What does Theocracy mean in the Bible?

Dictionary

Easton's Bible Dictionary - Theocracy
A word first used by Josephus to denote that the Jews were under the direct government of God himself. The nation was in all things subject to the will of their invisible King. All the people were the servants of Jehovah, who ruled over their public and private affairs, communicating to them his will through the medium of the prophets. They were the subjects of a heavenly, not of an earthly, king. They were Jehovah's own subjects, ruled directly by him (Compare 1 Samuel 8:6-9 ).
Holman Bible Dictionary - Theocracy
(thee ah' cra cee) Term not found in the Hebrew Bible, yet descriptive of a type of government in which Yahweh was king over Israel. In Israel, Yahweh was viewed as the sole Sovereign from which other authorities derived legitimacy. Passages of hope envision God's rule as one outcome in the consummation of history. See Eschatology ; Final Hope.
Such a rule could be unmediated or mediated through a messianic ruler. Theocracy is shown in action as Yahweh is portrayed as the Heavenly King in His divine council, as He governs the affairs of humanity and His court. The divine will is expressed in decrees that are implemented by members of Yahweh's court (see 1 Kings 22:1 ; Isaiah 6:1 ; Job 1-2 ; Zechariah 3:1 ). Typically, three kinds of theocracy have been outlined.
1. A premonarchic form was based on the Sinaitic covenant (Exodus 19:1 ) and on the charismatic leadership of the judges and the prophets. The experience was more religious, less political.
2. The monarchic form brought a compromise between anti- and pro-monarchic forces in Israel. The king was Yahweh's representative and was called Yahweh's anointed or prince. He was a king, yet he was Yahweh's subordinate. God worked or ruled through the monarchy.
3. A postexilic priestly form saw both the prince and the priest as Yahweh's representative. This move reflected the rising political importance of the priest. In postexilic Israel, theocracy becomes more idealized and future looking. Throughout Israel's history theocracy was often more an ideal God's messengers proclaimed rather than a reality Israel lived out.
David M. Fleming
Webster's Dictionary - Theocracy
(1):
(n.) The state thus governed, as the Hebrew commonwealth before it became a kingdom.
(2):
(n.) Government of a state by the immediate direction or administration of God; hence, the exercise of political authority by priests as representing the Deity.

Sentence search

Thearchy - ) Government by God; divine sovereignty; Theocracy
Theocratical - ) Of or pertaining to a Theocracy; administred by the immediate direction of God; as, the theocratical state of the Israelites
Theocracy - Theocracy is shown in action as Yahweh is portrayed as the Heavenly King in His divine council, as He governs the affairs of humanity and His court. Typically, three kinds of Theocracy have been outlined. In postexilic Israel, Theocracy becomes more idealized and future looking. Throughout Israel's history Theocracy was often more an ideal God's messengers proclaimed rather than a reality Israel lived out
Zion - ) Hence, the Theocracy, or church of God
Exodus, Book of - ...
The giving of the law and the establishment of the institutions by which the organization of the people was completed, the Theocracy, "a kingdom of priest and an holy nation" (19:3-ch
Daniel, the Book of - A new stage in the Theocracy begins with the captivity. National miracles in Egypt, the wilderness, and Canaan marked the beginning of the Theocracy or outwardly manifested kingdom of God. Under David and Solomon the Theocracy attained its Old Testament climax, being not only independent but ruling the surrounding pagan; so this period was made type of the Messianic (as it ultimately shall be manifested). The Theocracy, in the strict sense of the manifested kingdom of God on earth, has ceased since the Babylonian exile, and shall only be resumed with a glory vastly exceeding the former at the millennium (Revelation 11:15; Revelation 11:20). Daniel's position in the Babylonian court answers to the altered relations of the Theocracy and the world power; see above. The period of Daniel's prophecies is that from the downfall of the Theocracy to its final restoration; it is the period of the world's outward supremacy, "the times of the Gentiles" (Luke 21:24; Daniel 9:27; Daniel 12:7), not set aside by Christ's first coming (John 18:36; Matthew 4:8-10); for Satan yet is "prince of this world," and Israel has been depressed and Judah's kingdom prostrate ever since the Babylonian captivity. But His second advent shall usher in the restored Israelite Theocracy and His worldwide manifested kingdom. , 18 years before the actual destruction of Jerusalem, when Judah's independent Theocracy ceased, Jehoiakim being put in fetters by Nebuchadnezzar
Violence - ’ The text (Matthew 11:12) thus refers to that period of the Theocracy (i. the Kingdom of God) which was introduced by the imprisonment of John the Baptist; it is its peculiarity that the Theocracy suffers violence, not, of course, from believers, but from those in authority. The words ἀρπάζουσιν αὐτήν (אִנְסוּהָא) are not intended to suggest that the violent seize the Theocracy, but merely that they maltreat it in the persons of its representatives. Jesus declared to them that the proclamation of the Theocracy since the time of John made it possible for any one to intrude himself violently into it: nevertheless it was not their own estimate, but the judgment of God that decided who was worthy of entrance. found in their sources made mention only of the violent treatment of the Theocracy since the time of John. Matthew, with greater reason, understood it to refer to the violent treatment of the preachers of the Theocracy, and therefore connected it with the answer of Jesus to John. Neither by Jesus nor by the Evangelists is it suggested that any one could actually appropriate the Theocracy by force
Age, Old - ...
In the millennium, when there shall be a worldwide Theocracy, with Israel for its center, the temporal sanction of exceeding long life (as in patriarchal times) shall be the reward for piety, and shortened years the penalty of any exceptional sin (Isaiah 65:20; Zechariah 8:4)
Zechariah - The second division gives a prophetic description of the future fortunes of the Theocracy in conflict with the secular powers, the sufferings and death of the Messiah under the figure of the shepherd, the conversion of Israel to him, and the final glorification of the kingdom of God
Christendom - Its foundations are to be found in Jewish traditions of a Theocracy
Jubilee - It would periodically rectify the disorders which crept into the state in the course of time, preclude the division of the people into nobles and plebeians, and preserve the Theocracy inviolate
Saul - After his signal defeat of the Ammonites, Saul was confirmed on the throne by the army at Gilgal, 1 Samuel 11:1-15, though the continuance of the Theocracy was earnestly insisted on by Samuel
Gen'Esis - --The book of Genesis (with the first chapters of Exodus) describes the steps which led to the establishment of the Theocracy. It is a part of the writer's plan to tell us what the divine preparation of the world was in order to show, first, the significance of the call of Abraham, and next, the true nature of the Jewish Theocracy
Water of Jealousy - The appointed test of a wife's infidelity; an instance of the special providence which ruled the Israelite Theocracy (Numbers 5)
Gentiles - The Theocracy shall be restored with unparalleled splendor at the coming of Him "whose right it is" (Ezekiel 21:27)
King - The Theocracy and the law could be maintained under kings as under a commonwealth. Impatience of God's yoke (the laws of the Theocracy), eagerness to imitate the nations around, and unbelief in trial, instead of seeking for the cause of their misfortunes in themselves, were the sin of their request. The words "Jehovah is our Judge, Jehovah is our Lawgiver, Jehovah is our King," embody the Theocracy (Isaiah 33:22)
Levites - Thus the Levites came to occupy in the Hebrew Theocracy a position midway between the priests and the people
Tribute - The Hebrews acknowledged none for sovereign over them but God alone: whence Josephus calls their government a Theocracy, or divine government
Miriam - Leprosy was the penalty of sin against the Theocracy, as in Uzziah's and Gehazi's case
Heifer, Red - As the heifer was east "without the camp," so Christ was cut off from fellowship with the representatives of the Theocracy, and crucified between two thieves outside of Jerusalem (Hebrews 13:11-12)
Kingdom - " It was typified by the Jewish Theocracy, and declared to be at hand by John the Baptist, and by Christ and his Apostles also in the days of his flesh; but it did not come with power till Jesus rose from the dead and sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high, Acts 2:32-37 : Then was he most solemnly inaugurated, and proclaimed King of the New Testament church, amidst adoring myriads of attendant angels, and "the spirits of just men made perfect
Headship - The building of which the Psalmist speaks is the Theocracy, Israel as the people of God. The corner-stone, a stone fitted into an angle of the building and binding together the walls which meet at that point, and without which the structure must collapse, represents the Messiah, through whom the Theocracy finds its realization. Thus quoted and applied, the words of the Psalm speak of the Messiah as of Him ‘upon whom depend the maintenance and development of the Theocracy, without whom it would fall to pieces, as the corner-stone is the upholder and stay of a building’ (Meyer)
King, Kings - Being peculiarly the people of God, their form of government was essentially a Theocracy
Judas the Galilaean - 8]'>[1]) was evidently bent on putting into practice a political programme, and may very likely have undertaken to organize a Theocracy without a human ruler
Justice - In the land of Canaan, local magistrates were appointed for every city and village; and these were instructed to cooperate with the priests, as being all together under the Theocracy, the actual government of Jehovah, the supreme Judge of Israel, Deuteronomy 16:18 17:8-10 19:17 21:16
Zechariah, the Book of - ...
Zechariah encouraged the Jews in rebuilding the temple by unfolding the glorious future in contrast with the present depression of the Theocracy. Four chariots, symbolizing the fourfold dispensations of Providence as regards the contact of the four great world powers with Judaea, come out from between the two mountains Zion and Moriah (the seat of the temple, representing the Theocracy) where the Lord is (Zechariah 2:10), and from whence He sends His ministers of judgments on the pagan; the red horses in one represent carnage; the black, sorrow and famine (Revelation 6:5-6); the white, joy and victory; the grisled or piebald, a mixed dispensation, partly prosperity, partly adversity; all alike working together for good to Israel. When Messiah demanded His" price" for pastoral care of Israel during the whole Theocracy, and especially in the three and a half years of His ministry in person, they gave only 30 shekels, the price of a gored bond servant (Zechariah 11:12-13; Exodus 21:32). , who rebuilt the city wall and restored the civil and religious polity of the Theocracy and corrected the various abuses in church and state
Daniel - Noah before and at the flood, Job in the postdiluvian patriarchal age, and Daniel toward the close of the legal Theocracy are made types of "righteousness. God manifested His irresistible power in Daniel and his friends, as representing the Theocracy then depressed, before the pagan king who deemed himself divine
Hebrews - ...
The government of the Hebrews is, by Josephus, called a Theocracy-a form of government which assigns the whole power to God, with the management of all the national affairs-God, in fact, being the proper King of the state. This was, properly, the time of the Theocracy, in the strictest sense of the term
Ezra, the Book of - ), because the re-establishment of the Theocracy then began, though the actual rebuilding was not until 13 years later under Nehemiah. Details as to the priests and Levites characterize all three; for these were essential to the restoration of the Theocracy, which was the primary object. ...
The order is chronological, though not continuous (the 31 closing years of Darius, the whole 21 of Xerxes, and the seven first of Artaxerxes, about 60 in all, being passed over between Ezra 6 and Ezra 7); the ministry of Ezra in restoring the Theocracy being the main subject, the former work of Zerubbabel and Joshua being its precursory analogue
Judges, the Book of - Abimelech's was the first effort to substitute an earthly king for the Lord of the Theocracy, Samson's history illustrates Israel's, whom he represents, strength and weakness, strength in separation to Jehovah, utter weakness when the consecration became severed, as Samson's locks, by lust. ...
As yet Israel developed itself freely under the Mosaic law and Theocracy, which are taken for granted; each did what was "right in his own eyes" (Judges 17:6), thus giving scope, as a common central government could less do, to the operation of that particular providence which gave prosperity or adversity according to the obedience or disobedience, not only of the nation but of each tribe and family (Judges 1:1-19; Judges 1:21-33). But the great decline of Israel necessitated the kingdom, which followed, as better for a carnal people than the Theocracy of which they showed themselves unworthy
Condemnation - In the Old Testament Theocracy God mediated his justice through judges, kings, priests, and prophets
Haggai - On the same day as III, addressed to Zerubbabel, the representative of the Theocracy, who asked about the national revolutions foretold in II
Ruth - The three classes of the Old Testament Canon were arranged according to the relation in which their authors stood to God and the Theocracy, and in which the books themselves stood in contents and spirit to the divine revelation
Amos - ...
Amos 9:11-15; David's fallen tabernacle shall be raised, the people re-established in prosperity in their own land, no more to be pulled out, and the conversion of the pagan shall follow the establishment of the Theocracy finally; compare Amos 9:12 with Acts 15:17
Judges - This Godwin infers from Gideon's refusing to take upon him the perpetual government of Israel, as being inconsistent with the Theocracy
Isaiah - It was apparently written in the later years of the prophet, when, having left all active exertions in the Theocracy to his younger associates in the prophetical office, he transferred his contemplations for the present to that which was to come
Political Conditions - His accession was opposed by some of his own family, and by the popular party at Jerusalem, who aimed at the restoration of the Theocracy, but pleaded meanwhile for the investment of the high priest with supreme civil power, in subordination to the Emperor alone. Opposed to them were the Pharisees, whose national ideal was that of a Theocracy, and whose endurance of an alien rule was reluctant or sullen. An extreme party was gradually formed of irreconcilables, under the name of Zealots or Cananœans (Matthew 10:4, Mark 3:18, Luke 6:15), who were prepared to use the sword without delay for the restoration of a Theocracy
Tithe, Tithing - The New Testament directs that taxes be paid to the state (Romans 13:6-7 ), which replaced Israel's Theocracy
Lamaism - This Theocracy, which extends as fully to temporal as to spiritual concerns, is professed all over Thibet and Mongalia; is almost universal in Greater and Less Bucharia, and several provinces of Tartary; has some followers in the kingdom of Cashmere, in India; and is the predominant religion of China
Judges - Judging was the only royal function, under the Theocracy, which was committed to man, and being moreover in the hands of the people's natural leaders it held a very high place in popular estimation
Leadership - These were the terms of the Theocracy. ...
The chronicler is especially careful to point out how the successors in David's line failed to meet the terms of the Theocracy. In New Testament times there were no longer the civil leaders of the Old Testament Theocracy
Establishments - That the case of the Jews can never be considered in point, as they were under a Theocracy, and a ceremonial dispensation that was to pass away, and consequently not designed to be a model for Christian nations
Lama, Grand - This Theocracy extends as fully to temporal as to spiritual concerns
Prophet - --The sacerdotal order was originally the instrument by which the members of the Jewish Theocracy were taught and governed in things spiritual
Leviticus - ...
(4) Perpetuation of the Theocracy by the sabbatical and Jubilee years, the perpetual tenure of land, the redemption of it and bond servants (Leviticus 25); and by fatherly chastisement of the people and restoration on repentance, Leviticus 26
Hosea - He mentions in the inscription, besides the reign of Jeroboam in Israel, the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah, though his prophecies are addressed primarily to Israel and only incidentally to Judah; for all the prophets whether in Judah or Israel regarded Israel's separation from Judah, civil as well as religious, as an apostasy from God who promised the kingship of the Theocracy to the line of David
Poetry of the Hebrews - ...
The chief subject of Hebrew poetry was religion, and then patriotism; which, under the Theocracy, was very nearly allied to religion
Government - David had established an administrative pattern for kingship in a Theocracy by delegating many duties to persons known officially as "servants. ...
The return from exile in Babylonia furnished an opportunity for the restoration of a true Theocracy. Ezra's great contribution to true Theocracy came with his insistence upon the Mosaic law as the basis of all spiritual life
Canon of the Old Testament - The restorer of the national polity based it on the law, the Magna Charta of the Theocracy
Teaching of Jesus - But the form of its presentation, and much of its resulting spirit, were largely determined by two features peculiar to Jesus as a teacher: (a) a note of fresh, personal authority, in contrast to the derivative authority claimed by the scribes (Mark 1:22); (b) constant reference to ‘the kingdom of heaven,’ the true Theocracy for which Israel had long been waiting and watching, in connexion with Messiah, its Divinely commissioned Inaugurator. John the Baptist had spoken of such a Theocracy as imminent. It represents ‘the key of knowledge’ touching God’s will, as it should be done in the true Theocracy or Kingdom, which the official guardians of the Law had removed out of men’s reach by their traditions (Luke 11:52)
Number - Evidently these numbers symbolize the long "Gentile times" from the overthrow of Judah's kingdom by Babylon, and of Jerusalem by Titus, down to the restoration of the Theocracy in Him "whose right it is" (Ezekiel 21:27)
Learning - Ezra, the second founder of the Theocracy and a man of priestly birth, is designated a scribe (Ezra 7:6)
Samuel - Yet the Lord did not abdicate His throne over the Theocracy
Elijah - The idolatrous prophets were slain at the Brook Kishon, idolatry being visited according to the law with the penalty of high treason against God the king of the national Theocracy (Deuteronomy 13:9-11; Deuteronomy 13:15; Deuteronomy 18:20). The severity of the judgment by fire is due to the greatness of the guilt of the Israelite king and his minions who strove against God Himself in the person of His prophet, and hardened themselves in idolatry, which was high treason against God and incurred the penalty of death under the Theocracy. Moreover, the temporal penalties of the Theocracy, ordained by God for the time, were in our Lord's days giving place to the antitypes which are abiding
Prophet - As God's deputed representative, under the Theocracy the prophet spoke in God's name. God as King of the Theocracy did not give up His sovereignty when kings were appointed; but as occasion required, through the prophets His legates, superseded, reproved, encouraged, set up, or put down kings (as Elisha in Jehu's case); and in times of apostasy strengthened in the faith the scattered remnant of believers
Cherub (1) - heaven's court will be transferred here (Revelation 21:3), and the world is subject to a never ending Theocracy" (DeBurgh)
Inheritance - In the reconstituted Theocracy, the Messiah figured as the mediator both of temporal and of spiritual blessings
Sanhedrin (2) - The post-exilic Jewish community was nominally a Theocracy, enjoying a certain measure of independence under foreign rule. They were especially incensed at the Hasmonaean assumption of the title and functions of the high-priesthood, which they regarded as usurpation and as a secularizing of the Theocracy
Government of the Hebrews - When we remember that God was expressly chosen the King of the people, and that he enacted laws and decided litigated points of importance, Numbers 17:1-11 ; Numbers 27:1-11 ; Numbers 36:1-10 ; when we remember also that he answered and solved questions proposed, ...
Numbers 15:32-41 ; Joshua 7:16-22 ; Judges 1:1-2 ; Judges 20:18 ; Judges 20:27-28 ; 1 Samuel 14:37 ; 1 Samuel 23:9-12 ; 1 Samuel 30:8 ; 2 Samuel 2:1 ; that he threatened punishment, and that, in some instances, he actually inflicted it upon the hardened and impenitent, Numbers 11:33-35 ; Numbers 12:1-15 ; Numbers 16:1-50 ; Leviticus 26:3-46 ; Deuteronomy 26-30; when, finally, we take into account, that he promised prophets, who were to be, as it were, his ambassadors, Deuteronomy 18, and afterward sent them according to his promise, and that, in order to preserve the true religion, he governed the whole people by a striking and peculiar providence, we are at liberty to say, that God was, in fact, the Monarch of the people, and that the government was a Theocracy. But, although the government of the Jews was a Theocracy, it was not destitute of the usual forms which exist in civil governments among men
Miracles - The Old Testament miracles attested God's presence as King of the Theocracy; though this involved a continual series of miracles, yet as the Theocracy was temporary and local those miracles did not violate God's ordinary government of the world by the laws of nature
Esther - The design apparently was, in the absence of the visible Theocracy while God's people were under the pagan world power, that the historic facts should speak for themselves with expressive silence (just as the book of nature does: Psalm 19; Romans 1:20), attesting God's providence even when God hid His name and verbal manifestation
Nebuchadnezzar - Not to Daniel but to Nebuchadnezzar, the first representative head of the world power who overcame the Theocracy, the dreams were given announcing its doom
Government - ...
In understanding the biblical conception of government, one must remember that biblical theology presents early Israel as a Theocracy, having God as king and ruler (Judges 8:22-23 ; 1 Samuel 8:7-9 ; Psalm 93-99 ; Romans 13:1-4 )
Simeon - Probably the apostle Simeon Zelotes, "the zealot" (Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13) for the honour of the law and the Israelite Theocracy
Nathanael - Here the point may be that He is come, not to revive the old Theocracy, nor to ‘restore the kingdom to Israel’ (Acts 1:6), but to redeem the whole human race
Samuel, First And Second, Theology of - On this occasion Samuel made it clear that even though human kingship had now been incorporated into the Theocracy, in obedience to the command of the Lord (1 Samuel 12:12-15 ), this in no way annulled the responsibility of either the people or the new king to continue to recognize the Lord as their ultimate Sovereign (1 Samuel 12:20,24-25 ). The prophets were the guardians of the Theocracy and therefore functioned mainly at its center, the royal court
Seventy (2) - Peace would include peace with God as well as with men, peace of conscience, the peace of discipleship to a perfect Master (Matthew 11:28-30): the Kingdom of God would be, not a mere external, but an internal Theocracy, the reign of God within as well as over men (Matthew 12:28, Mark 4:26-27); and this Empire of God was Peace
Ethics (2) - To treat the ethical and the ritual law as of equal validity belongs to the very nature of the priestly Theocracy: the moment the former is placed on a higher level the whole edifice becomes insecure. The Jewish people were under a Theocracy, and for them the Law of Moses was by no means restricted to religious or moral matters; it was at once a civil and a penal code, an order of legal procedure and a manual for the priesthood
Tabernacle - As the Israelite Theocracy was God's kingdom, so the tabernacle was His palace, where the people had audience of God and whence He issued His commands, embodied in the testimony within the ark
Thousand Years - The Theocracy, or rule of God in Christ, shall supersede the misrule of earthly potentates who ruled for self
Worship - And here again, also, the character of the Theocracy of the New Testament revealed itself, a Theocracy spiritualized, ennobled, and freed from its outward garb of sense, and from the limits which bounded its generalization
Pentateuch - Gideon recognizes the Theocracy, as Moses ordained (Judges 8:22-23; Joshua 8:29; Deuteronomy 17:14; Deuteronomy 17:20; Deuteronomy 33:5)
Zechariah, Theology of - Our government is not a Theocracy as was that of Zechariah, so we may not be able to fashion our secular and pluralistic governments completely according to Christianity
Dispersion - The old dream of a Theocracy was forgotten, and Messianism aroused no interest’ (Inge, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics i
Dispersion - The old dream of a Theocracy was forgotten, and Messianism aroused no interest’ (Inge, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics i
Messiah - When we turn to Ezekiel’s ideal scheme of the restored Jewish Theocracy (chs
David - He had lived in harmony with both the priesthood and the prophets; a sure sign that the spirit of his government had been throughly loyal to the higher aims of the Theocracy
Kings, the Books of - ...
The book is not a mere chronicle of kings' deeds and fortunes, but of their reigns in their spiritual relation to Jehovah the true, though invisible, King of the Theocracy; hence it is ranked in the canon among "the prophets
Doctrines - But the Kingdom of God, as Jesus proclaims it, resembles the Old Testament Theocracy in this, that the Supreme Sovereign reveals His will and rules His kingdom by One whom He has sent and to whom He has delegated His authority
Synagogue (2) - —Under the strict conception of a Theocracy there can be no distinction between things ecclesiastical and things civil
Gospels - Thus, in the Jewish aspect of Matthew's Gospel, the Roman of Mark's, and the Greek of Luke's, we observe the conflux of the three chief human civilizations, the Hebrew Theocracy, the Roman polity, and the Greek literary and artistic refinement; while in John's the spiritual verities of t
Law of Moses - (c) The penalties and rewards by which the law is enforced are such as depend on the direct Theocracy
Herod - The Jewish religion thus degraded into a tool of ambition lost its spiritual power, and the Theocracy becoming a lifeless carcass was the ready prey for the Roman eagles to pounce upon and destroy (Matthew 24:28)
Atonement - Seeing, however, that in many indirect ways they recognize its legitimacy, and even include it in their pictures of a restored Theocracy (cf
Biblical Theology - ...
Torah and Theocracy
Ideas (Leading) - Israel was a Theocracy
Wandering Stars - But even the older conception of a Theocracy under arms for the defensive, which had flashed up brilliantly in the Maccabaean wars (cf
Eschatology (2) - It meant the perfect form of the Theocracy of which all the prophets had spoken
Law - The moral law is sometimes called the Mosaic law, because it was one great branch of those injunctions which, under divine authority, Moses enjoined upon the Israelites when they were gathered into a political community under the Theocracy
Pharisees (2) - (4) The Pharisees had a high theory of the Theocracy, which led them to oppose foreign interference from the time of the Syrian kings to the Roman emperors, and reject also the Maccabaean rule as inconsistent with the high priesthood
Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyons - Theocracy, and all the Jewish Scriptures were received as divinely inspired documents by the new church
Expiation - Running parallel, however, with this political application of the law to the Jews as subjects of the Theocracy, we see the authority of the moral law kept over them as men and creatures; and if these "presumptuous sins," of blasphemy and idolatry, of murder and adultery, and a few others, were the only capital crimes considered politically, they were not the only capital crimes considered morally; that is, there were other crimes which would have subjected the offender to death, but for this provision of expiatory oblations