What does Tongues mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
γλώσσαις the tongue 14
γλῶσσαι the tongue 4
γλωσσῶν the tongue 4
γλώσσας the tongue 1
ἑτερογλώσσοις one who speaks a foreign language. 1
לְשׁוֹנָ֖ם tongue. 1
וְהַלְּשֹׁנ֑וֹת tongue. 1
לְשׁוֹנָ֔ם tongue. 1
לְשׁוֹנָם֙ tongue. 1
לְשׁוֹנָם֮ tongue. 1
לְשֹׁנֽוֹת tongue. 1
לְשׁוֹנָ֑ם tongue. 1
לְשׁ֥וֹן tongue. 1

Definitions Related to Tongues

G1100


   1 the tongue, a member of the body, an organ of speech.
   2 a tongue.
      1a the language or dialect used by a particular people distinct from that of other nations.
      

H3956


   1 tongue.
      1a tongue (of men).
         1a1 tongue (literal).
         1a2 tongue (organ of speech).
      1b language.
      1c tongue (of animals).
      1d tongue (of fire).
      1e wedge, bay of sea (tongue-shaped).
      

G2084


   1 one who speaks a foreign language.
   

Frequency of Tongues (original languages)

Frequency of Tongues (English)

Dictionary

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Tongues, Confusion of
TONGUES, CONFUSION OF . The belief that the world, after the Flood, was re-populated by the progeny of a single family, speaking one language, is reconciled in the Bible with the existing diversity of tongues by a story which relates how the descendants of Noah, in the course of their wanderings, settled in the plain of Shinar, or Babylonia, and there built of brick a city, and a tower high enough to reach heaven, as a monument to preserve their fame, and as a centre of social cohesion and union. But the Lord discerned their ambitious purposes, and, after consulting with the Divine beings who constituted His council and court (cf. Genesis 1:26 ; Genesis 3:22 ), frustrated their design by confounding their speech, so that concerted action was no longer possible for them. In consequence, the name of the city was called Babel (see below), and its builders were compelled to disperse over the face of the earth ( Genesis 11:1-9 ).
The story belongs to a class of narratives (of which there are several in the Bible) intended to explain the origin of various institutions, or usages, the existence of which excited the curiosity of a primitive race. Among these was the prevalence in the world of different languages, which contributed so greatly to produce between the various peoples, who were thus unintelligible to one another, feelings of mutual suspicion and fear (cf. Deuteronomy 28:49 , Isaiah 28:11 ; Isaiah 33:19 , Jeremiah 5:15 ). The particular explanation furnished was doubtless suggested partly by the name of the city of Babel , or Babylon (which, though really meaning ‘gate of God,’ was by a popular etymology connected with the Heb. word bâlal , ‘to confuse’), and partly by the presence, at or near Babylon, of the ruins of some great tower, which looked as though it had originally been designed as a means to scale heaven. Two such towers, or ziqqurats , were the temple of Merodach (or Marduk) in Babylon (supposed to be beneath the mound of Babil ), and the temple of Nebo in Borsippa (the ruins of which form the mound of Birs Nimroud ); and knowledge of one or other of these may have helped to shape the narrative. The character of the narrative makes it impossible to consider it as real history: it bears on its surface manifest evidence that it is a creation of primitive fancy. The question whether the various languages of mankind have really been derived from one common tongue cannot be separated from the question (into which it is unnecessary to enter here) whether the various races of men have sprung from a single stock, i.e. ‘whether man appeared originally on the globe at one centre or at many centres.’ It may be said, however, that philological research has proved that the numerous existing languages are members of a comparatively small number of families of speech (such as the Indo-European, the Semitic, etc.); but that between these families of speech there is so great a difference of structure, that their descent from one original tongue seems highly improbable. At the same time, all languages must have arisen from certain faculties and instincts common to human nature; and the presence, in languages belonging to distinct families, of onomatopoetic, or imitative, words serves to illustrate the essential similarity of human tendencies in the sphere of speech all the world over.
G. W. Wade.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Tongues, Gift of
TONGUES, GIFT OF
1. In NT we read of ‘speaking with tongues’ or ‘in a tongue’ as a remarkable sign of the outpouring of the Holy Spirit; but the exact meaning of the phenomenon described has been much disputed. We may take the passages in the chronological order of writing. ( a ) The Epistles . In 1Co 12:1-31 ; 1 Corinthians 13:1-13 ; 1 Corinthians 14:1-40 , among the charismata or (spiritual) gifts are ‘divers kinds of tongues’ and ‘the interpretation of tongues’ ( 1 Corinthians 12:10 ; 1 Corinthians 12:30 ). Yet St. Paul, who possessed the gift himself ( 1 Corinthians 14:18 ), considers it to be of little importance as compared with prophecy. In itself it is addressed to God, and unless interpreted it is useless to those assembled; it is a sign to believers, but will not edify, but rather excite the ridicule of, unlearned persons or heathens ( 1 Corinthians 14:23 ). Whatever the gift was, speaking with tongues was at Corinth ordinarily unintelligible to the hearers, and sometimes even to the speaker ( 1 Corinthians 14:14 ), though the English reader must note that the word ‘unknown’ in AV [1] is an interpolation. The gift was not to be forbidden, but everything was to be done decently and in order ( 1 Corinthians 14:40 ). Indications of the gift are thought to be found in 1 Thessalonians 5:19 , Romans 8:15 ; Romans 8:26 , Galatians 4:6 , Ephesians 5:19 , but not at all in the Pastoral, Petrine, or Johannine Epistles. It seems to have belonged to the infancy of the Church ( 1 Corinthians 13:8 . ‘Tongues … shall cease’). [2] ( b ) Acts . At Pentecost, in addition to the ‘mighty wind’ and the ‘tongues parting asunder like as of fire,’ we read that the assembled disciples spoke ‘with other tongues as the Spirit gave them utterance’ ( Acts 2:4 ). The multitudes from many countries, coming together, heard them speak in their tongues the mighty works of God ( Acts 2:11 ), while some thought that they were drunken ( Acts 2:13 ; cf. 1 Corinthians 14:23 ). We read again of the gift in the conversion of Cornelius and his household ( Acts 10:46 ) St. Peter expressly says that it was the same as at Pentecost ( Acts 11:15 ) and at Ephesus ( Acts 19:8 ); and probably the same is intended in the story of the Samaritan converts ( Acts 8:17 f.: ‘Simon saw that … the Holy Ghost was given’). ( c ) In the Appendix to Mark (which, even if Markan, is comparatively late) we have the promise that the disciples ‘shall speak with [3] tongues’ ( Acts 16:17 : ‘new’ is probably not of the best text).
2. Meaning of the gift . Relying chiefly on the passages of Acts, most of the Fathers (as Origen, Chrysostom, Theodoret, Gregory of Nyssa, Gregory of Nazianzus) understand the gift as being for purposes of evangelization, as if the disciples received a miraculous endowment of foreign languages to enable them to preach; Gregory of Nyssa and others take the gift as a miracle of hearing , the disciples speaking in their own language, but the people understanding their speech each in his own tongue. This view starts with the doubtless true idea that ‘tongue’ means ‘language’ here. But Acts says nothing, about preaching; the gift is never found in NT in connexion with evangelization; the passages in 1 Cor., where the utterances are often unintelligible even to the utterer, are clearly repugnant to this interpretation, and we have no proof that the Apostles ever preached in any language but Greek and Aramaic, even to the ‘barbarous’ heathen, such as the Lycaonians or Maltese. Indeed, Paul and Barnabas clearly did not know Lycaonian ( Acts 14:11 ; Acts 14:14 ). Peter probably did not know Greek well enough to preach in it, for Mark was his ‘interpreter’ (Papias, Irenæus). We cannot, then, follow the majority of the Fathers in their interpretation. Had it been the true one, St. Paul would have encouraged the Corinthians to use the gift to the utmost.
Unfortunately, we do not know how the earlier 2nd cent. Fathers understood the matter; but Tertullian apparently judged the gift to be an ecstatic utterance of praise ( adv. Marc . v. 8). This is much more probable than the other view. At Pentecost the disciples spoke the ‘mighty works of God.’ All the NT passages either suggest or agree with the idea of worship. This does not, indeed, exhaust all our difficulties; but perhaps the following considerations may solve at least some of them. ( a ) The disciples, at a critical period of the Church, were in a state of intense excitement. But St. Paul’s words do not mean that their utterances were mere gibberish; on the contrary, they were capable of interpretation if one who had that gift were present. And at Pentecost they were, as a matter of fact, understood. ( b ) It has been suggested that we are to understand ‘tongues,’ not as ‘languages,’ but as ‘poetic or symbolic speech,’ not readily understood by the unlearned. But this view does not satisfy Acts 2:1-47 , though in itself it may be true; in a word, this is an insufficient explanation. ( c ) The languages required by Acts 2:1-47 are actually only two Greek and Aramaic. For those present at Pentecost were Jews; the list in Acts 2:9 ff. is of countries, not of languages. All the Jews of these countries spoke either Greek or Aramaic. This is a difficulty in interpreting the narrative, which gives us the impression of a large number of different languages. But probably what is intended is a large number of dialects of Greek and Aramaic, especially of the latter; it would be as though a Somerset man heard one who habitually spoke broad Scots praising God in the Somerset dialect. And what would strike the pilgrim Jews present was that the speakers at Pentecost were mainly those who themselves spoke an uncouth Aramaic dialect, that of Galilee ( Matthew 26:73 ). ( d ) This consideration may lead us a step further. We may recognize in the Pentecostal wonder a stirring of memory, a recalling of utterances previously heard by the disciples at former feasts when a polyglot multitude of Jews (polyglot at least in dialects) was assembled, the speakers uttering what they had unconsciously already taken into their memories. This would account for their words being so readily understood; some of the speakers would be praising God in one dialect, some in another. ( e ) Something of this sort may have happened at Corinth, one of the most cosmopolitan of cities. Here the possession of the gift was not confined to those of Jewish birth. But naturally the resident Christian community at Corinth would ordinarily not understand the strange dialects given utterance to. The case is not the same as that of Pentecost, when many different peoples were gathered together.
To sum up, it seems probable that the gift of tongues was an ecstatic utterance of praise, not only in poetic and symbolic speech, but also in languages or dialects not ordinarily spoken by those who had the gift; a power given at a time of great enthusiasm and excitement, at a critical period of the world’s history, but not meant to be a permanent gift for the Church, and not ranking so high as other charismata , especially not so high as prophecy. That it survived the Apostolic age is hardly probable.
A. J. Maclean.
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Gift of Tongues
An ability given to the apostles of readily and intelligibly speaking a variety of languages which they had never learnt. This was a most glorious and important attestation to the Gospel, as well as a suitable, and indeed, in their circumstances, a necessary furniture for the mission for which the apostles and their assistants were designed. Nor is there any reason, with Dr. Middleton, to understand it as merely an occasional gift, so that a person might speak a language most fluently one hour, and be entirely ignorant of it in the next; which neither agrees with what is said of the abuse of it, nor would have been sufficient to answer the end proposed.
See Acts 2:1-47 :
See Gill and Henry in Loc.; Jortin's Remarks, vol. 1: p. 15-21; Essay on the Gift of Tongues; Middleton's Miscel. Works, vol. 2: p. 379; Doddridge's Lect. lec. 141.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Tongues, Confusion of
At Babel, the cause of the early separation of mankind and their division into nations. The descendants of Noah built a tower to prevent their dispersion; but God "confounded their language" (Genesis 11:1-8 ), and they were scattered over the whole earth. Till this time "the whole earth was of one language and of one speech." (See SHINAR .)
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Tongues
GIFT OF.
See GIFT OF TONGUES.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Tongues, Gift of
Granted on the day of Pentecost (Acts 2:4 ), in fulfilment of a promise Christ had made to his disciples (Mark 16:17 ). What this gift actually was has been a subject of much discussion. Some have argued that it was merely an outward sign of the presence of the Holy Spirit among the disciples, typifying his manifold gifts, and showing that salvation was to be extended to all nations. But the words of Luke (Acts 2:9 ) clearly show that the various peoples in Jerusalem at the time of Pentecost did really hear themselves addressed in their own special language with which they were naturally acquainted (Compare Joel 2:28,29 ). Among the gifts of the Spirit the apostle enumerates in 1 Corinthians 12:10-14:30 ,, "divers kinds of tongues" and the "interpretation of tongues." This "gift" was a different manifestation of the Spirit from that on Pentecost, although it resembled it in many particulars. Tongues were to be "a sign to them that believe not."
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Tongues Gift of
The chief authority in apostolic literature for the gift of speaking with tongues (γλωσσολαλία) is 1 Corinthians 14. What happened on the day of Pentecost is described (Acts 2:4) as speaking ‘with other tongues’ (λαλεῖν ἑτέραις γλώσσαις). The emphasis lies on the distinguishing ἑτέραις. The speakers spoke in languages other than their own: under the stress of spiritual emotion they lapsed into a foreign tongue; it was a special phenomenon peculiar to a special occasion. In Acts 10:46; Acts 19:6 the same phenomenon according to some authorities re-appears; but, as the distinguishing ἑτέραις is absent, it is open to us to regard these passages as parallel to 1 Corinthians 14 and as indicating a phenomenon other than the Pentecostal.
What are the chief features of glossolalia in the Corinthian church? (1) Like ‘prophecy,’ ‘speaking with tongues’ was one of the gifts of the πνευματικοί: it was reckoned among the charisms as an inspiration or endowment originating with the Holy Spirit. (2) It was unintelligible to others (1 Corinthians 14:2, ‘no man understandeth’). (3) It was personal to the speaker, who edified himself and not the church (1 Corinthians 14:4). (4) It is described in the case of an individual as γλώσσαις λαλεῖν (1 Corinthians 14:5) and again in the singular γλώσσῃ (1 Corinthians 14:13; 1 Corinthians 14:27) or ἐν γλώσσῃ (1 Corinthians 14:19) (διὰ τῆς γλώσσης, 1 Corinthians 14:9, refers to the instrument of speech). It is evident that ‘tongue’ in this connexion is used of a specific utterance. It is an open question whether it was deliberate, on the ground that ordinary language was unsuitable for prayer or fellowship or testimony regarding the spiritual life, or was produced apart from the volition of the speaker under the influence of spiritual excitement or emotion. The evidence is in favour of the latter view: in other words, that the speaker was the subject of a Spirit-possession which moved him to speak ‘with the tongues of men and of angels’ (1 Corinthians 13:1). The distinction in the latter passage points to an ecstasy which on occasions appeared to be more than human, as if the Spirit used a human medium for angelic speech (cf. 2 Corinthians 12:4). It was used only in prayer (1 Corinthians 14:2; 1 Corinthians 14:14). It was speech ‘not unto men, but unto God.’ To the outsider it appeared a species of soliloquy. Intellect or νοῦς was passive or ἄκαρπος (1 Corinthians 14:14). There were many types of tongues (γένη γλωσσῶν 1 Corinthians 12:10; 1 Corinthians 12:28).
Undoubtedly St. Paul recognized it as a spiritual gift, but inferior, as, e.g., compared with prophecy. It was of no value to an unbeliever, because it could not lead to faith: cf. St. Paul’s application of Isaiah 28:11 f. in 1 Corinthians 14:21. Indeed, to both the outsider and the unbeliever (1 Corinthians 14:23) it would appear a kind of madness. Nor to the believer was it of real benefit unless there was an interpretation (1 Corinthians 14:13); and the speaker-with-tongues was counselled to pray for such an interpretation, as if his utterance per se were of little value. St. Paul was no believer in unintelligibility (1 Corinthians 14:11): hence his emphasis on a εὔσημος (‘capable of being expounded’) λόγος (1 Corinthians 14:9). He claimed the gift as one of his own (1 Corinthians 14:18), but preferred five instructive words spoken with the understanding to ten thousand in a tongue (1 Corinthians 14:19). If his words were not understood, it was like pouring words into the empty air (1 Corinthians 14:9). Hence an interpretation was essential, though this was a gift by itself and was not necessarily exercised by the speaker-with-tongues himself.
It is obvious that the Corinthians were specially susceptible to such abnormal powers; with a considerable section of the church γλωσσολαλία was more popular than teaching and prophecy, in spite of the fact that as a purely subjective phenomenon it was of no value to the outsider (ἰδιώτης), who could not even say ‘Amen’ to the formula of thanksgiving (1 Corinthians 14:16). The common sense of St. Paul was undoubtedly tried by its ineffectuality (‘your thanksgiving may be all right, but then-the other man is not edified 1’ [1]).
There is no need to look for the origin of this experience among contemporary ethnic cults. That the atmosphere of the Hellenistic world of St. Paul was full of the phenomena of mysticism and ecstasy is clear to all students of the mystery-religions. But the ecstatic manifestations of the Corybantic or Dionysiac devotee or the worshipper of Isis and Osiris are simply parallels with the Corinthian Christian phenomena; they are not sources of it. Κορυβαντιᾶν (to use Philo’s word, Quis Rer. Div. Heres, 69, quoted by Kennedy, St. Paul and the Mystery-Religions, p. 66) is a convenient generic term for Divine possession as found in the revivals of ancient and modern religions. To Huxley the Salvation Army appeared to be a kind of ‘Corybantic Christianity,’ judged by its external phenomena of religious excitement and enthusiasm. At the same time, the phenomena that have accompanied revivals such as early Methodism, the Salvation Army, and the recent Welsh revival have rarely been of the type of γλωσσολαλία: there have been sobs and ejaculations, but not unintelligible continuous speech. In a valuable appendix to his Earlier Epistles of St. Paul2 (London, 1914) K. Lake (‘Glossolalia and Psychology,’ ch. iv. Appendix ii.) finds traces of glossolalia in the Testament of Job and in the magical papyri, e.g. the Leiden papyrus, where Hermes is invoked in unintelligible symbols. The use of strange words in magical formulas or charms which is to be found in circles alien to the apostolic communities may properly be adduced as parallels to glossolalia; but it would appear that glossolalia speedily vanished from apostolic Christianity. There is no reference to it in the Apostolic Fathers. The passages quoted from Irenaeus (Haer. V. vi. 1) and Tertullian (c. Marc. v. 8) are not convincing proofs that the practice was in vogue in their own times, while Chrysostom in the 4th cent. is unable to explain what its real nature was. Lake notes the case of the Camisards, a sect of French Protestants in the early 18th cent., who are known under stress of religious emotion to have ‘uttered exhortations in good French, although, in their ordinary state of consciousness, they were incapable of speaking anything but the Romance patois of the Cévennes’ (loc. cit., p. 245). A clearer parallel to glossolalia is the more familiar case of the Irvingites, whose ecstatic utterances were an unintelligible jargon. Lake’s examination of the phenomena as a whole demonstrates that from the standpoint of psychology there is nothing in itself unreasonable in uncontrolled or uncontrollable speech. When the subliminal consciousness is called into play or energy by religious emotion, there results a paraphasia which may take the form of speaking languages previously not known by the speaker, or uttering speech unintelligible to the hearer. The whole subject is invested with renewed interest by the modern study of religious pathology and psychology. It would now appear that speaking with tongues, like so many other phenomena of the spiritual consciousness, whether in the records of the Scriptures or in non-canonical writings or in the general annals of the Christian life in all ages, is capable of reasonable explanation on psychological lines, even if all the data fail to yield a satisfactory meaning to the inquirer.
Literature.-In addition to the works named under Gifts and Prophecy, the following may be consulted: K. Lake, The Earlier Epistles of St. Paul2, London, 1914; H. A. A. Kennedy, St. Paul and the Mystery-Religions, London, 1913; J. Weiss, Der erste Korintherbrief, Göttingen, 1910; F. G. Hencke, ‘The Gift of Tongues and Related Phenomena at the Present Day,’ in AJTh [2] xiii. [3] 193-206; W. James, The Varieties of Religious Experience5, London, 1903, lects. ix. and x.; E. Mosiman, Das Zungenreden, geschichtlich und psychologisch untersucht, Tübingen, 1911 (contains an excellent bibliography).
R. Martin Pope.
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Tongues
When the Bible says that people spoke in tongues (‘other tongues’ or ‘strange tongues’), it means that their speech was in words that were not of their own language and that they did not understand, unless someone interpreted them. Beyond that simple definition, general statements about tongues become difficult, because of the different sorts and uses of tongues in the New Testament.
In the book of Acts
The birth of the New Testament church took place in Jerusalem on the Day of Pentecost, when about 120 disciples received the Holy Spirit as Jesus had promised (Acts 2:1-4; cf. Acts 1:4-5). On that occasion the disciples spoke in tongues that people from other linguistic groups understood as their native languages (Acts 2:4-11).
There are only two other places in Acts where the writer records that people spoke in tongues, but in neither case is it clear whether the tongues were languages already in use or something completely different (Acts 10:44-46; Acts 19:1-6). On each occasion there seems to have been a special reason for the people’s speaking in tongues, as each case is a departure from what had been normal till that time. The speaking in tongues was a striking outward and visible demonstration that the people concerned had received the Holy Spirit and were introduced into the church the same as the original disciples were on the Day of Pentecost. (See also BAPTISM WITH THE SPIRIT.)
In Paul’s letters
Tongues that were spoken in the normal meetings of the church seem to have had a different purpose. They were a gift that the Holy Spirit gave to certain people to exercise in their praise to God (1 Corinthians 12:10; 1 Corinthians 12:30; 1 Corinthians 14:2). People were to use the gift publicly only if someone could interpret the words in the normal language of the worshippers, so that all present could benefit. This indicates that whereas the tongues referred to in Acts were irresistible, those referred to in Corinthians were under the control of the speaker (1 Corinthians 14:13; 1 Corinthians 14:27-28). Also, those who spoke in tongues in the church were to do so one at a time, and no more than two or three in all (1 Corinthians 14:27).
It seems that the languages spoken in these cases (i.e. in the church) were different from any known languages. The Christians at Corinth, still influenced by attitudes from their former idolatrous days, were apparently impressed by these tongues, and considered that those who spoke them were spiritually superior. However, the situation got out of control, and people made some unusual, even blasphemous, statements. According to Paul, this was evidence that those who spoke in tongues were not necessarily speaking by the Holy Spirit (1 Corinthians 12:1-3; cf. 1 John 4:1-3).
Although Paul allowed the gift of tongues, he was cautious in encouraging people to seek it. He encouraged them rather to seek those gifts that proclaimed God’s Word and consequently built up the hearers (1 Corinthians 12:28-31; 1 Corinthians 14:3-5). Any speaking that took place in the church had to have meaning to the audience (1 Corinthians 14:6-12; 1 Corinthians 14:19). It had also to have meaning to the speaker, for he was not likely to be spiritually built up if he did not understand what he was saying (1 Corinthians 14:13-15).
The Corinthians’ concern for the spectacular demonstrated their immaturity, and their misuse of tongues brought dishonour on the church (1 Corinthians 14:20-25). Like all the gifts of the Spirit, the gift of tongues was given to only some in the church, and it could be wrongly used or falsely copied (1 Corinthians 12:3; 1 Corinthians 12:7; 1 Corinthians 12:10; 1 Corinthians 12:30; 1 Corinthians 13:1). Paul therefore emphasized that the evidence of the Spirit’s work in people’s lives was not whether they spoke in tongues, but whether their lives displayed the fruit of the Spirit. And the fruit of the Spirit is Christlike character (Galatians 5:22-23; see GIFTS OF THE SPIRIT).
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Tongues, Gift of
I. glotta , or glossa , the word employed throughout the New Testament for the gift now under consideration, is used-- (1) for the bodily organ of speech; (2) for a foreign word imported and half-naturalized in Greek; (3) in Hellenistic Greek, for "speech" or "language." The received traditional view, which starts from the third meaning, and sees in the gift of tongues a distinctly linguistic power, is the more correct one. II. The chief passages from which we have to draw our conclusion as to the nature and purpose of the gift in question are--
(Mark 16:17 )
(Acts 2:1-13 ; 10:46 ; 19:6 )
(2 Corinthians 12:1 ; 2 Corinthians 14:1 ) ... III. The promise of a new power coming from the divine Spirit, giving not only comfort and insight into truth, but fresh powers of utterance of some kind, appears once and again in our Lord's teaching. The disciples are to take no thought what they shall speak, for the spirit of their Father shall speak in them. (Matthew 10:19,20 ; Mark 13:11 ) The lips of Galilean peasants are to speak freely and boldly before kings. The promise of our Lord to his disciples, "They shall speak with new tongues," (Mark 16:17 ) was fulfilled on the day of Pentecost, when cloven tongues like fire sat upon the disciples, and "every man heard them speak in his own language." (Acts 2:1-12 ) IV. The wonder of the day of Pentecost is, in its broad features, familiar enough to us. What views have men actually taken of a phenomenon so marvellous and exceptional? The prevalent belief of the Church has been that in the Pentecostal gift the disciples received a supernatural knowledge of all such languages as they needed for their work as evangelists. The knowledge was permanent. Widely diffused as this belief has been it must be remembered that it goes beyond the data with which the New Testament supplies us. Such instance of the gift recorded in the Acts connects it not with the work of teaching, but with that of praise and adoration; not with the normal order of men's lives but with exceptional epochs in them. The speech of St. Peter which follows, like meet other speeches addressed to a Jerusalem audience, was spoken apparently in Aramaic. When St. Paul, who "spake with tongues more than all," was at Lystra, there is no mention made of his using the language of Lycaonia. It is almost implied that he did not understand it. (Acts 14:11 ) Not one word in the discussion of spiritual gifts in 1 Corinthians 12-14 implies that the gift was of this nature, or given for this purpose. Nor, it may be added, within the limits assigned the providence of God to the working of the apostolic Church,was such a gift necessary. Aramaic, Greek, Latin, the three languages of the inscription on the cross were media, of intercourse throughout the empire. Some interpreters have seen their way to another solution of the difficulty by changing the character of the miracle. It lay not in any new character bestowed on the speakers, but in the impression produced on the hearers. Words which the Galilean disciples uttered in their own tongue were heard as in their native speech by those who listened. There are, it is believed, weighty reasons against both the earlier and later forms of this hypothesis.
It is at variance with the distinct statement of (Acts 2:4 ) "They began to speak with other tongues."
It at once multiplies the miracle and degrades its character. Not the 120 disciples, but the whole multitude of many thousands, are in this case the subjects of it.
It involves an element of falsehood. The miracle, on this view, was wrought to make men believe what was not actually the fact.
It is altogether inapplicable to the phenomena of (1 Corinthians 14:1 ) ... Critics of a negative school have, as might be expected, adopted the easier course of rejecting the narrative either altogether or in part. What then, are, the facts actually brought before us? What inferences may be legitimately drawn from them? (a) The utterance of words by the disciples, in other languages than their own Galilean Aramaic, is distinctly asserted. (b) The words spoken appear to have been determined, not by the will of the speakers, but by the Spirit which "gave them utterance." (c) The word used, apoftheggesthai , has in the LXX. a special association with the oracular speech of true or false prophets, and appears to imply a peculiar, perhaps physical, solemn intonation. Comp. ( 1 Chronicles 25:1 ; Ezekiel 13:9 ) (d) The "tongues" were used as an instrument not of teaching, but of praise. (e) Those who spoke them seemed to others to be under the influence of some strong excitement, "full of new wine." (f) Questions as to the mode of operation of a power above the common laws of bodily or mental life lead us to a region where our words should be "wary and few." It must be remembered then, that in all likelihood such words as they then uttered had been heard by the disciples before. The difference was that before the Galilean peasants had stood in that crowd neither heeding nor understanding nor remembering what they heard, still less able to reproduce it; now they had the power of speaking it clearly and freely. The divine work would in this case take the form of a supernatural exaltation of the memory, not of imparting a miraculous knowledge of words never heard before. (g) The gift of tongues, the ecstatic burst of praise, is definitely asserted to be a fulfillment of the prediction of (Joel 2:28 ) We are led, therefore, to look for that which answers to the gift of tongues in the other element of prophecy which is included in the Old Testament use of the word; and this is found in the ecstatic praise, the burst of sang. (1 Samuel 10:5-13 ; 19:20-24 ; 1 Chronicles 25:3 ) (h) The other instances in the Acts offer essentially the same phenomena. By implication in ch. (Acts 14:16-10 ) by express statement in ch. (Acts 10:47 ; 11:15,17 ; 19:6 ) it belongs to special critical epochs. V. The First Epistle to the Corinthians supplies fuller data. The spiritual gifts are classified and compared arranged, apparently, according to their worth. The facts which may be gathered are briefly these:
The phenomena of the gift of tongues were not confined to one church or section of a church.
The comparison of gifts, in both the lists given by St. Paul -- (1 Corinthians 12:8-10,28-30 ) --places that of tongues and the interpretation of tongues lowest in the scale.
The main characteristic of the "tongue" is that it is unintelligible. The man "speaks mysteries," prays, blesses, gives thanks, in the tongue, (1 Corinthians 14:15,16 ) but no one understands him.
The peculiar nature of the gift leads the apostle into what at first appears a contradiction. "Tongues are for a sign," not to believers, but to those who do not believe; yet the effect on unbelievers is not that of attracting, but of repelling. They involve of necessity a disturbance of the equilibrium between the understanding and the feeling. Therefore it is that, for those who believe already, prophecy is the greater gift.
The "tongues," however, must be regarded as real languages. The "divers kinds of tongues." (1 Corinthians 12:28 ) the "tongues of men," ( 1 Corinthians 13:1 ) point to differences of some kind and it is easier to conceive of these as differences of language than as belonging to utterances all equally mild and inarticulate.
Connected with the "tongues" there was the corresponding power of interpretation. VI.
Traces of the gift are found in the Epistles to the Romans, the Galatians, the Ephesians. From the Pastoral Epistles, from those of St. Peter and St. John, they are altogether absent, and this is in itself significant.
It is probable, however, that the disappearance of the "tongues" was gradual. There must have been a time when "tongues" were still heard, though less frequently and with less striking results. For the most part, however, the pierce which they had filled in the worship of the Church was supplied by the "hymns and spiritual songs" of the succeeding age, after this, within the Church we lose nearly all traces of them. The gift of the day of Pentecost belonged to a critical epoch, not to the continuous life of the Church. It implied a disturbance of the equilibrium of man's normal state but it was not the instrument for building up the Church.
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Tongues, Confusion of
The unity of the human race is most clearly implied, if not positively asserted, in the Mosaic writings. Unity of language is assumed by the sacred historian apparently as a corollary of the unity of race. (This statement is confirmed by philologists.) No explanation is given of the origin of speech, but its exercise is evidently regarded as coeval with the creation of man. The original unity of speech was restored in Noah. Disturbing causes were, however, early at work to dissolve this twofold union of community and speech. The human family endeavored b check the tendency to separation by the establishment of a great central edifice and a city which should serve as the metropolis of the whole world. The project was defeated by the interposition of Jehovah, who determined to "confound their language, so that they might not understand one another's speech." Contemporaneously with, and perhaps as the result of, this confusion of tongues, the people were scattered abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth, and the memory of the great event was preserved in the name Babel. [1] Inscription of Nebuchadnezzar . --In the Borsippa inscription of Nebuchadnezzar there is an allusion to the confusion of tongues. "We say for the other, that is, this edifice, the house of the Seven Lights of the Earth, the most ancient monument of Borsippa, a former king built it [2], but he did not complete its head. Since a remote time people had abandoned it, without order expressing their words . Since that time the earthquake and the thunder had dispersed its sun-dried clay; the bricks of the casing had been split, and the earth of the interior had been scattered in heaps." It is unnecessary to assume that the judgment inflicted on the builders of Babel amounted to a loss, or even a suspension of articulate speech. The desired object would be equally attained by a miraculous forestallment of those dialectical differences of language which are constantly in process of production. The elements of the one original language may have remained, but so disguised by variations of pronunciation and by the introduction of new combinations as to be practically obliterated. The confusion of tongues and the dispersion of nations are spoken of in the Bible as contemporaneous events. The divergence of the various families into distinct tribes and nations ran parallel with the divergence of speech into dialects and languages, and thus the tenth chapter of Genesis is posterior in historical sequence to the events recorded in the eleventh chapter.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Tongues, Confusion of
(See BABEL.) Genesis 10 accords with the modern scientific principle of ethnic subdivision; as races increase they subdivide; thus as mankind spread there was a continual breaking up into a larger and larger number of nations. These were distinct linguistically, and also ethnically "by these (i.e. from the Japhethites just before named the tribes sprang by whom) were the isles (the maritime coasts) of the Gentiles divided in their lands, every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations" (Genesis 10:5). The sacred writer at once states the fact of the great multiplicity of languages, and also the resemblance and connection between what at first sight seem distinct tongues. Ethnology speaks of "mother," "sister," and "daughter" dialects, just as Genesis 10 mentions mother, sister, and daughter races. It is the only theory of ethnology which harmonizes with and accounts for the facts of language, as comparative philology reveals them to us.
The general teaching of Genesis 10 is that the nations N. and W. of Mesopotamia and Syria were Japhetic and, within the geographic limits alluded to, comprise seven chief races; ethnology does not contradict this. Moses does not contemplate a scientific scheme embracing all the tribes and nations existing in the world at the time, but a genealogical arrangement of those best known to Moses and his readers. Ethnologists divide the Shemites into five main branches, Aramaean, Hebrew, Phoenician, Assyrian or Babylonian, and Arabian; Moses recognizes four of these, Asshur or Assyria, Aram or Syria, Eber or the Hebrew, Joktan the pure Arabs. Moses adds Elam and Lud, of which ethnology says nothing. He omits the Phoenicians who in his time had not yet acquired importance or moved from the shore of the Persian gulf to the Mediterranean. The Japhetic races spread over all the northern regions known to Moses: Greece, Thrace, Scythia, Asia Minor, Armenia. and Media.
The Hamitic races over the S. and S.W.: N. Africa. Egypt, Nubia., Ethiopia, S. and S.E. Arabia, and Babylonia. The Semitic races in the region intermediate between the Japhetic and Hamitic: Syria, Palestine, northern and central Arabia, Assyria, Elymais, from the Mediterranean to the mountains of Luristan. Thus by their intermediate position the Shemites were in contact with Japhetic races in Cappadocia, and with Hamites in Palestine, the Yemen, Babylonia, and Elymais. The ethnological character of the genealogy (Genesis 10) appears in such gentilie forms as Ludim, Jebusite, and geographical and local names as Mizraim, Sidon; as also from the formula "after their families, after their tongues, in their countries, and in their nations" (Genesis 10:5; Genesis 10:20; Genesis 10:31). (See GENERATION; on the connection of Canaan with HEBREW.)
This is a trace of the original unity of races so distinct, subsequently, as the Hamitic Canaanites and the Semitic Hebrew. The Hamites and Shemites again meet in Babylon, which Scripture assigns to a Cushite founder, Nimrod, in accordance with recent discoveries of Hamitic inscriptions in the oldest Babylonian remains at Ur. (See BABYLON.) The unity of mankind Paul (Acts 17:26) asserts, "God hath made of one blood every nation of men to dwell on all the face of the earth." Moreover Christ is the Head of all mankind in redemption, as Adam in the fall of all (Romans 5:15-19; 1 Corinthians 15:22; 1 Corinthians 15:45-49). Again Genesis (Genesis 9:19) traces the whole postdiluvian population to Noah, "of the three sons of Noah was the whole earth overspread." Speech is inherent in man as being the outcome of reflection, the Greeks therefore rightly express by the same "word" reason and speech, logos , for reason is inward speech and speech is outward reason.
This is his superiority to brutes; hence to mature Adam's intellectual powers and to teach him the use of language God brought the animals to him to name (Genesis 2:19-20). Nouns are the simplest and earliest elements of language; and animals by their appearance, movements, and cries, suggest names for themselves. Whatever differences of tongue arose before the flood, the original unity of speech was restored in Noah. This continued until the confusion of tongues at Babel. God defeated the attempt to counteract His will, that men should disperse systematically, by confounding the tongues of the builders of the intended central metropolis of the world. Oppert identifies Babel with the basement of the great mound of Birs Nimrud, the ancient Borsippa. The confusion consisted in a miraculous forestalment of the wide dialectical differences which ordinarily require time and difference of place and habits to mature; the one common substratum remained. Genesis 10 states summarily the dispersion according to race and tongue, the origin of which Genesis 11 proceeds to detail; in chronological order of events Genesis 11 was before Genesis 10.
Ethnology and philology tend more and more rewards recognizing the unity of mankind; unity amidst variety is the general law. A substratum of significant monosyllabic roots is at the base of all languages. Three classes of tongues exist: the isolating, the agglutinative, and the inflecting. In the isolating there are no inflections, no ease or person terminations, no distinction of form between verb, noun, adjective, preposition, and conjunction; the bare root is the sole substance. In the other two the formal elements represent roots; both these and the radical elements are monosyllabic. There are two kinds of roots, predicable and pronominal; the predicable constituting the material element of verbs, nouns, and adjectives; the pronominal that of conjunctions, prepositions, and particles; the pronominal especially supplies the formal element, i.e. the terminations of verbs, substantives, and adjectives.
Monosyllabic roots are the common feature of all of the Indo European family. Bisyllabism prevails in the Semitic family, especially in the verbs, but these also are reducible to monosyllabics, consisting of consonants at the beginning and at the end; the stem thus enclosed at both ends was precluded from external increment, but by internal modification of vowels produces economy of material, simplicity, and dignity. In the agglutinative family the relational elements are attached to the predicable theme by mechanical junction, the individuality of each remaining still. The inflecting languages must have been once agglutinative, and the agglutinative once isolating. If the relational and the predicable elements of the isolating be linked together, it becomes agglutinative. If the material and the formal parts are pronounced as one word, eliminating the sounds that resist incorporation, the tongue becomes inflecting.
Moreover, no sharp line of demarcation separates the three: the isolating are not wholly so, the agglutinative as the Finnish and Turkish are sometimes inflecting, the inflecting as Hebrew is often agglutinative and has separate particles to express relations; the Indo European (inflecting) appends to its substantival stems suffixes of case and number; the Ural Altaian (agglutinative) adds governing particles, rendering them post positional instead of prepositional; the Semitic expresses grammatical variations by vowel changes within the root, the Indo European by affixes without. The steppes of central Asia have always been the home of the agglutinative, the nomadic life expressing itself naturally in giving prominent distinctness to the leading idea in each word, thereby giving ready communication between families which associate only at intervals; the inflecting tongues on the other hand express higher social cultivation. Outward circumstances, position, and disposition, all combined, have modified language.
In grammar too correspondences occur between the three great classes. The isolating, in the absence of grammatical forms, collocate the words in a somewhat logical order. Herein our inflecting, highly cultivated, English tongue exhibits a resemblance; the subject preceding the verb, and the verb preceding the object; also subject, copula , and predicate. In the agglutinative the principal word comes last, every qualifying clause or word that precedes being sustained by it. Thus, the syntactical arrangement is the opposite of the verbal, the principal idea taking precedence in the latter. In the Semitic tongues the reverse of this usage of the classical holds good; the verb stands first, and the adjective comes after its noun.
In the agglutinative adjectives qualifying nouns remain undeclined, answering to compound words in the Indo European, where the final member alone is inflected; so the absence of the plural ending of nouns following a numeral answers to our usage of "pound" or "head" (not pounds, heads) after a plural numeral. The governing noun is altered in termination before the governed noun, in Hebrew, instead of the governed noun being put in the genitive. The genitive in Hebrew is also expressed by a relative and a preposition before the noun; really the prefixes or affixes in other tongues marking the genitive are more connected with the governing than with the governed word, and are resolvable into relative or personal pronouns which connect the two words. Rapid utterance of the first accounts for the excision of the final consonant of the Hebrew plural noun governing another.
"The song which (belongs) to Solomon" corresponds to "Solomon's Song," the "s" combining the demonstrative "sa" and the relative "ya". The isolating tongues, as the Chinese, instead of the Indo-European verbal composition, employ manifold combinations of radical sounds with an elaborate method of accenting and intoning. The agglutinative, though deficient in compounds, build up words, suffix on suffix, to which their law of vowel harmony gives uniformity. Amidst the varieties, traces of unity appear in the original material, in the stages of formation, and in the general grammatical expression. Every word is reducible to two elements, the predicable and the formal, i.e. the root and the grammatical termination. Both consist of independent roots.
The formal, mostly pronominal, elements are more tenacious of life; therefore agreement in inflections, which consist of these, affords a strong presumption for radical identity also. Grimm discovered a regular system of changes undergone in the transition from Greek and Latin to Gothic and low German: aspirates for tenues, h for k or c, th for t, f for p; tenues for medials, t for d, p for b, k for g; medials for aspirates, g for ch or h, d for th, b for f or ph: as "heart" from kardia , cor ; thou from tu; "five" from pempe (pente ); "father" from pateer , "two" from duo ; "knee" from gonu ; "goose" from cheen ; "dare" from tharseoo ; "bear" from feroo . Max Muller calls the agglutinative tongues of Europe and Asia by the common name "Turanian." This class includes the Ural Altaian, the Chinese, Burmese, and Thibetan. Some refer the American tongues to the Turanian.
The essential identity of many words in Semitic and Indo-European gives a strong presumption of their original unity; thus, qeren , cornu , "horn"; masak , misgo , misceo , "mix"; karak , circa , "circle"; 'erets , terra , "earth" (German erde ); chalaq , glaber , glisco , "glide" (glatt ); qum , "gum", 'am , cum , "sun", koinos , "common"; malee' , pleos , plenus , "full" (voll ); bor , purus , "pure"; barah , vorare , bora , "voracious"; parah , ferop , barus , feroo , "bear"; 'apha , epso , "epula"; mar , "amarus"; carath , "curtus"; zarah , "serere"; muth , math (Sanskrit), mor(t)s , "mortal"; 'attah , tu , su), "thou"; "n" in Hebrew stands for "m" in the Indo-European, as representing the first personal pronoun; shesh , sex , hex , "six"; the other numerals in Hebrew and Indo-European, one to five, are probably identical. Indo-European or Aryan is the term which science now employs, answering to the Scripture Japhetic.
The N. African languages were sub-Semitic; the inelastic Semitic remained within the limits assigned in the Bible, owing to being hemmed in by the superior expansiveness of the Aryans and Turanians. Latham alleges traces of resemblance between the sub-Semitic of northern Africa, Negro in the center, and Kaffir and Hottentot in the S.; the latter are more Turanian than the northern. Indo European comprises nine classes, Indian, Iranian, Celtic, Italian, Albanian, Greek, Teutonic, Lithuanian, and Slavonian. "The Slavonians and Teutons were the first to leave the common home of the Indo European race, and Slavo Teutonic was the earliest deviation from the common language. Then the Graeco-Italo-Celtic. The Celts then separated" (Schleicher). But the Celts being found most westerly, in the extremities of Europe, Ireland, the Scotch highlands, Wales, and Brittany, were probably the earliest emigrants from the primeval seat. Once they occupied Gaul, northern Italy, large Darts of Spain, Germany, Switzerland. and poured along Greece into Asia Minor, giving their name to Galatia; but now they have been forced into the remote corners of Europe by successive races. (See GALATIA.)
The plateau of central Asia was the original seat of the Indo European race. The Indian offshoot is traceable to the Himalaya slopes, from the geographic allusions in the Vedic hymns (Max Muller, Lectures). The Sanskrit names of articles imported by Solomon prove the advance of the Indian Aryans into Hindustan at least before 1000 B.C. (1 Kings 10:22). Aryans appear on the Semitic border as early as the composition of Genesis 10 and 14. The Aryan Medes appear in the Assyrian annals 900 B.C. The Greeks were settled in their laud, and the Italians in theirs, at least as early as 1000 B.C. The latest of the Celtic migrations had reached western Europe before the time of Hecataeus, 500 B.C. The Teutonic migration was much later; they were by the Baltic in the age of Alexander the Great (Pliny 37:11); glesum, the term for amber in that region, is Teutonic. Tentones accompanied the Cimbri in their southern expedition, 113-102 B.C.; Caesar and Tacitus more explicitly mention them.
The Slavonians migrated contemporaneously with the Teutones. They may be traced to the Veneti or Venedae of northern Germany, from whence comes "Wend "; Tacitus (Germ. 46) first mentions them. The languages of the aboriginal races who preceded the Aryans in India were Turanian. The Finns, who have been since Tacitus' time (Germ. 46) E. of the Baltic, originally were spread southward, but were thrust back by the Teutons and Slavonians. The Basque in Spain has a grammatical, though not a verbal, affinity to the Finnish. Thus the Finns in the N. and the Basques in the S. may be remnants of a Turanian migration preceding the Indo European. In Asia there are two great classes of tongues:
(1) the monosyllabic, represented by the Chinese in the E. and the S.E., probably the earliest migration from the common cradle of mankind;
(2) the agglutinative, the Ural Altaian in the N. including the five, Tungusian, Mongolian, Turkish, Samoiedic on the Arctic ocean coast, and Finnish of the Finns and Lapps, the Esthonians, Livonians, and the Hungarian Magyars: in the S. four classes, Tamul in S. Hindustan, Bhotiya of Thibet, the Tai of Siam and Pegu, the Malay originally in the isles, from whence subsequently it passed to the mainland.
The lake Baikal is the center from which seemingly the Turanians passed in various directions. The languages of Oceania are thought to be Malay. The polysynthetic languages of N. America are related to Mongolian; and there is an affinity of tongues between the Americans and the Asiatics on either side of the straits of Corea. Probably the population passed into N. America mainly by the Behring straits. Thus the tendency of science is to discover unity amidst the manifold varieties of mankind. (See R. Ellis' "Numerals as Signs of Primeval Unity among Mankind".)
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Confusion of Tongues
A memorable event which happened in the one hundred and first year, according to the Hebrew chronology, and the four hundred and first year by the Samaritan, after the flood, at the overthrow of Babel, Genesis 11:1-32 : Until this period there had been but one common language, which formed a bond of union that prevented the separation of mankind into distinct nations. Writers have differed much as to the nature of this confusion, and the manner in which it was effected. Some think that no new languages were formed; but that this event was accomplished by creating a misunderstanding and variance among the builders without any immediate influence on their language; and that a distinction is to be made between confounding a language and forming new ones. Others account for this event by the privation of all language, and by supposing that mankind were under a necessity of associating together, and of imposing new names on things by common consent.
Some, again, ascribe the confusion to such an indistinct remembrance of the original language which they spoke before, as made them speak it very differently: but the most common, opinion is, that God caused the builders actually to forget their former language, and each family to speak a new tongue; whence originated the various languages at present in the world. It is, however, but of little consequence to know precisely how this was effected, as the Scriptures are silent as to the manner of it; and after all that can be said, it is but conjecture still. There are some truths, however, we may learn from this part of sacred writ.
1. It teaches us God's sovereignty and power, by which he can easily blast the greatest attempts of men to aggrandize themselves, Genesis 11:1-32 .
2. God's justice in punishing of those who, in idolizing their own fame, forget him to whom praise is due. ver. 4.
3. God's wisdom in overruling evil for good; for by this confusion he facilitated the dispersion of mankind, in order to execute his own purposes, ver.8, 9.
See Henry and Gill in loc. Stillingfleet's Orig. Sac. 1. 3: 100: 5: $2-4; Shuckford's con. vol. 1: p. 124-140; Vitringa's Obs. vol. 1: diss. 1.c.ix. LeClerc's Diss. No. 6: Hutchinson on the Confusion of Tongues; Bp. Law's Theory of Religion, p.66.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Tongues, Gift of
Mark 16:17; Acts 2:1-13; Acts 10:46; Acts 19:6; Acts 19:1 Corinthians 12,14. The Alexandrinus manuscript confirms Mark 16:9-20; The Sinaiticus and Vaticanus manuscripts, omit it; "they shall speak with "new" ("not known before", kainais ) tongues"; this promise is not restricted to apostles; "these signs shall follow them that believe." a proof to the unbelieving that believers were under a higher power than mere enthusiasm or imagination. The "rushing mighty wind" on Pentecost is paralleled in Ezekiel 1:24; Ezekiel 37:1-14; Ezekiel 43:2; Genesis 1:2; 1 Kings 19:11; 2 Chronicles 5:14; Psalms 104:3-4. The "tongues like as of fire" in the establishing of the New Testament church answer to Exodus 19:18, at the giving of the Old Testament law on Sinai, and Ezekiel 1:4 "a fire enfolding itself"; compare Jeremiah 23:29; Luke 24:32.
They were "cloven" (diamerizomenai ), rather distributed to them severally. The disciples were "filled with the Holy Spirit"; as John the Baptist and our Lord (Luke 1:15; Luke 4:1). "They began to speak with "other" (heterais , different from their ordinary) tongues as the Spirit gave them utterance." Then "the multitude were confounded, because that every man heard them speak in his own language; and they marveled saying, Behold are not all these which speak Galileans? and how hear we every man in our own tongue wherein we were born, the wonderful works of God?" This proves that as Babel brought as its penalty the confusion of tongues, so the Pentecostal gift of tongues symbolizes the reunion of the scattered nations. Still praise, not teaching, was the invariable use made of the gift. The places where tongues were exercised were just where there was least need of preaching in foreign tongues (Acts 2:1-4; Acts 10:46; Acts 19:6; Acts 19:1 Corinthians 14).
Tongues were not at their command whenever they pleased to teach those of different languages. The gift came, like prophesying, only in God's way and time (Acts 2:1-18; Acts 10:46; Acts 19:6). No express mention is made of any apostle or evangelist preaching in any tongue save Greek or Hebrew (Aramaic). Probably Paul did so in Lycaonia (Acts 14:11; Acts 14:15; he says (1 Corinthians 14:18) "I speak with tongues (the Vaticanus manuscript, but the Sinaiticus and the Alexandrinus manuscripts 'with a tongue') more than ye all." Throughout his long notice of tongues in 1 Corinthians 14 he never alludes to their use for making one's self intelligible to foreigners. This would have been the natural use for him to have urged their possessors to put them to, instead of interrupting church worship at home by their unmeaning display.
Papias (in Eusebius, H. E. iii. 30) says Mark accompanied Peter as an "interpreter," i.e. to express in appropriate language Peter's thought, so that the gift of tongues cannot have been in Papias' view a continuous gift with that apostle. Aramaic Hebrew, Greek, and Latin (the three languages over the cross) were the general media of converse throughout the civilised world, owing to Alexander's empire first, then the Roman. The epistles are all in Greek, not only to Corinth, but to Thessalonica, Philippi, Rome. Ephesus, and Colosse. The term used of "tongues" (apofthengesthai , not only lalein ) implies a solemn utterance as of prophets or inspired musicians (Septuagint 1 Chronicles 25:1; Ezekiel 13:9). In the first instance (Acts 2) the tongues were used in doxology; but when teaching followed it was in ordinary language, understood by the Jews, that Peter spoke.
Those who spoke with tongues seemed to beholders as if "full of new wide," namely, excited and enthusiastic (Acts 2:13; Acts 2:15-18), in a state raised out of themselves. Hence, Paul contrasts the being "drunk with wine" with being "filled with the Spirit, speaking in psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs" (Ephesians 5:18-19). The ecstatic songs of praise in the Old Testament, poured out by the prophets and their disciples, and the inspired musicians of the sanctuary, correspond (1 Samuel 10:5-13; 1 Samuel 19:20-24; 1 Chronicles 25:3). In 1 Corinthians 12 and 1 Corinthians 14 tongues are placed lowest in the scale of gifts (1 Corinthians 12:31; 1 Corinthians 14:5). Their three characteristics were:
(1) all ecstatic state of comparative rapt unconsciousness, the will being acted on by a power from above;
(2) words uttered, often unintelligible;
(3) languages spoken which ordinarily the speaker could not speak.
They, like prophesyings, were under control of their possessors (1 Corinthians 14:32), and needed to be kept in due order, else confusion in church meetings would ensue (1 Corinthians 14:23; 1 Corinthians 14:39). The tongues, as evidencing a divine power raising them above themselves, were valued by Paul; but they suited the childhood (1 Corinthians 14:20; Isaiah 28:9-14), as prophesying or inspired preaching the manhood, of the Christian life. The possessor of the tongue "spoke mysteries," praying, blessing, and giving thanks, but no one understood him; the "spirit" (pneuma ) but not "understanding" (nous ) was active (1 Corinthians 14:14-19). Yet he might edify himself (1 Corinthians 14:4) with a tongue which to bystanders seemed a madman's ravings, but to himself was the expression of ecstatic adoration. "Five words" spoken "with the understanding" so as to "teach others" are preferable to "ten thousand in an unknown tongue."
In Isaiah 28:9-12 God virtually says of Israel, "this people hear Me not though I speak to them in their familiar tongue, I will therefore speak to them in other tongues, namely, that of the foes whom I will send against them, yet even then they will not hearken to Me." Paul thus applies it: ye see it is a penalty to encouuter men of a strange tongue, yet this you impose on the church by abusing instead of using the tongue intelligibly. Speakers in foreign tongues speak like "children weaned from the milk, with stammering lips," ridiculous because unintelligible to the hearers (Isaiah 28:14), or like babbling drunkards (Acts 2:13), or madmen (1 Corinthians 14:20-23).
Thus, Isaiah (1 Corinthians 13:11) shows that "tongues are for a sign, not to them that believe, but to them that believe not." Tongues either awaken to spiritual attention the unconverted or, if despised, condemn (compare "sign" in a condemnatory sense, Ezekiel 4:3-4; Matthew 12:39-42), those who, like Israel, reject the sign and the accompanying message; compare Acts 2:8; Acts 2:13; 1 Corinthians 14:22; "yet, for all that will they not hear Me," even such miraculous signs fail to arouse them; therefore since they will not understand they shall not understand. "Tongues of men" and "divers kinds of tongues" (1 Corinthians 12:10; 1 Corinthians 12:28; 1 Corinthians 13:1) imply diversity, which applies certainly to languages, and includes also the kind of tongues which was a spiritual language unknown to man, uttered in ecstasy (1 Corinthians 14:2). It was only by "interpreting" that the "understanding" accompanied the tongues.
He who spoke (praying) in a tongue should pray that he might (be able to) interpret for edification of the church (1 Corinthians 14:13; 1 Corinthians 14:26-27). Hebrew and Aramaic words spoken in the spirit or quoted from the Old Testament often produced a more solemn effect upon Greeks than the corresponding Greek terms; Compare 1 Corinthians 16:22, Μaranatha , 1 Corinthians 12:3; Lord of sabaoth , James 5:4; Αbba , the adoption cry, Romans 8:15; Galatians 4:6; Alleluia, Revelation 19:1; Revelation 19:6; Hosannah, Matthew 21:9; Matthew 21:15. "Tongues of angels" (1 Corinthians 13:1) are such as Daniel and John in Revelation heard; and Paul, when caught up to paradise (2 Corinthians 12:4).
An intonation in speaking with tongues is implied in Paul's comparison to the tones of the harp and pipe, which however he insists have distinction of sounds, and therefore so ought possessors of tongues to speak intelligibly by interpreting their sense afterward, or after awakening spiritual attention by the mysterious tongue they ought then to follow with "revelation, knowledge, prophesying or doctrine" (1 Corinthians 14:6-11); otherwise the speaker with a tongue will be "a barbarian," i.e. a foreigner in language to the hearer. A musical tone would also be likely in uttering hymns and doxologies, which were the subject matter of the utterance by tongues (Acts 2:11). The "groanings which cannot be uttered" (Romans 8:26) and the "melody in the heart" (Ephesians 5:19) show us how even inarticulate speech like the tongues may edify, though less edifying than articulate and intelligible prophesying or preaching.
Either the speaker with a tongue or a listener might have the gift of interpreting, so he might bring forth deep truths from the seemingly incoherent utterances of foreign, and Aramaic, and strange words (1 Corinthians 14:7; 1 Corinthians 14:11; 1 Corinthians 14:13; 1 Corinthians 14:27). When the age of miracle passed (1 Corinthians 13:8) the tongues ceased with it; the scaffolding was removed, when the building was complete as regards its first stage; hymns and spiritual snugs took the place of tongues, as preaching took the place of prophesying. Like all God's gifts, tongues had their counterfeit. The latter are morbid, the forerunners or results of disease. The true tongues were given to men in full vigour, preceded by no fanatic madness, and followed by no prostration as the reaction. Practical, healthy religion marked the daily walk of the churches in which the tongues were manifested. Not these, but the confession of Jesus as Lord with heart and tongue was the declared test of real discipleship (1 Corinthians 12:3; 1 John 4:2-3).
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Speaking in Tongues
See Holy Spirit, Gifts of
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Tongues, Confusion of
The special purpose of this act of God was to distribute mankind. They had said, "Let us build us a city and a tower, whose top may reach unto heaven; and let us make us a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth." God nullified their design by so confounding their language that they could not understand one another's speech. They left off building the city, and were scattered abroad. Genesis 11:5-9 . The gift of tongues at Pentecost in no way rescinded this, though by the miraculous power of the Holy Spirit those from a distance of various languages heard, each in his own tongue, the same gospel. The apostles had never spoken those languages before. The learned have devoted much labour in the endeavour to discover the links that exist in all known languages; but it would require divine power to remove in any practical sense the divergencies.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Tongues, Gift of
This gift was in the early church, and was a sign 'to them that believed not,' in fulfilment of Isaiah 28:11,12 : cf. 1 Corinthians 14:21 . The gift was exhibited in a special way on the day of Pentecost, when people of many lands heard the wonderful things of God each in his own language. In the assembly these gifts were not to be exercised unless there was present an interpreter, that the saints might be edified. Paul thanked God that he spake with tongues more than all at Corinth; but in the assembly he would rather speak five words through his understanding, that he might teach others, than ten thousand words in a tongue. 1 Corinthians 12:10,28,30 ; 1 Corinthians 13:1,8 ; 1 Corinthians 14:2-39 .
The expression 'unknown tongue' is unhappy, because it has led some to think that the gift of tongues consisted of a sort of unintelligible gibberish. The word 'unknown' has been added in the A.V., where it should read simply 'tongue.' At Pentecost it was shown that the gift of 'tongues' was in a person speaking a language which he had never learnt, but which was at once understood by those who knew it.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Tongues
Tongues, Gift of. Joel 2:28; Acts 2:16; Mark 16:17; comp. Matthew 10:19-20; Mark 13:11. This gift was of two kinds. The first gift was the power to "declare the wonderful works of God" in languages ordinarily unknown to the speakers, for the instruction of foreign hearers. Acts 2:4-11. The other form of the gift of tongues is thought to have been an ecstatic form of worship, chiefly praise, but requiring interpretation. Acts 10:46; 1 Corinthians 12:30.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Gift of Tongues
an ability given to the Apostles and others of readily and intelligibly speaking a variety of languages which they had never learned. This was a glorious and decisive attestation to the Gospel, as well as a suitable, and, indeed, in their circumstances, a necessary qualification for the mission for which the Apostles and their coadjutors were designed. Nor is there any reason, with Dr. Middleton, to understand it as merely an occasional gift, so that a person might speak a language most fluently one hour, and be entirely ignorant of it the next; which neither agrees with what is said of the abuse of it, nor would it have been sufficient to answer the end proposed, Acts 2. Some appear to have been gifted with one tongue, others with more. To St. Paul this endowment was vouchsafed in a more liberal degree, than to many others; for, as to the Corinthians, who had received the gift of tongues, he says, "that he spake with tongues more than they all."
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Confusion of Tongues
is a memorable event, which happened in the one hundred and first year, according to the Hebrew chronology, after the flood, B.C. 2247, at the overthrow of Babel; and which was providentially brought about, in order to facilitate the dispersion of mankind, and the population of the earth. Until this period, there had been one common language, which formed a bond of union, that prevented the separation of mankind into distinct nations.
2. There has been a considerable difference of opinion as to the nature of this confusion, and the manner in which it was effected. Some learned men, prepossessed with the notion that all the different idioms now in the world did at first arise from one original language, to which they may be reduced, and that the variety among them is no more than must naturally have happened in a long course of time by the mere separation of the builders of Babel, have maintained, that there were no new languages formed at the confusion; but that this event was accomplished by creating a misunderstanding and variance among the builders, without any immediate influence on their language. But this opinion, advanced by Le Clerc, &c, seems to be directly contrary to the obvious meaning of the word שפה , lip, used by the sacred historian; which, in other parts of Scripture, signifieth speech, Psalms 81:5 ; Isaiah 28:11 ; Isaiah 33:19 ; Ezekiel 3:5 . It has been justly remarked, that unanimity of sentiment, and identity of language, are particularly distinguished from each other, in the history: "The people is one, and they have all one language," Genesis 11:6 . It has been also suggested, that if disagreement in opinion and counsel were the whole that was intended, it would have had a contrary effect; they would not have desisted from their project, but strenuously have maintained their respective opinions, till the greater number of them had compelled the minority either to fly or to submit. Others have imagined, that this was brought about by a temporary confusion of their speech, or rather of their apprehensions, causing them, while they continued together and spoke the same language, to understand the words differently: Scaliger is of this opinion. Others again account for this event, by the privation of all language, and by supposing that mankind were under a necessity of associating together, and of imposing new names on things by common consent. Another opinion ascribes the confusion to such an indistinct remembrance of the original language which they spoke before, as made them speak it very differently; so that by the various inflections, terminations, and pronunciations of divers dialects, they could no more understand one another, than they who understand Latin can understand those who speak French, Italian, or Spanish, though all these languages arise out of it. This opinion is adopted by Casaubon, and by Bishop Patrick in his Commentary, and is certainly much more probable than either of the former; and Mr. Shuckford maintains, that the confusion arose from small beginnings, by the invention of new words in either of the three families of Shem, Ham, and Japhet, which might contribute to separate them from one another; and that in each family new differences of speech might gradually arise, so that each of these families went on to divide and subdivide among themselves. Others, again, as Mr. Joseph Mede and Dr. Wotton, &c, not satisfied with either of the foregoing methods of accounting for the diversity of languages among mankind, have recourse to an extraordinary interposition of divine power, by which new languages were framed and communicated to different families by a supernatural infusion or inspiration; which languages have been the roots and originals from which the several dialects that are, or have been, or will be, spoken, as long as this earth shall last, have arisen, and to which they may with ease be reduced.
3. It is, however, unnecessary to suppose, that the primitive language was completely obliterated, and entire new modes of speech at once introduced. It was quite sufficient, if such changes only were effected, as to render the speech of different companies or different tribes unintelligible to one another, that their mutual cooperation in the mad attempt in which they had all engaged might be no longer practicable. The radical stem of the first language might therefore remain in all, though new dialects were formed, bearing among themselves a similar relation with what we find in the languages of modern Europe, derived from the same parent stem, whether Gothic, Latin, or Sclavonian. In the midst of these changes, it is reasonable to suppose that the primitive language itself, unaltered, would still be preserved in some one at least of the tribes or families of the human race. Now in none of these was the transmission so likely to have taken place, as among that branch of the descendants of Shem, from which the patriarch Abraham proceeded. Upon these grounds, therefore, we may probably conclude, that the language spoken by Abraham, and by him transmitted to his posterity, was in fact the primitive language, modified indeed and extended in the course of time, but still retaining its essential parts far more completely than any other of the languages of men. If these conclusions are well founded, they warrant the inference, that, in the ancient Hebrew, there are still to be found the traces of the original speech. Whether this ancient Hebrew more nearly resembled the Chaldean, the Syrian, or what is now termed the Hebrew, it is unnecessary here to inquire; these languages, it has never been denied, were originally and radically the same, though, from subsequent modifications, they appear to have assumed somewhat different aspects.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Tongues, Gift of
One of the preternatural gifts mentioned by Saint Paul; the gift of speaking so as to be understood by all, and the corresponding ability of the hearers to understand one who is speaking in a foreign tongue. Acts 2, tells how, men of every nation under heaven, 18 being specified, understood the Apostles in Jerusalem the first Pentecost as they spoke in diverse tongues. Saint Francis Xavier and other Apostolic men had this gift.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Gift of Tongues
One of the preternatural gifts mentioned by Saint Paul; the gift of speaking so as to be understood by all, and the corresponding ability of the hearers to understand one who is speaking in a foreign tongue. Acts 2, tells how, men of every nation under heaven, 18 being specified, understood the Apostles in Jerusalem the first Pentecost as they spoke in diverse tongues. Saint Francis Xavier and other Apostolic men had this gift.

Sentence search

Glossolalia - Technical term for speaking in Tongues (Greek glossa , tongue). See Tongues, Gift of
Tongues - When the Bible says that people spoke in Tongues (‘other Tongues’ or ‘strange Tongues’), it means that their speech was in words that were not of their own language and that they did not understand, unless someone interpreted them. Beyond that simple definition, general statements about Tongues become difficult, because of the different sorts and uses of Tongues in the New Testament. On that occasion the disciples spoke in Tongues that people from other linguistic groups understood as their native languages (Acts 2:4-11). ...
There are only two other places in Acts where the writer records that people spoke in Tongues, but in neither case is it clear whether the Tongues were languages already in use or something completely different (Acts 10:44-46; Acts 19:1-6). On each occasion there seems to have been a special reason for the people’s speaking in Tongues, as each case is a departure from what had been normal till that time. The speaking in Tongues was a striking outward and visible demonstration that the people concerned had received the Holy Spirit and were introduced into the church the same as the original disciples were on the Day of Pentecost. )...
In Paul’s letters...
Tongues that were spoken in the normal meetings of the church seem to have had a different purpose. This indicates that whereas the Tongues referred to in Acts were irresistible, those referred to in Corinthians were under the control of the speaker (1 Corinthians 14:13; 1 Corinthians 14:27-28). Also, those who spoke in Tongues in the church were to do so one at a time, and no more than two or three in all (1 Corinthians 14:27). The Christians at Corinth, still influenced by attitudes from their former idolatrous days, were apparently impressed by these Tongues, and considered that those who spoke them were spiritually superior. According to Paul, this was evidence that those who spoke in Tongues were not necessarily speaking by the Holy Spirit (1 Corinthians 12:1-3; cf. ...
Although Paul allowed the gift of Tongues, he was cautious in encouraging people to seek it. ...
The Corinthians’ concern for the spectacular demonstrated their immaturity, and their misuse of Tongues brought dishonour on the church (1 Corinthians 14:20-25). Like all the gifts of the Spirit, the gift of Tongues was given to only some in the church, and it could be wrongly used or falsely copied (1 Corinthians 12:3; 1 Corinthians 12:7; 1 Corinthians 12:10; 1 Corinthians 12:30; 1 Corinthians 13:1). Paul therefore emphasized that the evidence of the Spirit’s work in people’s lives was not whether they spoke in Tongues, but whether their lives displayed the fruit of the Spirit
Cessationism - The position within Christianity that the Charismatic Spiritual gifts (speaking in Tongues, word of knowledge, word of wisdom, intepretation of Tongues, etc
Tongues - ...
See GIFT OF Tongues
Ecstasy - See Rapture and Tongues, Gift Of
Lossolaly - ) The gift of Tongues
Pentaglot - ) A work in five different Tongues
Bilinguous - ) Having two Tongues, or speaking two languages
Charismatic Gifts - They are mentioned in Romans 12:1-21; 1 Corinthians 12:1-31, and 1 Corinthians 14:1-40: Word of wisdom, word of knowledge, faith, healing, miracles, prophecy, distinguishing of spirits, Tongues, interpretation of Tongues
Lottology - ) The science of Tongues or languages; comparative philology; glossology
Tongues, Gift of - The Alexandrinus manuscript confirms Mark 16:9-20; The Sinaiticus and Vaticanus manuscripts, omit it; "they shall speak with "new" ("not known before", kainais ) Tongues"; this promise is not restricted to apostles; "these signs shall follow them that believe. The "tongues like as of fire" in the establishing of the New Testament church answer to Exodus 19:18, at the giving of the Old Testament law on Sinai, and Ezekiel 1:4 "a fire enfolding itself"; compare 1 Corinthians 14:20-233; Luke 24:32. "They began to speak with "other" (heterais , different from their ordinary) Tongues as the Spirit gave them utterance. " Then "the multitude were confounded, because that every man heard them speak in his own language; and they marveled saying, Behold are not all these which speak Galileans? and how hear we every man in our own tongue wherein we were born, the wonderful works of God?" This proves that as Babel brought as its penalty the confusion of Tongues, so the Pentecostal gift of Tongues symbolizes the reunion of the scattered nations. The places where Tongues were exercised were just where there was least need of preaching in foreign Tongues (Acts 2:1-4; Acts 10:46; Acts 19:6; Acts 19:1 Corinthians 14). ...
Tongues were not at their command whenever they pleased to teach those of different languages. Probably Paul did so in Lycaonia (Acts 14:11; Acts 14:15; he says (1 Corinthians 14:18) "I speak with Tongues (the Vaticanus manuscript, but the Sinaiticus and the Alexandrinus manuscripts 'with a tongue') more than ye all. " Throughout his long notice of Tongues in 1 Corinthians 14 he never alludes to their use for making one's self intelligible to foreigners. to express in appropriate language Peter's thought, so that the gift of Tongues cannot have been in Papias' view a continuous gift with that apostle. The term used of "tongues" (apofthengesthai , not only lalein ) implies a solemn utterance as of prophets or inspired musicians (Septuagint 1 Chronicles 25:1; Ezekiel 13:9). In the first instance (Acts 2) the Tongues were used in doxology; but when teaching followed it was in ordinary language, understood by the Jews, that Peter spoke. ...
Those who spoke with Tongues seemed to beholders as if "full of new wide," namely, excited and enthusiastic (Acts 2:13; Acts 2:15-18), in a state raised out of themselves. In 1 Corinthians 12 and 1 Corinthians 14 Tongues are placed lowest in the scale of gifts (1 Corinthians 12:31; 1 Corinthians 14:5). The Tongues, as evidencing a divine power raising them above themselves, were valued by Paul; but they suited the childhood (1 Corinthians 14:20; 1 Corinthians 13:11), as prophesying or inspired preaching the manhood, of the Christian life. "...
In Isaiah 28:9-12 God virtually says of Israel, "this people hear Me not though I speak to them in their familiar tongue, I will therefore speak to them in other Tongues, namely, that of the foes whom I will send against them, yet even then they will not hearken to Me. Speakers in foreign Tongues speak like "children weaned from the milk, with stammering lips," ridiculous because unintelligible to the hearers (Isaiah 28:14), or like babbling drunkards (Acts 2:13), or madmen (1618099326_85). ...
Thus, Isaiah (Isaiah 28:9-14) shows that "tongues are for a sign, not to them that believe, but to them that believe not. " Tongues either awaken to spiritual attention the unconverted or, if despised, condemn (compare "sign" in a condemnatory sense, Ezekiel 4:3-4; Matthew 12:39-42), those who, like Israel, reject the sign and the accompanying message; compare Acts 2:8; Acts 2:13; 1 Corinthians 14:22; "yet, for all that will they not hear Me," even such miraculous signs fail to arouse them; therefore since they will not understand they shall not understand. "Tongues of men" and "divers kinds of Tongues" (1 Corinthians 12:10; 1 Corinthians 12:28; 1 Corinthians 13:1) imply diversity, which applies certainly to languages, and includes also the kind of Tongues which was a spiritual language unknown to man, uttered in ecstasy (1 Corinthians 14:2). It was only by "interpreting" that the "understanding" accompanied the Tongues. "Tongues of angels" (1 Corinthians 13:1) are such as Daniel and John in Revelation heard; and Paul, when caught up to paradise (2 Corinthians 12:4). ...
An intonation in speaking with Tongues is implied in Paul's comparison to the tones of the harp and pipe, which however he insists have distinction of sounds, and therefore so ought possessors of Tongues to speak intelligibly by interpreting their sense afterward, or after awakening spiritual attention by the mysterious tongue they ought then to follow with "revelation, knowledge, prophesying or doctrine" (1 Corinthians 14:6-11); otherwise the speaker with a tongue will be "a barbarian," i. A musical tone would also be likely in uttering hymns and doxologies, which were the subject matter of the utterance by Tongues (Acts 2:11). The "groanings which cannot be uttered" (Romans 8:26) and the "melody in the heart" (Ephesians 5:19) show us how even inarticulate speech like the Tongues may edify, though less edifying than articulate and intelligible prophesying or preaching. When the age of miracle passed (1 Corinthians 13:8) the Tongues ceased with it; the scaffolding was removed, when the building was complete as regards its first stage; hymns and spiritual snugs took the place of Tongues, as preaching took the place of prophesying. Like all God's gifts, Tongues had their counterfeit. The true Tongues were given to men in full vigour, preceded by no fanatic madness, and followed by no prostration as the reaction. Practical, healthy religion marked the daily walk of the churches in which the Tongues were manifested
Tower - For ‘Tower of Babel’ see Tongues [1]
Tongues - Tongues, Gift of. The other form of the gift of Tongues is thought to have been an ecstatic form of worship, chiefly praise, but requiring interpretation
Tongues, Gift of - Among the gifts of the Spirit the apostle enumerates in 1 Corinthians 12:10-14:30 ,, "divers kinds of Tongues" and the "interpretation of Tongues. Tongues were to be "a sign to them that believe not
Spiritual Gifts - There are some that are obviously supernatural in the usage: speaking in Tongues, discerning of spirits, healing, etc. Since the Bible is complete there is no further need for the revelatory gifts like speaking in Tongues and the interpretation of Tongues
Evangelical Alliance - Association of Protestants of different countries and speaking different Tongues united for the avowal and promotion of Christian union and the advocacy of religious liberty; founded, London, 1846
Eugene Bore - Used his excellent knowledge of 40 Oriental idioms to write controversial works in these Tongues
Chromosphere - Portions of the chromosphere are here and there thrown up into enormous Tongues of flame
Dispersion - Of mankind was occasioned by the confusion of Tongues at the overthrow of Babel, Genesis 11:9 . ...
See CONFUSION OF Tongues
Kolushan - Their language bears some affinity to Mexican Tongues
Pentecost - At Pentecost the disciples of Jesus were gathered and upon the filling of the Holy Spirit, they heard a great wind and spoke in Tongues as Tongues of fire that settled upon them
Helps - , by interpretation) given to him who speaks with Tongues, or more probably simply help which Christians can render to one another, such as caring for the poor and needy, etc
Vermilinguia - They have long, flexible Tongues
Tongues, Gift of - Paul thanked God that he spake with Tongues more than all at Corinth; but in the assembly he would rather speak five words through his understanding, that he might teach others, than ten thousand words in a tongue. ...
The expression 'unknown tongue' is unhappy, because it has led some to think that the gift of Tongues consisted of a sort of unintelligible gibberish. ' At Pentecost it was shown that the gift of 'tongues' was in a person speaking a language which he had never learnt, but which was at once understood by those who knew it
Latin America - Name applied to those parts of North, Central, and South America whose inhabitants speak Latin Tongues, i
America, Latin - Name applied to those parts of North, Central, and South America whose inhabitants speak Latin Tongues, i
Tongues, Gift of - " The received traditional view, which starts from the third meaning, and sees in the gift of Tongues a distinctly linguistic power, is the more correct one. The promise of our Lord to his disciples, "They shall speak with new Tongues," (Mark 16:17 ) was fulfilled on the day of Pentecost, when cloven Tongues like fire sat upon the disciples, and "every man heard them speak in his own language. Paul, who "spake with Tongues more than all," was at Lystra, there is no mention made of his using the language of Lycaonia. ...
It is at variance with the distinct statement of (Acts 2:4 ) "They began to speak with other Tongues. ( 1 Chronicles 25:1 ; Ezekiel 13:9 ) (d) The "tongues" were used as an instrument not of teaching, but of praise. (g) The gift of Tongues, the ecstatic burst of praise, is definitely asserted to be a fulfillment of the prediction of (Joel 2:28 ) We are led, therefore, to look for that which answers to the gift of Tongues in the other element of prophecy which is included in the Old Testament use of the word; and this is found in the ecstatic praise, the burst of sang. The facts which may be gathered are briefly these: ...
The phenomena of the gift of Tongues were not confined to one church or section of a church. Paul -- (1 Corinthians 12:8-10,28-30 ) --places that of Tongues and the interpretation of Tongues lowest in the scale. "Tongues are for a sign," not to believers, but to those who do not believe; yet the effect on unbelievers is not that of attracting, but of repelling. ...
The "tongues," however, must be regarded as real languages. The "divers kinds of Tongues. " (1 Corinthians 12:28 ) the "tongues of men," ( 1 Corinthians 13:1 ) point to differences of some kind and it is easier to conceive of these as differences of language than as belonging to utterances all equally mild and inarticulate. ...
Connected with the "tongues" there was the corresponding power of interpretation. ...
It is probable, however, that the disappearance of the "tongues" was gradual. There must have been a time when "tongues" were still heard, though less frequently and with less striking results
Philology - ) The study of language, especially in a philosophical manner and as a science; the investigation of the laws of human speech, the relation of different Tongues to one another, and historical development of languages; linguistic science
Utterance - They began to speak with other Tongues, as the spirit gave them utterance
Attention - They say the Tongues of dying men ...
Enforce attention like deep harmony
Envious - ; jealously pained by the excellence or good fortune of another; maliciously grudging; - followed by of, at, and against; as, an envious man, disposition, attack; envious Tongues
Latin - In scripture it is only mentioned as being one of the Tongues in which Pilate wrote the inscription on the cross of the Lord Jesus
Tongue - A — 1: γλῶσσα (Strong's #1100 — Noun Feminine — glossa — gloce'-sah ) is used of (1) the "tongues . , chapters 12 and 14, the use of the gift of "tongues" is mentioned as exercised in the gatherings of local churches; 1 Corinthians 12:10 speaks of the gift in general terms, and couples with it that of "the interpretation of Tongues;" chapt. speaking with Tongues, what shall I profit you," says the Apostle (expressing the great object in all oral ministry), "unless I speak to you either by way of revelation, or of knowledge, or of prophesying, or of teaching?" (1 Corinthians 14:6 ). "Tongues" were for a sign, not to believers, but to unbelievers, 1 Corinthians 14:22 , and especially to unbelieving Jews (see 1 Corinthians 14:21 ): cp. ...
B — 1: Κλαύδιος (Strong's #2804 — Noun Masculine — heteroglossos — klow'-dee-os ) is rendered "strange Tongues" in 1 Corinthians 14:21 , RV (heteros, "another of a different sort," see ANOTHER , and A, No. 1), AV, "other Tongues
Tongues, Gift of - Tongues, GIFT OF...
1. In NT we read of ‘speaking with Tongues’ or ‘in a tongue’ as a remarkable sign of the outpouring of the Holy Spirit; but the exact meaning of the phenomenon described has been much disputed. In 1Co 12:1-31 ; 1 Corinthians 13:1-13 ; 1 Corinthians 14:1-40 , among the charismata or (spiritual) gifts are ‘divers kinds of Tongues’ and ‘the interpretation of Tongues’ ( 1 Corinthians 12:10 ; 1 Corinthians 12:30 ). Whatever the gift was, speaking with Tongues was at Corinth ordinarily unintelligible to the hearers, and sometimes even to the speaker ( 1 Corinthians 14:14 ), though the English reader must note that the word ‘unknown’ in AV [3] Tongues’ ( Acts 16:17 : ‘new’ is probably not of the best text). ( b ) It has been suggested that we are to understand ‘tongues,’ not as ‘languages,’ but as ‘poetic or symbolic speech,’ not readily understood by the unlearned. ...
To sum up, it seems probable that the gift of Tongues was an ecstatic utterance of praise, not only in poetic and symbolic speech, but also in languages or dialects not ordinarily spoken by those who had the gift; a power given at a time of great enthusiasm and excitement, at a critical period of the world’s history, but not meant to be a permanent gift for the Church, and not ranking so high as other charismata , especially not so high as prophecy
Gift of Tongues - Paul this endowment was vouchsafed in a more liberal degree, than to many others; for, as to the Corinthians, who had received the gift of Tongues, he says, "that he spake with Tongues more than they all
Romanic - ) Related to the Roman people by descent; - said especially of races and nations speaking any of the Romanic Tongues
Gifts in the Church - ' They are endowments of the one Spirit given to various persons, such as wisdom, knowledge, faith, healing, working of miracles, prophecy, discerning of spirits, kinds of Tongues, interpreting of Tongues: "all these worketh that one and the selfsame Spirit, dividing to every man severally as he will. Other gifts are added: miracles, gifts of healing, helps, governments, diversities of Tongues
Tongues, Gift of - Acts 2, tells how, men of every nation under heaven, 18 being specified, understood the Apostles in Jerusalem the first Pentecost as they spoke in diverse Tongues
Gift of Tongues - Acts 2, tells how, men of every nation under heaven, 18 being specified, understood the Apostles in Jerusalem the first Pentecost as they spoke in diverse Tongues
Red - Vestments of that color are used in Masses of the Holy Ghost, to remind us of the Tongues of fire which descended upon the Apostles, and of the fire of charity, which is a gift of the Holy Ghost
Lucius of Cyrene - He probably was one of the "men of Cyrene" who heard the Tongues and then Peter's Pentecostal sermon (Acts 2:10), and of the "men of Cyrene" who when "scattered abroad upon the persecution that arose about Stephen" went to Antioch, "preaching the Lord Jesus" (Acts 11:19-20)
Text - Thus the Bible itself is said to be faithfully translated out of the original Tongues, that is, the text: in opposition to what may be called human composition
Grace - ...
Gifts freely bestowed by God; as miracles, prophecy, Tongues (Romans 15:15 ; 1 Corinthians 15:10 ; Ephesians 3:8 )
Borrellists - A Christian sect in Holland, so named from their founder Borrel, a man of great learning in the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin Tongues
Peleg - " In the next chapter is the account of the confusion of Tongues and the scattering of the people generally
Benizi, Philip, Saint - He assisted at the Council of Lyons, 1274, where he possessed the gift of Tongues; and acted as peace-maker between the Guelphs and the Ghibellines
Mitre - It represents mystically the cloven Tongues of fire whichlighted on the heads of the Apostles on the Day of Pentecost
Gifts, Spiritual - They were the gifts of speaking with Tongues, casting out devils, healing, etc
ma'ry, Mother of Mark, - (There is a tradition that the place of meeting of the disciples, and hence Mary's house, was on the upper slope of Zion, and that it was here that the Holy Ghost came upon the disciples with Tongues of flame on the day of Pentecost
Ecstasy - The gift of speaking in Tongues is thought by some to involve an ecstatic state. See Prophecy, Prophets ; Tongues, Gift of
Irvingites - His followers believe in the abiding gifts of the Holy Ghost, speaking with Tongues, prophecies, healings, etc
Perverse - Most biblical references are in the Book of Proverbs which mentions perverse: persons (Proverbs 3:32 ; Proverbs 14:14 ); minds (Proverbs 11:20 ; Proverbs 12:8 ; Proverbs 23:33 ); Tongues (Proverbs 10:31 ; Proverbs 17:20 ); words or speech (Proverbs 10:32 ; Proverbs 19:1 ); and perverse ways (Proverbs 28:6 )
Whitsunday - A solemn festival of the Christian church, observed on the fiftieth day after Easter, in memory of the descent of the Holy Ghost upon the apostles in the visible appearance of fiery cloven Tongues, and of those miraculous powers which were then conferred upon them
Jesus Only Movement - Additionally, they mistakenly believe that baptism is necessary for salvation and that Tongues are evidence of true conversion
Tongue - The gift of Tongues was that which God granted to the apostles and disciples assembled at Jerusalem on the day of pentecost, Acts 2
Tongues, Confusion of - " Contemporaneously with, and perhaps as the result of, this confusion of Tongues, the people were scattered abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth, and the memory of the great event was preserved in the name Babel. --In the Borsippa inscription of Nebuchadnezzar there is an allusion to the confusion of Tongues. The confusion of Tongues and the dispersion of nations are spoken of in the Bible as contemporaneous events
Tongues Gift of - The chief authority in apostolic literature for the gift of speaking with Tongues (γλωσσολαλία) is 1 Corinthians 14. What happened on the day of Pentecost is described (Acts 2:4) as speaking ‘with other Tongues’ (λαλεῖν ἑτέραις γλώσσαις). ...
What are the chief features of glossolalia in the Corinthian church? (1) Like ‘prophecy,’ ‘speaking with Tongues’ was one of the gifts of the πνευματικοί: it was reckoned among the charisms as an inspiration or endowment originating with the Holy Spirit. The evidence is in favour of the latter view: in other words, that the speaker was the subject of a Spirit-possession which moved him to speak ‘with the Tongues of men and of angels’ (1 Corinthians 13:1). There were many types of Tongues (γένη γλωσσῶν 1 Corinthians 12:10; 1 Corinthians 12:28). Nor to the believer was it of real benefit unless there was an interpretation (1 Corinthians 14:13); and the speaker-with-tongues was counselled to pray for such an interpretation, as if his utterance per se were of little value. Hence an interpretation was essential, though this was a gift by itself and was not necessarily exercised by the speaker-with-tongues himself. It would now appear that speaking with Tongues, like so many other phenomena of the spiritual consciousness, whether in the records of the Scriptures or in non-canonical writings or in the general annals of the Christian life in all ages, is capable of reasonable explanation on psychological lines, even if all the data fail to yield a satisfactory meaning to the inquirer. Hencke, ‘The Gift of Tongues and Related Phenomena at the Present Day,’ in AJTh Charismata - Saint Paul enumerates most of them in 1 Corinthians 12: the word of wisdom, the word of knowledge, faith, the grace of healing, the working of miracles, prophecy, the discerning of spirits, the gift of Tongues, interpretation of speeches, and the charismata of apostles, prophets, doctors, helps, governments
Gnaw - They gnawed their Tongues for pain
Holy Ghost, Gifts of the - , the gifts of miracles, of prophecy, of Tongues, etc
Confusion - In a general sense, a mixture of several things promiscuously hence, disorder irregularity as the confusion of Tongues at Babel
Gifts of the Holy Ghost - , the gifts of miracles, of prophecy, of Tongues, etc
Interpretation - Revealing the true meaning of supernatural dreams, Genesis 41:1-57 Daniel 2:4 , unknown Tongues, etc
Professors: Too Often Deceptive - But when we come near, behold, beneath the cross a rude picture of souls tormented in red Tongues of hell fire, and pierced by demons
Gift of Tongues - 15-21; Essay on the Gift of Tongues; Middleton's Miscel
Cities - (Genesis 4:17 ) After the confusion of Tongues the descendants of Nimrod founded Babel, Erech, Accad and Calneh, in the land of Shinar, and Asshur, a branch from the same stock, built Nineveh, Rehoboth-by-the-river, Calah and Resen, the last being "a great city
Tongues, Confusion of - The sacred writer at once states the fact of the great multiplicity of languages, and also the resemblance and connection between what at first sight seem distinct Tongues. The ethnological character of the genealogy (Genesis 10) appears in such gentilie forms as Ludim, Jebusite, and geographical and local names as Mizraim, Sidon; as also from the formula "after their families, after their Tongues, in their countries, and in their nations" (Genesis 10:5; Genesis 10:20; Genesis 10:31). This continued until the confusion of Tongues at Babel. God defeated the attempt to counteract His will, that men should disperse systematically, by confounding the Tongues of the builders of the intended central metropolis of the world. Three classes of Tongues exist: the isolating, the agglutinative, and the inflecting. The steppes of central Asia have always been the home of the agglutinative, the nomadic life expressing itself naturally in giving prominent distinctness to the leading idea in each word, thereby giving ready communication between families which associate only at intervals; the inflecting Tongues on the other hand express higher social cultivation. In the Semitic Tongues the reverse of this usage of the classical holds good; the verb stands first, and the adjective comes after its noun. The genitive in Hebrew is also expressed by a relative and a preposition before the noun; really the prefixes or affixes in other Tongues marking the genitive are more connected with the governing than with the governed word, and are resolvable into relative or personal pronouns which connect the two words. The isolating Tongues, as the Chinese, instead of the Indo-European verbal composition, employ manifold combinations of radical sounds with an elaborate method of accenting and intoning. Max Muller calls the agglutinative Tongues of Europe and Asia by the common name "Turanian. Some refer the American Tongues to the Turanian. In Asia there are two great classes of Tongues:...
(1) the monosyllabic, represented by the Chinese in the E. America are related to Mongolian; and there is an affinity of Tongues between the Americans and the Asiatics on either side of the straits of Corea
Sabellians - The Sabellians maintained that the Word and the Holy Spirit are only virtues, emanations, or functions of the Deity; and held that he who is in heaven is the Father of all things; that he descended into the Virgin, became a child, and was born of her as a son; and that, having accomplished the mystery of our salvation, he diffused himself on the apostles in Tongues of fire, and was then denominated the Holy Ghost
Affliction: Awakening Gratitude - Martin, in the Val D'Aosta, where the mosquitoes, flies, and insects of all sorts drove us nearly to distraction, we prized the little green fellows, and felt quite an attachment to them as they darted out their Tongues and devoured our worrying enemies
Pentecost - (Concerning the extraordinary happenings that day see BAPTISM WITH THE SPIRIT; Tongues
Floods - ...
Psalm 24:2 (a) By this we understand that GOD's Word is made permanent and sure for all peoples, nations and Tongues
Tongues, Confusion of - The gift of Tongues at Pentecost in no way rescinded this, though by the miraculous power of the Holy Spirit those from a distance of various languages heard, each in his own tongue, the same gospel
Holy Spirit, Gifts of - , the prophets and Tongues-speakers in Acts 19:6 ), while others build on a lifetime of divinely superintended preparation (as with Paul's apostleship, prepared for by his unique blend of Jewish, Greek, and Roman backgrounds). , prophecy, healings, miracles, Tongues and their interpretation) from other less "supernatural" gifts, although one suspects that first-century Christians may have considered all of them supernatural to some extent. , miracles, Tongues, or administration). Verses 1-3 illustrate this point with four representative examples: Tongues, prophecy, faith, and giving. There is no lexical or grammatical justification for translating "tongues will be stilled [1] by themselves. The two most controversial gifts in Corinth were Tongues and prophecy, so Paul devotes an entire chapter to their regulation (1 Corinthians 14 ). ...
In 1 Corinthians 14 , Paul enjoins the Corinthians to prefer prophecy to Tongues because it is more immediately intelligible (vv. ...
The nature of the gifts of Tongues and their interpretation must be determined by Paul's own teaching, rather than presupposing that the three instances of Tongues-speaking in Acts (2:1-13; 10:46; 19:6) must determine the form of glossolalia in Corinth. That the spiritual gift of Tongues requires a subsequent interpretation at once sets it off from the experience of Pentecost. The reference to angelic language in 1 Corinthians 13:1 makes it even more likely that Corinthian Tongues were not merely foreign languages; parallel phenomena in the surrounding cultures strongly confirms this. The gift of Tongues then refers to a divinely given utterance, unintelligible to its speaker or to most in that speaker's audience, but which will subsequently be "translated" into an understandable language, either by the original speaker or by another with the gift of interpretation. 18-19); it is not clear if Paul would consider this the same gift as public speaking in Tongues, but he clearly tries to temper the Corinthians' enthusiasm for this gift in church (v. There is a place for Tongues in a fully Christian assembly, but as with prophecy, it must remain within strict boundaries: no more than three exercising their gift at any given time and always with an interpretation (v. On the one hand, none of the gifts should be forbidden, even Tongues (v. 40), as illustrated by the regulations for prophecy and Tongues in verses 26-38. Mills, A Theological/Exegetical Approach to Glossolalia; Speaking in Tongues ; S
Cities - After the confusion of Tongues the descendants of Nimrod founded Babel, Erech, Accad and Calneh, in the land of Shinar, and Asshur, a branch from the same stock, built Nineveh, Rehoboth-by-the-river, Calah and Resen, the last being "a great city
Buckle - ) A device, usually of metal, consisting of a frame with one more movable Tongues or catches, used for fastening things together, as parts of dress or harness, by means of a strap passing through the frame and pierced by the tongue
Swelling - ...
2 Peter 2:18 (a) The reference evidently is to the boastful language used by great religious leaders whose Tongues are larger than their hands
Strange - ...
Note: In 1 Corinthians 14:21 (1st part), RV, heteroglossos, signifying "of a different tongue" (heteros, "another," glossa, "a tongue") is translated "of strange (AV, other) Tongues
Babel - As the result of God's judgement they were scattered and formed into nations according to their Tongues and families
Air - Speaking in Tongues without an interpreter is vainly speaking in the air with no one understanding (1 Corinthians 14:9 )
Gifts - See Tongues
Following - 14:21 as an Old Testament prophecy of Tongues-speaking, 'achêr figures prominently in the debate on that subject
Gossip - This is one reason why the Bible constantly urges people to control their Tongues (Psalms 141:3; Proverbs 16:23; Proverbs 17:27-28; James 1:19; James 3:7-10)
Babel, Tower of - ...
The ruin is still called Babel, because until this time all men had used the same speech, but now there was sent on them a confusion of diverse Tongues. , is remarkably mixed: Turanian in structure, Ethiopian (Cushite) mainly in vocabulary, with Semitic and Aryan elements, conformably with the Bible account that Babel was the scene of the confusion of Tongues
Curse - It seems that in Corinth, some who spoke in strange Tongues even used the expression in Christian meetings. Paul referred to this to demonstrate that speaking in Tongues was not necessarily speaking by the Holy Spirit (1 Corinthians 12:3)
Edification - ); (c) glossolalia or Tongues (γένη γλωσσῶν), which were probably incomprehensible utterances expressive of prayer or praise (1 Corinthians 14:13). ...
Closely connected with prophecy was ‘discerning of spirits,’ and with glossolalia ‘the interpretation of Tongues’ (1 Corinthians 12:10; 1 Corinthians 14:27 ff. prophecy is superior to ‘tongues’ for purposes of edification (1 Corinthians 14:1-25); (2) there must be an observance of due order in the meetings (1 Corinthians 14:26-40)
Fiery - ...
Ephesians 6:16 (a) Here is a picture of the fierce attacks which Satan will make on GOD's people by the malicious Tongues of his followers, and by persecution
Tongue - ...
Tongues have many descriptions:...
The lying tongue Psalm 109:2; Proverbs 6:17
Wonder - Babylon, the wonder of all Tongues
Organ - Reed organs, having vibrating metal Tongues instead of pipes, came into use c1500 Modern church organs are supplied with air by powerful electric blowers
Baptism of Fire - So some think of the fiery Tongues at Pentecost as the fulfillment of his prediction
Sit (Downsitting) - ...
Revelation 17:1 (b) The woman represents the apostate church, while the waters represent peoples, nations and Tongues
Tongues, Confusion of - Tongues, CONFUSION OF . The belief that the world, after the Flood, was re-populated by the progeny of a single family, speaking one language, is reconciled in the Bible with the existing diversity of Tongues by a story which relates how the descendants of Noah, in the course of their wanderings, settled in the plain of Shinar, or Babylonia, and there built of brick a city, and a tower high enough to reach heaven, as a monument to preserve their fame, and as a centre of social cohesion and union
Tongue - ...
The word ‘tongue’ occurs in a figurative sense in Acts 2:3 (tongues of fire; cf. ), see articles Tongues, Gift of, and Holy Spirit
Tongue - ...
The word ‘tongue’ occurs in a figurative sense in Acts 2:3 (tongues of fire; cf. ), see articles Tongues, Gift of, and Holy Spirit
Genesis - The first eleven chapters describe the creation of things, the history of Adam, the deluge, and the confusion of Tongues at Babel
Earth - ...
Another word, erets, has wider significations: sometimes the earth as a sphere: "God created the heaven and the earth," Genesis 1:1 ; He "hangeth the earth upon nothing," Job 26:7 : but in other places it is restricted to districts: "out of that land went forth Asshur;" "after their Tongues in their countries;" "in his days was the earth divided
New - They shall speak with new Tongues
Church Colors - Red is used on the Feasts of Martyrs,typifying that they shed their blood for the testimony of Jesus; itis also used at Whitsun Tide, symbolizing the cloven Tongues offire in the likeness of which the Holy Ghost descended on theApostles
Gehenna - For many people James warned that they could not control their Tongues that Gehenna had set on fire (James 3:6 )
Sign - circumcision as a sign of the covenant); (3) as an ‘indication’-Matthew 26:48 (Judas’ kiss), Luke 2:12 (to the Shepherds) Luke 2:34 (the child Jesus set for a sign); (4) hence for some wonderful indication-Matthew 24:3; Matthew 24:30, Mark 13:4 (of Christ’s Coming), Matthew 16:1; Matthew 16:4, Mark 8:11, Mark 16:17; Mark 16:20, Luke 11:15; Luke 11:29 (to show Christ’s power), Matthew 16:3 (signs of the times) Matthew 16:4 (sign of Jonah), 1 Corinthians 14:22 (tongues and prophesying as a sign of the power of Christianity); and therefore for a ‘miracle’ or wonderful deed which has instruction as its object
Sign - circumcision as a sign of the covenant); (3) as an ‘indication’-Matthew 26:48 (Judas’ kiss), Luke 2:12 (to the Shepherds) Luke 2:34 (the child Jesus set for a sign); (4) hence for some wonderful indication-Matthew 24:3; Matthew 24:30, Mark 13:4 (of Christ’s Coming), Matthew 16:1; Matthew 16:4, Mark 8:11, Mark 16:17; Mark 16:20, Luke 11:15; Luke 11:29 (to show Christ’s power), Matthew 16:3 (signs of the times) Matthew 16:4 (sign of Jonah), 1 Corinthians 14:22 (tongues and prophesying as a sign of the power of Christianity); and therefore for a ‘miracle’ or wonderful deed which has instruction as its object
Rapture Ecstasy - In Matthew 12:23, Mark 2:12; Mark 6:51 the verb ἐξίσταμαι is used, also in reference to the effects upon the multitude of the bestowal of the ‘gift of Tongues’ (Acts 2:7; Acts 2:12), and further of the preaching of St. Whatever the gift of Tongues implied in the early Church, it certainly included the power of rapt and ecstatic utterance, sometimes incoherent and requiring interpretation (1 Corinthians 14)
Pentecost - The Tongues symbolized Christianity proclaimed by preaching; the antithesis to Babel's confusion of Tongues and gathering of peoples under one ambitious will
Gifts of the Spirit - Matthew 17:19-20; Hebrews 11:33-40) and abilities relating to speaking in Tongues, interpreting Tongues and distinguishing between different kinds of spirits (1 Corinthians 12:10; cf. Acts 8:13-21; 1 Corinthians 14:13; 1 Corinthians 14:27; 1 John 4:1; see Tongues)
Tongue - See Spiritual Gifts ; Tongues, Gift of
Babel - By the confusion at Babel, in a diversity of Tongues, and which ever since hath distinguished nations; the Lord rendered that miracle at Pentecost, of his poor servants speaking in every language then under heaven in a moment, and with the greatest fluency, a full proof of "the Lord speaking in them, and by them
Vocation - The glory of God, who is supremely wise, good, merciful, just, and powerful, is so luminously displayed in this communication both of his grace and glory, as deservedly to raise into rapturous admiration the minds of angels and of men, and to employ their loosened Tongues in celebrating the praises of Jehovah, Revelation 4:8-11 ; Revelation 5:8-10
Another - , heteroglossos, "strange Tongues," 1 Corinthians 14:21 ; heterodidaskaleo, "to teach a different doctrine," 1 Timothy 1:3 ; 6:3 ; heterozugo, "to be unequally yoked" (i
Genesis - It contains an account of the creation; the primeval state and fall of man; the history of Adam and his descendants, with the progress of religion and the origin of the arts; the genealogies age, and death of the patriarchs until Noah; the general defection and corruption of mankind, the general deluge, and the preservation of Noah and his family in the ark; the history of Noah and his family subsequent to the time of the deluge; the repeopling and division of the earth among the sons of Noah; the building of Babel, the confusion of Tongues, and the dispersion of mankind; the lives of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph
Will (Testament) - (For a full discussion of Halmel see Dawson Walker, The Gift of Tongues, ‘The Legal Terminology in the Epistle to the Galatians,’ p. Zahn, Der Brief des Paulus an die Galater, Leipzig, 1905; Dawson Walker, The Gift of Tongues, Edinburgh, 1906, pp
New - "'The new Tongues,' kainos, of Mark 16:17 are the 'other Tongues,' heteros, of Acts 2:4
Dragon - The "waters" represent peoples, nations and Tongues, all of whom GOD subdued before His people who were marching to Canaan
Language - Our wise Creator, therefore, has conferred upon us this inestimable privilege: let us then be cautious that our Tongues be not the vehicle of vain and useless matter, but used for the great end of glorifying him, and doing good to mankind
Aera - ...
The ancient Jews made use of several aeras in their computation; sometimes they reckoned from the deluge, sometimes from the division of Tongues; sometimes from their departure out of Egypt; and at other times from the building of the temple; and sometimes from the restoration after the Babylonish captivity: but their vulgar aera was from the creation of the world, which falls in with the year of the Julian period 953; and consequently they supposed the world created 294 years sooner than according to our computation
Learning - If Christianity had been suppressed at its first appearance, it is extremely probable that the Latin and Greek Tongues would have been lost in the revolution of empires, and the irruptions of barbarians in the east and in the west; for the old inhabitants would have had no conscientious and religious motives to keep up their language; and then, together with the Latin and Greek Tongues, the knowledge of antiquities and the ancient writers would have been destroyed
Say, Utter, Affirm - ” The word is a verbal form of the verb ne'ûm, which occurs only once in the entire Old Testament: “Behold, I am against the prophets, saith [1] the Lord, that use their Tongues, and say [2], He saith [1]” ( Confusion of Tongues - 6: Hutchinson on the Confusion of Tongues; Bp
Fire - His descent was denoted by the appearance of Tongues as of fire (Acts 2:3 )
Sign - ...
"Signs" confirmatory of what God had accomplished in the atoning sacrifice of Christ, His resurrection and ascension, and of the sending of the Holy Spirit, were given to the Jews for their recognition, as at Pentecost, and supernatural acts by apostolic ministry, as well as by the supernatural operations in the churches, such as the gift of Tongues and prophesyings; there is no record of the continuance of these latter after the circumstances recorded in Acts 19:1-20
Serpent - Poisonous: Psalms 58:4; Psalms 140:3, "they have sharpened their Tongues" to give a deadly wound, "like a serpent" (Psalms 64:3)
Barbarian - (2) The Apostle Paul in 1 Corinthians 14:11 refers to the ecstatic speaking with Tongues, and declares that if any speak in an unknown tongue, ‘I shall be to him that speaketh a Barbarians, and he that speaketh will be a barbarian unto me
Concise Chronological Table of Bible History - ...
2348...
3155...
The Flood,...
2233...
2554...
Confusion of Tongues
Eldad - Not foretelling the future is meant, but ecstatic impulse by the Spirit, giving them wisdom and utterance; as the disciples on Pentecost received the gift of Tongues and of prophecy, i
City - After the confusion of Tongues, the descendants of Nimrod founded several cities (10:10-12)
Galilee - They were surprised to hear such men speak in foreign Tongues, the more so because no prophet was ever looked for from thence, nor any good thing from Nazareth
Baptism - " (Isaiah 4:4) And the New Testament gives the record of the first descent of the Holy Ghost, after Christ's return to glory, in the shape of cloven Tongues, like as of fire, which sat upon each of them
Inspiration - The Christian life as such is an inspired life, but the operation of the Spirit is represented in the NT in two forms; there are the extraordinary gifts (charisms) speaking with Tongues, interpreting Tongues, prophecy, miracles ( 1 Corinthians 12:1-31 ), all of which St
How the Prophetic Gift Was Received - --So far as their predictive powers are concerned, the Old Testament prophets find their New Testament counterpart in the writer of the Apocalypse; but in their general character, as specially illumined revealers of God's will, their counterpart will rather be found, first in the great Prophet of the Church and his forerunner, John the Baptist, and next in all those persons who were endowed with the extraordinary gifts of the Spirit in the apostolic age, the speakers with Tongues and the interpreters of Tongues, the prophets and the discerners of spirits, the teachers and workers of miracles
Language in Liturgy - Some of them are: the formulae used are most ancient and are approved expressions of Catholic Faith; Latin, being a dead language, is not subject to change as are modern Tongues; the beauty and harmony of liturgical compositions would be lost if translated; a change of language would destroy the sacred music which was written for Latin meter and cadence; Latin is "a witness of antiquity for the Mass; it provides an atmosphere of home for the traveler in every land; and unity of language throughout the patriarchate is a bulwark of unity of government and faith, a protection against nationalistic tendencies which have proved such a scourge in the past
Liturgy, Language in - Some of them are: the formulae used are most ancient and are approved expressions of Catholic Faith; Latin, being a dead language, is not subject to change as are modern Tongues; the beauty and harmony of liturgical compositions would be lost if translated; a change of language would destroy the sacred music which was written for Latin meter and cadence; Latin is "a witness of antiquity for the Mass; it provides an atmosphere of home for the traveler in every land; and unity of language throughout the patriarchate is a bulwark of unity of government and faith, a protection against nationalistic tendencies which have proved such a scourge in the past
Mark - The confusion of Tongues was a mark of separation
Sea - ...
1 Chronicles 16:32 (b) This represents peoples, nations and Tongues
Interpret, Interpretation, Interpreter - , "being interpreted" (of Tabitha, as meaning Dorcas); in 1 Corinthians 12:30 ; 14:5,13,27 , it is used with reference to the temporary gift of Tongues in the churches; this gift was inferior in character to that of prophesying unless he who spoke in a "tongue" interpreted his words, 1 Corinthians 14:5 ; he was, indeed, to pray that he might interpret, 1 Corinthians 14:13 ; only two, or at the most three, were to use the gift in a gathering, and that "in turn" (RV); one was to interpret; in the absence of an interpreter, the gift was not to be exercised, 1 Corinthians 14:27
Trance - Though different in form, it belongs to the same class of phenomena as the gift of Tongues, and is connected with "visions and revelations of the Lord" In some cases, indeed, it is the chosen channel for such revelations
Seraphim - " Thus he was inaugurated in office, as the disciples were by the Tongues of fire resting on them, the sign of their speaking of Jesus in various languages; his unfitness for the office, as well as his personal sin, were removed only by being brought into contact with the sacrificial altar, of which Messiah is the antitype
Abaddon - Just as, in beautiful contrast, the Spirit of adoption enables both Jew and Gentile believers to call God, in both their respective Tongues, Αbba (Hebrew in marked alliteration with Αbaddon Father (Greek, pater )
James, Letter of - They are to control their Tongues (3:1-12) and are not to be guilty of unspiritual or selfish behaviour (3:13-18)
Greek Language - But in every church, says Macknight, there were persons endowed with the gift of Tongues, and of the interpretation of Tongues, who could readily turn the Apostles' Greek epistles into the language of the church to which they were sent
Now - And the main contrast so far has been between love and the special [1] present activity of prophecy, Tongues, knowledge. There is something of disappointment, and even of bathos, in putting as a climax to these contrasts the statement that in this present state faith, hope, love abide; that is no more than can be said of [2] prophecies, Tongues and knowledge
Babel - The one primitive language is now lost, dispersed amidst the various Tongues which have severally appropriated its fragments, about to rise again with reunited parts in a new and heavenly form when Jehovah will "turn to the people a pure language, that they may all call upon the name of Jehovah, to serve Him with one consent" (Zephaniah 3:9). ...
The earnest of the coming restoration was given in the gift of Tongues at Pentecost, when the apostles spoke with other Tongues, so that "devout men out of every nation under heaven" heard them speak in their own Tongues "the wonderful works of God. " The confusion of Tongues was not at random, but a systematic distribution of languages for the purpose of a systematic distribution of man in emigration. Traces appear in the Babylonian inscriptions of all the four great dialects, Hamitic, Semitic, Aryan, and Turanian, which show that here the original one language existed before the confusion of Tongues. Berosus, their historian's account of their traditions of the flood, and of the confusion of Tongues at Babel, accords with Scripture in most points. The southern tetrarchy (arba lisun , "the four Tongues," or kiprat 'arbat , "the four nations") consisted of Ur, Huruk, Nipur, and Larsa or Laruncha, answering to the scriptural Ur of the Chaldees, Erech, Calneh, and Ellasar. The "four Tongues" and the fourfold league of Chedorlaomer answer to the fourfold ethnic division, Cushite, Turanian, Semitic, and Aryan
Dispersion - This was occasioned by the confusion of Tongues at Babel (Genesis 11:9 )
Considerateness - Mary to hustling by the mob, or to syllable names which would have been repeated by irreverent Tongues
Phoenicia - In the end, however, it was neither of the Western Tongues, but Aramaic, that displaced Phcenician, which was still spoken in North Africa till the 4th or 5th century
Heaven - Some think that there shall; and that, as persons of all nations and Tongues shall make up that blessed society, so they shall praise God in the same language which they before used when on earth; and that this worship may be performed with the greatest harmony, and to mutual edification, all the saints shall, by the immediate power and providence of God, be able to understand and make use of every one of those different languages, as well as their own. But though the apostle speaks by a metonymy of different Tongues, that is, persons who speak different languages being subject to Christ, he probably means thereby persons of different nations, whether they shall praise him in their own language in heaven, or no. And, indeed, the apostle seems expressly to intimate as much, when he says, speaking concerning the heavenly state, that Tongues shall cease, 1 Corinthians 13:8 . ...
Moreover, since the gift of Tongues was bestowed on the apostles for the gathering and building up the church in the first ages thereof, which end, when it was answered, this extraordinary dispensation ceased; in like manner it is probable that hereafter the diversity of languages shall cease
Spirit - Those who witnessed this event saw what seemed to be Tongues of fire resting on the believers. Moreover, these disciples were empowered to speak in Tongues other than their native language (Acts 2:1-3 )
Fruit of the Spirit - In other words, the fruit of the Spirit sets forth the manner in which those who have the gifts of prophesying, teaching, administering, helping, speaking in Tongues, and the others are to utilize their gifts. For example, as Paul writes, if I speak in the Tongues of men or of angels and do not have love, the fruit of the Spirit, I am just noise (1 Corinthians 13:1 )
Language - But about one hundred years after the flood, according to the common chronology, and later according to others, God miraculously "confounded the language" of the Cushite rebels at Babel; and peopling the earth by these scattered families of diverse Tongues, He frustrated the designs and promoted his own. ...
These languages are distinguished from European Tongues by several marked peculiarities: they are all, except the Ethiopic, written from right to left, and their books begin at what we should call the end; the alphabet, with the exception of the Ethiopic which is syllabic, consists of consonants only, above or below which the vowel-points are written; they have several guttural consonants very difficult of pronunciation to Europeans; the roots of the language are, in general, verbs of three letters, and pronounced, according to the various dialects, with one or more vowels; the verbs have but two tenses, the past and the future; and the pronouns in the oblique cases are generally untied in the same word with the noun or verb to which they have a relation
Miracles - ) the signs which would follow believers are said to be casting out devils in Christ’s name, speaking with new Tongues, taking up serpents, drinking poison without hurt, and healing the sick by laying on of hands. These works, which are instances of πνευματικά or spiritual [4], include healings and other ‘powers,’ speaking with Tongues and interpretation of Tongues, and prophecy
Tongue - Most important is the “tongue of fire,” which even takes the character of “eating” or “devouring”: “Therefore as the [1] devoureth the stubble, and the flame consumeth the chaff …” ( Christ - As to the use of the term in the New Testament, were we to judge by the common version, or even by most versions into modern Tongues, we should receive it rather as a proper name, than an appellative, or name of office, and should think of it only as our Lord's surname
Fire - To verify this prediction, he sent the Holy Ghost, which descended upon his disciples, in the form of Tongues, or like flames of fire, Acts 2:3
Dispensation, - Then followed the division of the earth into various nations and tribes, according to their families and Tongues
Pipe Flute - Paul expounds his teaching regarding the apostolic gift of speaking with Tongues
Cease - A — 1: παύω (Strong's #3973 — Verb — pauo — pow'-o ) "to stop, to make an end," is used chiefly in the Middle Voice in the NT, signifying "to come to an end, to take one's rest, a willing cessation" (in contrast to the Passive Voice which denotes a forced cessation), Luke 5:4 , of a discourse; Luke 8:24 , of a storm; Luke 11:1 , of Christ's prayer; Acts 5:42 , of teaching and preaching; Acts 6:13 , of speaking against; Acts 13:10 , of evil doing; Acts 20:1 , of an uproar; Acts 20:31 , of admonition; Acts 21:32 , of a scourging; 1 Corinthians 13:8 , of Tongues; Ephesians 1:16 , of giving thanks; Colossians 1:9 , of prayer; Hebrews 10:2 , of sacrifices; 1 Peter 4:1 , of "ceasing" from sin
Spiritual Gifts - The gifts may be divided into the apparently miraculous and the non-miraculous, ( a ) The miraculous include speaking with Tongues (probably ecstatic utterances, usually unintelligible to the speaker; see Tongues [1]), and their interpretation; gifts of healing, and the working of miracles or ‘powers’; of these we may instance the power of exorcism ([2] Mark 16:17 , Acts 16:18 ; Acts 19:12 ), and the punishment of offenders ( Acts 5:1-11 ; Act 13:9 , 1 Corinthians 4:21 ; 1 Corinthians 5:5 )
Offices in the New Testament - Although some of those termed prophets spoke in Tongues, Paul valued more highly those whose message was understood by the church (1 Corinthians 14:4-5 ). Performing miracles, healing, helping, and speaking in Tongues (1 Corinthians 12:28 ) are among the other tasks mentioned for which God has supplied spiritual gifts
Sign - ...
1 Corinthians 14:22 (a) The gift of Tongues was a gift in which the servants of GOD were enabled to instantly speak in a different language from the one they knew. The Spirit of GOD gave them immediately the power to preach the Gospel in foreign Tongues which had never been learned
Fire - The appearance of Christ in John's vision (Revelation 1:14 ; Revelation 2:18 ), was with eyes “as a flame of fire,” and the descent of the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost (Acts 2:3 ), was accompanied by “tongues like as of fire
Holy Ghost - He appeared under the emblem of a dove, and of cloven Tongues of fire, Matthew 3:1-17 : Acts 2:1-47 :...
5
Euphrates - As Babylon represents mystically the apostate church, so the waters of Euphrates, "where the whore sitteth" (in impious parody of Jehovah who "sitteth upon the flood"), represent the "peoples, multitudes, nations, and Tongues," which were her main support (Revelation 17:15-16)
Age - From the deluge to the confusion of Tongues, 738 years
Baptism With the Spirit - The experience of those of the second group, who received the Holy Spirit when they believed, without any unusual happenings, was the normal experience of the Christian, then as well as now (Acts 2:38-41; see also Tongues)
Victor Vitensis - Hunneric sent a military count who collected them all into the forum and cut out their Tongues by the roots notwithstanding which they all retained the power of speech
Gifts - Paul mentions, first, charisms of the intellectual order, ‘the word of wisdom’ and ‘the word of knowledge’; second, miraculous gifts: (a) ‘faith,’ (b) ‘gifts of healing,’ (c) ‘workings of miracles’; third, ‘prophecy, or the gift of spiritual instruction; fourth, ‘discerning of spirits,’ or the gift of discrimination, the discerning between the true and the false; and finally, ‘tongues’ and ‘the interpretation of Tongues’ (see Tongues), or ecstatic powers and the power of interpreting them. Then in 1 Corinthians 12:28 we have the following classification: ‘God hath set some in the church, first apostles, secondly prophets, thirdly teachers, then miracles, then gifts of healings, helps (ἀντιλήμψεις), governments (κυβερνήσεις, literally ‘pilotings’), divers kinds of Tongues’; this is a classification of charisms in order of spiritual rank and dignity
Ministry, Minister - ); and ministry to the congregation (tongues, interpretation of Tongues, etc
Simeon - They had no peace in their hearts, or in their Tongues at Him, till they had eaten Him up and annihilated Him. This is such a horrible pit of a world that not even the Son of God Himself could come down into it, and do the work of God in it, without being hunted to death by evil Tongues
Trump Trumpet - Paul continues his illustration from music to criticize an unedifying speaking with Tongues
Hebrew Language - The Hamites and Nimrod took the lead in building Babel, which entailed the confusion of Tongues; their tongue accordingly is found more confounded into endless varieties of dialect than the Semitic and Japhetic, whose dialects bear a nearer resemblance among themselves than the Turanian and other Hamitic dialects
Red Sea - Ras Mohammed, the headland of the Sinaitic peninsula, divides the Red Sea into two Tongues: the western one the gulf of Suez, 130 miles long by 18 broad, narrowing to ten at the head; the eastern one the gulf of Akabah ("a declivity"), 90 long by an average of 15 broad
Spiritual Gifts - See Holy Spirit ; Tongues, Gift of
Mind - In 1 Corinthians 14:14-15; 1 Corinthians 14:19, again, where νοῦς (which English Version renders here by ‘understanding’) is contrasted with πνεῦμα, the antithesis is between man’s natural faculty of conscious knowledge and reflexion and that higher principle of the Christian life which is Divinely bestowed, and which, as in the case of the gift of Tongues, may manifest itself in ways that lie beyond the reach of consciousness
Sow (Verb) - ...
Isaiah 32:20 (c) The waters in this passage represent peoples, nations and Tongues, and we should be busy getting the Gospel and the Scriptures before all kinds of people, in all parts of the world
Flock - John, the beloved apostle, in his days, when admitted in that glorious vision of the Lord to see heaven opened, related to the church, that he saw "a multitude, whom no man could number, of all nations, and kindreds, and people, and Tongues
Sabellians - Hence the Sabellians reduced the three persons in the trinity to three characters or relations, and maintained that the Word and Holy Spirit are only virtues, emanations, or functions, of the Deity; that he who is in heaven is the Father of all things; that he descended into the virgin, became a child, and was born of her as a son; and that, having accomplished the mystery of our redemption, he effused himself upon the Apostles in Tongues of fire, and was then denominated the Holy Ghost
Reproach (2) - And in this Beatitude He specially forewarns them of the persecution of false and bitter Tongues—more trying to some natures than the stones of the mob or the tyrant’s scourge and sword. ...
The Apostles and the early Church had their full share of the reproach of evil Tongues (cf
Language - When, by an immediate interposition of divine power, the language of men was confounded, we are not informed to what extent this confusion of Tongues prevailed. Under the article Confusion of Tongues some reasons are given to show that the primitive language was not lost at that event, but continued in the form of the Hebrew
Serpent - The expression ‘ fiery serpent ’ probably refers to the burning sensation produced by the bite; in Psalms 140:3 their poison is supposed to reside in their Tongues
Women - Just as he expected the speaker in Tongues to be silent when no interpreter was present (1 Corinthians 14:28), and the speaker of prophecy to be silent when another person received a revelation (1 Corinthians 14:29-30), so he expected the women to be silent when they were tempted to question the speaker (1 Corinthians 14:34-35)
Laying on of Hands - These disciples began speaking in Tongues and prophesying as evidence of the Holy Spirit
False Prophets - Prophecy was a more important gift than Tongues (1 Corinthians 14), and the prophet is in the list of officers associated with the Apostles, taking, with this one exception, precedence of all other ranks
Turtle - "And there appeared unto them cloven Tongues like as of fire, and it sat upon each of them
Jesus Christ - Could the whole human race, of all ages, kindreds, and Tongues, be assembled to see the crucified Redeemer as he is, and compare earth's noblest benefactors with Him, there would be but one voice among them
Hunneric, King of the Vandals. - The bishop thereupon dispatched secretly to Carthage an accusation against them to the king, who sent an officer with orders to have their Tongues cut out and their right hands cut off before the assembled province in the forum. He gives numerous cases of similarly mutilated persons in Eastern countries, and of persons in England whose Tongues had been removed by surgical operations, who could still pronounce distinctly all letters except d and t ; one of the latter he had actually seen and conversed with
Interpretation - Paul to a peculiar phase in the life of the early Corinthian Church speaking with Tongues
Sit - , Matthew 5:1 , RV, "when (He) had sat down" (AV, "was set"); Matthew 19:28 ; 20:21,23 ; 23:2 ; 25:31 ; 26:36 ; Mark 11:2,7 ; 12:41 ; Luke 14:28,31 ; 16:6 ; John 19:13 ; Acts 2:3 (of the Tongues of fire); 8:31; 1 Corinthians 10:7 ; 2 Thessalonians 2:4 , "he sitteth," aorist tense, i
Nimrod - ...
If so (which his rebellious character makes likely) he abandoned Babel for a time after the miraculous confusion of Tongues, and went and founded Nineveh
Voice - Paul treats of the subject of Tongues (q
Harp - Paul by this musical illustration criticizes a prevalent and unedifying speaking with Tongues, though, in the light of the phrase eandem cantilenam recinere, his figure of ‘harping’ has come in colloquial use to represent rather monotonous persistency
Pentecost - It is, indeed, not impossible that so memorable an event should have been signalized actually by such phenomena as ‘a sound as of the rushing of a mighty wind’ and ‘tongues parting asunder, like as of fire,’ and that all should have begun ‘to speak with other Tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance’ (Acts 2:2-4). _ Tongues, Gift of. What could symbolize that ‘Breath of God’ more fittingly than the wind? What could more appropriately suggest the penetrative purifying power and grace than Tongues ‘like as of fire’ (ὡσεὶ πυρός)? The miracle of Pentecost was that the little community should be transformed by the enduement of energy, illumination, and power, which is simply spoken of in the words: ‘And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit
Pentecost - It is, indeed, not impossible that so memorable an event should have been signalized actually by such phenomena as ‘a sound as of the rushing of a mighty wind’ and ‘tongues parting asunder, like as of fire,’ and that all should have begun ‘to speak with other Tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance’ (Acts 2:2-4). _ Tongues, Gift of. What could symbolize that ‘Breath of God’ more fittingly than the wind? What could more appropriately suggest the penetrative purifying power and grace than Tongues ‘like as of fire’ (ὡσεὶ πυρός)? The miracle of Pentecost was that the little community should be transformed by the enduement of energy, illumination, and power, which is simply spoken of in the words: ‘And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit
Upper Room (2) - 4: ‘The Holy Ghost, who spake in the prophets and on the Day of Pentecost, came down on the Apostles in the form of fiery Tongues here in Jerusalem, in the upper church of the Apostles; for with us are the most valuable privileges of all. 53, 54): ‘Thy all-holy Spirit,’ ‘who came down on Thy holy Apostles in the form of fiery Tongues in the upper chamber (ἐν τῷ ὑπερῴῳ) of the holy and glorious Sion on the Day of the holy Pentecost
Prophecy Prophet Prophetess - ‘He edifieth a church,’ while ‘the speaker with Tongues edifieth himself,’ In Romans 12:6 by the use of the phrase ἀναλογία τῆς πίστεως the Apostle declares that a prophecy is required to agree with the accepted doctrines of the faith; while 1 Corinthians 12:10 (διακρίσεις πνευμάτων) shows that criticism of prophecy was a regular practice (cf. _ Gifts, and Tongues, Gift of, the following may be consulted: A
Babylon, Mystical - Rome's forced outward unity, of which its one official language, Latin, is the symbol while inwardly there is spiritual confusion, answers to Babel, the scene of the forced attempt at concentration of power and peoples, issuing in utter confusion of Tongues; so too, in a wider sense; does all Christendom in its apostasy from apostolic unworldly purity, faith, and love
Fire - Then "tongues of fire" rested upon those gathered in the upper room with the result that they "were filled with the Holy Spirit" (Acts 2:3-4 )
Fellowship - ), and miraculous gifts of every kind-the ecstatic gifts of prophecy and speaking with Tongues, and the natural gifts bestowed by the Spirit, such as governing and helping in the Church (1 Corinthians 12:8 ff, 1 Corinthians 12:28 ff
Babel - Here, under the command of their new leader, and his dominant military and sacerdotal Cuthites, by whom the original scheme of idolatry, the groundwork of which was probably laid in Armenia, was now perfected; and, with the express view to counteract the designs of the Almighty in their dispersion into different countries, they began to build the city and tower, and set up a banner which should serve as a mark of national union, and concentrate them in one unbroken empire; when they were defeated and dispersed by the miraculous confusion of Tongues
David - Though first sung by Hebrew Tongues in the vales of Bethlehem and on the heights of Zion, they sound as sweetly in languages then unknown, and are dear to Christian hearts all around the world
Fill, Fill up - 1), is twice translated by the verbs "to fill, to fill up," in 1 Corinthians 14:16 , RV (for AV, "occupieth"), of a believer as a member of an assembly, who "fills" the position or condition (not one who "fills" it by assuming it) of being unable to understand the language of him who had the gift of Tongues; in 1 Thessalonians 2:16 , "to fill up their sins," of the Jews who persisted in their course of antagonism and unbelief
Vain - Wilson’s ‘Maxims of Piety’: ‘The eloquence of prayer consists in our proposing our wants to God in a plain manner’ (Maxims, 132), and still better by Hooker in the words, ‘The thing which God doth regard is how virtuous our minds are, and not how copious our Tongues in prayer; how well we think, and not how long we talk, when we come to present our supplications before Him’ (Eccles
Liberality of Sentiment - Christianity teaches the doctrine of Providence; but what a providence! Upon whom doth not its light arise! Is there an animalcule so little, or a wretch so forlorn, as to be forsaken and forgotten of his God? Christianity teaches the doctrine of redemption: but the redemption of whom?...
of all Tongues, kindred, nations, and people: of the infant of a span, and the sinner of a hundred years old: a redemption generous in its principle, generous in its price, generous in its effects; fixed sentiments of Divine magnificence, and revealed with a liberality for which we have no name
Corinthians - When also some were preparing for prayers or singing, others raised their voices to instruct, and commenced exercises in spiritual gifts, Tongues, prophesyings, and interpretations, 1 Corinthians 7, 13, 14; moreover, the women, to bring confusion to its highest pitch, took their part in interlocutions and proposals of questions, 1 Corinthians 14:34
Teaching - Teaching was therefore numbered among the charismata (χαρίσματα) which resulted from the bestowal of the Holy Spirit, and which included such gifts as prophesying, healing, working of miracles, and ‘tongues’ (Romans 12:6, 1 Corinthians 12:10 f. In the earliest stage it was somewhat overshadowed by the supernatural gifts of prophecy and Tongues. To the ordinary listener, the presence and influence of the Spirit were more evident in the revelations of prophecy or the ecstatic utterances of Tongues than in the calmer discourse of teaching
Fire - The appearance of fire (ὡσεὶ πυρός) assumed by the Tongues referred to the Divine presence, which, in this instance, conferred on those assembled together the ‘gift of Tongues,’ symbolized by the tongue-like fames that sat on the head of each. That the gift thus imparted had a Divine origin was certified by the visible accompaniment of fiery Tongues
Fire - The appearance of fire (ὡσεὶ πυρός) assumed by the Tongues referred to the Divine presence, which, in this instance, conferred on those assembled together the ‘gift of Tongues,’ symbolized by the tongue-like fames that sat on the head of each. That the gift thus imparted had a Divine origin was certified by the visible accompaniment of fiery Tongues
Corinthians, First Epistle to the - The public manifestation of the presence of the Spirit known as ‘speaking with Tongues’ (see art. Tongues [10]), seems to have been very common at Corinth. , in this connexion, the interpretation of Scripture and of Christian doctrine) as superior to speaking with Tongues, because it edifies all present
Violence - Micah's use of the term in 6:12 connotes verbal violence when he links it to "speaking lies" and "deceitful Tongues
Anathema - Or, introduced into the Church from some form of paganism, they had been so familiar with the evil inspiration that swept them along to the worship of ‘dumb idols’ (1 Corinthians 12:2) as to be disposed to plead inspiration for any Tongues or doctrines of their own, to whatever extent Jesus was degraded therein
Church Government - In 1 Corinthians 12:28 he counts up ‘first, apostles; second, prophets; third, teachers; then powers; then gifts of healing, helps, governments, kinds of Tongues
Interpretation - Paul applies it to that spiritual ‘gift’ which enabled one to expound the unintelligible utterance known as ‘tongues’ (ἑρμηνείω [1], διερμηνεύω [2], διερμηνευτής [3])
Apollos - Would not his eloquence, his philosophical bent, and his reiterated emphasis on Jesus as the Christ, lead to imperfect conversions? And may not the preference for the gift of Tongues, or the difficulties about marriage, be traced naturally to this eloquent ascetic? In Corinth, St
Maximus Magnus, Christian Emperor in the West - On the other hand, the name of Helen may merely be borrowed from the mother of Constantine, and Sarn Helen may be explained as Sarn-y-lleng , "the legion's causeway," just as the story of the cutting out the Tongues of the women of Armorica by Kynan's soldiers appears to be only an etymological myth to explain the name Llydaw applied to that country
Monastery - He likewise founded professorships of divinity, law, physic, and of the Hebrew and Greek Tongues in both the said Universities
Unbelief - Paul magnified ‘prophesying’ in contrast to ‘speaking with Tongues
Love - In 1 Matthew 5:43-4802 , Paul described “love” as a “more excellent way” than Tongues or even preaching
Diodorus, Presbyter of Antioch - The presbyter Maris of Hardaschir, in Persia, translated the works of Diodorus into Persian, and they, together with those of Theodorus, were also translated into Armenian, Syriac, and other Oriental Tongues (Neander, Ch
Assyria - They were flayed, they were impaled; their eyes and Tongues were cut out; rings were placed in their lips; and their brains were beaten out with maces
Woman - " This means that Paul envisioned women not only as apostles, prophets, and teachers but speaking in Tongues, working miracles, ministering as evangelists, and pastors/shepherds (11:5; 12:8-10; Ephesians 4:11 ), indeed, exercising every other spiritual gift that God may choose to give them. Inasmuch as twenty of the other twenty-one references to "speak" ( laleo [8]) in 1 Corinthians 14 refer to Tongues, their interpretation, prophecy, or evaluation, it is probably better to see one of these forms of speech in view
Twelve - How true it is that those who are persecuted for the Lord's sake are hidden by Him in His pavilion from the strife of Tongues
Corinthians, First And Second, Theology of - Tongues and interpretation of Tongues were associated by Paul and the Corinthians with the proleptic restoration of paradise, especially in the worship setting of the church
Miracles - Many miracles were typical; as the "tongues" manifested the universality of the Christian dispensation designed for every tongue, so counterworking the division of man from man through the confusion of Tongues at Babel; the casting out of demons symbolizes Christ's coming "to destroy the works of the devil
Religious Experience - Every baby is born blind and dumb and without the power to will, and there may be some tribes with poor eyes and slow Tongues and no theology; but in normal humanity there is a latent capacity for sight and speech and volition, and at least a hope that the soul has relations with the supernatural. ]'>[1] It is because the NT grew out of, and is the record of, genuine first-hand religious experience that it has the gift of Tongues, and can speak to every man in the language wherein he was born
Old Testament - ), or in the ‘strange Tongues’ of Isaiah 28:11 ff. a forecast of Christian ‘tongues’ (1 Corinthians 14:21), betrays the unrestrained liberty of interpretation exercised by the Jewish exegete
Apocrypha - The latter present, in contrast to the relatively reserved statements in the New Testament, vivid descriptions of hell, where sinners are punished in accordance with their sins: blasphemers, for example, hang by their Tongues over a blazing fire
the Unprofitable Servant - In order to teach and to train the twelve for their fast-coming work, their Master found Tongues in trees, books in the running brooks, sermons in stones, and this great lesson in Bartholomew's ploughman-waiter
Mind/Reason - Similarly, Paul contrasts a message or prayer given through Tongues, which pertains to the spirit, and the engagement of the mind, which suggests that the mind pertains to consciousness and a way of thinking that corresponds to human language (1 Corinthians 14:14-15,19 )
Popery - ) had expressly decreed, that, because, in many parts within the same city and diocese, there are many people of different manners and rites mixed together, but of one faith, the bishops of such cities of dioceses should provide fit men for celebrating divine offices, according to the diversity of Tongues and rites, and for administering the sacraments
Antioch - He further strove to render Antioch the intellectual rival of Alexandria, by inviting to his court scholars, such as Aratus the astronomer, and by superintending the translation into Greek of learned works in foreign Tongues
Nimrod - Whately had to come out about the Tower of Babel in one of the foreign Tongues of Babel, and behind the veil of anonymity
Devil - There is, however, this difference between the import of such terms, as occurring in their native Tongues, and as modernized in translations
Presentation - More especially, His birth of a Virgin Mother—told as it was to be by two Evangelists (Matthew 1:18-25, Luke 1:26-38), and always an article of faith in the Church—was not a thing to be communicated to unbelieving ears and scoffing Tongues; even when His claim to have come down out of heaven was contrasted with what were supposed to be the known facts of His origin as Man (John 6:42, Matthew 13:55)
Language of the nt - It was the one period in the history of the Empire when the gospel could he preached throughout the Roman world by the same missionary without interpreter or the need of learning foreign Tongues
Scripture - Nothing but the clearest evidence arising from undoubted truth could make multitudes of lawless, luxurious heathens receive, follow, and transmit to posterity, the doctrine and writings of the apostles; expecially at a time when the vanity of their pretensions to miracles and the gift of Tongues, could be so easily discovered, had they been impostors; and when the profession of Christianity exposed persons of all ranks to the greatest contempt and most imminent danger
Chronology - Besides, the miraculous Babel-confounding of Tongues is to be taken into account
Joel, Theology of - Their speaking in Tongues and praising God (v
Adam (1) - Probably the Syro-Arabian is the primitive tongue, whence sprang the Hebrew and other so-called Shemitic Tongues
Sepulchre - ...
(5) Revelation 11:9, ‘And from among the peoples and tribes and Tongues and nations do men look upon their dead bodies three days and a half, and suffer not their dead bodies to be laid in a tomb’ (εἰς μνῆμα)
the Angel of the Church in Smyrna - And neither do I know beyond a guess just what Polycarp did when he was again ill-used by the Tongues and pens of his day
the Mother of Zebedee's Children - Make them Thy true disciples even to death; but, I do beseech Thee, if it be Thy will, hide them in the secret of Thy presence from the pride of men, and keep them secretly in Thy pavilion from the strife of Tongues
Divination - ...
These supernatural beings communicated with men by means of ἄγγελοι (‘angels’ or ‘messengers’) or prophets, by possession, by means of the hand, Tongues, dreams, visions, trances, voices, sounds
Joseph And Mary - Thou shalt keep them in the secret of thy presence from the pride of men; thou shalt keep them in a pavilion from the strife of Tongues
Job - If Job could have but endured to the end the near neighbourhood, and the suspicious looks, and the significant gestures, and the open broadsides of his four friends, 'that daily furnace of men's Tongues,' as Augustine has it, Job would have been far too patient and far too perfect for an Old Testament saint
Praise - They are symbolic of a character which makes professions in words but is lacking in love, or, as Edersheim puts it, ‘he compares the gift of “tongues” to the sign or signal by which the real music of the Temple was introduced’ (op
Assur - At the same time traces exist in the Babylonian language of the other three great divisions of human speech, Shemitic, Aryan, and Turanian, showing in that primitive stage traces of the original unity of Tongues
Eschatology - Similarly, the charismata, and the gifts of healing and of Tongues, which were prevalent in the early Church, lent themselves readily to the view that they were a part of the miraculous ‘signs of the end’ foretold by prophets and apocalyptists (Acts 2:18; Acts 2:33; Acts 2:43; Acts 4:30 ff; Acts 5:12-16; Acts 16:18; Acts 19:6; Acts 21:9)
the Rich Man And Lazarus - For you must know that there are degrees in hell as there are in heaven; there are depths and deeper depths there; and there are hot and hotter beds there; and with less and less water to cool tormented Tongues
Simon Magus - And thus it is that we find the apostles speaking with Tongues, healing the sick, opening the eyes of the blind, casting out devils, and many suchlike miracles and signs
Judgments of God - They ripped open his belly, and ate his liver: the divine vengeance, however, pursued all those who had been guilty of this crime; their teeth came out, their Tongues rotted, and they lost their sight
Joab - Thou shalt keep them secretly in a pavilion from the strife of Tongues
Christianity (History Sketch) - Paul, who had distinguished himself by his enmity to the Christians, and by the cruelty with which he had persecuted them, having been converted, devoted himself to lay the foundations of the Gospel through a large portion of the most enlightened part of the world; and the miraculous gift of Tongues, by which humble and illiterate men found themselves at once able to speak the languages of different nations, left no doubt that they were bound to preach their faith as extensively as had been marked out to them by the last instructions which they had received from their Master
Apostle - ...
After the resurrection of our Saviour, and not long before his ascension, the place of Judas the traitor was supplied by Matthias, supposed by some to have been Nathaniel of Galilee, to whom our Lord had given the distinguishing character of an "Israelite indeed, in whom there was no guile;" and the twelve Apostles, whose number was now completed, received a new commission, of a more extensive nature than the first, to preach the Gospel to all nations, and to be witnesses of Christ, not only in Jerusalem, in all Judea, and in Samaria, but unto the uttermost parts of the earth; and they were qualified for the execution of their office by a plenteous effusion of miraculous powers and spiritual gifts, and particularly the gift of Tongues
Paul's Blamelessness as a Minister - Keep out of people's eyes, and ears, and feet, and Tongues then, as much as you can, and as long as you continue to cause so many men to stumble, and to fall, and to be broken over you
Philip: Deacon And Evangelist - And with such a father and such a mother, I do not wonder that when such things were abroad in those days as gifts of Tongues, and gifts of healing, and gifts of prophecy, and many other operations of the Holy Ghost, a double portion of some of those miraculous things came to Philip's four daughters
Baptism - Others see a reference to the ‘tongues like as of fire’ at Pentecost (Acts 2:3)
Angels - To this heavenly worship there seems to be a reference in 1 Corinthians 13:1 ‘tongues of angels
Peter (2) - The explanation of the descent of the Tongues of flame at Pentecost is given by him (Acts 2:14 ff
Hannah - Let God hide us all in the secret of His presence from the pride of men! Let Him keep us secretly in His pavilion from the strife of Tongues!...
Well, it was all that: it was Hannah's diabolical ill-usage at her adversary's hands, and it was still more, her own wicked and revengeful heart at her ill-usage: it was all that that made that saintly woman absolutely drunk sometimes with her sorrow
Influence - So afterwards we do not find the gift of Tongues a new language, but rather an endeavour to express the new enlargement of their own spirit
Paul as a Pastor - We are ashamed, down to this day, to see Paul compelled to defend his apostleship and himself from such Tongues and such pens; from such whisperers and such back-biters
Fire - This purging, cleansing power is for both saint and sinner, therefore the Tongues are cloven
Solomon - Bacon, like Solomon, put Tongues into trees and made them speak proverbs
Angels (2) - Philo’s Confusion of Tongues, p
Jephthah And His Daughter - Only, if the deputation had had any sense; if they had not been so many idiots; if all their Tongues had not been cleaving to the roofs of their months over Jephthah's hospitality and his daughter's devotion, they would surely have taken the upbraiding words out of his mouth
Letters - Men were not then, as many moderns have supposed, a race of babies, able only to ask for what they needed to eat and drink, or childishly to play with; and we may therefore rest assured that they had a language so copious, and enunciations of ideas so various in their respective Tongues, that picture writing neither was nor could be adequate to their full expression
Preaching - In these spiritual communities meetings for edification were held, in which every one who had a ‘gift’-whether of prophecy or interpretation, or ‘tongues,’ or praise (1 Corinthians 14:26 f
Miracles - In addition to the charisms of Tongues and prophecy (wh
Holy Spirit - They do respond to his preaching about faith in Jesus, though, and are thereafter baptized, upon which they receive the Holy Spirit and speak in Tongues and prophesy
Hellenistic And Biblical Greek - ] rather overestimates the importance of the evidences he gives of this fact, for the dialects in question occupied a position in Hellenic Asia Minor not very different from that of Albanian in Greece at the present day; and, in fact, the importance of these Tongues is hardly to be compared with that of Welsh in England, the Phrygian dialect alone surviving in a few short texts (sepulchral inscriptions) dating from the Imperial period
Regeneration - He may be so carried out of himself by the supernatural enthusiasm that he appears to onlookers as drunk (Acts 2:13); more generally he has the miraculous power of uttering ecstatic sounds (speaking with Tongues, Acts 2:4, Acts 10:46, Acts 19:6), and declaring his faith in exuberant public speech (prophesying, Acts 11:28, Acts 19:6, Acts 21:9-10); while those especially endowed may work miracles (Acts 2:43, Acts 4:30, Acts 5:12, Acts 8:13, Acts 14:3)
Ordination - The gifts are indeed various, but they include ‘apostles,’ ‘teachers,’ ‘helps,’ ‘government,’ as well as ‘powers,’ ‘gifts of healing,’ ‘kinds of Tongues’ (1 Corinthians 12:28; cf
Mss - At his request, Jerome, the leading Biblical scholar of the day, who had devoted many years to the study of the Scriptures in the East in their original Tongues, undertook, as he says in his preface to the NT, to ‘make a new work out of an old one’ by revising the existing Latin texts with reference to the original languages
Bible - That part of the Bible was given to him who was most excellent in such a tongue (as the Apocrypha to Andrew Downs:) and then they met together, and one read the translation, the rest holding in their hands some Bible, either of the learned Tongues, or French, or Spanish, or Italian, &c
English Versions - For the Latin Bible (the form in which the Scriptures had hitherto been mainly known in Western Europe) there was indeed so great a demand, that no less than 124 editions of it are said to have been issued before the end of the 15th century; but it was only slowly that scholars realized the importance of utilizing the printing press for the circulation of the Scriptures, either in their original Tongues, or in the vernaculars of Europe
Freedom of the Will - He ‘falls upon’ the disciples; he gives them to speak with ‘other Tongues’ (cf
Koran - The Arabic, which has been justly esteemed the most copious of the eastern Tongues, which had existed from the remotest antiquity, which had been embellished by numberless poets, and refined by the constant exercise of the natives, was the most successful instrument which Mahomet employed in planting his new religion among them
Messiah - Among whom Nehemiah Cohen, from Poland, was one, a man of great learning in the Kabbala and eastern Tongues; who desired a conference with Sabatai, and at the conference maintained, that according to the Scripture, there ought to be a two-fold Messias; one the son of Ephraim, a poor and despised teacher of the law; the other the son of David, to be a conqueror
Trinity - By it the primitive Christians understood the Father's gracious acceptance of the atonement offered by the Messiah; the peculiar protection of the Son, our great High Priest and Intercessor; and the readiness of the Holy Ghost to sanctify, to assist, and to comfort all the obedient followers of Christ, confirmed by the visible gift of Tongues, of prophecy, and divers other gifts to the first disciples
Paul - Paul to rectitude of principle above every other religious accomplishment, is weighty: "Though I speak with the Tongues of men and of angels, and have not charity, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal," &c, 1 Corinthians 13:1-3
Gregorius (14) Nazianzenus, Bishop of Sasima And of Constantinople - "Now the thing is done it is necessary to fulfil one's duty—such at least is the way in which I look at it—especially in the present distress, when many Tongues of heretics are raised against us, and not to disappoint the hopes of those who have put their faith in us and in our past life" (Ep