What does Copied mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
הֶ֝עְתִּ֗יקוּ to move 1

Definitions Related to copied

H6275


   1 to move, proceed, advance, move on, become old, be removed.
      1a (Qal).
         1a1 to move.
         1a2 to advance (in years), grow old and weak.
      1b (Hiphil).
         1b1 to move forward, proceed, move on.
         1b2 to remove.
         1b3 to transcribe.
         

Frequency of copied (original languages)

Frequency of copied (English)

Dictionary

King James Dictionary - copied
COPIED, pp. See Copy. Taken off written or transcribed from an original or form imitated.
Webster's Dictionary - copied
(imp. & p. p.) of Copy

Sentence search

Prototype - ) An original or model after which anything is copied; the pattern of anything to be engraved, or otherwise copied, cast, or the like; a primary form; exemplar; archetype
Ectypal - ) copied, reproduced as a molding or cast, in contradistinction from the original model
Copied - copied, pp
Excerpt - ) An extract; a passage selected or copied from a book or record
Mechanographic - ) Written, copied, or recorded by machinery; produced by mechanography; as, a mechanographic record of changes of temperature; mechanographic prints
Exemplar - ) A model, original, or pattern, to be copied or imitated; a specimen; sometimes; an ideal model or type, as that which an artist conceives
Battlement - At first purely a military feature, afterwards copied on a smaller scale with decorative features, as for churches
Portraiture - ) A portrait; a likeness; a painted resemblance; hence, that which is copied from some example or model
Mash - The name is copied as Meshech in 1 Chronicles 1:17
Tishbite - " Josephus has "of Thesbon, a country in Gilead," probably copied from the LXX
Lawyers - Lawyers, Luke 7:30, called also "doctors of the law," Luke 5:17, among the Hebrews, were not pleaders before a court, but expounders of the Mosaic and priestly law, and copied it, so that it is not certain what was the difference between a lawyer and a scribe
Iim - Many Bible students think a copyist copied parts of the following Ezem twice
Chevet - An example of this is the Basilica of Saint Martin, Tours, from which others have been copied
Architecture, Renaissance - A transitional style, which originated in the 15th century in Italy and was copied nearly a century later by France, Germany, and Spain
Renaissance Architecture - A transitional style, which originated in the 15th century in Italy and was copied nearly a century later by France, Germany, and Spain
Dial - As Ahaz copied the altar at Damascus (2 Kings 16:7; 2 Kings 16:10) so he probably copied the sun dial 700 B
Hara - The scribe copying Chronicles may have copied part of the Hebrew word for either Habor or for river a second time in a way later generations made into the name Hara
Chemosh - In times of religious corruption, Israel copied Moabite religious practices (Judges 10:6; 1 Kings 11:7; 1 Kings 11:33), and in times of reformation got rid of them (2 Kings 23:13)
Gregorian Sacramentary - The book was copied many times so that there are many versions of it, each containing the additions made by the various scribes
Sacramentary, Gregorian - The book was copied many times so that there are many versions of it, each containing the additions made by the various scribes
Iconostasis - The open form of screen which adorned Saint Sophia was copied by other churches
Pomegranates, Rimmon - It was represented alternately with bells, at the bottom of the high priest's robe, as a type of fruitfulness, and was copied as an ornament on the columns of Solomon's temple
Tirhakah - His name and victories are recorded on an ancient temple at Medinet Abou, in upper Egypt; whence also the representation above given of his head was copied by Rosselini
Frogs - Ζeparda' ; only found in Exodus and the psalms copied from it
Idea - ) A fiction object or picture created by the imagination; the same when proposed as a pattern to be copied, or a standard to be reached; one of the archetypes or patterns of created things, conceived by the Platonists to have excited objectively from eternity in the mind of the Deity
Original - ) Not copied, imitated, or translated; new; fresh; genuine; as, an original thought; an original process; the original text of Scripture
Heber - Commentators generally change the text or consider that some words have fallen out of the text as it was copied
Mourning - For Asa and Zedekiah there was 'great burning' of odours at their death, which was most probably copied from the heathen
Candlestick - This was earned to Rome, on the destruction of Jerusalem, and copied on the triumphal arch of Titus, where its mutilated image is yet to be seen
Pattern - ) Anything proposed for imitation; an archetype; an exemplar; that which is to be, or is worthy to be, copied or imitated; as, a pattern of a machine
Candlestick - This was carried to Rome, on the destruction of Jerusalem; it was lodged in Vespasian's temple to Peace, and copied on the triumphal arch of Titus, where its mutilated image is yet to be seen
Ibleam - A copyist may have copied the name from Joshua 21:24 into Joshua 21:25
Kere-Kethib - They may have been early attempts to correct a text known to be wrongly copied
Pomegranate - The pomegranate ( Punica granatum ) is one of the familiar fruit trees of the OT; it is usually a shrub, hut may attain the height of a tree ( 1 Samuel 14:2 ); it was much admired for its beauty ( Song of Solomon 4:3 ; Song of Solomon 6:11 ), and its flower was copied in ornamentation ( Exodus 28:33 , 1 Kings 7:13 )
Nazareth - In 1909 explorations below and about it revealed the plans of the ancient basilica of Constantine, which the Crusaders copied
Boanerges - This word is neither Hebrew nor Syriac, and some have thought that the transcribers have not exactly copied it, and that the word was benereen βενερεεν , which expresses the sound of the Hebrew of the phrase, "sons of thunder
Shalmaneser - The bas- relief copied in the next page was found on a fine Assyrian obelisk of black marble, six and a half feet high, and covered on all sides with inscriptions
Proverbs Book of - 25-31, comprising (1) a collection of Solomon's proverbs which Hezekiah's servants copied out, chaps
Theodorus Lector - It was copied by Leo Allatius, but not published
Manuscripts, Illuminated - A new school in the 14th century introduced garlands copied from nature and scenes from life
Metal-Work in the Service of the Church - For a long time the Gothic forms persisted, but the ornament was copied from antique models
Illuminated Manuscripts - A new school in the 14th century introduced garlands copied from nature and scenes from life
Assyria - ), greatest of all Assyrian kings, to whom we owe part of our knowledge of Assyro-Babylonian history, as he caused the most important historical texts and inscriptions to be copied and placed in a fine library which he built in his palace
Copy - The men of Hezekiah copied certain proverbs of Solomon
Express - copied resembling bearing an exact representation
Kings, First And Second Book of - adds "Commonly called the 'Third Book' and 'Fourth Book' of the Kings" (copied probably from the LXX or the Vulgate, for this addition is not in the Hebrew), the two books of Samuel being the First and Second
Abiathar - Or a copyist of the Gospel of Mark may have copied the text wrong
Edesius - This narrative has been copied, with slight deviations, by Socrates ( H
Daniel, Book of - Paul, who have copied his prophecies; of the Jewish church and nation, who have constantly received this book as canonical; of Josephus, who recommends him as the greatest of the prophets; and of the Jewish Targets and Talmuds, which frequently cite his authority
Genesis, Book of - ' See ADAM...
A vast amount of learned labour has been lost in trying to account for the name of 'God' in Genesis 1 and 'Jehovah God' in Genesis 2 , often ending with the conclusion that Moses must have had two or more earlier accounts of the creation before him — one called the Elohistic (which used the name of God) and the other the Jehovistic (which had Jehovah God), and that he copied first a piece of the one, and then a piece of the other. ) The theory of Moses having copied from various documents, is carried all through the Pentateuch, and with many it has issued in the very sad result of undermining the inspiration of scripture, and attributing to the Lord, when He speaks of Moses having written the law, the use of the common tradition though it was not true!...
Sin soon came in, and man, after hiding himself from God, was under sentence of death, and was driven out of Eden lest he should eat of the tree of life and live for ever in his sin
Serjeants Lictors - The constitution of Rome was copied in coloniae, which were in theory parts of Rome itself
Concordances - Cruden’s is truly a marvellous work, and was frequently copied, without acknowledgment, in subsequent productions
Dead Sea Scrolls - These were composed or copied between 200 B
Deacon - The church naturally copied from it
Gentile - The Gentiles, whose ways Israel had copied, then became the means God used to punish Israel (Judges 2:20-23; Isaiah 10:5-6)
Judah - It may be that a copyist confused Jordan and Judah, which resemble one another in appearance in Hebrew writing, and miscopied Jordan as Judah and then copied Jordan
Prov'Erbs, Book of - 25-29, which, according to the superscription, professes to be collection of Solomon's proverbs, consisting of single sentences, which the men of the court of Hezekiah copied out
Daniel - John, who have copied many of his prophecies; and of our Saviour himself, who cites his words, and styles him "Daniel the prophet
Chariot - ]'>[2] , although they are termed by the Hebrew historian ‘chariots of the sun’ (2 Kings 23:11 ), their installation having been copied from the Babylonian custom of representing Shamash, the sun-god, riding in a chariot
Ceremony - of the present Romans, he shows, are all copied from their heathen ancestors
Tongues - Like all the gifts of the Spirit, the gift of tongues was given to only some in the church, and it could be wrongly used or falsely copied (1 Corinthians 12:3; 1 Corinthians 12:7; 1 Corinthians 12:10; 1 Corinthians 12:30; 1 Corinthians 13:1)
Tiglath Pileser - " Probably it was an Assyrian altar which Ahaz copied, as a formal recognition of the gods of the sovereign nation (which required subject kings to set up in their capital "the laws of Asshur"), and a token of submission: the visit of Ahaz to Damascus (where "he saw the altar") "to meet king Tiglath Pileser" accords with Tiglath Pileser's inscription that before quitting Syria he held his court at Damascus, and there received submission and tribute from the neighbouring sovereigns, among whom he mentions Pekah and Jahu-Khaz (Ahaz) of Judah
Hagar - It was punished by consequent family disquiet, and the bad example copied by the Ishmaelites has proved morally and physically a curse to the race
Cassianus, Julius, a Heretical Teacher - 21 copied by Eusebius Praep
Maximinus ii., Emperor - 7) copied from a pillar in Tyre, were issued, ascribing the famines, earthquakes, and pestilences to the wrath of the gods at the spread of the creed which was denounced as atheistic, and decreeing, at the alleged request of the Syrians themselves, perpetual banishment against all who adhered to their denial of the state religion
Gospel - ...
There appears to be valid objection to the idea entertained by many, that the evangelists copied from each other or from an earlier and fuller gospel
Bishop, Elder, Presbyter - Each may be (1) copied from Jewish synagogue officials, or (2) copied from Gentile municipal officials, or (3) due to spontaneous production
Balaam - "It abounds," says he, "in splendid imagery, copied immediately from the tablet of nature; and is chiefly conspicuous for the glowing elegance of the style and the form and diversity of the figures
Marcus, a Gnostic - 34) have copied the account from Irenaeus; and there seems no good reason to think that either had any direct knowledge of the writings of Marcus
Various Readings - This is not to be wondered at when we consider how difficult it is for lengthy subjects to be copied without mistakes being made; and if they are not discovered and rectified, it can easily be understood how the errors would increase — each copyist adding to the list. He laboured to classify the Greek MSS and arranged them in families to indicate where they had apparently been copied from one another, or had followed one recension
Obadiah - The prophecy of Obadiah is too terse and fresh and compact a whole to have been copied from Jeremiah
Medes - The Persians copied their dress, the flowing robe seen on the Persepolitan sculptures
Mansion - ’ That sense was confirmed in the language, partly by Chaucer (Knight’s Tale, 1116), but mainly by the influence of Tindale’s Version of the NT (1526), ‘In my fathers housse are many mansions,’ and (2 Corinthians 5:1) ‘Our erthy mancioun wherein we now dwell,’ copied by Milton in Il Penseroso, 92
Celsus, Polemical Adversary of Christianity - He challenges the evidence of Christianity, and asks, "Who saw the dove lighting on the head of Jesus after His baptism?" As to the Resurrection, he makes the remark which has been copied by Renan and others, that it was Mary Magdalene, "a fanatical woman," who was the first witness of the resurrection, according to all the accounts (ii
Hornet - Such undesigned coincidences are most satisfactory and convincing; they show that the poet and the naturalist both copied from nature
Proverbs, Book of - Proverbs 25:1-28 ; Proverbs 26:1-28 ; Proverbs 27:1-27 ; Proverbs 28:1-28 ; Proverbs 29:1-27 , These also are the proverbs of Solomon which the men of Hezekiah copied out
Idol, Idolatry - Because they did not know what Yahweh looked like, they copied the forms of the gods of other religions (Exodus 32:4; Deuteronomy 4:12; 1 Kings 12:28; Hosea 13:2)
Elder - The practice of appointing elders was later copied in other churches (Acts 14:23), though there is not enough information to indicate whether the form of church government was the same in all the churches
Phoenice - The northern kingdom near Phoenice was more corrupted than Judah; but Judah copied her bad example (2 Kings 17:19; Jeremiah 3:8)
Library - The excavators also recovered a table, a bench, and ink wells from the scriptorium, where the manuscripts were copied
Feet - Her feet represented her evil ways and wicked walk which still were copied by the people of Israel after she was dead
Samaritan Pentateuch - Kirchhelm observes that, in difficult readings where probably the copyist after Ezra, in transcribing from the old Samaritan characters into the modern square Hebrew letters, mistook Samaritan letters of similar form, our Samaritan Pentateuch has the same text as the Hebrew; therefore the Samaritan must be copied from a Hebrew not a Samaritan manuscript
Abercius, Bishop of Hierapolis - 216), discovered at Hiero polis, and evidently copied from the epitaph of Abercius, as given in his Life
Joannes Cappadox, Bishop of Constantinople - Justin received the pope's letters with great respect, and told the ambassadors to come to an explanation with the patriarch, who at first wished to express his adherence in the form of a letter, but agreed to write a little preface and place after it the words of Hormisdas, which he copied out in his own handwriting
Sheba - Many of the statements which have been copied from the rocks and slabs relate to war and agriculture
Philaster, Bishop of Brixia - He is now chiefly interesting as the author of a work on heresies portions of which having been copied by St
Manuscripts - The copies that have survived, however, have suffered some damage from people who have copied or used them
Interpretation - They also copied the more sober type of Haggâdic Midrashim
Philo - 11): the one must have copied the other. 350 copied the papyrus rolls of this library into parchment books
Daniel - ...
If Daniel's book had been a late one, he would have copied Berosus; if it had been at variance with that prevalent in Babylonia, the Jews there would have rejected it
Lord's Prayer - , and thence were copied into the Lukan text
Church - to stand before the congregation to minister to them; and seek ye the priesthood also?" The temple then not being the model to the Christian church, the synagogue alone remained to be copied
Education - After the letters were mastered, the teacher copied a verse which the child had already learned by heart, and taught him to identify the individual words
Teaching of the Twelve Apostles - For Barnabas's letter is of so early a date that, if we suppose him to have copied an earlier Christian document, we bring that document into the apostolic age, which would give it all the authority that has been claimed for it. If Barnabas copied the Didaché , he would have naturally included the Christian element. If Barnabas and the Didaché independently copied an originally Jewish document, the Christian elements they might add would not be likely to be the same
Genesis - Why does the biblical account follow the same basic outline of other creation and flood narratives? Has one copied the other? Does God inspire a writer to react to other literature and write the authentic version? What role does oral tradition play in one nation learning of the literature of another nation? The least that can be said is that Israel's creation and flood narratives present a consistent picture of a sovereign God concerned with and in control of all nations
Georgius (43), Patron Saint of England - Syria, copied by Burckhardt and Porter, and discussed by Mr
Luke, Gospel According to - Luke he held to have copied from the other two. No one is likely now to maintain that these ‘scraps’ were copied directly from a written St
Cosmas (3), Indian Navigator - These were copied by him from the originals at the entrance of the city of Adule an Aethiopian port on the Red Sea; the former from a wedge-shaped block of basanite or touch-stone standing behind a white marble chair dedicated to Mars and ornamented with the figures of Hercules and Mercury on which the latter inscription was engraved
Macarius Magnus, Magnes, a Writer - They do not appear to be verbally copied from him; and the Macarian objector places himself 300 years after St
New Testament - The Byzantine or Constantinopolitan mutually concur, because copied from one another; the Alexandrian have some mutual discrepancies which render their concurrence in many more passages against the received text the weightier, because they prove the absence of collusion and mutual copying. ...
Alexandria was in the early ages the center for publishing Greek manuscripts; hence, our oldest manuscripts were copied there, though the originals were written elsewhere
Text of the Gospels - The result is entirely unfavourable to the hypothesis which was mentioned as not excluded by the phenomena of the conflate readings, namely that in other cases, where the Syrian text differs from all other extant ancient texts, its authors may have copied some other equally ancient and perhaps purer text now otherwise lost’ (§ 163). Now two leaves have been lost from a MS preserved at Florence (called F), which contained exactly this passage; it is therefore beyond doubt that the Manuscripts referred to were copied from F after the loss of these leaves, and they are therefore of no value as evidence
Education - By and by wealthy Christians had Bibles copied at their own expense to be given or lent to their poorer brethren. Pamphilus, the friend of Eusebius, whose library at Caesarea was famous, had Bibles copied to keep in stock and to be given away as occasion demanded, ‘not only to men but also to women whom he saw devoted to the reading of Scripture’ (Jerome, Apol
Kings, First And Second, Theology of - Jeroboam and Ahab sinfully influenced Israel so that the people copied attributes of supplanted peoples (2 Kings 17:8,11 ), served other gods (2 Kings 17:12 ), and seduced surrounding peoples (2 Kings 17:15 )
Apocrypha - They did not attain canonical status, but some of them were cited by early Christians almost on a level with the Old Testament writings, and a few were copied in biblical manuscripts
Creation - ]'>[1] ...
We are therefore inclined to think that Ovid actually copied from the Bible; for he adopts the very order detailed by Moses
Vulgate - There is clear evidence to show that the celebrated Lindisfarne Gospels (Y in Wordsworth’s numeration) was copied from one of these MSS, and the same was probably the case with another Northern copy of the Gospels now in the British Museum (Royal 1 B vii. Amiatinus (A) itself, the best single MS of the Latin Bible in existence, was written in Northumbria before 716, and must have been copied from MSS brought from Italy either by Theodore or by Ceolfrid of Jarrow, by whose order it was made
Hieronymus, Eusebius (Jerome) Saint - 10), and Jerome obtained from one of the sect of the Nazarenes at Beroea the Gospel according to the Hebrews, which he copied, and afterwards translated into Greek and Latin (de Vir. The principles he instilled into their minds may be seen in many of his letters of this period, which were at once copied and eagerly seized both by friends and enemies
Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch - imply that the epistles of Ignatius, as known to the writer, were all comprised in what he copied. seems sometimes to preserve better the text from which it was copied
Deuteronomy, the Book of - " Υeshurun , for Israel, copied in Isaiah 44:2
Assur - He records that his mother placed him at his birth in an ark of rushes and set it afloat on the Euphrates; seemingly copied from the account of Moses
Judges, the Book of - ...
Extraordinary judges, following severe chastisement from those very nations whose sin they copied, were just the discipline they needed and God raised
Example - Now an original is not passively there to be copied; it sustains some sort of active causal relation to the copy
Psalms - We shall perceive the two senses very distinct from each other, yet conspiring in perfect harmony, and bearing a wonderful resemblance in every feature and lineament, while the analogy between them is so exactly preserved, that either may pass for the original, from whence the other was copied
Pentateuch - For hundreds of years, the Hebrew text was copied by hand
Paul as a Pastor - ...
IN his painstaking industry for Theophilus and for us, Luke has provided us with an extract-minute, so to call it, copied out of the session-books of Ephesus
Preaching - ...
The Apostles copied their divine Master
Poetry of the Hebrews - ...
From all this it results that the imagery of the sacred poets is, in a high degree, expressive and natural; it is copied directly from real objects that were before their eyes; it has this advantage, of being more complete within itself, more entirely founded on national ideas and manners, than that of the most of other poets
Dead Sea Scrolls - Second, the manuscripts were copied during the same period of time that the settlement was occupied
Serpent - Thee chief deity of Egypt is said to have been Vulcan, who was styled Opas; he was the same as Osiris, the sun, and hence was often called Ob-el, or Pytho, sol; and there were pillars sacred to him, with curious hieroglyphical inscriptions bearing the same name, whence among the Greeks, who copied from the Egyptians, every thing gradually tapering to a point was styled obelos, or obeliscus
Type - In 1 Corinthians 10:6 it designates an example that is to be avoided; in other cases (Philippians 3:17, 1 Thessalonians 1:7, 2 Thessalonians 3:9, 1 Timothy 4:12, Titus 2:7; 1 Peter 5:3) an example that is to be copied
Sanctify, Sanctification - But as ‘Father,’ God displays certain qualities that may be copied by men; and these qualities unite to form the Christian ideal
Leucius, Author of n.t. Apocryphal Additions - The stories of Clement and the Muratorian writer are too like to be independent; yet it is not conceivable that one copied from the other; therefore they doubtless used a common authority, who was not Papias, else Eusebius, when he quotes the passage from Clement, would scarcely have failed to mention it
Thecla - contains internal evidence that the Greek text had been long in existence and frequently copied before the Syrian translator did his work
Preaching - The apostles exactly copied their divine Master
Rufinus of Aquileia - According to his account, Eusebius, or some one employed by him, stole the translation of the last two books of the Περὶ Ἀρχῶν , which were still unrevised, from his chamber, and in this imperfect state had them copied and circulated, adding in some cases words he had never written (Ap
House - ...
The Canaanite houses, which the Hebrews inherited (Deuteronomy 6:10 ) and copied, are now known to have been arranged on similar lines (see the diagram of a typical Canaanite house in Gezer, restored by Mr
Romans Epistle to the - (4) The lost conclusion was then, copied in from some other source, and ch
Bible - Whether he actually invented these arrangements or copied them from some predecessor, they were first published in Stephens’ Greek Testament of 1551
Lord's Day - ’ This, to say the least, is not self-evident; and Deissmann may well hesitate, as he does, to maintain that the Christians thus consciously copied the pagan use
Manuscripts - The text is good, and was, according to tradition, copied by the famous bishop Eusebius of Vercelli, martyred in 371
Greek Versions of ot - But MSS so huge could not easily be copied, and the natural tendency was to excerpt the LXX Annunciation, the - Luke seems never to have simply copied his authority
Peter - Into Mark’s narrative of Peter’s confession, otherwise copied rather closely, Matthew interjects three verses, ascribing Peter’s exceptional perceptive powers to revelation, designating him the corner-stone of the Church, and committing to his keeping the keys of the Kingdom
Mss - Some liturgical directions inserted in it show that it was copied from a MS written in Naples, no doubt one brought to England by Hadrian, abbot of a monastery near Naples, who came to England with Archbishop Theodore in 669
Bible - The Flemish versions made use of by the Calvinists till 1637, were copied principally
English Versions - From the number of copies which still survive, it must be presumed to have had a certain circulation, at any rate in Wessex, and it continued to be copied for at least a century
Jesus Christ - They copied, abridged, and amplified earlier documents, and one document which was freely handled in this fashion by Mt
Gnosticism - Irenaeus was largely copied by Tertullian, who, however, was an independent authority on Marcionism; by Hippolytus, who in his work against heresies adds, however, large extracts from his independent reading of Gnostic works; and by Epiphanius, who also gives a few valuable additions from other sources
John, Gospel of (Critical) - Has their author copied Justin, or does the similarity point to the use by both of a common source other than the Gospel? The fact that the context in each is quite different excludes the first hypothesis, and the second may well be viewed as improbable, until the alleged common source—that ‘ghost-like’ Gospel of which Volkmar speaks—has emerged from the place of shades, and embodied itself in a MS (cf
Hippolytus Romanus - ...
The picture which Prudentius saw may well have been originally intended to depict the sufferings of the mythological Hippolytus, and, being inscribed with that name, have been ignorantly copied or transferred by Christians to adorn the resting-place of the martyr of that name
Archaeology And Biblical Study - The Bible, particularly the Old Testament, was copied by hand many times before reaching the form found in the manuscripts just mentioned
Eusebius of Caesarea - In 1606 Scaliger published an edition of the Chronicle , in which he attempted to restore the Greek of Eusebius, collecting from Syncellus, Cedrenus, and other Greek chronologers, notices which he believed himself able, mainly by the help of Jerome's translation, to identify as copied from Eusebius; but his restoration of the first book, where he had but little guidance from Jerome, did not inspire confidence, and has been proved untrustworthy
Bible - These several pieces, which compose the scriptures of the New Testament, were received by the churches with the highest veneration; and, as the instructions they contain, though partially addressed, were equally intended for all, they were immediately copied, and handed about from one church to another, till each was in possession of the whole
Theodorus, Bishop of Mopsuestia - Ambrose, the work of Theodore passed from Africa into the monastic libraries of the West, was copied into the compilations of Rabanus Maurus and others, and in its fuller and its abridged form supplied the Middle Ages with an accepted interpretation of an important part of Holy Scripture