What does Scribes mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
γραμματεῖς a clerk 40
γραμματέων a clerk 17
γραμματεῦσιν a clerk 2
סֹפְרִים֙ to count 1
סֹפְרִ֑ים to count 1
סוֹפְרִ֥ים to count 1
סֹפְרֵ֨י to count 1
סֹפְרֵֽי־ to count 1

Definitions Related to scribes

G1122


   1 a clerk, scribe, esp.
   a public servant, secretary, recorder, whose office and influence differed in different states.
   2 in the Bible, a man learned in the Mosaic law and in the sacred writings, an interpreter, teacher.
   scribes examined the more difficult and subtle questions of the law; added to the Mosaic law decisions of various kinds thought to elucidate its meaning and scope, and did this to the detriment of religion.
   Since the advice of men skilled in the law was needed in the examination in the causes and the solution of the difficult questions, they were enrolled in the Sanhedrin; and are mentioned in connection with the priests and elders of the people.
   See a Bible Dictionary for more information on the scribes.
   3 a religious teacher: so instructed that from his learning and ability to teach advantage may redound to the kingdom of heaven.
   

H5608


   1 to count, recount, relate.
      1a (Qal).
         1a1 to count (things).
         1a2 to number, take account of, reckon.
      1b (Niphal) to be counted, be numbered.
      1c (Piel) to recount, rehearse, declare.
         1c1 to recount (something), rehearse.
         1c2 to talk.
         1c3 to count exactly or accurately.
      1d (Pual) to be recounted, be rehearsed, be related.
   2 enumerator, muster-officer, secretary, scribe.
      2a enumerator, muster-officer, secretary.
      2b learned man, scribe.
      

Frequency of scribes (original languages)

Frequency of scribes (English)

Dictionary

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - scribes
SCRIBES . Sometimes a phrase gives the key to a great history. Such is the case here. ‘The scribes of the Pharisees’ ( Mark 2:16 ) points us to the inseparable connexion between the Pharisees and the Scribes. In other places in the Gospels they are also grouped together ( Matthew 12:38 , Luke 6:7 , Mark 7:5 ). If we would understand the Scribe or Lawyer , we must set him against the background of Pharisaism (See art. Pharisees).
For every community that carves out for itself a great career the supreme problem is law and its administration. Now, after the Exile, the task being to hold together the parts of a nation widely scattered and lacking the unifying power of a common and sacred fatherland, the Mosaic Torah, the Divine Law for Israel, became, in course of time, the moral and spiritual constitution of Israel, its code of duty, the fabric of its right. The Torah is the informing principle of the community. To grasp this principle and apply it to the changing conditions and questions of the nation’s life was the supreme need of the time. This need was analogous to the similar need of any great State. And it always necessitates, as at Rome, a great body of lawyers. A fundamental need gives rise to an authoritative function, and the function creates for itself the agents to exercise it. So, in course of time, appears in Judaism a new type, the Scribe. There is, however, a peculiarity in the case of the Scribe that sets him apart from the Roman lawyer or the modern judge. The Torah which he interpreted and applied was a good many things in one. It was the text-book of a society which was both Church and State; it was at once the constitution and the catechism of the Jews. So the mastery and administration of it developed in the Scribe a variety of functions which with us are parcelled out among preacher, scholar, lawyer, and magistrate. It is easy to see that history owed him a fortune. He came to occupy a great position in the Jewish community. By the 1st cent. he had forced his way into that aristocratic body, the Sanhedrin (Gamaliel in Acts 5:1-42 ; Nicodemus in John 3:1-36 ; John 7:1-53 ). He sat in ‘Moses’ seat’ ( Matthew 23:1 ). He had the power of ‘binding and loosing,’ i.e. of publishing authoritative judgments upon the legality and illegality of actions.
We see here a situation which had the making of great men in it. To grasp and administer the Mosaic Law, to ‘sit in Moses’ seat’ and become the trustee of the supreme interests of a great people, there can be no better school. Naturally, there were many noble Scribes, men whose character and learning were commensurate with their task. Such were Hillel and Shammai, elder contemporaries of our Lord. Such also was the Gamaliel at whose feet St. Paul sat (Acts 22:3 ), and who spoke, with noble feeling, against the persecuting zeal of the Sadducees ( Acts 5:34 ff.). As a class, too, they had their noble side. Their work, both educational and judicial, was gratuitous. They were to receive no pay. Probably this rule grew out of the idea of an impartial judge ( Exodus 23:8 , Deuteronomy 16:19 ). Of course, there must have been many exceptions. Yet the mere idea was ennobling, and must have served to enkindle devotion. But, on the other hand, their position encouraged vast pride and vanity. They stood on their prerogatives as ‘Teachers.’ They loved the title of ‘Rabbi.’ So our Lord, when He bids His disciples refuse such title ( Matthew 23:7 f.), has the Scribes in mind.
This leads us to the deeper defect of the Scribes as a class. All their training went to unfit them for understanding our Lord. As we have seen, the situation of the Jews in the centuries after the Exile called for a new type of man. The prophet passed off the stage. The Scribe or Lawyer took his place. In the 1st cent. of our era be had become antipathetic to Prophetism. So be had no sympathy with John the Baptist, and to the meaning of the creative force in spiritual things brought into history by the Saviour he was totally blind. Hence our Lord’s fearful denunciation of the Scribes (Matthew 23:1-39 ). See also artt. Pharisees and Sadducees.
Henry S. Nash.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - scribes
Anciently held various important offices in the public affairs of the nation. The Hebrew word so rendered (sopher) is first used to designate the holder of some military office (Judges 5:14 ; A.V., "pen of the writer;" RSV, "the marshal's staff;" marg., "the staff of the scribe"). The scribes acted as secretaries of state, whose business it was to prepare and issue decrees in the name of the king (2 Samuel 8:17 ; 20:25 ; 1 Chronicles 18:16 ; 24:6 ; 1 Kings 4:3 ; 2 Kings 12:9-11 ; 18:18-37 , etc.). They discharged various other important public duties as men of high authority and influence in the affairs of state. There was also a subordinate class of scribes, most of whom were Levites. They were engaged in various ways as writers. Such, for example, was Baruch, who "wrote from the mouth of Jeremiah all the words of the Lord" (Jeremiah 36:4,32 ).
In later times, after the Captivity, when the nation lost its independence, the scribes turned their attention to the law, gaining for themselves distinction by their intimate acquaintance with its contents. On them devolved the duty of multiplying copies of the law and of teaching it to others (Ezra 7:6,10-12 ; Nehemiah 8:1,4,9,13 ). It is evident that in New Testament times the scribes belonged to the sect of the Pharisees, who supplemented the ancient written law by their traditions (Matthew 23 ), thereby obscuring it and rendering it of none effect. The titles "scribes" and "lawyers" (q.v.) are in the Gospels interchangeable (Matthew 22:35 ; Mark 12:28 ; Luke 20:39 , etc.). They were in the time of our Lord the public teachers of the people, and frequently came into collision with him. They afterwards showed themselves greatly hostile to the apostles (Acts 4:5 ; 6:12 ).
Some of the scribes, however, were men of a different spirit, and showed themselves friendly to the gospel and its preachers. Thus Gamaliel advised the Sanhedrin, when the apostles were before them charged with "teaching in this name," to "refrain from these men and let them alone" (Acts 5:34-39 ; comp 23:9).
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - scribes
In the days before mechanical printing, copies of documents, letters, government records and sacred writings were handwritten by skilled secretaries known as scribes (1 Kings 4:3; 2 Kings 18:18; 2 Kings 22:8; Jeremiah 8:8; Jeremiah 38:18; Jeremiah 38:26-27). The religious importance of scribes developed during the period that followed the Jews’ return from captivity in 538 BC and the subsequent reconstruction of the Jewish nation. During the captivity there had been a renewal of interest in the law of Moses, and this increased after the return to Jerusalem. The result was a greater demand for copies of the law, and consequently greater prominence for the scribes (Nehemiah 8:1-4; Nehemiah 8:8; Nehemiah 9:3).
Because scribes had developed special skills in copying the details of the law exactly, people regarded them as experts on matters of the law (Ezra 7:6; Ezra 7:10). Although the priests were supposed to be the teachers in Israel (Deuteronomy 33:10; Malachi 2:7), people now went to the scribes, rather than the priests, when they had problems of the law that they wanted explained. During the centuries immediately before the Christian era, the scribes grew in power and prestige, and were the chiefly cause of the striking changes that came over the Jewish religion. They were also known as teachers of the law, lawyers and rabbis (Matthew 22:35; Matthew 23:2-7).
Power of the scribes
The increased interest in the law produced not only the scribes as a class of teachers, but also the synagogues as places of worship (see SYNAGOGUE). The scribes developed the structure for synagogue meetings, and controlled the synagogue teaching Matthew 23:2; Matthew 23:6; Luke 6:6-7; Luke 20:46). They also developed and promoted the midrash as a form of teaching. (A midrash was an explanation of the ‘deeper meaning’ of a portion of Scripture, or in some cases a practical sermon based on a portion of Scripture.)
There was, however, a great difference between Ezra’s explanations of the law and the expositions of the scribes of Jesus’ time. Over the intervening centuries, the scribes had produced a system of their own, which consisted of countless laws to surround the central law of Moses. These new laws may have grown out of legal cases that the scribes had judged or traditions that had been handed down. The scribes then forced the Jewish people to obey these laws, till the whole lawkeeping system became a heavy burden (Matthew 15:1-9; Matthew 23:2-4; see TRADITION).
As leaders in the synagogue and teachers of the people, the scribes enjoyed a respected status in the Jewish community (Matthew 23:6-7). Some were members of the Sanhedrin, the supreme Jewish Council (Matthew 26:57; see SANHEDRIN). In addition to controlling the synagogues, the scribes taught in the temple and established schools for the training of their disciples (Luke 2:46; Acts 22:3). They then sent these disciples to spread their teaching, till it became the chief force in the religious life of Israel (Matthew 23:15).
Most of the scribes belonged to the party of the Pharisees (one of two major groups within Judaism; see PHARISEES; SADDUCEES), and are often linked with them in the biblical narratives (Matthew 5:20; Matthew 12:38; Matthew 15:1; Matthew 23:2; Acts 5:34; Acts 22:3). They opposed Jesus throughout his ministry, helped to crucify him, and later persecuted his followers (Matthew 16:21; Matthew 21:15; Matthew 26:57; Acts 4:5-7; Acts 6:12).
Later influences
With the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70, the Jewish temple rituals ceased; but the influence of the scribes lived on. By AD 200, the scribes (now better known as rabbis) had put into writing the oral traditions that earlier scribes had built up around the law. This document was called the Mishnah.
After the completion of the Mishnah, the rabbis added to it their own commentary. This commentary was put into writing between AD 400 and 500, and was known as the Gemara. The Mishnah and the Gemara together made up the Talmud, which has remained the authoritative law for orthodox Jews ever since.
Smith's Bible Dictionary - scribes
(Heb.sopherim ), I. Name . -- (1) Three meanings are connected with the verb saphar , the root of sopherim -- (a) to write, (b) to set in order, (c) to count. The explanation of the word has been referred to each of these. The sopherim were so called because they wrote out the law, or because they classified and arranged its precepts, or because they counted with scrupulous minuteness every elapse and letter It contained. (2) The name of Kirjath-sepher, ( Joshua 15:15 ; Judges 1:12 ) may possibly connect itself with some early use of the title, and appears to point to military functions of some kind. (Judges 5:14 ) The men are mentioned as filling the office of scribe under David and Solomon. (2 Samuel 8:17 ; 20:25 ; 1 Kings 4:3 ) We may think of them as the king's secretaries, writing his letters, drawing up his decrees, managing his finances. Comp (2 Kings 12:10 ) In Hezekiah's time transcribed old records, and became a class of students and interpreters of the law, boasting of their wisdom. (Jeremiah 8:8 ) After the captivity the office became more prominent, as the exiles would be anxious above all things to preserve the sacred books, the laws, the hymns, the prophecies of the past. II. Development of doctrine . --Of the scribes of this period, with the exception of Ezra and Zadok, ( Nehemiah 13:13 ) we have no record. A later age honored them collectively as the men of the Great Synagogue. Never perhaps, was so important a work done so silently. They devoted themselves to the careful study of the text, and laid down rules for transcribing it with the most scrupulous precision. As time passed on the "words of the scribes" were honored above the law. It was a greater crime to offend against them than against the law. The first step was taken toward annulling the commandments of God for the sake of their own traditions. (Mark 7:13 ) The casuistry became at once subtle and prurient, evading the plainest duties, tampering with conscience. (Matthew 15:1-6 ; 23:16-23 ) We can therefore understand why they were constantly denounced by our Lord along with the Pharisees. While the scribes repeated the traditions of the elders, he "spake as one having authority," "not as the scribes." (Matthew 7:29 ) While they confined their teachings to the class of scholars, he "had compassion on the multitudes." (Matthew 9:36 ) While they were to be found only in the council or in their schools, he journeyed through the cities and villages. (Matthew 4:23 ; 9:35 ) etc. While they spoke of the kingdom of God vaguely, as a thing far off, he proclaimed that it had already come nigh to men. (Matthew 4:17 ) In our Lord's time there were two chief parties:
the disciples of Shammai, conspicuous for their fierceness, appealing to popular passions, using the sword to decide their controversies. Out of this party grew the Zealots.
The disciples of Hillel, born B.C. 112, and who may have been one of the doctors before whom the boy Jesus came in the temple, for he lived to be 120 years old. Hillel was a "liberal conservative, of genial character and broad range of thought, with some approximations to a higher teaching." In most of the points at issue between the two parties, Jesus must have appeared in direct antagonism to the school of Shammai, in sympathy with that of Hillel. So far, on the other hand, as the temper of the Hillel school was one of mere adaptation to the feeling of the people, cleaving to tradition, wanting in the intuition of a higher life, the teaching of Christ must have been felt as unsparingly condemning it. III. Education and life. --The special training for a scribe's office began, probably, about the age of thirteen. The boy who was destined by his parents to the calling of a scribe went to Jerusalem and applied for admission in the school of some famous rabbi. After a sufficient period of training, probably at the age of thirty the probationer was solemnly admitted to his office. After his admission there was a choice of a variety of functions, the chances of failure and success. He might give himself to any one of the branches of study, or combine two or more of them. He might rise to high places, become a doctor of the law, an arbitrator in family litigations, ( Luke 12:14 ) the head of a school, a member of the Sanhedrin. He might have to content himself with the humbler work of a transcriber, copying the law and the prophets for the use of synagogues, or a notary, writing out contracts of sale, covenants of espousals, bills of repudiation. The position of the more fortunate was of course attractive enough. In our Lord's time the passion for distinction was insatiable. The ascending scale of rab, rabbi, rabban, presented so many steps on the ladder of ambition. Other forms of worldliness were not far off. The salutations in the market-place, (Matthew 23:7 ) the reverential kiss offered by the scholars to their master or by rabbis to each other the greeting of Abba, father (Matthew 23:9 ) the long robes with the broad blue fringe, (Matthew 23:5 ) --all these go to make up the picture of a scribe's life. Drawing to themselves, as they did, nearly all the energy and thought of Judaism, the close hereditary caste of the priesthood was powerless to compete with them. Unless the Priest became a scribe also, he remained in obscurity. The order, as such, became contemptible and base. For the scribes there were the best places at feasts, the chief seats in synagogues. (Matthew 23:6 ; Luke 14:7 )
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - scribes
SCRIBES.—The Scribes were a class of learned Jews who devoted themselves to a scientific study of the Law, and made its exposition their professional occupation. The word which we translate ‘scribes’ is γραμματεῖς, ‘the learned,’ which corresponds to the Hebrew סוֹפִרִים. This is their usual appellation, but they are also called in the Gospels, especially in Lk., ‘lawyers’ (νομικοί) and ‘doctors of the law’ (νομοδιδάσκαλοι). See Lawyer. They are very frequently associated in the Synoptics with the Pharisees, and with the chief priests and elders, but there is no mention of ‘scribes’ in the Fourth Gospel at all, except in the special passage dealing with the woman taken in adultery (John 8:3).
1. Origin, development, and characteristics.—(1) After the return from the Exile the Jewish community was organized under Ezra and Nehemiah on the basis of the regulations of the so-called Mosaic Law. At a great gathering of the people, of which an account is given in Nehemiah 8-10, the Law was publicly read by Ezra, and a solemn covenant entered into for national obedience to it. Being thus established as the binding rule of both civil and religious life, it became necessary that the Law should be thoroughly studied and interpreted to the people, who otherwise could not reasonably be expected to comprehend fully its principles and their application. This duty at first fell naturally to the priests, who for a time continued the main teachers and guardians of the Law. But gradually there grew up an independent class of men, other than the priests, who devoted themselves to the study of the Law, and made acquaintance with it their profession. These were the Scribes. Possibly at first their chief duty was to make copies of the Law, but the higher function of interpretation was soon added; and as the supreme importance of the Law came more and more to be recognized, so the profession of a Scribe came to be held in higher estimation than even that of a priest.
(2) During the Grecian period of Jewish history, a strong feeling of opposition was developed between the Scribes and, at least, the higher order of the priests. Even in the time of Ezra a feud had arisen between those who held strictly by the Law—especially in the matter of foreign alliances—and those who, like the aristocratic high-priestly families, had sought to increase their influence by marriage with outsiders. And when, through the influence of Hellenic culture, the priestly aristocracy became infected with heathen ideas, and fell away from the laws and customs of Judaism, the duty of upholding the Law fell mainly upon the Scribes, who from that time forward became the real teachers of the people, and dominated their whole spiritual life. They were still, however, mainly religious students and teachers, and had taken little part in political agitation. Their ideal was not to engage in any political scheme for throwing off the foreign yoke, but to establish the Law of God in their own midst. The attempt of Antiochus Epiphanes to suppress the Jewish religion compelled them to change their character, and drove them into open rebellion. Among the most strenuous opponents of his endeavour to Hellenize the Jews were the Hasidaeans, or party of ‘the pious,’ who may be taken to represent the strictest adherents of the teaching of the Scribes, and who carried their ideas of the sanctity of the Law to the suicidal extent of refusing to defend themselves when attacked on the Sabbath. But it was only the maintenance of the Jewish religion for which they fought, and they had no objections to alien rule, provided they were allowed freedom of faith. This object they regarded as accomplished by the treaty with Lysias, which provided at once for their political subjection and for their religious freedom. When, therefore, it became clear that the Maccabaean party were aiming also at the political independence of the nation, the Hasidaeans separated from them, and in the time of John Hyrcanus we find the Pharisees—‘the separated’—who practically represented the same party as the Hasidaeans, in opposition to the Hasmonaean or Maccabaean dynasty. See Pharisees.
(3) From this time onward to the time of Christ the influence of the Scribes became more and more predominant. They were given seats in the Sanhedrin, and were held in very high respect by the people. They never, indeed, became the governing class, but in the councils of the nation their influence could always be depended upon to outweigh that of the priestly aristocracy, who held the high appointments. They were usually addressed as ‘Rabbi,’ i.e. ‘my master,’ an appellation which gradnally developed into a title, though not till after the time of Christ. The honour in which they were held by their pupils, and by others, was extraordinary, even exceeding the honour accorded to parents, and they were very particular in exacting it, claiming generally everywhere the first rank. Their scribal labours were understood to be gratuitous, and, if they had no private fortune, they had to provide for their livelihood by combining some secular business with their study of the Law; but the latter was always regarded as their most important occupation. It is questionable, however, if the theory of gratuitous instruction was always strictly adhered to.
From the earliest period there is evidence to show that they tended to associate themselves in guilds or families—an arrangement which would facilitate the interchange of opinion on difficult points in the study of the Law. Up till the destruction of Jerusalem the main seat of their activity was in Judaea, ‘the scribes from Jerusalem’ (Matthew 15:1, Mark 3:22) being spoken of as the most important and influential members of the party. But they were to be found elsewhere as well, in Galilee and among the Jews in other lands, wherever the Law and its precepts were held in esteem. As a rule, they may be said to have been Pharisees, although not exclusively. The Pharisees, indeed, were those whose professed object it was to regulate their lives in strict accordance with the Law, written and oral, as that was expounded by its best accredited interpreters. Hence there was a natural affinity between them and the Scribes, whose profession it was to interpret the Law. But it is extremely probable that there were also Scribes who were Sadducees, for the Sadducees also adhered to the written Law, and doubtless had their Scribes to interpret it. Support is lent to this view by the expressions in Mark 2:16 ‘the scribes of the Pharisees,’ and in Luke 5:30 ‘the Pharisees and their scribes,’ which seem to indicate that there were other Scribes than those of the Pharisees. In the time of Christ the great mass of the Scribes was divided into two schools, named after the famous leaders, Hillel and Shammai, about whom little is certainly known. The School of Hillel was distinguished for its mildness in the interpretation of the Law, and that of Shammai for its strictness, corresponding to the traditional characters of the respective founders; but the points of difference between them concerned only the trivial minutiae, and never touched the weightier matters of the Law.
2. Functions.—The functions of the Scribes are well summed up in the traditional saying ascribed to the ‘Men of the Great Synagogue.’ ‘These laid down three rules: Be careful in pronouncing judgment! bring up many pupils! and make a fence about the Law!’ The professional employment of the Scribes, therefore, fell under three heads:—(1) The study and development of the Law itself; (2) the teaching of it to their pupils; and (3) its practical administration in the Sanhedrin and other courts; that is to say, they acted as students, teachers, and judges.
(1) The study and development of the Law.—The Mosaic Law, as embodied in their sacred records, was definitely recognized by the Jews as the absolute rule of life. To direct his conduct in accordance with it in every minute detail was the ideal of the pious Jew. But there were many subjects upon which the Law, as recorded, gave no precise direction, and much of it, for popular apprehension, required interpretation and exposition. To interpret and expound it, and to till up what was lacking in the way of casuistic detail, was the business of the Scribes. They devoted themselves to a close and careful study of the Law, to the accumulation of precedents, to the working out of inferences and deductions, and to a general development of legal regulations so as to meet every possible circumstance which might occur in human life, and to keep the Law in harmony with the changing wants of the times. So diligently did they pursue this course, and so extensive and complicated did Jewish Law in consequence become, that only by the assiduous study of a lifetime could a man become an expert in its various branches. The difficulty of doing so was greatly increased by the fact that this mass of accumulated detail was not committed to writing, but was propagated entirely by oral tradition. It was called the Halacha, or Law of Custom, as distinct from the Torah, or Written Law, upon which it was understood to be based. See, further, art. Pharisees, p. 353 f.
But the Scribes did not confine their labours to the Law. They studied also the historical and didactic portions of Scripture, and elaborated with a very free hand the history and religious instruction contained therein. This elaboration was called the Haggadah. It ran into various extravagant forms—theosophic, eschatological, and Messianic. Imagination was given free play, so long as its products would fit in with the general framework of Jewish thought, and to its influence was largely due the circle of religious ideas existing in New Testament times.
(2) Teaching of the Law.—To teach the Law was also the professional business of the Scribes. In order that people should obey the Law, it was necessary that they should know it; and an elaborate system of rules such as was contained in the Jewish tradition could be learned only with the assistance of a teacher. None of these traditional rules having been written down, the teaching was of necessity entirely oral, and round the more famous of the Scribes there gathered large numbers of young men, eager for instruction as to the proper conduct of life. Of these, some in their turn would become Scribes and teachers of the Law. The chief requisite, for both pupil and teacher, was a capacious and accurate memory. The method of teaching was by a constant repetition of the precepts of the Law, as only by this means could its multitude of minute details be at all kept in remembrance. The disputational method was also followed. Concrete cases, real or imaginary, were brought before the pupils, and they were required to pronounce judgment upon them, which judgment the teacher would criticise. The pupils were also allowed to propose questions to the teacher, and to attend disputations amongst teachers over difficult problems. But the two all-important duties were these—first, to keep everything faithfully in memory; and, second, never to teach anything otherwise than it had been taught by the master. Not even the expressions of the teacher were allowed to be changed. Accuracy in the minutest detail was the most commendable achievement.
For purposes of teaching and of disputation there were special places set apart—‘houses of teaching,’ as they were called—where the teacher sat upon an elevated bench, and the pupils on the ground. In Jerusalem, lectures were delivered in the Temple, somewhere in the outer court. The ‘houses of teaching’ were distinct from the synagogues; but as it was through the influence of the Scribes that the synagogue service originated, so doubtless they availed themselves of the opportunities which the synagogues gave them of teaching the Law to the common people. The Scripture exposition, which usually formed part of the service, might, indeed, be given by any one qualified to speak; but ordinarily it fell to a Scribe, if any were present, as the one most competent to discharge the duty.
(3) The Scribes as judges.—To the Scribes, as specially skilled in knowledge of the Law, it also naturally fell to take a leading part in its practical administration. From the time of the Hasmonaeans they had formed a constituent element in the Sanhedrin, being associated in that body with the chief priests and elders, and it was usually the Scribes who exercised the greatest influence in its deliberations. In the local courts they were also naturally looked to for advice and judgment. Any one, indeed, who possessed the confidence of the community might be appointed a local judge, and probably for the most part the small local courts were presided over by unprofessional men. But whenever a Scribe—a skilled lawyer—was available, the choice of the community naturally fell upon him, as, in virtue of his qualifications, he was considered best fitted for the post.
3. Relations of the Scribes to Jesus.—The ministry of Jesus could not but excite interest amongst the Scribes. His first call, like that of the Baptist, was to repentance as a preparation for the Kingdom of God. With this they were bound to sympathize. They held that what the nation needed for its salvation was a stricter obedience to the Law, and they naturally thought that the new Teacher, who was calling to repentance for the past, would be calling also to a new and more rigid obedience for the future. There are not wanting indications that at first they were inclined to regard Him with favour. But they speedily discovered that His teaching was on very different lines from theirs, both in manner and in substance. In the exposition of Scripture their method was to give out a text, and then quote the various comments made on it by recognized authorities. Jesus followed a different plan. He had a message of His own, which He delivered with conviction and enthusiasm, not appealing to authorities, but speaking with the conscious authority of truth. And the substance of His teaching was also very different. He condemned the external, mechanical formalism which they encouraged, and declared that only the inward purity of the heart was of value in the sight of God. See, further, art. Pharisees, p. 355 f.
4. Later history.—Though it does not properly belong to our subject, it is interesting to note that after the fall of Jerusalem in a.d. 70, the authority of the Scribes increased in importance. Under much discouragement they undertook the difficult task of the reorganization of Judaism. Working on calmly and peacefully, they were able to avoid extremes, and were successful in keeping what was left of the nation faithful to the religion of their fathers, and in stimulating hope for the future. The ordinances of the Oral Law were at last written down, and to their careful preservation by the Scribes we are indebted for the Hebrew Scriptures we now possess.
Literature.—The literature on the subject is very extensive. Every History of the Jews, every Life of Christ, every Commentary on the Gospels, deals to some extent with the Scribes. Schürer’s HJP [1] may be taken as a standard authority; Ewald, Kuenen, and Wellhausen are all important; so are Edersheim’s LT [2].] and W. R. Smith’s OTJC [3] . A very full bibliography is given in Schürer. See also artt. in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible and in the EBi [4] .
Joseph Mitchell.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - scribes
Copheerim , from caaphar to "write," "order," and "count." (See LAWYER.) The function was military in Judges 5:14 (See SCEPTRE), also in Jeremiah 52:25; Isaiah 33:18. Two scribes in Assyrian monuments write down the various objects, the heads of the slain, prisoners, cattle, etc. The scribe or "royal secretary" under David and Solomon (2 Samuel 8:17; 2 Samuel 20:25; 1 Kings 4:3) ranks with the high priest and the captain of the host (compare 2 Kings 12:10). Hezekiah's scribe transcribed old records and oral traditions, in the case of Proverbs 25-29, under inspiration of God. Henceforth, the term designates not a king's officer but "students and interpreters of the law". Jeremiah 8:8 in KJV means "the pen of transcribers is (i.e. multiplies copies) in vain." But Maurer, "the false pen of the scribes (persons skilled in expounding) has converted it (the law) into a lie," namely, by false interpretations.
Ezra's glory, even above his priesthood, was that "he was a ready scribe in the law of Moses which the Lord God of Israel had given," and "had prepared his heart to seek the law of the Lord and to do it, and to teach in Israel statutes and judgments" (Ezra 7:6; James 4:13-1568; Ezra 7:12), "a scribe of the law of the God of heaven." The spoken language was becoming Aramaic, so that at this time an interpretation of the Hebrew Scriptures, the basis of their national and religious restoration, was a primary necessity to the exiles just returned from Babylon (Nehemiah 8:8-13). Scribe maybe meant in Ecclesiastes 12:11-12, "master of assemblies" under "one shepherd," but the inspired writers are probably meant, "masters of collections," i.e. associates in the collected canon, given (Ephesians 4:11) from the Spirit of Jesus Christ the one Shepherd (Ezekiel 37:24; 1 Peter 5:2-4). The "many books" of mere human composition are never to be put on a par with the sacred collection whereby to "be admonished."
"The families of scribes" had their own special residence (1 Chronicles 2:55). Ezra with the scribes probably compiled under the Holy Spirit, from authoritative histories, Chronicles (1 Chronicles 29:29; 2 Chronicles 9:29; 2 Chronicles 13:22, "the commentary of the prophet Iddo": Μidrash ). Except Zadok, no scribe but Ezra is named (Nehemiah 13:13). The scribes by whom the Old Testament was written in its present characters and form, and its canon settled, are collectively in later times called "the men of the great synagogue, the true successors of the prophets" (Ρirke Αboth ("The Sayings of the [1] Fathers"), i. 1). Their aim was to write nothing themselves but to let the sacred word alone speak; if they had to interpret they would do it only orally. The mikra' , or "careful reading of the text" (Nehemiah 8:8) and laying down rules for its scrupulous transcription, was their study (compare copherim , in the Jerus. Gemara). Simon the Just (300-290 B.C.), last of the great synagogue, said, "our fathers taught us to be cautious in judging, to train many scholars, and to set a fence about the law."
But oral precepts, affecting eases of every day life not especially noticed in the law, in time by tradition became a system of casuistry superseding the word of God and substituting ceremonial observances for moral duties (Matthew 15:1-6; Matthew 23:16-23). The scribes first reported the decisions of previous rabbis, the halachoth , the "current precepts". A "new code" (the Μishna , "repetition or second body of jurisprudence") grew out of them. Rabbinical sayings, Jewish fables (Titus 1:14), and finally the Gemara ("completeness") filled up the scheme; and the Mishna and Gemara together formed the Τalmud ("instruction"), the standard of orthodoxy for the modern Jew. The Old Testament too was "searched" (midrashim ) for "recondite meanings", the very search in their view entitling them to eternal life. Jesus warns them to "search" them very differently, namely, to find Him in them, if they would have life (John 5:39). The process was called hagada ("opinion"). The Κabala ("received doctrine") carried mysticism further. The gematria (the Greek term for "the exactest science, geometry, being applied to the wildest mode of interpreting") crowned this perverse folly by finding new meanings through letters supposed to be substituted for others, the last of the alphabet for the first, the second last for the second, etc.
The Sadducees maintained, against tradition, the sufficiency of the letter of the law. Five pairs of teachers represent the succession of scribes, each pair consisting of the president of the Sanhedrin and the father of the house of judgment presiding in the supreme court. The two first were Joses ben Joezer and Joses ben Jochanan (140-130 B.C.). Their separating themselves from defilement originated the name Pharisees. The Sadducees taunt was "these Pharisees would purify the sun itself." Hillel (112 B.C.) is the best representative of the scribes; Menahem (probably the Essene Manaen: Josephus Ant. 15:10, section 5) was at first his colleague, But with many followers renounced his calling as scribe and joined Herod and appeared in public arrayed gorgeously. To this Matthew 11:8; Luke 7:24-25, may allude. The Herodians perhaps may be connected with these. Shammai headed a school of greater scrupulosity than Hillel's (Mark 7:1-4), making it unlawful to relieve the poor, visit the sick, or teach children on the Sabbath, or to do anything before the Sabbath which would be in operation during the Sabbath. (See PHARISEES.)
Hillel's precepts breathe a loftier spirit: "trust not thyself to the day of thy death"; "judge not thy neighbour until thou art in his place"; "leave nothing dark, saying I will explain it when I have time, for how knowest thou whether the time will come?" (1664057728_5); "he who gums a good name gains it for himself, but he who gains a knowledge of the law gains everlasting life" (compare John 5:39; Romans 2:13; Romans 2:17-24). A proselyte begged of Shammai instruction in the law, even if it were so long as he could stand on his foot. Shammai drove him away; but Hillel said kindly, "do nothing to thy neighbour that thou wouldest not he should do to thee; do this, and thou hast fulfilled the law and the prophets" (Matthew 22:39-40). With all his straitness of theory Shammai was rich and self indulgent, Hillel poor to the day of his death. Christ's teaching forms a striking contrast. The scribes leant on "them of old time" (Matthew 5:21-27; Matthew 5:33); "He taught as one having authority and not as the scribes" (Matthew 7:29).
They taught only their disciples; "He had compassion on the multitudes" (Matthew 9:36). They taught only in their schools; He through "all the cities and villages" (Matthew 4:23; Matthew 9:35). As Hillel lived to the age of 120 he may have been among the doctors whom Jesus questioned (Luke 2:46). His grandson and successor, Gamaliel, was over his school during Christ's ministry and the early part of the Acts. Simeon, Gamaliel's son, was so but for a short time; possibly the Simeon of Luke 2:25, of the lineage of David, therefore disposed to look for Messiah in the Child of that house. The scanty notice of him in rabbinic literature makes the identification likely; the Ρirke Αboth ("The Sayings of the [1] Fathers") does not name him. This school was better disposed to Christ than Shammai's; to it probably belonged Nicodemus, Joseph of Arimathea, and others too timid to confess Jesus (John 12:42; John 19:38; Luke 23:50-51). The council which condemned Him was probably a packed meeting, hastily and irregularly convened.
Translated Isaiah 53:8, "He was taken away by oppression and by a judicial sentence," i.e. by an oppressive sentence; Acts 8:33, "in His humiliation His judgment was taken away," i.e., a fair trial was denied Him. Candidate scribes were "chosen" only after examination (compare Matthew 20:16; Matthew 22:14; John 15:16). The master sat on a high chair, the eider disciples on a lower bench, the youngest lowest, "at his feet" (Luke 10:39; Acts 22:3; Deuteronomy 33:3; 2 Kings 4:38); often in a chamber of the temple (Luke 2:46), the pupil submitting cases and asking questions, e.g. Luke 10:25; Matthew 22:36. The interpreter or crier proclaimed, loud enough for all to hear, what the rabbi whispered cf6 "in the ear" (Matthew 10:27). Parables were largely used. The saying of a scribe illustrates the pleasant relations between master and scholars, "I have learned much from my teachers, more from my colleagues, most from my disciples."
At 30 the presiding rabbi admitted the probationer to the chair of the scribe by laying on of hands, giving him tablets whereon to write sayings of the wise, and cf6 "the key of knowledge" (Luke 11:52) wherewith to open or shut the treasures of wisdom. He was then a chaber , or "of the fraternity", no longer of "the ignorant and unlearned" (Acts 4:13), but, separated from the common herd, "people of the earth," "cursed" as not knowing the law (John 7:15; John 7:49). Fees were paid them for arbitrations (Luke 12:14), writing bills of divorce, covenants of espousals, etc. Rich widows they induced to minister to them, depriving their dependent relatives of a share (Matthew 23:14; contrast Luke 8:2-3). Poverty however, and a trade, were counted no discredit to a scribe, as Paul wrought at tent making.
Their titles, rab , rabbi , rabban , formed an ascending series in dignity. Salutations, the designation father, chief seats in synagogues and feasts, the long robes with broad blue zizith or "fringes", the hems or borders, the "phylacteries" (tephillim ), contrasted with Jesus' simple "inner vesture" (chitoon ) and "outer garment" (himation ), were all affected by them (Matthew 23:5-6; Luke 14:7). Notwithstanding the self seeking and hypocrisy of most scribes, some were not far from the kingdom of God (Mark 12:32-34; Mark 12:38; Mark 12:40; contrast Mark 12:42-44); some were "sent" by the Wisdom of God, the Lord Jesus (Matthew 23:34; Luke 11:49). Christ's minister must be a cf6 "scribe instructed which is unto the kingdom of heaven" (Matthew 13:52); such were "Zenas the lawyer" and "Apollos mighty in the Scriptures" (Titus 3:13).
Morrish Bible Dictionary - scribes
In the Old Testament this word is applied to the officer who carried on the correspondence for a king, the army, etc., what is now generally understood by secretary. 2 Samuel 8:17 ; 2 Chronicles 24:11 ; Esther 3:12 ; Isaiah 36:3 , etc. It is also applied to those who wrote and explained the scriptures: thus Ezra was "a ready scribe in the law," even "a scribe of the words of the commandments of the Lord," though he was also a priest. Ezra 7:6,11 ; Nehemiah 8:1-13 .
In the New Testament the word is used in the sense in which it is applied to Ezra, and scribes are classed with the chief priests and the elders. They are described as sitting in Moses' seat, and what they taught was to be observed; but, alas, their works were not to be followed. Matthew 7:29 ; Matthew 23:2,13-33 . Many woes are proclaimed against them, and they are addressed, "Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers! how can ye escape the damnation of hell?" Thus these men, who ought to have been examples to others, were publicly denounced because their practice denied what they taught. They did not form a separate sect in New Testament times, a person might be both scribe and Pharisee or Sadducee: cf. Acts 23:9 .
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - scribes
The scribes are mentioned very early in the sacred history, and many authors suppose that they were of two descriptions, the one ecclesiastical, the other civil. It is said, "Out of Zebulon come they that handle the pen of the writer," Judges 5:14 ; and the rabbins state, that the scribes were chiefly of the tribe of Simeon; but it is thought that only those of the tribe of Levi were allowed to transcribe the Holy Scriptures.
These scribes are very frequently called wise men, and counsellors; and those of them who were remarkable for writing well were held in great esteem. In the reign of David, Seraiah, 2 Samuel 8:17 , in the reign of Hezekiah, Shebna, 2 Kings 18:18 , and in the reign of Josiah, Shaphan, 2 Kings 22:3 , are called scribes, and are ranked with the chief officers of the kingdom; and Elishama the scribe, Jeremiah 36:12 , in the reign of Jehoiakim, is mentioned among the princes. We read also of the "principal scribe of the host," or army, Jeremiah 52:25 ; and it is probable that there were scribes in other departments of the state. Previous to the Babylonian captivity, the word scribe seems to have been applied to any person who was concerned in writing, in the same manner as the word secretary is with us. The civil scribes are not mentioned in the New Testament.
It appears that the office of the ecclesiastical scribes, if this distinction be allowed, was originally confined to writing copies of the law, as their name imports; but the knowledge, thus necessarily acquired, soon led them to become instructers of the people in the written law, which, it is believed, they publicly read. Baruch was an amanuensis or scribe to Jeremiah; and Ezra is called "a ready scribe in the law of Moses, having prepared his heart to seek the law of the Lord, and to do it, and to teach in Israel statutes and judgments," Ezra 7:6 ; Ezra 7:10 ; but there is no mention of the scribes being formed into a distinct body of men till after the cessation of prophecy. When, however, there were no inspired teachers in Israel, no divine oracle in the temple, the scribes presumed to interpret, expound, and comment, upon the law and the prophets in the schools and in the synagogues. Hence arose those numberless glosses, and interpretations, and opinions, which so much perplexed and perverted the text instead of explaining it; and hence arose that unauthorized maxim, which was the principal source of all the Jewish sects, that the oral or traditionary law was of Divine origin, as well as the written law of Moses. Ezra had examined the various traditions concerning the ancient and approved usages of the Jewish church, which had been in practice before the captivity, and were remembered by the chief and most aged of the elders of the people; and he had given to some of these traditionary customs and opinions the sanction of his authority. The scribes, therefore, who lived after the time of Simon the Just, in order to give weight to their various interpretations of the law, at first pretended that they also were founded upon tradition, and added them to the opinions which Ezra had established as authentic; and in process of time it came to be asserted, that when Moses was forty days on Mount Sinai, he received from God two laws, the one in writing, the other oral; that this oral law was communicated by Moses to Aaron and Joshua, and that it passed unimpaired and uncorrupted from generation to generation, by the tradition of the elders, or great national council, established in the time of Moses; and that this oral law was to be considered as supplemental and explanatory of the written law, which was represented as being in many places obscure, scanty, and defective. In some cases they were led to expound the law by the traditions, in direct opposition to its true intent and meaning; and it may be supposed that the intercourse of the Jews with the Greeks, after the death of Alexander, contributed much to increase those vain subtleties with which they had perplexed and burdened the doctrines of religion. During our Saviour's ministry, the scribes were those who made the law of Moses their particular study, and who were employed in instructing the people. Their reputed skill in the Scriptures induced Herod, Matthew 2:4 , to consult them concerning the time at which the Messiah was to be born. And our Saviour speaks of them as sitting in Moses's seat, Matthew 23:2 , which implies that they taught the law; and he foretold that he should be betrayed unto the chief priests and unto the scribes, Matthew 16:21 , and that they should put him to death, which shows that they were men of great power and authority among the Jews. Scribes, doctors of law, and lawyers, were only different names for the same class of persons. Those who, in Luke 5, are called Pharisees and doctors of the law, are soon afterward called Pharisees and scribes; and he who, in Matthew 22:35 , is called a lawyer, is, in Mark 12:28 , called one of the scribes. They had scholars under their care, whom they taught the knowledge of the law, and who, in their schools, sat on low stools just beneath their seats; which explains St. Paul's expression that he was "brought up at the feet of Gamaliel,"
Acts 22:3 . We find that our Saviour's manner of teaching was contrasted with that of those vain disputers; for it is said, when he had ended his sermon upon the mount, "the people were astonished at his doctrine; for he taught them as one having authority, and not as the scribes," Matthew 7:29 . By the time of our Saviour, the scribes had, indeed, in a manner, laid aside the written law, having no farther regard to that than as it agreed with their traditionary expositions of it; and thus, by their additions, corruptions, and misinterpretations, they had made "the word of God of none effect through their traditions," Matthew 15:6 . It may be observed, that this in a great measure accounts for the extreme blindness of the Jews with respect to their Messiah, whom they had been taught by these commentators upon the prophecies to expect as a temporal prince. Thus, when our Saviour asserts his divine nature, and appeals to "Moses and the prophets who spake of him, the people sought to slay him," John 5; and he expresses no surprise at their intention. But when he converses with Nicodemus, John 3, who appears to have been convinced by his miracles that he was "a teacher sent from God," when he came to Jesus by night," anxious to obtain farther information concerning his nature and his doctrine, our Lord, after intimating the necessity of laying aside all prejudices against the spiritual nature of his kingdom, asks, "Art thou a master in Israel, and knowest not these things?" that is, knowest not that Moses and the prophets describe the Messiah as the Son of God? and he then proceeds to explain in very clear language the dignity of his person and office, and the purpose for which he came into the world, referring to the predictions of the ancient Scriptures. And Stephen, Acts vii, just before his death, addresses the multitude by an appeal to the law and the prophets, and reprobates in the most severe terms the teachers who misled the people. Our Lord, when speaking of "them of old time," classed the "prophets, and wise men, and scribes," together, Matthew 23:34 ; but of the later scribes he uniformly speaks with censure, and indignation, and usually joins them with the Pharisees, to which sect they in general belonged. St. Paul asks, 1 Corinthians 1:20 , "Where is the wise? Where is the scribe? Where is the disputer of this world?" with evident contempt for such as, "professing themselves wise above what was written, became fools."
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - scribes
(Hebrew: Sopherim, lawyers)
In Jewish polity, men of letters, versed in the law of Moses. In 2 Kings 8, the scribe Josaphat was official recorder or secretary pf David, and thus passim in the historical books. In 4Kings 25, the man who had charge of the military muster is called a Sopher or scribe. The chief meaning of the term, however, is a man of letters whose office it was to explain the law of Moses. In this sense Esdras is called "scribe of the law of the God of heaven" (1 Esdras 7). The Talmud declares that the scribes as counselors assisted the judges in their official acts. Their social status was eminent; they received great homage from the people. The most celebrated of the scribes were Aillel, Schammai, and Gamaliel the teacher of Saint Paul the Apostle. The scribes were closely associated with the Pharisees, and served them as their lawyers. They shared the Pharisees' hatred of Christ, and were imbued with a high degree of Pharisaic hypocrisy and venality.

Sentence search

Scribes - In the days before mechanical printing, copies of documents, letters, government records and sacred writings were handwritten by skilled secretaries known as scribes (1 Kings 4:3; 2 Kings 18:18; 2 Kings 22:8; Jeremiah 8:8; Jeremiah 38:18; Jeremiah 38:26-27). The religious importance of scribes developed during the period that followed the Jews’ return from captivity in 538 BC and the subsequent reconstruction of the Jewish nation. The result was a greater demand for copies of the law, and consequently greater prominence for the scribes (Nehemiah 8:1-4; Nehemiah 8:8; Nehemiah 9:3). ...
Because scribes had developed special skills in copying the details of the law exactly, people regarded them as experts on matters of the law (Ezra 7:6; Ezra 7:10). Although the priests were supposed to be the teachers in Israel (Deuteronomy 33:10; Malachi 2:7), people now went to the scribes, rather than the priests, when they had problems of the law that they wanted explained. During the centuries immediately before the Christian era, the scribes grew in power and prestige, and were the chiefly cause of the striking changes that came over the Jewish religion. ...
Power of the scribes...
The increased interest in the law produced not only the scribes as a class of teachers, but also the synagogues as places of worship (see SYNAGOGUE). The scribes developed the structure for synagogue meetings, and controlled the synagogue teaching Matthew 23:2; Matthew 23:6; Luke 6:6-7; Luke 20:46). )...
There was, however, a great difference between Ezra’s explanations of the law and the expositions of the scribes of Jesus’ time. Over the intervening centuries, the scribes had produced a system of their own, which consisted of countless laws to surround the central law of Moses. These new laws may have grown out of legal cases that the scribes had judged or traditions that had been handed down. The scribes then forced the Jewish people to obey these laws, till the whole lawkeeping system became a heavy burden (Matthew 15:1-9; Matthew 23:2-4; see TRADITION). ...
As leaders in the synagogue and teachers of the people, the scribes enjoyed a respected status in the Jewish community (Matthew 23:6-7). In addition to controlling the synagogues, the scribes taught in the temple and established schools for the training of their disciples (Luke 2:46; Acts 22:3). ...
Most of the scribes belonged to the party of the Pharisees (one of two major groups within Judaism; see PHARISEES; SADDUCEES), and are often linked with them in the biblical narratives (Matthew 5:20; Matthew 12:38; Matthew 15:1; Matthew 23:2; Acts 5:34; Acts 22:3). ...
Later influences...
With the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70, the Jewish temple rituals ceased; but the influence of the scribes lived on. By AD 200, the scribes (now better known as rabbis) had put into writing the oral traditions that earlier scribes had built up around the law
Sepharvaim - The two books; the two scribes
Sarea - One of Ezra’s swift scribes ( 2Es 14:24 )
Selemia - One of Ezra’s swift scribes ( 2Es 14:24 )
Tirathites - A family of scribes ( 1 Chronicles 2:55 )
Elihoreph - One of Solomon’s scribes ( 1 Kings 4:3 )
Shimeathites - Family of scribes at Jabez
Suchathites - A family of scribes at Jabez (1 Chronicles 2:55)
Tirathites - (ti' rath itess) Family of Kenite scribes (1 Chronicles 2:55 )
su'Chathites, - one of the families of scribes at Jabez
Eliho'Reph - (God is his reward ), one of Solomon's scribes
Shisha - Father of Elihoreph and Ahiah, royal scribes under Solomon
Ethanus - One of the ‘swift scribes’ who wrote to the dictation of Ezra ( 2Es 14:24 )
Dabria - One of the five scribes who wrote to the dictation of Ezra ( 2Es 14:24 )
Jaddai - (jad' di) Modern translations' spelling of Jadau based on textual notes by earliest Hebrew scribes
Suchathites - A family of scribes at Jabez
Magicians - hartumim, (Daniel 1:20 ) were sacred scribes who acted as interpreters of omens, or "revealers of secret things
Sheva - Sheva', one of David's scribes (2 Samuel 20:25 )
Shahazumah - (sshay' huh zyoo' muh) Modern translation spelling of Shahazimah following the written Hebrew text rather than the notes of the earliest Hebrew scribes
Tirathites - Designation of one of the families of scribes dwelling at Jabez
ti'Rathites, the, - one of the three families of scribes residing at Jabez, (1 Chronicles 2:55 ) the others being the Shimeathites and Sucathites
Scribes - The scribes acted as secretaries of state, whose business it was to prepare and issue decrees in the name of the king (2 Samuel 8:17 ; 20:25 ; 1 Chronicles 18:16 ; 24:6 ; 1 Kings 4:3 ; 2 Kings 12:9-11 ; 18:18-37 , etc. There was also a subordinate class of scribes, most of whom were Levites. ...
In later times, after the Captivity, when the nation lost its independence, the scribes turned their attention to the law, gaining for themselves distinction by their intimate acquaintance with its contents. It is evident that in New Testament times the scribes belonged to the sect of the Pharisees, who supplemented the ancient written law by their traditions (Matthew 23 ), thereby obscuring it and rendering it of none effect. The titles "scribes" and "lawyers" (q. ...
Some of the scribes, however, were men of a different spirit, and showed themselves friendly to the gospel and its preachers
Scribe - This class was the scribes. -Scribes were divided into various schools. While doubtless the majority were Pharisees, the Sadducees had their scribes also (implied in Acts 23:9). Further, the Pharisee scribes were divided into two great schools, the followers of Hillel and of Shammai. -The influence of the scribes was naturally very great, and they were highly esteemed. -In the early history of Christianity we have only three references to the scribes. Paul was on his trial, the Pharisaic scribes repeated Gamaliel’s advice (Acts 23:9). (3) On the other hand, Acts 6:12 mentions scribes among those who proceeded against Stephen. But in nearly all cases of Jews rising against Christians, especially outside Jerusalem, we may be sure that the scribes, the recognized leaders of the people, were the instigators
Shitrai - Early Hebrew scribes noted the spelling as Shirtai
Ararite - (ehr' ay rite) NAS spelling of Hararite (2 Samuel 23:23 ) reflecting distinctive Hebrew spelling of written text, which has already been marked for change by early Hebrew scribes
Scribe - scribes also officiated in the army. scribes in the New Testament were the copyists of the law, and were popularly regarded as the teachers or expounders of the law. That there were exceptions is manifest, for Jesus speaks of scribes being sent of God, Matthew 23:34, and one of his parables relates to a scribe "instructed unto the kingdom of heaven. The scribes and lawyers were one class
Scribes - The Talmud declares that the scribes as counselors assisted the judges in their official acts. The most celebrated of the scribes were Aillel, Schammai, and Gamaliel the teacher of Saint Paul the Apostle. The scribes were closely associated with the Pharisees, and served them as their lawyers
Lahmas - Possibly, early scribes confused final letter with similar appearing final “m” in Hebrew
Jabez - ...
...
A place inhabited by several families of the scribes (1 Chronicles 2:55 )
Scribes - The scribes are mentioned very early in the sacred history, and many authors suppose that they were of two descriptions, the one ecclesiastical, the other civil. It is said, "Out of Zebulon come they that handle the pen of the writer," Judges 5:14 ; and the rabbins state, that the scribes were chiefly of the tribe of Simeon; but it is thought that only those of the tribe of Levi were allowed to transcribe the Holy Scriptures. ...
These scribes are very frequently called wise men, and counsellors; and those of them who were remarkable for writing well were held in great esteem. In the reign of David, Seraiah, 2 Samuel 8:17 , in the reign of Hezekiah, Shebna, 2 Kings 18:18 , and in the reign of Josiah, Shaphan, 2 Kings 22:3 , are called scribes, and are ranked with the chief officers of the kingdom; and Elishama the scribe, Jeremiah 36:12 , in the reign of Jehoiakim, is mentioned among the princes. We read also of the "principal scribe of the host," or army, Jeremiah 52:25 ; and it is probable that there were scribes in other departments of the state. The civil scribes are not mentioned in the New Testament. ...
It appears that the office of the ecclesiastical scribes, if this distinction be allowed, was originally confined to writing copies of the law, as their name imports; but the knowledge, thus necessarily acquired, soon led them to become instructers of the people in the written law, which, it is believed, they publicly read. Baruch was an amanuensis or scribe to Jeremiah; and Ezra is called "a ready scribe in the law of Moses, having prepared his heart to seek the law of the Lord, and to do it, and to teach in Israel statutes and judgments," Ezra 7:6 ; Ezra 7:10 ; but there is no mention of the scribes being formed into a distinct body of men till after the cessation of prophecy. When, however, there were no inspired teachers in Israel, no divine oracle in the temple, the scribes presumed to interpret, expound, and comment, upon the law and the prophets in the schools and in the synagogues. The scribes, therefore, who lived after the time of Simon the Just, in order to give weight to their various interpretations of the law, at first pretended that they also were founded upon tradition, and added them to the opinions which Ezra had established as authentic; and in process of time it came to be asserted, that when Moses was forty days on Mount Sinai, he received from God two laws, the one in writing, the other oral; that this oral law was communicated by Moses to Aaron and Joshua, and that it passed unimpaired and uncorrupted from generation to generation, by the tradition of the elders, or great national council, established in the time of Moses; and that this oral law was to be considered as supplemental and explanatory of the written law, which was represented as being in many places obscure, scanty, and defective. During our Saviour's ministry, the scribes were those who made the law of Moses their particular study, and who were employed in instructing the people. And our Saviour speaks of them as sitting in Moses's seat, Matthew 23:2 , which implies that they taught the law; and he foretold that he should be betrayed unto the chief priests and unto the scribes, Matthew 16:21 , and that they should put him to death, which shows that they were men of great power and authority among the Jews. scribes, doctors of law, and lawyers, were only different names for the same class of persons. Those who, in Luke 5, are called Pharisees and doctors of the law, are soon afterward called Pharisees and scribes; and he who, in Matthew 22:35 , is called a lawyer, is, in Mark 12:28 , called one of the scribes. We find that our Saviour's manner of teaching was contrasted with that of those vain disputers; for it is said, when he had ended his sermon upon the mount, "the people were astonished at his doctrine; for he taught them as one having authority, and not as the scribes," Matthew 7:29 . By the time of our Saviour, the scribes had, indeed, in a manner, laid aside the written law, having no farther regard to that than as it agreed with their traditionary expositions of it; and thus, by their additions, corruptions, and misinterpretations, they had made "the word of God of none effect through their traditions," Matthew 15:6 . Our Lord, when speaking of "them of old time," classed the "prophets, and wise men, and scribes," together, Matthew 23:34 ; but of the later scribes he uniformly speaks with censure, and indignation, and usually joins them with the Pharisees, to which sect they in general belonged
Janum - KJV, NAS spelling follows vocalization by early Hebrew scribes
Hodaiah - (hoh day' yah) KJV, REB spelling of Hodaviah (1 Chronicles 3:24 ) based on Hebrew text in which copyist has obviously transposed two letters and early scribes have noted proper reading in margin of text
Hubbah - Most translations follow the early scribes' marginal note and the early translations in a slight change of the first Hebrew letter
Jehuel - Other translations read Jehiel, following early Hebrew scribes
Dill - Jesus accused the scribes and Pharisees of tithing their dill but neglecting justice, mercy, and faith (Matthew 23:23 )
Rabbi - The word also had a more specialized meaning as a formal title for the Jewish teachers of the law known as scribes (cf. Luke 2:46; Matthew 23:7; Acts 5:34; Acts 22:3; see scribes)
Scribe - During the Exile in Babylon educated scribes apparently became the experts in God's written word, copying, preserving, and teaching it. A professional group of such scribes developed by New Testament times, most being Pharisees (Mark 2:16 )
Jezoar - Early Hebrew scribes read it as “and Zohar” (NIV)
Lawyer - The ‘lawyers’ busied themselves with the study and exposition of the Written and the Oral Law of Israel, and were practically identical with the scribes (wh
Scribes - SCRIBES. —The scribes were a class of learned Jews who devoted themselves to a scientific study of the Law, and made its exposition their professional occupation. The word which we translate ‘scribes’ is γραμματεῖς, ‘the learned,’ which corresponds to the Hebrew סוֹפִרִים. They are very frequently associated in the Synoptics with the Pharisees, and with the chief priests and elders, but there is no mention of ‘scribes’ in the Fourth Gospel at all, except in the special passage dealing with the woman taken in adultery (John 8:3). These were the scribes. ...
(2) During the Grecian period of Jewish history, a strong feeling of opposition was developed between the scribes and, at least, the higher order of the priests. And when, through the influence of Hellenic culture, the priestly aristocracy became infected with heathen ideas, and fell away from the laws and customs of Judaism, the duty of upholding the Law fell mainly upon the scribes, who from that time forward became the real teachers of the people, and dominated their whole spiritual life. Among the most strenuous opponents of his endeavour to Hellenize the Jews were the Hasidaeans, or party of ‘the pious,’ who may be taken to represent the strictest adherents of the teaching of the scribes, and who carried their ideas of the sanctity of the Law to the suicidal extent of refusing to defend themselves when attacked on the Sabbath. ...
(3) From this time onward to the time of Christ the influence of the scribes became more and more predominant. Up till the destruction of Jerusalem the main seat of their activity was in Judaea, ‘the scribes from Jerusalem’ (Matthew 15:1, Mark 3:22) being spoken of as the most important and influential members of the party. Hence there was a natural affinity between them and the scribes, whose profession it was to interpret the Law. But it is extremely probable that there were also scribes who were Sadducees, for the Sadducees also adhered to the written Law, and doubtless had their scribes to interpret it. Support is lent to this view by the expressions in Mark 2:16 ‘the scribes of the Pharisees,’ and in Luke 5:30 ‘the Pharisees and their scribes,’ which seem to indicate that there were other scribes than those of the Pharisees. In the time of Christ the great mass of the scribes was divided into two schools, named after the famous leaders, Hillel and Shammai, about whom little is certainly known. —The functions of the scribes are well summed up in the traditional saying ascribed to the ‘Men of the Great Synagogue. ’ ‘These laid down three rules: Be careful in pronouncing judgment! bring up many pupils! and make a fence about the Law!’ The professional employment of the scribes, therefore, fell under three heads:—(1) The study and development of the Law itself; (2) the teaching of it to their pupils; and (3) its practical administration in the Sanhedrin and other courts; that is to say, they acted as students, teachers, and judges. To interpret and expound it, and to till up what was lacking in the way of casuistic detail, was the business of the scribes. ...
But the scribes did not confine their labours to the Law. —To teach the Law was also the professional business of the scribes. None of these traditional rules having been written down, the teaching was of necessity entirely oral, and round the more famous of the scribes there gathered large numbers of young men, eager for instruction as to the proper conduct of life. Of these, some in their turn would become scribes and teachers of the Law. The ‘houses of teaching’ were distinct from the synagogues; but as it was through the influence of the scribes that the synagogue service originated, so doubtless they availed themselves of the opportunities which the synagogues gave them of teaching the Law to the common people. ...
(3) The scribes as judges. —To the scribes, as specially skilled in knowledge of the Law, it also naturally fell to take a leading part in its practical administration. From the time of the Hasmonaeans they had formed a constituent element in the Sanhedrin, being associated in that body with the chief priests and elders, and it was usually the scribes who exercised the greatest influence in its deliberations. Relations of the scribes to Jesus. —The ministry of Jesus could not but excite interest amongst the scribes. 70, the authority of the scribes increased in importance. The ordinances of the Oral Law were at last written down, and to their careful preservation by the scribes we are indebted for the Hebrew Scriptures we now possess. Every History of the Jews, every Life of Christ, every Commentary on the Gospels, deals to some extent with the scribes
Jabez - Home of scribes whose location is not known (1 Chronicles 2:55 )
Jeziel - The written Hebrew text has the name Jezuel, while the early Hebrew scribes noted the reading, Jeziel
Scriptorium - A large room in a monastery reserved for the use of the scribes or copyists of the community. The scriptorium was under the care of the precentor, or one of his assistants called the armarius, who provided all the requisites peeded by the scribes, such as ink, parchment, pens
Haruphite - ” Reading of early Hebrew scribes in 1 Chronicles 12:5
ja'Bez -
Apparently a place at which the families of the scribes resided who belonged to the families of the Kenites
Sanhedrin - Many of these were connected with the establishment of synagogues (or meeting places) in the Jewish communities, and the rise of people known as scribes (or teachers of the law). The scribes usually had positions of power in the synagogues and used them as places from which to spread their teachings (see scribes; SYNAGOGUE). As the scribes and other leaders on the synagogue committees grew in power, a system of local Jewish rule developed that eventually produced a council known as the Sanhedrin. In New Testament times it consisted of scribes, elders, priests and other respected citizens, and included both Pharisees and Sadducees
Hassophereth - or a guild of scribes who returned
Cummin - Our Lord reproved the scribes and Pharisees for so very carefully paying tithe of mint, anise, and cummin, and yet neglecting good works and obedience to God's law, Matthew 23:23
Dan-Jaan - Many Bible students think the scribes have not preserved the correct Hebrew text at this point and read only “Dan” (NRSV) or “Dan and Ijon” (NEB)
Lawyers - See scribes
Shimeath - They may be included in the description ‘the families of the scribes, which dwelt at Jabez,’ but the whole passage leaves us uncertain. ]'>[1] regards the name as referring to the function of a section of the scribes ( resonantes ) after the Exile
Jabez - A city in Judah occupied by scribes, the descendants of Caleb ( 1 Chronicles 2:55 )
Tophet - (toh' feht) Name for a place in the Hinnom Valley outside Jerusalem derived from Aramaic or Hebrew meaning, “fireplace,” but altered by Hebrew scribes to mean “shameful thing” because of the illicit worship carried on there (Jeremiah 7:31-32 ; KJV, “Tophet”)
Ahiah - ), son of Shisha, one of Solomon's scribes
Scribes - scribes . ‘The scribes of the Pharisees’ ( Mark 2:16 ) points us to the inseparable connexion between the Pharisees and the scribes. Naturally, there were many noble scribes, men whose character and learning were commensurate with their task. ), has the scribes in mind. ...
This leads us to the deeper defect of the scribes as a class. Hence our Lord’s fearful denunciation of the scribes (Matthew 23:1-39 )
Machabees - The most notable martyrs of the persecution propagated by Antiochus in his effort to hellenize Jerusalem, were Eleazar, an old man, chief of the scribes, seven brothers, and their mother Samona
Sibbec(h)ai - 1 Chronicles 11:29 lists him among David's military heroes, leading many commentators to see Sibbecai as the original reading for Mebunnai in 2 Samuel 23:27 resulting from a confusion of Hebrew letters by early scribes
Phylactery - The Pharisees and scribes made them large to attract attention; it was their being made 'broad' that was condemned by the Lord
Jabez (2) - A town where the scribes belonging to the families of the Kenites resided (1 Chronicles 2:55; a school said by the Targum to have been founded by Othniel, called also Jabez; Rechab is made Rechabiah son of Eliezer, Moses' son): the Tirathites, Shimeathites, and Sucathites; they came of Hemath, the father of the house of Rechab
Scribe - 1: γραμματεύς (Strong's #1122 — Noun Masculine — grammateus — gram-mat-yooce' ) from gramma, "a writing," denotes "a scribe, a man of letters, a teacher of the law;" the "scribes" are mentioned frequently in the Synoptists, especially in connection with the Pharisees, with whom they virtually formed one party (see Luke 5:21 ), sometimes with the chief priests, e. Like Ezra (Ezra 7:12 ), the "scribes" were found originally among the priests and Levites. The priests being the official interpreters of the Law, the "scribes" ere long became an independent company; though they never held political power, they became leaders of the people
Hanan - Storekeeper of the tithes ("treasurer of the treasuries"), Nehemiah 13:13, where priests, scribes, Levites, and laymen are represented
Purification - To these the scribes and Pharisees added others, such as washing the hands before eating, washing cups and plates — being very zealous in these things, while within they were full of extortion and excess
Knife - Also by scribes for making and mending the reed pen (Jeremiah 36:23, "penknife"; see also 1 Kings 18:28)
Elihoreph - ” One of Solomon's two royal scribes with his brother Ahijah (1 Kings 4:3 )
Tadmor - Early Hebrew scribes read Tadmor as the city instead of Tamar of the written text in 1 Kings 9:18
Ahimelech - By an error of the scribes he is called "Abimelech," 1 Chronicles 18:16; also "Ahiah," 1 Samuel 14:3; and he is sometimes confounded with Abiathar
Chiun - ” The Hebrew word kiyun appears to represent an intentional change by the Hebrew scribes, inserting the vowels of siqquts , “abomination,” for an original reading, Kaiwan , the name of a Babylonian God of the stars equivalent to the Greek god Saturn
Kere-Kethib - ” The terms represent notations made in the margin of the Hebrew text by early scribes called Massoretes. In such cases the text has the written consonants of the traditional text, but the scribes had placed vowel points in the text indicating how the word should be read
Cummin - In the New Testament it is mentioned in Matthew 23:23 , where our Lord pronounces a "woe" on the scribes and Pharisees, who were zealous in paying tithes of "mint and anise and cummin," while they omitted the weightier matters of the law
Jannes And Jambres - The Damascus Document from the Qumran Sect describes the two as brothers raised up by Belial, the evil one. Eusebius of Caesarea described them as sacred scribes of Egypt
Borne - ...
Matthew 23:4 (b) Here is described the great difficulty which the people had in trying to be good, and to observe all the traditions of the scribes and Pharisees in order to be saved
Jabez - City in which the various families of the scribes dwelt
Consultation - The chief priests held a consultation with the elders and scribes
Corner - Under the scribes, minute legislation fixed one-sixtieth as the portion of a field which was to be left for the legal "corner
Tradition - Many of the later traditions had been developed and taught by the scribes and Pharisees, and brought Jesus into conflict with the Jewish religious leaders (Matthew 23:4-16; see scribes; PHARISEES)
Powerful, Powerfully - ...
B — 1: εὐτόνως (Strong's #2159 — Adverb — eutonos — yoo-ton'-oce ) signifies "vigorously, vehemently" (eu, "well," teino, "to stretch"), Luke 23:10 , "vehemently," of the accusation of the chief priests and scribes against Christ; Acts 18:28 , RV, "powerfully" (AV, "mightily"), of Apollos in confuting Jews
Scribes - Two scribes in Assyrian monuments write down the various objects, the heads of the slain, prisoners, cattle, etc. " But Maurer, "the false pen of the scribes (persons skilled in expounding) has converted it (the law) into a lie," namely, by false interpretations. "...
"The families of scribes" had their own special residence (1 Chronicles 2:55). Ezra with the scribes probably compiled under the Holy Spirit, from authoritative histories, Chronicles (1 Chronicles 29:29; 2 Chronicles 9:29; 2 Chronicles 13:22, "the commentary of the prophet Iddo": Μidrash ). The scribes by whom the Old Testament was written in its present characters and form, and its canon settled, are collectively in later times called "the men of the great synagogue, the true successors of the prophets" (Ρirke Αboth ("The Sayings of the [1] Fathers"), i. The scribes first reported the decisions of previous rabbis, the halachoth , the "current precepts". Five pairs of teachers represent the succession of scribes, each pair consisting of the president of the Sanhedrin and the father of the house of judgment presiding in the supreme court. ) is the best representative of the scribes; Menahem (probably the Essene Manaen: Josephus scribes leant on "them of old time" (Matthew 5:21-27; Matthew 5:33); "He taught as one having authority and not as the scribes" (Mark 12:32-344). Candidate scribes were "chosen" only after examination (compare Matthew 20:16; Matthew 22:14; John 15:16). Notwithstanding the self seeking and hypocrisy of most scribes, some were not far from the kingdom of God (1664057728_91; Mark 12:38; Mark 12:40; contrast Mark 12:42-44); some were "sent" by the Wisdom of God, the Lord Jesus (Matthew 23:34; Luke 11:49)
Shelomith - Priest over the cultic treasury under David (1 Chronicles 26:25-28 , where Hebrew scribes have interchanged Shelomith and Shelomoth)
Gemariah - Baruch read aloud to the people from Gemariah's chamber, and again in the hearing of Gemariah and other scribes, the prophecies of Jeremiah (Jeremiah 36:11-20 ), which filled him with terror
Gnat - This may help us to understand that passage, Matthew 23:24 , where the proverbial expression of carefully straining out a little fly from the liquor to be drunk, and yet swallowing a camel, intimates, that the scribes and Pharisees affected to scruple little things, and yet disregarded those of the greatest moment
Jeremoth - Early Hebrew scribes and earliest translators read “and Ramoth
Gregorian Sacramentary - The book was copied many times so that there are many versions of it, each containing the additions made by the various scribes
Viper, - John the Baptist called the multitude who came to be baptised 'a brood of vipers,' and the Lord applies the same term to the scribes and Pharisees, showing the deadly character of their opposition
Rabbi - The Jewisk scribes and Pharisees eagerly sought the honor of this appellation
Sacramentary, Gregorian - The book was copied many times so that there are many versions of it, each containing the additions made by the various scribes
Dimon - This may be the original reading, but that would go against the normal type of copying mistakes scribes make in that it would substitute an unknown place for a famous place
Craft - The chief priests and scribes sought how they might take him by craft, and put him to death
Extortion - —The word is used by Christ in His terrible arraignment of the scribes and Pharisees, on account of the way in which, by their methods of plunder, they openly violated the Scriptures they knew so well (Matthew 23:25, Luke 11:39)
Unlearned - , "unlettered" (grammata, "letters:" grapho, "to write"), Acts 4:13 , is explained by Grimm-Thayer as meaning "unversed in the learning of the Jewish schools;" in the papyri, however, it occurs very frequently in a formula used by one who signs for another who cannot write, which suggests that the rulers, elders and scribes regarded the Apostles as "unlettered" (Moulton and Milligan)
Keys - ]'>[1]...
With the other apostles, Peter also received the power of binding and loosing (Matthew 16:19 ; Matthew 18:18 ), a phrase used to describe the work of scribes who sought God's will through a study of Scripture and declared it through teaching and judging. The scribes could also exclude persons from the community (compare Matthew 18:15-17 ), but Christ denounced them for misusing their key (Luke 11:52 ) and blocking the entrance to the kingdom (Matthew 23:13 )
Scribe - The scribes of the New Testament were a class of men educated for the purpose of preserving and expounding the sacred books. The same persons who are termed scribes, are in parallel passages sometimes called lawyers and doctors of the law, Matthew 22:35 Mark 12:28
Ink - The professed writers or scribes carried with them, as they do at the present day in eastern countries, writing instruments, and among them was an inkhorn, thrust into the girdle at the side
Lost Coin, Parable of the - A parable told to the Pharisees and scribes who were murmuring against Our Lord for stooping to receive and enlighten publicans and sinners (Luke 15); also read for the Gospel, the third Sunday after Pentecost
Cruelty - He now recognizes the fact that in the Bible we have a faithful record of the slow evolution of spiritual ideals, and that the revelation of the NT brands as un-Christian and inhuman many things that were written by the ancient scribes and some things that were done by ancient saints
On - Ezekiel or the scribes copying his work substituted Aven, Hebrew for “trouble, deceit,” for On in pronouncing judgment on it (Ezekiel 30:17 )
Recorder - He also drew up papers for the king's guidance, and prepared drafts of the royal will for the scribes
Milcom - ” Apparently, a form created by Hebrew scribes to slander and avoid pronouncing the name of the national god of Ammon (1Kings 11:5,1 Kings 11:7 ), who may have been identified with Chemosh, the god of Moab
Hem of the Garment - The Lord had, alas, to declare that the scribes and Pharisees, among other pretended marks of sanctity, enlarged the borders of their garments to be seen of men
Scribe - In the days of our Lord the scribes were among the leading men of the nation
Scribes - --Of the scribes of this period, with the exception of Ezra and Zadok, ( Nehemiah 13:13 ) we have no record. As time passed on the "words of the scribes" were honored above the law. While the scribes repeated the traditions of the elders, he "spake as one having authority," "not as the scribes. For the scribes there were the best places at feasts, the chief seats in synagogues
Entangle - have the word in 2 Thessalonians 1:4 , the most authentic have anecho, "to endure;" (b) with the meaning to set oneself against, be urgent against, said of the plotting of Herodias against John the Baptist, Mark 6:19 , RV, "set herself against," AV, "had a quarrel against;" of the effort of the scribes and Pharisees to provoke the Lord to say something which would provide them with a ground of accusation against Him, Luke 11:53 , RV, "to press upon," marg
Jannes And Jambres - , 9:8) wrote, "Jannes and Jannes were sacred scribes, deemed inferior to none in magic
Stumble - When He appeared the scribes, the Pharisees and the Herodians at once complained, resented and rejected CHRIST
Opposition - OPPOSITION—The reason for the opposition offered to Christ in proclaiming His Kingdom on earth was the hostility of the scribes, Pharisees, and others, who represented the religious element in the Jewish nation. He inveighed against the Pharisees and scribes in no measured terms (see esp
Learning - From the restoration following the epoch of the Exile there was a class of men who are known to us as ‘scribes’ (sôphěrîm). And a succession of able scribes arose who expounded the sacred books, cherished and enlarged tradition, determined the details of religious observance, and wrote the Law in its exclusiveness on the minds of the people. Part of their work consisted in the training of young scribes, and for this end schools or colleges were formed. ...
But the work of the scribes was not confined to ‘higher education. The teacher, or hazzan, belonged to a humble rank of the fraternity of scribes. It is true that Peter and John are styled ‘unlearned’ (Acts 4:13); yet this is but the technical description (ἀγράμματοι καὶ ἰδιῶται) of men who had not graduated in the colleges of the scribes. But His ‘learning’ and consequent ‘teaching,’ on the spiritual side, as He Himself declared, came from an inward and Divine spring (John 7:16-17), a saying which helps to explain the statement of two of the Synoptists (Matthew 7:29 || Mark 1:22), ‘He taught them as one having authority, and not as the scribes’ (γραμματεῖς)
Sermon on the Mount - Rather he opposed the traditional interpretations and false applications taught by the Jewish teachers of the law (the scribes, or rabbis). ...
Instead of being forgiving, the scribes used the law as an excuse for personal revenge. Jesus’ teaching, being from God, had an authority that was lacking in the traditional teaching of the scribes (Matthew 7:28-29)
Jashobeam - 2 Samuel 23:8 spells the name Josheb-basshebeth (see modern translations), the last part of which represents the Hebrew word for shame, at times used by scribes instead of an original name containing the Canaanite god's name Baal, leading some interpreters to see the original name here as Yishbaal
Sadducees - The "Scribes and Pharisees, the Sadducees and Samaritans," all arose in opposition to the cross
Sanhedrin or Sanhedrim - we find it consisted of the chief priests, or heads of the twenty-four courses, the elders, lawyers, and the scribes
James the Less, - (Acts 12:17 ; 15:13,19 ; 21:18 ; Galatians 2:9 ) According to tradition, James was thrown down from the temple by the scribes and Pharisees; he was then stoned, and his brains dashed out with a fuller's club
Synagogue, the Great - It consisted of 120 members, and these were known as the men of the Great Synagogue, the successors of the prophets, themselves, in their turn, succeeded by scribes prominent, individually, as teachers
Rabbi - In Matthew 23:7-8 scribes generally are addressed
Ephron - The earliest Hebrew scribes suggested that Ephrain was the correct spelling (KJV)
Builders - They were the scribes, the Pharisees, the Sadducees, and the Herodians
Magi - Philo describes the magi as "men who gave themselves to the study of nature and contemplation of the divine perfections, worthy of being the counsellors of kings. " In this sense Daniel was called master of the 'magicians,' but which others translate as 'scribes
School - In the synagogue the scribes taught the Law to the people. See Education; scribes; Synagogue ; Torah
Natural - He selects him from among the philosophers of Greece, who sought after wisdom, and from among the Jewish scribes, who were instructed in the revealed law of God, 1 Corinthians 1:22-23 . These are the persons whom he terms the wise, the scribes, the disputers of this world—men to whom the Gospel was a stumbling block and foolishness, 1 Corinthians 1:20 ; 1 Corinthians 1:23
Bible, Editions of the - Handwritten copies, even if made by painstaking scribes, inevitably contain variations from the original, and the number of such variants were greatly increased by the hands of careless or ignorant copyists
Jehonathan - Earliest Hebrew scribes noted that Jonathan was a descendant of Moses, but the present Hebrew text says Manasseh
Hemerobaptists - Epiphanius, who mentions this as the fourth heresy among the Jews, observes, that in other points these heretics had much the same opinion as the scribes and Pharisees; only that they denied the resurrection of the dead, in common with the Sadducees, and retained a few other of the improprieties of these last
Eating And Drinking - The scribes and Pharisees complained that Jesus ate and drank with publicans and sinners (Luke 5:30), which was His glory; and it will be the glory of those who continue with Him in His temptations that they will eat and drink at His table in His Kingdom (Luke 22:30)
Scribes - ...
In the New Testament the word is used in the sense in which it is applied to Ezra, and scribes are classed with the chief priests and the elders
Editions of the Bible - Handwritten copies, even if made by painstaking scribes, inevitably contain variations from the original, and the number of such variants were greatly increased by the hands of careless or ignorant copyists
Letters - But only a small fraction attended the schools of the scribes at which advanced instruction was given in its more recondite matters and the commentaries upon them contained in the Midrash and other Rabbinic books. ]'>[1] He is also evidently acquainted with the kind of teaching supplied by the scribes
Pharisees - In this the Pharisees supported the traditions that the teachers of the law (the scribes) had developed and taught. The scribes had expanded the law of Moses into a system that consisted of countless laws dealing with such matters as sabbath-keeping (Matthew 12:1-2; Mark 3:1-6; Luke 13:10-14), ritual cleanliness (Matthew 23:25; Mark 7:1-9), fasting (Luke 18:11-12), tithing (Matthew 23:23) and the taking of oaths (Matthew 23:16-22; see also scribes)
Debir - It has been doubtfully identified with edh-Dhaheriyeh near Hebron; till the site can be identified and examined, the attractive speculations based on the apparent meaning of the older name (‘City of Books’ or ‘Scribes’) must be left in the region of theory
Teacher, Teaching - ' He taught as one having authority, and not as the scribes
Indignation - ...
B — 1: ἀγανακτέω (Strong's #23 — Verb — aganakteo — ag-an-ak-teh'-o ) "to be indignant, to be moved with indignation" (from agan, "much," achomai, "to grieve"), is translated "were moved with indignation" of the ten disciples against James and John, Matthew 20:24 ; in Mark 10:41 , RV (AV, "they began to be much displeased"); in Matthew 21:15 , of the chief priests and scribes, against Christ and the children, RV, "they were moved with indignation" (AV, "they were sore displeased"); in Matthew 26:8 , of the disciples against the woman who anointed Christ's feet, "they had indignation;" so Mark 14:4 ; in Mark 10:14 , of Christ, against the disciples, for rebuking the children, "He was moved with indignation," RV (AV, "he was much displeased"); in Luke 13:14 , of the ruler of the synagogue against Christ for healing on the Sabbath, "being moved with indignation," RV, AV, "(answered) with indignation
Two Sons, Parable of the - They responded in favor of the first son: whereupon Jesus said that publicans and harlots shall go into the Kingdom of God before the chief-priests, scribes, and Pharisees, thus giving the meaning of the parable and convicting the members of the august Sanhedrin out of their own mouths
Teacher - ...
Another group to gain prominence were the scribes, or teachers of the law. The early scribes were godly men who explained and applied God’s law sensibly (Ezra 7:6; Ezra 7:10; Nehemiah 8:1-3; Nehemiah 8:8), but by the time of Jesus the scribes had developed into a class of traditionalists whose teachings prevented people from entering the kingdom of God (Matthew 15:9; Matthew 23:1-7; Matthew 23:13; Luke 11:52; see scribes). The teaching of Jesus, however, was in marked contrast to that of the scribes (Matthew 7:28-29; Deuteronomy 11:19)
Seraiah - ...
...
One of David's scribes or secretaries (2 Samuel 8:17 )
Lawyer - The scribes were originally simply men of letters, students of Scripture, and the name first given to them contains in itself no reference to the law; in course of time, however, they devoted themselves mainly, though by no means exclusively, to the study of the law
Serpent - , Psalm 58:4 ; Proverbs 23:32 ; Ecclesiastes 10:8,11 ; Amos 5:19 ; Mark 16:18 ; Luke 10:19 ; the Lord used the word metaphorically of the scribes and Pharisees, Matthew 23:33 (cp
Condemn - The son of man shall be betrayed to the chief priests, and to the scribes, and they shall condemn him to death
Oath - " The Lord's command in Matthew 5:33 was a condemnation of the minute and arbitrary restrictions imposed by the scribes and Pharisees in the matter of adjurations, by which God's Name was profaned
Ahaziah - In 2 Chronicles 22:2, he is said, by an error of the scribes, to have been "forty-two years old" when he began to reign, which would make him two years older than his father
Proselyte - The Lord describes such a proselyte as the scribes and Pharisees would make, as "twofold more the child of hell" than themselves
Elder - ...
They retained their position under the judges (Judges 2:7), the kings (2 Samuel 17:4), in the captivity (Jeremiah 29:1), and on the return (Ezra 5:5); and in New Testament times as one of the classes from which the Sanhedrin members were chosen, and are associated with the chief priests and scribes (Matthew 16:21; Matthew 21:23; Matthew 26:59; Luke 22:66), "the presbytery of the people" (Greek)
Salutation - The Lord Jesus takes notice of the salutations of the scribes in the market-place, and their delight to be called of men Rabbi
Kenites - Of these Kenites were the Rechabites, the Tirathites, the Shimeathites, and the Suchathites, mentioned in 1 Chronicles 2:55 , whose chief office was that of scribes
Council, Councillor - , Matthew 10:17 ; Mark 13:9 ; John 11:47 , in particular, it denoted (b) "the Sanhedrin," the Great Council at Jerusalem, consisting of 71 members, namely, prominent members of the families of the high priest, elders and scribes
Jannes And Jambres - 8 as relating the story to Jannes and Jambres, two ‘Egyptian scribes’ (cf. חַרְטֻמִים ‘magicians’ above, where the primary meaning is ‘scribes,’ and the secondary ‘magicians’)
Blasphemy - He had been casting out devils, and the scribes and Pharisees, with their usaul malignity, ascribed those gracious acts to the agency of the Evil Spirit. They would shudder even to hear such blasphemy from the lips of others; and how then should it come from their own?...
Who then were the persons to whom the Lord Jesus alluded when he thus expressed himself? Most evidently and plainly, the scribes and Pharisees then before him
Education - Although in this early period such accomplishments were probably confined to a limited number of high officials and professional scribes, the incident in Gideon’s experience, Judges 8:14 (where we must render with RVm
The elementary teachers , as we may call them, formed the lowest rank in the powerful guild of the scribes
Cuneiform - Because the documents were written on tablets of moist clay, the scribes soon found it more convenient to indicate objects with stylized pictures composed of wedges made by a stylus
Sanhedrim - They were of three classes (1) the chief priests, or heads of the twenty-four priestly courses (1 Chronicles 24 ), (2) the scribes, and (3) the elders
Hosanna - For what but a divine overruling power could have produced such an effect, that in the moment their fathers, and the scribes and pharisee's were moved with indignation, those little children should join the Redeemer's train, and mingle their infant voices in the Hosanna of the multitude! And the reader will not overlook in this account, I hope, how thereby that blessed prophecy was fulfilled, and which Jesus himself explained and applied
Jeiel - ” The early Hebrew scribes often used Hebrew vowel points in the text to indicate the name should be read as Jeiel where the written text indicated Jeuel (1 Chronicles 9:35 ; 1 Chronicles 11:44 ; 2 Chronicles 26:11 ; 2 Chronicles 29:13 )
Elder (2) - The few cases of unofficial meaning of the term are: Luke 15:25, where it describes the ‘elder brother’ in the parable of the Prodigal; and Matthew 15:2, Mark 7:3; Mark 7:5, where it means ‘the elders’ of a former age, the men of old from whom customs and maxims are handed down. This view is sustained by the connexion and association of the term,—usually with ‘scribes’ and ‘chief priests,’—and by Luke 22:66, where the Sanhedrin is called ‘the presbytery,’ or assembly of ‘elders’ (πρεσβυτέριον, cf. There are various forms of expression: sometimes ‘elders’ simply, and sometimes ‘elders of the people,’ commonly associated with ‘chief priests and scribes
Winter - The type of thought illustrated in the school of religio-philosophical thinkers contemporary with and later than the prophets, rivalled and ultimately displaced by the scribes. Thus the designation of Matthew 23:34, ‘prophets and wise men and scribes,’ is seen to be Historically correct, as against the modified form of Luke 11:49 (‘prophets and apostles’; cf. The mythologizing tendency was strongly reacted against by the scribes, especially in the period of Akiba, during the rivalry of Synagogue and Church in Palestine (a. All other occurrences of the word or connected idea in the discourses stand more or less closely related with one of two incidents: (1) Jesus’ denunciation of the faithless generation which rejected for opposite reasons both the Baptist’s mission and His own (Matthew 11), or (2) His denunciation of the scribes who blasphemed the Spirit of God whereby He wrought, demanding a sign from heaven (Matthew 12:22-45). ) again relate to the wisdom of Jesus which is delivered to Him (παρεδόθη μοι) by His Father (in contrast with the παράδοσις of the scribes, Mark 7:13), and, though hid from the wise, is revealed to the ‘little ones. In Matthew 12:38-45 substantially the same subject is resumed, but it is now à propos of the blasphemy of the scribes against the Holy Spirit in ascribing Jesus’ exorcisms to Beelzebub (Matthew 12:22-37), the intervening material (Matthew 12:1-21) comprising the two Sabbath incidents of Mark 2:23 to Mark 3:6. In this further denunciation, not of the scribes but still of ‘this evil and adulterous generation,’ Jesus declares that it will fare worse than the Ninevites; for, while these repented at the warning of Jonah, this generation has rejected a greater warning (i. It is highly noteworthy that in both groups the condemnation is uttered by Jesus for rejection of the Spirit of God, which in the case of the discourse anent the Baptist is assumed to be manifest in Jesus’ message of forgiveness, in the case of the blasphemy of the scribes in His healing power
Sabbath - Over the next few centuries the teachers of the law (the scribes) built up a system of countless Sabbath regulations to add to the simple requirements of the law of Moses (cf. In doing so they often disregarded the Word of God, and as a result came into conflict with Jesus (Luke 13:10-17; see scribes; SYNAGOGUE; TRADITION). While he kept the law of God (Matthew 5:17; Luke 4:16), he opposed the traditions of the scribes and Pharisees (Mark 7:6-9)
Scorn - ’ The phrase τῇ ἀλώπεκι ταύτῃ is certainly surprising at first sight, and unlike any other phrase employed by our Lord, not even excepting His comparison of the scribes and Pharisees to ‘whited sepulchres,’ ‘serpents,’ and ‘offspring of vipers’ (Matthew 23:27; Matthew 23:33). ’ Yet in all His dealings with the systems of the scribes and the teaching of the legal doctors, His words bear little trace of mere contempt, but rather of stern denunciation. Such an instance is recorded (Matthew 21:23-27) when Jesus met the question of the chief priests and scribes, ‘By what authority doest thou these things?’ with a counter question, and on their refusal to answer declined in turn to reply to their question
Consecration - In Matthew 23:16-24Jesus criticized the scribes and Pharisees on the basis of their neglect of justice, mercy, and faith
Pharisees - , "pious ones," were a society of men zealous for religion, who acted under the guidance of the scribes, in opposition to the godless Hellenizing party; they scrupled to oppose the legitimate high priest even when he was on the Greek side
Education - "Scribes of the host" (Jeremiah 52:25) appear in the Assyrian bas-reliefs, writing down the various persons or objects brought to them, so that there is less exaggeration than in the Egyptian representations of battle
Paper, Papyrus - (puh pi' rass) Popular writing material invented by the Egyptians and used by scribes from 2500 B
Publican - The scribes who discussed the question, (Matthew 22:15 ) for the most part answered it in the negative
Border - Again, in that remarkable denunciation of the scribes and Pharisees which constitutes the climax of one of our Lord’s most striking discourses, He makes this charge among others: ‘All their works they do to be seen of men: they make broad their phylacteries, and they enlarge borders of their garments’ (Matthew 23:5). ...
Jewish hearers and readers would at once understand what Jesus meant by this charge against the scribes and Pharisees, ‘who sit in Moses’ seat
James - According to tradition, James was thrown down from the temple by the scribes and Pharisees; he was then stoned and his brains dashed out with a fuller's club while praying for his murderers
Wedding Guests, Bridegroom And the - The parable was provoked by the question of the disciples of John the Baptist and some of the scribes and Pharisees asking "Why do we and the Pharisees fast often, but thy disciples do not fast?" Jesus replies in a similitude, asking if the companions of the bridal-chamber, whose special task it was to provide for the merrymaking at the feast, could be expected at the same time to mourn and fast
Matthew (Apostle) - ), which roused the anger of the ‘scribes of the Pharisees
Garden - In the Gospels mention is made of mint, anise, and cummin (Matthew 23:23) as the cheap and common garden produce that occupied the laboured scrupulosity of the scribes and Pharisees, to the neglect of more important matters
Lawyer - , but elsewhere only in Matthew 22:35 and Titus 3:13), or νομοδιδάσκαλοι, ‘doctors of the law’ (only in Luke 5:17, Acts 5:34, and 1 Timothy 1:7); but they are clearly identical with the γραμματεῖς, ‘scribes,’ who are mentioned so often in the Gospels and Acts
Christ - ...
The name Matthew 2:4 , Herod "demanded of them," the priests and scribes, "where Christ should be born," that is, the Old Testament Messiah
Lawyer - , but elsewhere only in Matthew 22:35 and Titus 3:13), or νομοδιδάσκαλοι, ‘doctors of the law’ (only in Luke 5:17, Acts 5:34, and 1 Timothy 1:7); but they are clearly identical with the γραμματεῖς, ‘scribes,’ who are mentioned so often in the Gospels and Acts
Possession (2) - This he mentions to explain why the Pharisees and scribes came to ask Jesus, ‘Why walk thy disciples not according to the tradition of the elders, but eat bread with unwashen hands?’ thus giving Jesus occasion to apply to them the prophecy of Isaiah, ‘This people honoureth me with their lips, but their heart is far from me,’ and otherwise exposing and rebuking their ‘hypocrisy
Samos - The clause in the Bezan text regarding Trogyllium, which is found in the Authorized Version but relegated to the margin of the Revised Version , was in all probability omitted by the scribes of the great uncials under the mistaken notion that a night had been spent at the city of Samos, and that a second anchorage only 5 miles farther east was out of the question
Innocents - Herod the Great, hearing from the Magi about the birth of a king of the Jews, foreshadowed by the star in the East which they had followed, inquired of the chief priests and scribes where this promised prince should be born
Grave - ...
The Lord compared the hypocritical scribes and Pharisees to whited sepulchres, the outward beauty of which stood in strong contrast to the dead men's bones and uncleanness within
Ownership - Land sales and transfers were recorded by scribes on leather or papyrus scrolls, on clay tablets, or in the presence of witnesses with the symbolic removal of a sandal (Ruth 4:7 ) or the stepping onto the land by the new owner
Multitude - , of disciples, Luke 19:37 ; Acts 4:32 ; 6:2,5 ; 15:30 ; of elders, priests, and scribes, Acts 23:7 ; of the Apostles and the elders of the Church in Jerusalem, Acts 15:12
Pharisees - And so it comes to pass that in our Lord’s time, to use His own words, ‘the scribes and Pharisees sit in Moses’ seat’ ( Matthew 23:2 ). But the Pharisees and the scribes opened a great career to all the talents. Sadducees and scribes
the Blind Leaders of the Blind - ALL the same, the scribes and Pharisees were quite right, as they often are. The disciples had no business to sit down to eat with unwashen hands, and the scribes and Pharisees were only doing their bounden duty in entering their protest against such disorderly conduct. And the scribes and Pharisees sat in Moses' seat for the very purpose of seeing to it that the great lawgiver was obeyed and imitated in all things great and small that he had ever said and done. And, more than all that, the scribes and Pharisees had the Master of the disciples so far with them. The scribes and the Pharisees had eyes enough to preach against adultery and murder when these things once came out of the hearts of the people; but they were as blind as moles to the real roots of these things, as well as to the kindred roots of pride, and covetousness, and envy, and deceit, of which their own hearts, and the hearts of all their blinded hearers, were full
New - Jesus' teaching was contrasted with that of the scribes by some who heard him, calling it "new" (Mark 1:21-27 )
Analogy of Faith - the system of the Pharisee scribes, the doctrine then in vogue, and in the profound veneration of which they had been educated
Jew, Jews, Jewess, Jewish, Jewry, Jews' Religion - ...
B — 1: Ἰουδαϊσμός (Strong's #2454 — Noun Masculine — ioudaismos — ee-oo-dah-is-mos' ) "Judaism," denotes "the Jews' religion," Galatians 1:13,14 , and stands, not for their religious beliefs, but for their religious practices, not as instituted by God, but as developed and extended from these by the traditions of the Pharisees and scribes
Catch - 1, "to snatch, to seize, to keep a firm grip of," is used only by Luke, and translated "caught" in the AV of Luke 8:29 , of demon-possession; in Acts 6:12 , of the act of the elders and scribes in seizing Stephen, RV, more suitably, "seized
Son of David - , Mark 12:35, Luke 20:41)—a question that they were unable to answer: ‘The scribes say that the Christ is (to be) the Son of David; but David calls him Lord; how then is he his son?’ The passage is not to be interpreted as a repudiation of the title on the part of Jesus. It was so understood, and the anger of the priests and scribes was aroused in consequence
Elder, Eldest - of Genesis 50:7 ; Numbers 22:7 ; (2) in the Jewish nation, firstly, those who were the heads or leaders of the tribes and families, as of the seventy who assisted Moses, Numbers 11:16 ; Deuteronomy 27:1 , and those assembled by Solomon; secondly, members of the Sanhedrin, consisting of the chief priests, "elders" and scribes, learned in Jewish law, e
Teacher (2) - His contemporaries felt His superiority and could not withstand the influence of His teaching, ‘for he taught them as one having authority, and not as the scribes’ (Matthew 7:29), and ‘never man so spake’ (John 7:46)
Lawlessness - The scribes and Pharisees were losing all sense of proportion in the duties of the religious life (Matthew 23:24, Luke 11:42)
Leading - ...
The leadership of religious authorities is referred to in the description of scribes and Pharisees as ‘blind guides’ or ‘blind leaders of the blind’ (Matthew 23:16; Matthew 15:14); the metaphor being based on the sight, familiar in Eastern cities, of rows or files of blind persons each holding by the one in front
Frontlets - That they were in use in the days of our Lord seems more than probable; for Jesus, speaking of the scribes and Pharisees, said, "that they made broad their phylacteries
Lunatics - It evinced an intimate knowledge both of his person and character, which was hidden from the "wise and prudent" of the nation, the chief priests, scribes, and Pharisees
Hell - " ...
In Matthew 23 the Lord denounces the scribes and Pharisees, who in proselytizing a person "make him two-fold more a son of hell" than themselves ( Matthew 23:15 ), the phrase here being expressive of moral characteristics, and declares the impossibility of their escaping "the judgment of hell," Matthew 23:33
Matthew (2) - The sinners mentioned along with the publicans at the feast were those who violated the Law, or did not try to keep its innumerable commands as set forth by the scribes or interpreted by the Pharisees. Certain scribes and Pharisees had been spectators of the feast, and they asked the disciples concerning Jesus’ eating and drinking with sinners; and Jesus Himself, answering them, declared that He had not come to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance
Law of God - In doing this He practically ignored the distinctions of the scribes between greater and lesser commandments of the Law, and between the Law, the Prophets, and the Psalms (or ‘the Writings’), and insisted upon the authority of Scripture as the word of God. In the one case, the statute which Jesus quotes, we have to do with the letter of the Law, that with which alone the scribes occupied themselves and upon which they founded their casuistical refinements. Thus, in proceeding to apply the principle which He has just laid down (Matthew 5:17), Jesus starts with the comprehensive statement of Matthew 5:20 ‘For I say unto you, That except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter into the kingdom of heaven. The scribes who, forgetting the teaching of the prophets (for here Jesus made no essential addition to Jeremiah’s doctrine of the New Covenant or Ezekiel’s doctrine of the renewed heart and the washing of regeneration, Jeremiah 31:31 ff. So far from repudiating as a mere matter of Pharisaic casuistry the question often agitated among the scribes as to whether there were any commandments which in themselves summed up the teaching of the whole Law, He was ready to discuss such questions with them; and when, in response to His definition of love to God and one’s neighbour as the essential commandment of the Law, a scribe commended His answer, and said that such love was ‘more than all whole burnt-offerings and sacrifices,’ He declared that he was not far from the Kingdom of God (Mark 12:28-34)
Lord - ...
In the Old Testament, Lord usually describes the essence of Yahweh: His power over His people (Exodus 34:23 ; Isaiah 1:24 ), over the entire earth (Joshua 3:13 ; Micah 4:13 ), and over all gods (Deuteronomy 10:17 ; Psalm 135:5 ). In the Dead Sea Scrolls, the scribes out of awe for the divine name wrote it in ancient Hebrew script rather in their normal script. Later, Christian scribes replaced the Hebrew characters in the Greek Bible with kurios . scribes transmitting the Hebrew Bible showed that Yahweh should not be pronounced but read as adonai by substituting the Hebrew vowels of adonai for those of Yahweh when writing the divine name. Later readers who did not know this history did not pronounce Yahweh; but neither did they pronounce adonai , as the scribes intended
Sepulchres - Now, as all these different sorts of tombs and sepulchres, with the very walls likewise of the inclosures, are constantly kept clean, white-washed, and beautified, they continue to this day to be an excellent comment upon that expression of our Saviour, where he mentions the garnishing of the sepulchres, Matthew 23:29 ; and again, Matthew 23:27 , where he compares the scribes, Pharisees, and hypocrites to whited sepulchres
Magi - Hebrew chartumiym , "sacred scribes," from two roots "sacred" and "style" or "pen" (cheret ); priests skilled in sacred writings, and in divining through signs the will of heaven. Herod discovered the foretold birthplace of Messiah from the scribes' quotation of Micah (Micah 5:2) in answer to his query where He should be born
Look - When the scribes brought Him a crafty question, ‘He perceived (κατανοήσας) their craftiness’ (Luke 20:23)—‘saw at a glance,’ the word might be rendered. ’ More individual instances of this look are when Jesus ‘beheld’ (ἐμβλέψας) Peter, and said, ‘Thou art Simon … thou shalt be called Cephas’ (John 1:42)—a look sealing the new name upon Peter’s heart; or when He ‘beheld’ (ἐμβλέψας) the chief priests and scribes, ‘and said, What is this then that is written?’ (Luke 20:17)—a grave look of reproach, ‘to add solemnity to His reference to their own Scriptures
Levite - The Levites helped the priests and scribes in this work (Nehemiah 8:7-9), but the good work of these early leaders was not maintained by those of later generations. Nevertheless, people of New Testament times still saw Levites as a class of people distinct from both the priests and the scribes (Luke 10:25; Luke 10:31-32; John 1:19; Acts 4:36)
Sanhedrin (2) - But in actual practice it describes those members who were neither ἀρχιερεῖς nor γραμματεῖς. (3) οἱ γραμματεῖς, the scribes, a class which hardly requires description here. In the main they formed the Pharisee element in the Sanhedrin, though individual members of the other classes may have been Pharisees, and many Pharisees, adhering to the scribal party, were not themselves professional scribes. See scribes. According to the Greek sources, as appears from the above, the Sanhedrin was composed of chief priests, elders, and scribes, and was presided over by the high priest. The chief priests and elders belonged in general to the Sadducee party, while the scribes formed the Pharisee element, which, however influential among the people, was seldom in the ascendant in the Sanhedrin. ...
From that time onwards the Sanhedrin consisted of chief priests, elders, and scribes
Doctrines - Further, it occurs in the Gospels only in those passages (Matthew 15:9, Mark 7:7) in which Jesus accuses the scribes of ‘teaching for doctrines the commandments of men,’ and quotes against them the Septuagint rendering of Isaiah 29:13. ...
Διδαχή, the common word for the act of teaching or that which is taught, occurs more frequently, It is used with reference to the teaching of Jesus in a general sense, as where the people contrast His methods with those of the scribes (Matthew 7:28, Mark 1:22), and again of His preaching, as in connexion with the parable of the Sower, where St Mark says (Mark 4:2), ‘And he taught them many things in parables, and said unto them in his doctrine. ’ With reference to the subject-matter of His teaching it occurs in the answer of Jesus to the question of the Pharisees (John 7:15; John 7:17), ‘How knoweth this man letters (γραμματα), having never learned?’ The question refers to learning as it was understood by the scribes, that is, as theological science, those methods of Biblical interpretation in virtue of which they themselves were called scribes (γραμματεὶς), i. ’ Elsewhere it is applied to Christ’s teaching by the Evangelists themselves, in whose case it is sufficiently explained by the general use of the word with reference to teaching of any kind, and by the fact that Jesus was regarded and addressed as Rabbi or Teacher, and accepted the title, It is, however, important to note that, except where it is used in its most general sense, the word ‘teaching’ (διδαχή) occurs in connexion with the marked contrast which all observed between the authoritative teaching of Jesus and the instructions of the scribes, who slavishly adhered to such doctrines and methods as were sanctioned only by Rabbinical tradition, and laid emphasis upon trivial questions to the neglect of the weightier matters of the Law (Mark 4:30-32 || Mark 7:7). He announces that He is come not to destroy but to fulfil the Law and the Prophets (Matthew 5:17), and in this connexion shows that the Law is not satisfied with the literal and formal obedience of the Pharisees, but extends to thought and motive; He warns His disciples that, except their righteousness shall exceed that of the scribes and Pharisees, they cannot enter the Kingdom of Heaven (Matthew 5:18-20); and in other passages He says that in the Day of Judgment men shall be judged so strictly that they shall give account of every idle word, and even of any neglect on their part of the law of kindness and compassion towards their neighbours (Matthew 12:36; Matthew 25:45)
Thaddaeus - It does not affect these explanations if, with Dalman, we hold that these derivations are in fact wrong, for the scribes were not necessarily qualified to be good philologers
Exaltation (2) - In Christ’s parable of the Wedding Feast He insists on this principle, as against the self-seeking and pride of the scribes and Pharisees, who love the chief seats in the synagogue, and the foremost places at feasts
Exorcism - Similarly, in the Synoptics, the scribes accused Him of casting out demons by the power of the prince of demons (Mark 3:22 )
Council - Its members were the chief priests or heads of the 24 courses, and those who had been high priests; also the elders and scribes learned in Jewish law (Matthew 26:57; Matthew 26:59; Mark 15:1; Luke 22:66; Acts 5:21)
San'Hedrin - From the few incidental notices in the New Testament, we gather that it consisted of chief priests, or the heads of the twenty-four classes into which the priests were divided, elders, men of age and experience, and scribes, lawyers, or those learned in the Jewish law
Jehonadab - 2 Kings 10:15; 2 Kings 10:23; Jeremiah 35:8; Jeremiah 35:14; Jeremiah 35:16; Jeremiah 35:18; 1 Chronicles 2:55; "the (four) families of the scribes which dwelt at Jabez
Garments - It is the 'garment' the edge of which the woman touched, Matthew 14:36 ; and the 'garments' of which the scribes and Pharisees enlarged the borders
Sadducees - 250, who, rejecting the traditionary doctrines of the scribes, taught that man ought to serve God out of pure love, and not from hope of reward, or fear of punishment; and that they derived their name from Sadoc, one of his followers, who, mistaking or perverting this doctrine, maintained that there was no future state of rewards and punishments
Burden, Burdened, Burdensome - In one place it metaphorically describes the future state of believers as "an eternal weight of glory," 2 Corinthians 4:17 . , "something carried" (from phero, "to bear"), is always used metaphorically (except in Acts 27:10 , of the lading of a ship); of that which, though "light," is involved in discipleship of Christ, Matthew 11:30 ; of tasks imposed by the scribes, Pharisees and lawyers, Matthew 23:4 ; Luke 11:46 ; of that which will be the result, at the judgment-seat of Christ, of each believer's work, Galatians 6:5
Publican - Luke 15:1), is not to be held as implying that He laid Himself out more for them than for other sinners who realized their need of Him; nor are we to infer that, in contrasting them with the Pharisees and scribes, as in the well-known parable (Luke 18:10 ff
Sadducees (2) - Influenced by Hellenic culture, they sympathized to some extent with the policy of Antiochus Epiphanes which provoked the Maccabaean rebellion; and although, as a consequence, they fell into the background during the earlier period of Hasmonaean rule, they recovered their position in the time of John Hyrcanus, under whom we find them, now known as Sadducees, in direct antagonism to the Pharisees, or party of the scribes. They resented His action in the cleansing of the Temple, and along with the scribes and elders they demanded His authority (Mark 11:27 f. —See under Pharisees and scribes
Ethics (2) - In this connexion the great discourse against the scribes and Pharisees in Matthew 23 (cf. The supreme business of the scribes,—to which they apparently devoted themselves with surpassing zeal,—viz. In these utterances Jesus reproves chiefly the scribes’ insensibility to the primary moral sanctions; they keep cup and platter clean, but are indifferent to the nature of the contents; non olet, even though it has been accumulated by selfishness and greed, and is gorged with unbridled self-indulgence (Matthew 23:25). ), implying that the teaching of the scribes is good, but that their works are evil, since they do not practise what they preach. Taking into consideration the writer’s date and point of view, we can quite well understand the words; but we naturally ask whether this conciliatory and conservative attitude towards the ceremonial law truly represents the mind of Jesus?...
The words about the cleansing of cups and platters, and about the tithing of mint, anise, and cummin, certainly sound so contemptuous as to compel us to ask whether Jesus set any value whatever upon the ceremonial side of the Law, and, in particular, upon the special casuistical precepts of the scribes. But we also find explicit remonstrances against the ‘traditions of the elders’ so dear to the scribes (Mark 7:5; Mark 7:9; Mark 7:13); He characterizes them summarily as the ‘prescriptions’ (Authorized and Revised Versions ‘tradition’) of men (Mark 7:8), thus contrasting them with the commandments of God. But Jesus goes still further, affirming positively that in their concern for these traditions the scribes reject, pervert, and even make void the commandment of God (Mark 7:8; Mark 7:13). He raised His voice not only against the scribes, but against the very spirit of the Law they expounded
God (2) - ...
Finally, when Jesus warned the scribes and Pharisees concerning the irremissible sin of blasphemy against the Holy Spirit, it is obvious that we cannot draw any personal distinction between this Spirit and God. This manifestation of God within them is called the Spirit of God in accordance with OT usage, which ascribes a spirit to Jehovah, in and through which He reveals Himself to the spirit of man (e. According to this, the standard of the Kingdom of God called for a righteousness that exceeded the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees (Matthew 5:20). Its demands could not be satisfied, as the scribes taught, by the performance of any number of statutes. ...
In the thought of Jesus, therefore, the holiness of God did not imply, as with the scribes, that He was far removed from sinful men, being Himself subject to defilement
Murmur, Murmuring - Dissatisfaction is seen highly intensified in Luke 5:30; Luke 15:2, where the Pharisees and the scribes murmured because He ate with publicans and sinners
Hardness of the Heart - Jesus, while healing the palsied man, challenged the scribes, “Why reason ye these things in your hearts?” (Mark 2:8 )
Rechab - ...
The Rechabites are spoken of as "scribes" (1 Chronicles 2:55); at the return from Babylon they took a profession, almost exclusively a Levite one
Saying And Doing - The same contrast is boldly presented in the parable of the Two Sons (Matthew 21:28-32), with special reference on the one hand to the Pharisees and scribes, and on the other to the outwardly unpromising ‘publicans and sinners’ who welcomed the message of the Kingdom of heaven
Ashtaroth - The Hebrew scribes replaced the vowels of the name Ashtart or Ashteret with the vowels from the Hebrew word for shame, boshet , to bring dishonor to the memory of the goddess
Presbytery - ]'>[3] ‘estate of the elders’), as an expression for the body of Jewish elders who with the ‘chief priests’ and the scribes composed the Sanhedrin
Ignorance, Ignorant, Ignorantly - ...
A — 4: ἰδιώτης (Strong's #2399 — Noun Masculine — idiotes — id-ee-o'-tace ) primarily "a private person" in contrast to a state official, hence, "a person without professional knowledge, unskilled, uneducated, unlearned," is translated "unlearned" in 1 Corinthians 14:16,23,24 , of those who have no knowledge of the facts relating to the testimony borne in and by a local church; "rude" in 2 Corinthians 11:6 , of the Apostle's mode of speech in the estimation of the Corinthians; "ignorant men," in Acts 4:13 , of the speech of the Apostle Peter and John in the estimation of the rulers, elders and scribes in Jerusalem
Advent (2) - ...
Meanwhile the scribes were at work, hardening the Messianic idea into scholastic form, and reducing the poetic language and bold imagery of the prophets to dogmatic statements and literal details, with the result, on the whole, of a restoration of the theocratic idea that God was to vindicate His authority as the true Sovereign of the nation, and to send His vicegerent in the line of David to establish His law and introduce the rule of righteousness under His anointed King. scribes and Pharisees on the one hand, and Sadducees on the other, stood in mutual antagonism, striving for ascendency as leaders of national religious feeling,—the scribes and Pharisees combining to enforce the mass of stringent precepts which the former had elaborated to supplement the original written word; the Sadducees entirely rejecting those precepts, and contending that the Law as written was sufficient, and that the observance of the temple ordinances, its worship and sacrifices, was the central element in religion. By their insistence on conformity to the regulations they had added to the Law as a condition of Divine favour, the scribes and Pharisees, who were the most numerous and aggressive party, converted religion itself into a matter of slavish obedience, in which the instigating motives were the hope of reward and the fear of punishment
Library - ...
The Use of Libraries The use of archives and libraries would be restricted, first of all, by literacy; and, secondly, in the case of temple or palace archives, to priests and scribes. ) we have a record of only seven scribes out of a population of 3,000
Pharisees - "The words of the scribes," said they, "are lovely above the words of the law; for the words of the law are weighty and light, but the words of the scribes are all weighty
Right (2) - Our Lord contrasts the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees with that which He demanded from His followers (Matthew 5:20)
Spies - So Luke 20:20 tells how the chief priests and scribes watched and ‘sent forth spies, which feigned themselves to be righteous, that they might take hold of his speech, so as to deliver him up to the rule and to the authority of the governor. Mark (Mark 12:13) describes their object as ‘that they might catch him in talk’ (ἵνα αὐτὸν ἀγρεύσωσι λόγῳ); St
Fierceness - But the white heat of fierceness in the utterance of Christ comes when He meets with Pharisees, scribes, and teachers of the Law, who are unworthy of their high professions
Like, Liken - 1), is used in Matthew 23:27 (perhaps with intensive force), in the Lord's comparison of the scribes and Pharisees to whitened sepulchres
Proselytes - Thus the proselyte became "twofold more the child of hell" than the scribes themselves (Matthew 23:15). Considering that the end justified the means, the scribes "compassed sea and land to make one proselyte," yet, when made, the Jews despised the proselyte as a "leprosy cleaving (in perversion of Isaiah 14:1) to the house of Jacob"; "no wise man would trust a proselyte to the 24th generation" (Jalkuth, Ruth f
Ignorance (2) - Of the Jews the most culpable were the leaders—the Sadducees, because they were ignorant of the resurrection and the future life, truths inculcated by Moses himself (Matthew 22:29); and the Pharisees and scribes, those blind leaders of the blind, who led their unwary followers into a pit (Matthew 15:14)
James - ...
According to extra-canonical tradition, James was surnamed ‘the Just’; he was a Nazirite from his mother’s womb, abstaining from strong drink and animal food, and wearing linen; he was always kneeling in intercession for the people, so that his knees were callous like a camel’s; he was cruelly martyred by the scribes and Pharisees: they cast him down from the pinnacle of the Temple (cf
Hymenaeus - ...
‘Wherefore that also must be held to be the resurrection, when a man is re-animated by access to the truth, and having dispersed the death of ignorance, and being endowed with new life by God, has burst forth from the sepulchre of the old man, even as the Lord likened the scribes and Pharisees to “whited sepulchers” (Matthew 23:27)
Elder - In the New Testament history they are associated with the chief priests and scribes, but yet not to be confounded with them
Levites - The "scribes" and "doctors," however, are supposed to have belonged chiefly to this class
Dress (2) - stola—is used for the long garments of the scribes, translation ‘long clothing’ Mark 12:38, ‘long robes’ Luke 20:46; for the ‘best robe’ of the Prodigal Son, Luke 15:22; for the ‘long garment’ of the Resurrection angel, Mark 16:5—in the parallel passage ἐσθησις, ‘garment’ is used, Luke 24:4. In the ‘hem’ or ‘border’ (κράσπεδον, Matthew 9:20; Matthew 14:36, Mark 6:56, Luke 8:44) we have reference to the fringed border of the cloak; and even more definite is the reference in Matthew 23:5, when the scribes and Pharisees are reproved for unduly lengthening the fringes (τὰ κράσπεδα) of their garments. The long garments of the scribes and Pharisees find their modern counterparts in the long cloak used by Moslem religious leaders, the jibbch, and in the velvet, plush, and silk robes of gorgeous colours favoured by the leading Rabbis of the Ashkenazim Jews, on Sabbath and feast-days. The στολή was evidently considered among the circle of Jesus a robe of dignity; it is the ‘best robe’ brought forth for the returning prodigal; it is used to describe the clothing of the ‘young man’ at the tomb (Mark 16:5), and the imposing garments of the scribes (Luke 20:46 etc
Bible, Texts And Versions - One reason for this scarcity is the practice by Jewish scribes of burying old manuscripts in a storehouse called a genizah and then destroying these manuscripts. The text from that period is called the Masoretic Text because it derives from the work of a group of Hebrew scribes known as Masoretes, whose work spans the time from A. The copies of the Hebrew Bible available today are the work of very careful Hebrew scribes
Jonah - ...
Certain of the scribes and Pharisees, not content with our Lord’s many miracles or signs (cf. ...
To these objections it may be replied: (1) There is no contradiction of the Gospel story, for the scribes and Pharisees plainly demanded a sign of a different character from those which they had so far witnessed (see above). (3) Or did both our Lord and His hearers, the scribes and Pharisees, regard the story of Jonah as a parable or fictitious narrative, like others in the OT and in the Apocrypha, and did He thus refer to it? Although in view of Tobit 14:4; Tobit 14:8, 3 Maccabees 6:8, Josephus Ant
Multitude - But if, as seems more likely, the expressions are mainly figurative, ἐσκυλμένοι will mean ‘hunted and distressed by spiritual foes,’ harassed by the tyranny of the scribes and Pharisees with their ‘heavy burdens’ (cf. where, turning from the Pharisees and the scribes, ‘he called to him the multitude, and said unto them, Hear and understand’; ἑκείνους μὲν ἐπιστομίσας καὶ καταισχύνας ἀφῆκεν ὡς ἀνιάτους· τρέπει δὲ τὸν λόγον πρὸς τὸν ὅχλον ὡς ἁξιολογώτερον, Euthym. ); and the passage dealing with the scribes and Pharisees (Matthew 23:1 f
Nation (2) - The succession of Pharisees and scribes proved a far surer defence than the dynasty of David. And these distinctions were guarded by a multitude of observances, which called into requisition the school of scribes trained in the principles of the Pharisees. ...
But although the scribes claimed to sit in the seat of Moses (Matthew 23:2), their authority was not recognized in what may be called the outer circles of Judaism
Sincerity - He is early contrasted with the scribes because of His authority (Mark 1:27); this impression could have been made only by One acknowledged to be sincere. Even the scribes come to shrink from His clear gaze (Mark 11:18)
Sadducees - Pharisees, scribes
Scripture - The special function of the scribes in guarding and teaching the Law rested on this Scriptural character attached to it, and in turn rendered it the more venerable as Scripture
Reform - ...
As to Christ’s relation to the law of Moses, it may be asked, Did He become a reformer? While declaring that ‘he came not to destroy but to fulfil’ (Matthew 5:17), we must believe that, at least, He desired some reform of abuses, which had grown up through the interpretations and applications of the Law, made by scribes and lawyers of the past
Envy (2) - The deeds and words of Jesus were from the outset attended by suspicion on the part of scribes and Pharisees
Isaiah - More general is the application of Isaiah 6:9-10 to the people of His own time (Matthew 13:14-15, Mark 4:12, Luke 8:10); and also His use of Isaiah 29:13 of the Pharisees and scribes (Matthew 15:7-9, Mark 7:6-7)
David - In the period after the return from Babylon, the author of the last section of Zechariah (Zechariah 12:7 to Zechariah 13:1) describes the glories of the coming time in connexion with the Davidic dynasty: ‘The house of David shall be as God, as the angel of Jehovah before them. ’ Both the scribes and the common people held this view
Book - scribes carried their inkhorns hanging to their girdles, Ezekiel 9:2
David - In the period after the return from Babylon, the author of the last section of Zechariah (Zechariah 12:7 to Zechariah 13:1) describes the glories of the coming time in connexion with the Davidic dynasty: ‘The house of David shall be as God, as the angel of Jehovah before them. ’ Both the scribes and the common people held this view
Isaiah - More general is the application of Isaiah 6:9-10 to the people of His own time (Matthew 13:14-15, Mark 4:12, Luke 8:10); and also His use of Isaiah 29:13 of the Pharisees and scribes (Matthew 15:7-9, Mark 7:6-7)
Ebla - ” The scribes of Ebla not only adapted the cuneiform writing invented by the Sumerians, but they used the Sumerian language as well. ”...
Lexicons, used by the scribes to learn Sumerian, grammatical texts with verbal paradigms in Eblaite, and bilingual (Sumerian and Eblaite) vocabularies make up another important class of tablets
Blood - ...
Jesus condemned the scribes and Pharisees of His day who would kill some of the “prophets, and wise men, and scribes” sent by Jesus (Matthew 23:34 ). Here the term “blood” describes the physical changes both in the heavens and upon earth
Elder - Although elders were historically the oldest members, in later times they became less important compared to the priests and scribes and the term "elders" came to signify lay members. This is the situation encountered in the New Testament, where the triad of chief priests, scribes, and elders is often referred to as the Sanhedrin (Mark 11:27 ; 14:43 ; also cf
Synagogue - , to have succeeded the prophets, and to have been succeeded by the scribes, Ezra presiding; among the members Joshua, the high priest Zerubbabel, Daniel, the three children Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi, Nehemiah, Mordecai; their aim being to restore the crown or glory of Israel, the name of God as great, mighty, and terrible (Daniel 9:4; Jeremiah 32:18; Deuteronomy 7:21); so they completed the Old Testament canon, revising the text, introducing the vowel points which the Masorete editors have handed down to us, instituting "the feast" Ρurim , organizing the synagogue ritual. " (See scribes
Ebla - ” The scribes of Ebla not only adapted the cuneiform writing invented by the Sumerians, but they used the Sumerian language as well. ”...
Lexicons, used by the scribes to learn Sumerian, grammatical texts with verbal paradigms in Eblaite, and bilingual (Sumerian and Eblaite) vocabularies make up another important class of tablets
Promise (2) - , while seldom citing Scripture, describes Jesus as beginning His ministry with the declaration ‘The time is fulfilled’ (Mark 1:15); Lk. He had a sublime contempt for the petty and pedantic way in which the scribes took upon themselves to say how the anticipations of Scripture were, or were not, to be verified, and held their pretensions up to scorn (Matthew 22:41-46 = Mark 12:35-37 = Luke 20:41-44). And it was precisely because the priests and scribes, in their blind attachment to their own interpretation of the promise, saw, in His comparative carelessness about the traditional view and His frequent insistence upon a purely spiritual interpretation, a danger to their own designs, that they resolved upon His death
Law (2) - The question whether this was clear to Him from the first, or whether it became clear only in the course of His controversy with the scribes, cannot be answered with certainty, in view of the doubt which hangs over the chronology of the ministry. The morbid anxiety of the scribes to make a hedge about the Law so that all possible approaches to its violation might be blocked, added to the hair-splitting casuistry in which moralists of their type delighted, and the lawyer’s instinct for precise and exhaustive definition, had led to the elaboration of the precepts in the Law into a vast system of tradition. The scribes made void by their tradition the word of God, and every plant which His heavenly Father had not planted He said should be rooted up. It is possible, though improbable, that Jesus may intend by ‘the old’ the ancient piety of the Old Testament, and by ‘the new’ the new-fangled regulations of the scribes, His sense being that the old Divinely-given mode of life is being ruined by the tradition of men. The laws of cleanness and uncleanness touch life so much more closely than any others, that the casuistry of the scribes naturally finds in this matter a large field of exercise. In His great indictment of the scribes and Pharisees He rebukes them for their ruling that an oath by the temple or by the altar counts for nothing, while an oath by the gold of the temple, or a gift at the altar, is binding
Woe - Other Woes He utters with a sob of pity; but His indictment of the scribes and Pharisees is spoken with the wrath of love (cf. In it, our Lord pronounces woe against the scribes and Pharisees for their ‘hypocrisy’ or their dishonesty and love of stage-effect in religion, which was to Him the most hateful impiety; also for shutting the doors of the Kingdom of God which He had opened by His preaching, and so preventing people from entering (Matthew 23:13, cf. There is thus no reasonable ground for doubt that during our Lord’s life on earth the scribes and Pharisees were immersed in that externalism and religious affectation which He so vividly depicted; and it was their implacable hostility to His spiritual teaching, begun at a very early period in His ministry (Mark 3:6), that in the end brought about His crucifixion
Interpretation - ]'>[1] ‘sacred scribes’] and ‘wise men,’ Genesis 41:8 ), A similar body of wise or learned men is mentioned in the Book of Daniel, for the same object at the court of Babylon ( Daniel 2:2 ff; Daniel 4:6 f
Struggles of Soul - His conflict with the scribes and Pharisees regarding Sabbath observance, fasting, ceremonial washing, and intercourse with sinners must have distressed His spirit; for He too would need to face the issue—would He follow custom or conscience? We have more distinct evidence of the inward strain felt by Him, because His regard for Jewish prejudice and exclusiveness in relation to the Gentiles, in order that He might not estrange His countrymen, compelled Him to assume an attitude of aloofness to the Gentiles (the Roman centurion, Matthew 8:10; the Syrophœnician mother, Matthew 15:26; the Greeks, John 12:23)
Joy - The Pharisees and scribes had criticized Jesus for receiving sinners and eating with them
Hilkiah - ...
Shaphan the professional "scribe" read it to Josiah, who as well as Hilkiah probably could not read, for reading and writing were confined to the "scribes," excepting a few who like Moses had learned in Egypt (Acts 7:22)
Father, Fatherhood - Accordingly the term ‘Fatherhood’ describes what God is in Himself. But the brotherhood of Jesus describes what He was. It describes the character of God, and is expressed in love. ...
But though the scribes removed God far from contact with man and the world, their conception of Him was unspiritual. The scribes put God in the seventh heaven; Jesus taught that He is near. The scribes held that He is intensely concerned with outward ordinances; Jesus taught that He is full of love, and cares only for the heart of man. To the scribal mind God was the God of scribes; to Jesus He was the Father of all men
Blasphemy (2) - Jesus did not expressly say that the scribes who put forward this Beelzebub theory of His work had actually committed this sin. ’ Upon this the scribes and Pharisees who were present complained that He was speaking blasphemies because only God could forgive sins, that is to say, that He was arrogating to Himself a Divine prerogative
Science (2) - The scribes ‘busied themselves in providing for all conceivable’ legal ‘cases that might occur, and especially in making a hedge or fence round the Law, i. ‘Scribes’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible ). Thus the literary and legal ‘science’ of the scribes had all the defects of the ‘scientific’ temper of the Jews—the criterion of truth was not descriptive accuracy, but edification, the method was inventive and metaphysical, there was an absence of generalizing and systematizing power, and an over-emphasis of the particular and concrete. The traditions of the scribes He altogether rejected, and even the authority of the Law He subjected to a penetrating criticism. First, He abolished certain precepts of the Law itself (Matthew 5:32; Matthew 5:38), and added others on His own authority (Matthew 5:32; Matthew 5:34; Matthew 5:39); and, secondly, He disparaged and discredited the learned societies of scribes, and, by the weight of His own authority, overthrew their teaching
Deborah - the scribes of the host (Jeremiah 52:25) who wrote down the names of the soldiers
Age, Old (the Aged) - They appear frequently in association with the chief priests and scribes
Leaven - He has just narrated Jesus' woes on the Pharisees and scribes (11:37-53) and now describes the gathering of a large crowd
Sadducees - Josephus describes them as argumentative (Ant 18. Saldarini, Pharisees, scribes, and Sadducees in Palestinian Society ; E
Judas Iscariot - He might naturally have grown impatient under the delay, and dissatisfied also with Jesus for openly discouraging all ambitious views among his disciples; and, therefore, he might have devised the scheme of delivering him up to the sanhedrim, or great council of the nation, (composed of the chief priests, scribes, and elders,) in order to compel him to avow himself openly as the Messiah before them; and to work such miracles, or to give them the sign which they so often required, as would convince and induce them to elect him in due form, and by that means enable him to reward his followers
Violence - the scribes and Pharisees. ‘Every man’ (πᾶς) is perhaps emphatic, showing that the Pharisees and the scribes must no longer look on the Kingdom as the exclusive possession of their nation or class; it was open to all nations, and might be entered by even the lowest men, though it would appear from the warning of the following verses that not all would seek it in the right spirit
Song of Solomon - An ancient rabbinic tradition (Baba Bathra 15a) attributes the Song to Hezekiah and his scribes (compare Song of Solomon 1:9-249 )
Tittle - 20) we find Him declaring, ‘Except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no wise enter into the kingdom of heaven
James, the Lord's Brother - 23) gives a much more highly coloured account of James’s martyrdom, representing him as hurled from the pinnacle of the Temple because he refused to make a pronouncement against Jesus (which the scribes and Pharisees had confidently expected of him!)
Popularity - The kind of impression which He wished to make was that which expressed itself in such phrases as—‘Never man so spake’ (John 7:46); ‘He taught them as one having authority, and not as the scribes’ (Matthew 7:29); ‘The common people heard him gladly’ (Mark 12:37)
Popularity - The kind of impression which He wished to make was that which expressed itself in such phrases as—‘Never man so spake’ (John 7:46); ‘He taught them as one having authority, and not as the scribes’ (Matthew 7:29); ‘The common people heard him gladly’ (Mark 12:37)
Teaching of Jesus - Matthew 7:28 ‘The crowds were exceedingly astonished at his teaching; for he was teaching them as having authority, and not as their scribes (after Sermon on the Mount). Philo describes Jews as ‘taught …, even long before the sacred laws and also the unwritten usages, to recognize as one God the Father and Creator of the world’ (Legatio ad Gaium, 16). But the lines of the new were continuous with the old as regards the primarily practical reference of the new teaching, which superseded that of the scribes of the Pharisaic school, then dominant (Mark 1:22-27; Mark 2:16-18). But the form of its presentation, and much of its resulting spirit, were largely determined by two features peculiar to Jesus as a teacher: (a) a note of fresh, personal authority, in contrast to the derivative authority claimed by the scribes (Mark 1:22); (b) constant reference to ‘the kingdom of heaven,’ the true Theocracy for which Israel had long been waiting and watching, in connexion with Messiah, its Divinely commissioned Inaugurator. Already the scribes, both local (Mark 2:6; Mark 2:16) and from the religious centre in Jerusalem (Mark 3:22), the Pharisees generally (Mark 2:18; Mark 2:24, Mark 3:6), and even the disciples of John,—presumably a specially prepared class,—had indicated pretty clearly that their attitude was likely to be unreceptive Thus we read in Mark 3:7 of His withdrawing from before Pharisaic hostility—which already felt that He must be got rid of at any cost (v
Unbelief (2) - And this unbelief of prejudice is again met with in the case of elders and chief priests and scribes as they question Jesus in their council (Luke 22:66; Luke 22:68). And this incredulity of apathetic minds is perhaps noticeable in the attitude which ‘the priests and the scribes and the elders’ had adopted in the case of John the Baptist (cf
Kindness (2) - What can equal the parable of the Good Samaritan as helping to a definition of the ‘neighbour’ to whom the service of kindness is due?...
Yet the OT and other forms of teaching are not without traces of a wider view than the scribes of Christ’s day would allow. His fiery denunciation of scribes and Pharisees (see Matthew 23) presents no exception; for His wrath is the wrath of love, and the denunciation must be read in the light of the yearning lament over Jerusalem (Matthew 23:37 ff
Profaning, Profanity - There is a profaneness of the law and the letter, eagerly pounced upon by scribes and Pharisees. The indignation shown by the chief priests and scribes at the hosannas of the children in the Temple was apparently due not merely to the hailing of Jesus as the Son of David, but to the raising of those joyful shouts within the consecrated building (Matthew 21:16)
Jews in the New Testament - Whereas the former names Jesus' enemies as scribes and Pharisees, high priests and Sadducees, the Gospel of John simply uses the general term “Jews
Elder - In the New Testament, frequent reference is made to the elders of the Jews, usually in conjunction with the chief priests or scribes (for example, Matthew 21:23 ; Mark 14:43 )
Tradition - On the one hand, through the ceaseless activity of the scribes, the written Law was enriched by a wealth of oral statutes (תּוֹרָה שֶׁבְּעַל־פָּה, ‘the Torah that came by mouth’), partly natural expansions of the Law, arising from the force of custom and the new necessities of life, or as legal precedents from the courts of justice, partly definitions, interpretations, or detailed applications of the Law
Sermon on the Mount - The theme of the sermon is found in Matthew 5:20 , “For I say unto you, That except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter into the kingdom of heaven
Chief Priests - ]'>[4] But in NT times their influence, even in the Sanhedrin, was inferior to that of the scribes and Pharisees, who commanded the popular sympathies as the high priestly party did not (Josephus Ant
Sin - This sin, or blasphemy, as it should rather be called, many scribes and Pharisees were guilty of, who, beholding our Lord do his miracles, affirmed that he wrought them by Beelzebub, the prince of devils, which was, in effect, calling the Holy Ghost Satan, a most horrible blasphemy; and, as on this ground they rejected Christ, and salvation by him, their sin could certainly have no forgiveness
Analogy of Faith - Why? because their great rule of interpretation was the analogy of the faith; or, in other words, the system of the...
Pharisean scribes, the doctrine then in vogue, and in the profound veneration of which they had been educated
Synagogue - Here were the "chief seats," for which Pharisees and scribes strove so eagerly, (Matthew 23:6 ) and to which the wealthy and honored worshipper was invited
Hebrew - Most of the Hebrew Bible now shows a homogeneous style which was most likely due to scribes in the late pre-exilic period copying the older texts in the dialect of Jerusalem
Transmigration - The disciples evidently accpted the teaching of the scribes
Book(s) - The part of the book quoted describes the territory conquered by God in behalf of the Israelites. ...
Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Israel Perhaps a continuous journal compiled by scribes from various sources but not to be confused with 1,2Chronicles in the Bible
Levite - It is possible that many scribes were Levites
High Priest (2) - It was now a religion of the scribes. He describes it as he knew it out of the Jewish Scriptures, and he reflects upon it as dispassionately as a philosopher or a theologian
Cosmopolitanism - the references to publicans and sinners, Matthew 9:11; Matthew 11:19, Mark 2:15, Luke 5:30; Luke 7:37; Luke 15:1, and the fragment in John 7:53 to John 8:11; (b) the universalism of the gospel, Matthew 24:14, Mark 14:9 (‘what she hath done shall be preached in all the world’), Matthew 28:19, Mark 16:15, Luke 24:49 (‘make disciples of all the nations’); so John 3:16; John 12:33 (‘I, if I be lifted up, will draw all men unto myself’); the same thing would result from Matthew 20:28, Mark 10:45 (‘to give his life a ransom for many’), if carried out to its logical conclusion; (c) anti-legalism in regard to the Sabbath (Matthew 12:1, Mark 2:23, Luke 6:1; Luke 13:14), ceremonial ablutions (Matthew 15:1, Mark 7:19), the provisions of the Law (Matthew 5:21; Matthew 5:33; Matthew 5:38; Matthew 5:43), and the inadequacy of the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees (Matthew 5:20)
Luke - Townson observes, that the evangelist has inserted many explanations, particularly concerning the scribes and Pharisees, which he would have omitted if he had been writing for those who were acquainted with the customs and sects of the Jews
Clothing, Cloths, Clothes, Cloke, Coat - It is used of the long clothing in which the scribes walked, making themselves conspicuous in the eyes of men, Mark 12:38 ; Luke 20:46 ; of the robe worn by the young man in the Lord's tomb, Mark 16:5 ; of the best or, rather, the chief robe, which was brought out for the returned prodigal, Luke 15:22 ; five times in the Apocalypse, as to glorified saints, Luke 6:11 ; 7:9,13,14 ; 22:14
Preaching - ...
Our Lord’s teaching, and that of the Apostles which He inspired, were marked by a freshness, a spontaneity and power which filled their hearers, accustomed as they were to the more set and laborious exhortations of the scribes, with the utmost surprise
Righteous, Righteousness - Mark 9:35); and He called the scribes and Pharisees ‘children of hell’ (Matthew 23:15)—a term which he never applies even to the publican or the harlot—because He found in their self-exaltation and censoriousness (cf. Therefore He said, ‘Except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no wise enter into the kingdom of heaven’ (Matthew 5:20). But that John 7:18 really applies to the principles of the Law, and not its letter, is surely proved by the addition of John 7:20, where the scribes and Pharisees are denounced as having broken it while seeming to ‘hedge it round
Reality - The fault-finders who challenged the piety of His disciples because they did not fast (Matthew 9:14-17, Luke 5:33-39), the illiberal formalists who sought to convert the Sabbath into a dreary bondage (Mark 2:23-28, Luke 13:15-16), the hardened censors who had no mercy on a woman caught in transgression (John 8:7), the scribes and Pharisees who turned religion into a pretentious show (Matthew 23:13-35),—were made to feel the baseness of the spirit by which they were animated. Conscious of a testimony to bear for God to which He could not be untrue, and intent on disseminating ideas which He felt to be essential to the spiritual well-being of humanity, He confronted the malice of priests, Pharisees, and scribes, and amid gathering troubles ‘steadfastly set his face to go to Jerusalem’ (Luke 9:51), where that malice at its fiercest had to be encountered
Occupations And Professions in the Bible - Psalm 23:1 identifies the Lord as a Shepherd and vividly describes the duties of the keeper of the sheep. scribes involved in the copying and interpretation of the law of Moses are known from the time of Ezra, who is identified as a “scribe in the law of Moses” (Ezra 7:6 ). Within ancient governments, scribes served the royal court, keeping records of the king's reign
Canon of the Old Testament - " "The synagogue of scribes" (1 Maccabees 7:12) was a continuation probably of that founded by Ezra
Tradition (2) - In fact, for the average layman it was an impossibility; hence the rise of a class of men who devoted themselves to the work of studying it, and informing inquirers about it (see scribes, Lawyers)
Son of Man - Three times Jesus predicted that the Son of man would be rejected and killed by the priests and scribes but would rise on the third day (Mark 8:31 ; Mark 9:31 ; Mark 10:33-34 ; Luke 24:7 )
Beauty - So when the merchantman is described as seeking goodly pearls (Matthew 13:45), and the righteousness of Christ’s disciples is expected to exceed that of the scribes and Pharisees (Matthew 5:20), the quality of beauty arises from the surprising rarity and recognized pre-eminence of the things referred to
Fruit (2) - The original application of the parable is, doubtless, to the scribes and the chief priests who rejected Jesus, but it is equally applicable to any who think they can do as they please with their life and ignore all obligations to the Giver and Lord
Sanhedrim - In the great as well as the inferior sanhedrim were two scribes; the one to write down the suffrages of those who were for condemnation, the other to take down the suffrages of those who were for absolution
Phylacteries - ...
It cannot be doubted that the Pharisees and scribes in the time of our Lord used phylacteries; but how far the custom was followed by the people generally is uncertain
Bible - Concerning the formation of the Bible and the organization of its contents see CANON; MANUSCRIPTS; scribes; SCRIPTURES; SEPTUAGINT; WRITING
Religion (2) - There are three chief forms which religion has taken, corresponding to the emotional, intellectual, and volitional elements in human nature: (a) the ritual side of religion, presided over by the priests, (b) the speculative side, represented by the theologians and philosophers, and (c) the legal or customary side, typified by the office of the scribes. The authority which is not as that of the scribes has been in more or less effectual operation through all the history of Christendom. And goodness became so degenerate in the chair of the scribes that their ideal was not so much rectitude as correctitude
Greek Versions of ot - 285 247), describes how the king, at the suggestion of his librarian, Demetrius of Phalerum, resolved to obtain a Greek translation of the laws of the Jews for the library of Alexandria; how, at the instigation of Aristeas, he released the Jewish captives in his kingdom, to the number of some 100,000, paying the (absurdly small) sum of 20 drachmas apiece for them to their masters; how he then sent presents to Eleazar, the high priest at Jerusalem, and begged him to send six elders out of each tribe to translate the Law; how the 72 elders were sent, and magnificently entertained by Ptolemy, and were then set down to their work in the island of Pharos; and how in 72 days they completed the task assigned to them. In the case of Hexaplaric MSS, the inevitable tendency of scribes was to omit, more or less completely, the critical signs which distinguished the true LXX Hating, Hatred - The question then arises—Is it a fair deduction from, and does it represent the spirit of, the OT, or is it an unwarranted extension and addition of the scribes? In favour of the latter it is urged that this hatred is not conceived of as following in Leviticus 19:18, and that passages much nearer the Christian standard are found. 97) that we must accept Mozley’s conclusions, which are as follows,—The whole precept, as it stands, undoubtedly represents, and is a summary of, the sense of the Law; nor is there any occasion to refer ‘it hath been said’ to the Law in the case of ‘Love thy neighbour,’ and to the tradition of the scribes in the case of ‘Hate thine enemy’: all the other precepts which the Lord takes as instances of an inferior morality are precepts out of the Law, and there is no reason to distinguish this particular one from the rest with respect to its source. ...
Westcott on Hebrews 7:3 quotes a striking passage from Philo which throws light on Luke 14:26; he describes the Levites as being in some sense ‘exiles who to do God’s pleasure had left parents and children and brethren and all their mortal kindred, and continues—ὀ γοῦν ἀρχηγετης τοῦ θιασου τούτου λέγων εἰσάγεται τῶ τατρὶ καὶ τῆ μητρί, Οὐχ ἑώρακα ὐμᾶς καὶ τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς οὐ γενώσκω καὶ τοῖς υἰοῖς ἁτογινώσκω ὑπὲρ τοῦ δίχα μεθολκῆς θεραπεύειν τὸ ὄν
Restitution - [2] 156), and when Jesus, after His transfiguration, forbade His disciples to tell any one of their vision of Moses and Elijah on the mount, they asked Him, ‘Why then say the scribes that Elijah must first come?’ (Matthew 17:10; cf
Retaliation - The Code of Hammurabi prescribes (§§ 196, 200): ‘If a man has caused the loss of a gentleman’s eye, his eye shall one cause to be lost’; ‘if a man has made the tooth of a man that is his equal to fall out, one shall make his tooth fall out. The interest of the scribes lay not in the effort to do the will of God as between man and man, but in the academic discussion of the compensation to be awarded, in soulless casuistry instead of in the effort to make straight the way in the practical business of life (Mark 7:11)
Heart - The Alexandrian Jewish scribes translated into Greek about 200 b
Zedekiah - One of the princes assembled in the scribes' chamber when Micaiah announced that Baruch had read Jeremiah's words to the people (Jeremiah 36:12)
Fulness of the Time - Latterly, indeed, through the influence of the scribes and Pharisees, legalism and formality had crept in, and the externalization of religion had been carried far; yet in many classes of society there was a wistful straining after inner purity and a more living fellowship with God; and in spite of the soulless bondage of ceremonial observances, there was an amount of deep and reverent piety that kept the nation’s heart sounder than might appear on the surface
Judah - Out of Machir came down governors, and out of Zebulon they that handle the Shebeth of the scribes
Prudence - And when at last Pharisees and Sadducees were united against Him, He uttered in the public hearing His invectives against the hypocrisy of scribes and Pharisees
Text of the Gospels - In his opinion (Introduction, § 185) the Antiochian text ‘must be the result of a recension in the proper sense of the word, a work of attempted criticism, performed deliberately by editors and not merely by scribes. ...
And when we go behind the editions, we often find that only comparatively late Manuscripts are now extant, and we have to allow for the natural tendency of scribes to substitute, both consciously and unconsciously, familiar for unfamiliar readings. Sometimes the comments that follow the quotation enable the student to detect the substitution, but such alterations must have been made by scribes in numberless passages in which there are no means of discovering them
Pharisees (2) - Though an outgrowth of the school of the scribes, they eclipsed their teachers. Obedience to God’s Law under the awful Categorical Imperative of Sinai, as applied by scribes and Pharisees, was the dominant principle, the yoke upon the neck of the Jews, when Christ appeared (Acts 15:10, Galatians 5:1). He did not infer He must die from the fate of the prophets—a prophet need not be crucified,—or borrow the idea from the scribes—they never had it, and they thought that to kill Him would end His Messianic claims,—nor did His disciples invent it; they fought against it, and nearly forsook Him when He taught it
Influence - He was indignant at the abuses of the time, and was unsparing in His condemnation of Pharisees and scribes, but the hostility had set in before that, and its only explanation is the hatred of bad men to a holy life. So, too, the weight of His authority was not that of the scribes, dependent on others, but that derived from His own personality
Sabbath - The Gospels show that by the time of Christ the casuistry of the scribes had hedged round the Sabbath with many of those petty and vexatious rules which are preserved in the Rabbinical literature, and which completely eviscerated the institution of any large principle of religion or humanity
Tomb, Grave, Sepulchre - This kind of burial is referred to in Luke 11:44 ‘Woe unto yon, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, for ye are as graves which appear not, and the men that walk over them are not aware of them
Genealogy - ...
Hezekiah took a census of priests and Levites according to genealogies, and apparently from 1 Chronicles 4:41; 1 Chronicles 9:1, a census also of the nation by genealogies; he had a staff of scribes for such purposes (Proverbs 25:1)
Septuagint - Our Lord’s teaching struck His hearers with amazement, because it did not blindly follow the footsteps of the scribes
Interpretation - Yet early Christian interpretation did not run to the same extreme of barren artificiality as that of the scribes, nor was it pursued merely for its own sake
Apollos - ...
The last NT reference to Apollos (Titus 3:13) connects him with ‘Zenas the lawyer,’ probably a convert from the Jewish scribes
Premeditation - He had found the incompleteness of the Law, and with deliberate purpose declared His mission to be one that was not to destroy but to fulfil: ‘Except your righteousness shall exceed that of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in nowise enter into the kingdom’ (Matthew 5:17; Matthew 5:20)
Humility - The rulers of the Gentiles aimed at supremacy, and, in the exercise of a harsh authority, delighted to ‘lord it over them’; and equally the scribes and Pharisees, in their fondness for places and titles of honour, coveted influence and recognition as the ‘great ones’ of Jewish society. Christ’s unflinching exposure of the scribes and Pharisees (Matthew 23) calls us to be courageous in adherence to truth and righteousness, and in view of evil and opposition, however powerful
Sweat - These verses and the first sentence of Luke 23:34 may be safely called the most precious among the remains of this Evangelic tradition which were rescued from oblivion by the scribes of the 2nd century. ]'>[3] It may thus be granted that such an event as the ordinary text describes was a possibility, though nothing very closely allied to it has ever been observed, and one would naturally manifest great caution in accepting the historicity of it, in view of all that has already been said about the passage
Vengeance (2) - The permission, even encouragement, of retaliation by the OT, and still more the interpretations, exaggerations, limitations of the scribes and Pharisees, Christ swept away with an authority which astounded His hearers
Claim - ...
The narrative of the Gospels describes how Christ moved amid the social and religious relationships of the world into which He came. Its duties, as imposed by the scribes and Pharisees, are like the load on the submissive baggage animal (Matthew 23:4)
Appreciation (of Christ) - But beyond these we have the scribes (Matthew 8:19, Mark 12:34) earnestly approaching Him, Pharisees inviting Him to their houses (Luke 11:37; Luke 14:1); we have the confession of the council of priests and Pharisees—‘If we let him alone, all will believe on him’ (John 11:48); we have the acknowledgment of Samaritans, convinced not by hearsay but by personal knowledge (John 4:42), of centurions (Matthew 8:5-13, Mark 15:39), and of the rich young man ‘running and kneeling’ and saying, ‘Good Master’ (Mark 10:17)
Aeon - Plainly αἰών describes some quality of the κόσμος. We cannot follow Dalman when he says: ‘It is not unlikely that in the time of Jesus the idea of “the future age,” being the product of the schools of the scribes, was not yet familiar to those He addressed’ (ib
Serve - Though the person “served” usually is of a higher rank or station in life, this word never describes a slave’s servitude to his master. The Levites also had many important functions in and around the temple; they sang, played musical instruments, and were secretaries, scribes, and doorkeepers ( Purity (2) - And all these questions had received further elaboration at the hands of the later scribes
Text of the New Testament - Tischendorf attributes the original text of the MS to four scribes, one of whom he believes (though, in the opinion of many, this is very questionable) to have been also the scribe of the Codex Vaticanus (B); and the corrections to six different hands, of whom the most important are א a (about contemporary with the original scribe), and א ca and א cb (of the 7th cent. The text of the NT is written by three scribes, with two columns to the page: there are many corrections by the original scribes and by an almost contemporary reviser (A a )
Archaeology And Biblical Study - During that process some mistakes were inevitably made by the human scribes. It has also demonstrated that the scribes were very careful in their work. During all those years, the scribes did their job very well
Magic, Divination, And Sorcery - The officials are here denominated ‘ magicians ’ ( chartummîm , scribes who were acquainted with occult arts), ‘ enchanters ’ ( ’ashshâphîm , prob. (2) But the belief in Divine warnings through dreams came very near to divination when Interpreters were sought to make clear their meaning, as in Egypt ( Genesis 40:5 ff; Genesis 41:1 Peterharaoh calls the chartummîm a word used only in the sense of scribes possessed of occult knowledge), among the Midianites ( Judges 7:13 ), and in Babylon ( Daniel 2:2 )
Sanctify, Sanctification - In the Sermon on the Mount He said: ‘Except your righteousness exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no wise enter the kingdom of heaven’ (Matthew 5:20). Neglecting the outworn dogmas of the scribes, He uttered sharp calls to men as to what they ought to do
Government - The high priest became an important religious and political figure, while the emphasis on the law brought the scribes into new prominence as interpreters of the words of Moses. But by the Roman period the Pharisees and scribes had been included in the Jerusalem Sanhedrin
Tradition - This contentment with things as they were was probably bolstered by the fact that reading and writing were skills limited primarily to the professional scribes in Old Testament times
Lord's Prayer, the - In Matthew the prayer appears in the Sermon on the Mount where Jesus spoke about a righteousness that exceeds that of the scribes and Pharisees (Luke 5:20 )
Divination - The "magicians" of Egypt in Genesis 41:8, (chartumim , from cheret "a style" or pen,) were sacred "scribes" of the hieroglyphics, devoted to astrology, magic, etc
Jehoshaphat - The Levites were to be shoterim , "officers" literally, scribes, keeping written accounts; assistants to the judges, transmitting their orders to the people, and superintending the execution of them
Simple, Simplicity - ‘scribes,’ Mark 3:32)
King (2) - To His descent from David, if He gave it credence at all, He did not attach the slightest importance; indeed, He even sought to convince the scribes that in regarding the coming Messiah as the Son of David they fell far short of the truth
Stone - ’ Thus He identified the rejected ‘Son’ of the parable with the rejected stone of the Psalm, and the wicked husbandmen with the scribes and Pharisees as the ‘builders’ of Israel’s theocratic edifice; but at the same time intimated to the latter that they must not think that by rejecting Him and putting Him to death they would be done with Him for ever. He describes the Lord now, with evident reference to His Resurrection (cf
Ave Maria - And among those who came into more incidental contact with Him by simple inquiry or importunate need, Nicodemus was attracted by the persuasion that He was a teacher come from God (John 3:2); an admission to the same effect was made on one occasion by the Pharisees and Herodians (Mark 12:14); the chief priests and scribes were driven to assign a Satanic origin to His unquestionable power (Matthew 12:24); while the Pharisees reached a stage in their controversy with Him after which no man durst ask Him any question (Matthew 22:46, Mark 12:34)
Amen - In this, as in all else, He was no slavish imitator of contemporary Rabbis, He spoke ‘as having authority and not as the scribes’ (Mark 1:22), and in this capacity it is not surprising that He found a new use for the word of emphasis, which neither His predecessors nor His followers have ventured to imitate, though the title applied to Him in Revelation 3:14 is founded upon His own chosen practice
Nationality - Though He embodied the Hope of Israel and fulfilled the Law of Moses, it was in the name both of the Hope which the priests mistook and of the Law which the scribes misinterpreted, that Jesus was brought to the cross
Pharisees - And outside Palestine it cannot be doubted that the Pharisee scribes were instigators of popular tumults against Christians
Humility - The rulers of the Gentiles aimed at supremacy, and, in the exercise of a harsh authority, delighted to ‘lord it over them’; and equally the scribes and Pharisees, in their fondness for places and titles of honour, coveted influence and recognition as the ‘great ones’ of Jewish society. Christ’s unflinching exposure of the scribes and Pharisees (Matthew 23) calls us to be courageous in adherence to truth and righteousness, and in view of evil and opposition, however powerful
Esther - ...
The Book of Esther describes in the same year, the 3rd, the lavish feasting during which Vashti was deposed, 488 B. ...
The Book of Esther describes the stare of the exiled people of God in Persia, and thus complements the narratives by Ezra and Nehemiah of what took place in the Holy Land. ...
The scribes wrote the names of Haman's ten sons in three perpendicular columns of three, three, four, hanging upon three parallel cords, three upon each, one above another, representing the hanging of Haman's sons
Israel, Israelite - On the one hand, He recognized the Divine authority of the Law, in its true meaning and spirit, and not as interpreted and embodied in the ‘deformed righteousness’ of the scribes and Pharisees (Matthew 5:17-20; Matthew 12:5; Matthew 19:17; Matthew 23:3, Luke 16:17)
Walk (2) - ); of people’s walking over hidden graves (Luke 11:44 : see Woe); of the scribes, τῶν θελόντων περιπατεῖν ἐν στολαῖς (Luke 20:46 || Mark 12:38 ‘love to go in long clothing,’ Authorized Version ; see Dress); and in the question with which the Risen Lord began the conversation with His two disciples whom He joined on the road to Emmaus (Luke 24:17 τίνες οἱ λόγοι … οὑς ἁντιβάλλετε … περιπατοῦτες; cf
Lucianus, a Famous Satirist - His writings, with all their brilliancy, do not convey the impression of a warm-hearted man; the Peregrinus is especially noticeable for the hard unconcern with which he describes both the self-sacrificing love of the Christians and the tragic self-sought death of the sophist. We quote the passage from Francklin's translation:...
"About this time it was that he learned the wonderful wisdom of the Christians, being intimately acquainted with many of their priests and scribes
Mystery - The expressions of 1 Corinthians 2:1-16 from this point of view are not only in agreement with Jesus’ whole teaching as ‘with authority and not as the scribes,’ but form a striking parallel to Matthew 11:25-30
Joseph - ...
Having in vain consulted his magicians or "sacred scribes" (chartumim , "bearers of spells"; the "sorcerers" do not occur until Exodus 7:11), Pharaoh through Joseph learned the interpretation, that seven years of famine (doubtless owing to failure of the Nile's overflow) should succeed to and consume all the stores remaining from the seven plenteous years. With characteristic energy as a steward he made an immediate tour throughout Egypt, and laid up grain in immense quantities, all registered accurately by scribes when the granaries were being filled (as Egyptian monuments represent)
Levites - The Levites acted as teachers and scribes of the law, and chroniclers of their times
Chronicles, the Books of - The names of the scribes before the restoration express the national hope at the time (1 Chronicles 3:19-20): Hananiah (Jehovah's grace); Berechiah (Jehovah's blessing); Hasadiah (Jehovah's mercy); Jushab-hesed ("mercy returns"
Babylon, History And Religion of - Marduk's son Nabu (the Nebo in Isaiah 46:1 ), god of the nearby city of Borsippa, was considered the god of writing and scribes and became especially exalted in the Neo-Babylonian Period
Mark, the Gospel of - ...
Author The title “according to Mark” was added to this Gospel by scribes who produced the earliest copies of the Gospel
Invitation - By this Jesus exposed the attitude of the Pharisees and scribes towards His gospel, and in a wider sense that of all those who in a thoroughly worldly spirit have since treated His offer of salvation with derision or disrespect
Keeping - For instance, we read that when the Pharisees and scribes asked Jesus why His disciples walked not according to the tradition of the elders, but ate their bread with defiled hands, He replied, ‘Full well do ye reject the commandment of God, that ye may keep (τηρέω) your tradition’ (Mark 7:9). To pay no heed to Christ’s ‘word’ (or ‘words’), to be at no pains to think out the purport of His appearance in history, and of the tidings of salvation He proclaimed; or, the meaning and worth of the gospel having in some measure been realized, to set it aside, to neglect it, to occupy one’s self seriously with other things only—that is the attitude to Himself which Christ describes when He speaks of a man not ‘keeping His word. ...
Finally, Christ describes Himself as standing in this twofold relation to the Father, viz
Laughter - The element of satire runs through the scathing denunciations of the Pharisees and scribes (23, etc
Banquet - The Persian scribes are remarkable for their arrogance in this respect, in which they seem to bear a striking resemblance to the Jews of the same profession in the days of our Lord
Law - It is a severer not a laxer ethics that Jesus introduces, a searching in place of a superficial discipline; ‘Your righteousness,’ He says, ‘must exceed that of the scribes and Pharisees. Thus Jesus asserted, in accordance with views already advanced among the scribes, that ‘the whole law and the prophets hang on the two commandments’ of love to God and to our neighbour ( Matthew 22:34-40 , Luke 10:25-37 ) the parable of the Good Samaritan gives to the second command an unprecedented scope
Old Testament (ii. Christ as Student And Interpreter of). - He regarded the OT with much more real reverence than did the scribes, and, indeed, He spoke of it in a way that might almost sound extravagant in its praise, but He also treated its message with a freedom that was surprising, and broke through the husk of the letter till He found for men the strength and the sweetness of the kernel they had not before tasted. The whole section is that which contains the woes uttered against the scribes and Pharisees, and bears considerable trace of later editing, even if it is to be attributed, in very much of its present form, to the writer of the Gospel
Synagogue - In late Jewish tradition Ezra is alleged to have been the founder and first president of a college of learned scribes, which is supposed to have existed in Jerusalem until the early part of the Gr
Discipline - The right to put someone under the ban was originally limited to the Sanhedrin, but some time before the destruction of the temple it was extended to groups of scribes acting together
Jesus, Life And Ministry of - The crowds who heard Him “were astonished at his doctrine: for he taught them as one having authority, and not as the scribes” (Matthew 7:28-29 )
Luke, the Gospel According to - "Lawyers" six times stand instead of "scribes"; epistatees , "master," instead of rabbi six times, as more plain to Gentiles. He describes symptoms in a professional manner (compare "full of leprosy" Luke 5:12). 2) ascribes the conversion of Luke to Paul
Mission - There were the prophets, wise men, scribes, and apostles, whom Israel had and would reject, even kill (Matthew 23:33-36 ; Luke 11:47-51 ; 13:34 ; cf
Righteousness - Further, Jesus does allow that conformity to the norms of the scribes and Pharisees is a certain kind of (inferior) righteous living, but he contrasts it with the proper righteousness he exhibits, proclaims, and looks for (Luke 5:30-32 ; 15:7 ; 18:9 ) in the disciples of the kingdom
Manliness - ), His denunciations of the Pharisees (Matthew 23), His woes against the cities of Galilee (Matthew 11:20-24), His acts of healing upon the Sabbath, His rebuke to the people of Nazareth (Luke 4:16-30), His statement about the Temple (John 2:18-22), His refusal of a sign to the scribes (Matthew 12:38-42; Matthew 16:1-4, Mark 8:11-12, Luke 11:16 f
Claims (of Christ) - It was not only that He constantly placed Himself in opposition to their acknowledged instructors, those scribes who sat in Moses’ seat, and set His simple ‘Verily I say unto you’ against all the traditional learning of the synagogue
Disciple (2) - That increase took place when the fame of His teaching and words, as He went through the towns and villages of Galilee, ‘preaching the gospel of the kingdom, healing all manner of disease and all manner of sickness’ (Matthew 9:35), both attracted to Him the attention of the populace, and so excited the resentment of the scribes and Pharisees that they began to take counsel with the Herodians ‘how they might destroy him’ (Luke 9:15-423)
John the Baptist - 'Art thou He that should come, or do we look for another? Why dost thou eat and drink with scribes and Pharisees, and leave me lying here in this prison-house of Herod and his harlots? Why dost thou eat and drink and make wine out of water for weddings? Rather, surely, should all God's true servants put on sackcloth and ashes and mourn apart, every family apart, and their wives apart
James the Lord's Brother - The scribes and the Pharisees were continually finding fault with James's Brother for His laxity in the traditions of the elders, and no man would feel that laxity so acutely as James would feel it
John, the Gospel According to - ...
His adversaries are called "the Jews," the nation by the time of John writing having become through continued resistance of the truth identified With their hierarchical chiefs, Jesus' opponents; whereas in the synoptists the several classes of opponents are distinguished, "Pharisees," "scribes," "lawyers," "chief priests," etc
Vulgate - Under the actual conditions, it was peculiarly exposed to corruption, both by the ordinary mistakes of scribes and by contamination with the familiar OL. In the absence of any central authority to exercise control, scribes treated the text with freedom or with carelessness, and different types of text grew up in the different countries of Western Europe
Authority of Christ - (|Mark 1:22, Luke 4:32): ‘They were astonished at his teaching, for he taught them as one having authority, and not as their scribes. ’ The scribes said nothing of themselves: they appealed in every utterance to tradition (παράδοσις); the message they delivered was not self-authenticating; it had not the moral weight of the speaker’s personality behind it; it was a deduction or application of some legal maxim connected with a respectable name. There is a single case of conscience which Jesus diagnoses, and for which He prescribes heroic treatment; but it is not in the patient to rise to such treatment. ), the literal historicity of the Book of Jonah is guaranteed; when He ascribes the 110th Psalm to David (Matthew 22:41 ff. ) has attacked " translation="">Matthew 11:27 on the ground that the unique Divine Sonship which it ascribes to Jesus is of a sort which it was not historically possible for Him to conceive or assert
Perfection (of Jesus) - The people recognized that note in His teaching: He spake with authority, and not as the scribes. He brushes aside the teachings of the scribes and the traditions of their schools; He speaks to the people as one having authority, who is greater than Jonah or Solomon (Matthew 12:41-42), who stands above all the Law and the Prophets (Matthew 5:17-18; Matthew 21:34-37)
Baptism - " The scribes accordingly declared, "Elias must first come
James - ...
At the Passover shortly before the destruction of Jerusalem (foretold in his epistle, James 5:1) the scribes and Pharisees set him on a pinnacle of the temple, and begged him to restrain the people who were "going astray after Jesus as though He were the Christ
Unpardonable Sin - connect the saying with calumnious charges of the scribes and Pharisees, based upon our Lord’s action in curing demoniacs (Matthew 12:22 ff. In Hebrews 6:4-8 the writer describes the impossibility of a renewal unto repentance for Christians who have fallen away from Christ after having once ‘tasted of the heavenly gift’ and become ‘partakers of the Holy Ghost
Jews, Judaism - What was needed was the transmission of the text by careful scribes and the interpretation of the text by competent scholar-teachers
Common Life - Throughout it is the Law’s moral requirements that He treats of; and the discourse is prefaced by the assertion that the righteousness of the new kingdom must start by exceeding that of the scribes and Pharisees (Matthew 5:20)
the Ethiopian Eunuch - ...
Was the Book of the prophet Isaiah the parting gift of his Jerusalem host to this eastern prince on the day of his departure home? And did the donor of the sacred book, with an earnest look and with delicate kindness, point out to his guest as he mounted his chariot steps, the fifty-third and fifty-sixth chapters of the evangelical and ecumenical prophet? Or was the sacred book this good eunuch's own selection? After he had purchased some of the rarest specimens of recent Roman art for his royal mistress, did he seek out the sacred scriptorium and price for himself the richest-set roll of the prophet Esaias that the scribes possessed? In whatever way he had come by the fascinating book, he was away out of the city, and well on to the border of the land, before he was able to take his eyes off his purchase
Zechariah, Prophecy of - The whole flock (nation) is given over to slaughter, and Jehovah takes up their cause, for their own shepherds (scribes, elders, rulers, priests) did not pity them
Amazement - Sometimes the emotion was aroused rather by the tone of His teaching, as, with His great ‘I say unto you’ He ‘taught them as having authority, and not as the scribes’ (Mark 1:22 ||Luke 4:32, Matthew 7:28; cf
War - They had also their scribes, who were a kind of commissaries that kept the muster roll of the troops; and these had others under them who acted by their direction
New Testament - It is impossible to estimate the number of these exactly, but they cannot be less than 120,000 in all, though of these a very large proportion consists of differences of spelling and isolated aberrations of scribes and of the remainder comparatively few alterations are sufficiently well supported to create reasonable doubt as to the final judgment
Oaths - The casuists among the scribes made a distinction between more and less binding oaths
Insects - Jesus used the figure of the gnat ( konops ) to teach the scribes and Pharisees a lesson (Matthew 23:24 )
Man (2) - ‘He taught,’ says the Evangelist, ‘as one having authority, and not as the scribes’ (John 7:45-47, Matthew 7:28-29)
Jesuits - It is as follows: "But there are a new "fraternity of late sprung up who call "themselves Jesuits, which will deceive "many, much after the scribes and "Pharisees' manner
Angels - tradition; it could not have been invented by the scribes Nehemiah - And, worst of all, a man who was always well pleased with himself; the first of Pharisees, in short, as Ezra was the first of scribes
Predestination - ’ We also read that He showed ‘unto his disciples, how that he must go unto Jerusalem, and suffer many things of the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and the third day be raised up’ (Matthew 16:21). These the Apostle describes as ‘fitted unto destruction,’ whom God ‘endured with much longsuffering’; and he regards them as bringing upon themselves by their obstinacy and continued sinfulness the natural penalty of their guilt, the just judgment of God
Pilate - ...
(1) According to Mark (Mark 14:53), the chief priests and scribes and elders, after Jesus had been brought from Gethsemane, led Him away to the high priest, in whose residence they all assembled
Talmud - These explanations of the Law, together with the results of the discussions of them on the part of the sôpherîm (‘scribes’), formed the actual ‘Oral Law
Temple - ...
But with regard to the excessive introduction of gold plating by the received text throughout, including even the Temple floor, as we have seen, there is much to be said in favour of the view, first advanced by Stade, that it is due to a desire on the part of later scribes to enhance the magnificence of the first Temple
Ethics - The law was "hedged" with innumerable minor rules, to express the whole duty of man; enthusiasts (Hasidim, later Pharisees) defended it, devoted scribes expounded it, synagogues inculcated it, exaggerated claims held it to be "superior to prophecy, " "light and life of all, " and "eternal
Matthew, Theology of - Whereas righteousness in Judaism described those who lived according to the Law faithfully (Matthew 1:19 , of Joseph ), now it describes those who live faithfully according to the teachings of Jesus, who brought the fulfillment of the Law (5:17). Thus, Jesus expects his followers to live in a way that is superior ("exceeds") to the way of the scribes and Pharisees (5:20)
Hypocrisy - Of the whole standard of the Kingdom of Heaven hypocrisy is the daily practical denial—its broad result being the external righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, without exceeding which we shall in no wise enter into the Kingdom of Heaven
Angels (2) - ’ Again, in many courts, and particularly in that of the Persians, there were secretaries or scribes, whose business it was to keep a ‘book of records’ (Esther 6:1), in which the names and deeds of those who had deserved well of the king were honourably recorded
Preaching - These men were highly esteemed by the pious part of the nation; and princes thought proper to keep seers and others who were scribes, who read and expounded the law, 2 Chronicles 34:29-30 ; 2 Chronicles 35:15
Hypocrisy - Of the whole standard of the Kingdom of Heaven hypocrisy is the daily practical denial—its broad result being the external righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, without exceeding which we shall in no wise enter into the Kingdom of Heaven
Necessity - ’ From the time of Peter’s confession at (Caesrea Philippi, intimations of the necessity of the Passion and Resurrection become more frequent; ‘From that time began Jesus to show unto his disciples how that he must (δει) go unto Jerusalem, and suffer many things of the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and the third day be raised up’ (Matthew 16:21); ‘but first must (δεῖ) he suffer many things, and be rejected of this generation’ (Luke 17:25); ‘Behoved it not (δὐκ ἐδει) the Christ to suffer these things, and to enter into his glory?’ (Luke 24:26)
Christianity - It was this freedom of Jesus in dealing with the old religion that astonished His hearers: ‘He taught them as having authority, and not as their scribes’ ( Matthew 7:28 f
Gods, Pagan - Marduk's son Nabu (Nebo in Isaiah 46:1 ), the god of nearby Borsippa and of scribes, became especially exalted in the neo-Babylonian period as seen in the name Nebuchadnezzar
Unity (2) - The Temple demanded cleansing at His hands; the synagogues were in possession of those scribes and lawyers and Pharisees on whom He cried ‘Woe,’ as hypocrites
Canon of the Old Testament - The annals of the monarchy had been duly recorded by the official scribes, but their religious significance was as yet unthought of
Antiochus - He exempted the senators, scribes, and singing men of the temple, from the capitation tax; and he permitted the Jews to live according to their own laws in every part of his dominions
Parable - The scribes and Pharisees did not require it
Synagogue - There were also chairs set for the elders and the scribes (Tôs. 13), which ascribes to Moses the recital of the Shemâ’ and of the benediction for Israel’s redemption
Synagogue (2) - 6a), and classed in rank with one of the grades of scribes
Miracles (2) - Conflict with scribes and Pharisees in regard to eating and drinking with publicans and sinners, and fasting, and His teaching consequent thereon
Peter - In Acts 4:13, where Luke writes the Jewish council regarded him and John as "unlearned and ignorant," the meaning is not absolutely so, but in respect to professional rabbinical training "lairs," "ignorant" of the deeper sense which the scribes imagined they found in Scripture
Anger - in the series of woes, terrible in intensity of language, pronounced by Jesus against the scribes and Pharisees (Micah 6:6-85 ff
Government of the Hebrews - Originally, it fell to the princes of the tribes themselves to keep genealogical tables:...
subsequently, they employed scribes especially for this purpose, who, in the progress of time, acquired so great authority, that under the name of שוטרים , translated, in the English version, officers, they were permitted to exercise a share in the government of the nation
Law of Moses - The members were priest, scribes (Levites), and elders (of other tribes)
Jeremiah - His protests against the priests and prophets answer to our Lord's against the scribes and Pharisees (Matthew 23); his lamentations over his doomed country correspond to the Saviour's tears over Jerusalem
Mark, Gospel According to - The Second Gospel describes shortly the Baptist’s preaching and the baptism of our Lord, and then records at length the Galilæan ministry. ]'>[11] they are softened down by later scribes of Mk. As we have seen, Mark describes our Lord’s painful emotions; these passages are softened down in Mt
Education in Bible Times - Genesis 18:19 cryptically describes the content of Hebrew education as "the way of the Lord. This instruction for vocational, technical, and professional service to society (and especially palace and temple) included military training, arts and crafts (smiths, artisans, weavers, potters), music, royal officials (scribes, historians, overseers), temple personnel (priests, levites, gatekeepers, treasurers, judges), and domestic servants (midwives, cooks, bakers, perfumers)
Individualism - The Song of Mary describes Him as putting down the mighty from their seats and sending the rich empty away, and His Apostles insist on every man labouring, and on the labourer, not the capitalist, being first partaker of the fruits. A certain regard was to be paid to the scribes and Pharisees who sat in Moses’ seat (Matthew 23:2), but He also subjected them to such criticism as must have sapped their power
Preaching - ...
These men were highly esteemed by the pious part of the nation; and princes thought proper to keep seers and others, who were scribes, who read and expounded the law, 2 Chronicles 34:29-30 ; 2 Chronicles 35:15
Last Supper - Herein is another proof, if proof be needed, of the honesty and faithfulness of the ancient scribes, who, in the midst of one of the greatest controversies of the early Church, resisted the temptation to accommodate the records to particular views of the event. 28, 29, 33, 34) describes the arrangements made by Jews on the day before the legal Preparation day, and adds: ‘There is a very intelligible reason why that Thursday should, in a subordinate sense,—loosely, we may allow,—be called the first day of unleavened bread
Mark, Gospel According to - However this may be, Papias describes the Second Gospel as being limited to Peter’s reminiscences, the writer being the ‘interpreter’ of that Apostle. Mark describes at length the Galilaean ministry and the slow unfolding of Jesus’ claims. Then the crowds begin to see in Him a prophet; His own people and the learned scribes from Jerusalem think Him mad
Atonement - He who recalled the fate of all past prophets, and sent forth His disciples with predictions of persecutions and death ( Matthew 10:1-42 ), could be under no delusions as to His own fate at the hands of scribes and Pharisees (cf
Childhood - The education of Jesus was just that of the great mass of the people: unlike Saul of Tarsus, no bêth ha-Midrâsh, or college of scribes, received Him as a student (‘Whence hath this man these things?’ Mark 6:2; cf
Animals - John describes the colt as ὀνάριον, a young ass. The bulls and fatlings in the parable of the Marriage Feast, and the fatted calf in the parable of the Returning Prodigal, alike stand for the lavish generosity of God’s love, which the scribes and Pharisees could not appreciate, even when offered to themselves, the king’s invited guests, much less when those prodigals, the publicans and sinners, were likewise embraced therein. ...
Of the two words for lamb, one, ἀμνός, is applied only to our Lord, whom John the Baptist twice describes as ‘the Lamb of God,’ adding in one case ‘which taketh away the sin of the world’ (John 1:29; John 1:36)
Jesus Christ - " Then followed the scribes' accusation of the woman from the law, but He who wrote on stone that law of commandments now writes with His finger on the ground (the law of mercy), showing the power of silence to shame the petulant into self recollection, the censorious into self condemnation. Stier describes His one utterance in childhood as "a solitary floweret out of the wonderful enclosed garden of 30 years, plucked precisely there where the swollen bud at the distinctive crisis bursts into the flower
Romans Epistle to the - ]'>[1]8 of the Codex Amiatinus of the Vulgate (a system found in many other Manuscripts ) the 50th ‘chapter’ clearly describes Romans 14:15-23, and the 51st, and last, the doxology (Romans 16:25-27), the remainder of 15 and 16 being omitted. As Lake points out, it is a habit of scribes to add doxologies at the close of books or collections of books (cf
Sanhedrin - The duumvirate was, no doubt, the result of a compromise between Sadducean priesthood and the Pharisean scribes, the Ab Bçth Dîn being for the Pharisees the actual president, whereas the Sadducean high priest was consigned to oblivion, wherefore a later tradition referred the duumvirate to the leaders of the two Pharisean schools of each generation, giving to the foremost one the title of Nâsî (cf
Ideas (Leading) - All the examples which He gave to show that the righteousness of the Kingdom must exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, display the operation of this principle
God - In reading ‘Adonai’ was substituted for it; hence the vowels of that name were in MSS attached to the consonants of ‘Jahweh’ for a guide to the reader, and the result, when the MSS are read as written (as they were never meant by Jewish scribes to be read), is ‘Jehovah
Eschatology (2) - The prevailing teachers were the scribes and Pharisees, whose yoke, practically intolerable, was yet theoretically imperative
Matthew, Gospel According to - Their ‘righteousness’ was to exceed that of the scribes and Pharisees, because they were to interpret the Law of Moses in a sense which would make it more far-reaching in its effect upon conduet than ever before (1664057728_59). Matthew 25:31-46 describes the test by which the King when He comes will admit the righteous into His Kingdom
Boyhood of Jesus - Yet it must be admitted, in favour of a contrary view, that Peter at least was guided by some rules which went beyond those of the OT, and which came from the scribes, Pharisees, and Rabbis (Acts 10:28; Galatians 2:12—eating with non-Jews)
Announcements of Death - Matthew says that ‘from that time began Jesus to show unto his disciples how that he must go unto Jerusalem, and suffer many things of the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and the third day be raised up’ (Matthew 16:21)
Text, Versions, And Languages of ot - This practice in some measure goes back to the times, and doubtless also to the actual usage, of some of the writers of the OT; but in many cases these consonants used to indicate vowels were added by scribes or editors
Mss - All (except perhaps k ) have undergone modification in some respect, either by the corrections introduced by scribes in early times, or by contamination with the Vulgate
Sinlessness - In cleansing the Temple, He is charged with displaying undue vehemence, and it is held that He exhibited an arrogance unbecoming His youth and His position in His attacks on the scribes and Pharisees
Education - The rise of the synagogue, and of the order of scribes in connexion therewith, exercised a powerful influence upon the progress of education among the mass of the people
Holy Spirit (2) - Possibly even the charge brought against Him by the scribes, that He cast out devils by Beelzebub, in other words, that He was possessed Himself by a demon,—a charge mentioned in this connexion by Mk
Mental Characteristics - What could be finer than His appeal to the image and superscription of the tribute-money when plied with the insidious question, ‘Shall we give, or shall we not give?’ (Mark 12:14); or than His rejoinder to the challenge of His own authority, ‘The baptism of John, was it from heaven, or from men? answer me’ (Mark 11:30),—a rejoinder which not only silenced objectors, but went to the root of the question they raised as to the criterion of ‘authority’? His dialectic skill sometimes passed into biting sarcasm, as when He pointed out how the scribes and Pharisees witnessed to themselves that they were the sons of them that slew the prophets, by the way they garnished their tombs (Matthew 23:29-31)
Jesus Christ - In proof of this it is sufficient to point out that it describes itself at the outset as setting forth the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God ( Mark 1:1 ), that the faith of the disciples culminates in Peter’s confession that He is the Christ ( Mark 8:29 ), that the ground of His condemnation is that He claims to be ‘the Christ, the Son of the Blessed’ ( Mark 14:61-62 ), and that the accusation written over His cross is ‘The King of the Jews’ ( Mark 15:26 ). As the normal condition of things in the Christian Church has been similar, it cannot in itself be judged to be symptomatic of anything worse than a silver age that the exponents of the Scriptures and of the tradition were now the chief religious guides of the people (see scribes)
Passover - ’ We think of the question: ‘Why then say the scribes that Elijah must first come?’ (Matthew 17:10), and of the answer: ‘Elijah is come already
Hieronymus, Eusebius (Jerome) Saint - He describes how on Sundays he used to visit, with other young men of like age and mind, the tombs of the martyrs in the Catacombs ( Comm. He describes his life in writing to Eustochium (xxii. He describes himself as living very moderately on bread and vegetables (Ep. At a later time, when his resources failed, Chromatius of Aquileia, and Heliodorus of Altinum, supported the scribes who assisted him (pref
Character of Christ - At once the question arises, and was thrown at the Preacher with bitter controversial animus, How does this new Kingdom stand related to that which had endured through the centuries of Israel’s history, which was now indeed obscured by political oppression, but which was destined one day to receive a glorious vindication? How do its new views of God and man and duty compare with the venerable system of law, of which the scribes and Pharisees were the acknowledged defenders?...
Then Jesus pronounces words which place Him in the central stream of the Divine purpose, and designate Him as its goal and its complete realization: ‘I came not to destroy, but to fulfil’ (Matthew 5:17)
Gregorius (14) Nazianzenus, Bishop of Sasima And of Constantinople - The prophets dwelt on the fearful position of the shepherds who feed themselves; the apostles and Christ Himself taught what the true shepherds should be; and His condemnation of scribes and Pharisees includes all false teachers
Clement of Alexandria - The choice is between judgment and grace, between destruction and life: can the issue then be doubtful (10–12)?...
It is not difficult to point out errors in taste, fact, and argument throughout Clement's appeal; but it would be perhaps impossible to shew in any earlier work passages equal to those in which he describes the mission of the Word, the Light of men (p. It is designedly unmethodical, a kind of meadow, as Clement describes it, or rather a wooded mountain (vii. In this way the opinion would arise that there were 8 books of the Miscellanies , and scribes supplied the place of bk
Clementine Literature - the priests, the Sadducees, the Samaritans, the scribes and Pharisees, and the disciples of John. Nicetas and Aquila listen in silence until Peter describes the shipwrecked mother searching for her children and crying, "Where are my Faustus and Faustinus?" then, hearing their own names mentioned, they start up in amaze and say, "We suspected at the first that what you were saying might relate to us; but yet as many like things happen in different persons' lives, we kept silence; but when you came to the end and it was entirely manifest that your statements referred to us, then we confessed who we were
Person of Christ - Peter as to the taxing of kings’ sons, and His conversation with the scribes about David’s Son and David’s Lord. By calling Himself ‘Son’ He describes what He is for God; but He does so without giving any explanation of it, or explicitly following it backwards or forwards in its eternal relations