What does Vulgate mean in the Bible?

Dictionary

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Vulgate
VULGATE . 1. The position of the Latin Vulgate, as a version of the original texts of the Bible, has been dealt with in the two articles on the Text of the OT and the NT. But its interest and importance do not end there. Just as the LXX [1] , apart from its importance as evidence for the text of the OT, has a history as an integral part of the Bible of the Eastern Church, so also does the Vulgate deserve consideration as the Bible of the Church in the West. Although the English Bible, to which we have been accustomed for nearly 300 years, is in the main a translation from the original Hebrew and Greek, it must be remembered that for the first thousand years of the English Church the Bible of this country, whether in Latin or in English, was the Vulgate. In Germany the conditions were much the same, with the difference that Luther’s Bible was still more indebted to the Vulgate than was our AV [2] ; while in France, Italy, and Spain the supremacy of the Vulgate lasts to this day. In considering, therefore, the history of the Vulgate, we are considering the history of the Scriptures in the form in which they have been mainly known in Western Europe.
2. The textual articles above mentioned have shown that, when Jerome’s Biblical labours were at an end, about a.d. 404, the Latin Bible as left by him was a very complex structure, the parts of which differed very considerably in their relations to the original Greek and Hebrew texts. The Canonical Books of the OT, except the Psalms, were Jerome’s fresh translation from the Massoretic Hebrew. The Psalms were extant in three forms ( a ) the Roman , Jerome’s slightly revised edition of the OL, which still held its own in a few churches; ( b ) the Gallican , his more fully revised version from the Hexaplar text of the LXX [1] ; and ( c ) the Hebrew , his new translation of the Massoretic text; of these it was the second, not the third, that was taken into general use. Of the deutero-canonical books, or Apocrypha, Judith and Tobit, with the additions to Daniel, were in Jerome’s very hasty version; the remainder, which he had refused to touch (as not recognized by the Massoretic canon), continued to circulate in the OL. The Gospels were Jerome’s somewhat conservative revision of the OL; the rest of the NT was a much more superficial revision of the same. The Latin Bible, therefore, which we know as the Vulgate was not wholly Jerome’s work, still less did it represent his full and final views on the textual criticism of the Bible; and, naturally, it did not for a long time acquire the name of ‘Vulgate.’ The ‘vulgata editio,’ of which Jerome himself speaks, is primarily the Gr. LXX [1] , and secondarily the OL as a translation of it. It is not until the 13th cent. that the epithet is found applied to Jerome’s version by Roger Bacon (who, however, also uses it of the LXX [1] ); and it was canonized, so to speak, by its use in the decree of the Council of Trent, which speaks of it as ‘hæc ipsa vetus et vulgata editio.’ By that time, however, it differed in many points of detail from the text which Jerome left behind him; and it is of the history of Jerome’s version during this period of some twelve hundred years that it is proposed to speak in the present article.
3. Jerome’s correspondence and the prefaces attached by him to the several books of his translation (notably those prefixed to the Pentateuch, Joshua, Ezra and Nehemiah, Job, Isaiah, and the Gospels) sufficiently show the reception given to his work by his contemporaries. He complains constantly and bitterly of the virulence of his critics, who charge him with deliberate perversions of Scripture, and refuse to make themselves acquainted with the conditions of his task. Especially was this the case with the OT. In the NT Jerome had restrained his correcting pen, and made alterations only when the sense required it [6]; and though even these were sufficient to cause discontent among many readers, the openings given to adverse criticism were relatively insignificant. But in the case of the OT the basis of the OL rendering to which people were accustomed was the LXX [1] , the differences of which from the Massoretic Hebrew are often very wide. When, therefore, readers found whole passages omitted or transposed, and the meanings of very many sentences altered beyond all recognition, they believed that violence was being done to the sacred text; nor were they prepared to admit as axiomatic the superiority of the Hebrew text to the Greek, the OT of the Jews to the OT of the Christians. Even Augustine, who commended and used Jerome’s revision of the Gospels, questioned the expediency of the far-reaching changes made in the OT.
4 . Nor was Jerome’s translation assisted by authority to oust its predecessor. Never until 1546 was it officially adopted by the Roman Church to the exclusion of all rivals. It is true that the revision of the Gospels was undertaken at the instance of Pope Damasus, and was published under the sanction of his name; and the Gallican version of the Psalms was quickly and generally adopted. But the new translation of the OT from the Hebrew had no such shadow of official authority. It was an independent venture of Jerome’s, encouraged by his personal friends (among whom were some bishops), and deriving weight from his reputation as a scholar and from the success of his previous work, but in no sense officially commissioned or officially adopted. It was thrown on the world to win its way by its own merits, with the strong weight of popular prejudice against it, and dependent for its success on the admission of its fundamental critical assumption of the superiority of the Massoretic Hebrew to the LXX [1] . It is not to be wondered at if its progress in general favour was slow, and if its text was greatly modified before it reached the stage of universal acceptance.
5 . The extant evidence (consisting of occasional statements by ecclesiastical writers, and their ascertainable practice in Biblical quotations) is not sufficient to enable us to trace in detail the acceptance of Jerome’s version in the various Latin-speaking countries. Gaul, as it was the first country to adopt his second Psalter, was also the first to accept the Vulgate as a whole, and in the 5th cent. the use of it appears to have been general there; but Gaul, it must be remembered, from the point of view of Christian literature, was at this time confined mainly to the provinces of the extreme south. Isidore of Seville, however, testifies to the general use of the Vulg. [9] by all churches, as being alike more faithful and more lucid than its predecessors. In the 6th cent. it is probable that its use was general among scholars. Victor of Capua, about 541, finding a Latin version of the Diatessaron according to the OL text, and being desirous of making it generally known, had it transcribed, with the substitution of the Vulg. [9] for the OL. Gregory the Great ( d . 604) used the Vulg. [9] as the basis of his commentary on Job, but speaks of both versions as existing and recognized by the Church (‘Novam translationem dissero, sed, ut comprobationis causa exigit, nunc novam nunc veterem per testimonia assumo; ut, quia sedes Apostolica utraque utitur, mei quoque labor studii ex utraque fulciatur’). On the other hand, Primasius is evidence of the continued use of the OL in Africa; and a considerable number of the extant fragments of OL MSS are of the 6th cent. or later date [12] , 20 ]. In general it is probable that the old version was retained by the common people, and by such of the clergy as took little interest in questions of textual scholarship, long after it had been abandoned by scholars. In any case, it is certain that the Vulg. [9] was never officially adopted in early times by the Roman Church, but made its way gradually by its own merits. The continuance of the OL in secluded districts is illustrated by the fact that Cod. Colbertinus ( c ) was written as late as the 12th cent. in Languedoc, and Cod. Gigas ( g of the Acts) in the 13th cent. in Bohemia.
6 . Although this method of official non-interference was probably necessary, in view of the fact that Jerome’s version of the OT was a private venture, and one which provoked much hostile criticism, and although in the end the new translation gained the credit of a complete victory on its merits as the superior version for general use, nevertheless the price of these advantages was heavy. If the Vulgate had enjoyed from the first the protection of an official sanction, which Sixtus and Clement ultimately gave to the printed text, it would have come down to us in a much purer form than is actually the case. Under the actual conditions, it was peculiarly exposed to corruption, both by the ordinary mistakes of scribes and by contamination with the familiar OL. In some cases whole books or chapters in a Vulg. [9] MS contain an OL text; for some reason which is quite obscure, Mt. especially tended to remain in the earlier form. Thus Codd. g : 1 , h , r : 2 all have Mt. in OL, and the remaining Evv. in Vulgate. Cod. Gigas is OL in Acts and Apoc. [15] , Vulg. [9] in the rest of the Bible. Cod. p of the Acts is OL in Acts 1:1 to Acts 13:6 ; Acts 28:16-30 , while the rest of the book is Vulg. [9] Codd. ff : 1 , g : 2 of the Gospels and ff of Cath. Epp. have texts in which OL and Vulg. [9] are mixed in various proportions. Even where OL elements do not enter to a sufficient extent to be noteworthy, MSS of the Vulg. [9] tend to differ very considerably. In the absence of any central authority to exercise control, scribes treated the text with freedom or with carelessness, and different types of text grew up in the different countries of Western Europe. It is with these different national texts that the history of the Vulg. [9] in the Middle Ages is principally concerned.
7 . During the 5th and 6th centuries, when Jerome’s version was winning its way outwards from the centre of the Latin-speaking Church, the conditions over a large part of Western Europe were ill fitted for its reception. Gaul, in the 5th cent., was fully occupied with the effort first to oppose and then to assimilate the heathen Frankish invaders; and even in the 6th it was a scene of almost perpetual war and internal struggles. Germany was almost wholly pagan. Britain was in the throes of the English conquest, and the ancient British Church was submerged, except in Wales and Ireland. Outside Italy, only Visigothic Spain (Arian, but still Christian, until about 596) and Celtic Ireland were freely open at first to the access of the Scriptures; and in these two countries (cut off, as they subsequently were, from central Christendom by the Moorish invasion of Spain and the English conquest of Britain) the two principal types of text came into being, which, in various combinations with purer texts from Italy, are found in the different MSS which have come down to the present day. From the Visigothic kingdom the Spanish influences made their way northward into the heart of France. Irish missionaries carried the Bible first into southern Scotland, then into Northumbria, then into northern France and up the Rhine into Germany, penetrating even into Switzerland and Italy, and leaving traces of their handiwork in MSS produced in all these countries. Meanwhile Rome was a constant centre of attraction and influence; and to and from Italy there was an unceasing stream of travellers, and not least between Italy and distant Britain. These historical facts find their illustration in the Vulg. [9] MSS still extant, which can be connected with the various churches.
8 . In the 6th and 7th cent. the primacy of missionary zeal and Christian enterprise rested with the Irish Church; but in the latter part of the 7th and the first half of the 8th cent. the Church of Northumbria sprang into prominence, and added to the gifts which it had received from Iona a spirit of Christian scholarship which gave it for a time the first place in Christendom in this respect. In the production of this scholarship the arrival of Theodore of Tarsus as archbishop of Canterbury in 669 happily co-operated, if it was not a chief stimulus; for Theodore and his companions brought with them from Italy copies of the Latin Bible in a purer text than Ireland had been able to provide. There is clear evidence to show that the celebrated Lindisfarne Gospels (Y in Wordsworth’s numeration) was copied from one of these MSS, and the same was probably the case with another Northern copy of the Gospels now in the British Museum (Royal 1 B vii.). The great Cod. Amiatinus (A) itself, the best single MS of the Latin Bible in existence, was written in Northumbria before 716, and must have been copied from MSS brought from Italy either by Theodore or by Ceolfrid of Jarrow, by whose order it was made. Other MSS (notably ∆ and S), written in the north, are closely akin to these, and must he derived from the same source; and this whole group of MSS furnishes the best text of the Vulg. [9] now available. The centres of English scholarship, to which this pre-eminence in Biblical study was due, were the twin monasteries of Wearmouth and Jarrow, of which the most famous members were Ceolfrid and Bede; but their influence spread widely over Northumbria, and was renowned in the more distant parts of England and western Europe.
9 . To this renown it was due that, when a king at last arose in France with a desire to improve the religious education of his country, he turned to Northumbria for the necessary assistance to carry out the reform. The king was Charlemagne, and the scholar whom he invited to help him was Alcuin of York; and the record of their joint achievement constitutes the next chapter in the history of the Vulgate. Alcuin came to France in 781, and was made master of the schools attached to Charlemagne’s court at Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen). He was subsequently made titular abbot of Tours, and in 796 he obtained leave to retire to that monastery, where he spent the nine remaining years of his life ( d . 805) in establishing the school of calligraphy for which Tours was long famous. His work in connexion with the Latin Bible falls into two stages. To the earlier part of his life at Aix belongs, in all probability, the beginning of a series of magnificent copies of the Gospels, of which several have survived to the present day. Certainly, they date from about this period, and have their home in the country of the Rhine and the Moselle. They are obviously modelled on the Anglo-Celtic MSS, of which the Lindisfarne Gospels is the most eminent example. Prefixed to each Gospel is a portrait of the Evangelist (in the Byzantine style), a full page of elaborate decoration, and another containing the first words of the Gospel in highly ornamental illumination. The English MSS excel their French successors in elaboration and skill of workmanship; but the French books have an added gorgeousness from the lavish use of gold, the whole of the text being written in gold letters, sometimes upon purple vellum. Hence the whole series of these books (the production of which continued through the greater part of the 9th cent.) is often described as the ‘Golden Gospels.’
10 . The importance of the ‘Golden Gospels’ group of MSS is artistic rather than textual, and although their dependence upon Anglo-Celtic models is obvious, their connexion with Alcuin personally is only hypothetical. It is otherwise in both respects with another great group of MSS, which are directly due to the commission given by Charlemagne to Alcuin to reform the current text of the Vulgate. About the end of 796, Alcuin established the school of Tours, and sent to York for MSS to enable him to carry out his work. On Christmas Day of 801 he presented to the king a complete Bible, carefully revised. Several descendants of this Bible are still in existence, and enable us to judge of Alcuin’s work. They differ from the ‘Golden Gospels’ in being complete Bibles, and in being written in the beautiful small minuscule which at this time, under Charlemagne’s influence, superseded the tortured and unsightly script of the Merovingian and Lombardic traditions, and of which Tours was one of the principal homes. The MS. which appears most accurately to represent the edition of Alcuin at the present day is the Cod. Vallicellianus at Rome (Wordsworth’s V); with this Wordsworth and White associate the ‘Caroline Bible’ (Add. MS 10546 [23] In the British Museum), and there are some 8 or 10 other MSS (written mostly at Tours), besides several others containing the Gospels only, which in varying degrees belong to the same group. In text these MSS naturally show a great affinity to the Northumbrian MSS headed by the Cod. Amiatinus, and there is no question that Alcuin introduced into France a far purer text of the Vulgate than any which it had hitherto possessed.
11 . Alcuin’s attempt, however, was not the only one made in France at this period to reform the current Bible text. Another edition was almost simultaneously produced in western France by Theodulf , bishop of Orleans and abbot of Fleury (about 795 821); but its character was very different from that of Alcuin. Theodulf was a Visigoth, probably from Septimania, the large district of southern France which then formed part of the Visigothic kingdom of Spain; and it was to Spain that he looked for materials for his revision of the Latin Bible. The MS which represents his edition most fully (Paris, Bibl. Nal . 9380) has a text closely connected with the Spanish type of which the Codd. Cavensis and Toletanus are the most prominent examples, except in the Gospels, which are akin rather to the Irish type; and a contemporary hand has added a number of variants, which are often Alcuinian in character. With this MS may be associated a volume at Puy, and Add. MS 24124 in the British Museum, which are closely akin to the Paris MS, but follow sometimes its first and sometimes its second reading; the latter (especially in its corrections) has been used by Wordsworth and White along with the Paris MS to represent the Theodulfian edition. All are written in an extremely minute Caroline minuscule.
12 . In spite, however, of the labour spent upon these attempts to improve the current text of the Vulgate, the forces of deterioration were more powerful than those of renovation. Theodulf’s edition, which was a private venture, without the advantages of Imperial patronage, had no wide sphere of influence, and left no permanent mark on the text of the Vulgate. Alcuin’s had, no doubt, much greater authority and effect; yet its influence was only transient, and even at Tours itself the MSS produced within the next two generations show a progressive departure from his standard. On the other hand, the study of the Scriptures was now definitely implanted on the Continent, and the number of copies of them produced in France and Germany shows a great increase. During the 9th cent. splendid copies of the ‘Golden Gospels’ continued to be produced in the valley of the Rhine, and Alcuinian texts at Tours; while a new centre of Scripture study and reproduction came into existence in Switzerland, at the famous abbey of St. Gall . The library and scriptorium of this monastery (many of the inmates of which were English or Irish monks) first became notable under abbot Gozbert (816 836), and perhaps reached the height of their importance under abbot Hartmut (872 883). Many copies of the Bible were written there, and the influence of St. Gall permeated a large portion of central Europe. Here, too, was produced by Walafridus Strabo, dean of St. Gall before 842, the original form of the Glossa Ordinaria , the standard commentary on the Bible in the Middle Ages.
13 . After Alcuin and Theodulf no important effort was made to recover the original text of the Vulgate, though some attempt in this direction was made by Lanfranc, of which no traces seem to survive; but the history of its diffusion can to some extent be followed by the help of the extant MSS, which now begin to increase greatly in number. The tradition of the ‘Golden Gospels’ was carried into Germany, where copies of the Gospels were produced on a smaller scale, with less ornamentation, and in a rather heavy Caroline minuscule, which clearly derive their origin from this source. In France itself, too, the later representatives of this school are inferior in size and execution to their predecessors. Spain and Ireland had by this time ceased to be of primary importance in the circulation of Bible texts. In England a new departure was made, on a higher scale of artistic merit, in the fine Gospels and Service-Books produced at Winchester between about 960 and 1060, the chief characteristics of which are broad bands of gold forming a framework with interlaced foliage. These details, however, relate more to the history of art than to that of the Bible, and with regard to the spread of the knowledge of the Scriptures there is nothing of Importance to note in the 10th and 11th cents. beyond the increase of monasteries in all the countries of western Europe, in the scriptoria of which the multiplication of copies proceeded apace.
14 . In the 12th cent. the most noteworthy phenomenon, both in England and on the Continent, is the popularity of annotated copies of the various books of the Bible. The ordinary arrangement is for the Bible text to occupy a single narrow column down the centre of the page, while on either side of it is the commentary; but where the commentary is scanty, the Biblical column expands to fill the space, and vice versa . The main staple of the commentary is normally the Glossa Ordinaria ; but this, being itself a compilation of extracts from pre-existing commentaries (Jerome, Augustine, Isidore, Bede, etc.), lent itself readily to expansion or contraction, so that different MSS differ not inconsiderably in their contents. The various books of the Bible generally form separate MSS, or small groups of them are combined. Simultaneously with these, some very large Bibles were produced, handsomely decorated with illuminated initials. Of these the best examples come from England or northern France. These are of the nature of éditions de luxe , while the copies with commentaries testify to the extent to which the Bible was at this time studied, at any rate in the larger monasteries; and the catalogues of monastic libraries which still exist confirm this impression by showing what a large number of such annotated MSS were preserved in them, no doubt for the study of the monks.
15 . A further step in advance was taken in the 13th cent., which is to be attributed apparently to the influence of the University of Paris then at the height of its renown and the intellectual centre of Europe. The present chapter division of the Bible text is said to have been first made by Stephen Langton (archbishop of Canterbury, 1207 1228), while a doctor at Paris; and the 13th cent. (probably under the influence of St. Louis) witnessed a remarkable output of Vulgate MSS of the complete Bible. Hitherto complete Bibles had almost always been very large volumes, suitable only for liturgical use; but by the adoption of very thin vellum and very small writing it was now found possible to compress the whole Bible into volumes of quite moderate size, comparable with the ordinary printed Bibles of to-day. For example, one such volume, containing the whole Bible with ample margins, measures 5 1 / 2×3 1 /2×1¾ inches, and consists of 471 leaves. From the appearance of these Bibles (hundreds of which are still extant) it is evident that they were intended for private use, and they testify to a remarkable growth in the personal study of the Scriptures. The texts of these MSS seem to embody the results of a revision at the hands of the Paris doctors. Correctoria , or collections of improved readings, were issued at Paris about 1230, and at other places during this cent., the best being the ‘Correctorium Vaticanum,’ so called from a MS in the Vatican Library. This revision, however, was superficial rather than scientific, and is of importance in the history of the Vulgate mainly because it established the normal text which was current at the time of the invention of printing. These small Bibles were produced almost as plentifully in England as in France, and in an identical style, which continued well into the 14th century.
16 . After the Parisian revision of the 13th cent. no important modification of the text or status of the Latin Bible took place until the invention of printing two centuries later. The first book to be printed in Europe was the Latin Bible, published in 1456 by Gutenberg and Fust (now popularly known as the Mazarin Bible, from the circumstance that the first copy of it to attract notice in modern times was that in the library of Cardinal Mazarin). In type this Bible resembles the contemporary large German Bible MSS; in text it is the ordinary Vulgate of the 15th century. During the next century Bibles poured from the press, but with little or no attempt at revision of the text. Some MSS were consulted in the preparation of the Complutensian Polyglot; but the only editions before the middle of the 16th cent. which deserve the name of critical are those of Stephanus in 1540 and Hentenius in 1547, which laid the foundations of the modern printed Vulgate. It is, however, to the action of the Council of Trent that the genesis of an authorized text is ultimately due. Soon after its meeting, in 1546, a decree was passed declaring that the ‘vetus et vulgata editio’ of the Scriptures was to be accepted as authentic, and that it should be printed in the most accurate form possible. It was forty years, however, before this decree bore fruit. Sixtus V ., in his short pontificate of five years (1585 90), not only caused the production of an edition of the Greek OT (1587), but in 1590 issued a Latin Bible which he declared was to be accepted as the authentic edition demanded by the Council of Trent. This edition was the work of a board of revisers appointed for the purpose, but Sixtus himself examined their results before they were published, and introduced a large number of alterations (rarely for the better) on his own authority. The Sixtine edition, however, had hardly been issued when it was recalled in 1592 by Clement VIII ., at the instance, it is believed, of the Jesuits, with whom Sixtus had quarrelled; and in the same year a new edition was issued under the authority of Clement, with a preface by the famous Jesuit Bellarmin, in which (to avoid the appearance of a conflict between Popes) the suppression of the Sixtine edition is falsely stated to be due to the abundance in it of printers’ errors, and to have been contemplated by Sixtus himself. The Clementine revisers in many instances restored the readings of Sixtus’ board, which Sixtus himself had altered; and the general result of their labours was to produce a text resembling that of Hentenius, while the Sixtine edition was nearer to that of Stephanus. The bull in which the Clementine edition was promulgated forbade any future alteration of the text and any printing of various readings in the margin, and thereby stereotyped the official text of the Vulgate from that day until this.
17 . Clement’s bull practically closed the textual criticism of the Vulgate in the Roman Church, though Vallarsi was able to print a new text in his edition of the works of St. Jerome in 1734, and Vercellone published a collection of various readings in 1860 64. The course of criticism outside the Roman communion can be briefly sketched. Bentley, with the help of his assistants, made large collections for an edition of the Vulgate, but was unable to carry through his task. Lachmann, in the second edition of his Greek NT (1842 50), added a text of the Vulgate, based on a collation of the Cod. Amiatinus and a few other selected MSS. Corssen in 1885 printed a revised text of Gal. as a sample of a new NT, but has carried his enterprise no further, being perhaps deterred by the appearance of the great Oxford edition now in progress. This edition, planned by Bishop J. Wordsworth of Salisbury, and carried out by him with the assistance of the Rev. H. J. White and others, gives a revised text of the Vulgate with a full critical apparatus and introductions. The four Gospels and Acts have now appeared (1889 1905); it is to be hoped that nothing will prevent the completion of the entire work, which will establish the criticism of at least the Vulg. [9] NT on a firm foundation. A very bandy text of the NT, with Wordsworth and White’s variants in the margin, has been produced by E. Nestle (1907). Quite recently it has been announced that Pope Pius x. has entrusted the Benedictine order with the revision of the Vulgate text. It is satisfactory to know that they propose to devote themselves in the first instance to the OT.
Literature. The Prolegomena to Wordsworth’s and White’s edition; art. by Bp. Westcott in Smith’s DB [15]0 ; art. by H. J. White in Scrivener’s Introd. to Crit. of NT : 4 , with description of 181 of the principal MSS, and art. ‘Vulgate’ in Hastings’ DB [15]0 ; and especially S. Berger’s Hist, de la Vulg. [9] pendant les premiers siècles du moyen âge (1893). Specimens of the principal classes of MSS mentioned in the present article may be seen in Facsimiles from Biblical MSS in the British Museum (1900). The best edition of the Clementine Vulgate is that of Vercellone (1861). For fuller bibliography, see Berger, op. cit ., and White’s art. in Hastings’ DB [15]0 .
F. G. Kenyon.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Vulgate
See NEW TESTAMENT.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Vulgate
The Latin translation by Jerome about A.D. 400 of the Bible. See Bible, Texts and Versions .
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Vulgate, the
This is the name usually given to the Latin version of the scriptures, signifying that it is commonly received, and it is the book used and accredited by the Romish church; but there was a Latin version long before that church assumed any authority: indeed the apostle Paul wrote (about A.D. 58) that for 'many years' he had desired to visit the saints at Rome, and it is probable that during those many years the saints there had early copies of the Old Testament in the Latin tongue, and of the New Testament as the Gospels and the Epistles came into existence.
It is known by the evidence of Jerome [1] and Augustine [2] that in the fourth century there was a great variety of Latin interpretations, though more modern scholars have judged that many of them may be traced to some one unknown recension.
Augustine, however, judged that one of them differed from the rest in its clearness and fidelity, and it was distinguished by the name of Itala or Italic. This has led to the earliest Latin codices being associated with Italy, where, as already observed, there were certainly assemblies in the days of the apostles. Hebrews 13:24 .
Some nevertheless, by comparing the earliest copies with the writings of the Latin Fathers, are convinced that the primitive translation into Latin was of African origin. This opinion was accepted by Lachmann, Tischendorf, Davidson and Tregelles; but others still refer the translation to Italy. May there not have been one made in each place?
The principal MSS quoted by the Editors as dating before the time of Jerome (called Old Latin as well as Italic, though the distinction is not clearly marked) are
a. Cod. Vercellensis. Contains the Gospels. Century IV.
b. Cod. Veronensis. The Gospels. A little later than a ., a good specimen of the Old Latin.
c. Cod. Colbertinus. All the N T., but only the Gospels in the Old Latin. XI.
d. Cod. Bezae. The Latin that accompanies the Greek D, the Gospels, Acts. VI. or VII.
d. Cod. Claromontanus. Paul's Epistles of the same. VI. or VII. It ranks higher than the Gospels and Acts.
e. Cod. Palatinus. The Gospels. IV. or V. A mixed text.
e. Cod. Laudianus. The Acts of the Greek Codex E.
e. Cod. Sangermanensis. Paul's Epistles. The Latin text of the Greek Codex E, but is judged to be a copy of d.
g. Cod. Boernerianus. Paul's Epistles. The Latin interlinear text of the Greek Codex G. IX. or X.
h. Cod. Claromontanus. The Gospels, but Matthew only is the Old Latin. IV. or V.
k. Cod. Bobbiensis. Parts of Matthew and Mark. Judged by some to be the oldest representative of the African type. IV. or V.
m. From a "speculum," a remarkable ancient work. It contains a number of doctrines as heads, under which are quoted passages from the O.T. and N.T. without note or comment. The text is considered to be generally African as distinguished from Italic. It contains twice 1 John 5:7 , known as "the heavenly witnesses." VI. or VII.
There are many other portions, some of which are described as European, but it is judged impossible to class some either as African, European, or Italian.
In the fourth century, the Latin copies having multiplied, with obvious corruptions in some of them, a revision was deemed necessary, and Damasus, Bishop of Rome, laid the duty upon Jerome.
Jerome saw the difficulties he would have to encounter in the prejudices that such a work would excite, nevertheless it had to be done. He said there were errors "by false transcription, by clumsy corrections, and by careless interpolations." The evils could only be remedied by going back to the original Greek.
The Gospels having suffered most, he began with them, not, however, making a new translation, but revising the Old Latin. His revision of the Gospels appeared in A.D. 384, with his preface to Damasus, who died in the same year. It is probable that he completed the rest of the New Testament in 385.
In his Commentary on Galatians, Ephesians, Titus, and Philemon, in 386, he acted as a translator with more freedom than he had exercised as a reviser. And in his new version of the Old Testament, except the Psalms, which had been made from the LXX, he translated from the Hebrew. Of this freedom Augustine disapproved. The people generally resisted alterations: quite a commotion in a church is recorded, the prophet Jonah being read, because Jerome had used the word hedera, 'ivy,' in his translation, for they had been accustomed to the word cucurbita, 'gourd.' But the agitation gradually subsided.
In the 400 years that followed, as the MS copies multiplied so did the errors, until Charlemagne sought a remedy in getting Alcuin to revise the text for public use. This was accomplished about A.D. 802: and was called Charlemagne's Bible. A copy of this is in the British Museum, but is of later date than Charlemagne.
Copies still increased, and variations were again multiplied; and as soon as printing was invented, several editions were published, all more or less differing. At length the Popes undertook to prepare a correct edition, it was finished by Sixtus V. in 1590, but this proved to be so incorrect, that others were contemplated. In 1592Clement VIII. published one, and in 1593 another, and in 1598 a third, with a list of errata for the three. The modern printed copies bear the date of 1592. In giving the Vulgate as an authority for various readings in the N.T. the printed editions are not often referred to, but the manuscripts that are still in existence of Jerome's revision. The principal of these are:
am. Cod. Amiatinus, containing the whole Bible. VI.
fuld. Cod. Fuldensis. The New Testament. VI.
tol. Cod. Toletanus. The whole Bible, in Gothic letters.
for. Cod. Forojuliensis. Portions of the Gospels.
pe r. Fragments of Luke.
harl. Cod. Harleian. The Gospels. VII.
With portions and fragments of many others.
The passage in John 7:53John 8:11 , "the woman taken in adultery" (which is omitted in many Greek MSS., including � A B C L T X Δ, but in L and Δ is a blank space), is found in Codices c. and e. of the Old Latin, and was in b., but had been erased. Verses 10 and 11 are here quoted, along with Cod. Amiatinus.
c. COD. COLBERTINUS.
Cumque se erexisset Jesus, dixit ad mulierem: Ubi sunt? nemo te condemnavit ? Quae dixit, Nemo Domino. Dixit autem illi Jesus: Nec ego te condemnabo: Vade, et ex hoc jam noli peccare.
e. COD. PALATINUS.
Cum adlevasset autem capud ihs dixit ei. mulier ubi sunt nemo te judicavit. Dixit et illa, nemo dne dixit autem ihs ad illam nec ego te judico. i et amplius noli peceare.
am. COD. AMIATINUS.
Erigens autem se Jesus dixit ei mulier, ubi sunt? nemo te condemnavit? Quae dixit, Nemo domine. Dixit autem Jesus Nec ego te condemnabo: vade et amplius jam noli peccare.
This passage gives an illustration of how the Old Latin, preserved in the Vulgate, may be the means of authenticating true readings that would otherwise be condemned because of the supposed preponderance (of weight, not number ) of Greek MSS against it. Augustine (A.D. 354-430) and Nicon (cent. x.) both gave as the reason why this passage was omitted that it was thought to give a license to sin!
The Latin text therefore should not be ignored simply because it has been adopted by Rome. It existed long before papal supremacy and for many centuries was the only copy of the New Testament that was available to the mass of Christians, and was largely used by the Reformers until they could obtain a copy of the Greek, and were able to read it.
Webster's Dictionary - Vulgate
(1):
(a.) Of or pertaining to the Vulgate, or the old Latin version of the Scriptures.
(2):
(a.) An ancient Latin version of the Scripture, and the only version which the Roman Church admits to be authentic; - so called from its common use in the Latin Church.

Sentence search

Latin Versions - See Text (of OT and NT) and Vulgate
Versions - See English Versions, Greek Versions of OT, Text of NT, Text Versions and Languages of OT, Vulgate, etc
Magnificat - 46; - so called because it commences with this word in the Vulgate
Sodoma - (Romans 2:29 ) In this place alone the Authorized Version has followed the Greek and Vulgate form of the well-known name Sodom
Ash - Probably a pine; so the Septuagint and Vulgate The Latin ornus seems akin
Ericius - ) The Vulgate rendering of the Hebrew word qip/d, which in the "Authorized Version" is translated bittern, and in the Revised Version, porcupine
Ash - The LXX and the Vulgate call it 'pine
Slime of the Earth - The Latin Vulgate renders the Hebrew 'aphar (Genesis 2) as limus; the Reims-Douay Version follows the Vulgate
Hazel - The Hebrew word is rendered in the Vulgate by amygdalinus, "the almond-tree," which is probably correct
Ligure - Septuagint and Vulgate translated ligure, and as Theophrastus (de Lap. 37:11) say amber came from Liguria, probably Septuagint and Vulgate understand by "ligure" amber
Cubit - and Vulgate render it "span
Hawk, Night, - According to Gesenius this is the ostrich, but both the LXX and the Vulgate make it the night owl
Dan-Jaan - and the Vulgate read "Dan-ja'ar", i
Tammuz - A Phoenician idol, supposed by some to be the same as the Greek Adonis, as in the Vulgate
Sheep-Market - The word so rendered is an adjective, and it is uncertain whether the noun to be supplied should be "gate" or, following the Vulgate Version, "pool
Rent - and Vulgate and Revised Version, or as some prefer interpreting the phrase, "girdle and robe are torn Villages - and the Vulgate versions, render the word "rulers
Helkath Hazzurim - "the field of strong men" (Vulgate), "the field of swords" (Gesenius)
Lign Aloes - KJV transliteration of the Vulgate (official Latin translation) reading at Numbers 24:6 (lignum aloes wood of aloes)
Asbasareth - ]'>[1] form Azbazareth comes from the Vulgate
Leviathan - The term is found in the Latin Vulgate in Job 3:8,40:20; Isaiah 27:1. In these two last places the Vulgate renders it draco, a dragon
Adarconim - The Vulgate translates it, golden pence, the LXX, pieces of gold
Jerioth - Keil, with the oldest Syriac (Peshito) and Vulgate manuscripts, reads instead of the text, which is corrupt, "he begat, with Azubah his wife, Jerioth (a daughter); and these are her sons
Ammah - Vulgate mentions a watercourse near, and Robinson describes an excavated fountain under the high rock near Gibeon
Rosin - and the Vulgate, as well as in the Peshito-Syriac
Freely - Stones, Precious - ) Josephus' nomenclature for the stones in the high priest's breast-plate is confirmed by the Vulgate of Jerome, at a time when the breast-plate was still open for inspection in the Temple of Concord, situated in the Forum
Rosin - The Vulgate has resinam, rendered "rosin" in the Douay Version
Myra - City of Lycia in Asia Minor, about two miles inland from its port Andriaca, where on his journey to Rome, Saint Paul and the other prisoners were removed to "a ship sailing into Italy" (Acts 27); in the Vulgate Lystra is substituted for Myra
Arphaxad - Following the Vulgate, Arphaxad was 35 when his son Sale was born, and lived 303 years after that (Genesis 11)
Alleluiatic Psalms - Late Jewish ritualistic designation of four groups of Psalms 104-106,110-116,134-135 (Great Hallel), 145-150, Vulgate enumeration, denoting liturgical use in connection with the Passover (Paschal) Supper
Log - The smallest measure for liquids used by the Hebrews (Leviticus 14:10,12,15,21,24 ), called in the Vulgate sextarius
Vulgate - ) Of or pertaining to the Vulgate, or the old Latin version of the Scriptures
Charity - Tirathites - The Vulgate translation is not tenable, Tirathites ("the singers"), Shimeathites ("those repeating in song what they have heard"), and the Suchathites ("dwellers in tents")
Weasel - So Septuagint and Vulgate But Bochart takes it as related to the Arabic chuld , "the mole"; chephar is the more usual Hebrew for the mole (Isaiah 2:20)
Calvary - The word derives from the translation of word calvaria in the Latin Vulgate
Dives - Dives actually is the Latin word for “rich” used in Luke 16:19 in the Vulgate translation
Sepharad - The LXX has 'as far as Ephratha'; and the Vulgate 'in Bosphoro
Arctu'Rus - The Hebrew words 'Ash and 'Aish , rendered "Arcturus" in the Authorized Version of ( Job 9:9 ; 38:32 ) in conformity with the Vulgate of the former passages are now generally believed to be identical, and to represent the constellation Ursa Major, known commonly as the Great Bear or Charles' Wain
Douay Bible - A translation of the Scriptures into the English language for the use of English-speaking Roman Catholics; - done from the Latin Vulgate by English scholars resident in France
Monument - Cheese - The Vulgate version reads "fat calves
Ensample - Sin - City in Egypt: the LXX has Σάι>ς, and the Vulgate (as in the margin), Pelusium
Sin - City in Egypt: the LXX has Σάι>ς, and the Vulgate (as in the margin), Pelusium
Jerome, Saint - Confessor, Doctor of the Church, author of the Vulgate Edition of the Bible; born Stridon, Dalmatia, c. There he prayed, fasted and labored on the Vulgate edition of the Bible
Ash - and Vulgate versions
Melzar - The KJV follows some early versions (Theodotian, Lucian, the Syriac, the Vulgate) in taking Melzar as a proper name
Siloam, Village of - of the mount called in the Vulgate "the mount of offense" (1 Kings 11:7; 2 Kings 23:13)
Satan - The form Satanas is used throughout the New Testament in the Vulgate, while the form Satan occurs in the Old Testament only
Greyhound - and Vulgate versions render it "cock
Testament - The Vulgate translates incorrectly by testamentum, whence the names "Old" and "New Testament," by which we now designate the two sections into which the Bible is divided
Orator - (1) Isaiah 3:3, "the eloquent orator"; rather as Vulgate, "skilled in whispering," i
Dan-Jaan - Septuagint and Vulgate read "Dan in the wood" (Dan-jaar), corresponding to the country about Tel-el-Kady
Gopher - render this word by "squared beams," and the Vulgate by "planed wood
Pulse - The Vulgate renders this kali in 2 Samuel 17:28 , frixum cicer, "parched peas
Gall - Deuteronomy 29:18 רא̇שׁ ולעֲנָה, LXX Septuagint ἐν χολῇ και τικρια, Vulgate fel et amaritudiaem; Lamentations 3:19 לִעֲנָה וָרא̇שׁ, LXX Septuagint τικρια καὶ χολἡ, Vulgate absynthiiet fellis
Old Latin Version - The title Vetus Itala is also applied to all the Latin texts before the Vulgate
Hor Hagidgad - Gudgodah in Deuteronomy 10:7; "the cavern" or else "the summit" of Gidgad, according as the first letter in Hebrew is "ch" ([1]Ηet ( ח )) (as in the Received Text and Syriac) or "h" (as Septuagint and Vulgate and Samaritan text read)
Ithiel - Arcturus - The name is mentioned four times in the Vulgate and twice in the Authorized Version, the only common reference being in Job 9
Pelethites - ' The LXX and Vulgate leave the name untranslated
Amber - Some think that the Greek (Septuagint) and Latin (Vulgate) translations of the Old Testament suggest the substance known as electrum—an amalgam of silver and gold
Raca - It is thus translated by the Vulgate, in Judges 11:3 ; in the English, "vain men
ko're - ) ...
In the Authorized Version of (1 Chronicles 26:19 ) "the sons of Kore" (following the Vulgate Core ) should properly be "the sons of the Korhite
Meadow - " The Vulgate translates the word "from the west
Agur - Testament - The word testament is a derivation of the Latin word testamentum, which was used in Jerome's Vulgate to translate the Hebrew word b'rith, covenant
Chamois - and Vulgate render the word by camelopardus, i
Wax - Thus the LXX throughout, κηρος , and Vulgate cera; so there is no room to doubt but this is the true meaning of the word: and the idea of the root appears to be soft, melting, yielding, or the like, which properties are not only well known to belong to wax, but are also intimated in all the passages of Scripture in which this word occurs
Judah Upon Jordan - The Authorized Version, following the Vulgate, has this rendering in Joshua 19:34
Amber - elektron, and by the Vulgate electrum), a metal compounded of silver and gold
Desire of All Nations - The messianic interpretation first appears in the Latin Vulgate translation, while the treasures would show Yahweh's power to restore the glory of His house despite the people's poverty
Cleophas - ]'>[1] , and is retained in the Vulgate (though against the evidence of Codex Amiatinus) in both Luke 24:18 and John 19:25
Vulgate - Vulgate . The position of the Latin Vulgate, as a version of the original texts of the Bible, has been dealt with in the two articles on the Text of the OT and the NT. ]'>[1] , apart from its importance as evidence for the text of the OT, has a history as an integral part of the Bible of the Eastern Church, so also does the Vulgate deserve consideration as the Bible of the Church in the West. Although the English Bible, to which we have been accustomed for nearly 300 years, is in the main a translation from the original Hebrew and Greek, it must be remembered that for the first thousand years of the English Church the Bible of this country, whether in Latin or in English, was the Vulgate. In Germany the conditions were much the same, with the difference that Luther’s Bible was still more indebted to the Vulgate than was our AV [2] ; while in France, Italy, and Spain the supremacy of the Vulgate lasts to this day. In considering, therefore, the history of the Vulgate, we are considering the history of the Scriptures in the form in which they have been mainly known in Western Europe. The Latin Bible, therefore, which we know as the Vulgate was not wholly Jerome’s work, still less did it represent his full and final views on the textual criticism of the Bible; and, naturally, it did not for a long time acquire the name of ‘Vulgate. Gaul, as it was the first country to adopt his second Psalter, was also the first to accept the Vulgate as a whole, and in the 5th cent. Day Star - The translation “Lucifer” comes from the Latin translation called the Vulgate
Rehoboth - Probably, however, the words "rehoboth'ir" are to be translated as in the Vulgate and the margin of A
Obscene Object - The Vulgate or early Latin translation took the image to be a phallic emblem
Bramble - and Vulgate render by rhamnus, a thorny shrub common in Palestine, resembling the hawthorn
Damasus i, Pope Saint - At his suggestion Saint Jerome completed the Vulgate
Shemer - Orion - The Vulgate renders thus, but the LXX
Lord - In the Old Testament Greek version and those dependent on it, as the Vulgate in this matter, it is used in place of Jahweh (Jehovah), the proper name of God among the Israelites
Nasbas - The Vulgate speaks of him as brother of Achiacharus, while others have regarded the two as identical
Alphabetic Psalms - This feature is not discernible in the Vulgate or our English version save that the Hebrew letter name precedes each verse in the work of the prophet
Chalcedony - , and "carbunculus" in the Vulgate
Padan, Padanaram - ' Mesopotamia is the translation of Padan-aram both in the LXX and the Vulgate
Sheminith - Septuagint and Vulgate translated "concerning" or "for the eighth
Braided - It is used in 1 Timothy 2:9 , of "braided hair," which the Vulgate signifies as "ringlets, curls
Lapwing - The Septuagint renders it εποπα ; and the Vulgate, upupa; which is the same with the Arabian interpreters
Agate - In the Septuagint αχατης , and Vulgate, achates
Tale - and Vulgate render it "spider;" the Authorized Version and Revised Version, "as a tale" that is told
Ophir - this word is rendered "Sophir," and "Sofir" is the Coptic name for India, which is the rendering of the Arabic version, as also of the Vulgate
Ceolfrid, Saint - In his last journey to Rome, prior to which he had resigned his abbacy, he carried as a gift to the pope the famous "Codex Amiatinus," written (690-716) at Wearmouth or Jarrow, containing the oldest text of Saint Jerome's Vulgate, and now in the Laurentian Library, Florence
Melons - and Vulgate pepones, Arabic britikh
Ashurites - , and Vulgate versions have it the Geshurites S
Spider - It is rendered in the Vulgate by stellio, and in the Revised Version by "lizard
Recorder - A high office; the chancellor, not merely national annalist (as Vulgate and Septuagint); he kept a record of whatever took place around the king, informed him of what occurred in the kingdom, and presided over the privy council (2 Samuel 8:16; 2 Samuel 20:24; 1 Chronicles 18:15, margin "at the hand of the king"; 1 Kings 4:3; 2 Kings 18:18; 2 Kings 18:37; 2 Chronicles 34:8)
Jeberechiah - In Septuagint and Vulgate Berechiah (Isaiah 8:2), father of Zechariah in Ahaz' reign
Hallel - (Hebrew: praise) ...
A Jewish ritualistic term to designate Psalms 113-118 (Vulgate 112-117) inclusively, known as the "Hallel of Egypt
Tirzah - In Song of Solomon 6:4 it is referred to as being 'beautiful,' but the LXX and the Vulgate do not in this passage regard it as a proper name
Ashdod, Azoth - according to the Vulgate, or Azotus, according to the Greek, a city which was assigned by Joshua to the tribe of Judah, but was possessed a long time by the Philistines, and rendered famous for the temple of their god Dagon, Joshua 15:47
Duke - Flaccus, Saint - He revised the text of the Vulgate, established the Roman Rite, and compiled a Missal which was generally adopted
Suph - ]'>[3] and Vulgate
Zelzah - ]'>[2] ‘leaping furiously’; and the Vulgate reads ‘in the south
Diblah - With slight manuscript support from the Latin Vulgate, many Bible students read “Riblah” supposing that in the earliest history of the text tradition a copyist made the simple mistake of changing a Hebrew “r” to a Hebrew “d,” the two letters being easily confused
Gourd - The Vulgate or early Latin translation understood the plant as ivy
Night Hawk - " But the Septuagint and the Vulgate translated it "owl
Shalem - But Septuagint, Vulgate, and Syriac as KJV There is a "Salim" still somewhat in the position required, three miles E
Algum - ...
The Vulgate translates it ligna thyina, and the Septuagint, wrought-wood others, ebony, bravil or pine, and the Rabbins render it coral
Alrinus, Saint - He revised the text of the Vulgate, established the Roman Rite, and compiled a Missal which was generally adopted
Alcuin, Saint - He revised the text of the Vulgate, established the Roman Rite, and compiled a Missal which was generally adopted
Wood, Gopher - Translators either have not attempted to give an equivalent, or have with early Jewish interpreters read a slightly different word (Vulgate: "LlBvigatis" ; D
Heritage - The meaning "were chosen by lot," as in the Vulgate, and in 1 Samuel 14:41 , indicating the freedom of election without human will (so Chrysostom and Augustine), is not suited to this passage
Shalman - Swan - The LXX and the Vulgate have the porphyrio and ibis
Ashurites - Manger - " With this agrees the Vulgate praesepe and the Peshito-Syriac
Almug Tree - Jerom and the Vulgate render it, ligna thyina, and the Septuagint ξυλα πελεκητα , wrought wood
Bay-Tree - The Septuagint and Vulgate render it cedars; but the high Dutch of Luther's Bible, the old Saxon, the French, the Spanish, the Italian of Diodati, and the version of Ainsworth, make it the laurel
Jasher - "the Book of the Upright One," by the Vulgate "the Book of Just Ones," was probably a kind of national sacred song-book, a collection of songs in praise of the heroes of Israel, a "book of golden deeds," a national anthology
Golgotha - (The name Calvary is not in the original New Testament, but has been taken from the Vulgate, a fourth century Latin translation
Kings, Books of - The Clementine Vulgate follows the Septuagint, but substitutes "Kings" for "Kingdoms. " Thus, the nomenclature is as follows: Original Hebrew Vulgate and Douay: Samuel 1,2Kings Kings 3,4Kings Septuagint Protestant Versions Kingdoms A and B 1,2Samuel Kingdoms C and D 1,2Kings "Kings" are the rulers of the united and divided Hebrew kingdom (c
Sin, - It is identified in the Vulgate with Pelusium, "the clayey or muddy" town
Solomon, Song of - Called also, after the Vulgate, the "Canticles
Shinar, the Land of - and Vulgate "Senaar;" in the inscriptions, "Shumir;" probably identical with Babylonia or Southern Mesopotamia, extending almost to the Persian Gulf
Carbuncle - smaragdos; Vulgate, smaragdus; Revised Version, marg
Heifer - ...
Jeremiah (Jeremiah 46:20) says "Egypt is like a very fair heifer" appropriately, as Αpis was worshipped there under the form of a fair bull with certain spots; in Jeremiah 46:15 Septuagint and Vulgate read "thy valiant one," namely, Αpis . As the gadfly attacks the heifer so "destruction cometh" on Egypt, namely, Nebuchadnezzar the destroyer or agitator sent by Jehovah; Vulgate translated suitably to the image of a heifer, "a goader," qerets
Just - The Vulgate had no word available except justus, which strictly, means ‘what is according to jus, the rights of man,’ hence ‘just’ in many places in Authorized Version. In Luke 2:25 ‘just’ might perhaps have been retained with advantage to bring out the difference in the same verse between δίκαιος and, εὐλαβής, which latter means ‘reverencing God, devout’ (‘δίκαιος, justus, in officiis; εὐλαβὴς, Vulgate timoratus, in habitu animae erga Deum’—Bengel)
Bible And the Popes, the - In the following year, 383, he commissioned Saint Jerome to revise the text of the Old Latin version, then much in need of emendation, and it was, no doubt, this commission which later inspired Saint Jerome to give to the world his famous Latin Vulgate. The invention of printing in the 15th century brought about not only a multiplicity of versions but also a great number of uncritical editions of Saint Jerome's Vulgate and the Greek Septuagint. But, through the tireless efforts of several popes of this time, namely, Popes Julius III (1555), Pius IV (1565), Gregory XIII (1585), Sixtus V (1590), and Clement VIII (1641), the celebrated revisions of the Vulgate and the Septuagint, which are still in common use, were begun and successfully completed. Pius X continued the work of his distinguished predecessor through the issuance of several letters, chief of which are the Apostolic letter of November 18, 1907, in which he gives instructions regarding the methods to be employed in the teaching of Sacred Scriptures in the seminaries; a letter written December 3, 1907, addressed to Abbot Gasquet, authorizing him to begin the revision of the Vulgate with a view to reproducing as far as was possible the original text of Saint Jerome; and the Apostolic letter, "Vinea Electa," May 7, 1909, through which medium he officially established the Pontifical Biblical Institute at Rome
Husk - NAS, RSV follow the Latin Vulgate in rendering the term “sack
Mulberry Tree - The LXX, in Chronicles, render the word by απιων , "pear trees;" so Aquila and the Vulgate, both in Samuel and Chronicles, "purorum
Dimon - Dead Sea Scrolls text and Latin Vulgate read “Dibon” here
Achmetha - " The Vulgate has "Et inventum est in Ecbatanis
Palmer Worm - The Jews support this idea by deriving the word from גוז or גזן , to cut, to shear, or mince, Notwithstanding the unanimous sentiments of the Jews that this is a locust, yet the LXX read καμπη , and the Vulgate eruca, "a caterpillar;" which rendering is supported by Fuller
Lentil - Genesis 25:34 ; 2 Samuel 17:28 ; 2 Samuel 23:11 ; Ezekiel 4:9 , a sort of pulse; in the Septuagint φακος , and Vulgate lens
Flea - The LXX, and another Greek version in the Hexapla, render it ψυλλον , and the Vulgate pulex
Pelusium - Some modern translations follow the Vulgate in reading Pelusium at Ezekiel 30:15-16 (NIV, NRSV, TEV; also KJV and NAS margins)
Daily Bread - (Greek: artos epiousious, translated in the Vulgate as panem nostrum supersubstantialem in Matthew 6, and panem nostrum quotidianum, in Luke 11) ...
Term used in the fourth petition uf the Our Father
Jeremias, Lamentations of - In the Vulgate and the Septuagint, four elegiac poems and one prayer, bewailing the fall of Jerusalem, written by Jeremias
Lamentations of Jeremias - In the Vulgate and the Septuagint, four elegiac poems and one prayer, bewailing the fall of Jerusalem, written by Jeremias
Topaz - Septuagint, Vulgate, and Josephus identify the Greek topaz with the Hebrew pitdah; and Smith's Bible Dictionary identifies the topaz as our chrysolite and the ancient chrysolite as our topaz
Confession - But the Sinaiticus, Alexandrinus, and Vaticanus manuscripts and Vulgate read "sins" (hamartias )
Nehiloth - Septuagint translated "concerning the heiress"; so Vulgate
Kir-Hareseth - Angel of Great Counsel - (Magni Consilii Angelus, in the Introit of the third Mass of Christmas) ...
A title of the Messias in the Greek Version of Isaias, 9:6, where we read according to the Hebrew text followed by the Latin Vulgate, "His name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, Mighty God, a Father forever, Prince of Peace
Gath-Hepher - Zamzummim - The Vulgate and the Septuagint say, they were conquered with the Rephaim in Ashteroth-Karnaim
Firmament - From the Vulgate firmamentum, which is used as the translation of the Hebrew Raki'a
Brier - Some, following the Vulgate Version, regard it as the "nettle
Caterpillar - The Septuagint in Chronicles, and Aquila in Psalms, render it βρουχος : so the Vulgate in Chronicles and Isaiah, and Jerom in Psalms, bruchus, the chafer, which is a great devourer of leaves
Swan - The Hebrew word is very ambiguous, for in the first of these places, it is ranked among water-fowls; and by the Vulgate, which our version follows, rendered "swan," and in the thirtieth verse, the same word is rendered "mole," and ranked among reptiles
Dumah - Amber - ...
The Hebrew word chasmil is translated by the Septuagint and Vulgate electrum, that is, amber, because the Hebrew denotes a very brilliant amber-like metal, composed of silver and gold, which was much prized in antiquity, Ezekiel 1:4,27 ; 8:2
Sela - It appears in later history and in the Vulgate Version under the name of Petra
Ed - and Vulgate, but added by the translators in the Authorized Version, also in the Revised Version, of Joshua 22:34
Mansion - Whirlwind - the rotation of the visible heavens phenomenally round the earth, but the Septuagint, the Chaldee, and the Vulgate "in a whirl," whirled about
Lot - The Vulgate and Erasmus assume that in v
Men-Stealers - [Note: Vulgate
Cainan - This is commonly called the 'second' Cainan (because of the earlier one mentioned in Luke 3:37 ) and is remarkable in that it does not occur in the Hebrew, Samaritan Pentateuch, Vulgate, Syriac, nor Arabic texts in Genesis 10:24 ; Genesis 11:12 ; 1 Chronicles 1:18 ; but it is in the LXX, from which it may have found its way into the gospel of Luke, unless, as some suppose, it was added in the later copies of the LXX because of being found in Luke
Wormwood - In the Septuagint the original word is variously rendered, and generally by terms expressive of its figurative sense, for what is offensive, odious, or deleterious; but in the Syriac and Arabic versions, and in the Latin Vulgate, it is rendered "wormwood;" and this is adopted by Celsius, who names it the absinthium santonicum Judaicum, Marble - The stone mentioned in the places cited above is called the stone of sis or sish: the LXX and Vulgate render it "Parian stone," which was remarkable for its bright white colour
Pipe - The word ’ûgâb, also translation by Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ‘pipe,’ in the Targums was an instrument of similar structure, and has been translated by the Vulgate organum and Authorized Version ‘organ’ (Genesis 4:21, Job 21:12; Job 30:31, Psalms 150:4)
Apocrypha - Henceforth such books lost their early sacredness, and became embodied in a collection that remained entirely outside the Hebrew Bible, though in general found in the Septuagint and the Vulgate. ...
The word ‘Apocrypha,’ as used by Protestant Christians, signifies the books found in the Latin Vulgate as over and above those of the Hebrew OT. ...
In the transfer of the works from the Septuagint to the Old Latin and to the Vulgate, there is some confusion both as to their names and their order. Historical : First and Second Maccabees, and First Esdras [1]. Apocalyptical : Second Esdras [2]. This Council names as canonical the following hooks and parts of books: First and Second Maccabees, Additions to Esther, History of Susanna, Song of the Three Holy Children, Bel and the Dragon, Tobit, Judith, Baruch, Sirach, and Wisdom of Solomon; omitting from the above list the Prayer of Manasses, First and Second Esdras [3]. First Esdras (Third in the Vulgate) is the canonical book of Ezra in Greek, which in reconstructed form tells the story of the decline and fall of the kingdom of Judah from the time of Josiah. It is not a part of the Vulgate adopted at the Council of Trent, but is in the appendix thereof. [Note: Vulgate. If, as in the Vulgate, Ezra is reckoned as First Esdras, and Nehemiah as Second Esdras, and the reconstructed Ezra as Third Esdras, then this book is Fourth Esdras]. It stands in the appendix to the NT of the Vulgate. ...
If we should include Third and Fourth Maccabees in this list, as is done by some writers (but not by the Vulgate), we find these peculiarities:...
15. ]'>[8] ), but not in the Vulgate. ...
In addition to these Apocryphal books, but not included either in the Septuagint, the Vulgate, or the RV Fan - ...
We get no help from LXX Septuagint and Vulgate. LXX Septuagint omits the word; the Vulgate renders by ventilabrum, which was, according to some, a shovel (Ramsay, Roman Antiquities, p
Douay Bible - The translation was made directly from the Latin Vulgate, carefully compared with the Hebrew and Greek texts
Shimeath - Bible, Douay - The translation was made directly from the Latin Vulgate, carefully compared with the Hebrew and Greek texts
Cainan - For no Hebrew manuscript has it, nor the Samaritan Pentateuch, Chaldee, Syriac, and Vulgate versions from the Hebrew
Sardius - Muth-Labben - ) The Septuagint and Vulgate versions read concerning the mysteries of the Son," namely, the divine Son's death, the earnest of His final victory over the last "enemy" (Psalms 9:6)
Partridge - " This rendering is confirmed by the LXX and Vulgate and is supposed to refer to the partridge sitting upon eggs she has not laid, such eggs being left in her nest on the ground by other birds
English in English Bibles, the - The Catholic translators of Rhemes were by no means ignorant of good English; and they expressly state in their preface their reason for these Latinisms, which was, to reflect the intent and meaning of the Vulgate
Nettles - " The קימוש , Proverbs 24:31 ; Isaiah 34:13 ; Hosea 9:6 ; is by the Vulgate rendered "urtica," which is well defended by Celsius, and very probably means "the nettle
Pinnacle - ]'>[1] from the Vulgate of Matthew 4:5 ( pinnaculum ) to indicate the spot within the Temple enclosure from which the devil tempted our Lord to cast Himself down
Dragon - The translators of the Authorized Version, apparently following the Vulgate, have rendered by the same word "dragon" the two Hebrew words tan and tannin , which appear to be quite distinct in meaning
Owl - and Vulgate render this word by "ibis", i. and Vulgate, "hedgehog," reading in the text, kippod, instead of kippoz
Divination - Those whom the prophet calls, in the same place, Menachesch, which the Vulgate and generality of interpreters render Augur. Those who in the same place are called Mecasheph, which the Septuagint and Vulgate translate "a man given to ill practices
Excuse - ]'>[1] , Vulgate (excusatio); Authorized Version follows Tindale ‘cloke. Psalms 140:4 τοῦ προφασίζεσθαι προφάσεις ἑν ἁμαρτίαις; Vulgate ‘ad excusandas excusationes in peccatis
Steward - [Note: Vulgate. Victor, Bishop of Capua - of the Vulgate transcribed by his direction and afterwards corrected by him. (Z) made known the contents and arrangements of the Diatessaron sufficiently to show that the archetype of F was formed by taking T and substituting for each Syriac fragment in Tatian's mosaic the corresponding fragment from the Vulgate the adapter occasionally altering the order and inserting passages missing in T. The date of the adaptation is uncertain the limits being 383 the date of the Vulgate being brought out and 545 the date of F. The discrepancies between index and text demand a date considerably before the latter limit but it must have been made after the Vulgate had become well known and popular which was not till long after it appeared. To substitute in Tatian's mosaic the proper fragments of the Vulgate would require a much less thorough knowledge of Syriac than an independent translation would imply
Jareb - Euraquilo - ; the Vulgate Latin revision, made towards the close of the 4th cent
Apollonius - Ordinance - The Latin Vulgate in these passages renders δόγμα by decretum, κτίσις by creatura, δικαίωμα by iustificatio or iustitia, διαταγή by dispositio and ordinatio. [Note: Vulgate
Grove - " The Vulgate has done this also in Judges 3:7
Quarry -
‘Quarry’ occurs also in RV Slime, - translated bitumen in the Vulgate
Anah - " instead of "mules" (Genesis 36:24) translate yemin "water springs"; not as Luther, "he invented mules" (Leviticus 19:19), but "discovered hotsprings" (so Vulgate and Syriac vers
Chuza - MS of the Vulgate, identifies the name with the Greek Κυδἰας; but this seems more than doubtful
First-Born First-Begotten - (πρωτότοκος; Vulgate primogenitus in the NT except in Hebrews 11:28; Hebrews 12:23)...
1. The privilege of the first-born: the birthright (τὰ πρωτοτόκια, Vulgate primitiva) is spoken of once in the NT, in Hebrews 12:16, which refers to Esau’s act in selling it (Genesis 25:33); the act was profanity, for the sacred privilege was despised. (Vulgate primitiva) is used literally in lie 11:28, of men and animals, with reference to the Egyptians. ...
The title is used in the plural of Christians in Hebrews 12:23 : ‘the church of the firstborn’ (Vulgate primitivorum)
Francis Gasquet - He was a member of the Papal Commission of Anglican Orders, and in 1907 Pius X chose him as head of the Commission of Revision of the Vulgate
Suburb - Shiloh - The Vulgate Version translates the word, "he who is to be sent," in allusion to the Messiah; the Revised Version, margin, "till he come to Shiloh;" and the LXX
Bible, Editions of the - The Latin Vulgate is the basis for all modern texts; the most notable English translation being the Douay Version
Mule - Genesis 36:24 translated rather "Anah that found the hot springs," so the Vulgate version; the Samaritan text has "the Emim
Gangrene - The Vulgate has ‘ut cancer’]'>[2])
Golgotha - (See CALVARY, Latin) Greek (Luke 23:33) Cranion , "a skull"; "Calvary" is from Vulgate The "place" of our Lord's crucifixion and burial, not called in the Gospels a mount, as it is now commonly
Sling - " Chaldean, Syriac, and Arabic support KJV; the Vulgate supports margin, "as he that putteth a precious stone in an heap of stones
Firmament - ...
"Firmament" (from the Vulgate: firmamentum ; Septuagint: stereooma ) is derived from firmness; but the Hebrew expresses no such notion, as if Moses thought the sky a hard firm vault, in which the heavenly bodies were fixed
Editions of the Bible - The Latin Vulgate is the basis for all modern texts; the most notable English translation being the Douay Version
Gasquet, Francis Aidan - He was a member of the Papal Commission of Anglican Orders, and in 1907 Pius X chose him as head of the Commission of Revision of the Vulgate
a'Ram - Throughout the Authorized Version the word is, with only a very few exceptions, rendered, as in the Vulgate and LXX
Epoch - The first epoch is the creation of the world, which, according to the Vulgate Bible, Archbishop Usher fixes in the year 710 of the Julian period, and 4004 years before Jesus Christ
Heath - " The LXX and Vulgate render oror, "the tamarisk;" and this is strengthened by the affinity of the Hebrew name of this tree with the Turkish oeroer
New Testament - I find that by taking 2,000 errors out of the Pope's Vulgate (i. correcting by older Latin manuscripts the edition of Jerome's Vulgate put forth by Sixtus V, A. 1590, with anathemas against any who should alter it 'in minima particula,' and afterwards altered by Clement VIII (1592) in 2,000 places in spite of Sixtus' anathema) and as many out of the Protestant pope Stephens' edition, I can set out an edition of each (Latin, Vulgate, and Greek text) in columns, without using any book under 900 years old, that shall so exactly agree word for word, and order for order, that no two tallies can agree better. Scripture was known in western Europe for many ages previously only through the Latin Vulgate of Jerome. The Old Testament Vulgate (the translation which is authorized by Rome) is in the central column, between the Greek Septuagint and the Hebrew (the original); and the editors compare the first to Christ crucified between the impenitent (the Hebrew) and the penitent (the Greek) thief!...
Though there is no Greek authority for 1 John 5:7, they supplied it and told Erasmus that the Latin Vulgate's authority outweighs the original Greek! They did not know that the oldest copies of Jerome's Vulgate omit it; the manuscript of Wizanburg of the eighth century being the oldest that contains it. Erasmus completed his edition in haste, and did not have the scruples to supply, by translating into Greek front the Vulgate, both actual hiatuses in his Greek manuscripts and what he supposed to be so, especially in the Apocalypse, for which he had only one mutilated manuscript. So clumsily did the translator of the Vulgate Latin into Greek execute this manuscript that he neglects to put the necessary Greek article before "Father," "Word," and" Spirit. ...
Thus, an uncritical Greek text of publishers has been for ages submitted to by Protestants, though abjuring blind assent to tradition, and laughing at the claim to infallibility of the two popes who declared each of two diverse editions of the Vulgate to be exclusively authentic. (The council of Trent, 1545, had pronounced the Latin Vulgate to be the authentic word of God). The ancient versions too, the ante-Jerome Latin, Jerome's Vulgate, the Syriac (second century), the Coptic, and the Thebaic or Sahidic (third century), as well as the citations in Greek and Latin fathers, additionally help toward ascertaining the true text. ...
He found the oldest manuscripts of Jerome's Vulgate differ widely from the Clementine, and agree both in the words and in their order (which Jerome preserved in his translated "because even the order of the words is a mystery": Ep. ...
The Greek fathers prior to Jerome's Vulgate in quoting the Greek Testament agree with the readings in the oldest manuscripts, as does the Vulgate. , h Primasius in the Apocalypse; Jerome's Vulgate in the oldest manuscripts: Fuldensis, and its corrections by Victor of Capua, and Amiatinus or Laurentianus; readings in Irenaeus, Cyprian, Hilary of Poictiers, and Lucifer of Cagliari. Then Paul's epistles in Eusebius, in the Latin church, and in Jerome's Vulgate (oldest manuscripts) But the uncial manuscripts A, B, C, also Athanasius, Cyril of Jerusalem, and the council of Laodicea (A. The Latin in F is the Vulgate, in G the old Italian or ante-Jerome Latin. ...
THE Vulgate OF JEROME (i
On - The Vulgate and the LXX
Mesha - Middle district, Vulgate, Messa
Scroll (Roll) - [Note: Vulgate
Polyglot - It contains the Hebrew and Greek originals, with Montanus's interlineary version; the Chaldee paraphrases, the Septuagint, the Samaritan Pentateuch, the Syrian and Arabic Bibles, the Persian Pentateuch and Gospels, the Ethiopian Psalms, Song of Solomon, and New Testament, with their respective Latin translations; together with the Latin Vulgate, and a large volume of various readings, to which is ordinarily joined Castel's Heptaglot Lexicon
Tin - The Lord, by the Prophet Isaiah, having compared the Jewish people to silver, declares, "I will turn my hand upon thee, and purge away thy dross, and remove, all בריליכּ? , thy particles of tin:" where Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion have κασσιτερον σου , and the Vulgate stannum tuum, "thy tin;" but the LXX, ανομους , wicked ones
Mac'Cabees, Books of - Two of these were included in the early current Latin versions of the Bible, and thence passed into the Vulgate. As forming part of the Vulgate they were received as canonical by the Council of Trent, and retained among the Apocrypha by the reformed churches
Mss - Unlike the Latin Vulgate, the Peshiṭta was not entirely unchallenged in its supremacy. The extant MSS of the OL are mainly fragments; for after the supersession of this version by the Vulgate its MSS naturally fell into neglect, and survived only fortuitously. It is usual to classify all these authorities (MSS and Fathers) under the three heads of (1) African, (2) European, (3) Italian; the African type of text being the earliest and also the roughest in style and vocabulary, the European being so far modified in both these respects as to be supposed by some scholars to be due to a fresh translation, and the Italian being a revision of the European, and itself providing the basis for Jerome’s Vulgate. All (except perhaps k ) have undergone modification in some respect, either by the corrections introduced by scribes in early times, or by contamination with the Vulgate. The later history of the Vulgate (as Jerome’s version eventually came to be called) is the subject of a separate article. Their estimate of the principal MSS of the Vulgate is the necessary basis of the following description of a selection from among them:...
A. Its text was probably derived from one or more MSS brought to England from Italy; and it is generally regarded as the best extant MS of the Vulgate. Contains the whole Bible, written in Spain, and is the best representative of the Spanish family of Vulgate MSS. Codex Hubertianus , and Θ , Codex Theodulfianus , contain the edition of the Vulgate produced by Bishop Theodulf of Orleans, for which see art. Vulgate. ...
These are the principal MSS of the Vulgate in the Gospels. ]'>[15] represent the Spanish type of text, which had an important influence on the history of the Vulgate, and Q the not less important Irish type. In general character, as stated above, the Vulgate tends to agree with the type of Greek text represented by B א . By reason of this composite character, and also of its relatively late date, the Vulgate is not of the same textual importance as OS or OL; nevertheless it is to be remembered that Jerome must have made use of Greek MSS at least as old as the oldest which we now possess. The historical importance of the Vulgate will be dealt with in a separate article. On the Vulgate see Westcott’s art. ]'>[4] , White’s chapter in Scrivener’s Introduction , Exodus 4 (which deals with both versions), and the prefaces to Wordsworth and White’s edition of the Vulgate, now in progress (Oxford, 1889 ff
Quarries - and the Vulgate and in the marg
Oded - Father of Azariah the prophet under Asa (2 Chronicles 15:1); in 2 Chronicles 15:8 "of Oded the prophet" must be an interpolation, for "the prophecy" in the Hebrew is absolute, not in the construct state as it would necessarily be if the words were genuine; besides not Oded but Azariah was "the prophet," the Alexandrinus manuscript and Vulgate read in 2 Chronicles 15:8 "Azariah son of Oded
Highway - phrase means literally ‘the partings of the highways’ (so Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885), exitus viarum (Vulgate)
Fir Tree - The LXX render it so variously as to show that they knew not what particular tree is meant; the Vulgate, generally by abietes, the "fir-tree
Nets - δίκτυον (perhaps from δικεῖν, ‘to cast’), Vulgate rete, is the general term, including various kinds of nets. [1] sagena; French and English, ‘seine’), from σάττω, ‘to load, fill’: a drag-net (Matthew 13:47 (Revised Version margin) ) or sweep-net, often of immense size (Manilius, ‘vasta sagena’)
Thorn - and Vulgate by Rhamnus, or Lycium Europoeum, a thorny shrub, which is common all over Palestine
Judith, Book of - Saint Jerome wrote his Vulgate translation with the help of a Chaldaic version, but the admitted carelessness of this work makes it difficult to determine which of the two texts, the Greek or the Chaldaic, is closer to the original
ir-ha-Heres - ...
So 16 manuscripts, also Vulgate
Hellenists - The authors of the Vulgate version render it like our Graeci; but Messieurs Du Port Royal, more accurately, Juifs Greca, Greek or Grecian Jews; it being the Jews who spoke Greek that are here treated of, and who are hereby distinguished from the Jews called Hebrews, that is, who spoke the Hebrew tongue of that time
Azazel - the goat that is allowed to escape, which goes back to the caper emissarius of the Vulgate) obscures the fact that the word Azazel is a proper name in the original, and in particular the name of a powerful spirit or demon supposed to inhabit the wilderness or ‘solitary land’ ( Leviticus 16:22 RV Kings, First And Second Book of - adds "Commonly called the 'Third Book' and 'Fourth Book' of the Kings" (copied probably from the LXX or the Vulgate, for this addition is not in the Hebrew), the two books of Samuel being the First and Second
Camphire - Browne supposes that the plant mentioned in the Canticles, rendered κυπρος in the Septuagint, and cyprus in the Vulgate, is that described by Dioscorides and Pliny, which grows in Egypt, and near to Ascalon, producing an odorate bush of flowers, and yielding the celebrated oleum cyprinum
Dizahab - Red Sea (Reed Sea) - ” Jerome continued the process in the Latin Vulgate (A. Most English translations have followed the Vulgate and use “Red Sea” in the text with a footnote indicating the literal translation is “Reed Sea
Spikenard - —The Authorized Version and Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 rendering of νάρδος πιστική in Mark 14:3, John 12:3, or rather of the Vulgate nardi spicati (in Jn. Others would read σπικάτης (= Vulgate spicati), a word found in Galen, vi
Jairus - The Authorized Version ‘Jairus’ follows the Vulgate (Wyclif, ‘Jayrus’). Wyclif’s ‘prince’ here is due to the Vulgate princeps, and elsewhere he invariably uses ‘prince of the synagoge’ as = ἀρχισυνάγωγος. The Vulgate, however, uses archisynagogus in the Markan passage, whilst in Luke 8:49 it has principem synagogae, perhaps through the influence of the phrase in Luke 8:41
Mark, Saint Evangelist - In the preface to his Gospel in manuscripts of the Vulgate, Mark is represented as having been a Jewish priest, but this may be only an inference from his relation to Barnabas the Levite
Apocrypha - The most important of these are collected in the Apocrypha often bound up with the English Bible; but in the Septuagint and Vulgate they stand as canonical
Firmament - The word “firmament” comes from the Latin word firmamentum in the Vulgate
Jasher - So Septuagint "the book of the upright one"; Vulgate "the book of just ones"; the Syriac, "the book of praise songs," from Hebrew yashir
Tirhakah - Isaiah (Isaiah 17:12-18;Isaiah 17:7) announces Sennacherib's overthrow, and desires the Ethiopian ambassadors, now in Jerusalem, having arrived from Meroe, the island between "the river of Ethiopia," the Nile, and the Astaboras, in "vessels of bulrushes"' or pitchcovered papyrus canoes, to bring word to their own nation (not "woe," but "ho!" calling the Ethiopians' attention to his prophetic announcement of the fall of Judah's and their common foe; Vulgate translated "the land of the clanging sound of wings," i
Treasure Treasurer Treasury - Shewbread - Jerahmeel - Only Begotten - ) who replaced unicus (only), the reading of the Old Latin, with unigenitus (only begotten) as he translated the Latin Vulgate
Owl - The Septuagint, Chaldee, Arabic, Syriac, Vulgate read kippod , "hedgehog
Copper - " The Septuagint renders it σκευη χαλκου στιλβοντος ; the Vulgate and Castellio, following the Arabic, "vasa aeris fulgentis;" and the Syriac, "vases of Corinthian brass
Jezreel - (Six Hebrew MSS, the LXX, and the Vulgate read 'sons' instead of 'father
Ointment (2) - The Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 has translated it ‘spikenard,’ following, apparently, the Vulgate rendering of Mark 14:3, spicati
Spies - SPIES (ἐγκάθετοι, best derived from ἐγκαθίημι, ‘to send down in (secret)’ [1], ‘men suborned to lie in wait’; Vulgate insidiatores). as ἀπαιτεῖν αὐτοσχεδίους καὶ ἀνεπισκέπτους ἀποκρίσεις ἐρωτημάτων δολερῶν (the Vulgate gives os ejus opprimere, as if from a reading ἐπιστομίζειν)
Rain - "The latter rain in the first (month)" in Joel 2:23 means in the month when first it is needed; or else, as Vulgate and Septuagint, "as at the first" (compare Isaiah 1:26; Hosea 2:15; Malachi 3:4); or in Νisan or Αbib , the Passover month, the first, namely, the end of March and beginning of April
Sanctuary - Emerods - Among other objections, it may also be observed, that the mice, which are mentioned, not only in the Hebrew text, 1 Samuel 6:5 ; 1 Samuel 6:12 ; 1 Samuel 16:18 , but also in the Alexandrine and Vulgate versions, 1 Samuel 5:6 ; 1 Samuel 6:5 ; 1 Samuel 6:11 ; 1 Samuel 6:18 , are an objection to understanding the hemorrhoids by the word under consideration, since if that were in fact the disease, we see no reason why mice should have been presented as an offering to avert the anger of the God of Israel
Naphtali - The Vulgate reads it, "the sea and the south," and the Hebrew will admit of either interpretation, that is, the sea of Gennesareth, which was to the south by the inheritance of this tribe
Sapphire - The Septuagint, the Vulgate, and the general run of commentators, ancient and modern, agree in this
Guard - Peter was arrested by Herod Agrippa, and imprisoned in the fortress of Antonia or the adjoining barracks, he was chained to two soldiers, while other two kept watch at the door of the prison (φυλακή, Vulgate carcer). The station of the latter two was apparently ‘the first ward’ (φυλακή, Vulgate custodia) which the prisoner had to pass before he could effect his escape
Version - It met with opposition at first, but was at length, in the seventh century, recognized as the "Vulgate" version. All modern European versions have been more or less influenced by the Vulgate. This version was made from the Vulgate, and renders Genesis 3:15 after that Version, "She shall trede thy head
Job, Book of - First of the poetic didactic books of the Old Testament in the Vulgate
Kir - The Septuagint,Vulgate, and Targum rendering "Cyrene" favor Keil
Ham - Septuagint and Vulgate read baheem for b'Ηam , i
Heliodorus, Bishop of Altinum - They supported amanuenses to assist him; and by the grateful mention of their aid in the prefaces to the books last translated, their names are for ever associated with the great work of the Vulgate ("Preface to the Books of Solomon and to Tobit," Jerome's Works , vol
Bowl - ‘The ζῶα and the πρεσβύτεροι [1] fell down before the Lamb, having … golden bowls [2] full of incense,’ The Vulgate has ‘phialas aureas,’ but the proper Lat
Num'Bers, - and Vulgate (whence our "Numbers") from the double numbering or census of the people, the first of which is given in chs
Upper Room (2) - The best Manuscripts of Vulgate have diversorio in Luke 2:7; refectiomea (also in bfi) in Mark 14:14, diversorium in Luke 22:11. ; in Mark 14:14 X* Versions of the Scripture, English - "...
There is also an Anglo-Saxon MS of a version of the Gospels interlinear with the Latin Vulgate in the British Museum (cir. He had proceeded as far as the middle of Baruch (following the order of the Vulgate) when he was in A. , instead of mixing it with the canonical books, as in the Vulgate. Coverdale apparently alludes to having Tyndale's translation before him, but also speaks of five others: these were probably the Vulgate, Luther's, the German Swiss, the Latin of Pagninus, and perhaps Wycliffe's. It was pointed out, at least partially, where the Vulgate differed from the Hebrew, and where the Chaldee and Hebrew differed
Turtle (Dove) - ...
The turtle dove represents "the congregation of God's poor" which the psalmist (Psalms 74:19) prays God not to deliver "unto the wild beasts" (Septuagint, Vulgate, Arabic), or "to the greedy host" (Maurer)
Abiathar - The facts are these:—The Authorized Version, cited above, follows the reading of A and C (ἐπὶ Ἀβιαθὰρ τοῦ ἀρχιερέως), Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 follows that of B and א (which omit the article) and the Vulgate (‘sub Abiathar principe sacerdotum’)
Music, Instrumental - " ...
The menaan'im, used only in 2 Samuel 6:5 , rendered "cornets" (RSV, "castanets"); in the Vulgate, "sistra," an instrument of agitation
Titus Justus - ; B reads ‘Titius Justus’ as do the Vulgate and the Memphitic Versions)...
The name is mentioned only once in the NT, Acts 18:7
Japheth - Probably the second son of Noah, from the youngest (Genesis 9:24; Genesis 10:2; Genesis 10:6; Genesis 10:21, where the Syriac, the Arabic, and the Vulgate translate as Gesenius "the elder brother of Japheth"; but Septuagint as KJV)
Hart - Septuagint and Vulgate read eylim , "rams
Winds - So Vulgate, Chald
Wheat - ) but sometimes by σῖτος (Judges 6:11, Ezekiel 27:17), and the Vulgate by triticum and, in a few cases, frumentum
Concordances - The Latin word concordantiœ , for an alphabetical list of the words of Scripture drawn up for purposes of reference to the places where they occur, was first used by Hugo de Sancto Caro, who compiled a Concordance to the Vulgate in 1244
Staff (2) - So the way is left open for the puerile suggestion that the accounts are consistent, inasmuch as Jesus meant that His disciples were not to take more than one staff each! Yet Wyclif’s earlier version (following the Vulgate ) had rendered ‘nether a yerde’ in Matthew 10:10 (similarly Luke 9:3), careless of the discrepancy with Mark 6:8 (‘but a yerde oneli’)
Hallelujah - Through the Vulgate the form ‘ Alleluia ’ has come into use
Bel - It was always rejected by the Jewish church, and is extant neither in the Hebrew, nor in the Chaldee languages; nor is there any proof that it ever was so, although the council of Trent allowed it to be part of the canonical book of Daniel, in which it stands in the Latin Vulgate
Adonis - The text of the Vulgate in Ezekiel 8:14 , says, that the Prophet saw women sitting in the temple, and weeping for Adonis; but according to the reading of the Hebrew text, they are said to weep for Thamuz, or Tammuz, the hidden one
God - , followed by the Vulgate, which uses Dominus , we have the LORD of our version
Wheat - ) but sometimes by σῖτος (Judges 6:11, Ezekiel 27:17), and the Vulgate by triticum and, in a few cases, frumentum
Prince (2) - The ‘Prince’ (Vulgate princeps) of Acts 5:31 is thoroughly justified in this connexion by both classical and LXX Septuagint usage, and is particularly appropriate if, as Chase suggests (Credibility of Acts, p. ’ In Acts 3:15, on the other hand, ‘Author of life’ (Vulgate auctor vitœ) is more suitable than ‘Prince of life
Olive - The Septuagint, Chaldee, Vulgate, and Aben Ezra interpret 'ohel "the tabernacle" (2 Thessalonians 2:4; Daniel 11:44-45)
Samuel, Books of, - The present, division was first made in the Septuagint translation, and was adopted in the Vulgate from the Septuagint
Concordance - Mordecai: this interpretation is Calasius's own; but in the margin he adds that of the LXX and the Vulgate, when different from his
Bed, Couch - κραβάττων (Vulgate grabatis) has equal manuscript authority with κλιναρίων, but κραβάκτου(ων) and κραββάτου(ων) are alternative spellings, particularly in Acts 9:33
Ecclesiastes - " In the Vulgate this book follows Proverbs and was formerly almost unquestioned as the work of Solomon
Abbreviations - Vulgate
Capreolus, Bishop of Carthage - His answer to the argument from Psa_22:1 is drawn from the latter half of the verse (as it is in the LXX and Vulgate which are not improbably right) "Far from my health are the words of my failings," and based on the mystery of the union of the two natures "that human condition should know itself" (c
Acts of the Apostles - ...
(1) The African is represented by Codex Floriacensis (h), now at Paris, formerly at Fleury, containing a text which is almost identical with that of Cyprian; it is in a very fragmentary condition, but fortunately the quotations of Cyprian and Augustine (who uses an African text in Acts, though he follows the Vulgate in the Gospels) enable much of the text to be reconstructed. A branch of the European text of a Spanish or provençal type is found in p, a Paris manuscript from Perpignan, and in w, a Bohemian manuscript now in Wernigerode, but in both Manuscripts there is much Vulgate contamination. ...
(4) The Vulgate. -It is impossible here to enumerate the hundreds of Vulgate Manuscripts of the Acts. Their study is a special branch of investigation, which has little bearing on the Acts, and for all purposes, except that of tracing the history of the Vulgate, the edition of Wordsworth and White may be regarded as sufficient. ]'>[13]4 which also gives a clear statement of the best editions of the separate Manuscripts of the Old Latin and the Vulgate (pp
Canon of Scripture - ), as may be seen in the Latin Vulgate, which is the version used by that church
Shiloh (1) - , all except Vulgate and Pseudo Jon
Fitches - " In the latter place the Septuagint has ξεα , and in the two former ολυρα ; and the Vulgate in Exodus, far, and in Isaiah and Ezekiel, vicia
Mysia - The other reading, διελθόντες, preferred by Blass despite its weak authority (D and Vulgate), seems in Acts and the Pauline Epistles invariably to designate a missionary tour, which is in this case out of the question, as the apostles have just been forbidden to preach in Asia (Acts 16:6)
Nobleman - Wyclif ‘a litil kyng,’ like the Vulgate regulus, follows the false reading βασιλίσκος
Sacraments - Bible - The arrangement of the verses of the New Testament as we now have them was perfected in the Latin Vulgate, an edition of which with verses was published by Robert Stephens, a learned French printer, in 1551. He also modified and completed the division of the Old Testament into verses, in an edition of the whole Bible, the Vulgate, in 1555
Print - in both places), which occurs in Vulgate for τύτος in Acts 7:43, 1 Corinthians 10:6; 1 Corinthians 10:11; and ‘fissuram’ is also found. Vulgate gives ‘nisi videro in manibus fixuram clavorum, et mittam digitum meum in locum clavorum
Versions - "...
The Durham Book, of the ninth century (in British Museum, Cottonian manuscripts), has the Anglo Saxon interlinear with the Latin Vulgate The Rushworth Gloss of the same century is in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. ...
All the foregoing are translated from the Latin Vulgate. By his time Wycliffe's English had become obsolete, and his translation being from the Latin Vulgate could not satisfy Grecian scholars of Henry VIII's reign. " Mary is from the Vulgate hailed (Luke 1:28) "full of grace. He and Tyndale just before the latter's imprisonment had determined to edit the complete Bible and Apocrypha, based on the original not on the Vulgate, etc. Martin, Allen (afterwards cardinal), and Bristow, English refugees of the church of Rome, settled at Rheims, feeling the need of counteracting the Protestant versions, published a version of the New Testament at Rheims, based on the Vulgate, in 1582, with dogmatic and controversial notes
Thaddaeus - In Matthew 10:3 the oldest Greek MSS ( א B), the Vulgate, the Coptic, and some Old Latin MSS have ‘Thaddæus,’ while D Canon of the Holy Scriptures - With an appeal to these earlier voices, the Fathers of the Council of Trent in their famous decree of April 8, 1546, definitely declared as "sacred and canonical" all the books of the Old and New Testament contained in the Vulgate, listing them as follows
Bondage - ’ Note the Vulgate servitus and Wyclif’s corresponding term, ‘servage
Joseph - The name ‘Barsabbas’ (or ‘Barsabas,’ C, Vulgate , Syrr
Dayspring - For ἀνατολὴ ἐξ ὕψους in Luke 1:78 Vulgate has oriens ex alto
Lord's Day - The words "he that regardeth not the day to the Lord he doth not regard it" are not in the Sinaiticus, Alexandrinus, and Vaticanus manuscripts, and the Vulgate
Uncorruptness - Restoration of Offenders - Tree (2) - It suggested a reference to the Cross in Song of Solomon 2:3; Song of Solomon 2:5, which runs thus in the Vulgate: ‘Sicut malus inter ligna silvarum, sic dilectus meus inter filios
Enmity - The friendship (φιλία, which implies ‘loving’ as well as ‘being loved’) of the world, which loves its own (John 15:19), is enmity with God (James 4:4, Vulgate inimica est dei)
Lying - It is the glory of Christianity that this religion reveals ‘the God who cannot lie,’ ὁ ἀψευδὴς θεός (Titus 1:2), qui non mentitur Deus (Vulgate )
Cananaean - ...
Jerome, who in the Vulgate adopts the from ‘Cananaeus,’ in his Com
Bag - agree with this view; Vulgate gives loculos, the plural, says Field, ‘indicating several partitions,’ a small portable cash-box; D Belial, Beliar - ]'>[3] (but not the Vulgate) read ‘Beliar’ rather than ‘Belial’ (Peshiṭta ‘Satan,’ but the Ḥarklensian Syriac ‘Beliar’), the word is used as a proper name = Satan, or else Antichrist, Satan’s representative
Ecclesiasticus - Catholic editions are derived from the Vulgate which was prepared by Saint Jerome from the Old Latin compared with the Septuagint text of the book
Almond Tree - In this manner it is rendered by the Seventy; and by the Vulgate, Vigilabo ego super verbum meum
Swallows - So the Septuagint, Vulgate, and two ancient manuscripts, Theodotion, and Jerom, render it, and Bochart and Lowth follow them
Kings, First And Second Books of, - and the Vulgate the third and fourth books of Kings (the books of Samuel being the first and second)
Jezebel - The Sinaiticus manuscript and the Paris manuscript and Vulgate Latin read as the KJV; but the Alexandrinus and Vaticanus manuscripts "thy wife," i
Samuel, Books of - In doing so he was in part following the text of the Septuagint and the Vulgate, in which the Books of Samuel and Kings are described as the First, Second, Third, and Fourth Books of Kingdoms (LXX [1] ), or Kings (Vulgate). The Syriac and Vulgate versions are also useful, but to a far less extent
Bason - ]'>[1] (νιπτήρ only in John 13:5 εἶτα βάλλει ὕδωρ εἰς τὸν νιπτῆρα: Vulgate deinde mittit aquam in pelvim: Authorized Version ‘after that he poureth water into a bason’: Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ‘then he poureth water into the bason’). The Vulgate pelvis, though found in Juvenal, etc. Or was it a vessel set apart for ceremonial ablution, such as would be required by the religious feast in which they were engaged?...
But, in spite of the Vulgate and modern versions, it is doubtful if the word ‘bason’ conveys to us a good idea of the article and of the scene
Multitude - (John 7:12 where אD Vulgate give sing. ’ The following phrases may be noted—(a) ὄχλος ἱκανος, which Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 in Mark 10:46 translates ‘great multitude’ (Authorized Version a ‘great number of people’), yet in Luke 7:12 renders, as Authorized Version , ‘much people,’ probably because in the preceding verse ‘great multitude’ is used for a different collection of persons; (b) ὁ πολὺς ὁχλος or ὁ ὀχλος πολύς forming almost a composite term ‘the common people’ (Mark 12:37, John 12:9; John 12:12 (Revised Version margin) ); (c) ὁ σλεῖστοι ὀχλος, Matthew 21:8 Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ‘the most part of the multitude,’ Authorized Version ‘a very great multitude,’ Vulgate plurima turba; in Mark 4:1 ὄχλος πλεῖστος is read by אB, al. ; (d) τῶν μυριάδων τοῦ ὄχλου, Luke 12:1 ‘the many thousands of the multitude’ (Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ), ‘an innumerable multitude of people’ (Authorized Version ), multis turbis (Vulgate ); this ὄχλος appears to be the largest mentioned in the Gospels, and the words ‘in the mean time’ (ἐν οἶς) at the beginning of the verse suggest that it was drawn together by the conflict between Christ and His adversaries which is narrated in the previous chapter. Vulgate jacentes)
Lamentations, Book of - ]'>[1] , followed by the Vulgate and other versions, names Jeremiah the prophet as the author of Lam. Mansion - From the Vulgate mansiones it is used by Wyclif for ‘halting-places’ in Exodus 17:1, but in translations from the Greek (as Whiston’s Josephus, 1737) this meaning represents σταθμός, not μονή, and so has no bearing upon the sense of John 14:2. The Vulgate also uses mansiones in John 14:2, and is responsible for Hampole’s use of the English form of the word in the sense of ‘dwelling-places
Basket (2) - It is generally connected with στεῖρα = anything twisted (Vulgate sporta, of which the diminutives sportella and sportula occur, as small fruit or provision-baskets). ...
As στυρίς in Acts 9:25 = σαργἀνη in 2 Corinthians 11:33, and as the Vulgate has sporta in both places (and also in the Gospels for στυρίς but not for κόφινο;), we are led to inquire as to the force of σαργάνη
Dish - ...
The form of the Greek equivalent (τρύβλιον, Vulgate catinum [1], but in Matthew 26:23 Vulgate has paropsis, for which see below) is that of a diminutive, although there is no example of a cognate or simpler form (see Liddell and Scott, s
bi'Ble - The Vulgate, or translation of the Bible into Latin by Jerome, A. The present division into verses was introduced by Robert Stephens in his Greek Testament, published in 1551, in his edition of the Vulgate, in 1555
Censer - (1) Authorized Version and Revised Version , following the Vulgate-‘aureum habens thuribulum’-render θυμιατήριον by ‘censer’; but Revised Version margin and American Revised Version , like Clement Alex
Darkness - The Septuagint, our translation of the Bible, and indeed most others, in explaining Moses's account of this darkness, render it "a darkness which may be felt;" and the Vulgate has it, "palpable darkness;" that is, a darkness consisting of black vapors and exhalations, so condensed that they might be perceived by the organs of feeling or seeing; but some commentators think that this is carrying the sense too far, since, in such a medium as this, mankind could not live an hour, much less for the space of three days, as the Egyptians are said to have done, during the time this darkness lasted; and, therefore, they imagine that instead of a darkness that may be felt, the Hebrew phrase may signify a darkness wherein men went groping and feeling about for every thing they wanted
Esther, Book of - ...
There are several apocryphal additions to the book of Esther in the LXX and the Vulgate
Vulgate, the - In giving the Vulgate as an authority for various readings in the N. ...
This passage gives an illustration of how the Old Latin, preserved in the Vulgate, may be the means of authenticating true readings that would otherwise be condemned because of the supposed preponderance (of weight, not number ) of Greek MSS against it
Ed - Gelilot is transled in the Vulgate as "mounds," probably the round islands with flat tops, formed by broad water channels and salt springs on the level of the Ghor or upper plain
Robber - ROBBER (λῃστής, Vulgate latro) is found in Authorized Version only in John 10:1; John 10:8; John 18:40 (Barabbas)
Cerinthus - 32), ‘confesses not’ in 1 John 4:3 was substituted for an original ‘dissolves’ or ‘disrupts’ (λύει, so Vulgate solvit)
Manasseh - Jerome, the Vulgate, three Hebrew MSS, and two or three ancient copies of the LXX read Moses instead of Manasseh
Soul; Self; Life - The Greek Septuagint and the Latin Vulgate both simply use the Greek and Latin equivalent “soul,” especially in the Psalms
King, Kings - In the Septuagint and Vulgate, our two books of Samuel are also called books of Kings
Horse - Palestine (Septuagint and Vulgate name the mart in their translation), of the Hebrew Koa
War - In Deuteronomy 20:9 Vulgate, Syriac, etc
Beelzebub or Beelzebul - The spelling with b was retained in the NT by Luther, though his Greek text had λ, and by Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 in text; it was introduced by Jerome in the Vulgate, see the Index of Wordsworth-White, where 15 Latin spellings of the name are given, and cf
Lucianus, Priest of Antioch, Martyr - Lucian produced, possibly with the help of Dorotheus, a revised version of the LXX, which was used, as Jerome tells us, in the churches of Constantinople, Asia Minor, and Antioch, and met with such universal acceptance that it received the name of the Vulgate (Vulgata, Κοινή ), while copies of the LXX in general passed under the title of Lucianea (Westcott, Hist
Bible, Texts And Versions - ...
Other versions of the Old Testament such as the Syriac, Old Latin, the Latin Vulgate, etc. The famous Latin Vulgate of Jerome contained the books in the Septuagint not found in the Hebrew Bible plus 2Esdras. The Latin Vulgate, produced about 400 A
Dalmanutha - Μαγαδάν is the reading of אBD (B3 [3] -ᾶν), Μαγεδἁν of אc; the Old Latin has Magadan, Mageda, -am, Magidam; Vulgate Magedan; syrsin מנרן, cur מנרון, pal מנרין, pesh מנרו (Magdu; so also the Arabic Tatian). τὰ μέρη is replaced by τὸ ὁρος in 28, syrsin; but in the latter the addition of a dot makes the plural; syrcur is missing; B has the spelling Δαλμανουνθα, 474 Δαμανουθά, 184ev Δαλμουνουθά; Vulgate Dalmanutha (with unimportant variations); arm
Bethlehem - Jerome's sepulchre is near; Bethlehem being where he lived for 30 years, and diligently studied the Hebrew Scriptures, to prepare the Vulgate translation
Substance - The Vulgate renders it objectively (substantiae ejus), and many Patristic commentators take this view-e
Numbers, Book of - It answers the questions: “Who are the people of God?” “Who is in charge here?” and, “What are we doing?” Title The book title is “Numbers” in our English Bibles based upon the Vulgate (Latin translation) title, Numeri , and the Septuagint (Greek translation) title, Arithmoi
Chastisement - ’ The Vulgate translates ‘in disciplina et correptione
Heir Heritage Inheritance - ...
On the other hand, the Latin heres with its derivatives, used by the Vulgate, being a weak form of χῆρος, ‘bereft,’ has the idea of succession; it means literally ‘an orphan,’ and so hints at the death of the father. ]'>[9] In Hebrews 6:12 the present participle κληρονομούντων is used: ‘those who are inheriting’ (the Vulgate has the future hereditabunt, but some old Lat. Manuscripts have the present potiuntur); so in 4:3 ‘we which have believed do enter-are now entering (εἰσερχόμεθα)-into that rest,’ not as Vulgate ingrediemur, ‘shall enter’ (see Westcott, op
Token - ’ The word ἔνδειγμα (‘manifest token’) occurs only here in the Greek Bible; its general significance is ‘proof’ or ‘evidence’ (not exemplum as the Vulgate, but rather indicium as Beza)
Grecians - ...
"Spake ALSO unto" is the true reading (Acts 11:20, the Alexandrinus, the Vaticanus, the Sinaiticus manuscripts, and the Vulgate version)
Cock-Crowing - * Asherah - ]'>[4] and Vulgate, had mistakenly rendered grove
Text, Versions, And Languages of ot - ...
(7) The Vulgate . The Vulgate is derived from this direct translation of Jerome’s from the Hebrew in the case of all the canonical books of the OT except the Psalms; the Psalms appear commonly in editions of the Vulgate in the form of the so-called Gallican Psalter; this was a second version of the Old Latin, in which, however, after the manner of Origen’s Hexaplaric text, the translation was brought nearer to the current Hebrew text by including matter contained in the later Greek versions but absent from the LXX Haggai - " The Septuagint associate Haggai and Zechariah in the titles of Psalm 137; Psalm 145-148; the Vulgate in the titles of Psalm 111; 145; the Syriac in those of Psalm 125; Psalm 126; Psalm 145-148
Jehovah - " So Septuagint, Vulgate, and even KJV (except in four places "Jehovah": Isaiah 12:2; Isaiah 26:4; Exodus 6:3; Psalms 83:18) has "THE LORD," which in CAPITALS represents JEHOVAH, in small letters Adonai
ir-ha-Heres - Manger - This view is supported by the Vulgate (prœsepium) and the Peshitta
Israel in Egypt - " The Samaritan Pentateuch and the LXX add the words "and of their fathers in the land of Canaan;" but these words are not in the Arabic, Syriac, or Vulgate versions; and may therefore have been added to meet the apparent difficulty
Zechariah - The two, "Haggai the prophet and Zechariah the son of Iddo" the priest prophet, according to a probable tradition composed psalms for the liturgy of the temple: Psalms 137; 146 to 148, according to Septuagint; Psalm 125, 126 (See NEHEMIAH) according to the Peshito; Psalm 111 according to Vulgate
Fear - He was heard for His εὐλάβεια, that perfect reverence which dictated a perfect submission: ‘exauditus pro sua reverentia’ (Vulgate )
Ambrosiaster, or Pseudo-Ambrosius - The text used is not the Vulgate but a prior form of the Latin version
Proverbs - This term, which our translators have adopted after the Vulgate, denotes, according to our great lexicographer, "a short sentence frequently repeated by the people, a saw, an adage;" and no other word can, perhaps, be substituted more accurately expressing the force of the Hebrew; or, if there could, it has been so long familiarized by constant use, that a change is totally inadmissible
Sycamore - These testimonies, together with the Septuagint and Vulgate version, are adduced to settle the meaning of the word בולס , in Amos 7:14 , which must signify scraping, or making incisions in the sycamore fruit; an employment of Amos before he was called to the prophetic office: "I was no prophet, neither was I a prophet's son; but I was a herdman, and a gatherer of sycamore fruit
Fear - He was heard for His εὐλάβεια, that perfect reverence which dictated a perfect submission: ‘exauditus pro sua reverentia’ (Vulgate )
Natural - Zebulun - Covenant - "Testament" for each of the two divisions of the Bible comes from the Latin Vulgate version
Captain - This ‘captain’ of the Temple (2 Maccabees 3:4 ὁ προστάτης τοῦ ἰεροῦ) is mentioned in Jeremiah 20:1 LXX Septuagint as ἡγούμενος and in Nehemiah 11:11 as ἀπέναντι τοῦ οἴκου τοῦ θεοῦ ‘the ruler of the house of God’ (Vulgate prineeps domus Dei Dei = איש הר הבת Mishna, Middoth i
Dives - This use of the word Dives, derived, no doubt, from the Vulgate, is common in English literature, and can be traced back at least to the time of Chancer, who, in The Somnour’s Tale, lines 169, 170, says:...
‘Lazar and Dives liveden diversly,...
And divers guerdon hadden they ther-by
Shem - Translated "the elder brother of Japheth," as Arabic, Syriac, and Vulgate
Fox - The LXX render it by αλωπηξ , the Vulgate, vulpes, and our English version, fox
Lord's Prayer (i) - Even the Vulgate of Sixtus V. The Vulgate (Jerome?) has supersubstantialis in Mt. Jona, Rome, 1668: על הקיום להמנו, a literal rendering of the supersubstantialis of the Vulgate, as überstantlich in three editions of the pre-Lutheran German Bible
Bible, Canon of the - ...
However, the arrangement of books is that of the Latin Vulgate, from which the earliest English translations were made, including the first English translation by John Wycliffe. Thus, our English translations reflect the divisions as well as the order of the Latin Vulgate
Manna - Vulgate, Septuagint, and Josephus ( Rock - Tyrannus - Graciousness - Wyclif and the Rhemish version support the rendering of the Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885, following in all probability the example of the Vulgate in verbis gratiae which they rendered literally
Hatred - While they could recall the time when they were ‘hateful, hating one another’ (στυγητοί, μισοῦντες ἀλλήλους, Titus 3:3; Vulgate ‘odibiles, odientes invicem’), the spirit of the new life was φιλαδελφία (love of the brethren), to which was added a world-wide ἀγάπη (2 Peter 1:7)
Long-Suffering - The Latin equivalent is longanimitas (Vulgate ), and Jeremy Taylor amongst others tried to transplant the word into English soil under the form of ‘longanimity,’ but without success
Chance - ’ In the original the phrase is κατὰ συγκρίαν, Vulgate accidit ut
Day - Lord’s Prayer) is not found in classical Greek, and seems to have been specially coined by the Evangelists to convey in this single context the idea of ‘needful’ or ‘the coming day’s’; the Vulgate has supersubstantialem (cf
Euthalius (5), Deacon of Alexandria - The Vulgate had used it and it is found in the psalms of the Vatican and Sinaitic MSS
Living (2) - (1) Mark 12:44 (|| Luke 21:4) ἕβαλεν ὅλον τὸν βίον αὐτῆς, Vulgate totum victum suum = ‘all that she had to live upon until more should be earned’ (Swete). (2) Luke 8:43 ἰατροῖς προσαναλώσασα ὅλον τὸν βίον, Vulgate omnem substantiam suam: the πρός implying that besides what she had suffered, she had expended all her means of subsistence (cf. (3) Luke 15:12 διεῖλεν αὐτοῖς τὸν βίον, Vulgate divisit illis substantiam: ὁ βίος being equivalent to ἡ οὐσία (‘his estate’)
Old Testament - Origen in the Hexapla, and especially Jerome, instructed by Palestinian Jews in preparing the Vulgate, show a text identical with ours in even the traditional unwritten vowel readings. Jerome's Vulgate is the best critical help on disputed passages. So the Septuagint, Syriac, Ethiopic, Arabic, Vulgate
Bible - Mill observes, that this version was made from a Latin copy of the old Vulgate. The evangelists, still extant, done from the ancient Vulgate, before it was revised by St. Justinian, bishop of Nebio, printed at Genoa an Arabic version of the Psalter, with the Hebrew text and Chaldee paraphrase, adding Latin interpretations: there are also Arabic versions of the whole Scripture in the Polyglots of London and Paris; and we have an edition of the Old Testament entire, printed at Rome, in 1671, by order of the congregation de propaganda fide; but it is of little esteem, as having been altered agreeably to the Vulgate edition. About thirty years after their New Testament, the Roman Catholics published a translation of the Old at Douay, 1609, and 1610, from the Vulgate, with annotations, so that the English Roman Catholics have now the whole Bible in their mother tongue; though, it is to be observed, they are forbidden to read it without a license from their superiors
Esdras, the Second Book of - In the authenticated edition of the Vulgate, it is relegated to an appendix, along with 1 Es. It was through this version that the book found its way into the appendix of the Vulgate, and thence into our Apocrypha
Apocrypha - They were made a part of the official Latin Bible, the Vulgate. However, in the Latin Vulgate they are all placed at the end
Tribulation - Raca - 32; racha in most Manuscripts of the Latin Versions; raccha in d; only f k Zc and the official Vulgate have raca; רקא in all Syriac Versions, vocalized רָקָא, רַקָא, רָקֵא, רַקָא (see the edition of the Tetraeuangelium by Pusey-Gwilliam, and the Thesaurus Syriacus; it is explained as = שׁיטא, i
Vain - The Vulgate has in vanum in Mk
Heaven - Some of the ancients imagined that the habitation of good men, after the resurrection, would be the sun; grounding this fanciful opinion on a mistaken interpretation of Psalms 19:4 , which they rendered, with the LXX and Vulgate, "He has set his tabernacle in the sun
Beatitudes - In the Latin of the Vulgate, beatus, the word for blessed, happy, or fortunate, begins certain verses such as Psalm 1:1 : "Blessed is the man who does not walk in the counsel of the wicked
Grave Gravity - The Vulgate has pudicus, except in 1 Timothy 3:4 (castitas) and in Titus 2:7 (gravitas)
Diana - The use of the name ‘Diana’ in Acts 19 (Authorized Version and Revised Version ) to indicate the Ephesian goddess is probably due to the influence of the Latin Vulgate
Ark - They also render it κιβωτον ; Josephus, λαρνακα ; and the Vulgate arcam; signifying an ark, coffer, or chest
Only- Begotten - Bible - From this they passed into the Latin versions, and so into Jerome’s revisioo, the Vulgate, which in time became the authorized Bible of the Roman Catholic Church. They were not accepted by the Protestants as Divinely inspired, but were printed in some Protestant Bibles between the OT and the NT, not in their old places in the Septuagint and Vulgate versions, where they were interspersed with the OT books as though forming part of the OT itself. This came to be known as the Vulgate, which for 1000 years was the Bible of the Western Church, and which, since the Council of Trent, has been honoured by Roman Catholics as an infallibly correct rendering of the true text of Scripture
Leper - In Isaiah 53:4, Jerome's Vulgate translated, "we thought Him to be a leper smitten of God," leprosy being God's direct judgment for sin
Jehoiachin - In Jeremiah 29:27-32 his age is made "eight" at his accession, so Septuagint, Vulgate
Gentiles (2) - gentes, ‘a race,’ ‘people,’ or ‘nation’), is used in the Vulgate to render the Heb
Home (2) - The Vulgate in John 19:27 has the strict parallel in sua
Righteous, To Be - The older translations base their understanding on the Septuagint with the translation dikaiosune (“righteousness”) and on the Vulgate iustitia (“justice”)
Canon of the New Testament - The immense personal influence of Augustine and the acceptance of Jerome’s Vulgate as the standard Bible of the Christian Church gave fixity to the Canon, which was not disturbed for a thousand years. Here we have a whole province speaking for those books; when we add the great authority of Augustine, who belongs to this very province, and the influence of the Vulgate, we can well understand how the Canon should now be considered fixed and inviolable. At the Council of Trent (1546) for the first time the Roman Catholic Church made an authoritative statement on the Canon, uttering an anathema ( ‘anathema sit ’) on anybody who did not accept in their integrity all the books contained in the Vulgate
Song of Songs - Lord's Supper - Similarly the "breaking of bread at (their) house" of meeting (as distinguished from "in the temple," not "from house to house": Acts 2:42; Acts 2:46; Acts 20:7; Acts 20:11) refers primarily to the Christian meals of loving fellowship (called agapais , 2 Peter 2:13, where the Sinaiticus manuscript reads as the KJV: "with their own deceivings," but the Vaticanus manuscript, the Vulgate and the Syriac versions have: "in their own lovefeasts"; Judges 1:12 has: "in your feasts of charity," (agapais )
Bible, - ANCIENT VERSIONS, which show what was apparently in the Greek copies used for the versions: the Old Latin, often called Italic; the Vulgate; Syriac; Egyptian, called the Memphitic and the Thebaic; the Gothic; Armenian; and AEthiopic
Bosom - sinus (which Vulgate gives in all the above passages), is used in the two principal senses of (a) the human bosom, the front of the body between the arms; (b) the bosom of the garment, i
Following - Matthew 4:25; Matthew 8:1; Matthew 20:29; Matthew 21:9, Mark 5:24, Luke 23:27 (see Crowd, Multitude); publicans and sinners also (ἡκολούθουν, א B, Vulgate Mark 2:15, cf
Proverbs, the Book of - and Vulgate versions), for which Gesenius translated "a saying that needs an interpreter," i
Solomon - The Hebrew and the Vulgate have only twenty measures of oil; but the reading ought no doubt to be twenty thousand
Sweat - ’ Here again there is a secondary question of reading, because certain manuscripts and versions (אVX, Vulgate Boh
Lord's Prayer - ’ This is read now in the Vulgate in Lk
Abiding - ‘Mansions’ ((Revised Version margin) ‘abiding-places’) is the stately rendering (Authorized Version and Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885), through the Vulgate mansiones, of the noun in John 14:2; but it becomes impossible in John 14:23 of the same chapter when the translators fall back on ‘abode
Habits - In Canaan, persons of distinction were dressed in fine linen of Egypt; and according to some authors, in silk, and rich cloth, shaded with the choicest colours, or, as the Vulgate calls it, with feathered work, embroidered with gold
Abiding - ‘Mansions’ ((Revised Version margin) ‘abiding-places’) is the stately rendering (Authorized Version and Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885), through the Vulgate mansiones, of the noun in John 14:2; but it becomes impossible in John 14:23 of the same chapter when the translators fall back on ‘abode
Hieronymus, Eusebius (Jerome) Saint - Vulgate). 12), and was thus further confirmed in the convictions which led to the Vulgate version. The Vulgate itself was in preparation, as we find from the Catalogue; but as it was not produced for some years, what had been done thus far was evidently only preliminary and imperfect work
Samson - Bible, Translations - was called the Vulgate, the official version for the Roman Catholic Church
Marks Stigmata - Amen - ‘Amen’ later became the last word of the first speaker, either as simple subscription-as such it stands appended to three of the Psalms (41, 72, 89), and in many NT Epistles, after both doxologies (15 times) and benedictions (6 timed in Revised Version )-or as the last word of a prayer (Revised Version only in Prayer of Manasses; but 2 others in Vulgate, viz
Bethlehem - Jerom, where they show the tomb of that father, who passed great part of his life in this place; and who, in the grotto shown as his oratory, is said to have translated that version of the Bible which has been adopted by the church of Rome, and is called the Vulgate
Hellenists - On which account Grotius, understanding by the ‘Ελληνισται , or "Grecians, to whom some of those who were dispersed on the persecution which arose about Stephen: preached the Lord Jesus," Acts 11:19-20 , Greeks by nation, concludes there is a mistake in the text, and alters it according to the Syriac and Vulgate versions: "Certe legendum, [1] saith he, " προς τους Ελληνας
New Moon - Lunatic - ’ The Vulgate translates it lunaticus, and in Matthew 17:15 lunaticus est, where Tindale gives ‘is frantick,’ and other versions practically follow the Vulgate
Mark, the Gospel According to - ...
The Sinaiticus and Vaticanus manuscripts omit Mark 16:9-20, but Alexandrinus and Beza and Paris manuscripts and Vulgate support them, and "they were afraid" would be a strangely abrupt close of the Gospel
Marriage - Vulgate wrongly translated "this is a great sacrament," Rome's plea for making marriage a sacrament
Apocrypha - They were eventually included in Christian copies of the Greek Old Testament and, later, the Latin Vulgate
Violence - ]'>[1] ; vim patitur, Vulgate ; βιαίως κρατεῖται, Hesychius)
Leviticus - The title is borrowed from the Vulgate, the Latin translation of the Old Testament, and means the Levitical book
Demon - ‘vanities’; Vulgate daemonia); and Deuteronomy 32:17 (see above) both in the Heb
Excommunication - It is used in the Vulgate
Versions of the Scripture, Ancient - For these see Vulgate
Manuscripts - Latin Manuscripts :—...
(a) of the pre-Vulgate (otherwise called ‘Old Latin,’ or ‘Itala’) translation(s):—...
a: Vercelli, Cathedral. It was probably a MS like this which was the chief basis of Jerome’s revision known as the Vulgate
Boyhood of Jesus - The omission of πνεύματι in this verse by א BDL Vulgate and most crit. The Vulgate has the more easy Israel; Amiatinus: , and so Peshitta
Greek Versions of ot - Not only are its relations to the original Hebrew of the OT more difficult and obscure than those of any other version to its original, but, as the Greek OT of the Christian community from its earliest days, it has a special historical importance which no other version can claim, and only the Vulgate can approach. Through the medium of the Old Latin Version it passed into the West, and in spite of Jerome’s adoption of the Hebrew canon in his Vulgate, the impugned books made their way back into all Latin Bibles, and have remained there from that day to this
Job -
At present the period from c Stranger, Alien, Foreigner - ]'>[4] 5), In 1 Peter 2:11 a strong moral appeal is made to Christians as πάροικοι καὶ παρεπίδημοι: here, πάροικοι having the first claim to ‘sojourners,’ it was necessary that παρεπίδημοι should be translated by a different word, and ‘pilgrims,’ which, in its Latin form peregrini, is used by the Vulgate in this verse, at once suggested itself
Popery - We shall only add, that the church of Rome maintains, that unwritten traditions ought to be added to the Holy Scriptures, in order to supply their defect, and to be regarded as of equal authority; that the books of the Apocrypha are canonical Scripture; that the Vulgate edition of the Bible is to be deemed authentic; and that the Scriptures are to be received and interpreted according to that sense which the holy mother church, to whom it belongs to judge of the true sense, hath held, and doth hold, and according to the unanimous consent of the fathers
James - The older English versions have either ‘Judas of James’ (Wyclif = Vulgate Iudam Iacobi) or ‘Judas James’ sonne’ (Tindale, etc
Adam - Controversy has raged hotly round this phrase, Augustine and many other writers having understood the relative ω as masculine, and as referring to Adam; so Vulgate in quo
Adam - Controversy has raged hotly round this phrase, Augustine and many other writers having understood the relative ω as masculine, and as referring to Adam; so Vulgate in quo
English Versions - The scholarship of the monasteries of Wearmouth and Jarrow, which had an important influence on the textual history of the Latin Vulgate, did not concern itself with vernacular translations; and no further trace of an English Bible appears until the 9th century. In the first place, it was translated from the Latin Vulgate, not from the original Hebrew and Greek, with which there is no reason to suppose that Wyclif or his assistants were familiar
Jonah - Olives, Mount of - side or else peak of the Mount of Olives, which from Brocardus' time (13th century) has been called "the mount of offense" from the Vulgate translated of 2 Kings 23:13
Session - Matthew 26:64, Luke 22:69 (Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ‘shall be seated,’ Vulgate ‘erit sedens’), Colossians 3:1 (οὗ ὁ Χριστός ἐστιν … καθήμενος, ‘where Christ is seated,’ Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ), and Romans 8:34, 1 Peter 3:22 where ὅς ἐστιν ἐν δεξιᾷ τοῦ θεοῦ has the same meaning; in Psalms 110:1 κάθου (LXX Septuagint ) also marks continuous session as distinct from assumption of place
Septuagint - From this fountain the stream was derived to the Latin church, first by the Italic or Vulgate translation of the Scriptures, which was made from the Septuagint, and not from the Hebrew; and, secondly, by the study of the Greek fathers
Patricius, or Saint Patrick - Its Latinity is rude and archaic, it quotes the ante-Hieronymian Vulgate; and contains nothing inconsistent with the century in which it professes to have been written
Sanctification, Sanctify - ‘Sanctify’ (Latin, from the Vulgate) = the native Eng
Virgin Virginity - * Love - The noun in the Vulgate is caritas, from carum habere, which admirably expresses the specific character of the biblical conception
Cup - כּוֹם and so used in the LXX Septuagint; Vulgate equivalent is calix)
Adoption - Paul alone of biblical writers; he uses the word ‘adoption’ (υἱοθεσία, Vulgate adoptio filiorum, Syr
Roman Catholics - In favour of extreme unction, or anointing the sick with oil, they argue from James 1:14-15 , which is thus rendered in the Vulgate: "Is any sick among you? Let him call for the priests of the church, and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil," &c
New Testament - version and the Vulgate
Entry Into Jerusalem - ), was tied ‘at the door without in the open street’ (ἐπὶ τοῦ ἁμφόδου [2], Just
Amen (2) - The Vulgate, e
Scripture - 385-405, which is called the Vulgate
Pseudo-Chrysostomus - He does not use Jerome's Vulgate but a previous translation
Bible - Stephens adopted them in his Vulgate, 1555; the English translation in the Geneva Bible of 1560
Kings, Books of - ]'>[1] to the Vulgate, and so to the Church
Gentiles - The Vulgate has gentes for ἔθνη, but nearly always Gentilis for Ἔλλην [2]
Sorrow, Man of Sorrows - The ‘Man of Sorrows’—The phrase comes from Isaiah 53:3 (אּישׁ מַכְאֹבוֹח; LXX Septuagint , ἄνθρωτος ἐν πληγῇ ὤν; Vulgate virum dolorum)
Family - ), who here follows the Syriac and the Latin Vulgate, is best, and overcomes the difficulty presented to the English reader by the existence of ‘families’ in heaven, in opposition to Matthew 22:30
Alpha And Omega (2) - 10–12), wherein the first line contains a reference to Psalms 45:1 Vulgate (‘Eructavit cor meum Verbum bonum’), treated as Messianic by the Fathers—...
‘Corde natus ex Parentis...
Ante mundi exordium...
Alpha et Ω cognominatus...
Ipse fons et clausula...
Omnium quae sunt, fuerunt...
Quaeque post futura sunt
Pronunciation of Proper Names - Moses, Aaron, Solomon, Isaac, Samuel, Jeremiah) the forms adopted by the Authorized Version are borrowed from the Septuagint through the medium of the Vulgate
Kings, the Books of - In the Septuagint the books are called "the third and fourth of the Kingdoms," in Vulgate "the third and fourth book of Kings
Humility - עַנִוָה, Vulgate humilitas, Germ
Ascension - The Peshiṭta Syriac has the full text (with ethpresh, ‘was separated,’ for the first verb), as has the Latin Vulgate. The Peshiṭta Syriac has the full text (with ethpresh, ‘was separated,’ for the first verb), as has the Latin Vulgate
Fulfilment - When the Authorized Version was made, ‘fulfil,’ according to the great Oxford Dictionary, meant ‘fill,’ and began to be used by the translators in its remoter sense on the pattern of the Vulgate, which wrote (unclassically) implere and adimplere for Heb
Ebionism And Ebionites - Many, if not most, of the improvements made by the Vulgate on the LXX are due to the Ebionite version (Field, Origenis Hexaplarum quae supersunt , Preface)
Weights And Measures - ...
The reading lethek which occurs in Hosea 3:2 , and by Vulgate and EV Food - At least four varieties of bean, for example, are named, also the chickpea (which the Vulgate substitutes for the ‘parched pulse’ above referred to), various species of chicory and endive the bitter herbs of the Passover ritual ( Exodus 12:8 ) mustard ( Matthew 13:31 ), radish, and many others
Golgotha - Vulgate uses here the Latin equivalent Calvaria, whence ‘Calvary’ in Authorized Version
Sin (2) - If the Lamb of God ‘taketh away the sin of the world’ (John 1:29, Vulgate peccata mundi), the Son is manifested ‘to take away sins’ (1 John 3:5)
Bethlehem - Here, with the noble ladies whom he had won to the religious life, Paula and her daughter Eustochium, he laboured totus in lectione, totus in libris, preparing the Vulgate translation of the Holy Scriptures, which for more than a thousand years was the Bible of Western Christendom, and is a powerful tribute to his piety and learning
Canon - " And their opinion is favoured by the Latin Vulgate, where we read, eamque Laodicensium, "that which is of the Laodiceans;" but even these words admit of another construction
Priests And Levites - ]'>[10] and Vulgate shows
Marriage - Luke - The most important expressions of tradition are those of (1) Eusebius; (2) Jerome; (3) the Monarchian Prologues, found in Vulgate Manuscripts , and possibly of Priscillianist origin; (4) notes appended to NT Manuscripts
Inspiration - The use of the word ‘inspiration’ to express the Divine factor in Scripture is probably derived from the fact that the words of 2 Timothy 3:16 πᾶσα γραφὴ θεόπνευστος are rendered in the Vulgate ‘omnis Scriptura divinitus inspirata
Judas Iscariot (2) - (2) The majority of scholars incline to the view that Kerioth is the Kerioth-Hezron or Hazor of Joshua 15:25 (Vulgate Carioth); Buhl identifies the place with the modern Karjaten in South Judah (GAP Humility - עַנִוָה, Vulgate humilitas, Germ
Feasts And Festivals of Israel - This interpretation is found in the Vulgate (capro emissario ) and the Septuagint (apopompaio ), and is based on taking azazel [4] as a combination of ez [23] ("goat") and azal [13] ("depart")
Romans Epistle to the - ]'>[6] of the Codex Amiatinus of the Vulgate (a system found in many other Manuscripts ) the 50th ‘chapter’ clearly describes Romans 14:15-23, and the 51st, and last, the doxology (Romans 16:25-27), the remainder of 15 and 16 being omitted
Turning - The latter, through the influence of the Vulgate (convertor), not only uses the vb
Beatitude - —The order of the second and third Beatitudes is reversed in Codex Bezae and the Vulgate; so also Clem
Text of the Gospels - We have pointed out above that a large, and the most enlightened, portion of the Christian Church read the Scriptures in the Vulgate, or Latin translation of Jerome, and regarded it as the only authoritative exponent of the true text and sense of the original
Hilarius (7) Pictaviensis, Saint - (The numbers are the Vulgate reckoning, e
Koran - There are seven principal editions of the Alcoran, two at Medina, one at Mecca, one at Cufa, one at Bassora, one in Syria, and the common, or Vulgate edition
Victorinus Afer - 1216) "exponens in incertum animam suam" is a better rendering than the Vulgate "tradens" and the St
Text of the New Testament - Next in importance are the Coptic versions and the Latin Vulgate; and the Armenian and the later Syriac versions are also of considerable value
Augustinus, Aurelius - confiteor tibi dona tua, and the use of confiteor in the Vulgate Psalter)