What does Versions mean in the Bible?

Dictionary

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Bohairic Versions
BOHAIRIC VERSIONS . See artt. Text (OT and NT).
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Text, Versions, And Languages of ot
TEXT, VERSIONS, AND LANGUAGES OF OT
1 . Languages of the OT. The OT, except certain small sections, was written in Hebrew , and it has been preserved in its original language. But Jeremiah 10:11 , Daniel 2:4 to Daniel 7:28 , Ezra 4:8 to Ezra 6:18 ; Ezra 7:12-26 are in Aramaic , though it is disputed in the case of Daniel 2:4 to Daniel 7:28 whether this was the original language, or that of an Aramaic version which has replaced a Hebrew original. Hebrew and Aramaic alike belong to the group of languages known as Semitic, of which Assyrian (or the language of the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians) and Arabic are also important members.
2. The Hebrew language: Character and History . Hebrew is closely allied to Phœnician, to the language of the Moabites represented by Mesha’s inscription ( c [1] . b.c. 800), and to the language spoken in Canaan before (as well as after) the Hebrew invasion, known in part from the Canaanite glosses in the Tell el-Amarna tablets ( c [1] . b.c. 1400), in part from Canaanitish names contained in ancient monuments, as, for example, the list of places in Canaan recorded as among his conquests by Thothmes iii. ( c [1] . b.c. 1600). It is held by some scholars that the conquering Israelites adopted the language of Canaan, having previously spoken a language more nearly akin to Arabic (so, e.g. , Hommel, AHT [4] 120, 218). From the time at least when they were once well settled in the country, Hebrew was alike the colloquial and the literary language, of the Israelites. Some difference, such as is usual, no doubt always existed between the colloquial and the literary language though our knowledge of the colloquial is only such as we can draw by inference from the literature. But there came a time when Hebrew ceased to be the colloquial language, being replaced by Aramaic , and survived only as a literary language. The disuse of Hebrew in favour of Aramaic cannot be precisely dated, and was probably enough gradual; according to 2 Kings 18:26 , in the time of Isaiah (8th cent. b.c.), Aramaic was unintelligible to the Jewish populace, but as a language of diplomacy was spoken by Assyrian and Jewish officials alike. Apparently as late as Nehemiah (5th cent. b.c.) the colloquial language of the Jews in Palestine was still Hebrew, called ‘Jewish’ ( Nehemiah 13:24 as in 2 Kings 18:26 ). In the first century a.d., as the few sayings of the popular language preserved in the NT (such as Talitha cumi ) prove, it was Aramaic. Between these two dates, and, as we may infer from the increasing influence of Aramaic on the later books of the OT, considerably nearer the earlier than the later date, the change was made. Long before Aramaic replaced Hebrew as the spoken language, it exercised an influence through the spoken on the written language such as is commonly exercised by the language of one neighbouring people on another, that is to say, Hebrew borrowed words from Aramaic, as English borrows words from French and French from English. The Northern Kingdom was first brought into closer proximity with Aramaic-speaking peoples, and later the Southern Kingdom; and Aramaisms have consequently been regarded as pointing to a northern, or to a relatively late, origin of the writings in which they occur. Certainly any large presence of Aramaisms, and in particular any conspicuous Aramaizing of the syntax, due to the influence on their writings of the language which the later writers commonly spoke, such as we find, for example, in Daniel and Ecclesiastes, points to a late date.
Other languages besides Aramaic contributed to the vocabulary of Hebrew: Assyrian , indirectly through the Canaanites from the earliest times to an extent not easily to be defined, and later directly; Persian , after the Persian conquest of Babylon in 538; Greek , after the time of Alexander (332 b.c.); and Latin , after the establishment of Roman suzerainty over Judæa in the first century b.c. Latin words are found in the Hebrew of the Mishna, but not in the OT; a few Greek words in the latest writings of the OT (particularly Daniel, about b.c. 167) and very many in the Mishna; Persian words in some of the post-exilic literature (Esther, Canticles, Tobit).
3. The Hebrew alphabet vowelless . The Hebrew alphabet used by the OT writers consisted of twenty-two consonants: it contained no vowels, in this resembling Phœnician, Moabitic, and the ancient Arabic and Syriac alphabets. Our knowledge of the pronunciation of Hebrew words, as far as the vowels are concerned, depends on three main sources: (1) Jewish tradition, which is embodied in vowel signs invented between the 4th and 9th centuries a.d., and written under, over, or in the consonants of the ancient text; (2) the Greek versions, which transliterate a large number of Hebrew words, especially, but by no means only, the proper names; (3) the Assyrian texts: these, being written in a language which expressed in writing vowel sounds as well as consonantal, give us the vowels of such Hebrew names as they cite.
Though in the oldest Hebrew MSS of the Bible the consonants of the original text are accompanied by the vowels which express at once the traditional pronunciation and the traditional interpretation of the text, it is now as generally accepted that the vowels formed no part of the original text as that the earth revolves round the sun. Down to the 17th century it was otherwise; and that century was marked by a final and keen discussion of this point.
4. Transliteration of Hebrew adopted in this article . Since considerable importance attaches to this Jewish tradition as to the pronunciation, it will be necessary to represent the vowels in our discussion of the text, but it is important also to indicate their secondary origin and subordinate position. Throughout this article, then, the Hebrew consonants will be represented by equivalent or approximately equivalent English capitals, except the 1st and 16th letters of the Hebrew alphabet, which, being gutturals with no approximate equivalent in English, will be retained in their Hebrew form ( ע , א ), and may be passed over unpronounced by the English reader. The vowels will be represented by English small letters printed under the consonant after which they are to be pronounced; thus D aBaR, pronounced dabar . The Jewish scholars distinguished by different signs between long and short vowels; no attempt will be made here to mark these distinctions, and the peculiar half-vowels, the shĕva’s , as they are termed, will be left unrepresented. Letters doubled in pronunciation, but without a vowel between them, were represented by the letter written once, not twice. The Hebrew vocalists distinguished these doubled letters by inserting a dot in the middle of them. This dot or daghesh will be represented here by the sign | above the letter: thus DiBeR, pronounced dibber .
5. Date of the addition of vowels to the OT text . The date at which the vowels were attached to the consonants of the Hebrew text can be determined only within broad limits. It was after the beginning of the 5th cent. a.d., for the way in which Jerome speaks leaves no room for doubt that the Hebrew Scriptures in his day were un-vocalized; it must have been before the 10th cent., for the fully developed system is employed in the earliest Hebrew Biblical MSS, which date from the beginning of the 10th cent. (or, according to some, from the 9th cent.).
6. Earlier attempts to represent vowel sounds . Long before the invention of vowel points certain consonants had been used, though neither systematically nor consistently, to indicate the vowel sounds: thus H [5] was used to indicate a , and sometimes e ; W to indicate o or u , Y to indicate i . This practice in some measure goes back to the times, and doubtless also to the actual usage, of some of the writers of the OT; but in many cases these consonants used to indicate vowels were added by scribes or editors. This we learn from the fact that passages which happen to occur twice in the OT differ in the extent to which, and the particular instances in which, these letters are employed. Psalms 18:1-50 occurs not only in the Psalter, but also in 2 Samuel 22:1-51 ; the Psalm expresses these consonants used vocalically 17 times where 2Sam. does not, e.g. 2Sam. writes ḲDMNY ( 2 Samuel 22:6 ) and HḤ ŞYM ( 2 Samuel 22:31 ), where the Ps. writes ḲDMWNY and HḤWṢYM. In some cases Rabbinic discussions prove that words now written with these vowel letters were once without them; so, e.g. , it appears from a discussion attributed to two Rabbis of the 2nd cent. a.d. that in Isaiah 51:4 the word L א WMY (‘my nation’ RV [6] ) was at that time written without the W, thus L א MY. The importance of this fact for the textual criticism will appear later.
7. Character of evidence for the text of OT . The text of the OT has been transmitted to us through circumstances singularly different from those which mark the transmission of the NT text; and the results are a difference in the relative value attaching to different classes of evidence, and a much less close and sure approach to the original text when the best use has been made of the material at our disposal. Quotations play a much less immediate and conspicuous part in the criticism of the OT than in the criticism of the NT; and here we may confine our attention to the nature of the evidence for the text of the OT furnished by (1) Hebrew MSS, (2) ancient Versions.
8. (1) Hebrew MSS . One well-established result of the examination of Hebrew MSS is that all existing MSS are derived from a single edition prepared by Jewish scholars in accordance with a textual tradition which goes back substantially to the 2nd cent. a.d., but became increasingly minute. This is proved by the existence in all MSS of the same peculiarities, such as the occurrence at certain places of letters smaller or larger than the normal, of dots over certain letters, or broken or inverted letters. For example, the H in the word BhBR א M ( Genesis 2:4 ) is written small in all Hebrew MSS; it was doubtless written originally so by accident or owing to pressure of room; but under the influence of a school of Jewish scholars, of whom R. Aqiba in the 2nd cent. b.c. was a leading spirit, all such minutiae of the Scripture acquired a mystic significance. Thus the word just cited really means ‘when they were created,’ but the small H was taken to mean that the words were to be translated ‘in the letter H he ( i.e. God) created them’ (the heavens and the earth), and this in turn led to much curious speculation. As another illustration of this method of Interpretation, which was so important in securing from the 1st or 2nd cent. a.d. onwards a remarkably accurate transmission of the text, the case of the word WYYẒR In Genesis 2:7 may be cited. The word means ‘And he formed’; an alternative orthography for the word is WYẒR (with one Y). Why, it was asked, was it here written with two Y’s? Because, it was answered, God created man with two YẒRS ( i.e. two natures), the good nature and the bad. In order to secure the perpetuation of the text exactly as it existed, a mass of elaborate rules and calculations was gradually established; for example, the number of occurrences of cases of peculiar orthography, the number of words in the several books, the middle word in each book, and so forth, were calculated and ultimately embodied in notes on the margins of the MSS containing the Scriptures. This textual tradition is known as the Massorah , and those who perpetuated it as Massoretes . The Massorah also Includes a certain number of variant or conjectural readings; In this case the one reading ( Kethibh ‘written’) stands in the text, but provided with vowels that do not belong to the consonants in the text, but to the consonants of the alternative reading ( Qerç ‘read’) given in the margin. E.g. , in Job 9:30 the word BMW, which means ‘with,’ should, if vocalized, have the vowel o over the W; but in the Hebrew text the vowel actually supplied to the word is e under the M, which is the vowel that really belongs to the marginal reading BMY, and this means ‘in the water of.’ These Massoretic variants are for the most part relatively uninteresting. The value of the Massorah in perpetuating a form of the Hebrew text for many centuries has doubtless been great; but it has also long served to obscure the fact that the text which it has perpetuated with such slight variation or mutilation was already removed by many centuries from the original text and had suffered considerably.
In spite of the Massorah, certain minute variations have crept into the Hebrew MSS and even into the consonantal text. The vowels, it must be repeated, are merely an interpretation of the original text of Scripture, and not part of it, and different Hebrew MSS show as a matter of fact two distinct systems of vocalization, with different symbols.
9. The earliest MSS . Among the earliest Hebrew Biblical MSS are the Prophetarum posteriorum codex Babylonicus Petropolitanus , dated a.d. 916; a codex of the Former and Latter Prophets now in the Karaite synagogue at Cairo, and written, if correctly dated, in a.d. 895; a codex of the entire Bible, written by Samuel ben Jacob, now at St. Petersburg, and written, if the dating be genuine, in a.d. 1009.
10. Critical editions of the Massoretic text . The most accurate reproductions of the Massoretic text are the edition of the Hebrew Bible by S. Baer and Fr. Delitzsch and that by C. D. Ginsburg. These are critical editions of the Massoretic text, but make no attempt to be critical editions of the OT text, i.e. they make no use whatever of the Versions or of any other evidence than the Massoretic tradition.
11. The Samaritan Pentateuch . Before passing from the evidence of Hebrew MSS we have to note that for the Pentateuch, though unfortunately for the Pentateuch only, we have the invaluable assistance of a Hebrew text representing an entirely different recension. This is the Samaritan Pentateuch . The Samaritan Pentateuch is a form of the Hebrew text which has been perpetuated by the Samaritans. It is written in the Samaritan character, which far more closely resembles the ancient Hebrew characters than the square Hebrew characters in which the Massoretic MSS are written, and is without vowels . The available MSS of the Samaritan Pentateuch are considerably later than the earliest Massoretic MSS; nor is it probable that the copy at Nâblus, though perhaps the earliest Samaritan MS in existence, is earlier than the 12th or 13th cent. a.d. But the value of the recension lies in the fact that it has descended since the 4th cent. b.c. in a different circle, and under different circumstances, from those which have influenced the Massoretic MSS. Though in some respects, as for example through expansion by insertion of matter from parallel passages, the Samaritan is more remote than the Jewish from the original text, it has also preserved better readings, often in agreement with the LXX [7] . An instance is Genesis 4:8 ; here in the ordinary Hebrew MSS some words spoken by Cain have certainly dropped out; the fact is obscured in the RV [6] (text), which mistranslates; the Hebrew text really reads, ‘And Cain said to Abel his brother’; the Samaritan text and the LXX [7] have the additional words, ‘Let us go into the field’; this is probably right (see next clause).
12. The Samaritan Targum . No thoroughly critical edition of the Samaritan Pentateuch at present exists. The material for establishing a critical text consists of the several MSS and also of the Samaritan Targum a translation of the Samaritan recension into an Aramaic dialect. The colloquial language of the Samaritans, like that of the later Jews, was different from that in which the Scripture was written.
13. Papyrus fragment of OT text . Thanks to a recent discovery, we have a further witness to a fragment of the Hebrew text of the Pentateuch. This is the Nash papyrus. The papyrus is apparently not later than the 2nd cent. a.d.; and it contains the Ten Commandments and Deuteronomy 6:4 f. in Hebrew. The text, which is of course unvocalized, is several times in agreement with the LXX [7] against the Massoretic text. This fragment was edited by Mr. S. A. Cook in PSBA [11] (Jan. 1903).
14. (2) Versions: Earliest MSS . We come now to the second main branch of evidence for the text of the OT. The evidence of Versions is of exceptional importance in the case of the OT. In the first place, the actual MSS of the Versions are much older than the earliest Hebrew MSS; the earliest Hebrew MSS date from the 10th cent. a.d. but there are Greek MSS of the OT of the 4th cent. a.d. and there is a Syriac MS of the greater part of the Pentateuch of the date a.d. 464. But secondly, and of even greater importance, the Versions, and especially the LXX [7] , represent different lines of tradition; in so far as the original text of the LXX [7] itself can be established, it is a witness to the state of the text some two to four centuries before the date at which the stereotyping of the Hebrew text by the Massoretes took place.
The Versions of the OT are either primary, i.e. made direct from the Hebrew text, or secondary, i.e. made from a Version. Secondary Versions are of immediate importance in establishing the true text of the primary version from which they are made; and only indirectly witness to the Hebrew text. Among them the Old Latin Version is of exceptional importance in determining the text of the LXX [7] . On this and other versions of the LXX [7] , see Greek Versions of OT, § 11 .
15. Brief account of the Primary Versions . The Primary Versions of the OT, arranged in (approximately) chronological order, are as follows:
(1) The earliest Greek Version , commonly known as the Septuagint . The earliest part of this version, namely, the translation of the Pentateuch, goes back to the 3rd century b.c. The remaining parts of the OT were translated at different later periods; but the version was probably, in the main at least, complete before the end of the 2nd cent. b.c. See Gr. Versions of OT.
(2) The Targums . These Aramaic versions may be considered next, inasmuch as they rest on a tradition earlier than the date of the versions yet to be mentioned; it is probable, however, that no Targum was actually committed to writing till some centuries later, after the later Greek versions, perhaps, too, after the Syriac Version, had been made.
The quotation from Psalms 22:1 in Matthew 27:46 || Mark 15:34 is in Aramaic; and Ephesians 4:8 agrees more closely with the Targum than with the Hebrew text of Psalms 68:4 . From these facts we may perhaps infer that an Aramaic version bad to some extent become orally fixed by the 1st cent. a.d.
The Targumsarein large part very free, and even diffuse, paraphrases rather than translations of the Hebrew text. They owe their origin to the custom of explaining the Hebrew passages of Scripture read in the synagogues in the language spoken by the people, which was Aramaic. The earliest (as is most generally believed) and least paraphrastic of these versions is the Targum of Onkelos on the Pentateuch; it does not appear to have been committed to writing before the 5th cent. a.d., and is first mentioned by name by Saadiah Gaon in the 9th century. Far more paraphrastic is the Targum of the Pentateuch known as the Targum of Jonathan , or the Jerusalem Targum . Fragments of yet a third Targum of the Pentateuch survive, and are known as the 2nd Jerusalem Targum . Quite distinct from these is the Samaritan Targum , which is a translation of the Samaritan recension of the Hebrew text (see § 11 ). The chief Targum of the Prophets is that known as the Targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel : it is not much younger than the Targum of Onkelos, and is by some considered to be even earlier. There are also fragments of another Targum of the Prophets. Targums of the Hagiographa (with the exception of Ezra, Nehemiah, and Daniel) exist, and there are two of the Book of Esther. Cf. art. Targume.
The text of the Targums will be found in Walton’s (and other) polyglots, with a Latin translation. Onkelos has been separately edited by Berliner (1884), and the Prophets and Hagiographa by Lagarde (1872, 1874). See, further, Hastings’ DB [9] , art. ‘Targum.’ There is an English translation of the Targums of the Pentateuch by Etheridge (2 vols., London, 1862 1865).
(3), (4), and (5) The Greek Versions (which have survived in fragments only) of Aquila, Theodotion, and Symmachus, all of the 2nd cent. a.d. See Greek Versions of OT, §§ 15 18 .
(6) The Syriac Version , commonly called the Peshitta. The date at which this version was made is unknown. The earliest extant MS of part of this version is, as stated above, of the year 464 a.d.; and the quotations of Aphraates (4th cent. a.d.) from all parts of the OT agree with the Peshitta. The character of the version differs in different books, being literal in the Pentateuch and Job, paraphrastic for example in Chronicles and Ruth. The text in the main agrees closely with the Massoretic Hebrew text, though in parts ( e.g. in Genesis, Isaiah, the Minor Prophets, and Psalms) it has been influenced by the LXX [7] .
(7) The Vulgate . The Old Latin Version was a translation of the LXX [7] . To Christian scholars acquainted with Hebrew the wide differences between the LXX [7] and versions derived from it and the Hebrew text then current became obvious. As it seemed suitable to Origen to correct the current LXX [7] text so that it should agree more closely with the Hebrew, so at the close of the 4th century Jerome, after first revising the Old Latin, making alterations only when the sense absolutely demanded it, prepared an entirely fresh translation direct from the Hebrew text. The Vulgate is derived from this direct translation of Jerome’s from the Hebrew in the case of all the canonical books of the OT except the Psalms; the Psalms appear commonly in editions of the Vulgate in the form of the so-called Gallican Psalter; this was a second version of the Old Latin, in which, however, after the manner of Origen’s Hexaplaric text, the translation was brought nearer to the current Hebrew text by including matter contained in the later Greek versions but absent from the LXX [7] , and obellzing matter in the LXX [7] which was absent from the later versions. Jerome’s Latin version of the Psalms, made direct from the Hebrew, has been edited by Lagarde ( Psalterium juxta Hebrœos Hieronymi , 1874). On the extent to which editions of the Vulgate differ from Jerome’s translation, see Vulgate. In some cases additional matter ( e.g. 1 Samuel 14:41 , on which passage see § 24 ) has been incorporated from the Old Latin.
The effect of the substitution of Jerome’s version from the Hebrew text for the Old Latin version of the LXX [7] was to give the Church a Bible which was more elegant and intelligible and in much closer agreement with the Hebrew text current in the 4th cent. a.d., but which at the same time was in many passages more remote from the original text of the OT.
16. Two groups of versions. Pre-eminence of the Septuagint . Judged from the standpoint of their importance for recovering the original text of the OT, and for the kind of service which they render to OT textual criticism, the primary versions fall into two groups: (1) the LXX [7] , (2) the rest. The LXX [7] differs, and often differs widely, from the Massoretic text; the remaining versions closely agree with it: the LXX [7] dates from before the Christian era and, what is more significant, from before the rise of the Massoretic schools; the remaining versions date from after the Christian era, and, with the possible exception of the Syriac, from after the close of 1st cent. a.d. The agreement of these versions made direct from the Hebrew text at various dates subsequent to 100 b.c. confirms the conclusion suggested above, that since that date the Hebrew text has suffered relatively little in course of transmission. Such variations as do occur in these versions from the Hebrew consist largely (though not exclusively) of variations in the Interpretation of the consonants, i.e. while presupposing the same consonants as the present Hebrew text, they presuppose also that these consonants were pronounced with other vowels than those which were added to the text after the 5th cent. a.d. These variations therefore do not, strictly speaking, represent variants in the text of the OT, but merely in the commentary on that text, which at the time the versions were made was still oral, and only later was committed to writing in the form of vowels attached to the consonants, of which alone the Scripture proper consisted.
A fuller discussion of the versions of the OT other than the LXX [7] would carry us into minutiœ of the subject which do not belong to a brief sketch such as the present. On the other hand, the LXX [7] claims further attention even here.
17. The early history of the Hebrew text . The history of the Hebrew text since the 2nd cent. a.d. is uneventful; it is a history of careful transmission which has preserved the text from any serious deterioration since that date. But the fortunes of the text before that date had been more varied and far less happy. They cannot be followed completely, nor always with certainty. But the main fact is abundantly clear, that between the ages of their several authors and the 2nd cent. a.d. the Hebrew Scriptures had suffered corruption, and not Infrequently very serious corruption. Nor is this surprising when it is remembered that the text in that period consisted of consonants only, that in the course of it the character of the writing was changed from the Old Hebrew to the square character still in use (the difference between the two being greater than that between old black letter type and the Roman type now commonly used), that in the earlier part of the period copies of the books cannot have been numerous, and that in times of persecution copies were hunted for and destroyed ( 1Ma 1:56 f.) We are here concerned, of course, merely with such changes as crept into the text accidentally, or such minor changes as the introduction of the expressed for the implicit subject, which belong to the province of textual criticism. The larger changes due to the editing and redacting or union of material belong to the province of higher criticism, though in the case of the OT it is particularly true that at times the line between the two is not sharply defined. Our chief clues to the earlier history of the Hebrew text, and to the solution of the problems connected with it, will be found in a comparison of the Hebrew text with the Septuagint version, and in certain features of the Hebrew text itself. The remainder of this article will be devoted to elucidating and illustrating these two points.
18. The Hebrew Text between c [1] . b.c. 250 and c [1] . a.d. 100. The LXX [7] and the Massoretic Text . The materials for forming a judgment on the general character of the changes undergone during this period by the Hebrew text, and for the existence of early variant readings in particular passages, are to be drawn mainly from a comparison of the LXX [7] with the Hebrew texts. A much smaller amount of material is to be derived from the quotations in the NT and other early Jewish works, such as the Book of Jubilees, written, according to Dr. Charles, at the close of the 2nd century b.c.; but so far as it goes this material bears witness of the same general character as that of the LXX [7] .
19. A correct solution of the main problem here raised depends on three things: (1) the establishment of the original text of the LXX [7] ; (2) the detection of the Hebrew text which lay before the translators; and (3) In cases where the Hebrew text there recorded differs from the present Hebrew text, the determination of the more original of the variants. A complete solution of the problems will never be reached, for it will be no more possible to establish beyond dispute the original text of the LXX [7] than the text of the NT; the detection of the underlying Hebrew text must inevitably often remain doubtful; and when variants are established, there will be in many cases room for differences of opinion as to their relative value. But though no complete solution is to be hoped for, a far greater approximation to such a solution than has yet been reached is possible. A good beginning (though no more) towards the recovery of the original text of the LXX [7] has been made (see Greek Versions of
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Versions
VERSIONS . See English Versions, Greek Versions of OT, Text of NT, Text Versions and Languages of OT, Vulgate, etc.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Old Latin Versions
OLD LATIN VERSIONS . See Text (OT and NT).
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Versions, Ancient, of the Old And New Testaments,
In treating of the ancient versions that have come down to us, in whole or in part, they will be described in the alphabetical order of the languages. AETHIOPIC VERSION. --Christianity was introduced into AEthiopia in fourth century through the labors of Frumentius and AEdesius of Tyre, who had been made slaves and sent to the king. The AEthiopic version which we possess is in the ancient dialect of Axum; hence some have ascribed it to the age of the earliest missionaries, but it is probably of a later date. In 1548-9 the AEthiopic New Testament was also printed at Rome, edited by three Abyssinians. ARABIC VERSIONS. --
Arabic versions of the Old Testament were made from the Hebrew (tenth century), from the Syriac and from the LXX
Arabic versions of the New Testament . There are four versions. The first, the Roman, of the Gospels only, was printed in 1590-1. ARMENIAN VERSION. --In the year 431, Joseph and Eznak returned from the Council of Ephesus bringing with them a Greek copy of the Scriptures. From this a version in Armenian was made by Isaac, the Armenian patriarch, and Miesrob. The first printed edition of the Old and New Testaments in Armenian appeared at Amsterdam in 1666, under the care of a person commonly termed Oscan or Uscan, and described as being an Armenian bishop. CHALDEE VERSIONS. -- Targum , a Chaldee word of uncertain origin, is the general term for the Chaldee, or more accurately Aramaic, versions of the Old Testament.
The Targums were originally oral, and the earliest Targum, which is that of Onkelos on the Pentateuch, began to be committed to writing about the second century of the Christian era; though if did not assume its present shape till the end of the third or the beginning of the fourth century. So far, however, from superseding the oral Targum at once, it was, on the contrary, strictly forbidden to read it in public. Its language is Chaldee, closely approaching in purity of idiom to that of Ezra and Daniel. It follows a sober and clear though not a slavish exegesis, and keeps as closely and minutely: to the text as is at all consistent with its purpose, viz. to be chiefly and above all a version for the people . Its explanations of difficult and obscure passages bear ample witness to the competence of those who gave it its final shape. It avoids, as far as circumstances would allow, the legendary character with which all the later Targums entwine the biblical word.
Targum on the prophets , --viz. Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Kings, the twelve minor prophets, --called TARGUM OF JONATHAN BEN-UZZIEL. We shall probably not be far wrong in placing this Targum some time, although not long, after Onkelos, or about the middle of the fourth century. 3And 4. Targum of Jonathan ben-Uzziel and Jerushalmi-Targum on the Pentateuch . --Onkelos and Jonathan on the Pentateuch and prophets, whatever be their exact date, place, authorship and editorship, are the oldest of existing Targums, and belong in their present shape, to Babylon and the Babylonian academies flourishing between the third and fourth centuries A.D. EGYPTIAN VERSIONS. --Of these there are three, --the Memphitic, of lower Egypt, the Coptic, of upper Egypt, and the Thebaic , with some fragments of another. The Thebaic was the earliest, and belongs to the third century. GOTHIC VERSION. In the year 318 the Gothic bishop and translator of Scripture Ulphilas, was born. He succeeded Theophilus as bishop of the Goths in 548; through him it is said that the Goths in general adopted Arianism. The great work of Ulphilas was his version of the Scriptures. As an ancient monument of the Gothic language the version of Ulphilas possesses great interest; as a version the use of which was once extended widely through Europe, it is a monument of the Christianization of the Goths; and as a version known to have been made in the fourth century, and transmitted to us in ancient MSS., It has its value in textual criticism. GREEK VERSIONS OF THE OLD TESTAMENT. --
Septuagint . --[1]
Aquila . --It is a remarkable fact that in the second century there were three versions executed of the Old Testament Scriptures into Greek. The first of these was made by Aquila, a native of Sinope in Pontus, who had become a proselyte to Judaism. It was made during the reign of Hadrian, A.D. 117-138.
Theodotion . --The second version of which we have information as executed in the second century is that of Theodotion. He is stated to have been an Ephesian, and he seems to be most generally described as an Ebionite.
Symmachus is stated by Eusebius and Jerome to have been an Ebionite; Epiphanius and others, however, style him a Samaritan. It may be that as a Samaritan he made this version for some of that people who employed Greek, and who had learned to receive more than the Pentateuch. LATIN VERSIONS. --[2] SAMARITAN VERSIONS. --[3] SLAVONIC VERSION, --In A.D. 862 there was a desire expressed or an inquiry made for Christian teachers in Moravia, and in the following year the labors of missionaries began among the Moravians. These missionaries were Cyrillus and Methodius, two brothers from Thessalonica. To Cyrillus is ascribed the invention of the Slavonian alphabet and the commencement of the translation of the Scriptures. He appears to have died at Rome in 868, while Methodius continued for many years to be the bishop of the Slavonians. He is stated to have continued his brother's translation. SYRIAC VERSIONS. --
Of the Old Testament. (a) From the Hebrew. In the early times of Syrian Christianity there was executed a version of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew, the use of which must have been as widely extended as was the Christian profession among that people. It is highly improbable that any part of the Syriac version is older than the advent of our Lord. The Old Syriac has the peculiar value of being the first version from the Hebrew original made for Christian use. The first printed edition of this version was that which appeared in the Paris Polyglot of Le Jay in 1645. (b) The Syriac version from the Hexaplar Greek text. The only Syriac version of the Old Testament up to the sixth century was apparently the Peshito. The version by Paul of Tela, a Monophysite, was made in the beginning of the seventh century; for its basis he used the Hexaplar Greek text --that is, the LXX., with the corrections of Origen, the asterisks, obeli, etc., and with the references to the other Greek versions. In fact, it is from this Syriac version that we obtain our moat accurate acquaintance with the results of the critical labors of Origen. It is from a MS. in the Ambrosian Library at Milan that we possess accurate means of knowing this Syriac version.
The Syriac New Testament Versions . (a) The Peshito Syriac New Testament. It may stand as an admitted fact that a version of the New Testament in Syriac existed in the second century. (b) The Curetonian Syriac Gospels. Among the MSS. brought from the Nitrian monasteries in 1842, Dr. Cureton noticed a copy of the Gospels, differing greatly from the common text; and this is the form of text to which the name of Curetonian Syriac has been rightly applied. Every criterion which proves the common Peshito not to exhibit a text of extreme antiquity equally proves the early origin of this.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Versions
(See OLD TESTAMENT; NEW TESTAMENT; SAMARITAN PENTATEUCH; and SEPTUAGINT.) TARGUM is the general term for the Aramaic or Chaldee versions of the Old Testament Ezra established the usage of regular readings of the law (Nehemiah 8:2; Nehemiah 8:8), already ordained in Deuteronomy 31:10-13 for the feast of tabernacles, and recognized as the custom "every sabbath" (Acts 15:21). The portion read from the Pentateuch was called a parasha; that from the prophets, subsequently introduced, the haphtarah. The disuse of Hebrew and the use of Chaldee Aramaic by the mass of Jews, during the Babylonian captivity, created the need for explaining "distinctly" (mephorash ), as did Ezra and his helpers, the Hebrew by an Aramaic paraphrase. Such a combined translation and explanation was called a targum, from targeem "to translate" or "explain."
Originally it was oral, lest it might acquire undue authority; at the end of the second century it was generally read. Midrash first used in 2 Chronicles 13:22; 2 Chronicles 24:27, "story," "commentary," was the body of expositions of Scripture from the return out of Babylon to a thousand years after the destruction of the second temple. The two chief branches are the halakah, from haalak , to go, "the rule by which to walk," and the haggadah, from haagad "to say," legend.
The targums are part of the midrash. Those extant are the Targum of Onkelos (or AQUILA, Smith's Bible Dictionary) on the Pentateuch (so named not because written by Aquila but because in Aramaic it did what Aquila aimed at in his Greek version, namely, to counteract the arbitrary corruptions of the Septuagint and to produce a translation scrupulously literal, for the benefit of those not knowing the original language); the Targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel on the first and last prophets, more probably of Rabbi Joseph the blind, in the middle of the fourth century, full of invectives against Rome (Isaiah 34:9 mentioning Armillus (Antichrist), Isaiah 10:4; Germany, Ezekiel 38:6); also his targum on the Pentateuch; the Targum of Jerusalem on parts of the Pentateuch.
The Targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel and the Targum of Jerusalem are twin brothers, really but one work; these were written in Palestine much later and less accurately than that of Onkelos, which belongs to the Babylonian school; Jonathan ben Uzziel, in the fourth century, cannot have been the author, for this targum speaks of Constantinople (Numbers 24:19-24), the Turks (Genesis 10:2), and even Mahomet's two wives (Genesis 21:21). The targum on the hagiographa (ascribed to Joseph the blind), namely, on Psalms, Job, and Proverbs; remarkably resembling the Syriac version; the targum on Job and Psalms is paraphrastic, but that on Proverbs most literal. Targum on the five megilloth, Song of Solomon, Ruth, Lamentations, Esther, Ecclesiastes. Two other targums on Esther; targum on Chronicles; targum on Daniel.
EARLY ENGLISH VERSIONS. Among the pioneers of the KJV were Caedmon who embodied the Bible history in alliterative Anglo Saxon poetry (Bede H. E. 4:24); Aldhelm, bishop of Sherborne in the seventh century, who translated the Psalms; Bede the Gospel according to John in his last hours (Ep. Cuthberti). Alfred translated Exodus 20-23 as the groundwork of legislation, also translated some of the Psalms and parts of the other books, and "wished all the freeborn youth of his kingdom to be able to read the English Scriptures."
The Durham Book, of the ninth century (in British Museum, Cottonian manuscripts), has the Anglo Saxon interlinear with the Latin Vulgate The Rushworth Gloss of the same century is in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. Aelfric epitomised Scripture history and translated part of the historical books. The Ormulum of the 12th century is a Gospel paraphrase in alliterative English verse. Schorham, A.D. 1320, translated the Psalms; Richard Rolle, of Hampole, A.D. 1349, the Psalms and other canticles of the Old Testament and New Testament with a devotional exposition. In the library of Ch. Ch. Coll., Cambridge, is an English version of Mark's and Luke's Gospels and Paul's epistles. Arundel in his funeral sermon on Anne of Bohemia, wife of Richard II, says she habitually read the Gospels in English.
WYCLIFFE, A.D. 1324-1384, began with translating the Apocalypse; in" The Last Age of the Church," 1356, he translates and expounds Revelation, applying it to his own times and antichrist's overthrow. Next the Gospels, "so that pore Christen men may some dele know the text of the Gospel, with the comyn sentence of olde holie doctores" (Preface). Many manuscripts of this age are extant, containing the English harmony of the Gospels and portions of the epistles by others. Wycliffe next brought out the complete English New Testament Nicholas de Hereford proceeded with the Old Testament and Apocrypha as far as the middle of Baruch, then was interrupted by Arundel. Richard Purvey probably revised Wycliffe's and Hereford's joint work and prefixed the prologue.
All the foregoing are translated from the Latin Vulgate. The prologue says: "a translater hath grete nede to studie well the sentence both before and after. He hath nede to lyve a clene life and be ful devout in preiers, and have not his wit occupied about worldli things, that the Holie Spirit, author of all wisdom, cunnynge and truthe, dresse him in his work and suffer him not for to err" (Forshall and Madden, Prol. 60). In spite of Arundel's opposition the circulation was so wide that 150 copies are extant, and Chaucer (Persone's Tale) quotes Scripture in English, agreeing with Wycliffe's translation. Its characteristics are a homely style, plain English for less intelligible words, as "fy" for Raca (Matthew 5:22), "richesse" for Mammon (Luke 16:9; Luke 16:11; Luke 16:13), and literalness even to a fault.
TYNDALE begins the succession which eventuated in our authorized version. By his time Wycliffe's English had become obsolete, and his translation being from the Latin Vulgate could not satisfy Grecian scholars of Henry VIII's reign. At the age of 36 (A.D. 1520) Tyndale said, "ere many years I will cause the boy that driveth the plow to know more of Scripture than the great body of the clergy now know." Erasmus in 1516 published the first edition of the Greek Testament; Tyndale knew hint at Cambridge. in 1522 Tyndale in vain tried to persuade Tonstal, bishop of London, to sanction his translating the New Testament into English. The "Trojans" of Oxford (i.e. the friars) declared that to study Greek would make men pagans, to study Hebrew would make them Jews. Tyndale had sufficient knowledge of Hebrew to qualify him for translating Genesis, Deuteronomy, and Jonah in 1530 and 1531.
But the New Testament was his chief care, and in 1525 he published it all in 4to at Cologne, and in 8vo at Worms. Tonstal ordered all copies to be bought up and burnt. Tyndale's last edition was published in 1535; his martyrdom followed in 1536, his dying prayer being, "Lord, open the king of England's eyes." The merit of his translation is its noble simplicity and truthfulness: thus "favour" for "grace," "love" for "charity," "acknowledge" for "confess," "repentance" for "penance," "elders" for "priests," "congregation" for "church." Tyndale was herein in advance of his own and the following age; the versions of the latter relapsed into the theological and ecclesiastical terms less suited to the people.
His desire to make the Bible a people's book has acted on succeeding versions, so that our English Bible has ever been popular rather than scholastic. "I call God to record (says he) against the day we shall appear before the Lord Jesus to give a reckoning of our doings, that I never altered one syllable of God's word against my conscience, nor would this day, if all that is in the world, whether pleasure, honour, or riches, might be given me."
MILES COVERDALE published his Bible in 1535, probably at Zurich, and at Cromwell's request, who saw that "not until the day after doomsday" (Cromwell's words) were the English people likely to get their promised 'Bible from the bishops if he waited for them. Coverdale's version was much inferior to Tyndale's, who made it his one object in life, whereas Coverdale "sought it not neither desired it," but undertook it as a task given him. Coverdale followed "the Douche (Luther's German version) and the Latine," but Tyndale laboured for years at Greek and Hebrew.
Coverdale returned from Tyndale's faithful plainness to waver between equivocal and plain terms, as" penance" and "repentance," "priests" and "eiders." Mary is from the Vulgate hailed (Luke 1:28) "full of grace." David's sons are "priests" (2 Samuel 8:18). 'Chief butler" replaces Rabshakeh as in Luther. He includes Baruch in the canonical books, and is undecided as to the authority of the Apocrypha. Fresh editions were printed in 1537, 1539, 1550, 1553. Later he assisted in the Genevan edition.
THOMAS MATTHEW'S folio Bible, dedicated to the king, appeared in 1537; printed to the end of Isaiah abroad, thenceforward by the London printers Grafton and Whitechurch. This was the assumed name of JOHN Rogers, the first martyr of the Marian persecution, who became acquainted with Tyndale at Antwerp two years before his death. It is a reproduction of Tyndale's New Testament and of the parts of the Old Testament by Tyndale, the rest being taken with modifications from Coverdale. He and Tyndale just before the latter's imprisonment had determined to edit the complete Bible and Apocrypha, based on the original not on the Vulgate, etc., as Coverdale's, which was the only existing whole Bible in English.
Rogers, by aid probably of Poyntz, the Antwerp merchant who had helped Tyndale, got as far as Isaiah; Grafton and Whitechurch took up the speculation then, suppressing the name of Rogers known as Tyndale's friend, and substituting Thomas Matthew. Cranmer approved of the Bible, saying "he would rather than a thousand pounds it should be licensed." Cromwell obtained the king's license. A copy was ordered by royal proclamation to be set up in every church, the cost being divided between the clergy and the parishioners. Henry VIII thus, unwittingly perhaps, sanctioned a Bible identical with Tyndale's which his acts of parliament had stigmatized. This was the first authorized version. The Hebrew terms Neginoth, Shiggaion, Sheminith, are explained.
The sabbath is "to minister the fodder of the word to simple souls" and to be "pitiful over the weariness of such neighbours as laboured sore all the week." "To the man of faith Peter's fishing after the resurrection and all deeds of matrimony are pure spiritual"; to those not so, "learning, contemplation of high things, preaching, study of Scripture, founding of churches, are works of the flesh." Purgatory "is not in the Bible, but the purgation and remission of our sins is made us by the abundant mercy of God." The introduction of "the table of principal matters" entities Rogers to be accounted "father" of concordance and Bible dictionary writers. Coverdale and Grafton in a Paris edition afterward diluted the notes and suppressed the prologue and prefaces which were too truthful for the age. Taverner's Bible in 1539 was an expurgated edition of Matthew's.
CRANMER in the same year 1539 issued his folio Bible with engraving on the title page by Holbein, the king on his throne represented giving the word of God to the bishops and doctors to distribute to the people who shout, Viva rex! A preface in 1540 bears his initials T. C. In November of the same year, in a later edition, his name and the names of his coadjutors, Cuthbert (Tonstal) bishop of Durham, and Nicholas (Heath) bishop of Rochester, appear on the title page. Words not in the original are printed in different type; an asterisk marks diversity in the Chaldee and Hebrew; marginal references are given, but no notes; shrinking from so depreciatory an epithet as the Apocrypha, the editors substitute "Hagiographa," giving Matthew's preface to these disputed books otherwise unaltered; from whence arises the amusing blunder that they were called "Hagiographa," because "they were read in secret and apart" (which was the derivation, rightly given in Matthew's preface, for Apocrypha).
In 1541 an edition states it was "authorized" to be "used and frequented in every church in the kingdom." Cranmer in the preface adopts the via media tone, which secured its retention as KJV until 1568 (Mary's reign excepted), blaming those who "refuse to read" and on the other hand blaming "inordinate reading." The Psalms, the Scripture quotations in the homilies, the sentences in the Communion, and occasional phrases in the liturgy (as "worthy fruits of penance"), are drawn from Cranmer's Bible. "Love" for "charity" appears in 1 Corinthians 13 and "congregation" for "church"; yet, with characteristic vacillation between Tyndale and the sacerdotalists, he has in 1 Timothy 4:14 "with authority of priesthood."
GENEVA BIBLE. The exiles from England at Geneva in Mary's reign, dissatisfied with Cranmer's version as retrograde, laboured two years day and night on the "great and wonderful work with fear and trembling." The New Testament translated by Whittingham was printed by Conrad Badius in 1557, the whole Bible in 1560; Goodman, Pallain, Sampson, and Coverdale laboured with him. Printed in England in 1561, James Bedleigh having the monopoly; afterwards in 1576 Barker had it, and in his family the monopoly continued for a century; 80 editions appeared between 1558 and 1611. Its cheapness and greater portableness (a small 4to, instead of Cranmer's folio), its division into verses, the Roman type then first introduced into Bibles instead of the black letter, its helpful notes, and the accompanying Bible dictionary of editions after 1578, all recommended it. Tyndale's version is its basis. It is the first Bible that omits the Apocrypha.
The calendar prefixed commemorates Scripture facts and the great reformers' deaths, hut ignores saints' days. The notes were Swiss in politics, allegiance to monarchs being made dependent on their soundness in the faith; James I was startled at the note applicable to his mother queen Mary (2 Chronicles 15:16), "herein he showed that he lacked zeal, for she ought to have died." This Geneva Bible,as published by Barker, was called "the Breeches Bible" from its translated for "aprons" breeches (Genesis 3:7), but Wycliffe had previously so translated. Beza's Latin version was the basis of its New Testament according to later reprints, and the notes are said to be from Joac. Career, P. Leseler, Villerius, and Junius. Parker consulted eight bishops and some deans and professors, and brought out "
THE BISHOPS' BIBLE" in folio, 1568-1572. The preface vindicated the people's right to read the Scriptures. This version was based on Cranmer's; it reprinted his prologue; it adopted the Genevan division of verses; it grouped the books together in classes, the legal, historical, sapiential, and prophetic: the Gospels, universal epistles, Titus, Philemon, and Hebrew as legal; Paul's other epistles as sapiential; Acts as historical; Revelation as prophetic. The translators attached their initials to the books which they severally translated. It never was popular owing to its size and cost, and scholars cared little for it. Its circulation extended little beyond the churches, which were ordered to be supplied with it. Guest, bishop of David's, translated the Psalms; Cox, bishop of Ely, Sandys of Worcester, and Bishop Alley, a good Hebraist, were among its writers; the genealogical tables were ostensibly by Speed, really by the great Hebrew scholar, Hugh Broughton.
RHEIMS AND DOUAY. Martin, Allen (afterwards cardinal), and Bristow, English refugees of the church of Rome, settled at Rheims, feeling the need of counteracting the Protestant versions, published a version of the New Testament at Rheims, based on the Vulgate, in 1582, with dogmatic and controversial notes. The Old Testament translation was published later in Douay, 1609. The language was often very un-English, e.g. "the pasche and the azymes," Mark 16:1; "the archsynagogue," Mark 5:35; "in prepuce," Romans 4:9; "obdurate with the fallacie of sin," Hebrews 3:13; "a greater hoste," Hebrews 11:4; "this is the annuntiation," 1 John 1:5; "preordinate," Acts 13:48; "the justifications of our Lord," Luke 1:6; "what is to me and thee?" John 2:4; "longanimity," Romans 2:4; "purge the old leaven that ye may be a new paste, as you are azymes," 1 Corinthians 5:7; "you are evacuated from Christ," Galatians 5:4.
AUTHORIZED VERSION (or KING JAMES VERSION.) At the beginning of the reign of James I the Bishops' Bible was the one authorized, the Geneva Bible was the popular one. The Puritans, through Reinolds, 1604, at the Hampton Court Conference, asked for a new or revised translation. The king in 1606 entrusted 54 scholars with the duty, seven of whom are omitted in the king's list (Burnet, Reform. Records), whether having died or declined to act. Andrewes, Saravia, Overal, Montague, and Barlow represented the sacerdotal party; Reinolds, Chaderton, and Lively, the Puritans; Henry Savile and John Boys represented scholarship. Broughton, the greatest Hebrew scholar of the age, owing to his violent temper was excluded, though he had already translated Job, Ecclesiastes, Daniel, and Lamentations. A copy of 15 instructions was sent to each translator.
The Bishops' Bible was to be as little altered as the original would permit. "Church" was to be translated for" congregation," and "charity" for "love." In the case of words with divers significations, that was to be kept which was used by eminent fathers, being agreeable to the propriety of the place and the analogy of faith. No marginal notes, except for explaining Hebrew and Greek words, the principle being recognized that Scripture is its own best interpreter. Each company of translators was to take its own books, each person to bring his own corrections; the company was to discuss them, and having finished their work was to send it on to another company. Differences of opinion between two companies were to be referred to a general meeting. Scholars were to be consulted, suggestions to be invited. The directors were Andrewes dean of Westminster, Barlow dean of Chester, and the regius professors of Hebrew and Greek at both universities.
Other translations to be followed when more agreeing with the original than the Bishops' Bible, namely, Tyndale's, Coverdale's, Matthew's, Cranmer's, and Geneva. Two from each of the three groups of translators were chosen toward the close, and the six met in London to superintend the publication. The only payment made was to these six editors, 30 British pounds each for their nine months' labour, from the Stationers' Company. Bilson, bishop of Winchester, and Dr. Miles Smith undertook the final correction and the "arguments" of the several books. M. Smith wrote the fulsome dedication to James I, "that sanctified person," "enriched with singular and extraordinary graces," "as the sun in his strength." The version was published A.D 1611. Calvinism appears in the translated" such as should be saved" (Acts 2:47); "any man" is inserted instead of "he" in Hebrews 10:38; "the just shall live by faith, but if (any man) draw back," to avoid what might oppose the doctrine of final perseverance.
"Bishopric," on the prelatical side, is used for "oversight" (Acts 1:20); contrast the translated of the. same Greek, 1 Peter 5:2; "overseers" in Acts 20:28 (to avoid identifying "bishops" and "elders"), but in 1 Timothy 3:1 "bishop" (same Greek). This Authorized Version did not at once supersede the Bishops' Bible and Geneva Bible. Walton praises it as "eminent above all." Swift says that "the translators were masters of an English style far more fit for that work than any we see in our present writings." (Letter to Lord Oxford). The revision now proceeding (A.D. 1878) promises to be a great step in advance toward the attainment of an accurate version.
The revisers have been selected from among the ablest scholars of our times, without distinction of denomination. The main difficulty is to decide what original text to adopt for translation. Tischendorf's Authorized English Version of the New Testament (Tauchnitz edition) with the various readings of the three most celebrated manuscripts has done much to familiarize the ordinary English reader with the materials from which he must form his own opinion. The new revision it is to be hoped will do the same in both the Old Testament and New Testament. In this, as in many other questions, God leaves men to the exercise of their own judgment in prayerful dependence on His Holy Spirit.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - English Versions
ENGLISH VERSIONS . 1. The history of the English Bible begins early in the history of the English people, though not quite at the beginning of it, and only slowly attains to any magnitude. The Bible which was brought into the country by the first missionaries, by Aidan in the north and Augustine in the south, was the Latin Bible; and for some considerable time after the first preaching of Christianity to the English no vernacular version would be required. Nor is there any trace of a vernacular Bible in the Celtic Church, which still existed in Wales and Ireland. The literary language of the educated minority was Latin; and the instruction of the newly converted English tribes was carried on by oral teaching and preaching. As time went on, however, and monasteries were founded, many of whose inmates were imperfectly acquainted either with English or with Latin, a demand arose for English translations of the Scriptures. This took two forms. On the one hand, there was a call for word-for-word translations of the Latin, which might assist readers to a comprehension of the Latin Bible; and, on the other, for continuous versions or paraphrases, which might be read to, or by, those whose skill in reading Latin was small.
2. The earliest form, so far as is known, in which this demand was met was the poem of Caedmon , the work of a monk of Whitby in the third quarter of the 7th cent., which gives a metrical paraphrase of parts of both Testaments. The only extant MS of the poem (in the Bodleian) belongs to the end of the 10th cent., and it is doubtful how much of it really goes back to the time of Caedmon. In any case, the poem as it appears here does not appear to be later than the 8th century. A tradition, originating with Bale, attributed an English version of the Psalms to Aldhelm, bishop of Sherborne ( d. 707), but it appears to be quite baseless (see A. S. Cook, Bibl. Quot. in Old Eng. Prose Writers , 1878, pp. xiv xviii). An Anglo-Saxon Psalter in an 11th cent. MS at Paris (partly in prose and partly in verse) has been identified, without any evidence, with this imaginary work. The well-known story of the death of Bede (in 735) shows him engaged on an English translation of St. John’s Gospel [1], but of this all traces have disappeared. The scholarship of the monasteries of Wearmouth and Jarrow, which had an important influence on the textual history of the Latin Vulgate, did not concern itself with vernacular translations; and no further trace of an English Bible appears until the 9th century. To that period is assigned a word-for-word translation of the Psalter, written between the lines of a Latin MS (Cotton MS Vespasian A.I., in the British Museum), which was the progenitor of several similar glosses between that date and the 12th cent.; and to it certainly belongs the attempt of Alfred to educate his people by English translations of the works which he thought most needful to them. He is said to have undertaken a version of the Psalms, of which no portion survives, unless the prose portion ( Psalms 1:1-6 ; Psalms 2:1-12 ; Psalms 3:1-8 ; Psalms 4:1-8 ; Psalms 5:1-12 ; Psalms 6:1-10 ; Psalms 7:1-17 ; Psalms 8:1-9 ; Psalms 9:1-20 ; Psalms 10:1-18 ; Psalms 11:1-7 ; Psalms 12:1-8 ; Psalms 13:1-6 ; Psalms 14:1-7 ; Psalms 15:1-5 ; Psalms 16:1-11 ; Psalms 17:1-15 ; Psalms 18:1-50 ; Psalms 19:1-14 ; Psalms 20:1-9 ; Psalms 21:1-13 ; Psalms 22:1-31 ; Psalms 23:1-6 ; Psalms 24:1-10 ; Psalms 25:1-22 ; Psalms 26:1-12 ; Psalms 27:1-14 ; Psalms 28:1-9 ; Psalms 29:1-11 ; Psalms 30:1-12 ; Psalms 31:1-24 ; Psalms 32:1-11 ; Psalms 33:1-22 ; Psalms 34:1-22 ; Psalms 35:1-28 ; Psalms 36:1-12 ; Psalms 37:1-40 ; Psalms 38:1-22 ; Psalms 39:1-13 ; Psalms 40:1-17 ; Psalms 41:1-13 ; Psalms 42:1-11 ; Psalms 43:1-5 ; Psalms 44:1-26 ; Psalms 45:1-17 ; Psalms 46:1-11 ; Psalms 47:1-9 ; Psalms 48:1-14 ; Psalms 49:1-20 ; Psalms 50:1-23 ) of the above-mentioned Paris MS is a relic of it; but we still have the translation of the Decalogue, the summary of the Mosaic law, and the letter of the Council of Jerusalem ( Acts 15:23-29 ), which he prefixed to his code of laws. To the 10th cent. belongs probably the verse portion of the Paris MS, and the interlinear translation of the Gospels in Northumbrian dialect inserted by the priest Aldred in the Lindisfarne Gospels (British Museum), which is repeated in the Rushworth Gospels (Bodleian) of the same century, with the difference that the version of Mt. is there in the Mercian dialect. This is the earliest extant translation of the Gospels into English.
3. The earliest independent version of any of the books of the Bible has likewise generally been assigned to the 10th cent., but if this claim can be made good at all, it can apply only to the last years of that century. The version in question is a translation of the Gospels in the dialect of Wessex, of which six MSS (with a fragment of a seventh) are now extant. It was edited by W. Skeat, The Holy Gospels in Anglo-Saxon (1871 1877); two MSS are in the British Museum, two at Cambridge, and two (with a fragment of another) at Oxford. From the number of copies which still survive, it must be presumed to have had a certain circulation, at any rate in Wessex, and it continued to be copied for at least a century. The earliest MSS are assigned to the beginning of the 11th cent.; but it is observable that Ælfric the Grammarian, abbot of Eynsham, writing about 990, says that the English at that time ‘had not the evangelical doctrines among their writings, … those books excepted which King Alfred wisely turned from Latin into English’ [2]. In a subsequent treatise ( Treatise concerning the Old and New Testament , ed. W. Lisle, London, 1623) also (the date of which is said to be about 1010, see Dietrich, Zeitsch. f. hist. Theol . 1856, quoted by Cook, op. cit. , p. lxiv.) he speaks as if no English version of the Gospels were in existence, and refers his readers to his own homilies on the Gospels. Since Ælfric had been a monk at Winchester and abbot of Cerne, in Dorset, it is difficult to understand how he could have failed to know of the Wessex version of the Gospels, if it had been produced and circulated much before 1000; and it seems probable that it only came into existence early in the 11th century. In this case it was contemporaneous with another work of translation, due to Ælfric himself. Ælfric, at the request of Æthelweard. son of his patron Æthelmær, ealdorman of Devonshire and founder of Eynsham Abbey, produced a paraphrase of the Heptateuch, homilies containing epitomes of the Books of Kings and Job, and brief versions of Esther, Judith, and Maccabees. These have the interest of being the earliest extant English version of the narrative books of the OT. [3] . Thwaites (Oxford, 1698). For the rest, see Cook, op. cit. ]
4. The Norman Conquest checked for a time all the vernacular literature of England, including the translations of the Bible. One of the first signs of its revival was the production of the Ormulum , a poem which embodies metrical versions of the Gospels and Acts, written about the end of the 12th century. The main Biblical literature of this period, however, was French. For the benefit of the Norman settlers in England, translations of the greater part of both OT and NT were produced during the 12th and 13th centuries. Especially notable among these was the version of the Apocalypse, because it was frequently accompanied by a series of illustrations, the best examples of which are the finest (and also the most quaint) artistic productions of the period in the sphere of book-illustration. Nearly 90 MSS of this version are known, ranging from the first half of the 12th cent. to the first half of the 15th [4], some having been produced in England, and others in France; and in the 14th cent. it reappears in an English dress, having been translated apparently about that time. This English version (which at one time was attributed to Wyclif) is known in no less than 16 MSS, which fall into at least two classes [5]; and it is noteworthy that from the second of these was derived the version which appears in the revised Wyclifite Bible, to be mentioned presently.
5. The 14th cent., which saw the practical extinction of the general use of the French language in England, and the rise of a real native literature, saw also a great revival of vernacular Biblical literature, beginning apparently with the Book of Psalms. Two English versions of the Psalter were produced at this period, one of which enjoyed great popularity. This was the work of Richard Rolle , hermit of Hampole, in Yorkshire ( d. 1349). It contains the Latin text of the Psalter, followed verse by verse by an English translation and commentary. Originally written in the northern dialect, it soon spread over all England, and many MSS of it still exist in which the dialect has been altered to suit southern tastes. Towards the end of the century Rolle’s work suffered further change, the commentary being re-written from a strongly Lollard point of view, and in this shape it continued to circulate far into the 16th century. Another version of the Psalter was produced contemporaneously with Rolle’s, somewhere in the West Midlands. The authorship of it was formerly attributed to William of Shoreham, vicar of Chart Sutton, in Kent, but for no other reason than that in one of the two MSS in which it is preserved (Brit. Mus. Add. MS 17376, the other being at Trinity College, Dublin) it is now bound up with his religious poems. The dialect, however, proves that this authorship is impossible, and the version must be put down as anonymous. As in the case of Rolle’s translation, the Latin and English texts are intermixed, verse by verse; but there is no commentary. [6]
6. The Psalter was not the only part of the Bible of which versions came into existence in the course of the 14th century. At Magdalene College, Cambridge (Pepys MS 2498), is an English narrative of the Life of Christ, compiled out of a re-arrangement of the Gospels for Sundays and holy days throughout the year. Quite recently, too, a group of MSS, which (so far as they were known at all) had been regarded as belonging to the Wyclifite Bible, has been shown by Miss Anna C. Paues [7] to contain an independent translation of the NT. It is not complete, the Gospels being represented only by Matthew 1:1 to Matthew 6:8 , and the Apocalypse being altogether omitted. The original nucleus seems, indeed, to have consisted of the four larger Catholic Epistles and the Epistles of St. Paul, to which were subsequently added 2 and 3 John, Jude, Acts, and Matthew 1:1 to Matthew 6:8 . Four MSS of this version are at present known, the oldest being one at Selwyn College, Cambridge, which was written about 1400. The prologue narrates that the translation was made at the request of a monk and a nun by their superior, who defers to their earnest desire, although, as he says, it is at the risk of his life. This phrase seems to show that the work was produced after the rise of the great party controversy which is associated with the name of Wyclif.
7. With Wyclif (1320 1384), we reach a land mark in the history of the English Bible, in the production of the first complete version of both OT and NT. It belongs to the last period of Wyclif’s life, that in which he was engaged in open war with the Papacy and with most of the official chiefs of the English Church. It was connected with his institution of ‘poor priests,’ or mission preachers, and formed part of his scheme of appealing to the populace in general against the doctrines and supremacy of Rome. The NT seems to have been completed about 1380, the OT between 1382 and 1384. Exactly how much of it was done by Wyclif’s own hand is uncertain. The greater part of the OT (as far as Bar 3:20 ) is assigned in an Oxford MS to Nicholas Hereford, one of Wyclif’s principal supporters at that university; and it is certain that this part of the translation is in a different style (more stiff and pedantic) from the rest. The NT is generally attributed to Wyclif himself, and he may also have completed the OT, which Hereford apparently had to abandon abruptly, perhaps when he was summoned to London and excommunicated in 1382. This part of the work is free and vigorous in style, though its interpretation of the original is often strange, and many sentences in it can have conveyed very little idea of their meaning to its readers. Such as it was however, it was a complete English Bible, addressed to the whole English people, high and low, rich and poor. That this is the case is proved by the character of the copies which have survived (about 30 in number). Some are large folio volumes, handsomely written and illuminated in the best, or nearly the best, style of the period; such is the fine copy, in two volumes (now Brit. Mus. Egerton MSS 617, 618), which once belonged to Thomas, Duke of Gloucester, uncle of Richard II. Others are plain copies of ordinary size, intended for private persons or monastic libraries; for it is clear that, in spite of official disfavour and eventual prohibition, there were many places in England where Wyclif and his Bible were welcomed. Wyclif, indeed, enjoyed advantages from personal repute and influential support such as had been enjoyed by no English translator since Alfred. An Oxford scholar, at one time Master of Balliol, holder of livings successively from his college and the Crown, employed officially on behalf of his country in controversy with the Pope, the friend and protégé of John of Gaunt and other prominent nobles, and enjoying as a rule the strenuous support of the University of Oxford, Wyclif was in all respects a person of weight and influence in the realm, who could not be silenced or isolated by the opposition of bishops such as Arundel. The work that he had done had struck its roots too deep to be destroyed, and though it was identified with Lollardism by its adversaries, its range was much wider than that of any one sect or party.
8. Wyclif’s translation, however, though too strong to be overthrown by its opponents, was capable of improvement by its friends. The difference of style between Hereford and his continuator or continuators, the stiff and unpopular character of the work of the former, and the imperfections inevitable in a first attempt on so large a scale, called aloud for revision; and a second Wyclifite Bible, the result of a very complete revision of its predecessor, saw the light not many years after the Reformer’s death. The authorship of the second version is doubtful. It was assigned by Forshall and Madden, the editors of the Wyclifite Bible, to John Purvey , one of Wyclif’s most intimate followers; but the evidence is purely circumstantial, and rests mainly on verbal resemblances between the translator’s preface and known works of Purvey, together with the fact that a copy of this preface is found attached to a copy of the earlier version which was once Purvey’s property. What is certain is that the second version is based upon the first, and that the translator’s preface is permeated with Wyclifite opinions. This version speedily superseded the other, and in spite of a decree passed, at Arundel’s instigation, by the Council of Blackfriars in 1408, it must have circulated in large numbers. Over 140 copies are still in existence, many of them small pocket volumes such as must have been the personal property of private individuals for their own study. Others belonged to the greatest personages in the land, and copies are still in existence which formerly had for owners Henry VI., Henry VII., Edward VI., and Elizabeth.
9. At this point it seems necessary to say something of the theory which has been propounded by the well-known Roman Catholic historian, Abbot Gasquet, to the effect that the versions which pass under the name of ‘Wyclifite’ were not produced by Wyclif or his followers at all, but were translations authorized and circulated by the heads of the Church of England, Wyclif’s particular enemies. [8] The strongest argument adduced in support of this view is the possession of copies of the versions in question both by kings and princes of England, and by religious houses and persons of unquestioned orthodoxy. This does, indeed, prove that the persecution of the English Bible and its possessors by the authorities of the Catholic Church was not so universal or continuous as it is sometimes represented to have been, but it does not go far towards disproving the Wyclifite authorship of versions which can be demonstratively connected, as these are, with the names of leading supporters of Wyclif, such as Hereford and Purvey; the more so since the evidence of orthodox ownership of many of the copies in question dates from times long after the cessation of the Lollard persecution. Dr. Gasquet also denies that there is any real evidence connecting Wyclif with the production of an English Bible at all; but m order to make good this assertion he has to ignore several passages in Wyclif’s own writings in which he refers to the importance of a vernacular version (to the existence of his own version he could not refer, since that was produced only at the end of his life), and to do violence alike to the proper translation and to the natural interpretation of passages written by Wyclif’s opponents (Arundel, Knyghton, and the Council of Oxford in 1408) in which Wyclif’s work is mentioned and condemned. Further, Dr. Gasquet denies that the Lollards made a special point of the circulation of the Scriptures in the vernacular, or were charged with so doing by the ecclesiastical authorities who prosecuted them; and in particular he draws a distinction between the versions now extant and the Bible on account of the heretical nature of which (among other charges) one Richard Hun was condemned by the Bishop of London in 1514. It has, however, been shown conclusively that the depositions of the witnesses against the Lollards (which cannot be regarded as wholly irrelevant to the charges brought against them) constantly make mention of the possession of vernacular Bibles; and that the changes against Richard Hun, based upon the prologue to the Bible in his possession, are taken verbatim from the prologue to the version which we now know as Purvey’s. It is true that Dr. Gasquet makes the explicit statement that ‘we shall look in vain in the edition of Wyclifite Scriptures published by Forshall and Madden for any trace of these errors’ ( i.e. the errors found by Hun’s prosecutors in the prologue to his Bible); but a writer in the Church Quarterly Review (Jan. 1901, p. 292 ff.) has printed in parallel columns the charges against Hun and the corresponding passages in Purvey’s prologue, which leave no possibility of doubt that Hun was condemned for possessing a copy of the version which is commonly known as Purvey’s, or as the later Wyclifite version. The article in the Church Quarterly Review must be read by everyone who wishes to investigate Dr. Gasquet’s theory fully; the evidence there adduced is decisive as to the unsoundness of Dr. Gasquet’s historical position. It is impossible to attribute to the official heads of the English Church a translation the prologue to which (to quote but two phrases) speaks of ‘the pardouns of the bisschopis of Rome, that ben opin leesingis,’ and declares that ‘to eschewe pride and speke onour of God and of his lawe, and repreue synne bi weie of charite, is matir and cause now whi prelatis and summe lordis sclaundren men, and clepen hem lollardis, eretikis, and riseris of debate and of treson agens the king.’ In the face of this evidence it will be impossible in future to deny that the Wyclifite Bible is identical with that which we now possess, and that it was at times the cause of the persecution of its owners by the authorities of the Church. That this persecution was partial and temporary is likely enough. Much of it was due to the activity of individual bishops, such as Arundel; but not all the bishops shared Arundel’s views. Wyclif had powerful supporters, notably John of Gaunt and the University of Oxford, and under their protection copies of the vernacular Bible could be produced and circulated. It is, moreover, likely, not to say certain, that as time went on the Wyclifite origin of the version would often be forgotten. Apart from the preface to Purvey’s edition, which appears only rarely in the extant MSS, there is nothing in the translation itself which would betray its Lollard origin; and it is quite probable that many persons in the 15th and early 16th cent. used it without any suspicion of its connexion with Wyclif. Sir Thomas More, whose good faith there is no reason to question, appears to have done so; otherwise it can only be supposed that the orthodox English Bibles of which he speaks, and which he expressly distinguishes from the Bible which caused the condemnation of Richard Hun, have wholly disappeared, which is hardly likely. If this be admitted, the rest of More’s evidence falls to the ground. The history of the Wyclifite Bible, and of its reception in England, would in some points bear restatement; but the ingenious, and at first sight plausible, theory of Abbot Gasquet has failed to stand examination, and it is to be hoped that it may be allowed to lapse.
10. With the production of the second Wyclifite version the history of the manuscript English Bible comes to an end. Purvey’s work was on the level of the best scholarship and textual knowledge of the age, and it satisfied the requirements of those who needed a vernacular Bible. That it did not reach modern standards in these respects goes without saying. In the first place, it was translated from the Latin Vulgate, not from the original Hebrew and Greek, with which there is no reason to suppose that Wyclif or his assistants were familiar. Secondly, its exegesis is often deficient, and some passages in it must have been wholly unintelligible to its readers. This, however, may be said even of some parts of the AV [9] , so that it is small reproach to Wyclif and Purvey; and on the whole it is a straightforward and intelligible version of the Scriptures. A few examples of this, the first complete English Bible, and the first version in which the English approaches sufficiently near to its modern form to be generally intelligible, may be given here.
John 14:1-7 . Be not youre herte affraied, ne drede it. Ye bileuen in god, and bileue ye in me. In the hous of my fadir ben many dwellyogis: if ony thing lasse I hadde seid to you, for I go to make redi to you a place. And if I go and make redi to you a place, eftsone I come and I schal take you to my silf, that where I am, ye be. And whidir I go ye witen: and ye witen the wey. Thomas seith to him, Lord, we witen not whidir thou goist, and hou moun we wite the weie. Ihesus seith to him, I am weye truthe and liif: no man cometh to the fadir, but bi me. If ye hadden knowe me, sothli ye hadden knowe also my fadir: and aftirwarde ye schuln knowe him, and ye han seen hym.
2 Corinthians 1:17-20 . But whanne I wolde this thing, whether I uside unstidfastnesse? ether tho thingis that I thenke, I thenke aftir the fleische, that at me be it is and it is not. But god is trewe, for oure word that was at you, is and is not, is not thereinne, but is in it. Forwhi ihesus crist the sone of god, which is prechid among you bi us, bi me and siluan and tymothe, ther was not in hym is and is not, but is was in hym. Forwhi hou many euer ben biheestis of god, in thilke is ben fulfillid. And therfor and bi him we seien Amen to god, to oure glorie.
Ephesians 3:14-21 . For grace of this thing I bowe my knees to the fadir of oure lord ihesus crist, of whom eche fadirheed in heuenes and in erthe is named, that he geue to you aftir the richessis of his glorie, vertu to be strengthid bi his spirit in the yoner man; that criste dwelle bi feitn in youre hertis; that ye rootid and groundid in charite, moun comprehende with alle seyntis wniche is the breede and the lengthe and the highist and the depnesse; also to wite the charite of crist more excellent thanne science, that ye he fillid in all the plente of god. And to hym that is myghti to do alle thingis more pleuteuousli thanne we axen, or undirstande bi ths vertu that worchith in us, to hym be glorie in the chirche and in crist ihesus in to alle the generaciouns of the worldis. Amen.
11. The English manuscript Bible was now complete, and no further translation was issued in this form. The Lollard controversy died down amid the strain of the French wars and the passions of the wars of the Roses; and when, in the 16th century, religious questions once more came to the front, the situation had been fundamentally changed through the invention of printing. The first book that issued from the press was the Latin Bible (popularly known as the Mazarin Bible), published by Fust and Gutenberg in 1456. For the Latin Bible (the form in which the Scriptures had hitherto been mainly known in Western Europe) there was indeed so great a demand, that no less than 124 editions of it are said to have been issued before the end of the 15th century; but it was only slowly that scholars realized the importance of utilizing the printing press for the circulation of the Scriptures, either in their original tongues, or in the vernaculars of Europe. The Hebrew Psalter was printed in 1477, the complete OT in 1488. The Greek Bible, both OT and NT, was included in the great Complutensian Polyglot of Cardinal Ximenes, printed in 1514 17, but not published till 1522. The Greek NT (edited by Erasmus) was first published by Froben in 1516, the OT by the Aldine press in 1518. In the way of vernacular versions, a French Bible was printed at Lyons about 1478, and another about 1487; a Spanish Pentateuch was printed (by Jews) in 1497; a German Bible was printed at Strassburg by Mentelin in 1466, and was followed by eighteen others (besides many Psalters and other separate books) between that date and 1522, when the first portion of Luther’s translation appeared. In England, Caxton inserted the main part of the OT narrative in his translation of the Golden Legend (which in its original form already contained the Gospel story), published in 1483; but no regular English version of the Bible was printed until 1525, with which date a new chapter in the history of the English Bible begins.
12. It was not the fault of the translator that it did not appear at least as early as Luther’s. William Tindale ( c [10] . 1490 1536) devoted himself early to Scripture studies, and by the time he had reached the age of about 30 he had taken for the work of his life the translation of the Bible into English. He was born in Gloucestershire, where his family seems to have used the name of Hutchins or Hychins, as well as that of Tindale, so that he is himself sometimes described by both names); and he became a member of Magdalen Hall (a dependency of Magdalen College) at Oxford, where he definitely associated himself with the Protestant party and became known as one of their leaders. He took his degree as B.A. in 1512, as M.A. in 1515, and at some uncertain date he is said (by Foxe) to have gone to Cambridge. If this was between 1511 and 1515, he would have found Erasmus there; but in that case it could have been only an interlude in the middle of his Oxford course, and perhaps it is more probable that his
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Latin Versions
LATIN VERSIONS . See Text (of OT and NT) and Vulgate.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Bible, Texts And Versions
The preservation and transmission of the Bible from the time that it was written until the present involves two areas of study. The study of the process by which the documents (66 in all) were written, used, collected into groups, and elevated to the authoritative place that they occupy today is called the study of the canon. The other is the process of preserving in writing and translations the text of the documents. This is the study of text and versions.
There are two periods in the history of the text of the Bible. The first is from the time the documents were written until the time of printing (A.D. 1453). The second is from that date until the present. The invention of printing was very important for the transmission of the text of the Bible. Before that date, the only way that a person could have a copy of any written work was to make a copy (or have it made) by hand, letter by letter. This was slow and often expensive. Some have calculated that the cost of one complete Bible made by a professional scribe in the fourth century would equal the salary of a member of the Roman legion for forty years. Certainly not every church, let alone every Christian, could afford to have a copy of the Scriptures.
The Period of the Handwritten Text The story of the Bible is really the story of two Testaments, the Old and the New. The story came together for Christians in the second century A.D., when the Christian writings began to be equated with the Hebrew Scriptures and thus published side by side as the Christian Scriptures. Even then, however, the history of the text used by Christians differed some from the text used and preserved by Jews.
1. Old Testament Text and Versions. The difficulty of tracing the history of the Old Testament text is the scarcity of manuscripts that go back beyond the ninth and tenth century. One reason for this scarcity is the practice by Jewish scribes of burying old manuscripts in a storehouse called a genizah and then destroying these manuscripts. The text from that period is called the Masoretic Text because it derives from the work of a group of Hebrew scribes known as Masoretes, whose work spans the time from A.D. 500 to 1000. The manuscripts used most frequently in editing the Old Testament today are of this variety.
Textual scholars use several tools to trace the text behind the Masoretic Text. One is the Samaritan Pentateuch . This refers to the text of the first five books of the Old Testament as it was preserved among the Samaritans after their separation from Judah about 400 B.C. until the present. This text is preserved in Israel today by a few hundred Samaritans who still live at Nablus (near Mt. Gerazim where their ancient temple stood, John 4:20 ) and just south of Tel Aviv. The importance of this text is that it was preserved independently of the Masoretic text even though the oldest copies in existence were not made until the eleventh century. Only in a few instances do scholars think that the Samaritan Pentateuch preserves readings superior to the Masoretic text.
Another tool to trace the history behind the Masoretic text is the Aramaic paraphrases of the Old Testament known as the Targums . They originated because the Jews in the synagogues in the Middle East could not understand the Hebrew Scripture. Someone stood alongside the reader of the text (read in Hebrew) and recited Aramaic paraphrases, which in time became stereotyped. The earliest of these to be written down came before the time of Christ (a fragment of a Targum on Job was discovered among the Dead Sea Scrolls in the eleventh cave from Qumran). Most of the manuscripts of the Targums originated 500 to 1000 A.D. Because they are paraphrases and not strict translations, the Targums are more of interest for determining Jewish doctrine in the time of their origin than for determining the early stages of the text of the Old Testament.
A much more important source for textual history is the Septuagint . This is a Greek translation of the Old Testament made from about 250 to 100 B.C. or shortly thereafter. It was made in Alexandria, Egypt, to meet the needs of Jews and others who wanted to read the Old Testament but lacked the facility to read Hebrew. The Septuagint represents an official translation which likely replaced a variety of earlier unofficial translations. Basic problems in using a translation to seek to study the earlier wording of the Hebrew text are: the difficulty of determining the exact readings of the Hebrew text(s) used by the original translators because of the innate differences in all languages, the difficulties in establishing the original readings of the Greek translation by studying the many manuscripts of it, and uncertainty concerning the quality of the translation itself. Nevertheless, the Septuagint does preserve some readings (especially in Exodus, Samuel, and Jeremiah) that appear to be superior to the Masoretic text. Some of them are supported by copies of the Hebrew texts found at Qumran. There are other Greek translations of the Old Testament made by Jews to replace the Septuagint. The two most famous were made in the second century A.D. by Aquila and Theodotion.
The most important source for textual information beyond the Masoretic Text is the Dead Sea Scrolls . Most of these were discovered in the caves by the wadi Qumran on the shores of the Dead Sea beginning in 1947. Others were found further south in the wilderness of Judea and at Masada. The oldest copies of Old Testament Scriptures found in these discoveries are manuscripts written in the second century before Christ. They are over a thousand years older than the basic manuscripts of the Masoretic texts. They represent the remains of a library of a group of separatist Jews who lived in the caves in the area and worked in a type of monastery. Along with Old Testament manuscripts, the caves preserved documents written by the participants in the community and their founders. Biblical manuscripts have been found containing fragments or complete copies from every book of the Old Testament except Esther. The scrolls from Qumran do differ from the Masoretic text in some places (1375 places in Isaiah), but most are insignificant.
Other versions of the Old Testament such as the Syriac, Old Latin, the Latin Vulgate, etc. can be used, but none of these yield many significant variants from the Masoretic texts. The copies of the Hebrew Bible available today are the work of very careful Hebrew scribes. Though there are variations, the text of the Hebrew Bible is essentially as it existed in the time before Christ. The early Christians had access to either the Hebrew text or to the Septuagint. When the Septuagint was no longer used by the Jews (about A.D. 90), it was preserved by the Christians and used by them. About half of the Old Testament quotes in Paul are from the Septuagint as are almost all of the quotes in 1Peter, James, and Hebrews. The famous Latin Vulgate of Jerome contained the books in the Septuagint not found in the Hebrew Bible plus 2Esdras. These are called the Apocrypha. They were relegated to an appendix by Martin Luther and most Protestants today.
2. New Testament Text and Versions. From near the middle of the second century on most Christians equated many Christian writings with the Scriptures of the Jews. The term “Old Testament,” implying a “New Testament,” was first used by Christians in A.D. 187. These writings were preserved at first mostly on papyrus, a form of paper made from the papyrus plant which grew in the Nile Delta. It was perishable, and very few copies survived. In 1976, only 88 separate fragments of papyrus New Testament manuscripts were known. Few of them contain in their present state more than a part of a single page of text. The original papyrus manuscripts contained only portions of the New Testament, such as the Gospels and Acts or Paul's letters or the Revelation or some or all of the General Epistles. The earliest of these date from the second and third centuries. During that period the New Testament did not circulate as a single volume. Apparently all New Testament manuscripts so far discovered were made in the leaf form of books, not on rolls.
The New Testament circulated as a single volume in the time of the great parchment manuscripts. Parchment was made from the skins of animals. The earliest of these to contain the New Testament also contain the Old Testament (in the form of the Septuagint with the outside books) and other Christian writings such as 1,2Clement or The Shepherd of Hermas and the Letter of Barnabas. The earliest of these were written in the middle of the fourth century.
Not only manuscripts written in Greek, the language of the New Testament, but also Christian writings which quote from the Greek New Testament furnish evidence for the text of the New Testament. However, some of the Christian “fathers” were very loose in their quotes or quoted from faulty memories. Another factor is that not all the writings were preserved carefully.
Another major source of information about the text of the New Testament is the versions. From the very beginning of the Christian story, translation has been an essential part of the process. We have less than a dozen words of Jesus preserved in Aramaic, the language which He spoke. Hence, almost all that he said was translated into Greek before it was written down. The accusation written over the cross was written in the three languages used in Palestine: Latin, Hebrew (probably Aramaic), and Greek. When the Christians, fleeing from the persecution in which Stephen died, arrived in Antioch, they needed to use Syriac to evangelize the surrounding areas. By the middle of the second century, extensive efforts had been made to translate all the Scriptures into the Old Latin and Syriac. From the third century on followed translations into the various dialects of the Egyptian languages, the languages of Armenia, Georgia, Ethiopia, Arabia, Nubia, and the areas of Europe.
In the West, Latin became the major language of the church. The Latin Vulgate, produced about 400 A.D. by Jerome, became the Bible of the Latin Church. Among the Eastern Orthodox, Greek remained the official language of the Scriptures. Thus during the long period from 400 to 1500, most New Testament Greek manuscripts used the official text of the Orthodox Church. Hence, today most Greek New Testament manuscripts are of the type designated as Byzantine, Ecclesiastical, Koine , Standard, or Eastern. The earlier and (for most scholars) the most reliable ones are of the Alexandrian (also called Neutral, Egyptian, and African) type. When the printers in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries looked for manuscripts from which to edit the earliest printed Greek New Testaments, all that they could find were those of the Byzantine type. Since then, the process of discovery and editing of manuscripts has brought to light over 5,300 handwritten copies of all or part of the New Testament. The process of editing and utilizing all of this material in producing the earliest possible text for readers today is the task of textual criticism. It is a painstaking job done mostly by scholars in the universities, colleges, seminaries, and Bible societies. As always, a major impetus for this work is missionary. Without textual criticism no modern Bibles in any language would be possible.
The Printed Bible The significance of the printing of the Gutenberg Bible for Bible distribution is impossible to overestimate. From that time on, producing large numbers of copies of written documents that were identical in every detail was possible. From that time on, a steady stream of Bibles has poured from presses around the world. Simply to list and give a very brief description of all of the English editions of the Bible since that time requires a book of over 500 pages.
Over twenty major editions of the English New Testament appeared before the Hampton Court Conference in which King James approved the project that produced the KJV. Most of these and also the KJV were little more than revisions of the work of William Tyndale. Estimates of the per cent of Tyndale's New Testament in the KJV New Testament run as high as nine-tenths of the actual wording. Even so, the KJV was a magnificent achievement and did much not only for Bible reading in the English world but for the stability and beauty of the English language. Much of the wording of the KJV has been preserved also in the revisions of it in the Revised Version (1881), American Standard Version (1901 and later), the Revised Standard Version (1947 and later), and the New Revised Standard Version.
There are three reasons why no translation in any language will ever be completely satisfactory for the people of succeeding generations. 1) All languages are in a constant state of change. The study of editions of English dictionaries only twenty years old will demonstrate such change. The word “prevent” in 1 Thessalonians 4:15 of the KJV did not mean to “hinder” in 1611 as it does today. It meant simply “to precede.” 2) The text of the Greek New Testament during the time of the KJV rested on less than a dozen manuscripts, the oldest of which was twelfth century. There are known today more than 5,300, the earliest of which dates from the second century—a thousand years older. 3) In a world where communication between all cultures has become not only possible but an absolute necessity, the art of translation has been greatly improved. The discovery of tens of thousands of documents from the Hellenistic Greek period has provided enormous resources for the translators. These furnish vastly improved understanding of the meanings of not only words but all sorts of expressions.
The need to speak the message of the Bible in clear and understandable modern language has never been greater. The missionary demand of Jesus requires that the process of translation go forward in all languages in which those for whom Christ died daily seek to communicate. Modern versions such as the New English Bible, the Good News Bible, and the New International Version are essential to the present missionary task. The work of trained translators, such as those who work with missionaries, is also essential. The number of languages that have received Scripture is now over 1900, but the goal must be to include eventually every dialect of the human race.
Carlton L. Winberry
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Greek Versions of ot
GREEK VERSIONS OF OT
I. The Septuagint (LXX [1] ). 1. The Septuagint, or Version of the Seventy, has special characteristics which differentiate it strongly from all other versions of the Scriptures. Not only are its relations to the original Hebrew of the OT more difficult and obscure than those of any other version to its original, but, as the Greek OT of the Christian community from its earliest days, it has a special historical importance which no other version can claim, and only the Vulgate can approach. Its history, moreover, is very obscure, and its criticism bristles with difficulties, for the removal of which much work is still needed. The present article can aim only at stating the principal questions which arise in relation to it, and the provisional conclusions at which the leading students of the subject have arrived.
2. There is no doubt that the LXX [1] originated in Alexandria, in the time of the Macedonian dynasty in Egypt. Greeks had been sporadically present in Egypt even before the conquest of the country by Alexander, and under the Ptolemys they increased and multiplied greatly. Hundreds of documents discovered in Egypt within the last few years testify to the presence of Greeks and the wide-spread knowledge of the Greek language from the days of Ptolemy Soter onwards. Among them, especially in Alexandria, were many Jews, to whom Greek became the language of daily life, while the knowledge of Aramaic, and still more of literary Hebrew, decayed among them. It was among such surroundings that the LXX [1] came into existence. The principal authority on the subject of its origin is the Letter of Aristeas (edited by H. St. J. Thackeray in Swete’s Introduction to the OT in Greek [4], and by P. Wendland in the Teubner series [4]). This document, which purports to be written by a Greek official of high rank in the court of Ptolemy ii. (Philadelphus, b.c. 285 247), describes how the king, at the suggestion of his librarian, Demetrius of Phalerum, resolved to obtain a Greek translation of the laws of the Jews for the library of Alexandria; how, at the instigation of Aristeas, he released the Jewish captives in his kingdom, to the number of some 100,000, paying the (absurdly small) sum of 20 drachmas apiece for them to their masters; how he then sent presents to Eleazar, the high priest at Jerusalem, and begged him to send six elders out of each tribe to translate the Law; how the 72 elders were sent, and magnificently entertained by Ptolemy, and were then set down to their work in the island of Pharos; and how in 72 days they completed the task assigned to them. The story is repeated by Josephus ( Ant. XII. ii.) from Aristeas in a condensed form. In later times it received various accretions, increasing the miraculous character of the work; but these additions have no authority.
3. That the Letter of Aristeas is substantially right in assigning the original translation of the Law to the time of one of the early Ptolemys there is no reason to doubt; but the story has the air of having been considerably written up, and it is impossible to say precisely where history stops and fiction begins. Demetrius of Phalerum was librarian to Ptolemy i., but was in disgrace under his successor, and died about 283; hence he can hardly have been the prime mover in the affair. But if not, the writer of the Letter cannot have been the person of rank in Ptolemy’s court that he represents himself to be, and the credit of the document is severely shaken. It cannot be depended on for accuracy in details, and it is necessary to turn to the internal evidence for further information. It will be observed that Aristeas speaks only of ‘the Law,’ i.e. the Pentateuch; and there is no reason to doubt that this was the first part of the OT to be translated, and that the other books followed at different times and from the hands of different translators. A lower limit for the completion of the work, or of the main part of it, is given in the prologue to Sirach (written probably in b.c. 132), where the writer speaks of ‘the law itself and the prophets and the rest of the books’ ( sc . the Hagiographa) as having been already translated. It may therefore be taken as fairly certain that the LXX [1] as a whole was produced between b.c. 285 and 150.
4. Its character cannot be described in a word. It is written in Greek, which in vocabulary and accidence is substantially that koinç dialektos , or Hellenistic Greek, which was in common use throughout the empire of Alexander, and of which our knowledge, in its non-literary form, has been greatly extended by the recent discoveries of Greek papyri in Egypt. In its syntax, however, it is strongly tinged with Hebraisms, which give it a distinct character of its own. The general tendency of the LXX [1] translators was to be very literal, and they have repeatedly followed Hebrew usage (notably in the use of pronouns, prepositions, and participial constructions) to an extent which runs entirely counter to the genius of the Greek language. [For examples, and for the grammar of the LXX [1] generally, see the Introduction to Selections from the Septuagint , by F. C. Conybeare and St. George Stock (1905).] The quality of the translation differs in different books. It is at its best in the Pentateuch, which was probably both the first and the most deliberately prepared portion of the translation. It is at its worst in the Prophets, which presented the greatest difficulties in the way of interpretation. Neither the Greek nor the Hebrew scholarship of the translators was of a high order, and they not infrequently wrote down words which convey no rational meaning whatever. Something has been done of late to distinguish the work of different translators. [9] iv. 245, 398, 578, viii. 262, the results of which are here summarized.] It has been shown that Jer. is probably the work of two translators, who respectively translated chs. 1 28 and 29 51 (in the Greek order of the chapters), the latter, who was an inferior scholar, being responsible also for Baruch. Ezek. likewise shows traces of two translators, one taking chs. 1 27 and 40 48, the other 28 39. The Minor Prophets form a single group, which has considerable affinities with the first translators of both Jer. and Ezekiel. Isaiah stands markedly apart from all these, exhibiting a more classical style, but less fidelity to the Hebrew. 1Kings (= 1Samam.) similarly stands apart from 2 4 Kings, the latter having features in common with Judges.
5. Some other features of the LXX [1] must be mentioned which show that each book, or group of books, requires separate study. In Judges the two principal MSS (Codd. A and B, see below, § 10) differ so extensively as to show that they represent different recensions. In some books (notably the latter chapters of Exodus 3:1-22 K 4 11, Proverbs 24:1-34 ; Proverbs 25:1-28 ; Proverbs 26:1-28 ; Proverbs 27:1-27 ; Proverbs 28:1-28 ; Proverbs 29:1-27 , Jeremiah 25:1-38 ; Jeremiah 26:1-24 ; Jeremiah 27:1-22 ; Jeremiah 28:1-17 ; Jeremiah 29:1-32 ; Jeremiah 30:1-24 ; Jeremiah 31:1-40 ; Jeremiah 32:1-44 ; Jeremiah 33:1-26 ; Jeremiah 34:1-22 ; Jeremiah 35:1-19 ; Jeremiah 36:1-32 ; Jeremiah 37:1-21 ; Jeremiah 38:1-28 ; Jeremiah 39:1-18 ; Jeremiah 40:1-16 ; Jeremiah 41:1-18 ; Jeremiah 42:1-22 ; Jeremiah 43:1-13 ; Jeremiah 44:1-30 ; Jeremiah 45:1-5 ; Jeremiah 46:1-28 ; Jeremiah 47:1-7 ; Jeremiah 48:1-47 ; Jeremiah 49:1-39 ; Jeremiah 50:1-46 ; Jeremiah 51:1-64 ) the order of the LXX [1] differs completely from that of the Hebrew, testifying to an arrangement of the text quite different from that of the Massoretes. Elsewhere the differences are not in arrangement but in contents. This is especially the case in the latter chapters of Jos. [12] , 1Kings (= 1Samam.) 17 18, where the LXX [1] omits (or the Heb. adds) several verses; 3 K 8 and 12, where the LXX [1] incorporates material from some fresh source; Psa 151:1-7 , which is added in the LXX [1] ; Job, the original LXX [1] text of which was much shorter than that of the Massoretic Hebrew; Esther, where the Greek has large additions, which now appear separately in our Apocrypha, but which are an integral part of the LXX [1] ; Jer., where small omissions and additions are frequent; and Daniel, where the LXX [1] includes the episodes of Susanna, Bel and the Dragon, and the Song of the Three Children, which have now been relegated (in obedience to Jerome’s example) to the Apocrypha.
6. The mention of the Apocrypha suggests the largest and most striking difference between the LXX [1] and the Hebrew OT, namely, in the books included in their respective canons; for the Apocrypha, as it stands to-day in our Bibles, consists (with the exception of 2 Esdras and the Prayer of Manasseh) of books which form an integral part of the LXX [1] canon, but were excluded from the Hebrew canon when that was finally determined about the end of the 1st century [3]0. Nor did these books stand apart from the others in the LXX [1] as a separate group. The historical books (1 Esdras, Tob., Judith, and sometimes Mac.) have their place with Chron., Ezr., Neh.; the poetical books (Wisd., Sir.) stand beside Prov., Eccles., and Cant.; and Baruch is attached to Jeremiah. The whole arrangement of the OT books differs, indeed, from the stereotyped order of the Massoretic Hebrew. The latter has its three fixed divisions (i) the Law, i.e. the Pentateuch; (ii) the Prophets, consisting of the Former Prophets (Jos. [12] , Judges 1:1-36 ; Judges 2:1-23 ; Judges 3:1-31 ; Judges 4:1-24 Kings) and the Latter Prophets (Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the Minor Prophets); (iii) the Hagiographa, including Chron., Ps., Job, Prov., Ruth, Cant., Eccles., Lam., Esth., Dan., Ezr., Nehemiah. But the LXX [1] attaches Ruth to Judges, Chron. and Ezr.-Neh. to Kings, Baruch and Lam. to Jer., and Dan. to the three Greater Prophets. Its principle of arrangement is, in fact, different. In place of divisions which substantially represent three different stages of canonization, it classifies the books in groups according to the character of their subject-matter Law, History, Poetry, and Prophecy. The details of the order of the books differ in different MSS and authoritative lists, but substantially the principle is as here stated; and the divergence has had considerable historical importance. In spite of the dissent of several of the leading Fathers, such as Origen and Athanasius, the LXX [1] canon was generally accepted by the early Christian Church. Through the medium of the Old Latin Version it passed into the West, and in spite of Jerome’s adoption of the Hebrew canon in his Vulgate, the impugned books made their way back into all Latin Bibles, and have remained there from that day to this. [26] vii. 343 (1906).] In the Reformed Churches their fate has been different; for the German and English translators followed Jerome in adopting the Hebrew canon, and relegated the remaining books to the limbo of the Apocrypha. The authority attaching to the LXX [1] and Massoretic canons respectively is a matter of controversy which cannot be settled offhand; but the fact of their divergence is certain and historically important.
7. If the LXX [1] had come down to us in the state in which it was at the time when its canon was complete (say in the 1st cent. b.c.), it would still have presented to the critic problems more than enough, by reason of its differences from the Hebrew in contents and arrangement, and the doubt attaching to its fidelity as a translation; but these difficulties are multiplied tenfold by the modifications which it underwent between this time and the date to which our earliest MSS belong (4th cent. a.d.). It has been shown above that the LXX [1] was the Bible of the Greek-speaking world at the time when Christianity spread over it. It was in that form that the Gentile Christians received the OT; and they were under no temptation to desert it for the Hebrew Bible (which was the property of their enemies, the Jews), even if they had been able to read it. The LXX [1] consequently became the Bible of the early Christian Church, to which the books of the NT were added in course of time. But the more the Christians were attached to the LXX [1] , the less willing became the Jews to admit its authority; and from the time of the activity of the Rabbinical school of Jamnia, about the end of the 1st cent., to which period the fixing of the Massoretic canon and text may be assigned with fair certainty, they definitely repudiated it. This repudiation did not, however, do away with the need which non-Palestinian Jews felt for a Greek OT; and the result was the production, in the course of the 2nd cent., of no less than three new translations. These translations, which are known under the names of Aquila, Theodotion, and Symmachus, are described below (§§ 15 18 ); here it is sufficient to say that they were all translated from the Massoretic OT, and represent it with different degrees of fidelity, from the pedantic verbal imitation of Aquila to the literary freedom of Symmachus. By the beginning of the 3rd cent. there were, therefore, four Greek versions of the OT in the field, besides portions of others which will be mentioned below.
8. Such was the state of things when Origen (a.d. 185 253), the greatest scholar produced by the early Church, entered the field of textual criticism. His labours therein had the most far-reaching effect on the fortunes of the LXX [1] , and are the cause of a large part of our difficulties in respect of its text to-day. Struck by the discrepancies between the LXX [1] and the Heb., he conceived the idea of a vast work which should set the facts plainly before the student. This was the Hexapla , or sixfold version of the OT, in which six versions were set forth in six parallel columns. The six versions were as follows (1) the Hebrew text; (2) the same transliterated in Greek characters; (3) the version of Aquila, which of all the versions was the nearest to the Hebrew; (4) the version of Symmachus; (5) his own edition of the LXX [1] ; (6) the version of Theodotion. In the case of the Psalms, no less than three additional Greek versions were included, of which very little is known; they are called simply Quinta, Sexta , and Septima . Elsewhere also there is occasional evidence of an additional version having been included; but these are unimportant. A separate copy of the four main Greek versions was also made, and was known as the Tetrapla. The principal extant fragment of a MS of the Hexapla (a 10th cent. palimpsest at Milan, containing about 11 Psalms) omits the Hebrew column, but makes up the total of six by a column containing various isolated readings. The only other fragment is a 7th cent. leaf discovered at Cairo in a genizah (or receptacle for damaged and disused synagogue MSS), and now at Cambridge. It contains Psalms 22:15-18 ; Psalms 22:20-28 , and has been edited by Dr. C. Taylor ( Cairo Genizah Palimpsests , 1900).
Origen’s Hebrew text was substantially identical with the Massoretic; and Aq. [35] , Symm., and Theod., as has been stated above, were translations from it; but the LXX [1] , in view of its wide and frequent discrepancies, received special treatment. Passages present in the LXX [1] , but wanting in the Heb., were marked with an obelus ( or ); Passages Wanting In The LXX [1] , But Present In The Heb., Were Supplied From Aq. [32]9 Or Theod., And Marked With An Asterisk (*); The Close Of The Passage To Which The Signs Applied Being Marked By A Metobelus (: Or %. Or ×). In Cases Of Divergences In Arrangement, The Order Of The Heb. Was Followed (Except In Prov.), And The Text Of The LXX [1] Was Considerably Corrected So As To Bring It Into Better Conformity With The Heb. The Establishment Of Such A Conformity Was In Fact Origen’s Main Object, Though His Conscience As A Scholar And His Reverence For The LXX [1] Did Not Allow Him Altogether To Cast Out Passages Which Occurred In It, Even Though They Had No Sanction In The Hebrew Text As He Knew It.
9. The great MSS of the Hexapla and Tetrapla were preserved for a long time in the library established by Origen’s disciple, Pamphilus, at Cæsarea, and references are made to them in the scholia and subscriptions of some of the extant MSS of the LXX [1] (notably א and Q). So long as they were in existence, with their apparatus of critical signs, the work of Origen in confusing the Gr. and Heb. texts of the OT could always be undone, and the original texts of the LXX [1] substantially restored. But MSS so huge could not easily be copied, and the natural tendency was to excerpt the LXX [1] column by itself, as representing a Greek text improved by restoration to more authentic form. Such an edition, containing Origen’s fifth column, with its apparatus of critical signs, was produced early in the 4th cent. by Pamphilus, the founder of the library at Cæsarea, and his disciple Eusebius; and almost simultaneously two fresh editions of the LXX [1] were published in the two principal provinces of Greek Christianity, by Hesychius at Alexandria, and by Lucian at Antioch. It is from these three editions that the majority of the extant MSS of the LXX [1] have descended; but the intricacies of the descent are indescribably great. In the case of Hexaplaric MSS, the inevitable tendency of scribes was to omit, more or less completely, the critical signs which distinguished the true LXX [1] text from the passages imported from Aq. [35] or Theod.; the versions of Aq. [35] , Theod., and Symm. have disappeared, and exist now only in fragments, so that we cannot distinguish all such interpolations with certainty; Hexaplaric, Hesychian, and Lucianic MSS acted and reacted on one another, so that it is very difficult to identify MSS as containing one or other of these editions; and although some MSS can be assigned to one or other of them with fair confidence, the majority contain mixed and undetermined texts. The task of the textual critic who would get behind all this confusion of versions and recensions is consequently very hard, and the problem has as yet by no means been completely solved.
10. The materials for its solution are, as in the NT, threefold Manuscripts, Versions, Patristic Quotations; and these must be briefly described. The earliest MSS are fragments on papyrus, some of which go back to the 3rd century. About 16 in all are at present known, the most important being (i) Oxyrhynchus Pap. 656 (early 3rd cent.), containing parts of Genesis 14:1-24 ; Genesis 15:1-21 ; Genesis 16:1-16 ; Genesis 17:1-27 ; Genesis 18:1-33 ; Genesis 19:1-38 ; Genesis 20:1-18 ; Genesis 21:1-34 ; Genesis 22:1-24 ; Genesis 23:1-20 ; Genesis 24:1-67 ; Genesis 25:1-34 ; Genesis 26:1-35 ; Genesis 27:1-46 , where most of the great vellum MSS are defective; (ii) Brit. Mus. Pap. 37 (7th cent.), sometimes known as U, containing the greater part of Psalms 10:1-18 ; Psalms 11:1-7 ; Psalms 12:1-8 ; Psalms 13:1-6 ; Psalms 14:1-7 ; Psalms 15:1-5 ; Psalms 16:1-11 ; Psalms 17:1-15 ; Psalms 18:1-50 ; Psalms 19:1-14 ; Psalms 20:1-9 ; Psalms 21:1-13 ; Psalms 22:1-31 ; Psalms 23:1-6 ; Psalms 24:1-10 ; Psalms 25:1-22 ; Psalms 26:1-12 ; Psalms 27:1-14 ; Psalms 28:1-9 ; Psalms 29:1-11 ; Psalms 30:1-12 ; Psalms 31:1-24 ; Psalms 32:1-11 ; Psalms 33:1-22 ; Psalms 34:1-22 [50]; (iii) a Leipzig papyrus (4th cent.), containing Psalms 30:1-12 ; Psalms 31:1-24 ; Psalms 32:1-11 ; Psalms 33:1-22 ; Psalms 34:1-22 ; Psalms 35:1-28 ; Psalms 36:1-12 ; Psalms 37:1-40 ; Psalms 38:1-22 ; Psalms 39:1-13 ; Psalms 40:1-17 ; Psalms 41:1-13 ; Psalms 42:1-11 ; Psalms 43:1-5 ; Psalms 44:1-26 ; Psalms 45:1-17 ; Psalms 46:1-11 ; Psalms 47:1-9 ; Psalms 48:1-14 ; Psalms 49:1-20 ; Psalms 50:1-23 ; Psalms 51:1-19 ; Psalms 52:1-9 ; Psalms 53:1-6 ; Psalms 54:1-7 ; Psalms 55:1-23 , the first five being considerably mutilated; (iv) a papyrus at Heidelberg (7th cent.), containing Zechariah 4:6 Malachi 4:5 . A papyrus at Berlin, containing about two-thirds of Gen., and said to be of the 4th or 5th cent., is not yet published.
The principal vellum uncial MSS, which are of course the main foundation of our textual knowledge, are as follows. See also Text of NT.
א or S. Codex Sinaiticus , 4th cent., 43 leaves at Leipzig, 156 (besides the whole NT) at St. Petersburg, containing fragments of Geo. and Num., 1 Chronicles 9:27 to 1 Chronicles 19:17 , 2E Esther 9:9 to end, Esth., Tob., Jdt 1:1-16 and 4 Mac., Is., Jer., Lamentations 1:1 to Lamentations 2:20 , Joel, Obad., Jon., Nah. Mal., and the poetical books. Its text is of a very mixed character. It has a strong element in common with B, and yet is often independent of it. In Tob. it has a quite different text from that of A and B, and is perhaps nearer to the original Heb. Its origin is probably composite, so that it is not possible to assign it to any one school. Its most important correctors are Can and C b , both of the 7th cent., the former of whom states, in a note appended to Esth., that he collated the MS with a very early copy, which itself had been corrected by the hand of Pamphilus.
A. Codex Alexandrinus , 5th cent., in the British Museum; complete except in Psalms 49:19 to Psalms 79:10 and smaller lacunæ, chiefly in Genesis 3:1-24 and 4 Mac. are included. The Psalter is liturgical, and is preceded by the Epistle of Athanasius on the Psalter, and the Hypotheseis of Eusebius; the Canticles are appended to it. The text is written by at least two scribes; the principal corrections are by the original scribes and a reviser of not much later date. It is almost certainly of Egyptian origin, and has sometimes been supposed to represent the edition of Hesychius, but this is by no means certain yet. In Judges it has a text wholly different from that of B, and in general the two MSS represent different types of text; the quotations from the LXX [1] in the NT tend to support A rather than B.
B. Codex Vaticanus , 4th cent., in the Vatican; complete, except for the loss of Genesis 1:1 to Genesis 46:28 , 2Ki 2:5-7 ; 2 Kings 2:10-13 , Psalms 105:27 to Psalms 137:6 , and the omission of 1 4 Maccabees. Its character appears to differ in different books, but in general Hort’s description seems sound, that it is closely akin to the text which Origen had before him when he set about his Hexapla. It is thus of Egyptian origin, and is very frequently in accord with the Bohairic version. Recently Rahlfs has argued that in Ps. it represents the edition of Hesychius, but his proof is very incomplete; for since he admits that Hesychius must have made but few alterations in the pre-Origenian Psalter, and that the text of B is not quite identical with that which he takes as the standard of Hesychius (namely, the quotations in Cyril of Alexandria), his hypothesis does not seem to cover the phenomena so well as Hort’s. The true character of B, however, still requires investigation, and each of the principal groups of books must be examined separately.
C. Codex Ephræmi rescriptus , 5th cent., at Paris; 64 leaves palimpsest, containing parts of the poetical books.
D. The Cotton
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Versions of the Scripture, English
Bede relates that Caedmon embodied a history of the Bible in Anglo-Saxon poetry; Aldhelm, Bishop of Sherborne, translated the Psalms in the seventh century; and Bede translated the Gospel of John; he finished dictating it as he breathed his last, A.D. 735. King Alfred translated Exodus 20 — Exodus 23 as the groundwork of his legislation: he desired indeed that "all the free-born youth of his kingdom should be able to read the English scriptures."
There is also an Anglo-Saxon MS of a version of the Gospels interlinear with the Latin Vulgate in the British Museum (cir. A.D. 680); also another (cir. 900) in a different translation at Oxford. There was also a translation of the Psalms. These and other portions were the first sparks of light that created the longing for the full light of God's word in English.
1. WYCLIFFE was the first to give to England a translation of the whole of the New Testament. He completed the four Gospels first, with a commentary, saying in his preface that he did it "so that pore Cristen men may some dele know the text of the Gospel with the comyn sentence of olde holie doctores."
The Old Testament was undertaken by his coadjutor, Nicholas de Hereford. He had proceeded as far as the middle of Baruch (following the order of the Vulgate) when he was in A.D. 1382 cited before Archbishop Arundel. Others followed to revise and increase the copies. All these were translations of the Latin.
Wycliffe's version must have been well circulated, for though Arundel destroyed many copies there are about 150 manuscripts of it still existing.
WYCLIFFE — John 1:1 .
In the bigynnynge was the word and the word was at god, and god was the word.
Succeeding translations have "with God." Coverdale and Cranmer have "God was the word."
2. TYNDALE. This man made the translation of the scriptures the work of his life. He said he would cause "a boy that driveth the plough" to know more of scripture than the great body of the clergy then knew. In his workthere was a great advance inasmuch as after study he was able to translate from both the Hebrew and the Greek. He had to carry on his work abroad, and to change his abode frequently in order to baffle those who sought his life.
Edition followed edition, which were smuggled into England in various ways, and were there readily bought and circulated. On one occasion his enemies purchased a large portion of an edition to destroy it, and the money thus obtained furnished the funds for bringing out a revised issue.
To show the opposition of the Papists to these copies of the scripture being brought into England, Sir Thomas More may be quoted: " . . . . which books, albeit that they neither can be there printed without great cost, nor here sold without great adventure and peril: yet cease they not with money sent from hence, to print them there, and send them hither, by the whole vatts-full at once. And, in some places, looking for no lucre, cast them abroad by night; so great a pestilent pleasure have some devilish people caught, with the labour, travel, cost, charge, peril, harm, and hurt of themselves, to seek the destruction of others."
Through God's intervention neither Wolsey nor the king, neither More nor Cromwell, with all their agents, were able to arrest the supposed culprit. Other plans, however, were at last successful: Henry Philips and Gabriel Dunne with subtilty entrapped him, the former passing as a gentleman, and the latter as his servant. Philips by mixing with the merchants discovered Tyndale's retreat, made his acquaintance, and professed great friendship for him, but only first to rob him under the plea of a loan, and then to betray him into the hands of his enemies. He lingered in prison several months and then suffered martyrdom in 1536.
His translation of the New Testament appeared in A.D. 1525, and he translated portions of the O.T. before his death. The New Testament was reprinted many times abroad and once in London.
TYNDALE — John 10:16 .
And other shepe I have, which are not of this folde. Them also must I bringe, that they maye heare my voyce, and that ther maye be one flocke and one shepeherde.
Both Wycliffe and Coverdale agree with the "one flock," so that if the translators of the A.V. had made the best use of the translations that preceded them, they would not have put "one fold."
3. COVERDALE. This translation was produced under a somewhat different spirit from that possessed by Tyndale. As we have seen Tyndale's was his life's work and a labour of love, but Coverdale could say that he "sought it not, neither desired it," but accepted it as work assigned him. Yet he attempted to do his best, and with good will. The people in England began generally to desire the scriptures. Tyndale's prefaces and notes had given so much offence, that there was no prospect of the king giving his sanction to that translation being reprinted. But through the influence of Cranmer and Cromwell all difficulties were removed as to Coverdale's, and the work was completed. The king sent copies to the bishops, who were in no hurry to give their judgement. They were at length requested to give their opinion as to its merits. They declared that there were many faults therein. "Well," said king Henry, "but are there any heresies maintained thereby?" They replied that there were no heresies. "Then if there are no heresies," said the king, "in God's name let it go abroad among the people."
The edition was issued in 1535, but it is not now known where it was printed. Coverdale placed the Apocrypha at the end of the O.T., instead of mixing it with the canonical books, as in the Vulgate.
It is curious to notice that on the title page it says "faithfully translated out of Douche and Latyn." One would have naturally expected that it should have been from the Hebrew and Greek; but it has been remarked that in those troublous times the 'Douche' would be pleasing to those who held Luther's name in honour, whereas the 'Latyn' would conciliate Gardiner and his party. Coverdale apparently alludes to having Tyndale's translation before him, but also speaks of five others: these were probably the Vulgate, Luther's, the German Swiss, the Latin of Pagninus, and perhaps Wycliffe's.
COVERDALE — Psalm 26 : (27) 14.
O tary thou the LORDES leysure, be stronge, let thine hert be of good comforte and wayte thou still for the LORDE.
4. MATTHEW. This has been judged to have been the translation of Rogers, of Cambridge, the name of Matthew being assumed to conceal the translator. Rogers, when indicted in the days of Mary, is called Joannes Rogers, alias Matthew, and his martyrdom followed. It was probably printed abroad, and published in England by Grafton and Whitchurch, who wanted not only the king's sanction but a monopoly for five years. This the king would not grant. They then asked that every incumbent should purchase a copy and that every abbey should take six copies. The result was that the king ordered by royal proclamation that a copy should be set up in every church, the cost being divided between the clergy and the people.
This was therefore the first "Authorised Version," and for it to be in every church was a great advance in the circulation of the scriptures in England. Its date is A.D. 1537.
5. CRANMER'S (passing over TAVERNER'S Edition, 1539, as a reprint of Matthew's, with the notes altered and some omitted) takes precedence of all that had yet been attempted as to detail of interpretation. Words not in the original were in a different type. It was pointed out, at least partially, where the Vulgate differed from the Hebrew, and where the Chaldee and Hebrew differed. It had marginal references, but no notes.
It appended the Preface to the Apocrypha that had appeared in Matthew's Bible, but, curiously enough, in order to avoid giving offence to the Romish party by the name of Apocrypha, they sought for some other word, and adopted the inaccurate statement that the "Books were called Hagiographa ,' because "they were read in secret and apart"! This term, which signifies 'holy writings,' is applied to some of the canonical books, of the O.T. See BIBLE.
The first edition was in 1539 or 40, and in 1541 an edition appeared as "authorised" to be used and frequented in every church in the kingdom.
CRANMER — 1 John 3:4 .
Whosoeuer commytteth synne, committeth vnryghteousnes also, and synne is vnryghteousnes.
Tyndale and Coverdale agree with Cranmer; Wycliffe has "synne is wickidnesse," and the Rheims Version has "sinne is iniquitie" — there were thus five early witnesses against the A.V.'s translation of "sin is the transgression of the law".
6. GENEVA. Cranmer's edition did not give general satisfaction. Some thought the English might be improved, and its bulk in folio and its expense were against its circulation. It, however, held its ground until Queen Mary ascended the throne, when a stop was put to all Bible-printing in England. The persecution drove many away, and among other exiles the following took refuge at Geneva: Whittingham, Gilby, Goodman, Sampson, and Coverdale, the last-named having laboured on Cranmer's edition. These men zealously set to work on a new translation, and laboured for two years or more "night and day."
In A.D. 1557 the New Testament was ready, and in 1560 the whole Bible. It was largely imported in the reign of Elizabeth, and was reprinted in England. Being smaller and cheaper it found favour, and held its ground for about 60 years — partly owing no doubt to a monopoly being given to James Bodleigh. This was transferred to Barker whose family held the right of printing Bibles for more than a century.
This edition was printed in Roman type instead of the black letter which had formerly been employed. It was also divided into verses, and was the first English Bible that entirely omitted the Apocrypha.
GENEVA — Romans 5:11 .
And not only so , but we also reioyse in God by the meanes of our Lord Iesus Christe, by whom we haue now receaued the atonement.
Wycliffe and the Rheims version have "reconciliation," the right translation.
7. THE BISHOPS' BIBLE. Fault being found with the Geneva version, especially by the clergy, Archbishop Parker was very desirous for a new translation. Some eight bishops with deans and professors proceeded with the work, and in A.D. 1568 a folio Bible was issued. It was sought to make it attractive: finer woodcuts were inserted, also a map of Palestine, and genealogical tables.
A novelty was introduced by classifying the books as legal, historical, sapiential, and prophetic. The Gospels, the Catholic Epistles, Titus, Philemon, and Hebrews were grouped as legal; Paul's other Epistles as sapiential; the Acts as historical; and the Revelation as prophetical. Some passages were marked to be omitted when read in the service of the church.
Opinions were divided as to the translation: some extolled it highly, but it did not commend itself to scholars generally. On the whole it had but little success.
8. RHEIMS AND DOUAY. The Romanists had often pointed a finger of scorn at the different English translations as not exhibiting unity; and, as they could not hinder the circulation of Bibles in England, they determined to have a translation of their own. The Protestant refugees had produced the Geneva Edition, and now some Romanists, who had resorted to the continent, set to work at Rheims. The principal persons engaged in it were William Allen, Gregory Martin, and Richard Bristow.
As the title states it was a translation from "the authentic Latin, according to the best corrected copies of the same, diligently conferred with the Greek and other editions in divers languages." They gave various reasons why the Latin was chosen, such as that it agreed with the Greek, or where it did not, it was better than the Greek. The New Testament was issued in A.D. 1582; and the Old Testament, printed at Douay, in 1609. We give a specimen.
The RHEIMS Edition — Luke 15:7 .
I say to you, that euen so there shall be ioy in heauen vpon one sinner that doth penance, then vpon ninetie nine iust that neede not penance.
It is remarkable that Wycliffe also used the word "penance" in this and other passages.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Versions of the Scripture, Ancient
It is very gratifying to find in history how in many places, as the gospel was disseminated and souls were saved, they naturally felt a need for the scriptures, and how that need was by the providence of God supplied. This blessing would doubtless have been vouchsafed everywhere, and continually without a break, had not apostate Rome extended its influence and wickedly suppressed the knowledge of the scriptures in order that its own assumption might have full sway.
Though Christianity entered into the British Isles at a very early date, it was not till the year 1380 that the English New Testament was issued, in spite of Rome, only however to be collected and burnt by the clergy so far as they could.
Under the article VARIOUS READINGS it is shown that early translations of the New Testament are used as evidence of what was in the primitive Greek text, and we now proceed to name the principal of these versions. They are important, as some of them are of an earlier date than any existing Greek Manuscript.
1. THE AETHIOPIC VERSION. The date of this is not known: some place it in the fourth century, but it was probably later. The introduction of Christianity into that part of Africa is remarkable. Meropius, a philosopher of Tyre, determined to visit that region, which ecclesiastical historians termed 'India.' On landing at a port, the whole party was attacked, peace having been broken previously between these 'Indians' and Rome: all were massacred except two young relatives of Meropius, named Frumentius and AEdesius, who were carried to the king. He set them at liberty and employed them, and on his death, they were appointed ministers of the young king. They began to teach the Christian religion to the Abyssinians, and a place was set apart for the worship of the true God. Frumentius was afterwards appointed Bishop of that district by Athanasius. It has been judged that the version was made from the Greek, but by one who did not well understand that language.
The AEthiopic New Testament was printed at Rome in the years 1548-9, but it was incorrect, the printers being altogether ignorant of the language. It was reprinted in Walton's Polyglott, with (says Ludolf) the same and additional errors; but it had now a Latin translation, which enabled the Editors of the Greek Testament to quote the AEthiopic as an evidence for or against certain readings. The value of its testimony was enhanced by C. A. Bode, who furnished a more correct text and a better Latin translation. (Brunswick, 1753.) The fact of the MSS being of different recensions lessens their critical value.
2. ARABIC VERSIONS. There have been five printed Editions of the Arabic New Testament. The Gospels issued at Rome in 1590-1; one at Leyden in 1616, called the Erpenian Arabic; the Arabic in the Paris Polyglott in 1645; the same in Walton's Polyglott in 1657; and one at Rome in 1703, called the Carshuni. It is known that in the eighth century John, Bishop of Seville, translated the holy scriptures into Arabic but it is not known whether he translated from the Greek or the Latin, nor what other translations were made. The Arabic is seldom quoted by the Editors, as it is judged to be of little value as evidence.
3. ARMENIAN VERSION. In the fifth century arose a desire to have an Armenian alphabet, the Syrian having been previously used. Miesrob invented an alphabet for his nation, and appears to have regarded it as a gift from heaven. He laboured to instruct the Armenians, being warmly aided by Isaac the patriarch. They then became eager to have the scriptures in their own tongue, and an effort was made to translate from the Syriac. This was, however, abandoned, and Miesrob, with two or three others, resorted to Alexandria to learn more perfectly the Greek language. The Old Testament was translated from the LXX, and the New Testament from the Greek.
In the seventeenth century MS copies of the Armenian Bible being very scarce, a bishop named Oscan or Uscan was sent to Europe to get it printed. After vainly trying to get it done at Rome, he proceeded to Amsterdam and there it was printed in 1666. Not having, however, any Latin interpretation, it was not readily available to Editors of the Greek Testament, though some of its readings were furnished to Mill, Griesbach, and Scholz. Dr. Tregelles at length succeeded, by the aid of Dr. C. Rieu, in ascertaining its readings more generally.
4. EGYPTIAN VERSIONS. Of these there are two, probably being both dialects of the Ancient Egyptian language. When only one was known it was called the Coptic , but another recension being discovered, the first-named is now called the MEMPHITIC or BOHAIRIC. The translation is assigned to the second century: though there are no MSS of so early a date.
The first printed edition appeared, in 1716, at Oxford, but badly collated from various MSS by Wilkins, with a Latin interpretation. A better edition of the four Gospels was edited by Schwartze in 1846-8. And the Acts and Epistles were issued by Boetticher of Halle later. Thus the Memphitic Version became available to the Editors of the Greek Testament, and is often quoted by them.
4.2. THE THEBAIC VERSION. This has been also called the Sahidic. It is assigned to the second century, some MSS being judged to be of the fifth century and others of the sixth century. Fragments of this recension were issued from time to time, and Ford attempted to gather up the fragments in one edition as an Appendix to the Codex Alexandrinus in 1799. Griesbach and succeeding Editors quoted this version.
There are now accounted to be three other dialects of ancient Egyptian, of which fragments of the New Testament have been found. They are called, 1. The Fayoumic or Bashmuric. 2. Middle Egyptian or Coptic, or Lower Sahidic. 3. Akhmimic.
5. GOTHIC VERSION. This was made by Ulphilas, about A.D. 348. The Goths from Scandinavia had invaded the Roman territory, and carried away a number of captives. These by their intercourse with the barbarians brought a number of them to embrace the true faith, at least nominally. Theophilus was their first bishop: he was present at the Council of Nice and subscribed the Nicene creed. Ulphilas, a Cappadocian, a descendant of some of the captives, became his successor, but the Arian error was at that time dominant in the empire and he subscribed the Arian creed,and this the Goths then generally held. Except in one passage (Philippians 2:6 ) it is not apparent that the Arian heresy influenced Ulphilas in his translation: the Arians maintained their creed more by interpretation. It was made in the fourth century. The Old Testament was also translated, but curiously enough the four books of Kings were omitted, being "prudently suppressed," says Gibbon, "as they might tend to irritate the fierce and sanguinary spirit of the barbarians."
5.2. A remarkably beautiful copy of the Gothic Gospels is called the CODEX ARGENTEUS, being written in silver, with the initial words in gold. It is assigned to the fifth or early in the sixth century. Queen Christina gave it her librarian, Isaac Vossius, and from him it was purchased about 1662 by the Swedish nation, and deposited at Upsal. The Gospels are in the Western or Latin order, Matthew, John, Luke and Mark. There are 187 leaves (out of 330) of purple vellum, 4to.
5.3. CODICES AMBROSIANI, being five manuscripts, now in the Ambrosian Library ofMilan. They contain the Epistles to the Romans, Corinthians, Ephesians, and to Timothy almost entire, and fragments of Philippians, Colossians, Titus, and Philemon. They were discovered and rescued from palimpsests. These are not unlike the Codex Carolinus.
5.4. CODEX CAROLINUS. This contains about forty verses of the Epistle to the Romans. It is also a palimpsest, and is accompanied by a Latin version. It has been traced to Mayence and Prague, and was purchased by a duke of Brunswick in 1689.
6. LATIN VERSIONS. For these see VULGATE.
7. SLAVONIC VERSION. A portion of the Slavonic race had settled in a district bounded by the Danube and in Great Moravia. The production of the version bearing this name is interesting. A missionary from Thessalonica, named Cyril, visited these tribes, learnt their language, and then invented an alphabet that he might translate into their vernacular tongue the word of God. He commenced his labours there, with his brother Methodius, A.D. 862. The version is assigned to the ninth century, though the oldest known MS belongs to the year 1056. The four Gospels were published in 1512, and in 1581 the whole Bible. It has been quoted by Wetstein, Griesbach, etc.
8. SYRIAC VERSIONS. It is generally admitted that as early as the second century a Syriac New Testament was in existence. Eusebius speaks of quotat ions being made from the Syriac, but the origin of the version is not known. It is clear that as far back as the fifth century the scriptures were in use among the Syrian Christians. Unhappily there was an early division among them, that has never been healed; but the Nestorians, Monophysites (those who believed there was but one nature in Christ, the Word), and those claiming to be orthodox, all use the same recension of the scriptures.
This version became known by being brought into Europe in 1552 for the purpose of being printed. It was finished in 1555. It did not include the Catholic Epistles nor the Revelation. John 8:1-11 was also wanting. (These portions have been found in other Syriac translations.) It found a place in the various Polyglots, and has been highly valued as a faithful record of the Greek text. It is commonly called the Peshito, 'or Simple.'
8.2. THE CURETONIAN SYRIAC. This takes its name from Dr. Wm. Cureton, who observed, bound up with other Syriac MSS in the British Museum, some leaves containing a large part of the four Gospels in a recension different from the Peshito. Its early date is undoubted, and it is highly valued. It has been published with an English translation.
8.3. THE PHILOXENIAN SYRIAC. This embraces the whole New Testament except the Revelation. It was professedly made by Polycarp, 'Rural-bishop,' about A.D. 508, for Xenaias of Mabug, who is also called Philoxenus (whence the name of the version) in 616. It having been revised and modified by one called Thomas of Harkel, very little of the original translation is left, except in one copy at Rome uncollated. Still the translation from the Greek is so literal that it leaves no doubt as to what the Greek copy contained. It is also called the HARKLEIAN from Thomas of Harkel.
8.4. THE PALESTINIAN or JERUSALEM SYRIAC consisting of fragments; and
8.5. THE KARKAPHLENSIAN SYRIAC,being of much later date, do not need to be referred to here.
All these versions, as they became available, were consulted by the various Editors of the Greek New Testament: some Editors attaching more importance to certain of them than was done by others.
Some of the versions included the Old Testament or portions of it.
All these various translations into different languages are a marked contrast to the policy of Rome with regard to the scriptures. The Dark Ages followed, especially where Rome had its sway, and light and learning diminished. God's set time however arrived: the darkness and ignorance were deplored, and one here and there was empowered by God to seek to spread the light of the holy scriptures among those professing Christianity, and more modern versions of the word of God were gradually made and printed, being hailed with delight by all who wished to know what God Himself had revealed as the only way of salvation, and to know His will concerning themselves.
From that time, translations have rapidly increased: missionaries all over the world have no sooner obtained a footing and learnt the language, than they have constructed a grammar, and proceeded to translate portions of scripture for those whose salvation they seek. "The word of God is not bound." 2 Timothy 2:9 .
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Egyptian Versions
EGYPTIAN VERSIONS . See Text of NT, §§ 27 29 .
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Lat'in Versions
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Sentence search

Versions - Versions . See English Versions, Greek Versions of OT, Text of NT, Text Versions and Languages of OT, Vulgate, etc
Prince of Life - The word translated as “prince” (Acts 3:15 ; Acts 5:31 , “author” and “leader” respectively in some modern Versions) is also translated as “captain” (Hebrews 2:10 ; “pioneer” or “author” in some modern Versions) and “author” (Hebrews 12:2 ; “pioneer” in modern Versions)
Bishop's Bible - See English Versions
Aquila's Version - See Greek Versions
Authorized Version - See English Versions
Revised Version - See English Versions, 35
Rheims Version - See English Versions, 29
Taverner's Bible - See English Versions, § 21
Tindale's Version - See English Versions, 12ff
Matthew's Bible - See English Versions, § 20
Geneva Bible - See English Versions, § 26
Great Bible - See English Versions, § 22
Septuagint - See Greek Versions of OT, § 1
Pentateuch, Samaritan - See Samaritan Pentateuch ; Bible, Text and Versions
Bohairic Versions - BOHAIRIC Versions
Symmachus' Version - Versions of OT, 18...
Old Latin Versions - OLD LATIN Versions
Egyptian Versions - EGYPTIAN Versions
Hebrew - See Eber; Text Versions and Languages of OT
Theodotion - See Greek Versions of OT, p
Latin Versions - LATIN Versions
Language of ot And Apocrypha - See Text Versions and Languages of OT
Sahidic Version - See Greek Versions of OT, 11 ( b ), and Text of NT, § 27
Vulgate - See Bible, Texts and Versions
Quirinius - Modern Versions prefer the Latin spelling
Chambering - KJV translation of a Greek word in Romans 13:13 rendered as “debauchery” or “sexual promiscuity” in modern Versions
Steel - KJV translation of a word that most modern Versions translate “bronze” (2 Samuel 22:35 )
Laity, Bible Reading by - In consequence, we find that any restrictions which the Church has placed on the reading of the Bible were aimed at the use of heretical or corrupt Versions, or Versions without proper notes or authorization, and not against the reading of the Bible itself. The Albigenses and Waldenees who appealed to unauthorized and, at times, corrupt Versions in their disputes with Catholics, gave occasion for the first restrictive decrees. The Protestant reformers, who were keenly alive to the advantagee of the printing-prees, used it to multiply their heretical Versions, while Catholics produced numerous translations in the vernacular. This multiplication of Versions by men who lacked qualifications essential for the work, and who acknowledged no proper supervision, made for the corruption of the Sacred Text, so that the Council of Trent (1546-1563) was compelled to take action. The Council strictly prohibited the reading of all heretical Latin Versions, unless grave reasons necessitated their use. Two centuries later, however, it modified the severity of this legislation by granting permission for the use of all Versions translated by learned Catholic men, provided they contained annotations derived from the Fathers, and had the approval of the Holy See. This decree states that all vernacular Versions, even those prepared by Catholic authors, are prohibited if they are not, on the one hand, approved by the Apostolic See, or, on the other hand, supplied with proper annotations and accompanied by episcopal approbation
Bible Reading by Laity - In consequence, we find that any restrictions which the Church has placed on the reading of the Bible were aimed at the use of heretical or corrupt Versions, or Versions without proper notes or authorization, and not against the reading of the Bible itself. The Albigenses and Waldenees who appealed to unauthorized and, at times, corrupt Versions in their disputes with Catholics, gave occasion for the first restrictive decrees. The Protestant reformers, who were keenly alive to the advantagee of the printing-prees, used it to multiply their heretical Versions, while Catholics produced numerous translations in the vernacular. This multiplication of Versions by men who lacked qualifications essential for the work, and who acknowledged no proper supervision, made for the corruption of the Sacred Text, so that the Council of Trent (1546-1563) was compelled to take action. The Council strictly prohibited the reading of all heretical Latin Versions, unless grave reasons necessitated their use. Two centuries later, however, it modified the severity of this legislation by granting permission for the use of all Versions translated by learned Catholic men, provided they contained annotations derived from the Fathers, and had the approval of the Holy See. This decree states that all vernacular Versions, even those prepared by Catholic authors, are prohibited if they are not, on the one hand, approved by the Apostolic See, or, on the other hand, supplied with proper annotations and accompanied by episcopal approbation
Hemorrhoids - Modern Versions are divided in their understanding of the term in Deuteronomy. Modern Versions agree that the affliction of 1Samuel was tumors, probably associated with bubonic plague
Suph - , "some ancient Versions have the Red Sea," as in the A. It is most probable, however, that, in accordance with the ancient Versions, this word is to be regarded as simply an abbreviation of Yam-suph, i
Hexapla - This "six-fold" Bible, comprising about 50 large volumes, is arranged in six parallel columns which contain the Hebrew text in Hebrew (square) and Greek characters, the Septuagint, and three other Greek Versions. Origen's purpose, as regards the Septuagint, was to show its relation to the Hebrew text and the other Greek Versions
Matthew's Bible - The Thomas Matthew Bible was a revision of Tyndale's and Coverdale's Versions likely prepared by John Rogers in 1537 in Antwerp
Tetrapla - ) A Bible consisting of four different Greek Versions arranged in four columns by Origen; hence, any version in four languages or four columns
Assayer - According to modern Versions of Jeremiah 6:27 , the calling of Jeremiah was to be an assayer of the people. Modern Versions, however, seem to make the best sense of the Hebrew text (see the entire context; Jeremiah 6:27-30 )
Uphaz - Jeremiah 10:9 ; Daniel 10:5 ; supposed according to some ancient Versions to be the same as OPHIR,q
Silla - and other Versions), the locality is unknown
Crisping Pin - Modern Versions translate the word “handbag,” or “flounced skirt” (REB)
Chamois - Translated as “mountain-sheep” in modern Versions (Deuteronomy 14:5 )
Camphire - Most modern Versions read “henna
Octapla - ) A portion of the Old Testament prepared by Origen in the 3d century, containing the Hebrew text and seven Greek Versions of it, arranged in eight parallel columns
Hexapla - ) A collection of the Holy Scriptures in six languages or six Versions in parallel columns; particularly, the edition of the Old Testament published by Origen, in the 3d century
Jechiliah - Other English translations follow early scribal note, Versions, 2 Kings 15:2 , reading Jecoliah
Diphath - KJV, NIV follow other Hebrew manuscripts and Versions and Genesis 10:3 in reading Riphath
Barrel - Modern Versions translate the same word as “jar
Shamed - ” Many commentators follow early manuscripts and Versions in reading, “Shemer
Balsam - Baka' is translated as balsam trees in the modern Versions ( 2 Samuel 5:23-24 ; 1 Chronicles 14:14-15 ; NAS, NIV, NRSV, and TEV). Balsam is also a translation of basam in the NAS, where other Versions have “spice” and “spices” (Song of Song of Solomon 5:1 ,Song of Song of Solomon 5:13 ; Song of Song of Solomon 6:2 )
Jehovah-Shalom - Modern Versions translate the name, while KJV transliterated it
Terrace - Most modern translations follow the earliest Greek and Latin Versions in reading, “steps” (NAS, NIV, RSV) or “stairs” (TEV)
Shachia - Many manuscripts and early Versions read, “Shabia
Villages - and the Vulgate Versions, render the word "rulers
Masora - See Bible, Text and Versions ...
...
Suburbs - Other Versions translate, “open land” (NRSV); “pastureland” (NIV); and “pasture fields” (NAS)
Ed - , and also of the Syriac and Arabic Versions, but not existing in the generally-received Hebrew text
Lxx - See Septuagint ; Bible, Texts and Versions
Ammi-Nadib - Most modern Versions express uncertainty about the translation of this verse. Some Versions (NIV, REB, TEV) take the verse as spoken by the young man
Box-Tree - What tree is referred to under the name teashshur is not known: the ancient Versions translate it 'cedar, fir, poplar,' etc
Apothecary - (uh pahth' eh cehr ih) KJV translation of a word translated as perfumer in modern Versions (Exodus 30:25 ,Exodus 30:25,30:35 ; Exodus 37:29 ; 2 Chronicles 16:14 ; Nehemiah 3:8 ; Ecclesiastes 10:1 )
Crescents - Translation used in some modern Versions for the ornamental jewelry in the shape of the crescent moon worn on necklaces
Septuagint - See Apocrypha ; Bible, Texts and Versions
Zizith - The Hebrew for this word is translated in both the Authorized and Revised Versions (Deut
Easter - (Acts 12:4 ) In the earlier English Versions Easter has been frequently used as the translation of pascha ( passover )
Jehovah-Nissi - Modern Versions translate the name instead of following KJV in transliterating it
Leasing - This word is retained in the Authorized Version of ( Psalm 4:2 ; 5:6 ) from the older English Versions; but the Hebrew word of which it is the rendering is elsewhere almost uniformly translated "lies
Hexapla - A Bible disposed in six columns, containing the text and divers Versions thereof, compiled and published by Origen, with a view of securing the sacred text from future corruptions, and to correct those that had been already introduced. Eusebius relates, that Origen, after his return from Rome under Caracalla, applied himself to learn Hebrew, and began to collect the several Versions that had been made of the sacred writings, and of these to compose his Tetrapla and Hexapla; others, however, will not allow him to have begun till the time of Alexander, after he had retired into Palestine, about the year 231. The first of those Versions, or (reckoning the Septuagint) the second, was that of Aquilla, a proselyte Jew, the first edition of which he published in the 12th year of the emperor Adrian, or about the year of Christ 128; the third was that of Symmachus, published, as is commonly supposed, under Marcus Aurelius, but, as some say, under Septinius Severus, about the year 200; the fourth was that of Theodotion, prior to that of Symmachus, under Commodus, or about the year 175. ...
These Greek Versions, says Dr. Now, Origen, who had held frequent disputations with the Jews in Egypt and Palestine, observing that they always objected to those passages of Scripture quoted against them, appealed to the Hebrew text, the better to vindicate those passages, and confound the Jews, by showing that the Seventy had given the sense of the Hebrew; or rather to show, by a number of different Versions, what the real sense of the Hebrew was, undertook to reduce all these several Versions into a body, along with the Hebrew text, so as they might be easily confronted, and afford a mutual light to each other. ...
He made the Hebrew text his standard: and allowing that corruptions might have happened, and that the old Hebrew copies might and did read differently, he contented himself with marking such words or sentences as were not in his Hebrew text, nor the latter Greek Versions, and adding such words or sentences as were omitted in the Seventy, prefixing an asterisk to the additions, and an obelisk to the others. In order to this, he made choice of eight columns; in the first he made the Hebrew text, in Hebrew characters; in the second, the same text in Greek characters; the rest were filled with the several Versions above-mentioned; all the columns answering verse for verse, and phrase for phrase; and in the Psalms there was a ninth column for the seventh version. sextuple, or work of six columns, as only regarding the first six Greek Versions
Cuckow - Modern Versions read “sea gull
Swift - Other Versions translate “swallow” (KJV, NRSV)
Easter - ]'>[1] was inherited from older VSS Versions, Ancient, of the Old And New Testaments, - In treating of the ancient Versions that have come down to us, in whole or in part, they will be described in the alphabetical order of the languages. ARABIC Versions. --
Arabic Versions of the Old Testament were made from the Hebrew (tenth century), from the Syriac and from the LXX ...
Arabic Versions of the New Testament . There are four Versions. CHALDEE Versions. -- Targum , a Chaldee word of uncertain origin, is the general term for the Chaldee, or more accurately Aramaic, Versions of the Old Testament. EGYPTIAN Versions. GREEK Versions OF THE OLD TESTAMENT. --It is a remarkable fact that in the second century there were three Versions executed of the Old Testament Scriptures into Greek. LATIN Versions. --[2] SAMARITAN Versions. SYRIAC Versions. , and with the references to the other Greek Versions. ...
The Syriac New Testament Versions
Peshitta - See Bible, Text and Versions
Sarid - Spelled Sedud by some early Versions, Sarid is probably modern tell Shadud at the northern edge of the Jezreel Valley about six miles northeast of Megiddo and five miles southeast of Nazareth
Wink - ’ It is a good example of the colloquial language of the English Versions
ed - ' The word 'Ed' is in some Hebrew MSS, and in the Syriac and Arabic Versions, but not in the LXX
Ash - Modern Versions differ
Ditch - 1: βόθυνος (Strong's #999 — Noun Masculine — bothunos — both'-oo-nos ) any kind of "deep hole or pit" (probably connected with bathos, "deep"), is translated "ditch" in the AV of Matthew 15:14 ; Luke 6:39 , RV, "pit" in each place, as in both Versions of Matthew 12:11
Sebam - Early Versions agree with Numbers 32:38 in reading, “Sibmah,” which the tribes rebuilt
Manuscript - See Bible, Text and Versions; Paper; Papyrus ; Writing
Dodanim - Versions and the parallel passage 1 Chronicles 1:7 read Rodanim , i
Hexapla - formed of εξ , six, and απλοω , I open, or unfold, a Bible disposed in six columns, containing the text, and divers Versions of it, compiled and published by Origen, with a view of securing the sacred text from future corruptions, and to correct those that had been already introduced. Eusebius relates that Origen after his return from Rome under Caracalla, applied himself to learn Hebrew, and began to collect the several Versions that had been made of the sacred writings, and of these to compose his Tetrapla, and Hexapla: others, however, will not allow him to have begun till the time of Alexander, after he had retired into Palestine, about the year 231. The first of those Versions, or, reckoning the Septuagint, the second, was that of Aquila, a proselyte Jew, the first edition of which he published in the twelfth year of the Emperor Adrian, or about A. 128; the third was that of Symmachus, published as is commonly supposed, under Marcus Aurelius, but, as some say, under Septimius Severus, about the year 200; the fourth was that of Theodotion, prior to that of Symmachus, under Commodus, or about the year 175: these Greek Versions, says Dr. Now, Origen, who had held frequent disputations with the Jews in Egypt and Palestine, observing that they always objected against those passages of Scripture quoted against them, and appealed to the Hebrew text, the better to vindicate those passages and confound the Jews, by showing that the LXX had given the sense of the Hebrew, or rather, to show, by a number of different Versions, what the real sense of the Hebrew was, undertook to reduce all these several Versions into a body, along with the Hebrew text, so as they might be easily confronted, and afford a mutual light to each other. He made the Hebrew text his standard; and, allowing that corruptions might have happened, and that the old Hebrew copies might and did read differently, he contented himself with marking such words or sentences as were not in his Hebrew text, nor the later Greek Versions, and to add such words or sentences as were omitted in the LXX, prefixing an asterisk to the additions, and an obelisk to the others. In order to this he made choice of eight columns: in the first he gave the Hebrew text in Hebrew characters; in the second, the same text in Greek characters: the rest were filled with the several Versions above mentioned; all the columns answering verse for verse, and phrase for phrase; and in the Psalms there was a ninth column for the seventh version. This work Origen called Εξαπλα , Hexapla, that is, sextuple, or a work of six columns, as only regarding the first six Greek Versions
Puvah - (pyoo' vuh) Personal name spelled differently in Hebrew text and in various manuscripts and Versions; thus rendered differently by translators
Uphaz - Uphaz is possibly a copyist's change for Ophir at Jeremiah 10:9 as indicated by early Versions
Amber - Most likely the substance called "amber" in our Versions is not that which is now known by that name
Polyglot - ) A book containing several Versions of the same text, or containing the same subject matter in several languages; esp
Court of the Prison - Translated in the modern Versions as “court of the guard
Sarsechim - ]'>[1] official ( Jeremiah 39:3 ), but the Versions Nabousachar, Nabousarach, Sarsacheim suggest that the text was early corrupt
He - In some English Versions he appears as a superscript to 1 Chronicles 4:33-40 of Psalm 119:1 each of which begin with this letter
Bibles, Rhymed - Among English rhymed Versions, mostly of the Psalms, are those of Thomas Brampton (1414), Sir Philip Sydney (1580), and Lord Bacon (1600)
Ensample - Versions until the Rhemish appeared
Lasciviousness - This is the translation in the VSS Rhymed Bibles - Among English rhymed Versions, mostly of the Psalms, are those of Thomas Brampton (1414), Sir Philip Sydney (1580), and Lord Bacon (1600)
Ash - and Vulgate Versions
Jaar - ” Modern Versions' transliteration of Hebrew in Psalm 132:6 (TEV reads, Jearim, a plural form
Melzar - The KJV follows some early Versions (Theodotian, Lucian, the Syriac, the Vulgate) in taking Melzar as a proper name
Vashni - ” Modern translations and commentators follow 1 Samuel 8:2 and manuscripts of early Versions, taking Vashni as a copyist's change from the similar Hebrew word for “the second” and inserting Joel
Straw - to be prepared as straw chopped small; so the old Versions and Targum Onkelos
Gob - Versions have Gath
Alamoth - The meaning of the word is unknown, and this ignorance is confirmed by the efforts to translate the word in the Versions
Anise - No other Versions have fallen into the mistake
Consumption - The KJV uses consumption in Isaiah 10:22 ; Isaiah 28:22 where modern Versions translate “destruction
Night-Hawk - The Hebrew word is derived from a root meaning "to scratch or tear the face," and may be best rendered, in accordance with the ancient Versions, "an owl" (Strix flammea)
Greyhound - and Vulgate Versions render it "cock
Gopher - " Other Versions have rendered it "pine" and "cedar;" but the weight of authority is in favour of understanding by it the cypress tree, which grows abundantly in Chaldea and Armenia
Bishlam - It will be seen that in the margin instead of Bishlam is read 'in peace,' and this is the reading in the LXX, Arabic, and Syriac Versions
English in English Bibles, the - Sheahan, in which the words of the first 14 chapters of the Gospel of Saint Matthew are given in three different Versions: the Catholic "Rhemes" of 1582 (commonly called the Douay); the Protestant "Authorized," of 1611; and the Protestant "Revised," of 1881. The three Versions are interlined with each other, which shows the variations at a glance
Shaalbim - ” Spelled and interpreted differently in different texts and early Greek Versions
Old Latin Version - Usually at least three groups of Latin texts, which may represent independent Versions, are distinguished: African, European, and Italian (Vetus Itala, old Italian)
Thaddaeus - (In some Versions he is called the brother of James and given an alternative name, Lebbaeus
Paradise - Originally the word translated ‘paradise’ in English Versions of the Bible meant ‘a garden’
Mizraim - Called in English Versions Egypt
Bowels - Translation used in modern Versions to refer to intestines and other entrails (Acts 1:18 )
Bewitch - “Bewitch” is also used as a translation of another word (existemi) that modern Versions translate as “amazed,” “astonish,” or “astound” (Acts 8:9 ,Acts 8:9,8:11 )
Samaritan Pentateuch - See Bible, Texts and Versions ; Samaria
Abel the Great - " The Septuagint and the Chaldee Versions so read; but "Abel" is probably right, and refers to the mourning caused by the destruction of so many Bethshemites for looking into the ark
Mandrakes - According to most of the ancient Versions, it was the Atropa Mandragora of Linnaeus, a plant of the genus Belladonna, with a root like a beet, white and reddish blossoms, and fragrant yellow apples, which ripen from May to July
Version - , "versions" or "translations", have come down to us. The Greek Versions. The origin of this the most important of all the Versions is involved in much obscurity. The Syriac Versions. The Latin Versions. All modern European Versions have been more or less influenced by the Vulgate. There are several other ancient Versions which are of importance for Biblical critics, but which we need not mention particularly, such as the Ethiopic, in the fourth century, from the LXX. ; two Egyptian Versions, about the fourth century, the Memphitic, circulated in Lower Egypt, and the Thebaic, designed for Upper Egypt, both from the Greek; the Gothic, written in the German language, but with the Greek alphabet, by Ulphilas (died A. Other ancient Versions, as the Arabic, the Persian, and the Anglo-Saxon, may be mentioned. The history of the English Versions begins properly with Wyckliffe. " Next in order was the Geneva version (1557-1560); the Bishops' Bible (1568); the Rheims and Douai Versions, under Roman Catholic auspices (1582,1609); the Authorized Version (1611); and the Revised Version of the New Testament in 1880 and of the Old Testament in 1884
Magdala - In the chief manuscripts and Versions the name is given as "Magadan
College - ]'>[2] correctly renders ‘second quarter,’ a quarter of the city lying to the north ( Zephaniah 1:10 ), and possibly referred to in Nehemiah 11:9 , where our Versions have ‘second over the city
Outrun - Versions, Job 41:22
Orion - The Hebrew chesil signifies, according to the best interpreters and the ancient Versions, the constellation Orion, which, on account of its supposed connection with storms and tempests, Virgil calls "nimbosus Orion," stormy Orion
Tares -
Hence the rendering in both Douay and Authorized Versions is inaccurate
Eschew - Versions of the Bible ‘eschew’ is common
Kesitah - No clue has yet been found to the weight, and therefore the value, of the kesitah ; but that it was an ingot of precious metal of a recognized value is more probable than the tradition represented by several ancient Versions, which render it by ‘ lamb
Cleophas - It was adopted by the early English Versions (Wyclifite, Tindale), and passed into the Authorized Version of 1611
Chapter - In the early Latin and Greek Versions of the Bible, similar divisions of the several books were made. This division into chapters came gradually to be adopted in the published editions of the Hebrew, with some few variations, and of the Greek Scriptures, and hence of other Versions
Demon - ...
 ...
In the New Testament the word is synonymous with the evil spirit, and in English Versions of the Bible is rendered "devil" and consequently designates a maleficent being, a meaning not necessarily implied in the original yord "demon
Blasting - Reference to the hot east winds which blow across Palestine for days at a time (Deuteronomy 28:22 KJV and RSV; other Versions read “blight”)
Kore - The name should be Korah (see modern Versions)
Mote - The word chosen by Wyclif and Tindale, and accepted by all the subsequent Versions as the tr
Dance of Death - In engraving the most famous Versions are those of Holbein and Dürer
Death, Dance of - In engraving the most famous Versions are those of Holbein and Dürer
Bay - The earliest translators had trouble with the word as do modern Versions
Sport - The Versions do not agree on how to translate this word
Haughty - 1: ὑπερήφανος (Strong's #5244 — Adjective — huperephanos — hoop-er-ay'-fan-os ) "showing oneself above others" (huper, "over," phainomai, "to appear"), though often denoting preeminent, is always used in the NT in the evil sense of "arrogant, disdainful, haughty;" it is rendered "haughty" in Romans 1:30 ; 2 Timothy 3:2 , RV, AV, "proud," but "proud" in both Versions in Luke 1:51 ; James 4:6 ; 1 Peter 5:5 ; in the last two it is set in opposition to tapeinos, "humble, lowly
Easter - In the early English Versions this word was frequently used as the translation of the Greek pascha (the Passover)
Jerahmeel - Son of Hammelech (Hebrew, “the king” and so translated by modern Versions), who was one of a group whom King Jehoiakim sent to arrest Baruch and Jeremiah (Jeremiah 36:26 ); but the Lord showed He has more power than human rulers by hiding His faithful servants from the king
Ashurites - , and Vulgate Versions have it the Geshurites S
Dwarf - The early Greek and Latin Versions understood the word to mean a type of eye disorder (compare REB)
Bottle - Modern Versions often translate these words as “skin” or “wineskin
Dodanim - (Genesis 10:4) DODANIM or RODANIM (1 Chronicles 1:7); since the Hebrew letter Daleth ( ד ) and the Hebrew letter Resh ( ר ), closely resemble One another in Hebrew, Septuagint and Samaritan Versions translate "the inhabitants of Rhodes," the large island in the E
Fan - ]'>[1] and Versions) are the ‘winnowers,’ as Amer
Asiarchs - Note that some Versions transliterate Asiarchs from Greek while others translate it to chiefs or officials
Arcturus - The word ash or aish has always been a difficult one to translate, the Versions differing much; but it is now pretty well agreed that the allusion is not to the star known as Arcturus, but to the constellationknown as the Great Bear; 'his sons' are supposed to be the stars in the tail of the bear
Hallow - Versions have ‘hallowed’ in these verses except the Rhemish (Rom
Collyridians - The name Collyris (or kindred forms) is to be found in the LXX translation of Lev_7:12; Lev_8:26; 2Sa_6:19 and the word passed thence into the Latin Versions
Duke - of earlier Versions, in which (after Vulg
Rose - The "rose of Sharon," sacredly associated with the heavenly Bridegroom, Song of Song of Solomon 2:1 Isaiah 35:1 , appears from the derivation of its Hebrew name to have been a bulbous plant; and is generally believed, in accordance with the ancient Versions, to denote a plant of the narcissus family, perhaps the meadow-saffron, which grows in rich profusion on the plain of Sharon
Polyglot - For the more commodious comparison of different Versions of the Scriptures, they have been sometimes joined together, and called Polyglot Bibles. Origen arranged in different columns a Hebrew copy, both in Hebrew and Greek characters, with six different Greek Versions
Lindisfarne Gospels - Many Lindisfarne words; although not often in the same order or spelling, are found in our Versions, e,g
Floretti - There are several well-known English Versions
Little Flowers of Saint Francis - There are several well-known English Versions
Gourd, Wild, - The ancient Versions support this
Topaz - This would account for the ancient Versions calling it 'topaz,' but the gem is supposed to agree with our chrysolite
Saint Francis, Little Flowers of - There are several well-known English Versions
Badger Skins - The ancient Versions seem nearly all agreed that it denotes not an animal but a color, either black or sky-blue
Ordinances - —In the English Versions of the Gospels this word occurs only once, Luke 1:6, where the parents of John the Baptist are described as ‘walking in all the commandments (ἐντολαῖς) and ordinances (δικαιώμασι) of the Lord blameless
Text, Versions, And Languages of ot - TEXT, Versions, AND LANGUAGES OF OT...
1 . , and written under, over, or in the consonants of the ancient text; (2) the Greek Versions, which transliterate a large number of Hebrew words, especially, but by no means only, the proper names; (3) the Assyrian texts: these, being written in a language which expressed in writing vowel sounds as well as consonantal, give us the vowels of such Hebrew names as they cite. Quotations play a much less immediate and conspicuous part in the criticism of the OT than in the criticism of the NT; and here we may confine our attention to the nature of the evidence for the text of the OT furnished by (1) Hebrew MSS, (2) ancient Versions. they make no use whatever of the Versions or of any other evidence than the Massoretic tradition. (2) Versions: Earliest MSS . The evidence of Versions is of exceptional importance in the case of the OT. In the first place, the actual MSS of the Versions are much older than the earliest Hebrew MSS; the earliest Hebrew MSS date from the 10th cent. But secondly, and of even greater importance, the Versions, and especially the LXX
The Versions of the OT are either primary, i. Secondary Versions are of immediate importance in establishing the true text of the primary version from which they are made; and only indirectly witness to the Hebrew text. On this and other Versions of the LXX [7] , see Greek Versions of OT, § 11 . Brief account of the Primary Versions . The Primary Versions of the OT, arranged in (approximately) chronological order, are as follows: ...
(1) The earliest Greek Version , commonly known as the Septuagint . Versions of OT. These Aramaic Versions may be considered next, inasmuch as they rest on a tradition earlier than the date of the Versions yet to be mentioned; it is probable, however, that no Targum was actually committed to writing till some centuries later, after the later Greek Versions, perhaps, too, after the Syriac Version, had been made. The earliest (as is most generally believed) and least paraphrastic of these Versions is the Targum of Onkelos on the Pentateuch; it does not appear to have been committed to writing before the 5th cent. ...
(3), (4), and (5) The Greek Versions (which have survived in fragments only) of Aquila, Theodotion, and Symmachus, all of the 2nd cent. See Greek Versions of OT, §§ 15 18 . ]'>[7] and Versions derived from it and the Hebrew text then current became obvious. The Vulgate is derived from this direct translation of Jerome’s from the Hebrew in the case of all the canonical books of the OT except the Psalms; the Psalms appear commonly in editions of the Vulgate in the form of the so-called Gallican Psalter; this was a second version of the Old Latin, in which, however, after the manner of Origen’s Hexaplaric text, the translation was brought nearer to the current Hebrew text by including matter contained in the later Greek Versions but absent from the LXX [7] which was absent from the later Versions. Two groups of Versions. Judged from the standpoint of their importance for recovering the original text of the OT, and for the kind of service which they render to OT textual criticism, the primary Versions fall into two groups: (1) the LXX [7] differs, and often differs widely, from the Massoretic text; the remaining Versions closely agree with it: the LXX [7] dates from before the Christian era and, what is more significant, from before the rise of the Massoretic schools; the remaining Versions date from after the Christian era, and, with the possible exception of the Syriac, from after the close of 1st cent. The agreement of these Versions made direct from the Hebrew text at various dates subsequent to 100 b. Such variations as do occur in these Versions from the Hebrew consist largely (though not exclusively) of variations in the Interpretation of the consonants, i. These variations therefore do not, strictly speaking, represent variants in the text of the OT, but merely in the commentary on that text, which at the time the Versions were made was still oral, and only later was committed to writing in the form of vowels attached to the consonants, of which alone the Scripture proper consisted. ...
A fuller discussion of the Versions of the OT other than the LXX [7] has been made (see Greek Versions of
Ordain - It is not present at all in most modern Versions
Holy Grail, the - These romances may be styled "Quest Versions" when concerned with the quest of the Grail; and "Early History Versions," when tracing the history of the vessel, itself. The most famous modern Versions are Tennyson's "Holy Grail" in the "Idylls of the King" (1869), and Wagner's "Parsifal" (1882)
Kings, Books of - " Protestant Versions follow the Hebrew, but divide each book into two, as do Jewish Bibles since the 16th century (Bomberg editions). " Thus, the nomenclature is as follows: Original Hebrew Vulgate and Douay: Samuel 1,2Kings Kings 3,4Kings Septuagint Protestant Versions Kingdoms A and B 1,2Samuel Kingdoms C and D 1,2Kings "Kings" are the rulers of the united and divided Hebrew kingdom (c
Brier - But the KJV is supported by the old Versions; prickly plants such as grow on strong ground
Freedmen, Synagogue of the - Some early Versions have Libyans in place of “libertines,” giving three groups of North African Jews
Jaare-Oregim - The ancient Versions agree with the present Hebrew text, which shows the error is of very ancient date
Gregorian Sacramentary - The book was copied many times so that there are many Versions of it, each containing the additions made by the various scribes
Sacramentary, Gregorian - The book was copied many times so that there are many Versions of it, each containing the additions made by the various scribes
Boy - ’ Similar is the use in Luke 8:51-54, where ἡ παῖς is ‘maiden’ and ‘maid’ in Authorized and Revised Versions. ...
Except where the context requires a different rendering, παῖς is usually translated ‘servant’ in both Versions, and Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 often points out occurrences of δοῦλος by putting ‘or bond-servant’ in the margin. ...
In John 4:51 both Versions have ‘son’ (= παῖς) where Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 had far better have put ‘boy’ as in the above instance, keeping ‘son’ strictly for υἱός
Music (2) - It is in the OT that the various national instruments appear, of which the following are the principal types:—(1) Stringed: lyre (Authorized and Revised Versions ‘harp’), harp (Authorized and Revised Versions variously ‘psaltery,’ ‘viol,’ ‘lute’); (2) wind: pipe, of wood; curved trumpet, of horn or (in later times) of metal; straight trumpet, of silver; (3) percussion: hand-drum (Authorized and Revised Versions ‘tabret,’ ‘timbrel’) of skin; cymbals (Authorized and Revised Versions once [1] ‘bells’) of brass, used, especially the precentor as it appears from 1 Chronicles 16:5, no doubt for rhythmical purposes
Husk - ” Other modern translations follow other ancient Versions in omitting the term
Jot And Tittle - ]'>[1] kerea ) were translated by Tindale ‘iott’ and ‘tytle,’ and these forms were retained in all the Versions
Yarn, Linen - Versions treat it as a proper name
Abdon - instead of Hebron, though most of the ancient Versions favour Hebron
Leeks - ; it would thus be applied somewhat in the same manner as we use the term "greens;" yet as the chatsir is mentioned together with onions and garlic in the text, and as the most ancient Versions unanimously understand leeks by the Hebrew word, we may be satisfied with our own translation
Aim - , "to be fond of honor" (phileo, "to love," time, "honor"), and so, actuated by this motive, "to strive to bring something to pass;" hence, "to be ambitious, to make it one's aim," Romans 15:20 , of Paul's "aim" in Gospel pioneering, RV (AV, "strive"); 2 Corinthians 5:9 , of the "aim" of believers "to be well-pleasing" unto the Lord, RV (AV, "labor"); in 1 Thessalonians 4:11 , of the "aim" of believers to be quiet, do their own business and work with their own hands; both Versions translate it "study
Jeremias, Lamentations of - The Hebrew Bible places the book among the Kethubim or Hagiographa; all other Versions connect it with Jeremias
Lamentations of Jeremias - The Hebrew Bible places the book among the Kethubim or Hagiographa; all other Versions connect it with Jeremias
Bible in Public Schools - It is opposed by non-Christian parents as proselytism for the Christian religion; by Jews, as only Christian Versions are used; and by Catholics because the version used is in nearly every instance the Protestant version and the principle involved is that the Bible is the sole rule of faith
Frost - It is rendered by Gesenius, the Hebrew lexicographer, "ant," and so also by others, but the usual interpretation derived from the ancient Versions may be maintained
Garrison - Modern Versions simply note the city was guarded
Esther, the Book of - Has always been esteemed canonical, both by Jews and Christians, though certain additions to it, found in some Versions and manuscripts, are apocryphal
Already - ...
(2) Proamartano, "to sin before, or heretofore," is translated "have sinned already" in 2 Corinthians 12:21 , AV; both Versions have "heretofore" in 2 Corinthians 13:2
Kindness - ...
In older Versions of the English Bible, kindness is one of the words used to denote God’s covenant love for Israel (Micah 6:8; see LOVE, sub-heading ‘Steadfast love’)
Jot - Wyclif’s translation and paraphrase (‘oon i, that is lest lettre’) was not adopted by any of the subsequent English Versions. The German authorized version is still Luther’s paraphrase: ‘der kleinste Buchstabe’ for which Weizsäcker prefers the transliteration: ‘ein Jota,’ while the French Versions also transliterate: ‘un (seul) iota
Brass - —Wherever we find the word ‘brass’ in the Authorized and Revised Versions, we may be reasonably certain that copper or bronze is intended. The word χαλκία in Mark 7:4 (found here only in the NT), Authorized Version and Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ‘brasen vessels,’ may be translation ‘copper vessels,’ and is actually so rendered in the German and Dutch Versions
Nettle - qimmosh, Isaiah 34:13 ; Hosea 9:6 ; Proverbs 24:31 (in both Versions, "thorns")
Ossifrage - Schindler, and the Zurick Versions
Septuagint - The Old Latin, Coptic, Ethiopic, and other Versions are based on the Septuagint
Pillar - Versions seems preferable; (b) figuratively in Revelation 3:12 , indicating a firm and permanent position in the spiritual, heavenly and eternal Temple of God; (c) illustratively, of the feet of the angel in the vision in Revelation 10:1 , seen as flames rising like columns of fire indicative of holiness and consuming power, and thus reflecting the glory of Christ as depicted in Revelation 1:15 ; cp
Arch - Other Versions translate the word as porch (NAS), portico and galleries (NIV), vestibule and walls (RSV), and entrance room and galleries (TEV)
Householder - A — 1: οἰκοδεσπότης (Strong's #3617 — Noun Masculine — oikodespotes — oy-kod-es-pot'-ace ) "a master of a house" (oikos, "a house," despotes, "a master"), is rendered "master of the house" in Matthew 10:25 ; Luke 13:25 ; 14:21 , where the context shows that the authority of the "householder" is stressed; in Matthew 24:43 ; Luke 12:39 , the RV "master of the house" (AV, "goodman of the house," does not give the exact meaning); "householder" is the rendering in both Versions in Matthew 13:27,52 ; 20:1 ; 21:33 ; so the RV in Matthew 20:11 (for AV, "goodman of the house"); both have "goodman of the house" in Mark 14:14 ; in Luke 22:11 , "goodman
Wormwood - In the Septuagint the original word is variously rendered, and generally by terms expressive of its figurative sense, for what is offensive, odious, or deleterious; but in the Syriac and Arabic Versions, and in the Latin Vulgate, it is rendered "wormwood;" and this is adopted by Celsius, who names it the absinthium santonicum Judaicum, Septuagint - It was the parent of the first Latin, the Coptic, and many other Versions, and was so much quoted and followed by the Greek and Roman fathers as practically to supersede the original Hebrew, until the last few centuries
Mag'Dala - and Versions exhibit the name as MAGADAN , as in the Revised Version
Bible, the English - 1525, is regarded asthe foundation or primary version, as the Versions that followedwere substantially reproductions of it
Doctor (2) - —The English Versions have been very inconsistent in the translation of διδάσκαλος, νομοδιδάσκαλος, ῥαββεί, νομικός. ...
The chief English Versions translate the word διδάσκαλος in Luke 2:46 as follows: Wyclif, doctours; Tindale, doctours; Cranmer, doctours; Geneva, doctours; Rheims, doctors; Authorized Version, doctors; Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885, doctors; Noyes, teachers; Bible Union Revision, teachers; American Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885, teachers; Twentieth Century NT, Teachers
Bag - Ancient Versions of Jn. In favour of Authorized and Revised Versions it may be urged that something small and easily carried is required by the context, whereas the above instances are chiefly larger boxes (but note use of γλ. אַרְנָּן (Authorized and Revised Versions ‘coffer’) is translation γλωσσὁκομον by Josephus, and is from a root ‘to tremble, wag, move to and fro,’ whence in Arabic there is a similar word meaning a bag filled with stones hung at the sides of camels to preserve equilibrium (see Gesenius, Lex
Cainan - For no Hebrew manuscript has it, nor the Samaritan Pentateuch, Chaldee, Syriac, and Vulgate Versions from the Hebrew
Machpelah - All ancient Versions translated Machpelah "the double cave," from kaphal , "to divide or double"
Muth-Labben - ) The Septuagint and Vulgate Versions read concerning the mysteries of the Son," namely, the divine Son's death, the earnest of His final victory over the last "enemy" (Psalms 9:6)
Sir - In the English Versions ‘lord’ (κύριε) is frequently used in the same sense (‘Lord, thou deliveredst unto me live talents,’ Matthew 25:20; Matthew 25:22; Matthew 25:24; ‘Lord, let it alone this year also,’ Luke 13:8; Luke 14:22; Luke 19:16; Luke 19:18; Luke 19:20)
Henry Coleridge - His published works include a classic commentary on "The Public Life of Our Lord," "The Life and Letters of Saint Francis Xavier," "The Life and Letters of Saint Teresa," and a harmony of the Gospels, "Vita Vitre Nostre," in English and Latin Versions
Ask - ...
She'ôl is translated variously in the English Versions: "hell, pit, grave" (KJV); "netherworld" (NAB). Some Versions simply give the transliteration, Sheol" (RSV, JB, NASB)
Trespass - Some Versions give the sense more freely: “But the people of Israel broke faith” (RSV); “But the Israelites defied the ban” (NEB). ...
In view of the additional significance of “treachery,” many Versions translate the verb “to act unfaithfully” or “to act treacherously” instead of “to transgress” or “to commit a trespass. This is communicated in other Versions: “Son of man, if a country sins against me by being unfaithful …” (NIV); “Son of man, if a country sins against Me by committing unfaithfulness …” (NASB). Modern Versions set forth more explicitly the overt nature of the sin than the KJV (“trespass; transgress”): RSV, NASB, NIV, “act or be unfaithful; RSV, NASB, “to break faith
Acts of the Apostles - The Latin Versions. The Syriac Versions. The Egyptian Versions. Secondary Versions. -The text of the Acts is preserved in Greek Manuscripts , in Latin, Syriac, Sahidic, Bohairic, Armenian, and other secondary Versions, and quoted extensively, though not nearly so fully as the Gospels, by the early Fathers. The Latin Versions. The Syriac Versions. The Egyptian Versions. -The two Versions, Bohairic and Sahidic, which are extant for the Gospels, exist also for Acts, and there are a few fragments of Versions in other dialects. The relative date of these Versions has not been finally settled, but the opinion of Coptic scholars seems to be increasingly in favour of regarding the Sahidic as the older form. Secondary Versions. -Versions of Acts are also found in Arabic, Armenian, Ethiopic, Georgian, Persian, and other languages; but none of them is of primary importance for the text. -As soon as textual criticism began to be based on any complete view of the evidence, it became obvious that the chief feature to be accounted for in the text of Acts was the existence of a series of additions in the text in the Latin Versions and Fathers, usually supported by the two great bilingual Manuscripts δ5 and 1001 (D and E), frequently by the marginal readings in SyrHarcl, and sporadically by a few minuscules; opposed to this interpolated test stood the Alexandrian text of δ1, δ2 (B א), and their allies; while between the two was the text of the mass of Manuscripts agreeing sometimes with one, sometimes with the other, and sometimes combining both readings. ), using the new facts as to the Manuscripts summarized above, has revived Blass’s theory in so far that be thinks that the interpolated text witnessed to by δ5 and the Latin Versions and Fathers really goes back to a single original; but, instead of assigning this original to Luke, he attributes it to Tatian, who, he thinks, added a new recension of Acts to his Diatessaron
Chance - —The word occurs only once in Authorized and Revised Versions of the Gospels, viz. Examples are 1 Corinthians 15:37 εἰ τύχοι σίτου, which Authorized and Revised Versions translates ‘it may chance of wheat’ (the only other occasion on which the word ‘chance’ is found in Authorized and Revised Versions of NT), and 1 Corinthians 14:10 εἰ τύχοι, Authorized and Revised Versions ‘it may be. ...
Apart from any further occurrence of the word ‘chance’ in Authorized and Revised Versions of the Gospels, the idea of hap or chance may seem to be conveyed by the use of ‘haply’ in Mark 11:13, where Jesus is said to have come to the fig-tree, ‘if haply he might find anything thereon,’ and in Luke 14:29, where He Himself says of the builder who could not finish his tower, ‘lest haply when he hath laid a foundation, and is not able to finish it
Chameleon - Versions
Jareb - Most of the ancient Versions support this, as, e
Proceed - , "to cut forward (a way)," is translated "will proceed" in 2 Timothy 2:16 , RV (AV, "will increase") and "shall proceed" (both Versions) in 2 Timothy 3:9
Bedan - The Septuagint, Syrian, and Arabic Versions read "Barak," which also the order forbids; however, see Hebrews 11:32
Mnason - א and one or two Versions read ‘Jason’ for ‘Mnason’; cf
Apple - Apple tree is named in the English Versions in Song of Solomon 2:3; Song of Solomon 8:5, and Joel 1:12, The fruit of this tree is alluded to in Proverbs 25:11 and Song of Solomon 2:5; Song of Solomon 7:8
Camp - Those who travel were called “campers,” or in most Versions (KJV, RSV, NASB) a “company” or “group” (NIV), as in Versions, the word is variously translated “camp; company; army” (KJV, RSV, NASB, NIV); “host” (KJV); “attendances; forces” (NIV)...
Unrighteousness - 1 Corinthians 6:9; 1 Peter 3:18), the interchangeable English Versions equivalents are ‘unrighteous,’ ‘unjust. ’ Where the verb ἀδικέω occurs, the Versions vary between ‘do wrong,’ ‘be an offender (wrong-doer),’ ‘be unjust (unrighteous)’; see Acts 7:26; Acts 25:10 (trans. As for ἀδικία itself, the usual equivalent in the English Versions is ‘unrighteousness’ (see Romans, passim)
Quarry - ]'>[2] , while other Versions, e
Facets - The basic idea of the Hebrew ayin , as reflected in most English Versions, is eye
Air - English Versions translate Hebrew ruach, “wind, breath, spirit,” as “air” in Job 41:16 to describe empty space between objects on earth
Apphia - (in some Manuscripts and VSS Footstool - ]'>[1] and Versions, accepts ὑποκάτω instead of ὑποπόδιον, and translates, ‘till I put thine enemies under thy feet
Come Near, Approach - ...
The English Versions render nâgash variously, according to context: “went near” (RSV); “moved closer” (TEV); “came close” (JB, NEB, NASB)
Paint - The old Versions agree in pronouncing the dye to have been produced from antimony
Staff (2) - —Two different words occurring in the Gospels are rendered ‘staff’ in Authorized and Revised Versions . The ξύλα (Authorized and Revised Versions ‘staves’) were the wooden truncheons or clubs of the Jewish police (ὑπηρέται)
Prince (2) - ’ Elsewhere in NT the word is used only in Acts 8:27 of the Ethiopian eunuch (Authorized and Revised Versions ‘of great authority’) and in 1 Timothy 6:15 of God (Authorized and Revised Versions ‘Potentate’). More important is the use of ἄρχων in two of the Gospels as applied to Satan in the phrases ἄρχων τῶν δαιμονίων (Matthew 9:34; Matthew 12:24, Authorized and Revised Versions ‘prince of the devils’), and ἄρχων τοῦ κόσμου τούτου (John 12:31; John 14:30; John 16:11, Authorized and Revised Versions ‘prince of this world’)
New Testament - The ancient Versions too, the ante-Jerome Latin, Jerome's Vulgate, the Syriac (second century), the Coptic, and the Thebaic or Sahidic (third century), as well as the citations in Greek and Latin fathers, additionally help toward ascertaining the true text. ) with the oldest Greek manuscripts The citations of the New Testament by fathers are then especially valuable as evidences, when a father cites words expressly, or a special word which agrees with ancient manuscripts and Versions, for such could hardly come from transcribers. He observed differences in classes of manuscripts and Versions. To Lachmann's authorities other ancient Versions besides the Latin ones need to be added; also the oldest manuscripts need accurate collation. Tischendorf followed, adding however many manuscripts and Versions of later date to the older authorities (including the two old Egyptian and the two Syriac Versions). Besides the Versions above mentioned the Gothic of Ulphilas (fourth century), the Aethiopic, and the Armenian are important. Its text is mostly like the ancient Latin Versions. ...
ANCIENT Versions. the version which supplanted all former Versions in the then common tongue, Latin, and came into common use), made A. " He rejects certain interpolated Greek manuscripts, "a Luciano et Ηesychio nuncupatos ", on the ground that the Versions made in various languages before the additions falsify them, suggesting the use of the oldest Versions, namely, to detect interpolations unknown in the Greek text of their day. ...
EGYPTIAN Versions. ...
SYRIAC Versions. Versions later than sixth century are valueless as witnesses to the ancient text. , testify that the text varied in different copies and Versions even then. ...
Providentially early Versions of diverse regions afford means of detecting variations. Citations in fathers often support the Versions' readings against the interpolated texts, so that if even there were no Greek manuscripts to support the Versions' readings the evidence would still be on the side of these
Versions of the Scripture, Ancient - ...
Under the article VARIOUS READINGS it is shown that early translations of the New Testament are used as evidence of what was in the primitive Greek text, and we now proceed to name the principal of these Versions. ARABIC Versions. EGYPTIAN Versions. LATIN Versions. SYRIAC Versions. ...
All these Versions, as they became available, were consulted by the various Editors of the Greek New Testament: some Editors attaching more importance to certain of them than was done by others. ...
Some of the Versions included the Old Testament or portions of it. God's set time however arrived: the darkness and ignorance were deplored, and one here and there was empowered by God to seek to spread the light of the holy scriptures among those professing Christianity, and more modern Versions of the word of God were gradually made and printed, being hailed with delight by all who wished to know what God Himself had revealed as the only way of salvation, and to know His will concerning themselves
Good Shepherd, Parable of the - The differences between them are of the kind that may be expected in two parallel Versions of the same discourse, teaching essentially the same lesson; the value of the soul in the eyes of God, whence flows the necessity of doing everything to reclaim one on the way to perdition, the point brought out especially by Saint Matthew, and the joy of God over the conversion of the sinner, the point brought out especially by Saint Luke
Lost Sheep - The differences between them are of the kind that may be expected in two parallel Versions of the same discourse, teaching essentially the same lesson; the value of the soul in the eyes of God, whence flows the necessity of doing everything to reclaim one on the way to perdition, the point brought out especially by Saint Matthew, and the joy of God over the conversion of the sinner, the point brought out especially by Saint Luke
Guard - In the New Testament (Mark 6:27 ) the Authorized Version renders the Greek Spekulator By "executioner," earlier English Versions by "hangman," the Revised Version by "soldier of his guard
Bible Societies - The Catholic Church has steadfastly refused to endorse these societies or their activities, because as the Divinely authorized custodian and interpreter of the Sacred Scriptures, she has deemed inadvisable the dissemination of the bare text, which needs emendation and explanation in so many places; and because these societies have repeatedly shown hostility to the Church by their many attempts to impose unauthorized and mutilated Protestant Versions of the Bible on Catholic peoples; and also because of their lack of good faith, for they have never offered to spread among Catholics a Catholic version with imprimatur and approved notes
Bible, Concordances of the - There are complete and abridged concordances of the Hebrew Old Testament, the Greek New Testament, as also of many Versions
On - Versions have "Heliopolis" ("city of the sun") instead of On in Genesis and of Aven in Ezekiel
Substance - Versions have "substance;" (b) in Hebrews 11:1 it has the meaning of "confidence, assurance" (RV), marg
Kedesh - The town is also called Kishon (Joshua 21:28 KJV; Kishion in other Versions)
Ahimelech - On this information, Saul convened the priests, and having charged them with the crime of treason, ordered his guards to slay them, which they refusing to do, Doeg, who had been their accuser, at the king's command became their executioner, and with his sacrilegious hand massacred no less than eighty-five of them; the Septuagint and Syriac Versions make the number of priests slain by Doeg three hundred and five
Business - " In 1 Thessalonians 4:11 , the noun is not expressed in the original but is supplied in the English Versions by "business," "your own business
Societies, Bible - The Catholic Church has steadfastly refused to endorse these societies or their activities, because as the Divinely authorized custodian and interpreter of the Sacred Scriptures, she has deemed inadvisable the dissemination of the bare text, which needs emendation and explanation in so many places; and because these societies have repeatedly shown hostility to the Church by their many attempts to impose unauthorized and mutilated Protestant Versions of the Bible on Catholic peoples; and also because of their lack of good faith, for they have never offered to spread among Catholics a Catholic version with imprimatur and approved notes
Greece, Greeks, Gre'Cians - Accordingly the Old Testament word which is Grecia , in Authorized Versions Greece, Greeks , etc
Shiloh (1) - The ancient Versions, however, almost unanimously translated "He to whom, it belongs," "He whose right it is": Ezekiel 21:27 (Septuagint, Aqu. "From between his feet" is explained by the Versions, "from his posterity
Nobleman - ’...
In the Authorized and Revised Versions ‘a certain nobleman’ is the translation of two different Gr. Inadequate translations are those of Wyclif ‘a worthi man,’ and of most early English Versions ‘a noble man
Desert - The Hebrew words translated in the English Versions by "desert" often denote definite localities
pi-Hahiroth - In the English and Septuagint Versions, Hahiroth is taken as a proper name; and the whole word would imply the mouth or pass of Hahiroth or Hiroth, whatever particular origin or signification may belong to that word
Sophronius, Ecclesiastical Writer - The importance of these alterations led Sophronius to translate the Versions into Greek
Sheol - Some early Versions of the English Bible translated sheol and hades as ‘hell’, which is unfortunate, for that gives the wrong idea. More recent English Versions either transliterate the words as ‘sheol’ and ‘hades’, or translate them by such expressions as ‘the world of the dead’, ‘the grave’ and ‘the pit’
Symmachus, Author o.t. in Greek - 16) as being, like those of Aquila and Theodotion, in common use in Origen's day, in contrast with the obscure "Fifth" and "Sixth" Versions, which Origen brought to light; and Origen's extant remains shew that he knew and used Symmachus's version long before the time of Maximin (236–239). Remarkable cases of identity of translation between these two Versions occur e
Plague - Different Versions of the Bible use a variety of words to describe the many disasters, plagues, diseases and sicknesses that afflict people (e
Sopater - The patronymic is omitted by Textus Receptus and Authorized Version but is found in א ABDE, several ancient Versions, and Revised Version
Giant - The various ancient Versions confirm the translation of 'giants
Cleave, Cling - 119:25; RSV, “cleaves”), is better understood as one consults the other English Versions: “I lie prone in the dust” (NEB); “Down in the dust I lie prostrate” (JB); “I lie prostrate in the dust” (NAB); “I lie defeated in the dust” (TEV)
Judith, Book of - The two Hebrew Versions now extant are different, one of them agreeing with the Greek
Helper - Other Versions translate the term “Comforter” (KJV), “Advocate” (NEB), or “Counselor” (RSV, NIV)
Matthew, Gospel of Saint - The Biblical Commission, June 19, 1911, declared that the universal and constant tradition dating from the first centuries and expressed in early writings, ancient codices, Versions and catalogues of the Bible, proves beyond doubt that Saint Matthew wrote the first Gospel, as we now have it in our Bibles, before the year 70, and that the Gospel is in conformity with historical truth
John, Gospel of Saint - The Biblical Commission, May 29, 1907, declared that the constant and universal tradition from the 2century, the testimony of the Fathers and ecclesiastical writers, the codices, Versions and catalogs of the Sacred Books, all give convincing proof that the fourth Gospel was written by Saint John and that it is a strictly historical document
Fellow - Both Versions have "this man," e
Hamor - bars or rings of silver of a certain weight, perhaps stamped with a "lamb," see margin, all the Versions translated "lambs," which were the original representative of wealth) a parcel of a field
Trogyllium - This in itself is likely to have happened, and, though the words καὶ μείναντες ἐν Τρωγυλλίῳ are omitted by the great Manuscripts (א ABCE), they are retained by Meyer, Alford, Blass, and Ramsay on the strength of DHLP and many ancient Versions
Lust - KJV and earlier English Versions frequently used lust in the neutral sense of desire
Bind - This section also illustrates how such “binding” is variously rendered in the English Versions: “bind” (RSV, KJV, NAB); “promises” (TEV); “puts himself under a binding obligation” (NEB, NASB); “takes a formal pledge under oath” (JB)
Accept - ...
When râtsâh expresses God’s being pleased with someone, the English Versions often translate it as “be delighted,” which seems to reflect a sense of greater pleasure: “… mine elect, in whom my soul delighteth” ( Gospel of Saint Matthew - The Biblical Commission, June 19, 1911, declared that the universal and constant tradition dating from the first centuries and expressed in early writings, ancient codices, Versions and catalogues of the Bible, proves beyond doubt that Saint Matthew wrote the first Gospel, as we now have it in our Bibles, before the year 70, and that the Gospel is in conformity with historical truth
Gospel of Saint John - The Biblical Commission, May 29, 1907, declared that the constant and universal tradition from the 2century, the testimony of the Fathers and ecclesiastical writers, the codices, Versions and catalogs of the Sacred Books, all give convincing proof that the fourth Gospel was written by Saint John and that it is a strictly historical document
Camel - The word occurs in various proverbial expressions, as in Matthew 19:24; similar to which are some used in the Talmud; also in 23:24, where the early English Versions and the R
Beguile - Versions
Dizahab - ...
The Versions do not help us
Plains - Our translators have uniformly rendered this word "plain;" but this is not the verdict of the majority or the most trustworthy of the ancient Versions
Owner - Elsewhere in the Gospels the frequency of the occurrence of the word ‘owner’ is concealed from readers of the English Versions by its translation as ‘lord’ (see art
Temple - ...
The word “palace” in English Versions may have one of three Hebrew words behind it: hêykâl, bayit, or ‘armon. ” Most Versions opt in favor of the “temple” idea: “Hear, all ye people; hearken, O earth, and all that therein is: and let the Lord God be witness against you, the Lord from his holy temple” ( Basket - The accurate distinction in the use of the terms so invariably made in the record of the miracles marks both events as real and distinct, not, as rationalists have guessed, different Versions of one miracle
Simon - The contradictions between these two stories are so great that it is difficult to suppose that they relate the same event in different Versions
Mark, Gospel of Saint - " The sixteen chapters are written in the chronological order, with some exceptions, and follow these general divisions: ...
preparation through the preaching of Saint John, the baptism, and temptation (1,2-13)
the preaching and miracles of Jesus in Galilee (1,14, to 9,50)
the journey to Jerusalem for the feast of the Pasch, and the last days of Our Lord's teaching (10-13)
the Passion, Death, Resurrection, and Ascension (14-16)
The Biblical Commission, June 26, 1912, declared that all reasonable doubt that Saint Mark is the author of the second Gospel as now contained in our Bibles, and that the Gospel was written before the year 70 and according to the preaching of Saint Peter, has been removed by the clear evidence of tradition from the earliest ages, as found in the testimony of the Fathers, in the use of the Gospel by early Christians, and its place in ancient codices and Versions
Fare, Farewell - have it in Acts 23:30 (the RV omits it, as do most Versions)
Bushel - ); and in like manner, since no importance was attached by our Lord to exactness of measure, the familiar ‘bushel’ of earlier English Versions has been retained by the Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885, although ‘peck’ would be a more accurate rendering
Rahab - The name Rahab appears in English Versions of the Bible as belonging to a woman who features in the book of Joshua, and to a mythical sea monster that features in the poetical books
Kir-Hareseth - ” Known by various names in various texts and various Versions of the Old Testament: Kir-Hareseth (2 Kings 3:25 ; Isaiah 16:7 ), Kir-Haraseth (2 Kings 3:25 KJV), Kir-Heres ( Isaiah 16:11 ; Jeremiah 48:31 ,Jeremiah 48:31,48:36 ), and Kirharesh (Isaiah 16:11 KJV)
Lamech - It is now commonly believed, owing to the identity of some names and the similarity of others in the two genealogies, that they are merely different Versions of one original list
Gourd - The latter is favoured by the old Versions, and its derivation also suits the dry gourds, when crushed, bursting or opening with a crashing noise
Grass - "...
This delicate distinction disproves the notion that the two miracles are really different Versions of the same miracle, as also that of the 12 (small) baskets (kofinoi ) in the miracle of the 5,000, and the seven (larger) baskets (spurides ) in that of the 4,000
Destruction (2) - In Matthew 26:8 and in the parallel passage in Mark 14:4 ἀπώλεια is translated ‘waste’ in both Versions, and in John 17:12, the only other instance where the word is used in the Gospels, both render it ‘perdition
Felix (174), Bishop of Tubzoca - There is considerable confusion as to details in different Versions of the Acts, which d’Achery and Baluze have in vain endeavoured to remedy
Band - Greek writers use the word σπεῖρα, rendered ‘band’ in our Versions, sometimes for maniple but usually for cohort; hence (Revised Version margin) has regularly ‘cohort
Owl - Psalms 102:6, "I am like an owl in a ruin" (Syriac and Arabic Versions), expressing his loneliness, surrounded by foes, with none to befriend
Abel - Instead of "the great stone of Abel," in 1 Samuel 6:18, the Septuagint, and Chaldee Versions, and some Hebrew manuscripts, read "the great stone;" as in the margin, and the 14th and 15th verses
Samuel First And Second Books of - " This division is followed in the Latin and Douay Versions, where they are named the first, second, third, and fourth books of Kings
What - Versions, the adjective not being repeated in the original); (f) hostis, "what (things)," Philippians 3:7 ; (g) in Matthew 26:40 , houtos, "thus, so," is used as an exclamatory expression, translated "What" (in a word immediately addressed by the Lord to Peter), lit
Band - Greek writers use the word σπεῖρα, rendered ‘band’ in our Versions, sometimes for maniple but usually for cohort; hence (Revised Version margin) has regularly ‘cohort
Maternus, Julius Firmicus - The work is valuable for Biblical criticism, as in it are found quotations from the Versions used in N
Advocate - It is unfortunate that our English Versions have rendered it in the former ‘Comforter’ (RVm [3] gives ‘desolate’; literally, as in the margin of both Versions, ‘orphans
Soul; Self; Life - The Versions vary widely in their readings of nephesh, with the more contemporary Versions casting widely for meanings
Graciousness - —The word ‘graciousness’ does not occur in the Authorized and Revised Versions of the Gospels. ’ In so doing it departs from the general practice of the older English Versions, which from Tindale onwards adopted the form of the Authorized Version. word χάρις occurs on several other occasions in the Gospels, and is variously rendered in the English Versions
Greek Versions of ot - GREEK Versions OF OT...
I. The Septuagint, or Version of the Seventy, has special characteristics which differentiate it strongly from all other Versions of the Scriptures. there were, therefore, four Greek Versions of the OT in the field, besides portions of others which will be mentioned below. This was the Hexapla , or sixfold version of the OT, in which six Versions were set forth in six parallel columns. The six Versions were as follows (1) the Hebrew text; (2) the same transliterated in Greek characters; (3) the version of Aquila, which of all the Versions was the nearest to the Hebrew; (4) the version of Symmachus; (5) his own edition of the LXX Sarah - ]'>[2] , the latter in E; they may be different Versions of the same story
Testing - Some older Versions of the Bible use the word ‘temptation’ in a variety of ways, some of them with the meaning more of testing
Anxiety - Older English Versions of the Bible often render these words as "thought, " "worry, " or "care
Right - Three terms translated ‘right’ in the English Versions call for notice
Ear (2) - —Of the Greek words translated ‘ear’ in Authorized and Revised Versions, two (ὠτάριον, ὠτίον) refer exclusively to the bodily organ, and occur only in connexion with the case of Malchus (Mark 14:47, John 18:10; John 18:26, Matthew 26:51, Luke 22:51)
Importunity - —The only passage in the Authorized and Revised Versions where this word is found is Luke 11:9 ‘Because of his importunity he will arise and give him as many as he needeth
Shimei - 1; but SIMEONis read in the margin, and in the LXX, the Arabic and Syriac Versions
Fan - —The fan (מִוִרָה mizreh, the πτύον of Matthew 3:12 and Luke 3:17) was an implement used in the winnowing of grain (Isaiah 30:24 [1])
Keep, Oversee - Other Versions render it “choir director” (NASB); “chief musician” (KJV); and “leader” (NAB)
Clothe - The English Versions render it variously: “came upon” (KJV, NASB, JB); “took possession of” (NEB, RSV); “took control (TEV); wrapped round” (Knox)
Emerods - Among other objections, it may also be observed, that the mice, which are mentioned, not only in the Hebrew text, 1 Samuel 6:5 ; 1 Samuel 6:12 ; 1 Samuel 16:18 , but also in the Alexandrine and Vulgate Versions, 1 Samuel 5:6 ; 1 Samuel 6:5 ; 1 Samuel 6:11 ; 1 Samuel 6:18 , are an objection to understanding the hemorrhoids by the word under consideration, since if that were in fact the disease, we see no reason why mice should have been presented as an offering to avert the anger of the God of Israel
Gold - "The gold of Sheba," Psalms 72:15 , is, in the Septuagint and Arabic Versions, "the gold of Arabia
Paper, Papyrus - See Bible, Text and Versions; Library ; Writing
Rezin - From the ancient Versions and the cuneiform inscriptions it is clear that the form should be Razon or Razin
Treasury - (2) In the Authorized and Revised Versions rendering of John 8:20 Jesus is said to have spoken ‘in the treasury’ (ἐν τῷ γαζοφυλακίῳ), as He taught in the Temple. ...
It may be added that, although in Authorized and Revised Versions θησαυρός is invariably rendered ‘treasure,’ it is occasionally used in a sense that corresponds to ‘treasury’ or the place where treasure is Kept
Atone - The English Versions translate the word variously as “purged” (KJV, JB); “forgiven” (RSV, NASB, TEV); and “wiped away” (NEB). ” This noun form of kapar has been variously interpreted by the English Versions as “mercy seat” (KJV, RSV); “cover” (NEB); “lid” (TEV); “throne of mercy” (JB); and “throne” (Knox)
Bible, Texts And Versions - This is the study of text and Versions. Old Testament Text and Versions. ...
Other Versions of the Old Testament such as the Syriac, Old Latin, the Latin Vulgate, etc. New Testament Text and Versions. ...
Another major source of information about the text of the New Testament is the Versions. Modern Versions such as the New English Bible, the Good News Bible, and the New International Version are essential to the present missionary task
Esdras, the Second Book of - Text and Versions. -The original text no longer exists; but Versions are extant in Latin, Syriac, Ethiopic, Arabic (two), and Armenian. The Oriental Versions are of value chiefly for the assistance they afford in testing and correcting the Latin. A curious illustration of their usefulness in this way was given by Bensly in 1875, when he discovered a missing fragment of the Latin text consisting of 70 verses, the existence of which had been suggested by the presence of these verses in the Oriental Versions. The basis of all the existing Versions, with the possible exception of the Armenian, is generally acknowledged to be a Greek text, now lost; but some difference of opinion has arisen as to whether that was the original text. ...
Some confusion of nomenclature bus been caused by the varying titles of the Versions
Raca - It had been spelt ‘Racha’ in the Authorized Version of 1611; so in Tindale and other earlier Versions. 32; racha in most Manuscripts of the Latin Versions; raccha in d; only f k Zc and the official Vulgate have raca; רקא in all Syriac Versions, vocalized רָקָא, רַקָא, רָקֵא, רַקָא (see the edition of the Tetraeuangelium by Pusey-Gwilliam, and the Thesaurus Syriacus; it is explained as = שׁיטא, i
Dish - The only place in the NT (Authorized and Revised Versions) where this word is found is in the record of the betrayal of Jesus given by two of the Synoptists (Matthew 26:23, Mark 14:20). A very good example of the way in which the didactic sayings of Jesus were caught up and handed down by His different hearers is afforded by the Matthaean and Lukan Versions of the words by which He denounced the legal quibblings and Pharisaic hypocrisy of His day (Matthew 23:1 ff. Here we may notice that the word translated ‘platter’ is the word used to denote the flat dish (Authorized and Revised Versions ‘charger’) on which (ἐπὶ πίνακι) the Baptist’s head was sent to Herodias (Matthew 14:8; Matthew 14:11 = Mark 6:25; Mark 6:28)
Scripture - The italics in the English Versions do not indicate emphatic words, but are inserted by the translators to complete the sense and to show that there are no words in the original Hebrew or Greek to correspond with these English words in italics. See Rice's Our Sixty-six Sacred Books for further account of the text, Versions, etc. All Roman Catholic Versions must be conformed to it. —Only a few leading modern Versions can be noticed: 1. —The following statements are from Rice's Our Sixty-six Sacred Books: The Bible and portions of the Scriptures are printed in 367 Versions and 287 dialects, according to the American Bible Society reports (founded 1816). The reports of the British and Foreign Bible Society (founded 1804) show that over 60 new Versions of the Bible were added to its list in eleven years, and that the Scriptures are now published in 510 Versions in upwards of 300 languages
Stumbling Block - (In some older English Versions the word is sometimes translated ‘offence’
Gluttonous - The English Versions are probably right in their rendering of φάγος and οἱνοπότης as implying intemperate excess
African Church - There seem to have been a number of Latin Versions in Africa
Sick, To Be - The Versions are divided in the translation of Song of Atonement - The word does not occur in most Versions of the New Testament, but it is used broadly in the language of theology in relation to the sacrificial death of Christ
Mss - ...
On the Syriac Versions see especially articles by Woods and Gwilliam in Studia Biblica , vols. on ‘Text and Versions’ in Encyc. Latin Versions. Paul himself, it might seem reasonable to suppose that Latin Versions of the Christian literature would have been required almost as soon as it came into being, But this would be to overlook the bilingual character of the Roman Empire, even in Italy. The kinship which the text of the OL has with the Old Syriac bas caused Antioch to be suggested (by Sanday) as the original home of the version, that being a metropolis where Syrian and Latin elements met, and whence Versions of the Scriptures in either tongue might radiate from a common centre. But with a strong general resemblance between the two Versions, there is also a considerable amount of divergence in details, so that one cannot be certain that the connexion is not more remote. ]'>[1]1 , White’s chapter in Scrivener’s Introduction , Exodus 4 (which deals with both Versions), and the prefaces to Wordsworth and White’s edition of the Vulgate, now in progress (Oxford, 1889 ff. Coptic Versions. Even when it penetrated farther, and addressed the native population in its own tongue, its message would at first have been oral, and the earliest Coptic Versions of the NT may well have been merely oral paraphraaes, such as were the earliest Anglo-Saxon Versions in our own country. , therefore, at latest, and possibly by the end of the 2nd (since the Coptic Versions unquestionably have some very early characteristics), a Coptic translation of the NT (except the Apocalypse) was in circulation
English Versions - ENGLISH Versions . On the one hand, there was a call for word-for-word translations of the Latin, which might assist readers to a comprehension of the Latin Bible; and, on the other, for continuous Versions or paraphrases, which might be read to, or by, those whose skill in reading Latin was small. son of his patron Æthelmær, ealdorman of Devonshire and founder of Eynsham Abbey, produced a paraphrase of the Heptateuch, homilies containing epitomes of the Books of Kings and Job, and brief Versions of Esther, Judith, and Maccabees. One of the first signs of its revival was the production of the Ormulum , a poem which embodies metrical Versions of the Gospels and Acts, written about the end of the 12th century. Two English Versions of the Psalter were produced at this period, one of which enjoyed great popularity. The Psalter was not the only part of the Bible of which Versions came into existence in the course of the 14th century. At this point it seems necessary to say something of the theory which has been propounded by the well-known Roman Catholic historian, Abbot Gasquet, to the effect that the Versions which pass under the name of ‘Wyclifite’ were not produced by Wyclif or his followers at all, but were translations authorized and circulated by the heads of the Church of England, Wyclif’s particular enemies. ]'>[8] The strongest argument adduced in support of this view is the possession of copies of the Versions in question both by kings and princes of England, and by religious houses and persons of unquestioned orthodoxy. This does, indeed, prove that the persecution of the English Bible and its possessors by the authorities of the Catholic Church was not so universal or continuous as it is sometimes represented to have been, but it does not go far towards disproving the Wyclifite authorship of Versions which can be demonstratively connected, as these are, with the names of leading supporters of Wyclif, such as Hereford and Purvey; the more so since the evidence of orthodox ownership of many of the copies in question dates from times long after the cessation of the Lollard persecution. Gasquet denies that the Lollards made a special point of the circulation of the Scriptures in the vernacular, or were charged with so doing by the ecclesiastical authorities who prosecuted them; and in particular he draws a distinction between the Versions now extant and the Bible on account of the heretical nature of which (among other charges) one Richard Hun was condemned by the Bishop of London in 1514. In the way of vernacular Versions, a French Bible was printed at Lyons about 1478, and another about 1487; a Spanish Pentateuch was printed (by Jews) in 1497; a German Bible was printed at Strassburg by Mentelin in 1466, and was followed by eighteen others (besides many Psalters and other separate books) between that date and 1522, when the first portion of Luther’s translation appeared
Text of the New Testament - The materials available for ascertaining the true text of the NT (and, in their measure, of all other ancient works of literature) fall into three classes: (1) Manuscripts, or copies of the NT in the original Greek; (2) Versions, or ancient translations of it into other languages, which were themselves, of course, originally derived from very early Greek MSS, now lost; (3) Quotations in ancient writers, which show what readings these writers found in the copies accessible to them. As will be shown below, its type of text belongs to a family of which the other principal representatives are the Old Latin and Old Syriac Versions. ]'>[3] and in the Old Latin and Old Syriac Versions has left its mark notably upon 473, and more or less on 235, 431, 700, 1071, and on a group of related MSS (known from the scholar who first called attention to it as the ‘Ferrar group’) consisting of 13, 69, 124, 346, 348, 543, 713, 788, 826, 828. Versions. The second class of authorities, as indicated in § 2 , is that of Versions, or translations of the NT into languages other than Greek. It is only the earlier Versions that can be of service in recovering the original text of the NT; modern translations are of importance for the history of the Bible in the countries to which they belong, but contribute nothing to textual criticism. The early Versions may be divided into Eastern (Syriac, Coptic, Armenian, Arabic, Ethiopic, etc. Age is a more important factor than locality, and the two oldest and, on the whole, most important (though not necessarily the most trustworthy) are the Old Latin and Old Syriac Versions, which, moreover, are in many respects akin to one another. Next in importance are the Coptic Versions and the Latin Vulgate; and the Armenian and the later Syriac Versions are also of considerable value. It will be convenient to describe the several Versions under their respective countries in the first instance, and to defer the discussion of their characters and affinities until the tale of our authorities is complete. Syriac Versions
New Testament - the earliest Versions and patristic quotations give very important testimony to the character and history of the ante-Nicene text; but till the last quarter of the second century this source of information fails us. ...
Passing from these isolated quotations, we find the first great witnesses to the apostolic text in the early Syriac and Latin Versions and in the rich quotations of Clement of Alexandria (cir. and Versions now extant exhibit the characteristic differences which have been found to exist in different parts of the works of Origen. , which as he remarks, must have arisen before the first Versions were made. The Versions and patristic quotations are scarcely less important in doubtful cases. of Versions, of the fathers, was collected with the greatest diligence and success; authorities were compared and classified; principles of observation and judgment were laid down
Wilderness, Desert - ]'>[1] ‘wilderness,’ the adjective ‘desert’ in the English Versions
Canticle of Canticles - Protestant Versions call it Song of Solomon or Song of Songs
Patience - Some older English Versions called it longsuffering, and at times forbearance
Testament (2) - Versions
Caterpillar - The term appears in different English Versions to translate various Hebrew words, NIV not referring to caterpillars at all
Solomon, Song of - Protestant Versions call it Song of Solomon or Song of Songs
Song of Solomon - Protestant Versions call it Song of Solomon or Song of Songs
Hell - It is unfortunate that many of the older Versions of the English Bible use the one word ‘hell’ to translate several words in the original languages
Sop - —‘Sop’ occurs in Authorized and Revised Versions only in John 13:26 bis. ’ ψωμίον does not occur in LXX Septuagint , but ψωμός is found in Ruth 2:14, Job 31:17, and in Authorized and Revised Versions is rendered ‘morsel
Ethiopia - In some passages such as Genesis 2:13 and Isaiah 11:11 , various English Versions alternate between Cush and Ethiopia
Joshua - English Versions differ in their transliteration of the Hebrew names
Titus Justus - ; B reads ‘Titius Justus’ as do the Vulgate and the Memphitic Versions)...
The name is mentioned only once in the NT, Acts 18:7
Foot - The “foot” as a measure of length does not appear in Hebrew or Greek, but some English Versions give the equivalent in feet (Genesis 6:15 , NIV; KJV “cubits”)
Wheat - ), and in Authorized and Revised Versions it is nearly always translated ‘wheat
Concordances - Bagster’s Handy Concordance of the Septuagint ; Hatch-Redpath’s Concordance of the Septuagint and other Greek Versions of the OT , with two supplemental fasciculi (Clarendon Press, 1892 97)
Continually - The variety in the English Versions indicates that both ideas—regularity and continuousness—are present in the Hebrew word
Alphaeus - Jerome, although predisposed by his view of the Brethren of the Lord in favour of finding the same man under both names, rejects the linguistic identification; and the Syriac Versions also represent them by different words
Forgive - The translation “to forgive” is found in most English Versions (KJV, RSV, NASB, NIV), and at times also “to pardon” (KJV, RSV)
Bel - The Latin and Arabic Versions are from the text of Theodotion
Wheat - ), and in Authorized and Revised Versions it is nearly always translated ‘wheat
Jairus - A, by a curious slip, has ἰατρός), as also in the Apocrypha (Est 11:2), where the Authorized and Revised Versions has ‘Jairus’ as the name of the same person. (Note, the name יָצִיר occurs in 1 Chronicles 20:5 as the Keé; Authorized and Revised Versions ‘Jair’)
Carpenter - Versions, where we find ‘carpenter’s son’ in place of ‘carpenter. ]'>[2] and Versions was not merely accidental or harmonistic but deliberate, and due to those who considered that Jesus was dishonoured by being described as a carpenter
Pity Compassion - The word ‘compassion’ is of much more frequent occurrence, being represented in the following 21 passages of the two Versions: Matthew 9:36; Matthew 14:14; Matthew 15:32; Matthew 18:27; Matthew 20:34, Mark 1:41; Mark 5:19 (RV_ ‘mercy’) Mark 6:34, Mark 8:2, Mark 9:22, Luke 7:13; Luke 10:33; Luke 15:20, Romans 9:15, Philippians 2:1 (AV_ ‘mercies’), Colossians 3:12 (AV_ ‘mercies’), Hebrews 5:2 (RV_ ‘bear gently’) Hebrews 10:28 (AV_ ‘mercy’) Hebrews 10:34, 1 John 3:17 (AV_ ‘bowels’), Judges 1:22 (RV_ ‘mercy’). To express the strength and inward character of the feeling the English Versions often render ‘to be moved with compassion,’ but neither AV_ nor RV_ consistently (cf. the two Versions in Matthew 20:34 and Mark 6:34)
Origen - In this, the most colossal critical production of antiquity, estimated to have filled at least 6000 pages, he attempted to show the relationship of the Septuagint to the Hebrew text and the Greek Versions of Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion
Caves - See Bible, Texts and Versions ; Dead Sea Scrolls
Leading - ...
Four times the term ‘Leader’ (ἀρχηγός) is applied to Christ: in the Authorized and Revised Versions phrases ‘Prince of life,’ ‘Prince,’ ‘Captain (Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ‘Author’) of salvation,’ ‘Author of faith’ (Acts 3:15; Acts 5:31, Hebrews 2:10; Hebrews 12:2); and a similar meaning is expressed by πρόδρομος, ‘Forerunner’ (Hebrews 6:20)
Abbreviations - ...
VSS Versions
Covenant - The English word 'Testament' is taken from the titles prefixed to the Latin Versions
Barabbas - ]'>[2] and by the Armenian and Jerusalem Syriac Versions, and has been defended by Ewald, Lange, Meyer, and others, who have supposed that the accidental similarity of the name may have helped to suggest to Pilate the alternative which he presented to the Jews. ]'>[2] and VSS Bible - ) Both Old and New Testaments were afterwards translated into Latin by the primitive Christians; and while the Roman empire subsisted in Europe, the reading of the Scriptures in the Latin tongue, which was the universal language of that empire, prevailed every where; but since the face of affairs in Europe has been changed and so many different monarchies erected upon the ruins of the Roman empire, the Latin tongue has be degrees grown into disuse; whence has arisen a necessity of translating the Bible into the respective languages of each people; and this has produced as many different Versions of the Scriptures in the modern languages as there are different nations professing the Christian religion. At the head of the oriental Versions of the Bible must be placed the Samaritan, as being the most ancient of all (though neither its age nor author have been yet ascertained, ) and admitting no more for the Holy Scripture but the five books of Moses. If we enquire into the Versions of the Bible of our own country, we shall find that Adelm, bishop of Sherburn, who lived in 709, made an English Saxon version of the Psalms; and that Edfrid, or Ecbert, bishop of Lindisferne, who lived about 730, translated several of the books of Scripture into the same language. Justinian, bishop of Nebio, printed at Genoa an Arabic version of the Psalter, with the Hebrew text and Chaldee paraphrase, adding Latin interpretations: there are also Arabic Versions of the whole Scripture in the Polyglots of London and Paris; and we have an edition of the Old Testament entire, printed at Rome, in 1671, by order of the congregation de propaganda fide; but it is of little esteem, as having been altered agreeably to the Vulgate edition. There are some other Arabic Versions of later date mentioned by Walton in his Prolegomena, particularly a version of the Psalms, preserved at Zion College, Loudon, and another of the prophets at Oxford; neither of which have been published. He reckons these Versions to have been made in the end of the second or the beginning of the third century. There are two other Versions, the one by John Paul Resenius, bishop of Zealand, in 1605; the other of the New Testament only, by John Michel, in 1524. After this all the other Versions dropped, and fell into disuse, except the epistles and Gospels in the Common Prayer Book, which were still continued according to the Bishops' translation till the alteration of the liturgy, in 1661, and the psalms and hymns, which are to this day continued as in the old version. The Flemish Versions made use of by the Calvinists till 1637, were copied principally
Bible - From this they passed into the Latin Versions, and so into Jerome’s revisioo, the Vulgate, which in time became the authorized Bible of the Roman Catholic Church. They were not accepted by the Protestants as Divinely inspired, but were printed in some Protestant Bibles between the OT and the NT, not in their old places in the Septuagint and Vulgate Versions, where they were interspersed with the OT books as though forming part of the OT itself. Other Versions of all or parts of the OT are known as the Quinta and the Sexta ; there are doubtful references to a Septima . ...
The oldest Versions of the NT are the Syriac and the Latin, both of which may be traced back in some form to the 2nd cent. Two other Versions, or two forms of another version of the Gospels, were discovered in the 19th cent. While it is admitted that a primitive text underlying the Peshitta may be as ancient as any of these Versions, scholars are fairly agreed that the Peshitta, as we know it, is considerably more recent than Tatian and the Sinaitic Gospels, both of which may be assigned to the 2nd cent. The Ethiopic and Armenian Versions may be assigned to the 5th century. The British and Foreign Bible Society now produces the Scriptures in over 400 languages and Versions
Bible, - ANCIENT Versions, which show what was apparently in the Greek copies used for the Versions: the Old Latin, often called Italic; the Vulgate; Syriac; Egyptian, called the Memphitic and the Thebaic; the Gothic; Armenian; and AEthiopic. These Versions date from the second to the sixth century
Bosom - BOSOM occurs 5 times in Authorized and Revised Versions of the Gospels (Luke 6:38; Luke 16:22-23, John 1:18; John 13:23), representing in each case the Gr. text and ‘bosom’ of the Authorized and Revised Versions. In Authorized and Revised Versions of the OT ‘bosom’ is to be understood, according to the context, in one or other of these two senses
Palace - " ...
"In the Gospels the term denotes the official residence in Jerusalem of the Roman governor, and the various translations of it in our Versions arose from a desire either to indicate the special purpose for which that residence was used on the occasion in question, or to explain what particular building was intended
Power - Some English Versions of the Bible use the word ‘power’ to translate different Greek words
Thorns - ’ We have the reflex of this uncertain terminology in Authorized and Revised Versions , which renders almost indiscriminately by ‘thistle,’ ‘thorn,’ or ‘bramble,’ a single Hebrew word
Meekness - Most modern Versions replace the noun "meekness" by "gentleness" or "humility, " largely as a result of the pejorative overtones of weakness and effeminacy now associated with meekness
Lust (2) - —The noun ‘lust’ (ἐπιθυμία) occurs only twice in Authorized and Revised Versions of Gospels (Mark 4:19, John 8:44), and the verb ‘to lust’ (ἐπιθυμέω) only once (Matthew 5:28)
Fool (2) - ’...
These three Greek words, confused more or less by the principal Versions,—the Harklean Syriac and Coptic are exceptions,—are not synonyms
Musician - We do not know that there was such an office over the choir as chief musician; certain it is, that neither the Chaldee paraphrase, nor any of the other Versions, say any thing about this chief musician
Mac'Cabees, Books of - Two of these were included in the early current Latin Versions of the Bible, and thence passed into the Vulgate
Country - In Luke 15:13 both Versions translate by "took his journey" ("into a far country" being separately expressed); see JOURNEY
Aram - (Some Versions of the Bible call the Arameans Syrians, though the region was not known as Syria till centuries later
Tyrannus - אAB), several cursives (13, 27, 29, 81), and a number of the ancient Versions (Sah. Another variation is found in the addition by D and T and several Versions of ἀπὸ ὥρας πέμπτης ἕως δεκάτης, which is accepted as original by several critics, including Blass, Belser, Nestle, Zöckler, while Wendt sees in it a passage in which D has retained some elements of the original text, otherwise lost
Maccabees - ...
There are in the Polyglott Bibles, both of Paris and London, Syriac Versions of both these books; but they, as well as the English Versions which we have among the apocryphal writers in our Bibles, are derived from the Greek
Thaddaeus - Some inferior MSS and several Versions combine ‘Lebbæus’ and ‘Thaddæus,’ as AV Far - " Both Versions have "as far as" in Acts 11:19,22 ; in Luke 24:50 , the RV has "until they were over against," for AV, "as far as to
Family - ” Most Versions keep the translation “family”; but instead of “kindred” and “kind,” some read “relative” (NASB) or “clan
Septuagint - He had been collating from more than three hundred Greek manuscripts; from twenty or more Coptic, Syriac, Arabic, Sclavonian, and Armenian manuscripts; from eleven editions of the Greek text and Versions; and from near thirty Greek fathers, when death prevented him from finishing this valuable work
Deluge - ...
Traditions of the Deluge are found among all the great divisions of the human family; and these traditions, taken as a whole, wonderfully agree with the Biblical narrative, and agree with it in such a way as to lead to the conclusion that the Biblical is the authentic narrative, of which all these traditions are more or less corrupted Versions
Belial, Beliar - ...
In 2 Corinthians 6:15, where the best Manuscripts (B C L P א) and most of the VSS Ecclesiasticus - ...
From its inscription in Greek and Syriac Versions it is also known as "The Wisdom of Jesus, the Son of Sirach," a title connected with and possibly derived from the subscription occurring in recently discovered (1896-1900) Hebrew fragments, "The Wisdom (Hókhmâ) of Simeon, the son of Yeshua (Jesus), the son of Eleazar, the son of Sira
Rebel - The English Versions give the meanings “rebel; provoke” (KJV, RSV, NIV)
Circumcise - ...
In the English Versions, the verb is rendered “to circumcise,” “to destroy” (KJV), as well as “to cut off” and “to wither” (RSV, NASB, NIV)
Solomon's Song - This highly figurative and beautiful poem has always held a place in the canonical Scriptures, and of course was a part of the Bible in the time of Christ; it was so regarded by the early Christians, and appears in the ancient catalogues, manuscripts, and Versions
Number - But though, on the one hand, it is certain that in all existing MSS of the Hebrew text of the Old Testament the numerical expressions are written at length, yet, on the other, the variations in the several Versions between themselves and from the Hebrew text, added to the evident inconsistencies in numerical statement between certain passages of that text itself seems to prove that some shorter mode of writing was originally in vogue, liable to be misunderstood, and in fact misunderstood by copyists and translators
Sweat - Of the Versions, one MS of the Old Latin omits them, as do also the best of the Egyptian, Armenian, and the oldest Syriac Versions. ’ Here again there is a secondary question of reading, because certain manuscripts and Versions (אVX, Vulgate Boh
Amen (2) - In the Apocrypha we have further instances of the responsive Amen in Tobit 8:8 and in Judith 13:20; Judith 15:10 (Authorized and Revised Versions in the latter book renders ‘So be it’). ...
Now, whilst final Amen as a formula of conclusion or response remains unaltered throughout in NT in the various Versions, it is of interest to notice the different ways in which this initial Amen is treated. The modern Greek equivalent is ἀληθῶς (ἀληθῶς ἀληθῶς); and with this accords our Authorized and Revised Versions ‘Verily,’ and also Luther’s Wahrlich. The curious expression ‘the God of Amen’ (Authorized and Revised Versions ‘the God of truth’) in Isaiah 65:16 is not sufficiently a parallel to afford an explanation, for the Amen in this case is not a personal name, but the Authorized and Revised Versions furnishes a satisfactory equivalent in the rendering ‘truth
Ascension of Isaiah - The title ‘Son of Man’ in the Latin and Slavonic Versions of 11:1 is probably original, and was excluded by the editor of the present Greek version for doctrinal reasons (see Charles, Asc. ...
(b) There are two Latin Versions. ...
(c) The Greek Versions are likewise twofold; (i. ) the Greek text from which the Slavonic and the fuller Latin Versions wore derived. Charles, Ascension of Isaiah translated from the Ethiopic Version, which, together with the New Greek Fragment, the Latin Versions, and the Latin Translation of the Slavonic, is here published in full, London, 1900, also Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha, Oxford, 1913, ii. (b) Latin Versions. (c) Greek Versions
Lamentations, Book of - ]'>[1] , followed by the Vulgate and other Versions, names Jeremiah the prophet as the author of Lam. In the Greek OT and the other Versions Lam
Restore, Renew - , theological concepts are often conveyed by a variety of terms); (2) the reader of English Versions should beware. The Bible student now needs several concordances for careful study due to the proliferation of English Versions (e
Basket (2) - ...
‘Basket’ occurs in the Authorized and Revised Versions Gospels in the above passages only. The older English Versions use the confusing rendering of ‘baskets’ for both words, except that Wyclif has ‘coffyns’ and ‘leepis
Molech, Moloch - VSS Bible And the Popes, the - The invention of printing in the 15th century brought about not only a multiplicity of Versions but also a great number of uncritical editions of Saint Jerome's Vulgate and the Greek Septuagint
Censer - 5), and the Versions of Symmachus and Theodotion use the word with this meaning in Exodus 30:1
Song of Songs - In some of the more recent Versions of the Bible, the translators have tried to help the reader by inserting subheadings
Righteousness - Both words, however, are concerned with everyday matters, and for this reason some modern Versions of the Bible prefer to use such words as ‘right’, ‘fair’, ‘just’ and ‘honest’
Power - The Greek term exousia [1] is most often translated "power" in the King James Version but it is almost always translated "authority" in modern Versions
Soothsaying - A comparison of the words used in different Versions of the Scriptures to indicate the various practices and practisers of divination-using that word in its very widest sense-shows how indefinite was and is the significance attached to all these, and intensifies the desire that research may speedily classify them and determine the exact meaning of each
Spikenard - ’ These various translations indicate the doubt as to the meaning of the Greek, which was felt from very early times, and is reflected in the Versions generally
Be - Yet the simple meaning “become” or “come to pass” appears often in the English Versions
Christ - As to the use of the term in the New Testament, were we to judge by the common version, or even by most Versions into modern tongues, we should receive it rather as a proper name, than an appellative, or name of office, and should think of it only as our Lord's surname
Corban - CORBAN is a Hebrew word (קָרִבָּן) which appears in the Greek of Mark 7:11, transliterated κορβᾶν or κορβάν, and in this form passes into the English Versions. In Authorized and Revised Versions it is rendered ‘offering’ or ‘oblation,’ but in LXX Septuagint it is rendered by δῶρον, ‘a gift,’ and this is the translation given to κορβᾶν in Mark 7:11
Versions - ) TARGUM is the general term for the Aramaic or Chaldee Versions of the Old Testament Ezra established the usage of regular readings of the law (Nehemiah 8:2; Nehemiah 8:8), already ordained in Deuteronomy 31:10-13 for the feast of tabernacles, and recognized as the custom "every sabbath" (Acts 15:21). ...
EARLY ENGLISH Versions. " Tyndale was herein in advance of his own and the following age; the Versions of the latter relapsed into the theological and ecclesiastical terms less suited to the people. ...
His desire to make the Bible a people's book has acted on succeeding Versions, so that our English Bible has ever been popular rather than scholastic. Martin, Allen (afterwards cardinal), and Bristow, English refugees of the church of Rome, settled at Rheims, feeling the need of counteracting the Protestant Versions, published a version of the New Testament at Rheims, based on the Vulgate, in 1582, with dogmatic and controversial notes
Consolation - In the English Versions, "consolation" is practically interchangeable with "comfort
Fool, Foolishness, And Folly - The various shades of meaning related to the Old Testament words, all translated “foolishness” in the English Versions, provide a background picture for the New Testament usage of “fool” and “folly
Robber - But earlier English Versions join with Authorized Version in ignoring this distinction; ‘thief’ occurs in them all in the above passages from the Synoptists; in John 10:1; John 10:8 when another word was needed, Tind
Verily - ]'>[4] ...
It is somewhat unfortunate that, where it is an asseverative preface, our Versions have translated ἀμήν by ‘verily,’ and, where it is a liturgical response, have simply transliterated it
Face - Many of these usages are disguised in our Versions, not being in accordance with English idioms; the pronoun is substituted, or ‘presence,’ ‘countenance’ are used, ‘face’ being often indicated in AVm Earthquake - σείω, ‘to shake’) is used of an earthquake (Matthew 24:7; Matthew 27:54; Matthew 28:2, Mark 13:8, Luke 21:11), and once (Matthew 27:51) the idea is expressed by the phrase ἡ γῆ ἐσεισθη (Authorized and Revised Versions ‘the earth did quake’)
Spies - Mark 3:2 = Luke 6:7; Luke 14:1; Luke 20:20, where Authorized and Revised Versions add ‘him,’ though the verb is probably used generally of watching for an opportunity
Naaman - They observe, that השתחויתי , though rendered in the future tense by the Targum, and by all the ancient Versions, is really the preterperfect; and they, therefore, understand it,—"when I have bowed myself," or, "because I have bowed myself" in the house of Rimmon, the Lord pardon thy servant
Camel - The old Versions of the New Testament, instead of, "strain at" a gnat, have, "strain out," which conveys the true meaning
Meek, Meekness - Nevertheless, it is difficult to find a rendering less open to objection than 'meekness'; 'gentleness' has been suggested, but as prautes describes a condition of mind and heart, and as 'gentleness' is appropriate rather to actions, this word is no better than that used in both English Versions
Earthquake - σείω, ‘to shake’) is used of an earthquake (Matthew 24:7; Matthew 27:54; Matthew 28:2, Mark 13:8, Luke 21:11), and once (Matthew 27:51) the idea is expressed by the phrase ἡ γῆ ἐσεισθη (Authorized and Revised Versions ‘the earth did quake’)
Canon of the New Testament - The quotations by the fathers (of whom Origen quotes at least two thirds of New Testament), and the oldest Versions, the Syriac, Latin, and Egyptian, prove that their Scriptures were the same as ours. Moreover all our oldest Greek manuscripts of the epistles contain those epistles once doubted by some; so do all the Versions except the Syriac; see above. Nor have we received most of our manuscripts, testimonies of fathers and Versions, from Rome, but, from the Greek, Syrian, and African churches
Pseudepigrapha - The two Versions are different in length and content. See Apocalyptic ; Apocrypha ; Bible, Texts and Versions
Home (2) - The expressions bearing the sense of ‘home’ are: (1) οἱκία (Matthew 8:8; also John 14:2, where we may prefer ‘home’ to ‘house,’ the rendering of the Authorized and Revised Versions); (2) οἱκος (Mark 5:19, Luke 1:23-56; Luke 9:61; Luke 15:6; also John 7:53 Authorized and Revised Versions, in the section concerning the adulteress); (3) τὰ ἴδια (John 19:27, cf
Righteous, To Be - In the English Versions a frequent translation is “to justify” (KJV, RSV, NASB, NIV); modern Versions also give the additional translations “to be vindicated (RSV, NASB, NIV) and “to acquit” (RSV, NIV)
Aquila - Deutsch in his article on "Versions, Ancient, (Targum)," in Smith's D
Boasting - These uses of kauchaomai [2] basically convey the idea of "rejoicing" or "glorifying" as the word is translated in most Versions
Repose - In the well-known passage Matthew 11:28-30 Jesus offers the gift of repose (ἀνάπαυσις, Authorized and Revised Versions rest) to those who will learn of Him
Undressed Cloth - nether, Arab, natrún, Authorized and Revised Versions (incorrectly) ‘nitre,’ Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ‘lye’ (Jeremiah 2:22)
Wicked (2) - ...
Four Greek words in NT are translated ‘wicked’ in Authorized and Revised Versions
Septuagint - The ancient text current before Origen was called "the common one"; he compared this with the Versions of Aquila, Theodotion, and Symmachus, and marked the Septuagint with an obelos mark where he found superfluous words, and supplied deficiencies of Septuagint from those three, prefixing an asterisk
Learning - The Christians in ancient times collected and preserved the Greek Versions of the Scriptures, particularly the Septuagint, and translated the originals into Latin
Humble (Self) - It is translated in English Versions as “to be low” (KJV, RSV, NASB, NIV); “to bring low” (KJV, RSV); “to bring down” (NASB, NIV); “to be humble” (KJV, RSV, NASB, NIV)
Nineveh, Ninevites - ’ ‘Ninevites (ἄνδρες Νινευεῖται, no article; Authorized and Revised Versions ‘the men of Nineveh’) shall stand up (as witnesses) in the judgment with this generation and shall condemn it, because they repented in accordance with the message preached by Jonah (εἰς τὸ κήρυγμα Ἰωνᾶ),’ whereas this generation has not repented though a far greater than Jonah is preaching to it; ‘something greater (πλεῖον, cf
Gospels (Uncanonical) - Still, it followed in the wake of the canonical Gospels, and what has survived the wreck, reaching us partly on the planks of Versions and partly on broken pieces of the original, forms a considerable section of the material for our present survey. Wright’s Contributions to the Apocryphal Literature of the New Testament, London, 1865, Syriac Versions of the protevangelium Jacobi (a fragment) and the Gospel of Thomas the Israelite were published and translated with notes. ...
An excellent survey of recent Oriental discoveries and discussion in this field is given in Felix Haase’s Literarische Untersuchungen zur orientalisch-apokryphen Evangelienliteratur, Leipzig, 1913; the Slavonic Versions are chronicled by E. The numerous Versions of some uncanonical Gospels might seem to compensate for the fragmentary condition of others, but in reality the Versions are often equivalent to fresh editions rather than to translations, and in this way the recovery of the primitive nucleus is sometimes rendered more difficult than ever
Various Readings - Versions. It will easily be seen that when the early Versions were needed they were made from some text that was then available, and the translations show in some degree what was in the text that was translated. For the principal of these translations see Versions OF THE SCRIPTURE
Reproach (2) - —The word is found in Authorized and Revised Versions as a rendering of four Gr. Once in Authorized and Revised Versions (Luke 11:45) the word ‘reproach’ is used with reference to our Lord’s utterances, but there by a misrendering; for the Gr
Eve - So the ancient Versions
Soul - Older English Versions of the Bible have created misunderstanding by the translation ‘man became a living soul’ (Genesis 2:7), for the words translated ‘living soul’ are the same words as earlier translated ‘living creatures’ (Genesis 1:21; Genesis 1:24)
Blessing - These occurrences of "bless" are usually translated "praise" or "extol" in modern Versions
Saints - In reply, it is argued that the textual evidence of Manuscripts and Versions is exactly the same for this passage as for the rest of the First Gospel
Isaac - The tradition was evidently a popular one, and may have found currency in several Versions, though there is no actual impossibility in the imitation by the son of the father’s device
Crowd - The words used for ‘crowd’ are ὄχλος and πλῆθος (both usually rendered ‘multitude’ in Authorized and Revised Versions, but in Mark 2:4; Mark 5:27; Mark 5:30, Luke 8:19; Luke 19:3, ὄχλος is translation ‘press’ [1])
Will, Would - Versions; Galatians 1:4 ; Ephesians 1:9 ; 5:17 , "of the Lord;" Colossians 1:9 ; 4:12 ; 1 Thessalonians 4:3 ; 5:18 , where it means "the gracious design," rather than "the determined resolve;" 2 Timothy 2:26 , which should read "which have been taken captive by him" Slave, Slavery - Modern readers easily fail to realize its presence in the background of the NT Scriptures, so great are the social changes that have been brought about in the course of time, and so much is the harsh fact softened by the phrasing of our Versions. In the only instance in which the English Versions use the term ‘slaves’ in the NT (Revelation 18:13) it represents a late but significant use of σῶμα (‘body’). Similarly, the English Versions ‘master’ stands for terms (whether δεσπότης or the commoner κύριος) that imply ownership. ) The term ‘slaves’ occurs only once in English Versions of the NT, viz. The rendering of the English Versions (‘use it rather’) is enigmatical; and certainly from early times some have understood the Apostle’s phrase (μᾶλλον χρῆσαι) thus rendered to mean, ‘take your freedom, if you can get it,’ but there is more to be said for viewing it as counselling them to stay as they were
Beatitude - The relation of the two Versions. The relation of the two Versions. Therefore, the question to be asked in regard to the two Versions of the Beatitudes is part of the larger question: How is it that in two reports of the same discourse there are so many variations?...
Some modern critics distinguish between primary and secondary Beatitudes, though different reasons are assigned in support of this distinction. Though the two Versions represent the same discourse, the one discourse may not have been delivered with such formality as many theories imply. The different Versions of the eighth Beatitude in Matthew point to this conclusion. Yet Wright’s conclusion, after a thorough study of the Synoptic problem, is that the Woes in Luke are either ‘conflated from another source’ or ‘editorial inversions of the Blessings
Samuel, Books of - Text and Versions . The Syriac and Vulgate Versions are also useful, but to a far less extent
Vengeance (2) - —The word ‘vengeance’ (ἐκδίκησις) occurs in Authorized and Revised Versions of the Gospels only in Luke 21:22, where it refers to God’s providential punishment of sin. ἐκδίκησις occurs also in the phrase ποιεῖν ἐκδίκησιν (Authorized and Revised Versions ‘avenge’) in the parable of the Unjust Judge (Luke 18:7-8), and the corresponding verb ἐκδικέω (also rendered ‘avenge’; cf
Vessels And Utensils - Smaller Versions were used for other purposes (2 Kings 2:20 ). New Testament Versions (variously translated) are mentioned as containers for oil ( Matthew 25:4 ) and, in alabaster, for perfume (Matthew 26:7 )
Bason - Or was it a vessel set apart for ceremonial ablution, such as would be required by the religious feast in which they were engaged?...
But, in spite of the Vulgate and modern Versions, it is doubtful if the word ‘bason’ conveys to us a good idea of the article and of the scene. But in the cases where the English Versions suggest nothing of the kind, the Heb
Purity (2) - The other group consists of ἁγνος, ἁγνιζω, ἁγνισμος, ἁγνότης, ἁγνια, which are found less frequently, and which in the Authorized and Revised Versions are always rendered by ‘pure,’ ‘purify,’ etc. The failure of the Authorized and Revised Versions to distinguish these terms is, however, of no great importance, inasmuch as the Greek words themselves appear to be used as completely equivalent
Token - This word occurs three times in the Pauline Epistles, and nowhere else in the English Versions of the apostolic writings
Propitiation - This is largely the reason why present-day Versions of the English Bible prefer to use alternative expressions
Virgin, Virgin Birth - Some Versions like REB do not translate this word as virgin in any passage
Damascus, Damascenes - The two Versions of the story can be reconciled by supposing that the governor turned out the garrison and set a watch at the instigation of influential Jews, who represented St
Angel - The English Versions follow this twofold distinction by translating mal'âk as simply “angel” or “messenger” (KJV, RSV, NASB, NIV)...
Haggai - In his prophetic work he was associated with Zechariah ( Ezra 5:1 ; Ezra 6:14 ); and the names of the two are prefixed to certain Psalms in one or more of the Versions (to Psalms 137:1-9 in LXX Exhortation - Similarly the verb παρακαλέω is often appropriately translated ‘comfort’ in both Versions, but, again, wherever in Authorized Version the sense requires ‘exhort’ it so appears in the text of Revised Version (except in Acts 18:27 ‘encourage’ and 2 Corinthians 9:5 ‘intreat’)
Text of the Gospels - Moreover, existing Manuscripts and Patristic quotations of the earlier Latin Versions differed from the Textus Receptus even more fundamentally, and similar types of text are found to have been very widely spread, speaking in a geographical sense, and occur in some important Manuscripts , in many ancient Versions, and in the quotations of many Christian writers, especially in the earliest times. ) But a few of our earliest Greek Manuscripts , supported by the quotations of the most scholarly Fathers of the earlier centuries, and by a few Versions, present a different text, which has commended itself on its intrinsic merits, as well as on account of its proved antiquity, to most modern critical scholars: it forms the base of practically all the modern critical editions, and of our English Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 . Hort also suggests the name ‘Antiochian,’ which is preferable, because it avoids any chance of confusion with the totally distinct Syriac Versions. , since the text of Chrysostom and other Syrian Fathers of the 4th cent, is substantially identical with the common late text; and (§ 131) the text of every other considerable group of documents is shown by analogous evidence of Fathers and Versions to be of equal or greater antiquity
Rock - ) in the ancient Versions, as well as AV Seeing - —In the Gospels there are three Greek words (βλέπω, θεωρἑω, ὁράω) used for ‘see,’ sometimes rendered in the Authorized and Revised Versions by ‘behold,’ ‘take heed,’ ‘beware,’ ‘regard
Wicked - In the other cases where the two Versions differ in the same manner no certain contextual indications to decide the question are present
Levi - The treacherous act referred to, which was so serious a violation of tribal morals that it cost them the sympathy of the other tribes, is probably recorded in Genesis 34:1-31 in two different Versions, the oldest of which is J Sanctuary - Other Old Testament and New Testament words may sometimes refer to or can even be translated "sanctuary" in some English Versions, but none of them actually mean "sanctuary, " strictly speaking
Guest-Chamber - —This word occurs in Authorized and Revised Versions only in the parallel passages Mark 14:14, Luke 22:11
Israel in Egypt - " The Samaritan Pentateuch and the LXX add the words "and of their fathers in the land of Canaan;" but these words are not in the Arabic, Syriac, or Vulgate Versions; and may therefore have been added to meet the apparent difficulty
James, Epistle of - In the common Versions it is called "the general, or catholic epistle," probably meaning no more than that it is not addressed to any particular assembly; but the word 'general' is not in any of the earlier Greek copies
First-Born First-Begotten - In Luke 2:7 our Lord is spoken of as Mary’s ‘firstborn’; in Matthew 1:25 the word, though found in CD and some Versions, is clearly an interpolation
Kill - The word there is hârag, and since it implies premeditated killing, the commandment is better translated: “Do not murder,” as most modern Versions have it
Romans, the Epistle to the - The Muratorian Canon, Syriac and Old Latin Versions, have it. The early Latin Versions of the New Testament were made for the provinces, especially Africa, nor Rome
Violence - Interest centres chiefly on the two passages Matthew 11:12 and Luke 16:16, which are so much alike, though in different contexts, that they are obviously two Versions of the same saying. ’ Is there necessarily any inconsistency, however? May we not have here one of those passages where by a slight change in the expression, by a turning of the coin, as it were, a new and complementary truth is conveyed? Would there be any inconsistency if one were to say ‘the train is advancing quickly, and those who are quick succeed in entering it’? On the other hand, the translation of the Authorized and Revised Versions is open to the charge of being tautological
Tittle - ‘Tittle,’ which is just ‘title’ in another form of spelling (the shorter form is used in all the English VSS Captain - For the ‘Captain’ of Authorized Version in Hebrews 2:10, Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 substitutes ‘author,’ giving ‘captain’ in the margin; and in Hebrews 12:2 both VSS Covenant - Later Versions may use “covenant,” “treaty,” or “compact,” but not consistently
Theodotion, Otherwise Theodotus - which followed, as those of Aquila and Symmachus preceded, that of the LXX in Origen's columnar arrangements of the Versions
Lord's Prayer (i) - Cook refers to Wanley’s Catalogus, where separate Versions of the Lord’s Prayer are either given or their existence noted, pp. ...
(e) γενηθήτω is translation יֵעָשָׂה by Shemtob, Delitzsch, Salkinson-Ginsburg, Resch; יְהִי by Alexander (McCaul-Hoga), Margoliouth, by the old Syriac Versions except the Syro-Palestinian; from SE cf. ...
But the Oriental Versions took another view: Syr Force - The word ‘force’ occurs only twice in these records (Matthew 11:12, John 6:15 Authorized and Revised Versions); and in both cases it is used as the translation of ἁρπάζω, which signifies to seize or carry off (an object by physical force or compulsion). The word ‘power’ in the Authorized and Revised Versions of the Gospels is represented by two Greek terms in the original, viz. ...
Δύναμις is the other word which is translated ‘power’ in the Authorized and Revised Versions of the Gospels
James - The older English Versions have either ‘Judas of James’ (Wyclif = Vulgate Iudam Iacobi) or ‘Judas James’ sonne’ (Tindale, etc. The extant Syriac Versions render ‘Alphaeus’ by Chalpai, while ‘Clopas’ is rendered by Kleopha
Kindness (2) - —The NT term χρηστότης, which is rendered in the Authorized and Revised Versions both by ‘kindness’ and by ‘goodness’ (once in Romans 3:12 as ‘good,’ following the LXX Septuagint of Psalms 13(14):1, 3, there quoted, in which χρηστότητα = טוֹב), nowhere occurs in the Gospels. χρηστός, Authorized and Revised Versions ‘kind,’ is found once in the Gospels as referring to God (Luke 6:35)
Profaning, Profanity - —The word ‘profane’ occurs only once in Authorized and Revised Versions of the Gospels, and then in the verbal form (Gr. βέβηλος from which it comes, and which is found 5 times in NT (1 Timothy 1:9; 1 Timothy 4:7; 1 Timothy 6:20, 2 Timothy 2:15, Hebrews 12:16), ‘profane’ being in each case the rendering of Authorized and Revised Versions
Sacraments - ]'>[1] VSS Flood - From all of this, it is the studied judgment of scholars “that the Babylonian and Hebrew Versions (of the flood stories) are genetically related is too obvious to require proof” (Alexander Heidel
Reconcilation - More recent Versions and translations have returned to “reconciliation,” largely because the word atonement has been encumbered with various theories of atonement
Syria - ...
Aramean Kingdoms In most English Versions of the Old Testament (KJV, NRSV, NAS) “Syria” and “Syrian” (NIV, NRSV “Aram” or “Aramean”) translate the Hebrew word Aram, which refers to the nations or territories of the Arameans, a group akin to Israel (Deuteronomy 26:5 )
Enlightenment - Syriac Versions of the NT render the word ‘enlightened’ in both Hebrews 6:4 and Hebrews 10:32 by ‘baptized
Long-Suffering - Only the verb occurs in the Gospels: Matthew 18:26; Matthew 18:29 (Authorized and Revised Versions ‘have patience’), Luke 18:7 (Authorized Version ‘bear long,’ Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ‘is long-suffering’)
Chief Priests - These, then, were in all probability the ‘chief priests’ of the Authorized and Revised Versions
Comfort (2) - παράκλητος, which occurs four times (John 14:16; John 14:26; John 15:26; John 16:7), always appears in Authorized and Revised Versions as ‘the Comforter
Zephaniah, Theology of - Anachronistically translated "Lord" in most English Versions, it is God's personal, covenant name revealed to his own people (Exodus 6:2-3 )
Fellowship - Thus the word κοινωνία acquires a meaning which the EVV Praise - ” Most Versions follow the traditional translation “Lord,” a practice begun in Judaism before New Testament times when the Hebrew term for “Lord” was substituted for “Yahweh,” although it probably means something like “He who causes to be
Separate - 9:10, the various Versions differ in their rendering of nâzar: “I found Israel like grapes in the wilderness; I saw your fathers as the firstripe in the fig tree at her first time: but they went to Baal-peor, and separated [2] themselves unto that shame; and their abominations were according as they loved
Analogy of Faith - ‘But,' say some, ‘is not this mode of interpretation warranted by Apostolical authority? Does not Paul, Romans 12:6 , in speaking of the exercise of the spiritual gifts, enjoin the prophets to prophesy κατα την αναλογιαν της πιστεως , according to the proportion of faith, as our translators render it, but as some critics explain it, according to the analogy of the faith?' Though this exposition has been admitted into some Versions, and adopted by Hammond and other commentators, and may be called literal, it is suited neither to the ordinary meaning of the words, nor to the tenor of the context
Ravels - In the Septuagint and other Versions the Hebrew word for desolation is rendered raven
Philemon, Epistle to - It is contained in the Syriac and Old Latin Versions, and named in the Muratorian Fragment
Naturalness - ...
The words which are rendered by ‘nature’ or the like in the Authorized and Revised Versions are φύσις, φυσικός, ὁμοιοπαθής, and ψυχικός, but the last is only translated ‘natural’ where it stands opposed to πνευματικός, and there the rendering is not satisfactory though none better is easily found
Print - VSS Publishing - When κηρύσσω is used, however, in this specific sense, it is almost invariably rendered ‘preach’ in Authorized and Revised Versions
Timotheus, Called Aelurus - These are extant in Latin Versions ( ib
Old Testament - ...
DeRossi at Parma gave from ancient Versions various readings of SELECT PASSAGES, and from the collation on them of 617 manuscripts, and 134 besides, which Kennicott had not seen; four vols. The ancient Versions alone need more careful scrutiny. Aquila's, Symmachus', and Theodotion's Versions are only fragments
Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs - 33-49, 109-117), has put forward an unanswerable case for a Hebrew original (see his Greek Versions of the Testaments, pp. For the discovery of these fragments and their mutual relation see Charles, Greek Versions of the Testaments, pp. * [26] ...
The work now exists in (a) Greek, (b) Armenian, (c) Slavonic, and many mediaeval and modern Versions
Septuagint - Among the Greek Versions of the Old Testament, says Mr. ...
According to him, Ptolemy Philadelphus sent to Palestine for some learned Jews, whose number he does not specify; and these, going over to the island of Pharos, there executed so many distinct Versions, all of which so exactly and uniformly agreed in sense, phrases, and words, as proved them to have been not common interpreters, but men prophetically inspired and divinely directed, who had every word dictated to them by the Spirit of God throughout the entire translation
Libertines - Certain Armenian VSS Fellowship - Though it is not translated “fellowship” in English Versions, Paul actually used the term koinonia to denote the financial contribution which he was collecting from Gentile believers to take to Jerusalem for the relief of the saints who lived there ( Romans 15:26 ; 2 Corinthians 8:4 ; 2 Corinthians 9:13 )
Blindness (2) - Is it not enough for all practical purposes to hold the substantial accuracy of the Evangelic narrative without troubling ourselves about those minute divergences which occur in different Versions of the same event narrated by the most trustworthy witnesses?...
The miracles recorded in Matthew 12:22 and John 9 stand by themselves as having a very close relation to the teaching of Jesus which follows
Field - ‘Stony ground’ (Authorized Version, following early English Versions) suggests a soil abounding in loose stones, such as is often found there producing good wheat; but the picture is rather of a soil into which the seeds could not sink deep, and, the film of earth being readily heated because of the underlying rock, they would come up sooner than elsewhere, and at first would look uncommonly flourishing; but, not being able to send roots deep into the moist earth (cf
Flies - In the Hebrew Scriptures, or in the ancient Versions, are seven kinds of insects, which Bochart classes among muscae, or flies
Psalmody - Better Versions of the Psalms, and many excellent collections of hymns, are now in use, and may be considered as highly important gifts bestowed upon the modern church of God
bi'Ble - [1] A REVISED VERSION of this authorized edition was made by a group of American and English scholars, and in 1881 the Revised New Testament was published simultaneously in the United States and England
Ark - In older English Versions of the Bible, the word is used of Noah’s floating animal-house (Genesis 7:8-9), of the floating basket made for the baby Moses by his parents (Exodus 2:3-5), and of the sacred box in the inner shrine of Israel’s tabernacle (Exodus 26:33)
Linus (1) - , that our present Latin Linus must be later than Jerome; but he does not seem to have appreciated the conservative character of Jerome's revision or to have consulted the older Versions
Elder - ...
English Versions of the Bible use various words for church leaders – ‘elders’, ‘overseers’, ‘guardians’, ‘bishops’
Furniture - ...
Similarly, the New Testament carries us no further, for it uses no word which could be translated as “furniture” in the English Versions
Oil - Oil in this fresh state is distinguished in OT from the refined and purified product; the former is yitshâr , so frequently named along with ‘new wine’ or must ( tîrôsh , see Wine, § 1 ) and corn as one of the chief products of Canaan; the latter is always shemen , but the distinction is not observed in our Versions
Hades - Many English Versions foster confusion by translating both terms as "hell
Samaritan Pentateuch - ...
Versions
Doxology - The uncial evidence is very weak (LΔΣ), and the variations in the early Versions are numerous (Syrcur omits ‘and the power’; the Sinaitic is defective, and the old Latin (k) and the Sahidic differ from each other and from the Syriac)
Iniquity - In the English Versions the translation “iniquity” is fairly uniform
Lord, Lordship - Versions), see Matthew 4:7 ; James 5:11 , e
Psalms, the Book of - They appear with numerous variations in the ancient Greek and Syriac Versions
Doxology - The uncial evidence is very weak (LΔΣ), and the variations in the early Versions are numerous (Syrcur omits ‘and the power’; the Sinaitic is defective, and the old Latin (k) and the Sahidic differ from each other and from the Syriac)
Joannes (520), Monk And Author - Other bibliographical particulars, including an account of the Italian and French Versions, will be found in Fabricius ( Bibl
Palladius, Bishop of Helenopolis - The Historia Lausiaca was repeatedly printed in various Latin Versions, from very early times, the first ed
Manuscripts - The simplest course will be to divide them into the languages in which they are written, premising that the Gospels were originally written in Greek, and that the Versions in other languages are translations, generally direct, from the Greek. ...
This, the youngest of the Syrian Versions, is a revision by Thomas of Harkel (Heraclea) in the first half of the 7th cent. It is perhaps the best representative of the European Latin Versions of the 4th century
Inspiration - It is the original Scriptures whose words have inspired authority, not the subsequent copies or Versions. ) Moreover God has preserved by human means a multitude of manuscripts, patristic quotations, and ancient Versions, enabling us to restore the original text almost perfectly for all practical purposes
Talents - The story resembles so closely the parable of the Pounds in Luke 19:11-27 that many scholars have considered them to be different Versions of the same parable. ...
The above conclusion is due to no harmonistic prejudices, for it may be freely granted that different Versions of the same sayings were current in the Church, and have been incorporated in our Gospels
Sermon on the Mount - in their renderings of the same sayings, as well as various other phenomena connected with them, have led scholars to the conclusion that (a) there were two or more Versions of Matthew’s Logia, or (b) that there were other collections of sayings of Jesus besides that made by Matthew (Wendt, Jülicher, Wernle, J. (especially with the discourse in Luke 6) raises the question as to which of these two Versions of our Lord’s utterances is the more original
Peter, Second Epistle of - The oldest Latin Versions also seem not to have contained it; possibly it was absent from the original of Codex B, but it is found in the Egyptian Versions
Pseudo-Chrysostomus - " He has the doxology at the end; in this differing from the usage of Latin Versions but agreeing with the Apostolic Constitutions (iii. In the beatitudes he follows the received text in placing "Blessed are they that mourn" before "Blessed are the meek," contrary to Jerome and the bulk of the Latin Versions
Thessalonians, First Epistle to the - It is contained in the Syriac and Old Latin Versions, and named in the Muratorian Fragment
Tears - —The only two passages in Authorized and Revised Versions of the Gospels where tears are mentioned are Mark 9:24, where the father of the epileptic lad is said in Authorized Version to have cried out with tears, ‘Lord, I believe; help thou mine unbelief’ [1]; and Luke 7:38-44, where, in Simon the Pharisee’s house, the penitent harlot washed with her tears the Saviour’s feet
Heart - Since moderns understand the anatomy differently than the ancients, the English Versions gloss the Hebrew to accommodate it to a more scientific viewpoint
Gentiles (2) - Ἑλληνίς (Mk 7:26) is translated ‘a Greek’ in both Versions, but AV has ‘Gentile’ in the margin
New Testament - It may be added that the evidence of ancient Versions, old Latin, Syriac, and Egyptian, is of great importance; but it is of too complicated a nature to be briefly discussed
Only Begotten - and Coptic Versions
Poverty of Spirit - This Beatitude is placed first in the Versions of both Mt
Canon of the New Testament - Half the Latin Versions are without it; so are the Syriac Versions, which are much older than our oldest MSS of the canons. Translations of the Bible into the vernacular of various languages laid the question of the Canon to rest again, by familiarizing readers with the same series of books in all Versions and editions
Apocrypha - The insertion of the name ‘Jesus’ in 7:28 (not found in the Oriental Versions) by a Christian hand is not sufficient reason for discrediting the Jewish character of the composition. The reference to the death of the Messiah is not found in the Arabic or the Armenian Versions; but it is easy to see how it came to be omitted, while there is no likelihood that it would be inserted later, either by a Jew, to whom the idea would be unwelcome, or by a Christian, since the resurrection is not also mentioned. ‘My son Christ,’ or ‘My anointed son’ (7:29; see also 13:32, 37, 52, 14:9, in most Versions, but not in Arm
Elect, Election - The Matthaean and Markan Versions bear evident traces of assimilation to the voice at Jesus’ baptism. The awful scenes accompanying the destruction of Jerusalem would result in the annihilation of its doomed inhabitants, were it not that, ‘for the sake of his chosen,’ the Lord (some of the old Latin Versions read Deus) had determined to cut short the duration of that period (cf
Lord's Supper - Similarly the "breaking of bread at (their) house" of meeting (as distinguished from "in the temple," not "from house to house": Acts 2:42; Acts 2:46; Acts 20:7; Acts 20:11) refers primarily to the Christian meals of loving fellowship (called agapais , 2 Peter 2:13, where the Sinaiticus manuscript reads as the KJV: "with their own deceivings," but the Vaticanus manuscript, the Vulgate and the Syriac Versions have: "in their own lovefeasts"; Judges 1:12 has: "in your feasts of charity," (agapais )
Criticism - Biblical criticism is divided into two branches: (1) Lower Criticism , which is concerned with the original text of Scripture the Hebrew of the OT and the Greek of the NT, by reference to ( a ) the external evidence of MSS, Versions, and citations in ancient literature, and ( b ) the intrinsic evidence of the inherent probability of one reading as compared with a rival reading, judged by such rules as that preference should be given to the more difficult reading, the shorter reading, the most characteristic reading, and the reading which accounts for the alternative readings (see Text of the NT); (2) Higher Criticism , which is concerned with the authorship, dates, and circumstances of origin, doctrinal character and tendency, historicity, and other such questions concerning the books of Scripture, as far as these matters can be determined by a careful examination of their contents, comparing the various sections of each one with another, or comparing the books in their entirety with one another, and bringing all possible light to bear upon them from history, literature, antiquities, monuments, etc
Hunger - —The substantive ‘hunger’ (Authorized and Revised Versions) is the equivalent of a Greek word (λιμός) which in the NT is used either of the suffering of an individual (Luke 15:17, cf
Mark - It was also widely believed that he died at Alexandria, receiving (according to some Versions) the crown of martyrdom
Consecrate, Consecration (2) - ’ The exception in the Authorized and Revised Versions is the first petition of the Lord’s Prayer (Matthew 6:9 = Luke 11:2)—‘Hallowed be thy name
Proverbs, the Book of - and Vulgate Versions), for which Gesenius translated "a saying that needs an interpreter," i
Love - The RSV translates it mainly as ‘steadfast love’, the GNB as ‘constant love’, and the older English Versions as ‘mercy’, ‘kindness’ and ‘loving kindness’ (cf
Fulfilment - For ‘fulfilling law’ or ‘fulfilling a command’ there is no proper authority in OT, though Authorized and Revised Versions at times introduces the term (Psalms 148:8; literally, the forces of nature ‘do’ God’s word). Also, as already implied, Authorized and Revised Versions sometimes introduces ‘fulfil’ or ‘be fulfilled’ where the original has merely ‘do’ or ‘be
Confess, Confession - English Versions such as the NIV therefore sometimes translate these verbs as "acknowledge
Lord's Prayer - The evidence of the ancient Versions is divided
Lord's Prayer, the - Both Versions of the Lord's Prayer imply the importance of a vertical dimension of personal purity in worship of the Father as a prerequisite of valid missionary activity on the Lord's behalf
Hearing - verbs (ἀκούω, εἰσακούω) used for ‘hear’ in the Gospels, and they are sometimes rendered in the Authorized and Revised Versions by ‘hearken,’ ‘listen’ ( Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885), ‘come to the ears of,’ ‘to be noised
King - Again, in the earlier representation Christ’s Kingdom is to be established on earth at His Coming, but in the later Versions it becomes a heavenly kingdom (2 Timothy 4:18), corresponding to the kingdom of the Father which St
Redeem - ...
Most English Versions prefer to render kâphar with the more neutral term “atone” or even “ransom
Hieronymus, Eusebius (Jerome) Saint - These works mark the epoch when he began to feel the importance of Origen as a church-writer, though daring even then to differ from him in doctrine, and also to realize the imperfections of the existing Versions of the Scriptures. Versions of O. Versions of Aquila and the LXX with the Heb
Covenant - ...
The LXX Septuagint regularly renders berith by διαθἡκη, the later Greek Versions prefer συνθήκη. Possibly these motives were not always exegetical, but derived from the usage of earlier (English and other) Versions
Lord's Prayer, the - ...
Although all three Versions of the prayer exist only in Greek the thought pattern and expressions are Jewish
Son, Sonship - The latter term is several times rendered ‘son’ in Authorized and Revised Versions without discrimination
Wilderness (2) - —The word or words (more or less synonymous) which the Authorized and Revised Versions translation by ‘wilderness’ or ‘desert’ afford a striking example of the difficulties which translators, and after them the ordinary readers of Holy Scripture, have to contend with, because that word does not convey to our mind the idea of something we know: in our western European countries there is not, properly speaking, any desert or wilderness, in the Biblical sense of the word
Simple, Simplicity - and many English Versions
Miracles - ...
(b) Turning to the English Versions, we are struck by the confusion occasioned by the indiscriminate use of the word ‘miracle
Benedictus - ]'>[1] or Versions
Hellenists - On which account Grotius, understanding by the ‘Ελληνισται , or "Grecians, to whom some of those who were dispersed on the persecution which arose about Stephen: preached the Lord Jesus," Acts 11:19-20 , Greeks by nation, concludes there is a mistake in the text, and alters it according to the Syriac and Vulgate Versions: "Certe legendum, [1] saith he, " προς τους Ελληνας
Peace (2) - It is noticeable that our Lord addresses it only to an unclean spirit (Mark 1:25 = Luke 4:35) or to the raging sea (Mark 4:39, where Authorized and Revised Versions gives ‘Be still!’)
Lord's Prayer (ii) - Of the three principal renderings—‘daily’ (Authorized and Revised Versions text), ‘for the coming day’ ((Revised Version margin) ), and ‘needful’ (Amer. סְנְלָּה Authorized and Revised Versions ‘peculiar
Faith - The English Versions of the Old Testament have translated a pair of Hebrew verbs using the noun “faith
Mercy, Merciful - Other English Versions render it as “steadfast love” (NRSV), “lovingkindness” (NAS), “loyalty” or “constant love” (REB), “love” or “unfailing love” (NIV), “faithfulness” (TEV)
Benediction - μακάριος, although translated in the Authorized and Revised Versions ‘blessed,’ is not used in benedictions, and has a different meaning (see Blessing)
Work - Versions)
Predestination - ]'>[2] for ‘foreordain,’ a return to the usage of the older Versions
Benediction - μακάριος, although translated in the Authorized and Revised Versions ‘blessed,’ is not used in benedictions, and has a different meaning (see Blessing)
Hermas Shepherd of - Text and Versions. 30 to the end, which has to be supplied from the Latin Versions
Job - ]'>[3] Job usually comes first, and this order is generally adopted in European Versions, owing no doubt to the influence of the Latin Bible. text of Job was long regarded as excellent, but has been much questioned in recent years, some critics resorting very largely to emendation with the help of the Versions and free conjecture
Annunciation, the - The Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 is probably right in omitting ‘Blessed (art) thou among women,’ which may have come from Luke 1:42 : א BL, with the Egyptian and Armenian Versions, omit. The Latin Versions rightly have quails, not cujas, as an equivalent
Cooking And Heating - It is in fact still called “milk” in some Versions of the Bible (Judges 4:19 )
Religion - For that reason, one does not find "religion" or "religious" in most English Versions of these Scriptures
Hell - " English Versions occasionally translate hades [ Luke 16:23 ) and tartaroo [ 2 Peter 2:4 ) as hell
King, Kingship - The Greek word translated "Christ" in our English Versions of the Bible is a translation of the Hebrew term for Messiah (the anointed one)
Imagination - In time various Versions would arise, which were collated and welded together into a more accurate whole by scholarly men such as St
Glory - It is not proposed to embrace in this article all the words which our English Versions render by ‘glory’; it is confined to the most important of these-δόξα
Majesty (2) - ...
A comparison of the uses of μεγαλειότης in Luke 9:43, Acts 19:27, and 2 Peter 1:16 raises a doubt whether ‘majesty’ is the most adequate rendering of the word in the first and third passages, and whether ‘magnificence’ (as in Acts 19:27 Authorized and Revised Versions ) or ‘splendour’ would not more correctly reproduce the original idea
Excommunication (2) - The word does not occur in Authorized and Revised Versions, but we have in the Gospels several references to the practice as it existed among the Jews in the time of Christ, while certain words of Christ Himself supply the germs of the usage of the Christian Church as it meets us in the Apostolic age and was subsequently developed in the ecclesiastical discipline of later times
Family (Jesus) - John 2:4) obscured in the Authorized and Revised Versions by the employment of ‘woman’ as a rendering of γύναι, a translation which is far from reproducing the respectful tone of the Greek
Marriage - The first they called nashim, and the other pilgashim; which last, though most Versions render it by the words "concubines," "harlots," and "prostitutes," yet it has no where in Scripture any such bad sense
Chronicles, Books of - The order of English Versions with Chronicles, Ezra, and Nehemiah after Samuels and Kings goes back to the Septuagint
Baptism - In the last passage the words ἐξ ὕδατος, read in all Manuscripts and VSS Gospels, Apocryphal - It exists to-day in Greek, Latin, and Syriac Versions, which, however, do not altogether agree, and all of which are apparently abbreviated recensions of the original Gospel. This Gospel has come to us in Greek, Latin, Syriac, Sahidic, and Ethiopic Versions
Psalms, Theology of - Furthermore, an analysis of the original Hebrew and subsequent daughter Versions of Psalms reveals that the titles were subject to variation and expansion during the course of their transmission in postexilic times and beyond, in contrast to the poems themselves whose text remained relatively constant. In the Hebrew Bible he is normally (except in the Elohistic Psalter) addressed by the name, "Yahweh, " which is rendered Lord in the English Versions
Ethics (2) - Luke (Luke 11:42) substitutes the ‘love of God,’ probably interpreting πίστις as ‘faith’ (as Authorized and Revised Versions). But we also find explicit remonstrances against the ‘traditions of the elders’ so dear to the scribes (Mark 7:5; Mark 7:9; Mark 7:13); He characterizes them summarily as the ‘prescriptions’ (Authorized and Revised Versions ‘tradition’) of men (Mark 7:8), thus contrasting them with the commandments of God
Scripture - The ancient Versions, as well as modern scholiasts, annotators, and translators, may be consulted
Chronology - Rawlinson truly says: nothing in ancient manuscripts is so liable to corruption from mistakes of copyists as numbers, it is quite possible that we may not possess Moses' real scheme in any of the three extant Versions of his words
Fall of Man - " Our margin reads, "after the manner of men;" and also the old Versions; but the Chaldee paraphrase agrees with our translation, which is also satisfactorily defended by numerous critics
Psalms - ]'>[1] has followed the Greek version; but in the internal arrangement of the Writings, the English and Greek Versions differ from one another
Multitude - —This word is used in Authorized and Revised Versions to translate ὄχλος and πλῆθος
Name (2) - The Trinitarian formula itself occurs in different Versions
Providence - πρόνοια) is found only once in Authorized and Revised Versions of the NT, viz
Virgin Birth - One would expect an exaggerated emphasis on the miraculous as the New Testament apocryphal Versions of Jesus' birth and childhood in fact do (cf
Plants in the Bible - ...
Another questionable fruit is that referred to as “apple ” (Song of Song of Solomon 2:3 ,Song of Song of Solomon 2:5 ; Song of Song of Solomon 7:8 ), although some Versions translate the word as “apricot
Money - Consequently, when one finds the word "money" in Bible Versions used to translate the Hebrew term kesep [1] (lit
Golden Rule - The two Versions of the saying are as follows:...
Matthew 7:12 ‘All things therefore whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, even so do ye also unto them: for this is the law and the prophets
Lord (2) - The frequency of its use is concealed from readers of the English Versions
Call, Calling - It may be repeated that ‘calling’ (the substantive) is not found in the Gospels; of course the word is not found anywhere in the Authorized and Revised Versions in the sense of ‘trade
Crucifixion - Versions, Just
Apocrypha - The book is found in an Aramaic version, three Greek, and three Old Latin Versions, and also in two Hebrew texts
Zechariah, Prophecy of - Perhaps this should be Simeon as in the LXX, the Syriac, and the Arabic Versions, as representing the most cruel: cf
Apostolic Constitutions And Canons - The main source is thought to be the ‘Egyptian Church Order,’ originally in Greek, but known through its Coptic and Ethiopic Versions, this in turn being based upon the ‘Canons of Hippolytus’ (circa, about a
Abel - The effect of this upon Cain was not to humble him before God, but to excite anger against his brother; and, being in the field with him, or, as the old Versions have it, having said to him, "Let us go out into the field," "he rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him;" and for that crime, by which the first blood of man was shed by man upon the earth,—a murder aggravated by the relationship and the "righteous" character of the sufferer, and having in it also the nature of religious persecution,—he was pronounced by the Lord "cursed from the earth
Joannes, Bishop of Ephesus - These Versions are of great assistance, many chapters being defective in the original
Ecclesiastes, Theology of - The book's author, who goes by the name "Qohelet" (translated in modern Versions as "the Preacher" or "the Teacher"), can, on the one hand, say that he "hated life" (2:17), but, on the other, assert that a "live dog is better off than a dead lion" (9:4)
Joshua - But Numbers 13:1-33 is late, and the Versions in Dt
Homosexuality - These suggestions, however, ignore the Greek Old Testament (LXX) Versions of Leviticus 18:22,20:13 , which use both arsenos [ ἄρρην , ἄρσην ]'>[2] and koiten [3], the latter passage placing them side-by-side; literally, "whoever lies with a male, having intercourse (as with) a female
Ten Commandments - As several modern Versions indicate, the King James Version's "Thou shalt not kill" is too broad to convey the sense of the Hebrew of the sixth command
Locust - The Authorized and Revised Versions has had no better success with its varying use of ‘locust,’ ‘grasshopper,’ ‘canker-worm,’ ‘palmer-worm,’ ‘caterpillar,’ and even ‘beetle’ (for hâgâb, manifestly a false translation)
Apocalyptic Literature - It exists to-day in Greek and Syriac Versions, with a strong probability that both are derived from original Hebrew writing
Baptism - In the last passage the words ἐξ ὕδατος, read in all Manuscripts and VSS Example - In the two Versions it stands 7 times (1 Corinthians 10:6, Philippians 3:17, 1 Thessalonians 1:7, 2 Thessalonians 3:9, 1 Timothy 4:12, Titus 2:7 RV, 1 Peter 5:3) for τύτος, once (1 Timothy 1:18 RV) for ὑποτύπωσις, once (1 Corinthians 10:11) in adverbial phrase for τυτικῶς, 5 times (Matthew 7:21-27 John 12:44-50; Hebrews 8:5, John 12:35-36 2 Peter 2:6) for ὑτοδειγμα, once (Acts 20:35) as partial rendering of ὑτοδείκνυμι, once (Judges 1:7) for δεῖγμα, once (Matthew 1:19) as partial rendering of δειγματιζω, and once (John 20:21-229) for ὑτογραμμὸς
Locust - The Authorized and Revised Versions has had no better success with its varying use of ‘locust,’ ‘grasshopper,’ ‘canker-worm,’ ‘palmer-worm,’ ‘caterpillar,’ and even ‘beetle’ (for hâgâb, manifestly a false translation)
Song of Songs - Bearing in mind what might be advanced on both sides, who shall determine whether Nergal is to be substituted for nidhgaloth (‘banners’) at Song of Solomon 6:10 ? The Versions, especially LXX Matthew, the Gospel According to - The genuineness of the first two chapters, disputed by some, is established by their presence in the oldest manuscripts and Versions
Number - ...
A comparison of the various manuscripts, Versions, etc
Abortion - Versions like the NASB that speak of "any further injury" imply that the fetus is already dead, and that only harm done to the mother is in view
Eucharist - In spite, therefore, of the fact that the majority of MSS and Versions favour its inclusion, Westcott and Hort are probably right in regarding the passage inclosed in brackets above as an interpolation
Immorality, Sexual - sela, improperly translated "rib" in many Versions) of Adam and fashions it into a genetic counterpart that is specifically female, and which matches Adam's maleness for purposes of reproducing the species. As the world's population grows, so do the human misdemeanors (Genesis 6:5-6 ), which seem to include mixed marriages (Genesis 6:2 ) and possible sexual perversions, although the latter are not mentioned explicitly. Everything forbidden had already led to the moral defilement of the nations surrounding Israel, and for these perversions they are to fall under divine judgment (v
Messiah - The Greek Versions attribute to the phrase an obscure Messianic reference, but interpret שלה as a late Hebrew compound form with a relative, which can be accepted only after making violent assumptions
Dress (2) - χιτών signified an under-garment, and is translation in Authorized and Revised Versions ‘coat’ in Matthew 5:40; Matthew 10:10, Mark 6:9, Luke 3:11; Luke 6:29; Luke 9:3, John 19:23
Pronunciation of Proper Names - The diphthong of the Authorized and Revised Versions justifies Thaddæ′us rather than Thad′dæus
Ephesians Epistle to the - Both the Old Latin and the Syriac Versions had it
Jacob - ...
The old Versions translated "lambs," an ancient standard of wealth before coinage was practiced
Ideal - —The word ‘ideal’ does not occur in Authorized and Revised Versions of the NT, nor is there any term in the Gr
Unity (2) - The word αἵρεσις (Authorized and Revised Versions ‘sect,’ ‘heresy’)
Canon of the Old Testament - ’ He speaks of Greek Versions of these books
Galatians, Epistle to the - It is found in the Old Latin and Syrian Versions and in the Muratorian Fragment ( c Leprosy - ...
(1) צרַעַח (ẓâra‘ath) is the word translation in Authorized and Revised Versions ‘leprosy’; the root meaning is to smite
Communion (2) - This saying has a meaning far more profound than that suggested by our English Versions
Ebionism And Ebionites - was produced for the benefit of those who declined the LXX adopted by the orthodox Christians, or the Greek Versions of Aquila and Theodotion accepted by the Jews
Eschatology - The Tribulation and Israel's conversion will follow (although in some Versions, the rapture will occur in the middle of or even after the Tribulation)
Trade And Commerce - In the senatorial coinage brass (aurichalcum, used to render χαλκολιβάνῳ in certain Latin Versions of Revelation 2:18, copper alloyed with 20 per cent of zinc) was used as well as copper
Redemption (2) - Authorized and Revised Versions ‘kinsman’); the term is used also to denote the ‘avenger of blood’ (Numbers 35:12, Deuteronomy 19:6 etc
Hellenistic And Biblical Greek - -The term ‘Biblical Greek’ denotes the language of the Greek Versions of the OT, and more especially the Septuagint , as also that of the NT, with which may be associated the Apocrypha and the works of the Apostolic Fathers
Genealogies of Jesus Christ - ]'>[4] (‘Jacob begat Joseph, to whom being betrothed the Virgin Mary begat Jesus that is called Christ’), and also the Old Latin and Syriac Versions, this point is missed, and there is little doubt that the Received Text is right
Brethren of the Lord (2) - (5) The Semitic Versions uniformly regard Ἀλφαὶος as a Semitic word, but Κλὡτας as Greek, transliterating the κ by ק
Peter, First Epistle of - Its omission from the Muratorian Fragment is not significant; it is contained in the oldest Versions, and Eusebius, in full agreement with what we know of early Christian literature, places it among the books which the Church accepted without hesitation
Jeremiah - But the Syriac and Arabic Versions make it likely "Zedekiah" ought to be read; so Jeremiah 27:3; Jeremiah 27:12; Jeremiah 27:28:1
Leucius, Author of n.t. Apocryphal Additions - Later Versions give other miraculous details; in particular that which Augustine mentions (in Johann
Thecla - " Thus the story ends in its oldest form as preserved in ancient Syriac and Latin Versions; but the four extant Greek copies represent her as living an anchorite's life in a cave on herbs and water and they subjoin a marvellous account (certainly of more recent composition) of her latter years
Mark, Gospel According to - ; it was used by Heracleon, the Valentinians, and the authors of the Gospel of ( pseudo- ) Peter and the Clementine Homilies , and is found in all the old Versions
Judas Iscariot (2) - The translation in the Authorized and Revised Versions—‘which was the traitor’—neither brings out the force of γίνομαι, nor the significance of the omission of the article
Lunatic - ’ The Vulgate translates it lunaticus, and in Matthew 17:15 lunaticus est, where Tindale gives ‘is frantick,’ and other Versions practically follow the Vulgate
Mark, Gospel According to - ...
The Gospel is found in all the old Versions—Curetonian and Sinaitic Syriac (of the former only 16:17–20 is extant), Old Latin, Bohairic, Sahidic; and in all catalogues and Greek manuscripts of the Gospels
Old Testament - Being read mainly in the Greek or Aramaic Versions, and interpreted, with the freedom characteristic of the age, as a collection of independent ‘prophecies’ or predictions of things to come, they were easily made to cover the great facts associated with Christ’s teaching, personality, and work
House - These and other terms are rendered in our Versions by ‘window,’ lattice , and casement ( Proverbs 7:6 AV Sacrifice - If we may take the ‘new’ of the Lucan and Pauline Versions as our Lord’s, we may draw the inference that in the establishing of the ‘new’ the ‘old’ Covenant was abrogated, and with it the sacrifices that had initiated it and given it historical continuity in Israel
Noah - ...
(2) The care for animals in the Babylonian, Indian, and Polynesian Versions
Turning - —In Authorized and Revised Versions of the Gospels the vbs. Professor Henry Drummond, remarking on the fact that in his wide experience as an evangelist he had never met with conversions of the agonizing type so common in an earlier generation, once raised the question whether the Holy Spirit may not in these days have changed His modus operandi. Of the former the NT affords numerous examples; indeed, nearly all the NT conversions are evidently sudden in their mode. And such conversions, of course, are common still, in Christian lands as well as in the mission field,—in the case of those who find themselves standing face to face at last with the Christ of whom they have never heard before, or of whom they have never rightly thought, or whose grace, though long familiar enough, they have hitherto deliberately resisted. In later times nurtural conversions become common; and under ideal conditions of Christian education they may be regarded as the normal type. Of such conversions there are multitudes; for in order to conversion a soul does not need to be violently plucked up by the roots and transplanted to another soil
Judges (1) - A number of errors there certainly are; but these can in a good many cases be rectified by the Versions, and above all by the Greek version
Offerings And Sacrifices - The latter derives from the Hebrew verb "to raise up" and for that reason is called a "heave offering" in some English Versions (cf
Immanuel - It may now be taken for granted that the word עַלִמָה translated ‘virgin’ in the Authorized and Revised Versions should be more correctly rendered ‘young woman
John, Epistles of - ’ All the ancient Versions include the Epistle among those canonically recognized, including the Peshitta and the Old Latin
Trade And Commerce - In the senatorial coinage brass (aurichalcum, used to render χαλκολιβάνῳ in certain Latin Versions of Revelation 2:18, copper alloyed with 20 per cent of zinc) was used as well as copper
Papias, Bishop of Hierapolis - Why we should have now exactly four Versions of the story is hard to explain on this hypothesis
Clement of Rome, Epistle of - But the weight of MS authority (C and all three Versions) is in favour of the reading τοῦ Χριστοῦ
Koran - The Mahometans have taken care to have their Scripture translated into the Persian, the Javan, the Malayan, and other languages; though, out of respect to the original, these Versions are generally, if not always, interlineated
Possession - These were iéiÄéú, Lilith (the night-hag, Isaiah 34:13-14), a female night-demon who sucked the blood of her sleeping victims;_ äÇîÌÇùÑÀçÄéú, a demon servant of Jahweh warded off by a blood-talisman (Exodus 12:23);_ Asmedai, the Asmodeus of Tobit 3:8-17, who is called in the Aramaic and Hebrew Versions of Tobit 3:8 ‘king of the Shçdîm,’ a demon borrowed from Zarathustrianism, who is identified with Ἀπολλύων (Revelation 9:11)
Papias - Hence we may infer that the point of the citation lies in the words actually given, and that Papias is explaining why various Versions of the Oracles (in whole or part) were then current side by side with the recognized Greek Matthew
Victorinus Afer - his importance in relation to ante-Hieronymian Versions of the Latin Bible
Vulgate - He complains constantly and bitterly of the virulence of his critics, who charge him with deliberate perversions of Scripture, and refuse to make themselves acquainted with the conditions of his task. ]'>[9] as the basis of his commentary on Job, but speaks of both Versions as existing and recognized by the Church (‘Novam translationem dissero, sed, ut comprobationis causa exigit, nunc novam nunc veterem per testimonia assumo; ut, quia sedes Apostolica utraque utitur, mei quoque labor studii ex utraque fulciatur’)
Simon Magus - It is probable that these Versions are independent re-castings of a common original
Christ in Jewish Literature - There is not the faintest ray of genius, or the least sign of literary skill in any of the Versions, or the slightest indication that He of whom the story was told was a great or a good man
Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch - are by far the most valuable, being completely independent, while the remaining Versions are mixtures of these two
Clementine Literature - On the other hand, the rabble which assails Barnabas is in both Versions described as a mob of Greeks , and the fifteen days' voyage to Palestine corresponds better with Alexandria than with Rome
Cyprianus (1) Thascius Caecilius - The importance of the text in elucidation of the Latin Versions then afloat is immense, and Hartel is quite dissatisfied with what he has been able to contribute to this object (Hartel, Praefat
Odes of Solomon - ...
As to the modern Versions made upon these texts, besides the works that we have mentioned concomitantly with the editions of the original, the following publications appear to be the most important