What does Letters mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
ἐπιστολῶν a letter 4
סְפָרִ֜ים book. / missive 4
סְפָרִים֙ book. / missive 2
γράμμασιν a letter. / any writing 2
ἐπιστολὰς a letter 2
אִגְּרוֹת֙ letter 2
סְפָרִ֥ים book. / missive 2
γράμματα a letter. / any writing 1
סְפָרִ֡ים book. / missive 1
הַסְּפָרִ֗ים book. / missive 1
וּסְפָרִ֣ים book. / missive 1
בַּסְּפָרִ֔ים book. / missive 1
בַּסְּפָרִ֖ים book. / missive 1
(סְפָרִ֗ים) book. / missive 1
אֲשֶׁר֩ (relative part. 1
לְטוֹבִיָּ֖ה head of a family who returned from exile with Zerubbabel but who were unable to prove their connection with Israel. 1
{γράμμασιν a letter. / any writing 1
אִגְּר֛וֹת letter 1
אִגְּרֹ֣תֵיהֶ֔ם letter 1
אִגְּר֣וֹת letter 1
בָּֽאִגְּר֜וֹת letter 1
ἐπιστολαῖς a letter 1
ἐπιστολαὶ a letter 1
סְפָרִ֗ים book. / missive 1

Definitions Related to letters

G1992


   1 a letter, epistle.
   

H5612


   1 book.
   2 missive, document, writing, book.
      2a missive.
         2a1 letter (of instruction), written order, commission, request, written decree.
      2b legal document, certificate of divorce, deed of purchase, indictment, sign.
      2c book, scroll.
         2c1 book of prophecies.
         2c2 genealogical register.
         2c3 law-book.
         2c4 book (of poems).
         2c5 book (of kings).
         2c6 books of the canon, scripture.
         2c7 record book (of God).
      2d book-learning, writing.
         2d1 be able to read (after verb ‘to know’).
         

H2900


   1 head of a family who returned from exile with Zerubbabel but who were unable to prove their connection with Israel.
   2 the Ammonite who with Sanballat opposed the rebuilding of Jerusalem.
   3 a Levite in the reign of Jehoshaphat.
   4 a chief of the returning exiles.
   Additional Information: Tobiah = “Jehovah is good”.
   

H107


   1 letter, missive.
   

G1121


   1 a letter.
   2 any writing, a document or record.
      2a a note of hand, bill, bond, account, written acknowledgement of a debt.
      2b a letter, an epistle.
      2c the sacred writings (of the OT).
   3 letters, i.e. learning.
      3a of sacred learning.
      

Frequency of letters (original languages)

Frequency of letters (English)

Dictionary

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Dimissorial letters
(Latin: dimittere, to send out)
Testimonial letters given by a bishop or by a competent religious superior to his subjects in order that they may be ordained by another bishop. Such letters testify that the subject has all the qualities demanded by canon law for the reception of the order in question, and request the bishop to whom they are addressed to ordain him.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - letters, Dimissorial
(Latin: dimittere, to send out)
Testimonial letters given by a bishop or by a competent religious superior to his subjects in order that they may be ordained by another bishop. Such letters testify that the subject has all the qualities demanded by canon law for the reception of the order in question, and request the bishop to whom they are addressed to ordain him.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - letters, Apostolic
Broadly speaking, all documents issued by the Holy See. Before Pius X these were divided into bulls and briefs. Now the term is restricted to documents in brief form used for lesser appointments and for erecting and dividing mission territory, designating basilicas, and approving religious congregations.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - letters, Pastoral
Ecclesiastical, episcopal documents written by the bishop either to all the members of his diocese or to the clergy only. The purpose is to maintain the proper discipline and administration in the diocese. Pastoral letters are classified accordingly as they are issued by the bishop or from a synod. To have legal force pastoral letters must be published according to the ordinary custom and manner.
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Canonical letters
In the ancient church, were testimonials of the orthodox faith which the bishops and clergy sent each other to keep up the Catholic communion, and distinguish orthodox Christians from heretics.
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Timothy, letters to
Paul’s letters to Timothy and Titus are commonly known as the Pastoral Letters. In them Paul shows a deep concern for the personal responsibilities that he had entrusted to Timothy and Titus in the places where he had left them. They show the warm personal relationship that Paul had with his fellow workers. They also show how church life had developed over the years since Paul first set out on his missionary travels.
Background to 1 Timothy
Towards the end of the book of Acts, Paul was taken prisoner to Rome and kept there for two years (Acts 20:29-306; Acts 28:30). In letters he wrote during that time, he expressed the hope that he would soon be released and so be able to visit churches in various places again (Philippians 1:27; Philippians 2:24; Philem 22). Paul’s hopes almost certainly came true, but since the book of Acts had by this time been completed, it contains no references to Paul’s later travels. Paul’s letters, however, provide information that enable us to work out at least some of his movements.
One place that Paul visited after leaving Rome was the island of Crete, where he found that the churches were badly in need of help. After staying a while, he sailed on, but he left Titus behind to help the churches of Crete further (Titus 1:5).
When Paul came to Ephesus he found similar problems. Many years earlier he had warned the elders of the Ephesian church that false teachers would create confusion among them (1638902383_19), and now that had happened. The false teaching concerned some important matters, but contained much senseless talk on unimportant matters. People had tried to copy the Jewish teachers of the law by developing imaginative theories based on ancient myths, legends and genealogies (1 Timothy 1:3-7; 1 Timothy 6:3-5). Besides being unprofitable, the teaching created arguments and confusion. Some of it was dangerous to Christian faith, with the result that Paul had to put the more serious offenders out of the church (1 Timothy 1:19-20).
In due course Paul left Ephesus for Macedonia, but he left Timothy behind to help restore order and stability in the church. However, Paul was concerned for Timothy and the Ephesian church, so from Macedonia he wrote to give Timothy encouragement and direction in his difficult task. Paul felt at times that Timothy lacked boldness, and he hoped this letter would give Timothy the confidence he needed. At the same time Paul wrote a similar but shorter letter to Titus.
Contents of 1 Timothy
Paul begins his letter to Timothy with a warning about the false teachers. He contrasts the wrong kind of teaching given at Ephesus with the gospel that he preaches (1:1-11), and then shows from his experiences that the truth of this gospel is sufficient for even the greatest of sinners (1:12-20).
In view of the disorder created by the false teachers, Paul gives Timothy instruction concerning the orderly arrangement that should characterize the church’s life. He speaks of prayer and teaching, and of the conduct of both men and women in church meetings (2:1-15). After listing some basic requirements for elders and deacons (3:1-13), he contrasts the straightforward truth of the gospel with the deceptive nonsense taught by the false teachers (3:14-4:5). He advises Timothy how to deal with the false teachers and how to exercise his own gifts for the maximum benefit of all (4:6-16).
The final section of the letter deals with the various kinds of people within the church. It gives instruction concerning behaviour towards people in different age categories (5:1-2), care for widows (5:3-16), appointment and support of church leaders (5:17-25), attitudes of slaves and masters (6:1-2), treatment of false teachers (6:3-10), self-discipline and courage in God’s servants (6:11-16) and the dangers of wealth (6:17-19). It concludes with an encouragement to Timothy to persist with the true Christian teaching and not to waste time arguing over senseless issues (6:20-21).
Background to 2 Timothy
Some time after writing 1 Timothy and Titus, Paul left northern Greece. The Bible gives no details of route he followed, but among the places he visited was Corinth in southern Greece (2 Timothy 4:20). He also visited Miletus, a town near Ephesus in western Asia Minor (2 Timothy 4:20), and Troas, a town farther north (2 Timothy 4:13). It seems that soon after this, Paul was arrested and taken to Rome once more. From Rome he wrote his final letter, 2 Timothy (2 Timothy 1:8; 2 Timothy 2:9).
When the government authorities in Rome laid their charges against Paul, former friends deserted him. This was a great disappointment to Paul, but God protected him from violence and gave him the opportunity to make known the gospel to his captors (2 Timothy 4:16-17). Paul knew he had little chance of being released; he expected rather to be executed (2 Timothy 4:6-8). He therefore urged Timothy to come to Rome as quickly as possible (2 Timothy 4:9), and to bring Mark with him (2 Timothy 4:11). (Mark was probably working in Colossae, a town not far from Ephesus; cf. Colossians 4:10.)
Paul was lonely in prison. He had been visited by Onesiphorus of Ephesus (2 Timothy 1:16-18) and by some of the local Roman Christians (2 Timothy 4:21), but only Luke was able to stay with him (2 Timothy 4:11). Various friends and fellow workers had gone to different places in the service of God, though Demas, who had been faithful to him during his previous imprisonment, had now left him for no good reason (2 Timothy 4:10; 2 Timothy 4:12; cf. Colossians 4:14).
Apart from giving Timothy details concerning his circumstances in Rome, Paul wanted to give him added encouragement concerning the church in Ephesus. The Ephesian church was still troubled by false teaching, and Paul wanted Timothy to stand firm in his defence of the gospel.
Contents of 2 Timothy
The letter opens with Paul’s encouraging Timothy to exercise his God-given gifts with boldness and to defend the gospel against all attacks (1:1-14). He mentions Onesiphorus as an example of whole-hearted faithfulness (1:15-18), and impresses upon Timothy the need for endurance (2:1-13).
Paul then deals specifically with the problem of the false teachers. He urges Timothy to concentrate on the main truths of the Christian faith and to avoid useless arguments (2:14-26). He warns that opposition to the truth of God will increase (3:1-9). In view of this, Timothy is to be an example to all, through enduring suffering patiently and preaching the Word constantly (3:10-4:5). Paul looks back on his own service for God with satisfaction (4:6-8), and concludes with details and advice in relation to his present circumstances in Rome (4:9-22).
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Peter, letters of
The Christians addressed in 1 Peter lived mainly in the northern provinces of Asia Minor bordering the Black Sea (1 Peter 1:1). These were places that Paul had not been allowed to enter (Acts 16:7-8), but that Peter had helped to evangelize, most likely with John Mark as his assistant (1 Peter 5:13).
Purpose in writing 1 Peter
It was the era of the Roman Emperor Nero (who ruled from AD 54 to 68) and persecution against Christians was increasing everywhere. At the time of writing, Peter was apparently in Rome. This was the heart of the Empire and the place that Christians referred to as Babylon, the symbol of arrogant opposition to God and his people (1 Peter 5:13). Paul had recently been executed (2 Timothy 4:6), and Peter felt that a more violent persecution was about to break out.
Peter therefore wrote to warn Christians not to be surprised or ashamed when they met persecution (1 Peter 4:12; 1 Peter 4:16). They were to bear their sufferings with patience, even if it meant death, and they were to bear intelligent witness to their faith in Christ (1 Peter 2:20-23; 1 Peter 3:14-15; 1 Peter 4:19). Always, however, they had the assurance of a living hope and a glorious future (1 Peter 1:3-8).
Contents of 1 Peter
At the outset Peter reminds his readers that although God wants his people to have assurance of their salvation, he also tests their faith to prove its genuineness (1:1-12). True faith produces qualities of holiness and love in the lives of Christ’s followers (1:13-2:3) and builds them into a community whose life and vigour should bring blessing to people everywhere (2:4-10).
This leads Peter to consider the responsibility Christians have to maintain good conduct in society (2:11-17), even when people in general are against them (2:18-25). Likewise in the home and in the church they must work towards peace and harmony (3:1-12).
Suffering is inevitable if Christians live rightly, and in this matter Christ is the perfect example (3:13-22). But just as Christ’s suffering was not without purpose, so neither is the suffering of his followers. It should lead them to more disciplined and fruitful lives for God (4:1-11) and help them to experience that deep-seated joy that Christ himself experienced (4:12-19).
Because church leaders have such a vital work to do among believers in times of difficulty, Peter gives some special instruction for them (5:1-5). He concludes his letter by urging all his readers to be humble and to keep alert at all times (5:6-14).
Purpose in writing 2 Peter
It seems that Peter wrote the letter known as Second Peter only a year or so after he wrote First Peter, and that he sent it to the same people (cf. 2 Peter 3:1 with 1 Peter 1:1). It seems also that Peter was in prison, most likely in Rome, and expected to be executed soon (2 Peter 1:14-15). When he heard that false teachers were moving around the churches causing trouble, he promptly sent off this short but uncompromising letter.
The main error that Peter opposed was the claim by the false teachers that, since faith alone was necessary for salvation, Christians could live as they pleased. Immoral practices were not wrong for those who had gained a higher knowledge of spiritual things, and in fact were evidence that they had gained true freedom (2 Peter 2:1-3). (Concerning the similarities between 2 Peter and Jude see JUDE.) The other error of the false teachers was their mockery of the return of Jesus Christ.
Contents of 2 Peter
Peter counters the false teaching about Christian behaviour by showing that when people are saved by faith, their lives are changed in the direction of virtue, morality, self-control, godliness and love (1:1-15). God’s power to change lives is a fact to which Old Testament writers and New Testament apostles bear witness (1:16-21). Then, in a strong denunciation of the false teachers, Peter describes their immoral character and announces their certain punishment (2:1-22).
As for Christ’s return, it also is certain, and the scoffers are only deceiving themselves (3:1-7). Any apparent delay in his return is for the purpose of giving sinners the opportunity to repent and escape the coming judgment. Christians likewise must be ready for his return, for they too are accountable to God (3:8-18).
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Thessalonians, letters to
Thessalonica was a city in Macedonia in the north of Greece. Paul planted a church there during his second missionary journey, and soon after he wrote the church two letters that have been preserved in the New Testament.
letters of
Three New Testament books attributed to the apostle John. Knowledge and use of 1John is attested from an early date in the writings of Papias (according to Eusebius), Polycarp, and Justin. It was regarded as the work of the apostle John by Irenaeus, Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, and the Muratorian Canon. Second and Third John were accepted as Scripture more slowly. Origen reported that their authenticity was questioned, and Eusebius placed them in the list of writings that were disputed, although “well-known and acknowledged by most.”
The Johannine character of the three letters is universally recognized, but debate over their authorship continues. Some scholars regard the apostle John as the author of all three letters. Others, citing stylistic and theological differences between the Gospel and the Letters, contend that they were written by an elder in the Johannine community, who was not the evangelist. It is possible that the author of the letters was the final editor of the Gospel, the “I” who speaks in John 21:25 . The author never identifies himself by name. Twice he claims the title “the elder” (2 John 1:1 ; 3 John 1:1 ), but he never calls himself an apostle.
Most scholars agree that the three letters were written by the same author and that they were written after the Gospel. A date of about A.D. 100 seems to be indicated, but both earlier and later dates have been proposed. Several factors support a date following the composition of the Gospel. 1 John 1:1-5 seems to imitate John 1:1-18 . The polemic against “the Jews” that pervades much of the Gospel does not appear in the letters. Their concern was with difficulties within the Christian community. Whereas the Gospel was written “that ye might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God” (John 20:31 ), 1John insists that one must confess that Jesus Christ has come in flesh (1 John 4:2 ). 2 John 1:7 likewise identifies as deceivers those who do not confess “Jesus Christ come [1] in flesh.” The letters are therefore concerned with correcting a false belief about Christ that was spreading in the churches.
From this emphasis on the incarnation, we may assume that the opponents held to the divinity of Christ but either denied or diminished the significance of His humanity. Their view may be an early form of Docetism, the heresy that emerged in the second century which claimed that Jesus only seemed to be human.
This false belief had already led to schism. 1 John 2:19 explains that those who had left the community never really belonged to it, or else they would have remained with it. 1 John 4:1 warns the church to test the spirits because “many false prophets are gone out into the world.” These “opponents” of the elder's group are charged with not following the command to love one's fellow Christians. They apparently also claimed that they were free from sin ( 1 John 1:8 , 1 John 1:10 ). Both groups held that believers have “passed from death unto life” (1 John 3:14 ), but the elder recognized the potential danger in this teaching and contended that the future coming of the Lord (1 John 3:2 ) requires that believers purify themselves and be righteous (1 John 3:3-7 ).
The Johannine letters, therefore, provide us with a window on an early Christian church, its problems, and its developing doctrine. First John seems to be a treatise written to the Johannine community. In contrast, 2,3John are much briefer, about the length of a single sheet of papyrus, and they follow the conventional form of a personal letter.
First John is difficult to outline because its themes recur throughout the letter and because transitional verses may be placed either with the preceding or the following sections (1 John 2:28 ; 1 John 4:1-6 ). Outlines with varying numbers of divisions have been suggested for 1John. The structure followed here is based on the repetition of the statement “God is” three times in the Epistle: “God is light” (1 John 1:5 ), “He is righteous” (1 John 2:29 ), and “God is love” (1 John 4:8 ). First John demands that these qualities must dominate the lives of believers.
As a way of refuting the false teaching that threatened the community, the elder quoted tenets of the opponents in 1John 1:6,1John 1:8,1 John 1:10 ; 1John 2:4,1 John 2:6 , and 1 John 2:9 , and answered each point. He called those who remained to practice the command of love (1 John 2:3-11 ). The elder gave assurance to the community and warned the believers that they cannot practice love for one another and love for the world at the same time (1 John 2:15-17 ). “The world” here means all that is opposed to Christ. Dissension had already split the community, and the elder warned those who remained about the dangers of the false teaching (1 John 2:18-27 ).
One of the tests of faithfulness is righteousness (1 John 2:29 ). The opponents may have emphasized the present realization of the church's hope for the future, saying that the judgment was already past and Christians had already passed from death into life. The elder reasserted a more traditional eschatology (see 1 John 3:2 ). Hope for the future, however, carries with it the imperative of righteous, pure living. Christians cannot make sin a way of life (compare 1John 3:6,1 John 3:9 with 1 John 1:8-10 ).
Another test of faithfulness is living by the command to love one another, which means sharing with those in need (1 John 3:11-24 , especially 1 John 3:17 ). The false prophets, who had gone out from the community, denied the incarnation (1 John 4:1-6 ). The incarnation is crucial for Christian doctrine, however, because in Christ we find the love of God revealed (1 John 4:7-21 ). Love of God, however, requires that we love one another.
Those who have faith in Christ and love God keep His commands, and to them God gives eternal life (1 John 5:1-12 ). The water, the blood, and the Spirit all bear witness to Christ, His incarnation, and His death. Christians are to pray for one another, but there is sin that is “mortal” (1 John 5:16 ). By this the elder probably meant denying Christ, the one through whom sin is forgiven. Christ also keeps those who are “born of God.” He is the only source of eternal life.
Outline
I. The Prologue: The Word of Life (1 John 1:1-4 )
II. Light Among God's Children (1 John 1:5-2:27 )
A. The incompatibility of light and sin (1 John 1:5-2:2 )
B. Love as a test of knowledge (1 John 2:3-11 )
C. Conflict with the world (1 John 2:12-17 )
D. Conflict within the community (1 John 2:18-27 )
III. Righteousness Among God's Children (1 John 2:28-4:6 )
A. The hope of the righteous (1 John 2:28-3:10 )
B. The love of the righteous (1 John 3:11-24 )
C. The two spirits (1 John 4:1-6 )
IV. Love Among God's Children (1 John 4:7-5:12 )
A. The true nature of love (1 John 4:7-21 )
B. The true nature of faith (1 John 5:1-12 )
V. The Epilogue (1 John 5:13-21 )
Second John was written by the elder to a sister community to warn the church about the dangers of the false teaching that had already threatened the elder's church. The sequence of the writing of 1,2John is conjectural, but they were probably written by the same author at about the same time. They share similar concerns, and in many places the same phrases appear in both letters.
The elder praised the sister church for following the truth and appealed for her to continue to show love. The elder apparently wanted to be sure that the sister church would continue in fellowship with his church. His real concern, however, was to warn “the elect lady” (2 John 1:1 ) about those “who confess not that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh” (2 John 1:7 ). Such deceivers and antichrists are not to be received by the church. These were apparently members of the same group referred to in 1 John 2:19 and 1 John 4:1-2 .
Outline
I. The Salutation of Love for Those Who Know the Truth (1-2)
II. The Blessings of Grace, Mercy, and Peace (3)
III. Love Is the Identifying Mark for Christians (4-6).
IV. Believers Face Deceivers (7-11).
V. Personal Conclusion (12-13)
Third John is a personal letter from the elder to Gaius, who had been providing hospitality to fellow Christians and messengers from the elder's community. Diotrephes, however, refused to receive those sent by the elder. The elder charged that Diotrephes “loveth to have the preeminence among them” (3 John 1:9 ), but Diotrephes' position is unclear. Some interpreters suggest that Diotrephes was an appointed leader or bishop of the church. Others conclude that Diotrephes had rejected the authority of the church's leaders, ambitiously asserting his own leadership. It may be that in an effort to prevent outsiders from spreading false teachings and dissension in the church he refused to receive any traveling prophets or teachers.
Gaius may or may not be a member of Diotrephes' church. The elder praised Gaius and commended Demetrius (who may have carried the letter) as a faithful witness. The letter closes with greetings from fellow Christians, who are called “the friends” (3 John 1:14 ; see John 3:29 ; John 11:11 ; John 15:13-15 ). See John the Apostle; John, the Gospel of .
Outline
I. The Address (1)
II. The Blessing of Good Health and Welfare for a Faithful Spiritual Leader (2-4)
III. Believers Should show Hospitality and Support for Visiting Believers (5-8).
IV. Pride, Gossiping, and Lack of Hospitality Bring Condemnation (9-10).
V. Imitate Good Leaders but Not Wicked Ones (11-12).
VI. Concluding Remarks (13-14).
R. Alan Culpepper
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - letters
LETTERS.—The word γράμματα (John 7:15) may be intended to indicate literature in general, as it might do in Acts 26:24. But to the ordinary Jew γρ. were practically constituted exclusively by the Sacred Scriptures, certain esteemed Apocryphal books, and the Rabbinical commentaries upon them. The surprise of the question recorded in the reference suggests consideration of the amount of human learning Jesus possessed.
With the rudiments of the Law every Jew was made thoroughly and intimately conversant from his earliest intelligent years (see Education). The education of the Jewish child had the primary purpose of enabling him to read the passages which it was essential for him to know for the proper discharge of his religious duties. Beyond this elementary knowledge comparatively few carried their studies. It was, indeed, the ideal of Judaism that every Israelite should have a professional acquaintance with the Law in its details. But only a small fraction attended the schools of the scribes at which advanced instruction was given in its more recondite matters and the commentaries upon them contained in the Midrash and other Rabbinic books. It would seem from the surprise-expressed in this question that Jesus had not prosecuted such studies, at least in the recognized schools, whether from disinclination or from poverty which prevented Him from paying the fees exacted in spite of the understanding that such instruction should be gratuitous. There are convincing indications, however, that Jesus was to some extent familiar with the literature studied in the schools, both from His direct reference to passages contained in it, and from striking parallelisms in language and thought between various sayings of His and maxims of uncanonical books such as Sirach and the Wisdom of Solomon.* [1] He is also evidently acquainted with the kind of teaching supplied by the scribes. In the apocryphal Gospel of the Infancy, Jesus is credited with an intimate and astounding acquaintance with ‘learning,’ partly derived from the reading of books. The bestowal of the title ‘Rabbi’ upon Him implies that, though not having studied after the usual manner, He was recognized to possess learning. But He Himself in His reply accepts the implication of the question that His teaching was not derived from any human source, but was the immediate communication from His heavenly Father. See also Learning.
A. Mitchell Hunter.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Apostolic letters
Broadly speaking, all documents issued by the Holy See. Before Pius X these were divided into bulls and briefs. Now the term is restricted to documents in brief form used for lesser appointments and for erecting and dividing mission territory, designating basilicas, and approving religious congregations.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - letters
marks for the purpose of expressing sounds, used in writing. Few subjects have given rise to more discussion than the origin of alphabetic characters. If they are of human invention, they must be considered as one of the most admirable efforts of the ingenuity of man. So wonderful is the facility which they afford for recording human thought; so ingenious, and at the same time so simple, is the analysis which they furnish for the sounds of articulate speech, and for all the possible variety of words; that we might expect the author of this happy invention to have been immortalized by the grateful homage of succeeding ages, and his name delivered down to posterity with the ample honours it so justly merited. But the author and the era of this discovery, if such it be, are both lost in the darkness of remote antiquity. Even the nation to which the invention is due cannot now be ascertained. The Egyptians, the Assyrians, the Phenicians, the Persians, the Indians, have all laid claim to the honour of it; and each has named its inventor among the remote, and probably fabulous, personages that figure in the earlier ages of their history. In consequence of this uncertainty respecting the author of alphabetic writing, and the high value and extreme difficulty of the invention itself, many have been inclined to attribute this art to an immediate revelation from the Deity; contending that it was communicated with other invaluable gifts from above, in remote ages, to the descendants of Abraham, and probably to the Patriarch Moses, who was the author of the most ancient compositions in alphabetical writing that we at present possess. The arguments which are brought in support of the divine revelation of the alphabet, are chiefly these:
1. The high antiquity of the use of letters; the Hebrew characters
having existed in a perfect state when Moses composed the Pentateuch, the most ancient writing now known to be extant.
2. The similarity between the various alphabets of different nations, which, for the most part, are the same, in the order, power, and even form, of their letters with the Hebrew.
3. The complete want of alphabetic characters among those nations, which have been cut off from all communication with the ancient civilized world, as the aboriginal Americans; or that part of the human race which had no opportunity of borrowing the system of written characters revealed to the Hebrews, as China.
Had man been left to himself, the first and most natural way of making his thoughts visible to the eye would be by pictorial representations. The second step would, for convenience' sake, be to invent an abbreviated form of these pictures, sufficiently legible to call to mind the original picture in full, and yet so reduced and intermixed with a few easily remembered arbitrary characters, or symbols, as to be more extensively useful. The next and most difficult step would be the alphabet so formed as to express all the sounds of the language, by convenient combination. The Egyptian monuments show specimens of each; the hieroglyph, the mixed and abbreviated, and the alphabetical. The magnificent ruins of Persepolis, the capital of ancient Persia, exhibit also the pure pictorial style, and tablets of abbreviated emblems. The characters on the bricks dug up from the ruins of ancient Babylon have characters, which are supposed to be, not alphabetic, but abbreviated symbols, and therefore suppose the existence of the larger picture writing, whether the people possessed a proper alphabet or not. All the savage tribes of America had their picture writings, and this style was carried to great perfection by the Mexicans. The latter had, likewise, abbreviated marks, which were used as symbols; and thus made an approach to letters, although they never reached this discovery. It is a curious fact, that in our day a Cherokee chief has actually invented an alphabet, and that in the process he commenced with a pictorial representation of animals which uttered sounds somewhat like those of his own tongue; which thought seems not to have entered into the picture writing of the ancients, whose delineations spoke wholly to the eye, and not at all to the ear. Finding this method imperfect and cumbersome, he at last hit upon the expedient of arbitrary characters, which he gradually reduced in number, and so perfected, that, with a few European improvements, books are now printed in them for the use of his nation. In China the language is a complete system of abbreviated pictures, emblems, or symbols; and there is no proper alphabet to this day.
These facts are urged as direct proofs or strong presumptions that all alphabetical characters have been preceded by picture or imitative characters; and that as the whole is within the compass of human ingenuity, the notion of a divine suggestion of letters, or of the important art of alphabetical writing, is bringing in the divine agency without necessity. But the assumption that alphabets have in all cases been formed through this process, is wholly hypothetic. Certain it is that we can prove from the Scriptures that literal writing was in use at an earlier period than can be assigned to any picture writing whatever. Writing and reading were familiar to Moses and the Israelites when the law was given, and must have long previously existed among them, and, probably, among the Egyptians of the same age too; which is much earlier than any of those monuments bearing hieroglyphical characters reach. We have given sufficient reason to conclude that Job lived at an earlier period still, and as he expresses a wish that his words should be written in a book, and engraven on the rock, the knowledge of reading as well as writing must have been pretty general in his country, or the book and the inscription could not have been a testimony of his faith and hope to his countrymen, as he passionately desired it to be. Here, too, it is to be observed, that in the early Mosaic history we have not the least intimation of writing by pictures or symbols, nor any that the art of writing had been revealed from heaven in the days of Moses, preparatory to the giving of a written law and the introduction of inspired books for the religious instruction of the people. We must trace it up higher; though whether of divine revelation, or human invention, cannot certainly be determined. Its importance was assuredly worthy of the former; and if this was not done by particular revelation, doubtless we may reasonably and piously ascribe it to a divine suggestion.
It may, indeed, be asked, How then is it that in other nations we can so accurately trace the progress from the picture to the symbol, and thence on to the alphabet; as for instance in Egypt? We answer, that if this were allowed, and it might be, and probably was, a part of the divine procedure with reference to the preservation of the true religion, that the knowledge of letters should be early given to the Abrahamic family, or, at least, preserved among them, while many others of the more dispersed branches of the human race becoming barbarous, as stated under the article Language, might lose it; because picture writing was easily convertible to idolatrous purposes, and in reality was greatly encouraged from that source. The same care would be exerted to prevent pictorial representations of spiritual beings and things as the forming of images; and the race of true worshippers of God was never therefore placed under the necessity of thus expressing their thoughts by such delineations. But it is, in fact, far from being proved, that the hieroglyph, or picture writing, of Egypt for example, was more ancient among that people than alphabetic writing. One of the most recent writers on this side is the Marquis Spineto, in his "Lectures on Egyptian Hieroglyphics." His theory is, in fact, that of Warburton; and he thinks that the recent discoveries as to the hieroglyphics of Egypt fully establish it. The opinion of this learned prelate was, that the primitive mode of writing among the Egyptians was by figurative delineations or hieroglyphics; that this becoming too tedious and voluminous, by degrees they perfected another character, which he calls the running-hand of hieroglyphics, resembling the Chinese characters; which being at first formed only by the outlines of figures, became at length a kind of marks; and at last led to the compendious use of letters by an alphabet. His argument against the knowledge of letters by the immediate descendants of Noah is as follows: "For, if the invention of the alphabet had preceded the dispersion, we should have found the use of it generally established among mankind, and hieroglyphics and picture writing entirely lain aside. But this is not the case. The Mexicans and the Peruvians, up to the fifteenth century, and, to this day, the Chinese, have no knowledge of the alphabet. They all, like the Egyptians, made use of hieroglyphics, more or less abridged, more or less symbolical, or, if you please, more or less arbitrary; but they had no knowledge of the alphabet. The invention of letters, therefore, must have happened after the dispersion, at a time when picture or hieroglyphical writing was generally used; it was thus imported into the respective countries, by the primitive inhabitants, as they separated themselves from the common society, carrying in their migrations those partly true and partly false notions of the Deity, and of the great event which had submerged the world; notions which, in fact, are to be found in the theology and ritual of all the nations in the universe, although more or less disfigured and altered."
But as the running-hand hieroglyphics, spoken of by Warburton, were no more alphabetical than the hieroglyphics themselves, still we are left to make the inquiry, Who was the inventor of the Egyptian alphabet? This is supposed by the Marquis on the authority of a passage in Plato, to be a secretary of one of the kings of Egypt. This king is called Thamus; who forbade his ingenious secretary, Thouth, or Theuth, to make the invention public; lest the people should no longer pay attention to the hieroglyphics, which would then be soon forgotten. The secret, however, soon escaped; and as it diminished to a prodigious degree the difficulty of writing, it was generally adopted by the Egyptians, and from them passed into other nations. "The first," says the Marquis, "who seem to have got a knowledge of this system, were the Phenicians; they imparted it to the Arabians, to the Jews, and carried it over to Greece. From that country it was exported to the several islands, carries to the continent, and reached the northern nations. The Chinese alone refused to adopt the valuable discovery; proud of the antiquity of their social establishment, believing themselves superior to the rest of mankind, they still adhered to their ancient mode of writing. This, as I have already observed, though originally the same with that used by the Egyptians, became, in process of time, materially different, being made up of arbitrary marks, which are for the most part ideo-graphical. With the discovery of the alphabet, however, a very material change took place in regard to hieroglyphics. Originally, as we have seen, they had been the common, nay, the sole mode of writing, employed by the nation at large, in all the transactions of life, and through the policy of King Thamus, the alphabetical letters were kept secret: but, as soon as this discovery became known, the contrary happened; alphabetical writing became common, and hieroglyphics mysterious, not because they were purposely hidden in mystery, but simply because they required greater application and greater trouble. They indeed still continued to be used in matters of religion, funerals, public monuments, and the like; but in all business, and common transactions, the alphabetical writing was employed. This was a necessary consequence of the general use of hieroglyphics in their primitive state; for although the Egyptians might, and, in fact, did, give the preference to the alphabet, yet they did not think it necessary to erase the old hieroglyphical characters from their temples, from their obelisks, from their tombs, and religious vases. The priests, therefore, still continued to study and preserve the knowledge of hieroglyphics; and these, partly by their showy nature, partly by the continuation of the old custom, continued still to be used in public monuments of a votive and funereal nature. To distinguish them, therefore, from the alphabetical letters newly invented, they obtained the name of sacred, on the score of their being employed only in matters of religion. The priests, however who had already invented a new set of arbitrary marks, as a shorter way of hieroglyphical writing, which they employed exclusively in transactions which concerned their body and their pursuits, after the invention of the alphabet, turned these marks into letters, and thus they formed another set of characters, or mode of writing, to which they gave the appellation of hieratic, as belonging exclusively to their order. In these characters they wrote all historical, political, and religious transactions. And as the common, or demotic letters were employed in all the common business of life, and hieroglyphics confined to public monuments, and funereal and votive ceremonies, the Egyptians became possessed of at least three different modes of writing, or sets of characters, which were hieroglyphic, demotic, and hieratic. Whether the priests had invented another set of characters, unknown to the people, and in which they concealed their doctrine and their knowledge, is a question which cannot be solved at present. The want of monuments disables us from saying any thing of a decisive nature on this subject. One thing alone we can suppose with certainty, that if such a mode of writing did ever exist, and for the purpose for which it is supposed to have existed, the knowledge of it must have been confined to the priests only, and the records so written concealed with the greatest care from the eye of the nation. If, therefore, such records exist, they must be sought for in the dwelling of the hierophant, in the most recondite places of the temples; perhaps in those subterraneous passages which now lie hidden under mountains of sand, and in which no one but the priests were ever permitted to enter."
The whole of this account, we may however observe, is far from being satisfactory. Whether the early Egyptians wrote hieroglyphics at all, no monuments yet discovered are so ancient as to prove; since all such characters now known must have been written subsequently to the advancement of the kingdom into great power, and after considerable progress had been made in architecture and other arts. The passage, too, in Plato, on which the argument is made to depend, may just as well refer to the running-hand or abridged hieroglyphical signs, as to alphabetical writing; and the supposition, that the priests gave an alphabetical character to this kind of abridged pictorial writing after the discovery of the real alphabet, (and alphabetical Ackerblad and Dr. Young have proved it to be,) is quite hypothetic. We think it more probable that alphabetical writing is much older than the hieroglyphics; that the phonetic hieroglyphics were fanciful representations of the alphabetic characters, intermingled with those symbols which idolatry and the natural peculiarities of Egypt would suggest; that the whole was originally easy to be deciphered by those who knew letters at all; and that the leading motive of fixing them on public monuments in preference to literal inscriptions, was the taste of the day, which custom, and antiquity, and superstition at length consecrated. We have thus an easy way of accounting for the alphabetical, though obscure, character of the hieroglyphic running-hand, or hieratic writing, so much used in manuscripts. As an abridged form of the hieroglyphical outline, it would at least be phonetic wherever the hieroglyphic was so; and where that was symbolical, it would naturally present greater difficulty in deciphering, which, in fact, has been proved to be the case, by modern students in the art. It is, indeed, acknowledged by those who advocate the priority of the hieroglyphic to the alphabetic signs, that the number of ideas which could thus be expressed is few; and this the Marquis Spineto considers as a presumptive proof of his theory. In these early ages, "the position of mankind after the flood," he observes, "was such as to preclude the possibility of supposing that they had many ideas and many wants; therefore we may reasonably conclude, that their language consisted of words only which were intended to express the things most necessary to life, and consequently contained a small number of words." We know, indeed, that it is the notion of many infidel writers, that the original race or races of mankind were a sort of savages; and that a state of society gradually increased the ideas, and enriched the language of those who at first were capable of uttering but a few simple articulate sounds; but that any person should talk in a similar strain, who professes to receive the Mosaic history, is absurd. The antediluvians had surely much knowledge. Many arts were invented before the flood; and the ark itself is a vast monument of mechanical skill. Arts, science, morals, legislation, theology, were all known before the flood; and were all transmitted from the old world to the new, by Noah and his sons. These were not men "of few ideas," nor was the pastoral mode of life incompatible with great moral knowledge, eloquence, and the highest and richest poetry, as we see in the book of Job. Men were not then, as many moderns have supposed, a race of babies, able only to ask for what they needed to eat and drink, or childishly to play with; and we may therefore rest assured that they had a language so copious, and enunciations of ideas so various in their respective tongues, that picture writing neither was nor could be adequate to their full expression. The true origin of hieroglyphic writing is still unexplained; and will, after all, probably, remain inexplicable: but it has little claim to be considered as the first mode of expressing the sounds of language. As for the Chinese language, it is evident that it cannot be urged in proof of alphabetical writing having in all eases passed through the process above mentioned; for to this day the Chinese have no alphabet. As a language it is indeed peculiar, as being wholly monosyllabic; and we must be better acquainted with the early circumstances of that people before we can account for either. See WRITING .
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - letters
Luke 23:38 The Hebrews have certain acrostic poems which begin with the letters of the alphabet, ranged in order. The most considerable of these is Psalm 119:1-176 , which contains twentytwo stanzas of eight verses each, all acrostic; that is, the first eight begin with Aleph, the next eight with Beth, and so on. Psalm 25:1-22 34:1-22 , have but twenty-two verses each, beginning with the twentytwo letters of the Hebrew alphabet. Others, as Psalm 111:1-112:10 , have one-half of the verse beginning with one letter, and the other half with the next. Thus, Blessed is the man who feareth the Lord,
Who delighteth greatly in his commandments.
The first half of the verse begins in the Hebrew with Aleph; the second with Beth. Psalm 37:1-40 145:21 are acrostic. Lamentations 1:1-5:22 are also in acrostic verse, as well as Proverbs 31:8-31 . In John 7:15 , the word "letters" means learning; the Jews said of Christ, Whence this man's qualifications to teach us the Scriptures, since he has not learned of the doctors of the law?
Paul speaks of "the letter" in distinction from "the spirit," Romans 2:27,29 7:6 2 Corinthians 3:6 ; contrasting the mere word of the law and its outward observance, with its spiritual meaning, and cordial obedience to it through the Spirit of Christ.
Epistolary correspondence seems to have been little practiced among the ancient Hebrews. Some few letters are mentioned in the Old Testament, 2 Samuel 11:14 Ezra 4:8 . They were conveyed to their destination by friends or travelers, Jeremiah 29:3 ; or by royal couriers, 2 Chronicles 30:6 Esther 8:10 . The letter was usually in the form of a roll, the last fold being pasted down. They were sealed, 1 Kings 21:8 , and sometimes wrapped in an envelope, or in a bag of costly materials and highly ornamented. To send an open letter was expressive of contempt, Nehemiah 6:5 . In the New Testament we have numerous examples of letters, from the pens of the apostles.
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Corinthians, letters to the
Corinth was an important port in the Roman province of Achaia in the south of Greece. It was a lively commercial centre, and was well known for its colourful lifestyle and low moral standards (see CORINTH). Paul stayed in Corinth for eighteen months during his second missionary journey and established a church there (Acts 18:1-21). Since many of the people who made up the church came from a background of vice and immorality (cf. 1 Corinthians 1:26-27; 1 Corinthians 6:9-11), it is not surprising that problems arose in the church.
letters of
Towards the end of the first century, the churches in and around Ephesus suffered much tension and conflict because of false teaching (e.g. Revelation 2:2-6; cf. Acts 20:17; Acts 20:29-30). Early records indicate that the apostle John lived in Ephesus at this time, and that he wrote his Gospel and three letters partly to counter some of the false views.
Background to 1 John
The chief trouble-maker in Ephesus was a man named Cerinthus. He had been influenced by Gnostic ideas concerning the relation between spirit and matter, and as a result developed wrong beliefs concerning Jesus Christ. Believing God to be pure and matter to be evil, he denied that Jesus Christ could be heavenly and earthly at the same time. This led to a variety of wrong teachings. Some of these denied the full deity of Jesus, and others denied his true humanity (1 John 2:22; 1 John 4:2-3).
Many Christians became uncertain of their salvation; for if the Jesus who lived and died in this world was not at all times fully divine and fully human, how could his death benefit people or satisfy God? To reassure Christians in their understanding of Jesus and the salvation he brought them, John wrote firstly his Gospel (John 20:31), and then the letter known as 1 John (1 John 5:13).
Gnostic ideas concerning spirit and matter, besides leading to wrong teaching about Jesus, led to wrong behaviour among believers. Cerinthus taught that the behaviour of the body could not affect the purity of the soul, and therefore believers could sin as they wished. John condemned such teaching (1 John 3:6). He emphasized that Christians must be obedient to God, must love others and must be disciplined within themselves.
Contents of 1 John
From the beginning of his letter, John emphasizes the two areas of Christian truth that were under attack – the eternal godhead yet full manhood of Jesus Christ (1:1-4) and the obligation on Christians to live pure, disciplined, obedient lives (1:5-2:6). All Christians are to follow Christ’s commandment to be loving, and are to resist the pressures upon them from an evil world (2:7-17).
God’s people must recognize that those with wrong teaching about Jesus Christ are of the devil (2:18-29), and so too are those who encourage Christians to sin (3:1-10). Behaviour is the test of the genuineness of a person’s Christianity (3:11-24). Though steadfastly resisting error (4:1-6), Christians must consistently develop love, and in so doing they will become more assured in their salvation (4:7-21). Right belief is also necessary for assurance (5:1-5), and this belief centres on the uniqueness of Jesus Christ and his work (5:6-12). The practical results of assurance will be effectual prayer and victory over sin (5:13-21).
Background and contents of 2 John
The false teaching that John fought against in his first letter was being spread around the churches by travelling preachers. The letter that we know as 2 John was written to counter such teaching.
No names are mentioned in the letter, but it seems that ‘the elder’ who wrote it was John the aged apostle, and ‘the elect lady’ who received it was a church whose ‘children’ (members) had so far kept the true Christian teaching (v. 1-4). John wanted them to maintain right belief and right behaviour, and warned that false teaching, if allowed into the church, would ruin it (v. 5-13).
Background and contents of 3 John
In spite of his warnings about travelling preachers who had wrong teaching (2 John 1:10-11), John knew that many other travelling preachers were genuine Christians whose teaching was true and wholesome. But there was a problem in one church because a dictatorial person named Diotrephes refused to accept the travelling preachers into the church. He considered them representatives of John, whom he opposed.
John therefore wrote a letter (3 John) to one of the better leaders in the church, a friend named Gaius, to encourage and help him. In the letter John encouraged Gaius to keep helping the true preachers of the gospel (v. 1-8). He assured Gaius that if Diotrephes persisted in his present attitudes, then he himself would deal with him when he visited the church in the near future (v. 9-15).

Sentence search

Epistolary - ) Pertaining to epistles or letters; suitable to letters and correspondence; as, an epistolary style. ) Contained in letters; carried on by letters
Epistolographic - ) Pertaining to the writing of letters; used in writing letters; epistolary
Trigrammatic - ) Containing three letters or characters, or three sets of letters or characters
Letter - letters in the Bible consist of two categories: (1) letters mentioned and sometimes found in Bible books and (2) books of the Bible that are themselves letters. ...
Jezebel sent letters in Ahab's name ordering Naboth's death. She sealed the letters with Ahab's seal (1 Kings 21:8-11 ). Jehu sent letters to the guardians of the sons of Ahab, ordering that the sons of Ahab be killed (2 Kings 10:1-7 ). King Hezekiah of Judah sent letters by couriers ordering that the Passover be kept (2 Chronicles 30:1-6 ). The king of Babylon sent Hezekiah letters and presents (2 Kings 20:12 ). The content, purpose, and tone of this letter foreshadowed the letters that became books of the New Testament and sound very much like the letters Paul, Peter, James, and John wrote. ...
The period of the restoration resulted in many letters. These letters are mentioned in the books of Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther. ...
New Testament letters are even more important in the New Testament. A number of references appear to letters within other Bible books. More than half of the books of the New Testament are letters. ...
The Book of Acts contains several letters and references to letters. When Saul went to Damascus to persecute believers, he went armed with letters from the high priest (Acts 9:1-2 ; Acts 22:5 ). ...
Archaeological finds have confirmed that letters were common. Many letters were written on papyrus for business and personal reasons. These archaeological finds also show that the form of letters in the New Testament reflected the letters of that time. ...
The nature of Paul's work made letters an important means of communication. He continued and expanded his ministry by writing letters. He wrote letters to places he had been and to places he hoped to visit. Paul's critics in Corinth accused Paul of being bolder in his letters than in his personal ministry. He viewed his letters as consistent with what he would have said had he been there in person (2 Corinthians 10:9-11 ). Even the letters addressed to individuals were designed to minister to churches. The so-called Pastoral letters to Timothy and Titus were sent to men who were working with churches in given areas. ...
The Roman Empire had a postal service, but it did not include personal letters. Paul's letters, therefore, were carried by messengers (see Philippians 2:25 ; Colossians 4:7-8 ). ...
Most of Paul's letters were designed to be read to entire churches. Paul wrote other letters that have not survived. Perhaps two such letters are mentioned in 1 Corinthians 5:9 and 2 Corinthians 7:8 . ...
2 Peter 3:15-16 mentions the difficulty some people had in understanding Paul's letters. This implies that Paul's letters were widely read. ...
The New Testament contains other letters. The two letters of Peter and the Letter of Jude follow the familiar first-century form of letters. ...
The three letters of John have some distinctives in style and format; only 2,3John have the basic letter format. Their brevity parallels the vast majority of surviving Hellenistic letters. Revelation 2-3 contain letters to these churches from the risen Lord
Epistolical - ) Pertaining to letters or epistles; in the form or style of letters; epistolary
Joinhand - ) Writing in which letters are joined in words; - distinguished from writing in single letters
Biliteral - ) Consisting of two letters; as, a biliteral root of a Sanskrit verb. ) A word, syllable, or root, consisting of two letters
Acrostic - ) A Hebrew poem in which the lines or stanzas begin with the letters of the alphabet in regular order (as Psalm cxix. ) A composition, usually in verse, in which the first or the last letters of the lines, or certain other letters, taken in order, form a name, word, phrase, or motto
i. h. s - The first three letters of the Greek word for JESUS, andequivalent to the English letters J
Cadmean - ) Of or pertaining to Cadmus, a fabulous prince of Thebes, who was said to have introduced into Greece the sixteen simple letters of the alphabet - /, /, /, /, /, /, /, /, /, /, /, /, /, /, /, /. These are called Cadmean letters
Alectryomancy - ) Divination by means of a cock and grains of corn placed on the letters of the alphabet, the letters being put together in the order in which the grains were eaten
Uncial - ) Of, pertaining to, or designating, a certain style of letters used in ancient manuscripts, esp. The letters are somewhat rounded, and the upstrokes and downstrokes usually have a slight inclination. These letters were used as early as the 1st century b
Lettering - ) The act or business of making, or marking with, letters, as by cutting or painting. ) The letters made; as, the lettering of a sign
Tenuis - ) One of the three surd mutes /, /, /; - so called in relation to their respective middle letters, or medials, /, /, /, and their aspirates, /, /, /. The term is also applied to the corresponding letters and articulate elements in other languages
Letter Form And Function - letters may be divided into three parts: the opening, body, and close. In Paul's letters (and those influenced by his practice), the conventional greeting was transformed into a confession of faith: “Grace to you and peace from God our father, and the Lord Jesus Christ” (Romans 1:7 ; 1 Corinthians 1:3 ; 2 Corinthians 1:2 ). In secular Greek letters a wish (or prayer) for the recipient's good health often follows the salutation. Pauline letters typically replace the health wish with a prayer of thanks ( Romans 1:8-15 ; 1 Corinthians 1:4-9 ; 2 Corinthians 1:3-11 ) which frequently builds relationship by mention of partnership in the gospel (2 Corinthians 1:6-7 ; Philippians 1:5-7 ; 1 Thessalonians 1:3 ). letters may be distinguished according to the predominate purpose of the communication: letters of praise or blame, letters of exhortation and advice, or letters of mediation. Most New Testament letters are of a mixed type. New Testament examples of letters of censure or blame are found in Galatians (See 2 Thessalonians 1:6 ; 2 Thessalonians 3:1 ) and five of the letters to the churches in Asia Minor in Revelation 2-3 (excluding Smyrna and Philadelphia). Such letters are characterized by expressions of shock ( Galatians 1:6 ), insulting address (Galatians 3:1 ), and the formulas “I have this against you” (Revelation 2:4 ,Revelation 2:4,2:14 ,Revelation 2:14,2:20 NRSV) and “I reprove and discipline” ( Revelation 3:19 NRSV). The letters to the churches at Smyrna and Philadelphia serve as examples of letters of praise ( Revelation 2:8-11 ; 1 Corinthians 1:10 ). The letter of recommendation is the most common form of letter of mediation in secular letters. Recommendations are embedded in several of Paul's letters: of Phoebe (Romans 16:1 ); of Timothy (1 Corinthians 4:17 ; 1 Corinthians 16:10-11 ; Philippians 2:19-24 ); and of Epaphroditus (Philippians 2:25-30 ). Most New Testament letters are best characterized under the broad heading “letters of advice or exhortation. More often New Testament letters have broader paraenetic goals. Secular letters frequently concluded with an oath formula such as “I swear by the gods that I will” Such formulas perhaps suggested James' concluding prohibition of oaths (James 5:12 ). Secular letters also frequently closed with a health wish. Better parallels are again found in the Pauline letters in which a closing benediction (2 Corinthians 13:13 ; Galatians 6:18 ; Ephesians 6:23-24 ) expresses concern for the recipients' spiritual condition. Secular letters typically closed with the expression “farewell” (Acts 15:29 )
Correspondence - ) The letters which pass between correspondents. ) Friendly intercourse; reciprocal exchange of civilities; especially, intercourse between persons by means of letters
Letterure - ) letters; literature
Kirjath-Sepher - City of letters
Ihs - Originally the first three letters of the name of Jesus in Greek. These letters are very commonly, though erroneously, taken to be the initials of Jesus Hominum Salvator (Jesus, Saviour of men)
i h s - Originally the first three letters of the name of Jesus in Greek. These letters are very commonly, though erroneously, taken to be the initials of Jesus Hominum Salvator (Jesus, Saviour of men)
Jesuit Relations - A collection of letters written by members of the society laboring in foreign missions, to their superiors and brethren in Europe. The custom of writing such letters was based upon instructions given by Saint Francis Xavier to Joam Beira directing him to send to Ignatius in Rome, and Rodriguez in Lisbon "such news as when known in Europe would make every one that heard it give glory to God. " The letters were of three kinds: those of an intimate nature, to a relative, friend, superior or the Father General, not to be given publicity; letters to members of the society which were circulated in manuscript among the different houses; these were later revised and translated into Latin and extracts from them were published as "Annual letters of the Society of Jesus to the Fathers and Brothers of the Same Society"; letters written for publication; this class is generally known as "Relations. " The most noted of these are the letters of the missionaries of New France, which have proved a rich source of information on early American history. Opening with the letters of Biard, 1616, the custom of writing the letters was brought to an end by the order of Pope Clement X forbidding missionaries to publish matter concerning the missions without permission of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples
Relations, Jesuit - A collection of letters written by members of the society laboring in foreign missions, to their superiors and brethren in Europe. The custom of writing such letters was based upon instructions given by Saint Francis Xavier to Joam Beira directing him to send to Ignatius in Rome, and Rodriguez in Lisbon "such news as when known in Europe would make every one that heard it give glory to God. " The letters were of three kinds: those of an intimate nature, to a relative, friend, superior or the Father General, not to be given publicity; letters to members of the society which were circulated in manuscript among the different houses; these were later revised and translated into Latin and extracts from them were published as "Annual letters of the Society of Jesus to the Fathers and Brothers of the Same Society"; letters written for publication; this class is generally known as "Relations. " The most noted of these are the letters of the missionaries of New France, which have proved a rich source of information on early American history. Opening with the letters of Biard, 1616, the custom of writing the letters was brought to an end by the order of Pope Clement X forbidding missionaries to publish matter concerning the missions without permission of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples
Philologus - A lover of letters
Letter, Papal - Their use increased in proportion with the development of papal primacy, and questions of faith or morals were subjects for letters, variously known with reference to their legal character, as decreta, statuta, decretalia constituta. More general letters, especially those of dogmatic importance, were called tomi, indiculi, commonitoria, epistolae tractoriae, etc. The early popes insisted that rescripts issued for individual cases should be observed in analogous ones, an example followed by the popes of the Middle Ages, a period during which the number of papal letters increased enormously. The names of letters of general character were varied, e. Instances of forged papal letters were frequent in this period. " Modern papal writings are divided into Constitutions, Rescripts, Bulls, Briefs, and Apostolic letters. The letters are deposited in the Roman archives. Private and official collections of papal letters exist
Logogriph - ) A sort of riddle in which it is required to discover a chosen word from various combinations of its letters, or of some of its letters, which form other words; - thus, to discover the chosen word chatter form cat, hat, rat, hate, rate, etc
Cyriologic - ) Relating to capital letters
Quinqueliteral - ) Consisting of five letters
Quadriliteral - ) Consisting of four letters
Epistle - The New Testament includes letters written by Paul, James, Peter, John, and Jude. See letters
Otiyot - the letters of the Hebrew alphabet...
Literary - ) Versed in, or acquainted with, literature; occupied with literature as a profession; connected with literature or with men of letters; as, a literary man. ) Of or pertaining to letters or literature; pertaining to learning or learned men; as, literary fame; a literary history; literary conversation
Duoliteral - ) Consisting of two letters only; biliteral
Onomatechny - ) Prognostication by the letters of a name
Accreditation - ) The act of accrediting; as, letters of accreditation
Alphabetics - ) The science of representing spoken sounds by letters
Onomancy - ) Divination by the letters of a name; nomancy
Letterer - ) One who makes, inscribes, or engraves, alphabetical letters
Alpha And Omega - The first and last letters of the Greek alphabet. " In their Greek form these letters are used inthe symbolism and decoration of the Church, either separately oras a monogram
Anagram - ) Literally, the letters of a word read backwards, but in its usual wider sense, the change or one word or phrase into another by the transposition of its letters
Epistle - ) A writing directed or sent to a person or persons; a written communication; a letter; - applied usually to formal, didactic, or elegant letters. ) One of the letters in the New Testament which were addressed to their Christian brethren by Apostles
Xp - The first two letters of the Greek word XRISTOS, Christ; - an abbreviation used with the letters separate or, oftener, in a monogram, often inclosed in a circle, as a symbol or emblem of Christ
Metaplasm - ) A change in the letters or syllables of a word
Acrostic - (Greek: akros, end; stichos, line) ...
Any composition in which the initial or final letters, syllables, or words of each line form other words or sentences; said to have been invented by Epicharmus. The poem of the Erythrrean Sibyl thus produced the Greek words for "Jesus ChrIst, Son of God, Saviour, which also in turn yielded the letters ICHTHUS (fish), a mystical symbol of Our Lord. The term is also applied to passages in Scripture in which the texts begin with letters of the alphabet in consecutive order, e
Alpha - (Revelation 1:8,11 ; 21:6 ; 22;13 ; Isaiah 41:4 ; 44:6 ) hence these letters became a favorite symbol of the eternal divinity of our Lord, and were used for this purpose in connection with the cross, or the monogram of Christ (i. the first two letters, ch and r, of Christ's name in Greek). Both Greeks and Hebrews employed the letters of the alphabet as numerals
Citatory - ) Having the power or form of a citation; as, letters citatory
Red-Letter - ) Of or pertaining to a red letter; marked by red letters
Alphabetically - ) In an alphabetic manner; in the customary order of the letters
Orthography - ) The art or practice of writing words with the proper letters, according to standard usage; conventionally correct spelling; also, mode of spelling; as, his orthography is vicious. ) The part of grammar which treats of the letters, and of the art of spelling words correctly
Achaicus - Corinthian Christian who carried letters between Paul and the Corinthians (1 Corinthians 16)
Pluriliteral - ) Consisting of more letters than three
Point Alphabet - An alphabet for the blind with a system of raised points corresponding to letters
Telotype - ) An electric telegraph which prints the messages in letters and not in signs
Majusculae - ) Capital letters, as found in manuscripts of the sixth century and earlier
Sheshach - According to Jerome the name Babylon, from Babel, was made up of the letters B B L (the 2nd and the 12th letters of the Hebrew alphabet) these were changed into SH SH CH (the 2nd and the 12th letters reckoning from the end of the same alphabet), a mode well known to later Jews
Letter - The letters mentioned, 2 Samuel 11:14; 2 Kings 10:1; Ezra 4:11, were in the form of rolls, not unlike those used in the East at the present day. Thus the Arabs roll up their letters, and then flatten them to the breadth of an inch and paste up the end instead of sealing them; and the Persians make up their letters in the form of rolls, about six inches long, and paste a bit of paper around them with, gum and seal them with an impression of ink
Dimissorial Letters - (Latin: dimittere, to send out) ...
Testimonial letters given by a bishop or by a competent religious superior to his subjects in order that they may be ordained by another bishop. Such letters testify that the subject has all the qualities demanded by canon law for the reception of the order in question, and request the bishop to whom they are addressed to ordain him
Letters, Dimissorial - (Latin: dimittere, to send out) ...
Testimonial letters given by a bishop or by a competent religious superior to his subjects in order that they may be ordained by another bishop. Such letters testify that the subject has all the qualities demanded by canon law for the reception of the order in question, and request the bishop to whom they are addressed to ordain him
Letters, Pastoral - Pastoral letters are classified accordingly as they are issued by the bishop or from a synod. To have legal force pastoral letters must be published according to the ordinary custom and manner
Lord - ) In small letters and with initial capital "Lord" represents Αdonai in KJV of Old Testament. "God" in small letters, with initial capital, represents 'Εlohiym
Kadmonites - If so, he only introduced into Greece the alphabet of his own country, since the Greek letters are obviously derived from the Phoenician or ancient Hebrew letters
Letter - As sounds are audible and communicate ideas to others by the ear, so letters are visible representatives of sounds, and communicate the thoughts of others by means of the eye. The style of letters ought to be free, easy and natural. letters, in the plural, learning erudition as a man of letters. ...
letters patent, or overt, open, a writing executed and sealed, by which power and authority are granted to a person to do some act, or enjoy some right as letters patent under the seal of England. ...
LET'TER, To impress or form letters on as, to letter a book a book gilt and lettered
Dagesh - (a) emphasis; (b) a grammatical mark indicated by a dot inserted within certain Hebrew letters...
Prosthetic - ) Of or pertaining to prosthesis; prefixed, as a letter or letters to a word
Regesta, Papal - The most important fragments of the various periods: are: about 850 letters of the regesta of Gregory I (590-604); some letters of John VIII (872-882), 55 of which are in the British Museum, together with correspondence of six other popes; about 70 letters from the regesta of Adrian IV (1154-1159) and several others, at Cambridge; 381 letters of Gregory VII (1073-1085), constituting, however, merely an extract of the original regesta, in the Vatican archives. Other correspondence extant includes 38 letters of the antipope Anacletus II (1130-38)
Patent - ) Appropriated or protected by letters patent; secured by official authority to the exclusive possession, control, and disposal of some person or party; patented; as, a patent right; patent medicines. ) A letter patent, or letters patent; an official document, issued by a sovereign power, conferring a right or privilege on some person or party. ) Open to public perusal; - said of a document conferring some right or privilege; as, letters patent. See letters patent, under 3d Letter
Anagrammatize - ) To transpose, as the letters of a word, so as to form an anagram
Briefs - (apostolical) are letters which the pope dispatches to princes and other magistrates concerning any public affair
Logotype - ) A single type, containing two or more letters; as, ae, Ae, /, /, /, etc
Dental - ) Formed by the aid of the teeth; - said of certain articulations and the letters representing them; as, d t are dental letters
Lipogrammatic - ) Omitting a letter; composed of words not having a certain letter or letters; as, lipogrammatic writings
Gematria - Hebrew numerology � a kabbalistic tradition interpreting biblical verses on the basis of the numerical equivalents of Hebrew letters ...
Captivity Epistles - letters written by Saint Paul during his first imprisonment in Rome, to the Colossians, Ephesians, Philippians, and Philemon
Cacuminal - ) Pertaining to the top of the palate; cerebral; - applied to certain consonants; as, cacuminal (or cerebral) letters
Epistles, Captivity - letters written by Saint Paul during his first imprisonment in Rome, to the Colossians, Ephesians, Philippians, and Philemon
Tagim - the �crowns� which adorn the upper edges of certain letters in the ritual script of Torah scrolls, etc...
Telestich - ) A poem in which the final letters of the lines, taken consequently, make a name
Triliteral - ) Consisting of three letters; trigrammic; as, a triliteral root or word
Futhork - ) The Runic alphabet; - so called from the six letters f, u, / (th), o (or a), r, c (=k)
Sealing Wax - , used as a material for seals, as for letters, documents, etc
Roman - ) Upright; erect; - said of the letters or kind of type ordinarily used, as distinguished from Italic characters. ) Expressed in letters, not in figures, as I. ) Roman type, letters, or print, collectively; - in distinction from Italics
Letter - Such telegrams are called by the Western Union Company day, / night, letters according to the time of sending, and by The Postal Telegraph Company day, / night, lettergrams. ) To impress with letters; to mark with letters or words; as, a book gilt and lettered. ) Learning; erudition; as, a man of letters
Monograms - Two or more letters intertwined, forming one character, such as the chi-rho pictured here; often used in Christian art
Aphthong - ) A letter, or a combination of letters, employed in spelling a word, but in the pronunciation having no sound
Enlimn - ) To adorn by illuminating or ornamenting with colored and decorated letters and figures, as a book or manuscript
Epistle - It is used particularly in speaking of the letters of the Apostles, as the epistles of Paul and of other letters written by the ancients, as the epistles of Pliny or of Cicero
Engraver - One who engraves a cutter of letters, figures or devices, on stone, metal or wood a sculptor a carver
Sigla - ) The signs, abbreviations, letters, or characters standing for words, shorthand, etc
Letter - we have, besides Acts 15:23-29; Acts 23:25-30, sixteen letters in the proper sense of the term-viz. Paul that may reasonably be regarded as authentic; the three Pastoral Epistles, which, if authentic, are undoubtedly real letters, and, if spurious, are at all events based upon genuine letters from the Apostle’s hand; the Second and Third Epistles of St. Of the genuine Pauline letters, Romans comes nearest in character to the ‘epistle,’ though the fact that it is less personal and intimate in its tone and more suggestive of the treatise is quite well accounted for by certain psychological considerations-as, e. On the other hand, the so-called First Epistle of Clement, which is written in the name of one entire community to another, is a peculiar composite of ‘letter’ and ‘epistle’; it was certainly meant to be a true letter, arising out of the actual circumstances of the writer’s own church at Rome, and having in view the actual circumstances of the church in Corinth, but it is quite clear that Clement was working upon a tradition of Christian letters and epistles, so that-especially in regard to the length of his message-he does not altogether succeed in maintaining the characteristics of a true letter. A comparison of the true letters of the Apostolic Age with true letters from approximately the same period of the heathen world shows that, while the similarities in style and diction are manifold and by no means insignificant, yet the former class display a very remarkable independence in their use of the traditional form. the works cited in article Epistle; on the true letters of the ancients cf. On ‘true letters’ from the Christian sphere, cf
Ummah - letters m and k , for Acco (Ptolemais)
Expressed - Squeezed or forced out, as juice or liquor uttered in words set down in writing or letters declared represented shown
Paracrostic - ) A poetical composition, in which the first verse contains, in order, the first letters of all the verses of the poem
Transliterate - ) To express or represent in the characters of another alphabet; as, to transliterate Sanskrit words by means of English letters
Runic - ) Of or pertaining to a rune, to runes, or to the Norsemen; as, runic verses; runic letters; runic names; runic rhyme
Metagraphy - ) The art or act of rendering the letters of the alphabet of one language into the possible equivalents of another; transliteration
Ceriph - one of the fine cross strokes at the top and bottom of letters
Corresponding - ) Carrying on intercourse by letters
Vocable - ) A word; a term; a name; specifically, a word considered as composed of certain sounds or letters, without regard to its meaning
Written - Expressed in letters
Epistles, Pastoral - (Latin: pastor, shepherd; Greek: epistole, letter) ...
letters written by Saint Paul to Saint Timothy and Saint Titus as bishops, and shepherds of the flock
Bulls - Popish, are letters called apostolic by the Canonists, strengthened with a leaden seal, and containing in them the decrees and commandments of the pope
Euphony - ) A pleasing or sweet sound; an easy, smooth enunciation of sounds; a pronunciation of letters and syllables which is pleasing to the ear
Renunciation - ) Formal declination to take out letters of administration, or to assume an office, privilege, or right
Lossic - ) A system of phonetic spelling based upon the present values of English letters, but invariably using one symbol to represent one sound only
Letterpress - ) Print; letters and words impressed on paper or other material by types; - often used of the reading matter in distinction from the illustrations
Omega, Alpha And - The first and last letters of the Greek alphabet. The letters are often found on early coins, rings, paintings in catacombs, in frescoes of ancient churches, and on corner-stones to designate Christ
Alpha And Omega - The first and last letters of the Greek alphabet. The letters are often found on early coins, rings, paintings in catacombs, in frescoes of ancient churches, and on corner-stones to designate Christ
A - These letters occur in the text of Revelation 1:8,11 ; 21:6 ; 22:13 , and are represented by "Alpha" and "Omega" respectively (omitted in RSV, 1:11). ) In the symbols of the early Christian Church these two letters are frequently combined with the cross or with Christ's monogram to denote his divinity
False Decretals - A collection of papal letters and canons of councils, published in Gaul by an unknown person, Isidore Mercator, or Peccator, about the middle of the 9th century. The first part contains 60 letters attributed to early popes; 58 of them are forged. The second part is made up of canons of Councils and the third gives letters of Roman pontiffs, 30 of which are forgeries
Decretals, False - A collection of papal letters and canons of councils, published in Gaul by an unknown person, Isidore Mercator, or Peccator, about the middle of the 9th century. The first part contains 60 letters attributed to early popes; 58 of them are forged. The second part is made up of canons of Councils and the third gives letters of Roman pontiffs, 30 of which are forgeries
Tetragrammaton (Yhwh) - This is a term applied to the four Hebrew letters that make up the name of God as revealed to Moses in Exodus 3:14. " In English the letters are basically equivalent to YHWH. It is from these four letters that the name of God is derived and has been rendered as Yahweh and Jehovah
Filagatto, John - One of the seven churches in Asia to whose bishop one of the letters in the Apocalypse is addressed (Apocalypse 3)
John Xvi, Anti-Pope - One of the seven churches in Asia to whose bishop one of the letters in the Apocalypse is addressed (Apocalypse 3)
John Filagatto - One of the seven churches in Asia to whose bishop one of the letters in the Apocalypse is addressed (Apocalypse 3)
Havayah - �being�); the Tetragrammaton, G d�s Divine Name of the four Hebrew letters yud-hei-vav-hei, expressing His transcendence of time and space ...
Iggeret hakodesh - �The Holy Letter�); the fourth portion of Tanya, consisting of a collection of pastoral letters sent by the Alter Rebbe to the chassidic community...
Shorthand - ) A compendious and rapid method or writing by substituting characters, abbreviations, or symbols, for letters, words, etc
Dacapo - From the beginning; a direction to return to, and end with, the first strain; - indicated by the letters D
Trigraph - ) Three letters united in pronunciation so as to have but one sound, or to form but one syllable, as -ieu in adieu; a triphthong
Tokens - By means of letters, and of brethren who travelled about, even the most remote churches of the Roman empire were connected together. They called these church letters, which were a kind of tesserae hospitales, [1] by which the Christians of all quarters of the world were brought into connection, epistolae, or literae formatae, [2] γραμματα τετυπωμενα , because, in order to avoid forgery, they were made after a certain schema, (τυπος , forms, ) or else, epistolae communicatoriae, [3] γραμματα κοινωνικα , because they contained a proof that those who brought them were in the communion of the church, as well as that the bishops, who mutually sent and received such letters, were in connection together by the communion of the church; and afterward these church letters, epistolae clericae, were divided into different classes, according to the difference of their purposes
Administratrix - , one who administers the estate of an intestate, or to whom letters of administration have been granted; a female administrator
Calcol - Probably the same as CHALCOL in 1 Kings 4:31 , the Hebrew letters being the same
Heterographic - ) Employing the same letters to represent different sounds in different words or syllables; - said of methods of spelling; as, the ordinary English orthography is heterographic
Abecedary - ) Pertaining to, or formed by, the letters of the alphabet; alphabetic; hence, rudimentary
Catholic Epistles - The New Testament letters not attributed to Paul and written to a more general or unidentifiable audience: James; 1,2Peters; 1,2, and 3John; Jude. The church continues to use the designation, “catholic,” for the seven letters without a strong definition for the term
n or m - The letters placed after the first question in the ChurchCatechism, "What is your name?" to show that the Christian name ornames of the person questioned should be given. The same thing is to be seen in the letters "LL
Catholic Epistles - letters addressed by the Apostles not to any particular body, but to the Universal Church: two by Peter, one each by John, Jude, and James the Less
Betah - By inversion of letters, Τibhath (1 Chronicles 18:8)
Areopagitica - Famous series of four ecclesiastical treatises and ten letters by an unknown author, probably a 5th-century Syrian, professing to be the composition of Dionysius the Areopagite
Epistles, Catholic - letters addressed by the Apostles not to any particular body, but to the Universal Church: two by Peter, one each by John, Jude, and James the Less
Alphabetical - ) Pertaining to, furnished with, expressed by, or in the order of, the letters of the alphabet; as, alphabetic characters, writing, languages, arrangement
Romajikai - ) An association, including both Japanese and Europeans, having for its object the changing of the Japanese method of writing by substituting Roman letters for Japanese characters
Vocality - ) The quality or state of being vocal; utterableness; resonance; as, the vocality of the letters
Diacritical - ) That separates or distinguishes; - applied to points or marks used to distinguish letters of similar form, or different sounds of the same letter, as, a, /, a, /, /, etc
Oil Stock - letters on each part indicate the kind of oil therein
Signet - ) A seal; especially, in England, the seal used by the sovereign in sealing private letters and grants that pass by bill under the sign manual; - called also privy signet
Heterography - ) That method of spelling in which the same letters represent different sounds in different words, as in the ordinary English orthography; e
Lower-Case - ) Pertaining to, or kept in, the lower case; - used to denote the small letters, in distinction from capitals and small capitals
Lean-Faced - ) slender or narrow; - said of type the letters of which have thin lines, or are unusually narrow in proportion to their height
Lettered - ) Inscribed or stamped with letters
Stock, Oil - letters on each part indicate the kind of oil therein
Caveat - ) A description of some invention, designed to be patented, lodged in the patent office before the patent right is applied for, and operating as a bar to the issue of letters patent to any other person, respecting the same invention. ) A notice given by an interested party to some officer not to do a certain act until the party is heard in opposition; as, a caveat entered in a probate court to stop the proving of a will or the taking out of letters of administration, etc
Renounce - ) To decline formally, as an executor or a person entitled to letters of administration, to take out probate or letters
Writing - ) The act or art of forming letters and characters on paper, wood, stone, or other material, for the purpose of recording the ideas which characters and words express, or of communicating them to others by visible signs. ) Anything written or printed; anything expressed in characters or letters...
Chi-Rho - A monogram composed of two Greek letters so named, resembling the Roman X and P; but in reality CH and R
Dayton, University of - Dayton, 0hio, USA; founded 1850; conducted by the Society of Mary; preparatory school; colleges of arts, letters, and sciences; commerce and finance; engineering; law; education; evening and Saturday courses; summer school
Kyriological - ) Serving to denote objects by conventional signs or alphabetical characters; as, the original Greek alphabet of sixteen letters was called kyriologic, because it represented the pure elementary sounds
University of Dayton, Ohio - Dayton, 0hio, USA; founded 1850; conducted by the Society of Mary; preparatory school; colleges of arts, letters, and sciences; commerce and finance; engineering; law; education; evening and Saturday courses; summer school
Corinth - He also wrote the church a number of letters, two of which have been preserved in the New Testament. (For the added information these letters give concerning life in Corinth see CORINTHIANS, letters TO THE)
Jot - Or Iota, the smallest letter of the Greek alphabet, used metaphorically or proverbially for the smallest thing (Matthew 5:18 ); or it may be = yod, which is the smallest of the Hebrew letters
Cacophony - ) An uncouth or disagreable sound of words, owing to the concurrence of harsh letters or syllables
Arathes - 139 the Romans wrote letters to Arathes and certain other eastern sovereigns in favour of the Jews ( 1Ma 15:22 )
Apocalyptic Number - The Greek letters of the word Lateinos (i
Limn - ) To illumine, as books or parchments, with ornamental figures, letters, or borders
i.n.r.i. - letters found on the "title" or sign board of crucifix, which are the initials of the superscription placed thereon by order of Pilate: Iesus Nazarenus, Rex Iudaeorum (Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews)
Tittle - A point, (Matthew 5:18 ; Luke 16:17 ), the minute point or stroke added to some letters of the Hebrew alphabet to distinguish them from others which they resemble; hence, the very least point
Bileam - IBLEAM is the same name by transposition of letters (Joshua 17:11); GATH-RIMMON in Joshua 21:24
i.n.r.i. - letters found on the "title" or sign board of crucifix, which are the initials of the superscription placed thereon by order of Pilate: Iesus Nazarenus, Rex Iudaeorum (Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews)
Backhand - ) A kind of handwriting in which the downward slope of the letters is from left to right
Backhanded - ) Turned back, or inclining to the left; as, a backhanded letters
Raver - ) One who graves; an engraver or a sculptor; one whose occupation is te cut letters or figures in stone or other hard material
Tetragrammaton - ) The mystic number four, which was often symbolized to represent the Deity, whose name was expressed by four letters among some ancient nations; as, the Hebrew JeHoVaH, Greek qeo`s, Latin deus, etc
Raver - ) One who graves; an engraver or a sculptor; one whose occupation is te cut letters or figures in stone or other hard material
Tittle - Tittle, the very least point, Matthew 5:18; used of the fine stroke by which some letters were distinguished
Tachistoscope - ) An apparatus for exposing briefly to view a screen bearing letters or figures
Lessons - (Latin: lectio, reading aloud) ...
Designated portions of the Scriptures read at Mass, from Old and New Testament, more frequently from the Epistles (letters) in the latter, and therefore called Epistle; also in the Ironic office
Notre Dame, University of - Colleges of arts and letters, engineering, commerce, science, and law; graduate and special schools; summer school
Quadrat - ) A block of type metal lower than the letters, - used in spacing and in blank lines
Lipogram - ) A writing composed of words not having a certain letter or letters; - as in the Odyssey of Tryphiodorus there was no A in the first book, no B in the second, and so on
University of Notre Dame - Colleges of arts and letters, engineering, commerce, science, and law; graduate and special schools; summer school
Aix-Marseilles, University of - It is situated in Marseilles except for the faculties of law and letters which are maintained at Aix, Bouches-du-Rhone
Arrhabonarii - ...
See Stuart's letters to Channing pg
Tittle - Supposed to refer to the smallest points in the Hebrew letters that distinguish one from another, as ב differing from כ
Officially - ) By the proper officer; by virtue of the proper authority; in pursuance of the special powers vested in an officer or office; as, accounts or reports officially vertified or rendered; letters officially communicated; persons officially notified
Hodaiah - (hoh day' yah) KJV, REB spelling of Hodaviah (1 Chronicles 3:24 ) based on Hebrew text in which copyist has obviously transposed two letters and early scribes have noted proper reading in margin of text
Bayer, Johann - Compiled a famous Uramometria comprising 51 maps of the heavens, and inaugurated the system of designating the stars of a constellation by Greek and Latin letters which are usually assigned in order of brightness
Minuscule - ) A small Roman letter which is neither capital nor uncial; a manuscript written in such letters
Courier - ) A messenger sent with haste to convey letters or dispatches, usually on public business
Latin - have the adjective Rhomaikos, "of Latin," agreeing with "letters
Trusted - Delivered in confidence to the care of another as letters or goods trusted to a carrier or bailee
i. n. r. i - " These letters are often used in Church decoration
Mail - A bag for the conveyance of letters and papers, particularly letters conveyed from one post office to another, under public authority. We say, letters were mailed for Philadelphia
Fish - The Greek word for fish is ichthus, spelt in Greek with five letters only: I-CH-TH-U-S. These form what is called an acrostic, being the initial letters of Iesous CHristos, THeou Uios, Soter (Jesus Christ, Son of God, Saviour)
Icthus - The Greek word for fish is ichthus, spelt in Greek with five letters only: I-CH-TH-U-S. These form what is called an acrostic, being the initial letters of Iesous CHristos, THeou Uios, Soter (Jesus Christ, Son of God, Saviour)
Large - ...
3: πηλίκος (Strong's #4080 — pronoun — pelikos — pay-lee'-kos ) "how large," is used of letters of the alphabet, characters in writing, Galatians 6:11 , "with how large (letters);" it is said of personal greatness in Hebrews 7:4
Law, New - The Law enacted by Christ as found in the New Testament in the Gospels and the letters of the Apostles, and in the traditions of the Church, in contradistinction to the Old Law as found in the Old Testament
New Law - The Law enacted by Christ as found in the New Testament in the Gospels and the letters of the Apostles, and in the traditions of the Church, in contradistinction to the Old Law as found in the Old Testament
i o u - A paper having on it these letters, with a sum named, and duly signed; - in use in England as an acknowledgment of a debt, and taken as evidence thereof, but not amounting to a promissory note; a due bill
Abracadabra - ) A mystical word or collocation of letters written as in the figure
a b c - ...
(2):...
The first three letters of the alphabet, used for the whole alphabet
Apostrophize - ) To contract by omitting a letter or letters; also, to mark with an apostrophe (') or apostrophes
Shallecheth - (sshal' lih cehth) Place name of uncertain meaning, sometimes thought on basis of earliest translations to have resulted from scribe's transposition of first two letters and thus to have read originally, “chamber
Catholic University of America - Washington, DC; founded, 1889; conducted by the bishops of the United States; schools of philosophy, letters, sciences, law, sacred sciences, canon law; summer school; professors, 114; students (including Sisters College, Trinity College, and Summer School), 2,245; degrees conferred in 1929,237
Ammiel - Ammiel or Eliam, by transposition of letters; father of Bathsheba (See AHITHOPHEL) (1 Chronicles 3:5; 2 Samuel 11:8)
Privateer - See letters of marque, under Marque
c q d - In radiotelegraphy, the letters signified by the code call formerly used (cf
Letters - Luke 23:38 The Hebrews have certain acrostic poems which begin with the letters of the alphabet, ranged in order. Psalm 25:1-22 34:1-22 , have but twenty-two verses each, beginning with the twentytwo letters of the Hebrew alphabet. In John 7:15 , the word "letters" means learning; the Jews said of Christ, Whence this man's qualifications to teach us the Scriptures, since he has not learned of the doctors of the law? ...
Paul speaks of "the letter" in distinction from "the spirit," Romans 2:27,29 7:6 2 Corinthians 3:6 ; contrasting the mere word of the law and its outward observance, with its spiritual meaning, and cordial obedience to it through the Spirit of Christ. Some few letters are mentioned in the Old Testament, 2 Samuel 11:14 Ezra 4:8 . In the New Testament we have numerous examples of letters, from the pens of the apostles
Nahaliel - Probably the wady Encheyle with the letters transposed; it runs into Mojeb, the ancient Arnon
Algebra - ) That branch of mathematics which treats of the relations and properties of quantity by means of letters and other symbols
Capitalize - ) To print in capital letters, or with an initial capital
Tahash - The tell-el-Amarna letters and the records of Thutmose III mention Tahash
Asterisk - ) The figure of a star, thus, /, used in printing and writing as a reference to a passage or note in the margin, to supply the omission of letters or words, or to mark a word or phrase as having a special character
Rune - ) A letter, or character, belonging to the written language of the ancient Norsemen, or Scandinavians; in a wider sense, applied to the letters of the ancient nations of Northern Europe in general
Literator - ) One who teaches the letters or elements of knowledge; a petty schoolmaster
Rubric - ) A titlepage, or part of it, especially that giving the date and place of printing; also, the initial letters, etc. ) The title of a statute; - so called as being anciently written in red letters
Adonizedec - letters from Adonizedec entreating the king of Egypt to send soldiers to defend him from the Abiri (Hebrews) have been found among the Tell Amarna Tablets (see under EGYPT) These letters give a vivid account, from a Canaanitish point of view, of the wars which took place when Joshua took possession of the land
Write - ) To set down, as legible characters; to form the conveyance of meaning; to inscribe on any material by a suitable instrument; as, to write the characters called letters; to write figures. ) To form characters, letters, or figures, as representative of sounds or ideas; to express words and sentences by written signs. ) To compose or send letters
Write - To form by a pen on paper or other material, or by a graver on wood or stone as, to write the characters called letters to write figures. To express by forming letters and words on paper or stone as, to write a deed to write a bill of divorcement. To perform the act of forming characters, letters or figures, as representatives of sounds or ideas. To send letters
Sheva - Scribe for David (2 Samuel 20:25 ), perhaps the transliteration of an Egyptian title meaning, “writer of letters
Hayom yom - �From Day to Day�); an anthology of aphorisms and customs, arranged according to the days of the year, assembled from the talks and letters of Rabbi Yosef Yitzchak of Lubavitch (1880-1950), sixth Lubavitch Rebbe; compiled by Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, seventh Lubavitch Rebbe ...
Batch - ) A quantity of anything produced at one operation; a group or collection of persons or things of the same kind; as, a batch of letters; the next batch of business
Prosthesis - ) The prefixing of one or more letters to the beginning of a word, as in beloved
Miniate - ) To paint or tinge with red lead or vermilion; also, to decorate with letters, or the like, painted red, as the page of a manuscript
Clause - ) See letters clause / close, under Letter
Liber Diurnus - (daybook or diary) Formulary of the chancery at Rome, composed between 685-752, containing forms for the composition of important letters and documents, for expediting important business, for consecration of pontiff and suburbicarian bishops, for granting privileges, etc
Daniel, Gabriel - He wrote on the questions of probabilism and grace but is best known for his refutation of Pascal's "Provincial letters" and for his great history of France
Printing - ) The act, art, or practice of impressing letters, characters, or figures on paper, cloth, or other material; the business of a printer, including typesetting and presswork, with their adjuncts; typography; also, the act of producing photographic prints
Gabriel Daniel - He wrote on the questions of probabilism and grace but is best known for his refutation of Pascal's "Provincial letters" and for his great history of France
Abdon (2) - Many manuscripts there read "Abdon"; the Hebrew letters Resh ( ר ) and Daleth ( ד ) are very similar, and therefore often interchanged
Reduplicate - ) To repeat the first letter or letters of (a word)
Elishah - Among the Amarna letters from Egypt are letters from the king of Elishah to the pharaoh mentioning copper exports
Apostrophe - ) The contraction of a word by the omission of a letter or letters, which omission is marked by the character [1] placed where the letter or letters would have been; as, call'd for called
Writing - The act or art of forming letters and characters, on paper, wood, stone or other material, for the purpose of recording the ideas which characters and the words express, or of communicating them to others by visible signs. Any thing written or expressed in letters hence, any legal instrument, as a deed, a receipt, a bond, an agreement, &c
Epistles - In the east, letters are commonly sent unsealed. Paul, when he dictated his letters, wrote the benediction at the close with his own hand, 2 Thessalonians 3:17 . He was more accustomed to dictate his letters than to write them himself. ...
The name Epistles is given, by way of eminence, to the letters written by the Apostles, or first preachers of Christianity, to particular churches or persons, on particular occasions or subjects. The modern Arabs roll up their letters, and then flatten them to the breadth of an inch, and paste up the end of them, instead of sealing them. The Persians make up their letters in a roll about six inches long, and a bit of paper is fastened round it with gum, and sealed with an impression of ink, which resembles our printers' ink, but is not so thick. letters, as stated above, were generally sent to persons of distinction in a bag or purse; but to inferiors, or those who were held in contempt, they were sent open, that is, unenclosed
Scire Facias - A judicial writ, founded upon some record, and requiring the party proceeded against to show cause why the party bringing it should not have advantage of such record, or (as in the case of scire facias to repeal letters patent) why the record should not be annulled or vacated
Linguadental - ) Formed or uttered by the joint use of the tongue and teeth, or rather that part of the gum just above the front teeth; dentolingual, as the letters d and t
Sampler - ) A pattern; a specimen; especially, a collection of needlework patterns, as letters, borders, etc
Therein - Exodus 31 ...
Therein our letters do not well agree
Red Letter Days - They are socalled from having been printed in the Calendar in red letters
Erase - ) To rub or scrape out, as letters or characters written, engraved, or painted; to efface; to expunge; to cross out; as, to erase a word or a name
Dieresis - ) A mark consisting of two dots [1], placed over the second of two adjacent vowels, to denote that they are to be pronounced as distinct letters; as, cooperate, aerial
Posts, - The dispatch of letters with speed was of early date. When Hezekiah proclaimed a Passover for all Israel he sent letters of invitation by 'runners' from city to city
Tychicus - Paul, whom the Apostle often employed to carry his letters to the several churches. Paul did not send him merely to carry his letters, but also to learn the state of the churches, and to bring him an account of them
Calligraphy - The most beautiful of these, with letters more perfect and regular than much of the machine-made type we have today, were mainly the work of monks
Clerk - A word originally used to denote a learned man, or man of letters; but now is the common appellation by which clergymen distinguish themselves in signing any deed or instrument
Titus, Epistle to - There are no specialties in this epistle which require any very elaborate treatment distinct from the other Pastoral letters of St
Mebunnai - The name possibly resulted from scribal confusion of the first and third letters in the Hebrew name Sibbecai which replaces Mebunnai in the parallel lists (1 Chronicles 11:29 ; 1 Chronicles 27:11 )
Abi-Albon - Original name in 2Samuel may have been Abi-baal, whose letters were then transposed to a new name to avoid the idolatrous name
Morse Alphabet - The letters are represented by dots and dashes impressed or printed on paper, as,
Thoth - ) The god of eloquence and letters among the ancient Egyptians, and supposed to be the inventor of writing and philosophy
Head Cleft by Axe - Health and Apostolical Benediction, form of salutation in letters written by the pope, first used by Pope Cletus (Anacletus ), second successor of Saint Peter
Hamran - Apparently early copyists misread similar Hebrew letters
Harim - Rehum or Harim (by transposition of letters): Nehemiah 12:3; Nehemiah 12:15
Homophonous - ) Expressing the same sound by a different combination of letters; as, bay and bey
Shisha - (sshi sshuh) Personal name or, more likely, an official title borrowed from Egyptian: royal scribe who writes letters
Palatal - ) A sound uttered, or a letter pronounced, by the aid of the palate, as the letters k and y
Efface - ; to erase; to render illegible or indiscernible; as, to efface the letters on a monument, or the inscription on a coin
Sedulius Scotus - He left a commentary on Porphyry's Isagoge, a scriptural commentary, and interesting letters
Sedulius the Younger - He left a commentary on Porphyry's Isagoge, a scriptural commentary, and interesting letters
Younger, Sedulius the - He left a commentary on Porphyry's Isagoge, a scriptural commentary, and interesting letters
Scotus, Sedulius - He left a commentary on Porphyry's Isagoge, a scriptural commentary, and interesting letters
Dispatch - To send or send away particularly applied to the sending of messengers, agents and letters on special business, and often implying haste. He dispatched orders or letters to the commander of the forces in Spain. A letter sent or to be sent with expedition, by a messenger express or a letter on some affair of state, or of public concern or a packet of letters, sent by some public officer, on public business
Dancing - , change of place, of the letters ch and o) seems to be without foundation
Raphical - ) Written or engraved; formed of letters or lines
Fescue - , used chiefly to point out letters to children when learning to read
Audley, Edmund - (died 1524) Bishop, patron of letters
Permutation - ) The arrangement of any determinate number of things, as units, objects, letters, etc
Literal - ) Consisting of, or expressed by, letters
Lingual - ) A consonant sound formed by the aid of the tongue; - a term especially applied to certain articulations (as those of t, d, th, and n) and to the letters denoting them
Wafer - A thin leaf of paste, or a composition of flour, the white of eggs, isinglass and yeast, spread over with gumwater and dried used in sealing letters
Titus, Epistle to - "Both letters were addressed to persons left by the writer to preside in their respective churches during his absence. Both letters are principally occupied in describing the qualifications to be sought for in those whom they should appoint to offices in the church; and the ingredients of this description are in both letters nearly the same. This affinity obtains not only in the subject of the letters, which from the similarity of situation in the persons to whom they were addressed might be expected to be somewhat alike, but extends in a great variety of instances to the phrases and expressions
Titus, Letter to - Paul apparently wrote the two letters about the same time. )...
From Macedonia Paul wrote two letters, one to Titus in Crete, the other to Timothy in Ephesus. Both letters were intended to encourage Paul’s fellow workers in the tasks they faced, particularly in matters concerning leadership and teaching in the church. (For details of Paul’s travels and writings of this time see TIMOTHY, letters TO
Chronogram - ) An inscription in which certain numeral letters, made to appear specially conspicuous, on being added together, express a particular date or epoch, as in the motto of a medal struck by Gustavus Adolphus in 1632: ChrIstVs DVX; ergo trIVMphVs
Font - ) A complete assortment of printing type of one size, including a due proportion of all the letters in the alphabet, large and small, points, accents, and whatever else is necessary for printing with that variety of types; a fount
Pigeonhole - ) A small compartment in a desk or case for the keeping of letters, documents, etc
Arkite - It appears in the Amarna letters
Credential - ) Testimonials showing that a person is entitled to credit, or has right to exercise official power, as the letters given by a government to an ambassador or envoy, or a certificate that one is a duly elected delegate
Testamentary - ) Of or pertaining to a will, or testament; as, letters testamentary
Tablature - ) An ancient mode of indicating musical sounds by letters and other signs instead of by notes
Multigraph - The printing may be done by means of an inked ribbon to print "typewritten" letters, or directly from inked type or a stereotype plate, as in a printing press
Labarum - It bore a monogram of the first two letters (CHR) of the name of Christ in its Greek form
Unlearned - Acts 4:13, Peter and John; John 7:15, "how knoweth this man letters, having never learned?" The Jewish literati did not mean without common education, reading and writing, etc
Zemarites - The town figures in the tell Amarna letters and in Assyrian records
Monogram - ) A character or cipher composed of two or more letters interwoven or combined so as to represent a name, or a part of it (usually the initials)
Jot - yod, the smallest Hebrew letter, is mentioned by the Lord in Matthew 5:18 (together with keraia, "a little horn, a tittle, the point or extremity" which distinguishes certain Hebrew letters from others) to express the fact that not a single item of the Law will pass away or remain unfulfilled
Interesting Facts About the Bible - ...
Number of books in...
Number of chapters in...
929...
260...
1,189...
Number of verses in...
23,214...
7,959...
31,173...
Number of words in...
592,439...
181,253...
773,692...
Number of letters in...
2,728,100...
838,380...
3,566,480...
Middle book in...
Proverbs. ...
Ezra 7:21 has all the letters of the alphabet except j
Henry Coleridge - His published works include a classic commentary on "The Public Life of Our Lord," "The Life and letters of Saint Francis Xavier," "The Life and letters of Saint Teresa," and a harmony of the Gospels, "Vita Vitre Nostre," in English and Latin versions
Scribes - (Hebrew: Sopherim, lawyers) ...
In Jewish polity, men of letters, versed in the law of Moses. The chief meaning of the term, however, is a man of letters whose office it was to explain the law of Moses
Serenus, Bishop of Marseilles - 595–600, known from the letters of Gregory the Great. Two other letters from Gregory are preserved
Cognate - ) One of a number of things allied in origin or nature; as, certain letters are cognates
Inscription - Words or letters carved, engraved, or printed on a surface (Mark 15:26 ; Luke 23:38 ; superscription, KJV)
Alpha And Omega - are the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet and are used in Revelation to describe God or Christ (Revelation 1:8 ,Revelation 1:8,1:17 ; Revelation 21:6 ; Revelation 22:13
Arkite - It is probably mentioned, under the form Irkata , in the Amarna letters
Commendation - Need we, as some other, letters of commendation
Font - ...
A complete assortment of printing types of one size, including a due proportion of all the letters in the alphabet, large and small, points, accents, and whatever else is necessary for printing with that letter
Transfuse - ) To cause to pass from to another; to cause to be instilled or imbibed; as, to transfuse a spirit of patriotism into a man; to transfuse a love of letters
Acton, John - The "Letters of Quirinus" have been attributed to him
Kirjath-Sepher - The city of the book or letters
Alpha - These letters were used as numerals
Paulina, Daughter of Paula - Her merits are described in consolatory letters to Pammachius from Jerome ( Ep
A - In the Julian Calendar, A is the first of the seven dominical letters. These letters were marked on wooden ballots, and each voter had an affirmative and a negative put into his hands, one of which at pleasure he gave as his vote, - In criminal trials, A stood for absolvo, I acquit, C for condemno, I condemn and N L for non liquet, it is not evident and the judges voted by ballots this marked. ...
In algebra, a and first letters of the alphabet represent known quantities - the last letters are sometimes used to represent unknown quantities. Merchants also number their books by the letters - A,B,C, instead of figures. ...
Alpha and Omega, the first and last letters of the Greek Alphabet, are used in Scripture for the beginning and end - representative of Christ. ...
In mathematics, letters are used as representatives of numbers, lines, angles and quantities. In arguments, letters are substituted for persons, in cases supposed, or stated for illustration, as A contracts with B to deliver property to D
Philemon - Among the letters Paul wrote while imprisoned in Rome (see Acts 28:16; Acts 28:30) were two that went to the town of Colossae in Asia Minor. In both letters Paul mentions that Epaphras, Mark, Luke, Aristarchus and Demas are with him in his imprisonment (Colossians 1:7-8; Colossians 4:10; Colossians 4:12; Colossians 4:14; Philem 23-24). In both letters he sends a message to Archippus, who was engaged in God’s work in Colossae (Colossians 4:17; Philem 2)
Amarna, Tell el - In fact, the Habiru people, generally associated with the Hebrews, first received scholarly attention because of their mention in the so-called Amarna letters. ...
The letters were primarily diplomatic communications between Egypt and Egyptian-controlled territories, including Syria and Palestine. These letters evidence the political unrest, disunity, and instability of the period prior to the Hebrew conquest
Gur-Baal - This would mean the city was Gur, also mentioned in the Amarna letters and situated east of Beersheba
Maistre, Joseph Marie de, Count - He was a profound thinker and ranks very high in French letters
Joseph de Maistre, Count - He was a profound thinker and ranks very high in French letters
Gamad - The early translations apparently read slightly a different Hebrew text with letters easily confused with those of Gamad and meaning, “watchers
Correspond - ) To have intercourse or communion; especially, to hold intercourse or to communicate by sending and receiving letters; - followed by with
Accredit - ) To send with letters credential, as an ambassador, envoy, or diplomatic agent; to authorize, as a messenger or delegate
Prefix - , one or more letters or syllables combined or united with the beginning of a word to modify its signification; as, pre- in prefix, con- in conjure
Andrea, Giovanni d' - Works: Glossary of the Six Books of decretals; Glossary of the Clementine books; Treatise, or Commentary on the decretal letters of Gregory IX; Mercuriales, or commentary on the six rules; Book of the praises of Saint Jerome; Addenda to the Speculum of Durandus
Epistle - In Liturgy, selection most frequently from one of the letters, or Epistles of the Apostles read at Mass after the Collects, at the (priest's) right-hand side of the altar and therefore called the Epistle side
Zeno - For a full analysis of the letters of popes Simplicius and Felix III
Clerk - ) A man who could read; a scholar; a learned person; a man of letters
Metathesis - ) Transposition, as of the letters or syllables of a word; as, pistris for pristis; meagre for meager
Doyle, James Warren - As bishop he published many pamphlets and letters repelling the attacks of Protestants and describing the evils of the state of Ireland
James Doyle - As bishop he published many pamphlets and letters repelling the attacks of Protestants and describing the evils of the state of Ireland
Epaphras - Though Epaphras is mentioned in the New Testament only in the letters to the Colossians and to Philemon, Paul evidently held this man in high regard
Septuagint, the (Lxx) - Hence, the Septuagint is known by the letters LXX, the Roman numerals for seventy
Sibbec(h)ai - 1 Chronicles 11:29 lists him among David's military heroes, leading many commentators to see Sibbecai as the original reading for Mebunnai in 2 Samuel 23:27 resulting from a confusion of Hebrew letters by early scribes
Scrabble - ) To mark with irregular lines or letters; to scribble; as, to scrabble paper
Wafer - ) An adhesive disk of dried paste, made of flour, gelatin, isinglass, or the like, and coloring matter, - used in sealing letters and other documents
Abbreviation - ) The form to which a word or phrase is reduced by contraction and omission; a letter or letters, standing for a word or phrase of which they are a part; as, Gen
Letter, the - The Lord is the spirit of all that is written in letters in scripture
Morse Code - In length, or duration, one dash is theoretically equal to three dots; the space between the elements of a letter is equal to one dot; the interval in spaced letters, as O
Lambdacism - ) A defect in pronunciation of the letter l when doubled, which consists in giving it a sound as if followed by y, similar to that of the letters lli in billion
Yesterday - Yesterday we received letters from our friends
Ministrel - " Primarily the word denoted "devoted to the Muses" (the nine goddesses who presided over the principal departments of letters), and was used of anyone devoted to or skilled in arts and sciences, or "learned
Pastoral Letter - Perhaps the most important ofsuch Pastoral letters is that which is issued by the House ofBishops at the close of each General Convention, touching on gravequestions of the day or on the prospects of the Church throughoutthe nation, and which is required by canon to be read in all thechurches
Hobah - Attempts to identify Hobah with Apum or Upe in the Amarna letters from Egypt have recently been questioned
Hushah - Some Bible students think that in the copying process the name was changed from an original Shuah (1 Chronicles 4:11 ) through transposition of Hebrew letters
Montreal, University of - Faculties of theology, law, medicine, philosophy, letters, pure science, dentistry, arts; schools of veterinary science, pharmacy, social science, political economy and journalism, agriculture, commerce, dietetics, optometry and a poly technical school
Middle - ...
Middle ages, the ages or period of time about equally distant from the decline of the Roman empire and the revival of letters in Europe, or from the eighth to the fifteenth century of the christian era
Packet - ) A small pack or package; a little bundle or parcel; as, a packet of letters
Formula - ) A symbolic expression (by means of letters, figures, etc
Tel-el-Amarna - A collection of tablets (called the Tel-el-Amarna, / the Amarna, tablets) was found here, forming the Asiatic correspondence (Tel-el-Amarna letters) of Amenophis IV
Transmission - ) The act of transmitting, or the state of being transmitted; as, the transmission of letters, writings, papers, news, and the like, from one country to another; the transmission of rights, titles, or privileges, from father to son, or from one generation to another
Obscurity - Illegibleness as the obscurity of letters or of an inscription
University of Montreal - Faculties of theology, law, medicine, philosophy, letters, pure science, dentistry, arts; schools of veterinary science, pharmacy, social science, political economy and journalism, agriculture, commerce, dietetics, optometry and a poly technical school
Epistles - The apostolic letters. Paul's letters were, as a rule, dictated to an amanuensis, a fact which accounts for some of their peculiarities. The doctrines of Christianity are thus not set forth in any formal treatise, but mainly in a collection of letters
Salutation - (ssal yoo tay' shuhn) Act of greeting, addressing, blessing, or welcoming by gestures or words; a specific form of words serving as a greeting, especially in the opening and closing of letters. The typical greeting in Greek letters was the infinitive “to rejoice” (charein). Paul never opened his letters with this greeting; instead, the apostle fused the Greek word for the typical Hebrew blessing, “Peace” (einrene), with the noun form of the Greek blessing, “Grace” (charis), to yield the distinctly Christian salutation: “Grace and Peace” (charis kai eirene)
Mail - ) That which comes in the mail; letters, etc. ) The bag or bags with the letters, papers, papers, or other matter contained therein, conveyed under public authority from one post office to another; the whole system of appliances used by government in the conveyance and delivery of mail matter
Zemarite, the - It seems to be mentioned also in the Amarna letters under the name Sumur
Combination - ) The different arrangements of a number of objects, as letters, into groups
Leb-Kamai - This is generally recognized as being an example of the Kabbalistic rule of hermeneutics whereby a cipher word was obtained by taking the letters of the alphabet in the reverse order, the last for the first, the last but one for the second, and so on
Amerigo Vespucci - The history of his voyages (1497-1508) appears in his "Letters" (1507) and "Novus Mundus" (1503 or 1504)
Vespucci, Amerigo - The history of his voyages (1497-1508) appears in his "Letters" (1507) and "Novus Mundus" (1503 or 1504)
Leonard of Port Maurice, Saint - His writings are numerous, consisting of sermons, letters, ascetic treatises, and books of devotion
Tobiah - He was a man of great influence, which he exerted in opposition to the Jews, and "sent letters" to Nehemiah "to put him in fear" (Nehemiah 6:17-19 )
Louis Braille - Blind from the age of three, he was educated at the Institute for the Blind in Paris, became a teacher in the institute, 1828, and in 1829 invented a system of point writing for the blind, based on the sound system of Charles Barbier, but representing alphabetical letters, signs of punctuation, and of music
Girgashite - Nothing else is known of them except the existence of various groups in Palestine at the time of the conquest fits information from the Amarna letters and other Near Eastern sources about the independent nature of the various city-states in Canaan before Israel entered
Sub Deacon - An inferior minister, who anciently attended at the altar, prepared the sacred vessels, delivered them to the deacons in time of divine service, attended the doors of the church during communion service, went on the bishop's embassies with his letters, or messages, to foreign churches, and was invested with the first of the holy orders
Bodkin - ) A sharp tool, like an awl, used for picking /ut letters from a column or page in making corrections
Protestant - ...
See article REFORMATION; Fell's Four letters on genuine Protestantism; Chillingworth's Religion of the Protestants; Robertson's Hist
Patronage - ) Special countenance or support; favor, encouragement, or aid, afforded to a person or a work; as, the patronage of letters; patronage given to an author
Aristarchus - Paul sent greetings from Aristarchus, a fellow prisoner and worker, in his letters to the Colossians (Acts 4:10 ) and Philemon (24)
Alphabetic Psalms - So called because their successive verses, or successive parallel series, begin with the successive letters of the alphabet
Jehovah - An anglicized pronunciation of the Hebrew tetragrammaton, YHWH, which are the four consonant letters used to spell God’s name in the Old Testament (Exodus 3:14)
Liverpool Liturgy - Orton's letters, vol
Salutation - ...
(2) Characteristic opening of the Epistles of the Apostles, wishing those addressed "Grace and the peace of God," and also of the letters of popes and bishops
Tychicus - A disciple employed by the apostle Paul to carry his letters to several churches
Epicure'Ans, the, - Epistles, letters; personal correspondence by writing. The conclusion in this case was probably modified by the fact that the letters were dictated to an amanuensis. An allusion in (2 Corinthians 3:1 ) brings before us another class of letters which must have been in frequent use in the early ages of the Christian Church, by which travellers or teachers were commended by one church to the good offices of others
Acrostic - poems in which initial letters recurring at regular intervals follow some definite arrangement, occur to the number of 14 in the OT; another instance is Sir 51:13-30 . The interval between the several letters consists of a regular number of lines . ]'>[1] , in Proverbs 31:1-31 , probably also in Psalms 34:1-22 (where the sense seems to require the transposition of Psalms 34:16 and Psalms 34:15 ) and in Psalms 9:1-20 , the sixteenth and seventeenth letters of the Hebrew alphabet occupy respectively the seventeenth and sixteenth places in the acrostic scheme. ...
The English reader will find the strophes clearly distinguished, and the initial Hebrew letters with their names in English letters indicated, in the RV Fouard, Constant - Ordained in 1861, he devoted himself to the classics and biblical science, received the degree of licentiate in letters, 1867, and taught classics at Boisguillaume until 1876
Innocent i, Pope Saint - One of his letters, addressed to Victricius, Bishop of Rouen, contains 14 rules of discipline
A - Both the Hebrews and Greeks used their letters as numerals; and hence A (aleph or alpha) denoted one, or the first
Sheshach - Thus the letters sh, sh, ch become b, b, l, i
Ithiel - Many Bible students put spaces between different letters of the Hebrew text assuming an early copying change
Japhia - In the Amarna letters, the Egyptian pharaoh required the town to supply forced laborers after Labayu of Shechem destroyed Shunem
Children: Their Future - On their holidays, their flag was unfurled, displaying in shining letters the sentence: 'Tremelez, Tyrans, Nous grandirons!' (Tremble, Tyrants, we shall grow up!)
Omega - Revelation 1:8, "I am the Alpha Αlpha ( Α ) ( α ) and the Omega Οmega ( Ω ) ( ω )," the first and the last letters
Arius - Friendly letters were interchanged between Arius and Onias (probably about b
Orator - ) An officer who is the voice of the university upon all public occasions, who writes, reads, and records all letters of a public nature, presents, with an appropriate address, those persons on whom honorary degrees are to be conferred, and performs other like duties; - called also public orator
Transpose - ) To change the place or order of; to substitute one for the other of; to exchange, in respect of position; as, to transpose letters, words, or propositions
Alexander Vii, Pope - " A patron of art, he beautified Rome, enlarged the Vatican Library, and befriended men of letters
Excardination - Excardination is not effective unless the cleric receives absolute and perpetual letters affiliating him with another diocese, vicariate, or prefecture Apostolic
Exeat. - Excardination is not effective unless the cleric receives absolute and perpetual letters affiliating him with another diocese, vicariate, or prefecture Apostolic
Adonai - By way of distinguishing it from JEHOVAH, it is rendered Lord in our English Bibles, in smaller letters, while JEHOVAH, which is also translated Lord, is in capitals
Ligature - ) A double character, or a type consisting of two or more letters or characters united, as ae, /, /
Phaselis - 139 sent letters on behalf of the Jews
Thessalonica - (For an area map and for details of the two letters Paul wrote to the church in Thessalonica, see THESSALONIANS, letters TO THE
Dominical Letter - Meaning Sunday Letter is one of the first sevenletters of the alphabet used in the Calendar to mark the Sundaysthroughout the year. For example, the year 1901 began on Tuesday and the firstweek of that year with the first seven letters of the alphabetwould give us the following table:...
Jan. TheDominical letters were first introduced into the Calendar by theearly Christians
Fish, Fisher - ...
The early Christians, in times of persecution, used to engrave the form of a fish on their medals, seals, and tombs, as a tacit confession of their faith; as the five letters of the Greek word for fish are the initial letters of five words, signifying "Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the Savior
Dionysius (3), Bishop of Corinth - He was the writer of certain pastoral letters, which gained so much authority in his own lifetime that heretics (probably the followers of Marcion) found it worth while, as he complains, to circulate copies falsified by interpolations and omissions. Eusebius mentions having met with 8 of these letters—viz. " Probably the letters were already collected into a volume and enumerated by Eusebius in the order they occurred there, or he would probably have mentioned the two Cretan letters consecutively. of Corinth might consider Lacedaemon and Athens as under his metropolitan superintendence, but that he should send letters of admonition to Crete, Bithynia, and Paphlagonia not only proves the reputation of the writer, but indicates the unity of the Christian community. The letters indicate the general prevalence of episcopal government when they were written. The letters, including that to Rome, are each addressed to the church, not to the bishop; and Soter's own letter, like Clement's former one, was written not in his own name, but that of his church ( ὑμῶν τὴν ἐπιστολὴν ). The letters, indeed, of Dionysius himself were written in his own name, and he uses the 1st pers. ...
The letters also illustrate the value attached by Christians to their sacred literature. Dionysius informs the church of Rome that the day on which he wrote, being the Lord's day, had been kept holy, and that they had then read the letter of the Roman church, and would continue from time to time to read it for their instruction, as they were in the habit of reading the letter formerly written from the same church by the hand of Clement; and speaking of the falsification of his own letters, he adds, "No marvel, then, that some have attempted to tamper with the Scriptures of the Lord, since they have attempted it on writings not comparable to them (οὐ τοιαύταις )
Proclus, Saint Patriarch of Constantinople - His first care was the funeral of his predecessor, and he then sent both to Cyril and John of Antioch the usual synodical letters announcing his appointment, both of whom approved of it. They approved of the letters, but from admiration of Theodore hesitated to condemn the doctrines attributed to him. ) of which 3 are preserved only in a Syriac version the Greek being lost; 7 letters along with several addressed to him by other persons; and a few fragments of other letters and sermons
Quantity - Known quantities are usually represented by the first letters of the alphabet, as a, b, 100and unknown quantities are expressed by the last letters, 10y, z, &c. letters thus used to represent quantities are themselves called quantities
Read - To utter or pronounce written or printed words, letters or characters in the proper order to repeat the names or utter the sounds customarily annexed to words, letters or characters as, to read a written or printed discourse to read the letters of an alphabet to read figures to read the notes of music, or to read music
Tertius - In the Pastoral Epistles and Philemon, which are personal letters, the presence of autograph passages is more uncertain
Fortunatus - Paul in Ephesus, perhaps bearing letters, and to whom he refers in 1 Corinthians 16:17-18
Communication - ) Intercourse by words, letters, or messages; interchange of thoughts or opinions, by conference or other means; conference; correspondence
Diblah - With slight manuscript support from the Latin Vulgate, many Bible students read “Riblah” supposing that in the earliest history of the text tradition a copyist made the simple mistake of changing a Hebrew “r” to a Hebrew “d,” the two letters being easily confused
Moresheth, Moresheth-Gath - It may be Muchrashti of the Amarna letters
Almug - ALMUG , or ALGUM ( 1 Kings 10:11-12 , 2 Chronicles 2:8 ; 2 Chronicles 9:10-11 ; the two names are probably variants of the same word, caused by transposition of letters, as is common in Heb
Engrave - To cut, as metals, stones or other hard substances, with a chisel or graver to cut figures, letters or devices, on stone or metal to mark by incision
Fairly - Without blots in plain letters plainly legibly as an instrument or record fairly written
Post - The Persians and Romans impressed men and horses for the service of government despatches; letters of private persons were conveyed by private hands
Seth - The invention of letters and writing is by the rabbins ascribed to this patriarch
Learining - 1: γράμμα (Strong's #1121 — Noun Neuter — gramma — gram'-mah ) "a letter," is used in the plural in Acts 26:24 , with the meaning "learning:" "(thy much) learning (doth turn thee to madness)," RV, possibly an allusion to the Jewish Scriptures, to which the Apostle had been appealing; in John 7:15 , "(How knoweth this Man) letters" (AV marg
Literature - ) Learning; acquaintance with letters or books
Lead - The words of Job 19:24, "that they were graven with an iron pen and lead in the rock forever," refer to the custom of pouring molten lead into letters carved in the rock in order to make them more striking to the eye
Badin, Stephen Theodore - His published works include a history of the Kentucky missions, two Latin poems, and letters to an Episcopalian Friend
Lead - Job refers to its use in preserving a permanent record of events, by being melted and poured into letters deeply cut in a rock, Job 19:24
Scholar - A man of letters
Secretary - A person employed by a public body, by a company or by an individual, to write orders, letters, dispatches, public or private papers, and the like
Thessalonians, First And Second, Theology of - While some might unfortunately be tempted to view this great apostle to the Gentiles as an authoritarian personality because of some statements in letters he wrote to the Galatians and Corinthians, readers are encouraged to gain a sense of the other side of Paul by studying the Thessalonian correspondence. Hidden near the end of the Pauline corpus are these two precious letters that provide important insight into the mind and heart of Paul. Sandwiched between these seven letters and those addressed to persons (1-2Timothy and Philemon) are the Thessalonian epistles. ...
Almost overlooked, these little letters deal primarily with how eschatological (endtime) issues affect the church. These letters are significant because they may be the earliest preserved documents of the New Testament, having been written shortly after a. Their significance, however, has often been lost because the major concern of many Christian theologians has been issues of soteriology (salvation) and because some other interpreters have sought to use these letters along with Daniel and Revelation to build schemes for predicting the end of time. But a careful reading of these letters will provide a greater spectrum, including insights into how the apostle sought to deal with the crucial issues of early community life on the basis of believers' transformation in Christ. On the issue of the order of the Thessalonian letters, the case is not as easily settled since an argument can be made both ways concerning the matter of hostility that seems to be in the past for 1Thessalonians (e. Probably there is insufficient information in the letters themselves to determine the case, although the allusion in 2 Thessalonians 2:15 may be to 1Thessalonians ( 2 Thessalonians 2:2 ; may suggest some fraudulent correspondence arriving between the two legitimate letters ). ...
Concerning any major theological inconsistencies that have been suggested by comparing the two letters, it seems best treated in terms of Paul's reaction or response to eschatological questions raised or perceived in the community. Moreover, suggestions that one or both of these letters were directed against powerful outside forces such as gnostics or Judiazers can hardly be gleaned from these epistles. Such ideas are constructs from outside the letters themselves. Pain, loss, and suffering are often the seed beds for birthing significant theological reflections and such is clearly the case with Paul's letters to Thessalonica. ...
Themes of the letters . Paul's letters provide intriguing studies in the thematic concerns. But the theological force in these letters concerns the future expectations of the Thessalonians
Lawyer - ...
The usual name for a scribe is grammateus, a man of letters; for a doctor of the law, nomodidaskalos (see DOCTOR). The scribes were originally simply men of letters, students of Scripture, and the name first given to them contains in itself no reference to the law; in course of time, however, they devoted themselves mainly, though by no means exclusively, to the study of the law
Type - ) Such letters or characters, in general, or the whole quantity of them used in printing, spoken of collectively; any number or mass of such letters or characters, however disposed
Siivanus, Bishop of Calahorra - We know of him from 2 letters of Ascanius, bp. His reply was remarkably favourable, in consequence probably of letters from people of rank and property at Calahorra, Tarazona, and neighbouring towns, which alleged in excuse for Silvanus that his were not the only irregularities, bishops having been consecrated for other cities without the previous approval of the metropolitan
Greeting - ...
The opening greetings of ancient letters typically took the form: X (sender) to Y (addressee), greeting (Acts 15:23 ; Acts 23:26 ; James 1:1 ). ...
The greetings of Hellenistic letters typically contained a prayer for the health of the recipients. Most of his letters begin with a prayer of thanksgiving, usually for the recipients. ...
Hellenistic letters frequently included closing greetings
Hushim - Dan's son is named Shuham in Numbers 26:42 , perhaps resulting from a copying transposition of Hebrew letters
John of Avila, Blessed - His best known works are "Audi Fili," a tract on Christian perfection, and his "Spiritual letters
Formalism: Tricks of - Grant's 'Letters from the Mountains' (1806), is the following anecdote of the then Duchess of Gordon
Delivery - ) The act of delivering up or over; surrender; transfer of the body or substance of a thing; distribution; as, the delivery of a fort, of hostages, of a criminal, of goods, of letters
Avila, John of, Blessed - His best known works are "Audi Fili," a tract on Christian perfection, and his "Spiritual letters
Eriugena, John Scotus - 847), and acquired prominence in the world of letters through his translation of the works of Pseudo-Dionysius
Merodachbaladan - King of Babylon who sent letters and a present to Hezekiah when he heard that he had been sick
Lead - In (Job 19:24 ) the allusion is supposed to be to the practice of carving inscriptions upon stone and pouring molten lead into the cavities of the letters, to render them legible and at the same time preserve them from the action of the air
Thanksgiving - All of the Pauline letters with the exception of Galatians begin with a thanksgiving. See letters
Alpha And Omega - These are the first and last letters of the Gr. Kohler) have given another explanation of its use as a title for God, calling it the hellenized form of a well-known saying, ‘The Seal of God is Emeth (אֱמֶת = ‘truth’), a word containing first, middle, and last letters of the Heb, alphabet (cf. , in which these two letters stood for the name of Christ, At a subsequent period the practice became universal all over the Christian world, and countless examples are still extant to prove the general popularity of this custom. ...
In most cases the letters are accompanied by other symbols and titles of the Master, e. It is significant to note that in none of those hundreds of examples do the letters (often rudely scrawled by poor peasants) refer to any one but Jesus Christ
Bible: the Spirit More Than the Letter - If no other instance were before us, the Jewish people would furnish us with a most convincing one, for they have wholly missed the meaning of the Scriptures, and yet, Lightfoot tells us, 'They have summed up all the letters in the Bible to show that one hair of that sacred head is not perished
John o'Donovan - His series of scholarly letters written in connection with his work for the Ordnance Survey of Ireland, like O'Curry's, were kept unpublished by the British Government for fear of rekindling flames of Irish patriotism
Cassiodorus - His works dealing with political affairs include a chronicle, a history of the Goths, and letters
Jane Frances de Chantal, Saint - Her literary works comprise letters, and instructions on the religious life
Sardis - The only biblical mention of the church in the town of Sardis is as the recipient of one of the letters that John sent to seven churches in the province of Asia (for map see ASIA)
Dodanim - It could refer to a land of Danuna known from the Amarna letters
Harmon - REB changes two Hebrew letters slightly to translate, “dunghill
Harod - It was home for two of David's heroes (2 Samuel 23:25 ), though the parallel text in 1 Chronicles 11:27 reads, “Harorite,” representing a copyist's confusion of two letters similar in appearance
o'Donovan, John - His series of scholarly letters written in connection with his work for the Ordnance Survey of Ireland, like O'Curry's, were kept unpublished by the British Government for fear of rekindling flames of Irish patriotism
Martyr d'Anghiera, Peter - He collected letters of contemporary Spanish history
Inscribe - To mark with letters, characters or words as, to inscribe a stone with a name
Pella - ) and the Amarna letters (about 1400 B
Tittle - A very small particle; literally, a small horn; the minute tip at the extremity of some Hebrew letters, Matthew 5:18
Incardination - A cleric may likewise be validly incardinated into a diocese if he has received letters signed by his own Ordinary freeing him from his own diocese absolutely and perpetually (see excardination) and similar letters, signed by the Ordinary who is accepting him into his diocese
Phenicia - Phenicia may be considered as the birthplace of commerce, if not also of letters and the arts. It was a Phenician who introduced into Greece the knowledge and the use of letters
Ivo of Chartres, Saint - His works are divided into three categories: canonical writings like the "Decretum," the "Panormia," composed before 1096, and the "Prologus"; letters on religious and political questions of the day (he took a moderate position in the investiture struggle); and sermons which reveal his piety and science
Fulgentius, Fabius Claudius Gordianus, Saint - He was sent back to Sardinia where he erected a monastery, and wrote many fine treatises, sermons, and letters
Fabius Claudius Gordianus Fulgentius, Saint - He was sent back to Sardinia where he erected a monastery, and wrote many fine treatises, sermons, and letters
Balak - Moab's descent from Lot, originally of Mesopotamia; also the merchant caravans passing across the deserts; also the advanced civilization of Moab in letters, proved by the Moabite stone some centuries later: all make it intelligible
Tychicus - Tychicus probably also carried Paul’s letters to the Ephesians and the Colossians (Ephesians 6:21-22; Colossians 4:7-8)
Dumah - It may be mentioned in the Amarna letters
Laodiceans, Epistle to the - Its 247 words are a patchwork of passages drawn from the authentic Pauline letters, chiefly Philippians, but also Galatians, 1,2Corinthians, and 1,2Timothy
Ink - Any liquor used for writing or forming letters, as red ink, &c
Intelligence - Intelligence may be transmitted by messengers, by letters, by signals or by telegraphs
Akhenaton - During his reign he received the reports and requests from city-state rulers in Palestine that archaeologists call the Amarna letters
Affix - one or more letters or syllables added at the end of a word; a suffix; a postfix
Lachish - Lachish has lately (1892) been identified with Tel-el-Hesy on the Mediterranean Sea, where remarkable tablets, records, and letters of the king of Lachish have been found, written before the exodus
Threaten - To send threatening letters is a punishable offense
Samaritan Pentateuch - " (Letters of Meshalmah, 19,791, British Museum). The Scroll is written in letters of gold. " Quiescent letters (a h e v i, matres lectionis ) are supplied. Paragogical letters at the end of nouns omitted. Kirchhelm observes that, in difficult readings where probably the copyist after Ezra, in transcribing from the old Samaritan characters into the modern square Hebrew letters, mistook Samaritan letters of similar form, our Samaritan Pentateuch has the same text as the Hebrew; therefore the Samaritan must be copied from a Hebrew not a Samaritan manuscript. ...
The changes of similar Hebrew letters, where the corresponding Samaritan letters are not alike, prove the late date of the Samaritan
Post - ) A messenger who goes from station; an express; especially, one who is employed by the government to carry letters and parcels regularly from one place to another; a letter carrier; a postman. ) An established conveyance for letters from one place or station to another; especially, the governmental system in any country for carrying and distributing letters and parcels; the post office; the mail; hence, the carriage by which the mail is transported
Post - ) A messenger who goes from station; an express; especially, one who is employed by the government to carry letters and parcels regularly from one place to another; a letter carrier; a postman. ) An established conveyance for letters from one place or station to another; especially, the governmental system in any country for carrying and distributing letters and parcels; the post office; the mail; hence, the carriage by which the mail is transported
Post - ) A messenger who goes from station; an express; especially, one who is employed by the government to carry letters and parcels regularly from one place to another; a letter carrier; a postman. ) An established conveyance for letters from one place or station to another; especially, the governmental system in any country for carrying and distributing letters and parcels; the post office; the mail; hence, the carriage by which the mail is transported
Dataria, Apostolic - An office of the Roman Curia, which looks into the fitness of candidates for nonconsistorial benefices reserved to the Holy See; composes and expedites the Apostolic letters for the conferring of such benefices; grants exemption from conditions required in conferring a benefice, the collation of which does not pertain to the Ordinary; attends to pensions and burdens imposed by the supreme pontiff when conferring the aforementioned benefices
Junipero Serra, Blessed - His principal writings are the Representacion, drawn up by the order of the viceroy; his Diario, and many letters
Jeremias, Lamentations of - The elegies are acrostics, each verse beginning with the consecutive letters of the alphabet
Lamentations of Jeremias - The elegies are acrostics, each verse beginning with the consecutive letters of the alphabet
Chaplains of Sisters - Their powers will be defined in the letters of appointment
Iconoclasm - In an interchange of letters between the pope and the Frankish bishops the principles were gradually clarified and the decrees of the Seventh General Council accepted
Dot - The dot is generally held to be a mark distinguishing similarly shaped letters, either the raised dot distinguishing sin from shin or else the hooks used to distinguish others (e
Contraction - ) The shortening of a word, or of two words, by the omission of a letter or letters, or by reducing two or more vowels or syllables to one; as, ne'er for never; can't for can not; don't for do not; it's for it is
Shinar, Plain of - Some evidence points to a Syrian district cited as Sanhara in the Amarna letters
Seal - Jezebel used Ahab's seal to sign letters asking that Naboth be tried and stoned to death (1 Kings 21:8 )
Elishah - ’ The Tell el-Amarna tablets include letters to the king of Egypt from the king of Alashia , Egyptian Alsa , which has been identified with Cyprus; known to Sargon, king of Assyria, as the land of the Ionians, Javan
Avellino, Andrew, Saint - Saint Charles Borromeo was his intimate friend; Andrew's letters were published at Naples, 1731
Andrew Avellino, Saint - Saint Charles Borromeo was his intimate friend; Andrew's letters were published at Naples, 1731
Phenice, Phenicia - ...
The language of the ancient Phoenicians may be said to be only a different dialect from the Hebrew, as shown by ancient inscriptions; and according to Herodotus, the Phoenicians taught the Greeks 'letters
Epistles - The name given to the twenty-one 'Letters' (for this is the signification of the word επιστολή, and which is often thus translated) of the New Testament
Hieroglyphic - It is made up of three, or, as some say, four classes of characters: first, the hieroglyphic proper, or figurative, in which the representation of the object conveys the idea of the object itself; second, the ideographic, consisting of symbols representing ideas, not sounds, as an ostrich feather is a symbol of truth; third, the phonetic, consisting of symbols employed as syllables of a word, or as letters of the alphabet, having a certain sound, as a hawk represented the vowel a
Revival - ) Renewed attention to something, as to letters or literature
Serra, Junipero, Blessed - His principal writings are the Representacion, drawn up by the order of the viceroy; his Diario, and many letters
Sisters, Chaplains of - Their powers will be defined in the letters of appointment
Unlearned - , "unlettered" (grammata, "letters:" grapho, "to write"), Acts 4:13 , is explained by Grimm-Thayer as meaning "unversed in the learning of the Jewish schools;" in the papyri, however, it occurs very frequently in a formula used by one who signs for another who cannot write, which suggests that the rulers, elders and scribes regarded the Apostles as "unlettered" (Moulton and Milligan)
Fare, Farewell - ...
2: ῥώννυμι (Strong's #4517 — Verb — rhonnumi — hrone'-noo-mee ) "to strengthen, to be strong," is used in the imperative mood as a formula at the end of letters, signifying "Farewell," Acts 15:29 ; some mss. , Matthew 26:49 ; or with lego, "to say, to give a greeting," 2 John 1:11 ; in letters; "greeting," e
Commend, Commendation - , "placing together," hence, "commendatory," is used of letters of "commendation," 2 Corinthians 3:1 , lit. , "commendatory letters
Capital - Large of great size as capital letters, which are of different form, and larger than common letters
Word - Most words consist of two or more letters, as go, do, shall, called monosyllables, or of two or more syllables, as honor, goodness, amiable. The letter or letters, written or printed, which represent a sound or combination of sounds
Laodicea - He wanted the two churches to exchange their letters, so that both churches could read both letters (Colossians 4:16)
Symmachus q. Aurelius - Ambrose himself, whom Cardinal Mai considers to be the Ambrose to whom seven of his letters are addressed (Epp. ...
The letters of Symmachus give a remarkable picture of the circumstances and life of a Roman noble just before the final break-up of the empire. ), and in many of his letters he asks his friends to send him rare wild beasts for the sports of his son's praetorship and questorship. In three of his letters he speaks of his advancing years ( Epp. ...
His letters are reprinted in 10 books in Patr
Revive - ) Hence, to recover from a state of neglect or disuse; as, to revive letters or learning
Lacordaire, Henri Dominique - A member of the French Academy (1860), his most celebrated work, the "Conferences," met with great success; his biographies of Saint Dominic and Mary Magdalen, although of little historical value, are popular, as are also his "Letters to young men
Cambridge Summer School of Catholic Studies, the - It has been well said that every volume contains contributions from scholars "who in every instance represent the best Catholic culture in English science and letters
Secretary - ) A person employed to write orders, letters, dispatches, public or private papers, records, and the like; an official scribe, amanuensis, or writer; one who attends to correspondence, and transacts other business, for an association, a public body, or an individual
Gaudentius (7), Donatist Bishop of Thamugada - Gaudentius replied in two letters, which Dulcitius sent to Augustine, whose reply to them in two books entitled contra Gaudentium (Aug
Henri Lacordaire - A member of the French Academy (1860), his most celebrated work, the "Conferences," met with great success; his biographies of Saint Dominic and Mary Magdalen, although of little historical value, are popular, as are also his "Letters to young men
Write, Wrote, Written - A — 1: γράφω (Strong's #1125 — Verb — grapho — graf'-o ) is used (a) of "forming letters" on a surface or writing material, John 8:6 ; Galatians 6:11 , where the Apostle speaks of his having "written" with large letters in his own hand, which not improbably means that at this point he took the pen from his amanuensis and finished the Epistle himself; this is not negatived by the fact that the verb is in the aorist or past definite tense, lit. , "in letters
Ignatius - ...
Apart from the fact that he was bishop of Antioch and the details furnished by his authentic letters, the history of Ignatius is absolutely unknown. ’...
In the signature of each of his seven letters, Ignatius calls himself Ἰγνάτιος ὁ καὶ Θεοφόρος. From there Ignatius dispatches three letters: the first to the Church of Philadelphia (‘The love of the brethren which are in Troas saluteth you,’ xi. He begs Polycarp to write to the churches lying between Smyrna and Antioch, enjoining them to send messengers or letters to the Church of Antioch as a token of their love (viii. 1): ‘Ye wrote to me, both ye yourselves and Ignatius, asking that if any one should go to Syria he might carry thither the letters from you. -The words of Polycarp’s Epistle to the Philippians (13:2) are the earliest evidence of a collection of Ignatius’ letters: ‘The letters of Ignatius which were sent to us by him, and others as many as we had by us, we send unto you, according as ye gave charge; the which are subjoined to this letter; from which ye will be able to gain great advantage. ]'>[3] 3:36) apparently knows of a collection of seven of Ignatius’ letters, with Polycarp’s Letter to the Philippians, which is identical with our present group of letters, even down to the order in which the Epistles me given: Eph. ...
This original collection of letters fell into the hands of a forger, who made interpolations in the text of the. authentic Epistles and also manufactured six additional letters-Mary of Cassobola (there is a Cilician town called Castabala, possibly the same as Cassobola) to Ignatius, Ignatius to Mary of Cassobola, to the Tarsians, to the Philippians, to the Antiochenes, and to Hero the Deacon. We have thus an Ignatian collection of thirteen letters. ...
Three other spurious letters of Ignatius may be passed over quickly-one supposed to be addressed to the Blessed Virgin Mary, with the Virgin’s reply, and two addressed to the Apostle John. The oldest witness to these three Latin letters is Denis of Chartreux († 1471); the oldest manuscript of them dates from the 12th century. This theory was accepted for some time by quite a number of critics, but it has now been abandoned: the three Syriac letters are nothing more nor less than an abridgment of the three Greek Epistles. )...
We may now turn our undivided attention to the Greek collection of the seven authentic letters. At first only the Latin collection comprising the Epistles to the Apostle John and the Virgin Mary, or the three apocryphal letters published in Paris in 1495, were known. Three years later (1498) Lefèvre d’Etaples published in Latin the collection comprising the thirteen spurious or interpolated letters, the Greek text of which was printed at Dillingen in 1557. This collection was speedily recognized to be unauthentic, but, though the Magdeburg Centuriators repudiated the thirteen letters en bloc, Baronius and Bellarmin defended them en bloc. The Protestant Scultetus, in his Medullae theologiae patrum syntagma (Neustadt, 1609) was of opinion that only the seven letters attested by Eusebius were authentic. In 1646 Vossius published the authentic Greek text of six of the seven letters, the Greek text of the seventh-the Letter to the Romans-being published by Ruinart in 1689. But it was a long time before the authenticity of these seven letters was generally accepted. ...
A reply to the difficulties raised by the opponents of the authenticity of the letters will be found in J. Knopf, but they are not to be weighed against ‘the uninventible form of these writings, the originality of the man which seems to speak forth from the pulsing lines, and the wealth of personal references which entwine the letters’ (Das nachapostolische Zeitalter, Tübingen, 1905, p. ...
The question whether Lucian the satirist, in lines 169-170 of his de Morte Peregrini, was thinking of Ignatius or even had direct knowledge of his letters is a point on which one hesitates to decide
Fontenelle, Abbey of - The monastery was famed for its library and school, where calligraphy in particular, as well as letters, sciences, and the fine arts, were cultivated
Marie de Rabutin Chantal, Marquise de Sevigne - It is to her separation from that daughter, who had to follow her husband to Provence, that we are indebted for most of her celebrated letters, which constitute one of the most fascinating monuments of French literature
Logia Jesu - In 1891 some logia or sayings of Our Lord were discovered at Behnesa, the ancient Oxyrynchus, near the Libyan desert, 120 miles south of Cairo; there were eight in all, 42 lines of 15 to 20 letters each
Shibboleth - The tribes living on the east of Jordan, separated from their brethren on the west by the deep ravines and the rapid river, gradually came to adopt peculiar customs, and from mixing largely with the Moabites, Ishmaelites, and Ammonites to pronounce certain letters in such a manner as to distinguish them from the other tribes
Harosheth - It may be the same as Muhrashti of the Amarna letters
o'Curry, Eugene - The immense collection of letters and documents, the result of his and his associates labors for the Ordnance Survey, were kept unpublished by the British Government for fear of stirring up Irish national sentiment
Articulate - ) To form, as the elementary sounds; to utter in distinct syllables or words; to enunciate; as, to articulate letters or language
Silas, Silvanus - He also served as Peter's scribe, writing 1Peter and perhaps other letters
Abbey of Fontenelle - The monastery was famed for its library and school, where calligraphy in particular, as well as letters, sciences, and the fine arts, were cultivated
Abbey of Saint Wandrille - The monastery was famed for its library and school, where calligraphy in particular, as well as letters, sciences, and the fine arts, were cultivated
Imputation - ...
See RIGHTEOUSNESS, SIN; Dickinson's letters, p
Eugene o'Curry - The immense collection of letters and documents, the result of his and his associates labors for the Ordnance Survey, were kept unpublished by the British Government for fear of stirring up Irish national sentiment
Aceldama - The word Ἀκελδαμα, 'field of blood,' is Aramaic expressed in Greek letters, the word being differently spelt in different MSS
Bracelet - When the calif Cayem Bemrillah granted the investiture of certain dominions to an eastern prince, he sent him letters patent, a crown, a chain, and bracelets
Naboth - She wrote letters in Ahab's name, and sealed them with the king's seal, and sent them to the elders of Jezreel, directing them to publish a fast, to place Naboth among the chief of the people, suborn against him two sons of Belial, or two false witnesses, who might depose, that Naboth had blasphemed God and the king
Saint Wandrille, Abbey of - The monastery was famed for its library and school, where calligraphy in particular, as well as letters, sciences, and the fine arts, were cultivated
Reading - In criticism, the manner of reading the manuscripts of ancient authors, where the words or letters are obscure
University of Paris - In 1896 a constitution was granted to it, and it now numbers the faculties of letters, science, law, and medicine
Weigh, Weight, Weighty, Weightier - 1), is rendered "weighty" in 2 Corinthians 10:10 , of Paul's letters
Golden Number - This discovery was considered to be so important,it became the custom to inscribe the rule for finding the moon'sage on a tablet in golden letters and placed in the market-placeat Athens; hence arose the term Golden Number
Cabbalists - They study principally the combination of particular words, letters, and numbers; and by this, they say, they see clearly into the sense of Scripture. Disregarding the continuity of subject, and the harmony of parts, in any Scriptural composition, they selected sentences, and broken pieces of sentences, and even single words and detached letters; and these they proposed to the ignorant and abused multitude as the annunciations of truth and authority
Timothy - ...
So close were Paul and Timothy that both names are listed as the authors of six of Paul's letters (2 Corinthians 1:1 ; Philippians 1:1 ; Colossians 1:1 ; 1 Thessalonians 1:1 ; 2 Thessalonians 1:1 ; Philippians 1:1 ). In addition, Paul wrote two letters to Timothy (1 Timothy 1:2 ; 2 Timothy 1:2 )
Marcellinus, Flavius - With Augustine an intimate friendship subsisted which the behaviour of Marcellinus at the conference no doubt tended to strengthen; several letters were exchanged between them, and Augustine addressed to him his three books de Peccatorum Meritis et Remissione , his book de Spiritu et Littera , and the first two books of his great work de Civitate Dei , which he says that he undertook at his suggestion (Aug. Excepting letters about the conference ( Epp
Lamentations - )...
In three of the five poems, the twenty-two verses that make up the poem begin in turn with the twenty-two successive letters of the Hebrew alphabet. In this poem, which is the central poem in the collection, all three verses in each set begin with the same letter, and these sets of initial letters likewise follow the order of the Hebrew alphabet
Timotheus, Patriarch of Constantinople - He sent circular letters to all the bishops, which he requested them to subscribe, and also to assent to the deposition of Macedonius. Some assented, others refused, while others again subscribed the letters but refused to assent to the deposition of Macedonius
Montanus, Bishop of Toledo - (2) Two letters printed by Loaysa ( Conc Hisp. We are told that Montanus was the successor of Celsus in the "prima sedes" of the province of Carthaginensis; that he defended and maintained his office; that he wrote two letters on points of church discipline, one to the inhabitants of Palencia, the other to a certain Turibius, a "religious"; and that he rebutted a scandalous accusation by the help of a miracle wrought in his favour. "According to the decrees of ancient canons, we declare that, God willing, the council shall be held in future 'apud' our brother, the bishop Montanus, so that it will be the duty of our brother and co-bishop Montanus, who is in the metropolis , to forward to our co-principals, bishops of the Lord, letters convening the synod when the proper time shall arrive
Phoenice - ...
LETTERS. Tradition says Cadmus ("the Eastern" or "of ancient time") introduced into Greece the 16 earliest Greek letters. The names of the four Greek letters Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, are without meaning in Greek; but the Hebrew 'Αleph ( א ), Βet[1] ( ב ), Gimel ( ג ) Daleth ( ד ), mean respectively ox, house, camel, door; so, in the main, the rest. The original Greek and Phoenician letters resembled one another, though not so the modern Hebrew and later Greek. ...
The -a termination of the Greek letters is the Aramaic status emphaticus ; the definite article he , instead of being prefixed was subjoined to the noun; so in Genesis 31:47 the Aramaean (Syrian) Laban adds -a to sahaduth "testimony," Jegar Sahadutha; nine out of the 16 Cadmeian letters are in the Aramaic status emphaticus , i. This proves that when the Greeks received originally the letters from the East the names by which they learned them were Aramaic
John, the Letters of - ”...
The Johannine character of the three letters is universally recognized, but debate over their authorship continues. Some scholars regard the apostle John as the author of all three letters. Others, citing stylistic and theological differences between the Gospel and the letters, contend that they were written by an elder in the Johannine community, who was not the evangelist. It is possible that the author of the letters was the final editor of the Gospel, the “I” who speaks in John 21:25 . ...
Most scholars agree that the three letters were written by the same author and that they were written after the Gospel. The polemic against “the Jews” that pervades much of the Gospel does not appear in the letters. ” The letters are therefore concerned with correcting a false belief about Christ that was spreading in the churches. ...
The Johannine letters, therefore, provide us with a window on an early Christian church, its problems, and its developing doctrine. They share similar concerns, and in many places the same phrases appear in both letters
Liguori, Alphonsus, Saint - The fruits of his labors are treatises on theology, dogma, and asceticism, poetry, musical compositions, and letters
Christ, Portraits of - The early Christians represented Christ symbolically as the Lamb, the Dove, and especially the Fish, the Greek name for which is a compound of the initial letters of five Greek words for Jesus Christ, God's Son, Saviour
Decrees of Roman Pontiffs And Congregations - These are largely legislative enactments, the former found in papal Constitutions, Apostolic letters, Apostolic epistles, and Motu Proprios; the latter in the decrees proper of the respective Congregations
Samaritan Pentateuch - The form of the letters in the manuscript copies of the Samaritan Pentateuch is different from that of the Hebrew copies, and is probably the same as that which was in general use before the Captivity
Golgotha - This name represents in Greek letters the Aramaic word Gulgaltha, which is the Hebrew Gulgoleth (Numbers 1:2 ; 1 Chronicles 23:3,24 ; 2 Kings 9:35 ), meaning "a skull
Clip - ) A clasp or holder for letters, papers, etc
Cipher - ) A combination or interweaving of letters, as the initials of a name; a device; a monogram; as, a painter's cipher, an engraver's cipher, etc
Administration - ...
It is more usual to say, letters of administration
Samaritan Pentateuch - , are judged to be more ancient than the square Hebrew letters now in common use
Corinth - 1 Corinthians 16:6; Romans 16:1, He wrote two letters to the Christians in that city, rebuking their sins, and refers to the Isthmian games celebrated at Corinth every Olympiad
Thessalonians - The First Epistle was probably the first of all the Pauline letters, and written, not at Athens, but at Corinth, about a
Liquid - ) Pronounced without any jar or harshness; smooth; as, l and r are liquid letters
Pascentius, Steward of of Imperial Property - Augustine therefore wrote two letters in succession to give Pascentius an opportunity of reply
Privatus, Bishop of Lambaesis - Apparently the council was held at Lambaesis, and afterwards Donatus and Fabian issued letters condemnatory of Privatus and his opinions
Barnabas - (bahr' nuh buhss) The name Barnabas appears 23 times in Acts and 5 times in Paul's letters and probably means “son of prophecy” or one who prophesies or preaches (“son of exhortation,” Acts 4:36 ). ...
Barnabas in Paul's letters In Galatians 2:1-10 , Paul recalled how he went with Barnabas to Jerusalem and how the apostles approved of their Gentile mission (probably the same event as Acts 15:1 )
Anastasius, a Presbyter of Antioch - They were furnished with letters commendatory from Anastasius and Photius, bearing witness to the soundness of their faith. His opposition aroused the indignation of Anastasius and Photius, who dispatched fresh letters, reasserting the orthodoxy of Jacobus, and requiring the deprivation of Charisius (Labbe, Conc
Elpidius (8), Bishop of Laodicea - After Chrysostom's deposition and exile, Elpidius exerted himself strenuously in his behalf, dispatching letters to bishops and faithful laity in all parts of the world, exhorting them to remain true to Chrysostom, and encouraging them to bear up against persecution. Four other letters from Chrysostom to Elpidius are extant, all written from Cucusus ( Epp
Jehovah - Jerom, and Eusebius, testify that in their time the Jews left the name of Jehovah written in their copies in Samaritan characters, instead of writing it in the common Chaldee or Hebrew characters; which shows their veneration for this holy name: and the fear they were under, lest strangers, who were not unacquainted with the Chaldee letters and language, should discover and misapply it. The Jews call this name of God the Tetragrammaton, or the name with four letters
Bonifacius i, Pope - [1] Two letters of the Pelagians had fallen into the pope's hands, in both of which Augustine was calumniated. To check this tendency to independence, and to defeat the rival claims of Constantinople, Boniface forthwith addressed letters to Rufus, to the bishops of Thessaly, and to the bishops of the entire province. His letters are given by Labbe, vol. 932, 933, where spurious letters and decrees attributed to Boniface are given)
Damasus, Pope - Six of Jerome's letters to him are preserved, two being expositions of difficult passages of Scripture elicited by letters of Damasus asking the aid of his learning. In later letters Jerome speaks in high terms of Damasus; calls him "that illustrious man, that virgin doctor of the virgin church," "eager to catch the first sound of the preaching of continence"; who "wrote both verse and prose in favour of virginity" (Epp. It is a singular fact that no original inscription of pope Damasus has ever yet been found executed by any other hand; nor have any inscriptions been found, excepting those of Damasus, in precisely the same form of letters
Droit de Regale - They were sustained by Pope Innocent XI, who wrote three letters to the king, but in vain
Methodius, Saint - Cyril and Methodius are usually represented facing each other, supporting a church between them, recalling that they were the founders of the Slavonic Church, also holding the letters of the Slavonic alphabet
Ajalon - In the Tell Amarna letters Adoni-zedek (q
Exhortation - letters of exhortation were common in the ancient world
Epicureans - Diogenes Laertius (10) preserves some of Epicurus' letters, and a list of his writings
Righteousness - ...
See IMPUTATION, JUSTIFICATION, SANCTIFICATION; Dickinson's letters, let
Novatian - His early life is known to us principally through the letters of Pope Cornelius to Fabius of Antioch
Lycia - It was one of the self-governing states, to which the Romans sent letters in favour of the Jews in b
Tile - Some of these bear historical inscriptions and narrate the annals of the various reigns; others are known as report tablets, and are of the character of letters or dispatches on various military, political, and social subjects; again a third class are such as the Egibi tablets, a series of financial and contract records belonging to a family of that name, the particular attestations to which for a period of nearly 200 years, from 677 B
Conclave - ...
The conclave is very strictly guarded by troops: neither the cardinals, nor any person shut up in the conclave, are spoken to, but at the hours allowed of, and then in Italian or Latin: even the provisions for the conclave are examined, that no letters be conveyed by that means from the ministers of foreign powers, or other persons, who may have an interest in the election of the pontiff
Colony - The word colonia is a pure Latin word, which is written in Greek letters in the only place where it occurs in the Bible ( Acts 16:12 ), and expresses a purely Roman institution
Colossae - Both letters were carried from Rome by Tychicus, who was accompanied by Onesimus, whose master Philemon was an inhabitant of Colossæ
Dispatch - ) To send off or away; - particularly applied to sending off messengers, messages, letters, etc
Six - This number is arrived at by adding together the numerical values of the letters in the Greek language which compose his name
Frank - ) The privilege of sending letters or other mail matter, free of postage, or without charge; also, the sign, mark, or signature denoting that a letter or other mail matter is to free of postage
Lamentations of Jeremiah - 1, 2, and 4 contain 22 verses each, according to the number of Hebrew letters
Paper - A substance formed into thin sheets on which letters and figures are written or printed
Learn - We learn the use of letters, the meaning of words and the principles of science
Society For the Maintenance of the Apostolic See - By means of leaflets, tracts, and posters it endeavors to foster among the faithful the teaching of the Holy Father as set forth in his encyclical letters and addresses delivered on special occasions
s.m.a.s. - By means of leaflets, tracts, and posters it endeavors to foster among the faithful the teaching of the Holy Father as set forth in his encyclical letters and addresses delivered on special occasions
Send - To cause to be conveyed or transmitted as, to send letters or dispatches from one country to another
Will of Man: Adverse to the Gospel - The destitute waifs and strays of the streets of London find out the night refuge and ask for shelter; they cluster round our workhouse doors like sparrows under the eaves of a building on a rainy day; they piteously crave for lodging and a crust of bread; yet crowds of poor benighted spirits, when the house of mercy is lighted up, and the invitation is plainly written in bold letters, 'Whosoever will, let him turn in hither,' will not come, but prove the truth of Watts's verse: ...
'Thousands make a wretched choice, And rather starve than come
Handmaid - , 1 Samuel 25:28; 1 Samuel 25:31; 1 Samuel 25:41; the letter of an Assyrian lady in Johns’ Babylonian and Assyrian Laws, Contracts, and letters, p. ), in the so-called Babylonian Penitential Psalms, in ancient Semitic names—Obadiah found both in the Bible and on an ancient seal, Abdeel (Jeremiah 36:26), Abdiel (1 Chronicles 5:15), Abednego (Daniel 1:7), Abd Ninip (Tell el-Amarna letters, No
Nicetius, Archbaptist of Treves - His orthodoxy is illustrated by two extant letters: one from him to Clodosinda, the wife of Alboin the Lombard, urging her to turn her husband to Catholicism; the other to the emperor Justinian, whose lapse in his latter days into a form of Eutychianism, Nicetius declares, is lamented by all Italy, Africa, Spain, and Gaul ( Patr. 365–376, and, with the letters, discussed at some length by Ceillier, xi
Epistle - Hezekiah had a system of couriers or posts to transmit his letters in various quarters; the plan especially prevalent in Persia (2 Chronicles 30:6; 2 Chronicles 30:10; Esther 8:10; Esther 8:14). But, in order to show his regard to the Galatians, whom Judaizers tried to estrange, he wrote all that epistle himself in large characters, for so Galatians 6:11-12 ought to be translated, "ye see in how large letters I have written. " The largeness of letters was probably owing to his weakness of sight (Galatians 4:15)
Masora - Their work regards merely the letter of the Hebrew text, in which they have first fixed the true reading by vowels and accents; they have, secondly, numbered not only the chapters and sections, but the verses, words, and letters of the text: and they find in the Pentateuch 5245 verses, and in the whole Bible 23, 206. They have, thirdly, marked whatever irregularities occur in any of the letters of the Hebrew text; such as the different size of the letters, their various positions and inversions, &c
Timnath-Serah - Heres , it will be observed, simply reverses the order of the letters in Serah
Ashkelon - " Among the Tell Amarna tablets (see EGYPT ) are found letters or official despatches from Yadaya, "captain of horse and dust of the king's feet," to the "great king" of Egypt, dated from Ascalon
Honorius Iii, Pope - His letters are of great historic value, and in addition to a work on papal economics he wrote the lives of Celestine III, Gregory VII, and made the Fifth Collection of Decretals
Rave - ) To carve or cut, as letters or figures, on some hard substance; to engrave
Jehoiada - Priest mentioned by the false prophet Shemaiah in his letters against Jeremiah
Familiar - His letters are written in a familiar style
Halicarnassus - It was one of the States to which the Roman Senate sent letters in favour of the Jews in b
Merit - 3: Hervey's Eleven letters to Wesley; Robinson's Claude, vol
Rave - ) To carve or cut, as letters or figures, on some hard substance; to engrave
Horse-Leech - Thus Plautus makes one say, speaking of the determination to get money, "I will turn myself into a horse-leech, and suck out their blood;" and Cicero, in one of his letters to Atticus, calls the common people of Rome horse-leeches of the treasury
Savelli, Cencio - His letters are of great historic value, and in addition to a work on papal economics he wrote the lives of Celestine III, Gregory VII, and made the Fifth Collection of Decretals
Wax - A substance used in sealing letters called sealing-wax, or Spanish wax
Frontlets, - The square had two thongs, on which Hebrew letters were inscribed
Marcellina (2), a Sister of Saint Ambrose - " He wrote three of his most important letters to her: Ep
Modestus - From this time Basil's influence with Modestus was so great that persons came from a great distance to request letters from him to the prefect
Severus, Bishop of Mileum - Severus exchanged letters and friendly messages with Paulinus of Nola (ib
Ink - The substance also found in an inkstand at Herculaneum, looks like a thick oil or paint, with which the manuscripts there have been written in a relievo visible in the letters, when you hold a leaf to the light in a horizontal direction. Such vitriolic ink as has been used on the old parchment manuscripts would have corroded the delicate leaves of the papyrus, as it has done the skins of the most ancient manuscripts of Virgil and Terence, in the Vatican library; the letters are sunk into the parchment, and some have eaten quite through it, in consequence of the corrosive acid of the vitriolic ink, with which they were written
Fulgentius (4) Ferrandus, , Disciple And Companion of Ruspe - ...
Two letters of Ferrandus to Fulgentius are extant (Migne, Patr. The two letters to Fulgentius of Ruspe are in Sirmond's and Migne's edd
Chancellor - Ordinally, a chief notary or scribe, under the Roman Emperors but in England, in later times, an officer invested with judicial powers, and particularly with the superintendence of all charters, letters and other official writings of the crown, that required to be solemnly authenticated. ...
Chancellor of a University, is an officer who seals the diplomas, or letters of degree, &c
Acacius, Bishop of Beroea - 1072); while Flavian himself, through the exertions of Acacius, received letters of communion not only from Rome, but also from Theophilus of Alexandria and the Egyptian bishops. Acacius sent to Rome one Patronus, with letters accusing Chrysostom of being the author of the conflagration of his own church. 432, by John of Antioch, and doing all in his power, both by personal influence and by letters to Cyril and to the Roman bp. ...
Three letters are still extant out of the large number that he wrote, especially on the Nestorian controversy: two to Alexander of Hierapolis, Baluzius, Nov
Letters - The high antiquity of the use of letters; the Hebrew characters...
having existed in a perfect state when Moses composed the Pentateuch, the most ancient writing now known to be extant. The similarity between the various alphabets of different nations, which, for the most part, are the same, in the order, power, and even form, of their letters with the Hebrew. The latter had, likewise, abbreviated marks, which were used as symbols; and thus made an approach to letters, although they never reached this discovery. ...
These facts are urged as direct proofs or strong presumptions that all alphabetical characters have been preceded by picture or imitative characters; and that as the whole is within the compass of human ingenuity, the notion of a divine suggestion of letters, or of the important art of alphabetical writing, is bringing in the divine agency without necessity. ...
It may, indeed, be asked, How then is it that in other nations we can so accurately trace the progress from the picture to the symbol, and thence on to the alphabet; as for instance in Egypt? We answer, that if this were allowed, and it might be, and probably was, a part of the divine procedure with reference to the preservation of the true religion, that the knowledge of letters should be early given to the Abrahamic family, or, at least, preserved among them, while many others of the more dispersed branches of the human race becoming barbarous, as stated under the article Language, might lose it; because picture writing was easily convertible to idolatrous purposes, and in reality was greatly encouraged from that source. The opinion of this learned prelate was, that the primitive mode of writing among the Egyptians was by figurative delineations or hieroglyphics; that this becoming too tedious and voluminous, by degrees they perfected another character, which he calls the running-hand of hieroglyphics, resembling the Chinese characters; which being at first formed only by the outlines of figures, became at length a kind of marks; and at last led to the compendious use of letters by an alphabet. His argument against the knowledge of letters by the immediate descendants of Noah is as follows: "For, if the invention of the alphabet had preceded the dispersion, we should have found the use of it generally established among mankind, and hieroglyphics and picture writing entirely lain aside. The invention of letters, therefore, must have happened after the dispersion, at a time when picture or hieroglyphical writing was generally used; it was thus imported into the respective countries, by the primitive inhabitants, as they separated themselves from the common society, carrying in their migrations those partly true and partly false notions of the Deity, and of the great event which had submerged the world; notions which, in fact, are to be found in the theology and ritual of all the nations in the universe, although more or less disfigured and altered. Originally, as we have seen, they had been the common, nay, the sole mode of writing, employed by the nation at large, in all the transactions of life, and through the policy of King Thamus, the alphabetical letters were kept secret: but, as soon as this discovery became known, the contrary happened; alphabetical writing became common, and hieroglyphics mysterious, not because they were purposely hidden in mystery, but simply because they required greater application and greater trouble. To distinguish them, therefore, from the alphabetical letters newly invented, they obtained the name of sacred, on the score of their being employed only in matters of religion. The priests, however who had already invented a new set of arbitrary marks, as a shorter way of hieroglyphical writing, which they employed exclusively in transactions which concerned their body and their pursuits, after the invention of the alphabet, turned these marks into letters, and thus they formed another set of characters, or mode of writing, to which they gave the appellation of hieratic, as belonging exclusively to their order. And as the common, or demotic letters were employed in all the common business of life, and hieroglyphics confined to public monuments, and funereal and votive ceremonies, the Egyptians became possessed of at least three different modes of writing, or sets of characters, which were hieroglyphic, demotic, and hieratic. We think it more probable that alphabetical writing is much older than the hieroglyphics; that the phonetic hieroglyphics were fanciful representations of the alphabetic characters, intermingled with those symbols which idolatry and the natural peculiarities of Egypt would suggest; that the whole was originally easy to be deciphered by those who knew letters at all; and that the leading motive of fixing them on public monuments in preference to literal inscriptions, was the taste of the day, which custom, and antiquity, and superstition at length consecrated
Apostolic Fathers - ...
En route to Rome, where he suffered martyrdom during the reign of Trajan (98-117), Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch, wrote seven letters called the Epistles of Ignatius. At Smyrna he composed letters thanking the churches of Ephesus, Magnesia, and Tralles for sending messengers to greet him. In his letters Ignatius mentioned tensions within the communities to which he wrote and urged, as a solution, acceptance of episcopal authority. ...
Polycarp's Epistle of Polycarp is a cover letter sent with “as many as he had” of the letters of Ignatius at the request of the church of Philippi. Because in its present form the letter is a virtual mosaic of quotations from the collected letters of Paul, P
Severus Sulpicius, an Historian - 1071), the letters of his friend Paulinus of Nola, with whom between 394 and 403 he constantly interchanged gifts and letters, though only one letter of Sulpicius, and that probably a forgery, survives ( Epp. Martin of Tours, 3 letters, and 3 dialogues. Martini, the earliest of his writings, is very important as containing, with the Dialogues and 3 letters, practically everything that is authentic about that popular saint of Western Christendom. Seven more letters have been published under Sulpicius's name; several have been generally suspected (Ceillier, 119–120), but all are pronounced spurious by Halm (Pref
Cabbala - Among the explications of the law which are furnished by the cabbala, and which, in reality, are little else but the several interpretations and decisions of the rabbins on the laws of Moses, some are mystical; consisting of odd abstruse significations given to a word, or even to the letters whereof it is composed: whence, by different combinations, they draw meanings from Scripture very different from those it seems naturally to import. The first, called gematria, consists in taking letters as figures, or arithmetical numbers, and explaining each word by the arithmetical value of the letters whereof it is composed; which is done various ways: the second is called notaricon, and consists either in taking each letter of a word for an entire diction, or in making one entire diction out of the initial letters of many: the third kind, called themurah, that is, changing, consists in changing and transposing the letters of a word; which is done various ways. Cabbala is also applied to the use, or rather abuse, which visionaries and enthusiasts make of Scripture, for discovering futurity by the study and consideration of the combination of certain words, letters, and numbers, in the sacred writings. All the words, terms, magic figures, numbers, letters, charms, &c, used in the Jewish magic, as also in the hermetical science, are comprised under this species of cabbala; which professes to teach the art of curing diseases, and performing other wonders, by means of certain arrangements of sacred letters and words
Flagellants - They were condemned by the pope in letters sent to the bishops of France, Germany, Poland, Sweden, and England, and their numbers gradually diminished
Koppernick, Niclas - He translated the letters of Theophylactus into Latin, 1509, and published a treatise on monetary reform, 1528
Silas - He visited Rome with Peter, and played a part in the writing of 1 Peter, a letter that Peter sent to the churches of northern Asia Minor (1 Peter 1:1; 1 Peter 5:12-13; see PETER, letters OF)
Nebo (2) - " Presided over learning and letters
Niclas Koppernick - He translated the letters of Theophylactus into Latin, 1509, and published a treatise on monetary reform, 1528
Nicolaus Copernicus - He translated the letters of Theophylactus into Latin, 1509, and published a treatise on monetary reform, 1528
Inform - letters from Europe inform us of the commencement of hostilities between the Persians and Turks
Anastasius i, Bishop of Rome - Nine other letters are referred to:—(1–5) To Paulinus, bp
Docket - ) To make a brief abstract of (a writing) and indorse it on the back of the paper, or to indorse the title or contents on the back of; to summarize; as, to docket letters and papers
Communication - Intercourse by words, letters or messages interchange of thoughts or opinions, by conference or other means
Ambrosius of Alexandria - ...
Ambrose left no writings of his own except some letters, but it is evident that he exercised a powerful influence upon Origen, who called him his "taskmaster," ἐργοδιώκτης ( in Johann
Accad - An inscription has been found showing the Accadian transition from the hieroglyphic to the wedge-shape letters; and others with the latter interlined with the Babylonian or Assyrian dialect
Mene, Mene, Tekel, Upharsin - It may have been because the letters were the ancient Hebrew characters, which, though known to Daniel, would be unknown to them
Sacred Scripture - The Apostles and their disciples called the Old Testament simply "the Scripture" (Luke 4; John 2), or "the Scriptures" (Matthew 21; Luke 24; Acts 17); or, referring to its divine origin "the Holy Scriptures" (Romans 1), and "the Sacred letters" (2 Timothy 3)
Scripture, Sacred - The Apostles and their disciples called the Old Testament simply "the Scripture" (Luke 4; John 2), or "the Scriptures" (Matthew 21; Luke 24; Acts 17); or, referring to its divine origin "the Holy Scriptures" (Romans 1), and "the Sacred letters" (2 Timothy 3)
Restrain - If the two letters st are removed, the word rigo coincides exactly, in primary sense, with L
Frontlets - Thus described by Leo of Modena: the Jews take four pieces of parchment, and write with an ink made on purpose, and in square letters, these four passages, one on each piece: (1
Simplicianus, Saint, Bishop of Milan - Four reply-letters to him by St
Louvain, University of - Its administration, teaching, and budget are independent of the state, and the episcopate controls the institution and appoints its head, the rector magnificus, who governs with the assistance of a rectorate council composed of the deans of the five faculties, theology, law, medicine, philosophy, and letters. Among the illustrious professors since the restoration have been the theologians, Beelen, Jungmann, Bishop Jules Malou of Bruges, Lamy, and Reussens; in law, De Coux, Perin, Thonissen, and Nyssens; in philosophy and letters, Arendt, David, Moeller, Poullet, Neve, De Harlez, and Willems; in philosophic science and mathematics, Gilbert, De la Vallee, Poussin, Van Beneden, and Carnoy; and in medicine, Schwann, Craninex, Michaux, Van Kempen, Hubert and Lefebvre
Fravitta, Bishop of Constantinople - ...
Fravitta at one and the same time wrote letters to Peter Mongus asking for his communion, and a synodal to pope Felix begging his sanction and co-operation. Pope Felix, delighted with the letters, had Zeno's read aloud to the deputation and all the clergy of Rome, who expressed loud approval
University of Louvain - Its administration, teaching, and budget are independent of the state, and the episcopate controls the institution and appoints its head, the rector magnificus, who governs with the assistance of a rectorate council composed of the deans of the five faculties, theology, law, medicine, philosophy, and letters. Among the illustrious professors since the restoration have been the theologians, Beelen, Jungmann, Bishop Jules Malou of Bruges, Lamy, and Reussens; in law, De Coux, Perin, Thonissen, and Nyssens; in philosophy and letters, Arendt, David, Moeller, Poullet, Neve, De Harlez, and Willems; in philosophic science and mathematics, Gilbert, De la Vallee, Poussin, Van Beneden, and Carnoy; and in medicine, Schwann, Craninex, Michaux, Van Kempen, Hubert and Lefebvre
Epiphanius, Patriarch of Constantinople - Four letters remain of Epiphanius to Hormisdas, telling him of his election, sending him his creed, and declaring that he condemned all those whose name the pope had forbidden to be recited in the diptychs. Epiphanius adopts the symbol of Nicaea, the decrees of Ephesus, Constantinople, and Chalcedon, and the letters of pope Leo in defence of the faith. ...
Besides his letters to Hormisdas, we have the sentence of his council against Severus and Peter (Patr
Mesrobes - It is supposed to have consisted of 22 or 27 letters. Mesrobes also invented an alphabet for Georgia similar to the Armenian but containing 28 letters. Both alphabets had the letters arranged after the Greek order
Bible, Canon of the - The proper designation for the Jewish Bible is Tanak, an acronym constituted from the initial letters of the three divisions of that canon—Law (Torah), Prophets (Naviim), and Writings (Kethubim). Second Peter 3:16 refers to Paul's letters as being misapplied, presumably using the word "scripture" in its usual biblical sense as the Scripture. ...
Evidence of a collection of Paul's letters is found as early as 2 Peter 3:16 , and Paul instructed the churches in Colossae and Laodicea to exchange his letters to them for public reading. This indicates that some letters were intended to be circulated among the churches from the day they were received. The earliest known collection of Paul's letters is in the Chester Beatty Papyri, which gives us clear evidence of a collection of Paul's letters at the end of the second century. More than 284 different sequences of biblical books (Old and New Testament) have been found in Latin manuscripts alone, and more than twenty different arrangements of Paul's letters have been found in ancient authors and manuscripts
Habiru - In letters written from Palestine to Amarna in Egypt, they appear as rebels attacking cities belonging to the pharaohs of the fourteenth century, and in one text they are further identified as former slaves who had revolted
Antioch - This city is celebrated by Cicero, as being opulent and abounding in men of taste and letters
Elements - the verb stoicheo, "to walk or march in rank;" see WALK); it was used of the letters of the alphabet, as elements of speech
Yhwh - God's name in Hebrew known by the technical term “Tetragrammaton” (Greek, meaning four letters), these are the four consonants which make up the divine name (Exodus 3:15 ; found more than 6,000 times in the Old Testament)
Praise - 233; Fitzosborne's letters, let
Blot - To obliterate writing or letters with ink, so as to render the characters invisible, or not distinguishable generally with out as, to blot out a word or a sentence
Seal, Signet - Stones on which words, letters, or symbols are engraved
Drowning - Johns’ Babylonian and Assyrian Laws, Contracts, and letters, p
Dorotheus (7), Bishop of Martianopolis - Two letters of his to John of Antioch are preserved in the Synodicon (Nos
Boanerges - " Parkhurst judges the word to be the Galilean pronunciation of the Hebrew בנו רעש expressed in Greek letters
Mute - ) Not uttered; unpronounced; silent; also, produced by complete closure of the mouth organs which interrupt the passage of breath; - said of certain letters
Race - Among the most famous games were those celebrated on the isthmus of Corinth, hence called the Isthmian games; and to these Paul alludes in his letters to Corinth, 1 Corinthians 9:24-27
Seal - Through the centuries the practise spread and at the synpd pf Chalons-sur-Saone in 818, it was enacted that letters under the bishop's seal should be given to priests when they lawfully quitted their own diocese
Obtain - We obtain loans of money on application we obtain answers to letters we obtain spirit from liquors by distillation and salts by evaporation
Language - Articulate sounds are represented by letters, marks or characters which form words
Lamentations of Jeremiah - The first, second, and fourth chapters contain twentytwo verses each, according to the letters of the alphabet; the third chapter has three successive verses beginning with the same letter, making sixty-six in all
Vent - The sectators did greatly enrich their inventions by venting the stolen treasures of divine letters
Philemon, the Epistle of Paul to, - is one of the letters which the apostle wrote during his first captivity at Rome A
Nomus, Leading Personage at Constantinople - The interesting series of letters, to the principal men of the empire, in which Theodoret, while observing the mandate, protested against its arbitrary character, contains several addressed to Nomus
Aram - ...
Written Aramaic used letters that were similar to Hebrew letters, and isolated sections of the Old Testament are written in Aramaic instead of the usual Hebrew (Ezra 4:8-24; Ezra 5; Ezra 6:1-18; Ezra 7:12-26; Jeremiah 10:11; Daniel 2:4-49; Daniel 3; Daniel 4; Daniel 5; Daniel 6; Daniel 7)
Name - " Gruter has published a naked statue made of marble, and supposed to represent the genius either of some Roman emperor, or of Antinous, who was deified by Hadrian, with an inscription on the inside of the right thigh, written perpendicularly in Roman letters, and containing the names of three persons. Near the statue, on the same side of it, stands an oval shield with the names of two other persons written round the rim in letters of the same form. The other figure has the lower part of the body clothed in a loose vestment, with an inscription upon it over the right thigh, perpendicularly written in Roman letters, which Bonarota has thus expressed in a more distinct manner than they appear in Montfaucon: POMPONIO VIRIO I. It is drawn in two views, one exhibiting the back and the other the fore part of the body, the latter of which has in Greek letters, ΚΑΦΙΣΟΔΟΡΟΣ for ΚΑΦΙΣΟΔΩΡΟΣ , perpendicularly inscribed on the outside of the left thigh; and the former the name ΑΙΣΧΛΑΜΙΟΥ in the like characters and situation on the right thigh; these together make one inscription, signifying Caphisodorus filius Aeschamii
Godliness - Holtzmann speaks of the idea represented by it as one of the most individual ideas of these letters, and points out that its appearance in them (cf. ‘But why he should not have used them before and yet should use them so often in these latest letters is among the unsolved problems of the phraseology of the Pastorals, although corresponding literary phenomena have been often observed’ (op. ...
In conclusion, it may be observed, and it has a bearing on the question of the authorship of the Pastorals, that the idea of ‘godliness’ serves to hind these letters together with the certainly late and unauthentic 2 Peter , 2 Clement
Old Testament - No vowel points were used, but in the later books matres lectionis or vowel letters. The greater parshioth are the sabbath lessons marked in the Mishna, and perhaps dating from the introduction of the square letters; distinct from the verse divisions made in Christian times. " In the post-Talmudic period THE MASORAH (Buxtorf, Tiberias) notes:...
(1) as to the verses, how many are in each book, the middle verse in each; how many begin with certain letters, or end with the same word, or had a certain number of words and letters, or certain words a number of times;...
(2) as to the words, the Qeri 's (marginal readings) and kethib 's (readings of the text); also words found so many times in the beginning, middle, or end of a verse, or with a particular meaning; also in particular words where transcribers' mistakes were likely, whether they were to be written with or without the vowel letters; also the accentuation;...
(3) as to the letters, how often each occurred in the Old Testament, etc. 916, has vowels and accents differing from the ordinary form, and placed above the letters. The variations were trifling, chiefly of vowel letters; so that we have the assurance that our Old Testament text is almost as pure as attainable. The Kabala ("reception," "received tradition") attached symbolical meanings to the number of times a word or letter recurred, or to the number which letters represented. By the Notarjekon process new significant words were formed out of the initial or final words of the text, or a word's letters were made the initials of a new significant series of words. By the Τemurah) ("change") process new words were obtained, by anagram (or transposition of letters; whereby they supposed, for instance, that Michael must be the angel meant in Exodus 23:23, because it has the same letters as "my angel" in Hebrew by transposition) or by the Atbash alphabet where the last letter of the alphabet represented 'Αleph ( א ), the last but one Βet[1] ( ב ), and so on; thus Sheshach would mean Babel or Babylon
Contract - ) To shorten by omitting a letter or letters or by reducing two or more vowels or syllables to one
Moore, Thomas - Other poetical works are: "Corruption and Tolerance," a satire, 1808; "The Sceptic, a Philosophical Satire," 1809; "Intercepted letters or the Two-penny Post Bag," a light satirical work, 1813; "Lalla Rookh," an oriental romance, 1819; the first of the "National Airs," 1818; and the "Loves of the Angels," an oriental poem, 1822
Moabite Stone - The form of the letters here used supplies very important and interesting information regarding the history of the formation of the alphabet, as well as, incidentally, regarding the arts of civilized life of those times in the land of Moab
Jacques Bossuet - His ascetical works comprise numerous letters of direction, "Elevations sur les Mysteres," and "Meditations sur l'Evangile
Cross - , the first two Greek letters of his name, X and P (chi and rho), with the Alpha and Omega
Chapel - They are free from all episcopal jurisdiction, and only to be visited by the founder and his successors, which is done by the lord chancellor: yet the king may license any subject to build and endow a chapel, and by letters patent exempt it from the visitation of the ordinary
Character - ) Style of writing or printing; handwriting; the peculiar form of letters used by a particular person or people; as, an inscription in the Runic character
Hieroglyphics - The hieroglyphics originally were picture writing, but in the form handed down to us on oldest monuments they are phonetic with occasionally an accompanying picture of the object in order to make the group of hieroglyphic letters which form the word more intelligible
Mercy: Continual - ' In a few days' time, the good man received another letter by the post: and letters by the post were rarities in those days; this second messenger contained another five pounds, with the same motto, 'And more to follow
Commandments, the Ten - ...
The giving of the two stones to Israel by God (who, though gracious and merciful, would by no means clear the guilty,) amid a measure of glory is referred to by Paul, when he describes the commandments written in letters thereon as 'the ministration of death;' in contrast to which he speaks of the glory of the ministration of the Spirit (that is, of Christ, for the Lord is that Spirit), and of the ministration of righteousness: it is the story of man's failure, and of God's righteousness available to the believer through Christ
Thomas Moore - Other poetical works are: "Corruption and Tolerance," a satire, 1808; "The Sceptic, a Philosophical Satire," 1809; "Intercepted letters or the Two-penny Post Bag," a light satirical work, 1813; "Lalla Rookh," an oriental romance, 1819; the first of the "National Airs," 1818; and the "Loves of the Angels," an oriental poem, 1822
Revive - To recover from a state of neglect or depression as, to revive letters or learning
Juliana, Mother of the Virgin Demetrias - Juliana (8), mother of the virgin DEMETRIAS, to whom we have letters from Jerome, Augustine, pope Innocent, and Pelagius
Serapion, Surnamed Scholasticus - Two letters by him were pub
Say, Speak, Answer - Ancient Near Eastern letters from, for example, Mari (1750-1697 B. One might compare our letters which open with “Dear sir
Cyriac, Patriarch of Constantinople - Gregory the Great received the legates bearing the synodal letters which announced his consecration, partly from a desire not to disturb the peace of the church, and partly from the personal respect which he entertained for Cyriac; but in his reply he warned him against the sin of causing divisions in the church, clearly alluding to the use of the term oecumenical bishop (Gregorii Ep. In the latter of these letters he compares the assumption of the title to the sin of Antichrist, since both exhibit a spirit of lawless pride
Fish - It was formed from the initial letters of the Greek words, ‘Ιησους , Ξριστος , Θεου Υ ιος , Σωτηρ , "Jesus Christ, the Son of God, our Saviour. " From the use of symbolical terms, the transition was easy to the adoption of symbolical representations, and it therefore soon became common for the Christians to have the letters of the word ιχθυς , or the figures of fishes, sculptured on their monuments for the dead, struck on their medals, engraved on their rings and seals, and even formed on the articles of domestic use
Timotheus Salofaciolus - Simplicius pressed the point in letters to Acacius; but Zeno could not be induced to take this step against Peter, and probably Acacius was at least lukewarm in the cause. ), about midsummer 482, as we learn from letters of Simplicius dated July 15, 482 (Mansi, vii
Clemens Romanus of Rome - the two letters of Clement to the Corinthians are books enumerated among N. It gives a very good text of the Clementine letters, independent of the Alexandrian MS. For Harnack; on counting the letters in the recovered portion, found that they amounted almost exactly to the average contents of a leaf of the older MS. But the disappointment was compensated by the unexpected discovery of these letters, till then absolutely unknown in the West. John, and Jude, from the Philoxenian version, and then, without any break, these letters, with the titles: "The first epistle of the blessed Clement, the disciple of Peter the apostle," and "The second epistle of the same Clement. The letters were published, as an appendix to his Greek Testament, by Wetstein, who also defended their authenticity. The letters, though now only extant in Syriac, are proved by their Graecisms to be a translation from the Greek, and by the existence of a fragment containing an apparently different Syriac translation of one passage in them. The earliest writer who quotes these letters is Epiphanius. In a passage, which until the discovery of the Syriac letters had been felt as perplexing, he describes Clement as "in the encyclical letters which he wrote, and which are read in the holy churches," having taught virginity, and praised Elias and David and Samson, and all the prophets. The letters to the Corinthians cannot be described as encyclical; and the topics specified are not treated of in them, while they are dwelt on in the Syriac letters. Jerome, though in his catalogue of ecclesiastical writers he follows Eusebius in mentioning only the two letters to the Corinthians as ascribed to Clement, yet must be understood as referring to the letters on virginity in his treatise against Jovinian where he speaks of Clement as composing almost his entire discourse concerning the purity of virginity. He may have become acquainted with these letters during his residence in Palestine. These two letters had considerable currency in the West. In the forged decretals both were much enlarged, and 3 new letters purporting to be Clement's added. There must have been yet other letters ascribed to Clement in the East if there be no error in the MS
Hormisdas, Bishop of Rome - In 515 the emperor wrote to Hormisdas, desiring his concurrence in restoring unity to the church by means of such a council; and Hormisdas, after a guarded reply, sent legates to Constantinople with letters to the emperor and Vitalian, and a statement of the necessary conditions for union. These were: (1) The emperor should issue to all bishops of his dominion a written declaration accepting the council of Chalcedon and the letters of pope Leo. Accordingly they were to accept the decrees of Chalcedon and the "tome" of pope Leo, and also all letters on religion he had ever written; and not only to anathematize Nestorius, Eutyches, Dioscorus, Timothy Aelurus, Peter Fullo, and Acacius, with all their followers, but also exclude from their diptychs all who had been "sequestrated from catholic communion," which is explained to mean communion with the apostolic see. letters were sent to various Eastern metropolitans, including those of Jerusalem, Tyre, and Syria Secunda, who forthwith reported to the synod the full acceptance of orthodoxy by their several churches (ib. In 519 Hormisdas sent a legation to Constantinople, charged with letters to the emperor and patriarch, and also to the empress Euphemia and other persons of distinction, including three influential ladies. In 520 the emperor Justinian and Epiphanius (who had succeeded John as patriarch) wrote urgent letters to him on the subject. His extant writings consist of letters, 80 being attributed to him, one of which, to St. Most of the remaining 70 letters refer to the affairs of the East, several to the metropolitan see of Nicopolis in Epirus (Hormisd. ...
Three letters of Hormisdas (xxiv
Eusebius, Bishop of Vercellae - ...
His extant writings are three letters: one a brief reply to Constantius, that he would attend the council at Milan, but would do there whatever should seem to him right and according to the will of God; and the two to the church at Vercelli and to Gregory of Elvira. Jerome, who places him amongst his Viri Illustres , and alludes to him in his letters and elsewhere. There are several letters addressed to him by Liberius, and allusions to him in Athanasius
Helladius, Bishop of Tarsus - 164), but the latter convoked the bishops of his province, whose synodical letters to Theodosius declared their complete acceptance of all required of them: admission of the decrees of the council of Ephesus, communion with Cyril, the ratification of Nestorius's sentence of deposition, and the anathematization of him and his adherents ( ib. He excuses himself for joining Theodoret and those who had accepted the concordat, as the letters produced from Cyril were in perfect harmony with apostolical traditions ( ib. The letters are printed by Chr
Pius i., Bishop of Rome - ...
Four letters and several decrees are assigned to Pius, of which the first two letters (to all the faithful and to the Italians) and the decrees are universally rejected as spurious. The two remaining letters, addressed to Justus, bp
Order of Friars Preachers - Founded by Saint Dominic de Guzman at Prouille, France, and received pontifical letters from Pope Innocent III, 1205, adopting the Rule of Saint Augustine, with certain additions, 1216
Order of Preachers - Founded by Saint Dominic de Guzman at Prouille, France, and received pontifical letters from Pope Innocent III, 1205, adopting the Rule of Saint Augustine, with certain additions, 1216
Dominicans - Founded by Saint Dominic de Guzman at Prouille, France, and received pontifical letters from Pope Innocent III, 1205, adopting the Rule of Saint Augustine, with certain additions, 1216
Health - ...
The health wish of 3 John 1:2 is typical of Hellenistic letters (Compare 2 Maccabees 1:10 ; 3 Maccabees 3:12 ; 3 Maccabees 7:1 )
Example - , "an under-writing" (from hupographo, "to write under, to trace letters" for copying by scholars); hence, "a writing-copy, an example," 1 Peter 2:21 , said of what Christ left for believers, by His sufferings (not expiatory, but exemplary), that they might "follow His steps
Emblems - The letters whichform the Greek word for fish, viz
Ar - A stone from the Moabite city Medeba has been found inscribed with letters like the Sinaitic
Art - ) Learning; study; applied knowledge, science, or letters
Azekah - One of the letters found at Lachish tells of searching for signal lights from Azekah but not being able to see them
Codex - ...
Biblical manuscripts produced in the codex form were all handcopied in Greek capital letters on parchment from older manuscripts
Serapion, Bishop of Antioch - Jerome mentions sundry letters in harmony with his life and character
Silvanus, Bishop of Tarsus - He returned with the letters of communion of Liberius and the Roman synod (Basil
Theodorus, Bishop of Tyana - After Gregory returned to Arianzus many letters of friendship passed between him and Theodore
Sandemanians - Robert Sandeman, an elder in one of these churches in Scotland, published a series of letters addressed to Mr. In these letters Mr. ...
See Glass's Testimony of the King of Martyrs; Sandeman's letters on Theron ant. 265, 5: 1:; Fuller's letters on Sandemanianism
Timothy, Letters to - Paul’s letters to Timothy and Titus are commonly known as the Pastoral letters. In letters he wrote during that time, he expressed the hope that he would soon be released and so be able to visit churches in various places again (Philippians 1:27; Philippians 2:24; Philem 22). Paul’s letters, however, provide information that enable us to work out at least some of his movements
Preach, Proclaim - Also here the content of the proclamation is very specific and similar to Paul's own letters. ...
Paul's letters . ...
Two of Paul's letters from prison use the term "proclaim. Paul's later pastoral letters contain two occurrences of "proclaim. ...
General letters and Revelation . Finally, two occurrences of "proclaim" in the general letters and Revelation are to be noted
Pre-Eminence - ...
According to this group of letters, Christ is pre-eminent primarily because of His Divine dignity, and secondarily because of His work in nature and in grace—as Creator, Mediator, Saviour, Lord. In both these letters He is God’s Son (1 Corinthians 1:9; 1 Corinthians 15:28, 2 Corinthians 1:19). It should further be noted that in practically all these letters the comprehensive title—Lord Jesus Christ—is applied to Him, and that frequently the strongest statements are made incidentally in such a way as to indicate that they belong to the common Christian conviction. Paul’s letters. May this not be the idea here also? Linguistic usage permits; for the priest was said ‘to cleanse’ the leper when he officially pronounced him ‘clean’; so may it not be that the thought in Acts 13:33 is that in the Resurrection God formally declared Jesus to be His begotten Son? On the other hand, the occurrence of the term ‘justified’ (Acts 13:39) shows how precarious a procedure it is to assert development of doctrine according to the occurrence or non-occurrence of a particular expression in brief letters addressed to different local conditions. Paul’s doctrine of justification was not born just at the time of writing to the Galatians, even though it is not formally stated in the Thessalonian or Corinthian letters
Manuscripts, Illuminated - A large number of manuscripts are covered with painted ornaments in the form of initial letters or of borders, of marginal and full page paintings; and some rolls of parchment consist entirely of paintings
Order of Saint Sylvester - in letters of gold on blue enamel; the reverse side of the medal bears the pontifical emblem with the dates MDCCCXXXXI and MDCCCCV, the former dating the Gregorian restoration, the latter its renovation by Pope Pius X
Montanists - 202,definitely withheld letters of communion with the Montanists
Table, Tablet - ; works on Assyria, Babylon, and Egypt in general; allusions in Ramsay’s letters to the Seven Churches
Illuminated Manuscripts - A large number of manuscripts are covered with painted ornaments in the form of initial letters or of borders, of marginal and full page paintings; and some rolls of parchment consist entirely of paintings
Alpha - ALPHABET comes from the first two Greek letters, Αlpha ( Α - α ), Βeta ( Β - β ) equating in Hebrew to 'Αleph ( א ), Βet[1] ( ב )
Siloah, Siloam - The letters are ancient, which has led to the supposition that the passage was made in the days of Hezekiah, who made alterations in the watercourses
Felix (1) i, Bishop of Rome - 290) having deposed this heretical bishop and appointed Domnus in his place, announced these facts in letters addressed to Maximus and Dionysius, bps
Glycerius, a Deacon in Cappadocia - Several of Basil's letters turned on this matter, the further issue of which is not known
Commission - The thing committed, entrusted or delivered letters patent, or any writing from proper authority, given to a person as his warrant for exercising certain powers, or the performance of any duty, whether ecclesiastical, or military
Read - ) To go over, as characters or words, and utter aloud, or recite to one's self inaudibly; to take in the sense of, as of language, by interpreting the characters with which it is expressed; to peruse; as, to read a discourse; to read the letters of an alphabet; to read figures; to read the notes of music, or to read music; to read a book
Hezekiah - Then came Sennacherib's letters from Lachish and Libnah, the destruction of a great part of his army, and the retreat of the rest to Assyria, in answer to Hezekiah's prayer
Chrysologus, Petrus, Archbishop of Ravenna - Many other works ascribed to him, including commentaries on Scripture, and letters against the Arians, have all perished by fire, partly in the siege of Imola, by Theodoric, c
Epiphanius Scholasticus - It is a collection of letters addressed by different synods to the emperor Leo in defence of the decrees of the council of Chalcedon against Timotheus Aelurus
Bull - ...
Waxen bulls were in frequent use with the Greek Emperors, who thus sealed letters to their relations
Post - a messenger or regulated courier appointed to carry with expedition the despatches of princes, or the letters of private persons in general, Job 9:25 ; Jeremiah 51:31 ; 2 Chronicles 30:6 ; Esther 3:13 , &c
Bull - תאו , the wild bull, oryx, or buffalo, occurs only Deuteronomy 14:5 ; and in Isaiah 51:20 , תוא , with the interchange of the two last letters
Sorbonne - It was suppressed again in 1882, but in 1889 was reopened and is now occupied by the departments of letters and science of the University of Paris, forming the Ecole des Hautes Etudes
Saint Sylvester, Order of - in letters of gold on blue enamel; the reverse side of the medal bears the pontifical emblem with the dates MDCCCXXXXI and MDCCCCV, the former dating the Gregorian restoration, the latter its renovation by Pope Pius X
Phylacteries - Those that were to be fastened to the arms were two rolls of parchment written in square letters, with ink made on purpose, and with much care
Liberatus Diaconus - Liberatus intimates in his preface that he collected his materials from the Ecclesiastical History which had been recently translated from the Greek into Latin (as Garnier thinks, the Historia Tripartitia of Cassiodorus), from the Acts of the councils, and from episcopal letters
Bible And the Popes, the - Of these the decrees and encyclical letters of Leo XIII and Pius X are especially worthy of mention. Pius X continued the work of his distinguished predecessor through the issuance of several letters, chief of which are the Apostolic letter of November 18, 1907, in which he gives instructions regarding the methods to be employed in the teaching of Sacred Scriptures in the seminaries; a letter written December 3, 1907, addressed to Abbot Gasquet, authorizing him to begin the revision of the Vulgate with a view to reproducing as far as was possible the original text of Saint Jerome; and the Apostolic letter, "Vinea Electa," May 7, 1909, through which medium he officially established the Pontifical Biblical Institute at Rome
Thessalo'Nians, First Epistle to the, - It is interesting, therefore, to compare the Thessalonian epistles with the later letters, and to note the points of These differences are mainly
In the general style of these earlier letters there is greater simplicity and less exuberance of language
Evagrius of Antioch - He was commissioned by the Western bishops to return to Basil the letters he had sent them, probably relating to the Meletian schism, as unsatisfactory, and to convey terms dictated by them, which he was to embody in a fresh letter to be sent into the West by some duly authorized commissioners. If Evagrius was so great a lover of peace, why had he not fulfilled his promise of communicating with Dorotheus, the head of the Meletian party? It would be far better for Evagrius to depute some one from Antioch, who would know the parties to be approached and the form the letters should take ( ib
Presbytery - the letters of Ignatius, passim ), corresponding not to the modern presbytery of the Presbyterian Churches, which is a district court composed of ministers and elders drawn from a number of separate congregations, but to the kirk-session or body of elders by which in those churches a single congregation is ruled. The bishop as we meet him in the letters of Ignatius ( e
Purification - Brooke, Life and letters of F. , 1868, letters 86, 87)
Ephesus - He also wrote Timothy two letters to help him in this task (1 Timothy 1:3-7; 1 Timothy 6:3-5; 2 Timothy 1:18; 2 Timothy 2:14-16). The false teaching that the apostle John condemned in his letters (written towards the end of the first century) was also centred in Ephesus (1 John 2:18-22; 1 John 4:1; 2 John 1:9-11)
Maximus, Bishop of Jerusalem - At Sardica he was once more on the orthodox side and his name stands first of the Palestinian bishops who signed the synodical letters (Athan. Congratulatory letters on the recovery of their chief pastor were written to the Egyptian bishops, and Maximus was the first to affix his signature (Socr
John the Apostle - (For his writings see JOHN, GOSPEL OF; JOHN, letters OF. From there he wrote his Gospel and the three letters that bear his name
Irenaeus, Bishop of Tyre - To counteract the influence of Dalmatius and the monastic party at Constantinople, the Eastern bishops deputed Irenaeus to proceed thither with letters to the emperor and the leading officers of state, narrating their side (Labbe, ib. 35, 110), and wrote him frequent letters. " The anonymous translator, who has given very little more than the letters and other documents, invaluable for the light thrown on the transactions of the period, together with the summaries of Irenaeus and some interpolations and explanations of his own, sometimes barely intelligible, entitled his work Synodicon
Eulalius, an Antipope - The official letters which passed have been preserved in the Vatican, and are quoted at length by Baronius (A. Honorius sent private letters to several of the more important prelates, e. Paulinus of Nola, Augustine, and Aurelius of Carthage, and circular letters to the bishops of Africa and Gaul
Number Systems And Number Symbolism - letters of the Hebrew alphabet are first used to represent numbers on coins minted in the Maccabean period (after 167 B. The Greeks used letters of their alphabet to represent numerals, while the Romans used the familiar symbols I,V,X,L,C,M, and so on...
Biblical passages show that the Hebrews were well acquainted with the four basic mathematical operations of addition (Numbers 1:20-46 ), subtraction (Genesis 18:28-33 ), multiplication (Numbers 7:84-86 ), and division (Numbers 31:27 ). Gematria is based on the idea that one may discover hidden meaning in the biblical text from a study of the numerical equivalence of the Hebrew letters. With gematria one takes the sum of the letters of a Hebrew word and seeks to find some meaning. For example, the Hebrew letters of the name Eliezer, Abraham's servant, have a numerical value of 318
Sidonius Apollinaris, Saint - ...
Several letters to friends belong to this period, especially one to Eriphius, a citizen of Lyons, perhaps a. His ability was beyond question; as a man of letters he stood in the foremost rank; he held a high place, probably the highest, among the landed proprietors of his province, whose interests he was firm and patriotic in upholding, and had taken an active part more than once on behalf of its inhabitants, in which also he had been ably and zealously supported by his friends, of whom, both in military and civil affairs, Ecdicius, his wife's brother, held the chief place in the district (Greg. ...
From 471 until 474, when Auvergne was first attacked formally by the Visigoth, it is not easy to fix accurately all the dates of events or of letters. Some of the inconveniences he suffered there are described in his letters to Faustus, bp. ...
In no letter does he speak of opposition or personal ill-treatment, and the tone of his later letters is cheerful, and he appears from the last of them to have met with no hindrance in his episcopal duties except from weather. Affectionate and constant to his friends, he loved to give and receive hospitality, and some of his most agreeable letters describe such social gatherings. —Though he shewed himself a sincere and devout Christian, both before and after he became bishop, it is as a man of letters that he will always be best known, for, as it has been observed, his writings are the best-furnished storehouse we possess of information as to the domestic life, the manners and habits of public men, and in some points the public events of his period. His letters, though often turgid and pedantic, defaced by an artificial phraseology and abounding in passages of great obscurity, often describe persons, objects, and transactions in a very lively and picturesque manner. Eugène Baret (Paris, 1879) has an extremely valuable introduction, containing remarks on the times and state of society, and lists of grammatical forms, words, and phrases used by Sidonius, illustrating the transition state of the Latin language, and some peculiar to himself; also an attempt to settle the chronology of the letters, a task of great difficulty
Liberius, Bishop of Rome - ) gives letters written by Liberius from Beroea at this time. Wherefore Athanasius being removed from the communion of us all (I will not even receive his letters), I say that I have peace and communion with you and with all the Eastern bishops. Before sending that letter he had already, he says, condemned Athanasius, as the whole presbytery of Rome could testify, to whom he seems to have previously sent letters intended for the emperor's eye. "...
No sufficient grounds exist for doubting the genuineness of the fragment of Hilary which contains these letters, or of the letters themselves. on Liberius), but their arguments are weak, resting chiefly on alleged historical difficulties and on the style of the letters. Baronius accepts the letters to the Eastern bishops and to Vincentius, but rejects that to Valens and Ursacius, though only on the ground of its implied statement that Athanasius had been excommunicated by the Roman church. His credit is not much saved by supposing it to have been the former one, since his letters are sufficient evidence of his pliability. The facts remain that in his letters from Beroea he proclaimed his renunciation of Athanasius and his entire agreement and communion with the Easterns, and that at Sirmium he signed a confession drawn up by semi-Arians, which was intended to express rejection of the orthodoxy for which he had once contended. They gave him one, in which they referred to the letters brought by them from the Eastern bishops to him and the other Western bishops; anathematized Arius, the Sabellians, Patripassians, Marcionists, Photinians, Marcellianists, and the followers of Paul of Samosata; condemned the creed of Ariminum as entirely repugnant to the Nicene faith; and declared their entire assent to the Nicene creed. Liberius now admitted them to communion, and dismissed them with letters, in the name of himself and the other Western bishops, to the bishops of the East who had sent the embassy. ...
His extant writings are the letters referred to above
Dionysius of Alexandria - His last letter (or letters) regarding Paul of Samosata seem to have been written in a similar strain. ...
The fragments of his letters are, however, the most interesting extant memorials of his work and character and of his time; and Eusebius, with a true historical instinct, has made them the basis of the sixth and seventh books of his history. A series of festal letters, with pictures of contemporary history (ib. , and his letters, etc
Tittle - such letters as ב and כ, ר and ר, ה and ח are distinguished from each other. letters are distinguished from others that they closely resemble, and there are several Jewish sayings which declare that any one who is guilty of interchanging such letters in certain passages of the OT will thereby destroy the whole world (see Edersheim, LT [4]
Amen - Many times Paul's letters burst into praise of God the Father or God the Son and seal the confession with the amen (Romans 1:25 ; 9:5 ; 11:36 ; Galatians 1:3-5 ; Ephesians 3:21 ; Philippians 4:20 ; 1 Timothy 1:17 ; 6:16 ; 2 Timothy 4:18 ). A doxology appears at or near the end of several letters, and all close with the amen. Other letters end with a blessing on his readers, again completed with amen (1Col 16:23-24; Galatians 6:18 )
Ausonius, Decimus Magnus, Poet - (3) The letters of the poet to his friend and former pupil St. The letters are a beautiful instance of wounded but not embittered affection on the one side, and of an attachment almost filial tempered by firm religious principle on the other. 18, 19), and this is still further confirmed by a casual passage in one of the poet's letters to Paulinus, in which he speaks of the necessity of returning to Bordeaux in order to keep Easter ( Ep
Shem - ) letters probably passed from the Egyptians to the Hebrew, who under divine guiding improved them (Exodus 24:4; Exodus 31:18; Leviticus 19:28; Numbers 5:23). The names of the letters, 'Αleph ( א ) (an "ox"), Gimel ( ג ) (a "camel"), Lamed[1] ( ל ) (an "ox-goad"), Τet[1] ( ט ) (a "snake"), suit a nomadic people as the Hebrew, rather than a seafaring people as the Phoenicians; these therefore received letters from the Hebrew, not vice versa
Victor, Bishop of Rome - 1) as having issued letters of peace in favour of its upholders, though afterwards persuaded by Praxeas to revoke his approval. Synods were held on the subject in various parts—in Palestine under Theophilus of Caesarea and Narcissus of Jerusalem, in Pontus under Palmas, in Gaul under Irenaeus, in Corinth under its bishop, Bachillus, at Osrhoene in Mesopotamia, and elsewhere, by all of which synodical letters were issued, unanimous in disapproval of the Asian custom, and in declaring that "on the Lord's Day only the mystery of the resurrection of the Lord from the dead was accomplished, and that on that day only we keep the close of the paschal fast" (Eus. ) alludes to several letters written by Irenaeus to the same purpose
Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch - Peregrinus wrote letters to all the more important cities, forwarding these by messengers whom he appointed ( ἐχειροτόνησε ) and entitled νεκραγγέλους and νερτεροδρόμους . These two probabilities lead us to believe that the composition was by one acquainted with the story and even some of the letters of Ignatius. )...
The other details in the martyrdoms and elsewhere are but expansions from hints supposed to be found in the letters, of which we find an instance in the long dialogue between Ignatius and Trajan upon the name Θεοφόρος . ...
Eusebius clearly wrote with the collection of letters before him, and knew of no other collection besides the 7 he mentions. Thenceforward we have had the longer and the shorter (or Vossian) recensions, the former containing the 7 Eusebian epistles in a longer text and also epistles of Mary of Castabala to Ignatius, with his reply, of Ignatius to the Tarsians, Philippians, Antiochenes, and Hero, his successor; the Vossian comprising only the Eusebian letters and those in a shorter text. The titles of the new letters are also easily accounted for in the same period. to the Romans differs from the other six Eusebian letters in being used by some authors who use no others and omitted by some who cite the others. All now recognize that, according to the testimony of the letters, Ignatius has been condemned in Antioch to death, and journeys with death by exposure to the beasts as the settled fate before him. The replies were thus, primarily, letters of thanks, quite naturally extending into admonitions. If the writing of epistles under the circumstances of his captivity should cause surprise, it must be remembered that they are only short letters, not books. The expression βιβλίδιον , which in Eph 20 he applies to his intended second missive, is often applied to letters. He dictated to a Christian, and thus might, as Pearson remarks, have finished one of the shorter letters in an hour, the longest in three. A ten days' sojourn would amply meet the necessities of the case; and there is nothing in the treatment to which the letters witness inconsistent with that used to other Christian prisoners, e. It is extremely hard to reconcile these characteristics with the supposition that the letters were forged to introduce the rule of bishops or to uplift it to an unprecedented position in order to resist the assaults of heresy. ...
The emphatic terms in which these letters propose the bishop as the representative of Christ have always presented a stumbling-block to many min
Innocentius, Bishop of Rome - He insists, as so often in his letters, on the incapacity for ordination of such as had married widows or had married twice, and again protests that baptism cannot annul the obligation of a previous marriage. Towards the end of 416 he received synodal letters from councils at Carthage and Milevis in Numidia, and from St. ) The synodal letters inform Innocent of the renewal of the condemnation of Pelagius and Coelestius pronounced five years previously at Carthage, and very respectfully request him to add the authority of the apostolical see to the decrees of their mediocrity ("ut statutis nostrae mediocritatis etiam apostolicae sedis auctoritas adhibeatur"); setting forth the heresies condemned, and arguments against them. 416), the claims of the Roman see are no less strongly asserted than in the letters to the African bishops. To all these letters Innocent replied that, while still in communion with both parties, he reprobated the past proceedings as irregular, and proposed a council of Easterns and Westerns, from which avowed friends and enemies of the accused should be excluded. To them and to the banished prelate the pope sent letters of communion, being unable to render help. Cruel persecution of the friends of Chrysostom, set afoot by the Eastern emperor Arcadius, brought a number of letters to Rome from oppressed bishops and clergy, and the resort thither of many in person, including Anysius of Thessalonica, Palladius of Helenopolis (the author of the Dialogus de Vit. He also sent letters addressed to himself by the bishops of Rome and Aquileia, as specimens of many so addressed, and as representing the opinion of the Western bishops on the question at issue (Innoc. Honorius, in his letters to his brother, speaks of the Western bishops generally having been applied to, and quotes their views as of equal moment with that of the bishops of Rome. Innocent in his replies makes no claim to adjudicate, nor does he make any assertion of the universal supremacy of his see, such as appears in his letters to the Africans and to Decentius, but recommends a council of Easterns and Westerns as the proper authoritative tribunal. Innocent wrote to Alexander congratulating him warmly and desiring a frequent interchange of letters. ...
Two more letters, written in the last year of his life, further illustrate Innocent's attitude towards the churches of the East
Oils, Holy - The oil of catechumens is labeled O C or O S (oleum catechumenorum or oleum sanctum); the holy chrism has the letters S C (sanctum chrisma); and the oil of the sick has I O (oleum infirmorum)
Immorality - ...
In Paul's letters, porneia and/or related words refer to an incestuous relationship ( 1 Corinthians 5:1 ), sexual relations with a prostitute (1 Corinthians 6:12-20 ), and various forms of unchastity both heterosexual and homosexual (Romans 1:29 ; 1 Corinthians 5:9-11 ; 1 Corinthians 6:9-11 ; 1 Corinthians 7:2 ; 2 Corinthians 12:21 ; Ephesians 5:3 ; 1 Thessalonians 4:3 )
Lavigerie, Charles Martial Allemand - After his ordination, June 2, 1849, he attended the Ecole des Carmes, taking at the Sorbonne the doctorates of letters (1850) and theology (1853), to which he added later the Roman doctorates of civiland canon law
Rhodes - Rhodes is mentioned in 1Ma 15:23 as one of the free States to which the Romans sent letters in favour of the Jews
Scribe - 1: γραμματεύς (Strong's #1122 — Noun Masculine — grammateus — gram-mat-yooce' ) from gramma, "a writing," denotes "a scribe, a man of letters, a teacher of the law;" the "scribes" are mentioned frequently in the Synoptists, especially in connection with the Pharisees, with whom they virtually formed one party (see Luke 5:21 ), sometimes with the chief priests, e
Seal - Jezebel "wrote letters in Ahab's name, and sealed them with his seal" (1 Kings 21:8 )
Titus - ...
Though Acts does not mention Titus, he was quite involved in Paul's missionary activities as shown in the Pauline letters
Man of Sin - This interpretation is supported by the fact that in his letters to the Thessalonians, St
Hard - ) Abrupt or explosive in utterance; not aspirated, sibilated, or pronounced with a gradual change of the organs from one position to another; - said of certain consonants, as c in came, and g in go, as distinguished from the same letters in center, general, etc
Holy Oils - The oil of catechumens is labeled O C or O S (oleum catechumenorum or oleum sanctum); the holy chrism has the letters S C (sanctum chrisma); and the oil of the sick has I O (oleum infirmorum)
Languages of the Bible - New Testament Greek is heavily infused with Semitic thought modes, and many Aramaic words are found rendered with Greek letters (for example, talitha cumi , Mark 5:41 ; ephphatha , Mark 7:34 ; Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani , Mark 15:34 ; marana-tha , 1 Corinthians 16:22 )
File - ) An orderly collection of papers, arranged in sequence or classified for preservation and reference; as, files of letters or of newspapers; this mail brings English files to the 15th instant
Deaconess - Paul’s letters to the Corinthian Church there is a notable absence of any signs of a definite ecclesiastical organization in that city
Hans Holbein the Younger - The same year he went to London with letters from Erasmus to Sir Thomas More
Anatolius, Bishop of Constantinople - 35), he publicly condemned the heresies both of Eutyches and Nestorius, signing the letters of Cyril against Nestorius and of Leo against Eutyches (Leo, Epp
Alexandria - The Mouseion (Museum) complimented the library as the center of worship for the Muses, goddesses of “music,” dancing, and letters
Token - ...
2 Thessalonians 3:17 (b) Paul's signature on his letters, even though they were dictated by him, was proof that they were genuine and orthodox
Amen - Paul ended some of his letters with “amen” (1 Thessalonians 5:28 ; 2 Thessalonians 3:18 )
Demetrius - ]'>[2] According to a late, and not very trustworthy, authority, Demetrius is reported to have written letters on the keeping of Easter, maintaining the view adopted at Nicaea (Eutychius, Ann
Collection For the Poor Saints - He mentioned this offering on three occasions in his letters
Nebridius, a Friend of Saint Augustine - Of the 12 letters which remain of their correspondence, two only are addressed by Nebridius to Augustine
Hezekiah - Hoping to ward off any interference from Judah, Sennacherib sent letters to Hezekiah ordering him to surrender (Isaiah 37:9-38 ). Hezekiah took the letters to the Temple and prayed for God's help
Pelagians - The new pontiff, gained over by the ambiguous and seemingly orthodox confession of faith that Celestius, who was now at Rome, had artfully drawn up, and also by the letters and protestations of Pelagius, pronounced in favour of the faith, and unjustly persecuted by their adversaries. ...
The African bishops, with Augustin at their head, little affected with this declaration, continued obstinately to maintain the judgment they had pronounced in this matter, and to strengthen it by their exhortations, their letters and their writings, Zosimus yielded to the perseverance of the Africans, changed his mind, and condemned, with the utmost severity, Pelagius and Celestius, whom he had honoured his protection
Universalists - Chauncy's Salvation of all Men; White's Restoration of all Things; Hartly on Man; Universalists' Miscellany; Fuller's letters to Vidler; and letters to an Universalist, containing a Review of that Controversy, by Scrutator; Mr
Polycarpus, Bishop of Smyrna - From the city where he next halted he wrote separate letters to the church of Smyrna and to Polycarp its bishop. A later stage was Philippi, and to the church there Polycarp wrote afterwards a letter still extant, sending them copies of the letters of Ignatius and inquiring for information about Ignatius, the detailed story of whose martyrdom appears not yet to have reached Smyrna. of Polycarp is very much mixed up with that of the genuineness of the Ignatian letters. The course of modern investigation has been decidedly favourable to the genuineness of the Ignatian letters [1], and the Ep. Some of the topics on which the Ignatian letters lay most stress are absent from that of Polycarp; in particular, Polycarp's letter is silent about episcopacy, of which the Ignatian letters speak so much, and it has consequently been thought probable either that episcopacy had not yet been organized at Philippi, or that the office was then vacant. The forms of expression in the two letters are different; N. quotations, profuse in Polycarp's letter, are comparatively scanty in the Ignatian ones; and, most decisive of all, the Ignatian letters are characterized by great originality of thought and expression, while Polycarp's is but a commonplace echo of the apostolic epistles. unless on the supposition that the forgery of the Ignatian letters has been demonstrated. Paul's letters are spoken of, both here and in the epistles of Ignatius, decisively refutes the theory that there was opposition between the schools of John and Paul. Paul's letters. " The chief difference between Clement's and Polycarp's letters is in the use of the O. It is used in the Ignatian letters ( Smyrn
Smyrna - (Revelation 2:8-11) is at once the briefest and the most eulogistic of all the Seven letters. The title which he chooses for the Sender of the letters is in every instance apposite. Ramsay, The letters to the Seven Churches of Asia, 1904, p
Felix Iii, Bishop of Rome - ]'>[1] Felix, in a synod at Rome, renewed his predecessor's excommunication of Peter Mongus, addressed letters to the emperor Zeno and Acacius, patriarch of Constantinople. ...
His extant works are 15 letters (Migne, Patr. The ancient authorities for his Life are his letters and those of his successor Gelasius, the Breviarium of Liberatus Diaconus, and the Histories of Evagrius and Nicephorus Callistus
Hebrew Language - ...
The present Hebrew characters, or letters, are twenty-two in number, and of a square form; but the antiquity of these letters is a point that has been most severely contested by many learned men. Jerom, it was inferred by Joseph Scaliger, that Ezra, when he reformed the Jewish church, transcribed the ancient characters of the Hebrews into the square letters of the Chaldeans; and that this was done for the use of those Jews who, being born during the captivity, knew no other alphabet than that of the people among whom they had been educated
Learning - Paul was probably much more learned than his letters show (Acts 26:3; Acts 26:24). ...
Of Jesus Himself His enemies asked (John 7:15), ‘How knoweth this man letters (γράμματα), having never learned?’ No doubt it was true that He had never studied Jewish theology at any of the great Rabbinical schools. , Matthew 26:54; Matthew 27:46), but He revealed an insight into Scripture and an expository skill (and this was what the Jews specially meant by His ‘knowing letters’) at which they were compelled to marvel (John 7:15 a). literae, English ‘letters’) is synonymous with ‘learning,’ had its human side without doubt
Kabbala - The hermeneutical methods, borrowed from the Gnostics, by which to perceive these doctrines supposed to be embodied in the Hebrew Scriptures are ...
Temurah, the transposition of the letters which make up a word
Biblical Genealogies - Comparison of the different lists concerning the same person or the same group of persons in different parts of the Bible, or of lists covering the same period in different sections of the Bible, reveals the incompleteness of the lists, or more or less irremediable corruptions of some of the names, a thing which could take place easily enough in Hebrew owing to the similarity of several letters in the different forms of the Hebrew alphabet
Table - Paul’s letters that we first find the Eucharist called ‘the table of the Lord’ (τραπέζης Κυρίου, 1 Corinthians 10:21)
Chaplain - ...
A chaplain must be retained by letters testimonial under hand and seal, for it is not sufficient that he serve as chaplain in the family
Florentius, a Chief Minister of State at Constantinople - We have letters to Florentius from Theodoret ( Ep
Migdol - The Amarna letters from Egypt refer to an Egyptian city named Maagdali, but information about its location is not given
Tribute - The tell el Amarna letters from Canaanite kings after 1400 B
Trumpet - ‘Power, whether spiritual or physical, is the meaning of the trumpet: and so, well used by Handel in his approaches to the Deity’ (Fitzgerald’s letters, i
Elhanan - It is difficult, without using Hebrew letters, to show bow this is the case here; but the following points may be noticed
Lycia - Lycia is named in 1 Maccabees 15:23 as one of the Free States to which the Romans sent letters in favour of the Jewish settlers
Hebrew Bible - The examination of MSS goes to prove that the penmen must have exercised great care, some of the Hebrew letters being very similar
Amphilochius, Bishop of Sida - He was urged, as one of the Pamphylian metropolitans, to take measures against them in encyclical letters written by two successive bps
Bertha, Wife of Ethelbert, King of Kent - Pope Gregory, in 601, when sending Mellitus to reinforce Augustine's company, addressed a letter to Bertha, in which he compliments her highly on her faith and knowledge of letters, and urges her to make still greater efforts for the spread of Christianity
Commit - The general--addressed letters to Gen
Genealogies, Biblical - Comparison of the different lists concerning the same person or the same group of persons in different parts of the Bible, or of lists covering the same period in different sections of the Bible, reveals the incompleteness of the lists, or more or less irremediable corruptions of some of the names, a thing which could take place easily enough in Hebrew owing to the similarity of several letters in the different forms of the Hebrew alphabet
Seal - Pliny observes, that the use of seals or signets was rare at the time of the Trojan war, and that they were under the necessity of closing their letters with several knots
Richelieu, Armand Jean du Plessis, Duke of - Richelieu was a great patron of letters and the founder of the French Academy in 1634
Publican - They overcharged whenever they had an opportunity, ( Luke 3:13 ) they brought false charges of smuggling in the hope of extorting hush-money (Luke 19:8 ) they detained and opened letters on mere suspicion
Patroclus, Bishop of Arles - On the ground of Patroclus's personal merits, the pope, in a letter addressed to all the Gallic bishops, forbade any cleric of whatever rank to visit Rome without first obtaining literae formatae , or letters of identification and recommendation, from the bp
Probus, Sextus Anicius Petronius - Six letters of Symmachus, who was his intimate friend ( Epp
Victricius - Paulinus of Nola, to whose letters we owe some details of his life
Alms - ...
In the letters of St. Romans 12:13, Ephesians 4:28, 1 Timothy 6:18), and in certain letters we find him specially occupied with the collections which were being made for the poor Christians in Jerusalem (Galatians 2:10, Romans 15:25-26, 1 Corinthians 16:1-2, 2 Corinthians 8, 9)
Flavianus (16), Bishop of Antioch - of Alexandria, with letters of communion, and a request for the same in return (Evagr. The next year the vacillating Flavian received letters from Severus, the uncompromising antagonist of Macedonius, on the subject of anathematizing Chalcedon, and the reunion of the Acephali with the church (Liberat
Book - Jeremiah had several “books” written in addition to his letters to the exiles. It might contain a written order, a commission, a request, or a decree, as in: “And [2] wrote in the king Ahasuerus’ name, and sealed it [1] with the king’s ring, and sent letters by posts on horseback, and riders on mules, camels, and young dromedaries” ( Hospitality - Believers scarcely ever traveled without letters of communion, which testified the purity of their faith, and procured them a favorable reception wherever the name of Jesus Christ was known. Indeed, some supposed that the two minor epistles of John may be such letters of communion and recommendation
Peter - Paul wrote to the Roman Christians, giving them directions and saluting the principal persons by name; he also wrote six letters from Rome; but in none of these letters, nor in the narrative in Acts, is there the slightest intimation that Peter was or had been at Rome
Macedonius, Bishop of Constantinople. - Paul went to Rome, and he and Athanasius and other orthodox bishops expelled from their sees were sent back by Julius with letters rebuking those who had deposed them. ...
Macedonius held the see for about six years, while letters and delegates, the pope and the emperors, synods and counter-synods, were debating and disputing the treatment of Paul and Athanasius
Bible, - The earlier Jews reckoned the books as 22, according to the letters in the alphabet: they united Ruth with Judges, and Lamentations with Jeremiah. For a long time it was thought that their great care and exactitude in copying had preserved the manuscripts from error; but it has been abundantly proved that those copyists erred, as all others have erred in this respect, and numerous errors have been discovered in the MSS, though many of them are seen at once to be mistakes of the pen, some doubtless caused through the similarity of the Hebrew letters, and are easily corrected. Many GREEK MANUSCRIPTS:some 40 being called Uncials because of being written all in capital letters (though some of this number are only portions or mere fragments), and are represented by capital letters, A, B, C, etc
Amphilochius, Archbishop of Iconium - The letters of his cousin imply that he carried on his profession at Constantinople. During this and the following year Basil likewise addresses to Amphilochius his three Canonical letters ( Ep. He mentions the many letters which he has received from Amphilochius (μυριάκις γράφων ), and which have called forth harmonies from his soul, as the plectrum strikes music out of the lyre (Ep. The last of Gregory's letters to Amphilochius ( Ep
Apollonius of Tyana - We now come to the collection of letters still extant which are attributed to Apollonius. We do not think that this opinion can be held by any one who attentively compares the letters with the biography; and we think it probable that the letters, whether genuine or not, were composed before the work of Philostratus, and hence form our earliest and best authority respecting Apollonius
Hilarius, Bishop of Rome - 464 we find two more letters from Hilarius, a general one to the Gallican bishops, and another to various bishops addressed by name, in the former of which he accuses Mamertus of presumption and prevarication, threatens to deprive him of his metropolitan rank and disallows the bishops whom he had ordained till confirmed by Leontius. Both these letters were considered in a synod at Rome. ...
The extant writings of Hilarius are his letters referred to above
Nectarius, Archbaptist of Constantinople - of Tarsus, Diodorus, who was attending the council, to ask if he could take letters for him. Theodosius, however, sent commissaries to Rome in support of the statements of his synod, as we learn from the letters of pope Boniface. ...
Six graceful letters from Nectarius remain in the correspondence of his illustrious predecessor Gregory
Way (2) - Saul ‘desired of the high priest letters to Damascus to the synagogues, that if he found any that were of the Way, he might bring them bound unto Jerusalem
Caiaphas - He is probably the high priest referred to in Acts 5:17-21; Acts 5:27; Acts 7:1; Acts 9:1 who imprisoned Peter and John, presided at the trial of Stephen, caused the persecution recorded in Acts 8, and gave Saul of Tarsus letters to Damascus to apprehend the Christians there
Alexander, Bishop of Jerusalem - Eusebius has preserved some fragments of Alexander's letters: to the Antinoites, H
Taste - ) The power of perceiving and relishing excellence in human performances; the faculty of discerning beauty, order, congruity, proportion, symmetry, or whatever constitutes excellence, particularly in the fine arts and belles-letters; critical judgment; discernment
Pinianus, Husband of Melania the Younger - On the appearance of the Pelagian controversy, their letters to Augustine induced him to write (a
Remigius, Saint, Archbaptist of Rheims - His literary remains are 4 letters (one, to 3 bishops, presents a curious picture of contemporary manners), a spurious will, and a few verses ascribed to him ( Patr
Bishop - And it is also deemed proper that,from time to time, he shall address to the people of his DiocesePastoral letters on some points of Christian doctrine, worship ormanners
Breastplate - Some think they were two precious stones added to the other twelve, by the extraordinary lustre of which, God marked his approbation of a design, and, by their becoming dim, his disallowance of it; others, that these two words were written on a precious stone, or plate of gold, fixed in the breastplate; others, that the letters of the names of the tribes, were the Urim and Thummim; and that the letters by standing out, or by an extraordinary illumination, marked such words as contained the answer of God to him who consulted this oracle
Isidorus Pelusiota, an Eminent Ascetic - Perhaps these letters were "the treatise to" (or against) Cyril, which Evagrius ascribes to Isidore. His letters illustrate the activity of Jewish opposition to the Gospel. ...
Very many of his letters are answers to questions as to texts of Scripture. His shrewdness and humour occasionally tinged with causticity appear in various letters. ...
Isidore's letters naturally contain allusions to the religious customs or opinions of his age: such as pilgrimage to the shrines of the saints, as of St. ...
Two thousand letters of his, we are told, were collected by the zealously anti-Monophysite community of Acoemetae, or "sleepless" monks, at Constantinople, and arranged in 4 vols. of 500 letters each. This collection appears to be identical with the extant 2,012 letters, distributed, without regard to chronology, into 5 books (see Tillem. Many of the letters are, in effect, repetitions
Aramaic - letters of the same organ are also interchanged, the Aramaic choosing the rough harder sounds
Sign - , his autograph attesting the authenticity of his letters; (b) of a "sign" as a warning or admonition, e
Gezer - , as do the Amarna letters of 100 years later
Burn - ) To make or produce, as an effect or result, by the application of fire or heat; as, to burn a hole; to burn charcoal; to burn letters into a block
Jebus, Jebusites - It was formerly supposed that Jebus was the original name of Jerusalem, but the letters of Abdi-Khiba among the el-Amarna tablets prove that the city was called Jerusalem ( Uru-salim ) about b
Andreas Samosatensis of Samosata - His own letters give us a high idea of his sound, practical wisdom, readiness to confess an error, and firmness in maintaining what he believed right
Poetry - These consist of twenty-two lines or stanzas, or systems of lines, and the lines or stanzas begin with letters which follow in alphabetical order: the first A, the second B, and so on
Henry Viii, King - Intelligent, devoted to letters and skilled in sport, he was intensely popular
Elijah - And so particular do the pious fathers of the Old Testament seem to have been, in naming their children, that they studied to give them such as might have some allusion to the Lord, or to retain one of the letters of JEHOVAH in them
Epistle - A letter; but the term is applied particularly to the inspired letters in the New Testament, written by the apostles on various occasions, to approve, condemn, or direct the conduct of Christian churches
Theology, Pastoral - " From Sacred Scripture and tradition which includes the official documents of popes, general councils, Roman congregations, decrees of provincial councils and diocesan synods, and episcopal letters, the priest will find pastoral direction
University of Bologna - Included in the university are faculties of philosophy and letters, mathematics, science, law, medicine, and schools of pharmacy, agriculture, and engineering
Marius Mercator, a Writer - of Cyrus, against Cyril, and from his letters, with remarks by Mercator
Theodotus, Patriarch of Antioch - On the real character of Pelagius's teaching becoming known in the East and the consequent withdrawal of the testimony previously given by the synods of Jerusalem and Caesarea to his orthodoxy, Theodotus presided at the final synod held at Antioch (mentioned only by Mercator and Photius, in whose text Theophilus of Alexandria has by an evident error taken the place of Theodotus of Antioch) at which Pelagius was condemned and expelled from Jerusalem and the other holy sites, and he joined with Praylius of Jerusalem in the synodical letters to Rome, stating what had been done
Mark of the Beast - Many ancient languages utilized the letters of the alphabet for their numerical systems. The apocalyptic Sibylline Oracles used "888, " the numerical equivalent of Iesous [3] (Greek letters for Jesus), as an indirect reference to Jesus as the incarnate God
Damascus, Damascenes - Paul had instructions to deal summarily ‘with any that were of the way’ (Acts 9:2), but the letters which he carried ‘for the synagogues’ (Acts 9:2) were never delivered, and his ‘commission’ (Acts 26:12) was never executed. Paul’s own letters (2 Corinthians 11:32)
Eleutherus, Bishop of Rome - In letters to Eleutherus by the hand of Irenaeus the latter churches made known, "for the sake of the peace of the churches" ( H. But the letters of the martyrs to Eleutherus do not appear, from Eusebius, to have had any different purport from those sent also to the churches of Asia and Phrygia, nor does their object seem to have been to seek a judgment, but rather to express one, in virtue, we may suppose, of the weight carried in those days by the utterances of martyrs
Anitipas - Caius, on the delivery of Agrippa's letters, read them with great earnestness, in these letters, Agrippa accused Antipas of having been a party in Sejanus's conspiracy against Tiberius, and said that he still carried on a correspondence with Artabanus, king of Parthia, against the Romans
Philadelphia - Ramsay accordingly calls her ‘the Missionary City’ (The letters to the Seven Churches, p. Ramsay, The letters to the Seven Churches of Asia, 1904; Murray’s Handbook to Asia Minor, 1895
Maximus the Cynic, Bishop of Constantinople - We have two letters from Damasus asking for special care that a Catholic bishop maybe ordained (Migne, Patr. Having only his own representations to guide them, and there being no question that Gregory's translation was uncanonical, while the election of Nectarius was open to grave censure as that of an unbaptized layman, Maximus also exhibiting letters from Peter the late venerable patriarch, to confirm his asserted communion with the church of Alexandria, it is not surprising that the Italian bishops pronounced decidedly in favour of Maximus and refused to recognize either Gregory or Nectarius
Ephesians, Letter to the - Paul’s letter to the Ephesians is more general than his other letters, in the sense that it deals with issues concerning the whole church rather than with those of a particular local church. Tychicus was the messenger who took the letters to the churches and who passed on to them news of Paul’s circumstances in Rome (Ephesians 6:21-22; Colossians 4:7; Colossians 4:16)
Revelation, Book of - The order in which the churches are listed probably represents the order in which they were visited by the messenger who delivered the letters. Then follow the seven letters. Each of the letters consists of a greeting from the risen Christ, a statement concerning the state of the church, a warning, an instruction and a promise (2:1-3:22)
Perseverance - ...
The indicative or descriptive texts occur in the letters of Paul and James, in Hebrews, and in the Apocalypse. ...
Finally, in two of the letters addressed to the churches of Asia, the risen Lord assures believers that he knows of their perseverance (Revelation 2:2-3,19 ). ...
The imperative or hortatory sorts of statements occur once in the Gospels (Luke 8:15 ), and in the letters of Paul (Romans 5:3-4 ; 1 Timothy 4:16 ), James (1:3-4,12), Peter (2 Peter 1:6 ), and the epistle to the Hebrews (10:36; 12:1)
Canon - The Gospels, the letters of Paul, the book of Acts, and the letters 1 Peter and 1 John were accepted everywhere as authoritative from the time they began to circulate. No doubt there were many letters which, though having apostolic authority, were not preserved (1 Corinthians 5:9...
Completion of the canon...
By the middle of the second century, churches in some places had a collection of books approximately equal to the present New Testament
Acts, Book of - Paul wrote his earlier letters during the period covered by Acts, and the present-day reader will have a better understanding of those letters, and other letters of the New Testament, once he is familiar with Acts
Gregorius Nyssenus, Bishop of Nyssa - Probably also the profession he had undertaken proved increasingly distasteful to one of Gregory's sensitive and retiring disposition, and he may have been further discouraged by the small results of his exertions to inspire a literary taste among youths who, as he complains in letters to his brother Basil's tutor Libanius, written while practising as a rhetorician (Greg. Straightforward methods having failed, he adopted crooked ones, and forged letters to his brother in their uncle's name desiring reconciliation. The letters were indignantly repudiated by the justly offended bishop, and reconciliation became increasingly hopeless. In his letters he bewails the cruel necessity which had compelled him to desert his spiritual children, and driven him from his home and friends to dwell among malicious enemies who scrutinized every look and gesture, nay his very dress, and made them grounds of accusation. His letters to Gregory Nazianzen have unfortunately perished, but his deep despondency is shewn by the replies. In one of his letters he describes with graphic power his return. In two letters, one to three ladies resident at Jerusalem, Eustathia, Ambrosia, and Basilissa (t. They may be divided into five classes: (1) Exegetical ; (2) Dogmatical ; (3) Ascetic ; (4) Funeral Orations and Panegyrical Discourses ; (5) letters . The familiar letters published by Zacagni and Caraccioli are very helpful towards forming an estimate of Gregory's character
Book - Job expresses his wish not only that his words were written, but also written in a book, from which they should not be blotted out, nay, still farther, graven in a rock, the most permanent mode of recording them, and especially if the engraved letters were filled with lead; or the rock was made to receive leaden tablets, the use of which was known among the ancients. To the form of books belongs the economy of the inside, or the order and arrangement of points and letters into lines and pages, with margins and other appurtenances. ...
This has undergone many varieties: at first, the letters were only divided into lines, then into separate words; which, by degrees, were noted with accents, and distributed by points and stops into periods, paragraphs, chapters, and other divisions. To these are occasionally added the apparatus of summaries, or side notes; the embellishments of red, gold, or figured initial letters, head pieces, tail pieces, effigies, schemes, maps, and the like. The Masorites and Mohammedan doctors have gone farther; so as to number the several words and letters in each book, chapter, verse, &c, of the Old Testament and the Alcoran. It is remarkable, that the former preceded the first dawning of letters and improvement in knowledge, toward the close of the eleventh century; and the latter ushered in the light which spread over Europe at the aera of the reformation. Book is sometimes used for letters, memoirs, an edict, or contract. The letters which Rabshakeh delivered from Sennacherib to Hezekiah, are called a book. The contract, confirmed by Jeremiah for the purchase of a field, is called by the same name, Jeremiah 32:10 ; and also the edict of Ahasuerus in favour of the Jews, Esther 9:20 , though our translators have called it letters
Eusebius, Bishop of Samosata - letters from Eusebius appear to have been received by Basil, who once more (c. The Paris editors assign to 368 or 369 Basil's letters (xxvii. Numerous letters passed between the two, more in the tone of young lovers than of old bishops, and some interesting hints are given as to difficulty of communication. Eusebius was eagerly longing for letters, while Basil protested that he had written no fewer than four, which never reached their destination
Old Testament - (Psalm 40:7 ; Jeremiah 36:14 ; Ezekiel 2:9 ; Zechariah 5:1 ) The original character in which the text was expressed is that still preserved to us, with the exception of four letters, on the Maccabaean coins, and having a strong affinity to the Samaritan character. The care of the Talmudic doctors for the text is shown by the pains with which they counted no the number of verses in the different books and computed which were the middle verses, words and letters in the Pentateuch and in the Psalms. The forms of the letters are remarkable. Its vowels and accents are wholly different from those now in use, both in form and in position, being all above the letters: they have accordingly been the theme of much discussion among Hebrew scholars
Gregorius (51) i, (the Great), Bishop of Rome - On the other hand, there are three letters of his, written in the same year as those about the African Donatists, which evince a spirit of unusual toleration towards Jews. Several of Gregory's letters are addressed to monks who had left their monasteries for the world and marriage. After, protracted negotiations, lasting 7 years, during which 17 letters were written by Gregory, the emperor committed the settlement of the dispute to Maximianus, bp. There is no distinct assumption, in these letters, of jurisdiction over the Spanish church, and this is the only known instance of a pallium having been sent to Spain previously to the Saracen invasion. In other letters we find him saying, "With respect to the Constantinopolitan church, who doubts that it is subject to the apostolical see?" and "I know not what bishop is not subject to it, if fault is found in him" ( Ep. " Gregory was obliged at last to acquiesce in the assumption of the obnoxious title by the Constantinopolitan patriarch; and it may have been by way of contrast that he usually styled himself in his own letters by the title since borne by the bps. Over these estates Gregory exercised a vigilant superintendence by means of officers called "rectores patrimonii" and "defensores," to whom his letters remain, prescribing minute regulations for the management of the lands, and guarding especially against any oppression of the peasants. His letters and homilies gave a lamentable account of the miseries of the country, and he endeavoured to conclude a peace between Agilulph, the Lombard king, who was himself disposed to come to terms, and the exarch Romanus. In vain did Gregory remonstrate in letters both to the emperor and to the empress Constantina, complaining to the latter not so much of the ravages of the Lombards as of the cruelty and exactions of the imperial officers; but though small success crowned his efforts, whatever mitigation of distress was accomplished was due to him. To Phocas and his consort Leontia, who is spoken of as little better than her husband, Gregory wrote congratulatory letters in a style of flattery beyond even what was usual with him in addressing great potentates (Ep. This motive appears plainly in one of his letters to Leontia, to whom, rather than to the emperor, with characteristic tact, he intimates his hopes of support to the church of St
Leo i, the Great - In 418 we hear, in the letters of St. ") That Valentinian and his family were much under Leo's influence is proved also by the letters which in the early part of 450 he induced him, his mother Placidia, and his wife Eudoxia, to write to Theodosius II. , the Eastern emperor, in the interest of Leo's petition for a council in Italy, all which letters reiterate the views of Leo and assert the loftiest position for the see of Rome (Leo Mag. He views the heresy as a mixture of Manicheism with other forms of evil, heretical and pagan, and exhorts Turribius to gather a synod of all the Spanish provinces to examine into the orthodoxy of the bishops; with this view he sends letters to the bishops of the various provinces, but urges that at least a provincial synod of Gallicia should be held (c. Leo replied on June 1, applauding his solicitude, and apparently heard no more of Eutyches till early in 449 he received two letters announcing his condemnation in the council of Constantinople—one from the emperor Theodosius, the other from himself. At the same time, Leo sent letters directed against Eutyches's doctrine, and calling attention to his tome, to Pulcheria, Faustus, Martin, and the other archimandrites of Constantinople, to the Ephesine council itself, and two to his close friend JULIAN of Cos ( Epp. In his own name and that of the council Leo addresses letters to various quarters. Besides those letters ( Epp. Meanwhile, taking the opportunity of Valentinian's presence in Rome with his wife Licinia Eudoxia (Theodosius's daughter) and his mother, Galla Placidia, Leo gets them all to write letters urging the Eastern emperor to do what he wished ( Epp. The legates, who returned at once, carried back a number of letters to their master, and in Apr. 451 we have a number of letters from him, expressing genuine satisfaction
Libraries - 260,which contained letters and historical documents
Lamentations, Book of - The first, second, and fourth have each twenty-two verses, the number of the letters in the Hebrew alphabet
Hebrew Language - The rounded form of the letters, as seen in the Moabite stone, was probably that in which the ancient Hebrew was written down to the time of the Exile, when the present square or Chaldean form was adopted
Tertius - Paul generally dictated his letters and added a few words in his own handwriting is clear from 1 Corinthians 16:21, Galatians 6:11, Colossians 4:18, 2 Thessalonians 3:17, and probably Philemon 1:19
Flavianus (8), Bishop of Constantinople - of Ravenna, to a circular appeal of Eutyches, and various letters of Theodoret
Rellyanists - " "Letters on Universal Salvation
Poetry - Thus in the following the initial words of the respective verses begin with the letters of the alphabet in regular succession: Proverbs 31:10-31 ; Lamentations 1,2,3,4 ; Psalm 253437145,34,37,145
Maranatha - An old Jewish acrostic hymn, still extant in all types of the Jewish liturgy, the initial letters of the lines of which may be read ‘Amen
Lachish - ...
The earliest reference to Lachish is in the Amarna letters (about 1400 B
Union to Christ - Dickinson's letters, let
Element - ) One of the ultimate parts which are variously combined in anything; as, letters are the elements of written language; hence, also, a simple portion of that which is complex, as a shaft, lever, wheel, or any simple part in a machine; one of the essential ingredients of any mixture; a constituent part; as, quartz, feldspar, and mica are the elements of granite
Do - In England and America the same syllables are used by mane as a scale pattern, while the tones in respect to absolute pitch are named from the first seven letters of the alphabet
Asher - Whether this fact operated in its naming, or whether the name was originally that of a divinity of a militant Canaanite clan mentioned frequently in the Tell el-Amarna letters as the Mârî abd-Ashirti (‘Sons of the servant of Asherah’), or whether the Canaanite tribe ‘Asaru , known from the inscriptions of the Egyptian king Seti I
Ennodius (1) Magnus Felix, Bishop of Pavia - Many of his letters suit the pen of a heathen rhetorician rather than of a Christian bishop
General Chronology - The best known is that of Dominical letters
Jesus - But Paul came to know Him first in the glory of heaven, Acts 9:1-6 , and his experience being thus the reverse of theirs, the reverse order, 'Christ Jesus,' is of frequent occurrence in his letters, but, with the exception of Acts 24:24 , does not occur elsewhere in the RV
Petrus, Bishop of Apamea - letters to him from Severus exist among the Syriac MSS
Cross - ...
After Constantine's vision of the cross in the air and the inscription, "Under this standard thou shalt conquer," a new standard was adopted, the Labarum, with a pendent cross and embroidered monogram of Christ, the first two Greek letters of His name, and Alpha and Omega (Revelation 1:8). Christ's cross transforms the curse into a blessing (Galatians 3:13-14); the inscription was written with letters of black on a white gypsum ground
Repentance - ...
Renewal of commitment or reaffirmation of faith seems to be the meaning of repentance in the letters to the seven churches in Revelation (Revelation 2:5 ,Revelation 2:5,2:16 ,Revelation 2:16,2:21-22 ; Revelation 3:3 ,Revelation 3:3,3:19 ). Twice the letters call for the readers to remember and thereby to return to what they had been
Number - After the captivity the Hebrew used the alphabet letters for numbers, 'Αleph ( א ) equalling 1; Βet[1] ( ב ) equalling 2, etc. The final letters expressed 500 to 900; 'Αleph ( א ) + a line over it equalling 1000. But the variations make it likely that letters (which copyists could so easily mistake) originally were written for numbers: compare 2 Kings 24:8 with 2 Chronicles 36:9; Isaiah 7:8, where 65 is in one reading, 16 and 5 in another
Severus, Patriarch of Antioch - Proud of his patriarchal dignity and strong in the emperor's protection, Severus despatched letters to his brother-prelates, announcing his elevation and demanding communion. Synodal letters were interchanged between John Niciota and Severus; the earliest examples of that intercommunication between the Jacobite sees of Alexandria and Antioch, which has been kept up to the present day (Neale, l. In 1904 the Sixth Book of the Select letters of Severus, in the Syriac version of Athanasius of Nisibis, were ed
Simplicius, Bishop of Rome - ...
Certain clergy and monks of Constantinople sent a messenger with letters to represent this state of things to Simplicius at Rome. ...
Meanwhile Basiliscus at Constantinople, issuing an encyclic letter, repudiated and condemned the council of Chalcedon; required all, under pain of deposition, exile, and other punishments, to agree to this condemnation; and ordered the copies of pope Leo's letters and of the Acts of Chalcedon, wherever found, to be burnt. So much appears from the extant letters of Simplicius (Epp
Name - The letters or characters written or engraved, expressing the sounds by which a person or thing is known and distinguished
Silas - But they seem to have been sent back on a mission to Macedonia ( 1 Thessalonians 3:1 : Paul was ‘left behind at Athens alone ’), Timothy to Thessalonica, Silas perhaps to Philippi; they rejoined Paul at Corinth, and are associated with him in the letters, probably written thence, to the Thessalonians
Homily - ...
The Clementine homilies are nineteen homilies in Greek, published by Cotelerius, with two letters prefixed, one of them written in the name of Peter, the other in the name of Clement, to James, bishop of Jerusalem; in which last letter they are entitled Clement's Epitome of the Preaching and Travels of Peter
Bithynia - While the letters describe a state of things which was true of the province as a whole, there are some indications that Amisos in the Far East was the first city on the Black Sea to which Christianity spread (Ramsay, The Church in the Roman Empire, 1893, p
Tobiah - These reported his good deeds before Nehemiah to win him over, and then reported Nehemiah's words to Tobiah, and wrote intimidating letters to Nehemiah (Nehemiah 6:17-19)
Gaza - The Amarna letters identify Gaza as the district headquarters for Egyptian holdings in southern Palestine
Caves - Other administrative documents and letters pertaining to Bar Kochba's government, as well as a large hoard of copper utensils, are just a few of the valuable discoveries found in the caves south of En-gedi
God - ) "Lord" in small letters stands for Hebrew ADONAI in KJV, but in capitals ("LORD") for JEHOVAH
Letters - LETTERS
Present - ) Present letters or instrument, as a deed of conveyance, a lease, letter of attorney, or other writing; as in the phrase, " Know all men by these presents," that is, by the writing itself, " per has literas praesentes; " - in this sense, rarely used in the singular
Isaacus i, Catholicos of the Church of Greater Armenia, Saint - Whilst in Western Armenia (428–439) he sent Mesrob to Constantinople with letters to Theodosius II
Antinomians - ...
See also Bellamy's letters and Dialogues between Theron, Paulinus, and Aspasio; with his Essay on the Nature and Glory of the Gospel; Edwards' Chrispianism, unmasked
Caesarius, of Nazianzus - the 10th); two letters addressed by Gregory to Caesarius and one to the Praeses Sophronius (numbered 17, 18, 19, or, more commonly, 50, 51, 52), and a few lines in the Carmen de Vitâ Suâ of the same
Capreolus, Bishop of Carthage - Both letters are in Migne, vol
Dalmatius, Monk And Abbat - ...
During the supremacy of the Nestorian party at Ephesus, letters were conveyed by a beggar in the hollow of a cane from Cyril and the Athanasian or Catholic bishops to the emperor Theodosius II
Lamentations of Jeremiah - ...
Every chapter, with the exception of the third, contains twenty-two verses, corresponding in number with the letters of the Hebrew alphabet; and each verse commences with a different letter, the first with aleph, the second with beth, the third with gimel, &c
Maximianus, Archbaptist of Constantinople - Of all his letters, only that to St
Valens, Emperor - Basil, whose letters (Migne, Patr
Greece - The Thessalonians also would be the recipients of Pauline letters, two of which are in the New Testament (1,2Thessalonians). He would be brought to trial; he would establish one of his most troublesome and controversial churches, and later he would write at least four letters to that church
Epistle - (3) Even in letters properly so called the writer did not always allow his words and thoughts to flow freely and spontaneously, but sometimes-and especially in the latter part of the ancient era, when rhetoric prevailed everywhere-as we find even in correspondence whose private and confidential nature is beyond doubt, invested the structure and style of his letter with rhetorical features such as we might expect to meet with in writings designed to influence the public mind, and therefore of necessity far removed from the free and easy prattle of a letter. Hercher, Epistolographi Grœci, Paris, 1873 (a collection of Greek letters); H
Image - The worship of them was condemned in the strongest terms by Gregory the Great, as appears by two of his letters written in 601. Middleton's letters from Rome, p
Petrus, Surnamed Mongus - In letters to Acacias, the patriarch of Constantinople, and pope Simplicius, he professed to accept the council of Chalcedon (Liberatus); and by playing the part of a time-server ( κόθορνος , Evagr. The legates were partly coaxed and partly frightened into communicating with the resident agents of Peter at Constantinople, and brought back to Rome letters in which Zeno and Acacius assured Felix that Peter was an orthodox and meritorious prelate (Evagr
Pillar - It stood like a pillar, the symbol of stability and strength’ (Ramsay, The letters to the Seven Churches of Asia, p. Ramsay, The letters to the Seven Churches of Asia, do
Text, Versions, And Languages of ot - Throughout this article, then, the Hebrew consonants will be represented by equivalent or approximately equivalent English capitals, except the 1st and 16th letters of the Hebrew alphabet, which, being gutturals with no approximate equivalent in English, will be retained in their Hebrew form ( ע , א ), and may be passed over unpronounced by the English reader. The vowels will be represented by English small letters printed under the consonant after which they are to be pronounced; thus D aBaR, pronounced dabar . letters doubled in pronunciation, but without a vowel between them, were represented by the letter written once, not twice. The Hebrew vocalists distinguished these doubled letters by inserting a dot in the middle of them. This we learn from the fact that passages which happen to occur twice in the OT differ in the extent to which, and the particular instances in which, these letters are employed. In some cases Rabbinic discussions prove that words now written with these vowel letters were once without them; so, e. This is proved by the existence in all MSS of the same peculiarities, such as the occurrence at certain places of letters smaller or larger than the normal, of dots over certain letters, or broken or inverted letters
Paulinus, Bishop of Nola - Ambrose, probably at Florence, and in a letter to Sulpicius, whom he begs to visit him at Nola, he speaks of much jealousy being shewn him at Rome by pope Siricius and others of the clergy, probably on account of the unusual circumstances of his ordination; whereas at Nola, where not long after his arrival he had a serious illness, he was visited by nearly all the bishops of Campania, either in person or by deputy, by clergymen and some laymen, and received friendly letters from many African bishops who sent messengers to him. In reply to Augustine and to letters of the African bishops, Paulinus writes to Augustine's friend Romanianus, congratulating the African church on the appointment of Augustine and hoping that his "trumpet" may sound forcibly in the ears of Romanianus's son Licentius, to whom also he addressed a letter ending...
Vive precor, sed vive Deo, nam vivere mundo...
Mortis opus, vera est vivere vita Deo. —He has left behind 51 letters and 36 poems. —Of his letters 13 some very long are addressed to Sulpicius Severus the first in 394 and the last in 403; 5 to Delphinus by of Bordeaux 6 to Amandus his successor 4 to Augustine 3 to Aper and Amanda 2 to another Amandus and Sanctus 2 to Rufinus 2 to Victricius 3 to persons unknown and single letters to Alethius Alypius Desiderius Eucherius and Gallus Florentius Jovius Licentius Macarius Pammachius Romanianus Sebastianus besides the account of the martyrdom of Genesius which is a sort of postscript to the letter to Eucherius and Gallus (Ep. His letters to Delphinus and Amandus exhibit his deep humility and cheerful humour but are chiefly remarkable for the earnest request made to both that they will offer their prayers on behalf of his deceased brother of whom he speaks with great affection but with deep regret for his neglect in spiritual matters hoping that by their prayers he may obtain some refreshment in the other world (Epp. The letters of Paulinus are generally clear and intelligible pleasing as regards style remarkable for humility of mind an affectionate disposition and a cheerful playful humour free from all moroseness or ascetic bitterness. Nor can it be said truly that they shew much poetic power, though many are graceful and pleasing, especially his letters to Ausonius and his address to Nicetas
Revelation, Theology of - When a temple was dedicated to Domitian on the western side of the marketplace in Ephesus, the leading city of Asia Minor and the first to be mentioned in John's letters to the churches, other cities of the province followed suit in a wave of popular fervor. Apart from the epistolary elements (chap 1; 22:6-21), the most obvious division is that between the letters (chaps. The gist of the book comes in relatively plain language in the letters. General exhortations to purity are concentrated in the letters, but are found in other parts of the book too (7:13-14; 16:15; 18:4-5; 19:8; 22:11,14-15). Specific among the temptations mentioned in the letters are eating food that has been sacrificed to idols, and practicing immorality (2:14,20). Hemer, The letters to the Seven Churches of Asia in Their Local Setting ; R
Joab - When it suited him, Joab could tear up the king's letters and throw them in his face. You are too young to have written any letters yet worth any one keeping. Joab recollected what prices such letters bring in the auction rooms, and, instead of burning David's letter, he folded it carefully, and buttoned it up in his breast-pocket. You are still in your innocence, and have written no letters. A sackful of such letters
Daniel - He was trained in the arts, letters, and wisdom in the Babylonian capital
Syracuse - At the Court of her kings were to be found such men of letters as Pindar and aeschylus, while the splendid site which Nature had given her was adorned with some of the finest buildings in the world
Strong, Stronger - ), "boisterous;" (2) famine, Luke 15:14 ; (3) things in the mere human estimate, 1 Corinthians 1:27 ; (4) Paul's letters, 2 Corinthians 10:10 ; (5) the Lord's crying and tears, Hebrews 5:7 ; (6) consolation, Hebrews 6:18 ; (7) the voice of an angel, Revelation 18:2 (in the best texts; some have megas, "great"); (8) Babylon, Revelation 18:10 ; (9) thunderings, Revelation 19:6
Beth-Shean - ), the Amarna letters (1350 B
Kenites - ]'>[2] , ‘the Amalekite’ for ‘the people’ three letters have dropped out in the Heb
Interest - So in ancient Babylonia (Johns, Babylonian and Assyrian Laws, Contracts, and letters, 211), and in the Greek world, at the temple of the Ephesian Artemis, for instance (Anabasis, v
Lamentations of Jeremiah - The first four chapters are arranged in alphabetical order and the chapters contain 22 verses each, the number of letters in the Hebrew alphabet, except that Lamentations 3 has 22 stanzas of three verses, making in all 66
Frontlets - Leo of Modena thus describes them: The Jews take four pieces of parchment, and write, with an ink made on purpose, and in square letters, these four passages, one on each piece:...
1
Body - (For further discussion see COLOSSIANS, LETTER TO THE; JOHN, letters OF; KNOWLEDGE, sub-heading ‘Knowledge and morality’
Pastor - On this letter are founded false letters of pope Pius I
Corinth - Paul's three longest letters are associated with Corinth. ”...
Although the accuracy of Strabo has been questioned, his description is in harmony with the life-style reflected in Paul's letters to the Corinthians
Jews in the New Testament - ...
Pauline letters As the “apostle to the Gentiles,” Paul argued against “Judaizers” that Gentile converts did not have to be circumcized, that is, become Jews first, before they became christians (Acts 15:1-5 ). (Note: the word Ioudaios is not found in any of the non-Pauline letters of the New Testament
Bible, Inspiration of the - In 2 Peter 3:16 we read that Paul's "letters contain some things that are hard to understand, which ignorant and unstable people distort, as they do the other Scriptures. " Already, within the pages of the New Testament, Paul's letters are accorded the status of Scripture, setting the pattern for the recognition of all the books of the second Testament as inspired and therefore canonical for the church of Jesus Christ
Kerygma - The word is used once in Matthew (12:41), once in Luke (11:32), and six times in Paul's letters (Romans 16:25 ; 1Col 1:21; 2:4; 15:14; 2 Timothy 4:17 ; Titus 1:3 ). ...
There are three other references to kerygma in Paul's letters
Acacius (7), Patriarch of Constantinople - The letters were without effect, and Simplicius died soon afterwards. ), espoused the cause of Talaia with zeal, and despatched two bishops, Vitalis and Misenus, to Constantinople with letters to Zeno and Acacius, demanding that the latter should repair to Rome to answer the charges brought against him by Talaia (Felix, Epp
Monasteries, Suppression of - Chief of the investigators were Layton, Legh, Ap Rice, and London, who made their accusations in letters reporting on their work, and in the document "Comperta Monastica" which they drew up for Cromwell
John Newman, Venerable - Among his works, the best of which were written after his conversion, are: Sermons to Mixed Congregations, Lectures, Loss and Gain, Callista, The Second Spring, Christianity and Scientific Investigation, On Consulting the Laity in Matters of Doctrine, Grammar of Assent, Cathedra Sempiterna, Meditations and Devotions, and letters and Correspondence
Newman, John Henry, Venerable - Among his works, the best of which were written after his conversion, are: Sermons to Mixed Congregations, Lectures, Loss and Gain, Callista, The Second Spring, Christianity and Scientific Investigation, On Consulting the Laity in Matters of Doctrine, Grammar of Assent, Cathedra Sempiterna, Meditations and Devotions, and letters and Correspondence
Darkness - Borchert, Dictionary of Paul and His letters, sv
Bible - These were ranked in three divisions:, (1) The Psalms, Proverbs, and Job, distinguished by the Hebrew name, a word formed of the initial letters of these books, Emeth , meaning truth
Agapetus, Bishop of Rome - Five of his letters remain: (1) July 18, 535, to Caesarius, bp
Repentance - ...
See Dickinson's letters, let
Gibeah - The Hebrew word is probably not a proper noun (Hebrew writing not distinguishing proper names with capital letters as does English)
Bethlehem - in the Amarna letters (No
Mirror - Paul’s two figurative uses of the word occur in his letters to Corinth
Ashkelon - papyrus speaks of Ashkelon's loyalty to Egypt, and the fourteenth century Amarna letters confirm that relationship with the ruler Widia claiming submission to the Pharaoh, although the ruler of Jerusalem claimed that Ashkelon had given supplies to the “Apiru
Fabiola, a Noble Roman Lady - letters in which Rufinus was praised, fraudulently taken from the cell of Jerome's friend Eusebius, were found in the rooms of Fabiola and Oceanus
Amulets And Charms - Exodus 28:33 ; Exodus 39:25 ), a tiny ebony fish from the Maccabæan period, a yellow glass pendant with ‘good luck to the wearer’ in reversed Greek letters ( PEFSt Bill - The word itself is indefinite (literally = ‘the letters’), and throws no light upon a question much discussed by commentators on the parable of the Unjust Steward, viz
Liturgy - passim; A Letter to a Dissenting Minister on the Expediency of Forms, and Brekell's Answer; Rogers's Lectures on the Liturgy of the Church of England; Biddulph's Essays on the Liturgy: Orton's letters, vol
Eusebius, Bishop of Pelusium - The offences of these men, or of some of them, were so gross that men cried out against them as effective advocates of Epicureanism (ii, 153, 230), and Isidore had to tell his correspondents that he had done his best (as, indeed, many of his letters shew, e
Phylacteries - " This some understand of the knots of the thongs by which they were fastened, which were tied very artificially in the form of Hebrew letters; and that the pride of the Pharisees induced them to have these knots larger than ordinary, as a peculiar ornament
Approve, Approved - ...
As to the gifts from the church at Corinth for poor saints in Judea, those who were "approved" by the church to travel with the offering would be men whose trustworthiness and stability had been proved, 1 Corinthians 16:3 (the RV margin seems right, "whomsoever ye shall approve, them will I send with letters"); cp
Suppression of Monasteries - Chief of the investigators were Layton, Legh, Ap Rice, and London, who made their accusations in letters reporting on their work, and in the document "Comperta Monastica" which they drew up for Cromwell
Number - Like most Oriental nations, it is probable that the Hebrews in their written calculations made use of the letters of the alphabet
Jezebel - " So she wrote in Ahab's name to the Jezreelite elders, and sealed the letters with his seal; and to her it was that they wrote the announcement that they had stoned Naboth for blasphemy
Julius, Bishop of Puteoli - 902); but this in other letters (xliv
Mamertus, Claudianus Ecdicius - )...
Besides two letters of his, we have (1) the book mentioned above, de Statu Animae , and (2) some poems of doubtful authorship
Nilus, an Ascetic of Sinai - Monastic discipline seems to have been then very relaxed, as the charges are repeated in his letters and works
Philippus, the Arabian - 36), but the letters are not preserved, nor do we know their contents
Grace - ...
Paul’s practice was to begin and end his letters by speaking of the grace of God, or the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ
Lamentations - The 22 stanzas begin severally with the 22 Hebrew letters in alphabetical order. In three instances two letters are transposed: elegy Lamentations 2:16-17; Lamentations 3:46-51; Lamentations 4:16-17. ...
The gleams of believing and assured hope break forth at the close, so that there is a clear progress from the almost unrelieved gloom of the beginning (Lamentations 1:2; Lamentations 1:9; Lamentations 1:17; Lamentations 1:21); it recognizes Jehovah's (Lord in capitals) sovereignty in punishing, by repeating seven times the name Adonai (Lord in small letters): Lamentations 3:22-31; Lamentations 3:33; Lamentations 4:21-22; Lamentations 5:19-22
Colossians - While it is true that the style and vocabulary differ somewhat from Paul's other letters, this occurs primarily in the section which attacks the Colossian heresy (Colossians 1:3-2:23 ). ) The letters to Philemon and to the Colossians indicate that many of Paul's fellow workers (if not Paul himself) had worked among the churches of the Lycus Valley. This passage and Philippians 2:6-11 are thought by the majority of scholars to be the most obvious examples of pre-Pauline tradition in the letters of Paul
Hieronymus, Eusebius (Jerome) Saint - He wrote letters to his friends in Italy, to Florentius at Jerusalem (v. There are extant no letters and only one work of this period, the dialogue of an orthodox man with a Luciferian. 117) and appeals to his authority in his commentaries and letters ( Comm. He wrote no letters here; but his literary activity was great. , and wrote a short treatise for Damasus on the interpretations of the Seraphim in Isaiah 6 , which is improperly placed among the letters ( Ep. He also, at the request of Damasus and others, wrote many short exegetical treatises, included among his letters (on Hosanna , xix. The principles he instilled into their minds may be seen in many of his letters of this period, which were at once copied and eagerly seized both by friends and enemies. 135); and, though many of his letters were mere messages, yet almost all were at once published ( Ep. —Private letters of Jerome abound during this period, and illustrate his personal history
Cyprianus (1) Thascius Caecilius - ...
His conversion was then important in the series of men of letters and law who were at this time added to the church, and who so markedly surpass in style and culture their heathen contemporaries. In three of the letters his authority is invoked beyond his diocese, and wears something of a metropolitan aspect. To these letters Mr. The Cyprianic epistles of this period, passing between the Roman presbyters, the Carthaginian bishop and certain imprisoned presbyters (Moyses, Maximus), deacons (Rufinus and Nicostratus), laymen, and particularly an imperfectly educated Carthaginian confessor Celerinus (whose ill-spelt letters Epp. After this an altered tone, and Novatian's marked style, is discernible in their letters ( Epp. Cyprian at once proposed by separate letters to his clergy and laity (to whom he writes with warm confidence), to various bishops, and to the Roman confessors and clergy (Epp. Freppel describes it, "a résumé of the letters," but a résumé of the modified views of Cyprian a little later. The clergy do not reply to his letters (Ep. The bishops of the province met in April for the first council, held in Carthage, for half a century [2], but the discussion on the lapsed was postponed by letters from Rome, which Cyprian laid before them, viz
Julius (5), Bishop of Rome - 8) say that all the deposed bishops were reinstated by Julius in virtue of the prerogative of the Roman see, and that he wrote vigorous letters in their defence, reprehending the Eastern bishops and summoning some of the accusers to Rome. 10) that Julius effected nothing at the time by his letters in favour of Athanasius and Paul, and consequently referred their cause to the emperor Constans. The letters of accusation against Athanasius had been from strangers living at a distance, and contradicted one another: the testimonies in his favour from his own people, who knew him well, had been clear and consistent. ...
At the close of its sittings the council of Sardica addressed letters to the two emperors, to Julius, to the church of Alexandria, to the bishops of Egypt and Libya, and an encyclic "to all bishops. For full information as to the council's decisions he is referred to the letters written to the emperors; and he is directed, rather than requested ("tua autem excellens prudentia disponere debet, ut per tua scripta," etc. He regards the return at last of their beloved bishop after such prolonged affliction as a reward granted to their unwavering affection for him, shewn by their continual prayers and their letters of sympathy that had consoled his exile, as well as to his own faithfulness. ]'>[8]...
His only extant writings are the two letters, to the Eusebians and the Alexandrians, referred to above
Dibon - Of 1,100 letters 669 have been secured. It has the 22 letters of the earliest Hebrew, except Τet[1] ( ט ), which probably is on the missing fragments
Lamentations, Book of - 1, 2, and 4 are introduced by the 22 letters of the Hebrew alphabet in regular order, except that 2 and 4 place the letter Pe before the letter Ayin . This inexplicable variation in the order of the letters has been held to imply a difference in authorship
Cassiodorus (or Rather, Cassiodorius) Magnus Aurelius - 6, 7), and wrote letters soliciting the goodwill of the senate and the emperor (x. ...
Of his extant writings, the twelve Books of Varieties, consisting principally of letters, edicts, and rescripts, are the only work of real importance; apart, however, from the study of these pages, it is hardly possible to obtain a true knowledge of the Italy of the 6th cent
Angels of the Seven Churches - ...
Perhaps the most curious feature of the letters to the Asian Churches is the way in which the writer expresses himself in terms of stern reproof or of encouragement to their ‘angels. Ramsay, The letters to the Seven Churches, 1904, pp
Samaritans - As the revolted tribes had no more of the Scriptures than the five books of Moses, so the priest could bring no others with him beside those books written in the old Phenician letters. They are now in the library at Paris, and have been translated into Latin by Father Morin, priest of the oratory; and printed in the collection of letters of that father in England, 1662, under the title of "Antiquitates Ecclesiae Orientalis
Pentateuch - Extracts from the Mosaic law were written on pieces of parchment, and placed on the borders of their garments, or round their wrists and foreheads: nay, they at a later period counted, with the minutest exactness, not only the chapters and paragraphs, but the words and letters, which each book of their Scriptures contains. At this time Hoshea was king of Israel, and so far disposed to countenance the worship of the true God, that he appears to have made no opposition to the pious zeal of Hezekiah; who, with the concurrence of the whole congregation which he had assembled, sent out letters and made a proclamation, not only to his own people of Judah, 2 Chronicles 30:1 , "but to Ephraim and Manasseh and all Israel, from Beersheba even unto Dan, that they should come to the house of the Lord at Jerusalem, to keep the passover unto the Lord God of Israel; saying, Ye children of Israel, turn again to the Lord God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and he will return to the remnant of you who are escaped out of the hands of the kings of Assyria; and be not ye like your fathers and your brethren, which trespassed against the Lord God of their fathers, who therefore gave them up to desolation as ye see
Julianus, Bishop of Halicarnassus - Three letters from Julian to Severus, also translated by Paulus, and several fragments are among the Syrian MSS. Assemani also gives three letters of his to Severus from the Syriac MSS
Olympias, the Younger - Our only trustworthy information is from Chrysostom's 17 letters to her, some of which are long religious tracts, the composition of which relieved the tedium of his exile and made him almost forget his miseries. 577 A) But the dates of these letters are uncertain
Rabbulas, Bishop of Edessa - A synod summoned at Antioch by the patriarch John despatched letters to the bishops of Osrhoene desiring them, if the reports were true, to suspend communion with Rabbûlas (Baluz. They include the scanty remains of the 640 letters which, according to his biographer, he wrote to the emperor, bishops, prefects, and monks
Papyri And Ostraca - ...
Suppose for a moment that chance excavations in an absolutely dry mound of rubbish were to lead to the discovery of whole bundles of original private letters, contracts, wills, judicial reports, etc. leases, accounts and receipts, contracts of marriage and divorce, wills, denunciations, notes of trials, and tax-papers, are there in innumerable examples; moreover, there are letters and notes, schoolboys’ exercise-books, horoscopes, diaries, petitions, etc. Then comes a long series of other early Christian original letters in Greek and Coptic, from the 3rd cent. As regards Egypt, we now possess wonderful documents among the papyri, especially in the numerous private letters, which were not intended for publicity, but reflect quite naively the mood of the moment. As they have made clearer to us the nature of the non-literary letters of St. To show that the ostraca, besides their indirect importance, have also a direct value for the history of Christianity, we may refer to the potsherds inscribed with texts from the Gospels, or the early Christian legal documents recently discovered at the town of Menas, but chiefly to the Coptic potsherds containing numerous Christian letters and illustrating particularly the inner history of Egyptian Christianity
Apostles - ...
In Paul's letters Paul opened his letters by introducing himself as an apostle of Jesus Christ (Romans 1:1 ; 1 Corinthians 1:1 ; 2 Corinthians 1:1 ; Galatians 1:1 ; Ephesians 1:1 ; Colossians 1:1 ; 1 Timothy 1:1 ; 2 Timothy 1:1 ; Titus 1:1 ). Peter identified himself as an apostle in the introduction of each of his letters (1 Peter 1:1 ; 2 Peter 1:1 )
Apostolic Fathers - Such is the simple account of the letters of Clement, Ignatius, and Polycarp respectively. But though they are deficient in distinctness of conception and power of exposition, "this inferiority" to the later Fathers "is amply compensated by a certain naïveté and simplicity which forms the charm of their letters. They shew that the great facts of the Gospel narrative, and the substance of the Apostolic letters, formed the basis and moulded the expression of the common creed" (Westcott, Canon , p
Julianus Eclanensis, Bishop of Eclana - Julian now addressed two letters to Zosimus (August. ...
When Julian addressed his two letters to Zosimus he was preparing a reply to the first of Augustine's two books de Nuptiis et Concupiscentiâ (Mar. ) infers from one of the letters of Gregory the Great (lib
Number - ...
In later times the Jews used consonants as numerical signs; the units from one to nine were denoted by the first nine letters, the tens from ten to ninety by the next nine, and the hundreds from one hundred to four hundred by the remaining four letters. Other numbers were denoted by combinations of letters. A similar system was also used by the Greeks, and is occasionally found in the NT; thus the Number of the Beast, 666, in Revelation 13:18 , is written by means of three letters. ...
The Apocalyptic number of the Beast is often explained by Gematria, and 666 has been discovered to be the sum of the numerical values of the letters of some form or other of a large number of names written either in Hebrew, or Greek, or Latin
Joppa - The Amarna letters mention Joppa twice, with observations about the beauty of her gardens and the skill of her workmen in leather, wood, and metal
Thanksgiving - All his letters addressed to churches, with the exception of the Epistle to the Galatians, begin with words of thanksgiving
Nineveh - He amassed a library of 20,000 tablets, which contained important literary epics, magical and omen collections, royal archives and letters
Fable - , Ignatian letters, and the career of Cerinthus
Number - Number may be allied to name, as the Spaniards use nombre for name, and the French word written with the same letters, is number
Man From Heaven - ...
In one of only seven references to the kingdom of God in Paul's letters, Paul makes the same point
Picards - Schlecta, secretary of Ladislaus, king of Bohemia, in his letters to Erasmus, in which he gives a particular account of the Picards, says, that they considered the pope, cardinals, and bishops of Rome as the true antichrists; and the adorers of the consecrated elements in the eucharist as downright idolaters; that they denied the corporeal presence of Christ in this ordinance; that they condemned the worship of saints, prayers for the dead, auricular confessions, the penance imposed by priests, the feasts and vigils observed in the Romish church; and that they confined themselves to the observance of the sabbath, and of the two great feasts of Christmas and Pentecost
Gregorius Baeticus, Saint, Bishop of Eliberi - Eusebius there acknowledges letters he had received from Gregorius, giving an account of his conduct, and commends him highly for having acted as became a bishop
Thirteen - " The Hebrew letters constituting his name total666 which is the number of the antichrist
Haggai - " letters were sent to Babylon by the governors of the land, and then God so ordered it that formal permission was given to continue the building
Infidelity - Horne's letters on Infidelity, and books under article Deism
Come - For example, the meaning “come” appears in the Babylonian letters of Mari (1750-1697 B
Domnus ii, Bishop of Antioch - 276), and some expressions in letters written by him to Dioscorus condemning the perplexed and obscure character of Cyril's anathemas (Liberatus, c
Evagrius - Not a few original documents, decrees of councils, supplications to emperors, letters of emperors and bishops, etc
Egyptians - The letters were cut into stone
Joannes ii, Mercurius, Bishop of Rome - "...
It is true that we do not find in the letters of Hormisdas any distinct condemnation of the phrase itself, however strongly he inveighed against its upholders, as troublesome and dangerous innovators
Maximus of Ephesus - The four extant letters of Julian to him (Nos
Thanksgiving - All his letters addressed to churches, with the exception of the Epistle to the Galatians, begin with words of thanksgiving
Ambrosius of Milan - The chief materials for his life are his own works, which include an important collection of letters. The letters have been reduced to a chronological order with great care by the Benedictine editors of St. The only datum for determining the year of Ambrose's birth is a passage in one of his letters in which he happens to mention that he is fifty-three years old, and at the same time contrasts the quiet of Campania with the commotions by which he was himself surrounded (Ep. Several letters addressed to the emperor at this time in the name of the council of Aquileia or of the Italian episcopate on the general government of the church are preserved amongst Ambrose's letters ( Epp. of Thessalonica by whom Theodosius had been baptized—his death was formally announced to Ambrose by the clergy and people of his diocese; and we have two letters in reply, one written to the church and the other to Anysius the new bishop. The next two letters of the collection (xvii. How in this matter he resisted the violent efforts of Justina, and the authority of her son (at this time fifteen years of age), is described at length by Ambrose himself in letters to his sister Marcellina and to Valentinian, and in a sermon preached at the crisis of the struggle (Epp
New Testament - Paul, like Cicero or Pliny often employed the services of an amanuensis, to whom he dictated his letters, affixing the salutation "with his own hand. The material which was commonly used for letters the papyrus paper, to which St. In these the text is written in columns, rudely divided, in somewhat awkward capital letters (uncials ), without any punctuation or division of words; and there is no trace of accents or breathings. The writing is in elegant continuous uncials (capitals), in three columns, without initial letters or iota subscript or adscript
Abram - another purpose which the Lord accomplished in the display of the riches of his grace, by this change of name: and which, if I mistake not, (the Lord pardon me if I err) seems to have been the Lord's great design, in this act of mercy and favour shewn both to the patriarch and his wife; namely, by this alteration, or rather addition given to each; by one of the letters which form the incommunicable name of JEHOVAH. And I am the more inclined to this belief, because, in the instance of Jeconiah, in an after age of the church, the Lord manifested his displeasure to this man, by taking from his name one of those distinguishing letters of JEHOVAH, and calling him Coniah, a "despised broken idol. ...
May I not venture to suggest, that perhaps it was on this account, of the honour done to their father Abraham's name, by taking into it a part of JEHOVAH'S, that the children of Abraham, in every age of the church, have been so anxious to call their descendants by names, which either took in some of the letters of JEHOVAH'S name, or had an allusion to the Lord
Phoebe - If these verses are an integral part of the Epistle to the Romans, the letter which Phoebe carried was this most important of the apostolic letters and her journey was to Rome. Such letters were a characteristic feature of the Apostolic Church, as were the frequent journeys which necessitated them and the generous hospitality which they called forth
Joannes Cappadox, Bishop of Constantinople - His letters were accompanied by orders from Justin to restore all who had been banished by Anastasius, and to inscribe the council of Chalcedon in the diptychs. Justin received the pope's letters with great respect, and told the ambassadors to come to an explanation with the patriarch, who at first wished to express his adherence in the form of a letter, but agreed to write a little preface and place after it the words of Hormisdas, which he copied out in his own handwriting
Locust - , 1867) notices the Hebrew letters of gazam = 50, exactly the number of years that the Chaldees ruled the Jews from the temple's destruction by Nebuchadnezzar, 588 B
Nehemiah - 446 (eleven years after Ezra), with a strong escort supplied by the king, and with letters to all the pashas of the provinces through which he had to pass, as also to Asaph, keeper of the royal forests, directing him to assist Nehemiah
Scribes - In the days before mechanical printing, copies of documents, letters, government records and sacred writings were handwritten by skilled secretaries known as scribes (1 Kings 4:3; 2 Kings 18:18; 2 Kings 22:8; Jeremiah 8:8; Jeremiah 38:18; Jeremiah 38:26-27)
Strife - This condition of things is reflected in the Pastoral letters, which charge all believers ‘that they strive not about words, to no profit’ (2 Timothy 2:14)
Tongues - )...
In Paul’s letters...
Tongues that were spoken in the normal meetings of the church seem to have had a different purpose
Lamentations, Book of - The first four chapters are in acrostic form, where successive verses begin with successive letters of the Hebrew alphabet with slight variations
Gain - , Life and letters of St
Brethren - Paul’s letters is the only one which has ‘brothers’ as its closing note
God - And in modern times it is generally observed by the seed of Abraham, when marking the number fifteen (which in the ordinary way of doing it by letters would take the Yod (10,) and the He (5
Manasseh - In many Hebrew MSS the letter nun (N) is written over or between the letters mem (M) and shin (S), so as to alter the name of Moses to Manasseh
Evagrius Ponticus, Anchoret And Writer - On one occasion he threw into the fire a packet of letters from his parents and other near friends lest their perusal should re-entangle him in worldly thoughts (Cassian, v
Line - In writing, printing and engraving, the words and letters which stand on a level in one row, between one margin and another as a page of thirty lines
Philippi - He was welcomed by the Church, and they wrote a letter of consolation to the Church of Antioch and another to Polycarp of Smyrna, asking for copies of any letters that Ignatius had written in Asia
Simeon Stylites - The emperor Leo sent letters to the bp
Symmachus, Bishop of Rome - ...
Several extant letters of Symmachus refer to the rivalry between the Gallic sees of Arles and Vienne
Tichonius, an African Donatist - Tichonius (Tychonius) an African Donatist whose personal history is very little known but who was conspicuous in the Donatist controversy chiefly because Augustine mentions him in his letters to Parmenian and elsewhere
Hebrews - The style, vocabulary, form, content, and theology are unlike anything found in the letters of Paul. ...
The Form of Hebrews Hebrews does not have the normal opening that the letters of Paul have. ) It does conclude like a normal letter (Hebrews 13:20-25 ; see letters in the Bible)
Eustathius, Bishop of Sebaste - On their giving a written adhesion to the Nicene Creed and the Homoousion, he received them into communion, and gave them letters in his name and that of the Western church to the prelates of the East, expressing his satisfaction at the proof he had received of the identity of doctrine between East and West (Socr. Eustathius and his companions at once repaired to Sicily, where a synod of bishops, on their profession of orthodoxy, gave them letters of communion. A synod of orthodox bishops was assembled in 367 at Tyana, to receive the letters of communion from the West and other documents (Soz
Ephesians, Theology of - It is listed among Paul's letters in the early manuscripts and cited as such by early Christian authors such as Irenaeus (Against Heresies 5. It is included among Paul's letters as the Muratorian Canon, which is generally regarded as second century, and acknowledged as Paul's even by the heretic Marcion, who called it "Laodiceans. ...
It if foundational to the theology of Paul, in Acts and in his generally accepted letters as well as in Ephesians, that both Gentiles and Jews are made alive together with Christ, have been raised up together, and made to sit together with Christ in the heavenly places (vv. Although most studies on Ephesians approach the letter by investigating its major theological terms and comparing their use in Paul's generally acknowledged letters, it is more likely that the thinking of an author (or redactor) will be found in those more commonly used parts of speech he employs at times almost subconsciously
Paul the Apostle - His letters attest to an excellent command of Greek, while life and studies in Palestine presuppose knowledge of Hebrew and Aramaic. The Thessalonian letters were written during this period. There (see Acts 28 ) he apparently wrote his so-called prison letters: Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, and Philemon. ...
An equally pressing question is whether data from Acts can be merged with material in Paul's letters
Philippians, Epistle to - ...
Assuming that the letter was written from a Roman prison, what is its relationship to Ephesians, Colossians, and Philemon the other letters of the captivity? Some hold that these were written from Cæsarea while Philippians was sent from Rome, but most assign all these Captivity Epistles to Rome. Paul’s imprisonment seems to be nearer its end than in the other letters. More plausibility attaches to the theory that the Epistle, as we now have it, consists of two letters, which are joined at Philippians 3:2 , the last two chapters being probably earlier and addressed to different readers. In support of this, appeal is made to Polycarp’s letter to the Philippians ( Philippians 3:2 ), where the words ‘who also wrote you letters’ are held to prove that they had not then been united
Joannes, Bishop of Antioch - Several letters were written to Theodosius, to the empresses Pulcheria and Eudocia, the clergy, the senate, and the people of that city (Labbe, iii. At Ancyra he found that letters from its bp. John, however, sent letters stating that neither he nor the other Oriental bishops could consent so hastily to the condemnation of Nestorius, from whose writings he gave extracts to prove their orthodoxy (Baluz. 40, 42), together with letters of communion to be given him if he consented. A fresh schism threatened, but the letters of remonstrance written by John and his council to Proclus and Theodosius put a stop to the whole matter
Thessalonians, First Epistle to the - Paul’s letters to the churches, it is simply prompted by affectionate concern for the ‘faith and love’ of his recent converts, and for their ‘good remembrance’ of himself. Paul’s later letters ( 2 Corinthians 5:1 , Philippians 1:21-24 ; Philippians 3:11 ; Philippians 3:20-21 ; Philippians 4:5 , Colossians 1:5 ; Colossians 1:12-13 )
Alexander, of Alexandria - Some wrote in his favour to Alexander, who, on his part, was most indefatigable in writing to various bishops in order to prevent them from being deceived by Arius; Epiphanius tells us that seventy such letters were preserved in his time ( Haer. 15), authorized their chief to send circular letters in his favour to various prelates
Text of the New Testament - in capital letters, of relatively large size, each being formed separately. a new style of writing was introduced, by the adaptation to literary purposes of the ordinary running hand of the day; this, consisting as it did of smaller characters, is called minuscule , and since these smaller letters could be easily linked together into a running hand, it is also commonly called cursive . In the apparatus criticus of the NT they are indicated by the capital letters, first of the Latin alphabet, then of the Greek, and finally of the Hebrew, for which it is now proposed to substitute numerals preceded by O. Contains the Gospels, written in large silver letters on purple vellum, in the 6th century. , written in silver letters on purple vellum, with illustrations. ; 43 leaves from Matthew 7:1-29 ; Matthew 8:1-34 ; Matthew 9:1-38 ; Matthew 10:1-42 ; Matthew 11:1-30 ; Matthew 12:1-50 ; Matthew 13:1-58 ; Matthew 14:1-36 ; Matthew 15:1-39 ; Matthew 16:1-28 ; Matthew 17:1-27 ; Matthew 18:1-35 ; Matthew 19:1-30 ; Matthew 20:1-34 ; Matthew 21:1-46 ; Matthew 22:1-46 ; Matthew 23:1-39 ; Matthew 24:1-51 , written in gold letters on purple vellum, with 5 illustrations similar in style to those in Σ . On the other hand, each MS always has the same designation, and the difficulty of finding enough letters for the uncial MSS is obviated
America (Land) - 1125,and its existence is corroborated by several letters in the Vatican Library
Charities - The letters of Saint Paul refer to a collection taken up in the churches of Greece and Asia Minor for the relief of the poor of Jerusalem
Scriptures - )...
Although there were no fixed divisions in the New Testament, the books may be conveniently grouped into three categories: the narrative books (the Four Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles), the letters (of Paul and of others), and the book of Revelation
Hebrew Language - The roots have three letters
Spiritual Gifts - ...
Paul's letters reveal that this continued to be true in all the churches; every Christian was given the gift of the Spirit, so that Paul could write: “Whoever does not have the Spirit of Christ does not belong to him” (Romans 8:9 TEV)
Pride - (Two other lists are found in Paul's letters [6])
Saints - Six of Paul's letters to churches are addressed to saints (Romans, 1-2Corinthians, Ephesians, Philippians, and Colossians)
Judgment Seat of Christ - Throughout his letters it is clear that salvation is brought about by the atoning work of Christ
Adoption - Paul’s letters ( Romans 8:15 ; Romans 8:22 ; Romans 9:4 , Galatians 4:5 , Ephesians 1:5 ), and not elsewhere in the NT
Learning - In the ninth century, the Saracens were very studious, and contributed much to the restoration of letters
Achaia - Sparta and Sicyon are named among the numerous free States to which the Romans sent letters on behalf of the Jews about 139 b
Romans, Epistle to the - Peter according to a later tradition, the absence of any allusion to him both in this epistle and in the letters written by St
Line - ) A row of letters, words, etc
Order - There is an order of council to issue letters of marque
Patmos - John was not a first-class prisoner, he must have been condemned not only to banishment but to hard labour for life (The letters to the Seven Churches of Asia, 1904, p
Julianus, Bishop of Cos - He wrote to Leo a letter which produced two replies dated the same day, June 13, 449, the first of a long series of letters from Leo to Julian (Epp
Petilianus, a Donatist Bishop - ...
In close connexion with these letters is the treatise of St
John, Letters of - Early records indicate that the apostle John lived in Ephesus at this time, and that he wrote his Gospel and three letters partly to counter some of the false views
Corinthians, First And Second, Theology of - In short, eschatology is the overarching theme through which these letters should be interpreted. According to the Corinthian letters, that demise was initiated with the first advent of Christ. Thus, even Christ himself, according to the Corinthian letters, lives in the interfacing of the two ages, between his first and second advents. ...
The already/not yet tension is at work in two other key texts on salvation in the Corinthian letters. The Corinthian letters affirm this fundamental perception of Paul that the church is yet another sign that the age to come has already dawned, though it is not yet complete
Paul - The letters of Paul as listed in the New Testament include Romans through Philemon. ...
Both his conversion and call are reflected in Paul's letters. In most of his letters, Paul identified himself from the beginning as an apostle of Christ Jesus. His letters give evidence that he did not command or dictate to his churches; rather he persuaded them
Bible, Authority of the - Indeed, is not the implication of "Thus says the Lord" that those other sayings recorded by the prophet fall short of divine authority? Should not the quoted speech of Jesus of Nazareth be taken to have an authority to which the letters of Saul of Tarsus could never aspire?...
As it happens, the Scriptures themselves tell another story. He writes the same way in all his letters, speaking in them of these matters. His letters contain some things that are hard to understand, which ignorant and unstable people distort, as they do the other Scriptures, to their own destruction
Galatians, Theology of - All of Paul's letters were written to deal with specific problems, but in the case of Galatians the situation was especially urgent. ...
Central in this discussion Isaiah 5:6 , one of the most important statements in all of Paul's letters: "For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision nor uncircumcision has any value. What needs to be recognized, however, is that the discussion in chapter 3 was not intended to provide a comprehensive essay on "the Pauline theology of the Law" (several aspects of that theology, not covered at all in Galatians, do surface in some of the other letters)
Hilarius Arelatensis, Saint, Bishop of Arles - In 429, the year in which he became bishop, two letters (225 and 226 in the Benedictine ed. Peter's confession of faith than on his personal position in all his letters bearing on the contest with Hilary repeats continually the text (Mat_16:18) on which other bishops of Rome had dwelt so much and appeals to it as if no other interpretation had ever been heard of and as in itself his sole and sufficient justification. ...
We have the authority of Hilary's biographer for asserting that he did compose some poetry (versus ), wrote many letters, an explanation of the Creed (Symboli Expositio —this is a main element in Waterland's argument) and sermons for all the church's festivals (Homiliae in totius Anni Festivitates )
Alexander the Coppersmith - Sometimes a man is to be had for money, and he will write letters or make speeches for you as long as you pay him best. Now, what do you say? What do you do? Suppose such a man as Alexander the coppersmith has arisen in your community and is doing Alexander's very same work over again under your eyes every day, what do you do in that case? Do you content yourself with despising and detesting the mischief-making man in your heart? Should you not rather take some of his more wicked letters and speeches and point out to the simple and inexperienced the great lessons that lie on the face of such things? Is malice and misrepresentation less important to point out to a young man entering on life, than bad grammar and slovenly composition? There are studies in sheer malignity set us every day, as well as studies in style; and a teacher of morals should treat the one kind just as a teacher of letters always treats the other
Peter - The churches he helped establish there were the churches to which he sent the letters known as 1 and 2 Peter (1 Peter 1:1; 2 Peter 3:1). (For details see PETER, letters OF
Gaudentius, Bishop of Brescia - A deputation of them was sent out to him, reinforced by urgent letters from St. To these sermons are added two expository letters, one to a man named Serminius on the Unjust Steward, the other to his brother Paul on the text "My Father is greater than I
Idatius (3), Author of Well-Known Chronicle - In 444–445 the confessions of certain Roman Manicheans having disclosed the names of their co-believers in the provinces, letters were sent to the provinces by pope Leo warning the bishops (Prosper ad ann. Accordingly we find Idatius and Turribius in 445 holding a trial of certain Manicheans discovered at Astorga, no doubt by aid of the papal letters, and forwarding a report of the trial to the neighbouring metropolitan of Merida, evidently to put him on his guard
Seal - This is why Jezebel falsely authenticated letters she wrote in Ahab's name by affixing them with his seal (1 Kings 21:8 )
Sep'Tuagint - ; the Jewish slaves whom he set free, paying their ransom himself the letter of the king: the answer of the high priest; the choosing of six interpreters from each of the twelve tribes and their names; the copy of the law, in letters of gold; the feast prepared for the seventy two, which continued for seven days; the questions proposed to each of the interpreters in turn, with the answers of each; their lodging by the seashore and the accomplishment of their work in seventy
Sergius Paulus - It was customary for a high Roman official to have in his train of comites not only personal friends and attachés, but also ‘provincials, men of letters or of scientific knowledge or of tastes and habits that rendered them agreeable or useful to the great man’ Solitude - Lynch, letters to the Scattered, 522; F
Apolinaris, or Apolinarius Claudius - These writings, which were probably in the form of letters, are appealed to by Serapion, bp
Basilius of Ancyra, Bishop of Ancyra - 358, when a number of bishops had assembled at Ancyra for the dedication of a new church that Basil had built, Basil received letters from George of Laodicea speaking with great alarm of the spread of Anomoean doctrines, and entreating him to avail himself of the opportunity to obtain a synodical condemnation of Aetius and Eunomius
Gregorius, Saint., the Illuminator - He wrote letters to St
Philippi - Immediately after Polycarp wrote to the Philippians, sending at their request a copy of all the letters of Ignatius which the church of Smyrna had; so they still retained the same sympathy with sufferers for Christ as in Paul's days
Alexandrians - Of the five quarters (μοῖραι) of the city, named after the first five letters of the alphabet, two were called ‘Jewish’ (Ἰουδαϊκαὶ λέγονται Answer - Paul’s answers to those who denied his Apostleship, the Judaizers who followed him from place to place and attempted to undermine his teaching and influence among his converts in his absence-a fact to which we largely owe the letters to the Galatians and the Corinthians, or at least the most characteristic and polemical portions of them
Book - To other letters he only affixed his salutation with his own hand, 1 Corinthians 16:21 Colossians 4:18 2 Thessalonians 3:17
Manuscripts - The symbols employed to indicate these manuscripts, whether letters or numbers, were invented for the sake of brevity, when they are referred to in an apparatus of variant readings. Capital letters are used to indicate Manuscripts with uncial writing, which is never later than the 10th cent. The ink is now brownish; the letters are not very large, and are painfully regular, without breathings or accents, the use of which is only sporadic till the 9th century. The uncial letters are small, simple, and written, without breaks between the individual words; the first hand wrote no breathings or accents, and punctuation is very rare. , who worked over the letters and often added accents and breathings
John, the Gospel of - See John, The letters of . Epilogue (John 21:1-25 )...
See John, The letters of ; John the Apostle; and Logos
Scripture - ), letters of commendation or the reverse (Acts 28:21), the writings of Moses (John 5:47), as well as the Sacred Scriptures (in the phrase cited from 2 Timothy 3:15). Naturally their own writings have not yet attained to the dignity of Scripture; but a true feeling for the spiritual value of apostolic letters is already evident in 2 Peter 3:15 f
Love - ...
The letters of John make explicit statements about the ethical implications of love. Our appreciation of these letters and the command to love is increased when we realize that John's opponents claimed that they loved God in spite of their unlovely temper and conduct
Columbanus, Abbat of Luxeuil And Bobbio - " At the same time he wrote to pope Gregory the Great several letters on the subject, as afterwards to pope Boniface IV. , but with what immediate result we know not, though the haughty bearing and generally independent tone, in words and letters, of "Columbanus the sinner" were little calculated to propitiate the favour of bishops or popes; while Gregory's very friendly connexion with queen Brunehault would make that pope give little heed to the appeals of the stranger whom she disliked
Lactantius - Divines and men of letters as well as emperors had to be sought in the provinces. His four books of letters to Probus two to Severus and two to his pupil Demetrian which St
Donatus And Donatism - Donatus sent circular letters through all the provinces, forbidding the acceptance of any presents; and wrote to Gregorius in a scurrilous style. letters to Donatist bishops or to imperial commissioners were of little use when the men to whom they referred would slay themselves if balked of their prey, or cast themselves into the fires they themselves had kindled. Augustine wrote letters to the chief minister Olympius; and fresh edicts, enforcing previous laws, fines, and punishments, were sent to Africa. The church was no longer suppliant but triumphant; and the change is observable also in some letters and acts of St. " ...
The last letters of St. Dulcitius contrived to stop this by a letter to Gaudentius, who in two letters defended his proposed action and the views of his party
Ephesians, Book of - The case for Caesarea has been posited on speculative questions such as: (1) Would it be easier for Paul to get letters to the three places involved (Ephesus, Colosse, and Philippi) from Caesarea or from Rome? (2) Would it be easier for the runaway slave, Onesimus, to meet Paul in a prison in faraway Rome or the much closer Caesarea?...
A third opinion has grown out of Colossians 4:16 in which Paul urged the church at Colosse to exchange letters with the church at neighboring Laodicea so both might get the benefit of both letters
Dionysius, Pseudo-Areopagita - ...
(2) The Dionysian writings consist of four extant treatises: On the Heavenly Hierarchy; On the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy; On the Names of God; On Mystic Theology; after which come ten letters or fragments of letters. ...
Of the letters the first two are little more than detached notes on points of the Mystic Theology—on our ἀγνωσία of God and His transcendent nature
Hittites - they made much greater advances, as the el-Amarna letters show
Intercession - Paul in his letters constantly referred to his prayers for the readers, and Jesus set forth the supreme example of intercession (Luke 22:32 ; Luke 23:34 ; John 17:1 )
Faith - on Faith; Dove's letters on Faith; A
Thessalonians, Letters to - Paul planted a church there during his second missionary journey, and soon after he wrote the church two letters that have been preserved in the New Testament
Zeal - Paul’s letters and speeches
Atheist - Was ever any considerable work, in which there was required a great variety of parts, and a regular and orderly disposition of those parts, done by chance! Will chance fit means to ends, and that in ten thousand instances, and not fail in any one? How often might a man, after he had jumbled a set of letters in a bag, fling them out upon the ground, before they would fall into an exact poem; yea, or so much as make a good discourse in prose? And may not a little book be as easily made by chance as the great volume of the world? How long might a man be in sprinkling colours upon canvass with a careless hand, before they would happen to make the exact picture of a man? And is a man easier made by chance than his picture? How long might twenty thousand blind men, who should be sent out from several remote parts of England, wander up and down before they would all meet upon Salisbury plain, and fall into rank and file in the exact order of an army? And, yet, this is much more easy to be imagined than how the innumerable blind parts of matter should rendezvous themselves into a world
Damascus - He undertook to encourage and promote, to the utmost of his power, the sale and distribution of the Scriptures throughout the patriarchate; and, as a proof of his earnestness in the cause, he ordered, the next day, a number of letters to be prepared, and sent to his archbishops and bishops, urging them to promote the objects of the Bible Society in their respective stations
Jacobus Sarugensis, Bishop of Batnae - , containing metrical discourses, and letters and a few homilies in prose, by St
Nerva - 3), Aurelius Victor (Epitome de Caesaribus), Pliny the Younger (Letters and Panegyric of Trajan), Philostratus (Apollonius of Tyana), Dio Chrysostom (Orations), Frontinus (De Aquis Urbis Romae) are the chief ancient authorities
Revelation, the Book of - letters to the Seven Churches (Revelation 2:1-3:22 )...
IV. Appearing in the dress of power and majesty (Revelation 1:9-20 ), the Living One revealed Himself as Lord of the churches, to whom He instructed John to send not only the seven letters, but also an account of the things which he both had seen and would see, that is, a revelation of “the things which shall be hereafter” (Revelation 1:19 ). ...
letters to the Seven Churches (2:1–3:22) The letters to the churches of Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea have a fairly consistent format
Thessalonians, Second Epistle to the - Paul as to (1) some misunderstanding of his teaching about the Parousia ( Acts 2:1-3 ); (2) increase of persecution ( Acts 1:4-10 ); (3) disorderly conduct in some members of the Church ( Acts 3:11 ); (4) letters forged in the Apostle’s name ( Acts 2:2 , Acts 3:17 ). Paul’s later letters
Intercession - Paul in his later letters corresponds with the facts narrated in the Acts, where intercessory services are quoted at all great crises. He requests prayer for the Church in Syria in all his letters
Joannes ii, Bishop of Jerusalem - John had accepted a person under the ban of Theophilus who had come from Jerusalem to Alexandria, and thus had incurred the wrath of that fierce prelate; but Jerome represented that Theophilus had sent no letters condemnatory of this person, and that it would be rash to condemn John for a supposed fault committed in ignorance. Nothing of the sort appears from the letters of Jerome, though he speaks in a resigned manner of his losses
Intercession - Paul in his later letters corresponds with the facts narrated in the Acts, where intercessory services are quoted at all great crises. He requests prayer for the Church in Syria in all his letters
New Testament - The oldest manuscripts are written in uncial (capital) letters; the modern ones in cursive or small letters. Codex Sinaiticus ('aleph) puts Hebrew after 2 Thessalonians, Acts after Philemon, the universal (general) epistles after Paul's letters and the Book of Acts. In 1801 he, when eyesight was failing, gave the text in ordinary Greek letters on each opposite page, full of errors which the accompanying uncials confuted. ...
MANUSCRIPTS IN CURSIVE letters
Education - In the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs we read: ‘Do ye also teach your children letters, that they may have understanding all their life, reading unceasingly the Law of God’ (‘Levi,’ xiii. Down to the Roman period at least, this educational exclusiveness was maintained, and only the sons of those who were full citizens were the subjects of education, although there were cases in which daughters rose to distinction in letters, and even examples of slaves, like the philosopher Epictetus, who burst the restraints of their position and showed themselves capable of rising to eminence in learning and virtue. Gymnastic, for the training of the body, and music in the larger sense, including letters, for the training of the mind, were the subjects of instruction. Tablets covered with wax formed the material to receive the writing, and the stylus was employed to trace the letters. Among them are school copies giving the letters of the alphabet, Syllables, common words and proper names, conjugation of verbs, pithy or proverbial sayings as headlines, and there are even exercises having the appearance of being school punishments (E
Polycarp - Irenaeus affirms that he has neither lost nor given up any of the teaching of Polycarp, and that, if Polycarp were still alive and heard the things that Florinus teaches, he would stop his ears, as he did before, and say, as he often said: ‘O good God, for what times hast thou kept me that I should bear all this?’ Irenaeus adds as confirmation that ‘the letters which Polycarp sent to the neighbouring churches to strengthen them, and to certain brothers to warn them and arouse them, show it clearly. -We noted above that Irenaeus mentions several letters of Polycarp, either to churches or to individuals. It is not impossible that Irenaeus really knew several letters of Polycarp. They asked him to send to them the letters that he had received from Ignatius: ‘The letters of Ignatius which were sent to us by him, and others as many as we had by us, we send unto you, according as ye gave charge; the which are subjoined to this letter; from which ye will be able to gain great advantage
Scribes - (2 Samuel 8:17 ; 20:25 ; 1 Kings 4:3 ) We may think of them as the king's secretaries, writing his letters, drawing up his decrees, managing his finances
Sardis - Ramsay, The letters to the Seven Churches of Asia, 1904, p
Jehovah - " So Septuagint, Vulgate, and even KJV (except in four places "Jehovah": Isaiah 12:2; Isaiah 26:4; Exodus 6:3; Psalms 83:18) has "THE LORD," which in CAPITALS represents JEHOVAH, in small letters Adonai
Corinth - The Apostle wrote at least three letters to the church: the first, which is lost ( 1 Corinthians 5:9 ); the second, which we call First Corinthians, and which was probably carried by Titus (Timothy also visited Corinth at the instance of St
Leaven - ...
The third occurrence of "leaven" in the New Testament is found in Paul's letters
Eutychius - ...
At the beginning of 553 Eutychius wrote to pope Vigilius, making his profession of the Catholic faith, declaring his acceptance of the four councils and the letters of St
Rome - After the Schism of the West, the real rebirth of Rome began with Martin V, the patronage of letters and of arts, however, soon degenerating into a license and luxury which was followed by the sack of 1527
Phoeni'ce, Phoenic'ia - The only other fact respecting the Phoenicians that need be mentioned here is that the invention of letters was universally asserted by the Greeks and Romans to have been communicated by the Phoenicians to the Greeks
Miltiades, Bishop of Rome - To Miltiades the possessions of the Christians at Rome, including the cemeteries, were at length restored by Maxentius: "Melchiades was recorded to have sent deacons with letters from the emperor Maxentius and from the prefect of the Praetorium to the prefect of the city, that they might recover possession of what had been taken away in the time of persecution, and which the aforesaid emperor had ordered to be restored" (Augustine, Brevic
Pelagius ii., Bishop of Rome - In the first of his three letters he implores them to consider the evil of schism, and return to the unity of the church
Gospels - (In letters Paul wrote from Rome, he mentions that Mark, Luke and Aristarchus were all with him; Colossians 4:10; Colossians 4:14; Philem 24
Romans, Book of - First, Romans does not contain any discussion or emphasis on some things Paul clearly believed strongly as we know from his other letters—such as the Lord's Supper (1 Corinthians 11:17-34 ) and the second coming of Christ (1 Thessalonians 4:13-5:11 ). Second, Paul stressed matters in Romans he does not give much attention to in his other letters, such as the wrath of God (Romans 1:18-32 ) and the Jewish rejection of Jesus as Messiah (Romans 9-11 ). ” This phrase, used more than one hundred times in Paul's letters and infrequently outside Paul's writings, is Paul's favorite way of describing salvation
Peter, Second Epistle of - Paul’s letters as ‘Scripture’; (6) the extremely meagre external evidence. Paul’s letters as ‘Scripture’ is not decisive, for in view of the insistence upon ‘written prophecy’ and its origin ( 2 Peter 1:19-21 ) it is doubtful whether St. Paul’s letters which would be read in churches with some Scriptural authority
Hammurabi - The archives at Mari reveal about 140 letters sent between Babylon and Mari during this era. Four of the letters are addressed by Hammurabi to either the king or court officials at Mari
Apocrypha - These books are generally modeled after the literary forms found in the New Testament: there are apocryphal gospels, acts, letters, and revelations. ...
There are also apocryphal letters (e
Antichrist - ...
The Hebrew letters of Balaam (type of the false prophet whose spiritual knowledge shall be perverted to Satanic ends; Revelation 2:14 favors this, also the fact that Antichrist mainly shall oppress Israel, Daniel 8; 9; 11; 12) amount to 666. The Greek letters of Lateinos (Irenaeus), Rome's language in all official acts, amount to 666
Phoenicia, phNicians - Probably the same is true of the rest of Phœnicia, for in the el-Amarna letters all the Phœnician cities were included in the Egyptian empire of Amenophis iii. These letters show that under Amenophis iv
Jacobus Baradaeus, Bishop of Edessa - Of the simplest mode of life, inured to hardship from his earliest years, tolerant of the extremities of hunger and fatigue, "a second Asahel for fleetness of foot" (Abulpharagius), fired with an unquenchable zeal for what he regarded as the true faith, with a dauntless courage that despised all dangers, James, in his tattered beggar's disguise, traversed on foot the whole of Asia Minor, Syria, Mesopotamia, and the adjacent provinces, even to the borders of Persia, everywhere ordaining bishops and clergy, by his exhortations or his encyclical letters encouraging his depressed co-religionists to courageously maintain their faith against the advocates of the two natures, and organizing them into a compact spiritual body. On hearing of his defection James at once cut Paul off from communion; but at the end of three years, on receiving the assurance of his contrition, his act of penitence was laid before the synod of the Monophysite church of the East, and he was duly and canonically restored to communion by James, who notified the fact by encyclic letters ( ib
Cosmetics - In the Cave of letters, one of the hiding places of some rebels of the Bar Kochba War (A
Greek Language - The stems of Greek words are modified by the addition of prefixes, by the changing of the endings of words, and by the insertion of a letter or letters in the midst of words
Akeldama - But we should not a final χ, although it might be defended, if the last part of the Aramaic title were דָּסָא; the presence of χ suggests rather that the Aramaic title ended with the letters דּמך
Abounding - It is fortunate that Christianity found at its inception such a man ready to hand as its chief exponent to the primitive churches, and that his letters remain as a record of the marvellous way in which he opened his heart to its appeal, and of the manifold response he was able to make to that appeal
Macedonia - Paul founded Macedonian churches in Philippi, Berœa, and Thessalonica; to two of them he wrote letters that are extant; and all of them were conspicuous for their loyalty to, and affection for, their founder
Barabbas - There is much to be said for the suggestion of Tregelles, by way of explaining the appearance of the ‘Jesus’ in some copies of Matthew, that at a very early date a careless transcriber repeated the last two letters of ὑμῖν (Matthew 27:17), and that the in was afterwards taken to be the familiar abbreviation of Ἰησοῦν
Indulgences - If any man, said they, purchase letters of indulgence, his soul may rest secure with respect to its salvation
Arminians - A curious account of the proceedings of the above synod may be seen in a series of letters written by Mr
Greek Language - Being limited to particular countries, they were soon to be disused; and few (if any) books being written in them which merited to be preserved, the meaning of such of the Apostles' letters as were composed in the provincial languages could not easily have been ascertained
Akeldama - But we should not a final χ, although it might be defended, if the last part of the Aramaic title were דָּסָא; the presence of χ suggests rather that the Aramaic title ended with the letters דּמך
Athanasius, Archbishop of Alexandria - of Trèves, afterwards canonized; he had with him some Egyptian "brethren," and kept up a correspondence with his friends at home, although at the risk of having his letters seized. The letters of Alexandrians to Athanasius, consolatory as proofs of their affection, gave mournful accounts of torture and robbery, of hatred towards himself shewn in persecution of his aunt, of countenance shewn to Gregory by the "duke" Balacius; and some of these troubles were in his mind when, early in 341, he wrote "from Rome" his Festal Letter for the year. They wrote letters of sympathy to the suffragans of Athanasius and the churchmen of Alexandria, urging the faithful "to contend earnestly for the sound faith and the innocence of Athanasius. He wrote two other letters ( Apol. 22), and employed six "counts" to write encouragingly to the exile; and Athanasius, after receiving these letters at Aquileia, made up his mind, at last, to act on those assurances; but not until Constantius could tell Constans that he had been "expecting Athanasius for a year
Gregorius (14) Nazianzenus, Bishop of Sasima And of Constantinople - He left them abundant materials in his works, especially in a large collection of letters and a long autobiographical poem. In any case he came to Nazianzus, and received letters from Basil asking him to return to Pontus ( Ep. An indignant reply from Eusebius only called forth stronger letters from the same standpoint ( Epp. He did not go even after the election, but contented himself at first with writing letters which witness to his wisdom and affection ( Epp. Other letters were exchanged, but nothing could change his determination
Romans Epistle to the - ” ’ He suggests that the short letter to Ephesus followed that to Romans in the letter-book (a book containing copies or letters sent or received) of Tertlus, St. ” ’ He suggests that the short letter to Ephesus followed that to Romans in the letter-book (a book containing copies or letters sent or received) of Tertlus, St. Its length and its position at the close of the Epistle are without parallel in the letters of St. (3) To this, standing at the end of a collection of Pauline letters, the doxology was added. Paul’s letters are in fact pieces d’occasion, called forth by special difficulties or dangers arising in churches in which he is interested; the Epistles to Galatia and Corinth are the outstanding examples
Canaan, History And Religion of - From the fourteenth century the Amarna letters are derived. These are approximately 350 letters written in cuneiform Akkadian. These letters indicate the unrest characteristic of these Canaanite principalities socially and politically
Collection - All these occur in his letters to the Corinthians and Romans, and are as follows: λογία (1 Corinthians 16:1), χάρις (1 Corinthians 16:3, 2 Corinthians 8:4), κοινωνία (Romans 15:26, 2 Corinthians 8:4, etc. They were to appoint and approve by letters of credit (cf. , however, Robertson-Plummer’s interpretation of the passage, making the Apostle the writer of the commendatory letters Jerusalem - The Amarna letters in Palestine refer to Beth-Shalem about 1400 B. and Amarna letters)
Ephesus - 58; letters to the Seven Churches, 232). Ramsay, letters to the Seven Churches, 1904; Murray’s Handbook to Asia Minor, 1895; G
Diocletian, Emperor - letters were sent to military officers bidding them to compel their soldiers to a like conformity under pain of dismissal. letters were sent to Maximian and Constantius in the West, urging them to adopt like measures
Marcellus, Bishop of Ancyra - The date fixed for it by Montfaucon is 372, not earlier, to give time for some letters that passed on the subject of Marcellus in 371, between St. The reference in it to the commendatory letters given to its bearer by the bishops of Greece and Macedonia seems consistent with its having been addressed, and expedited through their good offices, to St
Ephesians, Epistle to - "The letters of the apostle are the fervent outburst of pastoral zeal and attachment, written without reserve and in unaffected simplicity; sentiments come warm from the heart, without the shaping out, pruning, and punctilious arrangement of a formal discourse
Victory - In each of the letters to the seven churches of Asia Minor there is a reference to him to "overcomes
Tree of Life - Ramsay, The letters to the Seven Churches of Asia, London, 1904, p
Excommunication - The greater excommunication consisted in absolute and entire seclusion from the church, and the participation of all its rights: notice of which was given by circular letters to the most eminent churches all over the world, that they might all confirm this act of discipline, by refusing to admit the delinquent to their communion
Nehemiah - He is granted a limited leave of absence by the latter, furnished with royal letters and an escort to assure his safe passage; and also with a royal rescript to Asaph, the keeper of the king’s forests, commanding that he shall be furnished with sufficient supplies of timber
Elder - Nowhere in the letters of Paul is there any explicit reference to the duties of either, nor is there any listing of the qualifications of elders
Righteousness - In the New Testament, especially in Paul's letters, “the righteousness of God” is the key to understanding the salvation of humanity
Tim'Othy - Paul's in the opening words of both the letters written from that city to the Thessalonians, (1 Thessalonians 1:1 ; 2 Thessalonians 1:1 ) Of the next five years of his life we have no record
Fatherhood of God - In the Pauline letters God is described as "Father" over forty times
Idolatry - His whole training rendered him antagonistic to anything approaching idolatry; and in his letters the same feeling is expressed
Nonconformists - Martin's letters on Nonconformity; Robinson's Lectures; Cornish's History of Nonconformity; Dr
Bethabara - נַחַל הָעֲרְבִים Isaiah 15:7) is possibly a reminiscence of the Beth-arabah of Joshua 15:6; Joshua 15:61 in the plain of Jericho, or it may be due merely to an accidental transposition of letters
Atonement - Magee's Discourses on the Atonement; Jerram's letters on ditto
Fellowship - Later on it became customary to send messengers and letters from one church to another
Friends Friendship - In his letters he nearly always associates with himself one or more of his colleagues as joint authors, and those who have been named above were the ablest Christian thinkers and workers of the time
Point - , : :: :::), and a later improvement, American Braille, embodying the Braille base (:::) and the New-York-point principle of using the characters of few points for the commonest letters
Ephesus - Ephesus is supposed to have first invented those obscure mystical spells and charms by means of which the people pretended to heal diseases and drive away evil spirits; whence originated the ‘Εφεσια γραμματα , or Ephesian letters, so often mentioned by the ancients
Pilate - There are also some pretended letters of Pilate to Tiberius, giving a history of our Saviour; but they are universally allowed to be spurious
Rab - Those who give themselves to their secret and mysterious divinity, letters and numbers, are called Cabbalists, Traditionaries
Ravels - Here are great authorities on both sides, but the latter reading, though so contrary in sense to the other, yet in the Hebrew is not very different in the form of the letters, and appears to be the better reading of the two
Philistines - He appears in the el-Amarna letters and also in Babylonia (cf
Sabellianism, or Patripassianism - Basil's letters are a repertory of information about the controversy during the latter half of 4th cent
Theodosius ii., Emperor - , in one of his letters to Theodosius, which is intended to be very laudatory (Mansi, v
Faith - His letters to the churches validate the claim that faith in Christ is the only means of attaining the righteousness of God (Romans 1:16-17 ; Philippians 3:7-9 ). Paul's letters to the churches, with their recitation of problems with unity, love, and hope, seem to deny these claims. ...
The later letters in the New Testament to Timothy and Titus, in addition to their continuing use of these dynamic definitions of faith, distinguish true faith from false faith by making the content of faith confessional (2 Timothy 4:3 ; Titus 1:9 )
Unity (2) - According to the conception of the Church of the first centuries, unity was locally constituted by association in acts of communion with God (especially in the Eucharistic synaxis), and by recognition of the authority representing the discipline of the Church; œcumenically, it was constituted by intercommunion, evidenced by reception on the part of each local community of the formatœ (commendatory letters) of the rest, by homologation of each other’s discipline, by the encyclical letters of their respective chief pastors, and later by common Conciliar action. Wake, letters; Walker, Scot
Koran - There are twenty-nine chapters of the Koran which have this peculiarity, that they begin with certain letters of the alphabet, some with single ones, others with more. These letters the Mahometans believe to be the peculiar marks of the Koran, and to conceal several profound mysteries; the certain understanding of which, the more intelligent confess, has not been communicated to any mortal, their prophet only excepted: notwithstanding which, some take the liberty of guessing at their meaning by that species of cabala called by the Jews, Notarikon. The first contains 6000 verses, the others surpassing this number by 200 or 236 verses; but the number of words and letters is the same in all; viz. 77, 639 words, and 323, 015 letters
Monophysitism - But the emperor was too politic to permit this, and sent out letters for a council to be held at Nicaea. Not even the revival of letters cured this evil, and we find that even post-Reformation theology has not altogether escaped from the long domination of purely Western forms of thought. The letters of Theodoret, and the collection of the letters of other men of mark in his day, found in many editions of his works [1] are full of information on the Monophysite controversy
Revelation, Book of - The identification, however, is not altogether satisfactory, as the Hebrew letters, whose numerical equivalents give by the process of Gematria 666, are not precisely those in Cæsar Nero. More particularly the letters to the Churches are of value as criticism and Inspiration for various classes of Christians, while its pictures of the New Jerusalem and its insistence upon the moral qualifications for the citizens of the Messianic Kingdom are in themselves notable incentives to right living: Stript of its apocalyptic figures, the book presents a noble ideal of Christian character, an assurance of the unfailing justice of God, and a prophecy of the victory of Christianity over a brutal social order
Righteousness - ...
The letters of Paul . ...
The righteousness of which Paul speaks, especially in the letters to Galatia and Rome, stands in contrast to the righteousness that is based on the fulfillment of the law by man as the covenant partner of God
Boethius, Anicus Manlius Severinus - " It is a dialogue in prose and verse (a species of composition suggested probably by the medleys of Petronius and Capella) between the author and his visitant, Philosophy, whom he represents as a woman of reverend mien and varying stature, upon the borders of whose vesture were woven the letters Π and Θ , symbolizing no doubt the Platonic division of philosophy into πρακτική and θεωρητική . its author was invested with a monopoly of philosophic greatness was natural in the utter decay of learning, but it was the excess of darkness which made his light of brightness sufficient to shine across the ages till it paled in the rising splendour of the revival of letters
Church Government - The Apostle does not address his letters to any official at Thessalonica, Corinth, or Rome. ’ In the earliest of his letters (1 Thessalonians 5:12) he exhorts his Gentile converts ‘to esteem exceeding highly them that labour among you and guide (προϊσταμένους) you in the Lord and admonish you
Various Readings - Those called the Uncial from uncia , 'an inch,' not that the letters were actually made as large as that, but they are all capitals, have no spaces between the words, and few if any points. ...
The letters in the left hand margin answered a similar purpose to the marginal references of the A
Apocrypha, New Testament - ...
Classification of the New Testament Apocrypha These writings parallel, in a superficial way, the literary forms found in the New Testament: gospels, acts, epistles or letters, and apocalypses. We know of a small group of apocryphal epistles or letters many of which are ascribed to the Apostle Paul
Apocrypha - This book begins with two letters written to Jews in Egypt urging them to celebrate the cleansing of the Temple by Judas. These sections contain such matters as the dream of Mordecai, the interpretation of that dream, the texts of the letters referred to in the canonical book, (Esther 1:22 ; Esther 3:13 ; Esther 8:5 ,Esther 8:5,8:10 ; Esther 9:20 ,Esther 9:20,9:25-30 ) and the prayers of Esther and Mordecai
Euchites - of Perga, who were stimulated by energetic letters from Atticus bp. of Caesarea in Cappadocia some time between the two Ephesine synods of 431 and 449), and of two letters by Heracleidas of Nyssa ( c
Septuagint - This opinion is farther supported by the declarations of Origen and Jerom, that the translator found the venerable name of Jehovah, not in the letters in common use, but in very ancient characters; and also by the fact that those consonants in the Septuagint are frequently confounded together, the shapes of which are similar in the Samaritan, but not in the Hebrew, alphabet. There is no other way by which to reconcile these conflicting opinions than by supposing either that the manuscript used by the Egyptian Jews approximated toward the letters and text of the Samaritan Pentateuch, or that the translators of the Septuagint made use of manuscripts written in ancient characters
Ecclesiastical Polity - What Calvin thus taught in his "Institutes," he confirmed in many of the interesting letters which he wrote to various eminent persons. In these letters he speaks with the highest respect of the church of England, where the distinction of clerical orders was preserved
Vigilius, Bishop of Rome - ...
Through Antonina, the wife of Belisarius and the real agent of the empress throughout, Vigilius sent without delay letters to Anthimus, Theodosius, and Severus, in fulfilment of his secret promise, expressing his entire agreement with them in matters of faith, but charging them to keep his avowal in the dark, that he might more easily accomplish what he had undertaken. We have also the letters written by Vigilius, of great historical value, and the Acts of the Fifth council, with contemporary documents preserved among them
Psalms the Book of - Some psalms have parallelisms or longer stanzas, each beginning with an initial letter corresponding to the twenty-two letters of the Hebrew alphabet
Hebrew - In addition six letters, beth, gimel, daleth, kaph, pe, and taw presumably had both soft and hard pronunciations depending on whether the letter was preceded by a vowel sound
Version - ...
...
...
The New Testament manuscripts fall into two divisions, Uncials, written in Greek capitals, with no distinction at all between the different words, and very little even between the different lines; and Cursives, in small Greek letters, and with divisions of words and lines
Book(s) - Others would include Solomon's words of dedication of the Temple (1 Kings 8:12-13 ), which the earliest Greek translation attributes to the book of song (Hebrew shir ), a transposition of letters of Hebrew jshr or ishr for Jashar
Monk - Not only the monks were prohibited the priesthood, but even priests were expressly prohibited from becoming monks, as appears from the letters of St
Travel (2) - Ramsay, The letters to the Seven Churches; Conder, Palestine; PEFSt Calendars - This is actually a schoolboy exercise in which primitive Hebrew letters are scratched on a clay tablet
Bible, Formation And Canon of - The apostle Paul, as well as some others, had the practice of writing letters to groups of people to communicate with them when visiting was difficult
Light - Reid, Dictionary of Paul and His letters ; G
Monk - Not only the monks were prohibited the priesthood, but even priests were expressly prohibited from becoming monks, as appears from the letters of St
Poetry of the Hebrews - So also the alphabetic psalms and poems, (see letters;) and the psalms of degrees, in which the chief words of each verse are taken up and repeated at the beginning of the next verse
Language - ...
These languages are distinguished from European tongues by several marked peculiarities: they are all, except the Ethiopic, written from right to left, and their books begin at what we should call the end; the alphabet, with the exception of the Ethiopic which is syllabic, consists of consonants only, above or below which the vowel-points are written; they have several guttural consonants very difficult of pronunciation to Europeans; the roots of the language are, in general, verbs of three letters, and pronounced, according to the various dialects, with one or more vowels; the verbs have but two tenses, the past and the future; and the pronouns in the oblique cases are generally untied in the same word with the noun or verb to which they have a relation
bi'Ble - They contain logical arguments, poetry, songs and hymns, history, biography, stories, parables, fables, eloquence, law, letters and philosophy
Joel - Each of the four species of locusts in Hebrew letters represents the exact number of years that each empire oppressed, until they had deprived the Jews of all their glory (J
Sedulius, 5th-Cent. Poet - The only trustworthy information is given by his two letters to Macedonius, from which we learn that he devoted his early life, perhaps as a teacher of rhetoric, to heathen literature
Henoticon, the - He at once, according to custom, dispatched synodical letters to the chief bishops of Christendom, to notify his election. Those addressed to Simplicius of Rome and Calandion of Antioch were duly received; but the letters for Acacius and Zeno were delayed, and Acacius heard of John's appointment from another quarter
the Angel of the Church in Philadelphia - For we read in letters of gold God's glorious nature and name, and it is this,-the Lord; the Lord God, merciful and gracious, long-suffering, and abundant in goodness and truth, keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgressions and sins. That preacher of Philadelphia fed his people on the finest of the wheat till it became bone of their bone and flesh of their flesh, and till God's great name came out in letters of light all over their foreheads, and was written in works of love all over their lives
Acts - Taken as a whole, Luke and Acts are a larger work than the combined letters of Paul. By searching those letters for references to Paul's fellow workers, they compiled a list of companions who could have written Luke and Acts
Coelestinus, Commonly Called Celestine, b.p. of Rome - The council's resolutions were expressed by Celestine in letters to Cyril and to Nestorius. " On the same day Celestine wrote the most remarkable of his letters that addressed to the council of Ephesus (Ep
Mining And Metals - Rock-cut inscriptions were made more durable by having the chiselled letters filled up with lead ( Job 19:24 )
Righteousness - ]'>[1] for some offshoot of the Semitic root tsdq which is met with as early as the Tell el-Amarna letters in the sense of ‘to be innocent
Jude, Theology of - And there is no evidence that the early church would accept letters written falsely in the name of an important person
Thyatira - Ramsay, The letters to the Seven Churches of Asia, London, 1904; C
Canon of the Old Testament - the FIVE of MOSES; THIRTEEN prophetical books, namely,...
(1) Joshua,...
(2) Judges and Ruth,...
(3) the two of Samuel,...
(4) the two of Kings...
(5) the two of Chronicles,...
(6) Ezra and Nehemiah,...
(7) Esther,...
(8) Isaiah,...
(9) Jeremiah and Lamentations,...
(10) Ezekiel,...
(11) Daniel,...
(12) the twelve minor prophets,...
(13) Job; and FOUR remaining, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Solomon: the 22 thus being made to answer to the 22 letters of the Hebrew alphabet
Saint - In the NT ‘church’ and ‘saints’ are used interchangeably in the greetings of letters: the former in Thessalonians, Corinthians, Galatians, Philemon; the latter in Ephesians, Philippians, and Colossians
Library - On the other hand, the parchments were probably parchment codices, possibly of his notes and letters
Head, Headship - Hawthorne, et al, Dictionary of Paul and His letters ; W
Repentance - ...
In Paul's letters the verb metanoeo [ 2 Corinthians 12:21 ) and the noun metanoia [ Romans 2:4 ; 2 Corinthians 7:9,10 ; 2 Timothy 2:25 )
Thankfulness, Thanksgiving - Paul begins most of his letters (Galatians, 1Timothy, and Titus being the exceptions) with expressions of thanksgiving to God for the church or individual to which he writes
Laodicea - Ramsay, The letters to the Seven Churches, 1904, pp
Sorcery - Johns, Babylonian and Assyrian Laws, Contracts, and letters, Edinburgh, 1904, p
Vulgate, the - The whole Bible, in Gothic letters
England - By letters Apostolic in 1911Pope Pius X divided England and Wales into the three ecclesiastical provinces of Westminster, Birmingham, and Liverpool
Psalms, the Book of - With regard to alphabetical psalms and psalms of degrees, see DEGREES, PSALMS OF, and letters
Paul - When we review the many regions he traversed and evangelized, the converts he gathered, and the churches he founded, the toils, perils, and trials he endured, the miracles he wrought, and the revelations he received, the discourses, orations, and letters in which he so ably defends and unfolds Christianity, the immeasurable good which God by him accomplished, his heroic life, and his martyr death, he appears to us the most extraordinary of men
Manes, Called Also Mani - It contained more letters than the Syriac, and was chiefly used by the Manicheans of Samarkhand and Transoxania, where the Marcionites who still existed there in the 10th cent
Martinus, Bishop of Dumium - He had travelled to the Holy Land, and had in the East acquired such a knowledge of letters that he was held second to no scholar of his day
Palladius, Bishop of Helenopolis - 121), and for which Chrysostom wrote letters of thanks from Cucusus
Phylacteries - The Shîn on the box, the Dâleth knot on the head phylactery, and the Yôdh knot on the hand phylactery, made the letters of one of the Divine Names—שׁדַּי Shadddâi, ‘Almighty
Reccared - The 1st confirmed the decrees of previous councils and synodical letters of the popes; the 2nd directed the recitation of the creed of Constantinople at the communion; by the 5th the Arian bishops, priests, and deacons, who had been converted, were forbidden to live with their wives; the 7th directed the Scriptures should be read at a bishop's table during meals; by the 9th Arian churches were transferred to the bishops of their dioceses; the 13th forbade clerics to proceed against clerics before lay tribunals; the 14th forbade Jews to have Christian wives, concubines, or slaves, ordered the children of such unions to be baptized, and disqualified Jews from any office in which they might have to punish Christians—Christian slaves whom they had circumcised, or made to share in their rites, were ipso facto free; the 21st forbade civil authorities to lay burdens on clerics or the slaves of the church or clergy; the 22nd forbade wailing at funerals; the 23rd forbade celebrating saints' days with indecent dances and songs
Stephanus i., Bishop of Rome - of Arles, who had adopted Novatianist views, and whose deposition Stephen is urged to bring about by letters to the province and people of Arles
Interpretation - ...
Kind of literature...
Among the many forms within the Bible are prose narratives, poems, wisdom sayings, laws, visions, letters, genealogies and debates
John, Theology of - The Johannine literature includes the Fourth Gospel, three letters, and the Book of Revelation. This leaves the Gospel and three letters (two of which are very short and of limited theological importance). ...
That this outlook continued in the Johannine community is evident when we look at John's letters
Homosexuality - Two brief references in Paul's letters, where same-gender sex is mentioned in lists of prohibited activities, are important especially for their link to the Old Testament. This drawing in of Leviticus to Paul's letters is also significant in that it provides further demonstration that he perceived a moral and not merely purity-based prohibition of homosexual Acts in the Old Testament
Grace - The Apostolic letters furnish a complete, typical description, of rare intensity and lucidity, of two such personalities of the loftiest order-St. The letters are not so much doctrinal systems as a sort of journal intime of soaring, searching spirits: autobiographies of spirit, ‘confessions’ of what the writers saw and heard and knew of ‘the mystery of Christ
Coming to Christ - ‘In none other is there salvation: for neither is there any other name under heaven that is given among men wherein we must be saved’ (Acts 4:12), sums up the whole teaching of NT history and letters. They are the central truths of the Pauline and other letters: ‘We preach Christ crucified’ (1 Corinthians 1:23), ‘Far be it from me to glory, save in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ’ (Galatians 6:14), ‘He is able to save to the uttermost them that draw near to God through him, seeing he ever liveth to make intercession for them’ (Hebrews 7:25, cf
Nehemiah - And Nehemiah forgot all about Artaxerxes' supper as he talked with the travellers, till he said to them as he bade them farewell, 'If I forget thee, O Jerusalem, let my right hand forget her cunning; if I do not remember thee, let my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth; if I prefer not Jerusalem above my chief joy!' Young John Milton, you will remember, could not enjoy the skies, or the art, or the letters of Italy, while England at home was as she was. How he was heard, and how the king's heart was moved, and how Nehemiah got leave of absence to go and build the walls of Jerusalem, and the letters that he carried to the king's foresters, and to those that kept the royal quarries, and how he set out to the city of his fathers to finish it-all that is to be read in Nehemiah's own memoirs written out for us to this day by his own graphic hand
Death - ...
Death in the letters of Paul Paul's understanding of Jesus' death and resurrection determined his depiction of death as a quality of human existence
Sheba - They are written in a dialect which closely resembles Ethiopic, but there are no vowel letters, or modifications of the consonants, to indicate vowel sounds
Fellowship - ...
In Paul's letters we find that the apostle emphasizes the faithfulness of the call of God the Father in the gospel "into fellowship with his Son Jesus Christ our Lord" (1 Corinthians 1:9 )
Colossians, Epistle to the - Then follow a warm commendation of Tychicus, greetings from Luke and Demas, instructions for exchanging letters with the neighbouring Church of Laodicea, and a final message for Archippus, who had apparently succeeded, in Epaphras’ absence, to the supervision of the Colossian Church
Esther, Book of - Esther then has letters sent in all directions in order to avert the threatened destruction of her people; but the attempt is yet made by the enemies of the Jews to carry out Haman’s intentions
Worship - The early Christian meetings seem to have been joyful occasions for teaching, prophesying, singing, praying, reading apostolic letters, and the “breaking of bread” in the Lord's Supper (Acts 2:42 ,Acts 2:42,2:46 ; 1 Corinthians 14:26 ; Ephesians 5:19-20 ; Colossians 3:16 ; 1 Thessalonians 5:16-18 )
Friend, Friendship - In his letters he names many people as his special friends in Christ
Manifestation - Such manifestations as these, then, are secret, personal realizations of Christ’s presence, according more nearly with the revelations of a friend’s character that we have in his letters, or in his pictures if he is an artist, in his music if he is a musician
Self-Denial - Keble, letters of Spiritual Counsel; J
Samaria - Scaliger corresponded with them in the 16th century; DeSacy edited two of their letters to Scaliger; Job Ludolf received a letter from them in the 17th century
Abgar - In Moses’ account occurs the statement that after his conversion Abgarus wrote letters to the emperor Tiberius, to Narses, king of Assyria, to Ardaches, king of Persia, and others, recommending Christianity (Hist
Faithfulness - (l) Among the faithful sayings in the NT letters, there is found one in 2 Timothy 2:11-13, where the writer speaks of the sufferings that he gladly endures, for ‘if we died with him, we shall also live with him … if we are faithless, he abideth faithful; for he cannot deny himself
Blood - In other letters of St
Aetius, Arian Sect Founder And Head - He was the author of several letters to Constantius and others, filled with subtle disquisition on the nature of the Deity (Socr
Attributes of Christ - the letters to the Churches, Revelation 2, 3)
John - Our conventional morning chapter about what Jesus Christ did and said, and is at this moment doing and saying, will then be far more real to us than all our morning papers and all our business letters
Anathema - ’ But the term is better detached entirely from the reference to anathema, and considered simply as a little prayer, in which the normal yearning of the Apostle expresses itself, before he closes a letter or group of letters, in the writing of which his pastoral heart must have been pained again and again
Arians - Eusebius also, having great interest with Constantia, the sister of Constantine, and wife of Licinius, recommended Arius to her protection and patronage; through which, and by his own eloquent letters to the clergy in various parts, his system spread with great rapidity, and to a vast extent
Phylacteries, Frontlets - The corresponding loop of the phylactery for the arm was supposed to form the letter yôd , the three letters together giving the sacred name Shaddai , ‘Almighty
Blood - In other letters of St
Vigilantius - It is certain that in 395 he was sent with letters from Sulpicius to Paulinus, then recently settled at Nola (Paul
Romans, Epistle to the - The letter to the Romans belongs to the central group which includes also Galatians, and the two letters to the Corinthians of St. Romans, like most of the Pauline letters, falls into two sections: doctrinal (chs. Paul here introducing the only beatitude found in his letters
Bible - ...
This division was made for the sake of reducing the number of the sacred books to the number of the letters in their alphabet, which amount to twenty-two. Hugo's method of subdividing them was by the letters A, B, C, D, E, F, G, placed in the margin, at an equal distance from each other, according to the length of the chapters. The initial letters of each translator's name were put at the end of his part; e
Arius the Heresiarch - Then he wrote (the letters are extant) to Alexander of Constantinople and Eusebius of Nicomedia (where the emperor was then residing), detailing the errors into which Arius had fallen, and complaining of the danger to the Christian church arising from his heresy. Producing a number of recriminatory letters from those who were present, he called for a brazier, and burnt them all before the assembly, begging the bishops to lay aside their personal animosities, and to devote themselves whole-heartedly to setting forth the truth. He had, as he himself tells us (see his letters to Alexander and Arius in the Life of Constantine by Eusebius Pamphili), a strong objection to idle and word-splitting discussions, private or public, and considered them unnecessary and unprofitable
Trinity - It was called tetragrammaton, or the name of four letters, and these letters are jod, he, vau, he, the proper pronunciation of which, from long disuse, is said to be no longer known to the Jews themselves. From this word the Pagan title of Iao and Jove is, with the greatest probability, supposed to have been originally formed; and in the Golden Verses of Pythagoras, there is an oath still extant to this purpose, "By Him who has the four letters
Paul - Before he himself fades out of our sight in the twilight of ecclesiastical tradition, we have letters written by himself which contribute some particulars to his biography. Luke has introduced us --the imprisonment which lasted for such a tedious time, though tempered by much indulgence --belongs the noble group of letters to Philemon, to the Colossians, to the Ephesians and to the Philippians. He spent some time in visits to Greece, Asia Minor and Spain, and during the latter part of this time wrote the letters (first epistles) to Timothy and Titus from Macedonia, A
Paul - From the close of Galatians we gather that his own penmanship was large and sprawling: read, in Romans 6:11, ‘See with how large letters I have written unto you with mine own hand. Paul were just ordinary letters, Deissmann going furthest of late in this direction. Ordinary letters are addressed to individuals, and much of their charm consists in the intimacies which they disclose
Tatianus - To Babylonia they owed astronomy, to Persia magic, to Egypt geometry, to Phoenicia instruction by letters. " The comparison proves the Christian tenets older than those of the Greeks, and even than the invention of letters. , after one word in deprecation of the sneer at himself: "Tatian, the man so superior to the Greeks, so superior to the numberless teachers of philosophy, has opened up a new vein of learning—the doctrines of the barbarians!" Whether Homer was contemporary with the Trojan war, or a soldier under Agamemnon, or even lived before the invention of letters, Moses yet lived long before either the building or taking of Troy
Paul - Hearing that fugitives had taken refuge in Damascus, he obtained from the chief priest letters authorizing him to proceed thither on his persecuting career. While at Corinth, he wrote his two epistles to the church of Thessalonica, his earliest apostolic letters, and then sailed for Syria, that he might be in time to keep the feast of Pentecost at Jerusalem
Alpha And Omega (2) - 438) is therefore correct regarding the phrase in Revelation 1:8; Revelation 21:6 if not in 22:13: ‘This is not simply a paraphrase of Isaiah 44:6 “I am the first and the last”, but the Hellenized form of a well-known Rabbinical dictum, “The seal of God is Emet, which means Truth, and is derived from the letters א מ ח, the first, the middle, and the last letters of the Hebrew alphabet, the beginning, the middle, and the end of all things
Grace - The Apostolic letters furnish a complete, typical description, of rare intensity and lucidity, of two such personalities of the loftiest order-St. The letters are not so much doctrinal systems as a sort of journal intime of soaring, searching spirits: autobiographies of spirit, ‘confessions’ of what the writers saw and heard and knew of ‘the mystery of Christ
Tyre - The Tell el-Amarna letters ( c Claudius - New aqueducts and roads were built, and three letters were added to the alphabet
Mission - Through letters, visits and periods of temporary residence they can help it to grow (Acts 15:36; Acts 20:2-3; 1 Corinthians 5:9; 1 Corinthians 7:1; 1 Corinthians 16:5; 1 Corinthians 16:12)
Macedonia - 100, bishop Polycarp of Smyrna wrote to the Philippians who had asked him to forward copies of the letters of the famous martyr Ignatius of Antioch
Mission(s) - The church's mission to the world was strengthened through its intimate fellowship and unity (Acts 2:44 ), and every effort was made to maintain this characteristic (Acts 6:1-7 ; Acts 15:1 ; and Paul's letters to the churches in Corinth and Galatia)
Grace - Paul’s letters; for him it includes the sum of all blessing that comes from God through Christ: ‘grace’ the source, ‘peace’ the stream
Elements - The special meanings or στοιχεῖα are: (a) the letters or the alphabet; (b) the physical elements or constituents of the universe; (c) the heavenly bodies; (d) the rudiments or principia of a subject; (e) the elementary spirits, angels, genii, or demons of the cosmos
Mercy - Galatians 6:16, the letters to Timothy, and Jude’s Epistle)
Interpretation - ), and from the numerical value of letters (Revelation 13:18; cf
Christian - Ignatius, martyr and writer of the famous letters, was bishop of Antioch
Augustinus, Archbaptist of Canterbury - Augustine's Abbey ; a few letters of Gregory the Great; the Lives of Gregory the Great by Paul the Deacon and John the Deacon
Flavianus (4) i, Bishop of Antioch - This charge, however, is rendered very doubtful by the absence of reference to it in the letters of Ambrose or any contemporary documents published by adherents of Paulinus during the controversy
Fornication - Ramsay, letters to the Seven Churches, London, 1904; E
Proverbs, the Book of - Henry); the 22 verses begin with the consecutive letters of the Hebrew alphabet
Language - See letters
Jordan - According to the computation of Volney, it is hardly sixty paces wide at the mouth; but the author of "Letters from Palestine" states, that the stream when it enters the lake Asphaltites, is deep and rapid, rolling a considerable volume of waters; the width appears from two to three hundred feet, and the current is so violent, that a Greek servant belonging to the author, who attempted to cross it, though strong, active, and an excellent swimmer, found the undertaking impracticable
Mercy - Galatians 6:16, the letters to Timothy, and Jude’s Epistle)
Nero, Claudius Caesar - Reuss interprets the number of the beast as the numerical value of the letters of the words Νέρων Καῖσαρ when written in Hebrew, and explains the existence of the ancient variant reading 616 by supposing it due to a Latin reader who had found the solution, but pronounced the name Nero and not Neron
Paulus of Samosata, Patriarch of Antioch - of Rome and the Italian prelates, decreeing that the residence should belong to the one they recognized by letters of communion ( ib
Ephesians Epistle to the - Paul usually opens his letters. The evidence of Ignatius raises a further difficulty, since he definitely writes to Ephesus about ‘all the letters’ of St
Timothy And Titus Epistles to - -The Epistles to Timothy and Titus are conveniently, if inaccurately, called the Pastoral Epistles, because, in contrast to Paul’s other letters, their object has been thought to be primarily that of equipping his two lieutenants, Timothy and Titus, for pastoral work in two particular regions-Ephesus, with its circle of churches, and Crete. The letters deal with a situation, and are only secondarily concerned with the personal equipment of Timothy and Titus, whose ministry is not essentially different from that which Paul exercised throughout his churches (1 Timothy 4:6, 2 Timothy 4:5, 1 Corinthians 4:17; 1 Corinthians 16:10-11, Ephesians 3:7, Colossians 1:23; Colossians 1:25; Colossians 4:7, 1 Thessalonians 3:2)
Emperor-Worship - Ramsay, letters to the Seven Churches, p. Ramsay, The Church in the Roman Empire, London, 1893, The letters to the Seven Churches of Asia, do
Egypt - The tablets consist of official dispatches and letters, dating from B
Temptation, Trial - ’ ‘Whomsoever ye shall approve by letters, them will I send’ (1 Corinthians 16:3)
Ebla - ...
The historical and historical-juridical texts include royal ordinances, edicts, letters by state officials, lists of cities in subjection to Ebla, state marriages, and international treaties including an agreement between Ebla and Asshur concerning the statutes of a commercial city
Idolatry - Nature-worship of all kinds is by implication rebuked with amazing force and dignity in Genesis 1:1-31 , where the word God as Creator is written ‘in big letters over the face of creation
Monastery - 138, 139; Bigland's letters on Hist
James, the General Epistle of - addressed to the church in general; not, as Paul's letters, to particular churches or individuals
Messiah - In general the Gospels and the early part of Acts use ‘Christ’ mainly as a title (‘Messiah’), and Paul’s letters use it mainly as a name
God, Name of - A similar expression is found twice in the Amarna letters from the second half of the second millennium b
Abiding - John’s letters, but it is pertinent to observe that μένω occurs 23 times therein, while it is used in the Gospel some 35 times
Scribes - The gematria (the Greek term for "the exactest science, geometry, being applied to the wildest mode of interpreting") crowned this perverse folly by finding new meanings through letters supposed to be substituted for others, the last of the alphabet for the first, the second last for the second, etc
Athens - ...
But, though Athens was outwardly as splendid as ever, she was inwardly decadent, being, in philosophy, letters, and art, a city living upon traditions
Feasting - The letters to Pergamos and Thyatira meet it with forcible denunciation and threatening (see such articles as Balaam, Jezebel, Nicolaitans), and in 2 Peter and Jude we have an attitude similar to that of St
Hunneric, King of the Vandals. - He gives numerous cases of similarly mutilated persons in Eastern countries, and of persons in England whose tongues had been removed by surgical operations, who could still pronounce distinctly all letters except d and t ; one of the latter he had actually seen and conversed with
Euphemius, Patriarch of Constantinople - ...
To pope Felix the patriarch sent letters, as was usual, to announce his election, but received the reply that he might be admitted as a private member of the church Catholic, but could not be received in communion as a bishop, because he had not removed from the diptychs the names of his predecessors, Acacius and Fravitta
Euric, King of Toulouse - The history of this dramatic struggle, preserved in the letters of Sidonius, throws valuable light on the politics of the 5th cent
Ebla - ...
The historical and historical-juridical texts include royal ordinances, edicts, letters by state officials, lists of cities in subjection to Ebla, state marriages, and international treaties including an agreement between Ebla and Asshur concerning the statutes of a commercial city
Education - After the letters were mastered, the teacher copied a verse which the child had already learned by heart, and taught him to identify the individual words
Pilate - The ‘Acts of Pilate’ and his letters to the Emperor are late forgeries
Jerusalem - " ...
Jerusalem is first mentioned under that name in the Book of Joshua, and the Tell-el-Amarna collection of tablets includes six letters from its Amorite king to Egypt, recording the attack of the Abiri about B
Abiding - John’s letters, but it is pertinent to observe that μένω occurs 23 times therein, while it is used in the Gospel some 35 times
Maxentius, Joannes, Presbyter And Archimandrite - At the close of the fifth they solemnly protest their acceptance of the councils of Nicaea, Constantinople, Ephesus, and Chalcedon, the letters of Leo anathematizing the writings of Theodore of Mopsuestia and Nestorius his disciple, and all writings opposed to the Twelve Chapters of the blessed Cyril against Nestorius; anathematizing in addition, Eutyches and Dioscorus (Petr
Province - From Cicero’s letters we learn much of the details of his own government of the province Cilicia, where he was governor in the year 51-50 b
Hippolytus Romanus - In the first, speaking of ecclesiastical writers of whom letters were then preserved in the library at Jerusalem, Eusebius mentions "likewise Hippolytus, who was bishop of another church somewhere. " In the second he gives a list of the works of Hippolytus which he had met with (not including any letters), this being probably the list of those in the library at Caesarea, but adds that many other works by him might be found elsewhere. of Rome regarded as a matter of such purely local concern that controversy could go on at Rome for years and the outside world know nothing of it, and that although the unsuccessful claimant was a person on other grounds very widely known? Is it conceivable, if Hippolytus really set up a rival chair to Callistus, that he, whose books and letters widely circulated in the East, made no attempt to enlist on his side the bishops of the great Eastern sees? Or is it likely, if Hippolytus had started a long-continued and dangerous schism at Rome, that the predominant party should have completely condoned his offence, that he should have been honoured for centuries as a saint and a martyr, and that his name should have been handed down with no hint of that schism until words of his own came to light to suggest it? These improbabilities in the theory hitherto most generally received, amount almost to impossibilities, though we confess it difficult to find a satisfactory substitute
Archaeology And Biblical Study - Ancient peoples often employed pieces of pottery as a writing surface and used these for records, lists, and letters. The Tell Amarna tablets found by a peasant woman in Egypt are letters from Palestinian rulers to the reigning pharaohs; but they show the unstable conditions in Palestine prior to the Israelite conquest which enabled Israel to conquer the enemy one by one. However, the Tell Amarna letters show that respect for Egypt was weakening as the petty kings struggled with each other while begging Egypt for aid
Theodoretus, Bishop of Cyrrhus - His personal share in it began towards the end of 430, with the receipt by John, the patriarch of Antioch, of the letters of Celestine and Cyril, relative to the condemnation of the doctrines of Nestorius obtained by the Western bishops in Aug. Theodoret's name appears in the letters and other documents passing between the Oriental party at Ephesus and their representatives in Chalcedon, in which much was said and written in a bitter spirit (Labbe, vol. —No portion of Theodoret's literary remains exceeds in interest and value the large collection of his letters
Theodorus, Bishop of Mopsuestia - Theodore's cousin, Paeanius, to whom several of Chrysostom's letters are addressed ( Epp. "Valerius, Florentius, Porphyrius, and many others," laboured to restore him; and the anxiety drew forth from Chrysostom the earliest of his literary compositions—two letters "to Theodore upon his fall. His letters, long known to the Nestorians of Syria as the Book of Pearls , are lost; his followers have left us few personal recollections
Gospels - Paul appeals to them on the inspiration of his letters (1 Corinthians 14:37; 1 Corinthians 12:10; compare 1 John 4:1). the letters)
Canon - Because Solomon was inspired to write some canonical books, it does not follow that what he wrote on natural history was also inspired, any more than Solomon's private letters to his friends, if ever he wrote any. And if they wrote letters on special occasions, to the churches planted by them; yet these were not designed for the perpetual instruction of the universal church
Daniel, Book of - The letters to the churches serve a similar function in Revelation
Tradition - Prior to the writing of the first Gospel, the sermons of the apostles and many of the letters of Paul had been written
Language of Christ - There is no evidence that the Galilæans pronounced Greek differently from the Judæans, but it is known that their pronunciation of some of the Hebrew letters differed from that of the southerners
Simple, Simplicity - Dawson, The Quest of the Simple Life; M‘Leod, The Culture of Simplicity; and letters on the Simple Life, republished from the Daily Graphic
Pope - However distant their churches may be, they all meet at Rome either in person or by their delegates, or at least by their letters
Marks Stigmata - The common method was to press upon the forehead a red-hot iron with embossed letters
Gelasius (1) i, Bishop of Rome - The main authorities for his Life, besides the Liber Pontificalis, are the letters of himself and his contemporaries, and his other extant writings
Twelve - Strangely enough, the Hebrew letters making up his name produce the number666
Clovis, King of Salian Franks - How important this conversion was in the eyes of the Catholic world of the day may be seen from the letters of congratulation addressed to Clovis by Avitus, bp
Reason - The several branches of knowledge have been applied in every age by some persons for the benefit of others; and the progress in sacred criticism, which distinguishes the present times, is nothing else but the continued application, in elucidating the Scripture, of reason enlightened by every kind of subsidiary knowledge, and very much improved in this kind of exercise by the employment which the ancient classics have given it since the revival of letters
Religious Experience - Paul’s letters it is being united with Him in His death. Paul’s letters it is sacrificial
Rufinus of Aquileia - Rufinus, a little before the death of pope Siricius, had obtained from him letters of recommendation ("literae formatae"), to which he appealed afterwards as shewing he was in communion with the Roman church (Hieron. For that controversy and for the letters of pope Anastasius to Rufinus and John of Jerusalem, and Rufinus's letter of apology, see JEROME
Christians, Names of - The majority of instances occur in Luke's Gospel (1:2; 24:48) and Acts (1:8,22; 2:32; 3:15; 5:32; 10:39,41; 13:31; 26:16), with two in the Petrine letters (Galatians 3:26-28 ; 1638902384_55 )
Faith - It is, especially in Paul's letters, the inauguration of incorporation “in Christ,” in which one continues to grow and develop
Nahum - , an alphabetic poem, and that its right metrical division yields, with a few alterations and transpositions, a series of stanzas, of which the first words commence with the letters of the Heb
Apocalyptic - It is not by accident that each of the letters to the churches ends with the appeal associated with the parables: "He who has an ear, let him hear
Walk (2) - ’ This use of περιπατεῖν is also found in Revelation 2:1 of our Lord’s life of activity in His exalted state: ‘walketh in the midst of the seven golden candlesticks,’ as if journeying forth by the circular route which, after traversing all the Churches mentioned, returns to Ephesus (Ramsay, letters to the Seven Churches, ‘Letter to the Church in Ephesus,’ Introduction)
Government - For the cities of Asia Minor, see Ramsay, letters to the Seven Churches , chs
Sabbath - ...
In his letters Paul shows concern for certain restrictions placed on his converts (Romans 14:5 ; Galatians 4:10 ; Colossians 2:16 ), among them Sabbath keeping no doubt
Alexandria - The proofs of her devotion to letters were seen in the Brucheium, or central quarter of the city, which contained not only the mausoleum* Elisha - The old men who had not had great success themselves did not cast up Elisha's youth to him when his success began, nor did the sons of the prophets keep up against him his humble origin, or his lack of letters
no'ah - Singularly enough, too, on some specimens of this medal the letters NO or NOE have been found on the vessel, as in the cut on p
Atheist - Will chance fit means to ends, even in ten thousand instances, and not fail in a single one? How often might a man, after shaking a set of letters in a bag, throw them on the ground, before they would become an exact poem, or form a good discourse in prose? In short, the arguments in proof of Deity are so numerous, and at the same time so obvious to a thinking mind, that to waste time in disputing with an Atheist, is approaching too much toward that irrationality, which may be considered as one of the most striking characteristics of the sect
no'ah - Singularly enough, too, on some specimens of this medal the letters NO or NOE have been found on the vessel, as in the cut on p
Aristion (Aristo) - ’ The corruption followed by Eusebius (and probably even by Irenaeus in this passage, though he transcribed others where ‘the Elders’ were correctly described as ‘disciples of the Apostles’), involves only the change (by assimilation) of three letters, ΟΙΤΟΥ(ΤΩΝ)ΜΑΘΗΤΑΙ becoming ΟΙΤΟΥ(ΚΥ)ΜΑΘΗΤΑΙ. ]'>[2] 3) adopts the emendation, the change involves but two letters, ΟΙΤΟΥ(ΤΩ)ΜΑΘΗΤΑΙ becoming ΟΙΤΟΥ(ΚΥ)ΜΑΘΗΤΑΙ, as in Judges 4:24 (LXX Septuagint) ΤΩΝ ΥΙΩΝ B becomes ΚΥ ΥΙΩΝ in A
Persecution - When the letters of the pope's legate were read in the assembly of the cardinals, by which he assured the pope that all was transacted by the express will and command of the king, it was immediately decreed that the pope should march with his cardinals to the church of St. He was whipped, and then placed in the pillory; one of his ears cut off, one side of his nose slit; branded on the cheek with a red hot iron, with the letters S
Second Coming of Christ - Paul, for example, mentions it in most of his letters. ...
In what is certainly one of his earliest surviving letters, 1Thessalonians, Paul devotes attention to the problem of believers who had died
Grace - A similar seriousness could be argued about the other salutations in Paul's letters. ...
Overwhelmingly in the letters of Paul God is the subject of grace
Galatia - What more natural, ask the South Galatian theorists, than that this much-frequented district should become the storm-centre of a Judaistic controversy, and that the Apostle should write the most militant and impassioned of all his letters in defence of the spiritual liberty of the converts of his pioneer mission? On the North Galatian theory, the founding of churches, say in Pessinus, Ancyra, and Tavium, and their subsequent development, had much more to do with the extension and triumph of apostolic Christianity among the Gentiles-which was St. It is true that he is referred to once in each of two other letters (1 Corinthians 9:6, Colossians 4:10), but in both cases there were special reasons for the mention of his name (Zahn, op
Gospels (2) - Paul’s letters as it would be to find it in the letters of a pastor or bishop of our own day
Colossians, Epistle to the - It remains therefore to decide whether this is some lost letter by the Apostle or whether it can be identified with any of his existing letters. But the two statements are not incompatible in letters both written from Rome
Arius, Followers of - Constantius summoned Athanasius to his presence, and after a friendly interview dismissed him, and wrote three letters, one to the bishops and clergy in Egypt, one to the laity, and one to the governors of provinces, explaining that it was his will that Athanasius should be allowed to return in peace to his flock. From his undiscovered retreat he issued numerous letters and treatises, by which he kept up the courage of his adherents
John, Epistles of - Origen states that the two shorter letters were not accepted by all as genuine, but he adds that ‘both together do not contain a hundred lines. ...
We have no information as to the time at which, or the places from and to which, these brief letters were written
Paul the Apostle - Paul wrote other letters than these; references to lost ones are found, probably, in 2 Thessalonians 3:17 and 1 Corinthians 5:9 . Paul did not write his letters himself, but only added postscripts in his own hand
Peter - -The earliest literature preserved from apostolic times, the letters of St. Paul did not have occasion to mention Peter as often as we could wish; consequently, the latter’s career cannot be restored with any degree of fullness from the Pauline letters
Timothy, Epistles to - These Epistles, together with that to Titus, form a special group among the Pauline letters, the Pastoral Epistles , being united by common objects in view, and by a common literary style
John - See John, The Gospel of ; John, The letters of ; Revelation of John
Hymn - The initial letters of the lines of the 5 verses form the words אמן בא =‘, come
Angel - "Angels" are mentioned almost three hundred times in Scripture, and are only noticeably absent from books such as Ruth, Nehemiah, Esther, the letters of John, and James
Thessalonians, the Epistles to the - Some professed to know by "the Spirit" (2 Thessalonians 2:2) it was so, others declared Paul when with them had said so; a letter purporting to be from him to that effect was circulated among them (2 Thessalonians 2:2, in 2 Thessalonians 3:17 he marks his autograph salutation as the test whereby to know his genuine letters)
Salutations - Erhes thinks that these were actual salutations sent to Rome by the Apostle, occasioned perhaps by these embassies and letters; and that this beautiful message covering with renown these humble and faithful workers might not be lost, they inserted it in the most appropriate place in the Epistle to the Romans
Gospel - ...
The New Testament: Stage Two: For the gospel declared after Jesus' resurrection, our main sources are Acts and the letters of Paul
Mercy - It is this kind of imprint on the heart that made mercy a common wish and blessing of one believer to another (2 Timothy 1:16,18 ), and in some cases the opening greetings of letters included the wish for mercy (1 Timothy 1:2 ; 2 Timothy 1:2 ; 2 John 3 ; Jude 2 ; cf
Jude Epistle of - The problem in some respects hangs together with that presented by other descriptions of false teaching which we find in the NT, especially in the Epistle to the Colossians, the Pastoral Epistles, the letters to the Seven Churches, and the Epistles of John (q
Popery - Middleton's letters from Rome; Stevenson's Historical and Critical View of some of the Doctrines of the Church of Rome
Good - Paul’s counsels and commands even in his letters show that this end of the Law was ideal rather than actual
Games - ...
This being the case, it is all the more surprising to find that metaphors and similes drawn from the sphere of athletics should, enter so largely into the language of the NT, in particular into the letters of St
Constantius ii, Son of Constantius - Athanasius to return to his see, which Athanasius did in 346, after a curious interview with the emperor at Antioch (see the letters in Socr
Vincentius Lirinensis - The West was represented by letters of Felix and of Julius, bps
Mss - The number of them is a little over 40, and they are habitually indicated by the small letters of the Latin alphabet. Coptic is the literary form of the vernacular language of Egypt, the descendant of the ancient tongue which we know first in its hieroglyphic, and later in its demotic form, but differing from them in adopting the Greek alphabet, with the addition of certain letters to represent sounds not employed in Greek
Samaria, Samaritans - The Samaritans claim that it was written by Abishua the son of Phineas, thirteen years after the settlement of the land; but this is incredible, though they show an acrostic made by the thickening of certain letters in the roll itself as proof. The writing is small, and the letters are of the oldest Samaritan type
Canon of the New Testament - The very earliest reading of NT books in the churches must have occurred in the case of epistles addressed to particular churches, which of course were read in those churches; next come the circular letters ( e. Athanasius in one of his Festal letters (a
Christ in Art - ’ Some of the sacred monograms are really contractions; for instance, the familiar ΙΗϹ and ΧΡϹ are the first two and the last letters of ΙΗϹΟΥϹ and ΧΡΙϹΤΟϹ, just as MR stands for MARTYR, or DO for DOMINO; contractions of this sort were extremely common in sepulchral inscriptions (e. It is often surrounded by a wreath, and often has the A and Ω on either side to mark the divinity of our Lord; in a 4th cent, lead coffin from Saida in Phœnicia, the letters of the old symbol ΙΧΘΥϹ he between the arms of the monogram
Jerusalem - We do not touch solid ground till some eight or nine hundred years later, when, about 1450, we find ‘Abd-khiba, king of Urusalim , sending letters to his Egyptian over-lord, which were discovered with the Tell el-Amarna correspondence. The contents of these letters are the usual meagre record of mutual squabbles between the different village communities of Palestine, and to some extent they raise questions rather than answer them
Messiah - in letters of gold, and made for him in the wall a crown: they attributed the same titles and prophecies to him which we apply to our Saviour. During these things, the Jews, instead of minding their trade and traffic, filled their letters with news of Sabatai their Messias, and his wonderful works
Augustine - Augustine was a diligent man in the sacred calling; and that the office of a bishop even in that age of the church was no sinecure, is evident from several notices in his letters. He sometimes wrote letters, when desired, on temporal subjects; but looked upon all this as unprofitable occupation, which drew him aside from that which was better and more agreeable to himself
Paul - These letters furnish evidence of the soundness and sobriety of his judgment. His letters, indeed, every where discover great zeal and earnestness in the cause in which he was engaged; that is to say, he was convinced of the truth of what he taught; he was deeply impressed, but not more so than the occasion merited, with a sense of its importance
Montanus - ...
Were the Gallic churches consulted by the orthodox, by the Montanists, or by both? and what answer did the Gallic Christians give? Eusebius only tells us that their judgment was pious and most orthodox, and that they subjoined letters which those who afterwards suffered martyrdom wrote while yet in prison to the brethren in Asia and Phrygia and also to Eleutherus, bp. He was therefore either received into communion, or was about to be so and to obtain authority to report to his churches in Asia that their commendatory letters were recognized at Rome, when the arrival of another Asiatic, Praxeas, changed the scene
Valentinus, Founder of a Gnostic Sect - They consist of fragments of letters and homilies preserved by Clemens Alexandrinus (Strom. Moreover, the kinds of literature to which these fragments belong—letters, homilies, hymns—shew us only the outer side of the system, while its secret Gnostic doctrine is passed over and concealed, or only indicated in the obscurest manner
Discipline - The notions of self-searching censure and eagerness to effect heartfelt reconciliation, practically nonexistent in Qumran and rabbinic sources, are pervasive in Paul's letters
Corinth - ), as also the opposition of Judaizing teachers who boasted of having "letters of commendation" from Jerusalem the metropolis of the faith, caused the apostle anxiety
Egypt - Documents from Akhetaton, the Amarna letters, represent diplomatic correspondence between local rulers in Egypt's sphere of influence and pharaoh's court
Repentance - Even the letters of Ignatius, though addressed to churches with whom their writer bad considerable fault to find, say nothing definite on the subject
Rufus - ...
But our Lord’s words do not exhibit that ‘moral hatred of all the visible power of the world regarded as a vast selfish manifestation and embodiment of evil,’ which finds expression in the following passage from one of the letters of Gregory vii
Baptism - The letters of the Apostles were similarly governed by the immediate occasion and purpose of their writing
Bible, Texts And Versions - The original papyrus manuscripts contained only portions of the New Testament, such as the Gospels and Acts or Paul's letters or the Revelation or some or all of the General Epistles
Moses - Paul’s own letters that within certain limits he desired the distinction made by Moses between Jew and Gentile to be maintained in his churches (cf
Esdras, the Second Book of - Direct dependence can hardly be established, yet there are similarities of thought and language to most of the NT books, while, as Gunkel has clearly shown, there are marked affinities with the Pauline letters and the Book of Revelation
Paul as Sold Under Sin - The seventh of the Romans should always be printed in letters of blood
the Angel of the Church in Smyrna - We have letters to the Editor among the resources of our civilisation
the Merchant Man Who Sold All That he Had And Bought the Pearl of Great Price - All our doctrines also of whatever kind; doctrines of science, of politics, of letters, of art, of theology, of morals-all are sound and safe for a man to go by himself, and to teach his children to go by, only in the measure that Jesus Christ is in them
the Mother of Zebedee's Children - And still the Bible is by far our finest education in morals, and in manners, and in love, and in letters, as well as in our everlasting salvation
Exorcism - The ordinary Christian practised it, Gregory Thaumaturgus even casting out devils by sending letters to the person possessed
Apostle - Paul in the address, and in both letters the first person plural is used with a regularity which is not found in any other group of the Pauline Epistles: ‘our gospel,’ i
Elesbaan, a King, Hermit, And Saint of Ethiopia - As the ambassadors drew near the king (the story is told by Simeon in a letter to the abbat of Gabula), they were met by a crowd of Arabs crying that Christ was driven out of Rome and Persia and Homeritis; and they learnt that messengers were present from Dhu Nowas with letters to king Mundhir, in which they heard the long recital of the treachery by which Negran had been taken, of the insult to the bishop's tomb, of the slaughter of the Christians and the triumph of Judaism, the confession of the martyr Arethas, and the speech of Ruma urging the women of Negran to follow her to the abiding city of the divine Bridegroom, praying that the blood of the martyrs might be the wall of Negran while it continued in the faith, and that she might be forgiven for that Arethas had died first
Assyria - It appears, from the few remains now extant of the writing of these ancient nations, that their letters had a great affinity with each other
Philippi - Ignatius’ own letters
Presence - Paul’s mention of his presence (or absence) in the letters to Philippi (Philippians 2:12), Corinth, and Thessalonica
Prosper, Saint, a Native of Aquitaine - He now wrote again to him in 428, as also did Hilary, and his reply to these letters is contained in the consecutive treatises de Praedestinatione Sanctorum and de Dono Perseverantiae , written either in 428 or 429 (see Aug
Rufus - ...
But our Lord’s words do not exhibit that ‘moral hatred of all the visible power of the world regarded as a vast selfish manifestation and embodiment of evil,’ which finds expression in the following passage from one of the letters of Gregory vii
Reformation - seemed to show less reluctance to the assembling a general council, and, in the year 1535, expressed his inclination to convoke one at Mantua; and, in the year following, actually sent circular letters for that purpose through all the states and kingdoms under his jurisdiction. persisted in his purpose, and issued out his circular letters for the convocation of the council, with the approbation of the emperor
Hosius (1), a Confessor Under Maximian - 73), about 20 years later, says that the Arians thought they could condemn the teaching of the church as to the Homoousion by producing letters fraudulently procured from the venerable Hosius, stating that the substance was dissimilar. These letters were most probably spurious
Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyons - 14 and 15 are concerned with Marcus, his magic arts and theories about the symbolism of letters and numbers, concluding with a citation of some Iambic Senarii, written against him by a "Divinae aspirationis Senior et Praeco veritatis" (ὁ θεόπνευστος πρεσβύτης καὶ κήρυξ τῆς ἀληθείας ). These ecclesiastical troubles moved the man of peace, Irenaeus, to send letters of remonstrance to both Blastus and bp
Dioscorus (1), Patriarch of Alexandria - Theodosius, influenced by his wife and his chamberlain, issued letters (Mar 30, 449), ordering the chief prelates (patriarchs, as we may call them, and exarchs) to repair, with some of their bishops, to Ephesus by Aug. The magistrates asked whether the canonical letters of Cyril, recently read (i
Eusebius of Caesarea - Athanasius excused himself from attending, believing that there was a conspiracy against him, and that he would not have fair play there (Festal letters , p. letters
Eutyches And Eutychianism - Of his letters the most important is to pope Leo. Leo was not present except by his legates who brought the famous tome or doctrinal letter to Flavian and letters to the emperor the archimandrites the council and others
Bible - But, among the ancient Jews, they formed only twenty-two books, according to the letters of their alphabet, which were twenty-two in number; reckoning Judges and Ruth, Ezra and Nehemiah, Jeremiah and his Lamentations, and the twelve minor prophets, (so called from the comparative brevity of their compositions,) respectively as one book. The Christian fathers too, Origen, Athanasius, Hilary, Gregory, Nazianzen, Epiphanius, and Jerom, speaking of the books that are allowed by the Jews as sacred and canonical, agree in saying that they are the same in number with the letters in the Hebrew alphabet, that is, twenty-two, and reckon particularly those books which we have already mentioned
Nestorius And Nestorianism - Cyril and Theodoret, who were actively engaged in the controversy, have left abundant details of what took place; their own letters are especially valuable, and with the writings of Theodoret are pub. a collection of important letters from most of the principal persons concerned in it
Pelagianism And Pelagius - A synod at Mileum in Numidia in 416, attended by 61 bishops, wrote a letter to Innocent to the same effect, and with these two synodical letters was sent a letter from Augustine and four brother-bishops, Aurelius, Alypius, Evodius, and Possidius, in which they sought to discount the acquittal of Pelagius in the East at Diospolis by saying that the result had only been obtained by the accused concealing his real sentiments and acknowledging the orthodox faith in ambiguous language, calculated to deceive the Eastern prelates, ignorant as they were of the full force of Latin words, and at the mercy of an interpreter. Innocent answered this threefold appeal in three letters written Jan
Nehemiah - Artaxerxes, "according to the good hand of Nehemiah's God upon him," granted him leave to go to Jerusalem for a time, and letters to the provincial governors beyond the Euphrates to convey him forward, and to Asaph to supply timber for the palace gates, etc
Ezra, the Book of - So the letters and royal decrees in the first Chaldee portion, Ezra 4:8-6:18; and Artaxerxes' edict, the second Chaldee portion, Ezra 7:12-26
Paul Apprehended of Christ Jesus - " And thus it was that Saul actually went to the high priest in Jerusalem, and desired of him letters to Damascus, to the synagogues, that if he found any of this way, whether they were men or women, he might bring them bound to Jerusalem
Scripture (2) - Peter seems to say that the unlearned and unstable of course wrested the hard sayings of Paul’s letters as they were accustomed to wrest τὰς λοιπὰς γραφάς, i
Corinthians, Second Epistle to - Recent attempts to separate it into two letters and to identify one of them (chs
Old Testament in the New Testament, the - Hayes, Echoes of Scripture in the letters of Paul ; K
the Prodigal Son - Engrave these words in letters of gold
Shimei - Samuel Rutherford, for example, comes often upon it in his letters and in all his books
Christian (the Name) - Luke 6:22, John 16:2), together with Pliny’s letters (Epp
the Man Who Cast Seed Into the Round And it Grew up he Knew Not How - Enough, if, when we are no longer here to enjoy such masterpieces with them, they are by that time discovering the hid treasure, say, of Rutherford's letters, and Guthrie's Saving Interest, and Baxter's Saint's Rest, and Marshall's Gospel Mystery, and William Law's immortal treatises, and are winding up every night with Bishop Andrewes's Private Devotions
the Sower Who Went Forth to Sow - All last summer, every Monday, I got letters full of joy over the preaching that had been provided in this pulpit
the Queen of Sheba - The Name of the Lord is written all over Moses and David and Isaiah in letters of gold, a finger deep
Apocrypha - It is prefaced by two letters said to have been sent from the Jews of Jerusalem to the Jews of Egypt
Wealth - A key theme in several letters is the collection for the poor Christians in Judea, based in part on a sense of indebtedness to the mother church there (Romans 15:25-27 )
Pentateuch - The Greek alphabet borrows its names of letters and order from the Semitic; those names have a meaning in Semitic, none in Greek Tradition made Cadmus ("the Eastern") introduce them into Greece from Phoenicia ( Josiah - The finding of the law was, no doubt, a great event in sacred archæology, as well as in sacred letters, to Shaphan and Hilkiah; but it did not come home to their hearts as it all came home to Josiah's heart
Oaths - ’ An oath by heaven and earth, for instance, was not considered to be binding, because one did not require to think of the Creator; whereas if one swore by one of the letters of the Divine name, or by one of the Divine attributes, that was regarded as binding, and he who treated such an oath lightly was punishable (Wünsche, op
Mahometanism - ...
In the seventh year of the Hegira, Mahomet began to think of propagating his religion, beyond the bounds of Arabia, and sent messengers to the neighbouring princes, with letters to invite them to Mahometanism. He also sent letters of the like purport to several Arab princes; particularly one to Al Hareth Ebn Abi Shamer, king of Ghassan, who returning for answer that he would go to Mahomet himself, the prophet said, May his kingdom perish; another to Hawdha Ebn Ali, king of Yamama, who was a Christian, and, having sometime before professed Islamism, had lately returned to his former faith: this prince sent back a very rough answer, upon which Mahomet cursing him, he died soon after; and a third to Al Mondar Ebn Sawa, king of Bahrein, who embraced Mahometanism, and all the Arabs of that country followed his example
Greece, Religion And Society of - Engineers, craftsmen, historians, men of letters—all traveled with his army
Seceders - Addresses, representations, and letters from several synods and presbyteries, relative to the business now before the commission, were received and read
Ethics - All other biblical texts—the narratives of wrongdoing, the collection of Proverbs, the personal requests of letters—all contribute to our knowledge of biblical ethics
Winter - 1 Corinthians 12:8) is conceded to his letters in 2 Peter 3:15
God, Names of - yhwh, the tetragrammaton because of its four letters, is, strictly speaking, the only proper name for God
Gifts - To Diotrephes the Ephesian John is a charismatic itinerant preacher, whose letters must be withheld from the Church and whose messengers must not be welcomed
Beda, Historian - ...
(3) letters: de Sex Aetatibus; de Mansionibus filiorum Israel; de eo quod ait Esaias " et claudentur, etc
Gregorius (32) Turonensis, Bishop of Tours - He brought letters from several bishops, but none from queen Fredegund, his principal enemy, and when Gregory wrote to her, she asked Gregory to postpone receiving back Leudastes into communion till further inquiry had been made
Philip: Deacon And Evangelist - ' "How can I?" said the humble-minded eunuch, "except some man should guide me?" Now, we all think, because we know the letters of it, and are familiar with the sounds of it, that we understand the Bible: Isaiah, and John, and Paul
the Man Which Sowed Good Seed in His Field But His Enemy Came And Sowed Tares Among the Wheat - Only, may you and I be judged more tenderly and forgivingly by Him on that day than we have many a time judged other erring men!...
The whole field of letters, also, is more or less like this husbandman's tare-tangled field
Will of God - Nearly all of his letters emphasize that it was God's will that established him in his ministry (1 Corinthians 1:1 ; 2 Corinthians 1:1 ; Ephesians 1:1 ; Colossians 1:1 ; 2 Timothy 1:1 ; cf
Mephibosheth - ' And though you will not easily believe it, the author of that letter himself has enough of Jonathan's crippled and disinherited son still in himself to give a tang of remorse to some of his very best letters
Scripture - These instances could be multiplied many times, from the discoveries at Tanis, Lachish, Nineveh, Memphis, and from the recovery of inscriptions and letters, and from the mummies of the Pharaohs, of priests, and princes, almost without number
Pentateuch - In the process of copying, the shape of the letters was completely changed
Poetry - They had special names for ‘proverb’ and ‘song’ ; they provided the Psalms with headings, some of which must have been musical directions; they made alphabetical poems, the several lines or stanzas of which begin with the letters of the alphabet in regular order
Predestination - ‘I could no more,’ says Erskine of Linlathen, writing to Thomas Chalmers from Herrnhut (Letters, 1800-1840, ed
Church, the - First, predominantly ekklesia [ Acts 8:3 ; 9:31 ; 1 Corinthians 12:28 ; 15:9 ; especially in the later Pauline letters, Ephesians 1:22-23 ; 1 Timothy 2:1-21 )
Hannah - For days and weeks she would be able in the strength of the Shiloh meat to teach them their letters and to play with Peninnah's children better than if they had been Elkanah's and her own
Canaan - sent three letters to the Canaanites, before the Israelites invaded it, proposing three things: Let those who choose to fly, fly; let those who choose peace, enter into treaty; let those who choose war, take up arms
Bible - The first three, from their initial letters, were called meth , "truth
Philippians, Theology of - And yet Paul, whose mind is filled with thoughts of God, Christ, the Spirit, salvation, resurrection, and the new world to come, cannot write even the briefest of letters without thinking and writing theologically
Jerusalem - The Amarna letters from Late Bronze Age Egypt (fourteenth century b
Helena, Saint, Mother of Constantine the Great - 57), and is supported (whatever the support may be worth) by the probably spurious letters preserved in the Acts of St
Solomon - Bacon's Essays are our English Book of Proverbs, and an English Ecclesiastes could easily be collected out of Bacon's letters and Speeches
Ahithophel - Pray, lest the newspaper run blood on your hands some morning, as the letters from Giloh ran Ahithophel's blood on David's hands
Pronunciation of Proper Names - Let the reader ascertain in all doubtful cases the form and pronunciation of the name in the original,* Theophilus, Bishop of Alexandria - 39); and his so-called mediation only produced a soreness on Theophilus's part towards Jerome, whose letters for some time he ignored
Timothy, First And Second, Theology of - In both of the letters to Timothy, his salutations mention God the Father and God the Son, but do not include God the Spirit
Christianity - The word does not occur in the NT, however, and first makes its appearance in the letters of Ignatius early in the 2nd century
Restoration - 193–204 for citation of divines, ancient and modern, in favour of Restoration); letters of Erskine of Linlathen—one on ‘Final Salvation of all
Galatians, Epistle to the - Paul kept a copy of his letters, he might well have elaborated his hastily sketched argument in Galatians into the treatise in Romans, at some little interval of time
Gospel - Through all his letters, the contrast between Law and gospel as mutually exclusive is developed in the antitheses, law and faith, works and grace, wages and free gift-‘Ye are severed from Christ, ye who would be justified by the law; ye are fallen away from grace’ (Galatians 5:4)
Solomon - ...
The Tyrian historians on whom Dius and Menander base their histories (Josephus, Apion 1:17) confirm Hiram's connection with Solomon, and state that letters between them were preserved in the Tyrian archives and fix the date as at the close of the 11th century B
Doctrines - ’ With reference to the subject-matter of His teaching it occurs in the answer of Jesus to the question of the Pharisees (John 7:15; John 7:17), ‘How knoweth this man letters (γραμματα), having never learned?’ The question refers to learning as it was understood by the scribes, that is, as theological science, those methods of Biblical interpretation in virtue of which they themselves were called scribes (γραμματεὶς), i
Isidorus, Archbaptist of Seville - ...
(14) Thirteen short letters follow: to bp
Ebionism And Ebionites - " It was a Chaldee version written in Hebrew letters, afterwards translated into Greek and Latin by Jerome, who declared it identical with the "gospel of the Twelve Apostles" and the "gospel of the Nazarenes" (see Herzog, Real-Encyklopädie , "Apokryphen d
Aaron - Let all our young orators, and, especially, let all our sacred and Aaronic orators, study the delightful Institutes, that perfect treasure-house of ancient letters, ancient wisdom, and ancient truth and beauty
Balaam - A ribbon, a tassel, a shoulder-knot, a rosette, a garter, a feather, two or three empty letters before or after an equally empty name, and the fish is yours
Jesuits - The "Provincial letters of Pascal" had been published, in which the quibbling morality and unintelligible metaphysics of the Jesuits were exposed in a strain of inimitable humour, and a style of unrivalled elegance
Antiochus - Antiochus Theos, to strengthen himself in his new acquisition, sent letters to Jonathan Maccabaeus, high priest and prince of the Jews, confirming him in the high priesthood, and granting him four toparchies, or four considerable places, in Judea
Heaven - Paul’s letters
Philo - 1) is a legend of the same kind as the legends of an exchange of letters between St
Synagogue - The term מְלֵאֲתִי (= 481, being the numerical value of the letters) in Isaiah 1:21 causes the Haggâdist to speak of 480 synagogues which Jerusalem had besides the Temple (Jer
Magic, Divination, And Sorcery - So celebrated was Ephesus for its magic, that ‘Ephesian letters’ was a common name for amulets made of leather, wood, or metal on which a magic spell was written (Farrar, St
Trade And Commerce - The right of coining gold and silver in Rome was reserved to the Emperor, but the senate was authorized to issue copper and brass coins, with the letters SC (= senatus consulto) stamped on them
Wisdom of Solomon - In 12:22, ἡμᾶς οὖν παιδεύων τοὑς ἐχθροὺς ἡμῶν ἐν μυριότητι μαστιγοῖς, the sense required by the argument is ‘in order to teach us Thou dost chastise our enemies with leniency’; ἐν μυριότητι, ‘in ten-thousand-ness,’ is apparently a mistranslation of some Hebrew word which seemed to be an abstract noun from øáåà or øááä, but it is not clear what; possibly îøôà read îøáà, since these letters are confused in many scripts
Hellenistic And Biblical Greek - , the documents of the Pergamenian State and the sepulchral inscriptions of the common people; or, again, between the records of the Egyptian government-offices and the letters written by simple folk
Metaphor - ‘The reader who passes from the early traditions of the life of Jesus to the letters of the apostle Paul feels himself at once in another atmosphere
Barnabas, Epistle of - " It is true that it is difficult to conceive how such a one could find in the numeral letters of the Greek version of the O
Bethlehem - Even earlier than Justin’s day it would appear that this particular cave was venerated by the followers of Christ; for, as Jerome tells in one of his letters to Paulinus, the emperor Hadrian (a
Anger - 21-23; Tolstoi, Essays and letters, ch
Peter, First Epistle of - The more or less obvious relations of Ephesians with 1Peter ( 1Pe 1:3-5 ; 1 Peter 1:7 ; 1 Peter 1:9 , Ephesians 1:3-14 ; 1 Peter 1:12 , 1638902384_98 ; Ephesians 3:10 ; 1 Peter 2:4-8 , Ephesians 2:18-22 ; 1 Peter 2:18 , Ephesians 6:5 ; 1 Peter 3:1-7 , Ephesians 5:22-33 ; 1 Peter 3:22 , 1 Peter 4:7 ) justify the opinion that ‘the authors of both letters breathed the same atmosphere’ (v
Romans, Theology of - Since Paul's theological agendas usually deal with recurring problems in churches then and now, his letters, originally addressed to specific occasions, providentially take on the nature of general pastoral epistles that are relevant to every age
James And John, the Sons of Zebedee - The silence of the Ignatian letters is more significant
Childhood - In the stories, again, relating to His early education, Jesus is represented as being un enfant terrible to more than one master to whom He was sent to learn His letters
Paul - unto strange cities," and "breathing out threatenings and slaughter," he was on his journey to Damascus with authoritative letters from the high priest empowering him to arrest and bring to Jerusalem all such, trusting doubtless that the pagan governor would not interpose in their behalf
Oracle - In several places, the oracles were given by letters sealed up, as in that of Mopsus, and at Mallus in Cilicia
Adam - The Jews think that he wrote the ninety-first Psalm, invented the Hebrew letters, and composed several treatises; the Arabians, that he preserved twenty books which fell from heaven; and the Musselmen, that he himself wrote ten volumes
Parousia - The interval is very short, but it is possible that between the two letters the Apostle had grasped more clearly the consequences of his own reasoning in ch
Nestorian Church - , letters (ed
Novatianus And Novatianism - 2) and dispatching letters and emissaries to the most distant parts of the East and West (Socr
Money - The legends in old Hebrew letters on the shekels are: obv
Resurrection - In the first of the two letters addressed to this Church he establishes the fact of the resurrection of Jesus, by revealing its harmony with the Divine plan set forth to the Jews in the OT, and showing that it was attested by numerous witnesses of His post-resurrection existence
Temple - where the foundations rest on the rock itself, are pronounced by Deutseh to have been cut or painted when the stones were first laid in their present places, and to be Phoenician letters, numerals, and masons' quarry signs; some are well known Phoenician characters, others such as occur in the primitive substructions of the Sidon harbour
God - ’ The expression ‘Tetragrammaton’ is used for the four consonants of the sacred name, YHWH, which appears in Greek capital letters as Pipi , owing to the similarity of the Greek capital p to the Hebrew h , and the Greek capital i to the Hebrew y and w Sin - Paul knows from his own personal experience a complete remedy for the universal fatal disease of sin; and all that in his letters he presents regarding this subject is presented that he may commend the gospel to men, as the sole, sufficient, Divine provision for the universal dominant human necessity
Hebrews Epistle to the - We do not find, as is sometimes the case in the Pauline letters, several distinct ideas all struggling for expression at the same time
Heaven - Paul’s letters
Hellenism - The writing becomes more popular in form as well as in contents: romance and novel attain to a large circulation; there is a demand for biography, special history, travellers’ guide-books, and the like; many subjects are treated in the form of letters
Boyhood - The letters are first taught by tracing with a stick in sand
Job - 1400 (Tell el-Amarna letters, No
Barnabas, Epistle of - So be revealeth Jesus in the two letters and in the remaining one the Cross’ (ix
Acts of the Apostles (Apocryphal) - He also expressed himself further in his letters to Idacius and Creponius, and apparently annexed a selection of heretical passages from the Apocryphal Acts to justify his disapproval
Methodists - These tickets are in some respects analogous to the tesserae of the ancients, and answer all the purposes of the commendatory letters spoken of by the Apostle
Trade And Commerce - The right of coining gold and silver in Rome was reserved to the Emperor, but the senate was authorized to issue copper and brass coins, with the letters SC (= senatus consulto) stamped on them
Peter Epistles of - It will also be convenient to treat the two letters separately
Atonement - Paul’s view of atonement would naturally be sought in his preaching during the fifteen or more years before he wrote the letters in which he sets forth more deliberately and with obvious carefulness his matured doctrinal judgments
Babel - At the close of the earlier and the beginning of the later Assyrian dynasties it again rose to the importance which it had when it colonized and gave letters and the arts to Assyria, and had the supremacy during the second or great Chaldean dynasty
Roads And Travel - ...
From Cicero’s letters we are able to reconstruct some of his itineraries in the middle of the 1st cent
Egypt - The authorities for Egyptian history are...
(1) the monuments;...
(2) the papyri (the reading of hieroglyphics having been discovered by Young and Champollion from the trilingual inscription, hieroglyphics, enchorial or common Egyptian letters, and Greek, in honor of Ptolemy Epiphanes, on the Rosetta stone);...
(3) the Egyptian priest Manetho's fragments in Josephus, containing the regal list beginning with gods and continued through 30 dynasties of mortals, from Menes to Nectanebo, 343 B
Jerusalem - -Two forms occur in the NT: (a) Ιερουσαλήμ, the ‘genuinely national form,’ ‘hieratic and Hebraising,’ used ‘where a certain sacred significance is intended, or in solemn appeals’; it occurs forty times in Acts, and is also found in the letters of St
Josephus - -Our estimate of the historic reliability of Josephus, despite the personal attestation of Titus and the sixty-two commendatory letters of Agrippa ii
John (the Apostle) - The seven letters in the Apocalypse enable us to see what ceaseless vigilance and intelligent care were needed to protect these Churches from error in doctrine, and to keep them faithful in life
Socialism - See also Kingsley’s letters and Life
Victorinus Afer - He was a celebrated man of letters and rhetorician in Rome in the middle of 4th cent
Vulgate - The English MSS excel their French successors in elaboration and skill of workmanship; but the French books have an added gorgeousness from the lavish use of gold, the whole of the text being written in gold letters, sometimes upon purple vellum
Rome - The letters show a great resemblance to those of the Greek alphabet, from which the Latin alphabet is admittedly derived
John, Gospel of (Critical) - He makes appeal in another writing, de Praescriptione Haereticorum, to the testimony of those Churches that were founded by Apostles, or to whom Apostles declared their mind in letters
Augustinus, Aurelius - These were the three books contra Academicos two de Ordine the de Beata Vita and two books of Soliloquies; to this period also belong letters 1–4 of which 3 and 4 are the beginning of his correspondence with Nebridius (Conf
Basilius, Bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia - We have as many as six letters from Basil to Modestus in favour of different individuals (Bas
Christ in Modern Thought - It carries to their ultimate result the tendencies that produced the Reformation and the Revival of letters
Christianity - Paul’s letters, was fundamental and vital; the very existence of Christianity was at stake
Fact And Theory - The whole of the Pauline letters are occupied to a large extent with the interpretation of the facts of our Lord’s Incarnation, Death, and Resurrection
Chrysostom, John, Bishop of Constantinople - He addressed two letters to him full of impassioned eloquence, earnestly calling him to penitence and amendment
Jews - They have counted not only the large and small sections, the verses and the words, but even the letters in some of the books; and they have likewise reckoned which is the middle letter of the Pentateuch, which is the middle clause of each book, and how often each letter of the alphabet occurs in the Hebrew Scriptures
Egypt - The cuneiform letters found in the ruins of his newfangled capital at el-Amarna show us his distracted agents and vassals in Syria appealing to him in vain for support against the intrigues and onslaughts of rebels and Invaders
Teaching of the Twelve Apostles - Harnack has given good reasons for thinking that the same forger manipulated the Didaché and the Ignatian letters, and that his work may have been as early as a
Odes of Solomon - It is written in Syro-Occidental letters, and its editor tells us that it came from the valley of the Tigris, in Northern Mesopotamia
Paul (2) - The letters of St
Tertullianus, Quintus Septimius Florens - It is stamped in letters of blood upon his pages