:20). Ρesha' "rebellion", namely, against God as our rightful king. Rasha' "wickedness," related to rash "restlessness"; out of God all must be unrest (Isaiah 57:20-21); "wandering stars" (Judges 1:13). Μaal , "shuffling violation of duty," "prevarication" (1 Chronicles 10:13). 'aashaam , "guilt," incurring punishment and needing atonement, Ra , "ill," "ruin," the same word for "badness" and "calamity" literally, breaking in pieces. Αwal , "evil," "perversity."
Αmal , "travail"; sin is weary work (Habakkuk 2:13). Αvah , "crookedness," "wrong," a distortion of our nature, disturbing our moral balance. Shagah , "error." abar , "transgression through anger"; "sin is the transgression of the law," i.e. God's will (1 John 3:4). Sin is a degeneracy from original good, not an original existence, creation, or generation; not by the Creator's action, but by the creature's defection (Ecclesiastes 7:29). As God is love, holiness is resemblance to Him, love to Him and His creatures, and conformity to His will. Selfishness is the root of sin, it sets up self and self will instead of God and God's will. The origination of man's sin was not of himself, but from Satan's deceit; otherwise man's sin would be devilish and ineradicable. But as it is we may be delivered. This is the foundation of our redemption by Christ. (See REDEMPTION; SAVIOUR; ATONEMENT.)
Original sin is as an hereditary disease, descending from the first transgressor downward (Psalms 51:5). National sins are punished in this world, as nations have no life beyond the grave (Proverbs 14:34). The punishment of the individual's sins are remedial, disciplinary, and deterrent in this world; and judicially retributive in the world to come. (On eternal punishment, see HELL.) The Greek aionios represents the Hebrew olam and ad ; olam , "hidden", "unlimited duration"; ad , applied to God's "eternity" and "the future duration" of the good and destruction of the wicked (Psalms 9:5; Psalms 83:17; Psalms 92:7). The objections are:
1. That, the length of punishment is out of all proportion with the time of sin. But the duration of sin is no criterion of the duration of punishment: a fire burns in a few minutes records thereby lost for ever; a murder committed in a minute entails cutting off from life for ever; one act of rebellion entails perpetual banishment from the king.
2. That the sinner's eternal punishment would be Satan's eternal triumph. But Satan has had his triumph in bringing sin and death into the world; his sharing the sinner's eternal punishment will be the reverse of a triumph; the abiding punishment of the lost will be a standing witness of God's holy hatred of sin, and a preservative against any future rebellion.
3. That the eternity of punishment involves the eternity of sin. But this, if true, would be no more inconsistent with God's character than His permission of it for a time; but probably, as the saved will be delivered from the possibility of sinning by being raised above the sphere of evil, so the lost will be incapable of sinning any more in the sense of a moral or immoral choice by sinking below the sphere of good.
4. That eternal vengeance is inconsistent with God's gospel revelation of Himself as love. But the New Testament abounds in statements of judicial vengeance being exercised by God (Romans 12:19; Hebrews 10:30; 1 Thessalonians 4:6; 2 Thessalonians 1:8).
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - sin: Punishment of
What a diabolical invention was the 'Virgin's kiss,' once used by the fathers of the Inquisition! The victim was pushed forward to kiss the image, when, lo, its arms enclosed him in a deadly embrace, piercing his body with a hundred hidden knives. The tempting pleasures of sin offer to the unwary just such a virgin's kiss. The sinful joys of the flesh lead, even in this world, to results most terrible, while in the world to come the daggers of remorse and despair will cut and wound beyond all remedy.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Man of sin
MAN OF SIN (or ‘ lawlessness ’). Probably the equivalent in 2 Thessalonians 2:3-10 of Antichrist (wh. see). According to the Pauline view, the Parousia would be preceded by an apostasy of believers and the appearance of the ‘man of lawlessness,’ ‘who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God or that is worshipped; so that he as God sitteth in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God’ ( 2 Thessalonians 2:3 f.). The appearance of this evil one and his oppression of the believers were prevented by some force or person. In course of time, however, this restraint was to be removed. The wicked one would exercise his power until the Christ should come to destroy him ( 2 Thessalonians 2:6-8 ).
The precise references of this statement are beyond final discovery. It is, however, commonly believed that the reference is to some historical person, possibly the god-emperor of Rome. Such a reference is, however, very difficult if 2 Thess. was written by St. Paul, for at the time of its composition the Roman State had not become a persecutor. The ‘one who restrains’ is also difficult to identify if the ‘man of lawlessness’ be the Roman emperor. For that reason it may be best to refer the ‘man of lawlessness’ to the Jewish people or their expected Messiah, and ‘he that restraineth’ to the Roman power. This interpretation is supported by the fact that in his letters to the Thessalonians, St. Paul regards the Jews as persecutors, while throughout Acts the Roman State is presented as a protector of the Christians. This identification, however, does not satisfactorily explain the reference to ‘sitting in the temple.’ It is, therefore, probably better not to attempt a precise historical interpretation of either the ‘man of lawlessness’ or ‘him that restraineth,’ but to regard the former as a reference to the expected Antichrist, and the latter to some unidentified personal influence that led to the postponement of his appearance.
Shailer Mathews.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Unpardonable sin, the
Setting one's mind against the Holy Spirit and crediting Satan with what is obviously God's work. To understand the unpardonable sin referred to in Matthew 12:31-32 , is to understand what it is not .
It is not: murder, lying, stealing, suicide, adultery, taking the Lord's name in vain, a sin committed in ignorance, a sin that a Christian can commit, or a sin that a person may feel he or she has committed.
It is: to blaspheme against the Holy Spirit. To blaspheme means to speak an insult against someone so as to defame the person's reputation and character. The unpardonable sin is a persistent and deliberate sin against light, maintained in the face of the positive work of the Holy Spirit. This can happen to people today. Jesus was not talking about a sin of His day only; it can happen anytime. It happens when a person sees a work that is without question God's work and not human work, but says it is Satan's work!
What is the Holy Spirit's work? To point one to Jesus Christ as Savior and Lord. The unpardonable sin is committed today when one sets mind and will and spirit against the Holy Spirit. This is telling the Spirit that He is trying to do something evil in the person's life by pointing one to Jesus. When do people reach that point? No one knows for sure, but each time people reject the movement of the Holy Spirit and Jesus' claim upon their lives, that sense of urgency and conviction gets weaker until, finally, it is too late.
Two points occur in a person's life when salvation may not be possible. Salvation cannot come before the Holy Spirit convicts a person; and salvation cannot come after the person no longer feels conviction, because rejection has hardened the heart. That is why the invitation to trust Jesus Christ is always now . See Blasphemy ; Devil ; Holy Spirit ; Sin .
Jim Henry
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Eternal sin
See Blasphemy Against the Holy Spirit
CARM Theological Dictionary - sin
Sin is anything that is contrary to the law or will of God. For example: if you lie, you have sinned. Why? Because God has said not to lie (Exodus 20:16). If you do what God has forbidden, then you have sinned. In addition, if you do not do what God has commanded, you sin (James 4:17). Either way, the result is eternal separation from God (Isaiah 59:2). Sin is lawlessness (1 John 1:3) and unrighteousness (1 John 5:17). Sin leads to bondage (Romans 6:14-20) and death (Romans 6:23).
Paul, in the book of Romans, discusses sin. He shows that everyone, both Jew and Greek, is under sin (Romans 3:9). He shows that sin is not simply something that is done, but a condition of the heart (Romans 3:10-12). In Ephesians Paul says that we are "by nature children of wrath" (Ephesians 2:3). Yet, "while we were still helpless, at the right time Christ died for the ungodly" (Romans 5:6).
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - sin: Aroused by the Law
A contended citizen of Milan, who had never passed beyond its walls during the course of sixty years, being ordered by the governor not to stir beyond its gates, became immediately miserable, and felt so powerful an inclination to do that which he had so. long contentedly neglected, that on his application for a release from this restraint being refused, he became quite melancholy, and at last died of grief. How well this illustrates the apostle's confession that he shad not known lust, unless the law had said unto him, 'Thou shalt not covet!' 'Sin,' saith he, 'taking occasion by the commandment, wrought in me all manner of concupiscence.' Evil often sleeps in the soul, until the holy command of God is discovered, and then the enmity of the carnal mind rouses itself to oppose in every way the will of God. 'Without the law,' says Paul, 'sin was dead.' How vain to hope for salvation from the law, when through the perversity of sin, it provokes our evil hearts to rebellion, and works in us neither repentance nor love.
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - sin: Mans Readiness to Invent Excuse For
A Traveller in Venezuela illustrates the readiness of men to lay their faults on the locality, or on anything rather than themselves, by the story of a hard drinker who came home one night in such a condition that he could not for some time find his hammock. When this feat was accomplished, he tried in vain to get off his big riding-boots. After many fruitless efforts he lay down in his hammock, and soliloquized aloud, 'Well, I have travelled all the world over; I lived five years in Cuba, four in Jamaica, five in Brazil, I have travelled through Spain and Portugal, and been in Africa, but I never yet was in such an abominable country as this, where a man is obliged to go to bed with his boots on.'
Commonly enough are we told by evildoers in excuse for their sins that no man could do otherwise were he in their position, that there is no living at their trade honestly, that in such a street shops must be open on a Sunday, that their health required an excursion to Brighton on the Sabbath because their labours were so severe, that nobody could be religious in the house in which they were engaged, and so on, all to the same effect, and about as truthful as the soliloquy of the drunkard of Venezuela.
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - sin: May be Committed by Proxy
According to an old writer, no Capuchin among the Papists may take or touch silver. This metal is as great an anathema to them as the wedge of gold to Achan, at the offer whereof they start back as Moses from the serpent; yet the monk has a boy behind him who will receive and carry home any quantity, and neither complain of metal nor measure. Such are those who are great sticklers themselves for outward observance in religion, but at the same time compel their servants to sin on their account. They who sin by substitute shall be damned in person.
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - sin: Loathed by a Christian
An Arminian arguing with a Calvinist remarked, 'If I believed your doctrine, and were sure that I was a converted man, I would take my fill of sin.' 'How much sin,' replied the godly Calvinist, 'do you think it would take to fill a true Christian to his own satisfaction?' Here he hit the nail on the head. 'How can we that are dead to sin live any longer therein?' A truly converted man hates sin with all his heart, and even if he could sin without suffering for it, it would be misery enough to him to sin at all.
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - sin: Its Hardening Effects
Dr. Preston tells us of a professor who on one occasion was found drunk, and when much depressed on account of his folly, the devil said to him, by way of temptation, 'Do it again, do it again; for,' said he, 'the grief you feel about it now you will never feel any more if you commit the sin again.' Dr. Preston says that the man yielded to the temptation, and from that time he never did feel the slightest regret at his drunkenness, and lived and died a confirmed sot, though formerly he had been a very high professor.
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - sin: the Toil of it
Henry Ward Beecher says, 'There was a man in the town where I was born who used to steal all his firewood. He would get up on cold nights and go and take it from his neighbours' wood-piles. A computation was made, and it was ascertained that he spent more time and worked harder to get his fuel, than he would have been obliged to if he had earned it in an honest way, and at ordinary wages. And this thief is a type of thousands of men who work a great deal harder to please the devil than they would have to work to please God.'
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - sin: Insidious Nature of
In the gardens of Hampton Court you will see many trees entirely vanquished and well nigh strangled by huge coils of ivy, which are wound about them like the snakes around the unhappy Laocoon: there is no untwisting the folds, they are too giant-like, and fast fixed, and every hour the rootlets of the climber are sucking the life out of the unhappy tree. Yet there was a day when the ivy was a tiny aspirant, only asking a little aid in climbing; had it been denied then, the tree had never become its victim, but by degrees the humble weak-S ling grew in strength and arrogance, and at last it assumed the mastery, and the tall tree became the prey of the creeping, insinuating destroyer. The moral is too obvious. Sorrowfully do we remember many noble characters which have been ruined little and little by insinuating habits. Drink has been the ivy in many cases. Reader, see to it, lest some slowly advancing sin overpower you: men who are murdered by slow poisoning die just as surely as those who take arsenic.
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - sin (2)
One danger of secret sin is that a man cannot commit it without being by-and-by betrayed into a public sin. If a man commit one sin, it is like the melting of the lower glacier upon the Alps, the others must follow in time. As certainly as you heap one stone upon the cairn to-day, the next day you will cast another, until the heap reared stone by stone shall become a very pyramid. See the coral insect at work, you cannot decree where it shall stay its pile. It will not build its rock as high as you please; it will not stay until an island shall be created. Sin cannot be held in with bit and bridle, it must be mortified.
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - sin: Its Wide Consequences
Sages of old contended that no sin was ever committed whose consequences rested on the head of the sinner alone; that no man could do ill and his fellows not suffer. They illustrated it thus:: 'A vessel sailing from Joppa, carried a passenger, who, beneath his berth, cut a hole through the ship's side. When the men of the watch expostulated with him, 'What doest thou, O miserable man?' the offender calmly replied, 'What matters it to you? The hole I have made lies under my own berth.'
This ancient parable is worthy of the utmost consideration. No man perishes alone in his iniquity; no man can guess the full consequences of his transgressions.
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Original sin
See FALL, SIN.
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Permission of sin
See SIN.
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - sin: How to Overcome
Sin is to be overcome, not so much by maintaining a direct opposition to it, as by cultivating opposite principles. Would you kill the weeds in your garden, plant it with good seed: if the ground be well occupied there will be less need of the labour of the hoe. If a man wished to quench fire, he might fight it with his hands till he was burnt to death; the only way is to apply an opposite element.: Andrew Fuller.
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - sin: Power Over the Unregenerate
So long as a man is dead in trespasses and sin, there is no iniquity which may not get the mastery of him. Where the body is, thither will the vultures of hell be gathered together. The devil finding him dead, calls up his hosts of temptations and his bands of evils to feed on him. The great destroyer, who at other times is as a lion, often plays the part of a jackal, whose cry, when it finds its prey, is said to sound exactly like the words:
'Dead Hind, dead Hind! Where, where, where, where? Here, here, here, here!'
Nothing but the new life can secure a man from the worst fiends in the Pandemonium of vice, for they gather like a scattered pack to a feast when they hear their master cry: Dead sinner, dead sinner!
Where, where, where, where!Here, here, here, here!
Vices seldom come alone; where there is room for one devil, seven other spirits more wicked than himself will find a lodging. We may say of sins as Longfellow of birds of prey, in his song of Hiawatha
'Never stoops the soaring vulture On his quarry in the desert,
On the sick or wounded bison, But another vulture watching, From his high aerial look-out Sees the downward plunge and follows; And a third pursues the second, Coming from the invisible ether, First a speck, and then a vulture Till the air is dark with pinions.'
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - Self-Righteousness: Destroyed by Conviction of sin
The squirrel in his wire cage continually in motion but making no progress, reminds me of my own self-righteous efforts after salvation, but the little creature is never one half so wearied by his exertions as I was by mine. The poor chiffonier in Paris trying to earn a living by picking dirty rags out of the kennel, succeeds far better than I did in my attempts to obtain comfort by my own works. Dickens's cab-horse, which was only able to stand because it was never taken out of the shafts, was strength and beauty itself compared with my starveling hopes propped up with resolutions and regulations. Wretches condemned to the galleys in the days of the old French kings, whose only reward for incessant toils was the lash of the keeper, were in a more happy plight than I when under legal bondage. Slavery in mines where the sun never shines must be preferable to the miseries of a soul goaded by an awakened conscience to seek salvation by its own merits. Some of the martyrs were shut up in a dungeon called Little-ease; the counterpart of that prison- house I well remember. Iron chains are painful enough, but what is the pain when the iron enters into the soul! Tell us not of the writhings of the wounded and dying on the battlefield; some of us, when our heart was riddled by the artillery of the law, would have counted wounds and death a happy exchange. O blessed Saviour, how blissful was the hour when all this horrid midnight of the soul was changed into the day-dawn of pardoning love!
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - sin: One the Souls Ruin
There was but one crack in the lanthorn, and the wind has found it out and blown out the candle. How great a mischief one unguarded point of character may cause us! One spark blew up the magazine and shook the whole country for miles around. One leak sank the vessel and drowned all on board. One wound may kill the body; one sin destroy the soul.
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - sin
Those who give themselves up to the service of sin, enter the palace of pleasure by wide portals of marble, which conceal the low wicket behind which leads into the fields, where they are in a short time sent to feed swine.: James D. Burns.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Unpardonable sin
UNPARDONABLE SIN.—The expression is not a Scriptural one, but rests partly upon a saying of Jesus reported in different forms by all the Synoptists, and partly upon two analogous passages in Hebrews and one in 1 John. It is only with the saying in the Gospels that we are directly concerned, but the passages in the Epistles must be glanced at as bearing upon our interpretation of Christ’s words, and something must be said also as to the place of the subject in Christian experience.
1. In the Gospels.—It is the solemn declaration of Jesus that blasphemy against the Holy Spirit shall never be forgiven which forms our fundamental authority. In an examination of these words, several points have to be considered.
(1) The occasion of the utterance.—Both Mt. and Mk. connect the saying with calumnious charges of the scribes and Pharisees, based upon our Lord’s action in curing demoniacs (Matthew 12:22 ff., Mark 3:11; Mark 3:22 ff.). Lk. gives it a different setting (Luke 12:8 ff.; cf. Luke 11:14 ff.); but while it is possible that Jesus used the words on separate occasions, there can be little question that, if He spoke them only once, it is from Mt. and Mk. that we get the proper historical connexions. His work in delivering demoniacs from the power of evil spirits had deeply impressed the multitude, who, according to Mt. (Matthew 12:23), began to ask, ‘Is this the Son of David?’ But when the Pharisees heard it, they said, ‘This man doth not cast out devils but by Beelzebub, the prince of the devils’ (Matthew 12:24, Mark 3:22; cf. Luke 11:15). Jesus showed the absurdity of such a charge, considered from the point of view of mere reason and common sense (Matthew 12:25 ff., Mark 3:23 ff., Luke 11:17 ff.). And then, suddenly changing His tone as He passed from the logical weakness of His adversaries to lay His finger on their moral and spiritual fault, He uttered those memorable words in which He declared that while all other sins and blasphemies, even blasphemy against Himself, shall be forgiven, whosoever shall blaspheme against the Holy Spirit shall never be forgiven (Matthew 12:31-32, Mark 3:28-29; cf. Luke 12:10).
(2) The nature of the sin.—In seeking for this, the occasion of the utterance serves as a guide. A study of the context in Mt. and Mk. at once disposes of some of the views that have been entertained as to the nature of the sin against the Holy Spirit—all those, e.g., that are associated with the idea that only Christians can be guilty of it. Jesus was speaking to Pharisees, and it is by thinking, in the first place, of the Pharisees and their attitude to Him and His teaching that we get on the right line for arriving at the meaning of His words. He had cast out demons; and the Pharisees said that He did this by the help of Beelzebub. He had delivered men and women from unclean spirits (Mark 1:23 ff., Matthew 10:1, Luke 4:33 ff. and passim); and they said of Himself, ‘He hath an unclean spirit’ (Mark 3:30). Now, such language regarding Jesus strikes us, first of all, as blasphemy against the Son of Man Himself—and this it undoubtedly was. But this was not the aspect of the sin upon which Jesus fastened. On the contrary, He declared that all blasphemy against the Son of Man shall be forgiven. It was possible for men to insult Him personally, through want of thought or ignorance as to His real character. Of all such offenders He was ready to say, as He said at last of those who nailed Him to the cross or reviled Him hanging there, ‘Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do’ (Luke 23:34). But apart from all questions of His personal dignity, Jesus came revealing in His words and deeds the Divine spirit of holiness and love. The works He did testified to the manner of spirit He was of. But in the presence of the Divine goodness that shone from His beneficent activities, the Pharisees only gnashed their teeth and declared that the spirit of Jesus was the spirit of Satan. This was blasphemy, not against Jesus only, but against the Divine Spirit that was manifested in Him. And such blasphemy, we must remember, the Pharisees were guilty of, not once, but constantly. Jesus might have affirmed of them, as Stephen afterwards affirmed in the face of the Sanhedrin, ‘Ye do always resist the Holy Ghost’ (Acts 7:51). John the Baptist had come ‘in the way of righteousness’ (Matthew 21:32); and they said of him, ‘He hath a devil’ (Matthew 11:18, Luke 7:33). Jesus came in the way, not only of righteousness, but of love; and of this incarnation of the Divine grace they said again and again, ‘He hath a devil’ (Matthew 9:34, Matthew 12:24, Mark 3:22, Luke 11:15, John 7:20; John 8:48; John 8:52; John 10:20). They said this, moreover, not rashly or carelessly, but deliberately and malignantly; not because they were blind to the tokens of God’s presence with Jesus, but because they hated Him for having crossed them in their, paths of selfishness and pride, and revealed both to themselves and others the utter emptiness of their religious life. Their blasphemy thus was not the hasty utterance of a moment, but a vice of their indwelling thoughts and character (Matthew 12:25); not a single act, but a habitual attitude. The light that came into the world shone round about them; but they loved the darkness rather than the light, because their deeds were evil. And at last they came not only to prefer the darkness, but to hate the light so bitterly that nothing would serve them but to declare to others and try to persuade themselves that it came not from God, but from the devil.
(3) Its unpardonable character.—The unpardonableness of such blasphemy as this, Jesus affirms in language that can hardly be mistaken. In Lk. once (Luke 12:10) and in Mt. twice (Matthew 12:31-32) He declares, ‘It shall not be forgiven’—adding in Mt. (Matthew 12:32) the ominous words, ‘neither in this age (αἰών), nor in that which is to come.’ The attempt is sometimes made to soften down the force of the last expression. The present age, it is said, was simply the Mosaic age or dispensation under which the Jews were living; while ‘the age to come’ was the Messianic age or Christian dispensation Our Lord’s words thus mean only that, whether men live under the Law or the Gospel, blasphemy against the Holy Spirit is unpardonable. They have no reference to the future life; they tell us nothing about a state of doom after death; they do not carry us on to any final issues (so Cox, Expositor, ii. iii. [1] 322). But while it is true that the Jews of our Lord’s time used the phrases ‘this age’ and ‘the coming age’ to denote the period before and the period after the advent of the expected Messiah (cf., however, Schürer, HJP [2] ii. ii. 177), it is clear from the Gospels that Jesus Himself habitually employed them to indicate the age before and the age after His own Parousia (see Matthew 13:39-40; Matthew 13:49; Matthew 24:3; Matthew 28:20, Mark 10:30, Luke 18:30; Luke 20:35), thereby throwing ‘the age to come’ into that future world which lies beyond His Second Advent and the resurrection of the dead (see Salmond, Chr. Doct. of Immort. 381). And if Mt.’s language left us in any doubt as to the absoluteness of His meaning, the doubt would disappear when we turn to Mk. For there we find Him saying of the man who blasphemes against the Holy Spirit that he ‘hath never forgiveness, but is guilty of an eternal sin’ (Mark 3:29 Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ). Even if it stood by itself, ‘hath never forgiveness’ would carry a sound of finality with it. And when there is added, ἀλλὰ ἔνοχός ἐστιν αἰωνίου ἀμαρτήματος, it seems hardly possible to escape from the conclusion that blasphemy against the Holy Spirit is here described as a sin for which there is no remedy. The words in the original are exceedingly striking. ἔνοχος (= ἐνεχόμενος, fr. ἐν and ἔχω) means ‘held in the grip of’ (see Morison, Matthew, in loc.). And if we give to αἰώνιος the meaning it regularly has on the lips of Jesus, ‘an eternal sin’ appears to mean a sin that eternally persists, a sin that has so engrained itself in the character as to become fixed in the form of destiny. See, further, Eternal Sin.
(4) The reason for its unpardonableness.—This does not lie in any limitation of the grace of Christ or of the forgiving mercy of God. It lies in the very nature of the sin as just described. The sin is unpardonable because the sinner has no desire for pardon; it ‘hath never forgiveness’ because it is not repented of. For when men for selfish reasons hate the light, and persistently shut their eyes against it and blaspheme it, they gradually put their eyes out. God’s ‘sov’reign vital lamp’ still shines about them, but they can no more see it, since they have extinguished their own power of seeing. Eternal darkness is the necessary consequence of eternal sin. It is quite true that ἁμάρτημα generally stands for an act, not a state. But from the point of view of exegesis, little can be built upon this. For an act may be the revelation of a state; and when the Pharisees said of Jesus, ‘He hath an unclean spirit,’ this particular piece of blasphemy, as we have seen, was really the expression of a settled attitude of mind.
2. In the Epistles.—There are two passages in Hebrews that bear upon the subject. In Hebrews 6:4-8 the writer describes the impossibility of a renewal unto repentance for Christians who have fallen away from Christ after having once ‘tasted of the heavenly gift’ and become ‘partakers of the Holy Ghost.’ In Hebrews 10:26-31 he declares that there is no more sacrifice for sins in the case of those who sin wilfully and persistently after they have received the knowledge of the truth. It is impossible to suppose that he means that a Christian cannot be forgiven if he falls into sin, however grievous, or that Jesus is unable to save men to the uttermost (cf. Hebrews 2:17, Hebrews 4:16, Hebrews 10:19 ff.). In the second passage certainly, and presumably in the first also, he is speaking of a deliberate repudiation of Christ on the part of those who have tasted His blessings. Once they were enlightened, but they too loved the darkness rather than the light, and so shut the light out of their hearts, and trampled under foot the Son of God, and did despite unto the Spirit of grace. Thus we have here again, though now in the case, not of Pharisees, but of members of the Christian Church, a manifestation of the same kind of sin as before.* [3] In 1 John 5:16 the writer distinguishes between ‘a sin unto death’ and ‘a sin that is not unto death’; and while urging Christians to pray for one another with respect to the latter, says that he does not bid them make request to God concerning the former. It seems evident that there is a reference here to our Lord’s language in Matthew 12:31 f. ||, but in itself the passage adds nothing to our knowledge of unpardonable sin.
3. In Christian experience.—The subject is of importance, not only exegetically and theologically, but because of its practical bearings, and that in two different directions. (1) Bunyan at a certain period of his religious history (see Grace Abounding, §§ 96–230) is a type of multitudes who have suffered agonies of spiritual torture through the fear that they have committed a sin for which there is no forgiveness. But if the view taken above is the right one, there is no specific act of blasphemy in word or deed, standing by itself, that we are entitled to think of as ‘the unpardonable sin.’ The phrase, in fact, is as erroneous as it is unscriptural, though the common use of it has helped to load thousands of sensitive souls with a burden of intolerable pain. There is no mysterious transgression which is sufficient of itself to put a man beyond the power of repentance, and so outside the pale of forgiveness. Blasphemy against the Holy Spirit may find expression and come to its culmination in some specific way; but essentially it is a settled attitude of mind and heart. It is a deliberate extinguishing of that inner light which God Himself has kindled within us, and which ought to respond to His clear shining from without. Such compunctions as Bunyan had are the very best proof that a man has not committed any unpardonable sin, for they are the experiences of one who, though he has not yet realized the all sufficiency of Christ’s grace, is possessed at least of that contrite spirit which trembles at God’s word, and so may rest upon the prophet’s assurance that unto him the Lord will look (Is 66:2). ‘Sell Him! sell Him! sell Him!’ was the urgent persuasion of the Tempter in Bunyan’s ear. But though at last in his distraction he felt the thought, ‘Let Him go if He will,’ pass through his mind, the true intention of his heart was always, ‘No, no! not for thousands, thousands, thousands!’ (op. cit. § 139).
(2) But if anxious and fearful souls need to be reminded that blasphemy against the Holy Spirit is not some mysterious sin into which a man may fall against all the promptings of his better nature, the case of the Pharisees and Jesus conveys to all a message of serious warning. No one can stumble suddenly into irremediable sin; but men may drift into it after the fashion of the Pharisees. Selfishness and pride, and not least religious selfishness and pride, may slowly harden the heart and sear the conscience and seal the eyes, until men come to call good evil and light darkness, and are ready at last to say, even of one who manifests the Spirit of God and of Christ, ‘He hath a devil.’ The special monition of the incident in the Gospels is against that loss of vision which comes from the hardening power of sin, that continual resistance of the Spirit which leads at last to hatred of the Spirit. Poor Francis Spiera, whose case seemed to Bunyan so like his own (op. cit. § 163), may not himself have been guilty of unpardonable sin (cf. Martensen, Chr. Ethiopic ii. 128); but there is deep significance for all in his solemn sentence, ‘Man knows the beginning of sin, but who bounds the issues thereof?’ See, further, artt. Blasphemy, Forgiveness.
Literature.—Schaff, Die Sünde wider d. heil Geist; Müller, Chr. Doct. of Sin, ii. 418; Gloag, Exeget. Stud. i.; Salmond, Chr. Doct. of Immort. 379; Stevens, Theol. of NT, 102; Butler, Serm. x. ‘Upon Self-Deceit’; Mozley, Univ. Serm. ii. ‘The Pharisees’; Bunyan, Grace Abounding; ExpT [1]2 iii. [5] 49, 215, 240, 555, xi. [2] 1, 49; Expositor, ii. iii. [1] 321.
J. C. Lambert.
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - sin: Its Encroaching Nature
When a sin is let in as a suppliant, it remains in as a tyrant. The Arabs have a fable of a miller who one day was startled by a camel's nose thrust in the window of the room where he was sleeping. 'It is very cold outside,' said the camel, 'I only want to get my nose in.' The nose was let in, then the neck, and finally the whole body. Presently the miller began to be extremely inconvenienced at the ungainly companion he had obtained in a room certainly not big enough for both. 'If you are inconvenienced you may leave,' said the camel; 'as for myself, I shall stay where I am.' There are many such camels knocking at the human heart. Take, for instance, compliance with a single worldly custom: dancing. First, the custom creeps humbly to the door of the heart, and says, 'Let me in; what am I but putting one foot before another? certainly you do not object to music, and I would not for the world have a full band.' So in comes the nose of the camel, and it is not long before the entire body follows. The Christian then finds his heart occupied in full figure by the very vice which a little while before peeped in so meekly. 'Being up,' it says to him, 'all night at a ball, with the eyes dazzled by lights, and the ears stunned with a full band, interferes, you say, with your private devotions. So it does. But your private devotions will have to go, for I will not.': Episcopal Recorder.
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - Repentance: (Thorough): Searches Out sin
When a wound in a soldier's foot refuses to heal, the surgeon examines it very minutely, and manipulates every part. Each bone is there, and in its place; there is no apparent cause for the inflammation, but yet the wound refuses to heal. The surgeon probes and probes again, until his lancet comes into contact with a hard foreign substance. 'Here it. is,' saith he, 'a bullet is lodged here; this must come out, or the wound will never close.' Thus may some concealed sin work long disquiet in a. seeking soul. May the Lord search us and try us, and see if there be any evil way in us, and. lead us in the way everlasting.
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - Sorrow: For sin Absorbing
When that famous statesman Mirabeau died, all France bewailed his loss, and men for some hours could think or speak of little else. A waiter in one of the Restaurants of the Palais Royal, after the manner of his race, saluted a customer with the usual remark, 'Fine weather, Monsieur.'
'Yes, my friend,' replied the other, 'very fine; but Mirabeau is dead.'
If one absorbing thought can thus take precedence of every other in the affairs of life, is it so very wonderful that men aroused to care for the life to come should be altogether swallowed up with grief at the dread discovery that they are by reason of sin condemned of God? Fine or foul may the weather be, but if the soul be under the wrath of God its woeful condition will make it careless of surroundings. If his former security be dead, and the fear of coming judgment be alive in the man's heart, it is little wonder if eating and drinking be forgotten, if sleep forsake his eyelids and even household joys become insipid. Let but the one emotion be great enough, and it will push out every other. The bitterness of spiritual grief will destroy both the honey of earthly bliss and the quassia of bodily pain.
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - sin: One the Souls Ruin (2)
While I was walking in the garden one bright morning, a breeze came through and set all the flowers and leaves a fluttering. Now that is the way flowers talk, so I pricked up my ears and listened.
Presently, an old elder tree said, Flowers, shake off your caterpillars!'
'Why?' said a dozen altogether: for they were like some children, who always say 'Why,' when they are told to do anything: bad children those!
The elder said, 'If you don't, they'll eat you up alive.'
So the flowers set themselves a shaking till the caterpillars were shaken off.
In one of the middle beds there was a beautiful rose, who shook off all but one, and she said to herself 'Oh, that's a beauty! I'll keep that one.'
The elder overheard her, and called out, 'One caterpillar is enough to spoil you.'
'But,' said the rose, 'look at his brown and crimson fur, and his beautiful black eyes, and scores of little feet; I want to keep him; surely one won't hurt me.'
A few mornings after, I passed the rose again; there was not a whole leaf on her; her beauty was gone; she was all but killed, and had only life enough to weep over her folly, while the tears stood like dew-drops on her tattered leaves.
'Alas! I didn't think one caterpillar would ruin me.': C. A. Davis.
Holman Bible Dictionary - sin
(ssihn) Actions by which humans rebel against God, miss His purpose for their life, and surrender to the power of evil rather than to God.
Sin as Rebellion One of the central affirmations throughout the Bible is humanity's estrangement from God. The cause for this estrangement is sin, the root cause of all the problems of humanity. The Bible, however, gives no formal definition for sin. It describes sin as an attitude that personifies sin as rebellion against God. Rebellion was at the root of the problem for Adam and Eve (Genesis 3:1 ) and has been at the root of humanity's plight ever since.
Sin's Origin in Humanity's Rebellious Nature Human sin is universal—we all sin. All persons without exception are under sin's dominion (Romans 3:9-23 ). How did this come about? The Bible has no philosophical argument as such concerning sin's origin. God is in no way responsible for sin. Satan introduced sin when he beguiled Eve, but the Bible does not teach that sin had its origin with him either. Sin's origin is to be found in humanity's rebellious nature. Since Adam and Eve rebelled against the clear command of God, sin has infected humanity like a dread malignancy.
The Bible sets forth no systematic rationale as to how the human race was and is infected by this dread malady. Some passages such as Psalm 51:5 ; Ephesians 2:3 could be interpreted to mean that this sinful nature is inherited. Other passages seem to affirm that sin is due to human choice (see Ezekiel 18:4 ,Ezekiel 18:4,18:19-20 ; Romans 1:18-20 ; John 16:8-169 .)
What then is the answer to the dilemma? A possible answer is the fact that the Jewish mind had no problem in admitting two mutually exclusive ideas into the same system of thought. Any idea that humanity inherits a sinful nature must be coupled with the corollary that every person is indeed responsible for his/her choice of sin.
Another possibility for understanding how sin has infected all of humanity may be found in the biblical understanding of the corporateness and solidarity of the human race. This understanding of the human situation would say that when Adam rebelled against God, he incorporated all of his descendants in his action (see Hebrews 7:9-10 for a similar analogy). This view certainly does not eliminate the necessity for each individual to accept full responsibility for sinful acts.
Adam and Eve introduced sin into human history by their rebellious actions. The Bible affirms that every person who has lived since has followed their example. Whatever else one may say about sin's origin, this much is surely affirmed throughout the Bible.
The Bible Views Sin from Various Perspectives One concept of sin in the Old Testament is that of transgression of the law. God established the law as a standard of righteousness; any violation of this standard is defined as sin. Deuteronomy 6:24-25 is a statement of this principle from the perspective that a person who keeps the law is righteous. The implication is that the person who does not keep the law is not righteous, that is, sinful.
Another concept of sin in the Old Testament is as breach of the covenant. God made a covenant with the nation Israel; they were bound by this covenant as a people (Exodus 19:1 ; Exodus 24:1 ; Joshua 24:1 ). Each year on the Day of Atonement, the nation went through a covenant renewal. When the high priest consecrated the people by sprinkling them with the blood of the atoning sacrifice, they renewed their vows to the Lord to be a covenant-keeping people. Any breach of this covenant was viewed as sin (Deuteronomy 29:19-21 .)
The Old Testament also pictures sin as a violation of the righteous nature of God. As the righteous and holy God, He sets forth as a criterion for His people a righteousness like His own. (Leviticus 11:45 .) Any deviation from God's own righteousness is viewed as sin.
The Old Testament has a rich vocabulary for sin.
Chata means “to miss the mark,” as does the Greek hamartia . The word could be used to describe a person shooting a bow and arrow and missing the target with the arrow. When it is used to describe sin, it means that the person has missed the mark that God has established for the person's life.
Aven describes the crooked or perverse spirit associated with sin. Sinful persons have perverted their spirits and become crooked rather than straight. Ra describes the violence associated with sin. It also has the connotation of the breaking out of evil. Sin is the opposite of righteousness or moral straightness in the Old Testament.
The New Testament Perspective of Sin The New Testament picture is much like that of the Old Testament. Several of the words used for sin in the New Testament have almost the same meaning as some of the Hebrew words used in the Old Testament. The most notable advancement in the New Testament view of sin is the fact that sin is defined against the backdrop of Jesus as the standard for righteousness. His life exemplifies perfection. The exalted purity of His life creates the norm for judging what is sinful.
In the New Testament, sin also is viewed as a lack of fellowship with God. The ideal life is one of fellowship with God. Anything which disturbs or distorts this fellowship is sin.
The New Testament view of sin is somewhat more subjective than objective. Jesus taught quite forcefully that sin is a condition of the heart. He traced sin directly to inner motives stating that the sinful thought leading to the overt act is the real sin. The outward deed is actually the fruit of sin. Anger in the heart is the same as murder (Matthew 5:21-22 ). The impure look is tantamount to adultery (Matthew 5:27-28 ). The real defilement in a person stems from the inner person (heart) which is sinful (Matthew 15:18-20 ). Sin, therefore, is understood as involving the essential being of a person, that is, the essential essence of human nature.
The New Testament interprets sin as unbelief. However, unbelief is not just the rejection of a dogma or a creed. Rather, it is the rejection of that spiritual light which has been revealed in Jesus Christ. Or, from another perspective, unbelief is the rejection of the supreme revelation as it is found in the person of Jesus Christ. Unbelief is resistance to the truth of God revealed by the Spirit of God and produces moral and spiritual blindness. The outcome of such rejection is judgment. The only criterion for judgment is whether or not one has accepted or rejected the revelation of God as found in Jesus Christ (John 3:18-19 ; 1635336367_35 ).
The New Testament further pictures sin as being revealed by the law of Moses. The law was preparatory, and its function was to point to Christ. The law revealed sin in its true character, but this only aroused in humanity a desire to experience the forbidden fruit of sin. The law as such is not bad, but humanity simply does not have the ability to keep the law. Therefore, the law offers no means of salvation; rather, it leaves humanity with a deep sense of sin and guilt (Romans 7:1 ). The law, therefore, serves to bring sin into bold relief, so that it is clearly perceptible.
The most common New Testament word for sin is hamartia . See above. Parabasis , “trespass” or “transgression,” literally, means to step across the line. One who steps over a property line has trespassed on another person's land; the person who steps across God's standard of righteousness has committed a trespass or transgression.
Anomia means “lawlessness” or “iniquity” and is a rather general description of sinful acts, referring to almost any action in opposition to God's standard of righteousness. Poneria , “evil” or “wickedness,” is even a more general term than anomia. Adikia , “unrighteousness,” is just the opposite of righteous. In forensic contexts outside the New Testament, it described one who was on the wrong side of the law.
Akatharsia , “uncleanness” or “impurity,” was a cultic word used to describe anything which could cause cultic impurity. It was used quite often to describe vicious acts or sexual sins. Apistia , “unbelief,” literally refers to a lack of faith. To refuse to accept the truth of God by faith is to sin. Hence any action which can be construed as unfaithful or any disposition which is marked by a lack of faith is sinful.
Epithumia , often translated “lust,” is actually a neutral word. Only the context can determine if the desire is good or evil. Jesus said, “I have eagerly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer” (Luke 22:15 NIV), Paul used this word with a modifier meaning, “evil,” in Colossians 3:5 , where it is translated “evil concupiscence” or “evil desires.” When used in this way, the word could refer to almost any evil desire but was most often used to describe sexual sins (Matthew 5:28 ).
Sin's Consequences The Bible looks upon sin in any form as the most serious of humanity's problems. Though sinful acts may be directed against another person, ultimately every sin is against God, the Creator of all things. Perfect in righteousness, God cannot tolerate that which violates His righteous character. Therefore, sin creates a barrier between God and persons.
Sin also necessitates God's intervention in human affairs. Since humanity could not extricate itself from the entanglements of sin, it was necessary for God to intervene if humanity was ever to be freed from these entanglements. See Salvation .
The consequences of sin both personally and in society are far reaching. That person who constantly and consistently follows a sinful course will become so enmeshed in sin that for all practical purposes he or she is enslaved to sin (Romans 6:1 , for example).
Another of the awful consequences of sin is spiritual depravity in society in general as well as in the lives of individuals. Some will argue that depravity is the cause of sin, and this surely is a valid consideration. However, there can be no escaping the fact that a continuance in sin adds to this personal depravity, a moral crookedness or corruption eventually making it impossible to reject sin.
Sin also produces spiritual blindness. Spiritual truths simply are not visible to that person who has been blinded by sin.
Moral ineptitude is another devastating consequence of sin. The more people practice sin, the more inept they become as far as moral and spiritual values are concerned. Eventually, sin blurs the distinction between right and wrong.
Guilt is certainly a consequence of sin. No person can blame another person for a sin problem. Each person must accept responsibility for sin and face the guilt associated with it (Romans 1-3 ).
In the Bible sin and death are corollaries. One of the terrible byproducts of sin is death. Continual, consistent sin will bring spiritual death to that person who has not come under the lordship of Christ through repentance and faith (Romans 6:23 ; Revelation 20:14 .) For those who have trusted Christ Jesus for salvation, death no longer holds this dread. Christ has negated the power of Satan in making death horrible and has freed the person from slavery to this awful fear (Hebrews 2:14-15 .) See Death .
Another serious consequence of sin is that it brings separation from God, estrangement, and a lack of fellowship with God. This need not be permanent, but if a person dies not having corrected this problem by trusting Christ, then the separation does become permanent (Romans 6:23 ). See Hell .
Sin produces estrangement from other persons just as surely as it produces an estrangement from God. All interpersonal problems have sin as their root cause (James 4:1-3 ). The only hope for peace to be achieved on either the personal or national level is through the Prince of peace.
Billy E. Simmons
Holman Bible Dictionary - sin, Wilderness of
(ssihn) Barren region somewhere west of the Sinai plateau on the Sinai peninsula. The Hebrew people stopped here on their journey from Egypt to the Promised Land (Exodus 16:1 ). It was here that God first provided manna and quail for them to eat. The place sometimes has been confused with the Wilderness of Zin, which is located on the northwestern side of Sinai. See Zin .
Holman Bible Dictionary - Man of sin
KJV designation for the ultimate opponent of Christ (2 Thessalonians 2:3 ). Modern translations follow other manuscripts in reading “man of lawlessness.” See Antichrist ; Lawlessness, Man of.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Motions of sin
KJV expression for sinful desires (TEV) or passions (NAS, NIV, NRSV) at Romans 7:5 .
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Unpardonable sin
See Blasphemy Against the Holy Spirit
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - sin Offering
See Offerings and Sacrifices
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - sin
Sin is a riddle, a mystery, a reality that eludes definition and comprehension. Perhaps we most often think of sin as wrongdoing or transgression of God's law. Sin includes a failure to do what is right. But sin also offends people; it is violence and lovelessness toward other people, and ultimately, rebellion against God. Further, the Bible teaches that sin involves a condition in which the heart is corrupted and inclined toward evil. The concept of sin is complex, and the terminology large and varied so that it may be best to look at the reality of sin in the Pentateuch first, then reflect theologically.
The History of Sin . In the biblical world sin is, from its first appearance, tragic and mysterious. It is tragic because it represents a fall from the high original status of humankind. Created in God's image, Adam and Eve are good but immature, fine but breakable, like glass dishes. They are without flaw, yet capable of marring themselves. Satan uses a serpent to tempt Eve and Adam, first to question God, then to rebel against him. First, Satan introduces doubts about God's authority and goodness. "Did God really say, You must not eat from any tree in the garden'?" (Genesis 3:1 ). He invites Eve to consider how the fruit of the tree of knowledge is good for food and for knowledge. We see the tendency of sin to begin with a subtle appeal to something attractive and good in itself, to an act that is somehow plausible and directed toward some good end.
Throughout the Bible almost every sin reaches for things with some intrinsic value, such as security, knowledge, peace, pleasure, or a good name. But behind the appeal to something good, sin ultimately involves a raw confrontation between obedience and rebellion. Will Adam and Eve heed their impressions or God's instructions? Will they listen to a creature or the Creator? Will they serve God or themselves? Who will judge what is right, God or humans? Who will see to the results? Ultimately, by taking the position of arbiter between the conflicting counsel of God and the serpent, Eve and Adam have already elevated themselves over God and rebelled against him.
Here too the first sins disclose the essence of later sins. Sin involves the refusal of humankind to accept its God-given position between the Creator and lower creation. It flows from decisions to reject God's way, and to steal, curse, and lie simply because that seems more attractive or reasonable. Here we approach the mystery of sin. Why would the first couple, sinless and without inclination toward sin, choose to rebel? Why would any creature presume to know more or know better than its creator?
Adam and Eve become sinners by a historical act. The principal effects of sin are alienation from God, from others, from oneself, and from creation. They emerge almost at once. Alienation from God lead Adam and Eve to fear and flee from him. Alienation from each other and themselves shows in their shame (awareness of nakedness) and blame shifting. Adam Acts out all three alienations at once when, in response to God's questions, he excuses himself by blaming both Eve and God for his sin: "The woman you put here with me—she gave me some fruit" (3:12). The sentence God pronounces upon sin includes grace (3:15) and suggests that he retains sovereign control over his creation even in its rebellion, but it also establishes our alienation from nature in the curse upon childbearing, work, and creation itself (3:14-19). After the curse, God graciously clothes the first couple, but he also expels them from the garden (3:21-24). He graciously permits them to reproduce, but death enters human experience a short time later (4:1,8; 5:5-31). These events prove the vanity and futility of sin. Adam and Eve seek new freedoms and dignity, but sin robs them of what they have; seeking advantage, they experience great losses.
Genesis and Romans teach that Adam and Eve did not sin for themselves alone, but, from their privileged position as the first, originally sinless couple, act as representatives for the human race. Since then sin, sinfulness, and the consequences of sin have marred all. Every child of Adam enters a race marked by sin, condemnation, and death (Romans 5:12-21 ). These traits become theirs both by heritage and, as they grow into accountability, by personal choice, as Cain's slaughter of Abel quickly shows.
In Cain's sin we have an early hint of the virulence and intractability of sin. Whereas Satan prompted Adam and Eve to sin, God himself cannot talk Cain out of it (Genesis 3:1-5 ; 4:6 ). While sin was external to Adam and Eve, it appears to spring up spontaneously from within Cain; it is a wild force in him, which he ought to master lest it devour him (4:7). Sin is also becoming more aggravated: it is premeditated, it begins in the setting of worship, and it directly harms a brother, who deserves love. After his sin, far from manifesting guilt or remorse, Cain confesses nothing, refuses to repent, and chides God for the harshness of his punishments (4:5-14). Cain's sin and impenitence foreshadow much of the future course of sin both within and without the Bible.
Genesis 4-11 traces the development of sin. It becomes proud and deliberate (4:23-24), yet the line of Cain, the line of sinners, remains human and fulfills the mandate to fill and subdue the earth. Indeed, perhaps Cain's line does better in the cultural arena, although those who make bronze and iron tools also fashion weapons. Eventually, sin so pervades the world that every inclination of the thoughts of the human heart is only evil all the time ( Genesis 6:5 ; 8:21 ). Consequently, the Lord purges the earth of evil through the flood. When sin threatens to reassert itself in both direct disobedience and idolatry, God reveals his new intention to restrain sin by confusing human language at Babel: better that humanity be divided than that it stand together in rebellion against God.
Genesis 12-50 illustrates that sin plagues even the people of God, as members of the covenant family manipulate, betray, lie to, and deceive one another. The history Moses recounts also shows that punishment naturally follows, or is built into iniquity. Scheming Rebekah never sees her favorite son again; Jacob tastes the bitterness of deceit through Laban; Jacob's sons suffer for their sin against Joseph. As Proverbs 5:22 says, "The evil deeds of a wicked man ensnare him; the cords of his sin hold him fast."
Exodus reveals that sin not only brings suffering and punishment, but also violates the law of the Lord, Israel's holy redeemer and king. At Sinai Israel learned that sin is transgression of God's law; it is behavior that trespasses onto forbidden territory (Romans 4:15 ). The law also labels sin and unmasks it. One can sin without knowing it, but the law makes such ignorance less common. The Mosaic law emphasizes the external character of sin, but the laws that command Israel to love God and forbid it to worship idols or covet show that sin is internal too. Paradoxically, the law sometimes prompts sin, Paul says (Romans 7:7-13 ). Upon seeing that something is forbidden, desire to do it rises up. This perverse reaction reminds us that the root of sin is sinfulness and rebellion against God (Romans 7:7-25 ).
The sacrifices and rituals for cleansing listed in the Pentateuch remind us of the gravity of sin. Transgressions are more than mistakes. The Bible never dismisses a sin simply because it was done by someone young or ignorant, or because it was done some time ago. Sin pollutes the sinner, and the law requires that the pollution be removed. One chief motive of the penal code is to remove evil from the land (Matthew 15:17-1920 , quoted in 1 Corinthians 5:13 ). Sin also offends God, and the law requires atonement through sacrifices, in many of which a victim gives its life blood for an atonement.
The Biblical Terminology of Sin . The vast terminology, within its biblical contexts, suggests that sin has three aspects: disobedience to or breach of law, violation of relationships with people, and rebellion against God, which is the most basic concept. Risking oversimplification, among the most common Hebrew terms, hattat [1] means a missing of a standard, mark, or goal; pesa [2] means the breach of a relationship or rebellion; awon [3] means perverseness; segagah [4] signifies error or mistake; resa [4] means godlessness, injustice, and wickedness; and amal [6], when it refers to sin, means mischief or oppression. The most common Greek term is hamartia [7], a word often personified in the New Testament, and signifying offenses against laws, people, or God. Paraptoma [8] is another general term for offenses or lapses. Adikia [9] is a more narrow and legal word, describing unrighteousness and unjust deeds. Parabasis [10] signifies trespass or transgression of law; asebeia [11] means godlessness or impiety; and anomia [12] means lawlessness. The Bible typically describes sin negatively. It is lawless ness, dis obedience, im piety, un belief, dis trust, darkness as opposed to light, a falling away as opposed to standing firm, weakness not strength. It is un righteousness, faith less ness.
The Biblical Theology of Sin . The historical and prophetic books of the Old Testament illustrate the character of sin under these terms. From Judges to Kings, we see that Israel forsook the Lord who had brought them out of Egypt and established a covenant with them. They followed and worshiped the gods of the nations around them (Judges 2:10-13 ). Sometimes they served the Baals with singleness of purpose, filling Jerusalem with idols, and lawlessness reigned (Ahab, Ahaz, and Manasseh). The sin of human sacrifice followed in the reigns of such kings (2 Kings 21:6 ). The existence of human sacrifice underscores the depth and gravity of sin. People can become so perverted, so self-deceived, that they perform the most unnatural and heartless crimes, thinking them to be worship. Isaiah rightly says they "call evil good and good evil" (5:20). Later the Pharisees, utterly sincere, yet hypocritical because self-deceived, would revive this sin by killing not their children, but their maker, and calling it an act of service to God.
Many kings compounded their sin by rejecting and sometimes persecuting the prophets who pressed God's covenantal claims. Ahaz even spurned God's free offer of deliverance from invasion; he thought he had arranged his own deliverance through an alliance with Assyria and its gods. Not all kings were so crass; many tried to serve the Lord as they chose, in forbidden manners (Jeroboam I, Jehu, and other northern kings). Others attempted to serve God and the Baals at once (Solomon, the final kings of Judah, and many northern kings). The kings in question may have called it diplomacy; the prophets called it adultery.
Other prophets decried the social character of sin: "They sell the righteous for silver, and the needy for a pair of sandals. They trample on the heads of the poor as upon the dust of the ground and deny justice to the oppressed" (Amos 2:6-7 ). If sin is lack of love for God, it is also hate or indifference toward fellow humans.
The history of Israel illustrates how impenitence compounds sin. Saul magnified his sins by repenting superficially at best (1 Samuel 13:11-12 ; 15:13-21 ; 24:16-21 ). David, by contrast, repented of his sin with Bathsheba, without excuses or reservations (2 Samuel 12:13 ). Sadly, true repentance was the exception in Israel's history. God prompted Israel to repent by sending adversityempty stomachs, drought, plague, warfare, and other curses for disobediencebut Israel would not turn back. Later, the Lord wooed Israel with food, clothing, oil, and new wine; he lavished silver and gold on her, but she gave "her lovers" the credit. Because she did not acknowledge that he was the giver, he swore he would remove his gifts (Hosea 2:2-13 ).
Jesus continued the prophets' work of deepening the concept of sin in two ways. First, he said God requires more than obedience to external norms. People sin by hating, despising, and lusting even if they never act on their desires. People sin if they do the right things for the wrong reasons. Obedience that proceeds from fear of getting caught, or lack of opportunity to act on wicked desires lacks righteousness (Matthew 5:17-48 ). Second, Jesus' harsh denunciations of sin show that sin cannot be overlooked. It must be confronted, unpleasant as that may be (Matthew 18:15-20 ; Luke 17:3-4 ). Otherwise, the sinner dies in his sins (John 8:24 ; cf. James 5:19-20 ).
Jesus also explained that sin arises from the heart. Bad trees bear bad fruit, blasphemous words spring from hearts filled with evil, and wicked men demand signs when they have already seen enough to warrant faith (Matthew 7:17-20 ; 12:33-39 ). Therefore, evildoing is not simply a matter of choice, rather, "Everyone who sins is a slave to sin" (John 8:34 ).
But the Christ came not just to explain but to forgive or remove sin. His name is Jesus because he will deliver his people from their sins (Matthew 1:21 ; Luke 1:77 ). Thus he was a friend of sinners (Matthew 9:9-13 ; Luke 15:1-2 ), bestowed forgiveness of sins, and freed those suffering from its consequences (Mark 2:1-12 ; Luke 7:36-50 ). Jesus earned the right to his name and the right to grant forgiveness by shedding his blood on the cross for the remission of sins. The crucifixion is at once the apex of sin and the cure of sin (Acts 2:23-24 ). That the Son of God had to bear the cross to accomplish redemption shows the gravity of sin. That he rose from the dead demonstrates that sin is defeated. After his resurrection, Jesus sent out his disciples to proclaim the victory and forgiveness of sins through his name (Luke 24:47 ; John 20:23 ).
Paul's theology of sin principally appears in Romans 1-8 . God is angry because of sins humans commit against him and one another (1:18-32). Unbelief is the root of sin. The failure to glorify or thank God leads to idolatry, foolishness, and degradation (1:21-25). Sometimes he permits sins to develop unimpeded, until every kind of wickedness fills the human breast (1:26-32). Paul's imaginary reader objects to this indictment in several ways (2:1-3:8). Paul replies that while not everyone sins so crudely, everyone violates standards they consider just (2:1-3). If someone professes to belong to the covenant, have knowledge, and so enjoy special standing with God, Paul asks if they live up to the knowledge they have of God's law (2:17-29). Everyone is a sinner, he concludes, and stands silent, guilty, and accountable before God (3:10-21). Paul's sin lists cover the gamut of transgressions, from murder to gossip. Despite his use of the term "flesh" ("sinful nature" in some translations), relatively few sins on the lists are sensual; most concern the mind or the tongue (Romans 1:28-32 ; Galatians 5:19-21 ). Like Jesus, Paul affirms that sin is an internal power, not just an act. It enslaves any whom Christ has not liberated and leads to their death (6:5-23), so that the unbeliever is incapable of pleasing God (8:5-8). Sin continues to grip even the redeemed (7:14-25). But principal deliverance from sin comes through justification by faith in Jesus, so there is no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus (3:21-4:25; 8:1-4). The Spirit renews believers and empowers them to work out that deliverance (8:9-27).
Much of the rest of the New Testament restates themes from the Gospels and Paul. James remarks that sin begins with evil desires (1:14; 4:1-4) and leads to death when fully grown (1:15). This and other biblical remarks suggest that iniquity gains some of its power through repetition. When an individual commits a sin, it can become, through repetition, a habit, a vice, and a character trait. When one person imitates the sins of another, wickedness can be institutionalized. Whole governments can become corrupt; whole industries can be based on deception or abuse of others. Societies can wrap themselves in a fabric of deceit. Thus one sinner encourages another and the wrong kind of friendship with the world makes one an enemy of God (James 4:4-6 ).
The Book of Revelation also reminds us that sin involves more than individual people and Acts. In some places Satan reigns (2:13). The dragon, in his futile desire to devour the church, prompts the wicked to persecute it (12:1-17). Both government and religious leaders serve him in his wars against the saints (12:17-13:17). Revelation also depicts the end of sin. A day comes when God will condemn sin (20:11-15). Evildoers will be driven from his presence; the devil, his allies, death, and Hades will be thrown into the lake of fire (20:10-15). Then the new heavens and new earth, free of sin forever, will descend (chaps. 21-22).
What, then, is the essence of sin? Sin has three chief aspects: breach of law, violation of relationships with people and things protected by the law, and rebellion against God. The essence of sin, therefore, is not a substance but a relationship of opposition. Sin opposes God's law and his created beings. Sin hates rather than loves, it doubts or contradicts rather than trusts and affirms, it harms and abuses rather than helps and respects.
But sin is also a condition. The Bible teaches that there are lies and liars, sins and sinners. People can be "filled" (meaning "controlled") by hypocrisy and lawlessness (Matthew 23:28 ). God "gives some over to sin, " allowing them to wallow in every kind of wickedness (Romans 1:18-32 ). Paul, speaking of the time before their conversion, told the Ephesians, "You were dead in your transgressions and sins, in which you used to live" (2:1-2).
This said, we have hardly defined sin, and with good reason. Sin is elusive. Sin has no substance, no independent existence. It does not even exist in the sense that love or justice do. It exists only as a parasite of the good or good things. Sin creates nothing; it abuses, perverts, spoils, and destroys the good things God has made. It has no program, no thesis; it only has an antithesis, an opposition. Sometimes wickedness is as senseless as a child who pulls the hair or punches the stomach of another, then honestly confesses, "I don't know why I did that." In some ways sin is an absence rather than a presence: it fails to listen, walks past the needy, and subsists in alienation rather than relation.
Negative as sin is, it hides itself under the appearance of what is good. At the first temptation, sin operated under the guise of claiming good things such as food and knowledge. Even the goal of being like God is good in some ways; after all, God made the first couple in his image. Similarly, when Satan tempted Jesus, the second Adam, he offered things good in themselves: food, knowledge, and rule over the kingdoms of the earth. Sin and temptation continue to appeal to things good and desirable in themselves. Fornication promises bodily pleasure, boasting seeks honor, by breaking promises or vows people hope for release from hardship. Someone can make a persuasive defense for almost every offense.
Yet ultimately, sin is most unreasonable. Why would Adam and Eve, well-cared-for and without propensity toward sin, rebel against God? Why would a creature want to rebel against the Creator? The prophets find Israel's rebellion absurd; even animals know better. "The ox knows his master, the donkey his owner's manger, but Israel does not know, my people do not understand" (Isaiah 1:3 ).
Although negative and irrational, sin is also a power. It crouches at Cain's door, ready to devour him (Genesis 4:7 ). It compels Paul to do the evil he does not wish (Romans 7:14-20 ). It moves and is moved by demonic and societal forces. It enters the heart, so that wickedness wells up spontaneously from within (1635336367_3 ). Its stronghold is the all but instinctive tendency to put one's own interests and desires first. From the selfish heart comes rebellion, godlessness, cursing, lies, slander, envy, greed, sensuality, and pride (Matthew 12:34-37 ; Romans 1:18-32 ).
Three factors compound the tragedy of sin. First, it pervades the whole person; no sphere escapes, for the very heart of the sinner is corrupt (Psalm 51:5 ; Jeremiah 17:9 ; Romans 8:7 ). Second, evil resides in the heart of the crown of God's creation, the bearer of God's image, the one appointed to rule the world for God. The remarkable capacities of humans to think, plan, persuade, and train others enables wickedness to become clever and strong. Third, sin is proud; hence it resists God and his salvation and offers a counterfeit salvation instead (2 Thessalonians 2:2-4 ).
Despite all its dismal qualities, sin makes one contribution. Because God chose to redeem his people from it, sin has been the stimulus for God's demonstration of his amazing patience, grace, and love (Romans 5:6-8 ; Galatians 2:17-20 ; 1 Timothy 1:15-17 ). So the study of sin need not merely grieve the Christian. From a postresurrection perspective, sin indirectly gives opportunity to praise the creating and redeeming Lord for his gracious deliverance (Romans 11:33-36 ).
Daniel Doriani
See also Blasphemy Against the Holy Spirit ; Fall, the ; Guilt
Bibliography . G. C. Berkouwer, Sin ; G. W. Bromiley, ISBE, 4:518-25; J. Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion ; C. E. B. Cranfield, Romans ; D. Kidner, Genesis ; A. Kuyper, The Work of the Holy Spirit .
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - sin Unto Death
The expression "sin unto death" (1 John 5:16-17 ) appears in a context concerning confident, effective prayer (cf. 1 John 3:21-22 ; 4:17 ). First John 5:14-15 speaks generally about the confidence that God will answer requests made according to his will. Verses 16-17 speak specifically about the confidence that God will answer intercession for believers who are committing a sin not unto death and give life to them. But no such confidence is available when the sins is unto death. While all unrighteousness is sin, not all sin is unto death. Thus, the comment about sin unto death is something of an afterthought.
But what are the nondeadly and deadly sins? Some answers are unconvincing because they stress remote contexts rather than the immediate context in 1John. The view that mortal and venial sins are distinguished is anachronistic. In another approach, death is understood as physical, but in 1John death and life are spiritual (1:1-2; 2:25; 3:14-15; 4:9; 5:11-13). Another view connects 1 John 5:16-17 with the blasphemy against the Holy Spirit ( Matthew 12:31-32 ; Mark 3:28-30 ), but 1John says nothing about attributing the miracles of Jesus to Satan's power. Yet another theory sees the sin unto death as apostasy (cf. Hebrews 2:3 ; 6:6 ; 10:29-31 ), but 1 John 2:19 indicates that "apostates" were never really in the community to begin with. Thus, another solution must be sought.
The polemic of 1John views sin very seriously (1:7-10; 2:12; 3:4-5,8-9; 4:10; 5:18). While believers do sin occasionally (1:7,9; 2:1; 5:16), they do not persist in ethical disobedience (2:4), social bigotry (2:9; 3:14-17; 4:20-21), or christological heresy (2:18-29; 4:1-3). In this qualified sense they do not sin (3:6,9; 5:18); in other words, their sin is not deadly (5:16-17). But those who walk in darkness while claiming to be in the light (1:6), who hate believers (2:9), and who deny that Jesus is the Messiah (2:22) are committing deadly sins. Thus, the polemic admits the reality of believers' sinning against the opponents' perfectionistic claims, but it also stresses the ideal of sinlessness. In this setting, the community is commanded to intercede for fellow believers who occasionally sin, but it is not commanded to pray for the deadly sins of those outside the community.
David L. Turner
See also Blasphemy Against the Holy Spirit ; Sin
Bibliography . R. E. Brown, The Epistles of John ; I. A. Busenitz, The Master's Seminary Journal 1 (1990): 17-31; R. Law, The Tests of Life ; I. H. Marshall, The Epistles of John ; S. M. Reynolds, Reformation Review 20 (1973): 130-39; D. M. Scholer, Current Issues in Biblical and Pastristic Interpretation, pp. 230-46; S. S. Smalley, 1,2, 3, John .
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - sin
‘Sin’ is a term which belongs to religion. Moral evil as an injury done by man to himself is vice, as an offence against human society crime, but as affecting his relation to God sin. But even here we may distinguish a more distinctively religious from the more general moral sense. It is distrust of the goodness and grace of God as well as disobedience to the law of God as the standard of moral obligation. To be forgetful of God in one’s thoughts, to be neglectful of piety and worship towards God, is as much sin as to disregard and defy God’s commandments. It is sometimes insisted in writings of to-day, such as Tennant’s (see Literature), that sin must be conscious and voluntary distrust and disobedience; but it will appear that in the Scriptures the emphasis on the subjective consciousness is secondary. Sin includes departure from, or failure to reach, the standard of religious and moral obligation for man determined by the nature and purpose of God; the stress falls more on the objective reality-the difference between what man is and what he should be, God being what He is. While it might be convenient to restrict the term ‘sin’ to conscious, voluntary acts, yet the wider usage is too deeply rooted in religious thought to be easily displaced. It must be insisted, however, that moral accountability, personal blameworthiness, attaches to the conscious and voluntary acts alone, even although, as regards the consequences of evil, human solidarity is such that the innocent may suffer with the guilty.
The term ‘guilt’ is one that requires careful definition. It is not punishment; for punishment consists of all the evil consequences of sin, which the sinner in his sense of having sinned regards as resulting from a violated moral law, or more personally as the evidences of the Divine displeasure. This subjective consciousness is not, however, illusory, as it does correspond with and respond to a moral order and a personal will opposed to sin, which are an objective reality. Guilt is the liability to punishment, the sinner by his act placing himself in such a relation to the moral order and the personal will of God as to expose him to the evil consequences included in his punishment. Here again our modern thought with its refinements makes distinctions which the Scriptures for the most part ignore. Can we separate, or must we identify, guilt and sense of guilt? Is there an objective fact and a subjective feeling? If sin is confined strictly to conscious and voluntary acts, then guilt, it would seem, must be measured by the sense of guilt, the blame-worthiness or evil desert that the conscience of the sinner assigns to him. If this were so, then the worse a man became, the less guilty he would be; for it is a sign of moral deterioration to lose the sense of shame in wrongdoing.
The Scripture approach-and surely this is the properly religious approach-to the question is from the side of God rather than of man. A man’s guilt is measured, not by his shame or sorrow, but by God’s judgment: his relation to God as affected by his sin is determined, not by his own opinion of himself, but by God’s view of him. The Divine judgment will, we may confidently believe, take due account of all the facts; the departure from, or failure to reach, the Divine standard, the moral possibility of each man as determined by his heredity, environment, and individuality, and his own moral estimate of himself-all will be included in God’s knowledge of him, and so his guilt will be determined, not by an unerring wisdom and an unfailing righteousness only, but also by an unexhausted love. Thus a man’s sense of guilt is not the measure of his guilt: for the more callous he is morally, the worse must his moral condition appear in the sight of God; and the more sensitive he is, the better must he appear to God. In the measure in which a man judges himself in penitence will he not be judged guilty by God.
Further, in his subjective consciousness a man tends to separate himself, both in his merits and in his defects, from his fellow-men; but in objective reality men are so closely related to one another as to be involved in moral responsibility for one another. Saints as a whole must bear the blame for many of the conditions which make the criminal; and the saint will bear in his heart as a personal sorrow and shame the sins of his fellow-men. In God’s view also the individual does not stand isolated; but the race is a unity, one in its guilt, yet also one for God’s grace. While, when necessary, we must insist on individual liberty and personal responsibility, we must not ignore the complementary truth of racial solidarity. The Scripture point of view is predominantly, if not exclusively, universal objectivity and not individual subjectivity; and unless we recognize this we shall fail to understand the apostolic teaching.
1. St. Paul’s teaching.-As the Dict. of Christ and the Gospels deals with the teaching of Jesus, we are here strictly con fined to the apostolic teaching; and we must obviously begin with St. Paul.
(a) The universality of sin.-St. Paul’s view is the distinctively religious view. Men, dependent upon God, and capable of knowing God, ‘glorified him not as God, neither gave thanks,’ but dishonoured God in their conception of Him, and in their worship (Romans 1:21); their moral deterioration followed religious perversion (Romans 1:24-25). Even in the Gentiles this involved guilt, for the sin was conscious and voluntary, as a disregard and defiance of a law written in their hearts (Romans 1:28-32, Romans 2:14-16). Not less guilty was the Jew who failed to keep the Law of the possession of which he made his boast (Romans 2:23). By such a historical induction St. Paul establishes his thesis of the universality of sin and consequent guilt, and confirms it from the Scriptures, the aim of which is to bring to all men the sense of guilt, ‘that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may be brought under the judgement of God’ (Romans 3:19); ‘the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who hold down the truth in unrighteousness’ (Romans 1:18). This thesis is advanced, not for its own sake, however, but to show the need of as universal a salvation offered to mankind in Christ.
The validity of St. Paul’s conclusion here is not affected by the correctness or otherwise of the explanation which he offers of the origin of idolatry and the immorality consequent on it. First, we must recognize the Hebraic mode of speech, which represents as direct Divine judgment what we should regard as inevitable moral consequence; and, secondly, we must to-day regard polytheism and the accompanying idolatry as seemingly inevitable stages in the development of the religious consciousness of the Divine. We may admit, however, that idolatry as St. Paul knew it in the Roman Empire was closely associated with immorality; and that Greek and Roman mythology was likely to have an adverse moral influence, as Plato in the Republic recognized.
In affirming that sin involves guilt, exposes man to the Divine judgment, St. Paul was echoing the teaching not only of the OT and of Jesus Himself (Romans 7:7-25,4; Matthew 23:37; Matthew 23:39) but of the universal human conscience, confirmed by the course of human history. There is a moral order in man and the world condemning and executing sentence on sin; and, if God be personally immanent in the world, we cannot distinguish that moral order from the mind and will of God. And, if God be personal, He feels as well as thinks and wills; and so we cannot altogether exclude an emotional reaction of God against sin. St. Paul’s term ‘the wrath of God’ may be allowed its full significance so long as we exclude any passion inconsistent with holy love. Thus we are here dealing, not with an outgrown superstition, but with a permanent moral and spiritual reality-man’s sin and God’s judgment, man’s need and God’s offer of salvation.
(b) The development of sin.-From the universal fact we may turn to the individual feeling of sin. St. Paul was not merely generalizing his individual experience in his proof of the universality of sin, but it is certain that his individual experience gave emphasis to his statement. The classic passage is 1635336367_82 which the present writer must regard as an account of St. Paul’s own individual experience, before the grace of Christ brought him deliverance; but there is no doubt that he desires us to regard his individual experience as in greater or lesser degree common to all men. Sin is a power dwelling in man, which may for a time be latent, but which is provoked into exercise by the Law. The knowledge of the prohibition stimulates, and does not restrain, the opposition of sin to law; as the common proverb says, ‘Forbidden fruit is sweet.’ While the mind knows, approves, and delights in the law of God as holy, righteous, and good, the flesh is the seat and vehicle of sin. The ‘law in the members’ is opposed to, resists and conquers, the ‘law in the mind,’ and so the man is brought into bondage, doing what he condemns, unable to do what he approves. This passage raises three questions which must briefly be answered.
(1) Sin as a power.-For St. Paul here as throughout chapters 5, 6, 7 sin is personified as distinct from the animal appetites, the physical impulses, and even the human will itself as dwelling in men and bringing men into bondage. It enters into the heart (Romans 7:17; Romans 7:20), works on man, using the Law itself for its ends (Romans 7:8; Romans 7:11), and enslaves him (Romans 6:6; Romans 6:17; Romans 6:20). In Christ he is freed from sin (Romans 6:18; Romans 7:7-25) and dies to it (Romans 6:9; Romans 6:11). As freed from and dead to sin, the Christian is not to put his members at the service of sin (Romans 6:13), and must not allow it to reign over him in his body (Romans 6:12). Is this only personification, or does St. Paul regard sin as a personal agent? As a Jew he believed in Satan and a host of evil spirits; and probably, if pressed to explain the power of sin, he would have appealed to this personal agency; but we must not assume that when he thus speaks of sin he is always thinking of Satan. Sin is for him an objective reality without being always identified with Satan (see Sanday-Headlam, International Critical Commentary , ‘Romans,’ p. 145 f.). For us the personification is suggestive in so far as we must recognize that in customs, beliefs, rites, institutions, in human society generally, there is an influence for evil that hurtfully affects the individual-what Ritschl has called the Kingdom of sin as opposed to the Kingdom of God. ‘The subject of sin, rather, is humanity as the sum of all individuals, in so far as the selfish action of each person, involving him as it does in illimitable interaction with all others, is directed in any degree whatsoever towards the opposite of the good, and leads to the association of individuals in common evil’ (Justification and Reconciliation, Eng. translation , Edinburgh, 1900, p. 335).
(2) The flesh as the seat and vehicle of sin.-As there is in this Dictionary a separate article Flesh, the subject cannot here be fully discussed: a summary statement must suffice. The flesh is not identical with the body, animal appetite, or sensuous impulse; it is man’s whole nature, in so far as he disowns his dependence on God, opposes his will to God, and resists the influence of the Spirit of God. It is man in the aspect, not merely of creatureliness, but of wilfulness and godlessness. It is as corrupted and perverted by sin that human nature lends itself as a channel to and an instrument of sin as a power dwelling in and ruling over man.
(3) The relation of the Law to sin.-The Law reveals sin, because it shows the opposition between the will of God and the wishes of man (Romans 3:20; Romans 7:7). The Law provokes rather than restrains sin (Romans 7:8-9; cf. 1 Corinthians 15:56): the commandment is like a challenge, which sin at once accepts. This St. Paul represents not only as the human result, but as the Divine intention (Romans 5:20, Galatians 3:19), in order that a full exposure might be made of what sin in its very nature is (Romans 7:13), so that men might be made fully aware of their need of deliverance from it (Romans 11:32). The Law fails to restrain, because of its inherent impotence (τὸ γὰρ ἀδύνατον τοῦ νόμου, Romans 8:3), as letter and not spirit (2 Corinthians 3:6), as written on tables of stone and not on tables that are hearts of flesh (2 Corinthians 3:3; cf. Jeremiah 31:33). Thus sin as a power, finding its seat and vehicle in the flesh, not restrained but provoked by the law in the individual, brings a bondage from which the gospel offers deliverance, even as it sets a universal grace of God over against the universal sin of mankind.
(c) The origin of sin.-What explanation can be offered of the fact of the universality of sin? How has man’s nature become so corrupted and perverted as to be described by the term ‘flesh’? How can sin be represented as a power dwelling in, ruling over, man, and bringing him into bondage? While St. Paul does not in Romans 5:12; Romans 5:21 formally offer this explanation, the passage being introduced into the argument for another purpose-to prove the greater efficacy of grace than of sin, by as much as Christ is greater than Adam-yet, as he is there dealing with his view of the introduction of sin into the world, we must regard that passage as his explanation both of sin as a power in humanity and of the flesh; for it is not likely that he would leave sin in the race and sin in the individual unconnected. In the article Fall the subject has already been discussed; here only the considerations bearing immediately on the subject of sin need be mentioned. The relation of the race to Adam may be conceived as two-fold: (1) a participation in guilt; (2) an inheritance of a sinful disposition.
(1) Participation in guilt.-St. Paul teaches that all men are involved in the penalty of Adam’s transgression, for ‘death passed unto all men’ (Romans 5:12), but he does not teach that all men are held guilty of Adam’s transgression; for (a) by a surprising change of construction and discontinuity of thought he affirms as the reason for the universality of death the actual transgression of all men ‘for that all sinned,’ and (b) he guards himself against the charge of imputing guilt when there is no conscious and voluntary transgression, by affirming that ‘sin is not imputed when there is no law’ (Romans 6:11-13).
As regards (a), the clause ἐφʼ ᾧ πάντες ἥμαρτον cannot mean that all sinned in Adam (‘omnes peccarunt, Adamo peccante,’ Bengel), either as the physical source or as the moral representative of the race; for ἐφʼ ᾧ most probably means ‘because.’
As regards (b), while St. Paul affirms that guilt is not ascribed unless there is transgression of law, as in the case of Adam, yet he asserts that nevertheless the same penalty falls on all. For him, therefore, penalty may be racial, while guilt must be personal. This statement, however, is qualified by his declaration in chs. 1 and 2 of the responsibility of the Gentiles as having an inward law. Did he really think of any period or nation as having had in this sense no law?
(2) Inheritance of a sinful disposition.-Unless the analogy with Christ is incomplete, there must be, however, some connexion between Adam’s transgression and the actual sin of all mankind. How does St. Paul conceive that connexion? It has usually been taken for granted that he teaches that by Adam’s transgression human nature was itself infected, and that from him there descends to all men a sinful disposition. But he might mean no more than that sin as an alien power found entrance into the race, and brought each individual under its dominion. He may regard social rather than physical heredity (to apply a modern distinction) as the channel of the transmission and diffusion of sin. In view, however, of his teaching about the ‘flesh,’ it is more probable that he did regard human nature as corrupted and perverted; and, in the absence of any other explanation, we seem warranted in assuming that he did connect this fact with the Fall. We must beware, however, of ascribing to him such definite doctrines as those of ‘original sin’ and ‘total depravity’; for later thought has probably read into his words more than was clearly present to his own mind.
It cannot be shown that St. Paul regarded all men as involved In Adam’s guilt, either because of their physical descent from him or of any federal relation to him, even although all men are subject to the penalty of death. He does not explain how there is liability to the penalty without culpability for the offence; but he does regard mankind as guilty in the first sense, and not guilty (except by personal transgression) in the second sense. Later theology blurred this distinction in teaching ‘original sin’ in both sense. Nor is there any ground for holding that he ascribed to Adam that moral endowment which this theology assigned to him. He does not, as is sometimes maintained, represent Adam himself as subject to the flesh in the same way as are his descendants; for 1 Corinthians 15:47 contrasts not the unfallen Adam with the pre-existent Christ, but the fallen Adam with the Risen Christ; but be does emphasize the voluntary character of Adam’s act: it was disobedience (Romans 5:19). Could he have assigned to it the moral significance he does, had he thought of Adam as in the hopeless and helpless bondage described in Romans 6:22? This passage, however, represents that bondage not as directly inherited, but as resulting in the individual from a moral development, in which sin uses the flesh to bring it about. Thus he does not teach total depravity as an inheritance.
(d) The penalty of sin.-St. Paul undoubtedly teaches that death is the penalty of sin (Romans 5:12). While he includes physical dissolution, death means more for him (Romans 6:21-23); it has a moral and religious content; it is Judgment and doom; it is invested with dread and darkness by man’s sense of sin (1 Corinthians 15:56). While we cannot in the light of our modern knowledge regard physical dissolution, as St. Paul regarded it, as the penalty of sin (for it appears to us a natural necessity), yet, viewing death in its totality, as he did, we may still maintain that it is sin that gives it the character of an evil to be dreaded. The connexion between death and sin, St. Paul affirms, is not that of effect and cause, but of penalty and transgression (Romans 5:14), or wages and work (Romans 6:23); for he thinks not of a natural sequence, but of a deserved sentence (Romans 2:5). He approaches our modes of thought more closely, however, in the analogy of sowing and reaping (Galatians 6:8; cf. James 1:15).
(e) The deliverance from sin.-This is for St. Paul two-fold: it is an annulling of the guilt and removal of the penalty of sin, as well as a destruction of the power of sin. Sin is an act of disobedience (Romans 5:19), committed against God (Romans 1:21) and His Law (Romans 3:20, Romans 7:7), which involves personal responsibility (Romans 1:20), ill desert (Romans 13:2), and the Divine condemnation (Romans 5:15; Romans 5:18). This condemnation is expressed in the penalty of death, which is not, as we have just seen, a natural consequence, but a Divine appointment, an expression of God’s wrath against sin (Romans 1:18, Ephesians 5:6, Colossians 3:6). The work of Christ as an act of obedience (Romans 5:19) reversed this condemnation (Romans 8:1), and reconciled men with God (Romans 5:10, 2 Corinthians 5:18; 2 Corinthians 5:20). We shall miss what is central for St. Paul if we ignore this objective atonement of Christ for the race, and confine our regard, as we tend to-day to do, to the subjective influence of Christ in destroying sin’s power in the individual.
That inward change St. Paul describes as dying to sin, being buried with Christ through baptism into death, a crucifixion or dying with Christ, a resurrection and living with Christ (Romans 6:1-11, Ephesians 2:1-10). By this he does not mean insensibility to temptation, or cessation from struggle, but a deliverance from the impotence felt in bondage to sin, and a confidence of victory through Christ. Nor does he mean a process completed in man by Divine power apart from his effort; for believers are to reckon themselves to be not only dead unto sin, but alive unto God in Christ Jesus. But they are not to let sin reign in their mortal selves, nor are they to present their members unto sin (Romans 5:13); and they are to mortify by the spirit the deeds of the body (Romans 8:13; cf. Colossians 3:5). Thus St. Paul knows from his own personal experience a complete remedy for the universal fatal disease of sin; and all that in his letters he presents regarding this subject is presented that he may commend the gospel to men, as the sole, sufficient, Divine provision for the universal dominant human necessity.
2. St. John’s teaching.-(a) In the Fourth Gospel sin is primarily represented as unbelief, the rejection of Christ (John 1:11; John 16:9), aggravated by the pretension of knowledge (John 9:41). As Christ is one with God, this involves hatred of the Father (John 15:24). The choice reveals the real disposition (John 3:19-21), and so justly incurs judgment. Sin is a slavery (John 8:34). One notable contribution to the doctrine of sin is the denial of the invariable connexion of sin and suffering (John 9:3), although it is not denied (John 5:14) that often there is a connexion.
In the First Epistle sin is described as lawlessness (1 John 3:4, ἀνομία) and unrighteousness (1 John 5:17, ἀδικία); and, as love is the supreme commandment, hatred is especially condemned (1 John 3:12). Further, as righteousness is identified with truth, sin is equivalent to falsehood (1 John 2:22, 1 John 4:20); but this is not an intellectualist view, as truth has a moral and spiritual content; it is the Divine reality revealed to men in Christ. On the one hand, Christ is Himself sinless, and was manifested to take away sins and to destroy the works of the Devil (1 John 3:5; 1 John 3:8); and, on the other hand, believers by abiding in Him are kept from sin (1 John 3:6), because the Evil One cannot touch them (1 John 5:18).
Hence arises what has been called the paradox of the Epistle. On the one hand, the reality of the sinfulness even of believers is insisted on; to deny sinfulness is self-deception, and even charging God with falsehood (1 John 1:8; 1 John 1:10), and confession is the condition of forgiveness and cleansing (1 John 1:9). On the other hand, the impossibility of believers sinning is asserted; whoever abides in Christ cannot sin (1 John 3:6), the begotten of God cannot sin (1 John 3:9), because kept by Christ and untouched by the Evil One (1 John 5:18). The explanation is that each of these declarations is directed against a different form of error. Of the first declaration Westcott says: ‘St. John therefore considers the three false views which man is tempted to take of his position. He may deny the reality of sin (6, 7), or his responsibility for sin (8, 9), or the fact of sin in his own case (10). By doing this he makes fellowship with God, as He has been made known, impossible for himself. On the other hand, God has made provision for the realisation of fellowship between Himself and man in spite of sin’ (The Epistles of St. John, 1883, p. 17). Regarding the second declaration, he offers this explanation: ‘True fellowship with Christ, Who is absolutely sinless, is necessarily inconsistent with sin; and, yet further, the practice of sin excludes the reality of a professed knowledge of Christ’ (ib., p. 101). What the Apostle is referring to is not single acts of sin, due to human weakness, but the deliberate continuance in sin on the assumption that the relation to God is not, and cannot be, affected thereby. The one class of errorists denied the actuality of sin, the other declared that even the habit of sin did not deprive the believer of the blessings of the Christian salvation.
(b) Another contribution to the doctrine may be found in the conception of a sin unto death (1 John 5:16), for which intercession is not forbidden, and yet cannot be urged. The reference is not to any particular act, but rather to any act of such a character as to separate the soul from Christ and the salvation in Him. It may be compared to the sin against the Holy Ghost (Mark 3:29) and also to the sin of apostasy (Hebrews 6:4-5; Hebrews 10:26).
(c) It must be noticed that in this Epistle there is a very marked emphasis on Satan as the source of man’s sin. The Devil has sinned from the beginning, and he that sinneth is of the Devil (1 John 3:8), and the whole world lieth in the Evil One (1 John 5:19; cf. John 8:44, where the Devil is described as a murderer and a liar).
3. St. James’s teaching.-(a) St. James offers us, as does St. Paul, although much more briefly, a psychological account of the development of sin in the individual. Having asserted the blessedness of enduring temptation, he denies that God does or can tempt (James 1:12-13). Temptation arises when a man is drawn away and enticed by his desire (ἐπιθυμία). This desire need not itself be evil, but it acquires a sinful character when indulged in opposition to the higher law of duty.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Man of sin
(2 Thessalonians 2:3; Revised Version margin ‘man of lawlessness,’ substituting the better reading ἀνομίας for ἁμαρτίας of Textus Receptus )
Apart from such apparent references to the subject as 2 Corinthians 6:15, Colossians 2:15, St. Paul’s doctrine of the Antichrist is found in the passage 2 Thessalonians 2:1-12, in which he associates ‘the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ’ with a previous ‘falling away’ or apostasy (ἀποστασία) and the revelation of ‘the man of lawlessness,’ whom he also designates ‘the son of perdition’ (2 Thessalonians 2:3), ‘the opponent’ (ἀντικείμενος) of God (2 Thessalonians 2:4), ‘the lawless one’ (ὁ ἄνομος, 2 Thessalonians 2:3), whose future revelation in his own time, however, is anticipated even now by a working of ‘the mystery of lawlessness’ (2 Thessalonians 2:7). The revelation of the man of lawlessness, he further says, is delayed by a restraining power which he refers to in 2 Thessalonians 2:6 as an impersonal influence (τὸ κατέχον) and in 2 Thessalonians 2:7 as an actual person (ὁ κατέχων). From the days of the early Fathers the interpretations of this passage have been exceedingly various. A good summary of the history of previous opinion is given by H. Alford (Gr. Test.5, iii. [1], Proleg., p. 55 ff.), but modern scholars are agreed in holding that the Apostle was speaking of an apocalypse of evil which was only a crowning manifestation of contemporary influences hostile to God and His Kingdom (2 Thessalonians 2:7), and of a restraining power within the knowledge of the Thessalonians themselves (2 Thessalonians 2:6). They are also generally agreed in the view that the two magnitudes which underlay the Apostle’s cryptic language in regard to the man of lawlessness and the restrainer are to be found in Judaism and the Roman Empire as represented by its ruler. But at this point opinion divides into two exactly contradictory theories, each of which is able to point to some favouring considerations in the language used by the Apostle.
(1) According to one theory the man of lawlessness is Roman Imperialism with the Emperor at its head, while the restraining power is Judaism (for a clear and able exposition of this view see B. B. Warfield in Expositor, 3rd ser. iv. [2] 40 ff.). The deification of the Emperors, and especially Caligula’s attempt to set up his statue in the Temple of Jerusalem (cf. E. Schürer, HJP [3] I. ii. [4] 98 ff.), certainly afford a very direct explanation of the language of v. 4 as to the blasphemous pretensions of the man of lawlessness. Moreover, the early history of Christianity suggests that it was part of the Divine plan that the new religion should be developed for a time under the protecting shadow of Judaism as a religio licita. The failure of the Roman authorities at first to distinguish the Church from the Synagogue (cf. Acts 18:14-16) did shelter the former in its days of weakness from the persecuting rage of pagan Imperialism that burst upon it as soon as its separateness and its absolute claims were clearly recognized. But the objection to this theory is that it attributes to St. Paul, whose authorship of 2 Thess. may now be assumed with some confidence, an attitude to Judaism and to Rome respectively which finds no counterpart either in the Thessalonian Epistles or in any other of his writings. It was from Judaism, not from the Empire, that the opposition and persecution he had to encounter as the Apostle of Christianity invariably came (1 Thessalonians 2:14-16; cf. Acts, passim). The philosophic historian may see in Judaism the protective sheath of the opening bud of Christianity; but it was not so that St. Paul regarded it. On the contrary, the language in which he describes its treatment of Christ and the gospel, and his denunciation of the wrath of God upon it (1 Thessalonians 2:15 f.), suggest that the ‘mystery of iniquity’ already at work (2 Thessalonians 2:7) was nothing else than the secret ferment of its own anti-Christian spirit. And Rome with its Emperor could hardly be the man of lawlessness to St. Paul, not only because it had not yet begun to persecute the Church, but because he sincerely respected its authority as a power ordained of God (Romans 13:1-7), and did not hesitate to appeal to Caesar himself against his Jewish enemies (Acts 25:10 f.).
(2) The other and more probable theory, accordingly, takes the man of lawlessness to be anti-Christian Judaism coming to a head in the person of a pseudo-Messiah, and the restraining power to be the Roman Empire personified in the Caesar himself. It is sometimes objected that under this theory an insuperable difficulty is presented by 2 Thessalonians 2:4, as it would be contrary to the rôle of a Jewish Messiah to sit in the Temple of God and set himself forth as God. But this is to overlook the fact that we have to do here with an apocalyptic picture coloured with the language of an OT apocalypse (cf. Daniel 11:36) and influenced by the Antichrist tradition which had been developing in Judaism ever since the days of Antiochus Epiphanes (see article Antichrist, 1). To St. Paul as a Rabbinical scholar the portentous figure of the Jewish Antichrist, Satanic, blasphemous, and God-defying, must have been very familiar. His familiarity with it may be traced not only in the language of Daniel 11:4, but in the references to the Beliar-Satan conception which are present in the passage. In Daniel 11:9 the coming of the man of lawlessness is said to be ‘according to the working of Satan.’ And E. Nestle has pointed out (Expository Times xvi. [5] 472) that on the evidence of the Septuagint and Aquila ἡ ἀποστασία (Daniel 11:3) is a rendering of Heb. בְּלִיַעַל, ὁ ἄνθρωπος τῆς ἀνομίας (Daniel 11:3) of אִישׁ בְּלִיַעַל (‘man of Belial’), and ὁ ἀντικείμενος (Daniel 11:4) of שָׂטָן. The Jewish conception of the Antichrist, not as a mere political figure but as an eschatological monstrosity in the shape of a diabolic opponent of God, St. Paul boldly transfers from the sphere of paganism in which Jewish apocalyptic had placed it, and sets down in the sphere of Judaism itself. Out of Judaism he pictured the Antichrist as coming, though there are features in his representation which imply that the sway of the man of lawlessness would extend far beyond the confines of Judaism-that he would cause an apostasy in the Church (Daniel 11:3), that he would break down the restraining power of the Empire (Daniel 11:7), that he would draw after him a deluded and perishing world (Daniel 11:10-12). In the persistent malevolence of his own race against Christ and the gospel, the Apostle saw the mystery of iniquity working; but he conceived of that malevolence as culminating at length in the appearance of an Antichrist endowed with Satanic and superhuman qualities, who would deceive men by ‘power and signs and lying wonders’ (v. 9ff.; cf. Mark 13:21-23), and whose hostility to the truth of God which brings salvation would reach its climax in the blasphemous claim to be himself Divine. Then Christ would return to a world now ripe for judgment, slaying the lawless one with the breath of His mouth, and bringing him to nought by the manifestation of His coming (v. 8).
Literature.-Besides the references given in the article , and the Literature appended to article Antichrist, see A. Sabatier, The Apostle Paul, Eng. translation , 1891, p. 117 ff.; B. Weiss, Biblical Theology of the NT, Eng. translation , i. [6] 305 ff.; J. Moffatt, The Historical NT, 1901, p. 142 ff., Introd. to Literature of the New Testament (Moffatt)., 1911, p. 76 ff.
J. C. Lambert.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Eternal sin
ETERNAL SIN.—The Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 of Mark 3:29 (αἰωνίου ἁμαρτήματος, so אBL [1] ; C* vid D [2] read ἀμαρτίας); Authorized Version ‘eternal damnation’ (κρίσεως, so Acts 2 [3] ), ‘a strong translation of an incorrect text’ (Morison). It is not surprising that the latter explanation of a difficult word (ἀμάρτημα) should have found its way into the text of some later MSS [4] . As an explanation of the correct text, ‘eternal judgment’—or, as the judgment is clearly adverse, ‘eternal condemnation’—is not without force. It has the merit of emphasizing the essential matter, which any interpretation, to be adequate, must take into account, that an ‘eternal sin’ is a sin which ‘hath never forgiveness.’ But this early gloss is inadequate. There is more than the emphasis of repetition. It is not the penalty of the sin, but its nature, which is declared; not the mere duration of the sin or of the sinning, but the guilt; not eternally sinning, but an eternal sin.
That sin tends to propagate itself is witnessed to by experience, and that continuance in sinning must exclude forgiveness is an essential principle of all moral judgment. Sin and penalty are of necessity coterminous. But unforgiven because unrepented of is true of all sin, and is no adequate explanation of an ‘eternal sin’ which carries the judgment ‘unforgivable.’ The absoluteness of the sentence is already declared in the words ‘hath never forgiveness;’ it is the ultimate ground of this judgment which is further declared.
‘Eternal sin’ finds its contrast and opposite in ‘eternal life,’ which is not simply or characteristically endless life, but essential, perfect life, ‘the life which is life indeed’ (1 Timothy 6:19 Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885), the life of the Kingdom of God (cf. Mark 9:43; Mark 9:45; Mark 9:47 and John 3:3; John 3:5; John 3:15) the life of God (1 John 1:2 Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885). So ‘eternal sin’ is more than ‘sin eternally repeating itself,’ it is a fixed state of sin, sin which has become character, nature, moral death, which is death indeed. But see art. Blasphemy, p. 209b. This is the final revolt of man, free will carried to its ultimate in the defiance of God, a final condition, hopeless and beyond recovery, beyond the reach even of Divine illumination and influence. The writer of the Epistle to the Hebrews certainly contemplates in 6:1–8 the possibility of such fatal apostasy, cf. also 1 John 5:16 ‘sin unto death’ (see Westcott, ad loc.); but neither of these passages appears to the present writer to afford help here.
Two questions must be distinguished—the actuality and the possibility of this state of moral depravity. That the grace of God should prove unavailing is indeed hard to believe, and by many the thought is rejected utterly. Yet there is much in the teaching of Jesus and in human life to justify the fear that this possibility may become an actual fact. The hardening of the heart which follows all unfaithfulness is the witness in human life to what must inevitably result if unfaithfulness is persisted in, a fixed state of spiritual blindness and insensibility. There is a law of degeneration in the moral world as in the natural. But it is in the Scripture doctrine of sin that the full ground of this fear is seen. According to the teaching of Jesus, the measure of responsibility is ‘the light that is in thee’ (Matthew 6:23), and sin is wilful disregard of the light of truth. To be blind is to be without sin; but to those who say ‘we see,’ and yet walk in darkness, ‘sin remaineth’ (John 9:41). So every increase of light brings increased responsibility (John 3:19; John 15:22); and for self-willed deliberate refusal of the Divine grace, refusal not in ignorance or misunderstanding but with full consciousness and choice of will so that the will itself becomes identified with evil, there can only be judgment, not because the Divine compassions fail, but because the redemption, as the Redeemer, is despised and rejected of men. In the final issue the free will of man is valid even against the beseechings of God (John 5:40, Matthew 23:37).
The doom of the finally impenitent is here negatively told: ‘hath never forgiveness’; but that includes the uttermost penalty, exclusion from the Kingdom of the Father, loss of the ‘eternal life.’ This is sin’s last stage and uttermost working; it cuts the soul off from God, its source and life. ‘Sin, when it is full grown, bringeth forth death’ (James 1:15). See, further, art. Sin.
Literature.—The Commentaries on St. Mark; Salmond, Christian Doctrine of Immortality, pp. 306, 493; Row, Future Retribution, p. 254; Bruce, Kingdom of God, p. 319; Wendt, Teaching of Jesus, English translation ii. 87; Stevens, Theology of the NT, p. 102; Expos. ii. iii. [5] p. 321 ff.
W. H. Dyson.
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Unpardonable sin
See SIN, &8.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - sin (2)
SIN.—Sin is personal hostility to the will of God. Christian teaching with regard to it is relative to the facts of the gospel, being necessarily implied by the death of Christ considered as a work of redemption. It is the Christian interpretation of facts of experience, which are independent of any explanation of life, whether offered by theology, philosophy, or scientific theory. Its value is irrespective of the view which historical criticism may suggest of the literature of the OT. Neither is it affected by theories of the organic development of the world or human life derived from modern biological thought. Philosophic systems, monistic or otherwise, cannot be allowed to govern or modify a doctrine which in the first instance can be tested only by relation to beliefs grounded not upon metaphysic, but experience. The Christian will rather hold that a philosophic theory inadequate to the facts of the gospel has been too hastily identified with reality.
1. The gospel never rises above the limits of its first publication as the Kingdom of God (Mark 1:14-15). No doubt the terms are deepened and spiritualized, as well by the subsequent teaching of Jesus (Romans 7:7-254; Luke 19:11, Acts 1:7-8) as by the accomplishment of His atoning work (Luke 24:44-49). But though what might have remained an external and almost physical conception became the manifestation of one eternal life (John 3:15-16, 1 John 1:1-3), nevertheless the Church of the living God (1 Timothy 3:15), the relation of a people of possession to their rightful Lord, King, and Father (Titus 2:14) is constant. Allegiance, faith, sonship are the marks of those who share the membership of this Kingdom. What Jesus the Messiah found was disobedience and disloyalty. Human life, as He was called upon to deal with it, involved subjection to another prince (John 14:30), bondage to another master (John 8:34), ‘sonship’ to another ‘father’ (John 8:44). To the consciousness of Jesus, Satan was present, not as a convenient personification of evil that became actual only in the individual wills of men, but as the author of sin, the person in whom evil has its spring, even as God is the fount of life. Jesus’ sense of dependence upon the Father did not carry with it a monism which saw God in all and all in God. For Him, as for St. John, the whole world lay in the Evil One (1 John 5:19, cf. Luke 4:5-6). His own conflict was with the prince of this world (John 14:30). To be delivered from the Evil One was the converse of being brought into temptation (Matthew 6:13 : the insertion of ἀλλά in Mt., and the absence of the clause in the best Manuscripts of Luke 11:4 suggest that it is correlative to the preceding clause, representing the same act differently). He had seen Satan fallen as lightning from heaven (Luke 10:18). Over against the Kingdom of God was the kingdom of Satan (Matthew 12:26-28; Matthew 16:27; Matthew 25:41, cf. Revelation 16:10). The drama of human life was accomplished in presence of this already existing dualism. Christ assumes the current Hebrew conception of a world of spiritual personalities under the leadership of Beelzebub (Luke 11:14-26). The stampede of the swine at Gerasa witnesses to their control, within the limits of Divine permission, over natural forces (Mark 5:13). Physical disease results from Satan’s bondage (Luke 13:16). Possession by demons is an abnormal case of its influence over human beings (e.g. Mark 9:20-22). And all opposition to the purpose of God is inspired by Satan (John 8:42-47). The Jews were of their father the devil, so that the works wrought by them were antithetic to the works of God manifested in Jesus (John 8:44). Even the chosen Twelve Satan had asked to have, that he might sift them as wheat (Luke 22:31). So the Passion was a continuation of the Temptation, a direct agony and death-struggle wherein the prince of this world was cast out (John 12:31; John 16:11), the strong man spoiled (Luke 11:21).
From the first the proclamation of the good news, accompanied as it was with the curing of diseases and the casting out of demons (Matthew 10:7-8, Luke 9:1-2), witnessed to the real character of Christ’s work asredemption, ransom, and salvation. For the true unification between the normal and universal purpose of the gospel—the forgiveness of sins—and the occasional and particular accessories of it—exorcism and healing—lay not so much in the analogy between bodily disease and spiritual wickedness, as in the fact that both are the exercise of the one Satanic power within the usurped kingdom of evil. No doubt there is a certain suggestiveness in the parallel between disease and sin, which Jesus Himself recognized. But there is nothing in His teaching to suggest the later ideas of taint, infection, vitiated nature. It is trespasses which the Heavenly Father must do away, and that by forgiveness (Matthew 6:15); salvation from sins (Matthew 1:21), i.e. actions involving guilt, is implied by the name Jesus (see art. Guilt). The bringing forth of the people from Pharaoh’s bondage to serve Jehovah is the ancient experience which is before the mind of devout men under the old covenant as the pattern of the deliverance which Messiah was to accomplish (Matthew 2:15, cf. Hosea 11:1). Salvation is therefore not the restoration of spiritual health, but the liberation of God’s people from an evil service. The ministry of the Son of Man consists in giving His life a ransom (Mark 10:45, James 1:13-14; cf. 1 Timothy 2:6). And the Fourth Evangelist only interprets the mind of the Master when he speaks of Jesus as dying for the nation, and destined to gather together into one the scattered children of God (John 11:51-52). He was the shepherd bringing home the lost sheep dispersed upon the mountains (John 10:16); or, somewhat to vary the idea, the Redeemer coming into the world, not to judge it along with its prince, but to save it from the Evil One (John 3:17-18, John 12:31; John 12:47, John 17:15), and casting out the indwelling Satan by the finger or Spirit of God (Luke 11:20). The acceptable year of the Lord is a year of release (Luke 4:18-19).
2. From the implications of the Gospel narrative we pass to the theology of the Epistles. In order togain a clear view of St. Paul’s doctrine of sin in its completeness, it is necessary to go behind the Epistle to the Romans. We must bear in mind, first of all, the essentially Jewish basis of his thought. To him salvation, or redemption, carried all the associations which had gathered round it in Hebrew history. The Kingdom of Messiah was a vivid reality, and the earlier Epistles show that at first he was not without the common anticipation of its immediate establishment in manifested power. Satan was a concrete fact. If at one time it was the Spirit of Jesus that suffered him not (Acts 16:7), at another Satan hindered him (1 Thessalonians 2:18). The thorn in the flesh was a messenger of Satan (2 Corinthians 12:7). The Christian is armed in order to ward off the fiery darts of the Evil One (Ephesians 6:16). Principalities and powers were the unseen antagonists of Christ’s servants (Ephesians 6:12, cf. Luke 22:53), the enemies over whom Christ triumphed in the Cross (Colossians 2:15). If Messiah was to be manifested at the Parousia, Satan was also destined to be manifested in the Man of Sin (2 Thessalonians 2:3-11). A remarkable parallel to the conception of ‘the Evil One,’ which appears both in the Synoptics and in the Fourth Gospel, is found in ‘the prince of the power of the air’ (Ephesians 2:2). The same passage describes those who become sons of God as by nature children of wrath (Ephesians 2:3), dead not in sin but through trespasses (Ephesians 2:5), sons of disobedience because inwrought by this evil spirit (Titus 3:4-8). Demons are as much part of St. Paul’s world as of that which appears in the Synoptists. He identifies them with the heathen gods (1 Corinthians 10:20-21). Belial is the antithesis of Christ (2 Corinthians 6:15). To lapse from Christian conduct is to turn aside after Satan (1 Timothy 5:15); to be separated from Christian fellowship is to be delivered to Satan (1 Corinthians 5:5, 1 Timothy 1:20). And that redemption meant primarily for St. Paul translation from the kingdom of Satan to the Kingdom of God (Colossians 1:13), is attested by the form in which he narrates before Agrippa the story of his commission as Apostle of the Gentiles (Acts 26:18). All this is in close correspondence with the mind of Jesus, and must be brought with us to a closer examination of the Pauline doctrine of sin.
That sin is essentially disloyalty to God is the substance of the locus classicus on the nature of sin, Romans 1:18-32 ‘Knowing God, they glorified him not as God, neither gave thanks’ (Romans 1:21). It will be observed, first, that the Apostle here speaks of sin in its widest signification, including such distinctions as are involved in the theological conceptions of original and actual. We have here, therefore, a definition of sin which must govern all subsequent uses of the term. All the elements which enter into particular sins, or transgressions of known law, are represented—knowledge of God and dependence upon Him (Romans 1:20), wilful and therefore inexcusable refusal of due homage (Romans 1:21), the incurring of guilt and consequently of God’s wrath (Revelation 20:2-3). Further, it is noticeable that the plural ‘men,’ not the collective ‘man,’ is used throughout the passage. There is nothing abstract in this general view of sin, even though it be universal (cf. ‘all sinned,’ Romans 5:12; ‘all died,’ 2 Corinthians 5:14). Another point is, that St. Paul is led to disclose this ‘vision of sin’ as the necessary postulate of the gospel (Romans 1:16-18), in which is revealed a righteousness of God’ (Romans 1:17, Romans 3:21). Lastly, there is no confusion, as in the popular mind, between those physical excesses which are called vice, and the inward refusal ‘to have God in their knowledge’ (Romans 3:28), whether it applies to the sensuous or the spiritual nature of men, which alone is sin. ‘God gave them up unto a reprobate mind’ (Romans 3:28), with all its consequences to the complex personality of man. This is of great significance. St. Paul’s appeal is not to the equivocal testimony of external facts, which considered in themselves are non-moral, but to facts as interpreted by conscience. Fundamentally this is the appeal to personal experience, and it is clear from the Epistle to the Romans, as from the whole Pauline theology, that the Apostle is universalizing his own experience, as he saw himself in the light of the vision of Jesus of Nazareth (Galatians 1:11-17, 1635336367_19).
Now St. Paul expresses his relation to sin in the phrase ‘sin dwelleth in me’ (Romans 7:17). He is describing the common experience of an inward struggle, when neither good nor evil is finally in the ascendant. The complete sinful condition would be one of consent (Romans 1:32, 2 Thessalonians 2:12), in which ‘the law of sin’ was unchecked by ‘the law of the mind’ (Romans 7:23, Galatians 5:17). The terms must not be misunderstood in view of the modern conception of scientific law, ‘Law’ in St. Paul’s theology involves the personality of the lawgiver, so that to find this ‘law in the members’ (Romans 7:23), to be inwrought by sin, seems to point to an indwelling spiritual presence. Is this a mere figure? St. Paul reverts to it in a still more significant form. Christians are not to let sin reign in their mortal bodies (Romans 6:12). Compliance with evil involves an obedience (Romans 6:16), a slavery (Romans 6:17). There is a close parallel between those who, as alive in Christ Jesus, are servants of God, and those who being dead in trespasses serve sin (Romans 6:15-23). Two hostile kingdoms, two rival loyalties, make their claim upon a man’s allegiance. So, when under the form of ‘Adam’s transgression,’ sin is considered in its universal aspect (Romans 5:14), a personal sovereignty is again suggested—‘death,’ i.e. sin in its consequent development, ‘reigned through the one’ (Romans 5:17). The effect of Adam’s transgression is represented as the establishment of an authority (cf. 1 Corinthians 15:24, Ephesians 2:2; Ephesians 6:12, Colossians 1:13) over his descendants rather than as a corruption of their nature, carrying with it therefore condemnation (Romans 5:16; see art. Guilt) as the due sentence of God upon those who reject His law. This personal embodiment of hostility to the Divine law and government, in view of St. Paul’s general outlook on the spiritual world, can be none other than Satan, exercising, as captain of ‘spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly places’ (Ephesians 6:12), not an external compulsion but an inward influence, not therefore impairing the responsible personalities that are indwelt. Thus St. Paul can say, ‘Death passed unto all men, for that all sinned (Romans 5:12). Sin is always a personal attitude, never a pathological condition. Death is its consequence (Romans 5:12), but the physical analogy of St. James (Romans 1:15) has no parallel in St. Paul. It is always the sentence, punishment, or wages (Romans 6:23; see art. Guilt), the sequel to the righteous judgment of God (Romans 2:5). So, too, salvation is not a remedy for mortal disease, but a personal act of kindness and mercy on the part of an offended but loving God (Ephesians 1:5-10; Ephesians 2:7, Ephesians 2:2). Looking to the state from which men are rescued, it is redemption (Galatians 3:13; Galatians 4:5); looking to that into which they are brought, it is reconciliation (Romans 5:10-11; Romans 11:15, 2 Corinthians 5:18-19). Both involve the personal action of the Father’s loving will, whereby He chooses to forgive the past and bring back His children into fellowship with Himself (Romans 5:3-8, Colossians 1:19-22; cf. 1 Peter 3:18). As applied to the individual, this is justification (Romans 3:24; Romans 4:25; Romans 5:9 al.), which represents not a process of renewal, but an amnesty extended to the sinner. What Christ slew by the Cross was the enmity (Ephesians 2:15-16). Its effect, therefore, is not an infused righteousness, but a free pardon whereby sins are no longer reckoned (Romans 4:7-8, 2 Corinthians 5:19).
3. The rest of the NT is in general agreement with St. Paul. St. James, though he speaks of sin as the intermediate stage between lust and death (James 1:15), yet by the very figure used to describe their relationship, clearly recognizes that all three are essentially the same in kind. Lust is not animal impulse but undeveloped sin. The sinner is one who has committed sins (James 5:15), which may be covered by repentance (James 5:20) and forgiven in answer to prayer (James 5:15). Sins, therefore, are personal transgressions against God, which, if unremitted, involve judgment (James 5:12), a personal condemnation and sentence on the part of the Judge (James 4:12, James 5:9). Lust is not even a pathological condition of the will. It has the nature of sin, being not a result of ignorance, but essentially a personal determination of will. This is more clearly brought out by the assertion that lust, not God, is the tempter (Matthew 20:28), which suggests the presence of an evil will, the source of that friendship of the world which is enmity against God (James 4:4), taking occasion of the natural passions and desires of men to influence spiritually the human personality. The wisdom which cometh down from above is set over against a wisdom which is devilish (James 3:15; James 3:18; James 3:17).
St. Peter, while he speaks of fleshly lusts that war against the soul (1 Peter 2:11), is even more emphatic than St. James in his recognition of the personality of evil. Sin is part of a man’s activity, a vain manner of life from which we are redeemed by the blood of Him who bore our sins, i.e. our actual transgressions, that He might bring us to God (1 Peter 1:18-19, 1 Peter 2:24, 1 Peter 3:18). For the redeemed Christian it still exists in the person of God’s enemy, who is now the adversary of God’s people also, seeking once more to draw them away from their allegiance (1 Peter 5:8).
St. John, with his profounder insight, gives to the doctrine of sin what is perhaps the widest and most comprehensive sweep in the NT. ‘Sin is lawlessness’ (1 John 3:4). This sentence, with its coextensive subject and predicate, is all but a definition. It recognizes no distinction in kind between ‘sin’ and ‘sins,’ which are practically interchangeable in the Johannine writings. If the Lamb of God ‘taketh away the sin of the world’ (John 1:29, Vulgate peccata mundi), the Son is manifested ‘to take away sins’ (1 John 3:5). If the blood cleanseth from all sin (1 John 1:7), Jesus Christ is the propitiation for our sins (1 John 2:2). The cleansing is sacrificial (ἱλασμός), implying personal dealings with God. It is therefore forgiveness of sins which those for whom it is prevalent receive (1 John 1:9, 1 John 2:12). St John does not speak of sin as a state. Doing sin is opposed to doing righteousness (1 John 3:4; 1 John 3:7-8). ‘In him is no sin’ (1 John 3:5) is equivalent to ‘Which of you convicteth me of sin?’ (John 8:46, cf. 1 Peter 2:22),—a clear record rather than a perfect state. That which abides in him who believes in the name of Jesus (1 John 3:23) is the love of the Father, a personal relation having been established which is opposed to the love of the world (1 John 2:15-16). Here, however, is no condemnation of the natural impulses or of matter. That Jesus Christ is come in the flesh to save the world is St. John’s cardinal doctrine (1 John 4:2, 2 John 1:7). But, as with St. James and St. Peter, it is lust, and the corruption that is in the world through lust, which constitute the bondage from which men need deliverance (1 John 2:16; 1 John 5:4-5). What then is lust? That is the point at which St John’s whole view opens out before us. The Fourth Gospel has recorded the prayer of Christ for His disciples, not that they should be taken from the world, but that they might be kept from the Evil One (John 17:15); and also His condemnation of the Jews because, continuing in the bondage of sin, it was their will to do the lusts not of their body, but of their father the devil (John 8:44). And the Apocalypse unfolds the mystery of iniquity in language fully accordant with the view of sin implied in the Gospel. The old serpent the devil (Revelation 12:9; Revelation 20:2) deceives the whole world (Revelation 12:9, Revelation 20:2; Revelation 20:10), having power (δύναμις, Revelation 13:2) and even authority (ἐξουσία, Revelation 13:4; cf. Luke 4:6) over the nations, manifesting his rule in the mystic Babylon (Revelation 16:19; Revelation 17:1-6), and the kingdom of the beast (13 passim), until He who is the Alpha and Omega, having by His angel sealed the servants of God (Revelation 7:2-3), brings in the final salvation, the Kingdom of God and the authority of His Christ (Revelation 12:10). St. John’s last word is written in the First Epistle. Behind human history is the devil, ‘who sinneth from the beginning’ (1 John 3:8). The explanation of human sin, therefore, is the relation of the world to this spirit. ‘The whole world lieth in the evil one’ (1 John 5:19). To be begotten of God (1 John 3:9), who is light (1 John 1:5), truth (1 John 5:20), and love (1 John 4:8), is a reversal of those relations described as being ‘of the devil’ (1 John 3:8), who is a murderer and liar (John 8:44), and the power of darkness (1 John 2:11; cf. Luke 22:53, Acts 26:18). Philosophically, there can be little doubt that St. John is content with a dualism, which he is not concerned to resolve, starting as he does from the facts of experience (1 John 1:1; 1 John 4:14; cf. John 19:35). Though evil is antithetic to good, it is not in a Platonic sense as non-being (τὸ μὴ ὄν). The problem is approached from the positive and concrete standpoint of personality. Though God is indeed the beginning and the end (Revelation 1:8; Revelation 21:6; Revelation 22:13), yet a similar phrase is used in speaking of the author of evil as in describing the Word (1 John 3:8; 1 John 1:1): both are ‘from the beginning.’ The final triumph, though complete, is represented symbolically as the imprisonment (Romans 1:18; Revelation 20:7; sin
The sinful state of a soul resulting from actual sin. After the act of sin has been accomplished, the soul remains in a state of aversion from God. This state, considered as destroying the due order of man to God, is habitual sin or guilt (reatus culpae); considered as depriving the soul of the beauty of grace, it is a stain (macula peccati). This sinful state is imputable to the sinner because it follows from a voluntary sinful act. It remains until satisfaction is made.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - sin
City in Egypt: the LXX has Σάι>ς, and the Vulgate (as in the margin), Pelusium. Ezekiel calls it 'the strength of Egypt.' Ezekiel 30:15,16 . It is supposed to be identified with the modern Tineh, where a few ruins are found. It is close to the Pelusiac mouth of the Nile, about 31 4' N, 32 28' E .
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - sin
The Hebrews had in use several words by way of expressing the nature of sin; in the diversities of it. But the truth is, that sin doth not consist in this, or in that act of it, for the acts of sin are but the branches; the root is within: so that strictly and properly speaking, in the fallen and corrupt nature of man, sin itself is alike in every son and daughter of Adam. And that it doth not break out alike in all is not from any difference in the nature of man, but in the power of the divine restraints. If this doctrine, which is wholly Scriptural, were but thoroughly and fully understood by all men, what humbling views would it induce in all, and how endeared to all would be the person, blood, and righteousness of the Lord Jesus Christ! I beg to leave this on the reader's mind.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - sin (1)
(See EXODUS.) Pelusium (Ezekiel 30:15-16), the strength of Egypt, its frontier fortress on the N.E. in contrast to No or Thebes at the far S. of Egypt. From sin , "muddy," as Ρelusium comes from flos "mud," "day." So the Arab Τeeneh from teen , "mud." But Lepsius explains Pelusium the Philistine town, the last held by the shepherd dynasty (?). A Sallier papyrus records a great battle at Sin between Rameses and the Sheta; here too was the alleged deliverance of Sethos from Sennacherib, mice gnawing by night the Assyrians' bowstrings and shield straps. Herodotus says that Sethos' statue with a mouse in his hands stood in Vulcan's temple, and an inscription, "look on me and learn to reverence the gods." Ezekiel's prophecy "Sin shall have great pain" was fulfilled in the Persian Cambyses' great cruelty to the Egyptians after conquering Psammenitus near Pelusium. Ochus here defeated Nectanebos, the last native king.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - sin Offering
(See SACRIFICE; ATONEMENT; LEPROSY.) As chatteth , hamartia , is the "sin offering", so asham (implying "negligence"), lutron , is the "trespass offering". (See SIN.) The trespass offering was a forfeit for the violated rights of others, whether of Jehovah as head of the nation or of a fellow man. It related to the consequence of sin more immediately than to sin itself in the sinner's heart. Its connection with the consecration of the leper, and reconsecration of the Nazarite, expressed the share each has in sin's consequences, disease, death, and consequent defilement (Leviticus 5:14; Leviticus 5:14; Leviticus 5:15). It was less connected with the conscience than the sin offering (Leviticus 4:3). There was no graduation of offerings according to the worshipper's circumstances. It was accompanied with pecuniary fine, one fifth besides the value of the injury done, in fact "fine offerings" (Numbers 5:5-8). None of the blood was put on the altar horns, as in the sin offering. The victim was a ram instead of a female sheep or goat.
In Isaiah 53:10 translated "when His soul shall have made an offering for sin" (asham , a "trespass offering", Matthew 20:28, "a ransom for many," lutron anti polloon ), He voluntarily laying down His life (John 10:17-18; Ephesians 5:2; Hebrews 9:14). (On the ceremonies of the Day of Atonement. see DAY OF ATONEMENT.) The later Jews, instead of setting the scape-goat free in the wilderness, led it to a high precipice called Sook ("narrow") and dashed it down. This was done to avoid the recurrence of what once occurred, namely, the scape-goat came back to Jerusalem, which was thought a bad omen. Lieut. Conder has discovered the spot, the hill el Muntar, half a mile beyond the well of Suk beside the ancient road from Jerusalem. The ridge still is named Ηadeidun , answering to the Hebrew name of the district, Ηidoodin ("sharp").
A tabernacle was erected at every space of 2,000 cubits, to evade the law of the Sabbath day's journey, for they led the scape-goat out on the Sabbath; after eating bread and drinking water the conductor of the goat could go on to the next tabernacle; ten stages were thus made between Seek and Jerusalem, in all six and a half miles to el Muntar, from whence the conductor caught the first sight of the great desert. Beside the well probably was the tenth tabernacle, to which he returned after precipitating the goat, and where he sat until sundown, when he might return to Jerusalem. (Palestine Exploration Quarterly Statement, July 1878, p. 118). Sins of ignorance, rather of inadvertence. Ecclesiastes 5:6; Ecclesiastes 10:5; Hebrews 9:7, "errors," Greek "sins of ignorance." Leviticus 4:2, in contrast to presumptuous sins entailing (ipso facto, whether the crime incurred civil punishment or not) the being cut off (Numbers 15:22-30; Psalms 19:12-13; Hebrews 10:26-27; Proverbs 2:13-15; Exodus 31:14; Leviticus 7:20; Matthew 12:31; 1 John 5:16; Acts 3:17; Ephesians 4:18; 1 Peter 1:14; Luke 12:48).
Whyte's Dictionary of Bible Characters - Paul as Sold Under sin
AS often as my attentive bookseller sends me "on approval" another new commentary on the Romans I immediately turn to the seventh chapter. And if the commentator sets up a man of straw in the seventh chapter, I immediately shut the book. I at once send back the book and say, No, thank you. That is not the man for my hard-earned money. Just as Paul himself would have scornfully sent back the same book with this message to its author-If I have told you earthly things, and you have so misunderstood me, how shall I trust you to interpret my heavenly things? No, thank you, I say, as I send back the soon-sampled book. But send me for my students as many Luthers on the Galatians as you can lay your hands on, and as many Marshalls on Sanctification, in order that they may one day be preachers after Paul's own heart. But no, not that blind leader of the blind.
It is an old canon of interpretation that Paul alone is his own true interpreter. And the true student will take the canon down. Non, nisi ex ipso Paulo, Paulum potes interpretari. That is to say-There is no other possible interpreter of Paul, in all the world of interpretation, but only Paul himself. And I have come upon two other exegetical rules that have had the most profound results out of this present text; "the right context is half the interpretation." And this out of the same incomparable interpreter of Paul-"If a man would open up Paul, let him do it rationally. Let him consider well the Apostle's own words both before the text and after it." Now when we take Paul in this present text as speaking seriously and not in a sacred jest; and then when we take the whole context, we get an interpretation altogether worthy of Paul; altogether worthy of the depth and strength and majesty of the Epistle to the Romans; altogether worthy of the grace of God, and of the blood of Jesus Christ, as, also, altogether worthy of the Holy Ghost. Then the seventh of the Romans becomes henceforth to us, what it most certainly is, the most terrible tragedy in all literature, ancient or modern, sacred or profane. Set beside the seventh of the Romans all your so-called great tragedies-your Macbeths, your Hamlets, your Lears, your Othellos, are all but so many stage-plays: so much sound and fury, signifying next to nothing when set alongside this awful tragedy of sin in a soul under a supreme sanctification. The seventh of the Romans should always be printed in letters of blood. Here are passions. Here are terror and pity. Here heaven and hell meet, as nowhere else in heaven or hell; and that too for their last grapple together for the everlasting possession of that immortal soul, till you have a tragedy indeed; and, beside which, there is no other tragedy. Only, as Luther says, give not such strong wine to a sucking child.
"Did I see," says Dr. Newman, "a boy of good make and mind, with the tokens on him of a refined nature, cast upon the world without provision, unable to say whence he came, unable to tell us his birthplace, or his family connections, I should conclude that there was some sad secret connected with his history." And did I hear or read of a man of refined mind, and of great nobility of nature that nothing could obliterate, and, withal, a truly Christian man; did I read or hear of such a man held in captivity by some vile, cruel, cannibal tribe in South America, or Central Africa, I would feel sure that he had a tale to tell that would harrow my heart. I would not need to be told by pen and ink the inconsolable agony of that man's heart. I could picture to myself that poor captive's utter wretchedness. I could see him making desperate attempts to escape his horrible captivity, only to be overtaken and dragged back to a still more cruel bondage. And were that captive able by some secret and extraordinary providence to send home to this country so much as a single page out of his dreadful life, it would scarcely be believed, so far past all imagination of free men at home would be his incoherent outcries. But all that would be but a school-boy's story-book beside this agonised outcry of a great saint of God sold under sin. Yes, a great saint of God. For no soul of man is sold under sin to such an agony as this who is not, all the time, a heaven-born and a holy man: holy almost as God is holy. This is the slavery of the spirit in a supremely spiritual man: a slavery past all imagination of the commonplace Christian mind. You see that in the incredulous, uncomprehending, and utterly misunderstanding way, in which Paul's agonised outbursts are sometimes stumbled at, even by some of our masters in Israel.
And no wonder, for the most complete and cruel captivity, the most utter and hopeless slavery you ever heard of, falls far short of being sold under sin. There is a depth of misery in being so sold there is a bleak and blank hopelessness in being so sold: nay, there is a certain self-revenging admission of justice in being so sold, that all goes to make up this uttermost agony of the self-sold slave. For he was not taken in honourable battle. He was not suddenly surprised and swept away into all this terrible captivity against his own will, and against all that he could do to resist and to escape. No. The gnashing agony of his heart all his days will be because he so sold himself. This will be the deepest bitterness of his bitterest cup. This will be the cruellest rivet of his most galling chain. And then to be sold under sin! The vilest and cruellest savage chief who makes God's earth the devil's hell to himself and others, is not sin. Sin has made him what he is, and it has made his slaves and his victims what they are; but both his cruelty and their misery fall far short of the full cruelty and the full misery of sin. Sin could bring forth ten thousand hells like that, and it could still go on bringing forth as many more. Sin is sin. And the true saint of God feels that in his heart of hearts, till he scarce feels anything else. Till what all the whole life of a true saint sold under sin can be made in its agony, you may read in the seventh of the Romans; unless you have such an agony in your own bosom that the seventh of the Romans sounds flat and tame beside it. "What I hate, that do I!" Oh, no! That is no man of straw. That is no studied artifice of Pauline rhetoric. That is no young Pharisee. Oh, no, that is Paul the aged himself. That is the holy Apostle himself in all his unapproached holiness. Tragedies! Tragedies of hatred and of revenge! If you would see hatred and revenge red-hot, and poured, not on the head of a hated enemy, but, what I have never read in any of your stage-tragedies, poured in all its redhotness in upon a man's own heart; if you would see the true hatred and the true revenge, come to this New Testament theatre. Come to Paul for a right tragic author. Or far better, come to holiness and heavenly-mindedness yourself, and then you will have this whole agony enacted in your own heart; and that with more and more passion in your heart, all the days of your life on this hateful earth. My brethren, if you will believe me, there is nothing in heaven or on earth, there is nothing in God or in man, that from my youth up I have read more about, or thought more about, than just this text and its two contexts. And if the above interpretation is not the true interpretation of this text, then I must just admit to you in the very words of St. Augustine-"I confess that I am entirely in the dark as to what the Apostle meant when he wrote this chapter." Only, I will add this. Unless Paul contradicts me himself, not all his commentators on the face of the earth will ever convince me that this seventh of the Romans is not to be taken seriously, but is to be taken as filled with the spiritual experiences of a man of straw.
Now this is another sure rule of interpretation that whatsoever things were written aforetime were written for our learning, that we through patience and comfort of the Scriptures might have hope. And eminently to my mind the seventh of the Romans was written that those who need the very greatest patience and the very strongest comfort and consolation, may have all that here. And in this way. If even Paul was sold under sin: if even Paul when writing the Romans was still carnal: if he that very day had said and done and thought and felt what he would not if he could have helped it: if he hated himself for what came up upon him out of his heart even with his inspired pen in his hand: if sin still dwelt in him, till in his flesh there dwelt no good thing: and, then, if we delight in the law of God after the inward man, as he did: even if we find another law, as we every moment do find it, warring against the law of our mind, and bringing us into captivity to the law of sin, till we cry without ceasing, O wretched man that I am! and if all the time we thank God through Jesus Christ our Lord, and walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit till there is therefore no condemnation to us-if all that is so, I would like you to tell me where I can find another chapter so full of the profoundest, surest, most spiritual, and most experimental, comfort. I have not found it. I do not know it, much as I need it. No. In its own wonderful way there is not a more comfortable and hopeful Scripture in all the Book of God than this. And for my part, I will not let any commentator of any school; no, not even of my own school, steal from me this most noble, and most divinely suited, cordial for my broken heart. As long as I am sold under sin I will continue to read continually this chapter, and all its context-chapters to myself, as all sent not to a man made of straw, but to a man made of sin, till he is every day sold under sin. "It was the saying of a good man, lately gone to his rest, whose extended pilgrimage was ninety-three years, that he must often have been swallowed up by despair, had it not been for the seventh chapter of Paul's Epistle to the Romans."
But if for the comfort and consolation of some men, this very same Scripture is written for the warning and admonition of other men. And I accordingly admonish you, as many as need this admonition, and will take it at my hands, not to praise yourselves because you are not yet sold under sin. "Don't speak to me," said Duncan Matheson on the market-square of Huntly to David Elginbrod, "I am a rotten hypocrite." "Ah, Duncan man," said old David, laying his hand on his friend's shoulder, "they never say Fauch! i' the grave." And Holy Writ itself says that where no oxen are, the crib is clean. My brother, do not boast that you do not know what it is to be sold under sin, and that you do not believe it about Paul either. A born slave, with a slave's heart, and a slave's habits, never complains that he is a slave. He knows nothing else. He knows nothing better. He wishes nothing more than that his ear be bored for ever to his master's door. Only a free-born, and a nobly-born, man, and a man who has been carried away captive, ever cries continually, O wretched man that I am! The Talmud-men denied the sinfulness of their sinful hearts as indignantly as any of you can deny yours. And they interpreted the sixty-sixth Psalm to their scholars in the same way that some commentators interpret the seventh of the Romans. "If I regard iniquity in my heart only, then the Lord will pass it by, and will not regard it," so they taught their scholars.
But to return once more to the inexhaustible comfort of this text, and then close. There is no shame and no pain in all this world of shame and pain for one moment to compare with the shame and the pain of the seventh of the Romans, as you do not need me to tell you, if you have that pain and shame in your own heart. But lift up your head, for it is to you and not to any other man, that God speaks in His holy prophet and says: "For your shame you shall have double. And for your confusion of face you shall yet rejoice in your portion. Therefore in your land you shall possess the double, and everlasting joy shall be unto you." Agrippa was shut up in a cruel and shameful prison for Gaius's sake; but no sooner did Gaius ascend the throne than he had his friend instantly released and conferred upon him an office both of riches and renown. Moreover Gaius presented Agrippa with a chain of gold of double the weight with the chain of iron that he had worn in the prison for Gaius's sake. And so has Paul's Emperor done long ago to Paul. And so will He do before very long to you. To you, that is, who are now sold under sin for His sake. You will soon hear His voice speaking in anger to your jailors at your prison door and saying how displeased He is over all your affliction. And He will bring you forth with His own hand like Gaius; and for all your shame and pain He will bestow upon you double, with a chain of salvation round your neck that will make you forget all the sad years of your sold captivity.
He comes the prisoners to releaseIn Satan's bondage held,The gates of brass before him burst,The iron fetters yield.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Confession (of sin)
CONFESSION (of sin).—In the OT a large place is given to the confession of sin, as being the necessary expression of true penitence and the condition at the same time of the Divine forgiveness. Witness the provisions of the Mosaic ritual (Leviticus 5:3 ff.), the utterances of the penitential and other psalms (e.g. Psalms 32:5; Psalms 51:3 ff.), and prayers like those of Ezra (Ezra 10:1), Nehemiah (Nehemiah 1:6-7), and Daniel (Daniel 9:4 ff., Daniel 9:20). It may surprise us at first to find that in the Gospels the confession of sin is expressly named on only one occasion, and that in connexion with the ministry of John the Baptist (ἐξομολογούμενοι τὰς ἁμαρτίας αὐτῶν, Matthew 3:6, Mark 1:5). But apart from the use of the actual phrase, we shall see that the Gospel narratives take full account of the confession of sin, and that, as in the OT, confession is recognized both as the necessary accompaniment of repentance and as the indispensable condition of forgiveness and restoration to favour, whether human or Divine. There are three topics which call for notice: (1) confession of sin to God; (2) confession of sin to man; (3) Christ’s personal attitude to the confession of sin.
1. Confession of sin to God.—It is to God that all confession of sin is primarily due, sin being in its essential nature a transgression of Divine law (cf. Psalms 51:4). And in the teaching and ministry of Jesus the duty of confession to God is fully recognized. Our Lord begins His ministry with a call to repentance (Matthew 4:17, Mark 1:15). In the midst of His public career He characterizes the generation to which He appealed as an evil generation because of its unwillingness to repent (Luke 11:29; Luke 11:32). Among His last words on earth was His declaration that the universal gospel was to be a gospel of repentance and remission of sins (Luke 24:47). And as confession is inseparable from true penitence, being the form which the latter instinctively and inevitably takes in its approaches to God, we may say that all through His public ministry, by insisting upon the need of repentance, Jesus taught the necessity of the confession of sin.
But besides this we have from His lips a good deal of direct teaching on the subject. The prayer which He gave His disciples as a pattern for all prayer includes a petition for forgiveness (Matthew 6:12, Luke 11:4); and such a petition is equivalent, of course, to a confession of sin. In the parable of the Prodigal Son the prodigal’s first resolution ‘when he came to himself’ was to go to his father and acknowledge his sin (Luke 15:17-18); and his first words on meeting him were the frank and humble confession, ‘Father, I have sinned’ (Luke 15:21). The parable of the Pharisee and the Publican, again, hinges upon this very matter of the acknowledgment of sin and unworthiness. It was the total absence of the element of confession from the Pharisee’s prayer, and the presence instead of a self-satisfied and self-exalting spirit, that made his prayer of no effect in the sight of God; while it was the publican’s downcast eyes, his smitten breast, his cry, ‘God be merciful to me a sinner!’ that sent him down to his house ‘justified rather than the other’ (Luke 18:10-14; cf. the words of Zacchaeus, another publican, Luke 19:8).
Under this head may be included one or two cases of confession of sin to Christ. When Peter cries, ‘Depart from me; for I am a sinful man, O Lord’ (Luke 5:8), and when the sinful woman in the house of the Pharisee silently makes confession to Jesus as she washes His feet with her tears (Luke 7:37-38), it is too much to say of these confessions, in Pliny’s language (Ep. x. 96) with regard to the hymn-singing of the early Christians, that they were offered ‘to Christ as to God.’ But they were certainly made to one who was felt to be raised above the life of sinful humanity, and to be the representative on earth of the purity and grace of the heavenly Father.* [1]
2. Confession of sin to man.—According to the teaching of Christ and the Gospels, confession of sin should be made not only to God but to man, and, in particular, to any one whom we have wronged. In Matthew 5:23-24 confession to a justly offended brother is directly enjoined; and more than that, it is implied that the very gifts laid on God’s altar are shorn of their value if such confession has not first been made. In Luke 17:4 again, our own forgiveness of an offender is made to depend on his coming and confessing, ‘I repent.’ But apart from this confession to the person wronged, a wider and more public confession of sin meets us in the Gospels. The necessity of such confession is implied, for instance, in our Lord’s denunciations of hypocrisy—in His condemnation of the life of false pretence (Matthew 23:14); of the cup and platter outwardly clean, while inwardly full of extortion and excess (Matthew 23:25); of the whited sepulchres fair to look at, though festering with rottenness within (Matthew 23:27). It is implied similarly in His frequent commendation of simplicity and single-mindedness, and honest truth in the sight both of God and man (cf. Matthew 6:22-23; Matthew 7:3-5; Matthew 8:8; Matthew 9:13).
It seems to be recognized in the Gospels that acknowledgment of sin to man as well as to God has a cleansing power upon the soul. There may, of course, be a confession that is spiritually fruitless, to which men are urged not by the godly sorrow of true repentance, but by the goads of sheer remorse and despair. Of this nature was the confession of Judas to the chief priests and elders (Matthew 27:4, cf. v. 5). On the other hand, the confession of the penitent thief to all who heard him (Luke 23:41) was the beginning of that swift work of grace which was accomplished in his heart through the influence of Jesus. It illustrates George Eliot’s words, ‘The purifying influence of public confession springs from the fact that by it the hope in lies is for ever swept away, and the soul recovers the noble attitude of simplicity’ (Romola, p. 87).
3. Christ’s personal attitude to the confession of sin.—That our Lord never made confession to man, and never felt the need of doing so, is sufficiently shown by His challenge, ‘Which of you convicteth me of sin?’ (John 8:46). But did He make confession of sin to God? The fact that John’s baptism was ‘the baptism of repentance’ (Mark 1:4 ||), and that the people ‘were baptized of him in Jordan, confessing their sins’ (Matthew 3:6), together with the further fact that Jesus Himself came to the Jordan to be baptized (Matthew 3:13, Mark 1:9, Luke 3:21), might be so interpreted. But against such an interpretation must be set the attitude of John both when Jesus first came to him (Matthew 3:14) and afterwards (John 1:29), the language of Jesus to the Baptist (Matthew 3:15), the descent of the Spirit (Matthew 3:16), and the voice from heaven (Matthew 3:17). The baptism of John, we must remember, had more than one aspect: it was not only the baptism of repentance, but the baptism of preparation for the approaching kingdom of heaven (Matthew 3:2) and of consecration to its service (Luke 3:10-14). It is not as an act of confession, but as one of self-consecration (including, it may be, an element of sympathetic self-humiliation, cf. Philippians 2:8), that the baptism of Jesus is to be regarded. He had no sins to confess, but He knew that John was the prophet divinely commissioned to inaugurate the kingdom of righteousness (cf. Matthew 21:32), and to inaugurate it by the rite of baptism (Matthew 21:25 ||). And by submitting Himself to John’s baptism He was openly dedicating Himself to the work of that kingdom, and taking up His task of fulfilling all righteousness (Matthew 3:15). (See Sanday in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible ii. 611; Lambert, Sacraments in NT, p. 62 f.; Expos. Times, xi. [2] 354).
But, above all, it is to be noted that while Jesus taught His disciples to pray for the forgiveness of sins, we never find Him humbling Himself before God on account of sin, and asking to be forgiven. And the complete silence of the Gospels upon this point acquires a fuller significance when we observe that there is not the slightest evidence that He ever engaged in common prayer with the Apostles. When Jesus prayed to the Father, He seems always to have prayed alone (Matthew 14:23; Matthew 26:36 ||, Luke 9:18; Luke 11:1; cf. John 1:7, where He prays in the presence of the disciples, but not with them). The reason probably was that while the attitude of a sinful suppliant and the element of confession, whether uttered or unexpressed, are indispensable to the acceptableness of ordinary human prayer, these could find no place in the prayers of Jesus. (See Dale, Christian Doctrine, p. 105 f.; Forrest, Christ of History and of Experience, pp. 22 ff., 385 ff., Expos. Times, xi. [2] 352 f.).
Literature.—Young’s Analyt. Concord. s.v.; Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible, art. ‘Confession’; Ullmaon, Sinlessness of Jesus, p. 69 ff.; and for special points the works quoted in the article.
J. C. Lambert.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - sin Offering
See OFFERINGS.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - sin, Wilderness of
Which Israel reached after leaving the encampment by the Red Sea (Numbers 33:11). Their next stage was Rephidim. (See EXODUS.) Exodus 16:1; Exodus 17:1. Sin wilderness is the desert sandstone tract, Debbet er Ramleh , extending across the peninsula from wady Nasb in a S.E. direction between the limestone district of et Tih and the granite of the central formation, Sinai. The journey from Elim, or even from the Red Sea, could be performed in a day. The Egyptians working the copper mines at Sarbut el Khadim would keep the route in good order. Israel moved by detachments; and only at the wilderness of Sin "all the congregation" assembled for the first time. (See PARAN.) Distinct from the wilderness of Zin. (See SIN (1).)
CARM Theological Dictionary - Original sin
This is a term used to describe the effect of Adam's sin on his descendants (Romans 5:12-21). Specifically, it is our inheritance of a sinful nature from Adam. The sinful nature originated with Adam and is passed down from parent to child. We are by nature children of wrath (Ephesians 2:3).
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Unpardonable sin
This term is commonly applied to blasphemy against the Holy Spirit, in attributing the miracles wrought by Christ to the power of Satan. There may be many sins against the Holy Spirit, but it was this special one of blasphemy of which the Lord said it should not be forgiven, neither in this age nor in the age to come. Matthew 12:31,32 . The Jews are possibly lying under it at this present time.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Actual sin
A personal act or omission that does not conform to God's will or law. Actual sins may be divided into the following catgories: sins of commission or omission, according to the precept which they violate; interior or exterior sins, according to the manner of committing them; sins against God, one's neighbor, and one's self, according to their object; mortal and venial sins, according to their effect on the soul; sins of ignorance, veakness, and malice, according to the cause which leads to them; capital or non-capital sins, according as they do or do not lie at the root of other sins.
Vine's Expository Dictionary of OT Words - sin
A. Nouns.
'Âven (אָוֶן, Strong's #205), “iniquity; vanity; sorrow.” Some scholars believe that this term has cognates in the Arabic words ‘ana, (“to be fatigued, tired”) and ‘aynun (“weakness; sorrow; trouble”), or with the Hebrew word ‘ayin (“nothingness”). This relationship would imply that 'âven means the absence of all that has true worth; hence, it would denote “moral worthlessness,” as in the actions of wrongdoing, evil devising, or false speaking.
Other scholars believe that the term implies a “painful burden or difficulty”—i.e., that sin is a toilsome, exhausting load of “trouble and sorrow,” which the offender causes for himself or others. This meaning is indicated in Ps. 90:10: “The days of our years are three score years and ten; and if by reason of strength they be fourscore years, yet is their strength labor and sorrow [1].…” A similar meaning appears in Prov. 22:8: “He that soweth iniquity shall reap vanity [2]: and the rod of his anger shall fail.”
'Âven may be a general term for a crime or offense, as in Micah 2:1: “Woe to them that devise iniquity …” (cf. Isa. 1:13). In some passages, the word refers to falsehood or deception: “The words of his mouth are iniquity and deceit: he hath left off to be wise, and to do good” (Ps. 36:3). “For the idols have spoken vanity [3] …” (Zech. 10:2). Num. 19:1-137 portrays idols deceiving their worshipers: “Behold, they are all vanity; their works are nothing: Their molten images are wind and confusion.”
'Âshâm (אָשָׁם, Strong's #817), “sin; guilt; guilt offering; trespass; trespass offering.” Cognates appear in Arabic as ‘ithmun (“sin; offense; misdeed; crime”), ‘athima (“to sin, err, slip”), and ‘athimun (“sinful; criminal; evil; wicked”); but the Arabic usage does not include the idea of restitution. In the Ugaritic texts of Ras Shamra, the word atm occurs in similar passages. Scholars believe this Ugaritic word may mean “offense” or “guilt offering,” but this cannot be ascertained.
'Âshâm implies the condition of “guilt” incurred through some wrongdoing, as in Gen. 26:10: “And Abimelech said, … one of the people might lightly have lain with thy wife, and thou shouldest have brought guiltiness upon us.” The word may also refer to the offense itself which entails the guilt: “For Israel hath not been forsaken … though their land was filled with sin against the Holy One of Israel” (Jer. 51:5). A similar meaning of the word appears in Ps. 68:21: “But God shall wound the head of his enemies and the hairy scalp of such a one as goeth on still in his trespasses [4].”
Most occurrences of 'âshâm refer to the compensation given to satisfy someone who has been injured, or to the “trespass offering” or “guilt offering” presented on the altar by the repentant offender after paying a compensation of six-fifths of the damage inflicted (Num. 5:7- 8). The “trespass offering” was the blood sacrifice of a ram: “And he shall bring a ram without blemish out of the flock, with thy estimation, for a trespass offering, unto the priest: and the priest shall make an atonement for him concerning his ignorance wherein he erred and wist it not, and it shall be forgiven him” (Lev. 5:18; cf. Lev. 7:5, 7; 14:12-13). The most significant theological statement containing 'âshâm is in Isa. 53:10, which says that the servant of Yahweh was appointed as an 'âshâm for sinful mankind. This suggests that His death furnished a 120- percent compensation for the broken law of God.
'Âmâl (עָמָל, Strong's #5999), “evil; trouble; misfortune; mischief; grievance; wickedness; labor.” This noun is related to the Hebrew verb ‛âmâl (“to labor, toil”). The Arabic cognate ‘amila means “to get tired from hard work.” The Aramaic ‛âmâl means “make” or “do,” with no necessary connotation of burdensome labor. The Phoenician Canaanite usage of this term was closer to the Arabic; the Book of Ecclesiastes (which shows considerable Phoenician influence) clearly represents this use: “Yea, I hated all my labor which I had taken under the sun …” (Eccl. 2:18). “And also that every man should eat and drink, and enjoy the good of all his labor …” (Eccl. 3:13). A related example appears in Ps. 107:12: “Therefore he brought down their heart with labor; they fell down and there was none to help.”
In general, ‛âmâl refers either to the trouble and suffering which sin causes the sinner or to the trouble that he inflicts upon others. Jer. 20:18 depicts self-inflicted sorrow: “Wherefore came I forth out of the womb to see labor [5] and sorrow [6], that my days should be consumed with shame?” Another instance is found in Deut. 26:7: “And when we cried unto the Lord God of our fathers, the Lord heard our voice, and looked on our affliction [7], and our labor [5], and our oppression [9].”
Job 4:8 illustrates the sense of trouble as mischief inflicted on others: “… They that plow iniquity [10], and sow wickedness [5] reap the same.” The word appears in Ps. 140:9: “As for the head of those that compass me about, let the mischief of their own lips cover them.” Hab. 1:3 also refers to the trouble inficted on others: “Why dost thou show me iniquity [10], and cause me to behold grievance [13]? For spoiling and violence are before me; and there are that raise up strife and contention.”
‛Âvôn (עָווֹן, Strong's #5771), “iniquity.” This word is derived from the root ‘awah, which means “to be bent, bowed down, twisted, perverted” or “to twist, pervert.” The Arabic cognate ‘awa means “to twist, bend down”; some scholars regard the Arabic term ghara (“to err from the way”) as the true cognate, but there is less justification for this interpretation.
‛Âvôn portrays sin as a perversion of life (a twisting out of the right way), a perversion of truth (a twisting into error), or a perversion of intent (a bending of rectitude into willful disobedience). The word “iniquity” is the best single-word equivalent, although the Latin root iniquitas really means “injustice; unfairness; hostile; adverse.”
‛Âvôn occurs frequently throughout the Old Testament in parallelism with other words related to sin, such as chatta’t (“sin”) and pesha’ (“transgression”). Some examples are 1 Sam. 20:1: “And David … said before Jonathan, what have I done? what is mine iniquity [14]? and what is my sin [15] before thy father, that he seeketh my life?” (cf. Isa. 43:24; Jer. 5:25). Also note Job 14:17: “My transgression [16] is sealed up in a bag, and thou sewest up mine iniquity [14]” (cf. Ps. 107:17; Isa. 50:1).
The penitent wrongdoer recognized his “iniquity” in Isa. 59:12: “For our transgressions are multiplied before thee, and our sins testify against us: for our transgressions are with us; and as for our iniquities, we know them” (cf. 1 Sam. 3:13). “Iniquity” is something to be confessed: “And Aaron shall lay both his hands upon the head of the live goat, and confess over him all the iniquities of the children of Israel …” (Lev. 16:21). “And the seed of Israel … confessed their sins, and the iniquities of their fathers” (Neh. 9:2; cf. Ps. 38:18).
The grace of God may remove or forgive “iniquity”: “And unto him he said, Behold, I have caused thine iniquity to pass from thee …” (Zech. 3:4; cf. 2 Sam. 24:10). His atonement may cover over “iniquity”: “By mercy and truth iniquity is purged; and by the fear of the Lord men depart from evil” (Prov. 16:6; cf. Ps. 78:38).
‛Âvôn may refer to “the guilt of iniquity,” as in Ezek. 36:31: “Then shall ye remember your own evil ways … and shall loathe yourselves in your own sight for your iniquities and for your abominations” (cf. Ezek. 9:9). The word may also refer to “punishment for iniquity”: “And Saul sware to her by the Lord, saying, As the Lord liveth, there shall no punishment happen to thee for this thing” (1 Sam. 28:10). In Exod. 28:38, ‛âvôn is used as the object of natsa’ (“to bear, carry away, forgive”), to suggest bearing the punishment for the “iniquity” of others. In Isa. 53:11, we are told that the servant of Yahweh bears the consequences of the “iniquities” of sinful mankind, including Israel.
Râshâ‛ (רָשָׁע, Strong's #7563), “wicked; criminal; guilty.” Some scholars relate this word to the Arabic rash’a (“to be loose, out of joint”), although that term is not actively used in literary Arabic. The Aramaic cognate resha’ means “to be wicked” and the Syriac apel (“to do wickedly”).
Râshâ‛ generally connotes a turbulence and restlessness (cf. Isa. 57:21) or something disjointed or ill-regulated. Thus Robert B. Girdlestone suggests that it refers to the tossing and confusion in which the wicked live, and to the perpetual agitation they came to others.
In some instances, râshâ‛ carries the sense of being “guilty of crime”: “Thou shalt not raise a false report: put not thine hand with the wicked to be an unrighteous witness” (Exod. 23:1) “Take away the wicked from before the king, and his throne shall be established in righteousness” (Prov. 25:5). “An ungodly witness scorneth judgment: and the mouth of the (wicked [18] devoureth iniquity” (Prov. 19:28; cf. Prov. 20:26).
Justifying the “wicked” is classed as a heinous crime: “He that justifieth the wicked, and he that condemneth the just, even they both are abomination to the Lord” (Prov. 17:15; cf. Exod. 23:7).
The râshâ‛ is guilty of hostility to God and His people: “Arise, O Lord, disappoint him, cast him down: deliver my soul from the wicked, which is thy sword” (Ps. 17:13); “Oh let the wickedness of the (wicked [18] come to an end; but establish the just …” (Ps. 7:9). The word is applied to the people of Babylon in Isa. 13:11 and to the Chaldeans in Hab. 1:13.
Chaṭṭâ'th (חַטָּאָה, Strong's #2403), “sin; sin-guilt; sinpurification; sin offering.” The noun chaṭṭâ'th appears about 293 times and in all periods of biblical literature.
The basic nuance of this word is “sin” conceived as missing the road or mark (155 times). Chaṭṭâ'th can refer to an offense against a man: “And Jacob was wroth, and chode with Laban: and Jacob answered and said to Laban, What is my trespass [16]? what is my sin, that thou hast so hotly pursued after me?” (Gen. 31:36). It is such passages which prove that chaṭṭâ'th is not simply a general word for “sin”; since Jacob used two different words, he probably intended two different nuances. In addition, a full word study shows basic differences between chaṭṭâ'th and other words rendered “sin.”
For the most part this word represents a sin against God (Lev. 4:14). Men are to return from “sin,” which is a path, a life-style, or act deviating from that which God has marked out (1 Kings 8:35). They should depart from “sin” (2 Kings 10:31), be concerned about it (Ps. 38:18), and confess it (Num. 5:7). The noun first appears in Gen. 4:7, where Cain is warned that “sin lieth at the door.” This citation may introduce a second nuance of the word—“sin” in general. Certainly such an emphasis appears in Ps. 25:7, where the noun represents rebellious sin (usually indicated by pasha’): “Remember not the sins of my youth, nor my transgressions.…”
In a few passages the term connotes the guilt or condition of sin: “… The cry of Sodom and Gomorrah is great, and … their sin is very grievous” (Gen. 18:20).
The word means “purification from sin” in two passages: “And thus shalt thou do unto them, to cleanse them: Sprinkle water of purifying upon them …” (Num. 8:7; Heb. 10:12-4).
Chaṭṭâ'th means “sin offering” (135 times). The law of the “sin offering” is recorded in Lev. 4- 5:13; 6:24-30. This was an offering for some specific “sin” committed unwittingly, without intending to do it and perhaps even without knowing it at the time (Lev. 4:2; 5:15).
Also derived from the verb chata’ is the noun chet’, which occurs 33 times in biblical Hebrew. This word means “sin” in the sense of missing the mark or the path. This may be sin against either a man (Gen. 41:9—the first occurrence of the word) or God (Deut. 9:18). Second, it connotes the “guilt” of such an act (Num. 27:3). The psalmist confessed that his mother was in the condition of sin and guilt (cf. Rom. 5:12) when he was conceived (Ps. 51:5). Finally, several passages use this word for the idea of “punishment for sin” (Lev. 20:20).
The noun chaṭṭâ'th, with the form reserved for those who are typified with the characteristic represented by the root, is used both as an adjective (emphatic) and as a noun. The word occurs 19 times. Men are described as “sinners” (1 Sam. 15:18) and as those who are liable to the penalty of an offense (1 Kings 1:21). The first occurrence of the word is in Gen. 13:13: “But the men of Sodom were wicked and sinners before the Lord exceedingly.”
B. Adjectives.
Râshâ‛ (רָשָׁע, Strong's #7563), “wicked; guilty.” In the typical example of Deut. 25:2, this word refers to a person “guilty of a crime”: “And it shall be, if the wicked man be worthy to be beaten, that the judge shall cause him … to be beaten.…” A similar reference appears in Jer. 5:26: “For among my people are found wicked [18] men: they lay wait, as he that setteth snares; they set a trap, they catch men.” Râshâ‛ is used specifically of murderers in 2 Sam. 4:11: “How much more, when wicked men have slain a righteous person in his own house upon his bed? …” The expression “guilty of death” (rasha’ lamut) occurs in Num. 35:31 and is applied to a murderer.
Pharaoh and his people are portrayed as “wicked” people guilty of hostility to God and His people (Exod. 9:27).
Ra‛ (רַע, Strong's #7451), “bad; evil; wicked; sore.” The root of this term is disputed. Some scholars believe that the Akkadian term raggu (“evil; bad”) may be a cognate. Some scholars derive ra‛ from the Hebrew word ra’a’ (“to break, smash, crush”), which is a cognate of the Hebrew ratsats (“to smash, break to pieces”); ratsats in turn is related to the Arabic radda (“to crush, bruise”). If this derivation were correct, it would imply that ra’ connotes sin in the sense of destructive hurtfulness; but this connotation is not appropriate in some contexts in which ra’ is found.
Ra’ refers to that which is “bad” or “evil,” in a wide variety of applications. A greater number of the word’s occurrences signify something morally evil or hurtful, often referring to man or men: “Then answered all the wicked men and men of Belial, of those that went with David …” (1 Sam. 30:22). “And Esther said, the adversary and enemy is the wicked Haman” (Esth. 7:6). “There they cry, but none giveth answer, because of the pride of evil men” (Job 35:12; cf. Ps. 10:15). Ra’ is also used to denote evil words (Prov. 15:26), evil thoughts (Gen. 6:5), or evil actions (Deut. 17:5, Neh. 13:17). Ezek. 6:11 depicts grim consequences for Israel as a result of its actions: “Thus saith the Lord God; smite with thine hand, and stamp with thy foot, and say, Alas for all the evil abominations of the house of Israel! For they shall fall by the sword, by the famine, and by the pestilence.”
Ra’ may mean “bad” or unpleasant in the sense of giving pain or caming unhappiness: “And Jacob said unto Pharaoh, … Few and evil have the days of the years of my life been …” (Gen. 47:9). “And when the people heard these evil tidings, they mourned …” (Exod. 33:4; cf. Gen. 37:2). “Correction is grievous [20]9 unto him that forsaketh the way: and he that hateth reproof shall die” (Prov. 15:10).
Ra’ may also connote a fierceness or wildness: “He cast upon them the fierceness of his anger, wrath, and indignation, and trouble, by sending evil [23] angels among them” (Ps. 78:49). “Some evil beast hath devoured him …” (Gen. 37:20; cf. Gen. 37:33; Lev. 26:6).
In less frequent uses, ra’ implies severity: “For thus saith the Lord God; How much more when I send my four sore [20]9 judgments upon Israel …” (Ezek. 14:21; cf. Deut. 6:22); unpleasantness: “And the Lord will take away from thee all sickness, and will put more of the evil diseases of Egypt … upon thee …” (Deut. 7:15; cf. Deut. 28:59); deadliness: “When I shall send upon them the evil arrows of famine, which shall be for their destruction …” (Ezek. 5:16; cf. “hurtful sword,” Ps. 144:10); or sadness: “Wherefore the king said unto me, why is thy countenance sad …” (Neh. 2:2).
The word may also refer to something of poor or inferior quality, such as “bad” land (Num. 13:19), “naughty” figs (Jer. 24:2), “illfavored” cattle (Gen. 41:3, 19), or a “bad” sacrificial animal (Lev. 27:10, 12, 14).
In Isa. 45:7 Yahweh describes His actions by saying, “… I make peace, and create evil [23] …”; moral “evil” is not intended in this context, but rather the antithesis of shalom (“peace; welfare; well-being”). The whole verse affirms that as absolute Sovereign, the Lord creates a universe governed by a moral order. Calamity and misfortune will surely ensue from the wickedness of ungodly men.
C. Verbs.
‛Âbar (עָבַר, Strong's #5674), “to transgress, cross over, pass over.” This word occurs as a verb only when it refers to sin. ‛Âbar often carries the sense of “transgressing” a covenant or commandment—i.e., the offender “passes beyond” the limits set by God’s law and falls into transgression and guilt. This meaning appears in Num. 14:41: “And Moses said, wherefore now do ye transgress the commandment of the Lord? but it shall not prosper.” Another example is in Judg. 2:20: “And the anger of the Lord was hot against Israel; and he said, Because that this people hath transgressed my covenant which I commanded their fathers, and have not hearkened unto my voice” (cf. 1 Sam. 15:24; Hos. 8:1).
Most frequently, ‛âbar illustrates the motion of “crossing over” or “passing over.” (The Latin transgedior, from which we get our English word transgress, has the similar meaning of “go beyond” or “cross over.”) This word refers to crossing a stream or boundage (“pass through,” Num. 21:22), invading a country (“passed over,” Judg. 11:32), crossing a boundary against a hostile army (“go over,” 1 Sam. 14:4), marching over (“go over,” Isa. 51:23), overflowing the banks of a river or other natural barriers (“pass through,” Isa. 23:10), passing a razor over one’s head (“come upon,” Num. 6:5), and the passing of time (“went over,” 1 Chron. 29:30).
Châṭâ' (חָטָא, Strong's #2398), “to miss, sin, be guilty, forfeit, purify.” This verb occurs 238 times and in all parts of the Old Testament. It is found also in Assyrian, Aramaic, Ethiopic, Sabean, and Arabic.
The basic meaning of this verb is illustrated in Judg. 20:16: There were 700 lefthanded Benjamite soldiers who “could sling stones at a hair breadth, and not miss.” The meaning is extended in Prov. 19:2: “He who makes haste with his feet misses the way” (RSV, NIV, KJV NASB, “sinneth”). The intensive form is used in Gen. 31:39: “That which was torn of beasts I brought not unto thee; I bare the loss of it.…”
From this basic meaning comes the word’s chief usage to indicate moral failure toward both God and men, and certain results of such wrongs. The first occurrence of the verb is in Gen. 20:6, God’s word to Abimelech after he had taken Sarah: “Yes, I know that in the integrity of your heart you have done this, and also I have kept you from sinning against Me” (NASB; cf. Gen. 39:9).
Sin against God is defined in Josh. 7:11: “Israel hath sinned, and they have also transgressed my covenant which I commanded them.…” Also note Lev. 4:27: “And if any one of the common people sin through ignorance, while he doeth somewhat against any of the commandments of the Lord concerning things which ought not to be done, and be guilty.” The verb may also refer to the result of wrongdoing, as in Gen. 43:9: “… Then let me bear the blame for ever.” Deut. 24:1-4, after forbidding adulterous marriage practices, concludes: “… For that is abomination before the Lord: and thou shalt not cause the land to sin …” (KJV); the RSV renders this passage: “You shall not bring guilt upon the land.” Similarly, those who pervert justice are described as “those who by a word make a man out to be guilty” (Isa. 29:21, NIV). This leads to the meaning in Lev. 9:15: “And he … took the goat … and slew it, and offered it for sin.…” The effect of the offerings for sin is described in Ps. 51:7: “Purge me with hyssop, and I shall be clean …” (cf. 1635336367_89). Another effect is seen in the word of the prophet to evil Babylon: “You have forfeited your life” (Hab. 2:10 RSV, NIV; KJV, NASB, “sinned against”). The word is used concerning acts committed against men, as in Gen. 42:22: “Spake I not unto you, saying, Do not sin against the child …?” and 1 Sam. 19:4: “Do not let the king sin against his servant David, since he has not sinned against you …” (NASB; NlV, “wrong, wronged”).
The Septuagint translates the group of words with the verb hamartano and derived nouns 540 times. They occur 265 times in the New Testament. The fact that all “have sinned” continues to be emphasized in the New Testament (Rom. 3:10-18, 23; cf. 1 Kings 8:46; Ps. 14:1-3; Eccl. 7:20). The New Testament development is that Christ, “having made one sacrifice for sins for all time sat down at the right hand of God.… For by one offering he has perfected for all time those who are being sanctified” (1635336367_47 14, NASB).
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Man of sin
See ANTICHRIST.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - sin
the transgression of the law, or want of conformity to the will of God, 1 John 3:4 . Original sin is that whereby our whole nature is corrupted, and rendered contrary to the nature and law of God; or, according to he ninth article of the church of England, "It is that whereby man is very far gone from original righteousness, and is, of his own nature, inclined to evil." This is sometimes called, "indwelling sin," Romans 7. The imputation of the sin of Adam to his posterity, is also what divines call, with some latitude of expression, original sin. Actual sin is a direct violation of God's law, and generally applied to those who are capable of committing moral evil; as opposed to idiots or children, who have not the right use of their powers. Sins of omission consist in leaving those things undone which ought to be done. Sins of commission are those which are committed against affirmative precepts, or doing what should not be done. Sins of infirmity are those which arise from ignorance, surprise, &c. Secret sins are those committed in secret, or those of which, through blindness or prejudice, we do not see the evil, Psalms 19:7-12 . Presumptuous sins are those which are done boldly against light and conviction. The unpardonable sin is, according to some, the ascribing to the devil the miracles which Christ wrought by the power of the Holy Ghost. This sin, or blasphemy, as it should rather be called, many scribes and Pharisees were guilty of, who, beholding our Lord do his miracles, affirmed that he wrought them by Beelzebub, the prince of devils, which was, in effect, calling the Holy Ghost Satan, a most horrible blasphemy; and, as on this ground they rejected Christ, and salvation by him, their sin could certainly have no forgiveness. Mark 3:29-30 . No one therefore could be guilty of this blasphemy, except those who were spectators of Christ's miracles. There is, however, another view of this unpardonable offence, which deserves consideration: The sin or blasphemy against the Holy Ghost, says Bishop Tomline, is mentioned in the first three Gospels. It appears that all the three evangelists agree in representing the sin or blasphemy against the Holy Ghost as a crime which would not be forgiven; but no one of them affirms that those who had ascribed Christ's power of casting out devils to Beelzebub, had been guilty of that sin, and in St. Luke it is not mentioned that any such charge had been made. Our Saviour, according to the account in St. Matthew and St. Mark, endeavoured to convince the Jews of their error; but so far from accusing them of having committed an unpardonable sin in what they had said concerning him, he declares that "whosoever speaketh a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him;" that is, whatever reproaches men may utter against the Son of man during his ministry, however they may calumniate the authority upon which he acts, it is still possible that hereafter they may repent and believe, and all their sins may be forgiven them; but the reviling of the Holy Ghost is described as an offence of a far more heinous nature: "The blasphemy against the Holy Ghost shall not be forgiven unto men." "He that shall blaspheme against the Holy Ghost hath never forgiveness." "Unto him that blasphemeth against the Holy Ghost it shall not be forgiven." It is plain that this sin against the Holy Ghost could not be committed while our Saviour was upon earth, since he always speaks of the Holy Ghost as not being to come till after his ascension into heaven. A few days after that great event, the descent of the Holy Ghost enabled the Apostles to work miracles, and communicated to them a variety of other supernatural gifts. If men should ascribe these powers to Beelzebub, or in any respect reject their authority, they would blaspheme the Holy Ghost, from whom they were derived; and that sin would be unpardonable, because this was the completion of the evidence of the divine authority of Christ and his religion; and they who rejected these last means of conviction, could have no other opportunity of being brought to faith in Christ, the only appointed condition of pardon and forgiveness. The greater heinousness of the sin of these men would consist in their rejecting a greater body of testimony; for they are supposed to be acquainted with the resurrection of our Saviour from the dead, with his ascension into heaven, with the miraculous descent of the Holy Ghost, and with the supernatural powers which it communicated; circumstances, all of which were enforced by the Apostles when they preached the Gospel; but none of which could be known to those who refused to acknowledge Jesus as the Messiah during his actual ministry. Though this was a great sin, it was not an unpardonable one, it might be remedied by subsequent belief, by yielding to subsequent testimony. But, on the other hand, they who finally rejected the accumulated and complete evidence of Jesus being the Messiah, as exhibited by the inspired Apostles, precluded themselves from the possibility of conviction, because no farther testimony would be afforded them, and consequently, there being no means of repentance, they would be incapable of forgiveness and redemption. Hence it appears that the sin against the Holy Ghost consisted in finally rejecting the Gospel as preached by the Apostles, who confirmed the truth of the doctrine which they taught "by signs and wonders, and divers miracles and gifts of the Holy Ghost," Hebrews 2:4 . It was unpardonable, because this was the consummation of the proofs afforded to the men of that generation of the divine mission of Christ. This sin was manifestly distinct from all other sins; it indicated an invincible obstinacy of mind, an impious and unalterable determination to refuse the offered mercy of God. It would appear from this, that those only committed or could commit this irremissible offence, who were witnesses of the mighty works wrought by the Holy Spirit in the Apostles after Christ's ascension and the day of pentecost. Our Lord's declaration appears chiefly to respect the Jews.
This view will serve to explain those passages in the Epistle to the Hebrews, in which the hopeless case of Jewish apostates is described. But See BLASPHEMY .
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - sin, Desert of
To this the tenth station the Israelites came exactly in a month after they left Egypt. And here again they murmured for "the bread and the flesh-pots of Egypt." So the Lord gave them quails for a day, and manna for forty years, till they came to the borders of Canaan. On this occasion the institution of the Sabbath was revived, as a day of rest, which had been intermitted during their Egyptian bondage. On this day there fell no manna, but on the preceding they were directed to gather two days' provision. To perpetuate the memorial of "this bread from heaven" to future generations, a pot of manna, which was preserved fresh, by a standing miracle, was ordered to be laid up beside the ark of the covenant, in the sanctuary, Exodus 16.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - sin
Sin, Wilderness of (sĭn). A region between Elim and Rephidim. Exodus 16:1; Exodus 17:1; Numbers 33:11-12. Here the Israelites were first fed with manna and quails. The wilderness extends 25 miles along the east shore of the Red Sea, from Wâdy Taiyibeh to Wâdy Feiran; it is now called the plain of el-Markha. It is barren, but has a little vegetation.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - sin, Mortal
(Latin: mors, death)
A grievous offense against the law of God. This sin is called mortal because it deprives us of supernatural life and brings damnation and death of the soul. Three conditions are necessary for a mortal sin: gravity of matter, sufficient reflection, and full consent of the will. The gravity of matter is determined by Holy Scripture, by the definitions of the Church, by the testimony of the Fathers, Doctors, and theologians, by the universal belief of the faithful, and by reason enlightened by faith. Mortal sin is a revolt against God, supreme Lord, contempt of His adorable majesty, an act of monstrous ingratitudc. It is an offense against Christ who redeemed us, and against the Holy. Ghost who sanctifies us. It deprives one of sanctifying grace and thus prevents one from acquiring merit or sharing in the satisfying merits of the Church. It tarnishes the soul, and causes remorse of conscience, an inclination to evil, darkening of the intellect, weakening of the will. It deprives one of the right to heaven, and entails penalties, some of which are incurred in this life, and the loss of God forever as well as eternal punishment.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - sin
1. Any thought, word, desire, action, or omission of action, contrary to the law of God, or defective when compared with it.
The origin of sin is a subject which baffles all investigation; and our inquiries are much better directed when we seek through Christ a release from its penalty and power, for ourselves and the world. Its entrance into the world, and infection of the whole human race, its nature, forms, and effects, and its fatal possession of every unregenerate soul, are fully described in the Bible, Genesis 6:5 Psalm 51:5 Matthew 15:19 Romans 5:12 James 1:14,15 .
As contrary to the nature, worship, love, and service to God, sin is called ungodliness; as a violation of the law of God and of the claims of man, it is a transgression or trespass; as a deviation from eternal rectitude, it is called iniquity or unrighteousness; as the evil and bitter root of all actual transgression, the depravity transmitted from our first parents to all their seed, it is called "original sin," or in the Bible," the flesh," "the law of sin and death," etc., Romans 8:1,2 1 John 3:4 5:17 . The just penalty or "wages of sin is death;" this was threatened against the first sin, Genesis 2:17 and all subsequent sins: "the soul that sinneth it shall die." A single sin, unrepented of the unforgiven, destroys the soul, as a single break renders a whole ocean cable worthless. Its guilt and evil are to be measured by the holiness, justice, and goodness of the law it violates, the eternity of the misery it causes, and the greatness of the Sacrifice necessary to expiate it.
"Sin" is also sometimes put for the sacrifice of expiation, the sin offering, described in Leviticus 4:3,25,29 also, Romans 8:3 and in 2 Corinthians 5:21 , Paul says that God was pleased that Jesus, who knew no sin, should be our victim of expiation: "For he hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him."
For the sin against the Holy Ghost, see BLASPHEMY .
2. A desert of Arabia Petraea, near Egypt, and on the western arm of the Red Sea, Exodus 16:1 17:1 Numbers 33:12 . To be distinguished from the desert of Zin. See ZIN .
3. An ancient fortified city, called "the strength of Egypt," Ezekiel 30:15,16 . Its name means mire, and in this it agrees with Pelusium and Tineh, the Greek and modern names of the same place. It defended the northeast frontier of Egypt, and lay near the Mediterranean, of the eastern arm of the Nile. Its site, near the village of Tineh, is surrounded with morasses; and is now accessible by boat only during a high inundation, or by land in the driest part or summer. A few mounds and columns alone remain.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - sin, Actual
A personal act or omission that does not conform to God's will or law. Actual sins may be divided into the following catgories: sins of commission or omission, according to the precept which they violate; interior or exterior sins, according to the manner of committing them; sins against God, one's neighbor, and one's self, according to their object; mortal and venial sins, according to their effect on the soul; sins of ignorance, veakness, and malice, according to the cause which leads to them; capital or non-capital sins, according as they do or do not lie at the root of other sins.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - sin, Sense of
A salutary fear produced in us by a clear understanding of the nature and malice of sin. It is a realization that we are in a fallen state, and that without God's grace we cannot overcome temptation, avoid sin, or perform the least supernatural act.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Sense of sin
A salutary fear produced in us by a clear understanding of the nature and malice of sin. It is a realization that we are in a fallen state, and that without God's grace we cannot overcome temptation, avoid sin, or perform the least supernatural act.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - sin
A voluntary transgression of the law of God. It is a transgression (Latin: trans, beyond; gradi, to go) because it is an act whereby we go beyond the limits imposed on freedom. It is a voluntary transgression because it is committed knowingly and wiillngly. The law of God, which sin contravenes, comprises not only the natural and the Divine positive law, but also the just precepts of all legitimately constituted authority.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - sin, Occasion of
An external circumstance which of its own nature or because of man's frailty inclines and leads to sin. An occasion is proximate if the danger of sinning is certain or probable, remote if such danger is slight. It is absolute if of itself it leads us to sin, relative if only on account of weakness it becomes an occasion of evil-doing. It is voluntary if it may easily be shunned, otherwise it is involuntary. It is present if we have it with us without seeking it; otherwise it is absent. There is no obligation to avoid a remote occasion, unless we foresee that it will soon be proximate. But there is a positive obligation to avoid a voluntary proximate occasion, whether it be absolute or relative, present or absent.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - sin, Man of
Antichrist, as described by Paul in 2Thessalonians; interpreted by founders of Protestantism as descriptive of the pope, and so explained by Protestant writers of the time on the, Continent and in England.
Hitchcock's Bible Names - sin
Bush
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - sin, Original
Not sin in the ordinary sense of a transgression of the law of God which one commits deliberately. It is one of the consequences of the sin of our first parent, Adam. As father of the human race, he was endowed with immortality, with reason and will in perfect control of the lower appetites, and with Divine grace enabling him to know and serve God in a manner far beyond the capacity of his natural powers, and therefore in a state above nature: the supernatural state. Through him these endowments were to be transmitted to the entire human race. When by his sin he lost them for himself, they were lost also for his descendants. Now the loss or privation of Divine grace, the chief consequence of sin, means the privation of the supernatural goodness to which God destined us, and therefore it is called our original stain or sin. Other consequences of Adam's sin are death, and concupiscence, or the rebellion of our lower appetites against reason and will. This concupiscence, though often the occasion of sin, is not in itself sinful; it is not original sin, as the early Protestants held, nor does it consist, as Luther believed, in such a decadence of our nature as to leave our reason incapable of understanding, our will without freedom, and our whole nature evil. Original sin does not so corrupt our natural powers as to render them incapable of natural virtues: it deprives us of the grace needed for virtues beyond our natural powers. All this is based on Holy Scripture, particularly on Saint Paul's Epistle to the Romans 5: "Wherefore as by one man sin entered into this world, and by sin death; and so death passed upon all men, in whom all have sinned." It is the subject of the Fifth Session of the Council of Trent.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Man of sin
See ANTICHRIST .
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - sin, Habitual
The sinful state of a soul resulting from actual sin. After the act of sin has been accomplished, the soul remains in a state of aversion from God. This state, considered as destroying the due order of man to God, is habitual sin or guilt (reatus culpae); considered as depriving the soul of the beauty of grace, it is a stain (macula peccati). This sinful state is imputable to the sinner because it follows from a voluntary sinful act. It remains until satisfaction is made.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - sin, Remission of
True, actual forgiveness of sin. With remission of mortal sin the eternal punishment due to it is also pardoned, but not all venial sins or temporal punishments are taken away. Unlimited power of remitting sin was promised and conferred upon the Apostles and their successors by Jesus Christ (Matthew 16,18; John 20). This power is exercised in the Sacrament of Penance. For a valid exercise of this power the order of priesthood and proper jurisdiction are required. This jurisdiction is vested in its plenitude in the pope, from whom all bishops and priests in the entire Church receive their jurisdiction. Perfect contrition, with the desire of the Sacrament, is another means of remitting mortal sin. Venial sins can also be remitted, provided sorrow for them be present, by devout attendance at Holy Mass, penitential exercises, charitable works, prayers, etc. See also the entries for justification and contrition.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Remission of sin
True, actual forgiveness of sin. With remission of mortal sin the eternal punishment due to it is also pardoned, but not all venial sins or temporal punishments are taken away. Unlimited power of remitting sin was promised and conferred upon the Apostles and their successors by Jesus Christ (Matthew 16,18; John 20). This power is exercised in the Sacrament of Penance. For a valid exercise of this power the order of priesthood and proper jurisdiction are required. This jurisdiction is vested in its plenitude in the pope, from whom all bishops and priests in the entire Church receive their jurisdiction. Perfect contrition, with the desire of the Sacrament, is another means of remitting mortal sin. Venial sins can also be remitted, provided sorrow for them be present, by devout attendance at Holy Mass, penitential exercises, charitable works, prayers, etc. See also the entries for justification and contrition.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - sin
City in Egypt: the LXX has Σάι>ς, and the Vulgate (as in the margin), Pelusium. Ezekiel calls it 'the strength of Egypt.' Ezekiel 30:15,16 . It is supposed to be identified with the modern Tineh, where a few ruins are found. It is close to the Pelusiac mouth of the Nile, about 31 4' N, 32 28' E .
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Original sin
See Sin.

Sentence search

Sin: Loathed by a Christian - An Arminian arguing with a Calvinist remarked, 'If I believed your doctrine, and were sure that I was a converted man, I would take my fill of sin. ' 'How much sin,' replied the godly Calvinist, 'do you think it would take to fill a true Christian to his own satisfaction?' Here he hit the nail on the head. 'How can we that are dead to sin live any longer therein?' A truly converted man hates sin with all his heart, and even if he could sin without suffering for it, it would be misery enough to him to sin at all
Repentant - ) Penitent; sorry for sin. ) One who repents, especially one who repents of sin; a penitent. ) Expressing or showing sorrow for sin; as, repentant tears; repentant ashes
Impeccability - (Latin: in, not; peccare, to sin) ...
The impossibility of sinning. A Divine Person cannot from its very nature possess the faculty of committing sin. Concupiscence and actual sin flow from original sin which we contract by reason of our carnal descent from Adam, but Christ was conceived miraculously through the operation of the Holy Ghost. Christ Himself said: "Which of you shall convince me of sin?" (John 8). Impeccability has to do with the will and with sin; infallibility, with the intellect and with opinion or doctrine
Transgression - Image of sin as overstepping the limits of God's law. See Evil ; Forgiveness ; Repentance ; Salvation; sin
Forgiveness of Sins - Catholics believe that sins forgiven are removed from the soul (John 20), and not merely covered by the merits of Christ. Only God can forgive sin, since He alone can infuse sanctifying grace by which sin is expelled. God can forgive sin either Immediately, in response to an act of perfect contrition, or mediately, through a sacrament. The sacraments primarily directed to the forgiveness of sin are Baptism and Penance
Sins, Forgiveness of - Catholics believe that sins forgiven are removed from the soul (John 20), and not merely covered by the merits of Christ. Only God can forgive sin, since He alone can infuse sanctifying grace by which sin is expelled. God can forgive sin either Immediately, in response to an act of perfect contrition, or mediately, through a sacrament. The sacraments primarily directed to the forgiveness of sin are Baptism and Penance
Attrition - (Latin: atterere, to rub) ...
Contrition for sin without perfect motive; a sorrow of soul and a hatred of sin committed, with a firm purpose of never sinning again, the sorrow being based not on the pure love of God, whom sin has grievously offended, which would be perfect contrition, but on some inferior though supernatural motive such as the loss of heaven, or the punishment of hell, or the heinousness of sin itself
Sin - ...
sin as Rebellion One of the central affirmations throughout the Bible is humanity's estrangement from God. The cause for this estrangement is sin, the root cause of all the problems of humanity. The Bible, however, gives no formal definition for sin. It describes sin as an attitude that personifies sin as rebellion against God. Rebellion was at the root of the problem for Adam and Eve (Genesis 3:1 ) and has been at the root of humanity's plight ever since. ...
sin's Origin in Humanity's Rebellious Nature Human sin is universal—we all sin. All persons without exception are under sin's dominion (Romans 3:9-23 ). How did this come about? The Bible has no philosophical argument as such concerning sin's origin. God is in no way responsible for sin. Satan introduced sin when he beguiled Eve, but the Bible does not teach that sin had its origin with him either. sin's origin is to be found in humanity's rebellious nature. since Adam and Eve rebelled against the clear command of God, sin has infected humanity like a dread malignancy. Some passages such as Psalm 51:5 ; Ephesians 2:3 could be interpreted to mean that this sinful nature is inherited. Other passages seem to affirm that sin is due to human choice (see Ezekiel 18:4 ,Ezekiel 18:4,18:19-20 ; Romans 1:18-20 ; Romans 5:12 . Any idea that humanity inherits a sinful nature must be coupled with the corollary that every person is indeed responsible for his/her choice of sin. ...
Another possibility for understanding how sin has infected all of humanity may be found in the biblical understanding of the corporateness and solidarity of the human race. This view certainly does not eliminate the necessity for each individual to accept full responsibility for sinful acts. ...
Adam and Eve introduced sin into human history by their rebellious actions. The Bible affirms that every person who has lived since has followed their example. Whatever else one may say about sin's origin, this much is surely affirmed throughout the Bible. ...
The Bible Views sin from Various Perspectives One concept of sin in the Old Testament is that of transgression of the law. God established the law as a standard of righteousness; any violation of this standard is defined as sin. The implication is that the person who does not keep the law is not righteous, that is, sinful. ...
Another concept of sin in the Old Testament is as breach of the covenant. Any breach of this covenant was viewed as sin (Deuteronomy 29:19-21 . )...
The Old Testament also pictures sin as a violation of the righteous nature of God. ) Any deviation from God's own righteousness is viewed as sin. ...
The Old Testament has a rich vocabulary for sin. The word could be used to describe a person shooting a bow and arrow and missing the target with the arrow. When it is used to describe sin, it means that the person has missed the mark that God has established for the person's life. ...
Aven describes the crooked or perverse spirit associated with sin. sinful persons have perverted their spirits and become crooked rather than straight. Ra describes the violence associated with sin. sin is the opposite of righteousness or moral straightness in the Old Testament. ...
The New Testament Perspective of sin The New Testament picture is much like that of the Old Testament. Several of the words used for sin in the New Testament have almost the same meaning as some of the Hebrew words used in the Old Testament. The most notable advancement in the New Testament view of sin is the fact that sin is defined against the backdrop of Jesus as the standard for righteousness. The exalted purity of His life creates the norm for judging what is sinful. ...
In the New Testament, sin also is viewed as a lack of fellowship with God. Anything which disturbs or distorts this fellowship is sin. ...
The New Testament view of sin is somewhat more subjective than objective. Jesus taught quite forcefully that sin is a condition of the heart. He traced sin directly to inner motives stating that the sinful thought leading to the overt act is the real sin. The outward deed is actually the fruit of sin. The real defilement in a person stems from the inner person (heart) which is sinful (Matthew 15:18-20 ). sin, therefore, is understood as involving the essential being of a person, that is, the essential essence of human nature. ...
The New Testament interprets sin as unbelief. ...
The New Testament further pictures sin as being revealed by the law of Moses. The law revealed sin in its true character, but this only aroused in humanity a desire to experience the forbidden fruit of sin. Therefore, the law offers no means of salvation; rather, it leaves humanity with a deep sense of sin and guilt (Romans 7:1 ). The law, therefore, serves to bring sin into bold relief, so that it is clearly perceptible. ...
The most common New Testament word for sin is hamartia . ...
Anomia means “lawlessness” or “iniquity” and is a rather general description of sinful acts, referring to almost any action in opposition to God's standard of righteousness. It was used quite often to describe vicious acts or sexual sins. To refuse to accept the truth of God by faith is to sin. Hence any action which can be construed as unfaithful or any disposition which is marked by a lack of faith is sinful. ” When used in this way, the word could refer to almost any evil desire but was most often used to describe sexual sins (James 4:1-38 ). ...
sin's Consequences The Bible looks upon sin in any form as the most serious of humanity's problems. Though sinful acts may be directed against another person, ultimately every sin is against God, the Creator of all things. Therefore, sin creates a barrier between God and persons. ...
sin also necessitates God's intervention in human affairs. since humanity could not extricate itself from the entanglements of sin, it was necessary for God to intervene if humanity was ever to be freed from these entanglements. ...
The consequences of sin both personally and in society are far reaching. That person who constantly and consistently follows a sinful course will become so enmeshed in sin that for all practical purposes he or she is enslaved to sin (Romans 6:1 , for example). ...
Another of the awful consequences of sin is spiritual depravity in society in general as well as in the lives of individuals. Some will argue that depravity is the cause of sin, and this surely is a valid consideration. However, there can be no escaping the fact that a continuance in sin adds to this personal depravity, a moral crookedness or corruption eventually making it impossible to reject sin. ...
sin also produces spiritual blindness. Spiritual truths simply are not visible to that person who has been blinded by sin. ...
Moral ineptitude is another devastating consequence of sin. The more people practice sin, the more inept they become as far as moral and spiritual values are concerned. Eventually, sin blurs the distinction between right and wrong. ...
Guilt is certainly a consequence of sin. No person can blame another person for a sin problem. Each person must accept responsibility for sin and face the guilt associated with it (Romans 1-3 ). ...
In the Bible sin and death are corollaries. One of the terrible byproducts of sin is death. Continual, consistent sin will bring spiritual death to that person who has not come under the lordship of Christ through repentance and faith (Romans 6:23 ; Revelation 20:14 . ...
Another serious consequence of sin is that it brings separation from God, estrangement, and a lack of fellowship with God. ...
sin produces estrangement from other persons just as surely as it produces an estrangement from God. All interpersonal problems have sin as their root cause (1635336367_35 )
Sins Against the Holy Spirit - sins that embody a stubborn resistance to the inspirations of the Holy Spirit and an open contempt for his gifts. They are ...
despair of one's salvation
presumption of God's mercy
impugning the known truths of faith
envy of another's spiritual good
obstinacy in sin
final impenitence
Although no sin is absolutely unpardonable, those who sin against the Holy Ghost stubbornly resist the influence of grace and do not wish to repent. Hence their sin cannot be forgiven them
Original Sin - Not sin in the ordinary sense of a transgression of the law of God which one commits deliberately. It is one of the consequences of the sin of our first parent, Adam. When by his sin he lost them for himself, they were lost also for his descendants. Now the loss or privation of Divine grace, the chief consequence of sin, means the privation of the supernatural goodness to which God destined us, and therefore it is called our original stain or sin. Other consequences of Adam's sin are death, and concupiscence, or the rebellion of our lower appetites against reason and will. This concupiscence, though often the occasion of sin, is not in itself sinful; it is not original sin, as the early Protestants held, nor does it consist, as Luther believed, in such a decadence of our nature as to leave our reason incapable of understanding, our will without freedom, and our whole nature evil. Original sin does not so corrupt our natural powers as to render them incapable of natural virtues: it deprives us of the grace needed for virtues beyond our natural powers. All this is based on Holy Scripture, particularly on Saint Paul's Epistle to the Romans 5: "Wherefore as by one man sin entered into this world, and by sin death; and so death passed upon all men, in whom all have sinned
Sin, Original - Not sin in the ordinary sense of a transgression of the law of God which one commits deliberately. It is one of the consequences of the sin of our first parent, Adam. When by his sin he lost them for himself, they were lost also for his descendants. Now the loss or privation of Divine grace, the chief consequence of sin, means the privation of the supernatural goodness to which God destined us, and therefore it is called our original stain or sin. Other consequences of Adam's sin are death, and concupiscence, or the rebellion of our lower appetites against reason and will. This concupiscence, though often the occasion of sin, is not in itself sinful; it is not original sin, as the early Protestants held, nor does it consist, as Luther believed, in such a decadence of our nature as to leave our reason incapable of understanding, our will without freedom, and our whole nature evil. Original sin does not so corrupt our natural powers as to render them incapable of natural virtues: it deprives us of the grace needed for virtues beyond our natural powers. All this is based on Holy Scripture, particularly on Saint Paul's Epistle to the Romans 5: "Wherefore as by one man sin entered into this world, and by sin death; and so death passed upon all men, in whom all have sinned
Sin - sin is anything that is contrary to the law or will of God. For example: if you lie, you have sinned. If you do what God has forbidden, then you have sinned. In addition, if you do not do what God has commanded, you sin (James 4:17). sin is lawlessness (1 John 1:3) and unrighteousness (1 John 5:17). sin leads to bondage (Romans 6:14-20) and death (Romans 6:23). ...
Paul, in the book of Romans, discusses sin. He shows that everyone, both Jew and Greek, is under sin (Romans 3:9). He shows that sin is not simply something that is done, but a condition of the heart (Romans 3:10-12)
Deeds - We speak of a sin of thought, a sin of intention, and a sin of deed, or actual outward commission
Clean - Solomon demands, (Proverbs 20:9) "Who can say, I have made my heart clean, I am pure from my sin?" None among the sons of Adam can lay claim to this cleanness, much less, that any have made themselves so. But the apostle John, commissioned by God the Holy Ghost, tells the church in a sweetness and fulness of expression indescribably blessed, that the blood of Jesus Christ cleanseth from all sin. (1 John 1:7) Here is the laver, the fountain, for sin and for all uncleanness, which JEHOVAH hath opened. (Zechariah 13:1) And hence, the Scripture sense of cleanness, is the sinner freed from the filth of sin, and the guilt of sin, and the dominion of sin, by the blood of Christ, and the sanctifying influences of the Holy Ghost
Sin Offering - The sin offering among the Jews was the sacrifice in which the ideas of propitiation and of atonement for sin were most distinctly marked. The ceremonial of the sin offering is described in Levi 4,6. The trespass offering is closely connected with the sin offering in Leviticus, but at the same time clearly distinguished from it, being in some cases offered with it as a distinct part of the same sacrifice; as, for example, in the cleansing of the leper. We find that the sin offerings were --
Regular . Levi 16 (B) For the priests and Levites at their consecration, (Exodus 29:10-14,36 ) besides the yearly sin offering (a, bullock) for the high priest on the Great Day of Atonement. For any sin of "ignorance" and the like recorded in Levi 4,5. It is seen that in the law most of the sins which are not purely ceremonial are called sins of "ignorance," see ( Hebrews 9:7 ) and in Numb 15:30 It is expressly said that while such sins call be atoned for by offerings, "the soul that doeth aught presumptuously " (Heb. ( Hebrews 10:20 ) But here are sufficient indications that the sins here called "of ignorance" are more strictly those of "negligence" or "frailty" repented of by the unpunished offender, as opposed to those of deliberate and unrepentant sin. It is also evident that the sin offering was the only regular and general recognition of sin in the abstract and accordingly was for more solemn and symbolical in it's ceremonial; the trespass offering was confined to special cases, most of which related to the doing of some material damage, either to the holy things or to man. Josephus declares that the sin offering is presented by those "who fall into sin in ignorance. " and the trespass offering by "one who has sinned and is conscious of his sin. First, that the sin offering was for the more solemn and comprehensive of the two sacrifices. Secondly, that the sin offering looked more to the guilt of the sin done, irrespective of its consequences, while the trespass offering looked to the evil consequences of sin, either against the service of God or against man, and to the duty of atonement, as far as atonement was possible. Thirdly, that in the sin offering especially we find symbolized the acknowledgment of sinfulness as inherent in man, and of the need of expiation by sacrifice to renew the broken covenant between man and God. They restored sin offender to his place in the commonwealth of Israel; they were therefore an atonement to the King of Israel for the infringement of his low
Sin - , "a missing of the mark," but this etymological meaning is largely lost sight of in the NT. It is used of "sin" as (a) a principle or source of action, or an inward element producing acts, e. , Romans 3:9 ; 5:12,13,20 ; 6:1,2 ; 7:7 (abstract for concrete); 7:8 (twice),9,11,13, "sin, that it might be shown to be sin," i. , "sin became death to me, that it might be exposed in its heinous character:" in the clause, "sin might become exceeding sinful," i. , through the holiness of the Law, the true nature of sin was designed to be manifested to the conscience; ...
(b) a governing principle or power, e. , Romans 6:6 ; "(the body) of sin," here "sin" is spoken of as an organized power, acting through the members of the body, though the seat of "sin" is in the will (the body is the organic instrument); in the next clause, and in other passages, as follows, this governing principle is personified, e. , John 8:21,34,46 ; 9:41 ; 15:22,24 ; 19:11 ); in Romans 8:3 , "God, sending His own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh," lit. , "flesh of sin," the flesh stands for the body, the instrument of indwelling "sin" [1], and as an offering for sin," i. , "a sin offering" (so the Sept. , in Leviticus 4:32 ; 5:6-9 ), "condemned sin in the flesh," i. , Christ, having taken human nature, "sin" apart (Hebrews 4:15 ), and having lived a sinless life, died under the condemnation and judgment due to our "sin;" for the generic sense see further, e. , Hebrews 9:26 ; 10:6,8,18 ; 13:11 ; 1 John 1:7,8 ; 3:4 (1st part; in the 2nd part, "sin" is defined as "lawlessness," RV),8,9; in these verses the AV use of the verb to commit is misleading; not the committal of an act is in view, but a continous course of "sin," as indicated by the RV, "doeth. , Romans 1:32 , RV; 2:1; Galatians 5:21 ; Philippians 4:9 ); 1 Peter 4:1 (singular in the best texts), lit. , "has been made to cease from sin," i. Such no longer lives in the flesh, "to the lusts of men, but to the will of God;" sometimes the word is used as virtually equivalent to a condition of "sin," e. , John 1:29 , "the sin (not sins) of the world;" 1 Corinthians 15:17 ; or a course of "sin," characterized by continuous acts, e. , is probably to be preferred, "there is sin unto death," not a special act of "sin," but the state or condition producing acts; in 1 John 5:17 , "all unrighteousness is sin" is not a definition of "sin" (as in 1 John 3:4 ), it gives a specification of the term in its generic sense; ...
(d) a sinful deed, an act of "sin," e. ...
Notes: (1) Christ is predicated as having been without "sin" in every respect, e. (2) In Hebrews 9:28 (2nd part) the reference is to a "sin" offering. He made to be sin" indicates that God dealt with Him as He must deal with "sin," and that Christ fulfilled what was typified in the guilt offering. (4) For the phrase "man of sin" in 2 Thessalonians 2:3 , see INIQUITY , No. 1 (a), (b), (c)]'>[2]; plural in Mark 3:28 ; Romans 3:25 ; 2 Peter 1:9 , in some texts; sing. ...
Notes: (1) For paraptoma, rendered "sins" in the AV in Ephesians 1:7 ; 2:5 ; Colossians 2:13 (RV, "trespass"), see TRESPASS. 1 (RV, "sins"). ...
B — 1: ἀναμάρτητος (Strong's #361 — Adjective — anamartetos — an-am-ar'-tay-tos ) "without sin" (a, negative, n, euphonic, and C, No. , "to miss the mark," is used in the NT (a) of "sinning" against God, (1) by angels, 2 Peter 2:4 ; (2) by man, Matthew 27:4 ; Luke 15:18,21 (heaven standing, by metonymy, for God); John 5:14 ; 8:11 ; 9:2,3 ; Romans 2:12 (twice); 3:23; 5:12,14,16; 6:15; 1 Corinthians 7:28 (twice),36; 15:34; Ephesians 4:26 ; 1 Timothy 5:20 ; Titus 3:11 ; Hebrews 3:17 ; 10:26 ; 1 John 1:10 ; in 1 John 2:1 (twice), the aorist tense in each place, referring to an act of "sin;" on the contrary, in 1 John 3:6 (twice),8,9, the present tense indicates, not the committal of an act, but the continuous practice of "sin" [3]; in 1 John 5:16 (twice) the present tense indicates the condition resulting from an act, "unto death" signifying "tending towards death;" (b) against Christ, 1 Corinthians 8:12 ; (c) against man, (1) a brother, Matthew 18:15 , RV, "sin" (AV, "tresspass"); Matthew 18:21 ; Luke 17:3,4 , RV, "sin" (AV, "trespass"); 1 Corinthians 8:12 ; (2) in Luke 15:18,21 , against the father by the Prodigal Son, "in thy sight" being suggestive of befitting reverence; (d) against Jewish law, the Temple, and Caesar, Acts 25:8 , RV, "sinned" (AV, "offended"); (e) against one's own body, by fornication, 1 Corinthians 6:18 ; (f) against earthly masters by servants, 1 Peter 2:20 , RV, "(when) ye sin (and are buffeted for it)," AV, "(when ye be buffeted) for your faults," lit. , "having sinned. " ...
C — 2: προαμαρτάνω (Strong's #4258 — Verb — proamartano — pro-am-ar-tan'-o ) "to sin previously" (pro, "before," and No. 1), occurs in 2 Corinthians 12:21 ; 13:2 , RV in each place, "have sinned heretofore" (so AV in the 2nd; in the 1st, "have sinned already")
Shame - Every one knows what shame means, it implies somewhat that is disgraceful, somewhat connected with sin. Hence, where sin is not, there is not properly speaking, shame. So that our first parents in the garden, before sin entered into the world, knew nothing of shame. " (Genesis 2:25) But after the fall, instantly a conscious sense of sin made them attempt to hide themselves from the presence of the Lord, amidst the trees of the garden. (Genesis 3:7-8) What a sweet thought is it, that as a sense of sin induceth shame, so a consciousness that sin is done away in Christ takes away that shame, and induceth holy boldness
Sin - sin is a riddle, a mystery, a reality that eludes definition and comprehension. Perhaps we most often think of sin as wrongdoing or transgression of God's law. sin includes a failure to do what is right. But sin also offends people; it is violence and lovelessness toward other people, and ultimately, rebellion against God. Further, the Bible teaches that sin involves a condition in which the heart is corrupted and inclined toward evil. The concept of sin is complex, and the terminology large and varied so that it may be best to look at the reality of sin in the Pentateuch first, then reflect theologically. ...
The History of sin . In the biblical world sin is, from its first appearance, tragic and mysterious. We see the tendency of sin to begin with a subtle appeal to something attractive and good in itself, to an act that is somehow plausible and directed toward some good end. ...
Throughout the Bible almost every sin reaches for things with some intrinsic value, such as security, knowledge, peace, pleasure, or a good name. But behind the appeal to something good, sin ultimately involves a raw confrontation between obedience and rebellion. ...
Here too the first sins disclose the essence of later sins. sin involves the refusal of humankind to accept its God-given position between the Creator and lower creation. Here we approach the mystery of sin. Why would the first couple, sinless and without inclination toward sin, choose to rebel? Why would any creature presume to know more or know better than its creator?...
Adam and Eve become sinners by a historical act. The principal effects of sin are alienation from God, from others, from oneself, and from creation. Adam Acts out all three alienations at once when, in response to God's questions, he excuses himself by blaming both Eve and God for his sin: "The woman you put here with me—she gave me some fruit" (3:12). The sentence God pronounces upon sin includes grace (3:15) and suggests that he retains sovereign control over his creation even in its rebellion, but it also establishes our alienation from nature in the curse upon childbearing, work, and creation itself (3:14-19). These events prove the vanity and futility of sin. Adam and Eve seek new freedoms and dignity, but sin robs them of what they have; seeking advantage, they experience great losses. ...
Genesis and Romans teach that Adam and Eve did not sin for themselves alone, but, from their privileged position as the first, originally sinless couple, act as representatives for the human race. since then sin, sinfulness, and the consequences of sin have marred all. Every child of Adam enters a race marked by sin, condemnation, and death (Romans 5:12-21 ). ...
In Cain's sin we have an early hint of the virulence and intractability of sin. Whereas Satan prompted Adam and Eve to sin, God himself cannot talk Cain out of it (Genesis 3:1-5 ; 4:6 ). While sin was external to Adam and Eve, it appears to spring up spontaneously from within Cain; it is a wild force in him, which he ought to master lest it devour him (4:7). sin is also becoming more aggravated: it is premeditated, it begins in the setting of worship, and it directly harms a brother, who deserves love. After his sin, far from manifesting guilt or remorse, Cain confesses nothing, refuses to repent, and chides God for the harshness of his punishments (4:5-14). Cain's sin and impenitence foreshadow much of the future course of sin both within and without the Bible. ...
Genesis 4-11 traces the development of sin. It becomes proud and deliberate (4:23-24), yet the line of Cain, the line of sinners, remains human and fulfills the mandate to fill and subdue the earth. Eventually, sin so pervades the world that every inclination of the thoughts of the human heart is only evil all the time ( Genesis 6:5 ; 8:21 ). When sin threatens to reassert itself in both direct disobedience and idolatry, God reveals his new intention to restrain sin by confusing human language at Babel: better that humanity be divided than that it stand together in rebellion against God. ...
Genesis 12-50 illustrates that sin plagues even the people of God, as members of the covenant family manipulate, betray, lie to, and deceive one another. Scheming Rebekah never sees her favorite son again; Jacob tastes the bitterness of deceit through Laban; Jacob's sons suffer for their sin against Joseph. As Matthew 9:9-1366 says, "The evil deeds of a wicked man ensnare him; the cords of his sin hold him fast. "...
Exodus reveals that sin not only brings suffering and punishment, but also violates the law of the Lord, Israel's holy redeemer and king. At sinai Israel learned that sin is transgression of God's law; it is behavior that trespasses onto forbidden territory (Romans 4:15 ). The law also labels sin and unmasks it. One can sin without knowing it, but the law makes such ignorance less common. The Mosaic law emphasizes the external character of sin, but the laws that command Israel to love God and forbid it to worship idols or covet show that sin is internal too. Paradoxically, the law sometimes prompts sin, Paul says (Romans 7:7-13 ). This perverse reaction reminds us that the root of sin is sinfulness and rebellion against God (Romans 7:7-25 ). ...
The sacrifices and rituals for cleansing listed in the Pentateuch remind us of the gravity of sin. The Bible never dismisses a sin simply because it was done by someone young or ignorant, or because it was done some time ago. sin pollutes the sinner, and the law requires that the pollution be removed. sin also offends God, and the law requires atonement through sacrifices, in many of which a victim gives its life blood for an atonement. ...
The Biblical Terminology of sin . The vast terminology, within its biblical contexts, suggests that sin has three aspects: disobedience to or breach of law, violation of relationships with people, and rebellion against God, which is the most basic concept. Risking oversimplification, among the most common Hebrew terms, hattat [1] means a missing of a standard, mark, or goal; pesa [2] means the breach of a relationship or rebellion; awon [3] means perverseness; segagah [4] signifies error or mistake; resa [4] means godlessness, injustice, and wickedness; and amal [6], when it refers to sin, means mischief or oppression. The Bible typically describes sin negatively. ...
The Biblical Theology of sin . The historical and prophetic books of the Old Testament illustrate the character of sin under these terms. Sometimes they served the Baals with singleness of purpose, filling Jerusalem with idols, and lawlessness reigned (Ahab, Ahaz, and Manasseh). The sin of human sacrifice followed in the reigns of such kings (2 Kings 21:6 ). The existence of human sacrifice underscores the depth and gravity of sin. Later the Pharisees, utterly sincere, yet hypocritical because self-deceived, would revive this sin by killing not their children, but their maker, and calling it an act of service to God. ...
Many kings compounded their sin by rejecting and sometimes persecuting the prophets who pressed God's covenantal claims. ...
Other prophets decried the social character of sin: "They sell the righteous for silver, and the needy for a pair of sandals. If sin is lack of love for God, it is also hate or indifference toward fellow humans. ...
The history of Israel illustrates how impenitence compounds sin. Saul magnified his sins by repenting superficially at best (1 Samuel 13:11-12 ; 15:13-21 ; 24:16-21 ). David, by contrast, repented of his sin with Bathsheba, without excuses or reservations (2 Samuel 12:13 ). ...
Jesus continued the prophets' work of deepening the concept of sin in two ways. People sin by hating, despising, and lusting even if they never act on their desires. People sin if they do the right things for the wrong reasons. Second, Jesus' harsh denunciations of sin show that sin cannot be overlooked. Otherwise, the sinner dies in his sins (John 8:24 ; cf. ...
Jesus also explained that sin arises from the heart. Therefore, evildoing is not simply a matter of choice, rather, "Everyone who sins is a slave to sin" (John 8:34 ). ...
But the Christ came not just to explain but to forgive or remove sin. His name is Jesus because he will deliver his people from their sins (Matthew 1:21 ; Luke 1:77 ). Thus he was a friend of sinners (1635336367_8 ; Luke 15:1-2 ), bestowed forgiveness of sins, and freed those suffering from its consequences (Mark 2:1-12 ; Luke 7:36-50 ). Jesus earned the right to his name and the right to grant forgiveness by shedding his blood on the cross for the remission of sins. The crucifixion is at once the apex of sin and the cure of sin (Acts 2:23-24 ). That the Son of God had to bear the cross to accomplish redemption shows the gravity of sin. That he rose from the dead demonstrates that sin is defeated. After his resurrection, Jesus sent out his disciples to proclaim the victory and forgiveness of sins through his name (Luke 24:47 ; John 20:23 ). ...
Paul's theology of sin principally appears in Romans 1-8 . God is angry because of sins humans commit against him and one another (1:18-32). Unbelief is the root of sin. Sometimes he permits sins to develop unimpeded, until every kind of wickedness fills the human breast (1:26-32). Paul replies that while not everyone sins so crudely, everyone violates standards they consider just (2:1-3). Everyone is a sinner, he concludes, and stands silent, guilty, and accountable before God (3:10-21). Paul's sin lists cover the gamut of transgressions, from murder to gossip. Despite his use of the term "flesh" ("sinful nature" in some translations), relatively few sins on the lists are sensual; most concern the mind or the tongue (Romans 1:28-32 ; Galatians 5:19-21 ). Like Jesus, Paul affirms that sin is an internal power, not just an act. It enslaves any whom Christ has not liberated and leads to their death (6:5-23), so that the unbeliever is incapable of pleasing God (8:5-8). sin continues to grip even the redeemed (7:14-25). But principal deliverance from sin comes through justification by faith in Jesus, so there is no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus (3:21-4:25; 8:1-4). James remarks that sin begins with evil desires (1:14; 4:1-4) and leads to death when fully grown (1:15). When an individual commits a sin, it can become, through repetition, a habit, a vice, and a character trait. When one person imitates the sins of another, wickedness can be institutionalized. Thus one sinner encourages another and the wrong kind of friendship with the world makes one an enemy of God (James 4:4-6 ). ...
The Book of Revelation also reminds us that sin involves more than individual people and Acts. Revelation also depicts the end of sin. A day comes when God will condemn sin (20:11-15). Then the new heavens and new earth, free of sin forever, will descend (chaps. ...
What, then, is the essence of sin? sin has three chief aspects: breach of law, violation of relationships with people and things protected by the law, and rebellion against God. The essence of sin, therefore, is not a substance but a relationship of opposition. sin opposes God's law and his created beings. sin hates rather than loves, it doubts or contradicts rather than trusts and affirms, it harms and abuses rather than helps and respects. ...
But sin is also a condition. The Bible teaches that there are lies and liars, sins and sinners. God "gives some over to sin, " allowing them to wallow in every kind of wickedness (Romans 1:18-32 ). Paul, speaking of the time before their conversion, told the Ephesians, "You were dead in your transgressions and sins, in which you used to live" (2:1-2). ...
This said, we have hardly defined sin, and with good reason. sin is elusive. sin has no substance, no independent existence. sin creates nothing; it abuses, perverts, spoils, and destroys the good things God has made. " In some ways sin is an absence rather than a presence: it fails to listen, walks past the needy, and subsists in alienation rather than relation. ...
Negative as sin is, it hides itself under the appearance of what is good. At the first temptation, sin operated under the guise of claiming good things such as food and knowledge. sin and temptation continue to appeal to things good and desirable in themselves. ...
Yet ultimately, sin is most unreasonable. Why would Adam and Eve, well-cared-for and without propensity toward sin, rebel against God? Why would a creature want to rebel against the Creator? The prophets find Israel's rebellion absurd; even animals know better. ...
Although negative and irrational, sin is also a power. From the selfish heart comes rebellion, godlessness, cursing, lies, slander, envy, greed, sensuality, and pride (Matthew 12:34-37 ; Romans 1:18-32 ). ...
Three factors compound the tragedy of sin. First, it pervades the whole person; no sphere escapes, for the very heart of the sinner is corrupt (Psalm 51:5 ; Jeremiah 17:9 ; Romans 8:7 ). Third, sin is proud; hence it resists God and his salvation and offers a counterfeit salvation instead (2 Thessalonians 2:2-4 ). ...
Despite all its dismal qualities, sin makes one contribution. Because God chose to redeem his people from it, sin has been the stimulus for God's demonstration of his amazing patience, grace, and love (Romans 5:6-8 ; Galatians 2:17-20 ; 1 Timothy 1:15-17 ). So the study of sin need not merely grieve the Christian. From a postresurrection perspective, sin indirectly gives opportunity to praise the creating and redeeming Lord for his gracious deliverance (Romans 11:33-36 ). Berkouwer, sin ; G
Justify - The act of God's free grace, whereby he freely pardons the sinner, and justifies him in Christ notwithstanding all his own unworthiness and transgressions; delivering him both from the guilt of sin, the dominion of sin, and the punishment due to sin; accepting him in Christ, and thus blessing him in and through the finished salvation of Jesus Christ our Lord
Sin - The soul that sins is always conscious that his sin is (1) intrinsically vile and polluting, and (2) that it justly deserves punishment, and calls down the righteous wrath of God. Hence sin carries with it two inalienable characters, (1) ill-desert, guilt (reatus); and (2) pollution (macula). The disposition to sin, or the habit of the soul that leads to the sinful act, is itself also sin (Romans 6:12-17 ; Galatians 5:17 ; James 1:14,15 ). ...
The origin of sin is a mystery, and must for ever remain such to us. It is plain that for some reason God has permitted sin to enter this world, and that is all we know. His permitting it, however, in no way makes God the author of sin. ...
Adam's sin (Genesis 3:1-6 ) consisted in his yielding to the assaults of temptation and eating the forbidden fruit. It involved in it, (1) the sin of unbelief, virtually making God a liar; and (2) the guilt of disobedience to a positive command. By this sin he became an apostate from God, a rebel in arms against his Creator. ...
Original sin. "Our first parents being the root of all mankind, the guilt of their sin was imputed, and the same death in sin and corrupted nature were conveyed to all their posterity, descending from them by ordinary generation. Because of Adam's first sin all his posterity came into the world in a state of sin and condemnation, i. , (1) a state of moral corruption, and (2) of guilt, as having judicially imputed to them the guilt of Adam's first sin. ...
"Original sin" is frequently and properly used to denote only the moral corruption of their whole nature inherited by all men from Adam. This inherited moral corruption consists in, (1) the loss of original righteousness; and (2) the presence of a constant proneness to evil, which is the root and origin of all actual sin. It is called "sin" (Romans 6:12,14,17 ; 7:5-17 ), the "flesh" (Galatians 5:17,24 ), "lust" (James 1:14,15 ), the "body of sin" (Romans 6:6 ), "ignorance," "blindness of heart," "alienation from the life of God" (Ephesians 4:18,19 ). Pelagians deny original sin, and regard man as by nature morally and spiritually well; semi-Pelagians regard him as morally sick; Augustinians, or, as they are also called, Calvinists, regard man as described above, spiritually dead (Ephesians 2:1 ; 1 John 3:14 ). ...
The doctrine of original sin is proved, ...
From the fact of the universal sinfulness of men. "There is no man that sinneth not" (1 Kings 8:46 ; Isaiah 53:6 ; Psalm 130:3 ; Romans 3:19,22,23 ; Galatians 3:22 ). Various kinds of sin are mentioned, ...
"Presumptuous sins," or as literally rendered, "sins with an uplifted hand", i. , defiant acts of sin, in contrast with "errors" or "inadvertencies" (Psalm 19:13 ). , hidden sins (19:12); sins which escape the notice of the soul.
"Sin against the Holy Ghost" (q. ), or a "sin unto death" (Matthew 12:31,32 ; 1 John 5:16 ), which amounts to a wilful rejection of grace. sin, a city in Egypt, called by the Greeks Pelusium, which means, as does also the Hebrew name, "clayey" or "muddy," so called from the abundance of clay found there
Antinomianism - It is the unbiblical practice of living without regard to the righteousness of God, using God's grace as a license to sin, and trusting grace to cleanse of sin. In other words, since grace is infinite and we are saved by grace, then we can sin all we want and still be saved. We are to love God with all our heart, soul, strength, and mind, and our neighbor as ourselves (Luke 10:27) and, thereby, avoid the offense of sin which cost God His only begotten Son. Paul speaks against the concept of antinomianism in Romans 6:1-2: "Are we to continue in sin that grace may abound? May it never be! How shall we who died to sin still live in it?". We are not to use the grace of God as a means of sin
Contrition - ) The state of being contrite; deep sorrow and repentance for sin, because sin is displeasing to God; humble penitence; through repentance
Dead, Sacraments of the - They are so named because from Divine institution, their primary purpose is to remit grave sin, either original or actual, and to confer sanctifying grace on those who are spiritually dead from sin
Sacraments of the Dead - They are so named because from Divine institution, their primary purpose is to remit grave sin, either original or actual, and to confer sanctifying grace on those who are spiritually dead from sin
Holy Communion, Effects of - Holy Communion, partaking of the Body and Blood of Christ, unites us with Him, increases our love of Him, obtains forgiveness for venial sin, remission of punishment incurred by sin, preservation from future sin, quieting of the violent passions of anger and lust; it acts as healing remedy of body and soul and pledges us a happy immortality
Effects of Holy Communion - Holy Communion, partaking of the Body and Blood of Christ, unites us with Him, increases our love of Him, obtains forgiveness for venial sin, remission of punishment incurred by sin, preservation from future sin, quieting of the violent passions of anger and lust; it acts as healing remedy of body and soul and pledges us a happy immortality
Iniquity - See sin
Wickedness - See sin
Hattush - Forsaking sin
Origin of Evil - See sin
Permission of Sin - See sin
Transgression - See sin ...
...
Trespass - See sin ...
...
Guilt - See sin
Offence - See sin
Wickedness - See sin ...
...
Trespass - See sin
Iniquity - See sin
Transgression - See sin
Original Sin - See sin
Fall - See sin
Jedidiah - This, following on the great sin of David with Bathsheba, is a remarkable instance of how grace can abound over sin
Eternal Sin - ETERNAL sin. It is not surprising that the latter explanation of a difficult word (ἀμάρτημα) should have found its way into the text of some later MSS [3]8 . It has the merit of emphasizing the essential matter, which any interpretation, to be adequate, must take into account, that an ‘eternal sin’ is a sin which ‘hath never forgiveness. It is not the penalty of the sin, but its nature, which is declared; not the mere duration of the sin or of the sinning, but the guilt; not eternally sinning, but an eternal sin. ...
That sin tends to propagate itself is witnessed to by experience, and that continuance in sinning must exclude forgiveness is an essential principle of all moral judgment. sin and penalty are of necessity coterminous. But unforgiven because unrepented of is true of all sin, and is no adequate explanation of an ‘eternal sin’ which carries the judgment ‘unforgivable. ...
‘Eternal sin’ finds its contrast and opposite in ‘eternal life,’ which is not simply or characteristically endless life, but essential, perfect life, ‘the life which is life indeed’ (1 Timothy 6:19 Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885), the life of the Kingdom of God (cf. So ‘eternal sin’ is more than ‘sin eternally repeating itself,’ it is a fixed state of sin, sin which has become character, nature, moral death, which is death indeed. also 1 John 5:16 ‘sin unto death’ (see Westcott, ad loc. But it is in the Scripture doctrine of sin that the full ground of this fear is seen. According to the teaching of Jesus, the measure of responsibility is ‘the light that is in thee’ (Matthew 6:23), and sin is wilful disregard of the light of truth. To be blind is to be without sin; but to those who say ‘we see,’ and yet walk in darkness, ‘sin remaineth’ (John 9:41). ’ This is sin’s last stage and uttermost working; it cuts the soul off from God, its source and life. ‘Sin, when it is full grown, bringeth forth death’ (James 1:15). sin
Transgression - See sin
Blasphemy Against the Holy Ghost - See UNPARDONABLE sin
Hattil - Howling for sin
Original Sin - See FALL, sin
Iniquity - See sin
Iniquity - See Evil ; sin ...
...
Unpardonable Sin - See sin, &8
Shena(z)Zar - (sshih nay' zahr) Babylonian personal name meaning, “Sin (a god) protects” or “may sin protect
Unpardonable Sin, the - To understand the unpardonable sin referred to in Matthew 12:31-32 , is to understand what it is not . ...
It is not: murder, lying, stealing, suicide, adultery, taking the Lord's name in vain, a sin committed in ignorance, a sin that a Christian can commit, or a sin that a person may feel he or she has committed. The unpardonable sin is a persistent and deliberate sin against light, maintained in the face of the positive work of the Holy Spirit. Jesus was not talking about a sin of His day only; it can happen anytime. The unpardonable sin is committed today when one sets mind and will and spirit against the Holy Spirit. See Blasphemy ; Devil ; Holy Spirit ; sin
Sin (2) - One danger of secret sin is that a man cannot commit it without being by-and-by betrayed into a public sin. If a man commit one sin, it is like the melting of the lower glacier upon the Alps, the others must follow in time. sin cannot be held in with bit and bridle, it must be mortified
Hatita - A bending of sin
Trespass Offering - (See sin OFFERING; SACRIFICE
Sinless - ) Free from sin
Maon - House; place of sin
Sin - ...
The origin of sin is a subject which baffles all investigation; and our inquiries are much better directed when we seek through Christ a release from its penalty and power, for ourselves and the world. ...
As contrary to the nature, worship, love, and service to God, sin is called ungodliness; as a violation of the law of God and of the claims of man, it is a transgression or trespass; as a deviation from eternal rectitude, it is called iniquity or unrighteousness; as the evil and bitter root of all actual transgression, the depravity transmitted from our first parents to all their seed, it is called "original sin," or in the Bible," the flesh," "the law of sin and death," etc. The just penalty or "wages of sin is death;" this was threatened against the first sin, Genesis 2:17 and all subsequent sins: "the soul that sinneth it shall die. " A single sin, unrepented of the unforgiven, destroys the soul, as a single break renders a whole ocean cable worthless. ...
"Sin" is also sometimes put for the sacrifice of expiation, the sin offering, described in Leviticus 4:3,25,29 also, Romans 8:3 and in 2 Corinthians 5:21 , Paul says that God was pleased that Jesus, who knew no sin, should be our victim of expiation: "For he hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him. " ...
For the sin against the Holy Ghost, see BLASPHEMY
Sin, Sense of - A salutary fear produced in us by a clear understanding of the nature and malice of sin. It is a realization that we are in a fallen state, and that without God's grace we cannot overcome temptation, avoid sin, or perform the least supernatural act
Sense of Sin - A salutary fear produced in us by a clear understanding of the nature and malice of sin. It is a realization that we are in a fallen state, and that without God's grace we cannot overcome temptation, avoid sin, or perform the least supernatural act
Awe of god - the fear or awe of Heaven, which compels us to refrain from sin. Divided into lower and higher levels: Yirah Ila'ah (supernal fear) is the awe one feels when contemplating G-d's greatness, Yirah Tata'ah is fear of the negative consequences that result from sin ...
Habitual Sin - The sinful state of a soul resulting from actual sin. After the act of sin has been accomplished, the soul remains in a state of aversion from God. This state, considered as destroying the due order of man to God, is habitual sin or guilt (reatus culpae); considered as depriving the soul of the beauty of grace, it is a stain (macula peccati). This sinful state is imputable to the sinner because it follows from a voluntary sinful act
Sin, Habitual - The sinful state of a soul resulting from actual sin. After the act of sin has been accomplished, the soul remains in a state of aversion from God. This state, considered as destroying the due order of man to God, is habitual sin or guilt (reatus culpae); considered as depriving the soul of the beauty of grace, it is a stain (macula peccati). This sinful state is imputable to the sinner because it follows from a voluntary sinful act
Sinned - ) of sin...
Yirat hashem - the fear or awe of G-d, which compels us to refrain from sin. Divided into lower and higher levels: Yirah Ila'ah (supernal fear) is the awe one feels when contemplating G-d's greatness, Yirah Tata'ah is fear of the negative consequences that result from sin ...
Offence - ) A cause or occasion of stumbling or of sin. , a crime or a sin, an affront or an injury
Man of Lawlessness - See Antichrist ; Lawlessness, Man of sin
Sinning - ) of sin...
Scapegoat - (See ATONMENT, DAY OF; sin OFFERING
Condemnation - Without Jesus we stand condemned before God not only because of the sin of Adam (Romans 5:16-18) but also because of our own sin (Matthew 12:37). For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus has set you free from the law of sin and of death" (Romans 8:1-2)
Absolve - ) To free from a penalty; to pardon; to remit (a sin); - said of the sin or guilt. ) To set free, or release, as from some obligation, debt, or responsibility, or from the consequences of guilt or such ties as it would be sin or guilt to violate; to pronounce free; as, to absolve a subject from his allegiance; to absolve an offender, which amounts to an acquittal and remission of his punishment
Freedom - FREE, FREEDOM...
The Scriptures considering our whole nature by the fall under the vassalage of sin and Satan, represent our deliverance from both by grace under the character of spiritual freedom. "Whosoever committeth sin (saith Jesus,) is the servant of sin; and the servant abideth not in the house for ever, but the son abideth ever
Sin - ‘Sin’ is a term which belongs to religion. Moral evil as an injury done by man to himself is vice, as an offence against human society crime, but as affecting his relation to God sin. To be forgetful of God in one’s thoughts, to be neglectful of piety and worship towards God, is as much sin as to disregard and defy God’s commandments. It is sometimes insisted in writings of to-day, such as Tennant’s (see Literature), that sin must be conscious and voluntary distrust and disobedience; but it will appear that in the Scriptures the emphasis on the subjective consciousness is secondary. sin includes departure from, or failure to reach, the standard of religious and moral obligation for man determined by the nature and purpose of God; the stress falls more on the objective reality-the difference between what man is and what he should be, God being what He is. While it might be convenient to restrict the term ‘sin’ to conscious, voluntary acts, yet the wider usage is too deeply rooted in religious thought to be easily displaced. It is not punishment; for punishment consists of all the evil consequences of sin, which the sinner in his sense of having sinned regards as resulting from a violated moral law, or more personally as the evidences of the Divine displeasure. This subjective consciousness is not, however, illusory, as it does correspond with and respond to a moral order and a personal will opposed to sin, which are an objective reality. Guilt is the liability to punishment, the sinner by his act placing himself in such a relation to the moral order and the personal will of God as to expose him to the evil consequences included in his punishment. Can we separate, or must we identify, guilt and sense of guilt? Is there an objective fact and a subjective feeling? If sin is confined strictly to conscious and voluntary acts, then guilt, it would seem, must be measured by the sense of guilt, the blame-worthiness or evil desert that the conscience of the sinner assigns to him. A man’s guilt is measured, not by his shame or sorrow, but by God’s judgment: his relation to God as affected by his sin is determined, not by his own opinion of himself, but by God’s view of him. Saints as a whole must bear the blame for many of the conditions which make the criminal; and the saint will bear in his heart as a personal sorrow and shame the sins of his fellow-men. ...
(a) The universality of sin. Even in the Gentiles this involved guilt, for the sin was conscious and voluntary, as a disregard and defiance of a law written in their hearts (Romans 1:28-32, Romans 2:14-16). Paul establishes his thesis of the universality of sin and consequent guilt, and confirms it from the Scriptures, the aim of which is to bring to all men the sense of guilt, ‘that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may be brought under the judgement of God’ (Romans 3:19); ‘the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who hold down the truth in unrighteousness’ (Romans 1:18). ...
In affirming that sin involves guilt, exposes man to the Divine judgment, St. There is a moral order in man and the world condemning and executing sentence on sin; and, if God be personally immanent in the world, we cannot distinguish that moral order from the mind and will of God. And, if God be personal, He feels as well as thinks and wills; and so we cannot altogether exclude an emotional reaction of God against sin. Thus we are here dealing, not with an outgrown superstition, but with a permanent moral and spiritual reality-man’s sin and God’s judgment, man’s need and God’s offer of salvation. ...
(b) The development of sin. -From the universal fact we may turn to the individual feeling of sin. Paul was not merely generalizing his individual experience in his proof of the universality of sin, but it is certain that his individual experience gave emphasis to his statement. sin is a power dwelling in man, which may for a time be latent, but which is provoked into exercise by the Law. The knowledge of the prohibition stimulates, and does not restrain, the opposition of sin to law; as the common proverb says, ‘Forbidden fruit is sweet. ’ While the mind knows, approves, and delights in the law of God as holy, righteous, and good, the flesh is the seat and vehicle of sin. ...
(1) sin as a power. Paul here as throughout chapters 5, 6, 7 sin is personified as distinct from the animal appetites, the physical impulses, and even the human will itself as dwelling in men and bringing men into bondage. It enters into the heart (Romans 7:17; Romans 7:20), works on man, using the Law itself for its ends (Romans 7:8; Romans 7:11), and enslaves him (Romans 6:6; Romans 6:17; Romans 6:20). In Christ he is freed from sin (Romans 6:18; Romans 6:22) and dies to it (Romans 6:9; Romans 6:11). As freed from and dead to sin, the Christian is not to put his members at the service of sin (Romans 6:13), and must not allow it to reign over him in his body (Romans 6:12). Paul regard sin as a personal agent? As a Jew he believed in Satan and a host of evil spirits; and probably, if pressed to explain the power of sin, he would have appealed to this personal agency; but we must not assume that when he thus speaks of sin he is always thinking of Satan. sin is for him an objective reality without being always identified with Satan (see Sanday-Headlam, International Critical Commentary , ‘Romans,’ p. For us the personification is suggestive in so far as we must recognize that in customs, beliefs, rites, institutions, in human society generally, there is an influence for evil that hurtfully affects the individual-what Ritschl has called the Kingdom of sin as opposed to the Kingdom of God. ‘The subject of sin, rather, is humanity as the sum of all individuals, in so far as the selfish action of each person, involving him as it does in illimitable interaction with all others, is directed in any degree whatsoever towards the opposite of the good, and leads to the association of individuals in common evil’ (Justification and Reconciliation, Eng. ...
(2) The flesh as the seat and vehicle of sin. It is as corrupted and perverted by sin that human nature lends itself as a channel to and an instrument of sin as a power dwelling in and ruling over man. ...
(3) The relation of the Law to sin. -The Law reveals sin, because it shows the opposition between the will of God and the wishes of man (Romans 3:20; Romans 7:7). The Law provokes rather than restrains sin (Romans 7:8-9; cf. 1 Corinthians 15:56): the commandment is like a challenge, which sin at once accepts. Paul represents not only as the human result, but as the Divine intention (Romans 5:20, Galatians 3:19), in order that a full exposure might be made of what sin in its very nature is (Romans 7:13), so that men might be made fully aware of their need of deliverance from it (Romans 11:32). Thus sin as a power, finding its seat and vehicle in the flesh, not restrained but provoked by the law in the individual, brings a bondage from which the gospel offers deliverance, even as it sets a universal grace of God over against the universal sin of mankind. ...
(c) The origin of sin. -What explanation can be offered of the fact of the universality of sin? How has man’s nature become so corrupted and perverted as to be described by the term ‘flesh’? How can sin be represented as a power dwelling in, ruling over, man, and bringing him into bondage? While St. Paul does not in Romans 5:12; Romans 5:21 formally offer this explanation, the passage being introduced into the argument for another purpose-to prove the greater efficacy of grace than of sin, by as much as Christ is greater than Adam-yet, as he is there dealing with his view of the introduction of sin into the world, we must regard that passage as his explanation both of sin as a power in humanity and of the flesh; for it is not likely that he would leave sin in the race and sin in the individual unconnected. In the article Fall the subject has already been discussed; here only the considerations bearing immediately on the subject of sin need be mentioned. The relation of the race to Adam may be conceived as two-fold: (1) a participation in guilt; (2) an inheritance of a sinful disposition. Paul teaches that all men are involved in the penalty of Adam’s transgression, for ‘death passed unto all men’ (Romans 5:12), but he does not teach that all men are held guilty of Adam’s transgression; for (a) by a surprising change of construction and discontinuity of thought he affirms as the reason for the universality of death the actual transgression of all men ‘for that all sinned,’ and (b) he guards himself against the charge of imputing guilt when there is no conscious and voluntary transgression, by affirming that ‘sin is not imputed when there is no law’ (Romans 5:13). ...
As regards (a), the clause ἐφʼ ᾧ πάντες ἥμαρτον cannot mean that all sinned in Adam (‘omnes peccarunt, Adamo peccante,’ Bengel), either as the physical source or as the moral representative of the race; for ἐφʼ ᾧ most probably means ‘because. Did he really think of any period or nation as having had in this sense no law?...
(2) Inheritance of a sinful disposition. -Unless the analogy with Christ is incomplete, there must be, however, some connexion between Adam’s transgression and the actual sin of all mankind. Paul conceive that connexion? It has usually been taken for granted that he teaches that by Adam’s transgression human nature was itself infected, and that from him there descends to all men a sinful disposition. But he might mean no more than that sin as an alien power found entrance into the race, and brought each individual under its dominion. He may regard social rather than physical heredity (to apply a modern distinction) as the channel of the transmission and diffusion of sin. We must beware, however, of ascribing to him such definite doctrines as those of ‘original sin’ and ‘total depravity’; for later thought has probably read into his words more than was clearly present to his own mind. Later theology blurred this distinction in teaching ‘original sin’ in both sense. Could he have assigned to it the moral significance he does, had he thought of Adam as in the hopeless and helpless bondage described in Romans 7:7-25? This passage, however, represents that bondage not as directly inherited, but as resulting in the individual from a moral development, in which sin uses the flesh to bring it about. ...
(d) The penalty of sin. Paul undoubtedly teaches that death is the penalty of sin (Romans 5:12). While he includes physical dissolution, death means more for him (Romans 6:21-23); it has a moral and religious content; it is Judgment and doom; it is invested with dread and darkness by man’s sense of sin (1 Corinthians 15:56). Paul regarded it, as the penalty of sin (for it appears to us a natural necessity), yet, viewing death in its totality, as he did, we may still maintain that it is sin that gives it the character of an evil to be dreaded. The connexion between death and sin, St. ...
(e) The deliverance from sin. Paul two-fold: it is an annulling of the guilt and removal of the penalty of sin, as well as a destruction of the power of sin. sin is an act of disobedience (Romans 5:19), committed against God (Romans 1:21) and His Law (Romans 3:20, Romans 7:7), which involves personal responsibility (Romans 1:20), ill desert (Romans 13:2), and the Divine condemnation (Romans 5:15; Romans 5:18). This condemnation is expressed in the penalty of death, which is not, as we have just seen, a natural consequence, but a Divine appointment, an expression of God’s wrath against sin (Romans 1:18, Ephesians 5:6, Colossians 3:6). Paul if we ignore this objective atonement of Christ for the race, and confine our regard, as we tend to-day to do, to the subjective influence of Christ in destroying sin’s power in the individual. Paul describes as dying to sin, being buried with Christ through baptism into death, a crucifixion or dying with Christ, a resurrection and living with Christ (Romans 6:1-11, Ephesians 2:1-10). By this he does not mean insensibility to temptation, or cessation from struggle, but a deliverance from the impotence felt in bondage to sin, and a confidence of victory through Christ. Nor does he mean a process completed in man by Divine power apart from his effort; for believers are to reckon themselves to be not only dead unto sin, but alive unto God in Christ Jesus. But they are not to let sin reign in their mortal selves, nor are they to present their members unto sin (Romans 6:11-13); and they are to mortify by the spirit the deeds of the body (Romans 8:13; cf. Paul knows from his own personal experience a complete remedy for the universal fatal disease of sin; and all that in his letters he presents regarding this subject is presented that he may commend the gospel to men, as the sole, sufficient, Divine provision for the universal dominant human necessity. -(a) In the Fourth Gospel sin is primarily represented as unbelief, the rejection of Christ (John 1:11; John 16:9), aggravated by the pretension of knowledge (John 9:41). sin is a slavery (John 8:34). One notable contribution to the doctrine of sin is the denial of the invariable connexion of sin and suffering (John 9:3), although it is not denied (John 5:14) that often there is a connexion. ...
In the First Epistle sin is described as lawlessness (1 John 3:4, ἀνομία) and unrighteousness (1 John 5:17, ἀδικία); and, as love is the supreme commandment, hatred is especially condemned (1 John 3:12). Further, as righteousness is identified with truth, sin is equivalent to falsehood (1 John 2:22, 1 John 4:20); but this is not an intellectualist view, as truth has a moral and spiritual content; it is the Divine reality revealed to men in Christ. On the one hand, Christ is Himself sinless, and was manifested to take away sins and to destroy the works of the Devil (1 John 3:5; 1 John 3:8); and, on the other hand, believers by abiding in Him are kept from sin (1 John 3:6), because the Evil One cannot touch them (1 John 5:18). On the one hand, the reality of the sinfulness even of believers is insisted on; to deny sinfulness is self-deception, and even charging God with falsehood (1 John 1:8; 1 John 1:10), and confession is the condition of forgiveness and cleansing (1 John 1:9). On the other hand, the impossibility of believers sinning is asserted; whoever abides in Christ cannot sin (1 John 3:6), the begotten of God cannot sin (1 John 3:9), because kept by Christ and untouched by the Evil One (1 John 5:18). He may deny the reality of sin (6, 7), or his responsibility for sin (8, 9), or the fact of sin in his own case (10). On the other hand, God has made provision for the realisation of fellowship between Himself and man in spite of sin’ (The Epistles of St. Regarding the second declaration, he offers this explanation: ‘True fellowship with Christ, Who is absolutely sinless, is necessarily inconsistent with sin; and, yet further, the practice of sin excludes the reality of a professed knowledge of Christ’ (ib. What the Apostle is referring to is not single acts of sin, due to human weakness, but the deliberate continuance in sin on the assumption that the relation to God is not, and cannot be, affected thereby. The one class of errorists denied the actuality of sin, the other declared that even the habit of sin did not deprive the believer of the blessings of the Christian salvation. ...
(b) Another contribution to the doctrine may be found in the conception of a sin unto death (1 John 5:16), for which intercession is not forbidden, and yet cannot be urged. It may be compared to the sin against the Holy Ghost (Mark 3:29) and also to the sin of apostasy (Hebrews 6:4-5; Hebrews 10:26). ...
(c) It must be noticed that in this Epistle there is a very marked emphasis on Satan as the source of man’s sin. The Devil has sinned from the beginning, and he that sinneth is of the Devil (1 John 3:8), and the whole world lieth in the Evil One (1 John 5:19; cf. Paul, although much more briefly, a psychological account of the development of sin in the individual. This desire need not itself be evil, but it acquires a sinful character when indulged in opposition to the higher law of duty
Hamartiology - The study of the doctrine of sin
Heretofore - * For HERETOFORE see sin , C, No
Sin Unto Death - The expression "sin unto death" (1 John 5:16-17 ) appears in a context concerning confident, effective prayer (cf. Verses 16-17 speak specifically about the confidence that God will answer intercession for believers who are committing a sin not unto death and give life to them. But no such confidence is available when the sins is unto death. While all unrighteousness is sin, not all sin is unto death. Thus, the comment about sin unto death is something of an afterthought. ...
But what are the nondeadly and deadly sins? Some answers are unconvincing because they stress remote contexts rather than the immediate context in 1John. The view that mortal and venial sins are distinguished is anachronistic. Yet another theory sees the sin unto death as apostasy (cf. ...
The polemic of 1John views sin very seriously (1:7-10; 2:12; 3:4-5,8-9; 4:10; 5:18). While believers do sin occasionally (1:7,9; 2:1; 5:16), they do not persist in ethical disobedience (2:4), social bigotry (2:9; 3:14-17; 4:20-21), or christological heresy (2:18-29; 4:1-3). In this qualified sense they do not sin (3:6,9; 5:18); in other words, their sin is not deadly (5:16-17). But those who walk in darkness while claiming to be in the light (1:6), who hate believers (2:9), and who deny that Jesus is the Messiah (2:22) are committing deadly sins. Thus, the polemic admits the reality of believers' sinning against the opponents' perfectionistic claims, but it also stresses the ideal of sinlessness. In this setting, the community is commanded to intercede for fellow believers who occasionally sin, but it is not commanded to pray for the deadly sins of those outside the community. Turner...
See also Blasphemy Against the Holy Spirit ; sin ...
Bibliography
Seduction - In a special sense, that specific sin against justice and the sixth commandment whereby a person forcefully persuades another of either sex to engage in unlawful sexual intercourse. This sin contains the twofold malice of injustice and impurity
Sinful - 1: ἁμαρτωλός (Strong's #268 — Adjective — hamartolos — ham-ar-to-los' ) an adjective, akin to hamartano, "to sin," is used as an adjective, "sinful" in Mark 8:38 ; Luke 5:8 ; 19:7 (lit. , "a sinful man"); 24:7; John 9:16,24 (lit. , "a man sinful"); Romans 7:13 , for which see sin , A, No. Elsewhere it is used as a noun: see sinNER. of Asia Minor, with the threat against any desecrator of the tomb, "let him be as a sinner before the subterranean gods" (Moulton and Milligan). ...
Notes: (1) In Romans 8:3 , "sinful flesh" is, lit. , "flesh of sin" (RV marg. ): see sin , No. (2) For the RV of Romans 7:5 , "sinful passions," see PASSION , No
Contriteness - ) Deep sorrow and penitence for sin; contrition
Sin-Offering - sin-OFFERING
Death - As to the debt (debitum mortis) it extends to all defiled by sin, therefore to all except the God-man and the Immacmate Virgin; as to the fact (factum mortis), it certainly extends to all except those who will be living at the second coming of Christ. Death is a punishment for sin. "By one man sin entered into this world, and by sin death" (Romans 5), and though the character of punishment is wiped away in Baptism, death itself remains as an effect of sin (prenalitas)
Sin - Original sin is that whereby our whole nature is corrupted, and rendered contrary to the law of God; or, according to the 9th article of the church of England, "It is that whereby man is very far gone from original righteousness, and is, of his own nature, inclined to evil. " This is sometimes called indwelling sin, Romans 7:1-25 : The imputation of the sin of Adam to his posterity is also what divines generally call, with some latitude of expression, original sin. Actual sin is a direct violation of God's law, and generally applied to those who are capable of committing moral evil; as opposed to idiots, or children, who have not the right use of their powers. sins of omission consist in the leaving those things undone which ought to be done. sins of commission are those which are committed against affirmative precepts, or doing what should not be done. sins of infirmity are those which arise from the infirmity of the flesh, ignorance, surprise, snares of the world, &c. Secret sins are those committed in secret, or those which we, through blindness or prejudice, do not see the evil of, Psalms 19:12 . Presumptuous sins are those which are done boldly, and against light and conviction. Unpardonable sin is the denial of the truths of the Gospel; with an open and malicious rejection of it. The reason why this sin is never forgiven, is not because of any want of sufficiency in the blood of Christ, nor in the pardoning mercy of God, but because such as commit it never repent of it, but continue obstinate and malignant until death. While we contemplate, therefore, the nature, the evil, the guilt, the consequence of sin, it is our happiness to reflect, that he who permitted it hath provided a remedy for it; and that he "so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth on him should not perish, but have everlasting life. " ...
See ATONEMENT, REDEMPTION; and Edwards, Wesley, and Taylor, on Original sin; Gill's Body of Div. article sin; King's and Jenyns's Origin of Evil; Burroughs' Exceeding sinfulness of sin; Dr. Owen on Indwelling sin; Dr. Wright's Deceitfulness of sin; Fletcher's appeal to Matter of Fact; Williams's Answer to Belsham; Watts's Ruin and Recovery; Howe's Living Temple, p
Incest - The circumstance of relationship adds a special malice to the sin of impurity because, by committing this sin with a relative, one sins also against the virtue of piety which prescribes due reverence towards those who are closely related
Lust - sinful longing; the inward sin which leads to the falling away from God (Romans 1:21 ). "Lust, the origin of sin, has its place in the heart, not of necessity, but because it is the centre of all moral forces and impulses and of spiritual activity
Tree of the Knowledge of Good And Evil - But they disobeyed the divine injunction, and so sin and death by sin entered our world and became the heritage of Adam's posterity
Sin, Remission of - True, actual forgiveness of sin. With remission of mortal sin the eternal punishment due to it is also pardoned, but not all venial sins or temporal punishments are taken away. Unlimited power of remitting sin was promised and conferred upon the Apostles and their successors by Jesus Christ (Matthew 16,18; John 20). Perfect contrition, with the desire of the Sacrament, is another means of remitting mortal sin. Venial sins can also be remitted, provided sorrow for them be present, by devout attendance at Holy Mass, penitential exercises, charitable works, prayers, etc
Remission of Sin - True, actual forgiveness of sin. With remission of mortal sin the eternal punishment due to it is also pardoned, but not all venial sins or temporal punishments are taken away. Unlimited power of remitting sin was promised and conferred upon the Apostles and their successors by Jesus Christ (Matthew 16,18; John 20). Perfect contrition, with the desire of the Sacrament, is another means of remitting mortal sin. Venial sins can also be remitted, provided sorrow for them be present, by devout attendance at Holy Mass, penitential exercises, charitable works, prayers, etc
Depravity - ...
See FALL, sin
Temptationless - ) Having no temptation or motive; as, a temptationless sin
Peccable - ) Liable to sin; subject to transgress the divine law
Error - In a moral and scriptural sense it signifies sin. ...
See sin
Eternal Security - since it is not gained by anything we do, it cannot be lost by anything we do. This does not mean that we can sin all we want (Romans 6:1-2) because we have been freed from sin and are set apart for holy use (1 Thessalonians 4:7)
Peccability - ) The state or quality of being peccable; lability to sin
Sin, Wilderness of - sin, WILDERNESS OF (name probably derived from the moon-god sin). sinai. sinai must be located somewhere in the Negeb, the wilderness of sin was on the more direct route from Egypt to Kadesh, near to if not identical with the desert of Zin ( Numbers 13:21 ; Numbers 20:1 ; Numbers 27:14 ; Numbers 33:36 ; Numbers 34:3 , Deuteronomy 32:51 , Joshua 15:1-3 )
Sin - The Hebrews had in use several words by way of expressing the nature of sin; in the diversities of it. But the truth is, that sin doth not consist in this, or in that act of it, for the acts of sin are but the branches; the root is within: so that strictly and properly speaking, in the fallen and corrupt nature of man, sin itself is alike in every son and daughter of Adam
Pelagianism - Pelagius, of whom little is known, began the spread of his false doctrines at Rome, c405 His teachings might be summarized as follows: God did not give Adam immortality, nor did Adam need grace to avoid sin. His sin was personal, and therefore was not transmitted to posterity. Hence, no original sin. As to grace, man does not need this gift, because the will of itself can avoid sin and merit heaven
Unsin - ) To deprive of sinfulness, as a sin; to make sinless
Mortification - The mortification of sin in believers is a duty enjoined in the sacred Scriptures, Romans 8:13 . It consists in breaking the league with sin; declaration of open hostility against it; and strong resistance of it, Ephesians 6:10 , &c. The Evidences of mortification are, not the cessation from one sin, for that may be only exchanged for another; or it may be renounced because it is a gross sin; or there may not be an occasion to practise it; but if sin be mortified, we shall not yield to temptation; our minds will be more spiritual; we shall find more happiness in spiritual services, and bring forth the fruits of the Spirit
Sin-Offering - sin-offerings were also presented at the five annual festivals (Numbers 2829,29 ), and on the occasion of the consecration of the priests (Exodus 29:10-14,36 ). As each individual, even the most private member of the congregation, as well as the congregation at large, and the high priest, was obliged, on being convicted by his conscience of any particular sin, to come with a sin-offering, we see thus impressively disclosed the need in which every sinner stands of the salvation of Christ, and the necessity of making application to it as often as the guilt of sin renews itself upon his conscience. This resort of faith to the perfect sacrifice of Christ is the one way that lies open for the sinner's attainment of pardon and restoration to peace. And then in the sacrifice itself there is the reality of that incomparable worth and preciousness which were so significantly represented in the sin-offering by the sacredness of its blood and the hallowed destination of its flesh. With reference to this the blood of Christ is called emphatically "the precious blood," and the blood that "cleanseth from all sin" (1 John 1:7 )
Sting (And Forms) - Death is caused by sin, and is the result of sin
Pelagian - ) A follower of Pelagius, a British monk, born in the later part of the 4th century, who denied the doctrines of hereditary sin, of the connection between sin and death, and of conversion through grace
Offence - This word answers to two different terms in the original, the one signifying a breach of the law, Romans 5:15,17 , the other a stumbling-block or cause of sin to others, Matthew 5:29 ; 18:6-9 ; or whatever is perverted into an occasion or excuse for sin, Matthew 15:12 ; John 6:61 ; Romans 9:33 ; Galatians 5:11
Aguilt - ) To be guilty of; to offend; to sin against; to wrong
Pardonableness - ) The quality or state of being pardonable; as, the pardonableness of sin
Contrition - In Catholicism, extreme sorrow for having sinned with a deep repentance concerning that sin
Evil-Minded - ) Having evil dispositions or intentions; disposed to mischief or sin; malicious; malignant; wicked
Sin (2) - Viewed as chatha ', "coming short of our true end," the glory of God (Romans 3:23), literally, "missing the mark"; Greek hamartanoo . 'awen , "vanity," "nothingness"; after all the scheming and labour bestowed on sin nothing comes of it. "...
Αmal , "travail"; sin is weary work (Habakkuk 2:13). " abar , "transgression through anger"; "sin is the transgression of the law," i. sin is a degeneracy from original good, not an original existence, creation, or generation; not by the Creator's action, but by the creature's defection (Ecclesiastes 7:29). Selfishness is the root of sin, it sets up self and self will instead of God and God's will. The origination of man's sin was not of himself, but from Satan's deceit; otherwise man's sin would be devilish and ineradicable. )...
Original sin is as an hereditary disease, descending from the first transgressor downward (Psalms 51:5). National sins are punished in this world, as nations have no life beyond the grave (Proverbs 14:34). The punishment of the individual's sins are remedial, disciplinary, and deterrent in this world; and judicially retributive in the world to come. That, the length of punishment is out of all proportion with the time of sin. But the duration of sin is no criterion of the duration of punishment: a fire burns in a few minutes records thereby lost for ever; a murder committed in a minute entails cutting off from life for ever; one act of rebellion entails perpetual banishment from the king. That the sinner's eternal punishment would be Satan's eternal triumph. But Satan has had his triumph in bringing sin and death into the world; his sharing the sinner's eternal punishment will be the reverse of a triumph; the abiding punishment of the lost will be a standing witness of God's holy hatred of sin, and a preservative against any future rebellion. That the eternity of punishment involves the eternity of sin. But this, if true, would be no more inconsistent with God's character than His permission of it for a time; but probably, as the saved will be delivered from the possibility of sinning by being raised above the sphere of evil, so the lost will be incapable of sinning any more in the sense of a moral or immoral choice by sinking below the sphere of good
Limbo - Theologians distinguish a two-fold limbo: the limbo of the Fathers (limbus patrum), where the just that died before Christ, were detained until heaven, which had been closed in punishment for the sin of Adam, was reopened by the Saviour; and the limbo of infants (limbus infantium), where those who die in original sin, but without personal mortal sin, are deprived of the happiness which would come to them in the supernatural order, but not of happiness in the natural order
Members - Individuals composing a group. Jesus warned of body parts which cause one to sin (Matthew 5:29 ). As a Christian, Paul struggled with the reality of body parts which continue to give in to sin (Romans 6:13 ). The bodily members are the sphere where the law of sin (Romans 7:23 ) and passions (James 4:1 ) are at work. The image of various body parts cooperating in the life of one organism frequently serves to illustrate the unity of the church which is composed of different individuals exercising various, necessary functions (Romans 12:4-5 ; 1Corinthians 12:12,1 Corinthians 12:27 ; compare Ephesians 4:25 ; Ephesians 5:30 )
Concupiscence - ...
We know even secret concupiscence to be sin. ...
sin, taking occasion by the commandment, wrought in me all manner of concupiscence
Permissive Decree - An example of a permissive decree would be the fall of Adam into sin. God does not desire sin, yet He permitted its occurrence
Salvation - As sin is the greatest evil, Scripture uses the word mainly in the sense of redemption and liberation from sin and its consequences
Hate - God has a just and perfect abhorrence of sin and sinners, Psalm 5:5 . But hatred in general is a malevolent passion, Galatians 5:20 , and no one who is not perfect in love, can hate without sin
Sinite - An inhabitant of sin, near Arka (Genesis 10:17 ; 1 Chronicles 1:15 )
Hainous - Hence, great, enormous, aggravated as a hainous sin or crime
Capital Sins - In Catholicism, the seven causes of all sin: pride, covetousness, lust, anger, gluttony, envy, sloth...
Peccancy - ) A sin; an offense
Absolve - To loose, to set free from the bondage of sin
Ignorance - Old Testament law distinguished between sins of ignorance or sin unintentionally (Leviticus 4:2 ,Leviticus 4:2,4:13-14 ; Numbers 15:24-29 ) and premeditated sins (“sin presumptuously” or with a high hand Numbers 15:30-31 ). sins committed in ignorance incur guilt (Leviticus 4:13 ,Leviticus 4:13,4:22 ,Leviticus 4:22,4:27 ); however, the sacrificial system provided atonement for such sin (Leviticus 4:1 ; Leviticus 5:5-6 ). In contrast, “high-handed” or “presumptuous” sin is an affront to the Lord punishable by exclusion from the people of God. The Law provided no ritual cleansing for such sin (Numbers 15:30-31 ). Common images for sins of ignorance include error (Leviticus 5:18 ), straying (Psalm 119:10 ), and stumbling (Job 4:4 ). By extension these images can be applied to any sin
Immaculate Conception - The teaching that Mary was conceived without original sin
Sinful - ) Tainted with, or full of, sin; wicked; iniquitous; criminal; unholy; as, sinful men; sinful thoughts
Evil - Adam's sin resulted in sin entering the world allowing floods, storms, famines, etc
Transgress - To transgress a divine law, is sin. TRANSGRESS', To offend by violating a law to sin
Justification - That process in the soul of a sinner by which he is transferred from the state of enmity with God to the friendship of God. The removal of sin and the infusion of grace constitute one and the same act. Removal of original sin by Baptism is called first justification; forgiveness, in the Sacrament of Penance, of mortal sin committed after Baptism, is called second justification
Sin, - Its antiquity may perhaps be inferred from the mention of "the wilderness of sin" in the journeys of the Israelites. ( Exodus 16:1 ; Numbers 33:11 ) Ezekiel speaks of sin as "Sin the strongholds of Egypt
Sin, Wilderness of - sin wilderness is the desert sandstone tract, Debbet er Ramleh , extending across the peninsula from wady Nasb in a S. direction between the limestone district of et Tih and the granite of the central formation, sinai. Israel moved by detachments; and only at the wilderness of sin "all the congregation" assembled for the first time. (See sin (1)
Exposedness - ) The state of being exposed, laid open, or unprotected; as, an exposedness to sin or temptation
Al chet - "for the sin"); a pro forma confession of sins in alphabetic order, recited on Yom Kippur...
Azazel - , the complete removal of sin), is certainly to be preferred. The one goat which was "for Jehovah" was offered as a sin-offering, by which atonement was made. But the sins must also be visibly banished, and therefore they were symbolically laid by confession on the other goat, which was then "sent away for Azazel" into the wilderness. The form of this word indicates intensity, and therefore signifies the total separation of sin: it was wholly carried away. " It was of no consequence what became of it, as the whole import of the transaction lay in its being sent into the wilderness bearing away sin. As the goat "for Jehovah" was to witness to the demerit of sin and the need of the blood of atonement, so the goat "for Azazel" was to witness to the efficacy of the sacrifice and the result of the shedding of blood in the taking away of sin
Infirmity - It has been a question what may properly be denominated sins of infirmity. Nothing, it is said, can be excused under that name which at the time of its commission is known to be a sin. Nothing can be called a sin of infirmity which is contrary to the express letter of any of the commandments. Nothing will admit of a just and sufficient excuse upon the account of infirmity which a man beforehand considers and deliberates with himself, whether it be a sin or no. A sin of infirmity is, ...
1. These may be permitted to humble us; to animate our vigilance; perhaps that newly convinced sinners might not be discouraged by a sight of such perfection they might despair of ever attaining to; to keep us prayerful and dependent; to prevent those honours which some would be ready to give to human nature rather than to God; and, lastly, to excite in us a continual desire for heaven. Let us be cautious and watchful, however, against sin in all its forms: for it argues a deplorable state of mind when men love to practise sin, and then lay it upon constitution, the infirmity of nature, the decree of God, the influence of Satan, and thus attempt to excuse themselves by saying they could not avoid it
Garden of eden - The place in which the narrative of Adam, Eve and the sin of the Tree of Knowledge occurred
Absolution - In Catholicism, the act of releasing someone from their sin by God, through the means of a priest
Offend - ) To transgress; to violate; to sin against. ) To oppose or obstruct in duty; to cause to stumble; to cause to sin or to fall
Scandal - (LL: scandalum, stumbling block) ...
Any word or action which has at least the appearance of evil, and which is the occasion of sin to another. It is a grave sin in grave matter because it is opposed to the law of charity
Schism - The sin may lie on the side of the majority, or of the minority, or both. It is a sin against Christian love, and strikes at the heart of Christianity, John 17:21 Romans 12:4-21
Besetment - ) The act of besetting, or the state of being beset; also, that which besets one, as a sin
Blasphemy - Blaspheming the name of the Lord was under the Jewish economy punishable by death: the son of Shelomith who had married an Egyptian, was stoned to death for this sin. The blasphemy against the Holy Ghost was attributing the Lord's action of casting out demons to the agency of Satan — a sin which should not be forgiven in this age nor in the age to come. The context shows that 'the unpardonable sin' refers to this particular form of blasphemy
Offering - Presenting proposing sacrificing bidding presenting to the eye or mind. That which is presented in divine service an animal or a portion of bread or corn, or of gold and silver, or other valuable articles, presented to God as an atonement for sin, or as a return of thanks for his favors, or for other religious purpose a sacrifice an oblation. In the Mosaic economy, there were burnt-offerings, sin-offerings, peace-offerings, trespass-offerings, thank-offerings, wave-offerings, and wood-offerings. ...
When thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin, he shall see his seed - Isaiah 53
Frequent Communion - Though Holy Communion is not absolutely necessary for salvation, yet without the reception of its graces it would be difficult to resist grave temptations and avoid mortal sin for any length of time. The Church, confirming this Divine command, adds besides her precept of Paschal Communion under pain of mortal sin. The proper disposition as indicated by Pope Pius X requires nothing beyond the state of grace (freedom from mortal sin) and a right and pious intention in communicating, e. , of honoring God, increasing in charity, overcoming faults, etc. It is recommended, however, to keep oneself free from venial sin, at least from those fully deliberate, and from the affection thereto, and to seek the advice of one's confessor on the frequency of Communion
Evilness - ) The condition or quality of being evil; badness; viciousness; malignity; vileness; as, evilness of heart; the evilness of sin
Repenting - Grieving for what is past feeling pain or contrition for sin
Er - Firstborn of Judah, by Bathshua, a Canaanite; the marriage with this daughter of a corrupt race producing sin and sorrow. Tamar was his wife but bore him no son; for "Er was wicked in the sight of the Lord, and the Lord slew him," his sin being probably some abomination connected with the impure Canaanite idolatry (Genesis 38:3-7)
Besetting - ) Habitually attacking, harassing, or pressing upon or about; as, a besetting sin
Fornication - whoredom, or the act of incontinency between single persons; for if either of the parties be married, the sin is adultery
Whoredom - ) The sin of worshiping idols; idolatry
Redeeming - Ransoming procuring deliverance from captivity, capture, bondage, sin, distress or liability to suffer, by the payment of an equivalent
Repentance - Jesus, it is said, (Acts 5:31) "Is exalted a Prince and a Saviour, for to give repentance to Israel and forgiveness of sins. False repentance is that which springs from a sorrow for the consequences, not the causes of sin. True repentance is that which flows from the consciousness of the sin itself. The man of worldly sorrow sorrows that his sin hath brought punishment. The repentance for the consequence of sin goes no further than as it dreads the punishment: the repentance for the cause of sin becomes the continued gracious sorrow of the heart
Holy Spirit, Sin Against the - See Unpardonable sin
Attrite - ) Repentant from fear of punishment; having attrition of grief for sin; - opposed to contrite
Backsliding - The act of apostatizing from faith or practice a falling insensibly from religion into sin or idolatry
Enticing - Inciting to evil urging to sin by motives, flattery or persuasion alluring
Ungodly - ) Not godly; not having regard for God; disobedient to God; wicked; impious; sinful. ) Polluted by sin or wickedness
Die - ...
1 Corinthians 15:31 (a) Paul is telling us here that it is his daily experience to consider himself dead to sin and to the sinful calls of the world. It is his constant experience for sin is constantly appealing to us for satisfaction. ...
2 Corinthians 6:9 (a) The word refers to the experience of laying aside the things that displease the Lord and becoming unresponsive to the calls and demands of sin
Repentance - Repentance is a turning from sin to God (Deuteronomy 30:1-2; 2 Chronicles 6:26-27; 2 Chronicles 7:14; Nehemiah 1:9; Psalms 78:34; Isaiah 55:7; Jeremiah 8:6; Jeremiah 31:18-19; Ezekiel 18:21; Malachi 3:7; Matthew 11:20-21; Luke 15:7; Luke 16:30; Acts 3:19; Acts 8:22; Acts 14:15; Acts 26:19-20; Revelation 9:20-21). They cannot rely upon the work of Christ for the forgiveness of sin unless they turn from that sin (Mark 1:15; Acts 11:21; Acts 20:21; Acts 26:18; 1 Thessalonians 1:9). God is the one who brings conviction of sin within people and gives them the readiness to repent and believe (Acts 5:31; Acts 11:18; cf. It is more than mere sorrow for sin; it is surrender to God. People may be sorry for their sin because of its consequences, but still have no thought for God. True repentance recognizes the character of sin as deserving God’s judgment, and turns from that sin to ask God’s forgiveness. Sorrow for sin that ignores God leads only to self-pity and despair. It has nothing to do with any divine sin or failure (Genesis 6:6; 1 Samuel 15:11; Jeremiah 18:7-10; Jonah 3:8-9; cf
Sin - The Bible refers to sin by a variety of Hebrew and Greek words. This is partly because sin may appear in many forms, from deliberate wrongdoing and moral evil to accidental failure through weakness, laziness or ignorance (Exodus 32:30; Proverbs 28:13; Matthew 5:22; Matthew 5:28; Romans 1:29-32; James 4:17). But the common characteristic of all sin is that it is against God (Psalms 51:4; Romans 8:7-87). It is the ‘missing of the mark’, that ‘mark’ being the perfect standard of the divine will (Romans 5:17-20; Romans 3:23). ...
Origin of sin...
From the activity of Satan in the Garden of Eden, it is clear that sin was present in the universe before Adam and Eve sinned. ...
But the human beings God created went beyond the limit he set, and so they fell into sin. Pride was at the centre of human sin (Romans 1:21-23; 1 John 2:16; cf. ...
Sin entered human life because people doubted God, then ceased to trust him completely, and finally were drawn away by the desire to be their own master (James 1:14; cf. Human sin originated in the human heart; the act of disobedience was the natural outcome (Proverbs 4:23; Jeremiah 17:9; Mark 7:21-23). ...
Above all, sin was against God – the rejection of his authority, wisdom and love. And the more clearly God’s will was revealed, the more clearly it showed human sinfulness (Genesis 3:11-13; Romans 5:20; cf. ...
Results of sin...
As a result of their sin, human beings have fallen under the judgment of God. ...
Ever since Adam’s sin, the human story is one of people running from God, loving themselves instead of God, and doing their will instead of God’s (Romans 1:19-23). sin has placed them in the hopeless position of being separated from God and unable to bring themselves back to God (Isaiah 59:2; Romans 3:19-20; Galatians 3:10). God, however, has not left sinners in this helpless condition, but through the one fully obedient human being, Jesus Christ, has reversed the effects of Adam’s sin (Romans 5:6; Romans 5:8; Romans 5:15; Romans 5:18). ...
All sinned in Adam (‘Original sin’)...
In John 3:3 the whole human race is viewed as having existed originally in Adam, and therefore as having sinned originally in Adam (Romans 5:12; cf. Adam is humankind; but because of his sin he is humankind separated from God and under his condemnation. ...
Because of Adam’s sin (his ‘one act of disobedience’) the penalty of sin, death, passes on to all people; but because of Christ’s death on the cross (his ‘one act of obedience’) the free gift of God, life, is available to all people. Adam, by his sin, brings condemnation; Christ, by his death, brings justification (Matthew 24:39; Romans 6:23; 1 Corinthians 6:9-11). If ‘condemn’ means ‘declare guilty’, ‘justify’ means ‘declare righteous’; and this is what God, in his immeasurable grace, has done for sinners who turn in faith to Jesus Christ (Romans 5:16; Romans 8:33; see JUSTIFICATION). ...
Just as Adam is the representative head of humankind as sinful and separated from God, so Jesus Christ is the representative head of humankind as declared righteous and brought back to God. Christ bears sin’s penalty, but more than that he brings repentant sinners into a right relationship with a just and holy God (Romans 4:24-25; Romans 5:8; 2 Corinthians 5:21; Galatians 3:10-13; Philippians 3:9). ...
Human nature is corrupt (‘Total depravity’)...
In addition to being sinners because of their union with Adam, people are sinners because of what they themselves do. They are born with a sinful nature inherited from Adam, and the fruits of this sinful nature are sinful thoughts and actions (Psalms 51:5; John 3:6; Ephesians 4:17-18). sinful words and deeds are only the outward signs of a much deeper evil – a sinful heart, mind and will (Proverbs 4:23; Jeremiah 17:9; Mark 7:21-23; Galatians 5:19-21; Ephesians 2:3). Every part of a person is affected by this sinful nature. ...
Total depravity means not that the whole of humanity is equally sinful, but that the whole of each person’s nature is affected by sin. All people are sinners, but not all show their sinful condition equally. But in spite of the good that people may do, human nature is still directed by sin. )...
A hopeless position apart from God...
Since human nature is in such a sinful condition, people are unable to make themselves into something that is pleasing to God (Isaiah 64:6; Romans 8:7-8). The disease of sin has affected all that they are (their nature) and all that they do (their deeds). Every person is a sinner by nature and a sinner in practice (Psalms 130:3; Romans 3:23; 1 John 1:8; 1 John 1:10). ...
The position of sinners before God is hopeless. Their sin has cut them off from God, and there is no way he can bring themselves back to God (Isaiah 59:2; Habakkuk 1:13; Colossians 1:21). They are slaves to sin and cannot free themselves (John 8:34; Romans 7:21-23). People are dead in their sin and unable to make themselves alive. It is made possible through the death of Jesus Christ, and is effectual in the lives of all those who in faith turn from their sin to God (John 1:13; John 1:29; John 6:44-45; Acts 3:19; Romans 3:24-25; Ephesians 2:8-9). )...
Having been forgiven their sin and freed from its power, believers then show it to be true by the way they live (Romans 6:1; Romans 6:14; Romans 6:18; Galatians 5:1). Because of the continued presence of the old sinful nature (the flesh) they will not be sinless, but neither will they sin habitually (Romans 6:6-13). They can expect victory over sin, and even when they fail they can be assured that genuine confession brings God’s gracious forgiveness (Matthew 6:12-15; 1 John 1:6-10; 1 John 2:1-2; 1 John 3:10)
Nitre - Jeremiah 2:22 (b) This is an alcohol used to remove grease and stains but it could not remove the marks of sin
Fragility - ) Liability to error and sin; frailty
Cord - The "cords of sin" are the consequences or fruits of sin (Proverbs 5:22 ). (Isaiah 5:18 ) says, "Woe unto them that draw iniquity with cords of vanity, and sin as it were with a cart rope. " This verse is thus given in the Chaldee paraphrase: "Woe to those who begin to sin by little and little, drawing sin by cords of vanity: these sins grow and increase till they are strong and are like a cart rope. The wicked at first draw sin with a slender cord; but by-and-by their sins increase, and they are drawn after them by a cart rope. Henderson in his commentary says: "The meaning is that the persons described were not satisfied with ordinary modes of provoking the Deity, and the consequent ordinary approach of his vengeance, but, as it were, yoked themselves in the harness of iniquity, and, putting forth all their strength, drew down upon themselves, with accelerated speed, the load of punishment which their sins deserved
Sennacherib - (sseen nak' uhr ihb) Assyrian royal name meaning, “Sin (the god) has replaced my brother
Adam - ) "Original sin;" human frailty
Evil - Applied to a choice, or acting contrary to the moral or revealed laws of the Deity, it is termed wickedness or sin. ...
See article sin
Achor - As Achan was stoned there, and his sin put away, so in our lives times of trouble and sorrow may be called "the place of Achor. When sin is judged and put away, then hope for GOD's blessing is revived, and joy replaces sorrow
Mercy - Because of our sinfulness we deserve death and eternal separation from God (Romans 6:23; Isaiah 59:2), but God provided an atonement for sin and through it shows us mercy. That is, He does not deliver to the Christian the natural consequence of his sin which is damnation. That is why Jesus became sin on our behalf (2 Corinthians 5:21) and bore the punishment due to us (Isaiah 5345)
Advocate, the, - "If any man sin we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous. " This applies to Christ in the glory: He is not an advocate for the unconverted, but for the Christian if he should sin; and it is with the Father, for the one who sins is a son. sin breaks the communion, and the advocacy of Christ is to restore it
Crying - Notorious common great as a crying sin or abuse
Repentance - ) The act of repenting, or the state of being penitent; sorrow for what one has done or omitted to do; especially, contrition for sin
Habitual - ) According to habit; established by habit; customary; constant; as, the habiual practice of sin
Death - The Bible teaches that human death is a result of sin (Genesis 2:17; Romans 5:12). ...
Results of Adam’s sin...
Physical and spiritual death are not completely separate. When sin entered the world through Adam, it changed everything. The truth of this is demonstrated by the fact that the work of Christ, which reverses the effects of sin, brings the gift of spiritual life now (Romans 6:23) and in the end will bring victory even over physical death (1 Corinthians 15:21-22; 1 Corinthians 15:44-45). ...
Some may think that since human beings are creatures of the natural world, physical death is inevitable. After all, death was apparently part of the world of nature before Adam sinned – leaves fell off trees, fruit was picked, and animals lived by eating other forms of life (Genesis 2:15-16; Genesis 3:1). But it is not death in general that is the result of Adam’s sin; it is human death. The reason they fear it is their awareness that, when they die, they do not escape the consequences of his sin, but go to face them (Hebrews 9:27; see also SHEOL). ...
It has been suggested that, before Adam and Eve sinned, the spiritual life within them was so dominant that it prevented the natural physical deterioration that we today might expect. But when sin overcame them, it so changed human life that the spirit no longer had control over the body, and physical deterioration resulted. Physical death was at the same time completely natural and completely the result of sin (Genesis 3:19 b). ...
There is no need to imagine the chaos of an over-populated world had human beings never sinned and no one ever died. It is death, not the termination of earthly existence, that is the enemy; and it is sin that makes death so hateful (1 Corinthians 15:26; 1 Corinthians 15:55-56). All people, being sinners, are slaves of sin and therefore under its power (Romans 5:14). They are so under the dominion of death that their tendency towards sin is itself called death (Romans 7:24; Romans 8:6; Romans 8:10). sin cannot exist without death as its consequences (Romans 6:16; Romans 6:21; Romans 7:5; Romans 7:13; James 1:15). To continue in sin is to continue in death; for sinners are in the sphere of death till they are saved out of it (Romans 8:23; 1 Corinthians 15:54). ...
Although this connection between sin and death may seem natural and inevitable, it can be broken. The same God who sends death as sin’s penalty can give life as his gift (Romans 6:23). ...
Through the death of Jesus Christ, God has completely dealt with sin and death. Jesus died in the place of sinners to take away their sin and deliver them from the sphere of death (Romans 6:9-10; 2 Corinthians 5:21; Hebrews 2:9; Hebrews 2:14; 1 Peter 2:24). All who refuse Christ die in their sins, and so ensure for themselves an unalterable destiny that the Bible calls eternal destruction, outer darkness, the lake of fire and the second death (Matthew 8:12; Matthew 25:46; John 8:24; Revelation 20:14; see HELL). They are free from the law of sin and death (John 5:24; Romans 8:2; 2 Timothy 1:10; 1 John 3:14)
Sin - Original sin is that whereby our whole nature is corrupted, and rendered contrary to the nature and law of God; or, according to he ninth article of the church of England, "It is that whereby man is very far gone from original righteousness, and is, of his own nature, inclined to evil. " This is sometimes called, "indwelling sin," Romans 7. The imputation of the sin of Adam to his posterity, is also what divines call, with some latitude of expression, original sin. Actual sin is a direct violation of God's law, and generally applied to those who are capable of committing moral evil; as opposed to idiots or children, who have not the right use of their powers. sins of omission consist in leaving those things undone which ought to be done. sins of commission are those which are committed against affirmative precepts, or doing what should not be done. sins of infirmity are those which arise from ignorance, surprise, &c. Secret sins are those committed in secret, or those of which, through blindness or prejudice, we do not see the evil, Psalms 19:7-12 . Presumptuous sins are those which are done boldly against light and conviction. The unpardonable sin is, according to some, the ascribing to the devil the miracles which Christ wrought by the power of the Holy Ghost. This sin, or blasphemy, as it should rather be called, many scribes and Pharisees were guilty of, who, beholding our Lord do his miracles, affirmed that he wrought them by Beelzebub, the prince of devils, which was, in effect, calling the Holy Ghost Satan, a most horrible blasphemy; and, as on this ground they rejected Christ, and salvation by him, their sin could certainly have no forgiveness. There is, however, another view of this unpardonable offence, which deserves consideration: The sin or blasphemy against the Holy Ghost, says Bishop Tomline, is mentioned in the first three Gospels. It appears that all the three evangelists agree in representing the sin or blasphemy against the Holy Ghost as a crime which would not be forgiven; but no one of them affirms that those who had ascribed Christ's power of casting out devils to Beelzebub, had been guilty of that sin, and in St. Mark, endeavoured to convince the Jews of their error; but so far from accusing them of having committed an unpardonable sin in what they had said concerning him, he declares that "whosoever speaketh a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him;" that is, whatever reproaches men may utter against the Son of man during his ministry, however they may calumniate the authority upon which he acts, it is still possible that hereafter they may repent and believe, and all their sins may be forgiven them; but the reviling of the Holy Ghost is described as an offence of a far more heinous nature: "The blasphemy against the Holy Ghost shall not be forgiven unto men. " It is plain that this sin against the Holy Ghost could not be committed while our Saviour was upon earth, since he always speaks of the Holy Ghost as not being to come till after his ascension into heaven. If men should ascribe these powers to Beelzebub, or in any respect reject their authority, they would blaspheme the Holy Ghost, from whom they were derived; and that sin would be unpardonable, because this was the completion of the evidence of the divine authority of Christ and his religion; and they who rejected these last means of conviction, could have no other opportunity of being brought to faith in Christ, the only appointed condition of pardon and forgiveness. The greater heinousness of the sin of these men would consist in their rejecting a greater body of testimony; for they are supposed to be acquainted with the resurrection of our Saviour from the dead, with his ascension into heaven, with the miraculous descent of the Holy Ghost, and with the supernatural powers which it communicated; circumstances, all of which were enforced by the Apostles when they preached the Gospel; but none of which could be known to those who refused to acknowledge Jesus as the Messiah during his actual ministry. Though this was a great sin, it was not an unpardonable one, it might be remedied by subsequent belief, by yielding to subsequent testimony. Hence it appears that the sin against the Holy Ghost consisted in finally rejecting the Gospel as preached by the Apostles, who confirmed the truth of the doctrine which they taught "by signs and wonders, and divers miracles and gifts of the Holy Ghost," Hebrews 2:4 . This sin was manifestly distinct from all other sins; it indicated an invincible obstinacy of mind, an impious and unalterable determination to refuse the offered mercy of God
Cursedness - ) Wickedness; sin; cursing
Sabachthani - An Aramaic word, signifying, "hast thou forsaken me?" uttered by the Lord when on the cross as the sin-bearer
Immorality - An action inconsistent with our duty towards men, and consequently a sin against God, who hath commanded us to do justly, and love mercy
Achor - So called from the trouble brought upon the Israelites by the sin of Achan; Achor in the Hebrew denoting trouble
Lothing - Hating abhorring as lothing sin
Rent - Matthew 27:51 (a) This torn veil tells the wonderful story of an open way into the presence of GOD, and also for an open way for GOD to come forth in blessing to His people sin had been a terrible hindrance. Now that CHRIST had died for sin, and for sins, and for sinners, GOD could come out in grace and kindness to offer salvation to every living person. Now the sinner could enter GOD's presence because of the precious Blood of JESUS
Marsh - They live in the lowlands of life where the stinging, crawling, evil varmints of sin make their habitation, and where dirt abounds in the life, the soul and the words of those who live there. They live in the mire and the muck of filth, sin and wickedness, and are never changed, except by the Spirit of GOD
Coal - ...
Proverbs 6:23 (b) This is a figure to describe the fact that those who live in sin are defiled and hurt by sin even as those who walk upon coals are burned by them. ...
Isaiah 6:6 (b) The purging power of a live coal which destroys germs and corruption is here used to illustrate the effect of the Lord Himself in touching human life to purge, cleanse, and blot out the sins
Repentance - In the NT repentance means to turn from sin. We were called by God to turn from sin. In fact, all men everywhere are commanded by God to repent of their sins (Acts 17:30)
Wool - ' In the figurative language of Isaiah 1:18 undyed wool represents the state resulting from the removal of sin by Jehovah from His people; the sin being compared to that which had been dyed crimson
Evil, Powers of - since original sin is ascribed to the instigation of the devil: "By the envy of the devil, death came into the world" (Wisdom of Solomon 2), and according to Saint Paul (Ephesians 6), the evil spirits are the most dangerous enemies of our souls, the real powers of evil in the world are the fallen angels. Hence evil men, living in sin, are said to be slaves of, or in the power of Satan; and other evils so-called, such as calamities, sickness, and the like, are often due to the same powers of evil
Lest - ...
sin no more, lest a worse thing come to thee. ...
sin no more that fact not taking place, a worse thing will happen to thee
Backslider - One who neglects his vows of obedience and falls into sin
Forgiveness - ) The act of forgiving; the state of being forgiven; as, the forgiveness of sin or of injuries
Vile - ) Morally base or impure; depraved by sin; hateful; in the sight of God and men; sinful; wicked; bad
Sin (1) - From sin , "muddy," as Ρelusium comes from flos "mud," "day. A Sallier papyrus records a great battle at sin between Rameses and the Sheta; here too was the alleged deliverance of Sethos from Sennacherib, mice gnawing by night the Assyrians' bowstrings and shield straps. " Ezekiel's prophecy "Sin shall have great pain" was fulfilled in the Persian Cambyses' great cruelty to the Egyptians after conquering Psammenitus near Pelusium
Attrition - The latter they call attrition; which is the lowest degree of repentance, or a sorrow for sin arising from a sense of shame, or any temporal inconvenience attending the commission of it, or merely from fear of the punishment due to it, without any resolution to sin no more: in consequence of which doctrine, they teach that, after a wicked and flagitious course of life, a man may be reconciled to God, and his sins forgiven on his death-bed, by confessing them to the priest with this imperfect degree of sorrow and repentance. It might, however, be easily shown that the mere sorrow for sin because of its consequences, and not on account of its evil nature, is no more acceptable to God than hypocrisy itself can be
Unbelief - The refusing assent to testimony. "...
"Unbelief, " says the great Charnock, "is the greatest sin, as it is the fountain of all sin: it was Adam's first sin; it is a sin against the Gospel, against the highest testimony; a refusal to accept of Christ upon the terms of the Gospel
Indulgence - In Catholicism, a means by which the Catholic church takes away some of the punishment due the Christian in this life and/or purgatory because of his sin
Shinab - (sshi' nab) Akkadian name meaning, “Sin (a god) is father
Concupiscence - The "lust of concupiscence" ( 1 Thessalonians 4:5 ; RSV, "passion of lust") denotes evil desire, indwelling sin
Impenitent - Not penitent not repenting of sin not contrite obdurate of a hard heart. One who does not repent a hardened sinner
Depravity - Moral corruption, a state of corruption or sinfulness. Total depravity is the teaching that sin has touched all aspects of the human: body, soul, spirit, emotions, mind, etc
Conviction - The word “convince” (KJV) comes closest to expressing the meaning of “conviction. No one could convict Jesus of sin (John 8:46 ). First, conviction for sin is the result of the Holy Spirit awakening humanity to a sense of guilt and condemnation because of sin and unbelief. The conviction not only implies the exposure of sin (despair) but also a call to repentance (hope). See sin ; Forgiveness ; Repentance
Repentance - Esau found no place for repentance, though he sought it carefully with tears; he could not move his father Isaac to repent of what he had done, or to recall the blessing from Jacob and confer it on himself, Hebrews 12:17 ; Matthew 3:2 ; Matthew 4:17 . Taken in a religious sense it signifies conviction of sin and sorrow for it. A partial or worldly repentance, wherein one is grieved for and turns from his sin, merely on account of the hurt it has done, or is likely to do, him; so a malefactor, who still loves his sin, repents of doing it, because it brings him to punishment. An evangelical repentance, which is a godly sorrow wrought in the heart of a sinful person by the word and Spirit of God, whereby, from a sense of his sin, as offensive to God, and defiling and endangering to his own soul, and from an apprehension of the mercy of God in Christ, he, with grief and hatred of all his known sins, turns from them to God, as his Saviour and Lord. This is called "repentance toward God," as therein we turn from sin to him; and "repentance unto life;" as it leads to spiritual life, and is the first step to eternal life, Matthew 3:2 ; Acts 3:19 ; Acts 11:18 ; Acts 20:12
Repentance - Repentance for sin is commonly expressed by ‘turn’ or ‘return’ ( e. It is such an altered view of God and sin as carries with it heartfelt sorrow for sin, confession of it, and decisive turning from it to God and righteousness ( Luke 15:17-18 , Romans 6:17-18 , 2 Corinthians 7:10-11 etc. a sorrow which has no relation to God, or to the intrinsic evil of sin, but only to sin’s harmful consequences. There can be no evangelical faith which does not spring from a heart broken and contrite on account of sin; on the other hand, there can be no true repentance which has not the germ of faith in God, and of hope in His mercy, in it. Repentance is the turning from sin; Gospel faith is the turning to Christ for salvation
Guilt - In Psalm 1:1 it is assumed that the wicked, sinners, and scoffers are guilty of sin and that they will ultimately perish. ...
Guilt is connected with sin in the Bible. sin is basically against God or against God's law. sin can also mean to miss the mark. The Hebrew writers generally did not distinguish between the act of sin and the guilt that came from the act. The various words used for sin in the Old Testament also expressed the idea of guilt. To sin, therefore, is to become guilty. Hosea, also, spoke of the various sins of the nation Israel. Even though the people did not acknowledge their sins, the Lord pronounced them guilty (Hosea 5:15 ; Hosea 10:2 ). Jeremiah noted that those who sinned against Israel became guilty before the Lord and would be punished (Jeremiah 2:3 ). These illustrations show that guilt is a companion of sin. The sin may be that of omission or commission, but it puts one in a state of guilt. ...
To connect sin and guilt is a way of saying that human beings are responsible before God for their actions. If all have sinned (Romans 3:23 ), then all are guilty and cut off from God. sinners could confess their sins and make restitution for the wrongs they had committed (Numbers 5:6-10 ). Restitution, sacrifice, or ritual penalty had to be made for sin and guilt. One can bear the sin of many and intercede for their transgressions (Isaiah 53:12 ). In the New Testament, Jesus fulfilled the role of the one suffering for the sins of many; “Christ died for the ungodly,” and we are reconciled to God (Romans 5:6-11 ; compare Ephesians 1:7 ; Colossians 1:19-20 ). ...
The idea of a sacrifice or offering for sin and guilt is picked up by other New Testament writers. Jesus was made a merciful High Priest to make propitiation for the sins of the people (Heb. Twice 1John says that Jesus is the propitiation for our sins (1 John 2:2 ; 1 John 4:10 ). This emphasis shows how seriously the Bible takes sin and guilt. Ezra lamented the guilt that had come upon the people for their sins (Ezra 9:3-6 ). Jeremiah in speaking of the New Covenant declared that all people would be held responsible for their own sins (Jeremiah 31:30 ). An individual may feel himself or herself to be condemned or to have sinned. The bitter lament Psalm 51:1 carries both an awareness of sin and deep feelings of remorse and repentance. Psalm 38:1 paints a picture of a suffering sinner weighed down with sin and guilt. God in His faithfulness has promised to forgive us from all iniquity (1 John 1:9 ) See Atonement ; Christ; Forgiveness ; Reconciliation; sin
Flame of Fire - Is the chosen symbol of the holiness of God (Exodus 3:2 ; Revelation 2:18 ), as indicating "the intense, all-consuming operation of his holiness in relation to sin
Evildoer - One who does evil one who commits sin, crime, or any moral wrong
Odfend - ) To transgress the moral or divine law; to commit a crime; to stumble; to sin
Sacrilege - ) The sin or crime of violating or profaning sacred things; the alienating to laymen, or to common purposes, what has been appropriated or consecrated to religious persons or uses
Fear of Sin - Whether it be so or not, I cannot tell; but this I know, that when a man has had a thorough shaking over the jaws of hell, he will be so afraid of sin, that even one of its feathers: any one sin: will alarm and send a thrill of fear through his soul
Supralapsarianism - " This position holds that God first decided that he would save some people and then second that he would allow sin into the world. By contrast, the infralapsarian ("after the fall") position is the reverse in that it holds that God first decided he would allow sin into the world and second that he would then save people from it
Sin: May be Committed by Proxy - Such are those who are great sticklers themselves for outward observance in religion, but at the same time compel their servants to sin on their account. They who sin by substitute shall be damned in person
Zin - The wilderness of Zin should be distinguished from the wilderness of sin which embraces the western sinai plateau. See Negeb ; Palestine ; sin , Wilderness of; Wilderness
Lawless - A kindred word is translated 'transgression of the law' in 1 John 3:4 , which as a definition of sin is a serious error: it should be 'sin is lawlessness,' and this term is equally applicable to those who never had the law
Backsliding - ) Slipping back; falling back into sin or error; sinning
Sinusoid - ) The curve whose ordinates are proportional to the sines of the abscissas, the equation of the curve being y = a sin x. It is also called the curve of sines
Militant - From militans, fighting; a term applied to the church on earth, as engaged in a warfare with the world, sin, and the devil; in distinction from the church triumphant in heaven
Universality - ) The quality or state of being universal; unlimited extension or application; generality; - distinguished from particularity; as, the unversality of a proposition; the unversality of sin; the unversality of the Deluge
Repentance -
The verb Metamelomai Is used of a change of mind, such as to produce regret or even remorse on account of sin, but not necessarily a change of heart. This verb, with (3) the cognate noun Metanoia , is used of true repentance, a change of mind and purpose and life, to which remission of sin is promised. Evangelical repentance consists of (1) a true sense of one's own guilt and sinfulness; (2) an apprehension of God's mercy in Christ; (3) an actual hatred of sin ( Psalm 119:128 ; Job 42:5,6 ; 2 co 7:10 ) and turning from it to God; and (4) a persistent endeavour after a holy life in a walking with God in the way of his commandments. But repentance comprehends not only such a sense of sin, but also an apprehension of mercy, without which there can be no true repentance (Psalm 51:1 ; 130:4 )
Scarlet - Genesis 38:30 (a) since Pharez is found in the genealogy of CHRIST, this thread may indicate that Zarah would need the blood to redeem him. ...
Leviticus 14:4 (c) This probably is a picture of the value of the blood in every sacrifice for sin. sins are put away only by and through the Blood of JESUS. The sinner is sheltered under the red Blood of the Saviour. ...
Isaiah 1:18 (a) It is used to describe the stain of sin in contrast with the white garments of salvation. ...
Revelation 17:3 (b) It indicates the enormous sin and wickedness of this woman whose stain of sin covered her completely
Lawless, Lawlessness - , "(men) without the law," AV, "wicked (hands);" 2 Thessalonians 2:8 , "the lawless one" (AV, "that wicked"), of the man of sin (2 Thessalonians 2:4 ); in 2 Peter 2:8 , of deeds (AV, "unlawful"), where the thought is not simply that of doing what is unlawful, but of flagrant defiance of the known will of God. In 1 John 3:4 , the RV adheres to the real meaning of the word, "every one that doeth sin (a practice, not the committal of an act) doeth also lawlessness; and sin is lawlessness. " This definition of sin sets forth its essential character as the rejection of the law, or will, of God and the substitution of the will of self
Original - Original sin, as applied to Adam, was his first act of disobedience in eating the forbidden fruit as applied to his posterity, it is understood to mean either the sin of Adam imputed to his posterity, or that corruption of nature, or total depravity, which has been derived from him in consequence of his apostasy. ...
In strictness, original sin is an improper use of words, as sin, Exodus 6termini, implies volition and the transgression of a known rule of duty by a moral agent
Diamond - Jeremiah 17:1 (a) This is a figure of the indelible record which sin makes upon the pages of GOD's book, and upon the heart, soul and life of the wicked person
Onan - Second son of Judah by a Canaanitess, 'daughter of Shua': he was slain by Jehovah for his sin
Innocence - —Innocence, strictly speaking, denotes the entire absence of sin in a human soul. ‘For all have sinned and come short of the glory of God’ (Romans 3:23). In this sense it is an attribute of Jesus Christ alone among men, who ‘was in all points tempted like as we are, yet without sin’ (Hebrews 4:15); ‘who knew no sin’ (2 Corinthians 5:21); who could address to His watchful foes the challenge, ‘Which of you convicteth me of sin?’ (John 8:46). The gulf between innocence and the state of the soul that has once committed sin can be realized only as we comprehend the nature of sin and its immeasurable depravity and consequences. sinlessness. ...
Innocence in a comparative sense may be attributed to men who, though fallen, are yet, in respect of particular sins, innocent, or who from circumstances of upbringing, or by the special grace of God, are shielded from that knowledge of sin by personal experience which is the common lot of men. Innocence possesses an intuitive perception of right and wrong, observable in the child, which becomes blunted by the indulgence of sin; it also implies a strength which is lost by a fall
Sin: Aroused by the Law - How well this illustrates the apostle's confession that he shad not known lust, unless the law had said unto him, 'Thou shalt not covet!' 'Sin,' saith he, 'taking occasion by the commandment, wrought in me all manner of concupiscence. 'Without the law,' says Paul, 'sin was dead. ' How vain to hope for salvation from the law, when through the perversity of sin, it provokes our evil hearts to rebellion, and works in us neither repentance nor love
Adam - ...
Adam was sinless in the first part of his life, and then deliberately and knowingly became a partner in Eve's sin in order that he might be with her, partake of her punishment, and continue to have her for his very own. ...
So our Lord JESUS was sinless and perfect. ...
...
He willingly and knowingly took upon Himself the form of a servant,...
and was made sin for us that He might forever have us with Him. As by the sin of Adam all who are in Adam were made sinners, so by the obedience of CHRIST all who are in CHRIST are made righteous ( Romans 5:18)
Righteous - ) Doing, or according with, that which is right; yielding to all their due; just; equitable; especially, free from wrong, guilt, or sin; holy; as, a righteous man or act; a righteous retribution
Damnation - ) A sin deserving of everlasting punishment
Cinnamon - ...
Proverbs 7:17 (c) This is typical of the enticements and allurements of sin
Transgression - ) The act of transgressing, or of passing over or beyond any law, civil or moral; the violation of a law or known principle of rectitude; breach of command; fault; offense; crime; sin
Apostasy - Berkouwer is correct to refute the idea that this sin against the Holy Spirit is a mysterium iniquitatis ("a mystery of sin"), a sin difficult, if at all possible, to define precisely in the Bible. All other sins are forgiven on true repentance and faith. Those who fall out of fellowship with the saints are restored to full communion through confession of sin and reaffirmation of faith in Jesus Christ. Excommunication, as a final step in the process of ecclesiastical discipline, is undertaken in the hope of restoring the wayward sinner who has fallen into grievous sin (1 Corinthians 5:1-5 ). With respect to temporal blessing in the land of promise, restoration of Israel to divine favor after covenant breaking was always a consequence of divine grace and mercy, not because of meritorious works on Israel's part. Berkouwer, sin ; idem, The Return of Christ ; A
Hell - In a broad sense it may mean: ...
the limbo of infants (limbus parvulorum), where those who die in original sin, but without personal mortal sin, are deprived of the happiness which would come to them in the supernatural order, but not of happiness in the natural order; ...
the limbo of the Fathers (limbus patrum) where the souls of the just who died before Christ awaited their admission to heaven, which had been closed against them in punishment for the sin of Adam; ...
purgatory, where the just who die in venial sin or who still owe a debt of temporal punishment for sin are cleansed by suffering before their admission to heaven. The existence of hell is shown from innumerable passages of Holy Scripture where it is referred to, not only as a place of punishment, but as a place of eternal punishment of fire for those who die in the state of mortal sin
Concupiscence - ...
The bad sense of epithumia is desire controlled by sin and worldly instincts rather than by the Spirit ( Galatians 5:16 ). Desire brings temptation, leading to sin, resulting in death (James 1:14-15 ). God did give the law which defined wrong desires as concupiscence or sin. The power of sin then changed the good commandment into an instrument to arouse human desires to experience new arenas of life. Thus they sin and die rather than trust God's guidance through the law that such arenas are outside God's plan for life and thus should not be experienced (1635336367_82 ). Either sin brings death, or believers in Christ murder evil lusts (Colossians 3:5 )
Propitiation - It is not an anger such as the bad temper that sinful people often display, but an anger that contains no trace of sin. He cannot treat sin as if it does not matter (Isaiah 16:1-7; Jeremiah 21:12; Habakkuk 1:13; Romans 3:25-26; Romans 2:5; Hebrews 1:9; Revelation 14:8-11; Revelation 19:1-2). ...
Mean and women, through sin, have cut themselves off from God and placed themselves under the wrath of God. ...
God always has an attitude of wrath against sin, and there is nothing sinners can to do to propitiate God (i. But sinners cannot act towards God like this. None of their efforts can quiet God’s wrath against sin or win his favour. )...
The love and mercy of God...
God’s opposition to sin is connected with his concern for people’s good. sinful people justly deserve the punishment that God’s holy wrath requires, but God is patient with them and has no pleasure in punishing them (Psalms 78:38; Romans 2:2-4; 2 Peter 3:9). sinners were in a hopeless position where there was nothing they could do to escape God’s wrath. Yet God in his love provided a way of dealing with sin, so that the punishment on sin could be carried out, while at the same time sinners could be forgiven. ...
God allowed repentant sinners to kill an animal, so that the animal suffered the penalty that they, because of their sin, should have suffered. Pardon was not something that sinners had to squeeze from an unwilling God, but was the merciful gift of a God who wanted to forgive. ...
The sacrifice was not the sinner’s gift (in the sense of a bribe) to win God’s favour, but God’s provision to bear the divine judgment on sin. God’s act of forgiveness, being based on love, involved his dealing with sin. ...
The sacrifice of Christ...
Sacrifices belonging to the Old Testament system had real meaning for genuinely repentant sinners. The sacrifices enables people to see that God was acting justly in dealing with their sins, and gave them a way of expressing their faith in God’s forgiving love (Hebrews 9:22). But the blood of animals could not take away sins (Hebrews 10:4). In view of Christ’s death, God was able to ‘pass over’, temporarily, the sins of Old Testament believers. God forgave them on credit, so to speak, for their sin was not actually removed till Christ died (Romans 1:18). God’s holy wrath against sin has been satisfied by Christ’s death, and therefore he can show mercy on the believing sinner. He can forgive the sinner, yet still be just in doing so (Romans 3:25-26; Hebrews 2:17; 1 John 2:2)
Purge - To cleanse from impurity, frequently in the figurative sense of cleansing from evil (Deuteronomy 13:5 ), guilt (Deuteronomy 19:13 ), idolatrous worship (2 Chronicles 34:3 ), and sin (Psalm 51:7 )
Frailty - ) A fault proceeding from weakness; foible; sin of infirmity
Evidently - The evil of sin may be evidently proved by its mischievous effect
Achan - This sin led to the Israelites’ defeat in the battle for Ai
Sin, Wilderness of, - (Numbers 33:11,23 ) Their next halting-place, (Exodus 16:1 ; 17:1 ) was Rephidim, probably the Wady Feiran [1]; on which supposition it would follow that sin must lie between that way and the coast of the Gulf of Suez, and of course west of sinai. In the wilderness of sin the manna was first gathered, and those who adopt the supposition that this was merely the natural product of the tarfa bush find from the abundance of that shrub in Wady es-Sheikh , southeast of Wady Ghurundel , a proof of local identity
Forgiveness of Sin - In pardoning sin, God absolves the sinner from the condemnation of the law, and that on account of the work of Christ, i. , he removes the guilt of sin, or the sinner's actual liability to eternal wrath on account of it. All sins are forgiven freely (Acts 5:31 ; 13:38 ; 1 John 1:6-9 ). The sinner is by this act of grace for ever freed from the guilt and penalty of his sins
Total Depravity - The doctrine that fallen man is completely touched by sin and that he is completely a sinner. , he is touched by sin
Commit - ) To sin; esp. ) To do; to perpetrate, as a crime, sin, or fault
Repent - ) To be sorry for sin as morally evil, and to seek forgiveness; to cease to love and practice sin
Adult Baptism - For lawful and fruitful reception, he should know and believe the mysteries of the Catholic religion necessary for salvation, be instructed in Christian morality, and have supernatural sorrow for sin. Baptism given absolutely remits actual as well as original sin
Baptism, Adult - For lawful and fruitful reception, he should know and believe the mysteries of the Catholic religion necessary for salvation, be instructed in Christian morality, and have supernatural sorrow for sin. Baptism given absolutely remits actual as well as original sin
Holiness - ) The state or quality of being holy; perfect moral integrity or purity; freedom from sin; sanctity; innocence
Curse - In Scripture language it signifies the just and lawful sentence of God's law, condemning sinners to suffer the full punishment of their sin, Galatians 3:10
Enticement - ) That which entices, or incites to evil; means of allurement; alluring object; as, an enticement to sin
Day of Atonement - This was a day that the Israelites observed as a national day of cleansing from sin. ...
Rituals of the day...
Throughout the Israelite year, regular sacrificial rituals dealt with sin in various ways. Therefore, on this one day of the year, when entrance into God’s presence was available, the high priest brought all the people’s sins to God for his forgiveness. He offered the priests’ sin offering at the altar in the tabernacle courtyard, after which he took fire from the altar, along with blood from the sacrifice, into the tabernacle-tent. ...
On returning to the open courtyard, the high priest repeated the ritual, this time offering the people’s sin offering (Leviticus 16:15-19). ...
A second animal was then used in the people’s cleansing ritual, but it was not killed. The high priest laid his hands on the animal’s head, confessed over it the sins of the people, and sent it far away into the wilderness so that it could never return. This was a further picture to the people that their sins had been removed, though again at the expense of an innocent victim (Leviticus 16:8-10; Leviticus 16:20-22). ...
When the sin-cleansing ritual was finished, the high priest washed himself thoroughly with water. At the end of the day’s activities, any others who had been in contact with the sin offering had also to wash themselves (Leviticus 16:23-28). )...
Atonement through Christ...
The New Testament emphasizes that, although the Old Testament rituals were of benefit in showing people the seriousness of sin, they could not in themselves remove sin. Through his sacrificial blood he has entered the presence of God, obtained eternal salvation, and cleansed the repentant sinner’s conscience (Hebrews 9:11-14). ...
When the Israelite high priest had completed the sin-cleansing rituals in the tabernacle-tent, he reappeared to the people. Likewise Jesus Christ, having dealt with sin fully and having obtained eternal forgiveness for sins, will reappear to bring his people’s salvation to its glorious climax (Hebrews 9:12; Hebrews 9:28; see also BLOOD)
Blasphemy - I think it proper to stop at this word, as the sense and meaning of it is not so generally understood as it were to be wished; and many of God's dear children, it is to be apprehended, have their minds much exercised about it, fearing they have committed the unpardonable sin, in blasphemy against the Holy Ghost. ...
The sin of blasphemy is peculiarly applied to those who sin against God by profaning his holy name, and speaking lightly and wantonly of his person, prefections, and attributes. But as if that none of his children might make a mistake concerning it, with that tenderness and grace which distinguished his character, the Lord Jesus mercifully set forth in what the peculiar degree of the sin consisted. Hence, our Lord thus expressed himself, "Verily, I say unto you, all sin shall be for given unto the sons of men, and blasphemies wherewith soever they should blaspheme. " And then it is added, as an explanation of the whole, and to shew in what the unpardonable sin consisted, "because they said, he hath an unclean spirit. They are too well convinced that the Lord Jesus wrought all his miracles by his own almighty power, even to call it in question; so that in this sense, it is impossible for them to commit this unpardonable sin. They had charged Christ with having an evil spirit, by whose influence he wrought miracles, and hence Jesus declared the sin, and shewed, at the same time, that it was totally unpardonable. ...
And what confirmed it more, and manifested that they were given up to a reprobate mind, was, that hardness and insensibility both of their sin and their danger. Your sorrow and apprehension most decidedly manifest that you have not so sinned, neither can have committed such an evil
Lye - Substance used for cleansing purposes from the earliest times. In each case it is used as a means for the removal of sin. Job recognized the depth of his own sin. In Isaiah 1:25 , God promised to redeem His corrupt people, but they would have to undergo a painful cleansing time first. Lye (NAS, NRSV; compare REB, “potash”) would remove the sin in their lives if they repented. In Jeremiah 2:22 God warned Judah that they could not remove their sin, not even with lye (NRSV, NAS; compare KJV, “niter”; NIV, REB, “soda”)
Dophkah - It was in the desert of sin, on the eastern shore of the western arm of the Red Sea, somewhere in the Wady Feiran
lo-Ammi - ” Son of Hosea the prophet whose name God gave to symbolize Israel's lost relationship with Him due to their sin and broken covenant (Hosea 1:9 )
Palsy - Mark 2:3 (a) This physical ailment may be used to describe the spiritual condition in which sin paralyzes the life and the activities of a person, and renders him helpless in the things of GOD
Dophkah - ” Station in the wilderness between wilderness of sin and Rephidim where Israel camped (Numbers 33:12 )
Converted - Turned or changed from one substance or state to another turned form one religion or sect to another changed from a state of sin to a state of holiness applied to a particular use appropriated
Wickedness - ) The quality or state of being wicked; departure from the rules of the divine or the moral law; evil disposition or practices; immorality; depravity; sinfulness. ) A wicked thing or act; crime; sin; iniquity
Confession (of Sin) - CONFESSION (of sin). —In the OT a large place is given to the confession of sin, as being the necessary expression of true penitence and the condition at the same time of the Divine forgiveness. It may surprise us at first to find that in the Gospels the confession of sin is expressly named on only one occasion, and that in connexion with the ministry of John the Baptist (ἐξομολογούμενοι τὰς ἁμαρτίας αὐτῶν, Matthew 3:6, Mark 1:5). But apart from the use of the actual phrase, we shall see that the Gospel narratives take full account of the confession of sin, and that, as in the OT, confession is recognized both as the necessary accompaniment of repentance and as the indispensable condition of forgiveness and restoration to favour, whether human or Divine. There are three topics which call for notice: (1) confession of sin to God; (2) confession of sin to man; (3) Christ’s personal attitude to the confession of sin. Confession of sin to God. —It is to God that all confession of sin is primarily due, sin being in its essential nature a transgression of Divine law (cf. Among His last words on earth was His declaration that the universal gospel was to be a gospel of repentance and remission of sins (Luke 24:47). And as confession is inseparable from true penitence, being the form which the latter instinctively and inevitably takes in its approaches to God, we may say that all through His public ministry, by insisting upon the need of repentance, Jesus taught the necessity of the confession of sin. The prayer which He gave His disciples as a pattern for all prayer includes a petition for forgiveness (Matthew 6:12, Luke 11:4); and such a petition is equivalent, of course, to a confession of sin. In the parable of the Prodigal Son the prodigal’s first resolution ‘when he came to himself’ was to go to his father and acknowledge his sin (Luke 15:17-18); and his first words on meeting him were the frank and humble confession, ‘Father, I have sinned’ (Luke 15:21). The parable of the Pharisee and the Publican, again, hinges upon this very matter of the acknowledgment of sin and unworthiness. It was the total absence of the element of confession from the Pharisee’s prayer, and the presence instead of a self-satisfied and self-exalting spirit, that made his prayer of no effect in the sight of God; while it was the publican’s downcast eyes, his smitten breast, his cry, ‘God be merciful to me a sinner!’ that sent him down to his house ‘justified rather than the other’ (Luke 18:10-14; cf. ...
Under this head may be included one or two cases of confession of sin to Christ. When Peter cries, ‘Depart from me; for I am a sinful man, O Lord’ (Luke 5:8), and when the sinful woman in the house of the Pharisee silently makes confession to Jesus as she washes His feet with her tears (Luke 7:37-38), it is too much to say of these confessions, in Pliny’s language (Ep. 96) with regard to the hymn-singing of the early Christians, that they were offered ‘to Christ as to God. ’ But they were certainly made to one who was felt to be raised above the life of sinful humanity, and to be the representative on earth of the purity and grace of the heavenly Father. Luke, who is pre-eminently the Evangelist of salvation for the sinful, supplies us with the great bulk of the Gospel evidence that the Divine forgiveness is conditioned by the confession of sin. Confession of sin to man. —According to the teaching of Christ and the Gospels, confession of sin should be made not only to God but to man, and, in particular, to any one whom we have wronged. In Luke 17:4 again, our own forgiveness of an offender is made to depend on his coming and confessing, ‘I repent. ’ But apart from this confession to the person wronged, a wider and more public confession of sin meets us in the Gospels. It is implied similarly in His frequent commendation of simplicity and single-mindedness, and honest truth in the sight both of God and man (cf. ...
It seems to be recognized in the Gospels that acknowledgment of sin to man as well as to God has a cleansing power upon the soul. Christ’s personal attitude to the confession of sin. —That our Lord never made confession to man, and never felt the need of doing so, is sufficiently shown by His challenge, ‘Which of you convicteth me of sin?’ (John 8:46). But did He make confession of sin to God? The fact that John’s baptism was ‘the baptism of repentance’ (Mark 1:4 ||), and that the people ‘were baptized of him in Jordan, confessing their sins’ (Matthew 3:6), together with the further fact that Jesus Himself came to the Jordan to be baptized (Matthew 3:13, Mark 1:9, Luke 3:21), might be so interpreted. He had no sins to confess, but He knew that John was the prophet divinely commissioned to inaugurate the kingdom of righteousness (cf. ...
But, above all, it is to be noted that while Jesus taught His disciples to pray for the forgiveness of sins, we never find Him humbling Himself before God on account of sin, and asking to be forgiven. The reason probably was that while the attitude of a sinful suppliant and the element of confession, whether uttered or unexpressed, are indispensable to the acceptableness of ordinary human prayer, these could find no place in the prayers of Jesus. ‘Confession’; Ullmaon, sinlessness of Jesus, p
Righteousness - A term frequently occurring in scripture expressing an attribute of God which maintains what is consistent with His own character, and necessarily judges what is opposed to it — sin. In man also it is the opposite of lawlessness or sin, 1 John 3:4-7 ; but it is plainly declared of man that, apart from a work of grace in him, "there is none righteous, no, not one. But God has, independently of man, revealed His righteousness in the complete judgement and setting aside of sin; and of the state with which, in man, sin was connected. This was effected by the Son of God becoming man and taking on the cross, vicariously, the place of man as under the curse of the law, and in His being made sin and glorifying God in bearing the judgement of sin. The righteousness of God, declared and expressed in the saints in Christ, is thus the divinely given answer to Christ having been made sin
Crime - ...
See PUNISHMENT and sin
Flour - Exodus 29:2 (c) This is no doubt a type of the beautiful white, smooth life of CHRIST in which there was no sin, nor evil
Circumcision - Jeremiah 4:4 (b) Here is a type which compares the physical circumcision with the spiritual act of reckoning one's self dead unto sin and of laying aside the desires of the flesh
Reprobate - Some men are spoken of as reprobate even in this life, being hardened in sin and unbelief, Romans 1:28 2 Timothy 3:8 Titus 1:16
Lawlessness - The law as such may be the criterion or standard for determining what constitutes lawlessness (as with sin in general), but at its root lawlessness is rebellion against God, whether viewed as the condition of one's life or as specific Acts that demonstrate a determined refusal to acknowledge God. ...
The Relation of Lawlessness to sin . First John 3:4 is perhaps the classic statement of the relation of lawlessness and sin. In asserting that "Everyone who sins breaks the law; in fact, sin is lawlessness" the author was probably correcting a misconception about sin that had crept into the community through false teaching. sin was being disregarded or trivialized, and 3:4 counters by defining it in terms of lawlessness. sin is thus an act of rebellion against God, and cannot be thought of as harmless, neutral, or imaginary. Through the category of lawlessness, John clarifies that one cannot sin without declaring oneself to be in direct opposition to God. Romans 4:7 (quoting Psalm 32:1 ; see also Numbers 14:18 ) makes the same connection between sin and Acts of lawlessness. Lawlessness is the state defined by sin and sinning; righteousness, both declared and bestowed by God on believers, creates the possibilities of obedience and holiness. ...
Lawlessness as Acts of sin . ...
By bringing Johannine and Pauline teaching on lawlessness together, we can see how the concept serves to underline the seriousness of sin for the individual. Any sin, no matter how inconsequential it might seem, is the acting out of rebellion against God. Towner...
See also sin ...
Bibliography
Mortal Sin - This sin is called mortal because it deprives us of supernatural life and brings damnation and death of the soul. Three conditions are necessary for a mortal sin: gravity of matter, sufficient reflection, and full consent of the will. Mortal sin is a revolt against God, supreme Lord, contempt of His adorable majesty, an act of monstrous ingratitudc
Sin, Mortal - This sin is called mortal because it deprives us of supernatural life and brings damnation and death of the soul. Three conditions are necessary for a mortal sin: gravity of matter, sufficient reflection, and full consent of the will. Mortal sin is a revolt against God, supreme Lord, contempt of His adorable majesty, an act of monstrous ingratitudc
Integrity - It was lost to the human race as a result of original sin, but by special privilege of God, has been granted in greater or lesser degrees to various saints. Our Lord and His Blessed Mother, completely innocent of original sin
Contrite - This word signifies beaten or bruised, as with hard blows, or an heaver burden; and so in Scripture language imports one whose heart is broken and wounded for sin, on opposition to the heart of stone, Is. Deep conviction of the evil of sin
Maimed - Cautioning His disciples to avoid what causes sin, Jesus taught it is preferable to enter (eternal) life maimed than to go into eternal fire with whatever causes one to sin (Matthew 18:8 )
Shelomith - Alas! what can such events produce but evil? "Lust (saith the Holy Ghost by the apostle) when it hath conceived bringeth forth sin, and sin when it is finished bringeth forth death
Exodus - the Book of: The second of the Five Books of Moses, relates the story of the Israelites' slavery in Egypt, their Exodus, the Giving of the Torah, the sin of the Golden Calf, and the construction of the Tabernacle
Contrite - ) Broken down with grief and penitence; deeply sorrowful for sin because it is displeasing to God; humbly and thoroughly penitent
Grievously - Calamitously miserably greatly with great uneasiness, distress or grief. Atrociously as, to sin or offend grievously
Grievousness - Greatness enormity atrociousness as the grievousness of sin or offenses
Heifer, Red - It was a water of separation — a purification for sin. ...
The ordinance of the red heifer was an exceptional form of sin offering. It had not atonement in view, but the cleansing by water of those who, having their dwelling and place in the camp, where Jehovah's sanctuary was, had become defiled by the way: cf. Upon the basis of sin being condemned in the cross, it corresponds to 1 John 1:9 . The washing of the feet of those that are clean, as taught by the Lord in John 13 has this character of cleansing with water. The Holy Spirit applies, by the word, the truth of the condemnation of sin in the cross of Christ to the heart and conscience, to purify the believer, without applying the blood again
Leprosy - ...
Leprosy is a vivid type of sin, and its insidious working, producing an unclean condition. " That is, the leprosy, instead of striking inwards, had worked itself out, typical of a man truly confessing his sin; then the effect only of the defilement remains. ...
Besides leprosy in the person, laws were also given as to leprosy in a garment, answering to the sin that may be in a person's surroundings, which must be cleansed or destroyed. There is also leprosy in the house (when they were come into the land), answering to manifest sin in a christian assembly, which must be removed, or the assembly must be dissolved
Vow - A promise made to God of doing some good thing or abstaining from some lawful enjoyment, under the influence of gratitude for divine goodness, of imminent danger, the apprehension of future evils, or the desire of future blessings. To fulfill a vow binding one to sin, was to all sin to sin; but no considerations of inconvenience or loss could absolve one from a vow, Psalm 15:4 Malachi 1:14 . "If thou shalt forbear to vow, it shall be no sin in thee; that which is gone out of thy lips thou shalt keep and perform," Deuteronomy 23:21,23 Ecclesiastes 5:4-5
Malice - (Latin: malum; malitium, evil, evil intent) ...
The evil of a conscious and deliberate transgression of the law of God; contempt of the Divine Author of the law; a denying God the reverence and service due Him; the real essence of sin
Zin - To be distinguished from the wilderness of sin (q
Hateful - All sin is hateful in the sight of God and of good men
Sin - sin . The teaching of the Bible with regard to the doctrine of sin may be said to involve a desire, on the part of the leaders of Jewish thought, to give a rational account of the fact, the consciousness, and the results of human error. ]'>[1] ) attributes the sin to a positive act of conscious disobedience to God, and not only so, but he regards it as an entity standing over against ‘good’ ( Genesis 2:17 ), This is more clearly brought out in the same writer’s narrative of the murder of Abel, where sin is represented as ‘couching at the door,’ lying in wait for the overthrow of the sullen homicide ( Genesis 4:7 ). The profound psychological truth that the power of sin grows in the character of him who yields to its dictates is also noticed in this story. The growth and arrogance of sin in the human race became so pronounced and universal that He is said to have rejected man completely, and in His wrath to have destroyed His creation, which was infected by man’s corruption. ...
A change in the Divine method of dealing with sinful man is now noticeable. As a result, temptation to sin becomes more formidable and many-sided. The secret of Joseph’s power to resist temptation lay, not merely in his natural inability to be guilty of a breach of trust towards his master, but still more in his intense realization that to yield would be a ‘great wickedness and sin against God’ ( Genesis 39:9 ). Thus, while it is true to say that the dominant conception of sin in the OT is that it is the great disturbing element in the personal relations of God and man, it seems to have been realized very early that the chief scope for its exercise lay in the domain of human intercourse. The force of Abimelech’s complaint against Abraham lay in the fact that the former was guiltless of wronging the latter, whereas he was in serious danger of sinning against God in consequence of the patriarch’s duplicity. The sinaitic Law . The next great critical point in the evolution of human consciousness of sin is reached in the promulgation of the Law from sinai. Not only are the restrictions tabulated in order to the erection of barriers against the commission of sin (‘God is come to prove you, and that his fear may be before you, that ye sin not,’ Exodus 20:20 ), but positive enactments regulating the personal communion of God and Israel provide frequently recurring opportunities of loving and joyful service ( Exodus 23:14 ff. Thus it will be easily understood that, as the Levitical and Priestly Codes were gradually elaborated into a somewhat intricate system of legal and ceremonial obligations, the nomenclature of sin in its various aspects came to he accordingly enlarged. For example, in one verse three distinct words occur in connexion with Divine forgiveness (‘forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin ,’ Exodus 34:7 ), and though there is a certain vagueness in the precise meaning to be attached to each of these words, whether it be guilt or punishment, rebellion or sin-offering, wickedness considered as a condition, or trespass, which is in the writers’ minds, the thoughts underlying each have to do with the relations between God and His people. The law of clean and unclean animals and things paved the way for truer and nobler thoughts of God’s holiness, and of the uncleanness of sin as being its contradiction. Though there are numerous echoes of the older conception that the keeping of God’s commandments is one side of a bargain which conditions men’s happiness and prosperity ( Deuteronomy 4:24 ; Deuteronomy 4:40 , Deuteronomy 6:15 ), yet we observe a lofty range of thought bringing in its train truer ideas of sin and guilt. It is a necessary phase of His love, compelling them to recognize that sin against God is destructive of the sinner. The ultimate aim of the Deuteronomist is the leading of men to hate sin as God hates it, and to love mercy and righteousness as and because God loves them (cf. ...
One sin is specially insisted on by the Deuteronomist, namely, the sin of idolatry . The national disasters which recur so frequently during the former of these periods are always attributed to this sin; while the return of the people, under the guidance of a great representative hero, is always marked by the blessings of peace and prosperity. So in the story of the Northern Kingdom the constant refrain meets us in each succeeding reign: ‘He cleaved unto the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, wherewith he made Israel to sin’ ( 2 Kings 3:3 ; 2 Kings 10:29 ; 2 Kings 13:2 etc. On the other hand, there is little reference to this sin during the reigns of Saul and David, and, in spite of the weaknesses of character displayed by the former, the historian pictures for us a great advance in national vigour and growth under these kings and their successors in the Southern Kingdom. We are not, however, altogether limited to what is here inferentially taught as to national sin, with its consequent national punishment. David himself is represented as guilty of a sin which marred his character as an individual, and of an act of indiscretion which seems to have been regarded as a breach of that trust held by him as God’s vicegerent on earth. Both these cases are of interest for the light which they throw on the doctrine of sin and its consequences. In the case of Bathsheba, which was a purely personal transgression, the prophet Nathan comes not only as the hearer of a message of Divine pardon to the repentant sinner, but also as the stern judge pronouncing sentence of severe and protracted punishment. The death of the newly born child and the subsequent distractions arising out of the affair of Absalom are looked on as expressions of God’s wrath and of retributive justice (see 2 Samuel 12:10-18 ). Whatever the contemporary reasons may have been for regarding his public act as sinful, and even the reckless Joah considered it an act of wanton folly, we find the same features of repentance and forgiveness, and the same inclusion of others in the suffering consequent on its commission. Into this narrative, however, another element is introduced, telling of the difficulty which was felt, even at this early stage of human history, as to the origin of sin. Nor ought we to be surprised at this, for the problem is one which was sure to present itself very early to the minds of thoughtful men; while the numerous instances where the commission of a sin seemed to have been made subservient by God to the exhibiting of His power and love afforded presumptive prima facie evidence that He Himself willed the act as the minister of His glory (see the history of Joseph with the writer’s comments thereon, Genesis 45:5 ; Genesis 50:20 , Psalms 105:17 ; cf. Here the name of Satan or ‘Adversary’ is boldly inserted as the author of the sin, a fact which reminds us of the categorical denial of the Son of Sirach, ‘He hath not commanded any man to be ungodly; and he hath not given any man licence to sin’ ( Sir 15:20 ). That the origin of sin continued to be debated and speculated upon down to a very late period is evidenced by the vehement warning of St. By far the most important stage in the history of the OT doctrine of sin is that which is marked by the teaching of the Prophets. The first named reveals a wide outlook on the world at large, and a recognition of the prevalence and power of sin in other nations than Israel. ), and it may be said that it is owing to the preaching of these four prophets that the centre of gravity, as it were, of sin is changed, and the principles of universal justice and love, as the fundamental attributes of Jehovah’s character and rule, are established. It was the prophetic function to deepen the consciousness of sin by revealing a God of moral righteousness to a people whose peculiar relationship to Jehovah involved both immense privileges and grave responsibilities ( Amos 3:2 , Hosea 3:5 ff. The consciousness of sin and the power of repentance have now their place in the lives of nations outside the Abrahamic covenant. ...
Hitherto the prophetic teaching was largely confined to national sin and national repentance
Red - ...
Numbers 19:2 (c) We may see in this animal a type of CHRIST JESUS who was made sin for us, and died that we might be presented blameless and guiltless before GOD. ...
Isaiah 1:18 (a) This color seems to apply to sins in many parts of the Scriptures. We never see sin compared to the color "black. " Red seems to be the symbol of sin. ...
Zechariah 1:8 (b) since the myrtle trees represent those who live a happy life, some think that these horses are a type of CHRIST riding in power because of the red blood, and because of Calvary to protect and preserve His own people. Others think that these horses are a type of sin that pervades all the land. ...
Revelation 12:3 (a) This animal is a type of Satan, the man of sin, who is all evil, sinful and wicked
the Woman With the Issue of Blood - No man ever loved his family more than Martin Luther did, but all the time he told his hearers who had head enough and heart enough to understand him, that he had no real joy in his children because of his sin. " Well, blood is blood; and blood is bad enough; but blood at its worst is not sin. sin is sin. sin has no fellow. sin has no second, unless it is death and hell. sin tries Christ Himself to His utmost, as this woman's bloody issue tried and found wanting all the best physicians in all the cities round about. Christ could cure a twelve year old issue of blood incidentally, and just by the way, as we say; ere ever He was aware He had healed that woman of her blood, but not for all her remaining life of her sin. All her days, you may depend upon it, she was nothing better of her sin, but rather worse. She followed Him about with her sin wherever He went. She went up to Jerusalem after Him with her sin. She was one of the women who were beholding afar off when He died on the tree for her sin. She often went out all her days to the Garden of Gethsemane, and lay all night on her face because of her sin. And sometimes at a passover season, and such like, she felt in herself as if she was going to be healed this time; but, before the sun set, she was worse with her secret sinfulness than ever. And, till her innermost soul ran pure sin day and night, and would not be staunched of heaven or earth. One stolen touch was sufficient for an issue of blood; but a long and close lifetime of absolute clasp of Christ will not heal us of our sin. Oh, the malice of sin! Oh, the height, and the depth, and the hold, and the absolute incurableness, of sin! Only, with all that we must not despair. Never mind the gaping crowd pressing behind and before on Him and on you. What a power you have, O sinner, and what an opportunity! "Somebody hath touched Me; for I perceive that virtue has gone out of Me. Lift up your heart to Him even in the press of business, and among the cumber of the house, and week-day and all. Now, why was it, did you ever think, that when our Lord healed so thoroughly this woman's sick body, He did not in an equally immediate, and in an equally thorough way, heal her far more sick soul? Why did He stop short at her blood? Why did He not work a far better cure on her sin? Was it because she was not sick of sin? Was it because she had not come, with all those twelve years, to know the plague of her own heart? Or was it because He did not come the first time to this world with a full salvation? Or was it, and is it, because sin is such a mystery of iniquity that it takes not only both His first and His second comings to heal our souls of sin; but long time, and great labour, and great pain, and great faith, and great prayer on our part also, before even His Divine power can perform and pronounce a perfect cure? Yes, that is it. What depths, both in God and man, Baxter sounds on that great subject, and what heights he scales! O my brethren, be pleaded with to read almost exclusively the books that are pertinent to your sinful and immortal souls-such as The Saint's Rest. And O, as many of you as are torn to pieces every day with the torture of sin, as well as covered with inward shame at the degradation and pollution of sin, keep yourselves in life by hope. Give reins to your imagination and think,-all sin for ever gone! Think of that! All sin gone clean out of your sinful heart for ever! I cannot believe it possible. Now, nothing but sin and misery; and then, nothing but love, and holiness, and unspeakable blessedness
Atone - ”)Most uses of the word, however, involve the theological meaning of “covering over,” often with the blood of a sacrifice, in order to atone for some sin. It is not clear whether this means that the “covering over” hides the sin from God’s sight or implies that the sin is wiped away in this process. ...
As might be expected, this word occurs more frequently in the Book of Leviticus than in any other book, since Leviticus deals with the ritual sacrifices that were made to atone for sin. 4:13-21 gives instructions for bringing a young bull to the tent of meeting for a sin offering. After the elders laid their hands on the bull (to transfer the people’s sin to the bull), the bull was killed. Before anything else, the high priest had to “make atonement” for himself and his house by offering a bull as a sin offering. ...
Sometimes atonement for sin was made apart from or without blood offerings. With that, he was told, “Thy sin is purged [1]” ( sin offering on it, apparently symbolizing the blood’s reception by God
Scotists - Duns Scotus, a Scottish cordelier, who maintained the immaculate conception of the Virgin, or that she was born without original sin, in opposition to Thomas Aquinas and the Thomists
Shemot - �names�); the Book of Exodus ...
Shemot: The second of the Five Books of Moses, relates the story of the Israelites' slavery in Egypt, their Exodus, the Giving of the Torah, the sin of the Golden Calf, and the construction of the Tabernacle
Malicious - ...
I grant him bloody, ...
Sudden, malicious, smacking of every sin ...
That has a name
Rievous - ) Full of, or expressing, grief; showing great sorrow or affliction; as, a grievous cry. ) Characterized by great atrocity; heinous; aggravated; flagitious; as, a grievous sin. ) Causing grief or sorrow; painful; afflictive; hard to bear; offensive; harmful
Scalp - He punishes the head because all sin begins in the thoughts of the mind
Bilhah - After Rachel’s death, she became embroiled in Reuben’s sin
Sin Offering - ) As chatteth , hamartia , is the "sin offering", so asham (implying "negligence"), lutron , is the "trespass offering". (See sin. It related to the consequence of sin more immediately than to sin itself in the sinner's heart. Its connection with the consecration of the leper, and reconsecration of the Nazarite, expressed the share each has in sin's consequences, disease, death, and consequent defilement (Leviticus 5:14; Leviticus 5:14; Leviticus 5:15). It was less connected with the conscience than the sin offering (Leviticus 4:3). None of the blood was put on the altar horns, as in the sin offering. ...
In Isaiah 53:10 translated "when His soul shall have made an offering for sin" (asham , a "trespass offering", Matthew 20:28, "a ransom for many," lutron anti polloon ), He voluntarily laying down His life (John 10:17-18; Ephesians 5:2; Hebrews 9:14). sins of ignorance, rather of inadvertence. Ecclesiastes 5:6; Ecclesiastes 10:5; Hebrews 9:7, "errors," Greek "sins of ignorance. " Leviticus 4:2, in contrast to presumptuous sins entailing (ipso facto, whether the crime incurred civil punishment or not) the being cut off (Numbers 15:22-30; Psalms 19:12-13; Hebrews 10:26-27; Proverbs 2:13-15; Exodus 31:14; Leviticus 7:20; Matthew 12:31; 1 John 5:16; Acts 3:17; Ephesians 4:18; 1 Peter 1:14; Luke 12:48)
Confession - In the Bible’s usage of the word, these meanings fall into two groups, those concerned with confession of sins, and those concerned with confession of faith. ...
Confession of sins...
God is willing to forgive people’s sins, but he requires on their part repentance and faith; that is, he requires that they see their sin as rebellion against God, that they confess it to God as deserving his punishment, that they turn from it decisively, and that they trust in God’s mercy to forgive them (Ezra 10:10-11; Psalms 32:5; Psalms 51:3-4; Matthew 3:6; Matthew 6:12; Luke 18:13; 1 John 1:5-10). ...
There is no suggestion that sin causes believers to lose their salvation and that confession is necessary to win it back. When sinners turn to Christ for salvation, God declares them righteous and free from the penalty of sin, on the basis of what Christ has done. )...
If believers sin against others, they must also confess their sin to those concerned and put right whatever wrong they have done (Numbers 5:6-8; Matthew 5:23-24; James 5:16). Confession of sin is a necessary part of prayer, and a lack of confession could be one reason why prayers are not answered (1 Kings 8:33-36; Ezra 9:6-7; Nehemiah 1:4-11; Psalms 66:18; Daniel 9:4-9; Matthew 6:12; Luke 18:13). )...
Confession of faith...
If confession of sin is, in a sense, negative (admitting oneself to be a wrongdoer), confession of faith is, by contrast, positive (declaring oneself to be a believer in and follower of God)
Terror: of Convicted Consciences - ' ...
Thus when alarmed by an awakened conscience men walk in fear from hour to hour, trembling lest a thought or word of sin should bring down upon them the impending wrath of God. Thrice happy is he who has traversed that awful gap of terror and now breathes freely because sin is pardoned, and therefore every apprehension is removed
Medicine - Jeremiah 30:13 (a) The Scriptures are used as a type in this place because they heal the broken heart, they mend the wounds that sin makes, they bind up the bruises that are incurred in wandering away from GOD's path. Men are still evading GOD's remedy and trying by legislation and by religious programs and by social service plans to relieve the wickedness and sin of men
Serpent - ...
Numbers 21:6 (b) It is a type of sin in all of its terrible effect on the people. ...
Numbers 21:8 (a) It is a type of the Lord JESUS when He was made sin for us ( 2 Corinthians 5:21) as He hung on Calvary
Novatians - They condemned second marriages, and for ever excluded from their communion all those who after baptism had fallen into sin. They affected very superior purity; and, though they conceived that the worst might possibly hope for eternal life, they absolutely refused to readmit into their communion any who had lapsed into sin
Sacrilege - Sacrilege is a sin opposed to the virtue of religion, and as such is a grave sin in grave matter
Lamb of God - John the Baptist identified Jesus as the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world (John 1:29 ,John 1:29,1:36 ). Acts 8:32-35 identifies Jesus as the servant of God whom Isaiah described as one “brought as a lamb to the slaughter” ( Isaiah 53:7 ), who “bare the sin of many” (Isaiah 53:12 ), and who was an offering for sin (Isaiah 53:10 ). John 1:29 , therefore, signifies the substitutionary, sacrificial suffering and death of Jesus, the Servant of God, by which redemption and forgiveness of sin are accomplished
Apostasy - ]'>[1] ‘the apostasy’) come first, and the man of sin (marg. ’ It is sometimes assumed that the word ‘first’ indicates that the revelation of the ‘man of sin’ must be preceded in time by the apostasy (cf. article Man of sin, and Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) iii. 226); but the relation of 2 Thessalonians 2:2 to 2 Thessalonians 2:3 makes it more natural to understand ‘first’ as signifying that the apostasy and the revelation of the ‘man of sin,’ regarded as contemporaneous, must come before the day of the Lord. ]'>[6] ) as would load to apostasy from the faith on the part of many professing Christians
Capital Sins - (Latin: caput, head) ...
Sometimes called capital sins, are inordinate inclinations or sinful habits, the result of sin. They are called capital, not because they are always grave sins, but because they give rise to various sins
Capital Vices - (Latin: caput, head) ...
Sometimes called capital sins, are inordinate inclinations or sinful habits, the result of sin. They are called capital, not because they are always grave sins, but because they give rise to various sins
Blot - To blot out sin is to forgive it (Psalm 51:1,9 ; Isaiah 44:22 ; Acts 3:19 )
Attrition - ) Grief for sin arising only from fear of punishment or feelings of shame
Sin - Those who give themselves up to the service of sin, enter the palace of pleasure by wide portals of marble, which conceal the low wicket behind which leads into the fields, where they are in a short time sent to feed swine
Wallow - Jeremiah 6:26 (b) This type represents the attitude of deep humility before GOD because of sin. ...
2 Peter 2:22 (b) Here we see a type of the wicked who revel in their own filthy sins and iniquities
Shittim - The scene of the sin with the Midianites, and of its terrible punishment, Numbers 25:1-18; Numbers 31:1-12; the sending forth of the spies to Jericho; and the final preparation before crossing the Jordan
Sinim - Isaiah 49:12 , a people very remote from the Holy Land, towards the east or south; generally believed to mean the Chinese, who have been known to Western Asia from early times, and are called by the Arabs sin, and by the Syrians Tsini
Sins, Capital - (Latin: caput, head) ...
Sometimes called capital sins, are inordinate inclinations or sinful habits, the result of sin. They are called capital, not because they are always grave sins, but because they give rise to various sins
Sins, Seven Deadly - (Latin: caput, head) ...
Sometimes called capital sins, are inordinate inclinations or sinful habits, the result of sin. They are called capital, not because they are always grave sins, but because they give rise to various sins
Seven Deadly Sins - (Latin: caput, head) ...
Sometimes called capital sins, are inordinate inclinations or sinful habits, the result of sin. They are called capital, not because they are always grave sins, but because they give rise to various sins
Vices, Capital - (Latin: caput, head) ...
Sometimes called capital sins, are inordinate inclinations or sinful habits, the result of sin. They are called capital, not because they are always grave sins, but because they give rise to various sins
Iniquity - ” ‛âvâh is often used as a synonym of chata, “to sin,” as in sinned [1], we have done wickedly [2]. This meaning is also most basic to the word chatta’t, “sin,” in the Old Testament, and for this reason the words chatta’t and ‛âvôn are virtually synonymous; “Lo, this [3] hath touched thy [4] lips; and thine iniquity [5] is taken away, and thy sin [3]0 purged” ( sinneth, it shall die. ...
Israel went into captivity for the sin of their fathers and for their own sins: “And the heathen shall know that the house of Israel went into captivity for their iniquity; because they trespassed against me, therefore hid I my face from them, and gave them into the hand of their enemies: so fell they all by the sword” (
sin, and that will by no means clear the guilty; visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the children’s children, unto the third and to the fourth generation” ( sin: “I acknowledged my sin unto thee, and mine iniquity have I not hid. I said, I will confess my transgressions unto the Lord; and thou forgavest the iniquity of my sin” ( sin” ( sin, judgment, and “punishment” for sin. The Old Testament teaches that God’s forgiveness of “iniquity” extends to the actual sin, the guilt of sin, God’s judgment upon that sin, and God’s punishment of the sin. ...
In the Septuagint the word has the following renderings: adikia (“wrongdoing; unrighteousness; wickedness”); hamartia (“sin; error”); and anomia (“lawlessness”). The RSV and NIV give at a few places the more specialized rendering “guilt” or the more general translation “sin. ” Though all of mankind is subject to 'âven (“toil”), there are those who delight in causing difficulties and “misfortunes” for others by scheming, lying, and acting deceptively. ...
The Septuagint has several translations: anomia (“lawlessness”); kopos (“work; labor; toil”); mataios (“empty; fruitless; useless; powerless”); poneria (“wickedness; maliciousness; sinfulness”); and adikia (“unrighteousness; wickedness; injustice”)
Trespass Offering - The idea of sin as a "debt" pervades this legislation. The Asham , which was always a ram, was offered in cases where sins were more private
Naughtiness - Modern translations thus replace naughtiness with terms such as evil, greed, or wickedness to reflect the seriousness of the sin
Mortal - The mortal body is subject to sin (Romans 6:12 ), to decay (1 Corinthians 15:53-54 ), and to death (2 Corinthians 4:11 )
Afraid - ...
Joseph was afraid to sin against God
Drought - Psalm 32:4 (b) Here we see the dearth in David's soul which followed as a result of his sin
Unfit - ) To make unsuitable or incompetent; to deprive of the strength, skill, or proper qualities for anything; to disable; to incapacitate; to disqualify; as, sickness unfits a man for labor; sin unfits us for the society of holy beings
Salvation - ) The redemption of man from the bondage of sin and liability to eternal death, and the conferring on him of everlasting happiness
Malchus - The seizure of the Savior immediately after two manifestations of his divinity, Luke 22:51 ; John 18:6 , evinces the blindness and obstinacy of mankind in sin
Sadness - Sorrowfulness mournfulness dejection of mind as grief and sadness at the memory of sin
Occasion of Sin - An external circumstance which of its own nature or because of man's frailty inclines and leads to sin. An occasion is proximate if the danger of sinning is certain or probable, remote if such danger is slight. It is absolute if of itself it leads us to sin, relative if only on account of weakness it becomes an occasion of evil-doing
Judgment, Particular - Those in the state of mortal sin will be condemned. See also: ...
heaven
hell
limbo
mortal sin
purgatory
Meat-Offering - This involves neither of the main ideas of sacrifice—the atonement for sin and self-dedication to God. Accordingly the meal-offering, properly so called, was introduced by the sin-offering, which represented the idea atonement, and to have formed an appendage to the burnt-offering, which represented the sacrifice
Old Man - "Our old man has been crucified with him [1], that the body of sin might be annulled, that we should no longer serve sin
Forgiveness - No book of religion except Christianity teaches that God completely forgives sins. God remembers our sins no more (Hebrews 10:17). ...
There is only one sin for which the Father does not promise forgiveness: blasphemy against the Holy Spirit (Mark 3:28; Matthew 12:32). The contexts suggest this to be the sin of attributing to unclean spirits the work of the Holy Spirit
Foolishness - It can mean “foolishness” in the sense of violating God’s law, or “sin” ( sin ( Pelusium - KJV, NAS follow the Hebrew in reading sin. See sin
Sin, Occasion of - An external circumstance which of its own nature or because of man's frailty inclines and leads to sin. An occasion is proximate if the danger of sinning is certain or probable, remote if such danger is slight. It is absolute if of itself it leads us to sin, relative if only on account of weakness it becomes an occasion of evil-doing
Salvation - ...
In the New Testament, salvation may have the same broad meaning as in the Old Testament (Acts 27:20; Acts 27:43; 2 Corinthians 1:10; 2 Thessalonians 3:2; 2 Peter 2:9), but its best known meaning is in relation to deliverance from sin and its consequences. This salvation comes from God through Jesus Christ (Matthew 1:21; Luke 2:11; Luke 19:10; John 3:17; John 12:47; Acts 4:12; 1 Timothy 1:15) and it is possible only because Jesus Christ atoned for sin in his death on the cross (1 Corinthians 1:18; Titus 2:14; see ATONEMENT; sin). Another picture is that of slavery, which shows that God has freed believers from the bondage of sin (1 Peter 1:18-19; see REDEMPTION). The picture of a sacrificial offering expresses further aspects of salvation; for example, the death of a sacrificial victim in the place of the sinner (Hebrews 9:26; see SACRIFICE), and the presentation of an offering to turn away God’s anger against sin (Romans 3:25; see PROPITIATION). Their sin has been dealt with, they are no longer under condemnation, and they have the assurance of eternal life (John 5:24; Romans 5:1-2; Ephesians 2:1; Ephesians 2:8; see ASSURANCE). The present aspect is that believers continue to experience the saving power of God in victory over sin in their daily lives (1 Corinthians 1:18; Philippians 2:12; 2 Timothy 1:8-9; see SANCTIFICATION)
Law - God gave a commandment (or law) to Adam, which made Adam's subsequent sin to be transgression. Where there is no law there is no transgression (Romans 4:15 ), though there may be sin, as there was from Adam to Moses: "until the law sin was in the world, but sin is not imputed [1] when there is no law. Men sinned, and death reigned, though they "had not sinned after the similitude of Adam's transgression" (Romans 5:14 ), for no definite law had been given to them. It is not a true definition of sin, to say that it is "the transgression of the law," as in the A. The passage should read "Sin is lawlessness:" that is, man doing his own will, defiant of restraint, and regardless of his Creator and of his neighbour. ...
The word 'law' is also used for a fixed and unvarying principle such as 'a law of nature:' thus we read of the 'law of faith,' 'law of sin,' 'law of righteousness,' 'law of the Spirit of life,' etc
Atonement - Atonement may be defined as that act of dealing with sin whereby sin’s penalty is paid and sinners are brought into a right relation with God. In the Old Testament the word is used mainly in connection with the offering of sacrifices for sin. ...
One result of universal human sin is that all people are under God’s judgment. They are cut off from God and there is no way they can bring themselves back to God (Psalms 14:3; Isaiah 59:2; Romans 1:18; Romans 3:20; Romans 3:23; Romans 6:23; see sin). This is through the blood of a sacrifice, where blood is symbolic of the life of the innocent victim laid down as substitute for the guilty sinner (Leviticus 17:11; Hebrews 9:22; 1 John 4:10; see BLOOD). Whether in Old or New Testament times, forgiveness is solely by God’s grace and sinners receive it by faith (Psalms 32:5; Psalms 51:17; Micah 7:18; Ephesians 2:8). They were a means by which repentant sinners could demonstrate their faith in God and at the same time see what their atonement involved. The sacrifices showed them how it was possible for God to act rightly in punishing sin while forgiving repentant sinners. )...
The sacrifices of the Old Testament pointed to the one great sacrifice that is the only basis on which God can forgive a person’s sins, the death of Christ. Through that death God is able justly to forgive the sins of all who turn to him in faith, no matter what era they might have lived in (Matthew 26:28; Romans 3:25-26; Romans 4:25; Hebrews 9:15; 1 Peter 2:24)
the - ) By that; by how much; by so much; on that account; - used before comparatives; as, the longer we continue in sin, the more difficult it is to reform
New - Term frequently occurring in Holy Scripture to signify the change of heart from infidelity to faith, from sin to virtue
Achor - Trouble, a valley north of Jericho; so called, perhaps, from the troubles occasioned by the sin of Achan, who was here put to death, Joshua 7:26
Communion With Christ: Its Influence on Our Views - When you have been sitting in a well-lighted room and are suddenly called into the outer darkness, how black it seems; and thus when a mam has dwelt in communion with God, sin becomes exceeding sinful, and the darkness in which the world lieth appears like tenfold night
Michtam - Suggestions include a musical notation or a title for psalms connected with expiation of sin
Guile - sin against prudence, being reducible to the vice of prudence of the flesh
Kid - A kid of the goats is constantly mentioned for the sin offering
Outlandish - Nevertheless, even him did outlandish women cause to sin
Impute, to, - The sins of the man believing on Jesus are not imputed to him: Christ has atoned for them; the believer may come under discipline for them (cf. Therefore not only are the believer's sins not imputed to him; but he is accounted righteous. In Romans 5:13 the word is ἐλλογέω, "sin is not put to account when there is no law. " It is sin, and those that sin without law perish without law; but they are not at once called to account for it in God's government: cf
Sanctification - that work of God's grace by which we are renewed after the image of God, set apart for his service, and enabled to die unto sin and live unto righteousness. Sanctification is either of nature, whereby we are renewed after the image of God, in knowledge, righteousness, and true holiness, Ephesians 4:24 ; Colossians 3:19 , or of practice, whereby we die unto sin, have its power destroyed in us, cease from the love and practice of it, hate it as abominable, and live unto righteousness, loving and studying good works, Titus 2:11-12 . Sanctification in this world must be complete; the whole nature must be sanctified, all sin must be utterly abolished, or the soul can never be admitted into the glorious presence of God, Hebrews 12:14 ; 1 Peter 1:15 ; Revelation 21:27 ; yet the saints, while here, are in a state of spiritual warfare with Satan and his temptations, with the world and its influence, 2 Corinthians 2:11 ; Galatians 5:17 ; Galatians 5:24 ; Romans 7:23 ; 1 John 2:15-16
Impute - That of Adam's sin to all his posterity; that it is so, Paul proves by the fact of all, even infants who have never actually sinned, suffering its penalty death (Romans 5:12-14; Romans 5:19), even as all inherit his corrupt nature. God, in fact, deals with us all as guilty race; for we are all liable to suffering and death; the doctrine of imputation of Adam's sin accounts for it. Yet imputation is not infusion; Adam's sin is not ours in the same sense as our own personal sin; nor is imputation the transfer of his character to us. That of our sins to Christ (Isaiah 53:6). Instead of "imputing their trespasses to men," God "hath made Him to be sin for us who knew no sin, that we might be made (Greek that we may become) the righteousness of God in Him," i
Offerings, the - The principal offerings are four: the Burnt offering, the Meat offering, the Peace offering, and the sin offering, with which the Trespass offering may be associated. If the question be of a sinner's approach to God, the sin offering must necessarily come first: the question of sin must be met for the conscience before the one who approaches can be in the position of a worshipper. ...
The offerings, in one respect, divide themselves into two classes, namely, the sweet-savour offerings, presented by worshippers, and the sin offerings, presented by those who having sinned needed to be restored to the position of worshippers. But even in the sin offering the fat was burnt on the brazen altar, and it is once said to be for a sweet savour (Leviticus 4:31 ), thus forming a link with the burnt offering. The sweet-savour offerings represent Christ's perfect offering of Himself to God, rather than the laying of sins on the substitute by Jehovah. ...
The various kinds and the sex of the animals presented in the sin offerings are proportioned to the measure of responsibility in Leviticus 4 , and to the offerer's ability in Leviticus 5 . Thus the priest or the whole congregation for a sin offering had to bring a bullock, but a goat or a lamb sufficed for one of the people. Chattath, from 'to sin. ' Constantly translated sin offering. ' But where the carcase of the sin offering was burnt, the word used is saraph, which signifies 'to burn up, consume. This is typical of Christ presenting Himself according to the divine will for the accomplishment of the purpose and maintenance of the glory of God where sin was taken account of. In 'the morning' Israel will know that their acceptance and blessing is through the work of their Messiah on the cross. The daily sacrifice was offered by the priest as acting for the whole nation, and presented typically the ground of its blessings and privileges. Its object was not to show how a sinner might get peace, nor to make atonement: it was rather the outcome of his having been blessed — the response of his heart to that blessing. The soul enters into the devotedness of Christ to God, the love and power of Christ as the blessing of the priestly family, and its own sustainment in life where death has come in. The last named recognised the existence of sin in the worshipper ( 1 John 1:8 ), which, if inactive did not disqualify, though sin on him did disqualify. ...
THE sin OFFERING. In the burnt offering and the peace offering the offerer came as a worshipper, and by the imposition of hands became identified with the acceptability and acceptance of the victim: whereas in the sin offering the victim was identified with the sin of the offerer. ...
The sin offering was to make an atonement for sin — to avert judgement from the offerer. This general characteristic is always the same, though the details differ, as will be seen in the following table:-...
...
The Day of Atonement stands alone — the blood of the sin offering being taken then into the holy of holies, and sprinkled on and before the mercy seat. Atonement was also made for the holy place and the altar: all were reconciled by the blood of the sin offering, and on the ground of the same blood the sins of the people were administratively borne away into a land not inhabited. ...
In the case of sin on the part of the priest or the whole congregation, all approach was interrupted: so the blood had to be carried into the holy place, sprinkled there seven times, and placed on the horns of the altar of incense — the place of the priest's approach — for the re-establishment of approach. ...
The sin offering is not, as a whole, said to be a sweet savour: sin is the prominent idea, yet the fat was burnt upon the altar for a sweet savour. The sin offering that was eaten by the priest is declared to be 'most holy. ...
In the cases provided for in Leviticus 5:1-13 , where it was chiefly for acts which were sins by reason of infraction of some enactment or ordinance, the ability of the offerer was considered. If a person was unable to bring a goat for a sin offering, he was allowed to bring two doves; and if he were unable to bring even these, then he might bring the tenth part of an ephah of fine flour. This does not seem to agree with the necessity of blood-shedding for remission, but the memorial burnt upon the altar typified the judgement of God in dealing with sin. It brought the offering within the reach of all, so that the very poorest soul could have a way of meeting God as to its sin. And as the flour reached the fire of judgement on the altar, the death of Christ for sin was not left out in this most simple form of sin offering. ...
THE TRESPASS OFFERING differs from the sin offering in that it contemplates God's government, whereas the sin offering refers to God's holy nature, and hence His necessary dealing with sin in judgement. He restores more to God than the wrong done to Him by man's sin, and the effects of the trespass offering will be manifested in the kingdom. In Leviticus 5:6-9 the same offering is called both a trespass offering and a sin offering; but in Leviticus 14 , for the cleansing of a leper, both a sin offering and a trespass offering were needful; and the same two offerings were to be brought if a Nazarite were defiled. It appears therefore that the trespass offering is a variety of sin offering. ...
THE RED HEIFER was also a sin offering. it is called 'a purification for sin' in Numbers 19:9,17 , but the meaning is a sin offering. ...
Christ is thus the antitype of all the sacrifices: in them is foreshadowed His devotedness unto death; the perfection and purity of His life of consecration to God; the ground and subject of communion of His people; and, finally, the removal of sin by sacrifice
Sin - This relationship would imply that 'âven means the absence of all that has true worth; hence, it would denote “moral worthlessness,” as in the actions of wrongdoing, evil devising, or false speaking. , that sin is a toilsome, exhausting load of “trouble and sorrow,” which the offender causes for himself or others. ”...
'Âshâm (אָשָׁם, Strong's #817), “sin; guilt; guilt offering; trespass; trespass offering. ” Cognates appear in Arabic as ‘ithmun (“sin; offense; misdeed; crime”), ‘athima (“to sin, err, slip”), and ‘athimun (“sinful; criminal; evil; wicked”); but the Arabic usage does not include the idea of restitution. ” The word may also refer to the offense itself which entails the guilt: “For Israel hath not been forsaken … though their land was filled with sin against the Holy One of Israel” ( sinful mankind. ”...
In general, ‛âmâl refers either to the trouble and suffering which sin causes the sinner or to the trouble that he inflicts upon others. ...
‛Âvôn portrays sin as a perversion of life (a twisting out of the right way), a perversion of truth (a twisting into error), or a perversion of intent (a bending of rectitude into willful disobedience). The word “iniquity” is the best single-word equivalent, although the Latin root iniquitas really means “injustice; unfairness; hostile; adverse. ”...
‛Âvôn occurs frequently throughout the Old Testament in parallelism with other words related to sin, such as chatta’t (“sin”) and pesha’ (“transgression”). 20:1
: “And David … said before Jonathan, what have I done? what is mine iniquity [3]? and what is my sin [15] before thy father, that he seeketh my life?” (cf. 59:12: “For our transgressions are multiplied before thee, and our sins testify against us: for our transgressions are with us; and as for our iniquities, we know them” (cf. “And the seed of Israel … confessed their sins, and the iniquities of their fathers” ( sinful mankind, including Israel. Girdlestone suggests that it refers to the tossing and confusion in which the wicked live, and to the perpetual agitation they came to others. ...
Chaṭṭâ'th (חַטָּאָה, Strong's #2403), “sin; sin-guilt; sinpurification; sin offering. ...
The basic nuance of this word is “sin” conceived as missing the road or mark (155 times). Chaṭṭâ'th can refer to an offense against a man: “And Jacob was wroth, and chode with Laban: and Jacob answered and said to Laban, What is my trespass
[5]4? what is my sin, that thou hast so hotly pursued after me?” ( since Jacob used two different words, he probably intended two different nuances. In addition, a full word study shows basic differences between chaṭṭâ'th and other words rendered “sin. ”...
For the most part this word represents a sin against God (
1 Kings 8:35). They should depart from “sin” (2 Kings 10:31), be concerned about it ( sin (usually indicated by pasha’): “Remember not the sins of my youth, nor my transgressions. …”...
In a few passages the term connotes the guilt or condition of sin: “… The cry of Sodom and Gomorrah is great, and … their sin is very grievous” (
sin” in two passages: “And thus shalt thou do unto them, to cleanse them: Sprinkle water of purifying upon them …” ( sin against either a man ( sin and guilt (cf. Finally, several passages use this word for the idea of “punishment for sin” (: “But the men of Sodom were wicked and sinners before the Lord exceedingly. If this derivation were correct, it would imply that ra’ connotes sin in the sense of destructive hurtfulness; but this connotation is not appropriate in some contexts in which ra’ is found. ” This word occurs as a verb only when it refers to sin. ‛Âbar often carries the sense of “transgressing” a covenant or commandment—i. ...
Most frequently, ‛âbar illustrates the motion of “crossing over” or “passing over. ”) This word refers to crossing a stream or boundage (“pass through,”
), passing a razor over one’s head (“come upon,”
Châṭâ' (חָטָא, Strong's #2398), “to miss, sin, be guilty, forfeit, purify. 19:2: “He who makes haste with his feet misses the way” (RSV, NIV, KJV NASB, “sinneth”). 20:6, God’s word to Abimelech after he had taken Sarah: “Yes, I know that in the integrity of your heart you have done this, and also I have kept you from sinning against Me” (NASB; cf. ...
Sin against God is defined in sinned, and they have also transgressed my covenant which I commanded them. 4:27: “And if any one of the common people sin through ignorance, while he doeth somewhat against any of the commandments of the Lord concerning things which ought not to be done, and be guilty. 24:1-4, after forbidding adulterous marriage practices, concludes: “… For that is abomination before the Lord: and thou shalt not cause the land to sin …” (KJV); the RSV renders this passage: “You shall not bring guilt upon the land. 9:15: “And he … took the goat … and slew it, and offered it for sin. …” The effect of the offerings for sin is described in sin against the child …?” and sin against his servant David, since he has not sinned against you …” (NASB; NlV, “wrong, wronged”). The fact that all “have sinned” continues to be emphasized in the New Testament ( sins for all time sat down at the right hand of God
Expiate - ) To extinguish the guilt of by sufferance of penalty or some equivalent; to make complete satisfaction for; to atone for; to make amends for; to make expiation for; as, to expiate a crime, a guilt, or sin
Christian Athlete - (Greek: athletes, one trained in physical exercises) ...
Term used in the spiritual combat against sin; suggested by the spiritual exercises of Saint Ignatius, Saint Paul (1 Corinthians 9) compares the competitions of the athlete with the struggles of the soul
Naaman - Naaman's leprosy apparently was not contagious, nor was it seen as the result of some moral sin. Following his cleansing, he professed faith in Israel's God
Athlete, Christian - (Greek: athletes, one trained in physical exercises) ...
Term used in the spiritual combat against sin; suggested by the spiritual exercises of Saint Ignatius, Saint Paul (1 Corinthians 9) compares the competitions of the athlete with the struggles of the soul
Unspotted - James 1:27 (b) This is a picture of the defilement which the Christian may encounter during his day's duties as he mingles and mixes in a world filled with sin
Thebez - Thus the besieged and the besieger were all punished in their sin
Lamb - Behold the lamb of God, who taketh away the sin of the world
Uncleanness - Moral impurity defilement by sin sinfulness
Wormwood - 1: ἄψινθος (Strong's #894 — Noun Feminine — apsinthos — ap'-sin-thos ) (Eng. , "absinthe"), a plant both bitter and deleterious, and growing in desolate places, figuratively suggestive of "calamity" (Lamentations 3:15 ) and injustice (Amos 5:7 ), is used in Revelation 8:11 (twice; in the 1st part as a proper name)
Revive - ...
2: ἀναζάω (Strong's #326 — Verb — anazao — an-ad-zah'-o ) "to live again" (ana, "and" zao, "to live"), "to regain life," is used of moral "revival," Luke 15:24 , "is alive again;" (b) of sin, Romans 7:9 , "revived," lit. , it sprang into activity, manifesting the evil inherent in it; here sin is personified, by way of contrast to the man himself
Drunk - The sin of drunkenness is frequently and strongly condemned (Romans 13:13 ; 1 Corinthians 6:9,10 ; Ephesians 5:18 ; 1 Thessalonians 5:7,8 ). The sin of drinking to excess seems to have been not uncommon among the Israelites
Offense - Here offense approximates crime (Deuteronomy 19:15 ; Deuteronomy 22:26 ), guilt (Hosea 5:15 ), trespass (Romans 5:15 ,Romans 5:15,5:17-18 ,Romans 5:17-18,5:20 ), or sin (2 Corinthians 11:7 ). This hindrance is often temptation to sin (Matthew 18:7 ; Luke 17:1 )
Eternal Life - Though we are still in mortal bodies and we still sin, by faith we are saved (Romans 4:5; Ephesians 2:8-9) and possess eternal life as a free gift from God (Romans 6:23). We will no longer sin
Sacrifice - Whether it was first enjoined by an external command, or whether it was based on that sense of sin and lost communion with God which is stamped by his hand on the heart of man, is a historical question which cannot be determined. (Job 42:8 ) we for the first time find the expression of the desire of expiation for sin. (c) The sin offering ; the trespass offering: Expiatory. First came the sin offering, to prepare access to God; next the burnt offering, to mark their dedication to his service; and third the meat offering of thanksgiving. (Numbers 15:20,21 ; 26:1-11) (c) sin offerings . 1, sin offering each new moon ( Numbers 28:15 ) 2, sin offerings at the passover, Pentecost, Feast of Trumpets and Tabernacles, (Numbers 28:22,30 ; 29:5,16,19,22,25,28,31,34,38 ) 3, The offering of the two goats for the people and of the bullock for the priest himself, on the Great Day of Atonement. it is clear that the sin offering occupies the most important: place; the burnt offering comes next, and the meat offering or peace offering last of all. Yet, in actual order of time it has been seen that the patriarchal sacrifices partook much more of the nature of the peace offering and burnt offering, and that under the raw, by which was "the knowledge of sin," (Romans 3:20 ) the sin offering was for the first time explicitly set forth. From the prophets and the Epistle to the Hebrews we learn that the sin offering represented that covenant as broken by man, and as knit together again, by God's appointment through the shedding of the blood, the symbol of life, signified that the death of the offender was deserved for sin, but that the death of the victim was accepted for his death by the ordinance of God's mercy. Beyond all doubt the sin offering distinctly witnessed that sin existed in man. that the "wages of that sin was death," and that God had provided an atonement by the vicarious suffering of an appointed victim. " The material sacrifices represented this great atonement as already made and accepted in God's foreknowledge; and to those who grasped the ideas of sin, pardon and self-dedication symbolized in them, they were means of entering into the blessings which the one true sacrifice alone procured. They could convey nothing in themselves yet as types they might, if accepted by a true though necessarily imperfect faith be means of conveying in some degree the blessings of the antitype. On the one hand it is set forth distinctly as a vicarious sacrifice, which was rendered necessary by the sin of man and in which the Lord "bare the sins of many. Now, this view of the atonement is set forth in the epistle as typified by the sin offering. On the other hand the sacrifice of Christ is set forth to us as the completion of that perfect obedience to the will of the Father which is the natural duty of sinless man. As without the sin offering of the cross this our burnt offering would be impossible, so also without the burnt offering the sin offering will to us be unavailing
Fly - The sun god in Egypt was represented in the form of a beetle; thus their sin would be made their instrument of punishment. "flies" small in appearance, answer to "a little folly" (sin); "the ointment" of the perfumer answers to the man's "repudiation for wisdom and honor" (Ecclesiastes 7:1; Genesis 34:30). A little sin, if unchecked, will undermine the whole character (1 Corinthians 5:6; Galatians 5:9). Beelzebub, the parent of sin, is (as the name means) "the prince of flies
Quarantines - The indulgence of quarantines means the remission of so much temporal punishment due to sin, as would equal 40 days of such rigorous penance
Hypocrisy: a Fall Fatal - ' When those who once flashed before the eyes of the religious public with the blaze of a vain profession, fall into open and scandalous sin, it is impossible to renew their glory
Sin, Original - Man has derived an evil nature from Adam, but his sins are his own. Death passed upon all men because of Adam's sin, but all have sinned
Winterhouse - Amos spoke of the destruction of the winterhouse because of Israel's sin against God (Jeremiah 3:15 )
Lasciviousness - Other translations used a variety of terms: debauchery; indecency; lewdness; sexual sin
North - Let us remember that Satan endeavored to occupy GOD's throne, and that was his great sin
Issachar - Genesis 49:14 (c) He is a type of the Lord JESUS bearing GOD's burden for man and man's burden for sin, thus making it possible for man to rest
Contrite - Hence, broken-hearted for sin deeply affected with grief and sorrow for having offended God humble penitent as a contrite sinner
Transgress - ) To offend against the law; to sin
Absolution, General - Given simultaneously without a confession of sin, where such confession is practically impossible, for instance, in the case of soldiers about to advance under fire, or in case of sudden disaster; there remains, however, an obligation on the part of the persons so absolved to mention their sins when they next make confession
General Absolution - Given simultaneously without a confession of sin, where such confession is practically impossible, for instance, in the case of soldiers about to advance under fire, or in case of sudden disaster; there remains, however, an obligation on the part of the persons so absolved to mention their sins when they next make confession
Scorner - A scoffer a derider in Scripture, one who scoffs at religion, its ordinances and teachers, and who makes a mock of sin and the judgments and threatenings of God against sinners
Suffering - Before they brought sin into their world, human beings were was in a state of harmony with God and with the natural world, and as a result were free of pain and suffering. But when they sinned, this state of harmony was ruined. ...
Unanswered questions...
It is therefore true to say that there is suffering in the world because there is sin in the world. It is not true to say, however, that the personal suffering of any one person is the direct result of that person’s sin. ...
If suffering is not a measure of a person’s sin, freedom from suffering is not a measure of a person’s righteousness (Ecclesiastes 8:14; Luke 13:1-5; 1 Peter 2:19). ...
Satan takes pleasure in causing people to suffer (Luke 13:16; 2 Corinthians 12:7), but he can do his cruel work only to the extent God allows (Job 1:8-12; Job 2:1-8). Therefore, he too experienced the suffering that is in the world through sin, even though he himself never sinned. Through his experiences he learnt the full meaning of obedience to God in a world of sin and suffering (Hebrews 2:10; Hebrews 5:8). ...
Yet Jesus suffered not only because of the sins of others; he suffered to take away the sins of others. He was so identified with his fellow human beings that God’s judgment on sinful people fell upon him. His death was not an accident, but the divinely ordered way of dealing with sin. In suffering for sin, Christ bore God’s punishment on sin and so made it possible for people to be cleansed from sin and brought back to God (Isaiah 53:4-5; Isaiah 53:10; Matthew 8:17; Mark 8:31; Hebrews 2:9; Hebrews 13:12; 1 Peter 1:12; 1 Peter 2:21-24; 1 Peter 3:18). The sufferings of Christ, as well as bringing cleansing from sin, enable him to understand and help others who suffer (Hebrews 4:15-16)
Filthiness - Corruption pollution defilement by sin impurity
Salvation - Means the safety or preservation of any thing that has been or is in danger; but it is more particularly used by us to denote our deliverance from sin and hell, and the final enjoyment of God in a future state, through the mediation of Jesus Christ
Flacians - He taught that original sin is the very substance of human nature; and that the fall of man was an event which extinguished in the human mind every virtuous tendency, every noble faculty, and left nothing behind it but universal darkness and corruption
Folly - ) Scandalous crime; sin; specifically, as applied to a woman, wantonness
Original Sin - This is a term used to describe the effect of Adam's sin on his descendants (Romans 5:12-21). Specifically, it is our inheritance of a sinful nature from Adam. The sinful nature originated with Adam and is passed down from parent to child
Mennonite - They believe that the New Testament is the only rule of faith, that there is no original sin, that infants should not be baptized, and that Christians ought not to take oath, hold office, or render military service
Heifer - Red heifers were to be offered in sacrifice for the national sins, in the impressive manner described in Numbers 19:1-10 , illustrating the true sacrifice for sin in the person of Christ, Hebrews 9:13,14
Jonadab - Son of Shimeah and nephew of David: he subtly led his cousin Amnon into sin
Cord - The cords of sin are bad habits, or the consequences of sin. ...
The cords of vanity are worldly vanities and pleasures, profit or preferment or vain and deceitful arguments and pretenses, which draw men to sin
Baptism - It is well known that ablution or bathing was common in most ancient nations as a preparation for prayers and sacrifice or as expiatory of sin. Baptism signifies--
A confession of faith in Christ; ...
A cleansing or washing of the soul from sin; ...
A death to sin and a new life in righteousness
Inconsistency - I did see a man once trying to walk on both sides of the street at one time, but he was undoubtedly drunk; and when we see a man labouring day by day to walk on both sides of the street, morally: in the shady side of sin and the sunny side of holiness, or reeling in the evening, at one time towards the bright lights of virtue, and anon staggering back to sin in dark places, where no lamp is shining: we say of him, 'He is morally intoxicated,' and wisdom adds, 'He is mad, and if the Great Physician heal him not, his madness will bring him to destruction
Drink, Strong - The Speaker's Commentary explains the proverbial phrase, Deuteronomy 29:19, "so that the soul that is drunken with sin carry away that which thirsts for sin
Atonement - And Moses said to Aaron, go to the altar, and offer thy sin-offering, and thy burnt-offering, and make an atonement for thyself and for the people. In theology, the expiation of sin made by the obedience and personal sufferings of Christ
Bernice - Acts 25:13, Acts 25:23; Acts 26:30 (c) This woman is surely a type of some pet sin which is nourished and protected in the life in order to keep a person from accepting JESUS CHRIST as his Lord and Saviour. She is a type of any besetting sin in the life which demands the love of the heart, and time, and affection which should be given to CHRIST
Adam - For their sin God expelled them from Paradise and they were condemned to pain and hardship in the outer world. In the New Testament Saint Paul alludes to Christ as the "last Adam," through whom all are saved, as in the first Adam all inherited the effect of his sin
Offend - (2) In Acts 25:8 , AV, hamartano, "to sin," is translated "have I offended;" see sin
Onan - From this man's sin arose the name of Onanism to that particular offence which he was guilty of, and for which the Lord slew him. Who shall say the numbers which since his days have fallen into it? And who shall calculate the army which by Onanism have hastened the termination of a life of sin, and hurried themselves into eternity! Into how many streams of evil, diffusing themselves into all the parts of our poor fallen nature, hath that one deadly poison the old serpent put into Adam manifested itself through all our passions! Blessed Lord Jesus! what, but for thy gracious recovery of our nature, could have saved the wretched race of Adam from the wrath to come
Suffering (2) - Concerning the distressing events in the Master’s life, the NT gives us warrant for holding to several conclusions. We misinterpret the meaning of Christ’s entrance into humanity, if we limit His tribulations merely to the agony of the Passion. His emptying of Himself (Philippians 2:7) to become the humble partner of humanity in its struggle against sin and for holiness, was itself the acme of suffering. With His Divine sensitiveness to selfishness and disobedience and hard-heartedness and unresponsiveness and sin, how poignant must have been the griefs which His sinless soul endured! For this ‘man of sorrows, acquainted with grief’ (Isaiah 53:3), every day must have been one of crucifixion. Against Him who came to destroy sin was displayed all the violence of which evil was capable. Only as He was willing to endure whatever human experiences might come to Him could He reveal the Father and help to turn men to righteousness, by showing them the enormity of sin (Hebrews 13:12). Against Him were displayed the fearful extremes to which sin would go in its effort to overcome good. But by this high discipline was His own spirit cultured (Hebrews 5:8); and through His heroic, victorious endurance of sin-imposed suffering did He become our High Priest, able to succour those who are tempted (Hebrews 2:17-18, Hebrews 4:15)
Guilt - It would seem to be easy to distinguish between this subjective sense of debt, which may be fed by groundless fears, and the objective guilt of sinners before God, with which the Bible is concerned. The Bible is alive to the psychological effects of guilt, as can be seen, for instance, in characters like Jephthah and David: Jephthah in his horrifying violence against fellow Israelites after his daughter's death, and David in his supine attitude toward the sins of his sons. The difference between "guilt" and "sin" is important here. Whereas the words for "sin" focus on its quality as an act or as personal failure, asam [ Genesis 26:10)— ;the kind of asam [ Genesis 20:14-16 ), even though God prevented him from actually committing sin (Genesis 20:6 ). And then, in addition, a "guilt offering" must be made to the Lord, because when we sin against others and incur "indebtedness" to them, we violate the order that God prescribes for his world and his people, and have thus incurred a debt toward him also. ...
Stephen Motyer...
See also Forgiveness ; sin ...
Bibliography . , Counseling and the Human Predicament: A Study of sin, Guilt, and Forgiveness ; M
Humanity - ” The pages of Scripture depict a great variety of human actions and attitudes, thoughts and feelings, sins an successes. The biblical term “body” often denotes not simply the individual's physical substance, but a channel through which, or a way in which, one gives oneself over to sin (Romans 6:12 ), to God (Romans 12:1 ; 1Corinthians 6:13,1Corinthians 6:17,1 Corinthians 6:19 ) or to other persons (1Corinthians 6:15-16,1 Corinthians 6:18 ). ...
Humanity under sin Theologians often seek to determine sin's essence through careful analysis of Genesis 3:1 . From this episode alone, sin can appear simply as the transgression of a divine command. However, the lengthy and varied narratives concerning Israel and Jesus yield fuller insight into sin. In the Old Testament, sin indeed involves breaking the commands of God's covenant. Therefore, just as humans are not isolated individuals, so sin is not simply individual transgression. sin is participation in attitudes, social behaviors, and religious commitments opposed to God. Just as humanity's image is manifested most fully in Jesus, so sin was revealed most clearly in the opposition to Him. Individuals were involved by supporting, or by refusing to oppose, these collective forces. ...
In brief, just as God designed humans, made in His image, for positive relationships with others and with creation, rooted in dependence upon Him; so human sin is participation in distorted social and ecological relationships, rooted in commitments to other values and powers. Through its many stories of people turning from God, Scripture insists that strong divine influence is needed to counteract sin; but Scripture may not provide a precise answer to the other side of the issue—humanity's ability to turn to God. ...
Just as sin involves participation in perverted social and religious relationships, so fulfillment of human potential involves participation in healthy ones. since our “bodies” are channels which relate us to creation, to others, and to God, so participation in Christ's body is the primary means by which health is restored. See Image of God ; Body ; Soul ; Spirit ; Creation ; sin ; Freedom ; Spirit ; Church ; Body of Christ
Unpardonable Sin - UNPARDONABLE sin. And then, suddenly changing His tone as He passed from the logical weakness of His adversaries to lay His finger on their moral and spiritual fault, He uttered those memorable words in which He declared that while all other sins and blasphemies, even blasphemy against Himself, shall be forgiven, whosoever shall blaspheme against the Holy Spirit shall never be forgiven (Luke 11:15 Mark 3:28-29; cf. ...
(2) The nature of the sin. at once disposes of some of the views that have been entertained as to the nature of the sin against the Holy Spirit—all those, e. But this was not the aspect of the sin upon which Jesus fastened. Their blasphemy thus was not the hasty utterance of a moment, but a vice of their indwelling thoughts and character (Matthew 12:25); not a single act, but a habitual attitude. For there we find Him saying of the man who blasphemes against the Holy Spirit that he ‘hath never forgiveness, but is guilty of an eternal sin’ (Mark 3:29 Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ). And when there is added, ἀλλὰ ἔνοχός ἐστιν αἰωνίου ἀμαρτήματος, it seems hardly possible to escape from the conclusion that blasphemy against the Holy Spirit is here described as a sin for which there is no remedy. And if we give to αἰώνιος the meaning it regularly has on the lips of Jesus, ‘an eternal sin’ appears to mean a sin that eternally persists, a sin that has so engrained itself in the character as to become fixed in the form of destiny. See, further, Eternal sin. It lies in the very nature of the sin as just described. The sin is unpardonable because the sinner has no desire for pardon; it ‘hath never forgiveness’ because it is not repented of. God’s ‘sov’reign vital lamp’ still shines about them, but they can no more see it, since they have extinguished their own power of seeing. Eternal darkness is the necessary consequence of eternal sin. ’ In Hebrews 10:26-31 he declares that there is no more sacrifice for sins in the case of those who sin wilfully and persistently after they have received the knowledge of the truth. It is impossible to suppose that he means that a Christian cannot be forgiven if he falls into sin, however grievous, or that Jesus is unable to save men to the uttermost (cf. In the second passage certainly, and presumably in the first also, he is speaking of a deliberate repudiation of Christ on the part of those who have tasted His blessings. Thus we have here again, though now in the case, not of Pharisees, but of members of the Christian Church, a manifestation of the same kind of sin as before. * [3] In 1 John 5:16 the writer distinguishes between ‘a sin unto death’ and ‘a sin that is not unto death’; and while urging Christians to pray for one another with respect to the latter, says that he does not bid them make request to God concerning the former. ||, but in itself the passage adds nothing to our knowledge of unpardonable sin. (1) Bunyan at a certain period of his religious history (see Grace Abounding, §§ 96–230) is a type of multitudes who have suffered agonies of spiritual torture through the fear that they have committed a sin for which there is no forgiveness. But if the view taken above is the right one, there is no specific act of blasphemy in word or deed, standing by itself, that we are entitled to think of as ‘the unpardonable sin. Such compunctions as Bunyan had are the very best proof that a man has not committed any unpardonable sin, for they are the experiences of one who, though he has not yet realized the all sufficiency of Christ’s grace, is possessed at least of that contrite spirit which trembles at God’s word, and so may rest upon the prophet’s assurance that unto him the Lord will look (Is 66:2). ...
(2) But if anxious and fearful souls need to be reminded that blasphemy against the Holy Spirit is not some mysterious sin into which a man may fall against all the promptings of his better nature, the case of the Pharisees and Jesus conveys to all a message of serious warning. No one can stumble suddenly into irremediable sin; but men may drift into it after the fashion of the Pharisees. ’ The special monition of the incident in the Gospels is against that loss of vision which comes from the hardening power of sin, that continual resistance of the Spirit which leads at last to hatred of the Spirit. § 163), may not himself have been guilty of unpardonable sin (cf. 128); but there is deep significance for all in his solemn sentence, ‘Man knows the beginning of sin, but who bounds the issues thereof?’ See, further, artt. of sin, ii
Blame - ) That which is deserving of censure or disapprobation; culpability; fault; crime; sin
Defilement - It covers a variety of meanings, such as, to render legally unclean by contact with unclean things and by eating forbidden foods; to profane holy beings and objects; to pollute sexually through adultery; to taint with sin; to soil physically as with filth, etc
Legal Interest - Excessive interest is a sin against justice, unlawful, and illegal
Interest, Legal - Excessive interest is a sin against justice, unlawful, and illegal
Revive - ’ We thus see the force of Romans 7:9 ‘When the commandment came, sin revived, and I died
Day of Atonement - The 19th day of the 7th Jewish month, Tishri (September - October), a day of solemn fast, when, in ancient times, two buck goats were brought to the high priest, who sacrificed one of them for sin, while the other, the scapegoat, was thereafter led forth into the wilderness to carry away all the iniquities of the people
Impenitence - The negation or rather privation of repentance in a sinner. This negation may be simply a continuation and permanence in a state of sin, or it may be a deliberate resolution not to repent. A conscious, deliberate, and absolute impenitence implies special malice and is one of the sins against the Holy Ghost, unpardonable because not repented (Matthew 12)
Beth-Aven - But after Jeroboam, the son of Nebat, who made Israel to sin, set up his golden calves there, the pious among the Israelites called it Beth-aven; meaning, the house of iniquity; for it was no longer proper to call it Beth-el, the house of God
Pigeon - They were afterwards enumerated among the sin-offerings (Leviticus 1:14 ; 12:6 ), and the law provided that those who could not offer a lamb might offer two young pigeons (5:7; Compare Luke 2:24 )
Folly - ...
See EVIL, sin
Bunni - ” Levite leader of worship service confessing Israel's sin in days of Ezra (Nehemiah 9:4 )
Malignity - Extreme sinfulness enormity or heinousness as the malignity of sin
Hail, Thou Who Man's Redeemer Art - ...
To bear our load of sin and shame...
For guiltless, Thou Thy life didst give,...
That sinful erring man might live
Atonement, Day of - The 19th day of the 7th Jewish month, Tishri (September - October), a day of solemn fast, when, in ancient times, two buck goats were brought to the high priest, who sacrificed one of them for sin, while the other, the scapegoat, was thereafter led forth into the wilderness to carry away all the iniquities of the people
Donatism - In other words, if a minister who was involved in a serious enough sin were to baptize a person, that baptism would be considered invalid
Just, Justice - God is merciful but He is also just (Deuteronomy 32:4 - righteous) and must punish sin
Rulers of the World of This Darkness - As a consequence of original sin the world had been given over to the "world-rulers of this darkness," but by the redeeming death of Christ it was bought back to the kingdom of God and of light
Salutis Humanae Sator - ...
To bear our load of sin and shame...
For guiltless, Thou Thy life didst give,...
That sinful erring man might live
Sin (2) - SIN. —Sin is personal hostility to the will of God. To the consciousness of Jesus, Satan was present, not as a convenient personification of evil that became actual only in the individual wills of men, but as the author of sin, the person in whom evil has its spring, even as God is the fount of life. For the true unification between the normal and universal purpose of the gospel—the forgiveness of sins—and the occasional and particular accessories of it—exorcism and healing—lay not so much in the analogy between bodily disease and spiritual wickedness, as in the fact that both are the exercise of the one Satanic power within the usurped kingdom of evil. No doubt there is a certain suggestiveness in the parallel between disease and sin, which Jesus Himself recognized. It is trespasses which the Heavenly Father must do away, and that by forgiveness (Matthew 6:15); salvation from sins (Ephesians 1:5-10), i. Paul’s doctrine of sin in its completeness, it is necessary to go behind the Epistle to the Romans. If Messiah was to be manifested at the Parousia, Satan was also destined to be manifested in the Man of sin (2 Thessalonians 2:3-11). The same passage describes those who become sons of God as by nature children of wrath (Ephesians 2:3), dead not in sin but through trespasses (Ephesians 2:5), sons of disobedience because inwrought by this evil spirit (Ephesians 2:2). All this is in close correspondence with the mind of Jesus, and must be brought with us to a closer examination of the Pauline doctrine of sin. ...
That sin is essentially disloyalty to God is the substance of the locus classicus on the nature of sin, Romans 1:18-32 ‘Knowing God, they glorified him not as God, neither gave thanks’ (Romans 1:21). It will be observed, first, that the Apostle here speaks of sin in its widest signification, including such distinctions as are involved in the theological conceptions of original and actual. We have here, therefore, a definition of sin which must govern all subsequent uses of the term. All the elements which enter into particular sins, or transgressions of known law, are represented—knowledge of God and dependence upon Him (Romans 1:20), wilful and therefore inexcusable refusal of due homage (Romans 1:21), the incurring of guilt and consequently of God’s wrath (Ephesians 2:2). There is nothing abstract in this general view of sin, even though it be universal (cf. ‘all sinned,’ Romans 5:12; ‘all died,’ 2 Corinthians 5:14). Paul is led to disclose this ‘vision of sin’ as the necessary postulate of the gospel (Romans 1:16-18), in which is revealed a righteousness of God’ (Romans 1:17, Romans 3:21). Lastly, there is no confusion, as in the popular mind, between those physical excesses which are called vice, and the inward refusal ‘to have God in their knowledge’ (Romans 3:28), whether it applies to the sensuous or the spiritual nature of men, which alone is sin. Paul expresses his relation to sin in the phrase ‘sin dwelleth in me’ (Romans 7:17). The complete sinful condition would be one of consent (Romans 1:32, 2 Thessalonians 2:12), in which ‘the law of sin’ was unchecked by ‘the law of the mind’ (Romans 7:23, Galatians 5:17). Paul’s theology involves the personality of the lawgiver, so that to find this ‘law in the members’ (Romans 7:23), to be inwrought by sin, seems to point to an indwelling spiritual presence. Christians are not to let sin reign in their mortal bodies (Revelation 7:2-36). There is a close parallel between those who, as alive in Christ Jesus, are servants of God, and those who being dead in trespasses serve sin (Romans 6:15-23). So, when under the form of ‘Adam’s transgression,’ sin is considered in its universal aspect (Romans 5:14), a personal sovereignty is again suggested—‘death,’ i. sin in its consequent development, ‘reigned through the one’ (Romans 5:17). Paul’s general outlook on the spiritual world, can be none other than Satan, exercising, as captain of ‘spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly places’ (Ephesians 6:12), not an external compulsion but an inward influence, not therefore impairing the responsible personalities that are indwelt. Paul can say, ‘Death passed unto all men, for that all sinned (Romans 5:12). sin is always a personal attitude, never a pathological condition. ), which represents not a process of renewal, but an amnesty extended to the sinner. Its effect, therefore, is not an infused righteousness, but a free pardon whereby sins are no longer reckoned (Romans 4:7-8, 2 Corinthians 5:19). James, though he speaks of sin as the intermediate stage between lust and death (James 1:15), yet by the very figure used to describe their relationship, clearly recognizes that all three are essentially the same in kind. Lust is not animal impulse but undeveloped sin. The sinner is one who has committed sins (James 5:15), which may be covered by repentance (James 5:20) and forgiven in answer to prayer (James 5:15). sins, therefore, are personal transgressions against God, which, if unremitted, involve judgment (James 5:12), a personal condemnation and sentence on the part of the Judge (James 4:12, James 5:9). It has the nature of sin, being not a result of ignorance, but essentially a personal determination of will. sin is part of a man’s activity, a vain manner of life from which we are redeemed by the blood of Him who bore our sins, i. John, with his profounder insight, gives to the doctrine of sin what is perhaps the widest and most comprehensive sweep in the NT. ‘Sin is lawlessness’ (1 John 3:4). It recognizes no distinction in kind between ‘sin’ and ‘sins,’ which are practically interchangeable in the Johannine writings. If the Lamb of God ‘taketh away the sin of the world’ (John 1:29, Vulgate peccata mundi), the Son is manifested ‘to take away sins’ (1 John 3:5). If the blood cleanseth from all sin (1 John 1:7), Jesus Christ is the propitiation for our sins (1 John 2:2). The cleansing is sacrificial (ἱλασμός), implying personal dealings with God. It is therefore forgiveness of sins which those for whom it is prevalent receive (1 John 1:9, 1 John 2:12). St John does not speak of sin as a state. Doing sin is opposed to doing righteousness (1 John 3:4; 1 John 3:7-8). ‘In him is no sin’ (1 John 3:5) is equivalent to ‘Which of you convicteth me of sin?’ (John 8:46, cf. The Fourth Gospel has recorded the prayer of Christ for His disciples, not that they should be taken from the world, but that they might be kept from the Evil One (John 17:15); and also His condemnation of the Jews because, continuing in the bondage of sin, it was their will to do the lusts not of their body, but of their father the devil (John 8:44). And the Apocalypse unfolds the mystery of iniquity in language fully accordant with the view of sin implied in the Gospel. Behind human history is the devil, ‘who sinneth from the beginning’ (1 John 3:8). The explanation of human sin, therefore, is the relation of the world to this spirit
Sanballat - ]'>[1] sin-ballit = ‘Sin, save the life’)
Mire - ...
Jeremiah 38:22 (b) This is a type of the great difficulties into which Israel was plunged because of her iniquity and sin. The pig represents an unsaved person who has cleaned up his life, perhaps has joined the church, and then has turned back into living his own way and enjoys the pleasures of sin
Impute, Imputation - To reckon to someone the blessing, curse, debt, etc. Adam's sin is imputed to all people (Romans 5:12-21), therefore, we are all guilty before God. Our sins were put upon, imputed, to Jesus on the cross where He became sin on our behalf (2 Corinthians 5:21) and died with them (Isaiah 53:4-6). Therefore, our sins are forgiven. Our sins were put upon, imputed, to Jesus on the cross. Our sins were "given" to Jesus. When He died on the cross, our sins, in a sense, died with Him. In short, our sins were given to Jesus. Technically speaking our sins were imputed to Jesus
Washing - '" To neglect to do this had come to be regarded as a great sin, a sin equal to the breach of any of the ten commandments
Innocency - In a moral sense, freedom from crime, sin or guilt untainted purity of heart and life unimpaired integrity. Freedom from the guilt of a particular sin or crime
Malefactor - But without this detachment of the passage, we include him as a third, "who did no sin, neither was guile found in his mouth. " Jesus indeed became sin and a curse for us, but when he did it, he was in the same moment "holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from sinners, and made higher than the heavens
Pelagianism - He taught that man's will was and still is free to choose good or evil and there is no inherited sin (through Adam). Every infant born into the world is in the same condition as Adam before the fall and becomes a sinner because he sins. This is opposed to the Biblical teaching that we are by nature children of wrath (Ephesians 2:3) and that we sin because we are sinners
Extreme Unction - Its minister is a priest; the recipient must be illfrom sickness, and in a state of grace, though from its secondary end it can also act as a sacrament of the dead and remit mortal sin. Its purpose is to heal the soul and wipe out the remains of sin and thus prepare it for entrance into glory
Abigail - I have often admired the sweet and gracious conclusion, which David made, on occasion of the sin-preventing providence, the Lord accomplished on the patriarch's mind, through the instrumentality of this woman. He saw the hand of the Lord in the appointment; and, first, he blessed God; and next, he blessed her advice; and next, he blessed her: for all come in for a blessing, since the Lord had wrought deliverance by such means from sin
Conceive - Luke 2:21 ; (b) metaphorically, of the impulse of lust in the human heart, enticing to sin, James 1:15 . ...
3: τίθημι (Strong's #5087 — Verb — tithemi — tith'-ay-mee ) "to put, set," is used in Acts 5:4 , of the sin of Ananias, in "conceiving" a lie in his heart
Unction, Extreme - Its minister is a priest; the recipient must be illfrom sickness, and in a state of grace, though from its secondary end it can also act as a sacrament of the dead and remit mortal sin. Its purpose is to heal the soul and wipe out the remains of sin and thus prepare it for entrance into glory
Working - , "energy") is used (1) of the "power" of God, (a) in the resurrection of Christ, Ephesians 1:19 ; Colossians 2:12 , RV, "working" (AV, "operation"); (b) in the call and enduement of Paul, Ephesians 3:7 ; Colossians 1:29 ; (c) in His retributive dealings in sending "a working of error" (AV, "strong delusion") upon those under the rule of the Man of sin who receive not the love of the truth, but have pleasure in unrighteousness, 2 Thessalonians 2:11 ; (2) of the "power" of Christ (a) generally, Philippians 3:21 ; (b) in the church, individually, Ephesians 4:16 ; (3) of the power of Satan in energizing the Man of sin in his "parousia," 2 Thessalonians 2:9 , "coming
Serpent - The brazen "serpent" lifted up by Moses was symbolical of the means of salvation provided by God, in Christ and His vicarious death under the Divine judgment upon sin, John 3:14 . While the living "serpent" symbolizes sin in its origin, hatefulness, and deadly effect, the brazen "serpent" symbolized the bearing away of the curse and the judgement of sin; the metal was itself figurative of the righteousness of God's judgment
Fault, Faultless - (3) For paraptoma, "a false step, a trespass," translated "fault" in Galatians 6:1 , AV, and "faults" in James 5:16 , AV, see sin , A, No. ...
Note: In 1 Peter 2:20 , AV, the verb hamartano, "to sin" (strictly, to miss the mark) is rendered "for your faults. " The RV corrects to "when ye sin (and are buffeted for it)
Baptism - (Greek: baptizo, wash or immerse) ...
The act of immersing or washing. " The Sacrament of Baptism is absolutely necessary for salvation, because all are subject to original sin: wherefore Christ's words to Nicodemus, "Unless a man be born again of water and the Holy Ghost, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God" (John 3). The chief effects of this sacrament are: ...
the impression of a character or seal by which we are incorporated with Christ (Galatians 3; 1 Corinthians 6); ...
regeneration and remission of original sin (and actual if necessary), as well as punishment due to sin, and infusion of sanctifying grace (with its gifts). Baptism of desire (flaminis) and of blood (sanguinis) are called such analogically, in that they supply the remission of sin and the regenerative grace, but not the character; the former presupposes perfect charity or love of God (therefore implicitly the desire for the sacrament), while the latter is simply martyrdom for the sake of Christ or His Church
Hypocrisy: of no Service - Coals of fire cannot be concealed beneath the most sumptuous apparel, they-will betray themselves with smoke and flame; nor can darling sins be long hidden beneath the most ostentatious profession, they will sooner or later discover themselves, and burn sad holes in the man's reputation. sin needs quenching in the Saviour's blood, not concealing under the garb of religion
Evils (Little): Making Way For Greater - May we not here see a representation of those minor departures from the truth which prepare the minds of men for grievous errors, and of those thoughts of sin which open a way for the worst of crimes! Beware, then, of Satan's gimblet
Salvation - In the New Testament it is specially used with reference to the great deliverance from the guilt and the pollution of sin wrought out by Jesus Christ, "the great salvation" (Hebrews 2:3 )
Punishment - blots out the attribute of retributive justice; transmutes sin into misfortune instead of guilt; turns all suffering into chastisement; converts the piacular work of Christ into moral influence
Baal-Peor - The guilty Israelites were severely punished for this transgression, and the incident became a paradigm of sin and divine judgment for later generations of Israelites (Deuteronomy 4:3 ; Psalm 106:28 ; Hosea 9:10 )
Penance - ) A means of repairing a sin committed, and obtaining pardon for it, consisting partly in the performance of expiatory rites, partly in voluntary submission to a punishment corresponding to the transgression
Bondage - In scripture, spiritual subjection to sin and corrupt passions, or to the yoke of the ceremonial law servile fear
Hole - Isaiah 51:1 (a) Evidently this picture represents the depths of sin, evil and wickedness into which a human being may descend
Cane, Sweet - ' God lamented that Israel did not buy any sweet cane for Him, Isaiah 43:24 ; and when they did bring it from afar, it was no longer sweet to Him because of their waywardness and sin
Criminal - ) Guilty of crime or sin
Atonement - Specifically, in theology: The expiation of sin made by the obedience, personal suffering, and death of Christ
Joy - Nehemiah 8:10 (c) This is symbolical of the great satisfaction in the heart of our Lord over the victory made possible by His provision for sin and for the sinner
Impeccability - The state of a person who cannot sin; or a grace, privilege, or principle, which puts him out of a possibility of sinning
Beth-Aven - It seems to be reproachfully used at times for Bethel itself, after the golden calves were there set up, Hosea 4:15 ; 10:5 : Beth-el meaning the house of God; and Beth-aven, the house of sin, or of an idol
Pascal - By dating the crucifixion on the day of preparation for the Passover, John suggested the same image of Christ as the paschal lamb who takes away the sin of the world ( John 19:14 ; compare John 1:29 )
Wages - Eternal death is the wages or just recompense of sin; while eternal life is not a recompense earned by obedience, but a sovereign gift of God, Romans 6:22-23
Wickedness - Departure from the rules of the divine law evil disposition or practices immorality crime sin sinfulness corrupt manners Wickedness generally signifies evil practices
Camel - 1: κάμηλος (Strong's #2574 — Noun — kamelos — kam'-ay-los ) from a Hebrew word signifying "a bearer, carrier," is used in proverbs to indicate (a) "something almost or altogether impossible," Matthew 19:24 , and parallel passages, (b) "the acts of a person who is careful not to sin in trivial details, but pays no heed to more important matters," Matthew 23:24
Statute - For Israel, everything required by the covenant was a matter of life and blessing, if properly observed, or of death and cursing, if ignored or forsaken. Any failure to obey a statute, ordinance, or judgment of the law was a sin. The statutes related to sacrifices for the unwitting sin are a good example of case law. If someone was guilty of an unwitting sin, the sinner performed the sacrifice when he learned of his sin (Leviticus 4 ). When an Israelite sinned against another human being, he also sinned against the community and Yahweh. ...
A theological problem that continues to haunt us today is taking the promise of God's blessing for observance of all the statutes as an almost magical formula. If one is ill or oppressed or poor, one is under God's curse and needs to repent of sin or lack of faith
Repentance - In theology it signifies that sorrow for sin which produces newness of life. Another word also is used which signifies anxiety or uneasiness upon the consideration of what is done. A national repentance, such as the Jews in Babylon were called unto; to which temporal blessings were promised, Ezekiel 18:1-32 ; Ezekiel 19:1-14 ; Ezekiel 20:1-49 ; Ezekiel 21:1-32 ; Ezekiel 22:1-31 ; Ezekiel 23:1-49 ; Ezekiel 24:1-27 ; Ezekiel 25:1-17 ; Ezekiel 26:1-21 ; Ezekiel 27:1-36 ; Ezekiel 28:1-26 ; Ezekiel 29:1-21 ; Ezekiel 30:1-26 ; Ezekiel 31:1-18 ; Ezekiel 32:1-30 . An External repentance, or an outward humiliation for sin, as in the case of Ahab. A legal repentance, which is a mere work of the law, and the effect of convictions of sin by it which in time wear off, and come to nothing. an evangelical repentance, which consists in conviction of sin; sorrow for it; confession of it; hatred to it; and renunciation of it. A legal repentance flows only from a sense of danger and fear of wrath; but an evangelical repentance is a true mourning for sin, and an earnest desire of deliverance from it. The subjects of it are sinners, since none but those who have sinned can repent. The blessings connected with repentance are, pardon, peace, and everlasting life, Acts 11:18 . The necessity of repentance appears evident from the evil of sin; the misery it involves us in here; the commands given us to repent in God's word; the promises made to the penitent; and the absolute incapability of enjoying God here or hereafter without it
Adam And Eve - They introduced sin into human experience. In 1 Timothy 2:11-15 , women are urged to be silent and subjected to man because Adam was created before Eve and because Eve was deceived into sinning. ...
Adam and Eve introduced sin into human experience. The first record of sinful rebellion in the Bible is found in the narrative of the first persons (Genesis 3:1-13 ). ...
The consequences of Adam and Eve's sin fell not merely upon them but upon the earth as well (Genesis 3:14-19 ). The consequences of sin had lasting influence far beyond the two individuals. Further, following their sin, Adam and Eve hid from God; God did not hide from them (Genesis 3:8-9 ). However, this was also an act of God's mercy, for it kept humanity from living forever in a sinful state. See Jesus; sin ; Judgement; Wrath; Mercy
Expiation, Propitiation - Both words are related to reconciliation, since it is through Christ's death on the cross for our sins that we are reconciled to a God of holy love (Romans 5:9-11 ; 2 Corinthians 5:18-21 ; Colossians 1:19-23 ). A look at various translations show the distinctions here: “propitiation” (KJV, NAS); “expiation” (RSV); “atoning sacrifice for our sins” (NIV, NRSV, compare REB); “means by which our sins are forgiven” (TEV). In the Septuagint, the earliest Greek translation of the Old Testament, hilasmos appears in Leviticus 25:9 in the expression, “day of atonement”; in Psalm 130:4 to confess that there is “forgiveness” with God; in Numbers 5:8 in the expression the “ram of the atonement”; and in Ezekiel 44:27 as a “sin-offering. ...
Some scholars interpret these Old Testament references to mean that God has acted as the subject to cover and forgive sins. He has removed the uncleanness or defilement of sin. Other scholars see God as the object receiving the offering for sin which then in some sense pacifies His anger and meets His holy need for justice. In the New Testament setting, this would mean that on the cross Jesus either dealt with the evil nature of human sin and covered it so that God forgives it, or it means that Jesus satisfied God's holy anger and justice so that forgiven sinners could freely enter the presence of the holy God. Some scholars would see both ideas present in the word hilasmos , so that God in grace initiated the sacrifice of Jesus to provide covering and forgiveness for human sin but that He also received the sacrifice which satisfied His anger and justice. These included the burnt offering (Leviticus 1:3-17 ), the peace offering (Leviticus 3:1-17 ), the sin offering (Leviticus 4:1-5:13 ), and the guilt offering (Leviticus 5:15-6:6 ). None of these dealt with “defiant sins” (Numbers 15:20-31 ), only with “sin through ignorance” (Leviticus 4:2 ). The high point of the sacrificial cult was the annual day of atonement when the sins of the people were laid on a scapegoat by the high priest and the sin-laden animal was then driven into the wilderness to perish (Leviticus 16:1-34 ). The Old Testament repeats its promise that God remains gracious even in our sinning, that He stands ready to forgive even before we are ready to repent (Psalm 78:21-28 ; Psalm 89:28-34 ; 1635336367_86 ; Jeremiah 31:1-3 , Jeremiah 31:31-34 ; Hosea 6:1-2 ). God expects people both to repent of sin and to commit themselves to obey His covenant. This sacrifice is eternal, not provisional; it is sufficient to cover or expiate all human sin, not just specific sins (Hebrews 7:26-28 ; Hebrews 9:25-26 ). The cross of Calvary was God's eternal plan to deal with human sin so that John could describe Jesus as the “Lamb slain from the foundation of the world” (Revelation 13:8 ). His holiness means that sin cannot be condoned. His love signifies that the sinner can be accepted if the claims of divine holiness are recognized. He provided the sacrificial offering that expiates human sin and makes reconciliation possible. It is God who in the person of His Son swallows up evil within Himself through vicarious identification with the sin of His people. What human ritual offerings could not do, God has done once for all by giving up His Son for the sins of the whole human race
Guilt (2) - GUILT is the state of the sinner before God, whereby, becoming the object of God’s wrath, he incurs the debt and punishment of death. So closely are sin, Guilt, and Death connected, both in the OT and NT, that the terms are almost interchangeable, and can be adequately discussed only in relation to one another (see art. sin). It will suffice in the present article to show that the removal of guilt was the object of Christ’s death, and that the recognition of sin as guilt is in consequence a prominent, if not the primary feature of the teaching of the NT concerning sin. Baptism, though the symbolism of cleansing is employed, is ‘unto remission’ (Mark 1:4, Luke 3:3) rather than to the washing away of sins; remission being not a vital act by which sinners are made just, but a personal favour (Matthew 6:12, cf. Remission of sins was to be preached in His name among all the nations (Luke 24:47, cf. ...
It is the guilt rather than the infection of sin which appears in the teaching of Jesus. The analogy between disease and sin, which the miracles of healing suggest, might appear to show the contrary. But it is doubtful whether the transition from the sickness of the body to that of the soul would have presented itself to the Hebrew in this form, and not rather through the conception of suffering as the punishment of sin. His power to cure the body is the evidence, not of His power to heal the soul, but of His authority (ἐξουσία) to forgive sins (Mark 2:10). The importance of this aspect of sin is further marked by the requirement of human forgiveness as the condition because the pattern of Divine remission (Matthew 6:14; Matthew 6:16; Matthew 18:21-35). What, therefore, is removed is not, in the first instance, the subjective consequences, but an objective result of sin. If it be urged that Christ discharges the latter only in virtue of the fact that He destroys the former, as expressed in the words ‘it is he that shall save his people from their sins’ (Matthew 1:21, but cf. The unquenchable fire is not merely the automatic result of sin bringing forth death, but punishment inflicted by judicial sentence (Mark 9:43; Mark 9:48, Matthew 25:41). Blasphemy against the Holy Spirit, however it be interpreted, incurs condemnation as the unpardonable sin (Mark 3:28-29, Matthew 12:31-32). It is the personal relation, and therefore the guilt of sin, which appears in the parables of the Lost Sheep, etc. The joy of the angels is represented as arising out of the reconciliation between the Father and the penitent (Luke 15:10). John, dwelling, as it does, upon the gift of God as life, truth, and light, might seem on a superficial reading to obscure, if not to ignore, the view of sin as guilt. The commission of the risen Christ to His disciples is to forgive and retain sins (John 20:23; cf. It is the confession and forgiveness of sins which the First Epistle represents as effecting the cleansing from sin and unrighteousness through the sacrificial blood and heavenly intercession of our Advocate with the Father (Romans 5:9). The use of ἁνομία, ‘lawlessness,’ as a synonym for ἀμαρτία, ‘sin,’ implies the guilt of a broken law (1 John 3:4). In the Apocalypse, sin is set in relation to Him that sitteth on the throne (Revelation 4:2), incurring His wrath (Revelation 6:16), noted in His books (Revelation 20:12), and receiving His plagues (Revelation 15:1). Paul’s theory of guilt without entering upon the whole question of his view of sin. But a few considerations will make it clear that he looks at sin, in the first instance, as incurring guilt. All its essential features are recapitulated in each individual sin or transgression. It can only be separated from its actual manifestations by being represented, not as a predisposing cause of these, but as itself an act of disobedience on the part of Adam (Romans 5:19). The work of Christ is primarily an act of righteous obedience (Romans 5:18-19, Philippians 2:8), undoing the act of disobedience in which all sin is included; an offering for sin condemning sin in the flesh (Romans 8:3), and wiping off the score of trespasses (Colossians 2:14). For trespasses or transgressions are themselves sin, not merely its symptoms (Ephesians 2:1; Ephesians 2:5). ‘All have sinned’ (Romans 5:12), whether with or without an explicit publication of law. Without pressing the forensic metaphor to a point inconsistent with St. Paul’s thought, which would relegate the whole theology of guilt to a region of formal conceptions unchecked by experience, we are bound to remember that the Apostle is concerned with the probation of guilt assumed to exist, which is necessary before the sinner can throw himself upon the offer of free salvation secured to him through the gospel. Justification is not in itself a change of character, a transformation of life, but an alteration of status (Romans 5:1-2, Ephesians 2:13), a reversal of relations whereby the ‘servants of sin’ (Romans 6:17), ‘the children of wrath’ (Ephesians 2:3) become ‘children of grace,’ ‘sons of God’ (Romans 5:12-21). To be justified from sin is to have escaped—either by paying the penalty of death (Romans 6:7) or by believing in Christ Jesus (Romans 3:24-25)—from what in a figure is regarded as its claim or dominion over the life (Romans 6:12-14), involving an obedience or yielding of the members. This is entirely in harmony with the conception of sin, from which St. ...
We shall be saved from confusion with regard to the Pauline view of guilt, and the necessity of conforming the whole doctrine of sin to this primary idea, by considering what he means by ‘adoption’ and ‘grace. The Christian life depends, not upon the eradication of evil, but upon the forgiveness of sins (Ephesians 1:7), the clearing of the guilty on the part of a personal God in consequence of the personal satisfaction offered by Christ (Romans 3:21; Romans 3:28; Romans 5:8, cf. Hebrews 2:9-11; Hebrews 10:10; Hebrews 10:14; Hebrews 13:12) is, not indeed the formal consecration of the sinner, but the removal of the ‘weight’ of guilt (Hebrews 12:1), of which the fulness of faith (Hebrews 10:22) is the counterpart in spiritual experience. sin), and explicitly taught in the NT. In the famous passage Galatians 3:26 nothing is said of a transmitted tendency to sin, though it has been often supposed that this is implied. And guilt is implied in the remarkable sentence ‘all have sinned,’ which interprets the statement that ‘through one man sin entered. The OT bears abundant witness to the belief that the sins (plural) of the fathers are ‘visited’ upon the children (Exodus 20:5; Exodus 34:7), while at the same time the teaching of Ezekiel balances it by an emphatic vindication of the separate responsibility of each soul (Ezekiel 18:4; Ezekiel 18:20). But the Book of Wisdom (Wisdom of Solomon 2:24) represents death as entering the world through the envy of the devil, and Sirach (Sirach 25:24) declares that sin originated from a woman, and ‘because of her we all die. ’ The teaching of the Rabbis, however, differentiating the actual transgression of Adam from the potentiality of sin involved in his creation, expressly asserts that death was decreed against the generations of Adam. ) disallows original sin as part of the doctrine of the older Rabbis; for, in common with other writers, he acknowledges the frequent assertion of inherited guilt. Paul was familiar with this prevalent view hardly admits of doubt, or that he availed himself of it to interpret the relation of Jesus the Messiah to the whole human race, as giving the victory over sin, the wages of which is death (Romans 6:23), and the power of which is the outraged law (1 Corinthians 15:56). sin
Mammon - The term "mammon of iniquity" (Luke 16) is applied to riches because of their tendency to lead men into sin
Man of Sin - A designation of Antichrist given in 2 Thessalonians 2:3-10 , usually regarded as descriptive of the Papal power; but "in whomsoever these distinctive features are found, whoever wields temporal and spiritual power in any degree similar to that in which the man of sin is here described as wielding it, he, be he pope or potentate, is beyond all doubt a distinct type of Antichrist
Physician - The sin of Asa was not, therefore, in seeking medical advice, as we understand the phrase, but in forgetting Jehovah
Sin: One the Souls Ruin - One wound may kill the body; one sin destroy the soul
Boanerges - It would thus be a playful yet serious sobriquet, constantly reminding them of their besetting sin and warning them to overcome it
Platter - This outside is beautiful and clean, but inside he has not been cleansed from his pride and his sin
Penitent - ) Feeling pain or sorrow on account of sins or offenses; repentant; contrite; sincerely affected by a sense of guilt, and resolved on amendment of life. ) One who repents of sin; one sorrowful on account of his transgressions
Intercession - ...
He bore the sin of many, and made intercession ...
for the transgressors
Briers - It shows how abundant are the fruits of the curse pronounced in Eden because of the sin of man, but which will be removed in the millennium, when the myrtle, etc
Confirmation - In Catholicism, a ceremony performed by a bishop that is supposed to strengthen a person and enable him to resist sin
Redemption - We were redeemed from the power of sin and the curse of the Law (Galatians 3:13) through Jesus (Romans 3:24; Colossians 1:14)
Debt - ) A duty neglected or violated; a fault; a sin; a trespass
Sin - sin, Wilderness of (sĭn)
Wrath - Gods wrath, in Scripture, is his holy and just indignation against sin
Repent, Repentance - , "to perceive afterwards" (meta, "after," implying "change," noeo, "to perceive;" nous, "the mind, the seat of moral reflection"), in contrast to pronoeo, "to perceive beforehand," hence signifies "to change one's mind or purpose," always, in the NT, involving a change for the better, an amendment, and always, except in Luke 17:3,4 , of "repentance" from sin. 1, and is used of "repentance" from sin or evil, except in Hebrews 12:17 , where the word "repentance" seems to mean, not simply a change of Isaac's mind, but such a change as would reverse the effects of his own previous state of mind. As regards "repentance" from sin, (a) the requirement by God on man's part is set forth, e. ...
Note: In the OT, "repentance" with reference to sin is not so prominent as that change of mind or purpose, out of pity for those who have been affected by one's action, or in whom the results of the action have not fulfilled expectations, a "repentance" attributed both to God and to man, e. ...
In the NT the subject chiefly has reference to "repentance" from sin, and this change of mind involves both a turning from sin and a turning to God. , in the new birth, and, generally, in the active turning from sin to God by the exercise of faith (John 3:3 ; 9:38 ; 1 John 1:9 ), as in the NT in general
Accountability, Age of - What the Bible teaches about personal responsibility for sin and the nature of salvation compels us to define this concept. Basically, the age of accountability is that time in the development of a person when he or she can and invariably does sin against God and thus stands in the need of personal redemption through Jesus Christ. ...
Historically, some groups of Christians have believed that an infant is born with an immediate responsibility for sin. This view suggests that children inherit the guilt of the sins of those who have lived before them. Infant baptism has been the usual prescription for this innate sin. This position, however, misinterprets both the biblical doctrine of sin and the ordinance of baptism. sin is a willful act of rebellion against God on the part of an individual (Romans 3:9-18 ). At this point, one must be careful not to confuse bad behavior or early signs of willful actions on the part of children with sin. Such behavior does not necessarily indicate that a child has knowingly sinned. They must be aware they are sinners before God and be able to repent of that rebellious life-style. A child invariably sins (Romans 3:23 ) and stands in need of Christ. since children mature at different rates, some will be spiritually aware at a younger age
Reconciliation - Through sin the human race has made itself the enemy of God. Christ did this when he died on the cross; he bore sin on behalf of sinners. God’s holy wrath against sin was satisfied, but only at great cost to himself. God was in Christ, reconciling sinners to himself. Because of all he has done through Christ’s death, God can in his love accept repentant sinners back to himself (Romans 5:6-9; 2 Corinthians 5:18-19; 2 Corinthians 5:21; see PROPITIATION). ...
Once God has dealt with sin according to his standards of justice and holiness, he can reconcile guilty sinners. Reconciliation is God’s work; it is not something sinners themselves can accomplish. It is a peace that comes from God through Christ’s conquest of sin, and it enables believers to be confident and calm in a world still hostile to God (John 14:27; Romans 5:1; Romans 8:6; Romans 16:20; Philippians 4:7; Philippians 4:9; see PEACE)
Fear - (Job 41:33) The fear for the most part spoken of by the word of God, is what relates to our nature, of which there is a threefold description, natural fear, sinful fear and holy fear. since the fall of man, the whole race of Adam have known the effects both of natural and sinful fear; none but the regenerated are acquainted with what is known in Scripture by a religious, or holy fear. ...
Natural and slavish fear, arising from a conscious sense of sin, manifested itself immediately upon the fall, when Adam sought to hide himself from the presence of the Lord amidst the trees of the garden. (See Genesis 3:8) But when a poor sinner is awakened from the sleep and death of sin, and brought forth to a new and spiritual life, "perfect love casteth out fear. " (Hebrews 5:7-8) Sweet and precious thought! Jesus who knew no sin, yet coming to us in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin condemned sin in the flesh, knew what it was to be sore amazed, to be sorrowful even unto death, to fear, and to be very heavy
Felix Lope de Vega Carpio - As typical of his work may be mentioned the pastoral "Pastores de Belen"; the epics "Corona tragica" (dealing with Mary Stuart) and "Angelica"; the historical poem Dragon tea, an attack on Drake; an autobiographical novel "Dorotea"; and the plays "EI Castigo sin Venganza," "La Estrella de Sevilla," and "Amar sin Saber a Quien
Blasphemy - Blasphemy against the Holy Ghost (Matthew 12:31,32 ; Mark 3:28,29 ; Luke 12:10 ) is regarded by some as a continued and obstinate rejection of the gospel, and hence is an unpardonable sin, simply because as long as a sinner remains in unbelief he voluntarily excludes himself from pardon. Others regard the expression as designating the sin of attributing to the power of Satan those miracles which Christ performed, or generally those works which are the result of the Spirit's agency
Abel - Abel came to the Lord as a sinner; and, by the lamb he offered in sacrifice, testified the sense he had of sin, and his hopes of salvation by Christ. Cain came to the Lord, not under the apprehension of sin, but to present an offering of tribute
Justice of God - He cannot, as being infinitely righteous, do otherwise than regard and hate sin as intrinsically hateful and deserving of punishment. His essential and eternal righteousness immutably determines him to visit every sin as such with merited punishment
Lope de Vega Carpio, Felix - As typical of his work may be mentioned the pastoral "Pastores de Belen"; the epics "Corona tragica" (dealing with Mary Stuart) and "Angelica"; the historical poem Dragon tea, an attack on Drake; an autobiographical novel "Dorotea"; and the plays "EI Castigo sin Venganza," "La Estrella de Sevilla," and "Amar sin Saber a Quien
Trespass - ) Any voluntary transgression of the moral law; any violation of a known rule of duty; sin. ) To commit any offense, or to do any act that injures or annoys another; to violate any rule of rectitude, to the injury of another; hence, in a moral sense, to transgress voluntarily any divine law or command; to violate any known rule of duty; to sin; - often followed by against
Lebanon - Isaiah 40:16 (b) This wonderful picture tells a remarkable story of the inability of the best efforts of the sinner. The Lord is telling us by this figure that though a sinner in his desire to obtain forgiveness should gather together in one pile all the burnable material on this huge mountain, and then kill all the animals that lived on that huge mountain, that sacrifice would not be sufficient to put away one sin. GOD is telling us by this wonderful figure that man's best and greatest efforts are not sufficient, and do not avail for the putting away of any evil or any sin in a human life
Repentance - Real penitence sorrow or deep contrition for sin, as an offense and dishonor to God, a violation of his holy law, and the basest ingratitude towards a Being of infinite benevolence. Repentance is a change of mind, or a conversion from sin to God
Naaman - Leprosy was so loathsome, and so utterly incurable and deadly, that it was not looked on as an ordinary disease at all: but, rather, as a special creation in His anger, and a direct curse of God, both to punish sin, and, at the same time, to teach His people something of what an accursed thing sin really is; till the whole nature of leprosy and all the laws laid down for its treatment, and the miraculous nature of its so seldom cure, all combined to work into the imagination, and into the conscience, and into the heart, and into the ritual, and into the literature of Israel, some of her deepest lessons about the terrible nature and the only proper treatment of sin. ...
For sin is like leprosy in this, that it is the most mysterious, stroke-like, malignant, loathsome, and mockingly incurable of all our incurable ills. sin is like Naaman's leprosy in this also, that a man is great with men, and honourable, and a mighty deliverer-but all the time he is a sinner. And all a sinner's life, and all his greatness, and all his honour, and all his praise is but dressing a dead body with rich ornaments, and sprinkling a sepulchre with sweet smells. But it needs a wisdom, and a truth, and an experience, and a stage of salvation that few men have attained to, before a sinner knows that he is a sinner; really and truly knows it, as Naaman knew his leprosy. If you have made the discovery that you are a leprous sinner: if you have found no figure that so well describes you as Naaman's leprosy,-then you have made the greatest discovery a man can make in this world. 'That I am a sinner,' answered the saintly man, 'and that Jesus Christ is my Saviour. Nay; not only is that the beginning of all your true greatness; but your knowledge of sin all along to the end of life-that is the best measure of your true greatness. All our true greatness has been lost to us through sin; and it is in sin, and through sin, and by escaping out of sin, that we shall not only recover all our lost greatness but shall attain to a far greater greatness than that we had lost. But I would go a long way to see the greatest sinner; to see and to converse with that man still on this earth who has the deepest knowledge of his own heart. 'Sin?' exclaims even our own Carlyle in indignation; 'the deadliest sin of all is to be conscious of no sin. ...
What a fool that man Naaman must have been! everybody has exclaimed over his history ever since his day. Yes; but madman with pride, and self-importance, and self-will as he was, Naaman will stand up in the day of judgment and will condemn some of us who have his history before us; for, like him at one time, we do not even yet feel the full curse and deadliness of our sin, else we would do very differently with it. Jacob bought his birthright by denying himself just a single mess of pottage. It is sin; yes, it is sin. sin is self. There is no leprosy, there is no sin, but yourself. Go this moment, and go every day, and every hour of every day, and, blessed be God, every moment, as often as thy self-filled heart again stirs and sins in thee. O son of sin and Satan, O child of wrath, wilt thou not submit thyself to be saved? Wilt thou not so much as wash thyself? Wilt thou not say there is a fountain opened for sin and for uncleanness like mine? And wilt thou not go down into it continually, saying without ceasing: O Holy God. Pity a man made of sin. A man who, as Thou seest, does nothing before Thee but sin. O pity and spare me, my God, for my sin is ever before me
Christian Science - A system of healing disease of mind and body which teaches that all cause and effect is mental, and that sin, sickness, and death will be destroyed by a full understanding of the Divine Principle of Jesus' teaching and healing
Jesu Redemptor Omnium [Quem] - Potter, and the Evening Office of 1710; the sixth verse reads: ...
And we who, by Thy Precious Blood...
From sin redeemed, are marked for God,...
On this the day that saw Thy birth,...
sing the new Bong of ransomed earth
Jesus, the Ransomer of Man - Potter, and the Evening Office of 1710; the sixth verse reads: ...
And we who, by Thy Precious Blood...
From sin redeemed, are marked for God,...
On this the day that saw Thy birth,...
sing the new Bong of ransomed earth
Tenth Deal - The recovered leper, to complete his purification, was required to bring a trespass, a sin, and a burnt offering, and to present a meal offering, a tenth deal or an omer of flour for each, with oil to make it into bread or cakes (Leviticus 14:10,21 ; Compare Exodus 16:36 ; 29:40 )
Eve - Her fall illustrates the ease with which all persons fall into sin (2 Corinthians 11:3 )
Passing Over - 1: πάρεσις (Strong's #3929 — Noun Feminine — paresis — par'-es-is ) primarily "a letting go, dismissal" (akin to pariemi, "to let alone, loosen"), denotes "a passing by" or "praetermission (of sin)," "a suspension of judgment," or "withholding of punishment," Romans 3:25 , RV, "passing over" (AV, "remission"), with reference to sins committed previously to the propitiatory sacrifice of Christ, the "passing by" not being a matter of Divine disregard but of forbearance
Ashes - To repent in sackcloth and ashes, or to lie down among ashes, was an external sign of self-affliction for sin, or of grief under misfortune
Temptations (2) - Knowing how likely he was to fall into sin, he ran away with all his might, and she ran after him, crying, 'Wherefore runnest thou away? It is I
Hophni - He and his brother Phinehas also acted as priests; but their sin was very great both respecting the offerings of the Lord and as to their moral conduct
Avitus, Saint - He is the author of a poem dealing with the scriptural narrative of original sin, expulsion from paradise, the Deluge, and crossing of the Red Sea; Milton made use of this in preparing Paradise Lost
Astray - Psalm 58:3 (a) The tendency to commit sin and to deceive which is inherent in the human heart from birth, this is to go "astray" from GOD. ...
Psalm 119:176 (a) Here we see the sinner's path which is not along the path of GOD's righteousness nor according to His commandments
Onesimus - Christianity did not come in to set the world right thus: Onesimus was sent back to his master, and slaves are elsewhere exhorted to be faithful to their masters; but slavery is doubtless one of the fruits of man's sin
Scapegoat - The live goat which became the scapegoat is a picture of the Saviour living in glory with the marks of Calvary upon Him, having taken away the sin of the world, and having died at Calvary for our sins
Purification - ) A cleansing from guilt or the pollution of sin; the extinction of sinful desires, appetites, and inclinations. ) The act or operation of cleansing ceremonially, by removing any pollution or defilement
Sanctification - ) the act of God's grace by which the affections of men are purified, or alienated from sin and the world, and exalted to a supreme love to God; also, the state of being thus purified or sanctified
Alcimus Ecdicius, Saint - He is the author of a poem dealing with the scriptural narrative of original sin, expulsion from paradise, the Deluge, and crossing of the Red Sea; Milton made use of this in preparing Paradise Lost
Rubrics - Some are obligatory and bind under pain of sin; others are merely directive and do not bind
Rephidim - An encampment of the Israelites between the wilderness of sin and mount sinai, where the people murmured, and God gave them water from the rock. It is thought to have been in the valley now called esh-Sheikh, a day's march northwest of sinai, and near the western border of the Horeb group of mountains. SEE sinAI
Sin - The law of God, which sin contravenes, comprises not only the natural and the Divine positive law, but also the just precepts of all legitimately constituted authority
Guilt - It is rather the abiding result of sin than sin itself (see Pearson’s Exposition of the Creed , ed. It is not punishment, or even liability to punishment, for this presupposes personal consciousness of wrong-doing and leaves out of account the attitude of God to sin unwittingly committed ( Leviticus 5:1 ff. Man’s relation to God, as it is affected by sin, is what constitutes guilt in the widest sense of the word. ...
We are thus enabled to see that when moral obliquity arising from or reinforced by natural causes, adventitious circumstances, or personal environment, issues in persistent, wilful wrong-doing, it becomes or is resolved into guilt, and involves punishment which is guilt’s inseparable accompaniment. In the OT the ideas of sin, guilt, and punishment are so inextricably interwoven that it is impossible to treat of one without in some way dealing with the other two, and the word for each is used interchangeably for the others (see Schultz, OT Theol . ]'>[1] ) includes both the sin committed and the guilt attaching thereto (cf. As soon, however, as this consciousness is established, the first step on the road to rebellion against sin is taken, and the sinner’s relation to God commences to become fundamentally altered from what it was. ) in the so-called imprecatory Psalms, one thought at least clearly emerges, that wilful and persistent sin can never be separated from guiltiness in the sight of God, or from consequent punishment. The same spirit is to be observed in Jeremiah’s repeated prayers for vengeance on those who spent their time in devising means to destroy him and his work (cf. ...
‘By submitting to the awful experience which forced from Him the cry, “My God, my God, why hast Thou forsaken Me?” and by the Death which followed, He made our real relation to God His own, while retaining and, in the very act of submitting to the penalty of sin, revealing in the highest form the absolute perfection of His moral life and the steadfastness of His eternal union with the Father’ (Dale, The Atonement , p. Man’s position in regard to God, looked on as the result of sin, is the extent and the measure of his guilt. ...
‘Only He, who knew in Himself the measure of the holiness of God, could realize also, in the human nature which He had made His own, the full depth of the alienation of sin from God, the real character of the penal averting of God’s face. Only He, who sounded the depths of human consciousness in regard to sin, could, in the power of His own inherent righteousness, condemn and crush sin in the flesh. The suffering involved in this is not, in Him, punishment or the terror of punishment; but it is the full realizing, in the personal consciousness, of the truth of sin, and the disciplinary pain of the conquest of sin; it is that full self-identification of human nature, within range of sin’s challenge and sin’s scourge, with holiness as the Divine condemnation of sin, which was at once the necessity and the impossibility of human penitence. The nearest and yet how distant! an approach to it in our experience we recognize, not in the wild sin-terrified cry of the guilty, but rather in those whose profound self-identification with the guilty overshadows them with a darkness and a shame, vital indeed to their being, yet at heart tranquil, because it is not confused with the blurring consciousness of a personal sin’ (Moberly, Atonement and Personality , p
Trespass - 5:15: “If a soul commit a trespass, and sin through ignorance. …” The sense of the verb is similar to the verb “to sin. ” In fact, in the next chapter the verb for “to sin” and mâ‛al are used together: “If a soul sin, and commit a trespass against the Lord, and lie unto his neighbor …” ( sin. 5:15, since the sin is here out of ignorance instead of a deliberate act of treachery. When God spoke to Ezekiel: “Son of man, when the land sinneth against me by trespassing grievously, then will I stretch out mine hand upon it, and … cut off man and beast from it” ( sins against me by being unfaithful …” (NIV); “Son of man, if a country sins against Me by committing unfaithfulness …” (NASB). 6:2 be understood: “If anyone sins and is unfaithful to the Lord by deceiving his neighbor about something entrusted to him …” (NIV)...
In the Septuagint we find these translations: athetein (“to nullify; reject; commit an offense”); asunthetein (“to be faithless”); and aphistaveiv (“to mislead; withdraw”). Modern versions set forth more explicitly the overt nature of the sin than the KJV (“trespass; transgress”): RSV, NASB, NIV, “act or be unfaithful; RSV, NASB, “to break faith. In addition to the primary sense of “trespass,” given in KJV, there may be an indication of the motivation through which the sin was committed
Sacrament of Penance - A sacrament of the New Law, instituted by Christ, for the remission of sins committed after Baptism. Implied in the right of "binding and loosing" promised by Christ to the rulers of His Church (Matthew 16:18), the power to forgive sins was unequivocally granted to the Apostles, and consequently to their successors, since the Church is permanent and unchangeable; it was thus granted by the words of Christ to the Apostolic college on the day of His Resurrection: "Whose sins you shall forgive, they are forgiven them; and whose sins you shall retain, they are retained. The fact that Our Lord empowered His earthly representatives with authority not only to forgive but also to retain sins proves, in the first place, that He willed the exercise of this power to be a judicial process, in which the minister is to judge who are worthy, and who are unworthy, of forgiveness. Secondly, it shows that the forgiveness of sins by the use of this power is effected through an external rite or sacrament, since it is only by external communication between judge and culprit that a judicial process can be conducted among human beings. Thirdly, it demonstrates that this sacrament is necessary for the remission of those sins that come under its province; for the power to retain would be useless if the sinner could obtain the full pardon of his transgressions independently of this sacrament. However, from other sources we know that the strict necessity of this sacrament, Penance, as it has been called for many centuries, applies to mortal sins only, and venial sins can be forgiven without recourse to the sacramental tribunal. Moreover, Catholic doctrine teaches that the actual reception of Penance is strictly necessary for judicial forgiveness, and although mortal sins can be taken from the soul by an act of perfect contrition this contrition must imply the intention of submitting them to the sacramental tribunal at the nearest opportunity. The remote matter is sins committed after Baptism, for the judicial character of Penance limits its scope to transgressions committed by those who are subject to the jurisdiction of the Church. Confession and contrition are essential; the former, because the judicial nature of this sacrament requires that the case being tried should be manifested to the judge; the latter because no sin is forgiven by God unless the sinner be repentant. Contrition, of course, implies the purpose of avoiding sin and amendment of one's evil ways. Satisfaction, or the sacramental penance, since it is directed to the remission, not of sin, but of the temporal punishment remaining after the forgiveness of sin, is only an integral part, i. , when the penitent is dying, the priest may refrain from imposing any penance. Penance can be received by any person who has committed sin, whether mortal or venial, after Baptism. sins forgiven in a previous confession may be made again the matter of absolution, since the soul can always receive the grace which would remit such sins if they were still present. The principal effect of a worthy reception of Penance is the forgiveness of sin by the infusion of sanctifying grace. Being primarily ordained to take away mortal sin and to restore the life of grace to those who are spiritually dead, Penance is a sacrament of the dead. The faithful, if they are conscious of any mortal sin not yet properly confessed and forgiven, are obliged to receive the sacrament of Penance at least once a year; also, when in danger of death, and when they wish to receive Holy Communion
Backsliding - It may be considered as partial when applied to true believers, who do not backslide with the whole bent of their will; as voluntary, when applied to those who, after professing to know the truth, wilfully turn from it, and live in the practice of sin; as final, when the mind is given up to judicial hardness, as in the case of Judas. A backsliding state is manifested by indifference to prayer and self-examination; trifling or unprofitable conversation; neglect of public ordinances; shunning the people of God; associating with the world; thinking lightly of sin; neglect of the Bible; and often by gross immorality. To avoid this state or recover from it, we should beware of the first appearance of sin; be much in prayer; attend the ordinances; and unite with the people of God
Zin - ...
The close similarity between the events recorded in Exodus 17:1-16 and Numbers 20:1-29 , and other points of resemblance between occurrences before and after sinai, suggest the question whether sin and Zin, the sin of the pre-Sinai and the Zin of the post-Sinai narrative, may be variations developed in the course of tradition. Paran, sin [2]
Tempt - To make trial of, Luke 10:25 , and usually to present inducements to sin. Men are also led into sin by their own evil inclinations and by other men, James 1:14-15 . Sore afflictions are often called temptations or trials, as they are frequently the occasion of sin, Matthew 6:13 Luke 8:13 22:28 James 1:12 1 Peter 1:6,7
Anger - Sudden outbursts of temper are one fruit of sinful human nature. Those who are faithful to God should be angry at all forms of sin, whether that sin be rebellion against God or wrongdoing against other people (Exodus 16:20; Exodus 32:19; 2 Samuel 12:5; Nehemiah 5:6-7; Matthew 18:32-34). But because human nature is affected by sin, people find it difficult to be angry and at the same time not go beyond the limits that God allows (Psalms 4:4; Psalms 106:32-33; Ephesians 4:26)
Atonement - has "to make reconciliation for the sins of the people:" here it is propitiation,' ἱλάσκομαι. , atonement in its true meaning is spoken of continually, as 'ransom;' 'bearing our sins in his own body on the tree;' 'Christ our passover is sacrificed for us;' 'Christ . being made a curse for us;' 'He suffered for sins, the just for the unjust;' and, to use the language of faith, 'with his stripes we are healed;' 'He was delivered for our offences;' 'He was manifested to take away our sins. But the same word, kaphar, though generally translated by 'make atonement,' is employed for 'purging' and occasionally for 'cleansing,' 'reconciling,' 'purifying. ' Hence in 'atoned for him ' or 'his sin:' he or his sin is covered up: atonement is made for him or for his sin. The sins were seen on the sinless goat, and expiation was made in respect of those sins. The how is not said here, but it is by the two goats making really one, because the object was to show that the sins were really laid upon it (that is, on Christ), and the sins carried away out of sight, and never to be found. It was that on which the sins lay, and they must be cleared and done away. This double aspect of the atoning work is of the deepest importance and interest, the presenting of the blood to God on the mercy seat, and the bearing away the sins. We have nasa, 'to liftup,' and so to forgive, to lift up the sins away in the mind of the person offended, or to show favour in lifting up the countenance of the favoured person. We have also kasah, 'to cover,' as in Psalm 32 : 1, where sin is 'covered': sometimes used with al, as in Proverbs 10:12 , "love covereth all sins," forgives: they are out of sight and mind. It views the sin as toward God, and is ransom, when not used literally for sums of money; and kapporeth is the mercy seat. And though it involves forgiveness, purging from sin, it has always God in view, not merely that the sinner is relieved or forgiven: there is expiation and propitiation in it. And this is involved in the idea of purging sin, or making the purging of sin (ἱλάσκεσθαι, ἐξιλάσκεσθαι, ἱλασμὸν ποιεῖν); itis in God's sight as that by which He is offended, and what He rejects and judges. But God has a nature which is offended by sin. sin ought not to be treated with indifference, and God's love provides the ransom. Through the perfect love not only of God, the giver, but of Him, who through the eternal Spirit offered Himself without spot to God, propitiation is made, expiation for sin, itsaspect being toward God, while the effect applies to us in cleansing and justifying, though it goes much farther. A satisfaction is offered suited to the eye and mind of him who is displeased and who judges; and through this there is purgation of the offence, cleansing, forgiveness, and favour, according to him who takes cognisance of the evil. The object of the birds was the cleansing of the leper; it was application to the defiled man, not the kopher, ransom, presented to God. There was no laying sins on the bird let free, as on the goat: it was identified with the slain one, and then let go. The living water in the earthen vessel is doubtless the power of the Spirit and word in human nature, characterising the form of the truth, though death and the blood must come in, and all nature, its pomp and vanity, be merged in it. It is the cleansing of man in death to the flesh, but in the power of resurrection known in Christ who once died to sin. sin was, so to speak, consumed in it, and the blood was sprinkled seven times before the tabernacle of the congregation. When Christ died sin was, as it were, all consumed for His people by the fire of judgement, and all the value of the blood was before God where He communicated with the people. The witness that sin had been put away long ago by Christ undergoing what was the fruit of sin was brought by the living power of the Holy Spirit and the word, and so he was purified. The priest made an atonement in respect of the sins; and it had the double aspect of presenting the blood before God within as meeting what He was, and bearing His people's sins and carrying them away never to be found. This had nothing to do with sin, but with ransom, that there might be no plague — a recognition that they belonged to God all alike, and could have no human boast in numbers, as David afterwards brought the plague on Israel. ...
The essence then of atonement is, firs