What does Tradition mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
παράδοσιν giving up 9
παραδόσει giving up 1

Definitions Related to Tradition

G3862


   1 giving up, giving over.
      1a the act of giving up.
      1b the surrender of cities.
   2 a giving over which is done by word of mouth or in writing, i.e. Tradition by instruction, narrative, precept, etc.
      2a objectively, that which is delivered, the substance of a teaching.
      2b of the body of precepts, esp.
      ritual, which in the opinion of the later Jews were orally delivered by Moses and orally transmitted in unbroken succession to subsequent generations, which precepts, both illustrating and expanding the written law, as they did were to be obeyed with equal reverence.
      

Frequency of Tradition (original languages)

Frequency of Tradition (English)

Dictionary

Holman Bible Dictionary - Tradition
Little thought is generally given by the beginning Bible student to the consideration of how the written text of the Bible came to us. If any thought is given at all, it is generally assumed that God handed the text to an individual (or group of individuals), and it has thus been passed on to us. A more thorough study of the biblical text, however, has led to the conclusion that behind a great deal of the written text of the Bible stands a long stream of tradition. Jeremiah admonished his people to look for the ancient ways in order to find the way of properly living with God (Jeremiah 6:16 ). His proclamation was that their long-standing tradition should have offered a proper guide for life.
Oral tradition appears to be the foundation of many written texts. A study of the New Testament helps us to realize that it was at least ten to twenty years after the death of Jesus before any of the Gospels were written. Prior to the writing of the first Gospel, the sermons of the apostles and many of the letters of Paul had been written. Yet during that time, the early Christians clearly knew a great deal about the life and ministry of Jesus. This information was passed on by word of mouth, becoming the traditions upon which the writers of the Gospels ultimately drew. Paul frequently referred to the traditions which he had received and which he passed on to the churches (1 Corinthians 11:23-25 ; 1 Corinthians 15:3-7 ). He also pointed out some things which he had not received from tradition (compare Galatians 1:11-12 .)
The evidence for ancient oral traditions is even stronger in the Old Testament. The entire collection of the books of the prophets is made up of material which was originally spoken (preached). It generally appears that their sermons were passed on and remembered orally for a considerable period of time before they were ever written. Jeremiah had obviously preached for many years before his sermons were first written. At that time, he employed Baruch the scribe to record his sermons as the prophet dictated them (Jeremiah 36:1-4 ). Isaiah also appeared to have ordered his disciples to collect his messages for some future time (Isaiah 8:16 ). This evidence can be multiplied many times.
Since the work of Herman Gunkel in the early part of the twentieth century, most Old Testament scholars have almost universally accepted the idea that many Old Testament texts had a long history of oral transmission before they were ever written. To a contemporary student, such a thought often appears to make such texts suspect. However, anyone who has tried to hurry through a favorite bedtime story with a child will recognize that audiences familiar with a story ensure its accurate transmission.
It appears that the narratives were first used around campfires or in religious rituals. Either type of use is highly structured and deeply tinged with emotions which would guard the accuracy of their use. At the same time, even as a contemporary interpreter will take an old text and apply it to a new situation, these old traditions apparently were frequently retold to apply to the new situations which the people of Israel faced. (A comparative study of 1,2Kings and 1,2Chronicles makes it appear that such may also have been done with written texts as well.)
Oral traditions appear to have had their origin in the life needs of the community of faith. The German term Sitz im Leben (life situation) is normally applied to this. The point is simply that oral traditions arose, were preserved, and were passed on because the life needs of the community were being met. This recognizes that people hold on to those things which are meaningful and meet their life needs. (God used processes which met human needs to preserve His inspired Word.) The verses of Scripture which a person memorizes and treasures are held onto for precisely the same reasons.
Such traditions, then, clearly had their origin in historical situations. The children of Abraham held onto the stories of their ancestors because they heard God speak to them through those events, guiding them in facing similar situations. They also held on to other parts of the story as the basis for their faith that God's promised blessings were ultimately going to be fulfilled for them.
On the other hand, other types of materials were preserved because they aided in the human approach to God in worship. Here again, it was the human need to worship and serve which gave the basis for preserving and passing on material which helped them meet those needs.
These ancient traditions, then, were inspired by God to meet human need in real life experiences. They were preserved and passed on precisely because they had a very specific life setting, helping people to face life as it was with the strength of God to sustain them every day. Such traditions made it easier to understand what God was doing because they could hear Him speak through what He had done in other life situations.
Furthermore, study of these ancient traditions makes it obvious that materials which were used in similar life situations were generally preserved and passed on in similar “literary” forms. The use of common forms or outlines for similar kinds of material made it even easier to maintain the accuracy of transmitting the traditions.
The traditions of Israel and of the early Christians were obviously used by the worshiping communities as a means of maintaining and transmitting their faith. In the Old Testament these were apparently collected and preserved at the various shrines where Israel worshiped. In the New Testament, this was done among the many scattered congregations.
A comparison of Psalm 14:1 and Psalm 53:1 can be seen to illustrate this process. The two psalms are almost wholly identical. Yet the name for God in Psalm 14:1 is Lord (Hebrew, Yahweh ) and in Psalm 53:1 , God (Hebrew, Elohim ; compare NAS). It appears from other studies that Yahweh was preferred in Judah and at the Jerusalem Temple while Elohim was preferred in the Northern Kingdom of Israel, possibly at Bethel. It appears that this particular psalm was a favorite among Hebrew worshipers. However, when the kingdom divided, one nation preserved it with one divine name while the other used the tradition to meet their own particular needs with the other name for God. Each worshiping community was inspired to use the same hymn to worship God, but they used it with their own particular name for God. The same types of processes appear to be demonstrable in other instances.
Further, such worshiping communities also appear to have preserved those particular traditions which were most meaningful to them. Thus Jerusalem, the City of David, appears to have had major interests in the Davidic traditions. Bethel, on the other hand, was significantly involved in the life of Jacob. It appears that traditions concerning Jacob had a very special meaning to those who worshiped at Bethel. Paul clearly referred to conflicting traditions and allegiances at Corinth (1 Corinthians 1:10-12 ). Such conflicts arose as the worshiping community sought to assimilate a variety of traditions into one tradition.
Obviously, in the Old Testament all the traditions of the various worship centers and worshiping communities ultimately were assimilated in Jerusalem. In the ongoing history of the nation, all other shrines ultimately passed away as the nation finally centered its entire worship experience upon the Jerusalem Temple. The New Testament experience was different in that the Christians' worship did not shrink inward to one place but spread outward to many. It was the New Testament itself which became the focal point of New Testament traditions rather than any specific worship center.
Oral traditions were recorded as written traditions at certain critical points in history. This is particularly true in the Old Testament era. It appears that the worshiping communities were generally quite content to use their traditions in predominantly oral form until a crisis arose which threatened their continuity. This contentment with things as they were was probably bolstered by the fact that reading and writing were skills limited primarily to the professional scribes in Old Testament times. Everyone could handle oral tradition, only a few could handle written traditions.
However, when historical crises arose which threatened the continued stability or existence of a worship center or of a worshiping community, then it appears that the traditions were committed to writing lest they be lost. Such situations arose when the nation divided following the reign of Solomon, when the Northern Kingdom fell before Assyria, and when Jerusalem fell under the onslaught of Babylon. At such times, there appear to have been large scale writings of traditions.
It appears that the New Testament traditions were written under the impetus of historical crises, but these were of a different nature. The Gospels were apparently written when those who had known Jesus in person began to die. There appears to have been a fear that the traditions would be lost unless they were recorded for future believers. Other New Testament materials were written to meet the crises of missions and evangelism. More people could read and write by this time. The written materials allowed people to receive the good news who had never heard a Christian preacher. As always, the handling of these materials was done under the inspiration of God's Holy Spirit.
The study of the transmission of these ancient traditions allows us to perceive the human dimension of the transmission of biblical materials as well as come to a deeper understanding of the nature of God's inspiration. The common characteristics of material preserved at specific worship centers allow us to identify many of their interests, concerns, and historical roots. On the other hand, the differences between traditions sometimes give an even greater insight into the basic human issues with which those who transmitted particular traditions were concerned. As an illustration, note that Mark says of the woman who had been plagued by the issue of blood that she had spent all her money on physicians yet had steadily gotten worse (Mark 5:25-26 ). Luke, on the other hand, left out that bit of a sarcastic criticism of doctors (Luke 8:43 ). The difference in the way these two writers handled the same tradition reveals Luke's human sympathetic concern with doctors. This adds depth to our understanding of the man who was himself a physician.
This kind of study has left us with both a deeper understanding of the practices by which God has inspired, recorded, and preserved His Word and a greater awareness of the fact that God worked with human beings who had all of the feelings and concerns to which humanity is heir. The biblical traditions are rooted and grounded in the divine meeting of human need. They have their basis in real-life situations and were preserved by a living, worshiping community. This allows these same traditions better to meet present human need in the real-life situations of contemporary communities of faith. See Bible, Formation and Canon of ; Inspiration; Revelation.
Robert L. Cate
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Tradition
TRADITION . See Law (in NT), § 1 .
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Tradition
Any kind of teaching, written or spoken, handed down from generation to generation. In Mark 7:3,9,13 , Colossians 2:8 , this word refers to the arbitrary interpretations of the Jews. In 2 Thessalonians 2:15 ; 3:6 , it is used in a good sense. Peter (1 Peter 1:18 ) uses this word with reference to the degenerate Judaism of the "strangers scattered" whom he addresses (Compare Acts 15:10 ; Matthew 15:2-6 ; Galatians 1:14 ).
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Tradition
In any society traditions develop as beliefs and practices are handed on from one generation to the next. The Jews of Jesus’ day had many traditions. Some of these had been taught in the law of Moses (Luke 2:27; Luke 2:41-42), and others had grown up over the centuries (Luke 1:9). Many of the later traditions had been developed and taught by the scribes and Pharisees, and brought Jesus into conflict with the Jewish religious leaders (Matthew 23:4-16; see SCRIBES; PHARISEES).
Jesus was not opposed to Jewish traditions. In fact, he kept some of them himself (Luke 4:16; John 10:22-23). But he was opposed to the teaching of traditions as binding on people. The Jewish leaders taught human traditions as if they were God’s commandments; worse still, they rejected the genuine commandments of God in order to keep their traditions (Mark 7:7-13; cf. Colossians 2:8).
The tradition that Christians are to keep is twofold. First, they must keep the teaching passed down from Jesus through the apostles and recorded in the New Testament (Acts 2:42; 1 Corinthians 11:23; 1 Corinthians 15:3; 2 Timothy 1:13-14; Judges 1:3; see GOSPEL). Second, they must maintain the standard of behaviour demanded by that teaching (1 Corinthians 11:1-2; Philippians 4:9; 2 Thessalonians 2:15; 2 Thessalonians 3:6; see OBEDIENCE).
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Tradition
Something handed down from one generation to another. Thus the Jews pretended that, besides their written law contained in the Old Testament, Moses had delivered an oral law, which had been conveyed down from father to son; and thus the Roman Catholics are said to value particular doctrines, supposed to have descended from the apostolic times by tradition.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Tradition
Greek paradosis , instructions "delivered" (1 Corinthians 15:3) as inspired, whether orally or in writing, by the apostles (2 Thessalonians 2:15; 2 Thessalonians 3:6; 2 Thessalonians 3:10). The only oral tradition designed by God to be obligatory on the church in all ages was soon committed to writing in the apostolic age, and recognized as inspired by the churches then having the gift of discerning spirits. Only in three passages (1 Corinthians 11:2 margin; 2 Thessalonians 2:15; 2 Thessalonians 3:6) has tradition a good sense; in ten a bad sense, man's uninspired tradition (Matthew 15:2-3; Matthew 15:6; Mark 7:3; Mark 7:5; Mark 7:8-9; Mark 7:13; Galatians 1:14; Colossians 2:8). Jesus charges the Jews with "making the commandment of God of none effect through your tradition." Hilary the deacon says, "a surfeit to carnal sense is human tradition."
Tradition clogs heavenly perceptions. Ρaradosis is one of the only two nouns in 2,000 in the Greek Testament which numerically equals 666, the mark of the beast (Revelation 13:18). Tradition is the grand corrupter of doctrine, as "wealth" (euporia ; Acts 19:25, the other equivalent of 666) is of practice. Only those words of the apostles for which they claim inspiration (their words afterward embodied in canonical writing) are inspired, not their every spoken word, e.g. Peter's dissimulation (Galatians 2:11-14). Oral inspiration was needed until the canon of the written word was completed. The apostles' and evangelists' inspiration is attested by their miracles; their New Testament Scriptures had the additional test without which even miracles would be inconclusive (Deuteronomy 13:1-6), accordance with the existing Old Testament revelation (Acts 17:11).
When the canon was complete the infallibility was transferred from living men's inspired sayings to the written word, now the sole unerring guide, interpreted by the Holy Spirit; comparison of Scripture with Scripture being the best commentary (1 Corinthians 2:12-16; 1 John 2:20; 1 John 2:27; John 1:33; John 3:34; John 15:26; John 16:13-14). The most ancient and universal tradition is the all-sufficiency of Scripture for salvation, "that the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works" (2 Timothy 3:15-17). The apostles never appeal to human tradition, always to Scripture (Acts 15:2; Acts 15:15-17; Acts 17:11; Acts 24:14; 1 Corinthians 15:3-4). If tradition must be followed, then we ought to follow that oldest tradition which casts away all tradition not in, or provable by, Scripture.
We receive the Christian Lord's day and infant baptism not on the inherent authority of the fathers, but on their testimony as witnesses of facts which give force to the infiltrations of Scripture. Tradition can authenticate a fact, but not establish a doctrine. Paul's tradition in 2 Thessalonians 2:15 is inspired, and only continued oral in part until the Scripture canon was completed by John; altogether different from Rome's supplementary oral tradition professing to complete the word which is complete, and which we are forbidden to add to, on penalty of God's plagues written therein (Revelation 22:18). By adding human tradition Rome becomes parent of antichrist. How remarkable it is that from this very chapter (2 Thessalonians 2:15), denouncing antichrist, she draws her argument for tradition which fosters antichristianity. Because the apostles' oral word, whenever they claim inspiration, was as trustworthy as the written word, it does not follow that the oral word of those neither apostles nor inspired is as trustworthy as the written word of those who were apostles or inspired.
No tradition of the apostles except their written word can be proved genuine on certain evidence. The danger of even a genuine oral tradition (which scarcely any of the so-called traditions are) is illustrated in the "saying" that went abroad among the brethren that John should not die, though Jesus had not said this, but "if I will that he tarry until I come, what is that to thee?" (John 21:22-23). We are no more bound to accept the fathers' interpretation (which by the way is the reverse of unanimous; but even suppose it were so) of Scripture, because we accept the New Testament canon on their testimony, than to accept the Jews' interpretation of the Old Testament because we accept the Old Testament canon on their testimony; if we were, we should be as bound to reject Jesus, with the Jews, as to reject primitive Scripture Christianity with the apostate church.
See the Church of England Articles 6, 8, 20, 22-34, on the due and the undue place of tradition in the church. What were once universal traditions (e.g. the epistles for centuries ascribed to 11 popes, from Anacletus, A.D. 101, to Victor I, A.D. 192, now universally admitted to be spurious) are no longer so regarded. Whately likened tradition to the Russian game a number sit in a circle, the first reads a short story in the ear of his next neighbour, he repeats it orally to the next, and so on; the last writes it as it, reaches him; the amusement is, when read and compared with the original story it is found wholly metamorphosed, and hardly recognizable as the same story.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Tradition
The body of religious literature contained in the OT is itself largely the deposit of oral tradition. As the result of its progressive canonization, this literature acquired the character of a fixed norm of faith and conduct. But the study devoted to the Scriptures (מִרְרַשׁ, ‘seeking,’ ‘searching’) led to a vast development in the religious traditions of Judaism. On the one hand, through the ceaseless activity of the scribes, the written Law was enriched by a wealth of oral statutes (תּוֹרָה שֶׁבְּעַל־פָּה, ‘the Torah that came by mouth’), partly natural expansions of the Law, arising from the force of custom and the new necessities of life, or as legal precedents from the courts of justice, partly definitions, interpretations, or detailed applications of the Law. From their direct bearing on matters of conduct, these new statutes were described as Hǎlâkhôth (from הָלַךְ, ‘go’), that is, rules governing the normal walk of life. But, while the scholastic mind thus busied itself with details of the Law, the imagination of more poetical spirits played around the narrative parts of Scripture, embellishing the history of Israel with a rich garland of legend, allegory, metaphysics, and morals, often grotesque enough, yet ‘full of the strength and glow of faith’ (H. Heine, Jehuda ben Halevy, pt. i. stanza 34). These more imaginative elements of tradition were termed Hăggâdôth (from הִגִּיד, ‘show,’ ‘tell’), that is, lessons of life taught by way of principles and examples, actual or fictitious (less probably, tales or legends as products of the story-telling gift).
The oral character of both these developments of OT literature was long preserved. As late as the Christian era, the traditional Law was known as מִצְוית זְקִנִים, the ‘command of the elders’ (cf. the NT παράδοσις τῶν πρεσβυτέρων, ‘tradition of the elders’), and a distinct prejudice operated against any part of its contents being reduced to writing. After the destruction of the Temple, however, the title Mishna (from שָׁגָה, ‘repeat’), most probably in the sense of ‘study’ or ‘teaching’ (in spite of the δευτέρωσις of the Church Fathers), came to be applied to the oral Law; and various collections were now made by leading scholars like Hillel and Aḳiba, the standard edition being that of Judah ha-Nasi (circa, about a.d. 200). The Mishna itself is a compilation of Hǎlâkhôth, or formal statutes; but the Gemara, or ‘supplement’ of the Mishna (from גְּמַר, ‘complete’), contains many Hǎggâdôth as well. These were taken over by the Talmuds, especially the Babylonian Talmud, which contains by far the richest treasury of Jewish traditions.
Although originally mere expansions or embellishments of Scripture, the Halakhic traditions in particular acquired an authority and influence equal to those of the Law itself. This principle was explicitly taught in the schools of both Hillel and Shammai, and was accepted by the Pharisees generally, while the conservative Sadducees rejected the claims of tradition in toto (Jos. Ant. XIII. x. 6). Among the more rigid Pharisees, indeed, the oral Law was held to possess an even greater sanctity than the written; for the oral was the ‘perfection’ of the written, and he who knew and followed it was wiser and holier than he who observed merely the written. Thus the idea grew up that the traditional Law also was given to Moses on Sinai, and was delivered by him to Joshua, and by him to the elders, and by them to the prophets, and by them to the men of the Great Synagogue, and thence to the present generation (Pirḳe Aboth, i. 1 ff.). In later Talmudic tradition, the Law given to Moses was said to cover the whole body of Rabbinic doctrines. Thus the real heart of the Law was buried beneath the dead weight of tradition; and men too often used their zeal for tradition as a means of evading the moral demands of the Law (Matthew 15:2 ff., Mark 7:1 ff., etc.).
The conflict with traditionalism, which figures so prominently in the Gospels, sinks into insignificance in the rest of the NT. The problem that confronted St. Paul was that of the Law itself, while the other writers were concerned with the weighty matters of Christian faith and life. Only a few faint traces of tradition appear in their writings-mere survivals from the dead past of Judaism. Thus the allusions of St. Stephen to the burial of Jacob and all his children in Sychem, to Moses’ learning ‘in all the wisdom of the Egyptians,’ and to the presence of angels at the giving of the Law (Acts 7:15 f., Acts 7:22; Acts 7:38; Acts 7:53) are doubtless drawn from Jewish Hăggâdôth; examples of the same thing are found in St. Paul’s references to the Rock that followed the Israelites (1 Corinthians 10:4), to the seducing of Eve by the serpent (2 Corinthians 11:3), and to the ministry of angels (Galatians 3:19; cf. Hebrews 2:2), while the direct use of Haggadic literature is suggested in such texts as 2 Timothy 3:8 f., 1 Peter 3:19 ff., 2 Peter 2:4 ff., Judges 1:6 ff. The influence of Halakhic exegesis is equally evident in the Apostle’s method of argument in Romans 9:7 ff., Galatians 4:21 ff., 1 Corinthians 9:9 f. (cf. 1 Timothy 5:18).
Literature.-L. Zunz, Die gottesdienstlichen Vorträge der Juden, Berlin, 1832; E. Deutsch, The Talmud, in his Literary Remains, London, 1874; H. L. Strack, Einleitung in den Talmud4, Leipzig, 1908; M. Mielziner, Introduction to the Talmud2, New York, 1903; S. Schechter, article ‘Talmud,’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) v. 57ff.; W. Bacher, Die Agada der Tannaiten, 2 vols., Strassburg, 1884-90, Die Agada der babylonischen Amoräer, do., 1878, Die Agada der palästinischen Amoräer, 3 vols., do., 1892-99; F. Weber, Jüdische Theologie2, Leipzig, 1897; E Schürer, GJV [1] 4 i. [2] 111ff., II. [3] 381 ff. (HJP [4] I. [5] i. 117 ff., 11. [6] i. 320 ff.); R. T. Herford, Pharisaism, 1912; J. Z. Lauterbach, article ‘Oral Law,’ in Jewish Encyclopedia ix. 423 ff.; A. C. Zenos, article ‘Tradition,’ in Dict. of Christ and the Gospels ii. 741 f.; H. St. J. Thackeray, Relation of St. Paul to Contemporary Jewish Thought, London, 1900.
A. R. Gordon.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Tradition (2)
TRADITION.—In its simplest and most primitive form, the conception of tradition involves what is contained in the English word delivery. Tradition is the act of transmitting the story of an event or the teaching of a master. From being thus first of all the act of transmission, it becomes in the next place the thing transmitted, and finally a whole body of narratives or teachings passed from generation to generation. In the history of all religions, traditions play a very important part. The times of Jesus and the Gospels were not exceptional in this regard. Explicit mention of tradition is made in Matthew 15:2-3; Matthew 15:6, Mark 7:3; Mark 7:5; Mark 7:8-9; Mark 7:13. Both of these passages refer to the same transaction, and therefore represent the same condition of affairs in the environment and the same attitude on the part of Jesus towards the subject.
The environment was as thoroughly pervaded by the recognition of the authority of tradition as any other that we know of, either in ancient or in modern times. In fact, it stands pre-eminent in this particular (Matthew 15:2, Mark 7:3). The Sadducees took exception to the prevalent state of mind (Josephus Ant. xiii. x. 6); but the attitude of the Pharisees was the very opposite, and exerted a dominant influence in the matter. In the Talmud it was written that ‘Moses received the oral Law from Sinai and delivered it to Joshua, and Joshua delivered it to the elders, and the elders to the prophets, and the prophets to the men of the Great [1] Synagogue. They said three things: Be deliberate in judgment, raise up many disciples, and make a fence for the Law’ (Aboth i.). The Rabbis interpreted Exodus 20:1 as involving the idea that all that was to guide the Israelite into the knowledge of the nature and the law of God had been given to Moses on Mount Sinai. More expressly, they found the different parts of the complex rule of faith advocated in the phraseology of Exodus 24:12. The expression used in this passage is, ‘I will give thee the tables of stone, and the law, and the commandments, which I have written, that thou mayest keep them.’ The ‘tables of stone’ were understood to mean the Ten Commandments; ‘the law,’ the written prescriptions of the Pentateuch; ‘the commandments,’ the Mishna; ‘which I have written,’ the prophets and Hagiographa; ‘that thou mayest teach them,’ the Talmud (Berakh. 5a, lines 11–16). A place was thus made for a large body of precepts which do not appear in the OT Scriptures; and all this was of at least equal authority with the written Law, because given at the same time and through the same person, Moses. To the question why it was not written down at the same time as the written Law, the answer was that Moses did indeed desire to reduce it to writing, but was forbidden by God, because in the days to come Israel would be scattered among the Gentiles, and the written Law would be taken from them; the oral Law would then be the distinctive badge of the Israelite.* [2]
By some it was held that the oral or traditional Law was even superior to the written, because the latter was dependent for its authority upon the oral testimony of Moses. In other words, the oral precedes and underlies the written. The covenant was founded not on the written, but on the oral word of God; for it is said, ‘after the tenor of these words I have made a covenant with thee and with Israel’ (Exodus 34:27).
From the nature of the case, tradition was not a clearly defined body. A large portion of it was simply a repetition of the written Law, with elaborations of detail and embellishments. Another portion consisted of distinct additions, a third of provisions looking to the strict observance of the Torah. As far as this tradition was prescriptive or legal, it was called Hălâkhâ (-khôth), i.e. decision (or decisions) having the force of statutes. As far as it was narrative, it was called Haggâdâ (that which is related). As a reiteration of the Mosaic Law, it was called Mishna (repetition). As a series of questionings into or investigations of the meaning of the Law, it was called Midrâsh (Midrâshîm). As a means of teaching, or the body of what was to be taught, it was the Talmud. The whole body of tradition together with the Prophets and Hagiographa, in fact the whole rule of faith with the exception of the Pentateuch, was called Kabbâlâh, that which is received. A doctrine of paralepsis was thus developed, to correlate with the doctrine of paradosis, ‘tradition.’
The administration or practical use of such a body of tradition was not an easy matter. In fact, for the average layman it was an impossibility; hence the rise of a class of men who devoted themselves to the work of studying it, and informing inquirers about it (see Scribes, Lawyers). But this method raised the interpreters of the Law to a place of authority. Interpretations of the Law were accepted as binding, because they said so, not because the Law was seen to involve them. The Law was obeyed not because its Divine origin was perceived, but upon the authority of men. Tradition thus came to be doubly the enthronement of human authority. On the one side, it massed together man-made rules and representations of God’s thought; on the other side, it wrought out man-made interpretations of the Law which truly came from God. For the former a direct Divine authority was claimed in the teaching that they were actually delivered to Moses on Sinai; some corroboration for each separate precept thus brought down was sought for in the written Law. For the latter not even this semblance of connexion with the known revelation of God could be adduced. In neither case could the stream rise higher than its source. The teachings of men came to take the place which belonged to those of God. It could not go further back than the elders (Fathers), and those who were called upon to accept it must do so upon the authority of human statements. Tradition thus canonized the media of communication, and lost sight of the value and validity of the things communicated on one side, and of the authority of Him from whom the communication came on the other. Whatever the claim for the Divine origin of the Mishna might be, the practical result of its acceptance was the exaltation of the means through which it came to the supreme place of authority.
Jesus’ attitude towards tradition relates itself decidedly to this aspect of it. He saw in it a means of transgressing the commandments of God. He denied first of all the Pharisaic teaching that tradition was of equal weight with the Law. He did not, however, definitely affiliate Himself with the Sadducaic teachings on the subject. As against the Pharisees, He taught that the Law of God could not come in conflict with itself, whereas between the traditions current and the Law there were conflicts. In many cases traditional prescriptions did stand in the way of the right observance of the Law (Mark 7:11 ff.). As contrasted with the Divine Law, He calls the tradition ‘your tradition.’ Finally, He classes all tradition with matters of form or lip-service. He relegates the application of it into the sphere of the non-ethical. So far as such traditions could be made serviceable in the promotion of ethical or spiritual ends, they might be unobjectionable, but they must in no case stand in the way of the clearly revealed will of God (Matthew 15:2-20, Mark 7:2-23. See also art. Corban).
Literature.—Barclay, The Talmud, 1878; Eisenmenger, Entdecktes Judenthum, 1711; Zunz, Die Gottesdienstl. Vorträge d. Juden2 [3] , 1892; J. H. Weiss, Dor [4], i. 1–93; Edersheim, LT [5].] 3 [3] [7], ii. 205–211; Friedländer, The Jewish Religion, 1891, pp. 136–139.
A. C. Zenos.
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Tradition
Among the Jews, they had certain sayings and opinions supposed to be received from the earliest fathers, and handed down from one generation to another, which they called traditions. And in some instances! they were more tenacious to hold and regard them than even the word of God. Our adorable Lord was constant in reproof concerning them, and hence we find in many parts of the gospel his just condemnation of them, (See Matthew 15:1-39; Mark 7:1-37 etc.) It were to be devoutly wished that the weakness, and in some instances the wickedness, of traditions had ceased with Jews and Christians. But the trumpery of legends and reliques; and the like; which some have held with equal veneration to the Scriptures, plainly prove that those things, are in common from the folly and corruption of poor fallen nature, both of Jew and Gentile.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Tradition,
ταράδοσις. This may be described as that which is handed down as oral teaching. It may be from God, as in 2 Thessalonians 2:15 ; 2 Thessalonians 3:6 ; and 1 Corinthians 11:2 (where it is translated 'ordinance'), instruction handed down before the word of God was complete. Or it may be from man, as was the tradition of the elders of Israel, which was strongly denounced by the Lord, and declared to be a subverting of the commandments of God. Matthew 15:2-6 ; Mark 7:3-13 ; Galatians 1:14 . In Colossians 2:8 it is the mere teaching of the moralists, ofwhich much has survived to the present day. What man institutes, man holds to most tenaciously.
Webster's Dictionary - Tradition
(1):
(n.) The unwritten or oral delivery of information, opinions, doctrines, practices, rites, and customs, from father to son, or from ancestors to posterity; the transmission of any knowledge, opinions, or practice, from forefathers to descendants by oral communication, without written memorials.
(2):
(n.) The act of delivering into the hands of another; delivery.
(3):
(n.) Hence, that which is transmitted orally from father to son, or from ancestors to posterity; knowledge or belief transmitted without the aid of written memorials; custom or practice long observed.
(4):
(n.) An unwritten code of law represented to have been given by God to Moses on Sinai.
(5):
(n.) That body of doctrine and discipline, or any article thereof, supposed to have been put forth by Christ or his apostles, and not committed to writing.
(6):
(v. t.) To transmit by way of tradition; to hand down.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Tradition
Tradition. Judges 6:13. Tradition is usually considered to imply that which was taught by oral instruction, in distinction from that which was committed to writing. At the beginning of the gospel the Christian doctrine was taught orally. Paul refers to "traditions" which he commands to be held fast, being as binding as any commandments delivered in any other way. 2 Thessalonians 2:15; 2 Thessalonians 3:6. The Jews had really contradicted God's law by their traditions, which they pretended were of equal or even superior authority. For this our Lord reproved them. Matthew 15:1-9. They attached more importance to their traditionary exposition of the law than to the law itself, calling the latter water, the tradition the wine that must be mingled with it. Their traditions were subsequently collected into the Talmud.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Tradition
See CABBALA .
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Tradition
Colossians 2:8 Titus 1:14 , a doctrine, sentiment, or custom not found in the Bible, but transmitted orally from generation to generation from some presumed inspired authority. In patriarchal times, much that was valuable and obligatory was thus preserved. But tradition has long been superseded by the successive and completed revelations of God's will which form the inspired Scriptures, the only perfect and sufficient rule of belief and practice. With this, even before the time of the Savior, Isaiah 8:20 , all traditions were to be compared, as being of no value if they conflicted with it, added to it, or took from it, Revelation 22:19 . The Jews had numerous unwritten traditions, which they affirmed to have been delivered to Moses on Mount Sinai, and by him transmitted to Joshua, the judges, and the prophets. After their wars with the Romans under Adrian and Severus, in view of their increasing dispersion over the earth, the Jews desired to secure their traditions by committing them to writing. Accordingly Rabbi Judah "the Holy," composed the Mishna, or second law, the most ancient collection of the Hebrew traditions, about A. D. 190-220.
To this text two commentaries were afterwards added: the Gemara of Jerusalem, probably about A. D. 370; and the Gemara of Babylon, A. D. 500; forming, with the Mishna, the Talmud of Jerusalem and that of Babylon. The contents of these voluminous works poorly remunerate the student of the laborious task of reading them. Our Savior severely censured the adherents of such legendary follies in his own day, and reproached them with preferring the traditions of the elders to the law of God itself, and superstitiously adhering to vain observances while they neglected the most important duties, Matthew 15:1-20 Mark 7:1-13 . The traditions of the Romish church, with less apology than the ancient Jews had before the New Testament was written, are still more in conflict with the word of God, and still more deserving of the Savior's condemnation.
In 2 Thessalonians 2:15 3:6 , "tradition" means inspired instructions from the lips of those who received them from God, and were authorized to dispense them in his name. These apostolic sayings were obligatory only on those who received them as inspired directly from the apostles. Had any of them come down to our times, the only means of endorsing them must be by showing their agreement with the word of God, since inspiration and miracles have ceased.
King James Dictionary - Tradition
TRADI'TION, n. L. traditio, from trado, to deliver.
1. Delivery the act of delivering into the hands of another. A deed takes effect only from the tradition or delivery.
The sale of a movable is completed by simple tradition.
2. The delivery of opinions,doctrines, practices,rites and customs from father to son, or from ancestors to posterity the transmission of any opinions or practice from forefathers to descendants by oral communication, without written memorials. Thus children derive their vernacular language chiefly from tradition. Most of our early notions are received by tradition from our parents. 3. That which is handed down from age to age by oral communication. The Jews pay great regard to tradition in matters of religion, as do the Romanists. Protestants reject the authority of tradition in sacred things, and rely only on the written word. Traditions may be good or bad, true or false. Stand fast, and hold the traditions which ye have been taught, whether by word or our epistle. 2 Thessalonians 2 .
Why do ye also transgress the commandment of God by your traditions? Matthew 15 .
Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words - Tradition
1: παράδοσις (Strong's #3862 — Noun Feminine — paradosis — par-ad'-os-is ) "a handing down or on" (akin to paradidomi, "to hand over, deliver"), denotes "a tradition," and hence, by metonymy, (a) "the teachings of the rabbis," interpretations of the Law, which was thereby made void in practice, Matthew 15:2,3,6 ; Mark 7:3,5,8,9,13 ; Galatians 1:14 ; Colossians 2:8 ; (b) of "apostolic teaching," 1 Corinthians 11:2 , RV, "traditions" (AV, "ordinances"), of instructions concerning the gatherings of believers (instructions of wider scope than ordinances in the limited sense); in 2 Thessalonians 2:15 , of Christian doctrine in general, where the Apostle's use of the word constitutes a denial that what he preached originated with himself, and a claim for its Divine authority (cp. paralambano, "to receive," 1 Corinthians 11:23 ; 15:3 ); in 2 Thessalonians 3:6 , it is used of instructions concerning everyday conduct.
The American Church Dictionary and Cycopedia - Tradition
A term used in the Thirty-fourth Article of Religion todenote customs, rites, forms and ceremonies of the Church which havebeen transmitted by oral communications or long established usage,and which though not commanded in so many words in Holy Scripture,yet have always been used and kept in the Holy Catholic Church. Forthis reason they are revered, practiced and retained in its variousbranches at the present time. Such traditions are the following:
1. The observance of the first day of the week instead of theseventh.
2. The observance of the Christian Year, or the system of Feastsand Fasts and Holy Seasons according to the events in our Lord'sLife.
3. The Baptism of Infants.
4. The use of Liturgical worship.
5. The use of vestments by the ministers in divine service.
6. The arrangement of our churches after the model of the Temple.
7. The observance of the seven hours of prayer.
8. The sign of the Cross in Baptism and at other times.
9. The choral service.
All these traditions of the Universal Church are retained orpermitted by the American branch of the Church.
It is also to be noted that by tradition is meant the uniformteaching of the Church from the beginning, i.e., the witnessthat the Church bears by the writings of the Fathers and theenactments of her General Councils to the Truths of the ChristianReligion and the interpretation of Holy Scripture. This is inaccord with St. Peter's words, "No prophecy of the Scripture is ofany private interpretation." Inasmuch as the Church is the "Witnessand keeper of Holy Writ," and that it is upon her testimony that weknow what is the Bible, it is but reasonable to defer to herinterpretation, her universal customs and traditions as to itsmeaning. (See UNDIVIDED CHURCH; also FATHERS, THE.)

Sentence search

Traditional - ) Observant of Tradition; attached to old customs; old-fashioned. ) Of or pertaining to Tradition; derived from Tradition; communicated from ancestors to descendants by word only; transmitted from age to age without writing; as, Traditional opinions; Traditional customs; Traditional expositions of the Scriptures
Tradition - A deed takes effect only from the Tradition or delivery. ...
The sale of a movable is completed by simple Tradition. Thus children derive their vernacular language chiefly from Tradition. Most of our early notions are received by Tradition from our parents. The Jews pay great regard to Tradition in matters of religion, as do the Romanists. Protestants reject the authority of Tradition in sacred things, and rely only on the written word. Traditions may be good or bad, true or false. Stand fast, and hold the Traditions which ye have been taught, whether by word or our epistle. ...
Why do ye also transgress the commandment of God by your Traditions? Matthew 15
Traditionarily - ) By Tradition
Mistradition - ) A wrong Tradition
Cabbala - A Hebrew word, signifying Tradition: it is used for a mysterious kind of science pretended to have been delivered by revelation to the ancient Jews, and transmitted by oral Tradition to those of our times; serving for interpretation of the books both of nature and Scripture
Minhag - (Jewish Custom): Jewish custom or Tradition
Traditionist - ) One who adheres to Tradition
Tradition - Tradition
Tradition - The only oral Tradition designed by God to be obligatory on the church in all ages was soon committed to writing in the apostolic age, and recognized as inspired by the churches then having the gift of discerning spirits. Only in three passages (1 Corinthians 11:2 margin; 2 Thessalonians 2:15; 2 Thessalonians 3:6) has Tradition a good sense; in ten a bad sense, man's uninspired Tradition (Matthew 15:2-3; Matthew 15:6; Mark 7:3; Mark 7:5; Mark 7:8-9; Mark 7:13; Galatians 1:14; Colossians 2:8). Jesus charges the Jews with "making the commandment of God of none effect through your Tradition. " Hilary the deacon says, "a surfeit to carnal sense is human Tradition. "...
Tradition clogs heavenly perceptions. Tradition is the grand corrupter of doctrine, as "wealth" (euporia ; Acts 19:25, the other equivalent of 666) is of practice. The most ancient and universal Tradition is the all-sufficiency of Scripture for salvation, "that the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works" (2 Timothy 3:15-17). The apostles never appeal to human Tradition, always to Scripture (Acts 15:2; Acts 15:15-17; Acts 17:11; Acts 24:14; 1 Corinthians 15:3-4). If Tradition must be followed, then we ought to follow that oldest Tradition which casts away all Tradition not in, or provable by, Scripture. Tradition can authenticate a fact, but not establish a doctrine. Paul's Tradition in 2 Thessalonians 2:15 is inspired, and only continued oral in part until the Scripture canon was completed by John; altogether different from Rome's supplementary oral Tradition professing to complete the word which is complete, and which we are forbidden to add to, on penalty of God's plagues written therein (Revelation 22:18). By adding human Tradition Rome becomes parent of antichrist. How remarkable it is that from this very chapter (2 Thessalonians 2:15), denouncing antichrist, she draws her argument for Tradition which fosters antichristianity. ...
No Tradition of the apostles except their written word can be proved genuine on certain evidence. The danger of even a genuine oral Tradition (which scarcely any of the so-called Traditions are) is illustrated in the "saying" that went abroad among the brethren that John should not die, though Jesus had not said this, but "if I will that he tarry until I come, what is that to thee?" (John 21:22-23). ...
See the Church of England Articles 6, 8, 20, 22-34, on the due and the undue place of Tradition in the church. What were once universal Traditions (e. Whately likened Tradition to the Russian game a number sit in a circle, the first reads a short story in the ear of his next neighbour, he repeats it orally to the next, and so on; the last writes it as it, reaches him; the amusement is, when read and compared with the original story it is found wholly metamorphosed, and hardly recognizable as the same story
Oral - ...
See Tradition
Judas-Colored - ) Red; - from a Tradition that Judas Iscariot had red hair and beard
Hermes - One of the seventy, and bishop of Dalmatia afterward, according to Tradition (?)
Garden of Eden - (Genesis 2) Home of Adam and Eve, located by Tradition in the valley of the Euphrates
Eden, Garden of - (Genesis 2) Home of Adam and Eve, located by Tradition in the valley of the Euphrates
Terrestrial Paradise - (Genesis 2) Home of Adam and Eve, located by Tradition in the valley of the Euphrates
Kabbalah - �received Tradition�) the body of Jewish mystical teachings, the central text of which is the Zohar ...
Gematria - Hebrew numerology � a kabbalistic Tradition interpreting biblical verses on the basis of the numerical equivalents of Hebrew letters ...
Artemas - In Tradition, bishop of Lystra
ar'Temas - ( Titus 3:12 ) According to Tradition he was bishop of Lystra
Hammoleketh - " She reigned, according to Tradition, over part of Gilead (1 Chronicles 7:17-18)
Girzite - National name of uncertain meaning appearing in some Hebrew text Traditions of 1 Samuel 27:8 , while another Hebrew Tradition reads Gizrites, and the Greek Tradition omits the name
Lucius - Tradition makes him consecrated Bishop of Cenchreae by Paul (Apost
an'Tipas - (like the father ), martyr at Pergamos, ( Revelation 2:13 ) and according to Tradition the bishop of that place
Apel'Les - Paul in ( Romans 16:10 ) Tradition makes him bishop of Smyrna or Heraclea
an'Tipas - (like the father ), martyr at Pergamos, ( Revelation 2:13 ) and according to Tradition the bishop of that place
Isaiah, Martyrdom of - Hebrews 11:37 is a likely allusion to such a Tradition of the faithfulness and martyrdom of Isaiah. Justin Martyr, Tertullian, and the Talmud are similarly aware of such a Tradition. 200) with details of the Tradition suggests their dependence on the Martydom of Isaiah
Tradition - Tradition. Tradition is usually considered to imply that which was taught by oral instruction, in distinction from that which was committed to writing. Paul refers to "traditions" which he commands to be held fast, being as binding as any commandments delivered in any other way. The Jews had really contradicted God's law by their Traditions, which they pretended were of equal or even superior authority. They attached more importance to their Traditionary exposition of the law than to the law itself, calling the latter water, the Tradition the wine that must be mingled with it. Their Traditions were subsequently collected into the Talmud
Emim - Primitive inhabitants of Moab, a gigantic people of Hebrew Tradition ( Rephaim , Deuteronomy 2:10 f
Darkly - ...
They learn only what Tradition has darkly conveyed to them
Deposit of Faith - The source or fount of revealed truths, namely, Scripture and Tradition, which must be accepted by all true Christians on the authority of God
Christian Evidences - Time-honored name for advanced courses in Christian doctrine, giving proofs from Scripture, Tradition, history, and reason of the truth of the Christian religion
Evidences, Christian - Time-honored name for advanced courses in Christian doctrine, giving proofs from Scripture, Tradition, history, and reason of the truth of the Christian religion
Agabus, Saint - According to Tradition he was one of the seventy-two disciples, and was martyred at Antioch
Her'Mes - (Mercury ), a Christian mentioned in ( Romans 16:14 ) According to Tradition he was one of the seventy disciples, and afterward bishop of Dalmatia
ra'Phael - According to Jewish Tradition, Raphael was one of the four angels which stood round the throne of God --Michael, Uriel, Gabriel, Raphael
Eglah - According to a Jewish Tradition she was Michal
ne'Reus - ( Romans 16:15 ) According to Tradition he was beheaded at Terracina, probably in the reign of Nerva
Iscah - Same as Sarai, and Abraham, according to Jewish Tradition (Josephus, Torah - teaching) (a) The Five Books of Moses (The Bible); (b) the overall body of Jewish religious teachings encompassing the whole body of Jewish law, practice and Tradition ...
Hukkok - Tradition places here Habakkuk's tomb
me'Red - Tradition identifies him with Caleb and Moses
a'Moz - (strong ), father of the prophet Isaiah, and, according to rabbinical Tradition, brother of Amaziah king of Judah
Ithream - Sixth son of David; by Eglah, whom Jewish Tradition identifies with Mirhal (since she is emphatically designated "David's wife"), adding that she died at Ithream's birth (2 Samuel 3:5)
Zippor - Tradition makes Moab and Midian one kingdom ruled by a king chosen alternately from each
Agricius, Saint - Tradition claims that he brought there the Holy Coat and other famous relics of Trier; under him its schools became famous
Jannes And Jambres - Though the names do not appear in the Old Testament, rabbinic Tradition identified Jannes and Jambres as being among those Egyptian magicians who sought to duplicate for Pharaoh the miracles performed by Moses (Exodus 7:11 ). The Jewish Tradition makes several mentions of them, but in the end they could not match God's power displayed through Moses
Gopher Wood - GOPHER WOOD ( Genesis 6:14 ), of which the ark was constructed, was by Tradition cypress wood, and this, or else the cedar, may be inferred as probable
Traditionlism - ) A system of faith founded on Tradition; esp
Saga - ) A Scandinavian legend, or heroic or mythic Tradition, among the Norsemen and kindred people; a northern European popular historical or religious tale of olden time
Hag'ga-i - With regard to his tribe and parentage history and Tradition are alike silent
Beatrix, Saint - According to Tradition she was the sister of Saint Faustinus and Saint Simplicius, martyrs
Apphia - Early Christian Tradition identified her as Philemon's wife, a claim that can be neither proved nor disproved
Johann Franzelin - His treatise on Divine Tradition and Scripture is considered a classic
Franzelin, Johann Baptist - His treatise on Divine Tradition and Scripture is considered a classic
Antelope - Tradition, our only guide here, is in favour of ‘Ox’ Serug - Jewish Tradition says he was the first of his line that fell into idolatry, Joshua 24:2
Crispus - Church Tradition says he became bishop of Aegina
Halacha lemoshe misinai - "the law of Moses from Sinai"); a halachic Tradition whose source is not from a verse or from an interpretation of a verse, but rather was transmitted orally by G-d to Moses...
Aristobu'Lus - (the best counsellor ), a resident at Rome, some of whose household are greeted in ( Romans 16:10 ) Tradition makes him one of the 70 disciples and reports that he preached the gospel in Britain
Cain - According to Tradition, he was killed by his great-great-great grandson, Lemech
Par'Menas - " ( Acts 8:5 ) There is a Tradition that he suffered martyrdom at Philippi in the reign of Trajan
Conduit, - Tradition, both oral and as represented by Talmudical writers, ascribes to Solomon the formation of the original aqueduct by which water was brought to Jerusalem
Conventionalism - ) That which is received or established by convention or arbitrary agreement; that which is in accordance with the fashion, Tradition, or usage
Tar'Tak - ( 2 Kings 17:31 ) According to rabbinical Tradition, Tartak is said to have been worshipped under the form of an ass
Asaph, Saint - Local Tradition at Tengenel, near Holywell, points out his ash-tree, well, and valley (Onen Asa, Fynnon Asa, Uanasa, Pantasa)
Tammuz - The prophet saw women weeping for 'the Tammuz,' who according to Tradition had been slain
Zohar - ) A Jewish cabalistic book attributed by Tradition to Rabbi Simon ben Yochi, who lived about the end of the 1st century, a
Dionysius - Tradition reports him to have been bishop of Athens, and to have suffered martyrdom there
Izrahite - (ihz' ruh hite) Clan name in 1 Chronicles 27:8 for which the text Tradition gives several variants: Harorite ( 1 Chronicles 11:27 KJV); Harodite ( 2 Samuel 23:25 KJV)
Masora - (maw' ssoh raw) Hebrew term meaning, “tradition,” used for note added to the margins of manuscripts of the Masoretic text of the Old Testament as a safeguard to transmission of the text
Lign Aloes - The REB reflects the KJV Tradition with the reading “aloe trees”
Joktan - There is an Arab Tradition that Joktan (Arab
Lxx - According to one Tradition, the Septuagint was the work of seventy scholars
Jonah - The old Tradition made the burial place of Jonah to be Gath-hepher; the modern Tradition places it at Nebi-Yunus, opposite Mosul
Haceldama - Tradition places it south of Mount Sion
Gamaliel - According to early ecclesiastical Tradition, he finally became a Christian
Dogmatic Theology - Concerns itself with the truths which come from God, explaining them, tracing them to Scripture and Tradition, answering difficulties, and objections brought against them, and pointing out how they fit in with our rational knowledge and spiritual life
Nereus - Tradition makes him to have been beheaded at Terracina under Nero, and his ashes deposited in the church of Nereo and Archilleo at Rome
Theology, Dogmatic - Concerns itself with the truths which come from God, explaining them, tracing them to Scripture and Tradition, answering difficulties, and objections brought against them, and pointing out how they fit in with our rational knowledge and spiritual life
Feast of Saints Peter And Paul - One festival used for these two great Apostles because, according to Tradition, they were martyred on the same day in Rome
Potters Field - Tradition places it in the valley of Hinnom
Assumption - Catholic doctrine, apparently, does not state whether or not Mary died, but Tradition holds that she died and was immediately afterward assumed into heaven both body and soul
Gadarene - The textual Tradition in the Greek manuscripts of each of these passages shows confusion among Gadarenes, Gerasenes, and Gergesenes. Origen, an early church father, apparently introduced Gergesenes into the Tradition. Early Tradition may have confused the Hebrew or Aramaic spelling of Gedara and Gerasa or may have seen Gerasa as the dominant town in the area
Carem - According to Tradition it is the town where the Blessed Virgin visited her cousin Elizabeth (Luke 1) and where John the Baptist was born
Ayyah - Others follow a Greek text Tradition which apparently read Gaza
Handed Down - 1: πατροπαράδοτος (Strong's #3970 — Adjective — patroparadotos — pat-rop-ar-ad'-ot-os ) an adjective, denoting "handed down from one's fathers," is used in 1 Peter 1:18 , RV, for AV, "received by Tradition from your fathers" (from pater, "a father," and paradidomi, "to hand down")
Tradition (2) - TRADITION. —In its simplest and most primitive form, the conception of Tradition involves what is contained in the English word delivery. Tradition is the act of transmitting the story of an event or the teaching of a master. In the history of all religions, Traditions play a very important part. Explicit mention of Tradition is made in Matthew 15:2-3; Matthew 15:6, Mark 7:3; Mark 7:5; Mark 7:8-9; Mark 7:13. ...
The environment was as thoroughly pervaded by the recognition of the authority of Tradition as any other that we know of, either in ancient or in modern times. ]'>[2] ...
By some it was held that the oral or Traditional Law was even superior to the written, because the latter was dependent for its authority upon the oral testimony of Moses. ...
From the nature of the case, Tradition was not a clearly defined body. As far as this Tradition was prescriptive or legal, it was called Hălâkhâ (-khôth), i. The whole body of Tradition together with the Prophets and Hagiographa, in fact the whole rule of faith with the exception of the Pentateuch, was called Kabbâlâh, that which is received. A doctrine of paralepsis was thus developed, to correlate with the doctrine of paradosis, ‘tradition. ’...
The administration or practical use of such a body of Tradition was not an easy matter. Tradition thus came to be doubly the enthronement of human authority. Tradition thus canonized the media of communication, and lost sight of the value and validity of the things communicated on one side, and of the authority of Him from whom the communication came on the other. ...
Jesus’ attitude towards Tradition relates itself decidedly to this aspect of it. He denied first of all the Pharisaic teaching that Tradition was of equal weight with the Law. As against the Pharisees, He taught that the Law of God could not come in conflict with itself, whereas between the Traditions current and the Law there were conflicts. In many cases Traditional prescriptions did stand in the way of the right observance of the Law (Mark 7:11 ff. As contrasted with the Divine Law, He calls the Tradition ‘your Tradition. ’ Finally, He classes all Tradition with matters of form or lip-service. So far as such Traditions could be made serviceable in the promotion of ethical or spiritual ends, they might be unobjectionable, but they must in no case stand in the way of the clearly revealed will of God (Matthew 15:2-20, Mark 7:2-23
Aarons Rod - An earlier Tradition (Numbers 17:10; cf. Seymour, The Cross in Tradition, History, Art, 1898, p
Beatitudes, Mount of - Tradition locates it on the mountain of Karn Hattin in Galilee, near Nazareth and Cana
Mount of Beatitudes - Tradition locates it on the mountain of Karn Hattin in Galilee, near Nazareth and Cana
Saw Asunder - Some have seen here a reference to the Tradition of Isaiah's martyrdom under Manasseh
Sabbath Day's Journey - Supposed to be a distance of 2,000 cubits, or less than half-a-mile, the distance to which, according to Jewish Tradition, it was allowable to travel on the Sabbath day without violating the law (Acts 1:12 ; Compare Exodus 16:29 ; Numbers 35:5 ; Joshua 3:4 )
Linus - Early church Tradition identified him as the first bishop of the church at Rome, but it is doubtful Rome had only one bishop or pastor that early in its history
Mount of the Beatitudes - The “Horns of Hattin” near Capernaum which Tradition identifies as the site of the Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 5:1-7:29 )
Liturgy of Addeus And Maris - It was the usual liturgy of the Nestorians, composed, according to Tradition, in the 1century, by Addeus and Maris, who evangelized Edessa and Seleucia-Ctesiphon
Daberath - Tradition has incorrectly made it the scene of the miracle of the cure of the lunatic child (Matthew 17:14 )
Nimshi - Either son is used loosely in the sense of descendant, or a variant Tradition is involved
Tahapenes - Tradition will have it, that Jeremiah was buried there
Addeus And Maris, Liturgy of - It was the usual liturgy of the Nestorians, composed, according to Tradition, in the 1century, by Addeus and Maris, who evangelized Edessa and Seleucia-Ctesiphon
Mark, Saint Evangelist - Tradition represents Saint Mark as the founder of the Church of Alexandria and bishop of that city for about twenty years. Later Tradition calls Mark one of the seventy-two disciples, but it is uncertain whether or not he ever saw Christ. Roman Tradition relates that Saint Mark wrote his Gospel at the request of the Roman Christians and under the direction of Saint Peter. There is another Tradition, however, that his Gospel was originally written in Latin rather than in Greek
Journey - According to Jewish Tradition, it was the distance one might travel without violating the law of Exodus 16:29
Felix, Saint 12 Jul - According to Tradition they were soldiers under Maximian Hercules, martyred for the faith
Nabor, Saint - According to Tradition they were soldiers under Maximian Hercules, martyred for the faith
First lubavitcher rebbe - Rabbi Schneur Zalman of Liadi, 1745-1812, founder and first Rebbe of the Chabad branch of chassidism, known also as �the Rav,� and as Baal HaTanya; lived in Li'ozna and Liadi, White Russia; author of Tanya, a classic text of the chassidic Tradition, and Shulchan Aruch HaRav, a code of Jewish law
Bayeux Tapestry - It is probably of the 11th century, and is attributed by Tradition to Matilda, the Conqueror's wife
R. schneur zalman of liadi - (Alter Rebbe): 1745-1812, founder and first Rebbe of the Chabad branch of chassidism, known also as the "Alter Rebbe," �the Rav,� and as Baal HaTanya; lived in Li'ozna and Liadi, White Russia; author of Tanya, a classic text of the chassidic Tradition, and Shulchan Aruch HaRav, a code of Jewish law ...
Alter rebbe - The: Rabbi Schneur Zalman of Liadi, 1745-1812, founder and first Rebbe of the Chabad branch of chassidism, known also as �the Rav,� and as Baal HaTanya; lived in Li'ozna and Liadi, White Russia; author of Tanya, a classic text of the chassidic Tradition, and Shulchan Aruch HaRav, a code of Jewish law
Joachim, Saint - Tradition holds that Saint Joachim and Saint Anne were the parents of the Blessed Virgin, although nothing is known of them, except that they lived in Galilee, and later in Jerusalem, where their Traditional tomb was rediscovered in 1889
Jethro - There is a Tradition that he is buried on the Mount of Beatitudes
Mamertine Prison - According to Tradition in the Acts of Saint Processus and Saint Martmlanus (6th century), Saint Peter was imprisoned in the lower cliamber or Tullianum where he baptized these saints, his jailers
Mount of Evil Counsel - Tradition of the 12th century says that Caiphas here owned a house in which the Jews held their first meeting to take counsel against Jesus and "prophesied that Jesus should die for the nation" (John 11)
Thieves, the Two - According to Tradition, Demas or Dismas was the name of the penitent thief hanging on the right, and Gestas of the impenitent on the left
Halhul - There is an old Jewish Tradition that Gad, David's seer (2 Samuel 24:11 ), was buried here
Eshan - A text Tradition in the earliest Greek translation reads, “Soma,” instead of Eshan, possibly pointing to a location at modern khirbet hallat Sama
Archippus, Saint - " According to Tradition he was one of the 72 disciples
Evil Counsel, Mount of - Tradition of the 12th century says that Caiphas here owned a house in which the Jews held their first meeting to take counsel against Jesus and "prophesied that Jesus should die for the nation" (John 11)
Raguel - There is a Tradition that he is buried on the Mount of Beatitudes
Ordinance - ...
Note: In 1 Corinthians 11:2 , AV, paradosis, "a Tradition" (marg. , and RV, "traditions"), is translated "ordinances. " See Tradition
Christ's Coat Without Seam - According to an ancient pious Tradition the coat was woven by His Mother
Cephalophoric - Sometimes this derives from legends that it occurred, but sometimes just from following artistic Tradition
Tradition - Thus the Jews pretended that, besides their written law contained in the Old Testament, Moses had delivered an oral law, which had been conveyed down from father to son; and thus the Roman Catholics are said to value particular doctrines, supposed to have descended from the apostolic times by Tradition
Beth-Haccherem - Tradition fixed on Herodium south of Bethlehem, probably because it was a conspicuous site near Tekoa, with which it is noticed
Saints, Patron - Saints ...
who by designation of the sovereign pontiff or by popular Tradition are venerated as favoring by their intercession certain interests, countries or localities, e
Baal hatanya - " Rabbi Schneur Zalman of Liadi, 1745-1812, founder and first Rebbe of the Chabad branch of chassidism, known also as the "Alter Rebbe," and as �the Rav�; lived in Li'ozna and Liadi, White Russia; author of Tanya, a classic text of the chassidic Tradition, and Shulchan Aruch HaRav, a code of Jewish law
Holy Coat of Trier And Argenteuil - The Trier Tradition which affirms that the relic was sent there by Saint Helena, is substantiated by a tablet of the 6th century and several documents of the 12th century. The intermingling of these two Traditions gave rise to the legend that the garment woven by the Blessed Virgin for the Child Jesus grew with Him and was worn by Him during His whole life on earth. Modern advocates of the Argenteuil Tradition now claim the Trier relic is not the tunica inconsutilis but the outer garment of Christ
Iscah - Tradition has tried to make Iscah another name for Sarah or to say she was Lot's wife
Dodai - Jewish Tradition makes Dodo or Dodai the brother of Jesse
Husks - Tradition makes it the Baptist's food in the wilderness; from whence it is called also John's bread
Holy Face, Scapular of the - Made of white cloth, with the picture of the Face of Our Lord made famous through the Tradition of Veronica's Veil
Artemas - Tradition says Artemas became bishop of Lystra
Shaul - Jewish Tradition identifies Shaul with Zimri, "who did the work of the Canaanites in Shittim" (Targum Pseudo Jon
Gethsemani - Tradition places the tomb of the Blessed Virgin in the Valley of Gethsemani, near the Cedron
Scapular of the Holy Face - Made of white cloth, with the picture of the Face of Our Lord made famous through the Tradition of Veronica's Veil
Diklah - Arab Tradition confirms Genesis 10:26-29 in making Joktan (Kahtan) the great progenitor of all the pure tribes of central and southern Arabia
Noah - The scriptural story is a parallel independent form of a common Tradition
Noe - The scriptural story is a parallel independent form of a common Tradition
Martyrs of Corfu - According to Tradition they were boiled in oil and pitch
Ibzan - According to Jewish Tradition, Ibzan was the same as Boaz
Anacletus i - According to Tradition he was a Greek he was a convert of Saint Peter, was ordained by him, and was his second successor
Anacletus, Saint, Pope - According to Tradition he was a Greek he was a convert of Saint Peter, was ordained by him, and was his second successor
Aviators - By a decree of 1920, Our Lady of Loreto was proclaimed patroness of aviators by the Holy See, in reference to the ancient Tradition that the Holy House of Nazareth was miraculously carried through the air by angels
Ambrosius of Greece - There is no other trace of this Tradition, nor ground for identifying him with Ambrose of Alexandria
Dionysius - Tradition says that he was eminent for learning, that he was ordained by Paul at Athens, and after many labors and trials, suffered martyrdom by fire
Ahijah the shilonite - According to chassidic Tradition, Ahijah was the Baal Shem Tov�s primary teacher
Hor - Constant Tradition, at least since Josephus, sees Mount Hor in Jebel Harûn , ‘the Mountain of Aaron,’ above Petra. Trumbull, have doubted the Tradition and endeavoured to fix other sites, such as Jebel Madâra , N
Mori'ah - A Tradition which first appears in a definite shape in Josephus, and is now almost universally accepted, asserts that the "Mount Moriah" of the Chronicles is identical with the "mountain" in "the land of Moriah" of Genesis, and that the spot on which Jehovah appeared to David, and on which the temple was built, was the very spot of the sacrifice of Isaac. (Smith, Stanley and Grove are, however, inclined to doubt this Tradition
Fleury, Abbey of - Tradition attributes its foundation to Leobaldus, c
Chesed - This probably represents a different Tradition from that in P Loreto, Holy House of - So-called from the Tradition that the house, wherein the Holy Family dwelt at Nazareth, was transported by angels to the city of Loreto, Italy
Raguel - The older Tradition, and the insecurity from Egyptian power which Moses would have been exposed to in the W
Hobah - Tradition makes Masjad Ibrahim, "the prayer place of Damascus," at the village of Burzeh, three miles N
Kibroth-Hattaavah - It is placed by Tradition to the N. of Naqb el-Hawa (‘mountain path of the wind’), which leads to the plain below the Traditional Sinai
Holy House of Loreto - So-called from the Tradition that the house, wherein the Holy Family dwelt at Nazareth, was transported by angels to the city of Loreto, Italy
Abbey of Fleury - Tradition attributes its foundation to Leobaldus, c
Aristar'Chus - Paul's fellow prisoner in ( Colossians 4:10 ) and Phle 1:24 Tradition makes him bishop of Apamea
Jude, - Tradition connects him with the foundation of the church at Edessa
Maacah - A daughter of Talmai, king of Geshur, was taken in battle by David, according to Hebrew Tradition, and made one of his wives and bore him Absalom
Lazarus - According to a Tradition in the Western Church, Lazarus became the first Bishop of Marseilles and died a martyr
Apostles' Creed - A formula of belief which contains in twelve statements or "articles" the fundamental doctrines of Christianity, and whose authorship Tradition ascribes to the Apostles
Christmas Crib - Tradition attests the authenticity of the place of the crib now venerated at Bethlehem, where a grotto and basilica have been erected
Lucius, Saint - (2century) According to Tradition a British king or chieftain, who begged Pope Eleutherius to send the missionaries Saint Fagatius and Saint Duvian to England
Samaritan Pentateuch - The Samaritans regarded themselves as the true heirs (as versus Judahites) to the Mosaic Tradition
Tractarian - ) One of the writers of the Oxford tracts, called "Tracts for the Times," issued during the period 1833-1841, in which series of papers the sacramental system and authority of the Church, and the value of Tradition, were brought into prominence
Golgotha - (3) That the name is due to an ancient, and probably pre-Christian, Tradition that the skull of Adam was found there. This Tradition is quoted by Origen, Athanasius, Epiphanius, etc. ...
Of the many proposed sites for Golgotha it may be briefly said that there is no side of the city which has not been suggested by some authority for ‘the place of a skull’; but, practically speaking, there are only two worth considering, the Traditional site and the ‘green hill’ or ‘Gordon’s Calvary. ’ The Traditional site included in the Church of the Sepulchre and in close proximity to the tomb itself has a continuous Tradition attaching to it from the days of Constantine. In favour of this site it may be argued with great plausibility that it is very unlikely that all Tradition of a spot so important in the eyes of Christians should have been lost, even allowing all consideration for the vicissitudes that the city passed through between the Crucifixion and the days of Constantine. With regard to the ‘green hill’ outside the Damascus gate, which has secured so much support in some quarters, its claims are based upon the four presuppositions that Golgotha was shaped like a skull, that the present skull-shaped hill had such an appearance at the time of the Crucifixion, that the ancient road and wall ran as they do to-day, and that the Crucifixion was near the Jewish ‘place of stoning’ (which is said by an unreliable local Jewish Tradition to be situated here)
Noah - ’ In one Tradition Noah is the hero of the Flood, and answers to Ut-napishtim in the Bab. In another Tradition he is the discoverer of the art of making wine ( Genesis 9:20-27 )
Alexandrian Manuscript - In a schedule annexed to it, he gives this account:...
That it was written as Tradition informed them, by Thecla, a noble Egyptian lady, about 1300 years ago, not long after the council of Nice. But this high antiquity, and the authority of the Tradition to which the patriarch refers, have been disputed; nor are the most accurate biblical writers agreed about its age
Hosen - According to an early Tradition (LXX Crescens - A late Western Tradition treats him as the founder of the Churches of Vienne and of Mayence
Conventional - ) Based upon Tradition, whether religious and historical or of artistic rules
Erasmus, Saint - Tradition holds that he was transported by an angel from Mount Lebanon whence he had fled from the persecution, to Lake Lucrino in Italy, but was seized there and taken to Campania, where he was tortured and put to death
Baker, Francis Asbury - Later he severed his connection with the Redemptorists to assist in establishing the well-known Paulist Institute, which is largely indebted to him for its impressive rubrical observance and its Tradition of short practical sermons; his own are models of lucidity and neatness
Sabinian, Pope - Some sources say he started the Tradition of ringing bells at the canonical hours, and during the celebration of the Eucharist
Logia - Tradition on transmission of the Sayings. Criticism of the Tradition; (a) Internal evidence of the Tradition; (b) Internal evidence of the Gospels. 39), who interpreted ‘the oracles of the Lord’ (λόγια κυριακά) in accordance with the Tradition of elders who had been followers of the Apostles. The true interpretation of these logia is matter of Tradition transmitted through (1) the Apostles, (2) the Elders ‘the disciples of these’ (lege οἱ τούτων—8c. ), ‘Wherefore leaving the vain talk (ματαιότητα) of the multitude and the false teachings (ψευδοδιδασκαλίας), let us turn to the word handed down by Tradition from the beginning (τὸν ἑξ ἀρχῆς ἡμῖν παραδοθεντα λόγον). ...
(a) Of the former (correct) use it is enough to say that science has no better designation for the apothegms of Jesus in the form wherein Tradition has transmitted them, whether in the Synoptic Gospels or as uncanonical agrapha. It is less common than λόγοι, and certainly much less applicable to the discourses of the Fourth Gospel, where, even if Traditional logia are embodied, dialogue, the favourite form for philosophic and religious exposition, predominates, and the Traditionary interest is subordinated to that of expounding the Evangelist’s Christology. In later authorities, who take over the Tradition, the term is gradually extended to cover the embodying narrative as well, until with Irenaeus and Tertullian the Divine utterance is coextensive with the canonical Gospel (‘ait Spiritus Sanctus per Matthaeum,’ applied by Irenaeus to utterances of the Evangelist). Whether at a stage anterior to its adoption by Papias the Tradition regarding the λόγια had a narrower application, must be settled by a consideration of the expression in its context. Tradition on transmission of the Sayings. As regards the ‘commandments’ which Papias sought to hear and to expound as ‘oracles,’ the fragment states as a Tradition (probably from the same authority, ‘John the Elder, who gave that regarding Mark) that ‘Matthew made a compend (συνετάξατο v. ’ For Papias, and a fortiori for the later authorities who repeat the Tradition in partly independent forms, it was a testimony to our canonical Matthew. This to them represented the syntagma of which the Tradition spoke, though it was admitted not to be identical with it. He valued the Tradition because it gave him Apostolic authority for the Gospel on which he relics in all known instances for his logia of the Lord (Frgt. Criticism of the Tradition. —Modern critics attribute great value to the Tradition reported by Papias, partly because of its inapplicability to canonical Mt. , which shows it to be in his hands an heirloom, not a manufacture; partly because it is independently attested; partly because it seems to be connected internally with the Tradition concerning Mark explicitly ascribed to ‘the Elder’ (John of Jerusalem
Looked at thus, from the point of view suggested by its own internal relations, the Tradition of Papias becomes not only intelligible but probable. It defines (no doubt correctly) the primary authority for the λόγια κυριακά which Papias proposed to expound in the light of the Traditional authorities. is treated as quite subordinate, it is because the object in view is the ἐντολαί delivered by the Lord, and Tradition and Church usage were at one in pointing to Matthew as the fountain-head for such purposes. ...
Nor does the Tradition stand alone in its distinction of syntagmata of the Logia of the Lord from Gospels of the Markan type. Moreover, the implied distinction from syntagmata of the Sayings is precisely what we should expect in a church whose institutions and Traditions were almost invariably based on the practice of the Synagogue. The lateness of the combination is attested not only by the reluctance manifest in the Tradition, but by the fact that when Mk. ...
The correspondence of Papias’ Tradition of the Matthaean syntagma with known Palestinian conditions is strongly confirmatory both of the Tradition itself and of that interpretation of it which emphasizes the distinction between catechetic works and Gospels of the evangelistic type. It is characteristic of the Gospels which continued to circulate in Palestine independently of the canonical four so late as the time of Jerome and Epiphanius, that, while they conflate material drawn from the Greek Gospels with their own, they continue to represent their Tradition in all cases as delivered by the Apostle Matthew (Preuschen, Antilegomena, Frgs
Lance, Holy - That with which Our Lord's sacred Side was opened after His death (John 19), according to a Tradition found by Saint Helena at Jerusalem
Elishama - According to Tradition, father of Nethaniah and grandfather of Ishmael, "of the seed royal" at the captivity (2 Kings 25:25; Jeremiah 41:1)
Gezrite - (gehz' rite) KJV spelling of name of people in 1 Samuel 27:8 , where the Hebrew text Tradition shows both Girzites (NIV, NAS, NRSV, TEV) and Gezrite
Upper Room - Tradition holds that the disciples gathered in this room following Jesus' ascension (Acts 1:13 )
Porch, Solomon's - A colonnade on the east of the temple, so called from a Tradition that it was a relic of Solomon's temple left standing after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians
Kain - According to Arabian Tradition, Abraham watched the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah from a nearby hill
Kesitah - No clue has yet been found to the weight, and therefore the value, of the kesitah ; but that it was an ingot of precious metal of a recognized value is more probable than the Tradition represented by several ancient versions, which render it by ‘ lamb
Holy Lance - That with which Our Lord's sacred Side was opened after His death (John 19), according to a Tradition found by Saint Helena at Jerusalem
Gomorrha, Sodom And - Tradition says their site is covered by the Dead Sea, but geologically this is impossible; the exact location is unknown, but is included in "the country about the Jordan
Bethesda - A pool in Jerusalem near the sheep-gate or market, John 5:2-9; Tradition has identified it with the modern pool Birket-Israil, 360 feet lone, 120 feet wide, and 80 feet deep, half filled with rubbish, but Schick recently discovered two pools about 100 feet northwest of and beneath the church of St
Hegesippus, Saint - In his work against the Marcionites and Gnostics, of which only a few chapters remain, he appealed to the Tradition of Apostolic preaching handed down in the churches through the succession of bishops
Sodom And Gomorrha - Tradition says their site is covered by the Dead Sea, but geologically this is impossible; the exact location is unknown, but is included in "the country about the Jordan
Q - Verbatim agreements in the double Tradition (material shared by Matthew and Luke but not Mark), common sequence of sayings within blocks of materials, and doublets (repetition) of sayings found but once in Mark point to the common source. Still others remove any need for a common source for the double Tradition by arguing for the priority of Matthew
Mary Magdalen, Saint - The Greek Tradition holds that Mary Magdalen retired to Ephesus with the Blessed Virgin, and died there, her relics being transferred to Constantinople. The French Tradition holds that she migrated to Marseilles with Lazarus and Martha, and retired to a hill, La Sainte-Baume, near the city, where she lived in seclusion for 30 years
Barachiah - The later Jewish Tradition identified the two. ’ We might therefore suppose that Christ spoke of Zachariah, who was really son of Jehoiada, as son of Barachiah, because the Jewish Tradition of His age identified or confused the priest and the prophet; cf. ’ Or the ‘son of Barachiah’ might be an insertion on the part of the editor of the Gospel, either on the ground of Jewish Tradition, or in remembrance of the two LXX Septuagint passages, Isaiah 8:2, Zechariah 1:1. 845) supposed that Zacharias the father of John the Baptist was referred to, and quotes a Tradition that this Zacharias was murdered in the temple. The reckoning from Abel to Zechariah is Jewish in character, the ‘of Barachiah’ may be due to Jewish Tradition, and the ‘between the temple and the altar’ is perhaps also due to current Jewish speculation or Tradition. also the same Tradition in Midr
Tychicus - Tradition holds that he died a martyr
Wormwood - Tradition favours some species of Artemisia (wormwood), of which several kinds are found in Palestine
Edar, Tower of - Jewish Tradition made it the destined birthplace of Messiah
Cabal - ) Tradition; occult doctrine
Sosthenes - Tradition holds that Sosthenes later was converted and became one of Paul's helpers (1 Corinthians 1:1 )
Jairus - The story of this raising comes from the ‘Petrine Tradition
Gethsemane - Tradition, since the fourth century, has placed it on the lower slope of Olivet, about 100 yards east of the bridge over the Kedron
Isa'Iah, - Rabbinical Tradition says that Isaiah, when 90 years old, was sawn asunder in the trunk of a carob tree by order of Manasseh, to which it is supposed that reference is made in (Hebrews 11:37 )
Sosthenes - Tradition holds that Sosthenes later was converted and became one of Paul's helpers (1 Corinthians 1:1 )
Tradition - The body of religious literature contained in the OT is itself largely the deposit of oral Tradition. But the study devoted to the Scriptures (מִרְרַשׁ, ‘seeking,’ ‘searching’) led to a vast development in the religious Traditions of Judaism. These more imaginative elements of Tradition were termed Hăggâdôth (from הִגִּיד, ‘show,’ ‘tell’), that is, lessons of life taught by way of principles and examples, actual or fictitious (less probably, tales or legends as products of the story-telling gift). As late as the Christian era, the Traditional Law was known as מִצְוית זְקִנִים, the ‘command of the elders’ (cf. the NT παράδοσις τῶν πρεσβυτέρων, ‘tradition of the elders’), and a distinct prejudice operated against any part of its contents being reduced to writing. These were taken over by the Talmuds, especially the Babylonian Talmud, which contains by far the richest treasury of Jewish Traditions. ...
Although originally mere expansions or embellishments of Scripture, the Halakhic Traditions in particular acquired an authority and influence equal to those of the Law itself. This principle was explicitly taught in the schools of both Hillel and Shammai, and was accepted by the Pharisees generally, while the conservative Sadducees rejected the claims of Tradition in toto (Jos. Thus the idea grew up that the Traditional Law also was given to Moses on Sinai, and was delivered by him to Joshua, and by him to the elders, and by them to the prophets, and by them to the men of the Great Synagogue, and thence to the present generation (Pirḳe Aboth, i. In later Talmudic Tradition, the Law given to Moses was said to cover the whole body of Rabbinic doctrines. Thus the real heart of the Law was buried beneath the dead weight of Tradition; and men too often used their zeal for Tradition as a means of evading the moral demands of the Law (Matthew 15:2 ff. ...
The conflict with Traditionalism, which figures so prominently in the Gospels, sinks into insignificance in the rest of the NT. Only a few faint traces of Tradition appear in their writings-mere survivals from the dead past of Judaism. Zenos, article ‘Tradition,’ in Dict
Madrid, Spain - Its early history is largely conjectural, although Tradition relates that there were Christians there during the Moorish occupation
Offense, Mount of - Tradition locates there Solomon's idolatrous shrines (4Kings 23)
Olivet, Mount - Tradition locates there Solomon's idolatrous shrines (4Kings 23)
Mount of Offense - Tradition locates there Solomon's idolatrous shrines (4Kings 23)
Mount Olivet - Tradition locates there Solomon's idolatrous shrines (4Kings 23)
Orion - " This giant was, according to Tradition, Nimrod, the type of the folly that contends against God
Havvoth-Jair - The difficulty is caused by the attempt of the editors in the last two passages to harmonize the reference in Numbers with the Tradition about the sixty fortresses of 1 Kings 4:18
Lucifer - A later Tradition associated the word with evil, although the Bible does not use it as such
Bether - The site was recognized by Canon Williams at Bittîr , south-west of Jerusalem a village on a cliff in a strong position, with a ruin near it called ‘Ruin of the Jews,’ from a Tradition of a great Jewish massacre at this place
Catholic Epistles - The title is from Tradition and cannot be defined by modern standards
Aristarchus - Later church Tradition said Nero put Aristarchus to death in Rome
Gamaliel - The Jews say he died a Pharisee, but ecclesiastical Tradition records that he became a Christian
Agagite - Fürst says the Gentile name "of Haman is therefore explained by Josephus τὸ γένος Ἀμαλεκίτες and so too by Jewish Tradition
Beuno, Saint - According to Tradition he restored his niece Saint Winefride to life at Holywell where many miracles have since then taken place
Fundamentalism - In the theological sense fundamentalism means the adherence given to the fundamentals of God's revelation, as contained in the inspired Word of God and in Divine Tradition, and as proposed by the infallible magisterium of the Church to the faithful for belief
Nails, Holy - Nails with which Our Saviour was fastened to the Cross, and which according to Tradition were found by Saint Helena
Feast of the Presentation of the Blessed Virgin ma - November 21, commemorating the presentation of the Blessed Virgin as a child in the Temple where, according to Tradition, she was educated
Synzygus - An old Tradition of the 2nd cent
Faith, Rule of - The remote rule of faith is the revealed Word of God, as contained in Holy Scripture and Divine Tradition; the proximate rule of faith is the teaching of the Church drawn from both these sources
Trogyllium - ’ This statement is no part of the NT text as now commonly read, but it is not impossible, and perhaps embodies a real Tradition
Zaphon - Possibly the Talmudic Tradition is correct which identifies Zaphon with Amathus, the modero ‘Amâteh , a little north of the Jabbok, at the mouth of Wâdy er-Rugeib
Tyrannus - If accurate, this Tradition explains the availability of the hall (schools generally met in the morning) and the freedom of “all Asia” to hear Paul during their “siesta
Husks - John’s bread’ is given to these pods, from a Tradition that these, and not locusts, composed the food of St
Mallus - Tradition said that it was founded at the time of the Trojan War
Cana - The last is the site fixed upon by ecclesiastical Tradition
Holy Nails - Nails with which Our Saviour was fastened to the Cross, and which according to Tradition were found by Saint Helena
Zeruiah - Josephus preserves a Tradition that he was named Souri ( Allegory - Other biblical allegories are to be explained by the aid of the context, by similar usage elsewhere in the Bible, or by Tradition
Helena, Saint - About 324 she visited Jerusalem, and from this visit arose the Tradition of her discovery of the Holy Cross
Rule of Faith - The remote rule of faith is the revealed Word of God, as contained in Holy Scripture and Divine Tradition; the proximate rule of faith is the teaching of the Church drawn from both these sources
Publius - Ecclesiastical Tradition makes him the first bishop of Malta
Philosophy - His theory that water was the first principle of all things, and that God was the Spirit who formed all things out of water, is evidently derived from primitive Tradition (Genesis 1:2). ) infers from the unconnected dogma-like form of the utterances of the seven sages of Greece that their wisdom was the fruit of Tradition rather than independent reasonings. The nearer we approach to the sources of Eastern Tradition the more conspicuous appears the radiance of the heavenly light of original revelation; we find no mortals yet exalted to divinities, no images in their temples, no impure or cruel rites (Juvenal, Husk - John's Bread,' owing to the Tradition that John the Baptist used its fruit in the desert
Caraites - But about the year 750, Anan, a Babylonish Jew, declared openly for the written word of God alone, exclusive of all Tradition; and this declaration produced a schism. Those who maintained the Talmud being almost all rabbins, were called rabbinists; and the others, who rejected Traditions, were called Caraites, or Scripturists, from the word cara, which in the Babylonish language signifies Scripture
Calneh - The place where the tower of Babel was built, according to the Septuagint and Arab Tradition, taken by Assyria in the eighth century B
Diblah - With slight manuscript support from the Latin Vulgate, many Bible students read “Riblah” supposing that in the earliest history of the text Tradition a copyist made the simple mistake of changing a Hebrew “r” to a Hebrew “d,” the two letters being easily confused
Lucius - Early church Tradition tried, probably incorrectly, to identify him with either Luke or with 2
Ashurite - The textual Tradition among the earliest translations is not clear here with some evidence that the tribe of Asher or the city-state of Geshur is meant
Almug - There is nothing certain known of the nature of this wood, but as Jewish Tradition states that it was a red wood, red sandal wood ( Pterocarpus santalinus ) now used chiefly for its colouring properties has been very generally accepted
Abilene - By a worthless Moslem Tradition, Abel is said to have been buried here
Cana - Tradition places it at Kefr-Kenna, about four English miles northeast of Nazareth, and the traveller is now shown an earthen jar, which is claimed to be one of the water-jars used at the wedding
Gelasian Sacramentary - " However, an old Tradition, based on Walafrid Strabo; ascribes what is evidently this book to Pope Gelasius I
Thomas - Ancient Tradition says, that in the distribution which the Apostles made of the several parts of the world, wherein they were to preach the Gospel, the country of the Parthians fell to the share of St
Sacramentary, Gelasian - " However, an old Tradition, based on Walafrid Strabo; ascribes what is evidently this book to Pope Gelasius I
Rupert, Saint - According to Tradition, he promoted the exploitation of the salt mines at Salzburg
ma'ry, Mother of Mark, - (There is a Tradition that the place of meeting of the disciples, and hence Mary's house, was on the upper slope of Zion, and that it was here that the Holy Ghost came upon the disciples with tongues of flame on the day of Pentecost
Pat'Mos, - " Halfway up the descent is the cave or grotto where Tradition says that St
Paarai - There was a Tradition among the Rabbins, as it is related by Jerome in his questions on Genesis, that Arbe, the original name of Hebron, was so called because it means four, and Adam, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob were buried there
Melchizedek - One Jewish Tradition considers him to be a survivor of the Deluge, the patriarch Shem, and thus entitled by his very age to bless the father of the faithful, and by his position as ruler of Canaan to confer his rights to Abram. Another Tradition, equally old, but not so widely accepted, considers him to be an angel, the Son of God in human form, the Messiah
Shem - The Jews ascribe to Shem the theological Tradition of the things that Noah had learned from the first men. Some have thought Shem the same as Melchisedec, and that he himself had been at the school of Methuselah before the deluge: that he gave to Abraham the whole Tradition, the ceremonies of the sacrifices of religion, according to which this patriarch afterward offered his sacrifices
Luke, Festival of Saint - Luke the Evangelist very little isknown, but uniting Tradition and the references made to him in HolyScripture we learn the following particulars: St. Luke was not oneof the Apostles and was probably not converted until after theAscension of our Lord, although one Tradition has it that he wasone of the two disciples with whom our Lord conversed on the roadto Emmaus. " A latetradition represents him to have been a painter as well as aphysician, and he is said to have painted a picture of the BlessedVirgin
Samson, a Welsh Saint - His legend is obscured by the admixture of several Traditions. as a type of the British Tradition as distinguished from the Gallican, Samson was son of Amwn Ddu, prince of Armorica in the 5th cent. Thus far, and excluding the miraculous elements, the Tradition is generally consistent and complete, though some Welsh Traditions bring him back to die at Llantwit
Abraham - Abram and Abraham are the two forms in which the name of the first patriarch was handed down in Hebrew Tradition. In them we can recognize, amidst much diversity, the outlines of a fairly solid and consistent Tradition, which may be assumed to have taken shape at different centres, such as the sanctuaries of Hebron and Beersheba. ...
In the proper Jahwistic Tradition the starting-point of the Exodus was Harran in Mesopotamia, but in Genesis 11:28 ff. In passing we may note the remarkable fact that both Traditions alike connect the patriarch with famous centres of Babylonian moon-worship. This connexion is broken in Genesis 12:10-20 by the episode of Abraham’s sojourn in Egypt, which probably belongs to an older stratum of Jahwistic Tradition representing him as leading a nomadic life in the Negeb. The main body of Elohistic Tradition, however. Here the narrative has been supplemented by extracts from a Jahwistic recension of the same Tradition. Such is, in outline, the history of Abraham as transmitted through the recognized literary channels of the national Tradition. It is maintained by some that this chapter hears internal marks of authenticity not possessed by the rest of the Abrahamic Tradition, and affords a firm foothold for the belief that Abraham is a historic personage of the 3rd millennium b. 14 could be produced, it would still he a question whether that judgment could be extended to the very different material of the undisputed Hebrew Tradition. It is much more important to inquire what is the historical value of the Tradition which lies immediately behind the more popular narratives in which the religious significance of Abraham’s character is expressed. And there is nothing, either in the Tradition itself or in our knowledge of the background against which it is set, that is inconsistent with the supposition that to the extent just indicated the figure of Abraham is historical
Adrammelech - Son of Sennacherib, king of Assyria, Isaiah 37:38 ; 2 Kings 19:37 , who, upon returning to Nineveh after his fatal expedition against Hezekiah, was killed by his two sons, Adrammelech and Sharezer, through fear, according to Jewish Tradition, of being sacrificed to his idol Nisroch
Binding And Loosing - Whatever be the primary signification of this metaphor in the Aramaic language, these words as used by Christ, as is evident from the context and from Christian Tradition, meant that He was to confer upon the rulers of His Church the power to bind the faithful to the observance of laws and to loose them from impediments to eternal happiness, especially from sin and its consequent debt of punishment
Aristarchus - Bishop of Apamaea, according to Tradition
Loosing, Binding And - Whatever be the primary signification of this metaphor in the Aramaic language, these words as used by Christ, as is evident from the context and from Christian Tradition, meant that He was to confer upon the rulers of His Church the power to bind the faithful to the observance of laws and to loose them from impediments to eternal happiness, especially from sin and its consequent debt of punishment
Barnabas, Saint - Tradition states that he was martyred
Satisfaction - That such a debt of punishment may reamin after the sin itself has been forgiven, and that man can make satisfaction for it, is evident from Scripture (2 Kings 12; Jonah 3), and from Christian Tradition
Enoch - The resemblances between the two lists seem to show that they rest on a common Tradition, preserved in different forms by J Veronica - Legendary Tradition about Veronica flourished during and after 4th cent. A late Tradition represents her as a niece of king Herod and as offering her veil or a napkin as a sudarium to the suffering Christ on the Way of the Cross Whose pictured features were thus impressed upon the linen. This Tradition has found no acceptance since the 11th cent
Adullam - Tradition places it in the hill country, about six miles south-east of Bethlehem, the city of David; a large and fine cave, visited by many travellers
Four Crowned Martyrs - Later Tradition confused them with four Christian soldiers martyred at Rome two years after the death of the five sculptors
Pancratius, Saint - According to Tradition he was born in Phrygia, brought to Rome, and, professing his Faith, was beheaded on the Via Aurelia, when only fourteen, but in what persecution is doubtful
Grave - There were no graves in Jerusalem except those of the kings, and according to Tradition that of the prophetess Huldah
Chebar - Tradition places Ezekiel's tomb at Keffil, which favors our placing Chebar in Chaldaea, rather than upper Mesopotamia
Kiriath-Arba - Others point to the nearby cave of Machpelah where, according to Jewish Tradition, Adam, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob were buried—thus, “city of four
Sinai - In the Jewish Tradition it was sacred to Jahweh, and was memorable as the place where God gave to Moses the ‘lively oracles’ (Acts 7:38)
Archangel, Gabriel the - The Jews venerated Gabriel as the angel of judgment and placed him after Michael; Christian Tradition holds that it was he who appeared to Saint Joseph and the angels, and who strengthened Our Lord in the garden at Gethsemane
Gabriel the Archangel - The Jews venerated Gabriel as the angel of judgment and placed him after Michael; Christian Tradition holds that it was he who appeared to Saint Joseph and the angels, and who strengthened Our Lord in the garden at Gethsemane
Anak, Anakim - Early inhabitants of the high levels of Judah, whom Tradition credited with colossal height
Tradition, - Or it may be from man, as was the Tradition of the elders of Israel, which was strongly denounced by the Lord, and declared to be a subverting of the commandments of God
Ruth, Book of, - Tradition is in favor of Samuel
Holy Angels - " It has always been a Tradition of Christianity that "angelsattend at the ministration of Holy Baptism and at the celebration ofthe Holy Communion; and that as Lazarus was the object of theirtender care, so in sickness and death they are about the bed of thefaithful and carry their souls to the Presence of Christ inParadise
Lot (2) - ...
Lot’s Wife—to whom in Jewish Tradition the name ערית Edith is given—is recorded in Genesis 19 to have been turned into a pillar of salt as a result of her looking back upon Sodom while escaping to the mountain. ...
Our Lord’s word ‘Remember’ neither confirms nor rejects the Tradition
Andrew - ...
After our Saviour's ascension, Tradition states that Andrew was appointed to preach in Scythia and the neighbouring countries. Nevertheless, the Tradition which describes him to have been nailed to a cross is very ancient
Mount Carmel - The Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel preserves the Tradition that from the days of Elias and Eliseus there had always been a succession of hermits on Carmel, and that in the time of the Crusades they had organized themselves like the Western religious orders
Sabbath-Day's Journey - The permitted distance seems to have been grounded on the space to he kept between the ark and the people, (Joshua 3:4 ) in the wilderness, which Tradition said was that between the ark and the tents
Carmel, Mount - The Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel preserves the Tradition that from the days of Elias and Eliseus there had always been a succession of hermits on Carmel, and that in the time of the Crusades they had organized themselves like the Western religious orders
Leviathan - of Authorized Version, it denotes the dragon which, according to Eastern Tradition, is an enemy of light; in 41:1 the crocodile is meant; in Psalm 104:26 it "denotes any large animal that moves by writhing or wriggling the body, the whale, the monsters of the deep
Bethnimrah - By it Tradition makes Israel to have descended to the Jordan
Holy Sepulcher - No further mention of the place of the Holy Sepulcher is made until the 4th century, but scholars maintain that knowledge of it was handed down by oral Tradition, and investigated by the Emperor Constantine, 326, who erected a basilica over the tomb of Jesus, in place of which now stands the church of the Holy Sepulcher
Memory - , as preserved in remembrance, history, or Tradition; posthumous fame; as, the war became only a memory
Spoil - Paul warns Christians not to permit human philosophy, Tradition, etc
Paphos - The Phœnician origin of the former need not be doubted; the latter was by Tradition a Greek settlement, but in both the chief object of worship was the ‘Papbian goddess,’ undoubtedly of Syrian origin, and worshipped under the form of a conical stone, though identified by the Greeks with Aphrodite
Sepulcher, Holy - No further mention of the place of the Holy Sepulcher is made until the 4th century, but scholars maintain that knowledge of it was handed down by oral Tradition, and investigated by the Emperor Constantine, 326, who erected a basilica over the tomb of Jesus, in place of which now stands the church of the Holy Sepulcher
Simon (st.) And Saint Jude's Day - One Tradition hasit that he suffered martyrdom by being sawn asunder in Persia, atthe same time with St
Mishnah - In rabbinic Tradition he is usually referred to simply as “Rabbi. ...
Development According to the Mishnah itself, oral Tradition and its teachings goes all the way back to Moses himself who received the halakah from God on Sinai and passed it on to subsequent generations. In rabbinic Tradition this understanding seems to have functioned in at least two ways. The Mishnah frequently preserved contrary opinions, While it usually resolves the matter on one side or the other, the preservation in the Tradition also allows for reconsideration by later generations. ...
Modern scholars see the Mishnah as a collection and editing of Jewish case law whose Traditions may go back to about 150 B. The Tradition of the Mishnah appears to begin with the sect of Judaism called the Pharisees, who sought to liberalize the legal system of Judaism by applying regulations for Temple purity particularly with regard to food laws to the entirety of Judaism. This movement succeeded in eventually unifying the surviving elements of Judaism into a coherent Traditional system that forms the core of Judaism into the modern era. Nevertheless, the extent to which he could creatively edit the rabbinic Traditions of halakah was probably limited by the community of rabbis who would not hesitate to challenge him if he misrepresented Tradition. The Mishnah may therefore be seen as a compendium of the Tradition of rabbinic Judaism for the first two centuries. While much of the Mishnah concerns matters of pragmatic concern to the social and religious organization (the rabbis do not distinguish between the two) of Judaism, some segments seem o preserve Tradition for its own sake. Particularly, the practices of the Pharisaic sect may be reflected in some of the early Traditions included in the Mishnah. In this context it appears that Jesus is certainly more liberal in His treatment of women than was rabbinic Tradition
Babel, Tower of - ) Bochart (Phaleg, 1:9) records the Jews' Tradition that fire from heaven split it through to its foundation. It is curious that the Birs is so rent; hence perhaps arose the Jews' Tradition. 9:14-15, preserves the Babylonian Tradition
Ham - ]'>[2] ) of two quite distinct Traditions in Genesis 9:1-29 ; Genesis 10:1-32 . ’ To combine the two Traditions a redactor has added the words, ‘and Hâm is the father of Canaan’ in Genesis 9:18 , and ‘Hâm the father of’ in Genesis 9:22 . ) In the second Tradition Shem, Japheth, and Canaan stand not for large divisions of the world, but for certain much smaller divisions within the limits of Palestine . ‘ Shem ’ evidently stands for the Hebrews, or for some portion of them (see Genesis 10:21 in the other Tradition), and ‘Japheth’ for some unknown portion of the population of Palestine who dwelt ‘in the tents of Shem’ ( Genesis 9:27 ), i. ‘Canaan’ (in the other Tradition, Genesis 10:19 ) inhabited the coast lands on the W
Feast of the Holy Name - titular of a Church), or as an expression of devotion which is part of the Tradition and spirituality of a religious order
Aceldama - Tradition points out this field on the steep side of the hill of Evil Counsel overhanging the valley of Hinnom on the south
Jeremias, Lamentations of - According to Jewish Tradition: "Jeremias wrote his own book and Kings and Qinoth
Lamentations of Jeremias - According to Jewish Tradition: "Jeremias wrote his own book and Kings and Qinoth
Martha, Saint 29 Jul - Tradition holds that she migrated with Lazarus and Mary to Tarascon, in France, where she lived in great austerity and piety for seven years, and that her tomb is now situated there
Nathanael - ) Tradition makes Nathanael to have been the bridegroom at the marriage of Cana, to which he belonged
Eshtemoa - ” The name may indicate an ancient Tradition of going to Eshtemoa to obtain an oracle or word of God from a prophet or priest
Candace - ); named Judich in Ethiopian Tradition, which represents him as having propagated the gospel in Arabia Felix and Ethiopia, and brought Candace herself to the faith
Holy Name, Feast of the - titular of a Church), or as an expression of devotion which is part of the Tradition and spirituality of a religious order
Agrapha - Most sayings are regarded by scholars as expansions of the gospel Tradition or creations by subsequent followers of Jesus, though a few of them may be authentic
Eliphaz - His arguments were founded on experience, as Bildad's were on Tradition
Apol'Los - Tradition makes him bishop of Caesarea
te Deum - The old Tradition that it was firstsung impromptu and antiphonally by St
Doctrine - ...
Scripture may, however, become bound to Tradition. The result is Traditionalism. ...
Priority of apostolic Tradition collected as Scripture over church Tradition was the decision of the church. It is still a basic presupposition of Protestant Christianity: Scripture over Tradition. ...
A church with its own Tradition introduces us to faith. Of course, the key question is: did these distort or accurately develop the Tradition of the New Testament?...
There must be as much scope for the free activity of the intellect in framing Christian doctrine as for Christian feeling. In worship the church's Tradition is shaped and proclaimed
Albanus - And the subsequent foundation of Offa in 793 only serves to identify the place with the Tradition. But the testimony of Germanus, in Constantius's Life of him, seems sufficient proof that a Tradition of the martyrdom of somebody named Albanus existed at Verulamium a century and something more after the supposed date of that martyrdom
ra'Mah - Tradition, however places the residence of Samuel on the lofty and remarkable eminence of Neby Samwil which rises four miles to the northwest of Jerusalem. Since the days of Arcult the Tradition appears to have been continuous
jo'Nah - The old Tradition made the burial-place of Jonah to be Gath-hepher; the modern Tradition places it at Nebi-Yunus , opposite Mosul
Joppa - The fabled scene of Andromeda's exposure to the whale; the legend is a Tradition derived from Jonah's history, through the Phoenicians. Here too on the housetop of Simon the tanner (tradition still points out the house?) Simon the tanner by the seaside, Peter, in full view of the Mediterranean washing the Gentile lands of the W
Secundus, Bishop of Tigisis - of Cirta, committed the act of "tradition" which partly gave rise to the proceedings in which Secundus became conspicuous. Optatus says that amid the uproar of mutual incrimination [1] Purpurius of Limata taxed Secundus with Tradition, because, instead of leaving his post of duty before the inquisition, he remained until dismissed in safety, which would not have been the case unless he had purchased his safety by act of surrender
Onesimus - ’...
We have no reliable account of Onesimus’ subsequent history; but we may accept as in itself highly credible the Tradition (Apost. 46); in Ephesus, according to another Tradition which identifies him with Onesimus, ‘bishop’ of Ephesus in the time of Ignatius (Ign. A Tradition (also embodied in the AS Tabor - Tradition holds that Tabor was the site of Jesus' transfiguration (Mark 9:2 ), although no evidence exists to validate the claim
Jabneel - The burial place of Gamaliel, according to Jewish Tradition
Leah - Thus was preserved the ancient Near Eastern Tradition of the elder marrying first
Hur - Jewish Tradition says that he was the husband of Miriam, and the same person as No
Aquileia - The see, according to Tradition, was founded by Saint Mark, and numbered Hermagnos and Helarus among its martyr bishops
Aglar - The see, according to Tradition, was founded by Saint Mark, and numbered Hermagnos and Helarus among its martyr bishops
Hinduism - In its broader and generally accepted application Hinduism comprises all religious, social, and intellectual life popularly accepted as compatible with Brahman Tradition. The Brahman priests require but recognition of their supremacy and of certain fundamental Traditions
Tradition - ) To transmit by way of Tradition; to hand down
Value - , the ordinances enjoined by human Tradition are not of any value to prevent (pros, "against;" cp
Tradition - 1: παράδοσις (Strong's #3862 — Noun Feminine — paradosis — par-ad'-os-is ) "a handing down or on" (akin to paradidomi, "to hand over, deliver"), denotes "a Tradition," and hence, by metonymy, (a) "the teachings of the rabbis," interpretations of the Law, which was thereby made void in practice, Matthew 15:2,3,6 ; Mark 7:3,5,8,9,13 ; Galatians 1:14 ; Colossians 2:8 ; (b) of "apostolic teaching," 1 Corinthians 11:2 , RV, "traditions" (AV, "ordinances"), of instructions concerning the gatherings of believers (instructions of wider scope than ordinances in the limited sense); in 2 Thessalonians 2:15 , of Christian doctrine in general, where the Apostle's use of the word constitutes a denial that what he preached originated with himself, and a claim for its Divine authority (cp
Joktan - Arab Tradition makes Joktan or Kahtan progenitor of the purest tribes of central and southern Arabia
Dogma - (Greek: opinion, decree) ...
An opinion or belief authoritatively stated, a truth appertaining to faith or morals, revealed by God, transmitted by the Apostles in the Scriptures or Tradition, and proposed by the Church as an article of faith, to be accepted by the faithful
Hobab - Some say different groups within Israel handed down the story of Moses in oral Tradition with different names for his father-in-law
Filioque - The "Filioque," which expresses the ancient Christian Tradition of even the Greek Fathers, first crept into the Nicene Creed in the liturgy of Spain, in the 6th century, and gradually prevailed in Western Christianity as the official and liturgical expression of the revealed truth, that the Holy Ghost proceeds at once from the Father and the Son, as He is the Spirit of the Son as well as the Father
Fideism - (Latin: fides, faith) ...
 ...
A false system of philosophy, closely related to Traditionalism, which denies the ability of unaided human reason to arrive at certain knowledge of matters meta-physical, religious, and moral; and which insists that an act of faith alone is the means by which to attain certitude. The latter is transmitted through the ages by society, in the form of Tradition, common sense, or some agent of a social character
Aaron's Rod - Later Jewish Tradition, however, transferred it, along with the pot of manna, to a place within the ark ( Hebrews 9:4 )
Judas Thaddeus, Saint - The place of his death is unknown; Beirut and Arad in Phenicia have been mentioned as possible places, and there is a Tradition that he suffered martyrdom
Jude, Saint - The place of his death is unknown; Beirut and Arad in Phenicia have been mentioned as possible places, and there is a Tradition that he suffered martyrdom
Dominic de Guzman, Saint - At Toulouse, according to Tradition, the devotion of the Rosary was revealed to him
Exodus, Book of - The unanimous voice of Tradition and all internal evidences abundantly support this opinion
Lawrence, Saint - According to Tradition Saint Lawrence was roasted to death on a red-hot gridiron over a slow fire
Shem - ’ In one of the two Traditions combined in J Shobach - ...
Perhaps because so little was known of Shobach, he played an important part in later imaginative Tradition
Degrees, Song of - Jewish Tradition relates the title to the fifteen steps leading from the court of the women to the court of Israel in the Temple
Canonesses Regular of the Holy Sepulcher - An ancient order connected by Tradition with Saint James the Less and the first establishment of holy women in Jerusalem
Esh-Baal - In 2 Samuel 2:8 the name is Ish-bosheth, “man of shame,” apparently an intentional corruption in the Hebrew Tradition to avoid the name of the Canaanite god and to characterize the person with such a name
Washing - Here the reference is to the ablutions prescribed by Tradition, according to which "the disciples ought to have gone down to the side of the lake, washed their hands thoroughly, 'rubbing the fist of one hand in the hollow of the other, then placed the ten finger-tips together, holding the hands up, so that any surplus water might flow down to the elbow, and thence to the ground
Archippus - Martyred, according to Tradition, at Chonse, near Laodicea
Bathsheba - She is said by Tradition to have composed Proverbs 31 as an admonition to Solomon on his marriage to Pharaoh's daughter
Ember Days - Their origin is ascribed toApostolic Tradition
Timnath Heres - Christian Tradition identifies Timnath Heres with Tibneh on the Roman road from Antipatris to Jerusalem
Rebecca - Paul uses this Tradition as illustrating a mysterious principle which he observed in the operation of Divine grace
Theophilus - Tradition connects Theophilus with Antioch
Ramah - This seems to imply that he considered Rachel’s tomb to be in the neighbourhood; and the existence of such a Tradition is supported by the account in 1 Samuel 10:2, which states that Rachel was buried ‘in the border of Benjamin
Baruch - A wide range of later literature was attributed to Baruch in Jewish Tradition
Elishama - Jerome, following Jewish Tradition identifies him with No
Salem - Further, "the king's dale" (2 Samuel 18:18), identified in Genesis 14:17 with Shaveh, is placed by Josephus and by Tradition (the targum of Onkelos) near Jerusalem (Hebrews 7:1-2)
Carpus - He is supposed by later Tradition to have been one of ‘the Seventy,’ and the Greek Church honours his memory on May 26, the Roman and Syrian Churches on October 13
Andrew - Tradition adds that he was crucified at Patræ in Achaia, and hung alive on the cross for two days, exhorting the spectators all the while
Doctor - The Law, especially the oral Tradition, was the great subject of study; it was learned by indefatigable memorizing
Pathros - Tradition represented the people of Egypt as coming from Ethiopia, and the first dynasty as Thinite
Aceldama - The Traditional spot is on the slope of the hill south of Jerusalem, where there is a ruined structure, long used as a charnel-house. Tradition says that the bodies were thrown into it, and that the soil possessed the power to consume them in 24 hours
Calvary - There is no topographical question more keenly disputed than whether the spot now venerated as the site of the holy sepulchre is really the ancient Golgotha or Calvary: the latest explorations do not support the Tradition, but point to a site outside the walls of Jerusalem, near the so-called Grotto of Jeremiah
lu'Cius - Paul, (Romans 16:21 ) by whom he is said by Tradition to have been ordained bishop of the church of Cenchreae
Andrew - Tradition has been busy with his later history; and he is said to have been crucified at Patræ in Achaia, on a cross formed like the letter X, which has hence been called "St
Transfiguration - This remarkable event in the life of Christ probably took place on Hermon or some other mountain not far from Caesarea Philippi; the Tradition which assigns it to Tabor not being sustained
Thaddeus, Judas, Saint - The place of his death is unknown; Beirut and Arad in Phenicia have been mentioned as possible places, and there is a Tradition that he suffered martyrdom
Eder - Jerome mentions a Jewish Tradition that this Eder was the site of the Temple, but himself prefers to think that it was the spot on which the shepherds received the angels’ message
Silvanus, Bishop of Cirta - of that see during the persecution under Diocletian, and, as well as he, guilty of "tradition
Trumpet - , is a Jewish-Christian application of the older Messianic Tradition (cf. Paul seems to reflect, in 1 Thessalonians 4:16, the Tradition which connected it with the archangel Michael, but Mt
Emilianus (8), Solitary - Braulio gives no dates and no names of parents, but the common Tradition is that St. For 40 years he lived a hermit's life there, mostly on or near the peak of La Cogolla (according to the Tradition of the monastery; there is no mention of the Cogolla of St
Ararat - This is the Traditional landing-place of the ark; and, through a misunderstanding of Genesis 8:4 (‘in [2] the mountains of Ararat’), the name was transferred from the surrounding district to the two peaks of this mountain, Great Ararat and Little Ararat, the latter about 7 m. The Syrian and Mohammedan Tradition places it at Jebel Jûdî , a striking mountain considerably S. His statement about relics of the ark being shown in his time appeals to be borrowed from Berosus, and applies to whatever mountain that writer had in mind possibly Jebel Jûdî! The Targums and Peshiá¹­ta, however, which are influenced by this Tradition, read Ḳardû (Kurdistan), in verbal agreement with Berosus. Assuming, therefore, that the Biblical and Babylonian narratives have a common origin, the landing-place of the ark would seem to have been pushed gradually northward, the natural tendency of such a Tradition being to attach itself to the highest mountain known at the time
Cain - The fact that the story appears to describe conditions long subsequent to those of the first pair has led many writers to hold that Cain is the eponymous ancestor of a tribe, and that the Tradition was intended to explain the wild and wandering life of Arabian nomads. ...
( b ) Genesis 4:17-24 seem to contain a different Tradition, but incorporated also by J Koran - Supplemented by the Hadith or Tradition, it is the foundation of Islam, and the final authority in matters religious, social, and legal
Infallibility - The object of papal infallibility is those truths contained explicitly or implicitly in the public deposit of Revelation, comprehended in Scripture and Tradition
Festival, Fixed - Other fixed festivals have been assigned to certain dates by ancient Tradition or by special decree of the Church
Fixed Festival - Other fixed festivals have been assigned to certain dates by ancient Tradition or by special decree of the Church
Christ, Portraits of - In the Lateran is preserved the "portrait made without hands'" (achiropoeta) according to Tradition
Nethinim - The Tradition is that the Gibeonites (Joshua 9:27 ) were the original caste, afterwards called Nethinim
Beer - Tradition made this the last appearance of the water that "followed" the people before their entrance into Canaan; compare 1 Corinthians 10:4
Adullam - According to Tradition this cave was at Wady Khureitun, between Bethlehem and the Dead Sea, but this view cannot be well maintained
Machpelah - The beveling is shallow, and at latest belongs to the age of Solomon; Jewish ancient Tradition ascribes it to David
Pillar of Cloud And Fire - Psalm 99:7 reflects an otherwise unknown Tradition that the pillar abided with Israel until the time of Samuel
Tema - 550), attributed by Tradition to Solomon, now in ruins; originally meant to protect the caravan route on the N
Trophimus - Tradition makes him beheaded by Nero
Bethany - In this case the topographical indications agree exceptionally with the constant Tradition which fixes Bethany at the village of el-‘Azariyeh , on the S
Gabbatha - Tradition has identified as Gabbatha an extensive sheet of Roman pavement recently excavated near the Ecce Homo Arch
Glastonbury Abbey - Benedictine monastery, Somersetshire, England, the center of early Christian Tradition in England, founded, according to the legendary history of William of Malmesbury, by Saint Joseph of Arimathea, A
Abbey, Glastonbury - Benedictine monastery, Somersetshire, England, the center of early Christian Tradition in England, founded, according to the legendary history of William of Malmesbury, by Saint Joseph of Arimathea, A
Albania - According to Tradition, the first bishop of the country was Saint Cresarius, one of the seventy-two disciples; his successor, Saint Astius, was martyred under Trajan, A. The country was overrun by Turks in the 14th century, and in the 15th century became entirely Mohammedan, though even among the Moslems Christian heroes are venerated and Christian Traditions preserved, for apostasy was mainly the result of inadequate training and unwillingness to suffer exile
Achmetha - Annual pilgrimages are made to the modern city to pay homage at the Traditional burial places of Esther and Mordecai, though the historical basis of the Tradition is open to question
Candace - There is a Tradition that Candace was herself converted to Christianity by her treasurer on his return, and that he became the apostle of Christianity in that whole region, carrying it also into Abyssinia
Tabor - Tradition makes this the mount of Transfiguration; but it is more probable that some part of mount Hermon was chosen for the transfiguration
Alexandria - Tradition relates that the apostle Mark was the first to introduce Christianity into Alexandria
Santa, Scala - According to Tradition, it is the staircase that formerly led to teh praetorium of Pilate at jerusalem, and hence was sanctified by the footsteps of Our Lord during His Passion
Scala Santa - According to Tradition, it is the staircase that formerly led to teh praetorium of Pilate at jerusalem, and hence was sanctified by the footsteps of Our Lord during His Passion
Peleg - Tradition associates this division with the confusing of languages and the consequent scattering of peoples from Babel (Genesis 11:8-9 )
Gamaliel - His high renown, however, among the Jewish rabbins of later ages, seems inconsistent with the Tradition that he embraced Christianity
Patmos - In this cave, over-looking the sea and its islands towards his beloved Ephesus, Tradition says that John saw and recorded his prophetic visions
Pelican - The pelican's bill has a crimson tip, and the contrast of this red tip against the white breast probably gave rise to the Tradition that the bird tore her own breast to feed her young with her blood
Anani'as - Tradition makes him to have been afterwarded bishop of Damascus, and to have died by martyrdom
Blessed Virgin Mary - "...
The perpetual Virginity of the lowly Mother of our Lord has alwaysbeen a very strong Tradition among all devout Christians; a beliefwhich is prompted by reverence for the great mystery of theIncarnation, and confirmed by the universal consent of the Church
Akeldama - The salient features of the Matthaean Tradition are—(a) Judas stricken with remorse returned the money paid to him as the price of his treachery; (b) he hanged himself in despair, nothing being said as to the scene of his suicide; (c) the priests bought with the money a field known as ‘the Potter’s Field,’ which (d) thenceforth was called ἀγρὸς αἳματος, the allusion being to the blood of Christ, shed through the treachery of Judas; (e) the field was devoted to the purpose of a cemetery for foreigners. Matthew’s Tradition ‘to bury strangers in’ (Matthew 27:7). It may have been (as Christian Tradition had it afterwards) the place in the Valley of Hinnom where the potter of Jeremiah’s day pursued his craft (Jeremiah 18:2; Jeremiah 19:2); but of this there is no hint in the NT, for the reference to Jeremiah in the text of Matthew 27:9 is an inadvertence, the passage quoted by the Evangelist being Zechariah 11:13. ...
Tradition has distinguished Akeldama, the field purchased with Judas’ thirty pieces of silver, from the scene of his death—a distinction of sites which though inconsistent with Acts 1, is compatible with Mt. Arculf seems to place the latter upon the Hill of Evil Counsel (§ 18), where it is shown at the present day; but the Tradition has not been constant, the ‘elder-tree’ of Judas having been pointed out to Sir J
Akeldama - The salient features of the Matthaean Tradition are—(a) Judas stricken with remorse returned the money paid to him as the price of his treachery; (b) he hanged himself in despair, nothing being said as to the scene of his suicide; (c) the priests bought with the money a field known as ‘the Potter’s Field,’ which (d) thenceforth was called ἀγρὸς αἳματος, the allusion being to the blood of Christ, shed through the treachery of Judas; (e) the field was devoted to the purpose of a cemetery for foreigners. Matthew’s Tradition ‘to bury strangers in’ (Matthew 27:7). It may have been (as Christian Tradition had it afterwards) the place in the Valley of Hinnom where the potter of Jeremiah’s day pursued his craft (Jeremiah 18:2; Jeremiah 19:2); but of this there is no hint in the NT, for the reference to Jeremiah in the text of Matthew 27:9 is an inadvertence, the passage quoted by the Evangelist being Zechariah 11:13. ...
Tradition has distinguished Akeldama, the field purchased with Judas’ thirty pieces of silver, from the scene of his death—a distinction of sites which though inconsistent with Acts 1, is compatible with Mt. Arculf seems to place the latter upon the Hill of Evil Counsel (§ 18), where it is shown at the present day; but the Tradition has not been constant, the ‘elder-tree’ of Judas having been pointed out to Sir J
James - Tradition says he labored in Palestine and Egypt. According to Tradition, James was thrown down from the temple by the scribes and Pharisees; he was then stoned and his brains dashed out with a fuller's club while praying for his murderers
Isaiah - He was the son of Amoz, Isaiah 1:1, whom rabbinical Tradition represents as the brother of king Amaziah. Jewish Tradition asserts that he did, and that he was martyred by being sawn asunder; and this has been supposed to be alluded to in Hebrews 11:37
Gilgal - The stone circle from which it certainly took its name (in spite of the impossible etymology given in Joshua 5:9 ), was no doubt that to which the Tradition embodied in Joshua 4:20 refers, and the same as the ‘images’ by Gilgal in the story of Ehud ( Judges 3:19 RVm Possession (2) - (Mark 7:4; Mark 7:8) when he is relating how ‘the Pharisees and all the Jews’ kept ‘the Tradition of the elders. This he mentions to explain why the Pharisees and scribes came to ask Jesus, ‘Why walk thy disciples not according to the Tradition of the elders, but eat bread with unwashen hands?’ thus giving Jesus occasion to apply to them the prophecy of Isaiah, ‘This people honoureth me with their lips, but their heart is far from me,’ and otherwise exposing and rebuking their ‘hypocrisy
Lamentations, Theology of - Several Traditions, such as the sin-punishment nexus, inform the book. It is with an eye to the form, genre, Traditions, situation, and characters that a theology of the book can best be laid bare. The devastation of property, the stress of losing virtually everything, and the deep despondency are vividly pictured—so that God will take notice! Famine is the focus (2:20; 4:10), perhaps because of the Tradition of God working his purposes through famine (Genesis 12:10 ; Ruth; Jeremiah 14 ). The series of poems represents description but also an analysis on which past Tradition is brought to bear. That Tradition includes a belief about the nexus between sin and suffering. Israel explains her circumstances in light of the Tradition: "We have sinned and rebelled we have suffered ruin and destruction" (3:42,47). ...
Her sin, while not to be excused, can be better understood in the light of another Tradition: the ministry expected from prophets. ...
Another Tradition transparent in Lamentations is that of God fighting against his people. The Tradition of God as resolutely compassionate and gentle, yet just in retribution, persists
Michael - These are the only references supplied by the OT, but they exercised a powerful influence upon the Jewish Tradition that grew up regarding Michael (in which he further appears as one of the seven archangels and the chief of the four great archangels), and through this upon NT conceptions. (2) In 1 Thessalonians 4:16 ‘the voice of the archangel and the trump of God’ suggests another reference to the Michael of Jewish Tradition. Matthew 24:31, ‘He shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet’), and it is a common feature of the later Jewish Tradition of the Day of Judgment that the trumpet is blown by Michael the archangel (see Bousset, op
Ablutions - ...
In some parts of the Hebrew Tradition, the ritual importance of washing became a central part of religious practice with minute descriptions of how a person was supposed to wash before various activities. ...
Mark 7:4 mentions that among the Traditions observed by the Pharisees was the “washing of cups and pots. They did this to hold “the Tradition of the elders. ” Jesus called this the “tradition of men” which meant “laying aside the commandment of God” (Mark 7:8 )
Balm - There is an Arab Tradition that the tree yielding this balm was brought by the queen of Sheba as a present to Solomon, and that he planted it in his gardens at Jericho
Michael, Saint - Because of this victory, Michael is revered in Catholic Tradition and liturgy as champion and protector of the Church
Michael the Archangel - Because of this victory, Michael is revered in Catholic Tradition and liturgy as champion and protector of the Church
Mosaic Legislation - A body of civil,moral, and religious enactments, found in the last four Books of the Pentateuch and ascribed to Moses by an unbroken Jewish and Christian Tradition
Chant, Gregorian - Its name derives from Pope Gregory the Great (590-604) to whom Tradition ascribes the final arrangement of the Roman chant
Tabor - There is an old Tradition, which, however, is unfounded, that it was the scene of the transfiguration of our Lord
Alexandria - This is called the Septuagint version, from the Tradition that seventy learned men were engaged in executing it
Claudia - Tradition represents Timothy, Pudens' son, as taking part in converting the Britons
Cock - Talmudic Tradition finds references to the cock in Isaiah 22:17 , Job 38:36 , and Proverbs 30:31 , but all these are very doubtful
Archangel, Michael the - Because of this victory, Michael is revered in Catholic Tradition and liturgy as champion and protector of the Church
Ark of the Covenant Item - According to a Tradition, the value of which is much discussed, the Ark, with the Tabernacle and the altar of incense, was hidden by Jeremias before the siege of Jerusalem by Nabuchodonosor (2Machabees 2); however, the view that it was carried to Babylon as a trophy (4Esdas 10) seems to enjoy greater probability
Gregorian Chant - Its name derives from Pope Gregory the Great (590-604) to whom Tradition ascribes the final arrangement of the Roman chant
Andrew - Tradition says that Andrew laboured in Scythia, Greece, and Asia Minor, and that he was crucified at Patrae in Achaia, on a cross of this form, X, which cross has since borne his name
Cosmas (1) And Damianus, Silverless Martyrs - , and the legends of martyrs of that time, whose fame is known only by popular Tradition, seem in many cases to succeed naturally to the place of those heathen myths that were slowest to die
Timothy - A post-apostolic Tradition makes him bishop of Ephesus
Bartholomew - It is an early Tradition, that Bartholomew propagated the faith as far as India, and also in the more northern and western parts of Asia, and that he finally suffered martyrdom
Bath-Kol - The generality of their Traditions and customs are founded on this Bath-Kol. With some it is probable that Bath-Kol, the daughter of the voice, was only an elegant personification of Tradition
Ananias - Tradition makes him to have been afterwards bishop of Damascus, and to have died by martyrdom
Lamentations of Jeremiah - The author is not named anywhere in the Bible, and the book is not quoted in the New Testament; but general Tradition assigns the composition to Jeremiah, and this is the prevailing opinion
Sodom - Tradition, from the time of Josephus and Jerome, has pointed to the southern site
Simon Stock, Saint - 1165;died Bordeaux, France, c1265 According to Tradition, from the age of 12 he lived as a hermit in the hollow trunk of an oak tree, whence he was called Simon Stock
Stock, Simon, Saint - 1165;died Bordeaux, France, c1265 According to Tradition, from the age of 12 he lived as a hermit in the hollow trunk of an oak tree, whence he was called Simon Stock
James the Less, - (Acts 12:17 ; 15:13,19 ; 21:18 ; Galatians 2:9 ) According to Tradition, James was thrown down from the temple by the scribes and Pharisees; he was then stoned, and his brains dashed out with a fuller's club
Urbanus, Bishop of Rome - De Rossi, however, thinks that the slab in the papal crypt must have been that of the pope, who was actually buried there; and he attributes the contrary Tradition to a confusion between him and the earlier Urban, whom he supposes to have been contemporary with St
Gethsemane - The Traditional site is in the Kidron ravine, at a point about equidistant, as the crow flies, from the Golden Gate and St. I), that Titus cut down all the trees upon that side of the city, be correct, the Tradition that those trees are as old as the Christian era, or the Tradition as to the site, must be abandoned
Tradition - But Tradition has long been superseded by the successive and completed revelations of God's will which form the inspired Scriptures, the only perfect and sufficient rule of belief and practice. With this, even before the time of the Savior, Isaiah 8:20 , all Traditions were to be compared, as being of no value if they conflicted with it, added to it, or took from it, Revelation 22:19 . The Jews had numerous unwritten Traditions, which they affirmed to have been delivered to Moses on Mount Sinai, and by him transmitted to Joshua, the judges, and the prophets. After their wars with the Romans under Adrian and Severus, in view of their increasing dispersion over the earth, the Jews desired to secure their Traditions by committing them to writing. Accordingly Rabbi Judah "the Holy," composed the Mishna, or second law, the most ancient collection of the Hebrew Traditions, about A. Our Savior severely censured the adherents of such legendary follies in his own day, and reproached them with preferring the Traditions of the elders to the law of God itself, and superstitiously adhering to vain observances while they neglected the most important duties, Matthew 15:1-20 Mark 7:1-13 . The Traditions of the Romish church, with less apology than the ancient Jews had before the New Testament was written, are still more in conflict with the word of God, and still more deserving of the Savior's condemnation. ...
In 2 Thessalonians 2:15 3:6 , "tradition" means inspired instructions from the lips of those who received them from God, and were authorized to dispense them in his name
Calvary - 335, by Tradition and a pretended miracle. Some biblical geographers adhere to this location; but Robinson and many others strongly oppose it, on the ground of the weakness of the Tradition, and the difficulty of supposing that this place lay outside of the ancient walls
Authority - The church soon began ascribing authority to its Tradition as well as to the Scriptures. By the fourth century church Tradition was viewed as of equal authority with the Bible. The medieval church especially emphasized the church as the sole interpreter of Scripture, through its Tradition and creeds, councils, and pope. ...
The Catholic church responded to the Reformation with an increased emphasis on the authority of the church and its Tradition, culminating in its assertion of papal infallibility in all areas of faith and practice in 1870
Tradition - A more thorough study of the biblical text, however, has led to the conclusion that behind a great deal of the written text of the Bible stands a long stream of Tradition. His proclamation was that their long-standing Tradition should have offered a proper guide for life. ...
Oral Tradition appears to be the foundation of many written texts. This information was passed on by word of mouth, becoming the Traditions upon which the writers of the Gospels ultimately drew. Paul frequently referred to the Traditions which he had received and which he passed on to the churches (1 Corinthians 11:23-25 ; 1 Corinthians 15:3-7 ). He also pointed out some things which he had not received from Tradition (compare Galatians 1:11-12 . )...
The evidence for ancient oral Traditions is even stronger in the Old Testament. At the same time, even as a contemporary interpreter will take an old text and apply it to a new situation, these old Traditions apparently were frequently retold to apply to the new situations which the people of Israel faced. )...
Oral Traditions appear to have had their origin in the life needs of the community of faith. The point is simply that oral Traditions arose, were preserved, and were passed on because the life needs of the community were being met. ...
Such Traditions, then, clearly had their origin in historical situations. ...
These ancient Traditions, then, were inspired by God to meet human need in real life experiences. Such Traditions made it easier to understand what God was doing because they could hear Him speak through what He had done in other life situations. ...
Furthermore, study of these ancient Traditions makes it obvious that materials which were used in similar life situations were generally preserved and passed on in similar “literary” forms. The use of common forms or outlines for similar kinds of material made it even easier to maintain the accuracy of transmitting the Traditions. ...
The Traditions of Israel and of the early Christians were obviously used by the worshiping communities as a means of maintaining and transmitting their faith. However, when the kingdom divided, one nation preserved it with one divine name while the other used the Tradition to meet their own particular needs with the other name for God. ...
Further, such worshiping communities also appear to have preserved those particular Traditions which were most meaningful to them. Thus Jerusalem, the City of David, appears to have had major interests in the Davidic Traditions. It appears that Traditions concerning Jacob had a very special meaning to those who worshiped at Bethel. Paul clearly referred to conflicting Traditions and allegiances at Corinth (1 Corinthians 1:10-12 ). Such conflicts arose as the worshiping community sought to assimilate a variety of Traditions into one Tradition. ...
Obviously, in the Old Testament all the Traditions of the various worship centers and worshiping communities ultimately were assimilated in Jerusalem. It was the New Testament itself which became the focal point of New Testament Traditions rather than any specific worship center. ...
Oral Traditions were recorded as written Traditions at certain critical points in history. It appears that the worshiping communities were generally quite content to use their Traditions in predominantly oral form until a crisis arose which threatened their continuity. Everyone could handle oral Tradition, only a few could handle written Traditions. ...
However, when historical crises arose which threatened the continued stability or existence of a worship center or of a worshiping community, then it appears that the Traditions were committed to writing lest they be lost. At such times, there appear to have been large scale writings of Traditions. ...
It appears that the New Testament Traditions were written under the impetus of historical crises, but these were of a different nature. There appears to have been a fear that the Traditions would be lost unless they were recorded for future believers. ...
The study of the transmission of these ancient Traditions allows us to perceive the human dimension of the transmission of biblical materials as well as come to a deeper understanding of the nature of God's inspiration. On the other hand, the differences between Traditions sometimes give an even greater insight into the basic human issues with which those who transmitted particular Traditions were concerned. The difference in the way these two writers handled the same Tradition reveals Luke's human sympathetic concern with doctors. The biblical Traditions are rooted and grounded in the divine meeting of human need. This allows these same Traditions better to meet present human need in the real-life situations of contemporary communities of faith
Masora - In regard, therefore, the sacred writings had undergone an infinite number of alterations; whence various readings had arisen, and the original was become much mangled and disguised, the Jews had recourse to a canon, which they judged infallible, to fix and ascertain the reading of the Hebrew text; and this rule they call masora; "tradition, " from tradit, as if this critique were nothing but a Tradition which they had received from their forefathers. Accordingly they say, that, when God gave the law to Moses at Mount Sinai, he taught him first the true reading of it; and, secondly, its true interpretation; and that both these were handed down by oral Tradition from generation to generation, till at length they were committed to writing
Gen'Esis - --It is clear that Moses must have derived his knowledge of the events which he records in Genesis either from immediate divine revelation or from oral Tradition or written documents. That his knowledge should have been derived from oral Tradition appears morally impossible when we consider the great number of names, ages, dates and minute events which are recorded. He may have collected these, with additions from authentic Tradition or existing monuments under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, into a single book
Emmaus - 300), a Tradition arose which for more clearness may be called the Franciscan Tradition, and which places the Emmaus of St. Interesting ruins have been discovered there: those of a church dating from the time of the Crusades, and in the interior of its eneeinte the remains of a more ancient structure, which might be those of a Byzantine church, but which the defenders of the Franciscan Tradition consider to be the very house of Cleopas, around which the sanctuary had been built. 89), ‘represent neither the ancient Tradition, nor the universal Tradition, nor the unconscious Tradition. This reading is a critical one, imposed by the authority of a master, very probably Origen, and collides almost everywhere with the firmly assured Tradition of the Churches. Luke proves nothing in favour of el-Kubeibeh, which can produce only a late Tradition in its favour. But the probabilities indicated at the opening of this article in favour of Kolonieh are greatly weakened by the undisputed fact that the ecclesiastical Tradition of the first centuries pronounces in favour of ‘Amwâs-Nicopolis; this fact proves that all recollection of an Emmaus situated nearer to Jerusalem had become effaced in the 3rd century
Synagogue, the Great - On the return of the Jews from Babylon, a great council was appointed according to rabbinic Tradition, to reorganize the religious life of the people
Iddo - Tradition identifies him with the "man of God" who denounced Jeroboam's calf altar at Bethel (1 Kings 13), which 2 Chronicles 9:29 favors; also with Oded which resembles his name (2 Chronicles 15:1)
Nicholas of Bari, Saint - The numerous miracles Saint Nicholas is said to have wrought before and after his death are outgrowths of a long Tradition
Nicholas of Myra, Saint - The numerous miracles Saint Nicholas is said to have wrought before and after his death are outgrowths of a long Tradition
Myra, Nicholas of, Saint - The numerous miracles Saint Nicholas is said to have wrought before and after his death are outgrowths of a long Tradition
Chemosh - A black star, according to Jewish Tradition, was his symbol, whether as identical with Mars or Saturn
Seraiah - The Hebrew Tradition has various spellings of the name: Sheva, Sheya (2 Samuel 20:25 ); Shisha (1 Kings 4:3 ) if this is not a Hebraic spelling of the Egyptian word for scribe ; Shavsha (1 Chronicles 18:16 )
Goliath - He was slain, in single combat, by David (or, according to another Tradition, by Elhanan) at Ephes-dammim, before an impending battle between the Philistines and the Israelites
Asaph - David established the Tradition of delivering psalms to Asaph for the Temple singers to sing (1 Chronicles 16:7 )
Tammuz - One of the old writers, David Kimchi, hath gone so far as to explain according to his views, and perhaps from Tradition, that this figure of Tammuz was made of hollow brass, the eyes of the figure filled with a composition that when melted from the heat of a fire made within, seemed to drop like tears; and that upon those occasions the women at their festivals presented themselves before the idol as weeping before it
Bari, Nicholas of, Saint - The numerous miracles Saint Nicholas is said to have wrought before and after his death are outgrowths of a long Tradition
Esdras - Jewish Tradition regards him as the author of the Books of Esdras
Abiram - Hiel of Bethel, about five hundred and thirty-seven years after this imprecation, having undertaken to rebuild Jericho, whilst he was laying the foundation of it, lost his eldest son, Abiram, 1 Kings 16:34 ; and Segub, the youngest, when they set up the gates of it; a remarkable instance of a prophetic denunciation fulfilled, perhaps on a person who would not credit the Tradition, or the truth of the prediction
Pelican - The young then receive their food from their mother's bill; and the current Tradition that she tears her own breast to feed them with her blood, may have this origin
Hup'Pim - The Jewish Tradition is that he was the husband of Miriam, and that he was identical with ...
The grandfather of Bezaleel, the chief artificer of the tabernacle
Lamentations, Book of - The spirit, tone, language, and subject-matter are in accord with the testimony of Tradition in assigning it to him. According to Tradition, he retired after the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar to a cavern outside the Damascus gate, where he wrote this book
Nicolaitans - 24) carry on the Tradition without adding to it. 29), has an independent Tradition about Nicolas which vindicates his character
Mary - In later church Tradition, two important theological beliefs focus the significance of Mary. However, in all cases, Mary is a revered character in Christian Tradition who is believed to represent goodness, innocence, and profound commitment to the ways of God. A Tradition, especially prevalent in western Christianity from about A. To confuse the interpretative Tradition further, the sinful woman in the anointing scene of Luke 7:36-50 is often identified incorrectly with another Mary, the sister of Martha and Lazrus
Nativity of Christ, Feast of the - This was originally reserved to the pope alone; beginning about the 4th century he celebrated a midnight Mass in the Lateran Basilica (in which according to Tradition, the manger of Bethlehem is preserved), a second in the church of Saint Anastasia, whose feast comes on December 25, and a third at the Vatican Basilica
Christmas - This was originally reserved to the pope alone; beginning about the 4th century he celebrated a midnight Mass in the Lateran Basilica (in which according to Tradition, the manger of Bethlehem is preserved), a second in the church of Saint Anastasia, whose feast comes on December 25, and a third at the Vatican Basilica
Catholic Council For International Relations - " It endeavors to give Catholics in Great Britain a greater and more sympathetic knowledge of their fellow Catholics in other countries; to create a Catholic public opinion, informed by the Tradition of the Church, which shall be a real power for international justice and peace; to enable Catholics to understand, appreciate, and when necessary, criticize from the standpoint of religion, the international organizations and movements of the day
Catholic Survey - " It endeavors to give Catholics in Great Britain a greater and more sympathetic knowledge of their fellow Catholics in other countries; to create a Catholic public opinion, informed by the Tradition of the Church, which shall be a real power for international justice and peace; to enable Catholics to understand, appreciate, and when necessary, criticize from the standpoint of religion, the international organizations and movements of the day
James, Epistle of Saint - " According to almost unanimous Tradition, this James was one of the Apostles, the son of Alpheus (Matthew 10), "the brother of the Lord" (Galatians 1), the first Bishop of Jerusalem (cf
Luke - 12) reports, is clear from his preface in which he implies he was not an" eye witness"; the Tradition arose perhaps from his Gospel alone recording the mission of the seventy
Nergal - Cutha or Tiggaba (Nimrod's city in Arab Tradition) is in the inscriptions especially dedicated to him
Septuagint Chronology - The following is the reason which is given by Oriental writers; It being a very ancient Tradition that Messiah was to come in the sixth chiliad, because he was to come in the last days, (founded on a mystical application of the six days creation, ) the contrivance was to shorten the age of the world from about 5500 to 3760; and thence to prove that Jesus could not be the Messiah
Willows - Another Tradition makes Pope to have raised the first specimen from green twigs of a basket sent to Lady Suffolk from Spain (Linnaean Transactions, 10:275)
Horites - ) derives the name from a root meaning ‘white’ as contrasted with the ‘red’-skinned Edomites, while Hommei ( AHT On - Tradition makes Plato and other Greek philosophers study in Heliopolis; later, the foundation of the Alexandrian library, on the one hand, deprived Heliopolis of the glory of learning, and, on the other, the old Traditions of royal descent from the Sun-god had little weight with the Ptolemys
Matthew - The Tradition of his martyrdom in Ethiopia is not very trustworthy
Epistle of Saint James - " According to almost unanimous Tradition, this James was one of the Apostles, the son of Alpheus (Matthew 10), "the brother of the Lord" (Galatians 1), the first Bishop of Jerusalem (cf
Bethany - (Example He returned from Bethany hungry because no one invited Him home for breakfast) He wanted them to be convinced that only He Himself could set the captive free from the bondage of Tradition and habit
Receive - ) To allow, as a custom, Tradition, or the like; to give credence or acceptance to
Thomas - According to earliest Tradition, he preached in Parthia, and was buried at Edessa: later histories say that he went to India, and was martyred there; and the Syrian Christians in that country claim him as the founder of their church
Transfiguration - Though Tradition locates the transfiguration on Mount Tabor, there is little to confirm this view, and modern scholars favor some spur of Mount Hermon, Jesus frequently went to the mountains to spend the night In prayer
Septuagint Chronology - The following is the reason which is given by the oriental writers: It being a very ancient Tradition that Messiah was to come in the sixth chiliad, because he was to come in the last days, founded on a mystical application of the six days of the creation, the contrivance was to shorten the age of the world from about 5500 to 3760; and thence to prove that Jesus could not be the Messiah
Noah - —The hero of the Hebrew version of the Semitic Tradition of the Flood; mentioned twice in the Gospels
mo'Lech - According to Jewish Tradition, the image of Molech was of brass, hollow within, and was situated without Jerusalem
Moon - Judaistic Tradition added special features in the liturgy of the synagogue in connection with the observance of the first day of the month, the new "moon" time
Noah - —The hero of the Hebrew version of the Semitic Tradition of the Flood; mentioned twice in the Gospels
Senochus, Saint - Martin, according to Tradition, had been wont to pray
Nahash - Jewish Tradition makes the service to David consist in Nahash having protected David's brother, when he escaped from the massacre perpetrated by the treacherous king of Moab on David's family, who had been entrusted to him (1 Samuel 22:3-4). Jewish Tradition makes Nahash that same as Jesse
Enoch - Judges 1:14 stamps with inspired sanction the current Tradition of the Jews as to Enoch's prophecies. The language "Enoch prophesied, saying," favors Tradition rather than the Book of Enoch being the source from whence Jude drew. ...
So Paul mentions Jannes and Jambres the Egyptian magicians, names drawn from Tradition, not from Scripture (2 Timothy 3:8)
Mark (John) - It is usually held that ‘Babylon’ means Rome, as there seems not to have been a Jewish colony in the real Babylon at the time, and as all ecclesiastical Tradition connects St. Paul for some time, we can well understand that Mark devoted himself exclusively to the former after the death of the latter, and that in this way the ecclesiastical Tradition (see next art. By that Tradition Mark’s activity is associated both with Rome and with Alexandria; and the Egyptian Church assigns its principal liturgy to his name
Trial of Jesus - Some of these are topographical or archaeological; some are legal, connected with the jurisprudence of the trial; while others are historical, arising from the literary criticism of the Evangelic Traditions. The fragmentariness of these Traditions*
The Lukan Tradition, followed substantially in the Fourth Gospel, raises the problem of jurisprudence definitely by affirming that Pilate thrice pronounced Jesus innocent (Luke 23:4; Luke 23:14; Luke 23:22). ...
Only a critical analysis and comparison of these early Christian Traditions can yield evidence for estimating aright the problems of the jurisprudence of the trials; and even the results of such an inquiry are not final, especially in the case of the Jewish trial. The Gospels betray different currents of Tradition, and these currents do not always flow in the same channel. But their very scantiness proves that the instinct for embroidering the facts with unhistorical fancies did not operate to any serious extent within the primitive Christian Traditions, while their tone of moderation tells in favour of the essential historicity of the method in which they record actions of the Jews and Romans which must have outraged and shocked the later Christian conscience. Their records have no trace of the outraged partisan, any more than of a pious desire to cast some adventitious halo round Jesus; and when one considers how numerous were the temptations to make capital against the Jews out of this Passion-story, or to decorate it with trivial and extravagant circumstances (as is the case in most of the relevant Apocryphal Gospels), one can better appreciate the sober and wonderfully restrained character of the Evangelic Traditions. Yet, whilst these are both obvious and independent of critical research, a comparative inquiry into the different Traditions is imperative. The occasional divergences of the records do not affect seriously either the religious truth or the historical value of the Traditions as a whole. , also biames the Jerusalemites, rather than Pilate, whom from the first the Evangelic Tradition rightly regarded as less culpable. ]'>[7] ...
According to one Tradition, the Jewish trial took place at once in the house of Caiaphas, where the Sanhedrin had gathered, despite the lateness of the hour. ...
The Lukan Tradition defers the examination till the morning. ...
The latter Tradition is more true to the regular practice of the Sanhedrin, which met by day; for only then were its decisions valid (cf. Luke may have been smoothing out what appeared to him an irregularity in the previous Tradition. Even the Markan Tradition includes a morning examination (Mark 15:1 = Matthew 27:1, a full and formal meeting of the court), which, after the nocturnal one, would be no more than a closing deliberation or a hasty ratification of the sentence already passed. The colourless and brief mention of this second examination shows that the Petrine Tradition had no exact knowledge of its proceedings. As to the reasons which led the Markan Tradition to dilate on a nocturnal trial, the clue is probably to be found in the fact that there really was such a hasty preliminary cross-questioning of Jesus; only, it was not before Caiaphas, but before Annas (see Annas), the influential ex-high priest, who had been at the bottom of the whole movement to arrest Jesus. Historical criticism cannot be put off nowadays with the assumption that the Markan Tradition is so exhaustive and infallible as to prove a standard for judging the later Gospels. Certain data in the Tradition even of the Fourth Gospel (e. As the ex-high priest had no power to pronounce sentence, the tendency of Tradition would naturally be towards the decisive proceedings before Caiaphas. ...
The Traditional order of the text in John 18, however, does not appear to represent the original. But if he did, he (or his source at this point) tacitly corrects the Markan Tradition
Elijah - ...
In later Old Testament prophetic Tradition, Elijah was associated with the day of the Lord (Malachi 4:5-6 ), and was soon to be sent by God on the behalf of the people. ...
Later Jewish Tradition . The New Testament, which mentions the prophet nearly thirty times, shows the influence of the late Jewish Tradition of Elijah being the forerunner of the Messiah. ...
Although the Tradition that Moses and Elijah would appear together in the last days was not to be found in rabbinic Judaism, both of these Old Testament characters were present and spoke at the transfiguration of Jesus, testifying to the importance of the impending events as eschatological (Matthew 17:3-4 ; Mark 9:4-5 ; Luke 9:30,33 ). James uses Elijah as a powerful example of a supplicant (5:17), relying on Jewish Tradition, which credited Elijah with a reputation for prayer (although this is not specifically mentioned in 1 Kings 17-18 ). James attempts to refute the Jewish Tradition of the sinlessness and eternal nature of the prophet by stating that Elijah was a man "just like us. Later church Tradition takes the two witnesses of Revelation to be modeled after Moses and Elijah (Revelation 11:3-6 )
Montallegro - According to Tradition, the Blessed Virgin appeared (July 2, 1557) on Monte Leto, to Giovanni Chichizola, a peasant, and showed him a picture of her passing from earthly life, saying that it had been transported by angels from Greece, and that she would leave it on the mountain side as a pledge of her love
Rachel - In accordance with this latter group of passages, Tradition from at least the 4th cent
Patriarch - There is a large amount of consentient Tradition to the effect that the life of man was originally far more prolonged than it is at present, extending to at least several hundred years
Catholic, Roman - " With the dying down of the more violent phase of the persecution of the Church, a term was invented to designate the Church, without recognizing its claims to be the One True Church, perhaps without intending an odious sense, but still often used to imply that it is foreign and not in accord with the national spirit, or Tradition
Naaman - Identified by Jewish Tradition (Josephus, Conduit - The pools of Solomon beyond Bethlehem for irrigating his garden (Ecclesiastes 2:6) were probably connected with the supply of water for Jerusalem, which Talmudic Tradition assigns to him
Tradition - In any society Traditions develop as beliefs and practices are handed on from one generation to the next. The Jews of Jesus’ day had many Traditions. Many of the later Traditions had been developed and taught by the scribes and Pharisees, and brought Jesus into conflict with the Jewish religious leaders (Matthew 23:4-16; see SCRIBES; PHARISEES). ...
Jesus was not opposed to Jewish Traditions. But he was opposed to the teaching of Traditions as binding on people. The Jewish leaders taught human Traditions as if they were God’s commandments; worse still, they rejected the genuine commandments of God in order to keep their Traditions (Mark 7:7-13; cf. ...
The Tradition that Christians are to keep is twofold
Thomas - According to Tradition, his chief contribution to this task was to take the gospel to India
Manoah - 2, 3), who was apparently following some ancient Jewish Tradition
si'Las - A Tradition of very slight authority represents Silas to have become bishop of Corinth
Hem of Garment - The other threads were made white (according to Tradition), to represent purity (Isaiah 1:18)
Nazirite - Two Traditional forms of the Nazirite are found. ...
The lifelong Nazirite in biblical Tradition included Samson (Judges 13:1 ), Samuel (1 Samuel 1:1 ), and John the Baptist (Luke 1:15-17 )
Oath - ...
The Lord exposed the folly of the Tradition that some oaths were not binding
Babel - Jewish Tradition and early profane writers say that the tower was destroyed
Lamp - According to rabbinical Tradition, the wicks of the sacred lamps were made of the old linen garments of the priests
Titus - Tradition makes him labor for many years in Crete, and die there at an advanced age
Egypt - According to Tradition Saint Mark the Evangelist introduced the Catholic Faith into Alexandria which became the center of Christianity in Egypt
Bethesda - Tradition locates this pool in what is now a large dry reservoir, along the outside of he north wall of the temple area
Roman Catholic - " With the dying down of the more violent phase of the persecution of the Church, a term was invented to designate the Church, without recognizing its claims to be the One True Church, perhaps without intending an odious sense, but still often used to imply that it is foreign and not in accord with the national spirit, or Tradition
Barnabas, Feast of Saint - Barnabas, but Tradition tells us that he returned to Cyprus,spending the remainder of his life among his countrymen, and thathe suffered martyrdom, being stoned to death by the unbelievingJews at Salamis
Daniel, Prophet - (Hebrew: God is my Judge) ...
The hero and Traditional author of the book of the Old Testament which bears his name. Finally the book is concluded by the so-called deuterocanonical parts (12 to 14), which are wanting in the Hebrew Bible, but are endorsed by the Tradition represented in the Septuagint Greek version. Its place among canonical books is guaranteed by Jewish Tradition
Uz - Ancient Tradition is threefold. ...
Modern Tradition, which can be traced back to early Christian times, locates Job in the Hauran, where the German explorer J
Sixtus ii., Bishop of Rome - That the cemetery of Praetextatus was the scene of his martyrdom ancient Tradition bears witness, and in accordance with it an oratory was afterwards built on the spot, "coemeterium ubi decollatus est Xystus. " The Tradition is confirmed by representations of him and his chair in this cemetery, under one of which is the legend SVSTVS
Philip the Evangelist - What little more we know about him is derived from ecclesiastical Tradition; but this Tradition is rendered uncertain from a tendency there is among ecclesiastical writers to identify Philip the Apostle with Philip the Evangelist. Yet there can be no doubt that the author of the Acts distinguishes the two, and the Tradition does not really confound them, but distinguishes the three daughters of Philip the Apostle (one of whom was married and settled at Ephesus) from the four daughters of Philip the Evangelist, who were all virgins (see Polycrates, quoted in Eusebius, HE_ iii. And then Tradition makes Philip the Evangelist settle not at Hierapolis but at Tralles (AS_, June 6)
Babylon - Tradition ( Genesis 10:10 ), it was as old as Erech, Akkad, and Calneh. Native Tradition makes it as old as Erech and Nippur, the latter being proved by excavations to date back to prehistoric times. 15) so interprets the reference, and, in view of the ancient and persistent Tradition, there is nothing improbable in St
Melchizedek - It is an old Tradition among the Jews that he was Shem, the son of Noah, who may have survived to this time
Athens - ) Dionysius the Areopagite convert of Paul was, according to Tradition, the first bishop of an Athenian church
Goiim - One Greek manuscript Tradition points to Pamphylia, which means “rich in peoples
Nimrah - Tradition makes it the scene of Israel's "passage" over Jordan; this would cause Bethabara ("house of passage") to be substituted for Bethnimra
Zenas - (for Tradition); Expositor , 8th 6er
Martha - The three Traditions which involve anointings of Jesus (1. A more sound approach is to appreciate each Tradition within the context of the Gospel of which it is a part
Manaen - If, as Tradition asserts, St
Felix (26) i, Bishop of Aptunga - 2, 313, to establish their case against Caecilian, turned their attack on Felix, whom they sought to convict of the infamous crime of "tradition" in the persecution of Maximus, a
Gerasa - An uncertain Tradition of some Jewish scholars, favoured by some modern writers, identifies it with Ramoth-gilead
Beni Khaibir - They receive and observe the law of Moses by Tradition, for they are not in possession of the written law
Saint Thomas Christians - A body of Christians in India who claim spiritual descent from the Apostle Saint Thomas, Bishop of Mylapore, who was martyred in 68, according to strong local Tradition and collateral evidence
Perdition - 13), points to a constant Tradition in the Christian Church of the Apostolic Age, which appears, from the passages alluded to, to have conceived not of a foreign potentate alien to the Church, but rather of a false Messiah who should be ‘sent to them that are perishing’ (namely, the Jews), and was expected to make his appearance at Jerusalem
Maurus, Saint, Founder of Glanfeuil Monastery - He is better known, as Herzog says, to Tradition than to history, but the primary authority is Gregorius Mag
Fall of Man - This is regarded as an illustration of the wide dissemination of the Tradition of the Fall. The story of the "golden age," which gives place to the "iron age", the age of purity and innocence, which is followed by a time when man becomes a prey to sin and misery, as represented in the mythology of Greece and Rome, has also been regarded as a Tradition of the Fall
Eden - ) Armenia's highlands are the Traditional cradle of the race; thence probably, from Eden as their source, flowed the two eastern rivers, Tigris and Euphrates, and the two western ones through the regions answering to Arabia and Egypt. The Traditions of almost all nations have preserved the truth, in some form, that there was an original abode of man's innocence; the Greek and Latin garden of the Hesperides; the Hindu golden Mount Meru; the Chinese enchanted gardens; the Medo-Persian Ormuzd's mountain Albordj (compare Ezekiel 28:13; Joel 2:3). ...
The Hindus' Tradition tells of a "first age of the world when justice, in the form of a bull, kept herself firm on her four feet, virtue reigned, man free from disease saw all his wishes accomplished, and attained an age of 400 years. In the Tibetan, Mongolian, and Singhalese Traditions, a covetous temper works the sad change. The Babylonians, Egyptians, and Chinese had the Tradition of man's life once reaching thousands of years
Scribe - The necessary regulations were contained partly in a written Law, partly in a mass of oral Tradition and authoritative precedents. It involved the making of accurate copies of the Scriptures, and the laborious memorizing of Tradition. Hence the mass of Traditions and precedents assumed overwhelming proportions
Sadducees - 250, who, rejecting the Traditionary doctrines of the scribes, taught that man ought to serve God out of pure love, and not from hope of reward, or fear of punishment; and that they derived their name from Sadoc, one of his followers, who, mistaking or perverting this doctrine, maintained that there was no future state of rewards and punishments. The Sadducees rejected all Tradition, and some authors have contended that they admitted only the books of Moses; but there seems no ground for that opinion, either in the Scriptures or in any ancient writer. For this reason the Sadducees reject these things, asserting that those things are binding which are written, but that the things received by Tradition from the fathers are not to be observed
Antichrist - The myth appears to have belonged to the common stock of Semitic ideas, and must have become familiar to the Hebrews from their earliest settlement in Canaan, if indeed it was not part of the ancestral Tradition carried with them from their original Aramaean home. -Deriving from Judaism, Christianity would naturally carry the Antichrist Tradition with it as part of its inheritance. That it actually did so Bousset has shown by a comprehensive treatment of the later Christian exegetical and apologetic literature, which evidently rests on a Tradition that is only partially dependent on the NT (op. But, so far as the NT is concerned, the earlier Antichrist Tradition is taken over with important changes, due to the differences between Judaism and Christianity, and especially to the differences in their conception of the Messiah Himself. But from all the crude and materialistic elements of the earlier Tradition His teaching is entirely free. Mark 13:14, Luke 21:20), which occurs in the great eschatological discourse, some critics have seen a parallel to 2 Thessalonians 2:1-12 and an evident allusion to the Jewish Antichrist Tradition; but they do so on the presumption that the words were not spoken by Jesus Himself and are to be attributed to a redactor of the original source. Paul with the Antichrist Tradition is suggested when he asks in 2 Corinthians 6:15, ‘What concord hath Christ with Belial?’ and when he speaks in Colossians 2:15 of Christ triumphing over ‘the principalities and powers. 11 ‘the beast that cometh up out of the abyss’ was evidently suggested by the dragon-myth as embodied in the Jewish Antichrist Tradition, while the ‘great red dragon’ of Revelation 12:3, who is also described as ‘the old serpent, he that is called the Devil and Satan’ (Revelation 13:6-8), and who is clearly represented as the Antichrist (Revelation 12:4-5; Revelation 12:17), reproduces both the mythical dragon and the later Beliar-Satan conception, now fused into one appalling figure. But to these pre-Christian forms of the Antichrist Tradition-the dragon, Satan, and a hostile world-power-the Apocalypse contributes two others which are peculiar to Christianity and which play a large part in the Christian Tradition of later times. The NT authors were evidently influenced in their treatment of the subject by contemporary situations as well as by an inheritance of ancient Traditions
Christ in Jewish Literature - Whatever may have been the reason, they very seldom mentioned Him; and they seem to have neither received any direct impression, nor inherited any Tradition of His spiritual greatness. In modern literature the chief Jewish historians write of Jesus as of a great historical personage; and though they, naturally, do not see in Him as much as Christians see, they honestly try to present historical truth and to avoid Traditional prejudice. The first group is that whose chief representative is the Mishna, the code of the Traditional Law completed by R. To this group also belong the Tosefta, a collection of Traditions partly coinciding with the Mishna, and the Midrashim known as Siphrç, Siphra, and Mechilta. The Gemaras contain many Traditions not included in the Mishna but contemporaneous with it; such a Tradition is called a Baraitha. This is true, but it only shows the anachronism of the Tradition. At the same time it is possible that the name Ben Stada did not originally refer to Jesus, although in the later Tradition the two are identified. ...
The several items of the foregoing Tradition about Jesus are of various date. ...
The Tradition concerning Jesus appears to have started with R. The Tradition passed from R. The Tradition represented by R. Judah the Holy, who gathered in also the Tradition of R. ...
In the Amoraite period the Tradition is twofold, Palestinian and Babylonian. On the whole, the Palestinian Rabbis took very little interest in the Tradition about Jesus. ...
The Babylonian Tradition starts with Rab, who was a disciple of R. Ezekiel handed on the Tradition to R. Papa, disciple of Abaji, who received the Tradition from R. There is sufficient likeness between the general outlines of the Jewish and the Christian Traditions to show that the same person is referred to; but it is very doubtful if the Jewish Tradition rests upon a knowledge of the Gospels. There is nothing to show how Jesus came to be associated, in the Tradition, with the famous Rabbi of a century before His time. It is therefore important to note that the chief points in the Talmudic Tradition which furnished the base for that caricature were His alleged illegitimate birth, and His character as a magician and a deceiver. Perahiah whose disciple Jesus was said to have been]'>[19], ‘and how shall we believe the substitution of [20] him, from the month of men who did not know him, and were not there?… And we will not depart from the truth and Tradition of our fathers, who did not tamper with the fact, and who related the facts as they took place without addition or omission; and all this shows that this John (the Apostle) - Tradition has, in the case of each Apostle, added to the Scripture narrative a story of subsequent activity and fate. For convenience of reference, therefore, to all that is known of John we may group the materials under the following heads: (1) those found in the Scriptures; (2) those given us by Tradition. The testimony of Tradition...
1. No louder call for Apostolic service could be given than this part of the world was then giving, and, as far as Tradition is concerned, there can be little doubt that John responded to this call. Just at this point, however, criticism, in the interest of its discussions regarding the authorship of the Fourth Gospel, has taken its stand, and tried to make it appear that Tradition is untrustworthy. The main witnesses for the common Tradition are Irenaeus, Polycrates (Bishop of Ephesus), and Clement of Alexandria. ’ Also the Church at Ephesus, founded by Paul, and with which John lived till Trajan’s time (98–117), ‘is a truthful witness to the Tradition of the Apostles’ (ib. ‘The books,’ bearing possibly such titles as ‘Narratives of Aristion,’ or ‘Traditions of the Presbyter John,’ needed confirmation by competent witnesses. Points which confirm this understanding are (1) the hesitation of Eusebius about his own inference that Papias was an actual hearer of John the Presbyter [6]; (2) the suggested antitheses in the phrases ‘his own writing’ and ‘unwritten Tradition,’ which are found in the accounts of the sources of Papias later on in the same section (Historia Ecclesiastica iii. 39: ‘The same author has communicated also other things that came to him as from unwritten Tradition’; ‘but he also commits to his own writing other narratives of the sayings of the Lord of the aforesaid Aristion and Traditions of the Presbyter John’). ‘His own writing’ suggests somebody else’s writing; the ‘unwritten Tradition’ suggests written Tradition. The only support we have for this last supposition is Dionysius of Alexandria, who in the interests of the authorship of the Apocalypse by some other John than the Apostle cites the Tradition that ‘there are two monuments in Ephesus, each bearing the name of John. The value of this testimony lies in the fact that Clement, in gathering memoranda to be ‘stored up against old age as a remedy against forgetfulness,’ had collected Traditions handed down ‘from the holy Apostles Peter, James, John, and Paul, the sons receiving it from the father. ’ As Drummond says of this witness, ‘It seems probable that we have here a distinct line of Tradition which affords independent confirmation of the statements of Irenaeus and Polycrates. —The discussion of the deliverances of Tradition in regard to John’s exile in Patmos is vitally connected with the authorship of the Apocalypse (see art. Internal evidence from the Apocalypse itself favours an early time, while Tradition is explicit about the later date. ...
Thus far we have sought to get at the real facts of Tradition
Nimrod - Tradition points to Babylon's Cushite origin by making Belus son of Poseidon (the sea) and Libya (Ethiopia): Diodorus Siculus i. Eastern Tradition pictures hint a heaven-storming giant chained by God, among the constellations, as Orion, Hebrew Κeciyl , "fool" or "wicked. Tradition mentions a Belus king of Nineveh, earlier than Ninus; Shamas Iva (1860 B
Fasting - The institution of the Day of Atonement the only fast ordained in the Law was Traditionally ascribed to this period; but there is no certain reference to it before Sir 50:5 ff. This was celebrated on the 17th day of the 4th month, and not on the 9th, because, according to the Talmudic Tradition, the 17th was the day on which Moses broke the tables of the Law, on which the daily offering ceased owing to the famine caused by the Chaldæan siege, and on which Antiochus Epiphanes burnt the Law and introduced, an idol into the Holy Place. The 9th, and not the 7th or 10th, was the prescribed day, because Tradition placed on the 9th the announcement that the Israelites were not to enter Canaan, and the destruction of the Second Temple. We hear that frequent additional fasts were imposed by Tradition, and that strict observers kept two weekly fasts ( Luke 18:12 ) on Thursday and Monday commemorating, as it seems, the days on which Moses ascended and came down from the Mount
Jude, the Epistle of - But as Jude differs a little from the Book of Enoch, written probably by a Jew thoroughly imbued with Daniel's sacred writings, it is likely he rather sanctions the current Tradition of the Jews as to Enoch's prophecies, just as Paul names the Egyptian magicians "Jannes and Jambres," though the Old Testament does not. )...
So Jude also stamps as true the Tradition as to the archangel Michael's dispute with Satan concerning Moses' body (Judges 1:9; compare Deuteronomy 34:6). The references to Old Testament history (Judges 1:5; Judges 1:7) and to Jewish Tradition (Judges 1:14 ff) render it probable Jude addressed Jewish Christians primarily, then all Christians (Judges 1:1)
Kings, Books of - As author later Tradition assigns Jeremias, which is probable, if a later editor added here and there
Isaiah - Jewish Tradition makes him a martyr for his religion some time after 693
Isaias - Jewish Tradition makes him a martyr for his religion some time after 693
Salem - Jerome records another Tradition, connecting Salem with Salîm (Salumias) in the Jordan Valley, where there is a tell with the tomb of “Sheik Selîm
Beth-Horon - The chronicler preserved an even earlier Tradition of a descendant of Ephraim, a woman named Sherah, building the two cities (1 Chronicles 7:22-24 )
Azekah - ...
Later Tradition connected Azekah with the tomb of the prophet Zechariah and then with Zechariah the father of John the Baptist, to whom a large church was dedicated
Luke - Tradition holds that he was Greek
Amen - Jewish Tradition states that the people responded to the priest's prayer not "Amen," but, "Blessed be the name of the glory of His kingdom for ever
Eunice - One of the cursives 25 adds the word χήρας in Acts 16:1; and although this is undoubtedly a marginal gloss that crept into the text, it may refer to an early Tradition that Eunice was a widow at the date of the Apostle’s visit to Lystra, and would give added emphasis to the injunction of 1 Timothy 5:4 regarding the treatment of widows by their children or grandchildren,...
W
Abilene - According to popular Tradition, the name Abila is derived from Abel, who was buried by Cain in a tomb which is still pointed out in the neighbourhood
Sodom - Tradition says the spot was Caphar Berucha, from which the Dead Sea is visible through a ravine. , which the Traditional names confirm
Pharisees - They were the great advocates of Tradition, and were punctilious in paying tithes
Alexander the Great - A Jewish Tradition, reported by Josephus and the Talmud, relates that whilst the renowned Macedonian conqueror was besieging Tyre (b
Alphaeus - It is remarkable that in Mark 2:14 Codex Bezæ and some cursives read James for Levi , and there is a Tradition (Chrysost
Gerizim - According to Samaritan Tradition, the sacrifice of Isaac took place here
Hebron - A pool is still shown over which Tradition says that David hung the murderers of Ishbosheth, and the tomb of Abner and Ishbosheth is also pointed out within an Arab house, and the mosque is known to conceal the noted cave of Machpelah, the burial-place of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob and their wives except Rachel
Gemara - The Jews believe that the gemara contains nothing but the word of God, preserved in the Tradition of the elders, and transmitted, without alteration, from Moses to rabbi Judah, the holy, and the other compilers of the Talmud; who did not reduce it to writing till they were afraid it would be corrupted by the several transmigrations and persecutions to which their nation was subjected
James And John, the Sons of Zebedee - It is not easy to determine whether his reason for the change is historical, to account for the promptness with which the call of an unknown stranger is obeyed, or whether he is following a different Tradition. Clemen, whose discussion of the whole evidence should be consulted (Die Entstehung des Johannesevangeliums), says, this does not prove the historical accuracy of the statement, but it is important evidence of a different Tradition from that which represents the son of Zebedee as living on in Ephesus to an advanced old age, and dying a peaceful death. In the light of the common Tradition, why should anyone have made the mistake? The silence of Eusebius is an important factor in the case, but it is not conclusive, as Harnack (Chronologie, Leipzig, 1897, p. Eusebius might well suppress as μυθικώτερον a statement so completely in contradiction to the received Tradition on the subject. The real difficulty is to account for the growth of a different Tradition at Ephesus, if the Tradition of John’s martyrdom was known at Hierapolis in Papias’ time. 86), which shows that the saying of Mark 10:38 was interpreted of the baptism of blood, and the testimony of Aphraates (Homily 21), who speaks of James and John following in the footsteps of their Master, if they point to the Tradition of martyrdom, also suggest the natural explanation of its origin, if it is not historical, viz. ...
(4) The evidence of the Martyrologies also points to the same Tradition, even if they are capable of another explanation. Whether the Tradition owes its existence to attempts to interpret the Synoptic saying, or is a reminiscence of actual fact, is in the light of our present knowledge difficult determine. -Even if the story of John’s death at the hand of the Jews is historical, it does not exclude the possibility of his residence at Ephesus, though it certainly overthrows the Traditional account of his long residence there till the reign of Trajan and his wonderful activity in extreme old age as the last surviving apostle and ‘over-bishop’ of Asia. ...
It is impossible to repeat in detail the well-known evidence of Irenaeus, Tertullian, and Clement of Alexandria, for the accepted Tradition of their time. Justin’s attribution of the Apocalypse to the Apostle proves that the Tradition connecting his name with Asia is at least as old as the middle of the 2nd century. 5) would show that Papias also knew of the Tradition. ...
On the whole, the least unsatisfactory explanation of the evidence, with all its difficulties and complexities, is the hypothesis that the Apostle did spend some years of his later life in Ephesus, where he became the hero of many Traditions which belonged of right to another or to others. ...
On the whole, though the pre-eminence of John in the Synoptic account is hardly such that he must have appeared in the Fourth Gospel, if he were not the author, yet the facts of the Gospel and the Traditions of later times about it are most easily explained by the view that ‘behind the Gospel stands the Son of Zebedee’ (see Harnack, Chronologie). Heitmüller, ‘Zur Johannes-Tradition,’ ib
Theophilus - ...
There is no credible Tradition as to Theophilus in early literature. This Tradition is almost certainly a confusion of the Theophilus of the Recognitions with the Theophilus who was living about 190. 324), but these statements are important only as showing the absence of any Tradition or legend. ...
As ‘tradition’ is thus ignorant of any facts concerning Theophilus, the only source of information which we possess is contained in the implications of the Lucan writings
Talmud - … The history of the origin of the Talmud is the same as that of the Mishna a Tradition, transmitted orally for centuries, was finally cast into definite literary form, although from the moment in which the Talmud became the chief subject of study in the academies it had a double existence (see below), and was accordingly, in its final stage, redacted in two different forms’ (Bacher in JE Acts of the Apostles - Tradition as to authorship-...
1. Against the Tradition. ...
(a)The Antiochene Tradition. ...
(b)The Jerusalem Tradition. Historical value of the various Traditions-...
1. The Jerusalem and Galilaean Traditions. Tradition as to Authorship. -So far back as Tradition goes, the Acts is ascribed to St. This Tradition can be traced back to the end of the 2nd cent. Farther back Tradition does not take us: there are no clear proofs of the use of Acts in the Apostolic Fathers (see The New Testament in the Apostolic Fathers, Oxford, 1905) or in the early Apologists. (For the later Traditions concerning Luke and his writings see Luke. )...
The value of this Tradition must necessarily depend on the internal evidence of the book itself. The arguments can best be arranged under the two heads of favourable and unfavourable to the Tradition. In favour of the Tradition of Luke’s authorship is the evidence of the ‘we-sections,’ or passages in which the writer speaks in the first person
Melchisedech - In Jewish Tradition Melchisedech is commonly identified with Sem; Origen and Didymus held him to have been an angel; some even thought that he Wall an incarnation of the Holy Spirit or the Son of God
Melchizedek - In Jewish Tradition Melchisedech is commonly identified with Sem; Origen and Didymus held him to have been an angel; some even thought that he Wall an incarnation of the Holy Spirit or the Son of God
Jonas, Book of - , but the Traditional view, commonly held by Catholics, is that it is a real history. On this point the Church continues the Jewish Tradition which has always accepted this book as historic and canonic
Judith, Book of - On the other hand, Catholic Tradition from the earliest times has always considered the Book as historical, and the Council of Trent has defined its character as an inspired writing by placing it among the canonical books of the Old Testament
Matthew, Gospel of Saint - The Biblical Commission, June 19, 1911, declared that the universal and constant Tradition dating from the first centuries and expressed in early writings, ancient codices, versions and catalogues of the Bible, proves beyond doubt that Saint Matthew wrote the first Gospel, as we now have it in our Bibles, before the year 70, and that the Gospel is in conformity with historical truth
Imitate - Obedience may also be in mind as references to Tradition ( 2 Thessalonians 3:6 ) and command (2 Thessalonians 3:10 ) demonstrate
Virgin - A modern view holds that Isaiah was adopting the language of a current mythological Tradition, and intended the word to convey the idea of a divine mother (note ‘ the virgin,’ RVm John, Gospel of Saint - The Biblical Commission, May 29, 1907, declared that the constant and universal Tradition from the 2century, the testimony of the Fathers and ecclesiastical writers, the codices, versions and catalogs of the Sacred Books, all give convincing proof that the fourth Gospel was written by Saint John and that it is a strictly historical document
Gerizim - There is a Samaritan Tradition that it was the scene of the incident recorded in Genesis 22
Apollonius of Ephesus - John, that he relates the raising to life of a dead man at Ephesus by the same John, and that he makes mention of the Tradition quoted also by Clement of Alexandria ( Strom
Eternity of the World - If the world be eternal, it is hard to account for the Tradition of its beginning, which has almost everywhere prevailed, though under different forms, among both polite and barbarous nations
Proselytes - Second, Judaism stressed a life-style of moral responsibility with its monotheism; and third, it was a religion of ancient and stable Tradition in contrast to the faddish cults of the time
Hobab - A Mohammedan Tradition identifies Sho’ aib (perhaps a corruption of Hobab), a prophet sent to the Midianites, with Moses’ father-in-law
Luke (Evangelist) - A Tradition, perhaps of the 6th cent. Other Traditions connect him with Achaia, Bithynia, or Alexandria; some assign to him a martyr’s crown
Manger - Ancient Tradition places Jesus’ birth in a cave near Bethlehem
Luke, Gospel of Saint - The Gospel contains 24 chapters and maybe divided into: ...
the hidden life (1-2)
preaching of Saint John, baptism, and temptation (3:1 to 4:13)
teaching, miracles, and works of mercy in Galilee and the founding of the Church (4:14 to 9:50)
the "Perean Ministry," work of Jesus outside of Galilee (9:51 to 19:28)
ministry in Jerusalem (19:29 to 21:38)
Passion, Death, Resurrection and Ascension (22-24)
The Biblical Commission, June 26, 1912, declared that the harmonious Tradition from the earliest ages, the testimony of ancient writers, the use of the Gospel by the early Church, constitute certain proof that Saint Luke wrote the entire Gospel as contained in our Bibles before the year 70, and that it is a true historical document
Zin - ...
The close similarity between the events recorded in Exodus 17:1-16 and Numbers 20:1-29 , and other points of resemblance between occurrences before and after Sinai, suggest the question whether Sin and Zin, the Sin of the pre-Sinai and the Zin of the post-Sinai narrative, may be variations developed in the course of Tradition
Rimmon - Others from Hebrew rimmon , a "pomegranate," sacred to Venus; the fertilizing principle in nature; tree worship anciently having prevailed, a perverted relic of the Tradition of Eden's tree of life
Baruch - Tradition adds nothing of any certainty to the references of Scripture; see, however, Jos
Greece - According to Tradition, Saint Andrew preached in Scythia, Thrace, Epirus, Macedonia, and Achaia, and was crucified at Patras; he is claimed by the patriarchs of Constantinople as their first predecessor
Gospel of Saint Luke - The Gospel contains 24 chapters and maybe divided into: ...
the hidden life (1-2)
preaching of Saint John, baptism, and temptation (3:1 to 4:13)
teaching, miracles, and works of mercy in Galilee and the founding of the Church (4:14 to 9:50)
the "Perean Ministry," work of Jesus outside of Galilee (9:51 to 19:28)
ministry in Jerusalem (19:29 to 21:38)
Passion, Death, Resurrection and Ascension (22-24)
The Biblical Commission, June 26, 1912, declared that the harmonious Tradition from the earliest ages, the testimony of ancient writers, the use of the Gospel by the early Church, constitute certain proof that Saint Luke wrote the entire Gospel as contained in our Bibles before the year 70, and that it is a true historical document
Abila - " The Tradition of Abel's murder having taken place here (marked by his tomb 30 feet in length, Nebi Habil, on a hill) arose from confounding his name (properly Ηebel ) with abel , a frequent name of rich meadowy places
Zaretan - ...
The name and site did not originate from Christian Tradition, for this makes the fords of Jericho the scene of John's baptisms (John 1:28)
Jehoshaphat, Valley of - been identified by an unbroken Christian Tradition with the Valley of Jehoshaphat. In spite, however, of these Traditions, it is quite probable that the name of this valley was at one time Wady Sha‘fât , from the neighbouring village of Sha‘fât , and that this suggested to early Christian pilgrims, in search of sites, the Biblical name Jehoshaphat . The so-called ‘Tomb of Jehoshaphat,’ which lies near the Traditional ‘Tomb of Absalom,’ is an impossible site, for in 1 Kings 22:50 and 2 Chronicles 21:1 it is stated that he was buried in the city of David
Gospel of Saint Matthew - The Biblical Commission, June 19, 1911, declared that the universal and constant Tradition dating from the first centuries and expressed in early writings, ancient codices, versions and catalogues of the Bible, proves beyond doubt that Saint Matthew wrote the first Gospel, as we now have it in our Bibles, before the year 70, and that the Gospel is in conformity with historical truth
Gospel of Saint John - The Biblical Commission, May 29, 1907, declared that the constant and universal Tradition from the 2century, the testimony of the Fathers and ecclesiastical writers, the codices, versions and catalogs of the Sacred Books, all give convincing proof that the fourth Gospel was written by Saint John and that it is a strictly historical document
Bethany - About a bow-shot from hence you pass by the place which they say was Mary Magdalene's house; and thence descending a steep hill, you come to the fountain of the Apostles, which is so called because, as the Tradition goes, these holy persons were wont to refresh themselves there between Jerusalem and Jericho,—as it is very probable they might, because the fountain is close to the roadside, and is inviting to the thirsty traveller
Gethsemane - Early Tradition locates Gethsemane near the base of Mount Olivet, beyond the brook Kidron
Tabor - This was in existence, and was garrisoned by the Romans in the time of Christ, which conflicts with the Tradition that makes Tabor the scene of the transfiguration
ez'ra - There was a Jewish Tradition that he was buried in Persia
Jeho'Vah - According to Jewish Tradition, it was pronounced but once a year, by the high priest on the day of atonement when he entered the holy of holies; but on this point there is some doubt
Phil'ip - After this all is uncertain and apocryphal, According Tradition he preached in Phrygia, and died at Hierapolis
Tradition - Such Traditions are the following:...
1. ...
All these Traditions of the Universal Church are retained orpermitted by the American branch of the Church. ...
It is also to be noted that by Tradition is meant the uniformteaching of the Church from the beginning, i. " Inasmuch as the Church is the "Witnessand keeper of Holy Writ," and that it is upon her testimony that weknow what is the Bible, it is but reasonable to defer to herinterpretation, her universal customs and Traditions as to itsmeaning
Laurentius (36) - Laurentius, the first of the Traditional seven deacons of Rome, suffered four days afterwards. ) that his narration was gained from Tradition instead of reciting the Acts as his custom was (S
Polycrates, Bishop of Ephesus - From every other place, as far as we can learn, the answer was that they celebrated the feast of our Lord's Resurrection on no other day than Sunday; but Polycrates, writing in the name of the bishops of Asia, declared that they had preserved untampered the Tradition to celebrate only on the 14th day of the month, the day when the Jewish people put away their leaven. Polycrates himself had followed the Traditions of his kindred, seven of whom had been bishops before him, and had been confirmed in his view by his own study of the whole Scripture and by conference with brethren from all the world
Ramah - A Tradition placed here the site of Rachel’s tomb: this explains the allusions in 1 Samuel 10:2 , Jeremiah 31:15 (quoted in Matthew 2:18 ). Near it are some remarkable ancient monuments, known locally as ‘The Graves of the Children of Israel,’ which possibly are the ‘tomb of Rachel’ of the ancient Tradition
Wall - This is of much importance as a test of the reliability of Tradition. Basket), so that the Tradition has little value
Sosthenes - 12) states that Sosthenes was one of the Seventy; but probably this is a worthless Tradition. Tradition is responsible also for the statement that he became bishop of Colophon
Cana - ...
Etymology and Tradition are divided between the above mentioned site on the plain of Buttauf and Kefr Kennâ, a hamlet on the direct road to the lake, and about 3½ miles N. Tradition is indecisive
Chorazin - There was once a Tradition that the Antichrist was to be born in Chorazin, and that its inhabitants were proud of this, and therefore the place was cursed by Jesus; see Expos. The name Chorazin is, like that of Nazareth, an interesting illustration of the scantiness of our literary Tradition
Ashtaroth - Eusebius’ Karnaim Ashtaroth evidently lay in the corner or angle formed by the rivers Nahr er-Rukkad and Sharî‘at el-Manadireh , in which vicinity Tradition places Uz, Job’s fatherland. of Sa dîyeh at el-Merkez , another grave (modern) of Job is shown, and a Der (‘monastery’) Ayyûb , according to Tradition built by the Ghassanide Amr I
Edom, Edomites - The Israelites were conscious that the Edomites were their near kinsmen, hence the Tradition that Esau and Jacob were twin brothers ( Genesis 25:24 ). The Tradition that Jacob tricked Esau out of his birthright ( Genesis 27:1-46 ), and that enmity arose between the brothers, is an actual reflexion of the hostile relations of the Edomites and Israelites for which the Israelites were to a considerable degree responsible
Cabbala - a mysterious kind of science, delivered to the ancient Jews, as they pretend, by revelation, and transmitted by oral Tradition to those of our times; serving for the interpretation of the books both of nature and Scripture. It is originally Hebrew, קבלה , and properly signifies reception; formed from the verb קכל , to receive by Tradition, or from father to son; especially in the Chaldee and Rabbinical Hebrew. The Jewish fables farther relate, that the book being lost, and the mysteries contained in it almost forgotten, in the degenerate age preceding the flood, they were restored by special revelation to Abraham, who transmitted them to writing in the book "Jezirah;" and that the revelation was renewed to Moses, who received a Traditionary and mystical, as well as a written and preceptive, law from God. The only warrantable inference from these accounts, which bear the obvious marks of fiction, is, that the cabbalistic doctrine obtained early credit among the Jews as a part of their sacred Tradition, and was transmitted under this notion, by the Jews in Egypt to their brethren in Palestine. Among the profound doctors who, beside the study of Tradition, cultivated with great industry the cabbalistic philosophy, the most celebrated persons are the rabbis Akibba, who lived soon after the destruction of Jerusalem, and Simeon Ben Jochai, who flourished in the second century. The true state of the case seems to be, that during the prophetic ages, the Traditions of the Jews consisted in a simple explanation of those divine truths which the prophets delivered, or their law exhibited, under the veil of emblems. This cabbala, called also artificial cabbala, to distinguish it from the first kind, or simple Tradition, is divided into three sorts. Both are supposed to have been handed down from generation to generation by oral Tradition only, till at length the readings were fixed by the vowels and accents, as the interpretations were by the gemara
Golgotha - in Ephesians 5:14) mentions a Tradition that Adam was buried at Golgotha, and that at the Crucifixion the drops of Christ’s blood fell on his skull and restored him to life. On what grounds did he select this as the true site of the Crucifixion? Those who still believe it to be the true site generally assume not only that the early Christians at Jerusalem had a knowledge of the places where the Lord was crucified and buried, but also that this knowledge was handed down as a reliable Tradition through three hundred years, notwithstanding the utter demolition of Jerusalem by Titus and again by Hadrian, and the altering of the whole aspect of the city by the latter when he rebuilt it as a Roman colony and changed its name to Aelia Capitolina. ...
‘Such language, certainly, would hardly he appropriate in speaking of a spot well known and definitely marked by long Tradition. Indeed, the whole tenor of the language both of Eusebius and Constantine goes to show that the discovery of the Holy Sepulchre was held to be the result, not of a previous knowledge derived from Tradition, but of a supernatural interposition and revelation’ (Robinson, BRP
In the present Church of the Holy Sepulchre are shown not only the site of the Sepulchre and the rock of the Crucifixion, with the cleft made by the earthquake and the three holes, five feet apart, in which the three crosses were inserted, but also a great number of other Traditional sites. The number of these identifications, all under one roof, does not increase our confidence in ecclesiastical Tradition. ...
Not less damaging to the claims of the Traditional site is the topographical evidence. If we place Golgotha at the Traditional site, we make Jerusalem at the time of its greatest prosperity no larger than the poverty-stricken town of the present day, ‘containing not far from 200 acres, from which 36 acres must be deducted for the Haram area’ (Merrill). , and also in the 12th and 14th, but the first to reject the Tradition openly was Korte, who visited Jerusalem in 1738, and who urged that the Traditional site could not have been outside the ancient city, because of its nearness to the former area of the Jewish temple. If this curve included the Pool of Hezekiah (which must surely have been within the walls), it would naturally have included also the Traditional site of the Sepulchre. If, in spite of the statement of Josephus, the wall be drawn with a re-entering angle so as to exclude the Traditional site, there still remain apparently insuperable difficulties in the nature of the ground, since in this case the wall must have been built in a deep valley (Tyropœon), and must have been dominated from without by the adjacent knoll on which the Church of the Holy Sepulchre now stands (Acra). From the statement that Titus made his attack ‘against the central tower of the north wall’ he argues further, that if the wall ran from near Hippicus to Antonia in such a way as to exclude the Traditional site of the Sepulchre, the two parts of the wall after it was broken in the middle should have been designated the ‘eastern’ and ‘western’; but Josephus calls them the ‘northern’ and ‘southern,’ a description which is obviously more appropriate to a wall which ran well to the west and north of the Traditional site (Presb. ...
The genuineness of the Traditional site has been defended by Chateaubriand (Itinéraire de Paris à Jerusalem), Williams (The Holy City), Krafft (Die Topographie Jerusalems), Tischendorf (Reise in den Orient), de Vogué (Les Églises de la Terre-Sainte), Sepp (Jerusalem), Clermont-Ganneau (L’Authenticite du Saint-Sepulcre), Sanday (Sacred Sites of the Gospels), and others. ...
Moreover, Jewish Tradition regards this hill as the place of public execution, and the Jews still call it ‘the Place of Stoning. ’ Christian Tradition also, as old as the 5th cent
John the Apostle - John may be divided into three parts: (1) The specific information given in the canonical Scriptures; (2) early and well-attested Tradition concerning him; (3) later Traditions of a legendary character, which cannot be accepted as history, but which possess an interest and significance of their own. Both these points are strongly contested in modern times, though the identification is supported by an early, wide-spread, and steadily maintained Tradition. ...
It is only necessary to add that the John mentioned in Revelation 1:4 ; Revelation 1:9 as writing to the Seven Churches in Asia from the island of Patmos was identified by early Tradition with the son of Zebedee. Early Tradition . Outside the NT only vague Tradition enables us to fill up the gap left by Christ’s answer to Peter’s question, ‘Lord, and what shall this man do?’ We may gather that he spent several years in Jerusalem. 96) he returned from the island and took up his abode in Ephesus, according to ‘an ancient Christian Tradition’ (lit. ’ Tertullian confirms the Tradition of a residence in Ephesus by quoting the evidence of the Church of Smyrna that their bishop Polycarp was appointed by John ( de Pr. All Traditions agree that he lived to a great age, and it is Jerome ( in Galatians 6:10 ) who tells of his being carried into the church when unable to walk or preach, and simply repeating the words, ‘Little children, love one another. The poet Browning, in his Death in the Desert , adopts the ancient Tradition concerning the Apostle’s great age and lingering death, and imagines him recalled from a deep trance and the very borderland of the grave to deliver a last inspired message. ...
It is the weight of positive evidence, however, on which the Tradition really rests. Later Traditions . They are valuable chiefly as showing the directions in which Tradition travelled, and we need not draw on any of the interesting myths of later days in order to form a judgment on the person and character of John the Apostle, especially if he was in addition, as the Church has so long believed, St
Wisdom And Wise Men - ...
Though the movement became less visible during the early part of the divided monarchy, it was still quite active, for Hezekiah's wise men were very concerned about preserving the wisdom Tradition for future generations (Proverbs 25:1 ). However, certain of the other “writings” such as the Psalms, the Song of Solomon, and Lamentations contain figures of speech and stylized forms reflective of the wisdom Tradition. In addition to these, the intertestamental works of Ecclesiasticus and the Wisdom of Solomon continued the Tradition and laid an excellent foundation for the ultimate revelation of wisdom in Christ Jesus (Matthew 11:19 ; Luke 11:49-51 ; Colossians 1:15-20 ; 1Corinthians 1:24,1 Corinthians 1:30 ; Revelation 5:12 )
Gamaliel - ’); others regard it as the statement of a time-server without definite convictions, and incline to compare him unfavourably not only with the apostles, but with his colleagues in the council, who were consistent and convinced Traditionalists. ...
The influence which Gamaliel on this occasion exercised in the Sanhedrin has been explained by the acceptance of a Rabbinic Tradition to the effect that he was president of the Sanhedrin; but not until after the destruction of Jerusalem, when the priesthood had lost its importance, do we find a Rabbi occupying this position (cf. The importance of this latter factor is borne out by unanimous Rabbinic Tradition and is attested by the fact that Gamaliel was the first among the seven teachers who received the title Rabban-a higher form of Rabbi, which in the form Rabboni is applied to the risen Jesus by Mary Magdalene (John 20:16). ...
The Tradition that Gamaliel was a secret Christian and was baptized by St
Victor, Bishop of Rome - But the general feeling was that the retention of their own Tradition by the Asians was no sufficient ground for breaking off communion with them. He resolutely upholds the Asian Tradition, supporting it by the authority of Philip the apostle, who, with his two aged virgin daughters, was buried at Hierapolis; of another saintly daughter of his who lay at Ephesus; of St. " He cites a letter sent on the occasion to Victor by Irenaeus, who, though holding with him on the question at issue, exhorted him in the name of a synod of the church of Gaul "that he should not cut off whole churches of God for preserving the Tradition of an ancient custom
Bethesda - (1) Modern Tradition identifies Bethesda with the Birket Israil, an empty reservoir, 360 feet long, 120 feet wide, and 80 feet deep, half filled with rubbish, which lies close to St. Anne, where an old Tradition has placed the house of the mother of Mary, calling it Bcit Hanna, “House of Anne. ...
This site is thus supported not only by the mediaeval Tradition, but by the early Tradition as well. ’ It has been commonly assumed of late that the two tunnels under the convent of the Sisters of Zion are the twin pools mentioned by these writers; but the Traditions of the 6th, 7th, and 8th centuries, to be presently quoted, place the pool with the five porches and the church called Probatiea (cf. προβατικῇ, John 5:2) at or near the Traditional birthplace of Mary, which is undoubtedly under the present Church of St. ...
Early Tradition, therefore, as well as mediaeval, seems to favour the site discovered in 1888
Law (2) - The morbid anxiety of the scribes to make a hedge about the Law so that all possible approaches to its violation might be blocked, added to the hair-splitting casuistry in which moralists of their type delighted, and the lawyer’s instinct for precise and exhaustive definition, had led to the elaboration of the precepts in the Law into a vast system of Tradition. Against all this Tradition Jesus entered an emphatic protest. The scribes made void by their Tradition the word of God, and every plant which His heavenly Father had not planted He said should be rooted up. Nevertheless, in vindicating the Law against the Tradition, He enunciated principles which pointed forward to the abolition of both. Mark could be accepted as chronological, the first collision of Jesus with the representatives of the Tradition was occasioned by His eating with publicans and sinners at the house of Levi (Mark 2:15 ff. It is possible, though improbable, that Jesus may intend by ‘the old’ the ancient piety of the Old Testament, and by ‘the new’ the new-fangled regulations of the scribes, His sense being that the old Divinely-given mode of life is being ruined by the Tradition of men. Another point in which Jesus came into confliet with the Tradition was that of Ablutions (Mark 7:1 ff. The Pentateuch itself exhibits more than the usual tendency to casuistry in this matter, but the Tradition left the Law out of sight in the elaborateness of its regulations. In the time of Jesus Tradition had become very strict with reference to the washing of the hands. No mention is made here of any violation of the Tradition on the part of Jesus Himself; though in Luke 11:38 we are told that the Pharisee, at whose house Jesus was eating, was surprised that He neglected this ceremony. Jesus defended His disciples by a complete repudiation of the Tradition. But in connexion with the question of hand-washing Jesus enunciated a principle of far-reaching importance which not only set aside the Tradition, but even abrogated a large section of the Law. But it is plain that this carried with it revolutionary conclusions, not only as to the Tradition, but as to the Law; for much of the Law was occupied precisely with the uncleanness created by external things, and it is not improbable that St. ...
The evasion of the Law by the Tradition here asserted by Jesus has been affirmed by some Jewish scholars not to have existed. If the assertion about Corban is untrue, of course it cannot be ascribed to Jesus, who could not have quoted, as a conclusive proof that the Jews cancelled the Law by their Tradition, an example which His hearers would know to have no existence
Nazareth - The brow of the hill over which the enraged Nazarenes threatened to cast Jesus is probably near the Maronite church, though Tradition places it at the "Mount of Precipitation," two or three miles south of the town
Mark, Gospel of Saint - " The sixteen chapters are written in the chronological order, with some exceptions, and follow these general divisions: ...
preparation through the preaching of Saint John, the baptism, and temptation (1,2-13)
the preaching and miracles of Jesus in Galilee (1,14, to 9,50)
the journey to Jerusalem for the feast of the Pasch, and the last days of Our Lord's teaching (10-13)
the Passion, Death, Resurrection, and Ascension (14-16)
The Biblical Commission, June 26, 1912, declared that all reasonable doubt that Saint Mark is the author of the second Gospel as now contained in our Bibles, and that the Gospel was written before the year 70 and according to the preaching of Saint Peter, has been removed by the clear evidence of Tradition from the earliest ages, as found in the testimony of the Fathers, in the use of the Gospel by early Christians, and its place in ancient codices and versions
Thomas - Tradition credits him with the authorship of a Gospel (see Gospels [1], 6 )
Timothy - According to Tradition, after the apostle's death he settled in Ephesus as his sphere of labour, and there found a martyr's grave
Bible, Use of the - Its doctrinal use grows out of the official teaching of the Church as incorporated in the decrees of the Council of Trent and the Vatican Council, which states that the Sacred Scriptures, together with Apostolic Tradition, constitute the twofold fount of Divine revelation
Titus - According to church Tradition, Titus was the first bishop of Crete
Matthias - ...
Tradition is more lavish of information. Luke 10:1 ), and he justified his election by evangelizing the savages of Ethiopia and writing two books a Gospel and a work entitled ‘Traditions’ ( Paradoseis )
Memphis - According to Tradition, Memphis was built by Menes, who first united the two kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt
Propitiation - Indeed, it is owned in the church of Rome, that there is no other foundation for the belief of it than an unwritten Tradition
Joppa - The Traditional sites of Tabitha’s tomb and Simon the tanner’s house are shown to tourists and to pilgrims, but are of course without authority. Tradition places here the story of Andromeda and the sea-monster
Abimelech - ) gives two variants of the same Tradition
Isaiah - And the Tradition concerning this event is, that it was brought upon him by the event of his publishing his vision, (Isaiah 6:1-13) in which he saith, "he saw the Lord sitting on a throne high and lifted up
Melchiz'Edek - Jewish Tradition pronounces Melchizedek to be a survivor of the deluge, the patriarch Shem
Jannes - Jerom translates their names Johannes and Mambres; and there is a Tradition, they say, in the Talmud, that Juhanni and Mamre, chief of Pharaoh's physicians, said to Moses, "Thou bringest straw into Egypt, where abundance of corn grew;" that is, to bring your magical arts hither is to as much purpose as to bring water to the Nile
Astrology - Diodorus Siculus relates that the Chaldeans learned these arts from the Egyptians; and he would not have made this assertion, if there had not been at least a general Tradition that they were practised from the earliest times in Egypt
Genealogy - But to this the Jews reply, that either Elias, or some other inspired priest or prophet, shall come, and restore their genealogical tables before the Messiah's appearance; a Tradition, which they ground on a passage in Nehemiah 7:64-65 , to this effect: the genealogical register of the families of certain priests being lost, they were not able to make out their lineal descent from Aaron; and therefore, "as polluted, were put from the priesthood;" the "Tirshatha said unto them, that they should not eat of the most holy things till there stood up a priest with Urim and Thummim
Kings - Ancient Tradition in the Talmud names Jeremiah; some have supposed them compiled by Ezra or Baruch
Stephen - The scene of Stephen's martyrdom is placed by modern Tradition on the east side of Jerusalem, near the gate called after his name. Earlier Traditions located it more to the north
Use of the Bible - Its doctrinal use grows out of the official teaching of the Church as incorporated in the decrees of the Council of Trent and the Vatican Council, which states that the Sacred Scriptures, together with Apostolic Tradition, constitute the twofold fount of Divine revelation
Pisidia - Paul may have been due to some surviving Tradition of his passing by that way, but we are not informed that he preached at all in Pisidia
Luke - Combining the Traditional element with the scriptural we are able to trace the following dim outline of the evangelist's life. The well known Tradition that Luke was also a painter, and of no mean skill, rests on the authority of late writers
Chron'Icles, First And Second Books of, - The constant Tradition of the Jews is that these books were for the most part compiled by Ezra
Adder - There is an old Tradition that the adder sometimes laid one ear in the dust and covered the other with its tail; but they have no external ears: that all known adders can hear is well attested by those called serpent charmers, though some species are more easily attracted than others
Lamentations, Book of - ...
An ancient Tradition, dating back to the earliest Greek translation (about 250 B. Factors which favor authorship by Jeremiah are the antiquity of the Tradition associating him with the book, the similarity in tone between Lamentations and portions of Jeremiah's book (Jeremiah 8-9 ;Jeremiah 8-9;14-15 ), and a similar perspective in Lamentations and Jeremiah as to the cause of the fall of Jerusalem (for example, Lamentations 1:2-18 ; Lamentations 2:14 ; Lamentations 4:13-17 ; Jeremiah 2:18 ; Jeremiah 14:7 ; Jeremiah 16:10-12 ; Jeremiah 23:11-40 ; Jeremiah 37:5-10 )
Fame - A few who cherished sacred Tradition believed that the Messiah had come (John 1:41; John 1:49; John 7:40, Matthew 16:4; Matthew 21:9). Others less instructed talked wildly as if Elijah had descended, or the Baptist had risen (Mark 6:14-15, Matthew 16:13-14), or some prophet of local Tradition or expectation had appeared (John 7:40, Matthew 21:11)
Education in Bible Times - ...
Education in the ancient world was rooted in religious Tradition and theological ideals. The goal of education was the transmission of that religious Tradition, along with community mores and values, and vocational and technical skills. ...
In time, the Hebrew poetic and wisdom Traditions and the prophetic Tradition were included in the covenant content of Old Testament education. The wisdom Tradition served as a practical commentary on the law or covenant legislation, while the prophetic Tradition functioned as a theological commentary on Old Testament law. Like the legal Tradition associated with the covenants, both wisdom and prophecy were rooted in the behavioral outcomes of loving God and doing righteousness and justice (Proverbs 1:3,2:9 ; Hosea 6:6 ; Micah 6:8 ). 1 Samuel 19:20 ), the wisdom Tradition of the Book of Proverbs, the Jerusalem temple conservatory of music (cf. This new material, known as the Mishnah, was accumulated oral Tradition supplementing the Mosaic law. The Mishnah, along with analysis and commentary, was eventually codified in the Talmud, the final written form of this earlier oral Tradition. In part, this led to the rift between Jesus and his religious Jewish counterparts because he rejected the authority of the oral Tradition, decrying a religion that neglected the law of God to cling to the Traditions of men (Mark 7:1-9 ). Whybray, The Intellectual Tradition in the Old Testament ; M
Jerusalem - -For this department of our subject we must call in the aid of Tradition, in so far as this appears to be in any measure worthy of credence. According to a later Tradition-which probably arose from a confusion of this Mary with the Mother of Jesus-this is also the scene of the death of the Virgin. The earliest Tradition with which we are here concerned dates from the 4th cent, a. ’...
Since then there have been many changes in the buildings themselves and in their owners, but the Tradition has been constant. ” It stands above the vault of the Traditional Tomb of David, and we can hardly suppose that any residence, at the time of the Christian era, could have stood within the precincts of the Royal Sepulchre’ (Sinai and Palestine, new ed. Sanday is prepared to give the Tradition about the Caenaculum ‘an unqualified adhesion’ (Sacred Sites of the Gospels, p. -Although Tradition has fixed on one spot as being the special meeting-place of the first Christians, there can be no doubt they still continued to frequent the Temple. Little value can be attached to the Tradition that the Golden Gate above the Kidron Valley is the gate referred to in Acts 3:2. The Traditional spot was shown in the 12th cent. These Traditions may be ignored, and attention fixed on the site N. side, as the Tradition bound up with Eudocia’s Church seems to imply, it would probably be outside the gate of the Second Wall. James in the Armenian Quarter-a Tradition of no value. Tradition), or preferably his hiding-place (6th cent. Tradition). -Besides the Tradition of the Dormitio Sanctae Mariae, the scene of the Virgin’s death, in proximity to the Caenaculum, the Tomb of the Virgin is marked by a church, originating in the 5th cent. -Discarding Luke 24:50, Christian Tradition early laid hold upon the summit of the Mount of Olives (cf
Simon Magus - By one Tradition the magician, seeing his influence waning, desired his followers to bury him in a grave, promising to rise again the third day. ’ By another Tradition Simon is depicted as deciding to give to the Emperor a crowning proof of his magical powers by attempting to fly off to God. Another form of the Tradition represented Paul as a companion of Peter in the contest, and as praying while Peter adjured the demons that supported Simon in his flight, in the name of God and of Jesus Christ, to uphold him no longer
Foreknowledge - ...
Another major Christian Tradition is the Augustine-Luther-Calvin Tradition. The doctrine of predestination was developed in the reformed Tradition in an attempt to solve problems raised by Paul's writings and by other biblical texts
Melchizedek - -The writer need not be conceived as going back through Psalms 110:4 to the original Tradition in Genesis 14 and working upon it independently; for there is sufficient reason to believe that the narrative had for a couple of centuries engaged the attention of some of the religious leaders of the people, and in the interpretation an interesting development may be traced. Evidently the Melchizedek Tradition was considered as pointing to the Maccabaean leaders (cf. Another Tradition distinguishes Shem from Melchizedek, but associates them in the work of transferring the body of Adam to Jerusalem
Genesis - It is a collection of the earliest Traditions of the Israelites regarding the beginnings of things, and particularly of their national history; these Traditions being woven into a continuous narrative, commencing with the creation of the world and ending with the death of Joseph. ) serve a chronological purpose and bridge over intervals of time with regard to which Tradition was silent, while others (chs. ]'>[3] , which represent slightly varying recensions of a common body of patriarchal Tradition, to which J [2] has prefixed Traditions from the early history of mankind. ]'>[4] , reproduces the Traditional scheme of history laid down in JE Deluge, the - The deluge is referred to in several passages of Scripture as a historical fact; the writings of the Fathers consider the event in the same light; and this view is confirmed by the Tradition existing in all places and at all times as to occurrence of a similar catastrophe. To corroborate this opinion they adduce arguments from ethnology, languages, and ancient Traditions. The earliest year before Christ mentioned in the texts and ancient Traditions Isaiah 3100, but scientists demand for many reasons that the deluge be placed at a much earlier time
Flood, the - The deluge is referred to in several passages of Scripture as a historical fact; the writings of the Fathers consider the event in the same light; and this view is confirmed by the Tradition existing in all places and at all times as to occurrence of a similar catastrophe. To corroborate this opinion they adduce arguments from ethnology, languages, and ancient Traditions. The earliest year before Christ mentioned in the texts and ancient Traditions Isaiah 3100, but scientists demand for many reasons that the deluge be placed at a much earlier time
India - Tradition claims that the body of Saint Thomas the Apostle was buried at Mylapore after his efforts to Christianize the Hindus, but nothing certain is known of early missionary work in India until the arrival of the Franciscans from Portugal, c
Jainism - Tradition states that Jina, 6th century B
Kings, the Books of - These facts countenance in some degree the Tradition that Jeremiah was the author of the books of Kings
Ashkelon - version of Genesis 20:1-2; Genesis 26:1, Ashkelon stands instead of Gerar; and curiously Tradition in Origen's time pointed out wells there as those dug by Isaac
Armageddon - Although these decisive battles were fought before Megiddo, the place-name never became fixed in Jewish Tradition as designating the place of decisive battle
Trades - Tradition says Jesus made ploughs, ox-yokes, chairs, and the like
Michael - In the Rabbinical Traditions Michael figures considerably. In the passage in Jude ( Judges 1:9 ) a definite reference is made to the Tradition already mentioned, ‘Michael the archangel, when contending with the devil he disputed about the body of Moses, durst not bring against him a railing accusation, but said, The Lord rebuke thee’ (cf
Beloved Disciple - Church Tradition and interpretation of biblical evidence appear to point to John
Chios - Chios was one of the seven claimants to the honour of being the birth-place of Homer, and its pretensions received stronger support from Tradition than those of any of its rivals
Apocalypse - The author, named John in 1:1, and 22:8, Tradition has generally identified with the Apostle
Abomination of Desolation - A measure of probability is given to the latter conjecture by the Tradition (Eusebius, HE iii
Dionysius, Saint, Apostle of France - This is the Tradition of the Greek church, and of those of Gaul, Germany, Spain, and Italy
Sabeans - The Tradition of this visit of the queen of Sheba to Solomon has maintained itself among the Arabs, who call her Balkis, and affirm that she became the wife of Solomon
na'Aman - ) A Jewish Tradition at least as old as the time of Josephus, and which may very well be a genuine one identifies him with the archer whose arrow, whether at random or not, struck Ahab with his mortal wound, and thus "gave deliverance to Syria. " How long Naaman lived to continue a worshipper of Jehovah while assisting officially at the worship of Rimmon we are not told; ("but his memory is perpetuated by a leper hospital which occupies the Traditional site of his house in Damascus, on the banks of the Abana
Phil'ip the Evangelist - One Tradition places the scene of his death at Hierapolis in Phrygia
Philemon - According to a probably well-founded Tradition, the Apostle’s confidence was not misplaced (see Onesimus)
Merlinus - As the mass of Tradition grew into the shape in which we find it in Nennius, and later on in Geoffrey, Merlin becomes a wholly mythical character, the prophet of his race
Trophimus, 1st Bishop of Arles - According to the Tradition of the see, he was the disciple of St
Pharisees - ...
Most of the Pharisees came from the working classes and tried to preserve Traditional Jewish practices from the corruption of foreign ideas and political ambition. Their chief concern was not with following Tradition, but with using the religious and social structures of Jewish society to gain controlling power for themselves. In this the Pharisees supported the Traditions that the teachers of the law (the scribes) had developed and taught. They were more concerned with maintaining their Traditions than with producing the kind of character and behaviour that God’s law aimed at (Matthew 5:20; Matthew 15:1-10; Matthew 23:23-26). A separate Pharisee party was no longer necessary, for Judaism as a whole now followed the Pharisee Tradition
Transfiguration, the - Though Tradition locates the transfiguration on Mount Tabor there is little to confirm this view and modern critics favor Mount Hermon, the highest mountain-top in Gaulanitis, or one of the spurs of the Anti-Lebanus. Another Jewish Tradition predicts his appearance with that of Elijah
Trump Trumpet - Paul had in his thought the Jewish Tradition of archangelic music (cf. The imagery of the Apocalypse is in keeping with Jewish Tradition, which saw in the trumpet-call the music appropriate to angels
Repose - This feature of His experience, along with others, appears as a quite simple and natural thing in the picture of the Prophet of Nazareth as presented by the primitive Evangelical Tradition. It is not a mere matter of chance that serenity sits on the face of the Lord, as He is represented in the unbroken Tradition of Christian art
James - ...
Tradition says that he had been a tax-gatherer, and it is very possible that his father Alphæus was the same person as Alphæus the father of Levi the tax-gatherer (Mark 2:14 ), afterwards Matthew the Apostle and Evangelist. ...
According to extra-canonical Tradition, James was surnamed ‘the Just’; he was a Nazirite from his mother’s womb, abstaining from strong drink and animal food, and wearing linen; he was always kneeling in intercession for the people, so that his knees were callous like a camel’s; he was cruelly martyred by the Scribes and Pharisees: they cast him down from the pinnacle of the Temple (cf
Ark - ), supplementing a Tradition which is found in the Book of Enoch (6-16; cf. The popular imagination could not entertain the idea that the inviolable ark was irrecoverably lost, and there arose a Tradition that before the destruction of Jerusalem in 586 b
Gospels (Apocryphal) - —For a generation after the death of Jesus, His teaching and the facts about His life were preserved by oral Tradition in the circle of believers. Both these facts made it imperative that, if trustworthy accounts of the teaching and life of Jesus were to be preserved for the guidance of the scattered communities of Christians, the Tradition should be committed to something more permanent and less liable to disturbing influences than oral reminiscence. Oral Tradition maintained itself for a time after our present Gospels were reduced to writing, and it is not improbable that genuine sayings of Christ and authentic details about His life have been preserved in uncanonical books. 26]'>[8]) were produced, claiming the authority of a secret Tradition for their peculiar doctrines. The fact must steadily be borne in mind that the stream of living oral Tradition continued to flow for several generations, though in ever decreasing volume, alongside of the written Gospels;* [9] accordingly, where the uncanonical Gospels deviate from the canonical record, either by slight interpolations into common matter or by additions peculiarly their own, the possibility is always open that in these additions we have early and reliable Traditions, either unknown to the four Evangelists or passed over by them as unsuitable for their purpose. If it would be less than just to say that all the Apocryphal Gospels stand in the position of suspect witnesses, with a presumption of unreliability against them in respect of their peculiar matter, it is nevertheless true that their exclusion from the Canon, as well as the notoriously tainted origin of some of them, render it imperative that their claim to embody a genuine Tradition must be carefully sifted, and allowed only after the clearest proof. In a few of the Gospels which show signs of independence, there may be here and there a trace of primitive and trustworthy Tradition; but all such details, which have a reasonable claim to be considered authentic, do not sensibly increase the sum of our knowledge about Christ. The high place which oral Tradition—‘the living and abiding voice’—still retained in the estimation of the Church (cf. we have, accordingly, to think of the four Gospels as having merely a local and circumscribed authority, while in different sections of the Church the production of Evangelic literature still proceeded, in which the Tradition was handled more or less freely to suit the dominant conceptions and needs. This was due, not to mere good fortune or to any arbitrary dealing on the part of the Church, but to the superior claims of the writings themselves, which were recognized when the necessity arose of counteracting, by trustworthy and authentic records, the rapid growth of a pseudo-tradition in Gnostic circles. A close sympathy with the true ethical spirit of Christianity is, however, noticeable in the Gospel according to the Hebrews, in which stress is laid on acts of mercy and brotherly kindness; and in the ‘Traditions of Matthias’ mentioned by Clement of Alexandria, and possibly identical with the Gnostic Gospel of Matthias, the doctrine of Christian responsibility for others’ welfare, in its most stringent form, is very forcibly put: ‘If the neighbour of an elect person sins, the elect has sinned; for if he had lived according to the counsels of the Word, his neighbour would have so esteemed his manner of life that he would have kept free from sin. It was really apocryphal, that is to say, it had what may be termed a subterranean existence; but, suppressed and persecuted though it was, it always forced its way back to the surface, and at last the public Tradition of the Church was defenceless against it’ (Gesch
Luke - -The Pauline Epistles contain various references to a certain Luke, who is in Tradition always identified with the author of the Acts and Third Gospel. So long as these doubts exist, the possibility cannot be entirely excluded that the references to Luke ought to be regarded as the result of the Tradition, rather than as the proof of its accuracy. In Tradition. -Very little is added by Tradition to the information in the Pauline Epistles except (a) the constant attribution to Luke of the Third Gospel and Acts; (b) the statement that he was an Antiochene Greek; (c) somewhat less frequently, statements that he died in Bœotia, Bithynia, or Ephesus; (d) the statement, found only in late Manuscripts , that the Gospel was written in Alexandria. The most important expressions of Tradition are those of (1) Eusebius; (2) Jerome; (3) the Monarchian Prologues, found in Vulgate Manuscripts , and possibly of Priscillianist origin; (4) notes appended to NT Manuscripts . They are of course important as representing ecclesiastical Tradition rather than as containing historical evidence. ) Further information confirming the Eusebian Tradition that Luke was an Antiochene is found in some Manuscripts , e. ’ It now remains to discuss (1) the internal evidence supplied mainly by the Acts for and against the Tradition which identifies the ‘historic Luke’ of the Epistles with the ‘literary Luke’ who wrote the Gospel and Acts; (2) the sources used by the ‘literary Luke’; (3) his literary methods. The truth seems to be that, if we accept on the ground of Tradition the view that the Gospel and Acts were written by a physician, there is a certain amount of corroborative detail in the language; but if we are not inclined to accept this view, the ‘medical’ language is insufficient to show that the writer was a physician, or used a more medical phraseology than an educated man might have been expected to possess. At present the matter is sub judice, and Harnack’s powerful advocacy has turned the current of feeling in favour of the Traditional view, but he has really dealt adequately with only one side of the question and dismissed the theological and (to a somewhat less extent) the historical difficulty too easily. ...
In the preface to the Gospel Luke tells us that he was acquainted with many previous attempts to give a διήγησιν τῶν πεπληροφορημένων ἐν ἡμῖν πραγμάτων-a difficult phrase, which, however, much more probably means ‘the things accomplished among us’ than the ‘things most surely believed among us’-in accordance with the Tradition of the original eye-witnesses, and that he also had decided to write an account of them because he was παρηκολουθηκότι ἄνωθεν πᾶσιν
Music, Instruments, Dancing - shows ancient Summer, the earliest center of civilization in the Fertile Crescent, to have enjoyed an expansive musical Tradition. A variety of hymns offering divine praise or designed to or for kings and temples, many with musical terms, have survived and are joined by actual discoveries of instruments at the ancient site of Ur, in biblical Tradition the ancestral home of Abraham (Genesis 11:31 ). , the pictorial and written clues to Egyptian music Tradition that have survived the centuries are particularly valuable in the appreciation of musical instruments, providing background information for instruments mentioned in the biblical text as well as comparative study with Mesopotamian data. brought a new dimension to the musical Tradition of ancient Israel with the appearance of professional musicians. Egypt and Assyria, neighboring countries to Israel, had known the Tradition of professional musicians much earlier. ...
Nearly two thirds of the psalms contain terms indicating collections, compilers, or authors in their headings: David, portrayed in biblical Tradition as a composer, instrumentalist, court musician, and dancer, being most often mentioned. Mainly a religious instrument in biblical Tradition, the “nebel ” is rarely mentioned in secular functions (compare Isaiah 5:12 ; Isaiah 14:11 )
Rainbow - Though from a scientific point of view this is absurd, it may well have been part of the primitive Tradition
Sychar - ...
Jacob’s Well , according to unanimous and unbroken Tradition, lies about half a mile to the E
Zachariah, Zacharias - 250) thinks that the confusion was due to the Tradition of the age
Copper - But Tubal-cain (Genesis 4:22, from whence probably by corrupted Tradition was derived the classic idol, Vulcan, the god of the forge) was "an instructor of every artificer in brass (copper) and iron," 500 years after creation according to Hebrew, or 1,000 according to Septuagint, chronology
Matthew (Apostle) - Two sets of parallel passages, both from the Petrine Tradition, tell us of this chosen companion of our Lord
Ur - It has been identified by the most ancient Traditions with the city of Orfah in the highlands of Mesopotamia, which unite the table-land of Armenia to the valley of the Euphrates. Round this sacred pool,'the beautiful spring Callirrhoe,' as it was called by the Greek writers, gather the modern Traditions of the patriarch. p 7 A second Tradition, which appears in the Talmud, finds Ur in Warka, 120 miles southeast from Babylon and four east of the Euphrates. But in opposition to the most ancient Traditions, many modern writers have fixed the site of Ur at a very different position, viz
Tychicus - ...
A late Tradition makes Tychicus bishop of Chalcedon in Bithynia
Tychicus - Tradition made Tychicus subsequently bishop of Chalcedon
Rome - All this is mere Tradition
Caves - Owing to the abundance of grottoes in the valley of Jehoshaphat, Tradition assigns to them the sites of such unlikely events to occur in them as the birth of the Virgin, the annunciation, the salutation, the Baptist's and our Lord's birth, the agony, Peter's denial, the composition of the Apostles' Creed, and the transfiguration
Honour (2) - Still further, the Tradition of men must give place to the commandment of God (Mark 7:8)
Matthias - One early Tradition assigns Ethiopia as the scene of his apostolic labours, another Jerusalem; but of these the former is the better attested
Septuagint, the - Its name has arisen from the Tradition that the translation was made by seventy Jews (or seventy-two, six out of each of the twelve tribes); but this is considered improbable
Ararat - The references in Kings and Isaiah are rendered “Armenia” in KJV, following the Septuagint Tradition
Golgotha - And the Tradition in the eastern world concerning it was, that this name was given to it from Adam having been buried there
Agabus - Tradition makes him one of the ‘seventy’ and a martyr at Antioch
Roman Rite - It is the constant Tradition that Gregory was the last to make any change in the Canon
Rite, Roman - It is the constant Tradition that Gregory was the last to make any change in the Canon
Jericho - On the west and north of Jericho rise high limestone hills, one of which, the dreary Quarantana, 1,200 or 1,500 feet high, derives its name from the modern Tradition that it was the scene of our Lord's forty days' fast and temptation
Hanani'ah - He was of the house of David, according to Jewish Tradition (Daniel 1:3,6,7,11,19 ; 2:17 ) ...
Son of Zerubbabel, (1 Chronicles 3:19 ) from whom Christ derived his descent
Transgress, Transgression - , "to go aside" (para), hence "to go beyond," is chiefly used metaphorically of "transgressing" the Tradition of the elders, Matthew 15:2 ; the commandment of God, Matthew 15:3 ; in Acts 1:25 , of Judas, AV, "by transgression fell" (RV, "fell away"); in 2 John 1:9 some texts have this verb (AV, "transgresseth"), the best have proago (see GO , No
Tabor, Mount - ...
A Tradition as old as the 4th cent, locates the scene of the Transfiguration on Mount Tabor, and until the middle of the 19th cent, this was the generally accepted place of pilgrimage and devotion in commemoration of this event. While, for the reasons given, the time-honoured Tradition which connects this ‘strange and beautiful mountain’ with the Transfiguration has been almost universally abandoned, it is nevertheless true that it was one of the most prominent objects of vision from the outskirts of the early home of Jesus, and its graceful outlines were often before Him, as He journeyed to and fro during the greater part of His public ministry
Isaac - Apparent discrepancies in the story, such as that Isaac, on his deathbed ( Genesis 27:1 ; Genesis 27:41 ), blessed Jacob, and yet did not die until many years afterwards ( Genesis 35:27 ), are evidently due to original differences of Tradition, which later editors were not careful to remove. The Tradition was evidently a popular one, and may have found currency in several versions, though there is no actual impossibility in the imitation by the son of the father’s device
Jacob's Well - The Traditional sites of Jacob’s Well and Joseph’s Tomb (a little to the N. The Tradition for the well goes back to Eusebius (OS, s. ]'>[4] ...
If the uniform Tradition as to the well’s origin be correct, probably the incomer Jacob sank this ‘deep’ pit to avoid collision with the natives among whom be settled
Jericho - ...
By Tradition, Jericho has been closely associated with the Baptism of Jesus and the Temptation. The Traditional scene of the Temptation is a mountain called from this association Quarantania, lying to the west of Jericho. But the uncertainty of the scene of the Baptism and the vagueness of the phrase ‘the wilderness’ (Matthew 4:1 ||) make this a matter of Tradition only
Dan - According to the popular Tradition, Dan was the fifth son of Jacob, and full brother of Naphtali, by Bilhah, Rachel’s handmaid ( Genesis 30:6 ; Genesis 30:8 ). ...
Of this eponymous ancestor of the tribe Tradition has preserved no details, but some of the most interesting stories of the Book of Judges tell of the exploits of the Danite Samson, who, single-handed, wrought discomfiture in the ranks of the Philistines
Fathers - In a Tradition preserved in the Babylonian Talmud (Berak. ...
The use of the term ‘fathers’ in the sense of ‘distinguished teachers of the Law, who prolonged the line of Tradition’ which has become so widely known through the famous Talmudic tractate Pirke Abôth or Masseketh Abôth, is unrepresented in the Gospels, unless it is alluded to or echoed in the title ‘father’ applied to a living rabbi (Matthew 23:9)
Jericho - ...
By Tradition, Jericho has been closely associated with the Baptism of Jesus and the Temptation. The Traditional scene of the Temptation is a mountain called from this association Quarantania, lying to the west of Jericho. But the uncertainty of the scene of the Baptism and the vagueness of the phrase ‘the wilderness’ (Matthew 4:1 ||) make this a matter of Tradition only
Prochorus, a Deacon - Later Tradition makes him one of the 70 disciples and afterwards bp. He takes no notice of the Apocalypse, and, in opposition to the older Tradition, places the composition of the gospel in Patmos
Virgin Birth - On the other hand, both the First and the Third Gospels contain special sections dealing with the circumstances of the birth of Jesus in detail, and, though obviously independent, the two Traditions embodied in the Nativity narratives agree in stating unequivocally that Jesus was born of a virgin mother without the intervention of a human father (Matthew 1:18 f. It apparently formed no part of the early Apostolic teaching and preaching, and was not included in the common form of the Synoptic Gospel-tradition (note that the Second Gospel begins with the Baptism). ...
It would be strange, indeed, if the writer of the Fourth Gospel possessed no knowledge of the Tradition of the virgin birth of Jesus as embodied in Matthew 1-2 and Luke 1-2. Unless the Tradition were contradicted either explicitly or tacitly, the presumption in such a case is that it was accepted. The question arises, Is the Prologue intended to be a tacit correction of the Matthaean and Lukan Nativity Traditions? Or are these—at any rate as regards their central feature—the virgin birth—silently accepted and supplemented by the statement of fuller and deeper truth? The latter alternative accords with the characteristic manner and method of the Fourth Evangelist. In view of the fact that the Tradition of the virgin birth must already have been current in certain Christian circles, and can hardly have been unknown to the writer of the Johannine Prologue, this conclusion becomes at least highly probable. In the only verse, however, in the Prologue where any allusion to birth occurs (John 1:13), the reference is certainly not incompatible with the Tradition of the virgin birth, but may be regarded as lending it, if anything, some presumptive support. It follows that the Tradition of the virgin birth gained currency among Christian circles in Palestine at a relatively early date, probably by the middle of the 1st century. ]'>[7] A further inference is that we must look for the origin of this Tradition ‘on Palestinian soil at sufficiently early a date to account for its presence in two quite independent forms in the First and Third Gospels. It can hardly, however, have influenced or suggested the Jewish-Christian Tradition of the virgin birth. Allen’s words, ‘it is worth while raising the question whether the author of the book [18] did not incorporate this section with direct reference to the Tradition of the supernatural birth of Christ, with which he must therefore have been acquainted’ (Interp. Sanday’s conjecture, that the Lukan material is based upon a Tradition derived from the mother of Jesus through one of the women mentioned in Luke 8:3; Luke 24:10, is a suggestive and valuable one
Mark, the Gospel of - According to early church Tradition, Mark recorded and arranged the “memories” of Peter, thereby producing a Gospel based on apostolic witness. ...
Early Christian Tradition placed Mark in Rome preserving the words of Peter for Roman Christians shortly before the apostle's death (see 1 Peter 5:13 ). According to Tradition, Peter was martyred in Rome during the Neronian persecution, which would place the date of Mark's Gospel about A. Furthermore, the prominent role of Peter in the narrative (Peter remembered, Mark 11:21 ; see also Mark 1:36 ; Mark 14:37 ; Mark 16:7 ) confirms early Christian Tradition that Mark relied upon the recollections of the apostle when he produced “the gospel of Jesus Christ” (Mark 1:1 ). Mark's chronology of Jesus leaves the reader with the impression that his only purpose in writing a Gospel was to preserve the oral Tradition in written form
Heaven - -In dealing with any eschatological conception in the NT it is necessary to consider first of all how much is due to the Jewish background of thought; then, in the case of each writer, to see how for the conception belongs to the common stock of primitive Christian Tradition, and how far it is peculiar to the writer under discussion. The words ‘ascended into heaven’ clearly represent the consensus of primitive apostolic Tradition. To the Jewish view of the transcendence of God, and of His dwelling in heaven as in contrast to earth, the primitive Tradition added the doctrine of Christ’s present existence there with God. For example, the Rabbinical Tradition could think of the Law, the Temple, and other central ideas of Judaism as laid up with God before the creation of the world. Paul passed almost unconsciously from the Traditional and more material view of the future state implied in 1 Thessalonians 4:13 to the simpler and more spiritual conception of future likeness to Christ, and a blessed existence with Him. Both passages show that the belief in the Messiah’s present existence in heaven was an essential part of primitive apostolic Tradition, and also that the early Tradition was very little occupied with heaven as a place of abode in the future, but rather as the place whence God would intervene by sending the Messiah again to establish the kingdom on earth. Peter is concerned, we do not find anything peculiar to him, but only a confirmation of the two main elements of primitive Christian Tradition-the present existence of Christ in heaven conceived of in a quasi-material way as a place or sphere contrasted with earth, and the revelation of Christ from heaven bringing the accomplishment of all hopes of blessing, all that is comprised in σωτηρία. The principal passages for consideration are:...
(a) Those which confirm the primitive apostolic Tradition of the present session of Christ in heaven (Hebrews 4:14; Hebrews 7:26; Hebrews 8:1; Hebrews 9:23-24)
Papias - 70, if not before, the Roman province or Asia was the chief centre of Christian Tradition outside Palestine. ]'>[1] which was perhaps meant to lower the authority of both Gospels (since Mark also had Jewish features of the kind in question), Papias cites a Tradition derived from a man of the first Christian generation, ‘the Elder’ (? John, see below), as he styles him—...
‘And this the Elder used to say: Mark, indeed (μέν), having been Peter’s interpreter, wrote down with accuracy, yet not in order, everything he bore in mind—the things, namely, either said or done by the Christ (or Lord). 1), and the Tradition preserved in Euseb. 24, possibly from Clement of Alexandria, whose account of the Gospels as contained in ‘a Tradition of the elders of earlier times’ (τῶν ἀνέκαθεν πρεσβυτέρων) he elsewhere cites (vi. for an expanded form of the Papian Tradition as to Mark’s Gospel, with the additional remark that Clement’s account is confirmed by Papias of Hierapolis. Papias, in fact, was the nucleus of that Tradition; and so his Matthaean Tradition, as given already in iii. His one object being to reach the true meaning of Him who was the Truth incarnate, he has no false shame in supporting his own ‘interpretation’ by such authoritative Traditions as he had collected in years gone by—traditions derived from the men of the first Christian generation, particularly personal disciples of the Master Himself. Papias essays the detailed task of supplying a standard exegesis of the Lord’s own Great Sayings, in virtue of his special contact with authentic Apostolic Tradition in Asia. The difference turns not only on the fact that the two men represent different types of Christian attitude, but also on their respective local Traditions and opportunities; and it does not point to any real difference in date between their writings. Probably, however, he used the Johannine Gospel only as a secondary source of exegesis for the standard Matthaean collection of ‘the Oracles’—as, in fact, a ‘book,’ and so less ‘helpful’ than direct oral Tradition. 186) and in relation to a seeming knowledge of Acts, shown by his Traditional amplification of the end of Judas as given in Acts 1:18 f. Both it and the Oxyrhynehus Gospel—fragments of which have been found by Grenfell and Hunt—teach us not only that Christ’s sayings were the most prized part of the Gospel Tradition, but also how strong were the tendencies at work making for ehange in their meaning and even wording. Such a consummation was averted only by strenuous insistence on the part of the local Church leaders, that every care was to be taken to keep in touch with the historic meaning of the Lord’s earthly teaching, as certified by Gospels historically known to be of Apostolie or quasi-Apostolic authorship, and expounded in the first instance by the aid of continuous local Tradition going back to similar sources
Sweat - in particular, many elements of Tradition that would otherwise have been lost are contained in it. Their words are: ‘These verses can only be a fragment from the Traditions, written or oral, which were, for a while at least, locally current beside the canonical Gospels, and which doubtless included matter of every degree of authenticity and intrinsic value. These verses and the first sentence of Luke 23:34 may be safely called the most precious among the remains of this Evangelic Tradition which were rescued from oblivion by the scribes of the 2nd century. It would appear, therefore, as if they stood very much in the same position as does the Pericope Adulterœ; that is, as an early story of the Evangelic Tradition that had not found its way into all the copies of the canonical Gospels. is clearly manifest on the verses in question, and it is to be remembered that it is a very remarkable thing that the only record of this event should occur in the Gospel attributed to the man whom Tradition asserts to have been a physician, and whose own language supports the statement. ’ The words, indeed, are not actually quoted as Christ’s, but there can be little question that the author regarded them as a Traditional saying of the Lord
Simon Magus - -(a) One explanation of this Tradition is that it is the legendary development of the story in Acts 8, under the influence of a continued conflict between Christianity and the Simonian Gnosis. Instead of the Simon of the Tradition being treated as a historical character, the name is to be interpreted as a term of reproach for Paul. The journeys of Peter and his visit to Rome are merely an ecclesiastical Tradition reflecting the journeys of Paul, and expressing the belief of the Church that the great Apostle, who had withstood the Simon-Paul everywhere else, must have followed up his victory in the capital. With regard to his birthplace-Gitta-Justin was a Samaritan and a good witness; and the statements of Hegesippus about his father and his mother, and his being trained at Alexandria, are quite possibly good Tradition. Is it not this early struggle between Jewish and Samaritan universalism, involving as it did a struggle of religion against magic, that is really symbolized under the wild Traditions of the contest between Peter and Simon?’ (ib. Would such a Tradition have grown up in the Roman community about a man who was almost their contemporary? And, if there was no Tradition, was Justin likely to have made such a statement, even adding the plea, ‘As for the statue, if you please destroy it’ (56)? At any rate, would the story have been left unrefuted so that it could be accepted and repeated by later writers? If Simon of Gitta was a 2nd cent. ...
Now if Simon was a pervert who originated an apostate sect-an anti-Christian sect, though a sect claiming Christian connexion-is it not comprehensible that two results happened? (a) Simon became the arch-heretic in the eyes of the Christians, and Tradition was sure to be busy with his name. ]'>[6]8 May not Simon have been one of the forerunners of Gnosticism; not, perhaps, its father, as Tradition has supposed, but one source of some of its ramifications? A. Without ascribing to Simon such prominence as is demanded by Tradition, it is permissible to believe that he gave his name to a sect which became Gnostic but which retained a historical connexion with him, though its doctrines were modified largely in process of time. ...
In such circumstances we may find a historical basis for much of the Simonian Tradition, whilst recognizing that Tradition had been busy embellishing the story of Simon even long before the time of Justin Martyr. It cannot be said whether Simon Magus and Simon Peter ever met again after their encounter in Samaria; the record of their conflict is probably the romance which Tradition has woven round the name of one who was known to have been a Christian once but was rebuked by Peter for his ignorance of Christian truth and who became subsequently an apostate
Virgin Birth - ...
Four views exist concerning the origin of the New Testament virgin birth stories: (1) a fact of history (traditional Christian view); (2) an error; Christians got it wrong for whatever reason (antagonist view traced to the early second century); (3) a natural phenomenon reexplained supernaturally (modern rationalist view); (4) a myth/legend, a religious idea put into historical form (modern mythical view). Pre-Christian Jewish Tradition never anticipated a virgin birth of the Messiah. Luke, for example, indicates in his Gospel preface (1:1-4) that the content of his Gospel (and Acts) is reliable Tradition received from his predecessors. But as second-century Jewish polemic against the virgin birth shows, it had no such independent piece of Tradition to appeal to; it was merely a reaction to the broadly accepted Tradition of the virgin birth. ...
The relative silence of the Gospel Tradition to the virgin birth probably reveals the true historical situation: Mary and Joseph kept the matter secret in an attempt to ward off possible misunderstanding and ridicule. , Ignatius of Antioch , Justin Martyr , Irenaeus , Origen ) strongly endorses it as a well-accepted first-century Christian Tradition. ...
It should also be noted at this juncture that the alleged historical discrepancies involving the census of Quirinius, Herod's massacre of the infants, the star and visit of the magi, the appearance of angels, the location of Jesus' parental home, the genealogies, the independent Traditions of the two infancy narratives, and Matthew's version as midrash (i
Stephen - Paul’s sermon in Acts 13:1-52 ), in a manner which shows that he depended partly on Tradition, for there are many discrepancies between his speech and OT
Tithes - According to both North Israelite ( Genesis 28:22 ) and Judæan ( Genesis 14:20 ) Tradition, Israel’s patriarchs paid tithes; the custom, therefore, among the Israelites was evidently very ancient
Pilate - According to Tradition he died by committing suicide
Israel, Spiritual - What is certain is that God in His grace of election opens the door to salvation by faith to all people regardless of the race or Tradition out of which they come
Gerizim And Ebal - ...
Jotham proclaimed his famous kingship fable to the citizens of Shechem from Mount Gerizim (Judges 9:7 ), thus using its sacred Tradition to reinforce the authority of his message. She pointed to Traditional worship on the mountain (John 4:20 )
Nippur - ...
According to Tradition, kingly authority descended from heaven after the flood
Leviathan - Leviathan here has several heads; the great serpent of Babylonian Tradition had seven
Groaning - Paul’s figure may have been suggested by the Jewish Tradition of the ‘birth-pangs of the Messiah’: חָבְלֵי הַמָשִׁיחַ (F
Dead Sea - In Arabic it is known as Bahr Lut , ‘the sea of Lot,’ a name which, however, is more probably due to the direct influence of the history as related in the Koran than to a survival of local Tradition
Abijah - 920, and the impressions made by him are given with some variety in 1 Kings 15:3 and by a later Tradition in 2 Chronicles 13:4-22
Serpent - Hindu mythology represents Krishna first as bitten in the foot, then as finally crushing the serpent's head beneath his feet; evidently a Tradition from Genesis 3:15
Grave - There is a Tradition that the sepulchres were white-washed once every year, that they might be readily seen and avoided
Aristarchus - According to Tradition he suffered martyrdom under Nero
High Priest - Herod particularly and his successors disregarded the Tradition of the Jews on this point
Absalom - His physical beauty contributed to this: 2 Samuel 14:25-27 is probably a gloss, but certainly rests on a reliable Tradition; the polling of the hair was a religious act
Olives, Mount of - It was probably near Bethany, and not as Tradition says on the middle summit, that our lord ascended to heaven, Luke 24:50 Acts 1:12 , though superstition has built the "Church of the Ascension" on the pretended spot, and shows the print of his feet on the rock whence he ascended! From the summit, three days before his death, he beheld Jerusalem, and wept over it, recalling the long ages of his more than parental care and grieving over its approaching ruin
Theology, Pastoral - " From Sacred Scripture and Tradition which includes the official documents of popes, general councils, Roman congregations, decrees of provincial councils and diocesan synods, and episcopal letters, the priest will find pastoral direction
Sigismundus, Saint - Maurice at Agaunum, where Tradition placed the martyrdom of the Legio Thebaea (Marius Avent
Preaching in the Bible - ...
Old Testament Traditions The great prophets of the OT heralded God's direct messages against the sins of the people, told of coming judgments, and held out future hope of the great Day of the Lord. The continuing need for such public interpretation and instruction led in the faith gave rise to an expository Tradition of OT revelation. Stephen's address in Acts 7:1-53 represents the best of the OT Tradition, weaving narrative and historical portions of Scripture together with contemporary interpretation and application to the present situation
Harp - The former is the older, and Tradition points to Jubal as its inventor (Genesis 4:21); while the second does not appear before 1 Samuel 10:5. It is difficult to determine with exactness the difference between these stringed instruments; but, although later Tradition confused them, they were certainly not identical, nor were their names used indifferently to denote the same instrument. ]'>[3] ...
The κιθάρα was the Traditional instrument of psalmody, and the κιθαρῳδός, along with the αὐλητής, performed at the festive seasons of Hebrew life (cf
Domitianus, the Emperor - (iii) Later Tradition confirms these inferences. On the whole, everything seems to indicate that the received Tradition is true, and that the Christian church was almost on the point, even before the close of the 1st cent
Amalekites - The Arabians have a Tradition that this Amalek was a son of Ham; and when we consider that so early as the march from Egypt the Amalekites were a people powerful enough to attack the Israelites, it is far more probable that they should derive their ancestry from Ham, than from the then recent stock of the grandson of Esau. This will agree with the Arabian Tradition as to their descent
Magi - The form of their question (Matthew 2:2) would be sufficient to establish this, apart from the ecclesiastical Tradition which represents their homage as the first-fruits of the Gentile world (Aquinas, Summa, III. xxxvii); nor is it probable that an independent Tradition of Balaam’s prophecy (Numbers 24:17) had been preserved by their ancestors and handed down to them (Origen, c. 330), and a Rabbinical Tradition, which may be previous to Christ’s birth, declared that a star in the East was to appear two years before the Messiah’s advent (Edersheim, i. Isaiah 9:2; Isaiah 42:6; Daniel 2:10 Psalms 68:29; Psalms 68:31; Psalms 72:10), supplemented possibly by Jewish or pagan Tradition, the Evangelist is supposed to have built up his story. Eastern Tradition fixed it at twelve (Op. Hyde quotes thirteen names, among which the three familiar to Western Tradition do not occur (Rel. Mediaeval Tradition invented histories for these gifts. According to Eastern Tradition, there was in the star an appearance of the Virgin and Child (Lightfoot, ap. (according to one Tradition, by St
Disciples - According to Jewish Tradition, “A man's agent ( shaliach ) is like to himself” (Mishnah Berakoth Matthew 10:1-2337 ; Rosh ha-Shanah Leviticus 4:9 ; compare 1 Samuel 25:40-41 ; 2 Samuel 10:1-19 ). The New Testament certainly speaks of a succession of witnesses to the apostolic Tradition ( 1 Timothy 6:20 ; 2 Timothy 1:14 ), so that the gospel they preached—the apostolic theology —has been handed on (the New Testament itself being the inspired, literary remains of that theology). In rabbinic Judaism the term “disciple” referred to one who was committed to the interpretations of Scripture and religious Tradition given him by the master or rabbi. In time, the disciple would, likewise, pass on the Traditions to others. One can assume that Jesus used Traditional rabbinic teaching techniques (question and answer, discussion, memorization) to instruct His disciples. He taught more as a bearer of divine revelation than a link in the chain of Jewish Tradition (Matthew 5:21-48 ; Matthew 7:28-29 ; Mark 4:10-11 . ” These smaller groups would include a group of “seventy” (Luke 10:1 ,Luke 10:1,10:17 ), the “twelve” (Matthew 11:1 ; Mark 6:7 ; Luke 9:1 ), and perhaps an even smaller, inner group within the twelve, consisting especially of Peter, James, and John—whose names (with Andrew) always figure first in the lists of the twelve (Matthew 10:2 ; Mark 3:16-17 ; Luke 6:14 ; Acts 1:13 ), whose stories of calling are especially highlighted (Matthew 4:18-22 ; John 1:35-42 and the Tradition that John is the “Other”/”Beloved Disciple” of the Gospel of John 13:23 ; John 19:26 ; John 20:2 ; John 21:20 ), and who alone accompanied Jesus on certain significant occasions of healing and revelation (Matthew 17:1 ; Mark 13:3 ; Luke 8:51 )
Eldad - The Jews' Tradition was that all prophetic inspiration emanated from Moses originally
Andrew - Eusebius makes him after Christ's ascension preach in Scythia; Jerome, in Greece; where Tradition makes him to have been crucified on a crux decussata , an X-shaped cross
Devil - He does this by Tradition, by fear, by wrong teaching, and by ignorance
Abomination of Desolation - 3) refers to the Jews' Tradition that the temple would be destroyed "if domestic hands should first pollute it
Simon Peter - Just when he established himself at Rome is disputed, but that be did go to Rome and make it the center of the Church is too evident from Tradition, from his first Epistle (1 Peter 5), and from data found in the catacombs and ancient churches of Rome, to bear successful contradiction
Murmuring - ...
In 1 Peter 4:9 (‘using hospitality one to another without murmuring’) the reference appears to be to the grumbling against the obligation, imposed by Church Tradition, of mutual hospitality among Christians (cf. ...
The term thus appears to have been used by the NT writers in a specific sense (suggested by the classical instance of Korah) of disloyalty in one way or another to the Church, its Traditions, its harmony and unity
Esther, Theology of - ...
The writer of Esther kept the original story, even with its questionable brutality, nationalism, intrigue, and secularism, but gave it a new theological interpretation within the worship and sacred Tradition of Israel. Gaster, Purim and Hannakah in Custom and Tradition ; W
Jairus - In the primitive Tradition the daughter of Jairus was believed to have been brought back from death to life. The story as a whole is full of grace and beauty, and ‘belongs to the earliest stratum of the Gospel Tradition’ (Cheyne, Ency
Manger - ...
The former view, which has the weight of persistent Tradition, is due to Justin Martyr, who tells us that Christ was born ‘in a certain cave near the village,’ which cave, he says, had been pointed out by Isaiah as ‘a sign. ...
There is, of course, nothing improbable in this Traditional view that the place where Mary sought shelter was a cave, for throughout Palestine such caves or grottoes were and are commonly used as stables. ” ’ He further notes that when the Convent of the Nativity was dismantled during the invasion of Ibrahim Pasha, it was found that the Traditional cave had been, in pre-Christian times, a place of sepulture, and was therefore not at all likely ever to have been used by Jews as a manger. It cannot be maintained that there is anything improbable or unreasonable in the continuous Christian Tradition which goes back to the first decade of the second century
Zechariah - The two, "Haggai the prophet and Zechariah the son of Iddo" the priest prophet, according to a probable Tradition composed psalms for the liturgy of the temple: Psalms 137; 146 to 148, according to Septuagint; Psalm 125, 126 (See NEHEMIAH) according to the Peshito; Psalm 111 according to Vulgate. Jewish Tradition makes Zecharia a member of the great synagogue
Ark - Apart from other difficulties attending this Tradition, it is quite inadequate to explain the extreme reverence and, to us, superstitious dread with which the ark is regarded in the narratives of Samuel. Hence many modern scholars are of opinion that the stone tables of the Deuteronomic Tradition have taken the place of actual fetish stones, a view which it is impossible to reconcile with the lofty teaching of the founder of Israel’s religion
Isaiah - A Tradition among the Talmudist and fathers relates that he was sawn asunder during the reign of Manasseh, Hebrews 11:37 ; and this Tradition is embodied in an apocrtphal book, called the "ascension of Isaiah;" but it seems to rest on no certain grounds
Marcellinus, Bishop of Rome - But it is difficult to account for the introduction of the story into the pontifical annals themselves and its perpetuation as a Tradition of the Roman church, unless there had been foundation for it. Even Augustine, however anxious to rebut the charge, can only plead the absence of evidence; he does not deny the Tradition, or even the possibility of its truth
Theophilus (2) - Later Tradition naturally busied itself with fanciful conjectures upon his personality, turning him eventually into the bishop of Antioch or of Caesarea (cf. 55), that ‘busy men like Theophilus had been catechized in their youth, but later occupations had driven out many of the lessons, and unless a man could secure the same catechist whom he had attended as a boy, the frequent discrepancies in the ever-changing Tradition would jar on the precision of youthful memory, and produce a general sense of disappointment and uncertainty. ’ Oral Tradition had its merits
Mark (John) - Mark may then have passed to Egypt, and Traditions certainly point that way. Now, if Tradition be correct, he was destined to furnish Mark’s mind with a treasure that has enriched the whole Christian Church. The most probable and earliest Tradition is that already mentioned which links his name to Alexandria. Tradition speaks of a ministry in N
Carnutum - The substructure of the building encloses a well and vault, which, according to Tradition, the early Christians found surmounted by an altar and statue of a woman seated with her child upon her knees, erected by the Druids
Chartres, France - The substructure of the building encloses a well and vault, which, according to Tradition, the early Christians found surmounted by an altar and statue of a woman seated with her child upon her knees, erected by the Druids
Mizpah - , the prophet Samuel, from a Tradition that Samuel's tomb is here
Olves, Mount of - " ...
This mount, or rather mountain range, has four summits or peaks: (1) the "Galilee" peak, so called from a Tradition that the angels stood here when they spoke to the disciples (Acts 1:11 ); (2) the "Mount of Ascension," the supposed site of that event, which was, however, somewhere probably nearer Bethany (Luke 24:51,52 ); (3) the "Prophets," from the catacombs on its side, called "the prophets' tombs;" and (4) the "Mount of Corruption," so called because of the "high places" erected there by Solomon for the idolatrous worship of his foreign wives (1 Kings 11:7 ; 2 Kings 23:13 ; Vulg
Ephesus - ...
The apostle John, according to Tradition, spent many years in Ephesus, where he died and was buried
Olive - Tradition from Noah's days has ever made it symbolize peace
Music, Ecclesiastical - Tradition claims that this pope compiled and revised the numerous melodies already accepted, established a schola at Rome for training singers, and drafted an antiphonary for general use. Efforts were made by the popes to restore the Traditional chant, because its style, which permitted the words of the text to predominate, was more suitable to the Liturgy than the colorful and florid polyphonic music. This was followed by a new epoch inaugurated by Pope Pius X who, in 1904 by his Motu Proprio, ordered that only the Traditional plain-chant and the purer and stricter forms of choral music, sung by men and boys, were to be permitted in liturgical functions
Sheba, Queen of - ’ He is mistaken as to the locality, but it is interesting to observe the Tradition which he reports, ‘that we possess the root of that balsam which our country still bears by this woman’s gift
Letter - On the other hand, the so-called First Epistle of Clement, which is written in the name of one entire community to another, is a peculiar composite of ‘letter’ and ‘epistle’; it was certainly meant to be a true letter, arising out of the actual circumstances of the writer’s own church at Rome, and having in view the actual circumstances of the church in Corinth, but it is quite clear that Clement was working upon a Tradition of Christian letters and epistles, so that-especially in regard to the length of his message-he does not altogether succeed in maintaining the characteristics of a true letter. A comparison of the true letters of the Apostolic Age with true letters from approximately the same period of the heathen world shows that, while the similarities in style and diction are manifold and by no means insignificant, yet the former class display a very remarkable independence in their use of the Traditional form
House - If he builds on character, morals, Tradition or false religions, it will be destroyed under the storm of GOD's wrath
Autricum - The substructure of the building encloses a well and vault, which, according to Tradition, the early Christians found surmounted by an altar and statue of a woman seated with her child upon her knees, erected by the Druids
Full - ...
Full well ye reject the commandment of God, that ye may keep your own Tradition
Blood And Water - —When the soldier, whom Tradition names Longinus,* Ecclesiastical Music - Tradition claims that this pope compiled and revised the numerous melodies already accepted, established a schola at Rome for training singers, and drafted an antiphonary for general use. Efforts were made by the popes to restore the Traditional chant, because its style, which permitted the words of the text to predominate, was more suitable to the Liturgy than the colorful and florid polyphonic music. This was followed by a new epoch inaugurated by Pope Pius X who, in 1904 by his Motu Proprio, ordered that only the Traditional plain-chant and the purer and stricter forms of choral music, sung by men and boys, were to be permitted in liturgical functions
Abbreviations - For the Literature...
AHT Ancient Hebrew Tradition
Caesarius, of Nazianzus - Photius treats the supposed authorship as merely a current unexamined Tradition, and the book refers to Maximus, who lived subsequently
Resurrection of Body - " (1 Corinthians 15) Tradition of the early Church establishes the dogma of the resurrection, the Fathers not only referring to it, but even writing entire treatises appealing both to Scripture and reason
a'Arat - Arguri, the only village known to have been built on its slopes, was the spot where, according to Tradition, Noah planted his vineyard
Ephesus - ...
Christian Tradition from the second century and later claimed that the apostle John moved to Ephesus, and after living to an old age, died a natural death there. Another, more dubious Tradition states that Mary the mother of Jesus also died in Ephesus
Tabernacles, Feast of - ...
The booths or, according to Jewish Tradition, huts of boards on the sides covered with boughs on the top, were occupied only the seven days, not on the 'atsereth . Jewish Tradition makes Gog and Magog about to be defeated on the feast of tabernacles, or that the seven months' cleansing shall end at that feast (Ezekiel 39:12)
Martha - Luke was not an original author but an editor of the Evangelic Tradition, and his aim was not chronological accuracy but the exhibition of Jesus. Having begun this section of the Tradition, he continues it, giving various other incidents of the journey, down to the close of ch
Ancestor-Worship - As a branch of the Semitic stock, the Hebrews were, of course, heirs of the common Semitic Tradition. And while that Tradition did contain much that was superstitious with regard to the power of the dead to work evil on the living, it does not appear that the worship of ancestors, which in other races was so often associated with the stage of Animism, had a place in Hebrew religion
Dives - According to a Tradition alluded to by Theophylact and Euthymius Zigabenus, Dives and Lazarus were actual persons known at the time, and our Lord, while honouring the poor man by naming him, passes over the guilty rich man’s name in merciful silence. ...
Euthymius says that some asserted that, according to a Tradition, the rich man was called Ninevis; and Tischendort (Gr
Ath'Ens - The inhabitants were previously called Cecropidae, from Cecrops, who, according to Tradition, was the original founder of the city. Paul at Athens, according to ecclesiastical Tradition, Dionysius the Areopagite was the first bishop
Sanhedrin - had occupied the place of the Sanhedrin, Talmudic Tradition holds that it was re-organized under the zûggôth, (duumviri
It is plain that these rules must have been taken from the practice of the time and regarded as ancient Traditional law. The duumvirate was, no doubt, the result of a compromise between Sadducean priesthood and the Pharisean scribes, the Ab Bçth Dîn being for the Pharisees the actual president, whereas the Sadducean high priest was consigned to oblivion, wherefore a later Tradition referred the duumvirate to the leaders of the two Pharisean schools of each generation, giving to the foremost one the title of Nâsî (cf. 152) consisted, according to the Talmudic Tradition, of twenty-three. ’...
There is, however, no cause for questioning the correctness of the Tradition that the meeting-place of the Great Sanhedrin was in the hall of hewn stones, the lishkath hag-gâzîth on the south side of the great court in which the priests held their daily morning service and where other priestly functions were performed (Midd. 3) cannot be accepted in the face of these Traditions, which prove that the lishkah (always the name of a Temple cell) must have been within the Temple area
Heaven - -In dealing with any eschatological conception in the NT it is necessary to consider first of all how much is due to the Jewish background of thought; then, in the case of each writer, to see how for the conception belongs to the common stock of primitive Christian Tradition, and how far it is peculiar to the writer under discussion. The words ‘ascended into heaven’ clearly represent the consensus of primitive apostolic Tradition. To the Jewish view of the transcendence of God, and of His dwelling in heaven as in contrast to earth, the primitive Tradition added the doctrine of Christ’s present existence there with God. For example, the Rabbinical Tradition could think of the Law, the Temple, and other central ideas of Judaism as laid up with God before the creation of the world. Paul passed almost unconsciously from the Traditional and more material view of the future state implied in 1 Thessalonians 4:13 to the simpler and more spiritual conception of future likeness to Christ, and a blessed existence with Him. Both passages show that the belief in the Messiah’s present existence in heaven was an essential part of primitive apostolic Tradition, and also that the early Tradition was very little occupied with heaven as a place of abode in the future, but rather as the place whence God would intervene by sending the Messiah again to establish the kingdom on earth. Peter is concerned, we do not find anything peculiar to him, but only a confirmation of the two main elements of primitive Christian Tradition-the present existence of Christ in heaven conceived of in a quasi-material way as a place or sphere contrasted with earth, and the revelation of Christ from heaven bringing the accomplishment of all hopes of blessing, all that is comprised in σωτηρία. The principal passages for consideration are:...
(a) Those which confirm the primitive apostolic Tradition of the present session of Christ in heaven (Hebrews 4:14; Hebrews 7:26; Hebrews 8:1; Acts 3:21)
Sirach - In the Jewish oral Tradition it is cited as The Book of Ben-Sira, whereas according to Jerome it was called Proverbs. The Hebrew original doubtless perished when the rest of the non-canonical literature in that language was destroyed; and such specimens as are preserved in the collections of oral Tradition are exceedingly inaccurate, inconsistent, and mixed up with biblical and other matter, while at times sayings of Ben-Sira are ascribed to other Rabbis. In some cases the gradual merging of a saying of his in some biblical text can be followed in different collections of Tradition. ’ Where the lines do not correspond with this scheme, there is some fault either in the Tradition or in the re-translation. ...
The re-translation, if ever satisfactorily accomplished, will be of importance for the study of Hebrew grammar, which at present depends on a Tradition codified some 1000 years later. -The language employed by the author was from the nature of the case mainly that of the OT, of which his book is so largely a metrical cento; but here and there the traces of a later development of Hebrew, such as we find in the Mishna, can be discovered; and indeed the fragments preserved by the Oral Tradition exhibit a considerable amount of this. No confidence can indeed be placed in the accuracy of these; it is, however, of some interest that the transmitters of that Tradition thought of his language as Rabbinic. , the Talmudim and Midrashim (of which the general antiquity is certified by the Gospels, though the process of oral Tradition through many centuries has introduced great modifications), Ben-Sira’s book seems to exhibit few of the same interests
Mary, the Virgin - Tradition names Jerusalem (Cuinet, Syrie, Liban, et Palestine, p. Her parents, according to a not improbable Tradition, were Joachim and Anna (Protev. That her family was but a humble one may be inferred from her betrothal to Joseph ‘the carpenter,’ especially if there be any truth in the Tradition as to the disparity of their ages. According to a Tradition which may be correct (cf. Traditions there are, but they vary. Another Tradition, found in the Synodical Letter of the Council of Ephesus (a
Passover (ii. in Relation to Lord's Supper). - Traditionen über Ursprung u. But even if there were any grounds of textual criticism for regarding the statements of the first three Gospels as later interpolations, we should still have to explain how it came to pass that at a very early date in the history of the Apostolic Church a false Tradition not only sprang up but became dominant, according to which the Last Supper of Jesus with His disciples took the form of a Passover meal. How, then, are we to explain this entire transformation of what, according to this theory, was the original Tradition—a transformation so early that it must have been completed before Paul became a Christian and received from the first Apostles the story of what took place in the Upper Room on that night in which the Lord Jesus was betrayed? It is hard to see how, within a few years of Christ’s death, and at the headquarters of the primitive Church, there could have grown up a Tradition as to a simple matter of fact that was an entire falsification of what the Eleven knew to be the truth. But it seems safe to conclude that archaeological considerations such as these were not uppermost in the mind of Jesus when He said to His disciples, ‘With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer’ (Luke 22:15), and that what He and they alike were thinking of was the Passover of Jewish history and Tradition. Acts 20:7, 1 Corinthians 10:16), and the Apostolic Tradition as that was handed on to St
John - In each case, the Traditional view that the apostle was the author of these books can be traced to writers in the second century. Much of the weight of the Traditional view of the authorship of the Gospel rests on the testimony of Irenaeus, bishop of Lugdunum in Gaul (A. The strongest argument can probably be made for the Traditional view of the authorship of Revelation. ...
Internal evidence from the Gospel and Epistles provides many Bible students reasons to question the Traditional view. ...
In sum, a strong Tradition linking the apostle John to the authorship of these five New Testament writings can be traced to the second century. Modern scholarship has raised questions about the credibility of this Tradition, and discussion of these matters continues. Many Bible students continue to follow Tradition and attribute all five books to the apostle. According to Tradition, John lived to an old age in Ephesus, where he preached love and fought heresy, especially the teachings of Cerinthus
Education (2) - ]'>[8] summarily dismisses the Tradition with the remark that ‘this Simon ben Shetach is a meeting-place for all kinds of myths. ’ Whatever be the worth of the Tradition, Josephus’ reiterated ascription to Moses of the exceedingly thorough system of education which prevailed in his day,‡
The disciples were employed in the study of the Oral Law—the Tradition of the Elders (Matthew 15:2), which in those days was regarded with even greater veneration than the Written Law,** [15] the lesson being repeated over and over again until it was fixed in the memory; and proliciency lay in faithful reproduction of the ipsissima verba of the Tradition
Bible, Methods of Study - This process comprises various cultures, ages, circumstances, societies, people, languages, Traditions, emotions. ...
Historical Observations As we have the Biblical message in the form of texts written in ancient languages by people 2000 to 3000 years ago, the Traditional methods concentrated on questions of literature, language, and history. In recent times the role of the interpreter, bringing personal Traditions and expectations to the text, and the process of communication (the relation between sender and receiver, codification, etc. It starts with the text and possible variant readings (textual criticism) and the context, analyses the vocabulary and grammar (philology), investigates possible written and oral sources (literary and Tradition-criticism), considers the shape and style of the text (form-criticism) and the life setting of the Tradition (so-called “Sitz im Leben”). ...
Compared to the Traditional approach with its historical view-point, the theory of communication emphasizes the functional and present (synhychronic) aspects. What was the author saying by using and combining certain expressions? In which Tradition was the writer at home? The third and basic dimension has to do with the function of a text, in particular with the relation between author and recipient. Every author uses Traditions, often in smaller, sometimes even in larger units
Marriage (i.) - The impulsive self-will of Esau which showed itself in the contempt of his birthright, led him to set aside the above Tradition by marrying two of the daughters of Heth (Genesis 26:34; Genesis 26:33; Genesis 27:46). —While in ancient times the marriage doubtless took place occasionally in the home of the bride, yet the fact that the bridegroom came to claim one who had become his by the fulfilment of assigned conditions, and further, the widespread Tradition of forcible opposition to her removal from her people, point to the greater frequency of marriage in the house of the bridegroom’s parents. With such a background of Tradition and custom Christ gave to marriage the support of His own presence, and spoke of its Divine origin and temporary nature (John 2:2, Matthew 19:4-6; Matthew 22:30)
Rechab, Rechabites - A genuine Tradition is probably embodied in the Chronicler’s statement ( 1 Chronicles 2:55 ), that the clan of the Rechabites was connected with the Kenites , and this would square admirably with the view that the Jahweh-religion was communicated to Israel by Kenite influence
Seraphim - The later Jewish Tradition, according to which they are serpents, points in the same direction (Enoch 20
Tabor (1) - ...
The Tradition that Tabor was the scene of the Transfiguration goes back to the 3rd cent
Fornication - ...
Jesus went against Jewish Tradition and forgave prostitutes and opened the way for them to enter God's kingdom through faith (Matthew 21:31-32 ; compare Hebrews 11:31 ; James 2:25 ), though He still regarded fornication as evil (Mark 7:21 )
Syracuse - Conybeare and Howson not only suggest that Julius was probably courteous enough to let him go ashore, but have no difficulty in giving credit to the local Tradition which makes St
Machpelah - The Traditional site of the cave of Machpelah is on the E. The cave, which is reputed to be the real resting-place of the patriarchs and their wives, is below the floor of the mosque, and is thought to be double, in accordance with a Tradition which perhaps is derived from the LXX Allegory - If the Gospel Tradition progressively allegorized the parables, as many allege, it is surely odd that the earliest Gospels (Mark, Matthew) contain the most allegorical elements, whereas the later Gospels contain progressively less (Luke, John)
Tabor - "...
Jewish Tradition states that liers in wait in Tabor and Mizpah intercepted and murdered Israelites going from the northern kingdom up to Jerusalem to worship in Jehovah's temple (compare Hosea 5:2)
Wealth - It is possible that these two conceptions are related to each other, but it is also possible that the conception of the rich as normally an ungodly class represents some special Tradition of the later Judaism
Vinegar - There is here an example of the style of modification which the Evangelic Tradition—in this instance correctly reproduced by St
Grove - ...
Tree worship, perhaps a distortion of the Tradition of the tree of life and the tree of knowledge (Genesis 3), may be traced in Egypt, Arabia, Syria, Assyria, Persia, India, Thibet, Siam, China, Japan, Ceylon, the Philippine isles
Ephraim - But it is not vet certain whether Codex D has preserved here a correct Tradition
Zephaniah - Jewish Tradition says that Zephaniah had as his colleagues Jeremiah, labouring in the thoroughfares and market places, and Huldah the prophetess in the college in Jerusalem
Apostles - It may be that it was extended to men of Apostolic character, but then why was it withheld from one like Timothy ( 2 Corinthians 1:1 , Colossians 1:1 )? If Barnabas, as Tradition declares, and Andronicus and Junias, as Origen suggests, belonged to the order of the Seventy, it may well be that those others besides the Twelve who were styled ‘Apostles’ were the Seventy
Alexander And Rufus - There seems no reason to doubt the Tradition that St
Philosopher, Philosophy - ...
The Colossian saints were warned against being spoiled by such philosophy and vain deceit, after the Tradition of men, after the rudiments of the world; which stands in contrast to what is 'after Christ
Isa'Iah, Book of - In favor of the authenticity of the last 27 chapters the following reasons may be advanced:-- (a) The unanimous testimony of Jewish and Christian Tradition, comp
Sabbath - According to Tradition, which is confirmed by every probability, the outpouring of the Holy Ghost on the day of Pentecost was on Sunday
Mysia - The route would lead through the valley of the Rhyndacus and the town of Apameia, where there is a local Tradition of a Pauline visit (Expository Times x
Unwritten Sayings - That some genuine sayings of the Lord not recorded by the Evangelists should linger in the oral Tradition of the early Church is only what we should expect, but of the extant Agrapha it is only a small number that meet the tests of textual criticism, or satisfy the requirements of moral probability. It is significant of the value of the canonical Gospels as historical records that outside of them there are so few ‘sayings of Jesus’ that could possibly be accepted as conveying a veritable Tradition of His actual words. ( John 7:53 to John 8:11 ) being regarded by critical scholars as additions to the original texts, which may at the same time embody authentic Traditions. Though interesting and sometimes striking, these have no claim to represent original Traditions, but are frequently traceable to Gospels canonical or apocryphal
Tyrannus - 1 [4]), 110) thinks it may have been added according to an old oral Tradition. ) expresses the view that the phrase is probably part of the original text or at least that the Tradition gives an actual account of the real state of affair’s
Andrew - Tradition, however, has been busy with his after-history; and he is represented as labouring, according to one account, in Scythia (Eus. ...
A striking Tradition preserved in the Muratorian Fragment brings Andrew and John together in their old age as they had been in their youth: ‘The fourth Gospel [1] John, one of the disciples (i. The principal authority on Andrew’s Traditional history is Lipsius
jo'Seph - His tomb is, according to Tradition, about a stone's throw from Jacob's well. There is a Tradition that he was one of the seventy disciples
Acts of the Apostles (2) - In the Gospel he is almost entirely a mere retailer of older Tradition, and the lineaments of his own personality scarcely come into view. There can be no doubt that likewise in the Acts he largely reproduces early Tradition, that he makes use of sources, sometimes copying them in full, at other times abbreviating or expanding them, grouping them and editing both their language and their contents. from those passages in which the rôle is played by early popular Tradition. Mark’s Gospel, but with other writings which he utilized merely for extracts; and how manifold may have been the oral Tradition current at the same time, which he made use of in an eclectic fashion! The whole of this copious Tradition we must think of as forming the background of the Acts if we are to appreciate rightly its picture of Christ. The more thoroughly the Third Gospel and the Acts are examined, the deeper becomes the conviction that the author worked upon a very ancient Tradition which he has preserved in his own style. This Tradition says nothing about the necessary change whereby this fleshly body that rose from the grave was transformed into the glorified heavenly body that appeared to Saul of Tarsus in kingly splendour
Sanhedrin - ...
According to Jewish Tradition, the Sanhedrin began with the 70 elders appointed by Moses in Numbers 11:16 and was reorganized by Ezra after the Exile
Matthew, Gospel According to - Many hold, in accordance with old Tradition, that it was originally written in Hebrew (i
Jeremiah - He was raised In love and respect for Jewish Traditions, and studied with care the utterances of previous prophets, in particular the oracles of Isaias and Micheas. At Daphne, pious Tradition says, he was stoned to death for the prediction of God's wrath
Jeremias - He was raised In love and respect for Jewish Traditions, and studied with care the utterances of previous prophets, in particular the oracles of Isaias and Micheas. At Daphne, pious Tradition says, he was stoned to death for the prediction of God's wrath
Joseph - That the Tradition of a Hebrew minister in Egypt, who saved the country in time of famine, ‘should be true in essentials is by no means improbable’ (J
Jude, the Book of - The authorship of this little letter has Traditionally been ascribed to Jude, the half-brother of Jesus (Mark 6:3 ). ...
The second set appeals to:...
(1) Cain (2) Balaam (who in Rabbinic Tradition is the father of the libertines) (3) Korah (who challenged Moses' authority)
Ur - For a story of the kind to have been the invention of Palestinian Tradition is equally impossible
Excommunication - Christians were frequently subject to expulsion, which was punishment for blasphemy or for straying from the Tradition of Moses (Luke 6:22 ; John 9:22 ; John 12:42 ; John 16:2 )
Council - Seventy-one is the number, according to Jewish Tradition, to correspond to the 70 and Moses (Numbers 11:16)
Olives, Mount of - The southernmost, which is separated from the rest by the cleft just mentioned, on the slope of which stands the village of Siloam ( Silwân ), is Traditionally known (by the Franks) as the ‘Mount of Offence,’ and is considered to be the scene of Solomon’s idolatry. The next peak, the Viri Galilœi , is the Traditional site of the Ascension; and the next is popularly, but erroneously, called Scopus . ...
Ecclesiastical Tradition has, as might he expected, been busy with the Mount of Olives, and the places pointed out have by no means remained unaltered through the Christian centuries, as becomes evident from a study of the writings of the pilgrims
Maryland - Within a few years Father John Brock was stationed at Saint Inigoes, southeast of Saint Mary's, where Tradition says the colonists had made a preliminary stop, Father Altham on Kent Island, Father Philip Fisher (Thomas Copley) at Saint Mary's, and Father White at Kittamaquindi, capital of Piscataway, an Indian village about 15 miles south of Washington
Sama'Ria - Jerome, whose acquaintance with Palestine imparts a sort of probability to the Tradition which prevailed so strongly in later days, asserts that Sebaste, which he invariably identifies with Samaria was the place in which St
Rephidim - The repetition of the miracle (Numbers 20:11) at Kadesh shows that the rabbinical Tradition is incorrect, that the rock or the stream followed them literally in all their journeys
Transfiguration - Peter, depended on oral Tradition, and this would argue a comparatively early date
Rama - Muslim, Jewish, and Christian Tradition places Samuel's home on the height Neby Samwil, four miles N
Naming - In biblical Tradition the task of naming a child generally fell to the mother (Genesis 29:31-30:24 ; 1 Samuel 1:20 ) but could be performed by the father (Genesis 16:15 ; Exodus 2:22 ) and in exceptional cases by nonparental figures (Exodus 2:10 ; Ruth 4:17 )
Lion - Given the imprecision in the alleged parallels, the cautious interpreter would not make much of the Tradition that combines "lion" and "of the Tribe of Judah" into one idea, but rather would understand Jesus the Lamb to be called Messiah under two images derived from separate Traditions
Love Feast - The church order of Hippolytus (Apostolic Tradition 26
Epaphras - on " translation="">Philemon 1:23) mentions, without endorsing it, a Tradition that St. Thenceforth Epaphras disappears from reliable history; later Traditions represent him as ‘bishop’ of Colossae, as suffering martyrdom, and eventually having his bones interred under the Church of Sta
Ahasuerus - Tradition says Astyages' grandson was Cyrus, son of his daughter Mandane and a Persian noble, Cambyses, first king of Persia, 559 B
Adullam - Tradition fixes on Khureitun as the site, S
Joseph - There is a Tradition that he was one of the seventy disciples
Ashkelon - A Tradition was known in Christian circles that Herod the Great was born in Ashkelon, the son of a temple slave of Apollo
Brook - According to a Tradition, common to Jews, Moslems, and Christians, this is to be the scene of the final Judgment
Cananaean - from the fact that Simon, as a quondam zealot, ‘bore the surname קַנִאָני, ζηλωτής, a name which was correctly interpreted by Luke; but, according to another Tradition, was erroneously derived from the name of a place, and accordingly came to be rendered ὁ Καναναῖος
Archippus - Paul was writing; (3) the Tradition (embodied in the Apost
Ecclesiasticus - The material may have been derived from oral Tradition or older collections of maxims
Allegory - Certain Gospel passages also show allegorical traits, where in some instances the allegorical element may have come from the framers of Tradition in the Apostolic Age (e
Abyssinian Church - The Abyssinian Christians themselves, indeed claim a much higher antiquity, having a Tradition that the doctrine of Christ was first introduced among them by Queen Candace, Acts 8:27 ; or even preached there by the Apostles Matthew and Bartholomew; but the former is supported by no collateral evidence, and the latter is in opposition to high authority
Swallows - Hence, when Aristodicus disturbed the birds' nests of the temple of Kumae, and took the young from them, a voice, according to a Tradition preserved by Herodotus, is said to have spoken these words from the interior of the temple: "Most villainous of men, how darest thou to drive away such as seek refuge in my temple?" The Athenians were so enraged at Atarbes, who had killed a sparrow which built on the temple of AEsculapius, that they killed him
Mark, - After the death of these two great pillars of the Church; ecclesiastical Tradition affirms that St
Kings, First And Second Books of, - The Jewish Tradition which ascribes them to Jeremiah is borne out by the strongest internal evidence, in addition to that of the language
Jeremiah - He may have died at Tahpanhes, or, according to a Tradition, may have gone to Babylon with the army of Nebuchadnezzar; but of this there is nothing certain
Montanus, Bishop of Toledo - Relying upon his support, upon the physical advantages of Toledo, and upon an ecclesiastical Tradition capable of various interpretations, Montanus sought permanently to exalt the power and position of his see
Sadducees (2) - ...
The leading difference between the two parties is to be found in this, that the Sadducees held by the written Law, and rejected the Pharisaic Tradition. Kuenen even maintains that they accepted the Oral Tradition, ‘in so far as this was already established when they constituted themselves a party’ (Rel. Schürer says that they agreed with the Pharisees on some—perhaps many—particulars of the Tradition, but ‘only denied its obligation, and reserved the right of private opinion’ (HJP Matthew, Gospel According to - 3, 4) follow the ‘Petrine Tradition’ with additions from the non-Markan source (esp. , the ass and ‘a colt the foal of an ass’), is due to the influence of the words of the prophecy, Zechariah 9:9 ; for the narrative is taken closely from the Petrine Tradition, but the second ass of Mt. ‘myrrhed wine’) of the Petrine Tradition ( Mark 15:23 ) seems to be due to Psalms 69:21 . The autoptic characteristics of the Petrine Tradition have in many cases been taken away by the alterations introduced by the First Evangelist (see art. Yet the Matthæan Tradition is strong
Text, Versions, And Languages of ot - , Hommel, AHT
Though in the oldest Hebrew MSS of the Bible the consonants of the original text are accompanied by the vowels which express at once the Traditional pronunciation and the Traditional interpretation of the text, it is now as generally accepted that the vowels formed no part of the original text as that the earth revolves round the sun. Since considerable importance attaches to this Jewish Tradition as to the pronunciation, it will be necessary to represent the vowels in our discussion of the text, but it is important also to indicate their secondary origin and subordinate position. One well-established result of the examination of Hebrew MSS is that all existing MSS are derived from a single edition prepared by Jewish scholars in accordance with a textual Tradition which goes back substantially to the 2nd cent. This textual Tradition is known as the Massorah , and those who perpetuated it as Massoretes . they make no use whatever of the Versions or of any other evidence than the Massoretic Tradition. ]'>[7] , represent different lines of Tradition; in so far as the original text of the LXX Sepulchre - ’ Stephen here seems to have confused OT statements with ancient Jewish Tradition. Jewish Tradition adds much to these facts: e. Stephen, accordingly, only enlarges upon the statements of the OT in keeping with both Tradition and possibility. Tradition fixed upon this location, as early as the 4th cent. Where is His tomb to be located? Certain authorities are unwilling to commit themselves; but the present writer is free to acknowledge that the Traditional place, marked as it is by the Cathedral of the Holy Sepulchre, despite all that is repulsive and idolatrous about it, best satisfies him as the approximate site
Boethius, Anicus Manlius Severinus - ) That although the Tradition was current in the Middle Ages, from Paulus Diaconus (8th cent. 3, 4); but Tradition makes him to have been also the husband of Elpis, a Sicilian lady and the authoress of two hymns in the Breviary [1], and by her to have had two sons, Patricius and Hypatius, Greek consuls a. 1), where he was imprisoned, according to popular Tradition, in a tower still standing at Pavia in 1584 (Tiraboschi, iii. ...
Whether or not this double Tradition has grown out of the history of two distinct individuals, there can be little doubt that to obtain a true estimate of the character and writings of Boëthius, the author of the Consolatio must be distinguished from Severinus, saint and martyr, or whoever else was the writer of the above-mentioned theological works
Gospels - There are many who think that the prominence of the apocalyptic element in the First Gospel is due to the Evangelist forcing it in upon the Tradition of Christ’s sayings. A Gospel so judaized, as would be the First Gospel on this theory, in idea and in language, would have been recognized as alien to the true Tradition of Christ’s life, and would have stood little chance of being received as an apostolic writing. -(a) The Tradition which assigns the Second Gospel to St. 100 and deny that the writer of the ‘we’ sections in Acts can be identified with the writer of the whole book of Acts, cannot of course accept the Tradition that St. But recent criticism has moved decisively in the direction of affirming the truth of the Tradition, Harnack, following on the lines of W. It is probable that criticism, after long wandering in a labyrinth of speculation upon this point, will return to the Traditional belief in the Lucan authorship of both books. Moreover, the Synoptic Tradition is too one-sided to be taken as a measure or gauge. What right have we to regard the first three Gospels as an adequate presentation of the Person of Christ, and not as three slightly varying forms of a Tradition which represented a very meagre part of a life which was many-sided? For hints in the Synoptic Gospels of a Judaea n ministry see Moffatt, Introd
Raca - He accompanied the exiles on their way to Babylon as far as Ramah, 5 miles north of Jerusalem (Jeremiah 40:1), and the impression produced by his last sight of them took the form of a poetic picture of Rachel, the ancestral mother of the Israelites (who according to one Tradition1 Samuel 10:2—was buried in the neighbourhood), bewailing the fate of her descendants (Jeremiah 31:15). The application of this passage to the massacre at Bethlehem seems to have been suggested by the fact that another Tradition placed Rachel’s tomb in the vicinity of that town (Genesis 35:19-20; Genesis 48:7)
Crucifixion - This explains why, as Tradition affirms, St. Early Christian Tradition affirms that it was on (2) that Jesus died ( e
Restore, Renew - The parallel references in Matthew and Mark focus on the disciples' question about the coming of Elijah before the day of the Lord and the scribal Tradition on this subject. Some view Jesus as correcting the scribal Tradition by observing that John the Baptist, who came in the spirit and power of Elijah (cf
bi'Ble - Some Jewish scholars living at Tiberias, and at Sora by the Euphrates, from the sixth to the twelfth century, punctuated the Hebrew text, and wrote is the vowel points and other tone-marks to aid in the reading of the Hebrew; and these, together with notes of various kinds, they called Masora (tradition), hence the name Masoretic text. the seventy, from the Tradition that it was translated by seventy (more exactly seventy-two) translators
Sermon on the Mount - means that the evangelist was not an eyewitness but dependent on oral Tradition. This oral transmission developed into a fixed body of Tradition that Matthew, apart from what he knew directly and remembered, also had at his disposal. Massey, Interpreting the Sermon on the Mount in the Light of the Jewish Tradition as Evidenced in the Palestinian Targums of the Pentateuch
Alexandria - It is certainly not the product of a syndicate of translators working harmoniously, as Jewish Tradition asserted. Among its Jewish population there had arisen a new school which sought to amalgamate Hebrew Tradition and Greek philosophy, and to make the OT yield up Platonic and Stoic doctrines. The Alexandrian school of theology was made lustrous by the names of Pantænus, Clement, and especially Origen, who, while continuing the allegorical Tradition, strove to show that Christian doctrine enshrined and realized the dreams and yearnings of Greek philosophy
Joseph - The occasional differences of Tradition are an evidence of original independence, and their imperfect harmonization in the joint narrative is favourable to its substantial historicity. As soon as he came within sight, their resentment perceived its opportunity, and they arranged to get rid of him and his dreams; but the two Traditions are not completely harmonized. The phraseology is against the identification of the two companies; and the divergent Traditions point to a natural absence of real agreement among the brothers, with a frustration of their purposes by means of which they were ignorant. Allowance may be made for the play of imagination in the long period that elapsed before the Traditions were reduced to writing in their present form, and for the tendency to project the characteristics of a tribe backwards upon some legendary hero. He was betrothed to Mary, a maiden of Nazareth, being probably much her senior, though the Tradition of the apocryphal History of Joseph that he was in his ninety-third year and she in her fifteenth is a mere fable. The Tradition that he was a widower and had children by his former wife probably arose in the interest of the dogma of Mary’s perpetual virginity. Tradition says that he died at the age of one hundred and eleven years, when Jesus was eighteen. Tradition says that he was one of the Seventy ( Luke 10:1 )
Division of the Earth - The prevailing Tradition of such a decree for this threefold division of the earth, is intimated both in the Old and New Testament. Paul, also, addressing the Athenians, refers to the same decree, as a well-known Tradition in the Heathen world: "God made of one blood every nation of men to dwell upon the whole face of the earth; having appointed the predetermined seasons and boundaries of their dwellings," Acts 17:26 . According to the Armenian Tradition recorded by Abulfaragi, Noah distributed the habitable earth from north to south between his sons, and gave to Ham the region of the blacks, to Shem the region of the tawny, fuscorum, and to Japheth the region of the ruddy, rubrorum: and he dates the actual division of the earth in the hundred and fortieth year of Peleg, B. " Faber is inclined to believe that they were the ancestors of the great body of the Hindus, who still retain a lively Tradition of the patriarch Shem, Shama, or Sharma; and that the land of Ophir, abounding in gold, so called from one of the sons of Joktan, lay beyond the Indus, eastward. ) Lud was probably the father of the Ludim or Lydians, of Asia Minor; for this people had a Tradition that they were descended from Lud or Lydus, according to Josephus
Molech, Moloch - Very ancient Tradition identifies him with Milcom (wh
Jugoslavia - Dalmatia was visited then by Saint Titus who, according to Tradition, founded a see at Salona and was martyred there
Lives of Christ - Giovanni Papini, a novelist who respects Catholic Tradition, but whose training hardly fitted him for his task of writing a history of Our Lord, has succeeded, thanks to his literary skill, in producing on the subject a best-seller
Fundamental Theology - That this constitution is not democratic, but hierarchical, with bishops and priests to rule the faithful, and monarchical, with the plenitude of jurisdictional power possessed by one head, is proved scripturally as well as from the testimony of authentic Tradition
Matrimony - Long before the great Councils had clearly defined this doctrine it was embodied in the Tradition of the Church
Ezra - We learn from the account of his labours in the book of Nehemiah that he was careful to have the whole people instructed in the law of Moses; and there is no reason to reject the constant Tradition of the Jews which connects his name with the collecting and editing of the Old Testament canon
James - ...
James perceived his calling as to the “circumcised,” that is, the Jews (Galatians 2:9 ), and is portrayed as loyal to Jewish Tradition
Huguenots - He was, it seems, a very wicked man, who by his fierce and cruel temper made himself dreadful, so that after his death he was supposed to walk about in the night time, beating all those he met with: this Tradition the judicious Thuanas has not scrupled to mention in his history
Encampment - ...
Thus there were four standards, one for each "camp" of three tribes: according to Tradition the four cherubic forms, the lion (Judah, Genesis 49:9; Revelation 5:5), the ox (Ephraim, Deuteronomy 33:17), the man, and the eagle (Ezekiel 1:26; Ezekiel 10:1; Revelation 4:4, etc
Shewbread (2) - In case the parley is considered, as it may be, to have been the effort of later Tradition to clear the king from the charge of irregularity in the matter, the state of the case is not altered
Nile - The ‘seven lean years’ in Genesis is paralleled by an Egyptian Tradition of a much earlier seven years’ famine under the 3rd Dyn
Rechab - Kimchi (in Vatablus) cites the Tradition recorded by Rechab
Jehoshaphat, Valley of - Absalom's tomb and Zechariah's, besides Jehoshaphat's, are pointed out, but without good grounds for the Tradition
Darkness - The Tradition of the Jews is, that in this darkness they were terrified by the apparitions of evil spirits, or rather by dreadful sounds and murmurs which they made
Capernaum - As an economic center in Galilee it was more significant than Tradition has often allowed. The synagogue area was excavated in 1905 by Kohl and Watzinger and 1921 by Orfali who also worked the area of an octagonal Christian church built over a place Traditionally held as the site of Peter's house
Melita - The Tradition which gave this as the scene was already old when our earliest map of Malta (a Venetian one) was made about a. As it is scarcely likely that the spot was identified by special investigations in the Middle Ages, this is a remarkable instance of the permanence and correctness of some early Traditions. Naturally there are local Traditions of St
Law of Christ - He breaks with Tradition, however, by defining the term "neighbor" to mean even the despised Samaritan (Luke 10:29-37 )
Gehenna (2) - Historically, this valley is the Traditional site of the worship paid to Molech, first by Ahaz (2 Chronicles 28:3), and later by Manasseh (33:6), who made their children pass through the fire; but which was later defiled by Josiah (2 Kings 23:10), and thereafter seems to have been made the receptacle of the city’s offal; and in later Jewish thought became a symbol of the supposed place of future punishments (cf. ...
Opinions differ as to the identification of the valley; but most authorities, including Robinson, Stanley, Buhl, and many others, as well as modern Arab Tradition, identify it with the valley on the W
Keys - According to Rabbinic Tradition, this opening was placed beneath the foundations of the Temple, as the Moslems hold to this day that it is to be found beneath the Dome of the Rock, or Mosque of Omar (see Gunkel, Schopfung und Chaos, pp
Malchus - If John was the unnamed disciple who was ‘known unto the high priest’ (John 18:15), possibly because he supplied the family of Annas with fish (according to an old Tradition; cf
on (2) - ) Tradition makes On the place visited by Joseph, Mary, and our Lord, and a sycamore is shown under which they rested in their flight (Hosea 11:1; Matthew 2:15)
John the Apostle - Tradition represents him as closing his career at Ephesus
Adam - The former passage is the result of philosophical and theological reflexion of a late date, which had taught the writer that man is the climax of creation because his personality partakes of the Divine (and in Genesis 5:3 this prerogative is handed on to his offspring); but the latter is written from the naïve and primitive standpoint of legendary Tradition, which dealt only with man’s reception of physical life (see next article)
Zacharias - " By Joash's command they stoned Zacharias "in the court of the house of Jehovah!" And to it the Tradition may be due which assigns the tomb in the valley of Jehoshaphat to Zacharias
Aphraat (Aphrahat, Farhad - Tradition says that he resided at the monastery of Mar Mattai, near Mosul, and was bishop in that province
Gennadius (11) Massiliensis, Presbyter of Marseilles - But this conviction, though derived from a widespread patristic Tradition, is, he admits, rejected by equally catholic and learned Fathers
Fire - The Jews have a Tradition, that Jeremiah, foreseeing the destruction of the temple, took this fire and hid it in a pit; but that at the rebuilding of the temple, being brought again from thence, it revived upon the altar
Praetorium - ...
Two other identifications are supported by comparatively early Tradition, but are not on the whole to be approved
Theology, Fundamental - That this constitution is not democratic, but hierarchical, with bishops and priests to rule the faithful, and monarchical, with the plenitude of jurisdictional power possessed by one head, is proved scripturally as well as from the testimony of authentic Tradition
Philip - This characteristic gives some countenance to the Tradition that the disciple who would fain have declined the Lord’s call that he might ‘go and bury his father’ ( Luke 9:59-60 = 1Ma 6:2 ), was none other than Philip
ma'gi - ) According to a late Tradition, the Magi are represented as three kings, named Gaspar, Melchior and Belthazar, who take their place among the objects of Christian reverence, and are honored as the patron saints of travellers
Isaiah, the Book of - Universal and persistent Tradition has ascribed the whole book to one author
Revela'Tion of st. John, - John the apostle and evangelist the writer of the Revelation? The evidence adduced in support of his being the author consists of (1) the assertions of the author and (2) historical Tradition
Pipe Flute - αὐλέω occurs in Matthew 11:17 and its parallel in Luke 7:32 : ‘we have piped unto you, and ye have not danced …’...
The three Traditional wind instruments of Hebrew music (which must guide us in a discussion of the instruments of the Apostolic Age) were the flute, horn, and trumpet; and of these the flute was most often used. According to Tradition, the latter was in the form of a Pan’s pipe
Music (2) - (d) The ‘traditional melodies’ now used in Jewish synagogues are, in some cases, similar in kind to the music that we may infer to have existed in the time of Christ. Tradition might preserve melodies down to the invention of notation, much as it preserved the vowel-system down to the invention of ‘points. The Traditional Jewish melodies can be seen in E
Praetorium - ...
Two other identifications are supported by comparatively early Tradition, but are not on the whole to be approved
John, Gospel of (Critical) - There can be no doubt that the Gospel is intended to be read as the work of the Apostle, and it would seriously detract from its value, if, as extreme critics are more and more inclined to allow, that claim means only that it contains a nucleus of Johannine Tradition. So far from being a stumbling-block to the Johannine authorship, the Prologue even gains in value and significance with the acceptance of the Traditional view. whose geographical distribution over the Christian Church gives evidence of a widespread Tradition. For him the Tradition of the fourfold Gospel, which he supports strongly, has passed into a deep spiritual fact, which he seeks to establish, not by bringing forward proofs of authorship, but in his well-known mystic fashion. ’ He brings forward other analogies, all of which are equally fanciful, but serve to show that this firm belief in the fourfold Gospel as a Divine arrangement could not have been a creation of his own mind, but represents a Tradition of considerable antiquity. 14), which professes to represent ‘the Tradition of the Presbyters from the first (παράδοσιν τῶν ἀνέκαθεν πρεσβυτέρων) that John, last, having observed that the bodily things Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch - ) impugning the Tradition that Ignatius was martyred under Trajan. But it is very improbable that Eusebius had no Tradition save through Africanus, or the latter no Tradition save four names. ...
The Tradition that Ignatius was martyred at Rome can be traced higher than the records of Eusebius and Origen. The designation of world-famed, which Eusebius gives him, shews the general Tradition; and the words of Origen are to the same effect. The testimony of Irenaeus which Eusebius adduces as perfectly agreeing with the Tradition known to him, dates but 70 years after the fact. True, these expressions come from writers who knew the epistles; but the mere existence of the epistles at such a date, even if they were spurious, would be sufficient proof of the existence of the Tradition; and it is impossible that such a story should have arisen so soon after Trajan, if it had contradicted known facts or prevalent customs of his reign. to organized episcopacy, took place, according to the testimony of all records both of Scripture and Tradition, in the 30 years between the death of St
Sadducees - -Our knowledge of the Sadducees, such as it is, is derived from the following sources: (a) Gospels and Acts; (b) Josephus; (c) Rabbinical writings, mainly Mishna, Tosefta, Sifre, Sifra, and Mechilta (these are all of comparatively late date, but their value is unquestionable as embodying earlier Traditions. The Pharisees held that the oral Traditions were as authoritative at least as the written Law. ...
‘The Pharisees have delivered to the people from the Tradition of the fathers all manner of ordinances not contained in the laws of Moses; for which reason the sect of the Sadducees reject these ordinances; for they affirm that only such laws ought to be observed as are written, while those which are orally delivered from the Tradition of the fathers are not binding. In both cases we have an appeal to the written Word alone, as against an appeal to the Word plus Traditions, precedents, and ecclesiastical judgments. On the other hand, their insistence on the supreme authority of the Word led to an intensive study of the Word by the Pharisees, who were concerned to show, just as a Roman Catholic is, that the oral Tradition was really based upon the Word. ...
‘The Pharisees won the day ultimately, for they were able to show by subtle exegesis that the oral Tradition was based upon the written Law. In His protest against their making void the Law by their Traditions He was at one with the Sadducees
Nahum - But the Tradition that buries Nahum there is not met with before the 16th cent. ...
(4) The most probable Tradition associates Nahum with Elkosh ‘of the tribe of Simeon,’ and locates the hamlet near Beth-Gabre , the modern Beit-Jibrîn , about half-way between Jerusalem and Gaza. The Tradition occurs in a Syriac version of the biographies of the prophets, ascribed to Epiphanius, bishop of Salamis in Cyprus towards the close of the 4th cent. The prophecy is a stern song of war, a shout of triumph over the conquered and slain; and though thereby it stands in contrast with the kindlier temper and spirit of the NT, in which no citation from the book occurs, it accords well with the Traditions of its own age
Anointing (2) - (2) The position of the incident in Matthew-Mark is merely an example of the freedom wherewith the Synoptic editors were wont to handle the material of the Evangelic Tradition, arranging it topically rather than chronologically. His account is historical, and it would stand so in the Apostolic Tradition; but the Synoptic editors or, more probably, the catechisers in their oral repetition of the Tradition, wondering, since they did not know who the woman was, at the strangeness of her action, substituted ‘head’ for ‘feet,’ and then omitted the unintelligible circumstance of her wiping His feet with her hair
Melita - The local Tradition on the subject is certainly ancient, either dating back to the event itself, or resting on early and reasonable conjecture. There was a Tradition, referred to by Chrysostom (Hom
Hallel - With this agrees the fact that, according to an old Tradition preserved in the Jerusalem Talmud (Sukka iv. —As already stated, the Hallel, according to Tradition, was regularly recited at the Feasts of Tabernacles, Dedication, Pentecost, and Passover (first day and preceding night). 7), which embodies old and (there is every reason to believe) trustworthy Traditions as to the Temple-ritual, the complete Hallel was recited by the Levites during the slaughter of the Paschal lambs in the Temple-courts
Corban - He accuses the Pharisees of attaching too much value to the Tradition of the elders, so as even in some cases to set aside in their favour the plain moral commandments of God. The words of Jesus are: ‘Is it well for you to set aside the commandment of God, in order that ye may observe your Tradition? For Moses said, Honour thy father and thy mother; and, He that speaketh evil of father or mother, let him die the death
Scribes - Hence arose those numberless glosses, and interpretations, and opinions, which so much perplexed and perverted the text instead of explaining it; and hence arose that unauthorized maxim, which was the principal source of all the Jewish sects, that the oral or Traditionary law was of Divine origin, as well as the written law of Moses. Ezra had examined the various Traditions concerning the ancient and approved usages of the Jewish church, which had been in practice before the captivity, and were remembered by the chief and most aged of the elders of the people; and he had given to some of these Traditionary customs and opinions the sanction of his authority. The scribes, therefore, who lived after the time of Simon the Just, in order to give weight to their various interpretations of the law, at first pretended that they also were founded upon Tradition, and added them to the opinions which Ezra had established as authentic; and in process of time it came to be asserted, that when Moses was forty days on Mount Sinai, he received from God two laws, the one in writing, the other oral; that this oral law was communicated by Moses to Aaron and Joshua, and that it passed unimpaired and uncorrupted from generation to generation, by the Tradition of the elders, or great national council, established in the time of Moses; and that this oral law was to be considered as supplemental and explanatory of the written law, which was represented as being in many places obscure, scanty, and defective. In some cases they were led to expound the law by the Traditions, in direct opposition to its true intent and meaning; and it may be supposed that the intercourse of the Jews with the Greeks, after the death of Alexander, contributed much to increase those vain subtleties with which they had perplexed and burdened the doctrines of religion. By the time of our Saviour, the scribes had, indeed, in a manner, laid aside the written law, having no farther regard to that than as it agreed with their Traditionary expositions of it; and thus, by their additions, corruptions, and misinterpretations, they had made "the word of God of none effect through their Traditions," Matthew 15:6
Manes, Called Also Mani - In the case of Manes there is the additional difficulty that we have two contradictory accounts in the Western and Eastern Traditions. ]'>[1]...
Upon the story told by the Syrian, Persian, and Arab historians and chroniclers known to Beausobre he places much more reliance than upon the Western Tradition (pt. " Manes, according to one Tradition, entered on his office the day that Sapor, son of Artaxerxes, succeeded to the throne, Sun
Prayer - This consistency extended into the patristic period, for the early Father's understanding of prayer was thoroughly shaped and limited by the Lord's Prayer, particularly through mutually influencing exegetical literature on it, devotional and liturgical use of it, and the catechetical Tradition that employed it. That is to say, from the beginning of the Old Testament Traditions, God and humans engaged in dialoguein conversation made possible by the ascription of personhood to God. ...
The Christian Tradition also conceives of God as susceptible to human influence by means of prayer. ...
While the immanence of God formed much of the basis for prayer in the Judeo-Christian Tradition, God's transcendence is important as well. ...
Christian prayer has Traditionally also expressed the human's freedom to play its essential role in prayer. The true basis of prayer in the Judeo-Christian Tradition is the recollection of God's acts in history. In fact, prayer in the Judeo-Christian Tradition is often a struggle between two willsbetween two covenant partners
Litany of Loreto - It was first recited by the clergy and people of Loreto, a small place in Italy to which, according to Tradition, the angels transported the humble cottage of the Virgin Mary
Archangel - The Book of Revelation appears to reflect Tradition of archangels found in Enoch (although the term archangelos is found only in 1 Thessalonians 4:16 and Jude 1:9 ) that have holy creatures waiting on the throne of God, presiding over the corners of the earth, and are part of the cosmic reordering at the end of time (Revelation 1:4 ; Revelation 4:5 ; Revelation 7:1 ; Revelation 12:7 ; Enoch 9:1; 10:1; 40:2; 90:21)
Thom'as - Out of this name has grown the Tradition that he had a twin-sister, Lydia, or that he was a twin-brother of our Lord; which last, again, would confirm his identification with Judas. (Acts 1:13 ) The earlier Traditions, as believed in the fourth century, represent him as preaching in Parthia or Persia, and as finally buried at Edessa. The later Traditions carry him farther east, His martyrdom whether in Persia or India, is said to have been occasioned by a lance, and is commemorated by the Latin Church on December 21 the Greek Church on October 6, and by the Indians on July 1
Burial - Paul, in his recitation of the resurrection Tradition that he had passed on to the Corinthians, notes that Christ "was buried" (1 Corinthians 15:4 )
Laban (2) - 1:16, and Hebrew Tradition) or was of weak character, so that Laban is prominent in arranging for Rebekah's marriage to Isaac; but Niebuhr observes Eastern custom, then as now, gave brothers the main share in defending sisters' honour and settling as to their marriage (Genesis 34:13; Judges 21:22; 2 Samuel 13:20-29)
Redeem, Redemption - , from bondage to Tradition
Samaria - All the others had been already consecrated by patriarchal Tradition or previous possession
Berôa - There is a Tradition (Ap
Scribes - These new laws may have grown out of legal cases that the scribes had judged or Traditions that had been handed down. The scribes then forced the Jewish people to obey these laws, till the whole lawkeeping system became a heavy burden (Matthew 15:1-9; Matthew 23:2-4; see Tradition). By AD 200, the scribes (now better known as rabbis) had put into writing the oral Traditions that earlier scribes had built up around the law
Titus - No reliance is to be put upon the later ecclesiastical Tradition, which, working upon the Epistle, calls him the first bishop of Crete (Eus
Peter - ...
The Legacy of Peter Tradition holds that Peter died as a martyr in Rome in the 60s (1Clem. Both 1,2Peter in the New Testament are Traditionally attributed to the apostle Peter
Nebo - Mount Nebo is the Traditional site of Moses’ view of Canaan ( Deuteronomy 34:1 f. Nebo with the point now called Nebâ , and the identification might be regarded as certain if we could feel sure that Nebâ is really an ancient name, and not merely (as it may be) the name attached to the summit after Tradition had claimed it as the Nebo of the Bible
Loreto, Litany of - It was first recited by the clergy and people of Loreto, a small place in Italy to which, according to Tradition, the angels transported the humble cottage of the Virgin Mary
Thebes - Though he saw the city when it had sunk to quite secondary importance, he confirms the Tradition of its early grandeur --its circuit of 140 stadia, the size of its public edifices, the magnificence of its temples, the number of its monuments, the dimensions of its private houses, some of them four or five stories high --all giving it an air of grandeur and beauty surpassing not only all other cities of Egypt, but of the world
Right (2) - To them righteousness was nothing more than a superficial outward conformity to the Divine law as interpreted and altered by their Tradition
Verily - ]'>[1] When a Rabbi would add impressiveness to a doctrine, he prefaced it with Amen, ‘Verily,’ signifying that it was a Tradition received by Moses on Sinai
Hierapolis - ...
There is a trustworthy Tradition which connects the name of Philip the Apostle with Hierapolis
Ananias - Tradition makes Ananias subsequently bishop of Damascus and a martyr
Levites - —According to one line of Tradition, the Levites were appointed to assist the priests (Numbers 3:9; Numbers 8:19; Numbers 18:1-6), but were not themselves, like Aaron and his sons, to approach unto the most holy things (Numbers 4:19); yet according to another representation the priesthood belonged to them as an inheritance (Deuteronomy 33:8-11, Joshua 18:7). In the first of these, the parable of the Good Samaritan (Luke 10:30-35), a priest and a Levite, representatives of the religion of Israel and at the same time examples of Jewish Traditionalism, are unfavourably contrasted with a Samaritan, one of a people with whom the Jews had no dealings. The Levite, it may be concluded, accepted a Jewish Traditional conception of ‘neighbour’ which excluded all those who were not of Israel
Abel - Tradition makes the place of his murder and grave to be near Damascus
Soul; Self; Life - The Hebrew contrasts two other concepts which are not found in the Greek and Latin Tradition: “the inner self” and “the outer appearance” or, as viewed in a different context, “what one is to oneself” as opposed to “what one appears to be to one’s observers
Accho - Perhaps it has on that account borne among our countrymen the appellation of ‘King Richard's Palace,' although, in the period to which the Tradition refers, the English were hardly capable of erecting palaces, or any other buildings of equal magnificence
Jacob's Well - The spot is so distinctly marked by the evangelist, John iv, and so little liable to uncertainty from the circumstance of the well itself, and the features of the country, that, if no Tradition existed to identify it, the site of it could scarcely be mistaken
Journey, Journeyings - The regulation was not a Mosaic enactment, but a rabbinical Tradition, based upon an exposition of Exodus 16:29 , and a comparison of the width of the suburb of a Levitical city as enjoined in Numbers 35:4,5 , and the distance between the ark and the people at the crossing of the Jordan, Joshua 3:4
King, Kings - They are believed to have been written before the books of Chronicles, and Jewish Tradition makes the prophet Jeremiah their author, B
Isaiah - There is a Tradition that he suffered martyrdom in the heathen reaction in the time of Manasseh (q
Oil (Olive) - Puller, The Anointing of the Sick in Scripture and Tradition, 1904)
Creation - Many of these cosmogonies (as they are called) are known to us; and amidst all the diversity of representation which characterizes them, we cannot fail to detect certain underlying affinities which suggest a common source, either in the natural tendencies of early thought, or in some dominant type of cosmological Tradition. That the Hebrew cosmogony is influenced by such a Tradition is proved by its striking likeness to the Babylonian story of creation as contained in cuneiform tablets from Ashurbanipal’s library, first unearthed in 1872. In view of this pervading parallelism, it is clear that the Hebrew and Babylonian cosmogonies are very closely related; and the only question open to discussion is which of them represents more faithfully the primary Tradition on which each is based
Martyr - That they both suffered in Rome is a constant Tradition. His Epistle implies an imminent onslaught, and the Tradition which puts his grave in the Vatican suggests that he was among the victims butchered there after the great fire. This, though supported by the commemoration of both on 29th June, is in itself improbable and the Tradition varies (cf
God - This Tradition of the Hebrew 'êl as a “God” who revealed Himself in power and entered into a covenant relationship with His people was prominent in both poetry ( Tradition among the Israelites that was probably in existence by the third millennium B. The Hebrews began their own Tradition of mountain revelation just after the Exodus, but by this time the name ‘el shadday had been replaced by the tetragrammaton of Yahweh ( Chronicles, Books of - Ezra, the author of 1,2Chronicles according to Tradition, prepared his heart to understand, to keep, and to teach in Israel the law of the Lord (Ezra 7:10 ). As has been noted, Tradition names Ezra the “ready scribe,” a priest descended from Zadok and Phinehas (Ezra 7:1-6 ), as author of Chronicles, Ezra, and Nehemiah. This Tradition cannot be proved, but there is no valid objection to it
Poetry - There is not a commanding Tradition of the pronunciation of the language, whether we think of vowels, syllables, or accent. Some of the poems inserted in the prose books are written and printed line by line, as Exodus 15:1-27 , Deuteronomy 32:1-52 , Judges 5:1-31 , 2 Samuel 22:1-51 ; and for the three poetical books of the canon the Massoretes of later times provided a special system of pointing, thereby recognizing a distinction that must have had its basis in Tradition, although the special pointing was not to preserve the poetic value. The Hebrew language was indeed dominated by Tradition, which made it difficult to alter established practice; but in case the Tradition was one of freedom on the part of the writer to construct his poem as he chose, it naturally operated to keep him free from the complicated rules which spring up in the later periods of the life of a language. ...
Until the contrary is shown on other grounds, it must be assumed that the Hebrew accent system, differing Traditionally from Arabic and Syriac, differed from them actually; and as the Traditional grammatical forms depend largely upon the accent, the natural Inference is that it is an important feature of the language
Wisdom of Solomon - The references to it in the Oral Tradition will be noticed in the next section. That the original language was Hebrew is made certain by the preservation in the Jewish Oral Tradition (Genesis Rabba, 96, and Jer. ...
The work is otherwise used by the Oral Tradition, yet perhaps not in such a way as to permit of any inference with regard to its language, In Exodus Rabba, 25, the manna is described as ‘having in it all sorts of tastes, so that each Israelite was tasting what he wished’; this represents Wisdom of Solomon 16:20, πρὸς πᾶσαν ἡδονὴν ἱσχύοντα καὶ πρὸς πᾶσαν ἁρμόνιον γεῦσιν, but the correspondence is not quite literal. The Oral Tradition employs it for a different purpose; if its phrase - be the original of εἰκόνα ποιήσας, the language must have already been affected by Greek. The fragment preserved in the Oral Tradition indicates that the original did not exhibit the phenomenon which characterizes the Greek-complete absence of proper names
John the Baptist - ...
The early Christian Traditions that form the Gospel material on John are also the focus of modern research. Also there appears to have been an early Tradition that John had been raised from the dead (Mark 6:14-16 ). What possible sources may have given rise to these Traditions?...
Even the topographical setting of John's ministry may be of theological significance. Wink, John the Baptist in the Gospel Tradition
Callistus, Pope - ...
Nothing was known of Callistus, except that the Martyrologium Romanum contained a Tradition of his martyrdom, till the discovery of the Philosophumena in 1850. Tradition tells us that he was scourged in a popular rising, thrown out of a window of his house in Trastevere, and flung into a well
Nicolaitans - Tertullian has preserved a Tradition, that the person here spoken of as Jezebel was a female heretic, who taught what she had learned from the Nicolaitans: and whether the Tradition be true or not, it seems certain, that to eat things sacrificed unto idols, and to commit fornication, was part of the practice of the Nicolaitans
Proselyte (2) - We can readily imagine that insistence upon the minutiae of Pharisaic Tradition (cf. Tradition (earliest recorded in the Gospel of Nicodemus, ch
Severus, Aurelius Alexander - In the famous suit between the guild of cooks and the Christians for a piece of land, which according to Tradition is the site of St. ...
Strange to say, in later Tradition the emperor, whom all writers near his time represent as a friend, nay almost a convert, to Christianity, whose chapel contained an image of Christ and whose household was filled with Christians (Eus
Clement of Alexandria - The statement that he was an Athenian must therefore have rested upon some direct Tradition. He enumerates six illustrious teachers under whom he studied the "true Tradition of the blessed doctrine of the holy apostles. Doctrine was passing from the stage of oral Tradition to written definition (1). (1) Clement repeatedly affirms that even when he sets forth the deepest mysteries he is simply reproducing an original unwritten Tradition. But this Tradition was as he held it not an independent source of doctrine but a guide to the apprehension of doctrine. Tradition in this aspect preserved the clue to the right understanding of the hidden sense the underlying harmonies the manifold unity of revelation. More particularly the philosopher was able to obtain through Tradition the general principles of interpreting the records of revelation and significant illustrations of their application. The examples of spiritual interpretation which Clement gives in accordance with this Traditional "rule" are frequently visionary and puerile (e
Feast of the Immaculate Conception - " It is established by Tradition, by the writings of the Fathers, by feasts observed in honour of this prerogative, by the general belief of the faithful
Sinai - The Traditional site is Jebel Mûsa , ‘the mountain of Moses,’ almost in the centre of the triangle; here there has been a convent ever since at least a. ...
In recent years the Tradition has been questioned, and two suggestions have been made calling for notice
Aquila - Paul, a native of Pontus, and probably, according to the more definite Tradition, of Sinope
Scriptures - ...
Names given to the books of the Bible are not part of the inspired writings, but have either established themselves by Tradition or been given by translators
Immaculate Conception - " It is established by Tradition, by the writings of the Fathers, by feasts observed in honour of this prerogative, by the general belief of the faithful
Immaculate Conception, Feast of the - " It is established by Tradition, by the writings of the Fathers, by feasts observed in honour of this prerogative, by the general belief of the faithful
Talmud - ...
The passing on of the Tradition and the remembering of the specific decisions and reasoning of the teachers by their disciples was apparently emphasized in the rabbinic schools
Nestorians - ...
The prince of that country, whom the Nestorians converted to the Christian faith, assumed, according to the vulgar Tradition, the name of John after his baptism, to which he added the surname of Presbyter, from a principle of modesty; whence, it is said, his successors were each of them called Prester John until the time of Gengis Khan
Veil - ...
It is a curious fact that Jewish Tradition also records the occurrence of certain prodigies about this time
Kohath, Kohathites - Amram is of peculiar importance, because his children were Aaron and Moses ( Exodus 6:20 , 1 Chronicles 23:13-17 ); and Korah, a son of Izhar, was notorious in priestly Tradition ( Numbers 16:1-50 )
Sodom - —The overthrow of the ‘cities of the plain’ was, according to Hebrew Traditions, a Divinely-sent catastrophe, second only to that of the Deluge. This passage, like the two preceding, is absent from the Markan Tradition
Giants - The Hindu Tradition of two races, Suras and Asuras, and the Greek legend that the demi-gods were sons of the gods and that the Titan giants sprang from the union of heaven and earth, flow from the history of Genesis 6 corrupted
Hermes (1) Trismegistus, Writings of Unknown Authorship - Jamblichus, at the beginning of his treatise de Mysteries, tells us that "Hermes, who presides over speech, is, according to ancient Tradition, common to all priests; he it is who exists in all of them
Excommunication - Here there may be a reference to a Jewish brocard which afterwards gave rise to the Jewish Tradition that Jesus was excommunicated by the Jews
Bartimaeus - There are few miracles, indeed, in the Gospel story better vouched for than the one before us, authenticated as it is by the triple Synoptic Tradition and by the preciseness of the details, while the very mention of the name of the healed man has been regarded as a proof that he must still have been known in the time of the Apostles (‘valde notus Apostolorum tempore Bartimaeus,’ Bengel)
Redemption - "Forasmuch as ye know that ye were not redeemed with corruptible things, as silver and gold, from your vain conversation received by Tradition from your fathers; but with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish, and without spot,"...
1 Peter 1:18-19
Romans, Epistle to the - Peter according to a later Tradition, the absence of any allusion to him both in this epistle and in the letters written by St
Pentecost, Feast of - It always retained its agricultural character in Biblical ages, but some later Rabbinical writers treated it also as a commemoration of the delivery of the Law on Sinai an event which was supposed to have taken place 50 days after the Exodus (Exodus 19:1 ), though this idea is not found in Philo or Josephus; and the fact that the reading of the Law in the Sabbatical year took place at the Feast of Tabernacles and not at Pentecost, points to the late origin of this Tradition
Nineveh, Ninevites - One of two conclusions is inevitable; either that there was a current Haggadic Tradition about Jonah and Nineveh which was known to our Lord and His hearers but has been lost to us, or that the word ‘Ninevites’ has supplanted some other word in the original text of St
Ninian, British Missionary Bsp - The general facts of his life and work present comparatively few points for dispute, there being but one Tradition, and that not materially departed from
Petilianus, a Donatist Bishop - He quotes Ecclus 34:30 ...
Sirach 34:25
applying to his own sect the words "wise men" (Mat_23:34) and interpreting the word "dead" to mean an ungodly person; he charges the Catholics with persecution and "tradition," and makes an insinuation about Manicheism
Veil - ...
It is a curious fact that Jewish Tradition also records the occurrence of certain prodigies about this time
Gospels - Eastern memories are very retentive, and this fact favours such a mode of Tradition. We know that the Jews kept up their Traditions orally ( Matthew 15:2 ff. It is thought, then, that both the resemblances and the differences between the Synoptists may be accounted for by each of them having written down the oral Tradition to which he was accustomed. Hence the Oral Theory has fallen into disfavour, though there is certainly this element of truth in it, that oral teaching went on for some time side by side with written Gospels, and provided independent Traditions ( e. to]'>[1]) the ‘Petrine Tradition’ the preaching of St. This peculiarity is thought by some to be due to the source used being oral, even though the ‘Petrine Tradition,’ the common source of the three, was a document. This would be accounted for by their having, in these instances, followed the non-Markan document in preference to the ‘Petrine Tradition. 24) gives an old Tradition that John had the Synoptics before him, and that he supplemented them
Luke, Gospel According to - or from some third document now lost, or even from oral Tradition. Gospels), namely the ‘Petrine Tradition’ (see art. At Rome he would probably read the written ‘Petrine Tradition,’ his Markan source. The sudden change from a classical to an Aramaic style at Luke 1:5 has been noticed in § 3 ; when the writer is working on the ‘Petrine Tradition,’ and the ‘non-Markan document,’ the Aramaic tinge is much less marked
Holy Spirit - Hence the Tradition of the Synagogue associates the conception with the writings by which the message of the prophet is mediated to the community. As the community now possessed no prophets, but was wholly dependent upon Scripture, its Tradition included the principle that ‘the Holy Spirit had been taken away from it. Hence even the teachers of the Law abstained from tracing their learning to the action of the Spirit, and based their authority upon the experience which they had derived from their knowledge of the Law and Tradition. The type of Tradition given in Acts 2 appears also in St
Targums - As literary products they are of late date, but they occupy a highly important place in post-Biblical Jewish religious literature, because they embody the Traditional exegesis of the Scriptures. Seeing that this Targum rests on Tradition, it will be clear that we have in it an ancient witness to Jewish exegesis; indeed, it is the earliest example of Midrashic Tradition that we possess; and not only so, but as this Targum is mainly a translation, it is a most important authority for the pre-Massoretic text of the Pentateuch. ’...
The Targum of Jonathan to the Prophets owes its name to an ancient Tradition, according to which Jonathan ben Uzziel composed it ‘from the mouths of Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi’ ( Megillah , 3 a ); this is merely a figurative way of saying that the Traditional interpretation, as supposed to have been handed down by these prophets, was embodied in written form by Jonathan
Luke, Gospel of - ...
Tradition for Lukan authorship is very strong, dating back to the early church. ...
With the early church Tradition unanimously ascribing the Third Gospel to Luke, the burden of proof is on those who argue against Lukan authorship. Any similarities between Luke's Gospel and John's can probably be accounted for by recognizing that a rich Tradition, especially oral, provided a common source for all the Gospel writers
Joel, Theology of - Nor does he mention the law, animal sacrifice, the king, the sages of the wisdom Tradition, or other well-known aspects of Old Testament religion. Joel does draw on the teaching of his sacred literature, particularly the books of Deuteronomy and Obadiah, and he clearly embraces the Traditions surrounding God's dwelling in Zion, his holy mountain (2:1; 3:16-17,21) and in its temple (1:9,13-16). Moreover, the Zion-Jerusalem Tradition is seen in the context of the larger and older Israel Tradition (2:27; 3:2,16)
Historical - (a) The oldest material for history is Tradition. But Tradition, unsupported or unassisted, is a bad witness. And in our own region there is no real historical Tradition apart from the Christian records, etc
Moses - The Mosaic origin of the Pentateuch was an assumption of Jewish Tradition and, as such, seems to have been taken over by Jesus and His apostles without criticism of any sort. In the speech of Stephen the life of Moses is sketched at some length, and is furnished with certain particulars which were derived from the oral Tradition of the Synagogue (the Haggâdâ), as e. ...
The essential equivalence of these two prohibitions might also explain the uncertainty attaching to the reading πνικτοῦ in the textual Tradition
Creation - The systems became gradually more complicated, as the writers receded farther from the age of primitive Tradition; and they increased in absurdity in proportion to the degree of philosophy which was applied to the subject. " At first, the cosmogonists contented themselves with reasoning on the Traditional or historical accounts they had received; but it is irksome to be shackled by authority; and after they had acquired a smattering of knowledge, they began to think that they could point out a much better way of forming the world than that which had been transmitted to them by the consenting voice of antiquity. The early cosmogonies are chiefly interesting from their resemblance to that of Moses; which proves that they have either been derived from him, or from some ancient prevailing Tradition respecting the true history of creation. These writings come to us rather in an apocryphal form; they contain, however, no internal evidence which can affect their authenticity; they pretty nearly resemble the Traditions of the Greeks, and are, perhaps, the parent stock from which these Traditions are derived. With regard to the western mythologists, then, there can be little doubt that their cosmogonies, at least such of them as profess to be historical, and not theoretical, are derived from Moses; and the same may be affirmed with regard to the Traditions of the east: as they were the same with those of Greece in the time of Megasthenes, whose testimony to this effect is quoted both by Clemens Alexandrinus and Strabo, we may naturally conclude that they had the same origin. "...
In these passages we have evidently a philosophical comment on the account of creation given by Moses, or as transmitted from the same source of primitive Tradition
Joannes Presbyter - What concerns us here is that Papias, speaking of his care in collecting oral Traditions of the apostolic times, says, "on any occasion when a person came in my way, who had been a follower of the elders, I would inquire about the discourses of the elders—what was said by Andrew, or by Peter, or by Philip, or by Thomas or James, or by John or Matthew or any other of the Lord's disciples, and what Aristion and the Elder John, the disciples of the Lord say" (Lightfoot's trans. Thus the John whose Traditions Papias several times records is the elder, not the apostle. In this they follow Irenaeus; and it is an important fact that Irenaeus, who was very familiar with the work of Papias of which he made large use and whose Eastern origin ought to have acquainted him with the Traditions of the Asiatic church, shews no symptom of having heard of any John but the apostle, and describes Papias (v. The silence of Dionysius of Alexandria is positive proof that no Tradition of a second John had reached him. , derived Johannine Traditions. If when Leucius put his stories together any Tradition had remained of a second John, this would surely have been among the Leucian names of the apostle's disciples, so many of which we are able to enumerate. Jerome also is not self-consistent, speaking in one way when immediately under the influence of Eusebius, at other times following the older Tradition. We can conceive either that there were two Johns in Asia, and that the latter's fame was so absorbed by the glory of his greater namesake that all remembrance of him was lost; or else we may imagine that the second John, the source of apostolic Traditions to the Asiatic churches, was held in such high consideration that, though not really so, he passed in common fame as the apostle. ...
If, then, both John the apostle and the elder taught in Asia, can we transfer to the second anything Traditionally told of the first? Dionysius and Eusebius transfer to him the authorship of the Apocalypse, but those who now divide the Johannine books between these two Johns unanimously give the Apocalypse to the first. Some light is thrown on the sense in which the word elder is applied to John by Papias in his preface by the fact that one of his Traditions is told with the formula, "These things the elder used to say. But might he not first enumerate John in his list of seven apostles, concerning whom he had been able to glean Traditions, and a second time in his shorter list of men of the first Christian generation who had survived to his own day? Papias wrote for the men of his time, to whom the facts were well known, and the idea of being misunderstood would no more occur to him than it would to us, if we spoke of one of our leading statesmen at one moment by his surname only, the next with the addition of his title or Christian name
Law, Ten Commandments, Torah - Law refers both to the revelation of the will of God in the Old Testament and to the later elaboration on the law referred to as the “traditions of the elders” in the New Testament (for example, Mark 7:5 ). This oral law is sometimes referred to as “the Tradition of the elders” in the New Testament (compare Matthew 15:2 ; Mark 7:5 ; Galatians 1:14 ). He was critical of the law of one means “the Tradition of the elders” or the oral laws that had grown up around the written Law
Slave, Slavery (2) - In Palestine the institution was familiar enough in experience as well as Tradition to supply popular illustrations and give point to practical religious teaching; but features met with in Greek and especially in Roman usage must not be transferred without modification to the Jewish practice. An early Tradition recounts a controversy between Pharisees and Sadducees, assumed to have taken place in or about our period, as to the incidence of the responsibility for an injury done by a slave (Yadayim, iv
Ecbatana - " The Jews at Hamadan have no Tradition of the cause of Esther and Mordecai having been interred at that place; but however that might be, there are sufficient reasons for believing the validity of their interment in this spot. Now on this same festival, in the same day and month, Jewish pilgrims resort from all quarters to the sepulchre of Mordecai and Esther; and have done so for centuries,—a strong presumptive proof that the Tradition of their burial in this place rests on some authentic foundation
Bethlehem - Tradition made Jesse "a weaver of the veils of the sanctuary"; and as trades are hereditary in the E. is the Traditional scene of the angels' vision to the shepherds; but the hills were more likely to have been the scene of the flocks being kept than the grain abounding valley. Clarke identified a well of pure water here with that which David thirsted for; but the Traditional site is a group of three cisterns half a mile away on the other side of the wady on the N
Capernaum - ...
Tell Hum is the site, according to Arab and Jewish Tradition
Teach - Judaism’s Traditional emphasis on teaching and thus preserving its faith clearly has its basis in the stress on teaching the faith found in the Old Testament, specifically Tradition of law, especially as Paul struggles with it in his Letter to the church at Rome
Pentateuch - ...
Authorship...
Age-old Hebrew and Christian Tradition recognizes Moses as the author of the Pentateuch, though the Pentateuch itself nowhere names its author (2 Chronicles 35:12; Nehemiah 13:1; Mark 12:26; John 5:46). ...
Moses would certainly have been familiar with the family records, ancient songs and Traditional stories that people had preserved and handed down from one generation to the next (cf
Nazareth - ), it is impossible to identify the sacred sites as Tradition pretends to do, namely, the place of the annunciation to Mary, with the inscription on the pavement of the grotto, "Ηic Verbum caro factum est ", the mensa Christi , and the synagogue from whence Jesus was dragged to the brow of the hill
Uncleanness - ...
Jesus pointed out that such Traditions caused misunderstandings of the law and prevented people from doing the more important things that the law required (Mark 7:5-9; see Tradition)
Mark, John - The Tradition (Clemens Alex
Serpent - 2 Corinthians 11:3 Hence, as a fruit of the Tradition of the Fall, the serpent all through the East became the emblem of the spirit of evil, and is so pictured even on the monuments of Egypt
Tithes - Leviticus 27:30-33, "whatsoever passed under the rod": the rabbis had the Tradition that the animals to be tithed were enclosed in a pen, from whence they passed one by one under the counter's rod, and every tenth was touched with a rod dipped in vermilion (Jeremiah 33:13; Ezekiel 20:37)
Roads - The latter is supposed to be the way taken by Philip (Acts 8:26), because Tradition has it that the eunuch was baptized in the vicinity of Hebron
Matthew - 24): ‘Matthew and John are the only two apostles who have left us recorded comments, and even they, Tradition says, undertook it from necessity
Garden - It is a suitable retreat, near the capital, and the names of localities about confirm the Tradition: wady Urtas, "the valley of the garden"; gebel-el-Fureidis, "the hill of the little paradise"; "fig vale"; "peach hill"; "walnut walk"; "garden of nuts
Cave - ’ It seems, therefore, not unreasonable to accept the ancient Tradition that Christ was born in a cave
Genesis, Book of - ) The theory of Moses having copied from various documents, is carried all through the Pentateuch, and with many it has issued in the very sad result of undermining the inspiration of scripture, and attributing to the Lord, when He speaks of Moses having written the law, the use of the common Tradition though it was not true!...
Sin soon came in, and man, after hiding himself from God, was under sentence of death, and was driven out of Eden lest he should eat of the tree of life and live for ever in his sin
Aristeas - ’ Philo seems to follow a somewhat different Tradition, and mentions that in his days the Jews of Alexandria kept an annual festival in honour of the spot where the light of this translation first shone forth, thanking God for an old but ever new benefit
Catharine, Martyr of Alexandria - She was regarded generally as the patron saint of schools, probably from the Tradition of her learned controversy with the philosophers at Alexandria
Sacrament of Penance - ...
From the notion of Penance proposed in Sacred Scripture and interpreted by Tradition and by the practise of the Church, theologians deduce the constitutive elements of this sacrament
Germany - In the cathedral of Trier is preserved the Holy Coat of Christ, which according to Tradition was given to the Church of Trier by Saint Helena, and in the Benedictine monastery of Trier is the grave of Saint Matthias, the only grave of an Apostle in Germany
Pisidia - It is impossible to decide whether the name is based upon a genuine Tradition or is merely a conjecture hazarded after the town was Christianized, but the latter supposition is perhaps the more likely
Hold, Held, Holden, Hold - , firmly, (a), literally, Matthew 26:48 , AV (RV, "take"); Acts 3:11 ; Revelation 2:1 ; (b) metaphorically, of "holding fast a Tradition or teaching," in an evil sense, Mark 7:3,4,8 ; Revelation 2:14,15 ; in a good sense, 2 Thessalonians 2:15 ; Revelation 2:25 ; 3:11 ; of "holding" Christ, i
Masona, Bishop of Merida - Tradition
Aristion (Aristo) - Luke 1:1), and (indirectly) oral Traditions. ’ Hence, as an authority of note, and a transmitter of Gospel Traditions earlier than the time of Papias’ writing (a. 145–160), Aristion is a witness of the first importance for the history of Gospel Tradition. ...
On this interpretation, Aristion and John were members of the group which perpetuated the Traditions of the Apostles (in Palestine?) until Papias’ day (cf. ), and is corrected by himself in the next clause: ‘At all events he mentions them frequently by name, and sets down their Traditions in his writings. 989, over Mark 16:9-20, which he had attached, contrary to Syriac and Armenian Tradition, to his text of the Gospel. Conybeare’s suggestion that the story will have been one of the ‘traditions of the Elder John,’ and for this reason have become attached in most texts to the Fourth Gospel, is more probable than Zahn’s attributing it to ‘Aristion’; but see Blass, Philology of the Gospels, p. ...
The Eçmiadzin Codex, accordingly, in the two most important questions of Gospel text makes deliberate departure from the received Armenian Tradition, in both cases relying on authority which might conceivably go back indirectly to Papias himself. 989) Armenian Tradition followed the Sinaitic, or older Syriac, in omitting the Mark-Appendix. ’ (2) It also goes beyond current Armenian Tradition regarding John 8:1-11
Teaching of Jesus - It represents ‘the key of knowledge’ touching God’s will, as it should be done in the true Theocracy or Kingdom, which the official guardians of the Law had removed out of men’s reach by their Traditions (Luke 11:52). Then, after two more parables,† [4]1 (as in Jn. It seems natural, then, to assume that Jesus simply made an allusive use of the phraseology of Isaiah 6:9, so far as it lent itself to His purpose; and that in the Church’s Tradition this reference was taken up, fully applied, and even, as in John 12:40, emphasized in an anti-Jewish direction. shows us the first stage in the Tradition, at which the r
Luke, Gospel According to - He was guided partly by Tradition, but chiefly by a careful examination of the internal evidence which the Gospels offer. Strange to say, the founders of the famous Tübingen school in theology, though they reversed most of the Traditional beliefs, adhered to this. For, if the trito-Mark has made many additions to the primitive records, so also has he sometimes altered the Tradition. For, if we mistake not, there were in the Apostolic age two kinds of oral Tradition, both of which contributed much to the composition of St. No doubt the ‘Triple Tradition’ deserves special respect. Tradition assigns St. The Traditional account is that it is partly true. The Traditional view that there were two cleansings is discredited in every other case, and is particularly incredible here. Matthew compiled the Logia (or Utterances of our Lord) in the Hebrew dialect, and each man interpreted them as he was able,’ he cannot, as the Traditionalists suppose, be alluding to our First Gospel, which was written (at Alexandria?) in Greek
Leprosy - The fact that Tradition has from the earliest period pointed to true leprosy as the disease of the Bible, certainly makes it probable that it at least was one of the diseases recognized by the Rabbis as ẓâra‘ath; and doubtless its specially horrible and fatal character has caused it to gradually displace all others in the popular mind. These seem by Tradition to be recognized as contagious. Although the almost world-wide custom of isolating lepers is founded upon the doubtful Tradition of this being the special and peculiar disease described in the Mosaic law, yet from every point of view this is desirable both for the poor victims themselves, who are always to some degree incapacitated and suffering, and for the sake of their healthy neighbours. ...
Leprosy in modern Palestine is not a common disease, but is prominently to the front from three causes: firstly, because of the interest excited in Christians of all Churches, and the special appeal made to their charitable feelings from the Traditional view that these sufferers are the veritable lepers of the OT and NT; secondly, because its results are so manifest and repulsive, and its progress so slow, that a comparatively small number of cases are very much in evidence; and, lastly, because practically all the lepers in the land are segregated together by order of the Government in a few chief towns, all resorted to by travellers. At Damascus also there is a community, some members of which are also drawn from Palestine, but the majority from Syria and around Damascus; the Traditional ‘House of Naaman’ is their home. Tradition has made the Lazarus of the parable a leper, and the terms lazzaro for leper and lazar-house for leper hospital were a result of this
Deluge - Of so general a calamity, from which only a single family of all who lived then on the face of the earth was preserved, we might naturally expect to find some memorials in the Traditionary records of Pagan history, as well as in the sacred volume, where its peculiar cause, and the circumstances which attended it, are so distinctly and so fully related. Its magnitude and singularity could scarcely fail to make an indelible impression on the minds of the survivors, which would be communicated from them to their children, and would not be easily effaced from the Traditions even of their latest posterity. The evidence which has been brought from almost every quarter of the world to bear upon the reality of this event, is of the most conclusive and irresistible kind; and every investigation, whether etymological or historical, which has been made concerning Heathen rites and Traditions, has constantly added to its force, no less than to its extent. As the basis of their system, however, rests on a most extensive etymological examination of the names of the deities and other mythological personages worshipped and celebrated by the Heathen, compared with the varied Traditions respecting their histories, and the nature of the rites and names of the places that were sacred to them, we cannot do more, in the present article, than shortly state the result of their investigations, referring for the particular details, to the highly original treatises already mentioned. They discover allusions to the ark, in many of the ancient mysteries, and Traditions with respect to the dove and the rainbow, by which several of these allegorical personages were attended, which are not easily explicable, unless they be supposed to relate to the history of the deluge. ...
Beside, however, the allusions to the deluge in the mythology and religious ceremonies of the Heathen, to which we have thus concisely adverted, there is a variety of Traditions concerning it still more direct and circumstantial, the coincidence of which, with the narrative of Moses, it will require no common degree of skeptical hardihood to deny. It is even related, that they have a Tradition among them, that an old man, knowing that the deluge was approaching, built a large ship, and went into it with a great number of animals; and that he sent out from the ship a crow, which did not immediately come back, staying to feed on the carcasses of dead animals, but afterward returned with a green branch in its mouth. The Brazilians not only preserve the Tradition of a deluge, but believe that the whole race of mankind perished in it, except one man and his sister; or, according to others, two brothers with their wives, who were preserved by climbing the highest trees on their loftiest mountains; and who afterward became the heads of two different nations. Acosta, in his history of the Indies, says, that the Mexicans speak of a deluge in their country, by which all men were drowned; and that it was afterward peopled by viracocha, who came out of the lake Titicaca; and, according to Herrera, the Machoachans, a people comparatively in the neighbourhood of Mexico, had a Tradition, that a single family was formerly preserved in an ark amid a deluge of waters; and that along with them, a sufficient number of animals were saved to stock the new world. ...
Passing from the more remote western to the eastern continent, nearer to the region where Noah is generally supposed to have lived, we find the Traditions respecting the deluge still more particular and minute. ...
Scarcely less remarkable is the Hindoo Tradition. "...
When we thus meet with some Traditions of a deluge in almost every country, though the persons saved from it are said, in those various accounts to have resided in different districts widely separated from each other, we are constrained to allow that such a general concurrence of belief could never have originated merely from accident. While the mind is in this situation, Scripture comes forward, and, presenting a narrative more simple, better connected, and bearing an infinitely greater resemblance to authentic history, than any of those mythological accounts which occur in the Traditions of Paganism, immediately flashes the conviction upon the understanding, that this must be the true history of those remarkable facts which other nations have handed down to us, only through the medium of allegory and fable. "...
The fact, however, is not only preserved in the Traditions of all nations, as we have already seen; but after all the philosophical arguments which were formerly urged against it, philosophy has at length acknowledged that the present surface of the earth must have been submerged under water
John, the Gospel of - According to Tradition the fourth Gospel was written by John the apostle in Ephesus, toward the end of his life. Although this disciple is Traditionally identified as the apostle John, the Gospel itself does not make this identification. ...
The roots of the Johannine Tradition reach back to the ministry of Jesus, and the Gospel stands on eyewitness testimony (John 19:34-35 ; John 21:24-25 )
James, the Letter - Tradition of the early church fathers universally ascribes the letter to James, the pastor of the church in Jerusalem. Church Tradition noted his exceptional piety, reporting that the knees of the saintly James were like those of a camel due to the unusual amounts of time spent on his knees before God
Scribes - Hezekiah's scribe transcribed old records and oral Traditions, in the case of Proverbs 25-29, under inspiration of God. "...
But oral precepts, affecting eases of every day life not especially noticed in the law, in time by Tradition became a system of casuistry superseding the word of God and substituting ceremonial observances for moral duties (Matthew 15:1-6; Matthew 23:16-23). ...
The Sadducees maintained, against Tradition, the sufficiency of the letter of the law
Passover And Feast of Unleavened Bread - On this theory, later Tradition would then have altered the sequence, and have regarded the slaughter of the Egyptians as the reason why the Israelites should offer the firstborn of their flocks. Other noticeable features are: its date at the vernal equinox, the fact that the sacrifices were mostly or entirely of firstborn, and that an old Tradition connected it with the Israelites’ desire for a religious pilgrimage, which eventually led to the Exodus (cf
Pilate, Pontius - 36 the governor of Syria brought serious accusations against Pilate, and he was banished to Vienne in Gaul, where, according to Tradition, he committed suicide
Interpretation - 39) a Tradition accepted by Jerome and Athanasius
Rome - , according to Tradition, a wall was built to enclose the enlarged city
Sod'om - On the other hand, long-continued Tradition and the names of the existing spots seem to pronounce with almost equal positiveness that it was at its southern end
Joshua, the Book of - There is every reason for concluding that the uniform Tradition of the Jews is correct when they assign the authorship of the book to Joshua, all except the concluding section; the last verses (24:29-33) were added by some other hand
Contribution - In fact, the Mishnah, the written collection of Jewish oral Tradition codified in the late second century a
Hasmonean - He forcibly converted the Idumeans, who were Traditional enemies of ancient Judaism, by demanding circumcision, and he profoundly alienated Judean Jews and Samaritan Jews by attacking Samaria and the Samaritan Temple at Mount Gerizim. Tradition tells us that while on his deathbed, he advised his wife to seek reconciliation with the Pharisees when she assumed the Judaean throne as queen
Naphtali - The Tradition connects the story in a vague way with the word ‘twist, wrestle’: Naphtûtç ’elôhîm niphtalti Wrestlings of God (or mighty wrestlings) ‘I have wrestled with my sister and I have prevailed,’ Rachel exclaimed when Naphtali was born, ‘and she called his name Naphtali
Chronicles, Books of - According to Jewish Tradition, which was universally received down to the middle of the seventeenth century, Ezra was regarded as the author of the Chronicles
Measures - The Sabbath day's journey, Acts 1:12, was about seven-eighths of a mile, and the term denoted the distance which Jewish Tradition said one might travel without a violation of the law
Torah - Eventually the name Torah came to be applied to the entire Pentateuch, the five books Traditionally ascribed to Moses: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. The Traditions of the Pharisees went far beyond the bounds of the law as spelled out in the Torah. These Traditions became for them the oral Torah, considered given to Moses at Mount Sinai to accompany the written law. Jesus scathingly denounced the Pharisees' placing their Tradition above the intent of the law (Mark 7:8-13 )
Firstborn - The growth of the Tradition into its present form must be explained by the ‘ætiological’ interest of the Hebrew writer the tendency to create idealized situations in a remote past for the purpose of explaining facts or institutions whose origin was forgotten
Judah - ...
A Tradition is preserved in Genesis 38:1-30 which is generally supposed to be of great value as bearing upon the early development of the tribe
Judas Iscariot - Peter’s expression, as recorded in his address, and the apostolic prayer of ordination, for which he was probably responsible and the mouthpiece, breathe much more of the spirit of primitive Christianity in their restrained and chastened style than the more outspoken and almost vindictive statements of John 13:18-19, so that one would not be altogether surprised to find that the latter are, as has been suggested, a less genuine Tradition of a later age
Cock-Crowing - Mark we have the variations—all the more significant because of the writer’s commonly acknowledged dependence upon the Petrine Tradition—that Jesus said to Peter, ‘Before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice’; and in correspondence with this a record of two distinct cock-crowings (Mark 14:30; Mark 14:68; Mark 14:72)
Despise - ἐντολὴν (Authorized Version and Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ‘reject’), to set aside the command of God, replacing it by Tradition, and thus to deprive it of its force, by teaching and practice (cf
Fire - Ever burning on the altar, first kindled, according to Jewish Tradition, from heaven (Leviticus 6:9; Leviticus 6:13; Leviticus 9:24)
False Christs - They do not belong to the primitive Tradition of Christ’s sayings
Feet (2) - Tradition favours the opinion that the feet were nailed separately
Damascus - Maundrell, "can promise to the beholder at a distance a greater voluptuousness;" and he mentions a Tradition of the Turks, that their prophet, when approaching Damascus: took his station upon a certain precipice, in order to view the city; and, after considering its ravishing beauty and delightful aspect, was unwilling to tempt his frailty by going farther; but instantly took his departure with this remark, that there was but one paradise designed for man, and that, for his part, he was resolved not to take his in this world
Jubilee, the Year of - Tradition tells us that every Israelite blew nine blasts, so as to make the trumpet literally 'sound throughout the land,' and that from the feast of trumpets or new year till the day of atonement (ten days after), the slaves were neither manumitted to return to their homes, nor made use of by their master, but ate, drank and rejoiced; and when the day of atonement came, the judges blew the trumpets, the slaves were manumitted to go to their homes, and the fields were set free
Pontus - As Tradition connects Bartholomew also with the Polemonian dynasty, it is probable that there were some Christians among them
Assyr'ia, as'Shur, - --Scripture informs us that Assyria was peopled from Babylon, ( Genesis 10:11 ) and both classical Tradition and the monuments of the country agree in this representation
Bethlehem - These narratives being independent of each other and derived from different sources, we have for the southern Bethlehem the convergence of two distinct Traditions. But all Christian history and Tradition maintain that the southern Bethlehem was the scene of the Nativity. ...
There is one particular handed down by early Christian Tradition which may be regarded not as a variation from, but an addition to, the Evangelic narrative,—the statement made by Justin Martyr (a. Justin relates other particulars which may have come to him—he was a native of Nablûs, not 40 miles from Bethlehem—by oral Tradition or from apocryphal narratives: such as that the Magi came from Arabia, and that Herod slew all the children of Bethlehem. , and its testimony is a valuable confirmation of the early Christian Tradition
Daniel, Book of - The Christian church has followed the Septuagint in placing Daniel among the prophets, but Protestant Christianity has not accepted the additions, whereas the Catholic Tradition has. ...
Meaning Daniel encouraged the reader to remain faithful to God, God's law, and to the scriptural Traditions of God's people. In six different situations an Israelite hero faced extreme pressure to forsake God and Tradition for personal safety and gain. The author used contemporary methods of interpreting the prophecies of Ezekiel, Jeremiah, and others to give hope to his generation when many Jews were seeking favor with the Syrian government of Antiochus by adopting a Hellenistic life-style and ignoring Jewish Traditions. He used biblical Traditions and other knowledge of his day to review the history of Babylon, the Medes, Persia, Greece, the Ptolemies of Egypt, and the Seleuccids of Syria
Ten Commandments - The Traditional history of the Decalogue . There they were believed to have permanently remained ( 1 Kings 8:9 , Deuteronomy 10:5 ) until the ark was, according to Rabbinical Tradition, hidden by Jeremiah, when Jerusalem was finally taken by Nehuchadrezzar. Again, it may well have been the case that under the deteriorating Influences of surrounding Semitic worship, the people, without generally worshipping heathen gods, failed to reach the high ideal of their Traditional religion and worship. We may fairly say, then, that the Decalogue in its earliest form, if not actually Mosaic, represents in all probability the earliest religious Tradition of Israel
Thessalonians, Second Epistle to the - Paul to current apocalyptic Tradition under the circumstances of a. The Traditional ‘antichrist’ is therefore already to be looked for ( 2 Thessalonians 2:7 ), and might well be discovered in Jewish hatred, bent on the very destruction of Christianity ( 1 Thessalonians 2:15-16 ), fortified by its secure hold of the national sanctuary ( 2 Thessalonians 2:4 ), and held in restraint only by the forces of order seated in the Roman power, or, possibly, in the better elements of Judaism itself ( 1 Thessalonians 3:13 ). are reduced to argument, they can hardly prevail against the Tradition of Pauline authorship
Ezra, Book of - Jewish Tradition is strong that Ezra was the actual author of the entire book, as well as Chronicles and Nehemiah. Jewish Tradition says he authored Chronicles and Ezra-Nehemiah
Isaac - Philo Byblius preserves from Sanchouiatho the Phoenician Tradition, "Cronus, whom the Phoenicians call Israel, being king, having an only son by a nymph, Anobret, called Jahoud (Hebrew: Yahid), even now the Phoenician name for only begotten, when perils from wars were impending, having clothed his son in royal apparel, offered him upon an altar which he built" (Eusebius, Praep. The idea though wrong in its application, rested on a primeval Tradition of God's justice having appointed the sacrifice of precious life as the atonement for sin
Son, Sonship - ’ (This is one of the smaller points in which the Johannine Gospel stands on a basis of common Tradition with the Synoptics). 2598), may be ingenious, but is an unnecessary departure from Tradition
Wilderness (2) - ...
Ecclesiastical Tradition has not been content with the indications given in the Gospels which connect John the Baptist’s life and work with the wilderness: it has connected also his birth with it. Since the time of the Crusades, ecclesiastical Tradition has contrived to localize that event in a particular, well-defined spot, and has chosen for it the wild and desolate mountain which arises almost vertically above the Fountain of Elisha, west from the oasis of Jericho
Immanuel - ( a ) The Traditional interpretation sees in the passage a direct prophecy of the Virgin-birth of Christ, and nothing else. by Jeremias and Gressmann) showing that outside Israel (particularly in Egypt and Babylonia) there existed Traditions and expectations of a semi-divine saviour-king, to be born of a divine, perhaps a virgin, mother, and to be wonderfully reared. That is to say, there was an already existing Tradition to which the prophet could appeal, and which is presupposed by his words; note esp. ’ How much the Tradition included, we cannot say; e
Language of Christ - We may think we have good grounds for believing that they accurately represent His utterances; but to hear the original sounds we must recover, if that be possible, the Semitic vernacular which underlies the Traditional Greek. ...
In the Syrian Church historical documents have been handed down which, whatever be the dates of the existing works, undoubtedly represent very ancient Traditions, and depend on documents such as would have been preserved amongst the archives of Edessa. ’ In the same Church there was a Tradition that their national version of the NT was rather a second record than a translation, and dated from Apostolic times. We have already referred to the Tradition that Matthew, who wrote for the benefit of his countrymen, composed a Gospel in Hebrew
King (2) - It is true, indeed, that in the primitive Tradition of the life of Jesus, His Kingship is not explicitly asserted. In point of fact the primitive Tradition makes it perfectly clear that Jesus deprecated and even disclaimed the ascription of royalty, or at all events that He thought of the dignity as something to become His only in the future
Bethlehem - " The road winds round the top of a valley which Tradition has fixed on as the scene of the angelic vision which announced the birth of our Lord to the shepherds; but different spots have been selected, the Romish authorities not being agreed on this head. "...
Such are the illusions which the Roman superstition casts over this extraordinary scene! In another subterraneous chapel, Tradition places the sepulchre of the Innocents
Deluge - The Biblical story , Genesis 6:5 to Genesis 9:17 Old Testament - The old Jewish Tradition, repeated by Origen and Jerome, ascribed the change to Ezra. And yet more important are the proofs of the firm establishment of the text, and of its substantial with our own, supplied by the translation of Jerome, who was instructed by the Palestinian Jews, and mainly relied upon their authority for acquaintance not only with the text itself, but also with the Traditional unwritten vocalization of brings us to the middle of the Talmudic period. It is evident from the notices of the Talmud that a number of oral Traditions had been gradually accumulating respecting both the integrity of particular passages of the text itself and also the manner in which if was to be read. This vast heterogeneous mass of Traditions and criticisms, compiled and embodied in writing, forms what is known as the Masorah , i. Tradition
Israel - The Mishna and Talmud are compilations of Traditions containing in some cases an historical kernel, but valuable for the light they throw upon Jewish life in the early Christian centuries. ...
The Traditions may, however, be classified in two ways: (1) as to origin, and (2) as to content. ( a ) Some Traditions, such as those concerning kinship with non-Palestinian tribes, the deliverance from Egypt, and concerning Moses, were brought into Palestine from the desert. ( b ) Others, such as the Traditions of Abraham’s connexion with various shrines, and the stories of Jacob and his sons, were developed in the land of Canaan, ( c ) Still others were learned from the Canaanites. In most cases where a Tradition has blended two elements, one of these was learned from the Canaanites. ( d ) Finally, a fourth set of Traditions were derived from Babylonia. ( b ) Narratives which reflect the Traditions of the various shrines of Israel. Parts of the account of Abraham are local Traditions of shrines, but the story of Abraham’s migration is the narrative of the westward movement of a tribe or group of tribes from which the Hebrews were descended. ) has pointed out, the firm and constant Tradition of the Egyptian bondage, running as it does through all four of the Pentateuchal documents and forming the background of all Israel’s religious and prophetic consciousness, must have some historical content. Probability, accordingly, strengthens the Tradition that Hebrews so entered Egypt. The persistent historical Tradition which colours all Hebrew religious thought must have, one would think, some historical foundation. The main thread of it must be true, but in details, such as the reference to Pithom and Raamses, the Tradition may be mistaken. Traditions attach themselves to different men, why not to different cities? Perhaps, as several scholars have suggested, another solution is more probable, that not all of the Hebrews went to Egypt. In the Traditions this period is called the Wandering in the Wilderness, and it is said to have continued forty years. According to the Traditions, their detour extended around the territories of Edom and Moab, so that they came upon the territory north of the Arnon, where an Amorlte kingdom had previously been established, over which, in the city of Heshbon, Sihon ruled. The Traditions tell of a miraculous stoppage of the waters
Millenarians - are those who believe, according to an ancient Tradition in the church, grounded on some doubtful texts in the book of Revelation and other scriptures, that our Saviour shall reign a thousand years with the faithful upon earth after the first resurrection, before the full completion of final happiness; and their name, taken from the Latin word mille, "a thousand," has a direct allusion to the duration of this spiritual empire, which is styled the millennium. The Tradition which fixes the duration of the world, in its present imperfect state, to six thousand years, and announces the approach of a Sabbath of one thousand years of universal peace and plenty, to be ushered in by the glorious advent of the Messiah, has been traced up to Elias, a rabbinical writer, who flourished about two centuries before the birth of Christ. But though the theory may not be very improbable, yet, as it has not the sanction of Scripture to support it, we are not bound to respect it any farther than as a doubtful Tradition. According to Tradition, these thousand years of the reign of Christ and the saints will be the seventh millenary of the world; for, as God created the world in six days, and rested on the seventh, so the world, it is argued, will continue six thousand years, and the seventh thousand will be the great sabbatism, or holy rest of the people of God; one day being with the Lord as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day,' 2 Peter 3:8 . According to Tradition, too, these thousand years of the reign of Christ and the saints are the great day of judgment, in the morning or beginning whereof shall be the coming of Christ in flaming fire, and the particular judgment of antichrist, and the first resurrection; and in the evening or conclusion whereof shall be the general resurrection of the dead, small and great; ‘and they shall be judged every man according to his works
Haggai - Tradition represents him as returning with the first exiles from Babylon his birthplace, under Zerubbabel 536 B
Pray, Prayer - ...
"Where the Jews were numerous, as at Thessalonica, they had usually a Synagogue, Acts 17:1 ; where they were few, as at Philippi, they had merely a proseuche, or 'place of prayer,' of much smaller dimensions, and commonly built by a river for the sake of the water necessary to the preliminary ablutions prescribed by Rabbinic Tradition, Acts 16:13,16
Cross - Tradition, and the inscription over our Lord's head, make it likely that the form of His cross was +
Acts of the Apostles - This is the uniform Tradition of antiquity, although the writer nowhere makes mention of himself by name
Scribes - The first step was taken toward annulling the commandments of God for the sake of their own Traditions. While the scribes repeated the Traditions of the elders, he "spake as one having authority," "not as the scribes. So far, on the other hand, as the temper of the Hillel school was one of mere adaptation to the feeling of the people, cleaving to Tradition, wanting in the intuition of a higher life, the teaching of Christ must have been felt as unsparingly condemning it
Wicked - In four of these instances the change from ‘wicked’ to ‘evil’ is due to the fact that evil spirits are referred to; in Acts 2:23, where, with the changed text, ἄνομος ceases to be an attribute of hands and becomes a characterization of persons, it naturally resumes its literal meaning of ‘lawless’; in 2 Thessalonians 2:8 ‘the lawless one’ is preferable, because ἄνομος probably rests on pre-Pauline Jewish Tradition which represented the Antichrist as an enemy to the Law, so that ‘wicked’ would be too vague a translation; in Acts 25:5 ‘amiss’ reproduces ἄτοπον more closely than ‘wicked
Colours - According to Tradition, as we have just seen, purple and scarlet also red ( Exodus 26:14 ) dyes were known as early as the Exodus time (cf
Ishmael - A dozen tribes, scattered over the Sinaitic peninsula and the districts east of the Jordan, because of some similarity in civilization or language, or in some cases possibly under the influence of correct Tradition, are grouped as kinsmen, being sons of Abraham, but of inferior status, as being descended from the son of a handmaid
New Command - Segovia, Love Relationships in the Johannine Tradition ; C
Gilgal - is a tamarisk, "Shejaret el Ithleh," which Tradition makes the site of "the city of brass," whose walls fell on their besiegers marching round them
Elijah (2) - These Jewish Traditions know Elijah as zealous in the service of God, and as a helper in distress, as well as the forerunner of the Messiah. ...
As the Jews elaborated the earlier doctrine of the Messiah, and as in their thought He became more and more exalted in holiness and majesty, the impossibility of His appearance in the midst of all the sin and shame of Israel was increasingly felt; and the character of Elijah, the holy prophet, zealous in his earthly life for the political and religious integrity of the nation, and already enshrined in Tradition as having been spared death, was a fitting one to be chosen to carry on the great work of preparing Israel for the blessings of the Messianic era
Sisters - ’ That there were more than two seems to follow from the Matthaean addition (πᾶσαι) to the Markan question, ‘Are not his sisters here with us?’ It is true that Tradition ascribed two daughters to Joseph, though one uncanonical Gospel at least describes Joseph as acknowledging sons, but denying the presence of daughters in his household
Goat - Though the Scriptures are silent upon it, yet the history of the scape goat among the Jews, has handed down by Tradition the account, which is not uninteresting
Eutychius - In this treatise Eutychius argues against the Quartodecimans, against the Hydroparastatae who use water instead of wine at communion (he says that the only apostolic Tradition is the mixture of both), against certain schismatic Armenians who used only wine, and against some Greeks and Armenians who adored the elements as soon as they were offered and before consecration
Rome - ...
According to ancient Tradition, Saint Peter first came to Rome in 42, although Saint Barnabas is also given as its first evangelist, and at the arrival of Saint Paul (c
Phoeni'ce, Phoenic'ia - Still neither the truth nor the falsehood of the Tradition can now be proved
Miltiades, Bishop of Rome - 312) as proving the Tradition true that Constantine had made over that palace to the pope as a residence
Nonnus of Panopolis - At other times we have interpretations suggested, in most of which he agrees with the Alexandrine Tradition as represented by Cyril and Origen cf
Physician (2) - ) describes as ‘a very early note added while the Jewish Tradition was still fresh
Jacob - ]'>[4] are closely interwoven, though a degree of original independence is shown by an occasional divergence in Tradition, which adds to the credibility of the joint narrative. The Traditions appear on literary grounds to have come from different sources; but there is no real difficulty in the narrative as it stands. The troubles began with the seduction or outrage of Dinah; but the narrative that follows is evidently compacted of two Traditions. The atmosphere of the poem in regard alike to geography and to history is that of the period of the judges and early kings, when, therefore, the genuine Tradition must have taken the form in which it has been preserved. If it be remembered that the narrative is based upon popular oral Tradition, and did not receive its present form until long after the time to which it relates, and that an interest in national origins is both natural and distinctly manifested in parts of Genesis, some idealization may readily he conceded
Mark, Gospel According to - 140 or earlier), as derived from ‘the Elder’ from whom he gleaned Traditions:...
‘Mark, having become the interpreter of Peter, wrote down accurately everything that he remembered, without, however recording in order what was either said or done by Christ Mark, Gospel According to - ‘Gospels’) differs from him are noted: ‘For our present purpose we will merely add to his [3] words which have been quoted above, a Tradition which has been set forth through these sources concerning Mark who wrote the Gospel: “And the Elder said this also: Mark, having become the interpreter of Peter, wrote down accurately everything that he remembered [4], without, however, recording in order what was either said or done by Christ. productions, and the words of our Lord had been handed on only by oral Tradition, the parables could never have been kept so pure. ; (b) that ecclesiastical Tradition almost uniformly connects the Second Evangelist with St. Philemon 1:24, Colossians 4:11); (c) that there was a difference of Tradition as to whether he wrote while St
Hammurabi - Others understand the law codes to be from a Tradition similar to compiling lists of omens, medical prognoses, and other scientific treatises. This probably began as an oral Tradition and gradually became a systematic written corpus
Deuteronomy, the Book of - By longstanding Tradition these books have been associated with Moses, the human instrument of God's deliverance of Israel from bondage in Egypt and the negotiator of the covenant between God and Israel. Longstanding Tradition among Christians and Jews favors Moses as the author, but third person references to Moses, the location of the writer in Palestine (Deuteronomy 1:1 ), and comparison of the laws in Deuteronomy with the laws in the Book of the Covenant (Exodus 20:23-23:19 ) all indicate that the book was produced later than the Mosaic period
Pilgrimage - Andrews, where, as Tradition informs us, was deposited a leg of the holy apostle. Mecca is the grand place to which they go; and this pilgrimage is so necessary a point of practice, that, according to a Tradition of Mahomet, he who dies without performing it, may as well die a Jew or a Christian; and the same is expressly commanded in the Koran
Atheist - That Atheism existed in some sense before the flood, may be suspected from what we read in Scripture, as well as from Heathen Tradition; and it is not very unreasonable to suppose, that the deluge was partly intended to evince to the world a heavenly power, as Lord of the universe, and superior to the visible system of nature. That the world had a beginning, is evident from universal Tradition, and the most ancient history that exists; from there being no memorials of any actions performed previously to the time assigned in that history as the aera of the creation; from the origin of learning and arts, and the liability of the parts of matter to decay
Isaiah - There is a current Tradition that he was of the blood royal; and some writers have affirmed that his father Amoz or Amos was the son of Joash, and consequently brother of Uzziah, king of Judah. But the Tradition of the Jews, which has been adopted by most Christian commentators, that he was put to death by Manasseh, is very uncertain; and Aben Ezra one of the most celebrated Jewish writers, is rather of opinion that he died before Hezekiah; which Bishop Lowth thinks most probable
Phoenicia, phNicians - 89) records a Tradition that they came from the Red Sea. 44) records a Tradition which, if true, would carry the founding of the temple at Tyre back to b
Song of Solomon - An ancient rabbinic Tradition (Baba Bathra 15a) attributes the Song to Hezekiah and his scribes (compare Proverbs 25:1 )
France - According to Tradition, Christianity was introduced in Apostolic times into the Roman province of Gaul which is supposed to have been visited by Saint Lazarus, Saint Mary Magdalen, Saint Martha, Saint Dionysius the Areopagite, and Saint Crescens
Zebulun - According to OT Tradition, Zebulun was the tenth son of Jacob, and the sixth of Leah ( Genesis 30:20 E Devote, Devoted - Later Tradition called him the troubler of Israel and changed his name to Achar ("trouble" 1 Chronicles 2:7 )
Manasseh - " There is an old Jewish Tradition that Isaiah was put to death at this time (2 Kings 21:16 ; 24:3,4 ; Jeremiah 2:30 ), having been sawn asunder in the trunk of a tree
Epistle - ), it is necessary to give due weight to the following points: (1) that in this as in other respects the Apostolic Age was embedded in the same literary Tradition of later antiquity as we are able to trace in various Greek and Latin prototypes of non-Christian origin; (2) that, nevertheless, the structure, style, and diction of the primitive Christian epistles nearly always carry us into a different sphere of culture from that
Jewish Parties in the New Testament - They were the developers of the oral Tradition, the teachers of the two-fold law: written and oral
Tittle - ’ And elsewhere He affirms that the Pharisaic and Rabbinic legalism led to a positive dishonouring of the Divine law in the interests of a human Tradition (Mark 7:8-9; Mark 7:13)
Astrology - Although the Tradition was repudiated in Wisdom of Solomon 13:1-4 , it had already become impossible to halt the Jewish fascination with astrology. Others prefer the translation "in its ascendancy" to the Traditional "in the east
Samaria, Samaritans - ...
The Jewish inhabitants of Samaria identified Mount Gerizim as the chosen place of God and the only center of worship, calling it the “navel of the earth” because of a Tradition that Adam sacrificed there. ...
A small Samaritan community continues to this day to follow the Traditional worship near Shechem
New Heavens And a New Earth - It is claimed that this Tradition is reflected in Matthew 5:18 (cf
Hebrews - ’ Jewish Tradition gives the more accurate form ὁ περαΐτης, ‘the man from the other side,’ i
Sabbath - It is said that among the Jews there was a Tradition not to walk more than six Stadia, or seven hundred and fifty paces, on the Sabbath day—that is, somewhat less than one of our miles
Apostle - Tradition gives the various places where they laboured, which may be found under each of their names
Ethelbert, King of Kent - Shortly afterwards Ethelbert expressed his belief in the truth of those promises which he had described as unheard-of, and was baptized; the time, according to Canterbury Tradition, was June 1, the Whitsun-eve of 597 the place, undoubtedly, was St
Protestant - I see plainly, and with my own eyes, that there are popes against popes, and councils against councils; some fathers against other fathers, the same fathers against themselves; a consent of fathers of one age against a consent of fathers of another age; traditive interpretations of Scripture are pretended, but there are few or none to be found; no Tradition but that of Scripture can derive itself from the fountain, but may be plainly proved either to have been brought in in such an age after Christ, or that in such an age it was not in
Proterius, Saint, Patriarch of Alexandria - Thereupon (Mar 454) he wrote again to Proterius, advising him to clear himself from all suspicion of Nestorianizing, by reading to his people certain passages from approved Fathers, and then shewing that the Tome did but hand on their Tradition and guard the truth from perversions on either side
Hebrews - Paul repeatedly and without hesitation, we may conclude that in his time no doubt had been entertained upon the subject, or, at least, that the common Tradition of the church attributed it to St. But uniting the whole of it together; considering the intimate knowledge of Jewish rites, the wrong attachment to their ritual, and the special danger of defection from Christianity in consequence of it, which the whole texture of the epistle necessarily supposes, and combining these things with the other circumstances above discussed, I cannot resist the impression, that the universal opinion of the ancient church respecting the persons to whom this epistle was addressed, was well founded, being built upon early Tradition and the contents of the epistle; and that the doubts and difficulties thrown in the way by modern and recent critics, are not of sufficient importance to justify us in relinquishing the belief that Palestine Christians were addressed by the epistle to the Hebrews. Paul wrote the Epistle to the Hebrews; but no considerable person or party is definitely known to us, who entertained these doubts; and it is manifest, from Origen and Eusebius, that there was not, in that quarter, any important opposition to the general and constant Tradition of the church, that Paul did write it. I cannot hesitate to believe, that the weight of evidence from Tradition is altogether preponderant in favour of the opinion, that St
Judgment Damnation - For His rejection of Saul and His surrender of Israel into the hand of the Philistines the older Tradition knew no reason. With respect to the person of the Judge, Jesus follows the Tradition that assigns the office to the Son of Man. What is Jesus’ teaching with regard to the doom of the lost? Uniformly He follows the Tradition that regards them as consigned to Gehenna or hell (Matthew 5:22; Matthew 5:29; Matthew 10:28; Matthew 18:9). Paul ever consciously broke with the apocalyptic Tradition in any of its main features is incredible. Paul does the writer of the Fourth Gospel contemplate a formal breach with the Traditional apocalyptic ideas. But, if the Evangelist yields this recognition to Traditional views, his own peculiar thought moves on other lines. ...
But notwithstanding this spiritualizing train of thought, the Traditional apocalyptic notions-the Parousia, a resurrection of the just and unjust, final judgment by Christ and eternal punishment for the lost-succeeded in maintaining themselves in the Church’s faith
Noah - In the three great ethnological divisions, Semitics, Aryans (Indo-Europeans), and Turanians, the Tradition of the flood exists. ...
Hindu Tradition says Manu was ordered by a great fish to build a ship secured to the horn of Brahma in a fish form to escape the deluge, and was at last landed on a northern mountain. A medal of Apamea, a pagan monument, in Septimius Severus' reign represented the current Tradition namely, a floating ark, two persons within, two going out of it; a bird is on the ark, another flying to it with a branch; No is on some coins: evidently borrowed from the Hebrew record. The oldest Babylonian Traditions center around the Persian gulf, accordingly the Tradition assumes a form suiting a maritime people. The Bible narrative unites details scattered up and down in various Traditions but nowhere else combined:...
(1) The divine warning in the Babylonian, Hindu, and Cherokee accounts. ...
The Bible account cannot be derived from anyone of these Traditions, while they all can flow from it
Wandering Stars - ...
In the apocalyptic address of the Synoptic Tradition the disciples in Judaea are warned that they will ‘hear of wars and rumours of wars’ (Mk, Mt; ‘of wars and disturbances,’ Lk); but they are not to be scared. Whether this was in consequence of the apocalyptic oracle preserved in the Synoptic Tradition, or whether this oracle reflects to some extent the course of affairs, it is not easy to say. ) preserves the Tradition that John the Baptist, instead of ordering the soldiers† who consulted him to leave the army, merely told them that it was their duty to abstain from what was called concussio, or the ill-treatment of civilians, i. ) is the puzzling bit of conversation just before Jesus and His disciples left the upper room for Gethsemane, a fragment of Tradition preserved by St
John, Gospel of - According to a universally accepted Tradition, extending from the third quarter of the 2nd cent. This Tradition, so far as the Gospel was concerned, was unbroken and almost unchallenged, the one exception being formed by an obscure and doubtful sect, or class of unbelievers, called Alogi by Epiphanius, who attributed the Gospel and the Apocalypse to Cerinthus! From the beginning of the 19th cent. , however, and especially after the publication of Bretschneider’s Probabilia in 1820, an almost incessant conflict has been waged between the Traditional belief and hypotheses which in more or less modified form attribute the Gospel to an Ephesian elder or an Alexandrian Christian philosopher belonging to the first half of the 2nd century. ...
The position taken in this article is that the Traditional view which ascribes the authorship of the Gospel to John the Apostle is still by far the most probable account of its origin, the undeniable difficulties attaching to this view being explicable by a reasonable consideration of the circumstances of its composition. Clement of Alexandria, in handing down ‘the Tradition of the elders from the first,’ says that ‘John, last of all, having observed that the bodily things had been exhibited in the Gospels, exhorted by his friends and inspired by the Spirit, produced a spiritual gospel’ (Eus. The testimony of churches and of a whole generation of Christians, inheritors of the same Tradition at only one remove, corroborates the emphatic and repeated statements of Irenæus. A period of fifty years is short when we remember how generations overlap one another, and how carefully Traditions on the most sacred subjects are guarded
Peter - Paul, it is not at all surprising that the evangelists, in selecting gospel Tradition and giving it written form, should mention Peter frequently and assign him a position second only to that of Jesus. The balance of critical opinion at present inclines to the view that this Tradition arose subsequently to the death of Jesus and at a time when the first vivid expectations of an imminent catastrophic end of the present world were being displaced by a growing interest in ecclesiasticism. The Marcan account of the disciples’ call is omitted in favour of another Tradition somewhat richer in descriptive details (Luke 5:1-11; cf. According to one Tradition, regarded by many scholars as the more reliable, he returned disappointed to Galilee, where he probably intended to resume his work of fishing
Demon, Demoniacal Possession, Demoniacs - 500, but the Traditions concerning demons and the general teaching on the subject (even in the latest portions) embody conceptions of much earlier date. —As has not infrequently been found to be the case with Jewish Tradition, there are varying accounts; in this case two distinct Traditions exist. The other Tradition is based on Genesis 6:1-8 (cf
Paul - ...
Growing up in a Jewish family meant that Paul was well trained in the Jewish Scriptures and Tradition (Acts 26:4-8 ; Philippians 3:5-6 ) beginning in the home with the celebration of the Jewish holy days: Passover, Yom kippur, Hanukkah, and others. Paul became very zealous for the Traditions, that is teachings, of his people (Galatians 1:14 ). ...
This zealous commitment to the study of the Old Testament laws and Traditions is the background of Paul's persecution of his Jewish brothers who believed Jesus was the Messiah. The Tradition outside the New Testament that tells of Paul's execution in Rome is reasonable. The Tradition that he traveled to Spain is problematic
Balaam - The Traditional knowledge of the true God lingered among the descendants of Laban and Bethuel. Hence, while owning Jehovah for his God and following patriarchal Tradition (Job 42:8, who is thought by the decipherers of the Assyrian and Babylonian monuments to have lived in the region about the mouth of the Euphrates, Uz, the early seat of the first Babylonian empire) in offering victims by sevens. Peter residing at Babylon would naturally adopt the name usual in the Aramaic Tradition) "loved the wages of unrighteousness: but was rebuked for his iniquity, the mute (voiceless) donkey, speaking with man's voice, forbad the madness of the prophet": an awful contrast, a dumb beast forbidding an inspired prophet
Festivals - Traditionally called “feasts” in the English Bibles, these can conveniently be categorized according to frequency of celebration. ...
Later Tradition associated the feast of weeks with the giving of the law at Sinai. This was explained by later Tradition to indicate fasting and repentance
Seventy (2) - The LXX is so called from the Tradition (first told in a literary fiction usually ascribed to about b. ]'>[3] Our Lord may have had specially in view (1) the seventy elders under Moses, who was a type of Himself; (2) the Hebrew Tradition that the nations scattered at Babel were seventy in number (pseud
Upper Room (2) - —It is thought by many good judges that the Traditional site of the cenaculum (the present building dates from the 14th cent. ’ The most interesting testimonies in the Tradition are the following:...
St. ’ (If Epiphanius possessed accurate information, this statement carries back the Tradition about the site to the reign of Hadrian, a. Die Dormitio und das deutsche Grundstück auf dem Traditionellen Zion; Sanday, Sacred Sites of the Gospels, pp
Keeping - For instance, we read that when the Pharisees and scribes asked Jesus why His disciples walked not according to the Tradition of the elders, but ate their bread with defiled hands, He replied, ‘Full well do ye reject the commandment of God, that ye may keep (τηρέω) your Tradition’ (Mark 7:9)
Majesty (2) - ...
(b) Was there no majesty, then, in His personal appearance? The Gospels are completely silent on this point, and in the lack of any trustworthy Tradition the Fathers seem to have fallen back chiefly on the prophetic pictures of the Messiah, with the result that a wide diversity of view came to exist, according as one passage or another was taken as the norm. It gave rise to a type of presentment that has dominated Christian art ever since; but it is right to remember that this conventional conception of a Christ who was tall in stature, beautiful in countenance, dignified and even majestic in figure and bearing, rests upon no real basis of authentic Tradition, as it is supported by no single word of the NT; and that Augustine has stated the simple truth when he says, ‘Qua fuerit ille facie penitus ignoramus’ (de Trin. He claims a personal authority that sweeps aside in a moment all the Traditional learning of the nation’s religious teachers (Matthew 7:28-29). And is it not highly significant that, on the one solitary occasion on which a NT writer has set himself to describe the Lord’s personal appearance, the attempt is based upon no recollections or Traditions regarding Jesus of Nazareth, but upon a splendid conception of the majesty of the exalted Christ—His eyes as a flame of fire, His voice as the sound of many waters, in His right hand seven stars, and His countenance as the sun shineth in his strength (Revelation 1:13 ff
Commandments - ...
The main passages in which our Lord defines His attitude to the commandments are: (1) the exposition in the Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 5:17-48); (2) the criticism of Pharisaic Tradition (Matthew 15:1-20, Mark 7:1-23; cf. ...
It is assumed by Jesus that the commandments were given directly by God, and as such they are contrasted with the ‘traditions of men’ (Matthew 15:6, Mark 7:8-9). It is objected to the Pharisees as their chief offence that they have perverted and overlaid with Tradition the commandments of God (Matthew 15:3, Mark 7:7). ...
(2) In a similar manner the ‘traditions’ which had gathered around the Law and obscured its genuine meaning are swept away
Commandment - Paul, make reference to a Tradition of authoritative Divine commandments, and indeed they themselves lay down a number of precepts designed to serve as guides for the moral judgment of Christians (ἐντολαί, δόγματα, παραγγελίαι, παραδόσεις, etc. ...
This common ethical Tradition would include, above all, the so-called Apostolic Decree (Acts 15:28 f
Family (Jesus) - The reticence of the Gospels about the childhood of Christ is in itself an indication that there was nothing which so differed from the ordinary family life of a Jewish household as to create a special Tradition about His early years. According to the Tradition which St. ...
This fundamental conception erects an insuperable barrier between the teaching of Jesus and those varieties of Socialism which aim at the abolition of the Traditional form of the family, which rests on the assumption that marriage is a life-long obligation
Adam - Paul between Adam and Christ may have been the origin of the Tradition that Adam was buried under Golgotha. The Tradition is mentioned also by Basil, Ambrose, and others
Banquet - The Jews regularly washed their hands and their feet before dinner; they considered this ceremony as essential, which discovers the reason of their astonishment, when they observed the disciples of Christ sit down at table without having observed this ceremony: "Why do thy disciples transgress the Tradition of the elders? for they wash not their hands when they eat bread," Matthew 15:2 . After meals they wash them again; for, says the evangelist, "the Pharisees and all the Jews, except they wash their hands oft, eat not, holding the Tradition of the elders," Mark 7:3-4
Adam - Paul between Adam and Christ may have been the origin of the Tradition that Adam was buried under Golgotha. The Tradition is mentioned also by Basil, Ambrose, and others
Tabernacles, the Feast of - (Nehemiah 8:15,16 ) According to rabbinical Tradition each Israelite used to tie the branches into a bunch, to be carried in his hand to which the name lulab was given
Magi - ...
The names given by Tradition to the "three kings" so-called (presumed to represent Europe, Asia, and Africa; Psalms 72:10 was the plea for their kingship), Melchior, Gaspar, and Balthasar, are of course mythical, as is the story of their bones being in the shrine of Cologne, having been removed first from the East by Helena to Constantinople, then to Milan, then to Cologne
Mary Magdalene - The mention of the anointing in John 11:2 is evidently John's anticipation of John 12:3, to inform his readers that the Mary in John 11 is the same as she whose anointing of the Lord they knew by common Tradition
Melita - Not the Melita now Meleda in the gulf of Venice near Dalmatia; but the Melita between Sicily and Africa, Malta, where Tradition names the place of the wreck "Paul's bay" (Mr
Sabbath - In doing so they often disregarded the Word of God, and as a result came into conflict with Jesus (Luke 13:10-17; see SCRIBES; SYNAGOGUE; Tradition). While he kept the law of God (Matthew 5:17; Luke 4:16), he opposed the Traditions of the scribes and Pharisees (Mark 7:6-9)
Nehemiah - If 2Ma 1:19 can be relied on as preserving a true Tradition, the dedication took place on the 25th of Chislev (December), i
Resurrection of Jesus Christ - Tradition asserts that this was James the brother of Jesus, the author of the Book of James (see Acts 15:13 )
She'Chem - The local Tradition of the tomb, like that of the well is as old as the beginning of the fourth century
Blasphemy Against the Holy Spirit - Barrett, The Holy Spirit and the Gospel Tradition ; G
Tim'Othy - He continued, according to the old Traditions, to act as bishop of Ephesus, and died a martyr's death under Domitian or Nerva. If he continued, according to the received Tradition, to be bishop of Ephesus, then he, and no other, must have been the "angel" of the church of Ephesus to whom the message of (Revelation 2:1-7 ) was addressed
Titus - A ruined church on the site of Gortyna bears the name of Titus, whom Tradition makes bishop of Gortyna
Confession - After the Resurrection, confession of Christ carried with it readiness to bear witness to that supreme fact ( John 20:28-29 , Romans 10:9 ); and this of course implied an acceptance of the historical Tradition as to His marvellous life and character which made it impossible for death to hold Him (cf
Monotheism - Bible students often argue on the basis of biblical evidence that Israel in the first centuries of her life as a people did not have a monotheistic system of belief: indeed, that Moses' Tradition does not appear in that kind of category
Cry - According to Jewish Tradition, in the solemn prayer for forgiveness uttered by the high priest on the Day of Atonement in the Holy of Holies, the words אנא השם כפר ‘O Lord, forgive,’ were spoken with heightened voice, so that they could be heard at a distance
Sadducees - ) The Pharisees, though wrong in maintaining oral Tradition as obligatory, yet preserved in respect to the resurrection the faith of the fathers
Ezra - Our sources of information regarding him are (1) the autobiographical narratives embodied in Ezra 7:1-28 ; Ezra 8:1-36 ; Ezra 9:1-15 ; Ezra 10:1-44 , and Nehemiah 8:1-18 ; Nehemiah 9:1-38 ; Nehemiah 10:1-39 ; and (2) later Tradition as embodied in the narrative of the compiler of Ezr
Ananias - ...
Later Tradition has much to say regarding Ananias
Moral Obligation - It may, indeed, be conceded, that such is the constitution of the human soul, that when those distinctions between actions, which have been taught by religious Tradition or direct revelation, are known in their nature, relations, and consequences, the calm and sober judgments of men will approve of them; and that especially when they are considered abstractedly, that is, as not affecting and controlling their own interests and passions immediately, virtue may command complacency, and vice provoke abhorrence: but that, independent of reflection on their nature or their consequences, there is an instinctive principle in man which abhors evil, and loves good, is contradicted by that variety of opinion and feeling on the vices and virtues, which obtains among all uninstructed nations
Babel - It is called by the natives, El Mujellibah, ‘the overturned;' also Haroot and Maroot, from a Tradition handed down, with little deviation, from time immemorial, that near the foot of the ruin there is a well, invisible to mortals, in which those rebellious angels were condemned by God to be hung with their heels upward, until the day of judgment, as a punishment for their wickedness
Job, Book of - The author may have received it in one of three ways: the writer may have been an eyewitness; or have received it from near contemporary testimony; or it may have reached him through a Tradition of whose substantial truthfulness he has no doubt
Prison - According to Tradition, his place of custody was the Mamertine prison, in the lower dungeon of which, known as the Tullianum, prisoners condemned for crimes against the State were executed
Sanhedrin (2) - How far the Mishna has preserved reliable Traditions on points of detail connected with the Sanhedrin is not easy to determine. In view, however, of the chasm which the destruction of Jerusalem made in the constitution and history of Judaism, and the radically false conception of the Sanhedrin which appears in the Mishnic Tradition, statements based on the unsupported authority of the Mishna must be regarded as little better than conjectures. —The Mishnic Tradition connects the Sanhedrin with Moses’ seventy elders, then with the alleged Great Synagogue of Ezra’s time, then with such names of leading Rabbis as had escaped oblivion (cf. Passively opposed to them were the Hăsîdîm, the pious students of the Law and the legal Tradition, whose interests and aspirations were exclusively religious and ecclesiastical
Sibylline Oracles - It is commonly taken as a man’s name, and he has been identified with the NT ‘Silas,’ although there is no obvious reason either in the NT or in later Tradition why Silas should be in such exalted company. Heraclides Ponticus, the historian, knew of three, and Varro reckoned as many as ten [Note: The variant Tradition of nine reached Shakespeare. Primitive Tradition located the original Sibyl at Erythrae, but the most famous Sibyl resided at Cumae, the old Greek settlement in Campania, though it is probable that the Sibylline oracles which came to Rome from Cumae had reached the latter city from Erythrae
Ebionism (2) - 295), lend some weight to the idea that the distinctive features of the document, so far from being altogether secondary, ought to be regarded as indications of an early Aramaic Tradition, which still held its own among the ‘Hebrews’ after the growing universalism of the Church had left it behind (see Prof. But it may be said that while the whole trend of recent scholarship is unfavourable to the views of those who would make the Gospel according to the Hebrews either the ‘Ur-Matthaeus’ itself or an expanded edition of it, some grounds can be alleged for thinking that it represents an early Aramaic Tradition of the Gospel story which was in existence when the author of Canonical Matthew wrote his book, and upon which to some extent he may have drawn,—a Tradition which would naturally be more Jewish and national in its outlook than that represented by the Greek written sources on which he placed his main dependence (see Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible, Extra Vol
Gospels, Apocryphal - It would seem, however, as if the literature as we know it might have originated: ( a ) From the common Evangelic Tradition preserved in its best form in our Synoptic Gospels ( e. declared the Protevangelium of James and other works dealing with the Nativity of Jesus to be ‘impure sources of Tradition. The probability that it represents the original Evangelic Tradition is not as strong as in the case of the Gospel according to the Hebrews. It is not impossible, however, that the Gospel of the Egyptians contained the original Tradition, but in form sufficiently variant to admit of manipulation by groups of heretics. Mentioned by Origen as a heretical writing, and possibly quoted by Clement of Alexandria, who speaks of the ‘traditions of Matthias
Eucharist - But in any case it is misleading to regard 1 Corinthians 10:16 as having any real connexion with a Tradition of the cup having preceded the bread at the Last Supper. But it seems by no means improbable that the words imply merely that he had received it from the Lord through Tradition. ]'>[1]5 He seems to be following Tradition, or, at any rate, to be under the impression that he is following Tradition, in his account of the Eucharist
Ethics (2) - ]'>[2] In our reading of the Sermon we cannot afford to ignore this design of the writer; we must draw a distinction between what its words purported to him, and what they meant in the Tradition he utilized. Further, we must make a searching examination of the characteristically Lukan Tradition as it appears in the parables of the Rich Man and Lazarus, the Good Samaritan, etc. The fresh and original elements in His moral thought and feeling must be set over against Traditional views. But we also find explicit remonstrances against the ‘traditions of the elders’ so dear to the scribes (Mark 7:5; Mark 7:9; Mark 7:13); He characterizes them summarily as the ‘prescriptions’ (Authorized and Revised Versions ‘tradition’) of men (Mark 7:8), thus contrasting them with the commandments of God. But Jesus goes still further, affirming positively that in their concern for these Traditions the scribes reject, pervert, and even make void the commandment of God (Mark 7:8; Mark 7:13). 124]'>[5] ...
Now the assertion that the great moral demands of God’s law are of more importance than any ceremonial obligations, is primarily directed only against the Traditions and prescriptions of the Rabbis; in reality, however, it is a principle which threatens the very foundations of the Mosaic system. ...
All this, of course, is self-evident to us; but when Jesus uttered it, and acted upon it, He found Himself at cross purposes with the most exemplary personages of His generation, and compelled to resist the drift of an age-long Tradition
Pharisees (2) - —The chief differences were the following: (1) the Pharisees ‘delivered to the people a great many observances by Tradition which are not written in the law of Moses’ (Josephus Ant. He rebuked them for their anti-scriptural Traditions, as He did the Sadducees for ignorance of the word of God (Mark 7:9). In their confused teachings drawn from the OT by Traditional exegesis, three great groups of thought may be distinguished; they refer to God, His revelation in the Law, and the hope of a promised Messiah. The Oral Law of Tradition arose because prophecy ceased; cases arose not provided for in the OT, and Rabbinical exegesis of the Scriptures sought the cover of ancient names. —Here especially the OT exegesis and Tradition were necessary in using the Bible as the source of civil law, when Israel changed from a small pastoral people to become a world-wide commercial race. Hence from Hillel onwards the Pharisees elaborated a civil code by means of Tradition and exegesis from the Scriptures. He here ‘turned His back upon the highway of Rabbinical Traditions, and opened a path which until then had never occurred to any human heart
Chronology of the New Testament - ’ He declares that this Tradition came from ‘John the disciple of the Lord’ through ‘those who were conversant in Asia with’ him i. Tradition that Jesus was born a
Jonah - There is no mention in Kings of any connexion of Jonah with Assyria, but it is quite possible that the memory of a visit to Nineveh was preserved by Tradition or in some lost historical work. Kautzsch, Driver, Nowack, and Marti see in the story a didactic narrative founded on an ancient Tradition
Synagogue - In late Jewish Tradition Ezra is alleged to have been the founder and first president of a college of learned scribes, which is supposed to have existed in Jerusalem until the early part of the Gr. ]'>[13] 125 160), and now regard the Great Synagogue as unhistorical, the Tradition of its existence having arisen from a distorted view of the nature and purpose of the great popular assembly, of which we read in Nehemiah 8:1-18 ; Nehemiah 9:1-38 ; Nehemiah 10:1-39
Olives, Mount of - The Tradition was not an established one until more than 300 years later. The real place of ascension was Bethany, on the eastern slope, a mile beyond the Traditional site (Luke 24:50-51; Acts 1:6-11). The Traditional site of the lamentation over Jerusalem is similarly unreal, for it can only be reached by a walk of hundreds of yards over the breast of the hill, the temple moreover and city being in full view all the time. The identification of "the hill of offense" with Solomon's "mount of corruption" (1 Kings 11:7; 2 Kings 23:13) is a late Tradition of the 13th century
High Place, Sanctuary - In the wider sense of ‘sanctuary,’ as above defined, any arbitrarily chosen spot may become a holy place, if Tradition associates it with a theophany, or visible manifestation of a Divine being. Of this the Hebrews in later times were well aware, as is shown by the endeavour on the part of the popular Tradition to claim their own patriarchs as the founders of the more famous sanctuaries
Genesis, Theology of - Other scholars, such as those who follow the Tradition criticism of Martin Noth, believe that Genesis is the result of legends and Traditions that grew and underwent transformation throughout the centuries of Israel's history. These scholars, too, tend to find diverse messages in the various streams of Tradition they claim to uncover and rarely concern themselves with the book as a whole. ) and is the result of competing Traditions or schools either have great difficulty describing a theology of Genesis or simply do not consider the concept meaningful. Wolff, The Vitality of Old Testament Traditions ; B
Infancy - The character of the narratives as a whole, and especially as regards such elements as these, saggests that we have thus conveyed to us ‘the Traditional Jewish-Christian views of Jesus,’ and argues a special Jewish-Christian (Palestinian) source (see Moffatt, Historical NT, p. 214), in correction of later exaggerations (perhaps helped by the vivid language of Matthew 2:18); but this does not destroy the pathetic element in such an association with the infancy of our Lord in Christian Tradition. Why may not canonical and apocryphal accounts have alike originated in a common early Tradition, though they have flowed so far apart? It is well to remember that those who promulgated and those who received most of the Apocryphal Gospels sincerely believed themselves to be Christians
Jonah - "Jonah sought the honour of the son (Israel), and sought not the honour of the Father" (God) (Kimchi, from rabbinical Tradition). The so-called "tomb of Jonah," Nebbi Junus (prophet Jonah), took its name probably from its being the site of a Christian church named after him, Jerome preserves the older Tradition of the tomb being in his native village of Gath Hepher
Mount of Olives - a very ancient highway to Jericho, after traversing a deep bay* Passion Week - ’s tabulation of the interval under consideration, and notably the passage Mark 11:11-12, is due to the redactor, and that the latter was imbued with the Johannine Tradition. The design of the present article does not carry us beyond the advocacy and proof of the thesis: As originally the Synoptic Tradition neither contained a complete diary of our Lord’s last visit to Jerusalem, nor implied that His stay covered exactly one week, it is in the last resort to Jn
Habakkuk - Tradition makes him a priest of the tribe of Levi. A Prayer of Habakkuk (Habakkuk 3:1-19 )...
Of these three parts, only one, the woes (Habakkuk 2:6-20 ) fits the Traditional pattern of the prophets
Reuben - ...
The remarkable thing about Reuben is that he was of so little importance in the history of Israel, and yet in all the Traditions he is represented as the firstborn. This is not in harmony with the Tradition which makes Reuben’s offence one against Israel
Sanhedrin - According to Rabbinical Tradition, the Sanhedrin was originally created by Moses in obedience to Divine command (cf
Loose - Tradition and fear hinder their making any progress. ...
John 11:44 (c) It is sometimes the case, and quite often it is true, that a man will find the Saviour, be really born again, and yet carry with him in his new life some of the old ways, habits, Traditions and customs which hinder him from living a happy, free, Christian life
Blood - Jewish Tradition adds that posts inscribed "Refuge," "Refuge," were to be set up at the cross roads
Lord's Day - Our Lord found the original institution almost hidden beneath a mass of Traditional regulations. This He did by showing that their Tradition told how David broke the letter of its regulation and yet was guiltless ( Luke 6:3 ); how charity and common sense led men to break their own rules ( Luke 13:15 ); how the Sabbath was granted to man as a blessing and not laid on him as a burden ( Mark 2:27 ); and how He as Son of Man, fulfilling ideal manhood, was its Lord ( Mark 2:28 ); but while our Lord thus purified the Sabbath, there is no proof that He abolished it. Thus was avoided the danger of pouring the new wine of Christian truth and liberty into the old bottles of Jewish Traditional observances
Travel (2) - In Luke 2:44 it probably meant not more than 6 miles, for these festal caravans, with their crowds, moved at a leisurely pace; and Tradition has it that the halting-place was Beeroth, which is 6 miles north of Jerusalem
Lamb, Lamb of God - This became a very significant holy day in Jewish Tradition and is prominent throughout the Old Testament
Mary - Ἰάκωβον for Δευείν in Mark 2:14; (b) the Tradition that James, like Matthew, had been a tax-gatherer (Chrysost
Son of Man - Not only is it evidence that the gospel Tradition was, in the main, correct as to its use by Jesus of Himself, but it shows how early the consciousness of the Church awoke to the claims which the designation involves
Aaron - ]'>[3] , the process by which the Tradition grew up that Moses delegated his priesthood to Aaron is not known
Celsus, Polemical Adversary of Christianity - To him Christianity is an "exitiabilis superstitio"; he gives credence to every story against it on which he can lay his hands; he dwells with coarse jocularity on the Jewish Tradition of Panthera and the Virgin Mary (i
David, Welsh Saint - The locality of this synod, which holds a marked place in Welsh ecclesiastical Traditions, was on the banks of the Brefi, a tributary of the Teifi; Llanddewi Brefi it was afterwards called, from the dedication of its church to St. The Tradition of a mission of the British church to Ireland to restore the faith there, under the auspices of David, Gildas, and Cadoc (Haddan and Stubbs, Councils , i
Nazareth - The "Mountain of the Precipitation" is at least two miles off; so that, according to this authentic Tradition, the Jews must have led our Lord a marvellous way
Philosophy - But popular, and even successful, as this attempt may have been, we may say with truth, that the scheme which flattered the vanity of human wisdom, and which strove to conciliate all opinions, has died away, and is forgotten; while the Gospel, the unpresuming, the uncompromising doctrine of the Gospel, aided by no human wisdom, and addressing itself not merely to the head, but to the heart, has triumphed over all systems and all philosophers; and still leads its followers to that true knowledge which some have endeavoured to teach ‘after the Tradition of men, after the rudiments of the world, and not after Christ
James - It has, indeed, been the uniform Tradition of the church, that this epistle was written by James the Just; but it was not universally admitted till after the fourth century, that James the Just was the same person as James the less, one of the twelve Apostles; that point being ascertained, the canonical authority of this epistle was no longer doubted
Shechem - " ...
"The spot is so distinctly marked by the evangelist, and so little liable to uncertainty, from the circumstance of the well itself and the features of the country, that, if no Tradition existed for its identity, the site of it could hardly be mistaken
pe'Ter - The name of Peter as founder or joint founder is not associated with any local church save the churches of Corinth, Antioch or Rome, by early ecclesiastical Tradition
Prayer - (Nehemiah 9:5-38 ) It appears from the question of the disciples in (Luke 11:1 ) and from Jewish Tradition, that the chief teachers of the day gave special forms of prayer to their disciples as the badge of their discipleship and the best fruits of their learning
Mary - Ἰάκωβον for Δευείν in Mark 2:14; (b) the Tradition that James, like Matthew, had been a tax-gatherer (Chrysost
Nicodemus - Some writers, who regard the Fourth Gospel as un-historical, suggest that our Nicodemus is simply a typical character, constructed by the Evangelist from the Traditions of ben Gorion, with the aid of the Synoptic references to Joseph of Arimathaea. ...
Christian Tradition records many legends of Nicodemus, and his name is associated with one of the Apocryphal Gospels; but nothing further is recorded that has any historical value
Son of Man - Not only is it evidence that the gospel Tradition was, in the main, correct as to its use by Jesus of Himself, but it shows how early the consciousness of the Church awoke to the claims which the designation involves
Government - Sometimes these city-states cooperated socially, but more frequently tried to subjugate each other, and it was this threat of invasion that established the Tradition of the king (lugal ) as leader of the city's armed forces. ...
The Hebrews of Abraham's day were mostly semisedentary, living in constructed dwellings during the winter and in spring setting out with their flocks to find new pasture, a Tradition they followed for some centuries (see Genesis 37:13-17 ). At a later period in the monarchy it became the Tradition to appoint special court officials to serve as ambassadors (cf
Peter - Son of Jonas (Matthew 16:17; John 1:43; John 21:16); Tradition makes Johanna his mother's name. Tradition makes him old at the time of his death. The whole Tradition of Peter and Paul's association in death is probably due to their connection in life as the main founders of the Christian church
Priests And Levites - At some of the larger sanctuaries there may have been several priests, as, according to an early Tradition, there were at Nob ( 1 Samuel 21:1-15 ). Though too great a reliance should not be placed on the editorial note in Jeremiah 1:1 , it is quite possible that several of the priests of Jerusalem may have lived together at Anathoth, which was only 2 1 / 2 miles from Jerusalem, and the home of Abiathar ( 1 Kings 2:26 ), and so given rise to the Tradition that it was a priestly city. It depends upon a later Tradition that the Tabernacle was set up in Shiloh ( Joshua 18:1-28 ; Joshua 19:51 [P Jerusalem (2) - 1) mentions that in his day it was called the Citadel of David, and this Tradition survives in the name the ‘Tower of David,’ given to the fortress at the Jaffa Gate. This is not the place to discuss the position of Zion, but it is now fairly generally admitted that the Tradition which placed the Citadel of David and Zion on this Western spur was wrong, and that these sites lay on the Eastern hill south of the Temple. Josephus is more likely to be wrong in stating that the hill had once been higher than the Temple and was separated from it by a deep valley—a statement which depended on Tradition—than in describing the hill as lower in his time and the valley as filled up—facts which he must have seen with his own eyes. This spring is that known to the Christians as ‘Ain Sitti Miriam—the spring of the Lady Mary—or the Virgin’s Fountain (from a Tradition that the Virgin washed the clothes of the infant Jesus there), to the Moslem fellahin as ‘Ain umm ed-deraj—‘the spring of the mother of the steps,’ and to the eastern Jews as ‘Aaron’s (or “the priests”) bath
Authority of Christ - ’ The scribes said nothing of themselves: they appealed in every utterance to Tradition (παράδοσις); the message they delivered was not self-authenticating; it had not the moral weight of the speaker’s personality behind it; it was a deduction or application of some legal maxim connected with a respectable name. He appealed to no Tradition, sheltered Himself behind no venerable name, claimed no official status; but those who heard Him could not escape the consciousness that His word was with authority (Luke 4:32). There was a succession of prophets in Israel, but not a prophetic Tradition. ); and if the form of the words in the first of these passages has been modified in Tradition in order to bring out their bearing for those for whom the Evangelist wrote, no one doubts that their substance goes back to Jesus
Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyons - of Papias's Λογίων κυριακῶν ἐξηγήσεις Irenaeus cites the saying Traditionally attributed to our Lord on the alleged testimony of St. The one foundation of the faith is the gospel transmitted first by oral Tradition and subsequently committed to writing. The Gnostics allow neither the refutation of their doctrines out of Scripture nor disproof from Tradition. Irenaeus meets them by stating the characteristics of genuine apostolic Tradition as ensuring the right interpretation of Holy Scripture. The chief media and transmitters of this Tradition are the apostolic churches and their episcopal succession from the apostles themselves ( Haer
Parousia - Whatever may be the opinion as to the literary Tradition at work in the speeches of Acts, and the accuracy with which the words of the various speakers have been reported, there can be no doubt that they are a faithful representation of the kind of preaching that marked the early stages of the growth of the Church. Then the details are apparently supplied from the primitive oral Tradition of our Lord’s teaching as known to St. (For the interpretation of ἐν λόγῳ κυρίου as referring to the oral Tradition rather than to a special revelation cf. Paul had not realized the incompatibility of the new outline given in 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18 with the older Traditional view represented by 2 Thessalonians 1. Christ’s appearance brings cessation of persecution (ἄνεσιν) for the persecuted saints, and tribulation for the persecutors-the Traditional view of current Jewish apocalyptic (cf. Paul has drawn his account of the Parousia here from the older Traditional view, unconscious of the inconsistency with his new view in 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18, or that the apocalyptic parts of 2 Thess
Nestorian Church - Tradition identified the former with either the disciple of Christ—a statement hard to reconcile with the recorded fact that he was still able to travel in the year 100—or with one of "the Seventy. There seems no reason to doubt the historic character of both these teachers; and later Tradition added that St. The strange movement was stamped out in blood, but it left indirect effects on the church, and Bar-soma also bequeathed them a bad Tradition of quarrelsomeness
Wilderness of the Wanderings - ...
In the district at the head of wady Gharundel and beyond Ain Howharah are found nawamis, which Tradition makes into houses built by Israelites to shield from the mosquitoes (compare the fiery flying serpents): circular, ten feet diameter, of unhewn stone, covered with a dome shaped roof, the top closed by a stone slab, and the sides weighted to prevent their springing out, the entrance door only two feet high, the hearth marked by charred wood and bones. Arab Tradition makes these remains "the relics of a large hajj caravan, who on their way to Ain Hudherah lost their way in the desert Tih and never were heard of again
Hebrews, Epistle to - Whether, however, this conclusion was based on sound Traditional evidence or was merely arrived at from the internal character of the writing itself, must be left to research or conjecture; for we must not suppose that the words ‘to Hebrews’ form any part of the original document. The Churches of North Africa and Alexandria, on the contrary, have their respective positive Traditions on this question. Origen, who had his own doubts as to the reliability of the local Tradition, nevertheless upheld St. Luke and Clement, following, no doubt, some of the statements of Origen as to Traditions current in his day (see Eusebius, HE vi. The chief rival claimants to this honour are three: Palestine , which has the most ancient Tradition in its favour, and which is countenanced by the superscription; Alexandria ; and Rome , where the Epistle first seems to have been known and recognized
Scribes - The School of Hillel was distinguished for its mildness in the interpretation of the Law, and that of Shammai for its strictness, corresponding to the Traditional characters of the respective founders; but the points of difference between them concerned only the trivial minutiae, and never touched the weightier matters of the Law. —The functions of the Scribes are well summed up in the Traditional saying ascribed to the ‘Men of the Great Synagogue. The difficulty of doing so was greatly increased by the fact that this mass of accumulated detail was not committed to writing, but was propagated entirely by oral Tradition. In order that people should obey the Law, it was necessary that they should know it; and an elaborate system of rules such as was contained in the Jewish Tradition could be learned only with the assistance of a teacher. None of these Traditional rules having been written down, the teaching was of necessity entirely oral, and round the more famous of the Scribes there gathered large numbers of young men, eager for instruction as to the proper conduct of life
Jews, Judaism - ...
Jewish Tradition holds that the shekinah , the Spirit of Divine Inspiration, departed Israel after Ezra, who was himself ranked second to Moses. These circumstances led to the ongoing interpretive expansion of the Traditions into the oral law. The Pharisees were strictly orthodox, holding to the authority of both the Torah and the oral Tradition, and believing in resurrection and immortality. Only the Blessing of Jacob hints at not only the dynasty of David but the enigmatic "Shiloh, " which has Traditionally been interpreted as a prophetic reference to Christ (Genesis 49:10 )
Temple - The question must surely be asked: Why? Why, after a stern critique by the prophets, an outmaneuvering in the wisdom Tradition, and its abandonment by God and destruction, would the people rebuild this structure?...
The most obvious and strongest answer is that the Lord commands its construction (Ezra 1:2 ). Mason, Preaching the Tradition ; C
Crucifixion - Tradition has it that He fell. ’§§ Apostle - The Apostles having continued at Jerusalem twelve years after the ascension of Christ, as Tradition reports, according to his command, determined to disperse themselves in different parts of the world. Eusebius gives the following account: "Thomas, as we learn by Tradition, had Parthia for his lot; Andrew, Scythia; John, Asia, who having lived there a long time, died at Ephesus
Devil - Judges 1:9 preserves the Tradition of a personal encounter with Michael; and St. And the Tradition of a revolt and fall of angels has this in its favour, that it fits in with the belief in devils and the devil, and provides a partially intelligible account of circumstances under which such a belief might take shape
Jews - 135AD, they settled in Sepphowis, in Galilee, where the Mishna, a collection of the oral Traditions about the Law, was published. The following religious sects exist today: ...
Orthodox Jews, who believe in the inspiration of Scripture and who cling to the prescriptions of the Mishna and Talmud
Conservative Jews, who also hold the inspiration of Scripture, but who have adapted the prescriptions of Tradition to modern Conditions
Liberal or Reformed Jews, who have very lax views about the inspiration of Scripture, who try to make their beliefs conform to modern rationalistic theories, and who have abandoned many of the ancient customs and practises
Zionism is a movement to make Palestine the national home of the Jews and the chief center of Jewish culture
Teach, Teacher - " In the New Testament Greek words more frequently used are didasko [3], "to teach, " katecheo [4], "to instruct systematically, " matheteuo [5], "to train disciples, " paideuo [6], "to train, instruct, " noutheteo [7], "to correct, counsel, " parangello [5]6, "to command, order, " and paradido [9], "to hand down Tradition
Phoenice - Tradition says Cadmus ("the Eastern" or "of ancient time") introduced into Greece the 16 earliest Greek letters
Timothy - His grandmother’s name was Lois, and from her he inherited the finest Traditions of Hebrew piety (Acts 16:3, 2 Timothy 1:5; 2 Timothy 3:14-15). In ecclesiastical Tradition. These Traditions are the weaving of the legendary spirit
Beatitudes - Another view suggests that each independently took over oral Tradition, as he knew it directly (Matthew) or obtained it from others (Luke)
Tomb - Of the three first-named tombs the most southern is known as that of Zechariah a popular name which there is not even a shadow of Tradition to justify
Library - ...
Archives and Libraries in the Old Testament Era Abraham came from Mesopotamia, which had a well-developed Tradition of palace and temple archives/libraries
Capital Punishment - All Scripture should be filtered through the perspective of the apostolic Tradition and especially through the mind of Jesus Christ who himself was a victim of capital punishment on the cross
Peter, First, Theology of - Peter's authorship is also supported by the early use of the letter, the consistent affirmation in Christian Tradition that he was its author, and its early acceptance in the developing canon. Her members have been marginalized by their conversion and departure from the ignorance and evils of the Traditions of their former culture, and have thereby become aliens and sojourners in the world (1:1; 2:11)
Love - When asked to define "neighbor, " however, Jesus cited the parable of the good Samaritana person who knowingly crossed Traditional boundaries to help a wounded Jew (Luke 10:29-37 ). Segovia, Love Relationships in the Johannine Tradition ; G
Man of Sin - Daniel 11:36) and influenced by the Antichrist Tradition which had been developing in Judaism ever since the days of Antiochus Epiphanes (see article Antichrist, 1)
Abomination of Desolation - In support of this view it is urged (a) that the ‘little Apocalypse’ (2 Thessalonians 2:1-12, a passage closely resembling this) clearly contemplates a Jewish apostasy; (b) that the word used in Daniel (שׁקּוּץ = βδέλυγμα) is properly used not of idolatry in the abstract, but of idolatry or false worship adopted by Jews (1 Kings 11:5, 2 Kings 23:13, Ezekiel 5:11); (c) that there was among the Jews a Tradition to the effect that Jerusalem would be destroyed if their own hands should pollute the Temple of God (ἐὰν χεῖρες οἰκεῖαι προμιάνωσι τὸ τοῦ θεοῦ τέμενος, Josephus BJ iv vi
Beauty - Tradition, gathering its data from the apocryphal ‘Letter of Lentulus,’ the portrait which Jesus is said to have sent to king Abgar of Edessa, the story of Veronica’s veil, the pictures and eikons of the early and mediaeval Church, and accumulated literary Traditions, has given to Art its typical presentation of Christ’s countenance
Pilate - One Tradition makes Pilate banished to Vienne on the Rhone, where is a pyramid 52 ft
Apocalyptic - The reason for this form is still uncertain; it obviously includes the desire for a book to gain a hearing, but it also expresses the conviction that the revelations have come down from ancient times, somewhat as the Pharisees believed that their Tradition went back to Moses
Job, Book of - Bildad is the voice of Tradition and the authority of antiquity
Pantaenus, of Alexandria - )—that his teachers "had received the true Tradition of the blessed doctrine straight from the holy apostles Peter, James, John, and Paul
Petrus, Saint, Archbaptist of Alexandria - " "For," he adds, "we keep the Lord's day as a day of gladness, because on it He rose again; and on it, according to Tradition, we do not even kneel
Stephanus i., Bishop of Rome - ...
The arguments of Stephen were mainly these: "We have immemorial custom on our side, especially the Tradition of St
Boyhood - ...
How far was elementary education universal and compulsory? The Jewish Tradition asserts that it was both (cf. Schürer concludes that schools were general in the time of Christ; and thinks that the Tradition is by no means incredible that Joshua, the son of Gamaliel (1st cent. The only instance which was not entirely founded on conjecture or Tradition is that of Josiah’s age when he carried out his reform, 2 Chronicles 34:3 (not in 2 Kings 22:3)
Calendar, the Christian - Monday and Thursday were chosen, or were afterwards accounted for, because there was a Tradition that Moses went up into the Mount on the latter day and came down on the former. 3, in Duchesne’s Origines, Appendix) the observance of Wednesdays and Fridays in Lent is spoken of: ‘Diebus vero quadragesimarum … quarta feria ad nona in Syon [19], yet the Christians of Alexandria and Rome, on account of some ancient Tradition, had ceased to do this. This ‘ancient Tradition’ may probably go hack before the 4th century
Solomon - about 50 years later than the Traditional chronology. Jeremiah 1:6 ) does not require the Tradition that Solomon was only twelve at his accession (Josephus); the probabilities point to his being about twenty. Later Tradition added much; the solving of ‘riddles’ held a large place in the wisdom of the East, and we hear of the ‘hard questions’ of the queen of Sheba ( Psalms 10:1 ), and of a contest between Solomon and Hiram (Jos
Rome, Romans - Tradition has it that one of the kings, named Servius Tullius, built a wall to enclose the now largely extended city. The kernel of the race was Latin, but there was an early intermixture with Sabines and Etruscans, the latter, according to Tradition, emigrants from Lydia, in Asia Minor. The first plebeian consul was elected in 367, about a century and a half after the Traditional date of the establishment of the Republic, and by the end of the fourth century b
Winter - The Wisdom utterances represent a special type of Gospel Tradition. Relation of this to narrative-elements of Synoptic Tradition
Isaiah, Book of - 1 39 owing to the triumph of an Isaianic theory over the Jeremianic theory or Tradition of the origin of these chapters (2 Chronicles 36:22 f. Unfortunately, we have not for the teaching of Isaiah, as for that of Jesus, a triple Tradition
Entry Into Jerusalem - It was the idea in the prophets, chiefly in Daniel 7:13-14; Daniel 7:17, of a kingdom, holy, supernatural, universal and eternal, that Jesus sought to recover from the lumber-room of Tradition; and in this He was assisted by the gradual revival of more spiritual Messianic hopes among thoughtful and devout Jews like Simeon and Anna (cf. It was, however, the Tradition that the Messiah should come riding on an ass (Sepp, § vi
Man (2) - The discourses recorded in John 14-16 are doubtless in some measure ideal; but they are true to the main lines of Christian Tradition. It was the Pharisee who, with all his faults, had remained true in some measure to his national Tradition; and it was in him that the teaching of Jesus found its strongest opponent
Beda, Historian - The place of his birth is uncertain, for whilst Tradition and local history fix it at Jarrow, there is no positive evidence. Daniel, the patron of Boniface, supplied the West Saxon; the monks of Lastingham, the depositories of the Traditions of Cedd and Chad, reported how Mercia was converted; Esi wrote from East Anglia, and Cynibert from Lindsey. The story of his epitaph and the Tradition of the bestowal of the title of Venerable is too well known and too apocryphal to be repeated here
Word - Certainly, there is not the least evidence in his writings, or in his Traditional history, that he ever acquainted himself with Philo or with Plato; and none therefore, that he borrowed the term from them, or used it in any sense approaching to or suggested by these refinements:—in the writings of St. Hill, "to have been the Tradition of the Christian church, that St. This Tradition is a key to a great part of his Gospel
Pentateuch - Late in the Old Testament period, the Tradition arose which seemingly refers to the Pentateuch as the “Book of Moses” (2 Chronicles 35:12 ). This Tradition was carried on by Jews and Christians until after A
Pilate - The Character of the incident stamps it as a reliable Tradition. ...
Tradition has it that Pilate fell on evil days after the death of Tiberius, and ultimately committed suicide (Euseb
Alexander, of Alexandria - He is also said by Tradition to have never read the Gospels in a sitting posture, and to have never eaten on fast days while the sun was in the sky (Bolland
Sheba - This is due to Jewish influence, and it is interesting to observe that the Jews now living in Yemen have a Tradition that their ancestors left Palestine before the Christian era
Timothy, the Second Epistle to - The access however of Onesiphorus, Linus, Pudens, and Claudia to him proves he was not in the Mamertine or Tullianum prison, with Peter, as Tradition represents; but under military custody, of a severer kind than at his first imprisonment (2 Timothy 1:16-18; 2 Timothy 2:9; 2 Timothy 4:6-8; 2 Timothy 4:16-17)
Ephesians, Epistle to - On the other hand, early Tradition, as shown in the title, associated the Epistle with Ephesus, and, except Marcion, no early writer associated it with any other Church
Worship - One polar position is represented by a long Tradition of puritanical sabbath observance on Sunday, with no works and a minimum of other activities apart from worship
Remember, Remembrance - Childs, Memory and Tradition in Israel ; J
Learning - Their point of union was their knowledge of the Law, and Scriptures, and Traditions. And a succession of able scribes arose who expounded the sacred books, cherished and enlarged Tradition, determined the details of religious observance, and wrote the Law in its exclusiveness on the minds of the people. In these the Scriptures formed a literary and theological basis, the Law, Traditions, and national history were expounded, and judgment was given on the problems and practical questions of the time
Red Heifer - " (Hebrews 10:14)...
The Jews have a Tradition, that this one heifer, with the ashes of the water of purification, lasted for near a thousand years, until the time of the captivity
Satan - ) The Zendavesta has an account of the temptation in Eden nearest that of Genesis, doubtless derived from the primitive Tradition
Communion - Bread and wine in relation to body and blood were given by Tradition, but, as far as performing a sacramental communion is concerned, they represent only the common meal, which brings men into communion with the Lord, who through His death entered upon a heavenly existence
Millennium - "a thousand years;" generally employed to denote the thousand years, during which, according to an ancient Tradition in the church, grounded on some doubtful texts in the Apocalypse and other scriptures, our blessed Saviour shall reign with the faithful upon earth after the first resurrection, before the final completion of beatitude
Aquila And Priscilla - Paul’s eyes, people of importance in the early Church, though ecclesiastical Tradition has little to say about them
Barnabas - ...
Tradition has been busy with the name of Barnabas, but has preserved little that is deserving of trust
Feeding the Multitudes - The Tradition was not open to question in the mind of any one of the Evangelists
Firstborn - Hannah’s vow, 1 Samuel 1:11),§ Dead Sea - It is likewise called by Josephus, and by the Greek and Latin writers generally, Lacus Asphaltites, from the bitumen found in it and the Dead Sea, its more frequent modern appellation, from a Tradition, commonly though erroneously received, that no living creature could exist in its saline and sulphureous waters
John, Gospel of - Both early Tradition and evidence from the Bible itself indicate that ‘the disciple whom Jesus loved’ was John the son of Zebedee, and that this John was the author of John’s Gospel (John 21:20; John 21:24)
New Testament - Yet even in the next generation there lingered a preference for Traditional reminiscences, cf. (β) Apostolic records and Traditions: Justin M. … Tradition was definitely cast aside as a new source of information
Poverty of Spirit - The foreign influences which began to operate in the period succeeding the Exile had chiefly affected the richer classes, while the poor still clung to the ancient Traditions. The wealthier classes, in their scrupulous obedience to the Law, had become enslaved to custom and Tradition
Socialism - There had indeed always existed a better Tradition: the Quakers* Clement of Rome, Epistle of - 64), in the course of which, according to an ancient Tradition, St. Yet, in enforcing his practical lesson, the writer alludes to the main articles of the faith as he had learned it, and these incidental allusions are historically the more valuable, because they represent not the belief of one man but the Tradition of a community. ...
The Tradition, which lies behind the Epistle, is above all things catholic, in its recognition of the many-sidedness of Christian truth
Dates (2) - The difficulties in the way of forming an exact time-table of the dates in the Gospels are due (1) to the indifference of the early Christians, as citizens of the heavenly city, to the great events that were taking place in the world around them; (2) to their lack of means of ascertaining these events, and their obliviousness of the important bearing they might have on the evidences of the faith; (3) to the fact that, the early Christian Traditions being recorded in the interest of religion and not of history, the writers confined their attention to a few events, which were arranged as much according to subject-matter as to time sequence. Two Jewish Traditions, one that the star of the Messiah should be seen two years before His birth, and the other that the conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter in Pisces portended something of importance for the Jewish nation, might be mentioned. ’...
Patristic Tradition. That variant and the Traditional site of our Lord’s baptism, Makhadet Hojla, are strongly against Col. Conder’s suggestion, while Tradition connects our Lord’s temptation with the district of Quarantania, named from His 40 days’ fast; and something must be allowed for Tradition in such matters
Jerusalem - These hills are Traditionally named Acra, Bezetha, Zion , and Ophel , in the N. Another (the ‘low-level aqueduct’) is Traditionally ascribed to Solomon: it brings water from reservoirs beyond Bethlehem; and a third (the ‘high-level aqueduct’) is of Roman date. ’...
Where was the Jerusalem of ‘Abd-khiba situated? This question, which is bound up with the authenticity or otherwise of the Traditional Zion , and affects such important topographical and archæological questions as the site of David’s tomb, is one of the most hotly contested of all the many problems of the kind which have to be considered by students of Jerusalem. At the upper part of the hill, on this theory, we cannot doubt that the high place of the subjects of ‘Abd-khiba would be situated; and the Tradition of the sanctity of this section of the city has lasted unchanged through all the varying occupations of the city Hebrew, Jewish, Byzantine, Arab, Crusader, and modern Mohammedan. The authenticity of the Traditional site falls at once, if it lie inside the north wall of Jerusalem as it was in Christ’s time, for Christ suffered and was buried without the walls. A priori it does not seem probable that the Traditional site of the Holy Sepulchre should have been without the walls, for it assumes that these made a deep re-entrant angle for which the nature of the ground offers no justification, and which would be singularly foolish strategically. Indeed, Helena was even worse off than the hypothetical investigator, for the population, and presumably the Tradition, have been continuous in Stratford-on-Avon, which certainly was not the case with Jerusalem from a. This, however, could not last under the fanatical Fatimites, or the Seljuks who succeeded them; and the sufferings of the Christians led to that extraordinary series of piratical invasions, commonly called the Crusades, by which Palestine was harried for about a hundred years, and the undying Tradition of which will retard indefinitely the final triumph of Christianity over the Arab race
Jesus Christ - Whether giving effect to their own convictions, or reproducing changes which had been made by the mind of the Church on the oral Tradition, writers coloured and altered to some extent the sayings of our Lord. There is every reason to believe the ecclesiastical Traditions that the contents of original Mt. It is true that there is a powerful body of Patristic testimony in support of the Tradition that the Fourth Gospel was composed by the Apostle Johnin Ephesus in his old age about a. As the normal condition of things in the Christian Church has been similar, it cannot in itself be judged to be symptomatic of anything worse than a silver age that the exponents of the Scriptures and of the Tradition were now the chief religious guides of the people (see Scribes). 23), the Traditional date fixed by Dionysius Exiguus would be approximately correct
Valentinus, Founder of a Gnostic Sect - —According to the Tradition of the Valentinian school witnessed to by Clemens Alexandrinus (Strom. The Gnostics were fond of claiming for their secret doctrines apostolic Tradition and tracing them back to disciples of the apostles. ...
Concerning the fatherland of Valentinus himself Epiphanius is the first to give accurate information, which, however, he derived simply, it appears, from oral Tradition (Epiph
Colossians, Theology of - Although some believe it was written by a student of Paul, it has Traditionally been associated with Paul and his imprisonment at Rome, dating from around a. This passage has roots in the wisdom Tradition of Judaism and its great confessions of the role of God in the creation (cf. That is why Paul calls it a philosophy that comes from human Tradition and the world, a philosophy that is really deceitful (2:8)
Jeremiah, Theology of - , judgment oracles, laments), the Traditions on which it draws (e. The Tradition of God's anger against evil reaches far back (cf. The Tradition of God's pain over a people's sin reaches back to the flood, if not earlier (Genesis 6:6 )
Helena, Saint, Mother of Constantine the Great - Tradition attributes this dark act to Fausta; and Helena's bitter complaints about her grandson's death are said to have irritated Constantine to execute his wife by way of retribution (Vict. It was believed, however, in the West that she was buried at Rome, and there is a Tradition that in 480 her body was stolen thence by a monk Theogisus and brought to Hautvilliers in the diocese of Rheims. Eusebius's silence would imply that she died in Palestine; but if the Traditions of her bounty to the people and church of Cyprus on her way home are of any value, it must have been somewhere nearer Rome or Constantinople. These Traditions may be seen in M. 771), we have a description of the city, and many Traditional sites of events both in O
Alpha And Omega (2) - ), ‘Plato, when mystically expressing the attributes of God’s eternity, said, “God is, as the old Tradition runs, the end and the middle of all things”; plainly alluding to the Law of Moses. ’ The Tradition was indeed ‘old’ in Plato’s day, but there are many more probable sources than Exodus 3:14 for Plato
Sabbath - The most reasonable conclusion is that the weekly Sabbath is everywhere presupposed in the OT, and that, if it be connected historically with Babylonian institutions, the development lies behind the range of Israelite Tradition, and in all probability was a feature of Canaanitish civilization when the Hebrews settled in the country
Exodus - ...
It is worthy of notice that there are unmistakable evidences that the Egyptians had a Tradition of a great exodus from their country, which could be none other than the exodus of the Hebrews
Biblical Criticism - The defenders of the Bible are often called the conservative or Traditional critics, while the others are called the radical, negative, or rationalistic critics; sometimes, though inaccurately, the radicals are called "higher critics. ...
HISTORY The history of biblical criticism consists chiefly of the attacks made on the Bible by radical critics and of the defense of the Traditional position by conservatives. They have forced most of the radicals to admit that the books were written by Christ's disciples in the comparatively short period assigned them by Tradition (before the end of 1century), and this admission excludes all theories built on the supposition of a gradual idealization of Christ
Exile - They had to send some priests back to the area to teach the people the religious Traditions of the God of the land (2 Kings 17:27-28 ). Jews loyal to the Davidic Tradition assassinated Gedaliah, the governor (2 Kings 25:25 ). , the date which Traditionally marks the end of the Babylonian Exile
Bereans - not founded upon revelation, or derived from it by Tradition, they give up the cause of Christianity at once to the infidels; who may justly argue, as Mr
Dalmanutha - For then this reading cannot well have had its origin in oral Tradition, but presupposes a written (Aramaic) document as the basis of our Second Gospel
Peter - ...
Peter had been brought up an orthodox Jew and did not immediately break his association with Traditional Jewish practices (Acts 3:1; Acts 5:12-17). More Traditionally minded Jews in the Jerusalem church criticized Peter for his broad-mindedness. When Jewish Traditionalists criticized him for ignoring Jewish food laws, he withdrew from the Gentiles. According to Tradition, Peter was crucified in Rome some time during the period AD 65-69
Chronology of the Old Testament - Now the interest that the writer had in this calculation was probably due to the theory which he had formed or which had come down to him by Tradition, that the length of time from the Creation to the coming of the Messiah would be 4000 years
Election - ...
Israel as the Object of God's Election The doctrine of election is rooted in the particularity of the Judeo-Christian Tradition, that is, the conviction that out of all the peoples on earth God has chosen to reveal Himself in a special, unique way to one particular people
Cherub (1) - ) The griffins of northern fable and the winged beasts of Assyria and Egypt seem a relic of primeval Tradition corrupted
Criticism - In place of the external evidence of testimony conjoined to mere Tradition, attention is now given more carefully to the internal evidence of literary and doctrinal characteristics
Samuel, Books of - ...
The Books of Samuel arose as a reflection upon the nature of human kingship in light of Israel's Tradition that Yahweh was their king
Number Systems And Number Symbolism - An apocryphal Tradition holds that seventy-two Jewish scholars, six from each of the twelve tribes, translated the Old Testament into Greek, to give us the version we call today the Septuagint
Pharisees - Although the phrase "Oral Law" is not used, it appears Josephus understood that the Pharisees affirmed a body of Traditional interpretations, applications, and expansions of the Old Testament law communicated orally. However, Mark 7:3-4 says that "The Pharisees do not eat unless they give their hands a ceremonial washing holding to the Tradition of the elders. And they observe many other Traditions, such as the washing of cups, pitchers and kettles. " Thus, we are also told of the Pharisees' concern for washing (ceremonial cleansing) and observance of "the Traditions of the elders, " a description of the Oral Law. Most of these Traditions, the Oral Law, dealt with matters of levitical purity. These studies provide a helpful corrective to Traditional views of intertestamental Judaism, including Pharisaism, as merely a blatant legalism. Neusner, Formative Judaism: Torah, Pharisees and Rabbis ; idem, The Rabbinic Traditions about the Pharisees before 70 ; E
Moses - ...
Moses is so strongly interwoven with the religious Tradition involving God's plan for human salvation through Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and ultimately the Davidic Messiah, and attested to as an authoritative figure for Hebrew culture even in the New Testament period, that he could not possibly have been an invention or a fictional character used as an object of religious or social propaganda
Luke (2) - Another Tradition has it that he died at Constantinople, and his sarcophagus, said to have been brought from there, is now pointed out in the Church of Santa Giustina, at Padua
Mark - Traditions. —Tradition has been busy with Mark’s name. These Traditions cannot be traced back further than a hundred years after the supposed events. One curious fact is preserved in some of the Western Traditions. for its good account of the Traditions concerning the Evangelist); Jülicher, art
Septuagint - Other forms of the Tradition are given by the Alexandrian writers Aristobulus and Philo, and by Josephus
Interpretation - A part of the early community ordinarily spoke Aramaic (Acts 6:1), but Greek writers naturally followed the Septuagint rendering, even when the original Tradition was in Aramaic or Hebrew
Flavianus (4) i, Bishop of Antioch - They are said by Theodoret to have revived the antiphonal chanting of the Psalms, which Tradition ascribed to Ignatius ( ib
Following - ]'>[2] adopted a Tradition that this man was Philip (τοῦ Κυρίου λέγοντος τῷ Φιλἰππῳ, ἄφες τοὺς νεκροὺς, κ
Dositheus (1), Leader of Jewish Sect - ) shew that this was according to Jewish Tradition the name of one of the priests who was sent (2Ki_17:27) to teach the manner of the God of the land and that the same name was borne by other Samaritans
Samaria - Buckingham mentions a current Tradition, that the avenue of columns formed a part of Herod's palace
Maximus Magnus, Christian Emperor in the West - Welsh Tradition has incorporated him into its genealogies of saints and royal heroes, under the name of Macsen Wledig, or Guledig, a title considered to be equivalent to imperator
Tabernacle - Unfortunately the crucial passage, Exodus 26:15-17 , contains several obscure technical terms, with regard to which, in the present writer’s opinion, the true exegetical Tradition has been lost. ), each 10 cubits in height by 1 1 / 2 in width, for the Traditional wooden beams of these dimensions, each, according to the usual theory, 1 cubit thick, equivalent to a weight of from 15 to 20 hundredweights!...
The open frames after being overlaid with gold according to our present but scarcely original text (1 Kings 7:29 ) are to be ‘reared up,’ side by side, along the south, west, and north sides of a rectangular enclosure measuring 30 cubits by 10 ( 1 Kings 3:1 ), the east side or front being left open. ]'>[2] for the Decalogue ( Exodus 25:16 ), which was written on ‘the tables of testimony’ ( Exodus 31:18 ), deposited, according to an early Tradition, within the ark
Canon of the Old Testament - The life depicted in the book of Genesis reveals a non-writing age, when religious experience and unwritten Tradition were the sole guides to duty. The exponents of the Traditional Law appear to have applied it with arbitrary freedom. 70 supplied the Incentive for recording in the Mishna the oral Tradition of the Pharisees, so in Babylon expatriation impelled the priestly families to write out their hereditary usages, thus forming the document known as the Priestly Code
James Epistle of - -Re-ascending the stream of Tradition from the point at which our present NT canon may be considered as definitely established in the Western Church (Third Council of Carthage, a. Take first the theory which, accepting the Traditional authorship,* Lord's Supper. (i.) - ...
(a)The common underlying Tradition. Professor Gardner is even more drastic in his treatment of the Gospel Tradition, eliminating all evidence except that of St
Old Testament - Origen in the Hexapla, and especially Jerome, instructed by Palestinian Jews in preparing the Vulgate, show a text identical with ours in even the Traditional unwritten vowel readings. The maqqeph embodies the Traditional authority for joining or separating words; words joined by it have only one accent. Tradition (first digested by the doctors in the fifth century), compiled in writing the thus accumulated Traditions and criticisms, and became a kind of "fence of the law. Their inserting the vowel marks in the text records for us the Traditional pronunciation. The very difficulties which are left unremoved, in explaining some passages consistently with the accents and the vowel points, show that both embody, not the Masoretes' private judgment, but the Traditions of previous generations. The Kabala ("reception," "received Tradition") attached symbolical meanings to the number of times a word or letter recurred, or to the number which letters represented
Solomon - Tradition makes Nathan the prophet his instructor, Jehiel was governor of the royal princes (1 Samuel 2:31-35). " The queen of Sheba's (Arabian Tradition calls her Βalkis ) visit illustrates the impression made by his fame, which led "all the earth to seek to hear his wisdom which God had put in his heart"; she "hearing of his fame concerning the name of Jehovah" (i
Fulfilment - ’s Tradition. Thus Luke’s Tradition here seems still less exact
Red Sea - " These names indicate that the passage was considerably below Suez, according to the Tradition of the natives. Yet Diodorus Siculus says the Troglodytes, the indigenous inhabitants of that very spot, had a Tradition from father to son, from their very earliest ages, that ‘once this division of the sea did happen there; and that, after leaving its bottom some time dry, the sea again came back, and covered it with great fury. 130, has preserved the following curious Egyptian Traditions:— "The Memphites relate, that Moses, being well acquainted with the country, watched the influx of the tide, and made the multitude pass through the dry bed of the sea
Sabbath - ...
Traces of the original appointment of the Sabbath; and of its observance prior to the giving forth of the law of Moses, have been found by the learned in the Tradition which universally prevailed of the sacredness of the number seven, and the fixing of the first period of time to the revolution of seven days. Lunar months and solar years are equally obvious to all rational creatures; so that the reason why time has been computed by days, months, and years, is readily given; but how the division of time into weeks of seven days, and this from the beginning, came to obtain universally among mankind, no man can account for, without having respect to some impressions on the minds of men from the constitution and law of nature, with the Tradition of a sabbatical rest from the foundation of the world
Satan - Our Lord, as is clearly apparent in the Synoptic Tradition, recognized the existence and power of a kingdom of evil, with organized demonic agencies under the control of a supreme personality, Satan or Beelzebub
Church - When the ruler of the synagogue became a Christian, he naturally was made bishop, as Tradition records that Crispus became at Corinth (Acts 18:8)
Nehemiah - Jewish Tradition says Ezra or Nehemiah was the author
Pentecost - ...
The modern Jews of the present hour, holding by Tradition the festival as chiefly referring to the giving of the law on mount Sinai, of which they are very tenacious, and not knowing that it is the ministration of condemnation, they celebrate this festival for two days with great attention
Appreciation (of Christ) - It is no blind-fold acceptance of Him, no mere echo of a Tradition, but a series of utterances of men personally convinced of the supreme value of Christ to the world
Feasts - Of these, Passover, Tabernacles, and Dedication are all specially mentioned in the Gospels, as well as the Sabbath, to which there are very many references, some merely incidental and some meant to show that it was our Lord’s purpose to free the observance of that day from the artificial rules that had grown up about it in Tradition
Diodorus, Presbyter of Antioch - They gathered the orthodox laity even by night around the tombs of the martyrs, to join in the antiphonal chanting of the Psalms, which, Theodoret tells us, was first instituted or revived by them, as a means of kindling religious zeal, after the model ascribed by Tradition to the martyred bishop of their church, the holy Ignatius (Socr
Essenes - They appear to have been an enthusiastic sect, never numerous, and but little known; directly opposite to the Pharisees with respect to their reliance upon Tradition, and their scrupulous regard to the ceremonial law, but pretending, like them, to superior sanctity of manners
Jeremiah - But his freedom and zeal are said to have cost him his life; for the Jews at Tahpanhes, according to Tradition, took such offence at him that they stoned him to death
Colossians - The Traditional date and place of writing is A. This passage and Philippians 2:6-11 are thought by the majority of scholars to be the most obvious examples of pre-Pauline Tradition in the letters of Paul. (3) The heresy apparently involved the legalistic observance of “traditions,” circumcision, and various dietary and festival laws (Colossians 2:8 ,Colossians 2:8,2:11 ,Colossians 2:11,2:16 ,Colossians 2:16,2:21 ; Colossians 3:11 ). While the passage does not clearly identify the heretics, it does clearly state that Christ (not angels, philosophies, rituals, Traditions, asceticism, nor anything else) is the Source of redemption. Elemental human Traditions must not lead away from faith in Christ (Colossians 2:6-10 )
Education - In the Traditions of his family and race some of which are still preserved in the older parts of OT he had a unique storehouse of the highest ideals of faith and conduct, and these after all are the things that matter. 70, we find a Tradition there is no valid reason for rejecting it as untrustworthy which illustrates the extent to which elementary education, at least, was fostered under the later Maccabean princes
Pilate - Tradition said that the vessels of the Tabernacle had been buried on Mt
Hebrews - , who maintained the worship of God and the Tradition of the true religion. Some of them are extremely attached to the Traditions of the rabbins, and to the multiplied observances enjoined in the Talmud
Joab - Tradition represented (Jerome, Quaest
Methodius - But no weight can fairly be attached to this correction of Sophronius; and it is more probable that a Methodius whose name Tradition had preserved as a martyr at Chalcis under Decius was wrongly identified with the better-known Lycian bishop
John, Gospel of (ii. Contents) - This design of spiritualizing the Tradition is kept in view throughout; but it is carried out so subtly and quietly that it has often been overlooked. Many facts to which our Evangelist attaches great importance are completely strange to the Synoptic Tradition. Such features of the Christian Tradition as the Birth at Bethlehem and the Ascension must have been well known by any well-instructed Christian at the beginning of the 2nd cent. ...
This strangely perverse judgment has evoked protests from several critics who understand the Gospel better than Harnack, among others from Réville, who has certainly no bias in favour of Traditional views
Criticism - Semler has been recently called ‘the father of criticism’; and if that title is not always appropriate to him, we may, at all events, speak of his epoch-making influence, and of the break which he caused between the Traditional views of inspiration and the free examination of the authority and origin of each sacred book. † Belief (2) - ...
Thus the whirligig of time brings about its revenges, and the uniform Tradition of history as to the influence of great personalities on the race is being justified by modern Psychology. In this Tradition every movement of advance was ascribed to great men. Advances in the practical control of nature, the making of tools, the use of fire, the sowing of grain, and so on, are in the Tradition of the race ascribed to individual men
Clemens Romanus of Rome - According to common Tradition, one of the first, if not the first, bp. First, because it is distinctly the more ancient; secondly, because if the earlier Tradition had not placed the undistinguished name Cletus before the well-known Clement, no later writer would have reversed its order; thirdly, because of the testimony of the liturgy. If, therefore, Clement was ordained by Peter, and if we retain the order of Irenaeus, Clement had an episcopate of about 30 years, a length far greater than any Tradition suggests. Yet if so the Traditions of the Roman church must have been singularly defective
Temple (2) - There was one gate on the east, which has been walled up; this was called the ‘Golden Gate,’ which Tradition identifies with the ‘Beautiful Gate’ mentioned in Acts 3:2. Acts 3:11; Acts 5:12); it belonged to an earlier building which Tradition ascribed to Solomon
Transfiguration (2) - ’ Earlier Tradition almost‡ Jesus Christ, Name And Titles of - The King James and other translations, however, follow a manuscript Tradition that calls him "Son" here, not God. 50s Paul could already draw on an older Tradition hailing Jesus as Lord: "Come, O Lord!" (1 Corinthians 16:22 ) is not Greek (the language of Paul's Corinthian readers) but the Aramaic maranatha (one of the languages of Jesus' Palestinian surroundings)
Gospels - " Internal evidence favours this Tradition. The Tradition of its being written in Rome arose probably from its Roman character; from Caesarea it would soon pass to Rome through Romans sailing from Caesarea there
Genealogies of Jesus Christ - He supposed that Matthan, a descendant of Solomon, married a woman named, according to Tradition, Estha, by whom he had a son Jacob. Eusebius does indeed speak of a narrative (ἰστορία) which Africanus had received by Tradition (HE i
Papyri And Ostraca - The Tradition that had come down to us was on the whole the Tradition preserved in the history of what was great the history of nations, potentates, the intellectual leaders in art, science, and religion; and that is true in great measure of the inscriptions, which for the most part owe their origin to princes, cities, and wealthy Individuals
Peter, First Epistle of - According to the present greeting, this Epistle was written by the Apostle Peter, and this is supported by very strong Tradition. Evidently the Tradition of a 25 years’ episcopate has no historical basis, but St
Leucius, Author of n.t. Apocryphal Additions - We can identify as Leucian several statements which are described as found "in ecclesiastica historia" or "in patrum Traditionibus," and hence probably others reported with the same formulae are from the same source. We think Zahn does not sufficiently allow for the probability in the case of one who is said to have lived so long that a true Tradition that he never married might have been preserved in the churches of Asia. The "traditions of Matthias " may have been Clement's authority; but that John is appealed to no doubt gives probability to the conjecture that Clement's source is the Acts which treat of St. Irenaeus, however, shews no sign of acquaintance with them, and Clement must have had some other source of Johannine Traditions, his story of John and the robber being, as Zahn owns, not derived from Leucius; for no later writer who tells the story shews any sign of having had any source of information but Clement. John as sanctioning their practice, and that may have been a true Tradition
Thecla - 375) is a further evidence of her reality and also confirms the localization in that city of the Traditions concerning her. It thus appears that our Acts probably grew out of a true Tradition handed down from the later apostolic age of a maiden of Asia Minor who was converted to the Gospel and for its sake renounced all and braved death that she might remain a chaste virgin for Christ and having escaped martyrdom lived and died in sanctity at Seleucia. The Tradition which we have supposed current in the church of a Christian who incurred the peril of martyrdom for virginity and ended her days as an anchorite near Seleucia would supply his heroine and leading incidents. Her name was probably part of the Traditional story; for an invented name would no doubt have been either a Scriptural one or one of obvious Christian significance
Moses - There is a Tradition recorded by Josephus that he took a lead in the war which was then waged between Egypt and Ethiopia, in which he gained renown as a skilful general, and became "mighty in deeds" (Acts 7:22 )
Genesis - Why does the biblical account follow the same basic outline of other creation and flood narratives? Has one copied the other? Does God inspire a writer to react to other literature and write the authentic version? What role does oral Tradition play in one nation learning of the literature of another nation? The least that can be said is that Israel's creation and flood narratives present a consistent picture of a sovereign God concerned with and in control of all nations
Apostle - These lists are roughly the same, representing four variant forms of a single early oral Tradition
Babylon - It was then the largest and most beautiful city in the Middle East, considered by classical Tradition with its renowned Hanging Gardens and massive walls to have been one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world. ...
Location Traditionally, a mound called Babil, near the Euphrates River and some six miles northeast of Hillah (southwest of Iraq's capital city Baghdad), has been identified as the location of ancient Babylon
Imitation - (Recent study of Luther has called in question his insight on such points: but there can be no doubt that he grasped the principle, however his remarks in detail may show the distorting influence of the mediaeval Tradition)
Stone - —(a) Whether or not we accept the ancient Tradition that Jesus was born in one of the limestone caves of Bethlehem, it is very likely that His manger would be a manger of stone—built with stones and mortar if not hollowed out of the solid rock (see Thomson, LB Apostolic Fathers - 683); but a more authentic Tradition ascribes it to the brother of Pius who was bp
Gelasius (1) i, Bishop of Rome - He speaks of "the apostolical judgment, which the voice of Christ, the Tradition of the elders, and the authority of canons had supported, that it should itself always determine questions throughout the church
Genealogy - In the earliest Tradition ( Numbers 32:12 , Joshua 14:6 ; Joshua 14:14 ) he is descended from Kenaz, a tribe of Edom, and ‘grandson’ of Esau ( Genesis 36:11 ; Genesis 36:42 ); in 1 Samuel 25:3 ; 1 Samuel 30:14 the Calebite territory is still distinct from Judah
Discourse - To this class belong: the discourse on Forgiveness, with the parable of the Two Debtors, given at the house of Simon the Pharisee (Luke 7:36-50); the beginning of the discourse on Tradition (eating with unwashen hands), though later ‘he called the multitudes,’ ‘and the disciples came unto him’ (Matthew 15:1-20, Mark 7:1-20); the Denunciation of the Pharisees and Lawyers at the house of a chief Pharisee (Luke 11:37-54); the discourse at another Pharisee’s house, where He discussed Modesty, Giving Feasts, and spoke the parable of the Great Feast and Excuses (Luke 14:1-24); finally, the discourse at the house of Zaccbaeus, with the parable of the Pounds (Luke 19:1-27). Of these there are a great number and variety, spoken sometimes to great multitudes, sometimes to groups, but publicly: on Blasphemy (Matthew 12:22-37, Mark 3:19-30); on Signs (Matthew 12:38-45); latter part of discourse on Eating with Unwashen Hands, and Traditions (Matthew 15:1-20, Mark 7:1-23); on Signs again (Matthew 16:1-4, Mark 8:11-12); on Demons and Signs again (Luke 11:14-36); on Confession, Worldliness, Watchfulness (Luke 12); on Repentance, with parable of the Barren Fig-tree (Luke 13:1-9); on the Good Shepherd (John 10:1-18); on His Messiahship and Relations with the Father (John 10:22-38); Sabbath Healing, parables of Mustard Seed and Leaven (Luke 13:10-21); on the Salvation of the Elect (Luke 13:23-30); Lament over Jerusalem (Luke 13:34-35); on Counting the Cost of Following Him (Luke 14:25-35); reproof of the Pharisees, with parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus (Luke 16:14-31); on the Coming of the Kingdom (Luke 17:20-37); on Prayer, with parables of the Importunate Widow, and of the Pharisee and Publican (Luke 18:1-14); the colloquies with His critics in the Temple, on His Authority, on the Tribute to Caesar, on the Resurrection, on the Great Commandment, on the Son of David (Matthew 21:23 to Matthew 22:46, Mark 11:27 to Mark 12:37, Luke 20); remarks on Belief and Unbelief (John 12:44-50)
Nineveh - " And the village of Nunia, opposite Mosul, in its name, and the Tradition of the natives, ascertains the site of the ancient city, which was near the castle of Arbela, according to Tacitus, so celebrated for the decisive victory of Alexander the Great over the Persians there; the site of which is ascertained by the village of Arbil, about ten German miles to the east of Nunia, according to Niebuhr's map
Nin'Eveh - The name appears to be compounded from that of an Assyrian deity "Nin," corresponding, it is conjectured, with the Greek Hercules, and occurring in the names of several Assyrian kings, as in "Ninus," the mythic founder, according to Greek Tradition of the city
Name - ]'>[1] ‘is not a pre-historic, but a pre-mythical, not only a pre-mythical, but even a pre-fabulous and a pre-traditional thesis. Hommel, Ancient Hebrew Tradition, 1897, pp
Jeremiah - The Bible records nothing further of Jeremiah’s life, though one Tradition says that the Judeans in Egypt later stoned him to death
Optatus, Bishop of Milevis - (1) In accusing Catholics of "tradition," particulars ought to be specified of time and place
Judas Iscariot (2) - Some divergent Traditions it is difficult, and perhaps impossible, to harmonize; assumptions that the one is an intentional modification of the other, or that they are contradictory, must be carefully examined; suggestions that they are supplementary, or mutually explanatory, must be fairly considered. ’ A strained interpretation of the saying underlies the statement that it ‘appears to be inconsistent with the equal confidence in all the disciples shown by Jesus according to the Synoptic Tradition’ (Ency. we have ‘a modification of the Synoptic Tradition,’ but that is not equivalent to ‘quite a different account
Last Supper - Herein is preserved a Tradition of the day of the Crucifixion, accepted with such confidence that from it the sixth day derived its name, as the first day has been known from earliest times as the Lord’s day, because it was the day of the Resurrection. This Tradition is universally accepted, and further discussion would be superfluous
Physician - In the Traditions concerning him, that which associated him with Epidauros finally prevailed. Anatomy was learned from oral and written Tradition, from sacrifices and domestication of animals, injuries in the gymnasia, from bodies long exposed to the elements or to wild animals, and from dissection of wild animals. So far as his character can be made out from these treatises and from Tradition, he was a man of great genius and noble character, with an unsullied regard for his art, his patients, and his pupils. In his Natural History Pliny devotes many pages to a description of the ancient popular medicine, a crude empiricism mingled with fantastic and superstitious formulae; but even he makes no distinction between scientific and purely Traditional domestic methods
Moab - Then too Moah, indignant at his former ally Edom having joined Israel against him, when Israel and Judah retired, burned the king of Edom alive, reducing his bones to lime; or, as Hebrew Tradition represents, tore his body after death from the grave and burned it (Amos 2:1)
Sea - One favourite Tradition made the sea disappear in the final conflagration of the world
Lazarus - ...
Tradition says that Lazarus' first question on coming back was whether he should die again; on learning he must, he never smiled again
Apocalyptic - ...
Within Judaism apocalyptic faded out, but an apocalyptic visionary Tradition has remained alive within Christianity ever since. Daniel usually receives visionary dreams in his sleep (2:19; 7:1), but he also has day-time visions (10:4-5) and is able to pass on words from God like a Traditional prophet (5:25-28)
Samaria - Only the most rigid Jewish exclusiveness could refuse to the Samaritans as a whole the right to the sacred name and Traditions of Israel, and so to an equal share in the worship of Jahweh. A baseless Tradition made it the scene of the death of John the Baptist, and a church of the 12th cent
Sayings (Unwritten) - But the work of converting the world was reserved for the preaching of Christ’s Apostles; and the converts’ knowledge of Christianity was derived from the Traditions which were delivered by the Apostles, and which were subsequently superseded by the texts of the written Gospels. ’ This is a specimen of the Traditions (2 Thessalonians 2:15) which were delivered by the first preachers of Christianity to their converts. Paul adds a phrase not found in the Evangelists’ accounts of the Institution, ‘This do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me’; but 1 Corinthians 11:23 may be interpreted to intimate that the Apostle had enjoyed a special revelation (‘I have received of the Lord’), independently of any Tradition of the words heard by the Twelve. Those which are not universally admitted may yet be authentic Traditions, though extra-canonical: relics of the many sayings which were not recorded by the Evangelists. ” ’...
These paragraphs are not supported by sufficient evidence to warrant their inclusion in the text of the Gospels: whether they are worthy to be considered part of those Traditions of Christ’s teachings which preceded, and for a time accompanied, the written word, the English reader can judge for himself. The evidence for them is so weighty that all are received into the text by some critics; but to others the evidence is insufficient; yet it will hardly be denied by any that the presence of the words in so many ancient documents stamps them with distinct authority, and demands their recognition as Traditions of the Master’s teachings. ” ’ The last sentence agrees in sentiment with a well-known text; but these Mohammedan Traditions of Christ’s words are for the most part of no value
Walk (2) - ; see Tradition), John 8:12, where the condition of ‘not walking in darkness’ (= ignorance and self-deception, narrowness, joylessness, and death) is stated to be our ‘following the Light of the world,’ Jesus our Sun (cf
Sabbath - The joyous character of the Sabbath is reflected in, among other things, the Jewish Tradition of eating richly, which derives from its inclusion in the list of "festivals of the Lord" ( Leviticus 23 ) the prohibition of fasting, and the forbidding of outward expressions of grief and mourning. ...
Among the several references to the Sabbath in Acts (1:12; 13:14-44; 15:21; 17:2; 18:4; 20:7) there is little evidence to suggest that the earliest Christian communities deviated from the Traditional Sabbath observed on the seventh day
Antichrist - ...
Moreover, the only two Greek nouns in the New Testament, whose value numerically is exactly 666, are precisely the two expressing the grand corrupters of the church and sources of idolatry, "tradition" (paradosis ), the corrupter of doctrine, "wealth" or the pursuit of it (euporia , only in Acts 19:25), the corrupter of practice (Colossians 3:5)
Salt - Is it not possible that this might have been a custom received by Tradition, however understood, and worse applied, of the offering made with salt in the Scripture?...
Demon - 296): ‘Lay hold and handle me, and see that I am not a bodiless demon’ (δαιμόνιον ἀσώματον), a saying clearly founded on or parallel to Luke 24:39, perhaps due to an independent oral Tradition
Simeon - Probably no more than one tanner would be living in so small a place as Joppa; so that the Tradition is confirmed that here was the house of Simon with whom Peter lodged when he received the call of Cornelius
Genealogy of Jesus Christ - Between Zerubbabel and Joseph the names are perhaps from some Traditional list of the heirs of the kings, but some names here also have been omitted, for in Mt. He harmonizes them (expressly, however, not as a matter of Tradition) on the theory of levirate marriages, supposing that two half-brothers, sons of different fathers, married the same woman, and that the issue of the second marriage was therefore legally accounted to the elder, but physically to the younger brother
Pharisees - They by their "traditions" made God's word of none effect; opposed bitterly the Lord Jesus, compassed His death, provoking Him to some "hasty words" (apostomatizein ) which they might catch at and accuse Him; and hired Judas to betray Him; "strained out gnats, while swallowing camels" (image from filtrating wine); painfully punctilious about legal trifles and casuistries, while reckless of truth, righteousness, and the fear of God; cleansing the exterior man while full of iniquity within, like "whited sepulchres" (Mark 7:6-13; Luke 11:42-44; Luke 11:53-54; Luke 16:14-15); lading men with grievous burdens, while themselves not touching them with one of their fingers. The Mishna or "second law," the first portion of the Talmud, is a digest of Jewish Traditions and ritual, put in writing by rabbi Jehudah the Holy in the second century. The absence of directions for prayer, and of mention of a future life, in the Pentateuch probably gave a pretext for the figment of a Traditional oral law. Tradition set aside moral duties, as a child's to his parents by" Corban"; a debtor's to his creditors by the Mishna treatise, Avodah Zarah (1:1) which forbade payment to a pagan three days before any pagan festival; a man's duty of humanity to his fellow man by the Avodah Zarah (2:1) which forbids a Hebrew midwife assisting a pagan mother in childbirth (contrast Leviticus 19:18; Luke 10:27-29)
Carpocrates, Philospher - Carpocrates claimed to be in possession of the true teaching of Christ spoken secretly by Him to His apostles, and communicated by them in Tradition to the worthy and faithful; and the apostolic doctrine that men are to be saved by faith and love was used by him to justify an antinomian view of the complete indifference of works
Diognetus, Epistle to - " We may thus say that the true Traditional writer To Greeks and To Diognetus is a certain otherwise unknown Ambrosius, convert like Justin from Hellenism to Christianity—the reply To Greeks , the assailants of the writer, being naturally followed by the response To Diognetus , the inquirer. ...
It is worth noting that an Ambrose, of the consecration of Antioch, is said in a Syriac Tradition to have been the third primate of Edessa and the East (Burkitt, Early Eastern Christianity , p
Elisha - ' This is an old and superstitious Tradition now; but in the ploughed field of Abel
John the Apostle - to Life of Christ) accounts for John's brief notice of Christ's Galilean ministry and fuller notices of His ministry in Judaea thus: Jewish Tradition alleges that all Israelites dwelling in the Holy Land were entitled to fish in the sea of Gennesaret a month before each Passover, and to use the fish for the many guests received at the feast in Jerusalem
Moses - A proof of the genuineness of the Pentateuch is the absence of personal details which later Tradition would have been sure to give. From him probably Moses learned the Traditions of Abraham's family in connection with Keturah (Genesis 25:2). The Traditional site of his call by the divine "Angel of Jehovah" (the uncreated Shekinah , "the Word" of John 1, "the form like the Son of God" with Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego in the furnace, Daniel 3:25) is in the valley of Shoayb or Hobab, on the northern side of jebel Musa. )...
The hand made leprous, then restored, represents the nation of lepers (as Egyptian Tradition made them, and as spiritually they had become in Egypt) with whom Moses linked himself, divinely healed through his instrumentality
Resurrection - -The chief sources are the Assumption of Moses, 2 Baruch , , 4 Ezra for the apocalyptic literature, and such portions of the Talmud as may reflect the Rabbinical Tradition of this period. The division Sanhedrin contains the most important of the Traditional utterances on this subject. ...
The general Tradition, however, is clear for a belief in the bodily resurrection of both righteous and wicked for the Final Judgment
Regeneration - -The idea of regeneration, strictly so called, does not appear in the words of Jesus in the Synoptic Tradition. This is significant at once of the faithfulness of the Tradition and of Jesus’ own extraordinary originality
Bible - Such a hallad would be handed down in Tradition before it was put into writing. Then some of the laws in Exodus, those of the ‘Book of the Covenant,’ may have come down in Tradition or even in writing, from a remote antiquity
John, Theology of - Johannine theology organizes the unifying theological subjects belonging to the New Testament literature Traditionally attributed to John. ...
When John describes Jesus as the messiah we are firmly in a Traditional Jewish framework. John's portrait here avoids futurist eschatology but this does not mean necessarily that he is at odds with the synoptic Tradition. The Holy Spirit in the Johannine Tradition (1987); R
Eschatology (2) - ]'>[14] And the ‘Law’ meant not simply the legal precepts of the Pentateuch (in particular the Priestly Code), it meant the ‘tradition’ of the elders. of those who kept the ‘Law’ and the ‘Tradition
Immanuel - The Traditional interpretation has, of course, thrown the stress on the first of these; for it the sign lay in the virgin-conception. Many think that the former was created by the latter,* Boyhood of Jesus - Then, by political necessity, the ‘traditions’ of a sect became the life of a nation Perhaps, also, Christianity took out of Judaism those pious souls who were ‘zealous of the law,’ but not necessarily so of the ‘traditions,’ and there were left only those leaders and followers whose sayings supply us with the picture of 2nd century Judaism (cf. ] The earliest written sources are based on an oral Tradition of what had been done a century before. No doubt our Lord followed this custom, and no doubt also Joseph gave the explanation, either in the Traditional words as handed down to the modern Jews, or in a freer, perhaps a fuller manner (cf. The 114th Psalm, which Christian Tradition (cf
Job - On the assumption that the Job of the book is sketched, as to the main outlines, after ancient Tradition, probably the same in substance as that known to Ezk. This identification, which appears also in the Testament of Job , a work probably containing an ancient Jewish nucleus, although critically worthless, is not without interest and value, as possibly preserving a fragment of old Tradition. The name Job , which probably belongs to the Traditional story, is in Heb. The book is mainly not entirely, as one of the Rabbis thought ( Baba bathra , 15 a ) a work of imagination, but, in the judgment of most, with a Traditional nucleus, the extent of which, however, is uncertain, as there are features in both the Prologue and the Epilogue which suggest literary invention: e. Bildad is ‘the Traditionalist
Ascension (2) - The Traditional view is based on the passage Acts 1:1-12, supported by Mark 16:19, Luke 24:49-51 (which narrate the event), John 6:62; John 20:17 (which look forward to it), Ephesians 4:8-10, 1 Timothy 3:16; 1 Peter 3:22, Hebrews 4:14 (which imply it). Recent research also into psychical activities, both conscious and sub-conscious, has brought the question into renewed prominence especially among scientific men, and that in no spirit of hostility to the Traditional view. Their value is similar in character to that of the Epistles; they testify to the existence of a widespread crystallized Tradition in the first century. There was another route leading nearer the summit, on which later Tradition sought the site and erected a church. Modern departures from the Traditional view. —Within recent years the Traditional view of the Ascension has been vigorously contested in various interests. The departures from the Traditional view here referred to are better dealt with under Resurrection. Schmiedel in above cited article); it has withdrawn attention from the details to the belief itself as the heart of the question, as the better mind of the Church insists; it has broadened the range of points to be considered, opening the door for a class familiar to Traditionalists but hitherto excluded by advanced critical investigation
Beatitude - ...
The latter saying is addressed to a man who was working on the Sabbath; probably it embodies a genuine Tradition, but certainly it bears witness to the early recognition of the Beatitude as one of our Lord’s favourite methods of imparting truth. ’ But the non-occurrence of a saying in Luke is no proof that it is ‘secondary,’ unless it is certain that Luke is more primitive, and not a selection from the more original Tradition in Matthew
Acts of the Apostles (Apocryphal) - The direct source of the later Tradition that there was a Leucian corpus is no doubt a statement of Photius (Bibliotheca, cod. ...
It would appear from these data that (a) the earliest Traditions connected Leucius with St. (b) A quite late Tradition regarded him as the author of the corpus of five Acts-Paul, Peter, John, Andrew, and Thomas-which the Manichaeans used as a substitute for the canonical Acts, and the Priscillianists in addition to the canonical Acts
Papias, Bishop of Hierapolis - The object of the book seems to have been to throw light on the Gospel history, especially by the help of oral Traditions which Papias had collected from those who had met members of the apostolic circle. The first sentence of the extract had evidently followed one in which the writer had spoken of the "interpretations" which appear to have been the main subject of his treatise, and for joining his Traditions with which he conceives an apology necessary. Papias enumerates the ultimate sources of his Traditions in two classes: Andrew, Peter, and others, of whom he speaks in the past tense; Aristion and John the Elder, of whom he speaks in the present. ...
Of the Traditions recorded by Papias, what has given rise to most discussion and has been the foundation of most theories is what he relates about the Gospels of SS. On this difference we conceive Papias undertook to throw light by his Traditional anecdotes. Remembering the solicitude Papias here displays to clear the Gospels from all suspicion of error, and the recognition of inspired authority implied in the title λόγια , we cannot admit the inference which has been drawn from the last sentence of the fragment, that Papias attached little value to the Gospels as compared with the viva voce Traditions he could himself attest; and we endorse Lightfoot's explanation, that it was the Gnostic apocryphal writings which Papias found useless in his attempts to illustrate the Gospel narrative accepted by the church. Papias belonged to Asia Minor, where the Fourth Gospel according to all Tradition was written, and where its authority was earliest recognized; and he is described by Irenaeus as a companion of Polycarp, of whose use of St. In looking for Traditions of our Lord's life, Papias would naturally inquire after the testimony of those who had seen Him in the flesh. Eusebius does not say that Papias took this story from the Gospel according to the Hebrews, and the presumption is that Papias gave it as known to him by oral Tradition and not from a written source
Canon of the New Testament - But that the orally taught might know more fully "the (unerring) certainty ten asphaleian of those things wherein they had been instructed," and to guard against the dangers of oral Tradition (illustrated in John 21:23-24), the word was committed to writing by apostles and evangelists, and was accredited publicly by the churches in the lifetime of the writers
Receive, Receiving - (7) For patroparadotos, in 1 Peter 1:18 , AV, "received by Tradition from your fathers," see HANDED DOWN
Harmony of the Gospels - Conservatives trace the materials unique to Matthew or Luke to multiple strands of oral Tradition
Bible, Canon of the - It designates the exclusive collection of documents in the Judeo-Christian Tradition that have come to be regarded as Scripture
Ishmael - According to eastern usage she, as a parent, chose a wife for her son, an Egyptian, possibly the mother of his 12 sons; rabbinical and Arab Tradition give him a second wife; the daughter being termed "sister of Nebaioth" implies probably that the other brothers had a different mother. The Ishmaelite element is the chief one of the Arab nation, as the native Traditions before Muhammed and the language concur with the Bible in proving
Census - At best, oral Tradition was the basis of the numbers here, seeing that it was not recorded in the chronicles of David
Kings, 1 And 2 - According to Tradition, Jeremiah is the author of 1,2Kings
Proverbs, Theology of - Whybray, The Intellectual Tradition in the Old Testament
Lord's Supper, the - Heron, Table and Tradition ; A
Heart - in His reply to the Tradition-bound objectors, ‘Out of the heart proceed evil thoughts, murders, adulteries,’ etc
James - An untrustworthy Tradition represents him as preaching the gospel in Spain, of which country he is patron saint
Laughter - Taylor), and similar statements are based on nothing more than a dim and untrustworthy Tradition,† [3] What evidence there is, indeed, is on the whole against the Traditional view
Magnificat - Luke used an Aramaic Tradition or document, it is possible to account for all the characteristics of style by which Harnack (see below) seeks to prove that he was the author both of the Magnificat and of the Benedictus
Silence - John, must have belonged to a very early Tradition
Jerusalem - But these and many other names commonly placed on maps, have no other authority than that of Tradition. ...
The Christian population gave names to the streets, and point out Traditional sites of many events recorded in scripture, but of course without the slightest authority
Cosmas (3), Indian Navigator - Pinning their faith on the literal meaning of the words of Scripture according to its Traditional interpretation they deduced a system which had for them all the authority of a divine revelation any departure from which was regarded as impious and heretical. His errors were those of his age, and rest chiefly on his reverence for the Traditional interpretation of the Bible. that such was the universal ancient Tradition and that no early expositor comments upon them
Idolatry - ...
The principal causes which have been assigned for idolatry are, the indelible idea which every man has of God, and the evidence which he gives of it to himself; an inviolable attachment to the senses, and a habit of judging and deciding by them, and them only; the pride and vanity of the human mind, which is not satisfied with simple truth, but mingles and adulterates it with fables; men's ignorance of antiquity, or of the first times, and the first men, of whom they had but very dark and confused knowledge by Tradition, they having left no written monuments, or books; the ignorance and change of languages; the style of the oriental writings, which is figurative and poetical, and personifies every thing; the scruples and fears inspired by superstition; the flattery and fictions of poets; the false relations of travellers; the imaginations of painters and sculptors; a smattering of physics, that is, a slight acquaintance with natural bodies and appearances, and their causes; the establishment of colonies, and the invention of arts, mistaken by barbarous people; the artifices of priests; the pride of certain men, who effected to pass for gods; the love and gratitude borne by the people to certain of their great men and benefactors; and, finally, the historical events of the Scriptures ill understood
Music - Before the invention of writing, the history of remarkable events was committed to memory, and handed down by oral Tradition
mo'Ses - The Egyptian princess, who, Tradition says, was a childless wife, came down to bathe in the sacred river
Prayer - And there is a continuous Tradition of such prayers in the ancient Liturgies, in which prayers are offered for those who rest in Christ that they may have peace and light, rest and refreshment: that they may live in God (or in Christ): that they may be partakers of the joyful resurrection, and of the inheritance of the Kingdom of God
Prophecy Prophet Prophetess - The prophet is rooted in the life of the Church; but there are divergences from the Pauline Tradition
Heart - in His reply to the Tradition-bound objectors, ‘Out of the heart proceed evil thoughts, murders, adulteries,’ etc
Macarius Magnus, Magnes, a Writer - The woman healed of an issue of blood is said to have been Berenice queen of Edessa a notion likely to have been derived from a local Tradition
Law - By contrast the Jewish leaders used the law to oppress people, adding their own Traditions and forcing people to obey them. In so doing they forgot, or even opposed, the purpose for which God gave the law (Matthew 23:4; Mark 7:1-9; see Tradition)
Vincentius Lirinensis - His tests to discern the truth of the Catholic faith from heresy will be sought first in the authority of the divine law and next in the Tradition of the Catholic church
Atonement - ...
(2) The Baptism and the Temptation of Jesus, which initiated Him into the course of His public ministry, were events associated in the minds of those who preserved the Synoptic Tradition with the voice from heaven, ‘Thou art my beloved Son; in thee I am well pleased’ (Luke 3:22). Peter are represented as in harmony on the significance of the redemptive work of Christ, when they are manifestly at variance in other important factors of the primitive faith, is not without its value; it is possible also that their similarities may be accounted for by their common loyalty to the accepted Christian Tradition
Law - He was their first as well as their greatest law-giver; and in this matter religious Tradition is supported by all the historical probabilities of the case. For the priests claimed Divine sanction for their worship, and Tradition ascribed the origin of all priestly institutions to Mosaic (or Aaronic) authorship. It is wholly unwarrantable to say that the prophets condemned the sacrificial system, or denied its worth and Divine sanction; but, on the other hand, we are justified in asserting that the tôrah of Jehovah, ‘the law of the Lord,’ meant to the prophets something wholly different from the punctilious observance of Traditional ceremonies; and what is more, they appeal without fear of contradiction to the contents of the Mosaic legislation as completely establishing their conviction that it was in the sphere of morality, rather than in the organizing of worship, that the essence of Jehovah’s law was to be found. No final solution has yet been reached; but we may hold with confidence that the Traditional account of the Decalogue is correct, and that the Ten Commandments in their original and shorter form were promulgated by Moses himself. The warning of Matthew 5:17-20 was aimed at the Jewish legists, who dissolved the authority of the law, while jealously guarding its letter, by casuistical comments and smothering Traditions, who put light and grave on a like footing, and blunted the sharpness of God’s commands in favour of man’s corrupt inclinations. ...
(c) A large part of the Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 5:21-48 ) is devoted to clearing the law from erroneous glosses and false applications : on each point Jesus sets His ‘I say unto you’ against what ‘was said to the ancients’ mere antiquity goes for nothing; nor is He careful to distinguish here between the text of the written law and its Traditional modifications
Josephus - -The manner in which Josephus seeks to present Judaism to the Greek mind ranks him among the Alexandrian apologists of that faith, though he claims to write merely as a historian; and, as a matter of fact, he owes more to the Tradition of Palestinian Rabbinism than to that of Alexandria. He devotes considerable space to the Traditions-taken from the Epistle of Aristeas-regarding the Greek version of the Mosaic Law executed at the court of Ptolemy ii. Next, after recounting the two Jewish tumults referred to, he relates two events which evidently had already been conjoined in the Roman Tradition (Cluvius Rufus?), for only the second belongs to his subject (as giving an example of the ill-fortune that beset the Jews): the first deals with the outrage in the Temple of Isis in Rome, where the priests lent themselves to a trick by which a Roman lady of repute was beguiled sub praetextu religionis to yield herself to a lover (xviii
Jews - They acknowledge a two-fold law of God, a written and an unwritten one; the former is contained in the Pentateuch, or five books of Moses; the latter they pretend, was delivered by God to Moses, and handed down from him by oral Tradition, and now to be received as of equal authority with the former. Almost all the modern Jews are Pharisees, and are as much attached to Tradition as their ancestors were; and assert that whoever rejects the oral law deserves death
Divinity of Christ - It turns for comfort almost exclusively to the Christian Tradition. The Christian Tradition, however, it is convinced, needs revision; and here the central necessity is the treatment and true understanding of the Person of Christ. The absolute value of the Christian Faith, the real stature of the Christ, cannot be established by merely dropping the historical surroundings or setting of the Traditional truth. , are conformed in the NT narratives to already existing Messianic Traditions
Forgiveness (2) - In Matthew 9, Mark 2, and Luke 5 is recorded the narrative of the healing of the paralytic, which had evidently impressed itself strongly upon Tradition, since it is given by all three Synoptists at greater length than usual and almost in the same words. The inference has been drawn from John 5:14 and the early Tradition recorded in John 8:11, that Jesus habitually pronounced remission of sin and gave power to amend the life in future, but the brief records in these cases hardly warrant such a conclusion
Paul - This is also the testimony of Tradition, and it is generally, though not universally, accepted. Indeed, there is a Tradition that the author was a painter as well as a physician, this being at least a tribute to the picturesqueness of his narrative
Montanus - —The most fundamental innovation of Montanist teaching was the theory of an authorized development of Christian doctrine, as opposed to the older theory that Christian doctrine was preached in its completeness by the apostles and that the church had merely to preserve faithfully the Tradition of their teaching. He had evidently heard no Tradition as to their tenets, and set himself to search in Tertullian's writings for heresies which they presumably may have held
Old Testament (ii. Christ as Student And Interpreter of). - The well-known Tradition, derived from Papias, that Matthew’s Gospel was originally composed in Aramaic, has been taken as a basis for various theories, that seek to account for existing divergences among the Synoptics by the supposition that these consist of different translations of the same original. We may therefore, perhaps, regard the fact of the reference as a correct Tradition, but the place and manner of it as due to the Evangelist himself
Discipline - The seeds of accountability among the faithful may be seen in several strands of the Tradition: removal from the assembly for ritual impurity (Exodus 12:14-20 ; Leviticus 17:3-9 ); standards for the evaluation of prophets (Deuteronomy 13:1-5 ; 18:15-22 ); and admonitions to reprove other adults (Proverbs 5:12-13 ; 9:7 ; 10:10 ; 19:25 ). Rabbinic Traditions suggest that the Pharisees commonly imposed a "ban, " a temporary state of social isolation imposed for deviation from ritual purity laws or for heretical views and designed to recall the offender to full participation in the community
Ezekiel - An ancient Jewish Tradition says he was put to death by his own people because of his preaching. ...
The most radical challenge to Traditional authorship was first expressed by Gustav Holscher in 1924
Children of God, Sons of God - And even if that be not the original reading, it would seem that the writer in choosing terms in which to describe the spiritual birth of the disciple has selected terms which presuppose acquaintance with the Tradition of the birth from a virgin
Luke, the Gospel According to - The pure Greek of the preface shows that he could have written similarly throughout, but he tied himself to the Hebraistic language of the written records and perhaps also of the received oral Tradition which he embodied
Rome And the Roman Empire - Traditional religion was stressed, and 82 pagan temples were renovated. Hadrian will be best remembered by those of the Judaeo-Christian Tradition, however, because of his attempt to hellenize Jerusalem by changing the name of the city to Aelia Capitolina, by erecting a temple to himself and Zeus on the site of the previous Temple of Solomon, and by prohibiting circumcision. The Roman emperor was the head of the state religion, which included worship of the emperor and the Traditional gods of Rome
Music And Musical Instruments - Synagogue ritual thus affords us no clue to the music of early times, and we must accordingly fall back on Scripture and Tradition
Atonement - Weber, The Cross: Tradition and Interpretation
Hebrews, the Epistle to the - "The ancients who handed down the Tradition of its Pauline authorship must have had good reason for doing so, though God alone knows the certainty who was the actual writer," i
Wages - ...
During the times of blessing and judgment on Israel, the wisdom Tradition contributed its perspective on the issues of wages and reward
Kings, First And Second, Theology of - The dynastic succession was a crucial issue for the nation, since most apparently still held to the Tradition of the popularly acclaimed charismatic leadership of an individual chosen by a prophet in God's name
Revelation, Idea of - But they help explain the centrality of the Tradition of the Christian God as the speaking God, and that understanding of Holy Scripture as the deposit of his spoken revelation
Thessalonians, First And Second, Theology of - Malherbe, Paul and the Thessalonians: The Philosophical Tradition of Pastoral Care; I
Stoics - ...
(b) Loss of faith in the Traditional religion. In regard to the Traditional and often debasing ceremonies of religion then in vogue, the Stoic attitude was one of compromise. In regard to Seneca, too, a Tradition arose that he became a disciple of St
Lots - This end was attained by (a) the use of certain things through which, according to Tradition, the divinities could express their will
God - Paul, writing on certain points of Christian teaching, tells us that he handed on what he himself had received (1 Corinthians 11:2; 1 Corinthians 11:23; 1 Corinthians 15:3; the expression ἀπὸ τοῦ κυρίον in 1 Corinthians 11:23 probably does not mean ‘from the Lord without human mediation’: it was Tradition handed on from Christ)
Mockery - He thinks that possibly the Christian Tradition may have shifted the date of the Crucifixion to coincide with the Passover, though he admits that this is perhaps not possible
Angel - The main factors which contributed to this development were, firstly, Babylon; during the Captivity, Babylonian influence upon the Jews asserted itself in this as well as in other respects; according to Jewish Tradition the names of the angels came from Babylon
Exorcism - Solomon, according to Tradition, acquired a great reputation as an expert practitioner of the art-‘a science,’ says Josephus (Ant
Apocrypha, New Testament - Regardless of whether the transmitted Traditions were true or false, the desire of later generations to know more detail made the apocryphal writings attractive. They did this many times by claiming some secret Tradition from an apostle or from the Lord through an apostle
Daniel - It was the largeness, and the expansiveness, and the hospitality of Daniel's fine mind, all combined with his extraordinary nobility and beauty of character, that gave Daniel such an unparalleled position in the court of Chaldea, and which has gained for Daniel such a famous and such a proverbial name in all subsequent literature, Ezekiel, a contemporary prophet, has heard so much of the wisdom of Daniel, that, to a proud enemy of Israel, he exclaims in irony: Thou art wiser than Daniel! We see the popular belief about Daniel strikingly illustrated also in the Apocryphal addition that was made to the Book of Daniel by its Greek translator and editor, and which was called the story of Susannah and the judgment of Daniel, And we are gratified to read in our own tongue a tribute to the same noble Tradition in Shylock's exclamation;-...
A Daniel come to judgment! yea, a Daniel!O wise young judge, how I do honour thee!The prophet Daniel became a great proficient both in penitential and in intercessory prayer also as the years went on
Fall of Man - For let it be admitted that Moses, in writing the pentateuchal history, availed himself of the Traditions of the patriarchal ages, a supposition not in the least inconsistent with his inspiration or with the absolute truth of his history, since the Traditions so introduced have been authenticated by the Holy Spirit; or let it be supposed, which is wholly gratuitous, that he made use of previously existing documents; and that some differences of style in his books may be traced which serve to point out his quotations, which in a position that some of the best Hebraists have denied; yet two things are to be noted: first, that the inspired character of the books of Moses is authenticated by our Lord and his Apostles, so that they must necessarily be wholly true, and free from real contradictions; and, secondly, that to make it any thing to their purpose who contend that the account of the fall in an older document, introduced by Moses, it ought to be shown that it is not written as truly in the narrative style, even if it could be proved to be, in some respects, a different style, as that which precedes and follows it. Whether it be an embodied Tradition, or the insertion of a more ancient document, (though there is no foundation at all for the latter supposition,) it is obviously a narrative, and a narrative as simple as any which precedes or follows it
Parables - This eventful parable and others in the Old Testament belong to the same Tradition in which our Lord stood
Nation (2) - More than that, their doctrinal shortcomings received some countenance in high places; for the Sadducees say only what is written is to be esteemed as legal … the Tradition of the fathers needs not to be observed’ (Josephus Ant. The Pharisees pursued Him from the first because they instinctively saw that the tendency of His teaching (see Nationality) was to break the bonds their Traditions had woven, and to act as a solvent on the rigidity of national isolation, which was the only thing left to their pride
Patricius, or Saint Patrick - Traditions about his residence there were abundantly current in the locality, as indeed they are still. Blomfield's time shew how a much shorter Tradition may raise a popular commotion
Gnosticism - In opposition to them, church writers were led to emphasize the principle that that alone is to be accounted true knowledge of things divine which can be shewn by historical Tradition, written or oral, to have been derived from the teaching of Christ and His apostles, a principle the philosophic justice of which must be admitted if Christ be owned as having filled the part in the enlightenment of the world which orthodox and Gnostics alike attributed to Him. The birthplace of Gnosticism may be said to be Syria if we include in that Palestine and Samaria where church Tradition places the activity of those whom it regards as its founders Simon and Menander. Besides furnishing an example, He was also supposed to have made a revelation of truth, to secret Traditions of which the followers of Carpocrates appealed
Basilides, Gnostic Sect Founder - The coincidences between Clement and the Irenaean Tradition are limited to the widely spread "Ogdoad" and a single disputable use of the word "Archon," and there is no similarity of doctrines to make up for the absence of verbal identity. As regards Basilides personally, the only grounds for expecting from him an Oriental type of doctrine are the quotation in the Acts of Archelaus, which will be discussed further on, and the Tradition of his connexion with Saturnilus of Antioch, which we have already seen to be founded on a misconception. The fancy that the book used by Hippolytus was itself the Traditions of Matthias has nothing to recommend it. On the other hand when it is described as a result of the descent of the light from the Hebdomad "upon Jesus the Son of Mary," that He "was enlightened being kindled in union with the light (συνεξαφθεὶς τῷ φωτί) that shone on Him," the allusion to the Traditional light at the Baptism can hardly be questioned; more especially when we read in Clement's Excerpta (p
Hermas, Known as the Shepherd - ...
The Western Tradition deserves more attention, as internal evidence shews the book to have been composed at Rome. and of which except in connexion with this book there is no trace in ecclesiastical Tradition
Hippolytus Romanus - We have also a key to the origin of the Tradition that Hippolytus had been a Novatianist. of Rome, of the Tradition preserved by Prudentius that he had been once in schism from the church, and of the singular honour of a statue done him; for as the head of a party his adherents would glorify his learning and prolific industry
Back to Christ - ...
(b) A second and even more important factor in the movement ‘back to Christ’ is the widespread dissatisfaction with the Traditional statements of Christianity. Neither Catholicism nor Traditional Protestantism can be said to have shown much appreciation of the religious and ethical forces that radiate from Jesus as a historical personality. Dorner, which continues the Hegelian Tradition. ...
(1) We begin with that form of the movement which departs least from Traditional orthodoxy, and to which the term ‘Christo-centric’ is usually applied. The Traditional doctrines receive a reinterpretation and a fresh grounding in the light of the fuller knowledge of, and keener feeling for, the Christ of history. For Christo-centric as for Traditional theology, the elements of cardinal importance in Christ’s consciousness and history are the miraculous elements. To Traditional theology the authority is inspired Scripture, the witness of the Apostolic writers no less than Christ’s self-witness. Jesus was conscious of His unique position as the Mediator of salvation, but He never (according to the Synoptic Tradition) required faith in Himself in the same sense as He required faith in God. For Ritschlianism, even more than for Traditional orthodoxy, Christ is the sum and substance of Christianity. ...
In Catholic, and not less in Traditional Protestant, theology the significance of Christ is concentr
Bible - According to the invariable Tradition of Jews and Christians, the honour is ascribed to him of having collected together and perfected a complete edition of the Holy Scriptures. We have therefore sufficient evidence that the Old Testament existed at that time; and if it be only allowed that Jesus Christ was a teacher of a fearless and irreproachable character, it must be acknowledged that we draw a fair conclusion, when we assert that the Scriptures were not corrupted in his time: for when he accused the Pharisees of making the law of no effect by their Traditions, and when he enjoined his hearers to search the Scriptures, he could not have failed to mention the corruptions or forgeries of Scripture, if any had existed in that age. For a considerable time, his will was declared to mankind through the medium of oral Tradition
Sabbath - ...
Beside this we have the enormous importance attached to the Sabbath by Tradition and instruction amongst the Jews themselves
Assur - Classical Tradition and the Assyrian monuments confirm Scripture, that Assyria was peopled from Babylon
Baptism - )...
Ceremonial washings had been multiplied by Tradition, before the Lord's coming (Mark 7:3-4)
Mediation Mediator - It is embedded in the primitive Christian Tradition too deeply to be a mere theological interpretation of the apostles, read back into the thought of Christ (see J
James - , 2:6) records a Tradition that James's prosecutor was moved by his bold confession to declare himself a Christian on the spot; he begged James's forgiveness, and the apostle kissed him, saying "peace be to thee"; they were both beheaded together
Virgin Virginity - 23: ‘But Paphnutius, the confessor, stood up and testified against this proposition; he said that marriage was honorable and chaste, and that cohabitation with their own wives was chastity, and advised the Synod not to frame such a law, for it would be difficult to bear, and might serve as an occasion of incontinence to them and their wives; and he reminded them that according to the ancient Tradition of the church, those who were unmarried when they took part in the communion of sacred orders were required to remain so, but that those who were married were not to put away their wives
Reality - In an age of affectations, formalisms, and general bondage to Tradition, He stood out as uncompromisingly sincere, intent on getting close to fact and truth, and keeping resolutely in view the essential and permanent interests of life
Woman - The story of Ruth is a good example of a Traditional woman who was admired for her role as a good daughter-in-law. ...
What the New Testament Teaches About Woman Jesus was able to retain the best in the Hebrew Tradition and yet cut away some of the rigid structure that restricted it
Corinthians, Second Epistle to - 10 13) with the supposed lost painful Epistle, are not only not convincing in their arguments, but also have the great weight of textual criticism and Church Tradition against them
Heaven, Heavens, Heavenlies - Simon, Heaven in the Christian Tradition ; W
Law - , the sabbath day's journey) are prescribed exhaustively in the Talmud, but this burdensome "tradition" is contrary to the spirit of biblical law (Matthew 15:3 ; 23:4 ). The laws (traditionally 613 in number) are concentrated in certain passages in the Pentateuch. The formulation in the Decalogue (the Traditional "thou shalt/shalt not") is apodictic, that is, unqualified; God as King imposes demands upon his subjects. ...
Covenant theologians have Traditionally divided laws into three categories: moral, civil, and ceremonial
Galilee - His contempt for foreigners and foreign ways helped him to keep his own character and Traditions intact. Possibly they were less exact in their observance of Tradition. The settlers were placed under the Law, and quickly developed a warm patriotism, which made them ever afterwards zealous and persistent champions of their national rights and Traditions
Capernaum - That means that there must have been a complete break in the Christian Tradition; so that, when we read later that a church was built on the supposed site of Peter’s house, it is not likely that the guess had any real authority (Itin
Cup - Resting on such Levitical prescriptions as are to be found in Leviticus 11 and Numbers 31, the purification of vessels was carried to the furthest extreme of stringent requirement by ‘the Tradition of the elders
Acts - Both in the Gospel which bears his name and in Acts, Luke showed special sympathy toward persons who fell outside the Traditional Jewish boundaries of acceptability. The gospel overcomes Tradition and threats, increasing the church's power, unity, and generosity
Pentateuch - The Greek alphabet borrows its names of letters and order from the Semitic; those names have a meaning in Semitic, none in Greek Tradition made Cadmus ("the Eastern") introduce them into Greece from Phoenicia ( Job - ...
Farther: no reasonable doubt can be entertained respecting the real existence of Job, when we consider that it is proved by the concurrent testimony of all eastern Tradition: he is mentioned by the author of the book of Tobit, who lived during the Assyrian captivity; he is also repeatedly mentioned by Arabian writers as a real character
Abel - This supposes a revelation, immediate or by Tradition, that such acts of worship were acceptable to God, or his faith could have had no warrant, and would not have been faith, but fancy
Jeroboam - The places were hallowed by ancient Tradition: Bethel on the S
Sabbath - ...
Beside this we have the enormous importance attached to the Sabbath by Tradition and instruction amongst the Jews themselves
Greece, Religion And Society of - Tradition taught that Zeus, the god of all, sent out two eagles from each end of the universe to specify the center of the earth
Revelation - Continuous and universal Tradition has very few safeguards against deterioration, as the Jewish history only too clearly shows
Sacrifice And Offering - Not that sacrifice could be offered at any spot the worshipper might choose; it must be one hallowed by the Tradition of a theophany: ‘in every place where I record my name I will come unto thee and I will bless thee’ ( Exodus 20:24 RV Unbelief - Therefore we find, especially in Rome, where politics were the ruling passion, a watchfulness after the most punctilious observance of Traditional religious ceremonies, and jealous aversion to any innovations in religion. The philosopher required in religion a persuasion grounded on reasoning; the citizen, the statesman, followed the Tradition of his ancestors without inquiry
Economic Life - It thus became Traditional that land not be permanently sold outside the family or clan (Leviticus 25:8-17 ). The Tradition was so strong that Naboth could refuse King Ahab's request to purchase his vineyard saying he could not give him “the inheritance of my fathers” (1 Kings 21:3 )
Exodus, the Book of - The unvarying Tradition of the Jews, to whom Exodus was addressed, confirms the impression of genuineness which the internal innumerable coincidences produce on the mind
Witness (2) - Even those believing critics who go farthest in the sifting of Apostolic Tradition, agree that the saving knowledge of God in Christ is mediated to us through the primitive Christian preaching
Joshua - After this early and united victory, the tribes may have divided for their future settlements, and the separate conquests may have been carried out, as the Traditions in Jg. Jewish Tradition worked with criteria of which we are ignorant, but in separating Joshua from the Pentateuch it may have recognized the presence of different documents
Homosexuality - Some modern revisionists point to the subsequent Jewish Tradition condemning Sodom for inhospitality and argue that the passage does not have homosexual rape in view. There may be a connection here to two additional references to sexual sins involving one's father (Leviticus 18:7 ; Deuteronomy 23:1 ), since Ham is the father of Canaan, the nation Traditionally associated with same-gender sex and whose impure practices are condemned in detail in the context of these references
Paul the Apostle - The Galatian letter was occasioned by a move within a number of churches to establish circumcision and other Traditional Jewish observances as necessaryand sufficientfor salvation. In response Paul speaks disparagingly of the "law, " by which he often means his opponents' legalistic misrepresentation of the Old Testament in the light of then-current oral Tradition
Resurrection - Paul "passes on" that which he has received (presumably by oral Tradition), which is of "first importance
Hating, Hatred - 97) that we must accept Mozley’s conclusions, which are as follows,—The whole precept, as it stands, undoubtedly represents, and is a summary of, the sense of the Law; nor is there any occasion to refer ‘it hath been said’ to the Law in the case of ‘Love thy neighbour,’ and to the Tradition of the scribes in the case of ‘Hate thine enemy’: all the other precepts which the Lord takes as instances of an inferior morality are precepts out of the Law, and there is no reason to distinguish this particular one from the rest with respect to its source
Locust - An ancient Tradition of the Christian Church held that the locusts eaten by the Baptist were not insects, but the pods or husks of a tree, the carob or locust tree (Ceratonia siliqua, Arab
Confession (of Christ) - But while any profession of faith would have as its implicate the acceptance of the great facts of the historical Tradition, all that was actually demanded of converts at first may have been the confession, ‘Jesus is Lord’ (1 Corinthians 12:3; cf
Gregorius (32) Turonensis, Bishop of Tours - Thereafter he writes directly from oral Tradition and authorities
Angels - Tradition; it could not have been invented by the scribes Heresy - These two persons are, according to the ancient Tradition, the magicians who withstood Moses by their arts
Scripture - , seventy, a round number for the more exact seventy-two—from a Tradition that the work was executed by 72 Jewish scholars
Dress - reaching to) palms and soles’ worn by Joseph and the royal princess Tamar (see above), more familiar as the ‘ coat of many (or diverse) colours ,’ a rendering which represents a now generally abandoned Tradition
Jerusalem - To ascertain the exact location of "the tower Gennath," where this wall began, and trace its course "in a circuit" to Antonia, would show whether the Traditional site of Calvary, now far within the city limits, lay within or without the ancient wall. The arguments from topography are strongly against the Tradition; and it would seem that this whole region, if not actually within the wall, must have been at least occupied by the city suburbs at that time. Still farther north is the Latin convent, in the most westerly part of Jerusalem; and between it and the center of the city stands the church of the Holy Sepulchre, over the Traditional scenes of the death and the resurrection of our Lord
Lots - This end was attained by (a) the use of certain things through which, according to Tradition, the divinities could express their will
Locust - An ancient Tradition of the Christian Church held that the locusts eaten by the Baptist were not insects, but the pods or husks of a tree, the carob or locust tree (Ceratonia siliqua, Arab
Passover (i.) - It may be derived from a root meaning to leap or pass over, used of the sun at the spring-time; or to pass over, in the sense of sparing, the Traditional meaning. There is consequently a certain doubt as to how far the practices enjoined in the Mishna were observed in the time of our Lord; but, since the Traditions are for the most part very ancient, the regulations laid down give a fairly accurate representation of the feast as observed at the time of the Evangelists. An ancient Jewish Tradition gives the number of Passover lambs on one occasion as 1,200,000
Paul - According to a Jewish Tradition, it was situated on the borders of the modern Ghetto, which has been the Jewish quarters in Rome from the time of Pompey to the present day
Trade And Commerce - The ‘numbering of the people,’ which lived on in popular Tradition as an iniquity earning condign punishment, doubtless belonged to the commencements of orderly government
Matthew, the Gospel According to - An independent writer would do just what Matthew does, namely, in speeches of persons introduced would conform to the apostolic Tradition which used the Septuagint, but in his own narrative would translate the Hebrew as he judged best under the Spirit. In contrast with Judaic Traditions and servility to the dead letter, the law is unfolded in its spirit (Matthew 5; 23)
Eucharist - ’ Miracle - Frequently Jesus challenges the prevailing sabbath Traditions (e. Blackburn, Theios Aner and the Markan Miracle Traditions ; L. Theissen, Miracle Stories of the Early Christian Tradition ; H
Immorality, Sexual - This represents the beginning of later Jewish Traditions that held that nakedness was shameful. ...
Hebrew Tradition, in contrast, is emphatic in condemning homosexuality, even though some Israelites succumbed to it. The prohibitions reinforced the Traditional emphasis on family honor, since the family was the building block of society. ...
The Traditions banning adultery, made specific in the Decalog, were enshrined deeply in Israel's national life. ...
In his teachings Jesus stands firmly in the Traditions of the Mosaic law and prophecy by regarding adultery as sin. ...
Before New Testament technical terms are discussed, it is important to realize that Christ was directing his teaching at the new age of grace, which in his death was to render Old Testament legal Traditions ineffective
Kingdom of God - Hiers, The Kingdom of God in the Synoptic Tradition ; W
Revelation, Theology of - Typology, allegory, and myth are tools of biblical prophecy and its offspring, Jewish apocalyptic; in this whole Tradition John consciously stands (1:3; 10:11; 22:7,9-10,18-19)
Lord's Prayer (i) - Not far from the Traditional site of Gethsemane, on the slope of the Mount of Olives, stands to-day the Church of the Paternoster, showing in the quadrangle the Lord’s Prayer engraved in thirty-two languages. —As there are two Traditions about the place of origin of the Lord’s Prayer, so even its wording is given in two different forms. 34–36; The Traditional Text, p. But so little do they agree among themselves, that they throw themselves into six different combinations in their departures from the Traditional Text; and yet they are never able to agree among themselves as to one single various reading: while only once are more than two of them observed to stand together, and their grand point of union is no less than an omission of the article. ]'>[11] cur sin and Acts of Thomas ‘the continual bread’ (לחמא אמינא); the same Tradition seems to be followed by the cotidianus of the Latin, the sinteinan of the Gothic, especially by לחמנו חמירי of Shemtob ben Shafrut, with which cf
Messiah - , 1 Kings 8:63) in accordance with the Tradition of the age
Self-Control - The relief and the joy are traceable in Christ (Matthew 11:25, Luke 10:21, John 17:1; John 17:4), who on the earlier occasion immediately proceeds, according to the one Tradition, to offer rest to the weary, and, according to the other, to pronounce a benediction upon His disciples
Paul as a Student - No wonder, then, that it has been a University Tradition in Scotland that our finest minds have all along entered the Divinity Hall
Word - Luke mentions in his Gospel preface that he uses reliable Tradition from "eyewitnesses and servants of the word Blessing (2) - 5), which contains valuable old Traditional material: ‘In Jerusalem there was the godly custom to initiate the children at the beginning of the thirteenth year by fasting the whole Day of Atonement. ) deals with the various forms of the Bĕrâkhâh (hence its name Bĕrâkhôth = ‘Blessings’), and embodies the earliest Rabbinical Tradition on the subject
Priest - Finally, Moses "filled their hands" with three kinds of bread used in ordinary life, unleavened cakes, cakes of oil bread, and oiled wafers (Numbers 4:5-15; Leviticus 1:5; Exodus 29:2-3; Malachi 3:8-109), put on the fat and right shoulder, and putting his own hands under their hands (so the Jewish Tradition) made them wave the whole mass to and fro, expressing the nation's praise and thanksgiving, testified by its gifts
Circumcision - There is, indeed, no law in the Koran which enjoins it, and they have the precept only in Tradition
Hezekiah - ), so that the sentence of exile and humiliation, "tossed like a ball into a large country, and there the chariots of his glory becoming the shame of his lord's house," was apparently reversed, though Jewish Tradition says he was tied to the horses' tails by the enemy to whom he designed to betray Jerusalem, but who thought he mocked them
Revelation of John, the - The writer's addresses to the seven churches of proconsular Asia accord with the Tradition that after John's return from Patmos at Domitian's death he lived for long in Nerva's reign, and died at Ephesus in Trajan's time (Eusebius, H
Universalism (2) - He rejects, as lacking Divine authority, that Tradition (Matthew 15:3-9 ||) by means of which the Pharisees, morally the most earnest among the Jews, safeguarded the OT law and applied it to new details, at the cost of making it ever more and more a burden. Besides all these changes or innovations in belief, the growing reticence, and one may say reluctance, among those who maintain full Traditional orthodoxy is even more significant
Holy Spirit, Gifts of - The Corinthians had boasted of their wisdom and knowledge (1 Corinthians 4:10 ; 8:1 ), perhaps in the Tradition of the pagan Sophists, but Paul recognized their boasts as hollow and unfounded
Gospel - And this refers to the observance not of one part of the Law but of the whole; what appealed to the conscience of men everywhere, ceremonial Judaism, and the Tradition of the elders-all that νόμος means is included
Sacrifice - ...
The general prevalence of animal sacrifice among the pagan with the idea of expiation, the victim's blood and death removing guilt and appeasing divine wrath, is evidently a relic from primitive revelation preserved by Tradition, though often encrusted over with superstitions
Doctrines - ’ Elsewhere it is applied to Christ’s teaching by the Evangelists themselves, in whose case it is sufficiently explained by the general use of the word with reference to teaching of any kind, and by the fact that Jesus was regarded and addressed as Rabbi or Teacher, and accepted the title, It is, however, important to note that, except where it is used in its most general sense, the word ‘teaching’ (διδαχή) occurs in connexion with the marked contrast which all observed between the authoritative teaching of Jesus and the instructions of the scribes, who slavishly adhered to such doctrines and methods as were sanctioned only by Rabbinical Tradition, and laid emphasis upon trivial questions to the neglect of the weightier matters of the Law (Matthew 15:9 || Mark 7:7)
Serpent - ...
The form assumed by the tempter when he seduced our first parents, has been handed down in the Traditions of most ancient nations; and, though animals of the serpent tribe were very generally worshipped by the Pagans, as symbols of the Agathodemon; they were likewise viewed as types or figures of the evil principle. Of these the most remarkable was the serpent; upon the basis of Tradition, regarded, first as the symbol of the malignant being; subsequently considered talismanic and oracular; and lastly, venerated and worshipped as divine
Jeru'Salem - The pool of which Tradition has assigned the name of BETHESDA is situated on the north side of Moriah; it is now named Birket Israil
Organization (2) - ); and, though they may ultimately almost form a school of Tradition, inheriting certain teachings (Acts 2:42), still they remain learners in the school of Christ, rejecting the title of ‘Rabbi’ (‘teacher,’ ‘master’), and keep their name of ‘disciples’ well into the next generation (Acts 6:2; Acts 9:36; Acts 11:26; Acts 21:4; Acts 21:16)
Weights And Measures - But the Rabbinical Tradition allowed 144 barley-corns of medium size, laid side by side, to the cubit; and it is remarkable that a recent careful attempt made on these lioes resulted in a cubit of 17
Woman - The controversial words, "suitable helper" in verse 18 have Traditionally been taken to imply a functional subordination of the woman to the man as part of God's design in creation, but this interpretation is increasingly being rejected. The wife of noble character (Proverbs 31:10-31 ) works industriously not only in Traditional domestic spheres but in running a business out of her house, purchasing property, making investments, speaking wisely, and ruling her household. Martha's Traditional preoccupation for domestic chores receives only censure! Jesus chooses women as the first witnesses to his resurrection (Luke 24:1-12 ), even though their testimony would have been thrown out of a legal court, and Mary Magdalene becomes the "apostle to the (male ) apostles" (John 20:1-2,18 ). Lydia is the first-mentioned European convert (17:11-15); Paul's willingness to preach to a group of God-fearing women without any men present itself carries on Jesus' Tradition of boundary breaking. At least they have Traditionally been so taken, throughout almost all of church history, corresponding to the general lack of women in the highest or most authoritative positions of ecclesial office (even as women's roles in all other positions of leadership have been more plentiful than the average textbook of church history discloses). Today, however, Christian feminists have seriously challenged the Traditional interpretations of all three of these passages
Church - "Now we command you, brethren, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that ye withdraw yourselves from every brother that walketh disorderly, and not after the Tradition which ye have received from us," 2 Thessalonians 3:6
High Priest - The anointing of the ordinary priests was limited to sprinkling their garments with the anointing oil (Exodus 28:41 ff; Exodus 29:21; Hebrews 3:1-2), which does not sanction the Jewish Tradition that the oil was smeared on the forehead of the ordinary priests with the finger
Sacraments - In the case of a religion old enough to possess Traditional customs one can imagine rites of universal currency which, having become thus consuetudinary, are regarded as of but ceremonial significance. Paul’s account diverges at this point from the Tradition of the Church at Jerusalem; while his own emphatic declaration-‘I received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you’ (1 Corinthians 11:23)-whether referring to a special revelation or not, indicates clearly the supreme authority consistently presupposed as the foundation of sacramental observance
Hellenistic And Biblical Greek - -The Koine was a natural outgrowth of classical Greek, yet in its written form, as has been said, it exhibits a compromise between, the Traditional literary language and the vernacular of the time, and accordingly the extant texts of the Hellenistic period afford at most but indirect evidence as to the true character of the vulgar tongue. what differs from Attic, that we can without hesitation claim for the living language, while, as regards the element in which the written Koine agrees with Attic, we are uncertain to what extent it is to be ascribed to Tradition
Life - ...
This in itself need not be regarded as a breach with the authentic Tradition. These allusions are partly to be explained as reminiscences of an earlier type of doctrine, not completely in harmony with the writer’s own; such ‘concessions’ to a Traditional belief meet us continually in this Gospel
Metaphor - According to Jewish Tradition, Moses saw in a clear mirror but all the prophets in a dark one. ‘The reader who passes from the early Traditions of the life of Jesus to the letters of the apostle Paul feels himself at once in another atmosphere
Barnabas, Epistle of - The Traditions of the early church with regard to historical facts do not appear to have been so loose as is often alleged. It is difficult also to imagine how a generally accepted and firmly held Tradition could arise without some really good foundation
Samuel - The Tradition of Hannah's psalm and prayer was well known to every young prophet in Samuel's school, and her best memories were perpetuated and transmitted in the devotional life and labours of her son
Brethren of the Lord (2) - All these views claim to be Scriptural, and the Epiphanian claims in addition to be in accordance with the most ancient Tradition
Christ in the Seventeenth Century - In their treatment of the Christological problem, both Lutheran and Reformed theologians clung fervently to the Traditions of the past, and to the Confessional theology of the previous century. The theologians of Helmstädt, who followed the more moderate Chemnitzian view, were all the more opposed to the Formula that it was interpreted by the Swabian theologians in a sense that restored the Brenzian Tradition
Covenant - The emergence of the idea here is in harmony with the best OT Traditions: it expresses the consciousness of the sovereign grace and undeserved faithfulness of God which pervades the prophetic pieces preserved for us in the gospel of the incarnation according to St. Still, as a matter of fact, with some writers the adoption of the shorter text is accompanied by the belief that it represents an older and more accurate Tradition of what actually took place
Passover - The sanctity attached to fire was a reason for the roasting with fire; a Tradition preserved in the hymns to Agni the fire god in the Rig Veda
Atonement (2) - ), or Traditions like that of the consecration of St. 1618451155_39), the correspondence of which with the Apostolic view of the Saviour’s mission is too subtle to warrant the theory that they are the glosses of a later Tradition
Fall (2) - The embodiment of this Protevangelium in the primitive religious Tradition, and in the inspired record of it, is a testimony to the fact that the Divine purpose of redemption is coeval with the existence of human sin
Father, Fatherhood - ...
The meaning of Fatherhood in the Fourth Gospel is the same as in the primitive Tradition. This Jewish conception of God was based on the Traditional interpretation of the Law, not on the spiritual teaching of the Prophets
Baruch, Apocalypse of - The circle of thought and Tradition is throughout Palestinian, und uninfluenced by Greek speculation and culture
Palestine - According to the older Tradition preserved in Judges 1:1-36 , they entered the country without an individual leader, as a number of more or less independent tribes or clans, and effected only a partial conquest, being baffled by the superior strength of certain specified cities. Remains of the building activities of Herod are still to be seen in the sub-structures of the Temple, the Herodian towers of Jerusalem, and (possibly) a magnificent tomb near Jerusalem Traditionally called the Tomb of Mariamme. Worn out by immorality, by leprosy and other diseases, and by mutual dissensions, the unworthy champions of the Cross disappeared before the heroic Saladin, leaving as their legacy to the country a score or so of place names; a quantity of worthless ecclesiastical Traditions; a number of castles and churches, few of which possess any special architectural interest, and many of which, by a strange irony, have been converted into mosques; and, among the Arab natives, an unquenchable hatred of Christianity
Jeremiah - ) At Tahpanhes he foretold Egypt's overthrow (Jeremiah 43:8-13), and Tradition says he was stoned there (Pseudo Epiphanius; compare Hebrews 11:37)
Jerusalem - Jewish Tradition placed the altars and sanctuary in Benjamin, the courts of the temple in Judah
Missions - All critics admit the antiquity of the passage, and it may be accepted as ‘embodying a true Apostolic Tradition’ (Salmond in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible iii
Creation - Jones (Asiatic Researches) states that the Indian philosophers similarly believed (doubtless from the primitive Tradition) that water was the first element and work of the creative power
Hell - -Before our survey of the literature closes, note must be taken of two striking and somewhat fantastic conceptions contained in two works, which probably set forth, among their obviously later material, elements of an earlier Tradition
Law - of the Sabbath, Matthew 12:1-14 ||s; of cleanness, Matthew 15:10-20 ||s)-or, at all events, of the interpretations recognized in the Synagogue (‘the Traditions of the elders,’ Matthew 15:2 ff. We thus see that, with regard to the Law, the evangelical Tradition seemed capable of a double construction, or, at least, that it did not supply the means for deciding a question that soon became urgent
Lunatic - ...
The Evangelists give full prominence to the physical side of these distressing afflictions, not because they understand the symptoms they describe, but because they testify simply and artlessly to what they had themselves witnessed, or what had become part of the common Tradition from the testimony of eye-witnesses
Caesarea Philippi - —an authenticating element whose force even those who question the Synoptic Tradition at this point find it difficult to escape (cf. by their account of His attitude towards the Traditions of the elders (Matthew 15:1-20, Mark 7:1-23)
Childhood - 198) or not in speaking of this portion of the Gospel, it is clear that these two chapters are something superadded to the main body of the Synoptic Tradition; and it is the same with Luke 1, 2
Birth of Christ - Convergent Traditions and the main facts. And as their narratives are wholly independent of each other, and differ in most other respects, it is clear that we have on this point a convergence of two distinct Traditions. , and sees in it the hidden path by which Bethlehem found its way into the Gospel Tradition (Encyc
Abstinence - (1) In many cases it would be mainly a matter of Tradition. In such Traditional fasting there is often, consciously or unconsciously, implicated the feeling that God is thereby pleased and merit acquired, and the result in such cases is Pharisaic complacency and externalism. Nowhere is the Traditional Church ascetic held up to imitation in the NT, as Eusebius (HE Hell - -Before our survey of the literature closes, note must be taken of two striking and somewhat fantastic conceptions contained in two works, which probably set forth, among their obviously later material, elements of an earlier Tradition
Old Testament - The early generation of Christians inherited this Tradition
Temple - The Chaldee and rabbiical Tradition that they were narrower without than within is probable; this would adapt them to admit light and air and let out smoke
Sacrifice - The destruction of the Second Temple within the Apostolic Age so quickened the rapidity with which Traditional authority became superior to sacrificial that it was officially taught that the study of the Law was more valuable in the sight of God than the continual burnt-offering (Megilla, 3b, 16b, Pesiqta, 60b). -The records of the apostolic preaching in the Acts reveal the primary fact that ‘Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures’ (1 Corinthians 15:3) was an article of common Tradition in the Apostolic Church
Judges (1) - The narrative, therefore, purports to give an account of the origin of the sanctuary of Dan, and it seems more than probable that two Traditions of this have been interwoven in these two chapters. It is therefore clear that there must have existed among the various Israelite tribes a body of Traditional matter regarding the deeds of tribal heroes which originally floated about orally within the circumscribed area of each particular tribe. Moreover, it is also well known that these early Traditions were mostly sung or, to speak more correctly, recited in a primitive form of poetry. In the first place, there must have taken place at some time or other a collection of these ancient records which belonged originally to different tribes; one may confidently assume that a collection of this kind would have been put together from written materials; these materials would naturally have been of varying value, so that the collector would have felt himself perfectly justified in discriminating between what he had before him; some records he would retain, others he would discard; and if he found two accounts of some Tradition which he considered important, he would incorporate both. At some early period there was a confederacy among some of the tribes of Israel, formed for the purpose of combating the Canaanites; the confederates are victorious; the different tribes who took part in the battle return home, and (presumably) each tribe preserves its own account of what happened; for generations these different accounts are handed down orally; ultimately some are lost, others are written down; two are finally preserved and incorporated into a collection of tribal Traditions, i. ...
(3) We may assume, then, as reasonably certain, the existence of a body of Traditional matter which had been compiled from different sources; this compilation represents our Book of Judges in its original form; it is aptly termed by many scholars the pre-Deuteronomic collection of the histories of the Judges
Samuel, First And Second, Theology of - In Jewish Tradition the "historical books" have long been known as the "former prophets" (the "prophetic books" are then known as the "latter prophets")
Jesus Christ - They are either too late in time, too tangential, too geographically distant, or too obviously a distortion of more Traditional Christian thought to be of much value. Others wrote of Jesus along more Traditional lines (D. Rather than focusing on the minute regulations that had grown up along with biblical Tradition, Jesus stressed the love and nearness of God to everyone personally. In three areas they were dissatisfied with what he was doing: he was violating the Sabbath rules (Matthew 12:1-8 ; Mark 3:1-6 ); his miraculous healings were attributed to demonic activity, rather than to divine intervention (Mark 3:22-30 ); and he set aside Traditional rules regarding hand washing, and, adding insult to injury, accused the leadership of being hypocritical (Mark 7:1-13 )
Lord's Day - The Tradition that the Lord rose again on the first day of the week naturally invested that day with special interest
Gnosticism - Or they appealed to a secret Tradition imparted to a few by Jesus Himself (so Irenaeus frequently). It is a body of writings unfolding a Traditional and, partly at least, esoteric doctrine
Gospel (2) - ...
The Johannine Tradition lays special emphasis upon this Divine Fatherhood in its relation to Jesus; the relation between the Father and His children is referred to in terms of love
John the Baptist - A Tradition as early as the Crusades assigns the honour to Ain Karim, a village which lay between Jerusalem and Bethlehem. A priest’s son, he would naturally, according to all Jewish Traditions, have stepped into the priestly office, and enjoyed the honours, abundance, and comparative ease that were parts of his birthright
Manuscripts - The text is good, and was, according to Tradition, copied by the famous bishop Eusebius of Vercelli, martyred in 371
Matthew, Gospel According to - But it is equally clear that the editor of the First Gospel has recorded them because they formed part of the Tradition which had come to him, without seeing in them an explanation of the entire earthly life of the Messiah
Colossians, Epistle to the - And this very Rabbinism is clearly alluded to in Colossians 2:8, ‘the Tradition of men
Jeremiah - Jewish Tradition relates that he died at the hands of his incensed fellow-exiles
Barnabas, Epistle of - Tradition, however, has ascribed it to Barnabas the fellow-worker of St. And it is difficult to think that any Jew, born under the Law, and nurtured in the stirring Traditions of its maintenance in the face of cruel persecution, could come to feel so little enthusiasm for and interest in the national struggles and heroisms that he could sweep them all away as things which never ought to have been
Innocentius, Bishop of Rome - Innocent sent him a letter containing 14 rules, of which he says that they are no new ones, but derived by Tradition from the apostles and fathers, though too generally unknown or disregarded. Innocent tells him that no one can be ignorant of the obligation of all to observe the Traditions, and those alone, which the Roman church had received from St
Annunciation, the - The εἰσελθών is against the later Tradition that she was at the fountain drawing water (Protevangelium of James, 11; Gospel of pseudo-Matthew , 9)
Mahometanism - It does not contain one single doctrine which may not fairly be derived either from the Jewish and Christian Scriptures, from the spurious and apocryphal Gospels, then current in the east, from the Talmudical legends, or from the Traditions, customs, and opinions of the Arabians. " The last of these practical religious duties is deemed so necessary, that, according to a Tradition of Mohammed, he who dies without performing it, "may as well die a Jew or a Christian. The Sonnites receive the Sonna, or book of Traditions of their prophet, as of canonical authority; but the Schiites reject it as apocryphal, and unworthy of credit
Pentecost - But we have the strong Tradition that Jesus rose again on the first day of the week: and more than that, we have the undeniable fact that Sunday became the Christian weekly holy day on that very ground
Paul the Apostle - Further, there was, quite apart from these Epistles, an early Tradition that St. Paul a zealous and bigoted Jew, determined with all the ardour of youth to uphold the Traditions of his fathers
Julius (5), Bishop of Rome - All that Julius insists on is that charges against the bishops of great sees ought, according to apostolic Tradition and canonical rule, to be referred to the whole episcopate; and that, in the case of a bp. The canons, on the face of them, were not a confirmation of a Traditional prerogative of Rome
Paulinus, Bishop of Nola - He avoids most of the legends, and shews that the use of bells in churches, an invention credited to him by Tradition, is not due to him, nor even to the town of Nola
Pentecost - But we have the strong Tradition that Jesus rose again on the first day of the week: and more than that, we have the undeniable fact that Sunday became the Christian weekly holy day on that very ground
New Testament - ...
Thus, an uncritical Greek text of publishers has been for ages submitted to by Protestants, though abjuring blind assent to Tradition, and laughing at the claim to infallibility of the two popes who declared each of two diverse editions of the Vulgate to be exclusively authentic. Lachmann is wrong in slavishly adhering to the principal authorities when agreeing in an unquestionable error; still "the first Greek Testament printed wholly on ancient authority, irrespective of modern Traditions, is due to C
Text of the Gospels - —A text substantially the same as the Textus Receptus has been called by Dean Burgon and his school the ‘Traditional Text’; by Dr. There never has been a unanimous Tradition as to the text of Scripture: only for the three centuries that followed the first printing of the Greek NT has there been even an appearance of such unanimity. But though the writings of Burgon and Miller force one to the conclusion that for them personally their theory rested on a priori grounds, yet they have with great labour, assiduity, and learning collected a vast amount of evidence in support of the ‘Traditional Text. Miller, who edited and completed many of Burgon’s papers after his death, adopted a more temperate tone; but so much of Burgon’s language is incorporated, that the subject is still treated rather after the fashion of a polemical controversy than of a critical investigation, Moreover, Burgon’s contention was that the ‘Traditional Text’ is the only one that has any claim to be regarded as the true text; all documents that differ from it are treated as of practically no value. Hort, on the other hand, considered the ‘Traditional’ or ‘Antiochian’ text to be valueless as evidence. We lay a good deal of stress on this matter, because we think there has been a strong disposition to regard the ‘Traditional Text’ as a hobby of Burgon’s, and to treat his defence of it with the same contempt that he poured so freely on others. Here we are placed in a difficulty, because Clement and Origen did not by any means always agree, and, if a quotation had been preserved in which Clement used a different reading, it would be probable that Origen’s reading did not belong to the text Traditionally current at Alexandria, but that he had obtained it from some other source; his evidence, therefore, would be simply of a personal character. ...
Miller (The Traditional Text, p. ) has attempted to prove the antiquity of the Traditional or Antiochian text by a wide appeal to Patristic evidence
Samaria, Samaritans - Jewish and Samaritan Tradition agree as to the date of this event, which Josephus sets down wrongly in the time of Alexander the Great and Jaddua the high priest (b
Science (2) - in so expanding the compass of legal precept beyond what was laid down in the Pentateuch and in the oldest form of Tradition, that it might be impossible for a man, if he observed all their Traditional rules, to be even tempted to transgress the Law’ (see art. The Traditions of the scribes He altogether rejected, and even the authority of the Law He subjected to a penetrating criticism
Egypt - No Tradition of the flood, though found in almost every other country, is traceable among them, except their reply to Solon (Plato, Tim
Canon of the New Testament - Apart from this, (1) Traditional usage and (2) assurance of Apostolic authorship appear to have been two grounds relied upon. The Canon rests mainly on Tradition and usage
English Versions - A Tradition, originating with Bale, attributed an English version of the Psalms to Aldhelm, bishop of Sherborne ( d
Holy Spirit (2) - and Luke 12:10 has almost certainly been deflected in Tradition
Joram - —Just as in the Alps the Traditional opinion of mountaineers does not always show as the principal source of a river the one which tourists or even geographers would denote as such, so is it with the Jordan. Its Traditional identification with ‘the waters of Merom’ (Joshua 11:5; Joshua 11:7) must be regarded with caution (cf. Gilboa and passes to Beisan; then, close to Jericho, the Wadi el-Kelt, which Tradition, probably wrongly, identifies with the Cherith of the Bible
Hilarius (7) Pictaviensis, Saint - " A sort of Tradition was handed down to Bonaventure by a schoolman, William of Paris, that Hilary had made a formal retractation of his error concerning the indolentia, which he had ascribed to our Lord. The emperor, too, on his side, has altered the Traditional line of policy against opponents
Authority in Religion - And, as is well known, it was His resistance in word and deed to the Traditions of the elders regarding the Sabbath—these being ‘beside’ God’s word—that earned for Him, with the Pharisees, the odium of being Himself a Sabbath-breaker (John 5, Matthew 12, Mark 3). He set the seal of His disapproval upon the more subtle and spiritual, but no less real compulsion of a tyrannical public or ecclesiastical opinion, whether formulated into a Tradition or into a usage
Koran - ...
The more effectually to engage people to hearken to him, great part of the Koran is employed in relating examples of dreadful punishments formerly inflicted by God on those who rejected and abused his messengers; several of which stories, or some circumstances of them, are taken from the Old and New Testaments, but many more from the apocryphal books and Traditions of the Jews and Christians of those ages, set up in the Koran as truths, in opposition to the Scriptures, which the Jews and Christians are charged with having altered; and, indeed, few or none of the relations of circumstances in the Koran were invented by Mahomet, as is generally supposed; it being easy to trace the greatest part of them much higher, as the rest might be, were more of these books extant, and were it worth while to make the inquiry. The Mahometans have a positive theology built on the Alcoran and Tradition, as well as a scholastical one built on reason. Its materials are wholly borrowed from the Jewish and Christian Scriptures, from the Talmudical legends and apocryphal gospels than current in the east, and from the Traditions and fables which abounded in Arabia
Law - It is from those common notions, handed down by Tradition, though often imperfect and perverted, that the Heathens themselves distinguished right from wrong, by which "they were a law unto themselves, showing the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience bearing witness," Romans 2:12-15 , although they had no express revelation. A preceding code of Traditionary moral law is all along supposed in the writings of Moses and the prophets, as well as a consuetudinary ritual and a doctrinal theology, both transmitted from the patriarchs
Trinity - Maurice, "our eye through the remote region of antiquity, we shall find this very doctrine, which the primitive Christians are said to have borrowed from the Platonic school, universally and immemorially flourishing in all those countries where history and Tradition have united to fix those virtuous ancestors of the human race, who, for their distinguished attainments in piety, were admitted to a familiar intercourse with Jehovah and the angels, the divine heralds of his commands
Christianity - With Pagans the authority of moral rules was either the opinion of the wise, or the Tradition of the ancient, confirmed, it is true, in some degree, by observation and experience; but to us, they are given as commands immediately issuing from the supreme Governor, and ratified as his by the most solemn and explicit attestations
Moses - The "body of Moses," may figuratively mean the Jewish church; or the whole may be an allusion to a received Tradition which, without affirming or denying its truth, might be made the basis of a moral lesson
Paul - Paul laid the foundation of those literary attainments, for which he was so eminent in the future part of his life, at his native city of Tarsus; and he afterward studied the law of Moses, and the Traditions of the elders, at Jerusalem, under Gamaliel, a celebrated rabbi, Acts 22:4 . It was the unanimous Tradition of the church, that St
Paul - Before he himself fades out of our sight in the twilight of ecclesiastical Tradition, we have letters written by himself which contribute some particulars to his biography
Polycarp - The written Tradition of the Epistle of Polycarp is very deficient, for the Greek MSS_ of it which are extant all stop at ch
Passover - Peter mysteriously disappears from view, leaving us henceforth dependent on uncertain Tradition for all further knowledge of his career. In all probability they went on for years observing the festivals with their old Jewish significance as they also complied with other Traditional usages
Polycarpus, Bishop of Smyrna - During the later years of his life Gnostic speculation had become very active and many things unknown to the faith of ordinary Christians were put forth as derived by secret Traditions from the apostles. Thus a high value was attached to the witness Polycarp could give as to the genuine Tradition of apostolic doctrine, his testimony condemning as offensive novelties the figments of the heretical teachers. " This coincidence has, not very reasonably, been taken as a note of spuriousness of the letter; the idea being that a writer under the name of Polycarp who employs a phrase Traditionally known as Polycarp's betrays himself as a forger striving to gain acceptance for his production
Vulgate - They differ from the ‘Golden Gospels’ in being complete Bibles, and in being written in the beautiful small minuscule which at this time, under Charlemagne’s influence, superseded the tortured and unsightly script of the Merovingian and Lombardic Traditions, and of which Tours was one of the principal homes. The Tradition of the ‘Golden Gospels’ was carried into Germany, where copies of the Gospels were produced on a smaller scale, with less ornamentation, and in a rather heavy Caroline minuscule, which clearly derive their origin from this source
Rome - The Tradition that St
Ambrosius of Milan - The consular came down to the church to keep the peace and was addressing the people in his character as a civil magistrate, when a cry (which Tradition asserts to have been that of a child) was heard, "Ambrose for bishop!" In a moment it struck the whole multitude as a solution in which both parties might acquiesce without the sense of defeat, and a unanimous shout arose, "We will have Ambrose for bishop!" It was a singular choice, even for those rougher and more tumultuous times, for Ambrose was not yet so much as baptized
Christ in Modern Thought - The immediate unity of God and man in the spirit in which religion consists, came to Christ not by speculative philosophy or Tradition as it does to us, but simply through His existence
Christ in Reformation Theology - Augustine felt as strongly the need for a Saviour who was both God and man; and, inheriting the theology Tradition of the West, first established by Tertullian and confirmed by Ambrose of Milan, he found a clue to a statement of the Person of Christ in the NT phrases, ‘the form of God,’ and ‘the form of a servant,’ and held that these two forms coexisted in the unity of the Person (see above, p. The efforts of the Schoolmen were directed solely to the exposition of the philosophical implications of Traditional doctrines; they ignored the relation to actual religious life in the Church, apart from which theology becomes unreal
Christianity - But the ‘offences’ which caused many to forsake Him as a teacher were often occasioned by His departure from Traditional and familiar teaching, His assertion of superiority to the highest Jewish law (Matthew 5:21-48), and His claims to a unique knowledge of the Father (Matthew 11:27) and such a relation to Him, that His disciples were called on to believe not only the words that He spoke, but in Himself. One of the chief dangers arises from the influx of unworthy or half-hearted members, those with whom religion is a Tradition, not a living personal energy
Art - None the less, the fact that Constantine’s gift was made shows that there was no Tradition of dislike to such magnificence
Hosius (1), a Confessor Under Maximian - The story told by the Luciferians and the charges brought against his memory by his old enemies the Donatists serve at least to shew that, according to ecclesiastical Tradition, he died in Spain
Archaeology And Biblical Study - Of particular interest are mythological stories relating Traditions of creation and of a great flood as understood by the people of ancient Mesopotamia. ...
Earlier scholars defined Old Testament words by comparison with Arabic and by meanings derived from rabbinic Tradition
Clementine Literature - In early times, even when the work was rejected as heretical, it yet seems to have been supposed to rest on a groundwork of fact, and several statements passed into church Tradition which appear primarily to rest on its authority
Cyprianus (1) Thascius Caecilius - Augustine speaks of the Tradition of his gentleness, and he never lost the friendship of heathens of high rank (Pont
Eusebius of Caesarea - This letter, he concludes, is written to the Caesareans to explain that he would resist to the last any vital change in the Traditional creed of his church, but had subscribed to these alterations, when assured of their innocence, to avoid appearing contentious (ἀφιλονείκως ). The assembled bishops proposed Eusebius of Caesarea as his successor, and wrote to the emperor on his behalf, but Eusebius declined the honour, alleging the rule of the Church, regarded as an "apostolic Tradition," which forbade translations from one see to another; and Euphronius was elected
Jerusalem - The monks pretend to show the sites of the sacred places; but neither Calvary, nor the holy sepulchre, much less the Dolorous Way, the house of Caiaphas, &c, have the slightest pretensions to even a probable identity with the real places to which the Tradition refers
Lutherans - ...
Luther also rejected Tradition, purgatory, penance, auricular confession, masses, invocation of saints, monastic vows, and other doctrines of the church of Rome
Jews - This law was only oral till the days of Rabbi Jehuda, who, perceiving that the students of the law were gradually decreasing, and that the Jews were dispersed over the face of the earth, collected all the Traditions, arranged them under distinct heads, and formed them into a methodical code of Traditional law; thus the Mishna was formed. By the cabala, the Jews mean those mystical interpretations of the Scripture, and metaphysical speculations concerning the Deity, angels, &c, which they regard as having been handed down by a secret Tradition from the earliest ages
Egypt - Tradition points to separate kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt towards the close of this period. The Traditional exploits of the world-conqueror Sesostris seem to have been developed in late times out of the petty expeditions of Senwosri III
Person of Christ - The title Messiah (‘Christ’), familiar to Jewish religion from Psalms 2:1-12 , denotes in general the anointed Head of the Kingdom of God, the new King of a redeemed people; and Jesus, retaining the outline of the Traditional idea, infused into it a new spiritual meaning, which, as applied to Himself, signified that He was not a new Teacher or Lawgiver or even the Founder of a new faith, but the Bearer and Finisher of divinely wrought salvation. The title was Traditional, yet it awaited final interpretation; and this Jesus gave by stamping on it the impress of Himself. The very fact that the eternal Divinity of Christ could thus be held and interpreted without recourse to the idea of virgin-birth proves that that idea did not arise as a psychologically inevitable religious postulate, and may therefore claim to have genuine Tradition behind it
Leo i, the Great - Later Tradition has also introduced the well-known legend which represents Attila as confessing himself overawed by a miraculous presence, the apparition of St
Originality - If he has shaken our faith in much in the Gospel narratives which he has shown to be derived from Buddhism, we may comfort ourselves, he thinks, with the reflexion that those features in the life of Jesus to which he has found no analogy in Buddhist Tradition,—such, e
Palestine - This is not merely the result of the fact that local Tradition and foolish ways of honouring sacred places have disfigured and stultified so many spots of Palestine
Paul (2) - Palestinian Traditions. ...
On the other hand, the markedly individual character of the two chief specimens of the Pauline Tradition, as compared with the Gospels, would go to show that the sources from which he drew were distinct from those used by our present Evangelists
Pelagianism And Pelagius - His name undoubtedly looks like a Grecized version of some earlier name; but the Tradit