What does Temple mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
ἱερῷ a sacred place 32
הַבַּ֖יִת house. / place. / receptacle. / home 20
ἱεροῦ a sacred place 18
הַבָּֽיִת house. / place. / receptacle. / home 14
ἱερὸν a sacred place 14
הַבַּ֙יִת֙ house. / place. / receptacle. / home 13
ναὸν used of the temple at Jerusalem 13
ναοῦ used of the temple at Jerusalem 12
הַבָּ֑יִת house. / place. / receptacle. / home 11
הַבַּ֔יִת house. / place. / receptacle. / home 10
ναὸς used of the temple at Jerusalem 10
הַבַּ֥יִת house. / place. / receptacle. / home 9
הַבַּ֤יִת house. / place. / receptacle. / home 9
ναῷ used of the temple at Jerusalem 8
בֵּ֣ית house. / place. / receptacle. / home 7
הֵיכַ֣ל palace 6
ἱερόν a sacred place 6
בְּהֵיכַ֣ל palace 5
בֵּית־ house. / place. / receptacle. / home 4
בֵּ֥ית house. / place. / receptacle. / home 4
בַּבַּ֥יִת house. / place. / receptacle. / home 4
לַבַּ֖יִת house. / place. / receptacle. / home 4
הַבַּ֛יִת house. / place. / receptacle. / home 4
הֵיכַ֤ל palace 4
בֵּ֖ית house. / place. / receptacle. / home 4
וְהַבַּ֖יִת house. / place. / receptacle. / home 3
הַהֵיכָ֖ל palace 3
הַבַּיִת֒ house. / place. / receptacle. / home 3
הַבַּ֧יִת house. / place. / receptacle. / home 3
הֵֽיכַל־ palace 2
בַּ֔יִת house. / place. / receptacle. / home 2
בְּבֵ֥ית house. / place. / receptacle. / home 2
בֵית־ house. / place. / receptacle. / home 2
הַהֵיכָ֔ל palace 2
לַהֵיכָ֖ל palace 2
הַבַּ֨יִת house. / place. / receptacle. / home 2
בַּֽהֵיכָ֔ל palace 2
הֵיכָלֶֽךָ palace 2
בַּיְתָ֤א house (of men). 2
בַּ֙יִת֙ house. / place. / receptacle. / home 2
בְּהֵיכַ֥ל palace 2
הַבַּ֣יִת house. / place. / receptacle. / home 2
הֵיכַ֖ל palace 2
הֵיכָלֽוֹ palace 2
בַּ֖יִת house. / place. / receptacle. / home 2
הֵיכַ֥ל palace 2
וְהֵיכָ֖ל palace 1
הַֽהֵיכָ֖ל palace 1
הֵיכָ֔ל palace 1
וְהֵיכַ֥ל palace 1
וְהַֽהֵיכָל֙ palace 1
מֵהֵיכַ֣ל palace 1
מֵהֵֽיכָלוֹ֙ palace 1
לַֽהֵיכָ֖ל palace 1
הֵיכָל֙ palace 1
הַֽהֵיכָל֙ palace 1
εἰδωλείῳ an idol’s temple 1
הַהֵיכָֽל palace 1
הֵֽיכְלָ֛א palace 1
בְּרַקָּתֽוֹ temple 1
בְּרַקָּת֔וֹ temple 1
עֲצַבֵּיהֶ֖ם idol 1
לְהֵיכְלָ֤א palace 1
הֵיכְלָ֥א palace 1
בְּהֵיכְלָ֖א palace 1
לְהֵיכְלָ֖א palace 1
הֵֽיכְלָא֙ palace 1
הֵיכְלָ֖א palace 1
מֵֽהֵיכָ֑ל palace 1
הֵיכָל֜וֹ palace 1
מֵֽ֭הֵיכָלֶךָ palace 1
בְּהֵיכָלֽוֹ palace 1
מֵהֵיכָל֣וֹ palace 1
הֵיכַ֪ל palace 1
בְּֽהֵ֘יכַ֤ל palace 1
הַֽהֵיכָ֗ל palace 1
מֵהֵיכַ֥ל palace 1
וּבְהֵיכָל֑וֹ palace 1
הַבַּ֗יִת house. / place. / receptacle. / home 1
בְּהֵיכָל֖וֹ palace 1
וְהַבַּ֙יִת֙ house. / place. / receptacle. / home 1
וְלַבָּ֑יִת house. / place. / receptacle. / home 1
בַּבַּ֣יִת house. / place. / receptacle. / home 1
בַ֔יִת house. / place. / receptacle. / home 1
וְהַבַּ֛יִת house. / place. / receptacle. / home 1
בַּ֜יִת house. / place. / receptacle. / home 1
הַבַּ֜יִת house. / place. / receptacle. / home 1
בַּבַּ֖יִת house. / place. / receptacle. / home 1
לַבַּ֤יִת house. / place. / receptacle. / home 1
؟ הַבָּ֑יִת house. / place. / receptacle. / home 1
הַבָּ֖יִת house. / place. / receptacle. / home 1
בַּבַּ֕יִת house. / place. / receptacle. / home 1
הַבִּירָ֥ה palace 1
הַבִּירָ֔ה palace 1
νεωκόρον one who sweeps and cleans a temple. / one who has charge of a temple 1
ἱεροσύλους guilty of sacrilege. 1
ἱερὰ sacred 1
וְלַבַּ֖יִת house. / place. / receptacle. / home 1
בַבַּ֗יִת house. / place. / receptacle. / home 1
הַֽהֵיכָ֑ל palace 1
וְהַבַּ֗יִת house. / place. / receptacle. / home 1
הַהֵיכָ֥ל palace 1
בַּיְתָ֣ה house (of men). 1
וּבַיְתָ֤ה house (of men). 1
בַּיְתָא֙ house (of men). 1
לְבֵית֙ house (of men). 1
לַבַּ֙יִת֙ house. / place. / receptacle. / home 1
מִבֵּ֖יתּ‪‬ house. / place. / receptacle. / home 1
בֵּ֧ית house. / place. / receptacle. / home 1
בֵּ֣ית ׀ house. / place. / receptacle. / home 1
וְהַבַּ֥יִת house. / place. / receptacle. / home 1
הַבַּ֡יִת house. / place. / receptacle. / home 1
מֵהַבָּ֑יִת house. / place. / receptacle. / home 1
לַבָּֽיִת house. / place. / receptacle. / home 1
לַבַּ֛יִת house. / place. / receptacle. / home 1
לַבַּ֔יִת house. / place. / receptacle. / home 1
הַ֠בַּיִת house. / place. / receptacle. / home 1
רַקָּתֽוֹ temple 1

Definitions Related to Temple

G2411


   1 a sacred place, Temple.
      1a used of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus.
      1b used of the Temple at Jerusalem.
      Additional Information: The Temple of Jerusalem consisted of the whole of the sacred enclosure, embracing the entire aggregate of buildings, balconies, porticos, courts (that is that of the men of Israel, that of the women, and that of the priests), belonging to the Temple; the latter designates the sacred edifice properly so called, consisting of two parts, the “sanctuary” or “Holy Place” (which no one except the priests was allowed to enter), and the “Holy of Holies” or “the most holy place” (which was entered only on the great day of atonement by the high priest alone).
      Also there were the courts where Jesus or the apostles taught or encountered adversaries, and the like, “in the Temple”; also the courts of the Temple, of the Gentiles, out of which Jesus drove the buyers and sellers and the money changers, court of the women.
      

H1004


   1 house.
      1a house, dwelling habitation.
      1b shelter or abode of animals.
      1c human bodies (fig.
      ).
      1d of Sheol.
      1e of abode of light and darkness.
      1f of land of Ephraim.
   2 place.
   3 receptacle.
   4 home, house as containing a family.
   5 household, family.
      5a those belonging to the same household.
      5b family of descendants, descendants as organized body.
   6 household affairs.
   7 inwards (metaph.
   ).
   8 (TWOT) Temple adv.
   9 on the inside prep.
      10 within.
      

G3485


   1 used of the Temple at Jerusalem, but only of the sacred edifice (or sanctuary) itself, consisting of the Holy place and the Holy of Holies (in classical Greek it is used of the sanctuary or cell of the Temple, where the image of gold was placed which is distinguished from the whole enclosure).
   

H1964


   1 palace, Temple, nave, sanctuary.
      1a palace.
      1b Temple (palace of God as king).
      1c hall, nave (of Ezekiel’s Temple).
      1d Temple (of heavenly Temple).
      

H1965


   1 palace, Temple.
      1a palace.
      1b Temple (in Jerusalem).
      1c Temple (pagan).
      

H1005


   1 house (of men).
   2 house (of God).
   

G1493


   1 an idol’s Temple, Temple consecrated to idols.
   

H7541


   1 Temple, the Temple (of the head).
   

G2417


   1 guilty of sacrilege.
   

G3511


   1 one who sweeps and cleans a Temple.
   2 one who has charge of a Temple, to keep and adorn it, a sacristan.
   3 the worshipper of a deity.
      3a word appears from coins still extant, it was an honourary title [Temple-keeper or Temple-warden] of certain cities, esp.
      in Asia Minor, or in which some special worship of some deity or even some deified human ruler had been established; used of Ephesus.
      

H6091


   1 idol, image.
   

H1002


   1 palace, castle.
   2 Temple.
   

G2413


   1 sacred, consecrated to the deity, pertaining to God.
      1a sacred Scriptures, because inspired by God, treating of divine things and therefore to be devoutly revered.
      

Frequency of Temple (original languages)

Frequency of Temple (English)

Dictionary

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Temple
TEMPLE . 1. The first Temple mentioned in connexion with the worship of J″ [1] is that of Shiloh ( 1 Samuel 1:9 ), ‘where the ark of God was’ ( 1 Samuel 3:3 ) in the period of the Judges, under the guardianship of Eli and his sons. It was evidently destroyed by the Philistines after their decisive victory which resulted in the capture of the ark, as recorded in 1 Samuel 4:10 ff.; for the descendants of Eli are found, a generation afterwards, acting as priests of a temple at Nob ( 1Sa 21:1 ff., 1 Samuel 22:9 ff.). With the capture of Jerusalem by David, and the transference thither of the ark, a new political and religious centre was provided for the tribes of Israel.
2. Solomon’s Temple. The site . The successive Temples of Solomon, Zerubbabel, and Herod were buildings of moderate dimensions, and were built, by every token, on one and the same site. Now, there is only one place in Jerusalem where this site is to be looked for, namely, on that part of the eastern hill which is now occupied by the large platform, extending to some 35 acres, known as the Haram esh-Sharif or ‘Noble Sanctuary’ (see Jerusalem, and below, § 11 ). There has, however, been considerable difference of opinion in the past as to the precise spot within the Haram area on which the ‘holy house’ itself was reared. Thus a few British writers, among whom Fergusson the distinguished architect, and W. Robertson Smith, in his article ‘Temple’ in the EBr [2] 9 , are the most influential, have maintained that the Temple and its courts occupied an area about 600 ft. square in the south-western portion of the Haram. But the great majority of scholars, both at home and abroad, are agreed in placing the Temple in close connexion with the sacred rock ( es-Sakhra ) which is now enclosed in the mosque named after it ‘the Dome of the Rock,’ also, less appropriately, ‘the Mosque of Omar.’
The remarkable persistence of sacred sites in the East is a phenomenon familiar to all students of religion, and there can be little doubt that the Chronicler is right in identifying the site of ‘the altar of burnt-offering for Israel’ (1 Chronicles 22:1 ) with the spot ‘by the threshing-floor of Oman [3] the Jehusite,’ where the angel of the plague stayed his hand, and on which David by Divine command erected his altar of commemoration (see, further, § 6 ( b )). This being so, the location of the Temple immediately to the west of the rock follows as a matter of course. The only possible alternative is to regard the rock as marking the site, not of the altar of burnt-offering, but of ‘the holy of holies’ of the successive Temples a view beset with insuperable difficulties.
3. The Temple building Its arrangement and dimensions . The Temple and its furniture are described in 1 Kings 6:1-38 ; 1 Kings 7:13-51 two passages which are, unfortunately, among the most difficult in the OT, by reason of the perplexing technical terms employed and the unsatisfactory nature of the received text.
All recent study of these passages in commentaries and elsewhere is based on Stade’s brilliant essay in his ZATW [4] iii. 129 ff., with which cf. Stade and Schwally’s edition of ‘Kings’ in Haupt’s SBOT [5] . Other aids, in addition to the standard commentaries, and works on archæology by Nowack, Benzinger, etc., are Kittel’s Bibl. Hebraica , Burney’s Notes on the Heb. Text of the Books of Kings , and Father Vincent’s exegetical notes in RB [6] , Oct. 1907. To these must now be added G. A. Smith, Jerusalem (1908), vol. ii. (with plans), which deals fully with all the Temples (see Index, s.v. ‘Temple’).
The Temple proper was an oblong building, 60 cubits in length by 20 in breadth (1 Kings 6:2 ), with a porch in front, facing eastwards, of the same width as the main building and 10 cubits in depth. These, however, are inside measurements, as is evident from 1 Kings 6:20 ; 1 Kings 6:24 ; 1 Kings 6:27 . The corresponding outside measurements depend, of course, upon the thickness of the walls, which is nowhere stated. But inasmuch as Ezekiel, the Temple of whose vision is in all essential points a replica of that of Solomon, gives 6 cubits as the thickness of its walls ( Ezekiel 41:5 ), except the walls of the porch, which were 5 cubits thick ( Ezekiel 40:48 ), those of the first Temple are usually assumed to have been of the same dimensions. Less they could scarcely have been, if, as will presently appear, rebatements of three cubits in all have to be allowed in the lower half, since a thickness of three cubits in the upper half seems necessary, in view of the thrust of a heavy roof of 20 cubits’ span.
The interior was divided into two chambers by a transverse partition, implied in 1 Kings 6:31 , but disregarded in the inside measurements given in 1 Kings 6:2 . The anterior chamher, termed the hçkâl , and corresponding to the holy place in the Tabernacle, measured 40 cubits by 20, being twice as large as the inner chamber, the dĕbîr (EV [7] ‘ oracle ’) or most holy place , which was only 20 cubits by 20 ( 1 Kings 6:20 ). The latter in fact formed a perfect cube, since its height was also 20 cubits, as compared with that of ‘the holy place,’ which was 30 cubits ( 1 Kings 6:2 ). Assuming that this was also the height of the porch, the whole building, we may conjecture, was covered by a flat roof of uniform height throughout, leaving an empty space 10 cubits in height over the inner chamber.
On all sides, except the front which was occupied by the porch, the Temple proper was surrounded by a lateral building of three storeys, the whole 15 cubits high (so the emended text of 1 Kings 6:11 ), each storey containing a number of small chambers for storage purposes. The beams forming the floors and ceilings of these side chambers were not let into the Temple wall, but were supported by making three successive rebatements of a cubit each in the wall ( 1 Kings 6:6 ). The chambers accordingly increased a cubit in width in each storey, from 5 in the lowermost storey to 6 and 7 in those above. The entrance to the side chambers was on the south side of the building. The nature and position of the windows which were made ‘for the house’ are alike uncertain. Openings fitted with lattice work are probably intended ( 1 Kings 6:4 ). Their position was most likely in the side walls above the roof of the lateral building.
The question of the area covered by the complete building now described has usually been answered hitherto by a reference to Ezekiel’s Temple, which was exactly 100 cubits by 50. But a careful comparison of the measurements of the two Temples makes it extremely probable that the numbers just given are due to Ezekiel’s fondness for operating with 50 and its multiples. The present writer is convinced that the prophet has not only increased the depth of the porch from 10 to 12 cubits (Ezekiel 40:49 LXX [8] ), but has likewise added to the thickness of the walls of the side-chambers and of the interior partition wall. For if the former are taken as 3 cubits in thickness, as compared with Ezekiel’s 5, i.e. of the same dimensions as the upper half of the Temple walls, and the partition as 1 cubit thick in place of 2 ( Ezekiel 41:3 ), we find the area of the whole building to be 96 cubits by 48, the same relative proportion ( Ezekiel 2:1 ), it will be noted, as is found in Ezekiel. Similarly, the outside width of the naos or sanctuary proper (32 cubits) stood to the total width as Ezekiel 2:3 .
In the existing uncertainty as to the length of the cubit employed by Solomon’s architects, it is impossible to translate these dimensions into feet and inches with mathematical exactness. If the long cubit of c. 20 1 / 2 inches employed by Ezekiel (see Ezekiel 40:5 and cf. 2 Chronicles 3:3 ) is preferred, the total area covered will be 164 ft. by 82 ft., while the dimensions of ‘the holy place’ will be approximately 70 by 35 by 50 ft. in height, and those of ‘the most holy place’ 35 by 35 by 35 ft. A serious objection to this adoption of the longer cubit, which was not foreseen when the art. ‘Weights and Measures’ in Hastings’ DB [9] iv. (see p. 907 f.) was written, is presented by the detailed measurements of the interior of Herod’s Temple in Josephus and the Mishna (see below, § 12). These are numerically the same as those of the first Temple, but the cubit employed in the 1st cent was the short cubit of 17.6 inches, as the present writer has shown by an inductive study of the Herodian masonry ( ExpT [10] xx. [11], p. 24 ff.). Now, it is certain that the actual dimensions of Herod’s Temple were not less than those of Solomon’s , as they would be if the cubits were in the ratio of 6 to 7. It is more than probable, therefore, that the dimensions above given should be reduced by one-sixth the Chronicler notwithstanding; in other words, 140 by 70 ft. will be the approximate area of the building, 60 by 30 ft., and 30 by 30 ft. that of the ‘holy’ and ‘most holy place’ respectively.
4 . The interior of the Temple . The entrance to the Temple was through the open porch or vestibule on the eastern front. ‘For the entering of the temple’ was provided a large folding-door of cypress wood ( 1 Kings 6:34 ), each leaf divided vertically into two leaves, one of which folded back upon the other. According to 1 Kings 6:35 in its present form, the leaves were ornamented with carved figures of cherubim, palms, and flowers, all overlaid with gold (but see below). The stone floor was covered with planks of cypress wood. That the latter should have been plated with gold ( 1 Kings 6:30 ) is scarcely credible. The walls of both chambers were lined with boards (literally ‘ribs’) of cedar wood, ‘from the floor of the house to the rafters of the ceiling’ (so read 1 Kings 6:15 ). There is no mention in this verse, it will he noted, of any ornamentation of the cedar panels, which is first found in 1 Kings 6:18 ; 1 Kings 6:29 ; but the former verse is absent from LXX [8] , and 1 Kings 6:28-30 are recognized by all as a later addition. The ceilings, as we should expect, were formed of beams of cedar ( 1 Kings 6:9 ; 1 Kings 6:15 ). Over all was probably laid an outer covering of marble slabs.
The inner chamber of the Temple was separated from ‘the holy place,’ as has already been shown, by a partition wall, presumably of stone, which we have assumed above to have been a cubit in thickness. In it was set a door of olive wood, described obscurely in 1 Kings 6:31 , which seems to say that its shape was not rectangular like the entrance door (see the Comm. on 1 Kings 6:31 ; 1 Kings 6:33 ), but pentagonal; in other words, the lintel of the door, instead of being a single cross-beam, consisted of two beams meeting at an angle. In the centre of the chamber, facing the entrance ( 2 Chronicles 3:13 ), stood two cherubim figures of olive wood, each 10 cubits high, with outstretched wings. The latter measured 10 cubits from tip to tip, so that the two sets of wings reached from the north to the south wall of ‘the most holy place’ ( 1 Kings 6:23-28 ). It is entirely in accordance with ancient practice that these symbolic figures should be overlaid with gold ( 1 Kings 6:28 ).
But with regard to the excessive introduction of gold plating by the received text throughout, including even the Temple floor, as we have seen, there is much to be said in favour of the view, first advanced by Stade, that it is due to a desire on the part of later scribes to enhance the magnificence of the first Temple. In the original text the gold plating was perhaps confined to the cherubim, as has just been suggested, or to these and the doors, which appear to have had a gold sheathing in the time of Hezekiah (2 Kings 18:16 ).
5. The furniture of the Temple . If 1 Kings 7:48-51 is set aside as a later addition (see the Comm.), the only article of Temple furniture is the altar of cedar introduced in the composite text of 1 Kings 7:20-22 . As there are good grounds for believing that a special altar of incense was first introduced into the second Temple (see § 9 ), the former is now identified by most writers with the table of shewbread (see Shewbread; and Tabernacle, § 6 ( a )). Its position is evidently intended to be in the outer chamber in front of the entrance to the inner shrine. The same position ‘before the oracle ’ ( dĕbîr 1 Kings 7:49 ) is assigned to the ten ‘candlesticks,’ properly lampstands (Tabernacle, § 6 ( b )), five probably being meant to stand on either side of the entrance. Although, from the date of the passage cited, we may hesitate to ascribe these to Solomon, they doubtless at a later time formed a conspicuous part of the Temple furniture (cf. Jeremiah 52:19 ).
On the completion of the Temple, the sacred memorial of earlier days, the already venerable ark of J″ [1] , was brought from the tent in which David had housed it and placed within ‘the most holy place,’ where it stood overshadowed by the wings of the cherubim ( 1 Kings 8:5 ff.). Another sacred object of like antiquity, the brazen serpent (see Serpent [14]), found a place somewhere within the Temple.
6. The court of the Temple and its furniture ( a ) The court and gates . The Temple of Solomon formed part of a large complex of buildings, comprising an arsenal, a judgment-hall, the palace with its harem, and finally the royal chapel, the whole surrounded by ‘the great court’ of 1 Kings 7:9 ; 1 Kings 7:12 . Within this enclosure, at its upper or northern end, was ‘the inner court’ of 1 Kings 6:36 , 1 Kings 7:12 within which, again, stood the Temple ( 1 Kings 8:34 ). It is of importance to note that this single court of the Temple was open to the laity as well as to the priests ( 1 Kings 8:62 ), as is specially evident from Jeremiah 35:1 ff; Jeremiah 36:10 etc.
plan of royal buildings
(after Stade and Benzinger).
1. The great court. 2. The ‘other’ or middle court. 3. The inner (or Temple) court. 4. House of Lebanon. 5. Porch of pillars. 6. Throne porch. 7. Royal palace. 8. Harem. 9. Temple. 10. Altar.
Several gates of this court are mentioned by later writers, but their precise position is uncertain. The main entrance was doubtless in the east wall, and may be indicated by ‘the king’s entry without’ of 2 Kings 16:13 , and ‘the king’s gate eastward’ of 1 Chronicles 9:18 . The ‘gate of the guard’ ( 2 Kings 11:19 ), on the other hand, may be looked for in the south wall separating the Temple court from ‘the other court’ ( 1 Kings 7:8 ) in which the royal palace was situated (cf. Ezekiel 43:7 f.). There were also one or more gates on the north side ( Ezekiel 8:3 ; Ezekiel 9:2 , Jeremiah 20:2 ‘ gate of Benjamin ,’ etc.). Cf. art. Jerusalem, II. 4.
( b ) The altar of burnt-offering . It is surprising that no reference is made in the early narrative of 1 Kings 7:1-51 to the making of so indispensable a part of the apparatus of the cult. In the opinion of most critics, this omission is due to the excision from the original narrative of the relative section by a much later editor, who assumed that, the brazen altar of the Tabernacle accompanied the ark to the new sanctuary (but see Burney, Notes on Heb. Text , etc., 102 f.). The Chronicler, whether informed by his text of 1Kings. or otherwise, tells us that Solomon’s altar of burnt-offering ( 1 Kings 9:25 ) was of brass (cf. the ‘brazen altar’ 1 Kings 8:64 ), 20 cubits in length and breadth and 10 in height ( 2 Chronicles 4:1 ). Its position was on the site of the earlier altar of David ( 2 Chronicles 3:1 ), which, it may be asserted with confidence, stood somewhere on the sacred rock still to be seen within the Mosque of Omar (see § 2 above). The precise position which the altars of the first and second Temples occupied on the surface of the rock, which measures at least some 50 ft. by 40 ft., must remain a matter of conjecture. Herod’s altar was large enough almost to cover the rock (§ 11 ( c )). This question has recently been made the subject of an elaborate investigation by Kittel in his Studien zur heb. Archäologie (1908, 1 85). Solomon’s altar was superseded in the reign of Ahaz by a larger altar of more artistic construction, which this sovereign caused to be made after the model of one seen by him at Damascus ( 2 Kings 16:10-16 ).
( c ) The brazen sea . In the court, to the south of the line between the altar and the Temple ( 1 Kings 7:39 ), stood one of the most striking of the creations of Solomon’s Phœnician artist, Huram-abi of Tyre. This was the brazen sea ( 1 Kings 7:23-26 , 2 Chronicles 4:2-5 ), a large circular basin or tank of bronze, 10 cubits ‘from brim to brim’ and 5 in depth, with the enormous capacity of 2000 baths, or more than 16,000 gallons. Even should this prove an exaggerated estimate, the basin must have bulged very considerably in the middle, and the medial diameter must have been at least twice that of the mouth. The brim curved outwards like the calyx of a flower, and underneath it the body of the ‘sea’ was decorated with two rows of gourd-shaped ornaments. The basin rested on the backs of twelve bronze oxen, which, in groups of three, faced the four cardinal points. Notwithstanding 2 Chronicles 4:6 , written centuries after it had disappeared ( Jeremiah 52:17 ; Jeremiah 52:20 ), recent writers are inclined to give the brazen sea a purely symbolical signification. But whether it is to be interpreted as a symbol of the primeval abyss ( Genesis 1:2 ) and of J″ [1] ’s power as Creator, or in the terms of the Babylonian mythology as symbolizing the upper or heavenly sea, bounded by the zodiac with its twelve signs (the 12 oxen), or otherwise, must be l
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Temple, the Second
After the return from captivity, under Zerubbabel (q.v.) and the high priest Jeshua, arrangements were almost immediately made to reorganize the long-desolated kingdom. The body of pilgrims, forming a band of 42,360, including children, having completed the long and dreary journey of some four months, from the banks of the Euphrates to Jerusalem, were animated in all their proceeding by a strong religious impulse, and therefore one of their first cares was to restore their ancient worship by rebuilding the temple. On the invitation of Zerubbabel, the governor, who showed them a remarkable example of liberality by contributing personally 1,000 golden darics (probably about ,000), besides other gifts, the people with great enthusiasm poured their gifts into the sacred treasury (Ezra 2 ). First they erected and dedicated the altar of Jehovah on the exact spot where it had formerly stood, and they then cleared away the charred heaps of debris which occupied the site of the old temple; and in the second month of the second year (B.C. 535), amid great public excitement and rejoicing (Psalm 116 ; 117 ; 118 ), the foundations of the second temple were laid. A wide interest was felt in this great movement, although it was regarded with mingled feelings by the spectators (Haggai 2:3 ; Zechariah 4:10 ). The Samaritans made proposals for a co-operation in the work. Zerubbabel and Jeshua and the elders, however, declined all such cooperation: Judah must build the temple without help. Immediately evil reports were spread regarding the Jews. The Samaritans sought to "frustrate their purpose" (Ezra 4:5 ), and sent messengers to Ecbatana and Susa, with the result that the work was suspended. Seven years after this Cyrus died ingloriously, having killed himself in Syria when on his way back from Egypt to the east, and was succeeded by his son Cambyses (B.C. 529-522), on whose death the "false Smerdis," an imposter, occupied the throne for some seven or eight months, and then Darius Hystaspes became king (B.C. 522). In the second year of this monarch the work of rebuilding the temple was resumed and carried forward to its completion (Ezra 5 :: 617-17 ; 6:1-15 ), under the stimulus of the earnest counsels and admonitions of the prophets Haggai and Zechariah. It was ready for consecration in the spring of B.C. 516, twenty years after the return from captivity. This second temple had not the ark, the Urim and Thummim, the holy oil, the sacred fire, the tables of stone, the pot of manna, and Aaron's rod. As in the tabernacle, there was in it only one golden lamp for the holy place, one table of shewbread, and the incense altar, with golden censers, and many of the vessels of gold that had belonged to Solomon's temple that had been carried to Babylon but restored by Cyrus (Ezra 1:7-11 ).
This second temple also differed from the first in that, while in the latter there were numerous "trees planted in the courts of the Lord," there were none in the former. The second temple also had for the first time a space, being a part of the outer court, provided for proselytes who were worshippers of Jehovah, although not subject to the laws of Judaism.
The temple, when completed, was consecrated amid great rejoicings on the part of all the people (Ezra 6:16 ), although there were not wanting outward evidences that the Jews were no longer an independent people, but were subject to a foreign power.
Haggai 2:9 is rightly rendered in the Revised Version, "The latter glory of this house shall be greater than the former," instead of, "The glory of this latter house," etc., in the Authorized Version. The temple, during the different periods of its existence, is regarded as but one house, the one only house of God (comp 2:3). The glory here predicted is spiritual glory and not material splendour. "Christ himself, present bodily in the temple on Mount Zion during his life on earth, present spiritually in the Church now, present in the holy city, the heavenly Jerusalem, of which he is the temple, calling forth spiritual worship and devotion is the glory here predicted" (Perowne).
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Temple, Solomon's
Before his death David had "with all his might" provided materials in great abundance for the building of the temple on the summit of Mount Moriah (1 Chronicles 22:14 ; 29:4 ; 2 Chronicles 3:1 ), on the east of the city, on the spot where Abraham had offered up Isaac (Genesis 22:1-14 ). In the beginning of his reign Solomon set about giving effect to the desire that had been so earnestly cherished by his father, and prepared additional materials for the building. From subterranean quarries at Jerusalem he obtained huge blocks of stone for the foundations and walls of the temple. These stones were prepared for their places in the building under the eye of Tyrian master-builders. He also entered into a compact with Hiram II., king of Tyre, for the supply of whatever else was needed for the work, particularly timber from the forests of Lebanon, which was brought in great rafts by the sea to Joppa, whence it was dragged to Jerusalem (1 Kings 5 ). As the hill on which the temple was to be built did not afford sufficient level space, a huge wall of solid masonry of great height, in some places more than 200 feet high, was raised across the south of the hill, and a similar wall on the eastern side, and in the spaces between were erected many arches and pillars, thus raising up the general surface to the required level. Solomon also provided for a sufficient water supply for the temple by hewing in the rocky hill vast cisterns, into which water was conveyed by channels from the "pools" near Bethlehem. One of these cisterns, the "great sea," was capable of containing three millions of gallons. The overflow was led off by a conduit to the Kidron. In all these preparatory undertakings a space of about three years was occupied; and now the process of the erection of the great building began, under the direction of skilled Phoenician builders and workmen, in the fourth year of Solomon's reign, 480 years after the Exodus (1 Kings 6 ; 2 Chronicles 3 ). Many thousands of labourers and skilled artisans were employed in the work. Stones prepared in the quarries underneath the city (1 Kings 5:17,18 ) of huge dimension (see 6:7). "Like some tall palm the noiseless fabric sprang." The building was 60 cubits long, 20 cubits wide, and 30 cubits high. The engineers of the Palestine Exploration Fund, in their explorations around the temple area, discovered what is believed to have been the "chief corner stone" of the temple, "the most interesting stone in the world." It lies at the bottom of the south-eastern angle, and Isaiah 3 feet 8 inches high by 14 feet long. It rests on the solid rock at a depth of 79 feet 3 inches below the present surface. (See PINNACLE .) In examining the walls the engineers were "struck with admiration at the vastness of the blocks and the general excellence of the workmanship."
At length, in the autumn of the eleventh year of his reign, seven and a half years after it had been begun, the temple was completed in all its architectural magnificence and beauty. For thirteen years there it stood, on the summit of Moriah, silent and unused. The reasons for this strange delay in its consecration are unknown. At the close of these thirteen years preparations for the dedication of the temple were made on a scale of the greatest magnificence. The ark was solemnly brought from the tent in which David had deposited it to the place prepared for it in the temple, and the glory-cloud, the symbol of the divine presence, filled the house. Then Solomon ascended a platform which had been erected for him, in the sight of all the people, and lifting up his hands to heaven poured out his heart to God in prayer ( 1 Kings 8 ; 2 Chronicles 67,7 ). The feast of dedication, which lasted seven days, followed by the feast of tabernacles, marked a new era in the history of Israel. On the eighth day of the feast of tabernacles, Solomon dismissed the vast assemblage of the people, who returned to their homes filled with joy and gladness, "Had Solomon done no other service beyond the building of the temple, he would still have influenced the religious life of his people down to the latest days. It was to them a perpetual reminder and visible symbol of God's presence and protection, a strong bulwark of all the sacred traditions of the law, a witness to duty, an impulse to historic study, an inspiration of sacred song."
The temple consisted of,
The oracle or most holy place (1 Kings 6:19 ; 8:6 ), called also the "inner house" (6:27), and the "holiest of all" (Hebrews 9:3 ). It was 20 cubits in length, breadth, and height. It was floored and wainscotted with cedar (1 Kings 6:16 ), and its walls and floor were overlaid with gold (6:20,21,30). There was a two-leaved door between it and the holy place overlaid with gold (2 Chronicles 4:22 ); also a veil of blue purple and crimson and fine linen (2 Chronicles 3:14 ; Compare Exodus 26:33 ). It had no windows (1 Kings 8:12 ). It was indeed the dwelling-place of God.
The holy place (q.v.), 1 Kings 8:8-10 , called also the "greater house" (1 Kings 6:5-1020 ) and the "temple" (1 Kings 6:17 ).
The porch or entrance before the temple on the east (1 Kings 6:3 ; 2 Chronicles 3:4 ; 29:7 ). In the porch stood the two pillars Jachin and Boaz (1 Kings 7:21 ; 2 Kings 11:14 ; 23:3 ).
The chambers, which were built about the temple on the southern, western, and northern sides (1618416331_6 ). These formed a part of the building. Round about the building were,
The court of the priests (2 Chronicles 4:9 ), called the "inner court" (1 Kings 6:36 ). It contained the altar of burnt-offering (2 Chronicles 15:8 ), the brazen sea (4:2-5,10), and ten lavers (1 Kings 7:38,39 ).
The great court, which surrounded the whole temple (2 Chronicles 4:9 ). Here the people assembled to worship God (Jeremiah 19:14 ; 26:2 ). This temple erected by Solomon was many times pillaged during the course of its history, (1) 1 Kings 14:25,26 ; (2) 2 Kings 14:14 ; (3) 2 Kings 16:8,17,18 ; 2Kings 2 Kings 18:15,16 . At last it was pillaged and destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar (2 Kings 24:13 ; 2 Chronicles 36:7 ). He burned the temple, and carried all its treasures with him to Babylon (2 Kings 25:9-17 ; 2 Chronicles 36:19 ; Isaiah 64:11 ). These sacred vessels were at length, at the close of the Captivity, restored to the Jews by Cyrus (Ezra 1:7-11 ).
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Temple
First used of the tabernacle, which is called "the temple of the Lord" (1 Samuel 1:9 ). In the New Testament the word is used figuratively of Christ's human body (John 2:19,21 ). Believers are called "the temple of God" (1 Corinthians 3:16,17 ). The Church is designated "an holy temple in the Lord" (Ephesians 2:21 ). Heaven is also called a temple (Revelation 7:5 ). We read also of the heathen "temple of the great goddess Diana" (Acts 19:27 ). This word is generally used in Scripture of the sacred house erected on the summit of Mount Moriah for the worship of God. It is called "the temple" (1 Kings 6:17 ); "the temple [1] of the Lord" (2 Kings 11:10 ); "thy holy temple" (Psalm 79:1 ); "the house of the Lord" (2 Chronicles 23:5,12 ); "the house of the God of Jacob" (Isaiah 2:3 ); "the house of my glory" (60:7); an "house of prayer" (56:7; Matthew 21:13 ); "an house of sacrifice" (2 Chronicles 7:12 ); "the house of their sanctuary" (2 Chronicles 36:17 ); "the mountain of the Lord's house" (Isaiah 2:2 ); "our holy and our beautiful house" (64:11); "the holy mount" (27:13); "the palace for the Lord God" (1 Chronicles 29:1 ); "the tabernacle of witness" (2 Chronicles 24:6 ); "Zion" (Psalm 74:2 ; 84:7 ). Christ calls it "my Father's house" (John 2:16 ).
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Temple, Herod's
The temple erected by the exiles on their return from Babylon had stood for about five hundred years, when Herod the Great became king of Judea. The building had suffered considerably from natural decay as well as from the assaults of hostile armies, and Herod, desirous of gaining the favour of the Jews, proposed to rebuild it. This offer was accepted, and the work was begun (B.C. 18), and carried out at great labour and expense, and on a scale of surpassing splendour. The main part of the building was completed in ten years, but the erection of the outer courts and the embellishment of the whole were carried on during the entire period of our Lord's life on earth (John 2:16,19-21 ), and the temple was completed only A.D. 65. But it was not long permitted to exist. Within forty years after our Lord's crucifixion, his prediction of its overthrow was accomplished (Luke 19 :: 4144-44 ). The Roman legions took the city of Jerusalem by storm, and notwithstanding the strenuous efforts Titus made to preserve the temple, his soldiers set fire to it in several places, and it was utterly destroyed (A.D. 70), and was never rebuilt. Several remains of Herod's stately temple have by recent explorations been brought to light. It had two courts, one intended for the Israelites only, and the other, a large outer court, called "the court of the Gentiles," intended for the use of strangers of all nations. These two courts were separated by a low wall, as Josephus states, some 4 1/2 feet high, with thirteen openings. Along the top of this dividing wall, at regular intervals, were placed pillars bearing in Greek an inscription to the effect that no stranger was, on the pain of death, to pass from the court of the Gentiles into that of the Jews. At the entrance to a graveyard at the north-western angle of the Haram wall, a stone was discovered by M. Ganneau in 1871, built into the wall, bearing the following inscription in Greek capitals: "No stranger is to enter within the partition wall and enclosure around the sanctuary. Whoever is caught will be responsible to himself for his death, which will ensue."
There can be no doubt that the stone thus discovered was one of those originally placed on the boundary wall which separated the Jews from the Gentiles, of which Josephus speaks.
It is of importance to notice that the word rendered "sanctuary" in the inscription was used in a specific sense of the inner court, the court of the Israelites, and is the word rendered "temple" in John 2:15 and Acts 21:28,29 . When Paul speaks of the middle wall of partition (Ephesians 2:14 ), he probably makes allusion to this dividing wall. Within this partition wall stood the temple proper, consisting of, (1) the court of the women, 8 feet higher than the outer court; (2) 10 feet higher than this court was the court of Israel; (3) the court of the priests, again 3 feet higher; and lastly (4) the temple floor, 8 feet above that; thus in all 29 feet above the level of the outer court.
The summit of Mount Moriah, on which the temple stood, is now occupied by the Haram esh-Sherif, i.e., "the sacred enclosure." This enclosure is about 1,500 feet from north to south, with a breadth of about 1,000 feet, covering in all a space of about 35 acres. About the centre of the enclosure is a raised platform, 16 feet above the surrounding space, and paved with large stone slabs, on which stands the Mohammedan mosque called Kubbet es-Sahkra i.e., the "Dome of the Rock," or the Mosque of Omar. This mosque covers the site of Solomon's temple. In the centre of the dome there is a bare, projecting rock, the highest part of Moriah (q.v.), measuring 60 feet by 40, standing 6 feet above the floor of the mosque, called the sahkra, i.e., "rock." Over this rock the altar of burnt-offerings stood. It was the threshing-floor of Araunah the Jebusite. The exact position on this "sacred enclosure" which the temple occupied has not been yet definitely ascertained. Some affirm that Herod's temple covered the site of Solomon's temple and palace, and in addition enclosed a square of 300 feet at the south-western angle. The temple courts thus are supposed to have occupied the southern portion of the "enclosure," forming in all a square of more than 900 feet. It is argued by others that Herod's temple occupied a square of 600 feet at the south-west of the "enclosure."
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Temple
There is perhaps no building of the ancient world which has excited so much attention since the time of its destruction as the temple which Solomon built by Herod. Its spoils were considered worthy of forming the principal illustration of one of the most beautiful of Roman triumphal arches, and Justinian's highest architectural ambition was that he might surpass it. Throughout the middle ages it influenced to a considerable degree the forms of Christian churches, and its peculiarities were the watchwords and rallying-points of all associations of builders. When the French expedition to Egypt, int he first years of this century, had made the world familiar with the wonderful architectural remains of that country, every one jumped to the conclusion that Solomon's temple must have been designed after an Egyptian model. The discoveries in Assyria by Botta and Layard have within the last twenty years given an entirely new direction to the researches of the restorers. Unfortunately, however, no Assyrian temple has yet been exhumed of a nature to throw much light on this subject, and we are still forced to have recourse to the later buildings at Persepolis, or to general deductions from the style of the nearly contemporary secular buildings at Nineveh and elsewhere, for such illustrations as are available. THE TEMPLE OF SOLOMON . --It was David who first proposed to replace the tabernacle by a more permanent building, but was forbidden for the reasons assigned by the prophet Nathan, (2 Samuel 7:5 ) etc.; and though he collected materials and made arrangements, the execution of the task was left for his son Solomon. (The gold and silver alone accumulated by David are at the lowest reckoned to have amounted to between two and three billion dollars, a sum which can be paralleled from secular history. --Lange.) Solomon, with the assistance of Hiram king of Tyre, commenced this great undertaking int he fourth year of his reign, B.C. 1012, and completed it in seven years, B.C. 1005. (There were 183,000 Jews and strangers employed on it --of Jews 30,000, by rotation 10,000 a month; of Canaanites 153,600, of whom 70,000 were bearers of burdens, 80,000 hewers of wood and stone, and 3600 overseers. The parts were all prepared at a distance from the site of the building, and when they were brought together the whole immense structure was erected without the sound of hammer, axe or any tool of iron. (1 Kings 6:7 ) --Schaff.) The building occupied the site prepared for it by David, which had formerly been the threshing-floor of the Jebusite Ornan or Araunah, on Mount Moriah. The whole area enclosed by the outer walls formed a square of about 600 feet; but the sanctuary itself was comparatively small, inasmuch as it was intended only for the ministrations of the priests, the congregation of the people assembling in the courts. In this and all other essential points the temple followed the model of the tabernacle, from which it differed chiefly by having chambers built about the sanctuary for the abode of the priests and attendants and the keeping of treasures and stores. In all its dimensions, length, breadth and height, the sanctuary itself was exactly double the size of the tabernacle, the ground plan measuring 80 cubits by 40, while that of the tabernacle was 40 by 20, and the height of the temple being 30 cubits, while that of the tabernacle was 15. [1] As in the tabernacle, the temple consisted of three parts, the porch, the holy place, and the holy of holies. The front of the porch was supported, after the manner of some Egyptian temples, by the two great brazen pillars, Jachin and Boaz, 18 cubits high, with capitals of 5 cubits more, adorned with lily-work and pomegranates. (1 Kings 7:15-22 ) The places of the two "veils" of the tabernacle were occupied by partitions, in which were folding-doors. The whole interior was lines with woodwork richly carved and overlaid with gold. Indeed, both within and without the building was conspicuously chiefly by the lavish use of the gold of Ophir and Parvaim. It glittered in the morning sun (it has been well said) like the sanctuary of an El Dorado. Above the sacred ark, which was placed, as of old, in the most holy place, were made new cherubim, one pair of whose wings met above the ark, and another pair reached to the walls behind them. In the holy place, besides the altar of incense, which was made of cedar overlaid with gold there were seven golden candlesticks in stead of one, and the table of shew-bread was replaced by ten golden tables, bearing, besides the shew bread, the innumerable golden vessels for the service of the sanctuary. The outer court was no doubt double the size of that of the tabernacle; and we may therefore safely assume that if was 10 cubits in height, 100 cubits north and south, and 200 east and west. If contained an inner court, called the "court of the priests;" but the arrangement of the courts and of the porticos and gateways of the enclosure, though described by Josephus, belongs apparently to the temple of Herod. The outer court there was a new altar of burnt offering, much larger than the old one. [2] Instead of the brazen laver there was "a molten sea" of brass, a masterpiece of Hiram's skill for the ablution of the priests. It was called a "sea" from its great size. [3] The chambers for the priests were arranged in successive stories against the sides of the sanctuary; not, however, reaching to the top, so as to leave space for the windows to light the holy and the most holy place. We are told by Josephus and the Talmud that there was a superstructure on the temple equal in height to the lower part; and this is confirmed by the statement in the books of Chronicles that Solomon "overlaid the upper chambers with gold." ( 2 Chronicles 3:9 ) Moreover, "the altars on the top of the upper chamber," mentioned in the books of the Kings, (2 Kings 23:12 ) were apparently upon the temple. The dedication of the temple was the grandest ceremony ever performed under the Mosaic dispensation. The temple was destroyed on the capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, B.C. 586. TEMPLE OF ZERUBBABEL . --We have very few particulars regarding the temple which the Jews erected after their return from the captivity (about B.C. 520), and no description that would enable us to realize its appearance. But there are some dimensions given in the Bible and elsewhere which are extremely interesting, as affording points of comparison between it and the temple which preceded it and the one erected after it. The first and most authentic are those given in the book of Ezra, (Ezra 6:3 ) when quoting the decree of Cyrus, wherein it is said, "Let the house be builded, the place where they offered sacrifices and let the foundations thereof be strongly laid; the height thereof three-score cubits. and the breadth thereof three-score cubits, with three rows of great stones, and a row of new timber." Josephus quotes this passage almost literally, but in doing so enables us to translate with certainty the word here called row as "story" --as indeed the sense would lead us to infer. We see by the description in Ezra that this temple was about one third larger than Solomon's. From these dimensions we gather that if the priests and Levites and elders of families were disconsolate at seeing how much more sumptuous the old temple was than the one which on account of their poverty they had hardly been able to erect, ( Ezra 3:12 ) it certainly was not because it was smaller; but it may have been that the carving and the gold and the other ornaments of Solomon's temple far surpassed this, and the pillars of the portico and the veils may all have been far more splendid; so also probably were the vessels and all this is what a Jew would mourn over far more than mere architectural splendor. In speaking of these temples we must always bear in mind that their dimensions were practically very far inferior to those of the heathen. Even that of Ezra is not larger than an average parish church of the last century; Solomon's was smaller. It was the lavish display of the precious metals, the elaboration of carved ornament, and the beauty of the textile fabrics, which made up their splendor and rendered them so precious in the eyes of the people. TEMPLE OF EZEKIEL . --The vision of a temple which the prophet Ezekiel saw while residing on the banks of the Chebar in Babylonia, in the twenty-fifth year of the captivity, does not add much to our knowledge of the subject. It is not a description of a temple that ever was built or ever could be erected at Jerusalem, and can consequently only be considered as the beau ideal of what a Shemitic temple ought to be. TEMPLE OF HEROD . --Herod the Great announced to the people assembled at the Passover, B.C. 20 or 19, his intention of restoring the temple; (probably a stroke of policy on the part of Herod to gain the favor of the Jews and to make his name great.) if we may believe Josephus, he pulled down the whole edifice to its foundations, and laid them anew on an enlarged scale; but the ruins still exhibit, in some parts, what seem to be the foundations laid by Zerubbable, and beneath them the more massive substructions of Solomon. The new edifice was a stately pile of Graeco-Roman architecture, built in white marble gilded acroteria . It is minutely described by Josephus, and the New Testament has made us familiar with the pride of the Jews in its magnificence. A different feeling, however, marked the commencement of the work, which met with some opposition from the fear that what Herod had begun he would not be able to finish. he overcame all jealousy by engaging not to pull down any part of the existing buildings till all the materials for the new edifice were collected on its site. Two years appear to have been occupied in preparations --among which Josephus mentions the teaching of some of the priests and Levites to work as masons and carpenters --and then the work began. The holy "house," including the porch, sanctuary and holy of holies, was finished in a year and a half, B.C. 16. Its completion, on the anniversary of Herod's inauguration, was celebrated by lavish sacrifices and a great feast. About B.C. 9 --eight years from the commencement --the court and cloisters of the temple were finished, and the bridge between the south cloister and the upper city (demolished by Pompey) was doubtless now rebuilt with that massive masonry of which some remains still survive. (The work, however, was not entirely ended till A.D. 64, under Herod Agrippa II. So the statement in ( John 2:20 ) is correct. --Schaff.) The temple or holy "house" itself was in dimensions and arrangement very similar to that of Solomon, or rather that of Zerubbabel --more like the latter; but this was surrounded by an inner enclosure of great strength and magnificence, measuring as nearly as can be made out 180 cubits by 240, and adorned by porches and ten gateways of great magnificence; and beyond this again was an outer enclosure measuring externally 400 cubits each way, which was adorned with porticos of greater splendor than any we know of as attached to any temple of the ancient world. The temple was certainly situated in the southwest angle of the area now known as the Haram area at Jerusalem, and its dimensions were what Josephus states them to be --400 cubits, or one stadium, each way. At the time when Herod rebuilt it, he enclosed a space "twice as large" as that before occupied by the temple and its courts --an expression that probably must not be taken too literally at least, if we are to depend on the measurements of Hecataeus. According to them, the whole area of Herod's temple was between four and five times greater than that which preceded it. What Herod did apparently, was to take in the whole space between the temple and the city wall on its east side, and to add a considerable space on the north and south to support the porticos which he added there. As the temple terrace thus became the principal defence of the city on the east side, there were no gates or openings in that direction, and being situated on a sort of rocky brow --as evidenced from its appearance in the vaults that bounded it on this side --if was at all later times considered unattackable from the eastward. The north side, too, where not covered by the fortress Antonia, became part of the defenses of the city, and was likewise without external gates. On the south side, which was enclosed by the wall of Ophel, there were notable gates nearly in the centre. These gates still exist at a distance of about 365 feet from the southwestern angle, and are perhaps the only architectural features of the temple of Herod which remain in situ . This entrance consists of a double archway of Cyclopean architecture on the level of the ground, opening into a square vestibule measuring 40 feet each way. From this a double funnel nearly 200 feet in length, leads to a flight of steps which rise to the surface in the court of the temple, exactly at that gateway of the inner temple which led to the altar, and is one of the four gateways on this side by which any one arriving from Ophel would naturally wish to enter the inner enclosure. We learn from the Talmud that the gate of the inner temple to which this passage led was called the "water gate;" and it is interesting to be able to identify a spot so prominent in the description of Nehemiah. ( Nehemiah 12:37 ) Toward the west there were four gateways to the external enclosure of the temple. The most magnificent part of the temple, in an architectural point of view, seems certainly to have been the cloisters which were added to the outer court when it was enlarged by Herod. The cloisters in the west, north and east sides were composed of double rows of Corinthian columns, 25 cubits or 37 feet 6 inches in height, with flat roof, and resting against the outer wall of the temple. These, however, were immeasurably surpassed in magnificence by the royal porch or Stoa Basilica, which overhung the southern wall. It consisted of a nave and two aisled, that toward the temple being open, that toward the country closed by a wall. The breadth of the centre aisle was 95 feet of the side aisles, 30 from centre to centre of the pillars; their height 50 feet, and that of the centre aisle 100 feet. Its section was thus something in excess of that of York Cathedral, while its total length was one stadium or 600 Greek feet, or 100 feet in excess of York or our largest Gothic cathedrals. This magnificent structure was supported by 162Corinthian columns. The porch on the east was called "Solomon's Porch." The court of the temple was very nearly a square. It may have been exactly so, for we have not the details to enable us to feel quite certain about it. To the eastward of this was the court of the women. The great ornament of these inner courts seems to have been their gateways, the three especially on the north end south leading to the temple court. These according to Josephus, were of great height, strongly fortified and ornamented with great elaboration. But the wonder of all was the great eastern gate leading from the court of the women to the upper court. It was in all probability the one called the "beautiful gate" in the New Testament. immediately within this gateway stood the altar of burnt offerings. Both the altar and the temple were enclosed by a low parapet, one cubit in height, placed so as to keep the people separate from the priests while the latter were performing their functions. Within this last enclosure, toward the westward, stood the temple itself. As before mentioned, its internal dimensions were the same as those of the temple of Solomon. Although these remained the same, however, there seems no reason to doubt that. the whole plan was augmented by the pteromata , or surrounding parts being increased from 10 to 20 cubits, so that the third temple, like the second, measured 60 cubits across and 100 cubits east and west. The width of the facade was also augmented by wings or shoulders projecting 20 cubits each way, making the whole breadth 100 cubits, or equal to the length. There is no reason for doubting that the sanctuary always stood on identically the same spot in which it had been placed by Solomon a thousand years before it was rebuilt by Herod. The temple of Herod was destroyed by the Romans under Titus, Friday, August 9, A.D. 70. A Mohammedan mosque now stands on its site.
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Temple
A public building erected for the purpose of religious worship.
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Temple
A temple was a house for a god, a place where the god dwelt and was worshipped. This was so in the case of the false gods that Israel’s neighbours worshipped (1 Samuel 5:2; 1 Samuel 31:10; 1 Kings 16:32; 2 Kings 5:18), and in the case of the one and only true God whom Israel worshipped (Psalms 5:7; Psalms 134:1; Haggai 1:8-9; Matthew 12:4; John 2:16; cf. 1 Corinthians 6:19; Revelation 11:19).
However, the true God, who is the eternal one and the creator of all things, cannot be contained in a building. The Israelite temple, like the tabernacle before it, was only a symbol of God’s presence. It symbolized that he dwelt among his people (Exodus 25:8; 1 Kings 8:10-13; Acts 7:48-50). God’s original plan for such a dwelling place was the tabernacle, which, being a tent, was a movable shrine that could be set up anywhere. This demonstrated to the people that God was not limited to one locality. The people were to remember this when they built their permanent temple in Jerusalem (2 Samuel 7:5-7; Acts 7:44-46).
The site of the temple in Jerusalem was a piece of land that David had bought from a local farmer on the hill of Zion (Moriah) (2 Samuel 24:18; 2 Samuel 24:22-25; 2 Chronicles 3:1; Psalms 74:2; Psalms 78:68-69; cf. Genesis 22:2). Each of the later temples was built on the same site, on top of the ruins of the previous temple. All three temples were based on the plan of the tabernacle, though they were larger and they included additional features.
Solomon’s temple
Temple-Keeper
See Diana.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Temple (2)
TEMPLE
i. Use of terms.—1. The word which is most frequently used in the Gospels for the temple is τὸ ἱερόν (בֵּית הַמִּקְרָּשׁ); it occurs nearly 50 times. Under this term is included, generally speaking, the whole of the temple area, i.e. the Court of the Gentiles, the Court of the Women, the Court of the Israelites, the Priests’ Court, and the Holy Place, together with the Holy of Holies. In this wide sense it is used in Matthew 12:6; Matthew 24:1-2, Mark 11:11; Mark 13:1; Mark 13:3; Mark 14:49, Luke 19:47; Luke 21:37-38; Luke 22:52; Luke 24:53; but in a number of passages it is used in a more restricted sense, viz.: in reference to the Court of the Gentiles, Matthew 21:12-16; Matthew 21:23, Mark 11:15-18; Mark 11:27, Luke 19:45; Luke 22:53, John 2:14-15; John 5:14; John 8:59; in reference to the Court of the Women, Mark 12:41, Luke 2:27; Luke 2:37; Luke 21:1; in reference to the Court of the Israelites, Matthew 26:55, Mark 12:33, Luke 2:46; Luke 18:10; Luke 20:1, John 7:14; John 7:28; John 11:56; John 18:20. The particular part of the temple referred to cannot always be ascertained with certainty, especially in the case of the Men’s Court (Court of the Israelites), but presumably the mention of ‘teaching in the temple’ would usually refer to Christ teaching the Jews (in view of such passages as ‘I am not sent save unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel,’ Matthew 15:24), in which case the women, according to Jewish custom, would not be present. In a few instances ἱερόν is used of some particular part of the temple, viz. of the actual sanctuary, Luke 21:5, John 8:20; in this passage the treasury is spoken of loosely, as being in the temple (ἱερόν), strictly speaking it was in the Sanctuary (ναὁς). The same applies to the mention of Solomon’s Porch in John 10:23. In reference to the wing or pinnacle of the temple (Matthew 4:5, Luke 4:9) πτερύγιον τοῦ ἱεροῦ is used; as to where this spot was precisely scholars differ. See Pinnacle. Once the phrase τὸ ἱερὸν τοῦ θεοῦ is used (Matthew 21:12), but the addition of τοῦ θεοῦ is not well attested.
2. The word ναός* [1] (הֵיכָל) denotes the Sanctuary, i.e. that part of the temple which was holy, and to which, therefore, none but the priests had access; it included the Holy Place and the Holy of Holies (see Luke 1:21-22). The ναός was built of white marble, overlaid in part with gold sheeting; this costliness is referred to in Matthew 23:16-17. Other references to the Sanctuary are: Matthew 23:18-19; Matthew 23:35, which speak of the altar; Matthew 27:5-6, the treasury (but see below); Luke 1:9, the altar of incense (here the phrase ὁ ναὸς τοῦ κυρίου occurs for the only time); Matthew 27:51, the heavy veil between the Holy of Holies and the Holy Place (see also Mark 15:38, Luke 23:45). Finally, Christ speaks of His body as symbolizing the Sanctuary in John 2:19-21, cf. Matthew 26:61 (where the only occurrence of the phrase ὁ ναὸς τοῦ θεοῦ is found) Matthew 27:40, Mark 14:58; Mark 15:29. In John 2:20 ὁ ναός is inaccurately used in the words ‘Forty and six years was this temple in building’ (i.e. has this temple been in building up till now), for it was the whole temple area with all included in it that had so far been worked at for forty-six years; it was not finished until shortly before its final destruction by Titus in a.d. 70–71.
3. A few other expressions used for the temple may be briefly referred to: ὁ οἶκός μου,* [2] Matthew 21:13, Mark 11:17, Luke 19:46, John 2:17; οἶκος προσευχῆς, Matthew 21:13, Mark 11:17, Luke 19:46; ὁ οἶκος τοῦ πατρός μου, John 21:6. All these expressions are used in the larger sense of τὸἱερον. The ‘Holy Place’ is specifically referred to in Matthew 23:35 ‘between the sanctuary (ναός) and the altar, i.e. the space between the outer veil (see below) and the altar for burnt-offerings; in Matthew 24:15, ἐστὸς ἐν τὸπῳ ἁγίῳ, but in the parallel passage (Mark 13:14) the reading is ἑστηκότα ὅπου οὐ δεῖ.† [3] Lastly, the expression ὁ οἶκος ὑμῶν, Matthew 23:38 (‘Your house is left unto you desolate’),‡ [4] apparently also refers to the temple, for it is in the temple that these words were spoken, and it is to the temple that the disciples point when admiring the beauty of the building, in reply to which Christ says: ‘There shall not be left here one stone upon another, which shall not be thrown down’; thus ‘your house’ evidently means the temple building in its external form, in contradistinction to the ‘house of God,’ the spiritual building not made with hands.
ii. Herod’s temple.—There are several admirable descriptions of Herod’s temple published and easily available;§ [5] all are based on the main; sources, viz. Josephus Ant. xv. xi., BJ v. 5., c. [6] ap. 1. 22, and the Mishnic tractate Middoth.|| [7] It will, therefore, not be necessary to give a detailed account here, but a general outline to illustrate the Gospel references is necessary. Herod the Great [8] commenced rebuilding the temple¶ [9] in the year b.c. 20 (the eighteenth year of his reign), on the site of the second temple; but the available space was insufficient for the much larger building which he intended to erect. He therefore constructed immense vaulted chambers** [10] on the south side of the hill on which the earlier temple stood; by this means the area at his disposal was doubled. A general idea of the whole will be best gained by indicating its main divisions:
1. The Outer Court.—This large space (two stadia†† [11] in length, one in breadth, the perimeter being six stadia), which surrounded the temple proper, was enclosed by a battlemented wall. The main entrances to this enclosure were on the west, leading from the city; here there were four gates, the remains of one of which have been discovered.‡‡ [12] On the south side were the two ‘Huldah’ gates, remains of which have also been discovered. On the south-west corner there was a bridge which led from the city into the temple area; a huge arch which formed part of this bridge was discovered by Robinson, and is called after him. There was one gate on the east, which has been walled up; this was called the ‘Golden Gate,’ which tradition identifies with the ‘Beautiful Gate’ mentioned in Acts 3:2.* [13] On the north there was likewise one gate, called in Middoth the ‘Tadi Gate.’† [14] All these gates led directly into the great temple area, or outer court; around the whole area, within the walls, were ranged porticoes with double rows of pillars; but the finest was that on the south side; here there were four rows of Corinthian columns made of white marble. All these porticoes were covered with a roof of wood. The eastern portico was called Solomon’s Porch (John 10:23, cf. Acts 3:11; Acts 5:12); it belonged to an earlier building which tradition ascribed to Solomon. On the north-west two sets of steps led up to the Tower of Antonia; the Roman garrison stationed here kept constant watch during the feasts and other occasions of great gatherings, in case of tumult (cf. Acts 21:35; Acts 21:40). This temple area was called the ‘Court of the Gentiles’; it was not part of the temple proper, and therefore not sacred soil, consequently any one might enter it. It is to this outer court that reference is made in Matthew 21:12-18, Mark 11:15 ff., Luke 19:45; Luke 19:48, John 2:13-17; the money-changers‡ [15] and those who sold animals for the temple sacrifices had free access here.
2. The Court of the Israelites.—This inner court was raised fifteen cubits§ [11] above the outer one just referred to; it was surrounded by a terrace (hêl), ten cubits in breadth, which was approached from the outer court by ascending fourteen steps; these steps ran round the whole terrace, and at the bottom of them there was a low wall or breastwork (sôrçg) which was the limit to which non-Israelites might approach; along it were placed, at intervals, inscriptions warning Gentiles not to pass beyond, on pain of death; they were written in Latin and Greek; one of the latter has been discovered by Clermont-Ganneau.|| [8] On entering this inner court, ‘holy’ ground was reached, which accounted for the prohibition just referred to; only the seed of Abraham might enter here, hence its name. It was divided into two portions:
(a) The Women’s Court.—This was the smaller division; it occupied the eastern part. The court received its name from the fact that it formed the limit to which women might advance towards the sanctuary, not because it was reserved for the use of women.¶ [18] It was on a lower level than the Men’s Court, which was entered through six of the nine gates belonging to the Women’s Court. Of these gates, three deserve special mention, viz. that presented by Alexander of Alexandria; it was one of the largest, and was covered with gold and silver; secondly, the Eastern gate, which was covered with Corinthian bronze; and, above all, the gate of Nicanor;* [19] Nicanor, the Alexandrian, who made the doors. Nicanor Aleksa.’). Prof. Clermont-Ganneau says that this inscription ‘can scarcely refer to any other than the family or descendants of Nicanor,’ and that the ‘doors’ must be understood as referring to ‘the famous door of the temple of Herod, known as the Gate of Nicanor, after the rich individual who had presented it to the Sanctuary’; see PEFSt, 1903, pp. 125–131.] this was called the ‘Great [8] Gate’; it was fifty cubits high and forty broad; fifteen steps, semicircular in form, led up to it from the Women’s Court. Whether the ‘Beautiful Gate’ mentioned in Acts 3:2 referred to this or to the Eastern gate of the Outer Court (see above) is quite uncertain.
(b) But the Court of the Israelites proper was the western and larger court, called also the Men’s Court, and to this only men had access. It ran round the whole of the Sanctuary itself, in which was included the Priests’ Court (see below). In the Men’s Court were (according to Josephus) the treasury-chambers, where all the more valuable temple belongings were kept. The ‘treasury’ spoken of in Mark 12:41; Mark 12:43, Luke 21:1 was clearly entered by women; the discrepancy may, however, be explained by supposing that one of the trumpet-shaped receptacles into which offerings were cast, and which usually stood in the Men’s Court, was at certain times placed in the eastern portion of the court, so that every one, including the women, might have the opportunity of making the offerings; on such occasions the Women’s Court was, for the time being, a treasury. On the other hand, the treasury mentioned in John 8:20 would appear, from the context,† [20] to refer to that in the Men’s Court, the word being used here in the strict sense (see, too, Matthew 27:5-6).
3. The Court of the Priests.—Before entering the most sacred parts of the Sanctuary, the Priests’ Court had to be traversed. In this court there stood, in the centre, the great altar for burnt-sacrifices, and close to it the brazen laver for the priestly ablutions. On the right of these, on entering, was the place for slaughtering the animals brought for sacrifice. On either side of the court were the priests’ chambers; it is probable that one of these was the Lishkath parhedrin, ‘the Hall of the πρόεδροι’ (‘assessors’), in which the members of the Sanhedrin met in a quasi-private character before they met officially in the Lishkath ha-gazith,‡ [22] ‘the Hall of hewn stone.’ Where this latter was precisely, it is impossible to say, owing to the conflicting evidence of the authorities; the only thing that seems tolerably certain is that, while it was within the enclosure of the temple proper, it was not within the Priests’ Court; this is certain from the fact that none but priests might enter the court called after them; the only exception to this was that which permitted the entrance of those who brought offerings, for they had to lay their hands upon the sacrifice, in accordance with the prescribed ritual.
4. The Holy Place (hêkhâl).—This was separated from the Priests’ Court by a high porch (ʾûlâm, see above, i. 1), running north and south; it was a hundred cubits in height (the highest part of the whole temple) and breadth, but only eleven in depth. The Holy Place stood on a higher level than the surrounding court, from which twelve steps led up to it. Its furniture consisted of the altar of incense (see Luke 1:9), the table of the shewbread, and the seven-branched candlestick.
5. The Holy of Holles (dĕbîr).—No human foot might enter here, with the one exception of the high priest, who entered once a year, on the Day of Atonement, for the purpose of presenting sacrifice and incense before God. It was properly the place wherein the ark should have rested; but nothing is heard of the ark after the Captivity, and the Holy of Holies was, therefore, quite empty. The ‘foundation stone’ (אָבָן שְׁתִיָה) upon which, in the first temple, the ark had stood, was nearly in the centre of the Holy of Holies; in the second temple it was exposed to the extent of about six inches;* [23] there is no mention of this anywhere in reference to Herod’s temple, but, as this was built on the site of the earlier temple, it is difficult to believe that it was not there. There was no means whereby any light could enter the Holy of Holies; it was, therefore, always in total darkness, excepting when artificially lighted. It was separated from the Holy Place by means of two veils, with the space of a cubit between them; in Matthew 27:51, Mark 15:38, Luke 23:45 (cf. Hebrews 6:19; Hebrews 9:3; Hebrews 10:20, though it is not Herod’s temple that is referred to in these passages) only one veil† [24] is spoken of; but as the two were so close together, they were probably regarded as two parts of one whole.
iii. Christ and the temple.—1. The earliest mention of the temple in connexion with Christ is on the occasion of His being brought there for ‘presentation’ and ‘redemption’ thirty-one days after His birth, in accordance with Jewish law (Luke 2:22-39, cf. Exodus 13:1-16). This ceremony took place in the Court of the Women, as the presence of Mary and Anna shows; it was a simple one,‡ [25] consisting only of the formal presentation of the child to the priest, who offered up two ‘benedictions,’ or thanksgiving prayers, one on behalf of the child for the law of redemption, the other on behalf of the mother for the gift of the firstborn son.
From Luke 2:41 it may be assumed that Christ was brought annually to Jerusalem for the Passover celebration in the temple; there was no need for Him to be left behind,§ [26] and the presence of children in the temple was evidently of common occurrence (Matthew 21:15); the visit, therefore, recorded In Luke 2:42 was not the first time that Christ was present at the yearly Passover feast in the temple.|| [27]
One other reference, prior to the time of Christ’s public ministry, but on the threshold of it, is contained in the parable of His Temptation, whose second scene (in Lk. the third) is represented as having taken place on the pinnacle of the temple.
2. By far the most important part of Christ’s connexion with the temple is His teaching given within its precincts. On a number of occasions we read of the representatives of different classes coming to Him in the temple, often, no doubt, with the genuine object of profiting by His teaching, but frequently also for a more sinister purpose (e.g. Matthew 16:1; Matthew 22:15). The most elaborate account of such teaching is probably that contained in the long passage Matthew 21:23 to Matthew 23:39; the whole of this discourse, addressed, as opportunity offered, to a variety of hearers, would appear to have been spoken in the large outer court (ii. 1). The many sided character of Christ’s teaching in the
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Temple
The articles under this heading in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) , Dict. of Christ and the Gospels , and Encyclopaedia Biblica make another description of the Temple and its services unnecessary. What is relevant here is an indication of the significance of the sanctuary and its ritualin apostolic Christianity.
1. Jewish Christians and the Temple.-St. Luke evidently attached much importance to the fact recorded at the end of his Gospel, that after the resurrection of Christ the apostles ‘were continually in the temple, blessing God’ (Luke 24:53). Their assurance of Jesus’ Messiahship, proved by His victory over death, made no breach in the continuity of their Jewish faith and practice. It rather revealed to their minds a new wealth of meaning in the old ritual, and so fired themselves as worshippers with a new enthusiasm. A. C. McGiffert (History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age, Edinburgh, 1897, p. 64f.) thinks that ‘it may fairly be supposed that the effect of their Christian faith was to make all of the early disciples more devout and earnest Jews than they had ever been.’ ‘We have distinct evidence that Christian Jews like other Jews frequented the temple, the sanctuary of the nation, and thereby maintained their claim to be Jews in the true sense’ (F. J. A. Hort, Judaistic Christianity, London, 1894, p. 45). After the baptism of fire on the Day of Pentecost they are found ‘continuing stedfastly with one accord in the temple’ (Acts 2:46). Peter and John went up into the Temple at the hour of prayer (Acts 3:1), and in the fulfilment of their commission as witnesses for Christ (Acts 1:8) they found their best audiences in the Temple-courts. At the Beautiful Gate-either the Gate of Nicanor leading into the court of the Israelites or the Eastern Gate of the outer court-they moved the crowd by performing an act of healing in Christ’s name; and in Solomon’s Porch-the long colonnade in the east of the Temple area-Peter testified to the raising of the Prince of Life whom the rulers had in ignorance killed. It is significant that two apostles were arrested not by the religious, but by the secular authorities, i.e. the head of the Temple police (στρατηγὸς τοῦ ἱεροῦ) and the Sadducees (Acts 4:1); and, if their freedom of speech was somewhat curtailed, this was not because of their attitude to the Temple and its services, which was evidently quite correct, but simply because they were said to be exciting the multitude and disturbing the peace. The reproof administered to them was as mild as their confinement was brief; and the Christian Jews, finding that they could not be excluded from the Temple precincts, continued to make Solomon’s Porch their ordinary rendezvous (Acts 5:12). A second arrest of apostles followed, but the report has it that the angel who released them bade them go and speak in the Temple all the words of this life (Acts 5:17-20), and accordingly they are again found standing there and teaching the people (Acts 5:25). Until the appearance of Stephen created a new situation, the apostles were daily in the Temple, teaching and preaching Jesus as the Messiah. Against so strict and thoroughgoing Jews the guardians of the national religion, as embodied in the Temple and its cultus, had no ground of complaint, and the apostles on their side ‘could still cherish the hope that the nation at large might be brought to turn and bow the knee to its true Messiah’ (Hort, op. cit., p. 45 f.). For the present the bearing of their teaching upon the Temple itself was but dimly, if at all, perceived, and wholly unexpressed.
2. Stephen and the Temple.-It was the protomartyr that brought Christianity into open conflict with Judaism. His attitude to the Temple has been variously understood. He was accused of speaking ‘blasphemous words against Moses, and against the law’ (Acts 6:11), of ceasing not ‘to speak words against this holy place and the law’ (v. 13). C. von Weizsäcker (Apostolic Age, Eng. translation , i.2 [1] 64) holds that his speech does not by any means refute the grounds of complaint. On the contrary, it is at least in part equivalent to a substantial justification of the doctrine complained of, since it declares at its close that the worship of God in this temple ‘made with hands’ had never been in accordance with the will of God. F. Spitta (Die Apostelgeschichte, Halle, 1891, p. 105 f.) also thinks that the building of the Temple is represented by Stephen as an unauthorized and presumptuous act. Teaching of such a kind, however, would have brought Stephen into collision not only with the Hellenistic Jews, but with the whole body of Christians in Jerusalem. It seems much more likely that he made no theoretical attack upon the Mosaic Law, while his declaration that ‘the Most High dwelleth not in houses made with hands’ (Acts 7:48-50) was so far from being new that it merely echoed the words of Solomon at the dedication of the first Temple (1 Kings 8:27). It was not the worship but the spirit of the worshippers that aroused his scornful indignation. Warning them, in the manner of the old prophets, that no amount of attention to outward ordinances could ever secure the favour of God, he demanded a spiritual as opposed to a mechanical religion. If he was in the habit of repeating Christ’s prediction of the destruction of the Temple at the Parousia-and this was probably what gave colour to the charges made against him-he interpreted that threat not as an abrogation of the Mosaic Law, but as a judgment upon the nation for its sin. The third Temple might fall as the first had fallen, and yet the Torah itself remain intact. ‘To call Stephen a forerunner of Paul, and to think of him as anticipating in any way Paul’s treatment of the Jewish law and his assertion of a free Gentile Christianity, is to misunderstand him’ (McGiffert, op. cit., p. 89). For him, as for every other Jewish Christian in Jerusalem, the Law, without distinction of moral and ceremonial precepts, was ‘ordained of angels’; in his view the nation’s treatment of its prophets and its Messiah was the supreme proof that the Law had not been kept; and the burden of his preaching was a call to Jerusalem not to close her Temple and abolish her ritual, but to take the lead in a national repentance for a broken Law.
3. St. Paul and the Temple.-The recognition of the validity of a Christianity to which Jerusalem and the Temple were negligible quantities was the result of a protracted controversy in which St. Paul was the champion of freedom. For him the observance of the ancient ritual laws and traditions, which had so long been a matter of principle, becomes at last one of indifference. He is consequently accused of ‘teaching all the Jews which are among the Gentiles to forsake Moses’ (Acts 21:21). This he never did, and, to prove that the charge was groundless, he was advised, during his last visit to Jerusalem, to conciliate the great mass of Christian Jews by performing the vow of a Nazirite in the Temple. Weizsäcker thinks that in the whole narrative of this episode ‘practically nothing is historical’ (op. cit., ii. [2] 14; but McGiffert holds ‘that Paul may well have done just what he is reported to have done’ (op. cit., p. 343). Had he been advised by James to prove that he habitually observed the Law as a matter of conscience, he could never have consented. But he had long been in the habit of identifying himself in things non-essential now with Jews and now with Gentiles in order that he might ‘win some of them’ (1 Corinthians 9:20), and the last instance of conformity was merely the most striking. What impression the object-lesson actually made upon the law-abiding Christian Jews for whom it was specially intended is not recorded; but it clearly had other results which were not anticipated, for the Jews rose in arms against St. Paul as a profaner of the Temple, and the Romans arrested him as a disturber of the peace.
4. St. James and the Temple.-James the Just, the Lord’s brother, represented two ideas-the continuance of the Church in union with the Temple, and the hope of the conversion of Israel. He was the acknowledged leader of those Christians who were zealous for the Law (ξηλωταὶ τοῦ νόμου, Acts 21:20). If he conceded the principle of Gentile Christian freedom, he did it reluctantly. He was the staunch defender not only of the primacy but of the permanence of Judaic Christianity. After his martyrdom (Euseb. Historia Ecclesiastica (Eusebius, etc.) ii. 23) his spirit and ideal survived for a time, but the swift and dramatic evolution of events made the position of the Christian Church in the Jewish nation and under the Law more and more untenable. When the excitement of the conflict with Rome gradually became intense, and the inevitable crisis approached, the Christians found it necessary (about a.d. 67) to quit Jerusalem and migrate to the Hellenistic city of Pella, beyond the Jordan. Their hope of a Jewish national Church, centralized in the Temple and giving both law and gospel to mankind, had at least to be postponed. But in this instance postponement meant ultimate abandonment. In three years the Temple was destroyed, Jewish nationality shattered, and St. James’s theory of a hegemony of Judaic Christianity confuted by the remorseless logic of history. But a far higher ideal could then be realized. ‘The hour cometh, when neither in this mountain, nor in Jerusalem, shall ye worship the Father’ (John 4:21). ‘And he showed me the holy city Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God.… And I saw no temple therein’ (Revelation 21:10; Revelation 21:22).
Literature.-A. Hausrath, History of the NT Times, London, 1895, ii. 176 ff.; E. F. Scott, The Apologetic of the NT, do., 1907, p. 78 ff.
James Strahan.
Chabad Knowledge Base - Holy Temple
The: the Holy Temple in Jerusalem
Holman Bible Dictionary - Temple of Jerusalem
A place of worship, especially the Temple of Solomon built in Jerusalem for national worship of Yahweh. Sacred or holy space is the meaning of our word temple , very like the two Greek words, hieron (temple area) and naos (sanctuary itself) which are translated “temple” in the New Testament. In the Old Testament, the language is usually beth Yahweh or beth Elohim , “house of the Yahweh” or “house of God” because He is said to have dwelt there. The other Hebrew expression for temple is hekal , “palace, great house” deriving from the Sumerian word for “great house,” whether meant for God or the earthly king. So David, when he had built for himself a cedar palace, thought it only proper he should build one for Yahweh, too (2 Samuel 7:1-2 ). Nathan at first approved his plan, but the Lord Himself said He had been used to living in a tent since the Exodus from Egypt. He would allow David's son to build Him a house (Temple), but He would build for David a house (dynasty, 2 Samuel 7:3-16 ). This covenant promise became exceedingly significant to the messianic hope fulfilled in the coming of the ideal king of the line of David. See Tabernacle, Tent of Meeting.
Chronicles makes it clear that David planned the Temple and accumulated great wealth and gifts for it, though Solomon was the one who actually built it. Solomon's Temple may not have actually been the first temple which housed the ark of the covenant, since there was a house of Yahweh, also called a temple, at Shiloh (1Samuel 1:7,1Samuel 1:9,1 Samuel 1:24 ; 1 Samuel 3:3 ) but in Luke 2:22-380 (NIV) it is called “tent of meeting,” whether the wilderness tabernacle or not. Jeremiah in his great Temple sermon warned all who came into the Lord's house in Jerusalem that if they trusted primarily in the Temple, instead of the Lord, He could destroy Solomon's Temple just as He had the previous one at Shiloh ( Jeremiah 7:1-15 ; Jeremiah 26:1-6 ).
Israel knew other worship places with history far older than the Jerusalem Temple. Former patriarchal holy places near Shechem or Bethel (Genesis 12:6-8 ; Genesis 28:10-22 ; compare Deuteronomy 11:29-30 ; Deuteronomy 27:1-26 ; Joshua 8:30-35 ; Joshua 24:1-28 ; Judges 20:26-27 ), these are not called temples in Scripture though local inhabitants may have called them temples. It cannot be determined what kind of sanctuaries were at Ophrah, Gilgal, Nob, Mizpah, Ramah, or other “high places” where Yahweh was worshiped, but “the Temple” is the one at Jerusalem from Solomon's time.
Solomon's Temple There were three historical Temples in succession, those of Solomon, Zerubbabel, and Herod in the preexilic, postexilic, and New Testament periods. Herod's Temple was really a massive rebuilding of the Zerubbabel Temple, so both are called the “second Temple” by Judaism. All three were located on a prominent hill north of David's capital city, which he conquered from the Jebusites (2 Samuel 5:6-7 ). David had acquired the Temple hill from Araunah the Jebusite at the advice of the prophet Gad to stay a pestilence from the Lord by building an altar and offering sacrifices on the threshing floor (2 Samuel 24:18-25 ). Chronicles identifies this hill with Mount Moriah, where Abraham had been willing to offer Isaac (2 Chronicles 3:1 ; Genesis 22:1-14 ). So the Temple mount today in Jerusalem is called Mount Moriah, and the threshing floor of Araunah is undoubtedly the large rock enshrined within the Dome of the Rock, center of the Muslim enclosure called Haram es-Sharif (the third holiest place in Islam, after Mecca and Medina). This enclosure is basically what is left of Herod's enlarged Temple platform, the masonry of which may best be seen in its Western Wall, the holiest place within Judaism since the Roman destruction of Herod's Temple.
No stone is left that archaeologists can confidently say belonged to the Solomonic Temple. We do have the detailed literary account of its building preserved in Kings (1 Kings 5:1-9:10 ) and Chronicles (2 Chronicles 2-7 ). Ezekiel's vision of the new Jerusalem Temple after the Exile (Ezekiel 40-43 ) is idealistic and was perhaps never realized in Zerubbabel's rebuilding of the Temple, but many of its details would have reflected Solomon's Temple in which Ezekiel probably ministered as a priest before being deported to Babylon in 597 B.C. The treaty with Hiram, the king of Tyre, and the employment of the metalworker Hiram (or Huram-abi, a different person from the king) whom he provided show that considerable Phoenician influence, expertise, craftmanship, and artistic design went into the building of the Temple.
The primary meaning of the Temple was the same as that of the ark it was constructed to enshrine: a symbol of God's presence in the midst of His people (Exodus 25:21-22 ). Because it was God's house, the worshipers could not enter the holy place, reserved only for priests and other worship leaders, much less the holiest place (holy of holies) to be entered by the high priest only once a year (Leviticus 16:1 ). The worshipers could gather for prayer and sacrifice in the Temple courtyard(s) where they could sing psalms as they saw their offerings presented to Yahweh on His great altar. The spirit of Israel's prayer and praise is to be found in the Psalms and in the worship experiences such as that of Isaiah when he surrendered to his prophetic call experience in the forecourt of the Temple (Isaiah 6:1-8 ).
The account of Isaiah's experience makes it clear that the earthly Temple was viewed as a microcosm of the heavenly Temple where the King of the universe really dwelt. The quaking and smoke of the Lord's presence at Sinai were now manifested in Zion (Isaiah 6:4 ). Israel understood that it was only by God's grace that He consented to dwell with His people; and so Deuteronomy understood the central sanctuary as the place where Yahweh caused His name to dwell (Deuteronomy 12:5 ; compare 1 Kings 8:13 ), and priestly thinkers viewed it as filled with His glory (compares the tabernacle, Exodus 40:34 ). Obviously, no one can house God: “But will God indeed dwell on the earth? Even heaven and the highest heaven cannot contain you; much less this house that I have built!” (1 Kings 8:27 NRSV).
Solomon's Temple was shaped as a “long house” of three successive rooms from east to west, a vestibule of only 15-feet depth, a nave (the holy place) of 60 feet and an inner sanctuary (the most holy place) of 30 feet (1 Kings 6:2-3 ; 1 Kings 16-17 ). It was approximately 30-feet wide and 45-feet high by its interior measurements for the “house” proper, not counting the porch, which was sort of an open entryway. This is similar to, though not precisely the same as, the shape of several Syrian and Canaanite temples excavated in the past few decades (at Hazor, Lachish, tell Tainat). There is even one Israelite “temple” at the southeast border of Judah in the iron age fortress of Arad which some have compared with Solomon's Temple. None was so symmetrical or ornately decorated, nor even as large as the Jerusalem Temple, even though Solomon's palace complex of which the Temple was only a part (1 Kings 7:1-12 ) was much larger and took longer to build (tell Tainat, in northern Syria, is the closest analogy). Around the outside of the house proper was constructed three stories of side chambers for Temple storehouses, above which were recessed windows in the walls of the holy place (1Kings 6:4-6,1 Kings 6:8-10 ).
The inside of the house proper was paneled with cedar, floored with cypress, and inlaid with gold throughout. It was decorated with well-known Phoenician artistic ornamentation, floral designs with cherubim, flowers, and palm trees. The most holy place, a windowless cube of about 30 feet, housed the ark of the covenant and was dominated by two guardian cherubim 15-feet tall with outstretched wings spanning fifteen feet to touch in the middle and at each side wall (1 Kings 6:15-28 ). One of the interesting results of archaeological research is the recovery of the form of these ancient cherubim. They are Egyptian-type sphinxes (human-headed winged lions) such as are pictured as the arms of a throne chair of a Canaanite king on one of the Megiddo ivories. The ark, the mercy-seat lid of which had its own guardian cherubim (Exodus 25:18-20 ), was Yahweh's “footstool.” Beneath these awesome cherubim, God was invisibly enthroned.
The double doors of the inner sanctuary and the nave were similarly carved and inlaid of finest wood and gold (1 Kings 6:31-35 ). The arrangement prescribed for the wall of the inner court, “three courses of hewn stone and one course of cedar beams” was followed in Solomonic buildings excavated at Megiddo (1 Kings 6:36 ; 1 Kings 7:12 ). This arrangement is also known from the tell Tainat temple. This exquisite sanctuary took seven years to build (about 960 B.C.; 1 Kings 6:37-38 ). The marvelous furnishings of the holy place and the courtyard require another chapter to describe (1 Kings 7:9-51 ).
The most mysterious creations were two huge free-standing bronze pillars about thirty-five-feet tall, including their beautifully ornamented capitals of lily-work netting and rows of pomegranates (1 Kings 7:15-20 ). They were nearly six feet in diameter, hollow, with a thickness of bronze about three inches. The pillars were named Jachin (“He shall establish”) and Boaz (“In the strength of”), perhaps to signify the visible symbolism of the Temple as a testimony to the stability of the Davidic dynasty to which it was intimately related.
The reader at this point expects an account of the bronze altar, included in Chronicles (2 Chronicles 4:1 ), but only presumed in Kings (1Kings 8:22,1Kings 8:54,1 Kings 8:64 ; 1 Kings 9:25 ). This altar is large, thirty-feet square and fifteen-feet tall, presumably with steps.
The molten sea, which may have had some kind of cosmic symbolism, stood in the south-central quadrant of the inner courtyard opposite the bronze altar. It was round with a cup-shaped brim, fifteen feet in diameter, seven-and-a-half-feet tall, with a circumference of forty-five feet. It was cast of heavy bronze, ornately decorated, and resting on the back of twelve bronze oxen in four sets of three facing each point of the compass. Since it held about 10,000 gallons of water, it must have been for supplying water to the lavers by some sort of syphon mechanism.
The third great engineering feat was the crafting of ten ornate, rolling stands for ten lavers, five on either side of the courtyard. These were six-feet square and four-and-a-half-feet tall, each containing some 200 gallons of water, quite heavy objects to be rolled about on chariot wheels. Chronicles says they were used to wash the utensils for sacrificial worship (2 Chronicles 4:6 ).
At the Feast of Tabernacles, Solomon conducted an elaborate dedication festival for the Temple (1 Kings 8:1-9:9 ). The story begins with a procession of the ark containing the two tables of the decalogue, God's glory in the shining cloud of His presence filled the sanctuary (1 Kings 8:1-11 ). Then the king blessed the assembly, praised God for His covenant mercies in fulfilling Nathan's promise to David, and gave a long, fervent prayer on behalf of seven different situations in which the prayers of his people should arise to the heavenly throne of God from His earthly temple, closing with a benediction. Solomon provided myriads of sacrifices for the seven days of the great dedication festival. God had consecrated this house of prayer, but He required covenant obedience of Solomon and each of his successors, lest He have to destroy this magnificent sanctuary because of the apostasy of His people (1 Kings 9:1-9 ). The consistent emphasis of Solomon's prayer and God's answer is the awareness of sin and the necessity for wholehearted repentance to keep the Temple ceremonial a meaningful symbol of worship and devotion (2 Chronicles 7:13-14 ). The great prophets preached that, in their Temple worship, Israel was not able to avoid syncretism with pagan religious impulses or the hypocritical irrelevance of meaningless overemphasis upon ritual without righteous obedience to their sovereign Overlord (Isaiah 1:10-17 ; Micah 6:6-8 ; Jeremiah 7:1-26 ).
The history of Solomon's Temple has many ups and downs through its almost four hundred years of existence. Its treasures of gold were often plundered by foreign invaders like Shishak of Egypt (1 Kings 14:25-26 ). At the division of the kingdoms, Jeroboam set up rival sanctuaries at Bethel and Dan which drew worshipers away from Jerusalem for two hundred years. King Asa plundered his own Temple treasuries to buy a military ally, Ben-Hadad of Syria against Baasha, king of North Israel (1 Kings 15:18-19 ), though he had previously repaired the Temple altar and carried out limited worship reforms (2 Chronicles 15:8-18 ). Temple repairs were carried out by Jehoash (Joash) of Judah after the murder of wicked Queen Athaliah, but even he had to strip the Temple treasuries to buy off Hazael, king of Syria (2 Kings 12:1 ). Jehoash (Joash), king of Israel, when foolishly challenged to battle by Amaziah, king of Judah, not only defeated him, but came to Jerusalem and plundered the Temple (1 Kings 14:12-14 ). King Ahaz plundered his own Temple for tribute to Assyria during the Syro-Ephraimitic war of 735 B.C., even stripping some of the bronze furnishings in the courtyard (2Kings 16:8-9,2 Kings 16:17 ). Good King Hezekiah raised a hugh tribute for Sennacherib, king of Assyria, in his 701 B.C. invasion, even stripping gold off the Temple doors (2 Kings 18:13-16 ). During the long and disastrous reign of King Manasseh many abominable idols and pagan cult objects were placed in the Temple which good King Josiah had to remove during his reform (2Kings 23:4-6,2 Kings 23:11-12 ). Both Hezekiah and Josiah were able to centralize worship in the Jerusalem Temple during their reforms and even recover some worshipers from the north for the Jerusalem sanctuary, but Josiah's successor, Jehoiakim, reversed all of Josiah's reforms and filled up the Temple with pagan abominations (Ezekiel 8:1 ). Despite the warnings of Jeremiah and Ezekiel, the people refused to repent of their political and religious folly, and their Temple and holy city were first plundered by Nebuchadnezzer in 597 B.C., then burned by Nebuzaradan, his general, in 587/586 B.C.
For both groups of Judah, those in Babylon, and those still in Jerusalem, the loss of the Temple and city were a grievous blow (Psalm 137:1 ; Lamentations 1-5 ). But Jeremiah and Ezekiel had prepared a remnant in their prophecies of hope beyond the catastrophe for a return and rebuilding.
Zerubbabel's Temple The decree of Cyrus in 538 B.C. permitted the Jews to return from the Babylonian Exile with the Temple vessels which had been taken. It charged them to rebuild the Temple of Jerusalem with Persian financial aid and free-will offerings from Jews who remained in Babylon (Ezra 1:1-4 ). Sheshbazzar, the governor, laid the foundation. The project was halted when the people of the land discouraged the builders (Ezra 1:8 ,Ezra 1:8,1:11 ; Ezra 4:1-5 ). Then in the second year of Darius, 520 B.C., the work was renewed by the new governor Zerubbabel and Jeshua the high priest at the urging of the prophets Haggai and Zechariah (Ezra 5:1-2 ).
When local Persian officials tried to stop the rebuilding, Darius found a record of Cyrus' decree which included the overall dimensions (Ezra 6:1-6 ).The size seems to have been approximately that of Solomon's Temple. Ezekiel's temple vision had considerable influence on the new Temple (Ezekiel 40-42 ), so that Zerubbabel's Temple perhaps was mounted on a platform and measured about 100 feet by 100 feet with the interior dimensions being virtually the same as those of Solomon's Temple. It was probably not as ornately decorated (Ezra 3:12-13 ; Haggai 2:3 ).
The differences between the two sanctuaries have to do with furniture and courtyard arrangements or gates. As Jeremiah had foreseen, the ark of the covenant was never replaced (Jeremiah 3:16 ). Jospehus said the holy of holies was empty. It was now separated from the holy place by a veil instead of a door. There was only one seven-branched lampstand, as had been true of the tabernacle, probably the one pictured by Titus in his triumphal arch at Rome as having been carried off when Herod's Temple was plundered. The importance of the new Temple was that it became a symbol of the Lord's holiness and the religious center of life for the new community.
It was completed in 515 B.C. and dedicated with great joy (Ezra 6:14-16 ). Priesthood had replaced kingship as the authority of the postexilic community.
The Maccabean revolt changed this, and Judas Maccabeus rededicated the Temple in 167 B.C. after Antiochus had profaned it in December, 164 B.C. This joyous event is still remembered in the Jewish celebration of Hannukah. Judas' successors appointed themselves as high priests, and the Temple became more a political institution. Pompey captured the Temple in 63 B.C. but did not plunder it. See Intertestamental History.
Herod's Temple Herod the Great came to power in 37 B.C. and determined that he would please his Jewish subjects and show off his style of kingship to the Romans by making the Jerusalem Temple bigger and better than it had ever been. His most notable contribution was the magnificent stonework of the Temple platform which was greatly enlarged. The descriptions in Josephus and the Mishnah have been fleshed out by recent archaeological discoveries.
Herod surrounded the whole enclosure with magnificent porches, particularly the royal stoa along the southern wall. Through the Huldah gates, double and triple arches of which can still be seen, worshipers went up through enclosed passageways into the court of the Gentiles. Greek inscriptions separating this court from the court of the women and the holier inner courts of Israel (men) and the priests have been found. The steps south of the Temple, where Jesus may have taught on several occasions, have been excavated and reconstructed. An inscription: “To the place of trumpeting” was found below the southwest corner where there was a monumental staircase ascending into the Temple from the main street below. Perhaps this was the “Temple pinnacle” from which Satan tempted Jesus to throw Himself.
The Jerusalem Temple is the focus of many New Testament events. The birth of John the Baptist was announced there (Luke 1:11-20 ). The offering by Joseph and Mary at the circumcision of baby Jesus was brought there. Simeon and Anna greeted Jesus there (1618416331_37 ). Jesus came there as a boy of twelve (Luke 2:42-51 ) and later taught there during His ministry (John 7:14 ). His cleansing of the Temple was instrumental in precipitating His death. He knew no earthly temple was necessary to the worship of God (John 4:21-24 ). He predicted the Temple's destruction by the Romans, and His warnings to His followers to flee when this happened actually saved many Christians' lives (Mark 13:2 ,Mark 13:2,13:14-23 ). Early Christians continued to worship there, and Paul was arrested there (Acts 3:1 ; Acts 21:27-33 ).
After the Jewish revolt in 66 A.D., Vespasian and then his son Titus crushed all resistance. The Temple was destroyed in 70 A.D. Stephen's preaching tended to liberate Christian thinking from the necessity of a temple (Acts 7:46-50 ), and Paul thought of the church and Christians as the new temple (1 Corinthians 3:16-17 ; 1 Corinthians 6:19-20 ). For John, the ideal which the temple represented will ultimately be realized in a “new Jerusalem” (Revelation 21:2 ). See Ark of the Covenant ; Herods; Holy of Holies ; Moriah ; Shiloh ; Solomon ; Tabernacle, Tent of Meeting; Zerubbabel .
M. Pierce Matheney
Holman Bible Dictionary - Gates of Jerusalem And the Temple
Jerusalem's many gates have varied in number and location with the changing size and orientation of its walls throughout its long history. Persons could enter through an important city gate on the west from Jaffa (Tel Aviv) Road, as they do today. On the east, entrance from the Kidron Valley was signed principally through the Sheep Gate (modern Stephen or Lion Gate) in New Testament times and by a recently found gate (Spring, 1986) south of the modern city walls in Old Testament times. This latter gate may date to the reign of Solomon, being similar to Solomonic gates found at Megiddo, Gezer, and Hazor. Entrance to the Temple itself was on its eastern side through the Beautiful gate (Acts 3:10 ), near the Golden Gate recently found beneath the city eastern wall. On the north, the principal gateway (Damascus Gate) opened onto the Damascus Road. Seven gates now allow entrance to the old city of Jerusalem. John McRay
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Veil of the Tabernacle And Temple,
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Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Temple
(See JERUSALEM; TABERNACLE.) David cherished the design of superseding the tent and curtains by a permanent building of stone (2 Samuel 7:1-2); God praised him for having the design "in his heart" (1 Kings 8:18); but as he had been so continually in wars (1 Kings 5:3; 1 Kings 5:5), and had "shed blood abundantly" (1 Chronicles 22:8-9; 1 Chronicles 28:2-3; 1 Chronicles 28:10), the realization was reserved for Solomon his son. (See SOLOMON.) The building of the temple marks an era in Israel's history, the nation's first permanent settlement in peace and rest, as also the name Solomon," man of peace, implied. The site was the threshing floor of Araunah the Jebusite, whereon David by Jehovah's command erected an altar and offered burnt offerings and peace offerings (2 Samuel 24:18-25; 1 Chronicles 21:18-30; 1 Chronicles 22:1); Jehovah's signifying by fire His acceptance of the sacrifice David regarded as the divine designation of the area for the temple.
"This is the house of the Lord God, and this is the altar ... for Israel" (2 Chronicles 3:1). "Solomon began to build the house of Jehovah at Jerusalem in Mount Moriah (Hebrew in the mount of the vision of Jehovah) where He appeared unto David in the place that David had prepared in the threshing floor of Ornan the Jebusite." Warren identifies the "dome of the rock" with Ornan's threshing floor and the temple altar. Solomon's temple was there in the Haram area, but his palace in the S.E. of it, 300 ft. from N. to S., and 600 from E. to W., and Solomon's porch ran along the E. side of the Haram area. The temple was on the boundary line between Judah and Benjamin, and so formed a connecting link between the northern and the southern tribes; almost in the center of the nation. The top of the hill having been leveled, walls of great stones (some 30 ft. long) were built on the sloping sides, and the interval between was occupied by vaults or filled up with earth.
The lower, bevelled stones of the wall still remain; the relics of the eastern wall alone being Solomon's, the southern and western added later, but still belonging to the first temple; the area of the first temple was ultimately a square, 200 yards, a stadium on each side, but in Solomon's time a little less. Warren makes it a rectangle, 900 ft. from E. to W., and 600 from N. to S. "The Lord gave the pattern in writing by His hand upon David," and "by His Spirit," i.e. David wrote the directions under divine inspiration and gave them to Solomon (1 Chronicles 28:11-19). The temple retained the general proportions of the tabernacle doubled; the length 60 cubits (90 ft.), the breadth 20 cubits (30 ft.): 1 Kings 6:2; 2 Chronicles 3:3. The height 30 cubits, twice the whole height of the tabernacle (15 cubits) measuring from its roof, but the oracle 20 cubits (double the height of the tabernacle walls, 10 cubits), making perfect cube like that of the tabernacle, which was half, i.e. ten each way; the difference between the height of the oracle and that of the temple, namely, ten cubits, was occupied by the upper rooms mentioned in 2 Chronicles 3:9, overlaid with pure gold.
The temple looked toward the E., having the most holy place in the extreme W. In front was a porch as broad as the temple, 20 cubits, and ten deep; whereas the tabernacle porch was only five cubits deep and ten cubits wide. Thus, the ground plan of the temple was 70 cubits, i.e. 105 ft., or, adding the porch, 80 cubits, by 40 cubits, whereas that of the tabernacle was 40 cubits by 20 cubits, i.e. just half. In 2 Chronicles 3:4 the 120 cubits for the height of the porch is out of all proportion to the height of the temple; either 20 cubits (with Syriac, Arabic and Septuagint) or 30 cubits ought to be read; the omission of mention of the height in 1 Kings 6:3 favors the idea that the porch was of the same height as the temple, i.e. 30 cubits . Two brazen pillars (Boaz "strength is in Him", and Jachin "He will establish"), 18 cubits high, with a chapiter of five cubits - 23 cubits in all - stood, not supporting the temple roof, but as monuments before the porch (1 Kings 7:15-22). The 35 cubits instead of 18 cubits, in 2 Chronicles 3:15, arose from a copyist's error (confounding yah = 18 with lah = 35 cubits).
The circumference of the pillars was 12 cubits or 18 ft.; the significance of the two pillars was eternal stability and the strength of Jehovah in Israel as representing the kingdom of God on earth, of which the temple was the visible pledge, Jehovah dwelling there in the midst of His people. Solomon (1 Kings 6:5-6) built against the wall of the house stories, or an outwork consisting of three stories, round about, i.e. against the longer sides and the hinder wall, and not against the front also, where was the porch. Rebates (three for the three floors of the side stories and one for the roof) or projecting ledges were attached against the temple wall at the point where the lower beams of the different side stories were placed, so that the heads of the beams rested on the rebates and were not inserted in the actual temple wall. As the exterior of the temple wall contracted at each rebate, while the exterior wall of the side chamber was straight, the breadth of the chambers increased each story upward. The lowest was only five broad, the second six, and the third seven; in height they were each five cubits.
Winding stairs led from chamber to chamber upward (1 Kings 6:8). The windows (1 Kings 6:4) were made "with closed beams" Hebrew, i.e. the lattice work of which could not be opened and closed at will, as in d welling houses (2 Kings 13:17). The Chaldee and rabbiical tradition that they were narrower without than within is probable; this would adapt them to admit light and air and let out smoke. They were on the temple side walls in the ten cubits' space whereby the temple walls, being 30 cubits high, out-topped the side stories, 20 cubits high. The tabernacle walls were ten cubits high, and the whole height 15 cubits, i.e. the roof rising five cubits above the internal walls, just half the temple proportions: 20 cubits, 30 cubits, 10 cubits respectively. The stone was made ready in the quarry before it was brought, so that there was neither hammer nor axe nor any tool heard in the house while it was building (1 Kings 6:7).
In the Bezetha vast cavern, accidentally discovered by tapping the ground with a stick outside the Damascus gate at Jerusalem, evidences still remain of the marvelous energy with which they executed the work; the galleries, the pillars supporting the roof, and the niches from which the huge blocks were taken, of the same form, size, and material as the stones S.E. of the Haram area. The stone, soft in its native state, becomes hard as marble when exposed to the air. The quarry is 600 ft. long and runs S.E. At the end are blocks half quarried, the marks of the chisel as fresh as on the day the mason ceased; but the temple was completed without them, still they remain attached to their native bed, a type of multitudes, impressed in part, bearing marks of the teacher's chisel, but never incorporated into the spiritual temple.
The masons' Phoenician marks still remain on the stones in this quarry, and the unique beveling of the stones in the temple wall overhanging the ravine corresponds to that in the cave quarry. Compare 1 Peter 2:5; the election of the church, the spiritual temple, in God's eternal predestination, before the actual rearing of that temple (Ephesians 1:4-5; Romans 8:29-30), and the peace that reigns within and above, in contrast to the toil and noise outside in the world below wherein the materials of the spiritual temple are being prepared (John 16:33), are the truths symbolized by the mode of rearing Solomon's temple. On the eastern wall at the S.E. angle are the Phoenician red paint marks.
These marks cut into or painted on the bottom rows of the wall at the S.E. corner of the Haram, at a depth of 90 ft. where the foundations rest on the rock itself, are pronounced by Deutseh to have been cut or painted when the stones were first laid in their present places, and to be Phoenician letters, numerals, and masons' quarry signs; some are well known Phoenician characters, others such as occur in the primitive substructions of the Sidon harbour. The interior was lined with cedar of Lebanon, and the floors and ceiling with cypress (berosh ; KJV "fir" not so well). There must have been pillars to support the roof, which was a clear space of 30 ft., probably four in the sanctuary and ten in the hall, at six cubits from the walls, leaving a center aisle of eight cubits (Fergusson in Smith's Bible Dictionary.). Cherubim, palms, and flowers (1 Kings 6:29) symbolized the pure and blessed life of which the temple, where God manifested His presence, was the pledge.
The costly wood, least liable to corruption, and the precious stones set in particular places, suited best a building designed to be "the palace of the Lord God" (1 Chronicles 29:1). The furniture of the temple was the same mainly as that of the tabernacle. Two cherubim were placed over the ark, much larger than those in the tabernacle; they were ten cubits high, with wings five cubits long, the tips of which outstretched met over the ark, and in the other direction reached to the N. and S. sides of the house. Their faces turned toward the house (2 Chronicles 3:13), not as in the tabernacle (Exodus 25:20) toward the mercy-seat. Instead of the one seven-branched candlestick ten new ones were made of pure gold, five for the right or N. side and five for the left side of the temple. So there were ten tables of shewbread (2 Chronicles 4:8; 2 Chronicles 4:19). Still the candlestick and the shewbread table were each spoken of as one, and probably but one table at a time was served with shewbread.
The ten (the world number) times seven (the divine number) of the golden candlestick = 70; and the ten times twelve (the church number) of the shewbread = 120, implying the union of the world and the Deity and of the world and the church respectively. (See NUMBER.) The snuffers, tongs, basins, etc., were of pure gold. The brazen altar of burnt offering was four times as large as that of the tabernacle; 20 cubits on each side and in height, instead of five cubits (2 Chronicles 4:1). Between this and the temple door was the molten sea of ten cubits from brim to brim, 45 ft. round, holding 2,000 baths, i.e. 15,000 or 16,000 gallons of water (3,000 in 2 Chronicles 4:5 probably a copyist's error), supported by 12 oxen, three on each side (representing the 12 tribes). It was for the priests' washing, as the laver of the tabernacle. There were besides ten lavers, five on each side of the altar, for washing the entrails; these were in the inner (1 Kings 7:36) or higher (Jeremiah 36:10) or priests' court, raised above the further off one by three rows of hewed stone and one of cedar beams (1 Kings 6:36; 2 Chronicles 4:9).
The great court or that of the people, outside this, was surrounded by walls, and accessible by brass or bronze doors (2 Chronicles 4:9). The gates noticed are the chief or E. one (Ezekiel 11:1), one on the N. near the altar (Ezekiel 8:5), the higher gate of the house of Jehovah, built by Jotham (2 Kings 15:35), the gate of the foundation (2 Chronicles 23:5), Solomon's ascent up to the house of Jehovah (1 Kings 10:5; 2 Chronicles 9:11; 2 Kings 16:18). Hiram, son of a Tyrian father and Hebrew mother, was the skilled artisan who manufactured the bronze articles in a district near Jordan between Succoth and Zarthan (1 Kings 7:13-14; 1 Kings 7:46; 2 Chronicles 4:16-17). Solomon dedicated the temple with prayer and thank offerings of 20,000 oxen and 120,000 sheep (1 Kings 8; 2 Chronicles 5 to 7). (See SOLOMON.) The ritual of the temple was a national, not a personal, worship. It was fixed to one temple and altar, before the Shekinah. It was not sanctioned anywhere else.
The Levites throughout the land were to teach Israel the law of their God; the particular mode was left to patriarchal usage and the rules of religious feeling and reason (Deuteronomy 33:10; Deuteronomy 6:7). The stranger was not only permitted but encouraged to pray toward the temple at Jerusalem; and doubtless the thousands (153,600) of strangers, remnants of the Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, and Jebusites, whom Solomon employed in building the temple, were proselytes to Jehovah (2 Chronicles 2:17; 1 Chronicles 22:2). (On its history (see JERUSALEM.) Shishak of Egypt, Asa of Judah, Joash of Israel, and finally Nebuchadnezzar despoiled it in succession (1 Kings 14:26; 1 Kings 15:18; 2 Chronicles 25:23-24). After 416 years' duration the Babylonian king's captain of the guard, Nebuzaradan, destroyed it by fire (2 Kings 25:8-9). Temple of Zerubabel.
Erected by sanction of Cyrus, who in his decree alleged the command of the God of heaven (Ezra 1:12), on the stone site ("the place where they offered sacrifices") and to reproduce Solomon's temple "with three rows (i.e. three stories) of great stones, and a row of new timber" (a wooden story, a fourth, called a talar: Josephus 11:4, 6; 15:11, section 1): Ezra 6:3-12, comp. 1 Kings 6:36. The golden and silver vessels taken by Nebuchadnezzar were restored; the altar was first set up by Jeshua and Zerubbabel, then the foundations were laid (Ezra 3) amidst weeping in remembrance of the glorious former temple and joy at the restoration. Then after the interruption of the work under Artaxerxes I or Pseudo Smerdis, the temple was completed in the sixth year of Darius (chapter 6).(See ARTAXERXES I; EZRA; HAGGA; JESHUA; JOSHUA; NEHEMIAH; DARIUS.)
The height, 60 cubits (Ezra 6:3), was double that of Solomon's temple. Josephus confirms this height of 60 cubits, though he is misled by the copyist's error, 120, in 2 Chronicles 3:4. Zerubbabel's temple was 60 cubits broad (Ezra 6:3) as was Herod's temple subsequently, 20 cubits in excess of the breadth of Solomon's temple; i.e., the chambers all around were 20 in width instead of the ten of Solomon's temple; probably, instead of as heretofore each room of the priests' lodgings being a thoroughfare, a passage was introduced between the temple and the rooms. Thus the dimensions were 100 cubits long, 60 broad, and 60 high, not larger than a good sized parish church. Not merely (Haggai 2:3) was this temple inferior to Solomon's in splendour and costly metals, but especially it lacked five glories of the former temple:
(1) the ark, for which a stone served to receive the sprinkling of blood by the high priest, on the day of atonement;
(2) the sacred fire;
(3) the Shekinab;
(4) the spirit of prophecy;
(5) the Urim and Thummim.
Its altar was of stone, not brass (1 Maccabees 4:45), it had only one table of shewbread and one candlestick. Antiochus Epiphanes profaned this temple; afterward it was cleansed or dedicated, a new altar of fresh stones made, and the feast of dedication thenceforward kept yearly (John 10:22). But "the glory of this latter house was greater than of the former" (Haggai 2:9) because of the presence of Messiah, in whose face is given the light of the knowledge of the glory of God (2 Corinthians 4:6; Hebrews 1:2) as Himself said, "in this place is one (Greek 'a something greater,' the indefiniteness marking the infinite vastness whereby He is) greater than the temple" (Matthew 12:6), and who "sat daily teaching in it" (Matthew 26:55). The Millennial Temple at Jerusalem. (See Ezekiel 40-48.)
The dimensions are those of Solomon's temple; an inner shrine 20 cubits square (Ezekiel 41:4); the nave 20 cubits by 40 cubits; the chambers round ten wide, including the thickness of the walls; the whole, with the porch, 40 cubits by 80 cubits; but the outer court 500 reeds on each of its sides (Ezekiel 42:16), i.e. a square of one mile and one seventh, considerably more than the area of the old Jerusalem, temple included. The spiritual lesson is, the church of God, the temple of the Holy Spirit, hereafter to be manifested on earth, shall be on a scale far surpassing its present dimensions; then first shall Jehovah be worshipped by the whole congregation of the earth, led by Israel the leader of the grand choir. The temple of Herod had an outer court which with porticoes, measuring 400 cubits every way, was a counterpart on a smaller scale to the outer court of Ezekiel's temple and had nothing corresponding in Solomon's temple or Zerubbabel's. No ark is in it, for Jehovah the ark's Antitype shall supersede it (Jeremiah 3:16-17; Malachi 3:1).
The temple interior waits for His entrance to fill it with His glory (Ezekiel 43:1-12). No space shall be within its precincts which is not consecrated; whereas in the old temple there was a greater latitude as to the exterior precincts or suburbs (2 Kings 23:11). "A separation" shall exist "between the sanctuary and the profane place"; but no longer the partition wall between Jew and Gentile (Ephesians 2:14; Ezekiel 42:20). The square symbolizes the kingdom that cannot be moved (Daniel 2:44; Hebrews 12:28; Revelation 21:16). The full significance of the language shall not be exhausted in the millennial temple wherein still secular things shall be distinguished from things consecrated, but shall be fully realized in the post-millennial city, wherein no part shall be separated from the rest as "temple," for all shall be holy (Revelation 21:10-12). The fact that the Shekinah glory was not in the second temple whereas it is to return to the future temple proves that Zerubbabel's temple cannot be the temple meant in Ezekiel (compare Ezekiel 43:2-4).
Christ shall return in the same manner as He went up, and to the same place, Mount Olivet on the E. of Jerusalem (Ezekiel 11:23; Zechariah 14:4; Acts 1:9-12). The Jews then will welcome Him with blessings (Luke 13:35); His triumphal entry on the colt was the type (Luke 19:38). As the sacrificial serrate at the tabernacle at Gibeon and the ark service of sacred song for the 30 years of David's reign, before separate (2 Samuel 6:17; 2 Chronicles 1:3-4; called "the tabernacle of David" Amos 9:11-12; Acts 15:16; 1 Chronicles 13:3; 1 Chronicles 16:37; 1 Chronicles 16:39), were combined in Solomon's temple, so the priestly intercessory functions of our High priest in heaven and our service of prayer and praise carried on separately on earth, during our Judaeo universal dispensation, shall in the millennial temple at Jerusalem be combined in perfection, namely, Christ's priesthood manifested among men and our service of outward and inward liturgy.
In the final new and heavenly Jerusalem on the regenerated earth, after the millennium, Christ shall give up the mediatorial and sacerdotal kingdom to the Father, because its purpose shall have been fully completed (1 Corinthians 15:24; 1 Corinthians 15:28); so there shall be no temple, "the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb shall be the temple" (Revelation 21:22). Herod's temple (which was essentially the continuation of Zerubbabel's temple: compare Haggai 2:9). (See JERUSALEM.) Josephus gives the ground plan accurately; but the height he exaggerates. As the temple was prostrated by the Roman siege, there was no means of convicting him of error as to elevations. The nave was like Solomon's and still more Zerubbabel's; but surrounded by an inner enclosure, 180 cubits by 240 cubits, with porches and ten magnificent gateways; there was a high wall round the vast square with a colonnade of two rows of marble pillars, forming a flat roofed cloister, and on the S. side three rows, 25 ft. high.
Beyond this was an outer enclosure, 400 cubits or one stadium each way, with porticoes exceeding in splendour all the temples of the ancient world, supporting a carved cedar roof; the pavement was mosaic. Herod sought to rival Solomon, reconcile the Jews to his dynasty as fulfilling Haggai 2:9 that the glory of the latter temple should be greater than that of the former, and so divert them from hopes of a temporal Messianic king (Josephus, Ant. 15:11 section 1,5; 20:9, section 7; B.J. 1:21, section 1): he employed 10,000 skilled workmen, and 1,000 priests acquainted with fine work in wood and stone; in one year and a half the temple was ready for the priests and Levites; in eight the courts were complete; but for the 46 years up to Jesus' ministry (John 2:20) various additions were being made, and only in the time of Agrippa II the works ceased. The temple occupied the highest of terraces rising above one another; it occupied all the area of Solomon's temple with the addition of that of Solomon's palace, and a new part added on by Herod at the S.W. corner by artificial works; Solomon's porch lay along the whole E. side. Gentiles had access to the outer court.
The gates were: on the W. side, one to Zion, two to the suburbs, and one by steps through the valley into the other city. Two subterranean passages on the S. led to the vaults and, water reservoirs of the temple. On the N. one concealed passage led to the castle Antonia, the fortress commanding the temple. The only remains of Herod's temple in situ are the double gates on the S. side at 365 ft. distance from the S.W. angle. They consist of a massive double archway on the level of the ground, opening into a square vestibule 40 ft. each way. In the center of this is a pillar crowned with a Corinthian capital, the acanthus and the waterleaf alternating as in the Athenian temple of the winds, an arrangement never found later than Augustus' time. From the pillar spring four flat segmental arches. From the vestibule a double tunnel 200 ft. long leads to a flight of steps which rise to the surface in the court of the temple just at the gateway of the inner temple which led to the altar; it is the one of the four gateways on the S. side by which anyone arriving from Ophel would enter the inner enclosure.
The gate of the inner temple to which this passage led was called "the water gate": Nehemiah 12:37 (Talmud, Mid. ii. 6). Westward there were four gateways to the outer enclosure of the temple (Josephus, Ant. 15:11, section 5). The most southern (the remains of which Robinson discovered) led over the bridge which joined the stoa basilica of the temple to the royal palace. The second was discovered by Barclay 270 ft. from the S.W. angle, 17 ft. below the level of the S. gate. The third was about 225 ft. from the N.W. angle of the temple area. The fourth led over the causeway still remaining, 600 ft. from the S.W. angle. Previously outward stairs (Nehemiah 12:37; 1 Kings 10:5) led up from the western valley to the temple. Under Herod the causeway and bridge communicated with the upper city, and the two lower entrances led to the lower city, "the city of David."
The stoa basilica or royal porch overhanging the S. wall was the grandest feature of all (Josephus, Ant. 15: 11, section 5), consisting of the three rows of Corinthian columns mentioned above, closed by a fourth row built into the wall on the S. side, but open to the temple inside; the breadth of the center aisle 45 ft., the height 100; the side aisles 30 wide and 50 high; there were 40 pillars in each row, with two odd ones forming a screen at the end of the bridge leading to the palace. A marble screen three cubits high in front of the cloisters bore an inscription forbidding Gentiles to enter (compare Acts 21:28). Ganneau has found a stone near the temple site bearing a Greek inscription: "no stranger must enter within the balustrade round the temple and enclosure, whosoever is caught will be responsible for his own death." (So Josephus, B. J. 5:2, Ant. 15:11, section 5.) Within this screen or enclosure was the flight of steps up to the platform on which the temple stood.
The court of the women was eastward (Josephus, B. J. 5:5, section 3), with the magnificently gilt and carved eastern gate leading into it from the outer court, the same as "the Beautiful gate" (Acts 3:2; Acts 3:11). "Solomon's porch" was within the outer eastern wall of the temple, and is attributed by Josephus (Ant. 15:11, section 3, 20:9, section 7; B.J. 5:5, section 1,3) to Solomon; the Beautiful gate being on the same side, the people flocking to see the cripple healed there naturally ran to "Solomon's porch." Within this gateway was the altar of burnt offering, 50 cubits square and 15 high, with an ascent to it by an inclined plane. On its south side an inclined plane led down to the water gate where was the great, cistern in the rock (Barclay, City of the Great King, 526); supplying the temple at the S.W. angle of the altar was the opening through which the victims' blood flowed W. and S. to the king's garden at Siloam. A parapet one cubit high surrounding the temple and altar separated the people from the officiating priests (Josephus, B.J. 5:5, section 6).
The temple, 20 cubits by 60 cubits, occupied the western part of this whole enclosure. The holiest place was a square cube, 20 cubits each way; the holy place two such cubes; the temple 60 cubits across and 100 E. and W.; the facade by adding its wings was 100, the same as its length E. and W. (Josephus, B. J., 5:5, section 4.) Warren (Athenaeum, No. 2469, p. 265) prefers the Mishna's measurements to Josephus' (Ant. 15:11, section 3), and assumes that the
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Veil of the Temple
Suspended between the holy place and the most holy (Exodus 26:31-33); and rent immediately upon the crucifixion of the Saviour and the consummation of His great sacrifice. There were two veils or curtains in the tabernacle (of which the temple was the continuation), one before the tabernacle door (kalumma ), the second veil before the holy of holies (katapetasma ). Hebrews 9:3; Hebrews 9:7-8; Hebrews 9:11-12; "after (i.e. behind) the second veil, ... the holiest of all." Into this second tabernacle within the veil "the high priest alone went once every year, not without blood which he offered for himself and for the sins of the people; the Holy Spirit this signifying, that the way into the holiest of all was not yet made manifest, while as the first tabernacle was yet standing ... But Christ being come an High Priest of good things to come by a greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands ... by His own blood entered in once into the holy place, having obtained eternal redemption for us."
Therefore significantly "the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom" when Jesus yielded up the ghost (Matthew 27:50-51). "From the top," not from the bottom; for it is God who from above rends the veil of separation between us and Him, and opens heaven to man, as the hymn of Ambrose says, "when Thou hadst overcome the sharpness of death Thou didst open the kingdom of heaven to all believers"; therefore not only ministers but we all alike "have boldness (parresia , literally, freedom of speech, grounded on the consciousness that our sins are forgiven) to enter the holiest by the blood of Jesus, by a new and living way which He hath consecrated for us through the veil, that is to say, His flesh" (Hebrews 10:19-21); rather, "which (entering) He has newly consecrated (enekainisen , 'inaugurated'; it is a new thing, unheard of before) for us as a new (recently opened) and living way" (not the lifeless way of dead sacrificial victims under the law, but the living and lifegiving Saviour being the way).
As the veil had to be passed through to enter the holiest, so the human suffering flesh (Hebrews 5:7) of Christ's manhood which veiled His Godhead had to be passed through by Him in entering the heavenly holiest for us. When He put off His rent flesh, the temple veil, its type, was simultaneously rent. Not His body, but His suffering flesh, was the veil; His body was the "temple" (naos , "the inner shrine," not the temple building in general, hieron ) which men destroyed and He reared up again in three days (John 2:19; John 2:21). No priestly caste therefore now mediates between the sinner and his Judge; the minister is no nearer God than the layman. Neither can serve God at a distance, nor by deputy, as the natural man would wish; each must come for himself, and by union with our one Royal High Priest who, as He never dies, has a priesthood which passeth not from, one to another (margin Hebrews 7:24).
We become virtual "king priests unto (Him who is at once) God and His Father" (Revelation 1:6). C. C. Ganneau, tracing a curious similarity between some customs of ancient Elis in the Peloponnesus and those of the Hebrew, shows that in the Olympian sanctuary there was a great woolen veil of Assyrian workmanship, dyed with Phoenician purple, given by Antiochus; so Josephus (B. J. 5:5, section 4) describes a Babylonian curtain, embroidered with blue and fine linen and scarlet and purple, and of wonderful contexture, as hanging before the golden doors, which were 55 cubits high and 16 broad, and which led into the holy of holies. It symbolized the universe, the scarlet signifying fire, the flax-linen earth, the blue the air, the purple the sea. This veil given to Olympian Zeus at Elis may have been the very veil taken by Antiochus IV (Epiphanes) from the temple of Jehovah (1 Maccabees 1:22-24; Josephus, Ant. 12:5, section 4).
The curtain or veil at the Olympian temple did not rise up but was dropped to the ground, according to Pausanias. So Josephus and the Book of Maccabees call the Jewish veil a drop curtain (katapetasma ). Again, as the spoils of conquered deities were consecrated to the victorious ones, Antiochus naturally hung up Jehovah's veil in the temple of Olympian Zeus; for this was the very god to whom he dedicated the temple at Jerusalem, after defiling and plundering it (2 Maccabees 6:2). Curiously illustrating the similarity above referred to, he notices that the Eleans alone of the Greeks cultivated the byssus or fine flax plant.
They bred no mules (compare Leviticus 19:19). They had a river Jordan near Lepreos, a city implying the leprosy prevalent among its people. Ashes of victims were suffered to accumulate (bomoi ), and were held sacred (Leviticus 1:16; Leviticus 4:12; 1 Kings 13:3). The women of Elis were forbidden to penetrate the sanctuary of Olympian Zeus; so the Hebrew women could not pass the court of women. They used to mourn round the empty tomb of Achilles (compare Ezekiel 8:14). They used to weave a peplos for Hera (compare Ezekiel 16:16; 2 Kings 23:7). Their Zeus Apomuios answers to Baalzebub, "god of flies" (2 Kings 1:3; 2 Kings 1:16). (Palestine Exploration Quarterly Statement, April 1878, p. 79).
Holman Bible Dictionary - Captain of the Temple
The officer second in authority only to the high priest. Pashhur (“chief governor in the house of the Lord,” Jeremiah 20:1 ) and Seraiah (“ruler of the house of God,” Nehemiah 11:11 ) held this office in the Old Testament times. In Acts it appears that one of the main functions of this officer was to keep order in the Temple (Acts 4:1 ; Acts 5:24 ,Acts 5:24,5:26 ). The plural (Luke 22:4 ,Luke 22:4,22:52 ) may refer to officers under the command of the captain of the Temple.
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Temple
While the temple certainly has a history and integrity of its own, it was created by extension of the tabernacle and is associated with such diverse topics as a mountain and a city, the cosmos and a person's body, and God's glory and name. The biblical authors from Moses through Ezekiel and Haggai to John of Patmos never describe a complete temple, but offer a vision of what the temple was to be: the locus of the presence of God.
Offering a vision rather than a blueprint for the temple is in keeping with the inherent ambiguity of the concept "temple of the Lord, " for how can the transcendent deity be localized in a building? The vision is also in keeping with the function of temple as a symbol. The temple is indeterminate literally and figuratively.
The Preexistence of the Temple . The foundation for temple is laid in the Pentateuch. Already in the patriarchs we find the promise of God's presence: "Do not be afraid, for I am with you, I will bless you" (Genesis 26:24 ). How and where will this presence be mediated?
Although various locales were deemed sacred by virtue of God's presence (Genesis 32:30 ), patriarchal religion did not put much importance on sacred space or the cultic practices that typify Mosaic Yahwism. Nevertheless, in various forms of foreshadowing, we find the usual lines of continuity with later persons, events, institutions, and practices—Scripture's penchant for typology. Thus "Jerusalem, " where centralization of the cult eventually took place, figures prominently in two key texts that address "cultic" issues: in Genesis 22 with the "binding" (sacrifice) of Isaac ("Moriah" cf. 2 Chronicles 3:1 ) and in Genesis 14 with the tithe paid to Melchizedek.
With Mosaic Yahwism a change in perspective and practice occurs. God appears to the newly created covenantal community, a community formed by the exodus and, now at Sinai (which parallels Jerusalem as a place par excellence for "visions" of God), given an identity, including instructions where Yahweh's presencewith the full implication of both blessing and dangerwould be manifest (Exodus 24-26 ; 33:12-17 ).
How would God's presence in the covenant community and ceremony be evident? Inevitably certain symbols were necessary (despite the aniconic nature of Mosaic Yahwism Exodus 20:4 ). The symbols appeal to the senses, but not simply as "visual aids." The ark, cherubim, and the tent of the meeting become the institutional representations of the Lord's presence among his people. Here, in this place , Yahweh appears and makes his will known (Exodus 33:7-11 ).
The tent of the meeting in the Pentateuch, and the priestly tabernacle, is not, however, a projection (or retrojection!) of the temple, but an independent dwelling reflecting the life of Israel prior to settlement and the centralization of worship. The tent is a "portable temple" of sorts, but not provisional nor simply a pattern; rather, the tent is a unique "dwelling."
With the ritual performances in the tabernacle/ temple complex, and the personnel and attendant appurtenances, we come to a theologically significant point about temple practice: coming into the presence of a holy God. In each change of location, vestment, instrument, or ritual act, with their various gradations of importance, the "needs" of the people and the holiness of God come together: I am holy, it is holy, you are (to be) holy.
The extensions and the symbolic associations began early in the canonical literature. As a commentary on the Torah, Deuteronomy expresses the presence of Yahweh in the cult devoid of some simplistic equation of Yahweh's presence constrained by the natural order of cause and effect by utilizing his alter ego, his "name, " as the manifestation of his transcendent reality. Even the ark itself is divested of its throne-like setting by its role as the "container" of the tablets of the law (Deuteronomy 10:1-5 ). Yahweh is not seated on a throne like some dowager duchess.
The paradoxical and symbolic nature of the temple is thus seen as the author(s) construct the parameters of temple theology: the transcendent deity graciously appears before his holy people in the place of his choosing, a dwelling symbolically rich by virtue of its ability to generate varied metaphoric associations (fire, cloud, tent, ark, and most especially "name" in the Pentateuch).
The Construction of the Temple . The construction of the temple began with David to serve as, at least on sociopolitical grounds, a "media event" of divine support and favor. David, however, was deterred from completing the task. No doubt sociopolitical forces played their usual role in this. The biblical authors were not oblivious to these explanations (1 Kings 5:13-18 ), but characteristically pass theological judgment (1 Chronicles 22:8-9 ), or, more important, God himself divulges his feelings on the matter: "Did I ever say Why have you not built me a house of cedar'?" (2 Samuel 7:7 ). God does not require an immutable dwelling, but the metaphoric associations are kept open, even those of monarchal justification (i.e., a "house" like the house in which the monarch resides).
The "cedar house" is ultimately built. And in Solomon's great prayer of dedication the paradox of this dwelling is acknowledged once again by his classic statement: "But will God really dwell on earth? The heavens, even the highest heaven, cannot contain you. How much less this temple I have built!" (1 Kings 8:27 ). The paradox is softened by "quoting" the Deuteronomic "name" formula: "My Name shall be [1]" (v. 29). (This terminology underscores the point that the correspondence between God's presence and his "dwelling"tabernacle or templeis more "textual" than physical.) But what does the Lord think of this structure?
Solomon, like Bezalel before him with the building of the tabernacle, is described as having "wisdom." Unlike Bezalel, however, Solomon sends straightaway for supplies and instructions from Phoenician artisans. Moreover, a labor force is needed to complete the project, a force not unlike what the Israelites experienced in Egypt. Finally, Solomon is portrayed as the central figure in the planning and implementation of the project: "As for this temple that you are building " ( 1 Kings 6:12 ). No editorial judgment from the author is forthcoming from these contrasts, but the reader is left with the impression that Solomon's project is equivocal before God.
The equivocal nature of the project is supported by the Lord's response to it in 1 Kings 9:3-5 . The Lord does hallow the place, but it is still Solomon's doing: "I have consecrated this temple which you have built" (v. 3). A clear stipulation is also attached: "if you walk before me " (v. 4; the sanctity of the place must be preserved, at the very least).
Responses to the Temple . What responses do we find in Scripture to the building of the temple beyond those found in the immediate context of it being built?
Rather than "going up" to the mountain of the house of the Lord to hear the word of the Lord, as in the eschatological visions of Isaiah and Micah (4:1-2), the Babylonians "descend" upon the temple to break down its wall and carry off the temple treasures. After centuries of covenant disloyalty, the Lord withdraws his presence from this place ( Ezekiel 10:18 ); in fact, he is driven from the temple because of the abominations of the people (Ezekiel 8:6 ). This destruction could be seen as one of the contingencies of history except for the interpretations put upon it; the theologian of Lamentations states the destruction of the temple in unequivocal terms: "The Lord determined to tear down the wall of the Daughter of Zion" (2:8). The destruction is purposed by God because the people failed to live before him .
Reconstructing the Temple . High on the agenda of the postexilic community was the rebuilding of the temple. Indeed, it was not long before all their troubleswhich were manywere attributed to the disrepair, the virtual absence, of the dwelling of God (Haggai 1:3-9 ). The question must surely be asked: Why? Why, after a stern critique by the prophets, an outmaneuvering in the wisdom tradition, and its abandonment by God and destruction, would the people rebuild this structure?
The most obvious and strongest answer is that the Lord commands its construction (Ezra 1:2 ). But a further answer lies in the theological sophistication of the biblical authors themselves and in the power of this symbol to go beyond mere structure. The means for rebuilding temple theology are present in the preexilic theology itself, the selfsame theology that so thoroughly critiqued an overly literal-minded approach to the presence of God.
The temple was always symbolic, "textual" even before (and as much as) it was physical. To the extent that the metaphoric associations speak to the reality of our experience(s) before God, the symbol retains its power as a symbol . Although Jeremiah held little esteem for the ark/temple, he nevertheless prophesied that God's throne would be Jerusalem itself (3:17), and Torah would be written in their hearts (31:31-34). These extensions of the symbol are developed further in the New Testament (Revelation 21:22-27 : "I did not see a temple in the city, because the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are its temple Nothing impure will ever enter it." ). The relativizing of the temple and moral earnestness that we see in Jeremiah were precisely the points of the Deuteronomic theology that influenced the short-lived reforms of Josiah.
The most extensive view of the new temple comes from Ezekiel. The construction of the temple is once again more ideal than real. In Ezekiel's new temple a remarkable event takes place: water flows from the temple (in Jerusalem) with such abundance that it calls to mind the rivers of paradise (see also Psalm 46:4 ; Revelation 21:6 ).
The Songs of Zion in the Psalter are particularly rich in their celebration of the temple. With all their "sensuality"the reader is instructed to "behold" the beauty of the temple; walk about it; clap and shout; smell; bow down; and other sense-oriented activitiesthe Songs show that one is not to ponder the temple simply as a theological abstraction. The one who enters the temple not only receives spiritual blessings but material ones as well (Psalm 36:7-9 ).
While we do not find much by way of extensions of this symbol, its paradoxical and metaphoric nature are everywhere testified to in what takes place in the life of the communicant. The most powerful statement of this sort comes in Psalm 73 , where the psalmist cries out because his inherited beliefs are at odds with his personal experiences. Everything is "oppressive" (v. 16). "Till I entered the sanctuary of God " and what unfolds is a transformation of his character and his understanding of God. What happens in the sanctuary? It is, as it should be, unspecified. We are simply told at the end of the psalm that "as for me, it is good to be near God I will tell of all your deeds."
In sum, by building the temple and by extending the metaphoric associations with temple, a continuity between the pre- and postexilic community was established (Ezra 1:7 ; Haggai 2:9 ). For all the critique of the temple, in the final analysis, Yahweh takes pleasure in this place and it is a source of delight for those who assemble there (Psalm 43:3-4 ; 65:4 ; 84:1 ).
Jesus, Paul, and Judaism . In Judaism the temple was the religious, cultural, and national center; indeed, the temple was a microcosm of the universe. The power of the temple as a symbol is especially seen in its ability to continue long after the temple building itself was destroyed in a.d. 70.
According to the Gospels, Jesus participated fully in the practices and ethos of the temple. Jesus' birth was announced in the temple (Luke 1:17 ; 2:27-32 ), where he was also circumcised and studied with the rabbis as a lad (Luke 2:46 ). Later, of course, Jesus taught in the temple himself (John 7:14 ). It is not without significance that while Jesus is teaching in the temple precincts, he says, "If anyone is thirsty, let him come to me" (John 7:37 ), and the next day offers forgiveness to the woman taken in adultery (John 8:1-11 ). Blessing and forgiveness, priestly functions, are pronounced by Jesus in the shadow of the temple.
Jesus is not only a communicant and priest of sorts; he is also a prophet. Thus, when the temple practices are compromised, Jesus assails those who jeopardize the sanctity of the temple: "My house will be called a house of prayer But you have made it a den of robbers" (Mark 11:17 ). They were not living before God . Jesus, while teaching in its precincts, preserves the sanctity of the temple by his ethical admonitions. Even the forgiven woman is told to sin no more (John 8:11 ; see also John 4:23 ).
In the cleansing of the temple we also find a development and extension of the metaphoric associations of temple. Jesus employs a wordplay equivocating on the term "body" to break the parochial thinking of his audience (John 2:19 ). John characteristically points out the error of their literal-mindedness: "But the temple he had spoken of was his body" (John 2:21 ). Thus, in Jesus' acts and words we see the temple once again as a place of holiness, of danger (words of judgment; Jesus's own death) as well as blessing, and further extensions of the symbol are generated.
Paul also makes the correspondence between the temple and body: "Do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit?" (1 Corinthians 6:19 ; see also Romans 12:1-2 ). Of course, the believer can be called the temple of God only because Christ himself is the temple and the believer participates in Christ ( 1 Corinthians 3:9-17 ). The believer, like Paul himself, must be (cultically) pure in order to live in God's presence (2 Corinthians 2:17 ). If God can dwell in a holy place , by extension, he could dwell in a holy person!
After the destruction of the temple in a.d. 70, temple theology loses none of its living and healing power since the temple was always "beyond" its physical presence. A theology of temple answers the problem of how God's presence is mediated. Specifically, temple theology recognizes the importance of "sacred space." Its analogue is sacred timeSabbath, festivals, and appointed times of prayer. Humankind is oriented in time and space, thus Sabbath and temple testify to "eternity" beyond the confines of our usual orientation. Sabbath and temple redeem time and space.
Temple theology shows a high degree of theological sophisticationholding ambivalent attitudes/doctrines in tension, part of the mystery of faith, of paradox. Temple theology is most fruitful when it is functioning as a powerful symbol, with the ability to be fully grounded in (sacred) space and yet generate new metaphoric associationsa vision of life in the presence of the Lord. Even though the temple is both protological and eschatological, it is always grounded in the realities of our lives: it is a mere edifice, yet, Behold! Thy God.
Anthony J. Petrotta
See also Altar ; Israel ; Offerings and Sacrifices ; Priest, Priesthood ; Tabernacle
Bibliography . B. Childs, Old Testament Theology in a Canonical Context ; R. E. Clements, God and Temple ; idem, Wisdom for a Changing World ; R. H. Gundry, Somain Biblical Theology ; M. Haran, Temples and Temple Service in Ancient Israel ; A. J. Heschel, Quest for God ; A. F. Kirkpatrick, The Book of Psalms ; M. E. Isaacs, An Approach to the Theology of the Epistle to the Hebrews ; G. Josipovici, The Book of God ; K. Koch, The Prophets: The Assyrian Period ; C. Koester, The Dwelling of God ; H. J. Kraus, The Theology of the Psalms ; J. D. Levenson, Sinai and Zion ; J. G. McConville, Law and Theology in Deuteronomy ; W. McKane, ZAW 94 (1982): 251-66; D. H. Madvig, NIDNTT, 3; R. Mason, Preaching the Tradition ; C. Meyers, Ancient Israelite Religion ; R. W. L. Moberly, The Old Testament of the Old Testament ; J. Neusner, Wrong Ways and Right Ways in the Study of Formative Judaism ; W. Nowottny, The Language Poets Use ; D. A. Renwick, Paul, the Temple, and the Presence of God ; J. Z. Smith, To Take Place ; W. R. Smith, The Prophets of Israel and Their Place in History ; idem, The Religion of the Semites ; J. Soskice, Metaphor and Religious Language ; N. T. Wright, The New Testament and the People of God .
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Altars in the Temple of Jerusalem
The altar of holocaust was located in front of the Temple proper and the altar of incense stood in the Holy Place before the veil covering the door to the Holy of Holies. The ordinances regarding the former are contained in Exodus 20, and Deuteronomy 17. Solomon's altar was similar in form to that of the Tabernacle, but larger, measuring 20 cubits in length and width and 10 in height, and constructed of unhewn stone and earth covered with plates of brass, hence called "brazen altar." Destroyed with the Temple by Nabuchodonosor, 586 B.C., it was the first thing rebuilt by the returned exiles, 537. Antiochus Epiphanes desecrated this second altar, 168, and on that account it was completely removed by Judas Machabeus, 165, and a new one was erected which apparently remained until the destruction of Herod's Temple by the Romans 70 A.D. The altar of incense in Solomon's Temple was of the same dimensions as that of the Tabernacle and made of cedar wood overlaid with gold, hence called "golden altar." Its history repeats that of the altar of holocaust. Near this altar took place the annunciation to Zachary of the birth of John the Baptist (Luke 1).
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Temple
This word in Scripture, though generally made use of to express one and the same thing, namely, the house of God, hath various references in relation to the divine glory. There was no building in the church of God called the temple, until the one built by Solomon. Before those days the house appropriated for the worship of the Lord was called the tabernacle, or sanctuary. But when the Lord bad instructed his people by his servant Nathan the prophet, (see 2 Samuel 7:1-29) concerning the temple, we find Solomon, by the Lord's appointment, building this first temple on Mount Moriah. And independent of every other consideration, how blessedly did the very spot typify Christ, the true temple for the glory of JEHOVAH to be manifested in. This temple was begun somewhat about a thousand years before Christ, and took nine years in building. The desolation of Jerusalem by the king of Babylon at the captivity, brought on the desolation also of the temple, until it was totally destroyed in the eleventh year of Zedikiah, after it had stood amidst many ravages and injuries, from the plunder of the enemies of Israel, somewhat more than four hundred years.
During the captivity of Babylon the temple remained in ruins; but in the first year of Cyrus at Babylon, the Jews were permitted to return to Jerusalem, and to rebuild the temple of the Lord. And amidst much persecution and many interruptions, the people accomplished the purpose, and the second temple was completed at a period of somewhat more than five hundred years before the coming of Christ. I refer the reader to the prophecies of Haggai and Zechariah, and to the books of Ezra and Nehemiah, for the Scriptural account of this great event.
This second temple continued until the manifestation of the Lord Jesus Christ in substance of our flesh, thereby confirming and fulfilling the prophecy of Haggai 2:9 "The glory of this latter house shall be greater than of the former, saith the Lord of hosts." And this was literally the case from the presence of Jesus, notwithstanding it had none of the five signs which Solomon's temple had, namely—1. The Urim and Thummim; 2. the ark of the covenant; 3. the fire upon the altar, which never went out; 4. the Shechinah, or manifestation of the Lord's presence: 5. the spirit of prophecy. When Jesus entered the temple, his presence became the sum and substance which all these signs did but faintly resemble and minister unto; and therefore confirmed JEHOVAH'S promise of the greater glory of the second, than of the first temple.
But the great object, the temple itself in both, and indeed in all other instances represented, was the person of Christ in his human nature; "for in him dwelleth all the fulness of the GODHEAD bodily." (Colossians 2:9) Hence, therefore, as in the tabernacle in the wilderness, and in the temple at Jerusalem, the glory of the Lord was graciously manifested to the people to intimate the divine presence, so in the person of Christ Jesus, all that is visible it JEHOVAH did appear. See those sweet Scriptures in confirmation. (John 2:19-21; Ephesians 2:20-22) See Tabernacle.
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Pinnacle of the Temple
We are told that here it was, on the pinnacle of the temple, the devil, in his temptations of Christ, set the Redeemer. (Matthew 4:5) An ordinary reader might from here be led to conclude, that if the pinnacle of the temple was like the present towers of our churches, it was hardly possible to have stood upon them. But he should be told that the pinnacles were on square roofs, like terrace walks, with galleries, so that they formed a platform to walk upon. One of the Jewish historians relates, that the roof of the temple had spikes of gold on it, to hinder the birds from resting there, that they might not defile it. The pinnacle of the temple, therefore, though high and elevated, yet formed a sufficient spot for walking upon. Probably here, like the galleries the church speaks of persons retired for conversation. See Gallery and Gallaries
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Captain of the Temple
(Acts 4:1; Acts 5:24; Acts 5:26, ὁ στρατηγὸς τοῦ ἱεροῦ)
This is St. Luke’s name for the commander of the Levitical guard who kept order in the Temple precincts and guarded the house. He was not a civil officer, but a priest; and his duty, besides keeping the peace, was to make his rounds by night, visit all the gates, and see that the sentries were awake. The office appears in Nehemiah 11:11, Jeremiah 20:1, etc. In 2 Maccabees 3:4 he is called προστάτης τοῦ ἱεροῦ, and is said to be of the tribe of Benjamin. If the reading is correct, this would be an irregularity. In the time of Claudius Caesar, one Ananus, the commander of the Temple, was sent in bonds to Rome to answer for his actions in a Jewish-Samaritan tumult (Jos. Ant. xx. vi. 2). For the name cf. also Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) vi. v. 3.
In the NT period, some of the high priests were blamed for nepotism, because, among other things, they made their sons ‘captains of the Temple.’
In Acts 4:1 the captain intervened on the ground that the peace of the Temple was likely to be broken by the preaching of the apostles, who were regarded as unauthorized speakers, and as such were under the ban of Jeremiah 29:26; ‘that there might be an overseer in the house of the Lord for every man who is insane and prophesies, and that thou mightest put him in the stocks and in the block.’
In Acts 5:24; Acts 5:26 the captain of the Temple re-arrested Peter and John, who had escaped from prison the previous night. But clearly he was uncertain of his position, and recognized that popular opinion was on the side of the apostles. It was the policy of the Sadducees to avoid disturbance, and to give no excuse for the intervention of the Roman power. Therefore the arrest was ejected courteously, ‘without violence, for they feared the people lest they should be stoned.’
W. M. Grant.
Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Temple
Psalm 27:4 (a) The presence of GOD is thus described and David wanted to live in that divine presence constantly, as though it were indeed the house of GOD.
Psalm 29:9 (b) Probably David was referring both to the actual house of GOD at Jerusalem and also to the mystical Temple of GOD which is His people. Every child of GOD like every piece of the temple in some way represents the majesty, the glory, the beauty, and the usefulness into which we have been called by His grace. It is interesting to note the typology of the temple, for there is a splendid comparison between parts of the temple, and the individuals in the church of GOD.
John 2:19 (a) The Lord is referring to His own body in which GOD dwelt. (See also Matthew 26:61 and Mark 15:29).
1 Corinthians 3:16 (a) The church is called GOD's temple. It is a collection and an assembly of GOD's people. Therefore, it is the habitation of GOD through the Spirit. In this way it resembling the temple of the Old Testament. (See Ephesians 2:21).
1 Corinthians 6:19 (a) In the previous reference the whole church is compared to the temple, but in this passage the individual believer is compared to the temple. The Holy Spirit dwells in the church as a collection of GOD's people, and also in the individual because he is a child of GOD.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Temple, the
One thing that materially distinguishes the temple from the tabernacle is that God said of it, "Mine eyes and mine heart shall be there perpetually:" it referred to the kingdom and a settled order of things; whereas the tabernacle was typical of God's ways, and gave the idea of movement. And though the actual building was destroyed and rebuilt, and is now swept away, and will again be rebuilt, yet it is treated always as one house. Haggai 2:9 may be translated, as in the LXX, etc., "The latter glory of this house shall be greater than the former, saith the Lord of hosts: and in this place will I give peace, saith the Lord of hosts." When the Lord was on earth, though rejected by the rulers of Israel, He called the temple 'My house,' and 'My Father's house;' but later on He said to the Jews 'your house.' The 'latter glory' refers to the future, when God will be owned by His ancient people, 'and His glory be displayed.
Another thing that distinguished the temple was its being surrounded with chambers, so that the priests that were serving God could dwell around Him. Christ refers possibly to this in saying "In my Father's house are many mansions." The tabernacle had no flooring, the priests trod the earth; but in the temple they were separated from the earth by a flooring.
In the interior of the temple built by Solomon nothing but gold appeared: this is typical of divine righteousness, characterising the throne and presence of God, as will be manifested in the millennium. The ark was placed in the temple, and had found there its abiding resting place: it was the token of God's presence. The candlesticks, tables of showbread, golden altar, brazen altar, and laver (with ten smaller ones in addition, see LAVER), were similar to those in the tabernacle. God owned the house by filling it with His glory.
In the court of the temple were two pillars which received the names of JACHIN, "He will establish;" and BOAZ, "in him is strength," which perfectly agrees with the fact that it was God's house that was being built. 1 Kings 7:21 ; Revelation 3:12 .
Another thing remarkable in the rearing of the temple was that it was built of stones made ready before being brought, so that there should be no noise of hammer, or axe, or iron tool, while it was in progress. 1 Kings 6:7 . Thus the church is being formed of living stones who have come to the Living Stone (the chief corner stone, Christ Himself), and the whole building fitly framed together is growing into a holy temple in the Lord. Ephesians 2:20-22 ; 1 Peter 2:5 .
Of the actual erections there were
1. THE TEMPLE BY SOLOMON. It was formed after the pattern of the tabernacle, being a rectangle of sixty cubits by twenty, and its height thirty cubits: the holy of holies was a cube of twenty cubits; the holy (place) was forty cubits by twenty, with a porch in front of ten cubits by twenty. The chambers and upper chambers and pillars and porches were additional as described. 1 Kings 6 .
2. THE TEMPLE BY ZERUBBABEL. Few particulars of this are given. Cyrus ordered the foundations to be strongly laid, and its height was to be sixty cubits, and its breadth sixty cubits. Ezra 6:3 . Probably it was the same size as the temple by Solomon: the breadth here of sixty cubits being its 'length,' and its width not mentioned; or, if the sixty cubits be the width, it may have included the chambers. It is not probable that it was larger than the first temple. The aged men, who had seen the first house, wept when they saw the foundations of this house laid. This temple continued until the days of Herod.
3. THE TEMPLE BY HEROD. The Jews said it was forty-six years in building. John 2:20 . Josephus gives almost the only account we have of it. It was apparently built over the old one, so as not to hinder the temple service: the priests themselves built the holy places. It was all on a magnificent scale. In the Gospels we read that the disciples exclaimed, "What stones! and what buildings!" and pointed out how it was "adorned with goodly stones and gifts." Herod was not God's man to build Him a house, nor were the leaders of the Jews fit men to carry on His worship. To the disciples the Lord declared that one stone should not be left upon another. Mark 13:1,2 ; Luke 21:5,6 . Though Josephus gives many details as to this temple, they are not distinct enough to enable a plan to be made of it. In the N.T. the word ναός refers to the house itself, and ἱερόν to the buildings and courts in general. Apparently the Lord never entered the house itself. Doubtless this temple stood upon some part of mount Moriah, at the south-east corner of Jerusalem (q.v. ), but on what part of the enclosure is not known.
4. A FUTURE TEMPLE. Scripture speaks in many places of the return of the Jews to their own land, but in unbelief as to the Lord Jesus being their Messiah. They will apparently build a temple, but this must not be confounded with the one described by Ezekiel, though the Jews may attempt to build it as there described. God cannot bless them until His anointed One is owned, and therefore this temple will be destroyed. Psalm 74 ; Isaiah 66:1-6 .
5. EZEKIEL'S TEMPLE. This is fully described in Ezekiel 40 — Ezekiel 44 ; it will be built when the land is once again divided amongst the twelve tribes, and all brought into blessing. In the centre of the land there will be a 'holy oblation' of 25,000 cubits square, which will contain both the city and the temple. That cubits and not reeds are intended, see Ezekiel 45:2,3 . Other passages speak of the temple, Zion, and Jerusalem as associated together, as Psalm 68:29 ; Psalm 122 ; Isaiah 2:2,3 ; Micah 3:12Micah 4:2 . All these, though not exactly on the same spot, will fall within the 'holy oblation,' though the part on which the city will stand is also called 'profane,' or 'common.' Probably the city will be built on its old site, and the temple may be somewhat farther north. Then the latter glory of God's house will exceed all that has yet been, for the Lord Jesus will be the glory of the house.
Christ refers to His body as a temple in John 2:19 , and Christians are now God's temple, in which the Spirit of God dwells. The body of each Christian is also spoken of as a temple of the Holy Ghost. 1 Corinthians 6:19 .
In Revelation 11:19 the temple of God is opened in heaven, in connection with which are the judgements that come forth to smite the earth: Revelation 14:15,17 ; Revelation 15:5-8 ; Revelation 16:1,17 .
Webster's Dictionary - Temple
(1):
(n.) A contrivence used in a loom for keeping the web stretched transversely.
(2):
(n.) A place or edifice dedicated to the worship of some deity; as, the temple of Jupiter at Athens, or of Juggernaut in India.
(3):
(n.) The space, on either side of the head, back of the eye and forehead, above the zygomatic arch and in front of the ear.
(4):
(n.) The edifice erected at Jerusalem for the worship of Jehovah.
(5):
(n.) One of the side bars of a pair of spectacles, jointed to the bows, and passing one on either side of the head to hold the spectacles in place.
(6):
(n.) A building dedicated to the administration of ordinances.
(7):
(n.) A local organization of Odd Fellows.
(8):
(n.) Hence, among Christians, an edifice erected as a place of public worship; a church.
(9):
(n.) Fig.: Any place in which the divine presence specially resides.
(10):
(v. t.) To build a temple for; to appropriate a temple to; as, to temple a god.
Vine's Expository Dictionary of OT Words - Temple
Hêykâl (הֵיכָל, Strong's #1964), “palace; temple.” This word is indirectly derived from the Sumerian egal, “large house, palace,” and more directly from the Akkadian ekallu, “large house.” The influence of the Akkadian ekallu spread to the Northwest Semitic languages. In post-biblical Hebrew the meaning became limited to “temple.” The Hekhal Chlomo (“Temple of Solomon”) in modern Jerusalem signifies the building of Israel’s chief rabbinate, in absence of the temple. The word occurs 78 times from First Samuel to Malachi, most frequently in Ezekiel. The first usage pertains to the tabernacle at Shiloh (1 Sam. 1:9).
The word “palace” in English versions may have one of three Hebrew words behind it: hêykâl, bayit, or ‘armon. The Sumero-Akkadian meaning “palace” for hêykâl is still to be found in biblical Hebrew. The hekal with its 15 usages as “palace” refers to the palaces of Ahab (1 Kings 21:1), of the king of Babylon (2 Kings 20:18), and of Nineveh (Nah. 2:6). The “palace” was luxuriously decorated and the residents enjoyed the fulfillment of their pleasures; cf.: “And the wild beasts of the islands shall cry in their desolate houses, and dragons in their pleasant palaces: and her time is near to come, and her days shall not be prolonged” (Isa. 13:22). The psalmist compared beautiful girls to fine pillars in an ornate “palace”: “… That our sons may be as plants grown up in their youth; that our daughters may be as corner stones, polished after the similitude of a palace” (Ps. 144:12). Amos prophesied that the “songs of the palace” (KJV, “temple”) were to turn to wailing at the destruction of the northern kingdom (Amos 8:3, NASB).
Hêykâl with the meaning “temple” is generally clarified in the context by two markers that follow. The first marker is the addition “of the Lord”: “And when the builders laid the foundation of the temple of the Lord, they set the priests in their apparel with trumpets, and the Levites the sons of Asaph with cymbals, to praise the Lord, after the ordinance of David king of Israel” (Ezra 3:10). The second marker is a form of the word qodesh, “holy”: “O God, the heathen are come into thine inheritance; thy holy temple have they defiled; they have laid Jerusalem on heaps” (Ps. 79:1). Sometimes the definite article suffices to identify the “temple in Jerusalem”: “In the year that King Uzziah died I saw also the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up, and his train filled the temple” (Isa. 6:1), especially in a section dealing with the “temple” (Ezek. 41).
The Old Testament also speaks about the heavenly hêykâl, the hêykâl of God. It is difficult to decide on a translation, whether “palace” or “temple.” Most versions opt in favor of the “temple” idea: “Hear, all ye people; hearken, O earth, and all that therein is: and let the Lord God be witness against you, the Lord from his holy temple” (Mic. 1:2; cf. Ps. 5:7; 11:4; Hab. 2:20). “In my distress I called upon the Lord, and cried to my God: and he did hear my voice out of his temple, and my cry did enter into his ears” (2 Sam. 22:7). However, since Scripture portrays the presence of the royal judgment throne in heaven, it is not altogether impossible that the original authors had a royal “palace” in mind. The imagery of the throne, the “palace,” and judgment seems to lie behind Ps. 11:4-5. “The Lord is in his holy temple, the Lord’s throne is in heaven: his eyes behold, his eyelids try, the children of men. The Lord trieth the righteous: but the wicked and him that loveth violence his soul hateth.”
The Septuagint has the words naos (“temple”) and oikos (“house; palace; dwelling; household”).
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Temple
Temple. A place or building dedicated to religious worship. "God... dwelleth not in temples made with hands." Psalms 128:1-69. The word temple occurs in the A. V. about 200 times, generally referring to the one at Jerusalem. But the temple at Babylon is alluded to, 2 Chronicles 36:7; Ezra 5:14; the temple of Diana at Ephesus, Psalms 127:1-5; the temple of God, 2 Corinthians 6:16, meaning the saints, and the temple in the Holy City—the New Jerusalem. Revelation 21:22. The word specially designated the sanctuary of Jehovah at Jerusalem. There were three successive temples there; 1. Solomon's; 2. Zerubbabel's, known as the Second temple; 3. Herod's temple.
1. Solomon's Temple, was built on Mount Moriah, in the eastern part of Jerusalem, by Solomon, the king, as conceived and planned by his father David. 1 Chronicles 17:1. David gathered the materials and funds to build it—"an hundred thousand talents of gold, and a thousand thousand talents of silver; and of brass and iron without weight." 1 Chronicles 22:14. The silver and gold would be equal to from $2,000,000 to $4,000,000. Besides gold and silver, David collected immense quantities of "brass" (bronze or copper), iron, stone, timber, etc., and he secured skilful mechanics and artificers for every branch of the work. 1 Chronicles 22:1-19; 1 Chronicles 29:4; Acts 21:31-32. He also furnished the design, plan, and location of the building; in all which he was divinely instructed. 1 Chronicles 21:1-30; 1 Chronicles 22:1-19; 1 Chronicles 28:11-19. There were 183,600 Jews and strangers employed on it—of Jews 30,000, by rotation 10,000 a month; of Canaanites, 153,600, of whom 70,000 were "bearers of burdens," 80,000 hewers of wood and stone, and 3600 overseers. The parts were all prepared at a distance from the site of the building, and when they were brought together the whole structure was erected without the sound of hammer, axe, or any tool of iron. 1 Kings 6:7. It required seven and one-half years to complete it in all its splendor, the glory of Jerusalem, and the most magnificent edifice in the world, b.c. 1005. Like the tabernacle, it had its front toward the east. All the arrangements of the temple were identical with those of the tabernacle, and the dimensions of every part exactly double those of the previous structure. It was 70 cubits long and 20 wide, and had in front a porch more than 200 feet high. All around the main structure there were attached to the north and south sides and at the west end certain buildings called side chambers, Psalms 125:1-5 three stories in height, which were much more extensive than the temple itself. The material was white stone: the woodwork of cedar, overlaid with fine gold; the floor of cedar, with planks of fir. 1 Kings 6:15. The holy of holies was a small square chamber, absolutely dark except by the light received through the entrance. In it were two huge golden figures, standing upright on their feet, on each side of the ark, which rested upon a protuberance of rough rock. Above the ark the wings of these cherubim met. The walls of the chambers which ran round the rest of the building were not allowed to lean against the outer walls of this sanctuary. The quarries of Solomon have been discovered under the present city of Jerusalem, near the Damascus gate. They are very extensive. The temple of Solomon stood 424 years; at times was allowed to fall into decay; was plundered by Shishak, king of Egypt, during the reign of Rehoboam. 1 Kings 14:25-26. After this it was frequently profaned and pillaged; was repaired by Joash, 2 Kings 12:5-14, and by Josiah, 2 Chronicles 29:3-9. Its destruction was prophesied by Jeremiah, Jeremiah 7:2; Jeremiah 7:14, and it was at last broken down and destroyed by the king of Babylon, and the nation itself carried Into captivity. 2 Kings 25:8-9; 2 Kings 25:13-17; 2 Chronicles 36:18-19, b.c. 586.
2. The Temple of Zerubbabel.— In b.c. 536 Cyrus the Persian king of Babylon gave permission to the Jews to return. Zerubbabel, as Jewish governor, and Joshua, the high priest, superintended the people in rebuilding the temple. Cyrus permitted and encouraged them to do this work. Ezra 3:8. Owing to the opposition of their enemies, it was not, however, completed for 20 years, b.c. 515. The story of this long struggle and trouble is told in the book of Ezra. This second temple, though inferior in many respects to the first—having no ark, no mercy-seat, no visible revelation of the divine glory, no sacred fire, no Urim and Thummim, and no spirit of prophecy, Ezra 3:12-13—still was in breadth and height, in almost every dimension, one-third larger than Solomon's.
3. Temple of Herod.— The temple of Zerubbabel after nearly 500 years had suffered much from wars, age, and decay, when Herod the Great, to secure the favor of the Jews, undertook to rebuild it. He began the work 20 years before the birth of Christ and completed the main building in one year and a half, and the adjoining buildings in eight years. But the work was not entirely ended till a.d. 64, under Herod Agrippa II. So the statement in John 2:20 is correct. The building stood upon Mount Moriah, in an area which was 500 cubits square. Along the ramparts of the temple hill ran double cloisters or arcades, and there the money changers sat Matthew 21:12. There were several courts about the temple which were upon different levels. The outer court, or court of the Gentiles, came first; then the court of the women, the court of Israel, the court of the priests, and then the temple itself. Between the first two came the "soreg" ("interwoven"), or "middle wall of partition." Ephesians 2:14. It had 13 openings; upon it, at intervals, were stones with Greek inscriptions, threatening death to the Gentile who entered. A stone thus inscribed was discovered lately by an explorer in Palestine. The charge that Paul had brought such a Greek into the enclosure aroused the Jerusalem mob. Acts 21:28. The court of Israel, 10 cubits by 135, was 15 steps higher up, and upon them the 15 Songs of Degrees—Psalms 120:1-7; Psalms 121:1-8; Psalms 122:1-9; Psalms 123:1-4; Psalms 124:1-8; 1 Kings 6:10,; Psalms 126:1-6; Acts 19:27; 1618416331_70; Psalms 129:1-8; Psalms 130:1-8; Psalms 131:1-3; Psalms 132:1-18; Psalms 133:1-3; Psalms 134:1-3, inclusive—were sung. The musical instruments were kept there. It was merely a platform, and had no cloisters or columns. Only men especially purified could enter it. The court of the priests, or sanctuary, 135 by 176 cubits, was 2½ cubits higher than the court of Israel, the wall being 1 cubit high, with 3 steps above it On the wall there was a platform from which the priests blessed the people. The entrance of the temple was 20 cubits wide and 40 high. Over it hung the golden vine, supported, probably, by nails. The temple was of two stories; in the lower there were 38 chambers in three tiers; in the upper, none. The holy house was entered from the porch by a gate 20 cubits high and 10 broad, with double doors, opening out and in; before it hung a veil of equal width with the doors. Before the entrance to the holy of holies hung two veils or two curtains, 1 cubit apart, and, inasmuch as the opening of the outer curtain was upon the north, while the inner was on the south, no glimpse of the holy of holies could be obtained by any one but the high priest. The purification of Mary, Luke 2:22, must have been near the gate Nicanor. The Child Jesus was found amid the doctors of the law in the temple courts. Luke 2:46. The Beautiful Gate, Acts 3:2, was one of the finest entrances to the temple. The castle of Antonia, from which, by a secret passageway, the Roman soldiery could be led down into the temple area to preserve order—as notably to rescue Paul, 1 Chronicles 29:7—was situated upon the northwestern corner of the outer cloister, and had four towers with a large interior space. Jesus foretold the destruction of the third temple: "There shall not be left here one stone upon another, that shall not be thrown down." Matthew 24:2; Mark 13:2; Luke 21:6. This prophecy was made about 30 a.d., and was fulfilled about 40 years afterward, by the Roman soldiers, who set the temple on fire and destroyed it in 70 a.d., although the Roman commander had given strict orders to have it preserved. About three centuries later, the emperor Julian attempted to rebuild it, but was prevented, for the terrific explosions that took place, as the workmen dug down for the foundations, caused them to throw away their implements, and the work was abandoned. See Milman's Hist. Christianity, iii. 27.
Up to quite recent times the Haram—as the enclosure containing the site of the temple is called, and where the mosques of Omar and el-Aksar now stand—was closed to all non-Mohammedans; but the pressure brought to bear after the Crimean war, 1856, was too great, and now travellers find little difficulty in gaining admittance.
The temple was a type of the Christian, for every Christian is a temple of the Holy Ghost. 1 Corinthians 3:16-17; 1 Corinthians 6:19; 2 Corinthians 6:16; 1 Peter 2:5. The temple seen by Ezekiel in vision is very fully described, and is supposed by some to be a figure of the actual temple. See Ezekiel 40:1-49; Ezekiel 41:1-26; Ezekiel 42:1-20; Ezekiel 43:1-27; Ezekiel 44:1-31; Ezekiel 45:1-25; Ezekiel 46:1-24; Ezekiel 47:1-23.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Temple
the house of God; properly the temple of Solomon. David first conceived the design of building a house somewhat worthy of the divine majesty, and opened his mind to the Prophet Nathan, 2 Samuel 7; 1 Chronicles 17; 1 Chronicles 22:8 , &c. God accepted of his good intentions, but refused him the honour. Solomon laid the foundation of the temple, A.M. 2992, completed it in 3000, and dedicated it in 3001, 1 Kings 8:2 ; 2 Chronicles 5; 2 Chronicles 6:7 . According to the opinion of some writers, there were three temples, namely, the first, erected by Solomon; the second, by Zerubbabel, and Joshua the high priest; and the third, by Herod, a few years before the birth of Christ. But this opinion is, very properly, rejected by the Jews; who do not allow the third to be a new temple, but only the second temple repaired and beautified: and this opinion corresponds with the prophecy of Haggai 2:9 , "that the glory of this latter house," the temple built by Zerubbabel, "should be greater than that of the former;" which prediction was tittered with reference to the Messiah's honouring it with his presence and ministry. The first temple is that which usually bears the name of Solomon; the materials for which were provided by David before his death, though the edifice was raised by his son. It stood on Mount Moriah, an eminence of the mountainous ridge in the Scriptures termed Mount Zion, Psalms 132:13-14 , which had been purchased by Araunah, or Ornan, the Jebusite, 2 Samuel 24:23-24 ; 1 Chronicles 21:25 . The plan, and the whole model of this superb structure, were formed after that of the tabernacle, but of much larger dimensions. It was surrounded, except at the front or east end, by three stories of chambers, each five cubits square, which reached to half the height of the temple; and the front was ornamented with a magnificent portico, which rose to the height of one hundred and twenty cubits: so that the form of the whole edifice was not unlike that of some ancient churches, which have a lofty tower in the front, and a low aisle running along each side of the building. The utensils for the sacred service were the same; excepting that several of them, as the altar, candlestick, &c, were larger, in proportion to the more spacious edifice to which they belonged. Seven years and six months were occupied in the erection of the superb and magnificent temple of Solomon, by whom it was dedicated, A.M. 3001, B.C. 999, with peculiar solemnity, to the worship of the Most High; who on this occasion vouchsafed to honour it with the Shechinah, or visible manifestation of his presence. Various attempts have been made to describe the proportions and several parts of this structure; but as scarcely any two writers agree on this subject, a minute description of it is designedly omitted. It retained its pristine splendour only thirty-three or thirty-four years, when Shishak, king of Egypt, took Jerusalem, and carried away the treasures of the temple; and after undergoing subsequent profanations and pillages, this stupendous building was finally plundered and burnt by the Chaldeans under Nebuchadnezzar, A.M. 3416, or B.C. 584, 2 Kings 25:13-15 ; 2 Chronicles 36:17-20 .
After the captivity, the temple emerged from its ruins, being rebuilt by Zerubbabel, but with vastly inferior and diminished glory; as appears from the tears of the aged men who had beheld the former structure in all its grandeur, Ezra 3:12 . The second temple was profaned by order of Antiochus Epiphanes, A.M. 3837, B.C. 163, who caused the daily sacrifices to be discontinued, and erected the image of Jupiter Olympus on the altar of burnt-offering. In this condition it continued three years, l Mac. 4. 42, when Judas Maccabaeus purified and repaired it, and restored the sacrifices and true worship of Jehovah. Some years before the birth of our Saviour, the repairing and beautifying of this second temple, which had become decayed in the lapse of five centuries, was undertaken by Herod the Great, who for nine years employed eighty thousand workmen upon it, and spared no expense to render it equal, if not superior, in magnitude, splendour, and beauty, to any thing among mankind. Josephus calls it a work the most admirable of any that had ever been seen or heard of, both for its curious structure and its magnitude, and also for the vast wealth expended upon it, as well as for the universal reputation of its sanctity. But though Herod accomplished his original design in the time above specified, yet the Jews continued to ornament and enlarge it, expending the sacred treasure in annexing additional buildings to it; so that they might with great propriety assert, that their temple had been forty and six years in building, John 2:20 .
Before we proceed to describe this venerable edifice, it may be proper to remark, that by the temple is to be understood not only the fabric or house itself, which by way of eminence is called the temple, namely, the holy of holies, the sanctuary, and the several courts both of the priests and Israelites, but also all the numerous chambers and rooms which this prodigious edifice comprehended; and each of which had its respective degree of holiness, increasing in proportion to its contiguity to the holy of holies. This remark it will be necessary to bear in mind, lest the reader of Scripture should be led to suppose, that whatever is there said to be transacted in the temple was actually done in the interior of that sacred edifice. To this infinite number of apartments, into which the temple was disposed, our Lord refers, John 14:2 ; and by a very striking and magnificent simile, borrowed from them, he represents those numerous seats and mansions of heavenly bliss which his Father's house contained, and which were prepared for the everlasting abode of the righteous. The imagery is singularly beautiful and happy, when considered as an allusion to the temple, which our Lord not unfrequently called his Father's house.
The second temple, originally built by Zerubbabel after the captivity, and repaired by Herod, differed in several respects from that erected by Solomon, although they agreed in others.
The temple erected by Solomon was more splendid and magnificent than the second temple, which was deficient in five remarkable things that constituted the chief glory of the first: these were, the ark and the mercy seat: the shechinah, or manifestation of the divine presence, in the holy of holies; the sacred fire on the altar, which had been first kindled from heaven; the urim and thummim; and the spirit of prophecy. But the second temple surpassed the first in glory; being honoured by the frequent presence of our divine Saviour, agreeably to the prediction of Haggai 2:9 . Both, however, were erected upon the same site, a very hard rock, encompassed by a very frightful precipice; and the foundation was laid with incredible expense and labour. The superstructure was not inferior to this great work: the height of the temple wall, especially on the south side, was stupendous. In the lowest places it was three hundred cubits, or four hundred and fifty feet, and in some places even greater. This most magnificent pile was constructed with hard white stones of prodigious magnitude. The temple itself, strictly so called, which comprised the portico, the sanctuary, and the holy of holies formed only a small part of the sacred edifice on Mount Moriah, being surrounded by spacious courts, making a square of half a mile in circumference. It was entered through nine gates, which were on every side thickly coated with gold and silver; but there was one gate without the holy house, which was of Corinthian brass, the most precious metal in ancient times, and which far surpassed the others in beauty. For while these were of equal magnitude, the gate composed of Corinthian brass was much larger; its height being fifty cubits, and its doors forty cubits, and its ornaments both of gold and silver being far more costly and massive. This is supposed to have been the "gate called Beautiful" in Acts 3:2 , where Peter and John, in the name of Christ, healed a man who had been lame from his birth. The first or outer court, which encompassed the holy house and the other courts, was named the court of the Gentiles; because the latter were allowed to enter into it, but were prohibited from advancing farther. It was surrounded by a range of porticoes, or cloisters, above which were galleries, or apartments, supported by pillars of white marble, each consisting of a single piece, and twenty-five cubits in height. One of these was called Solomon's porch, or piazza, because it stood on a vast terrace, which he had originally raised from a valley beneath, four hundred cubits high, in order to enlarge the area on the top of the mountain, and make it equal to the plan of his intended building; and as this terrace was the only work of Solomon that remained in the second temple, the piazza which stood upon it retained the name of that prince. Here it was that our Lord was walking at the feast of dedication, John 10:23 ; and that the lame man, when healed by Peter and John, glorified God before all the people, Acts 3:11 . This superb portico is termed the royal portico by Josephus, who represents it as the noblest work beneath the sun, being elevated to such a prodigious height, that no one could look down from its flat roof to the valley below, without being seized with dizziness; the sight not reaching to such an immeasurable depth. The south-east corner of the roof of this portico, where the height was the greatest, is supposed to have been the πτερυγιον , pinnacle, or extreme angle, whence Satan tempted our Saviour to precipitate himself, Matthew 4:5 ; Luke 4:9 . This also was the spot where it was predicted that the abomination of desolation, or the Roman ensigns, should stand, Daniel 9:27 ; Matthew 24:15 . Solomon's portico was situated in the eastern front of the temple, opposite to the mount of Olives, where our Saviour is said to have sat when his disciples came to show him the grandeur of its various buildings, of which, grand as they were, he said, the time was approaching when one stone should not be left upon another, Matthew 24:1-3 . This outer court being assigned to the Gentile proselytes, the Jews, who did not worship in it themselves, conceived that it might lawfully be put to profane uses: for here we find that the buyers and sellers of animals for sacrifices, and also the money-changers, had stationed themselves; until Jesus Christ, awing them into submission by the grandeur and dignity of his person and behaviour, expelled them; telling them that it was the house of prayer for all nations, and was not to be profaned, Matthew 21:12-13 ; Mark 11:15-17 . Within the court of the Gentiles stood the court of the Israelites, divided into two parts, or courts; the outer one being appropriated to the women, and the inner one to the men. The court of the women was separated from that of the Gentiles by a low stone wall, or partition, of elegant construction, on which stood pillars at equal distances, with inscriptions in Greek and Latin, importing that no alien should enter into the holy place. To this wall St.
Paul most evidently alludes in Ephesians 2:13-14 : "But now in Christ Jesus, ye, who sometimes were far off, are made nigh by the blood of Christ: for he is our peace, who hath made both one, (united both Jews and Gentiles into one church,) and hath broken down the middle wall of partition between us;" having abolished the law of ordinances, by which, as by the wall of separation, both Jews and Gentiles were not only kept asunder, but also at variance. In this court was the treasury, over against which Christ sat, and beheld how the people threw their voluntary offerings into it, for furnishing the victims and other things necessary for the sacrifices, Mark 12:41 ; John 8:20 . From the court of the women, which was on higher ground than that of the Gentiles, there was an ascent of fifteen steps into the inner or men's court: and so called because it was appropriated to the worship of the male Israelites. In these two courts, collectively termed the court of the Israelites, were the people praying, each apart by himself, for the pardon of his sins, while Zacharias was offering incense within the sanctuary, Luke 1:10 . Within the court of the Israelites was that of the priests, which was separated from it by a low wall, one cubit in height. This enclosure surrounded the altar of burnt- offerings, and to it the people brought their oblations and sacrifices; but the priests alone were permitted to enter it. From this court twelve steps ascended to the temple, strictly so called; which was divided into three parts, the portico, the outer sanctuary, and the holy place. In the portico was suspended the splendid votive offerings made by the piety of various individuals. Among other treasures, there was a golden table given by Pompey, and several golden vines of exquisite workmanship, as well as of immense size; for Josephus relates, that there were clusters as tall as a man. And he adds, that all around were fixed up and displayed the spoils and trophies taken by Herod from the barbarians and Arabians. These votive offerings, it should seem, were visible at a distance; for when Jesus Christ was sitting on the mount of Olives, and his disciples called his attention to the temple, they pointed out to him the gifts with which it was adorned, Luke 21:5 . This porch had a very large portal or gate, which, instead of folding doors, was furnished with a costly Babylonian veil, of many colours, that mystically denoted the universe. From this the sanctuary, or holy place, was separated from the holy of holies by a double veil, which is supposed to have been the veil that was rent in twain at our Saviour's crucifixion; thus emblematically pointing out that the separation between Jews and Gentiles was abolished; and that the privilege of the high priest was communicated to all mankind, who might henceforth have access to the throne of grace through the one great Mediator, Jesus Christ, Hebrews 10:19-22 . The holy of holies was twenty cubits square: into it no person was admitted but the high priest, who entered it once a year on the great day of atonement, Exodus 30:10 ; Leviticus 16:2 ; Leviticus 16:15 ; Leviticus 16:34 ; Hebrews 9:2-7 .
Magnificent as the rest of the sacred edifice was, it was infinitely surpassed in splendour by the inner temple, or sanctuary. Its appearance, according to Josephus, had every thing that could strike the mind, or astonish the sight: for it was covered on every side with plates of gold; so that when the sun rose upon it, it reflected so strong and dazzling an effulgence, that the eye of the spectator was obliged to turn away, being no more able to sustain its radiance than the splendour of the sun. To strangers who were approaching: it appeared at a distance like a mountain covered with snow; for where it was not decorated with plates of gold, it was extremely white and glistening. On the top it had sharp-pointed spikes of gold, to prevent any bird from resting upon it and polluting it. There were, continues the Jewish historian, in that building, several stones which were forty-five cubits in length, five in height, and six in breadth. "When all these things are considered," says Harwood, "how natural is the exclamation of the disciples, when viewing this immense building at a distance: ‘Master, see what manner of stones' (ποταποι λιθοι , ‘what very large ones') ‘and what buildings are here!' Mark 13:1 : and how wonderful is the declaration of our Lord upon this, how unlikely to be accomplished before the race of men who were then living should cease to exist! ‘Seest thou these great buildings? There shall not be left one stone upon another that shall not be thrown down.' Improbable as this prediction must have appeared to the disciples at that time, in the short space of about thirty years after it was exactly accomplished; and this most magnificent temple, which the Jews had literally turned into a den of thieves, through the righteous judgment of God upon that wicked and abandoned nation, was utterly destroyed by the Romans A.D. 70, or 73 of the vulgar era, on the same month, and on the same day of the month, when Solomon's temple had been razed to the ground by the Babylonians!"
Both the first and second temples were contemplated by the Jews with the highest reverence. Of their affectionate regard for the first temple, and for Jerusalem, within whose walls it was built, we have several instances in those Psalms which were composed during the Babylonish captivity; and of their profound veneration for the second temple we have repeated examples in the New Testament. They could not bear any disrespectful or dishonourable thing to be said of it. The least injurious slight of it, real or apprehended, instantly awakened all the choler of a Jew, and was an affront never to be forgiven. Our Saviour, in the course of his public instructions, having said, "Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up again,"
John 2:19 , it was construed into a contemptuous disrespect, designedly thrown out against the temple; his words instantly descended into the heart of the Jews, and kept rankling there for some years; for, upon his trial, this declaration, which it was impossible for a Jew ever to forget or to forgive, was immediately alleged against him, as big with the most atrocious guilt and impiety; they told the court they had heard him publicly assert, "I am able to destroy this temple," Matthew 26:61 . The rancour and virulence they had conceived against him for this speech, was not softened by all the affecting circumstances of that wretched death they saw him die; even as he hung upon the cross, with triumph, scorn, and exultation, they upbraided him with it, contemptuously shaking their heads, and saying, "Thou that destroyest the temple, and buildest it in three days, save thyself! If thou be the Son of God, come down from the cross!" Matthew 27:40 . It only remains to add, that it appears, from several passages of Scripture, that the Jews had a body of soldiers who guarded the temple, to prevent any disturbances during the ministration of such an immense number of priests and Levites. To this guard Pilate referred, when he said to the chief priests and Pharisees who waited upon him to desire he would make the sepulchre secure, "Ye have a watch, go your way, and make it as secure as ye can," Matthew 27:65 . Over these guards one person had the supreme command, who in several places is called the captain of the temple, or officer of the temple guard. "And as they spake unto the people, the priests and the captain of the temple and the Sadducees came upon them," Acts 4:1 ; Acts 5:25-26 ; John 18:12 . Josephus mentions such an officer.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Porters of the Temple
The Levites discharged the office of porters of the temple both day and night, and had the care both of the treasure and offerings. The office of porter was in some sort military; properly speaking, they were the soldiers of the Lord, and the guards of his house, to whose charge the several gates of the courts of the sanctuary were appointed by lot, 1 Chronicles 26:1 ; 1 Chronicles 26:13 ; 1 Chronicles 26:19 . "They waited at every gate; and were not permitted to depart from their service," 2 Chronicles 35:15 ; and they attended by turns in their courses, as the other Levites did, 2 Chronicles 8:14 . Their proper business was to open and shut the gates, and to attend at them by day, as a sort of peace officers, in order to prevent any tumult among the people; to keep strangers and the excommunicated and unclean persons, from entering into the holy court; and, in short, to prevent whatever might be prejudicial to the safety, peace, and purity of the holy place and service. They also kept guard by night about the temple and its courts; and they are said to have been twenty-four, including three priests, who stood sentry at so many different places. There was a superior officer over the whole guard, called by Maimonides, "the man of the mountain of the house;" he walked the round as often as he pleased; when he passed a sentinel that was standing, he said, "Peace be unto you;" but if he found one asleep, he struck him, and he had liberty to set fire to his garment. This custom may, perhaps, be alluded to in the following passage: "Behold, I come as a thief," that is, unawares; "blessed is he that watcheth and keepeth his garments," Revelation 16:15 . Psalms 134, seems to be addressed to these watchmen of the temple, "who by night stand in the house of the Lord;" in which they are exhorted to employ their waking hours in acts of praise and devotion.
Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words - Temple Keeper
: (Strong's # — — — ) Acts 19:35 , RV, and AV marg., "temple keeper" (AV, "worshiper"), is used in profane Greek of "one who has charge of a temple." Coin inscriptions show that it was an honorary title given to certain cities, especially in Asia Minor, where the cult of some god or of a deified human potentate had been established, here to Ephesus in respect of the goddess Artemis. Apparently the imperial cult also existed at Ephesus. Josephus applies the word to Jews as worshipers, but this is not the meaning in Acts 19 .
Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words - Temple
1: ἱερόν (Strong's #2411 — Noun Neuter — hieron — hee-er-on' ) the neuter of the adjective hieros, "sacred," is used as a noun denoting "a sacred place, a temple," that of Artemis (Diana), Acts 19:27 ; that in Jerusalem, Mark 11:11 , signifying the entire building with its precincts, or some part thereof, as distinct from the naos, "the inner sanctuary" (see No. 2); apart from the Gospels and Acts, it is mentioned only in 1 Corinthians 9:13 . Christ taught in one of the courts, to which all the people had access. Hieron is never used figuratively. The Temple mentioned in the Gospels and Acts was begun by Herod in 20 B.C., and destroyed by the Romans in A.D. 70.
2: ναός (Strong's #3485 — Noun Masculine — naos — nah-os' ) "a shrine or sanctuary," was used (a) among the heathen, to denote the shrine containing the idol, Acts 17:24 ; 19:24 (in the latter, miniatures); (b) among the Jews, the sanctuary in the "Temple," into which only the priests could lawfully enter, e.g., Luke 1:9,21,22 ; Christ, as being of the tribe of Judah, and thus not being a priest while upon the earth (Hebrews 7:13,14 ; 8:4 ), did not enter the naos; for 2 Thessalonians 2:4 see Note (below); (c) by Christ metaphorically, of His own physical body, John 2:19,21 ; (d) in apostolic teaching, metaphorically, (1) of the Church, the mystical Body of Christ, Ephesians 2:21 ; (2) of a local church, 1 Corinthians 3:16,17 ; 2 Corinthians 6:16 ; (3) of the present body of the individual believer, 1 Corinthians 6:19 ; (4) of the "Temple" seen in visions in the Apocalypse, Revelation 3:12 ; 7:15 ; 11:19 ; 14:15,17 ; 15:5,6,8 ; 16:1,17 ; (5) of the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb, as the "Temple" of the new and heavenly Jerusalem, Revelation 21:22 . See SANCTUARY and HOLY, B (b), par. 4.
Notes: (1) The "temple" mentioned in 2 Thessalonians 2:4 (naos), as the seat of the Man of Sin, has been regarded in different ways. The weight of Scripture evidence is in favor of the view that it refers to a literal "temple" in Jerusalem, to be reconstructed in the future (cp. Daniel 11:31 ; 12:11 , with Matthew 24:15 ). For a fuller examination of the passage, see Notes on Thessalonians, by Hogg and Vine, pp. 250-252. (2) For oikos, rendered "temple," Luke 11:51 , AV, see HOUSE , No. 1.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Temple
A building hallowed by the special presence of God, and consecrated to his worship. The distinctive idea of a temple, contrasted with all other buildings, is that it is the dwelling-place of a deity; and every heathen temple had its idol, but the true and living God dwelt "between the cherubim" in the Holy of Holies at Jerusalem. Hence, figuratively applied, a temple denotes the church of Christ, 2 Thessalonians 2:4 Revelation 3:12 ; heaven, Psalm 11:4 Revelation 7:15 ; and the soul of the believer, in which the Holy Spirit dwells, 1 Corinthians 3:16,17 6:19 2 Corinthians 6:16 .
After the Lord had instructed David that Jerusalem was the place he had chosen in which to fix his dwelling, that pious prince began to realize his design of preparing a temple for the Lord that might be something appropriate to His divine majesty. But the honor was reserved for Solomon his son and successor, who was to be a peaceful prince, and like David, who had shed much blood in war. David, however, applied himself to collect great quantities of gold, silver, brass, iron, and other materials for this undertaking, 2 Samuel 1:1-25 7:1-29 1 Chronicles 22:1-19 .
The place chosen for erecting this magnificent structure was Mount Moriah, Genesis 2:2,14 2 Chronicles 3:1 , the summit of which originally was unequal, and its sides irregular; but it was a favorite object of the Jews to level and extend it. The plan and the whole model of this structure was laid by the same divine architect as that of the tabernacle, namely, God himself; and it was built much in the same form as the tabernacle, but was of much larger dimensions. The utensils for the sacred service were also the same as those used in the tabernacle, only several of them were larger, in proportion to the more spacious edifice to which they belonged. The foundations of this magnificent edifice were laid by Solomon, in the year B. C. 1011, about four hundred and eighty years after the exodus and the building of the tabernacle; and it was finished B. C. 1004, having occupied seven years and six months in the building. It was dedicated with peculiar solemnity to the worship of Jehovah, who condescended to make it the place for the special manifestation of his glory, 2 Chronicles 5:1-7:22 . The front or entrance to the temple was on the eastern side, and consequently facing the Mount of Olives, which commanded a noble prospect of the building. The temple itself, strictly so called, which comprised the Porch, the Sanctuary, and the Holy of Holies, formed only a small part of the sacred precincts, being surrounded by spacious courts, chambers, and other apartments, which were much more extensive than the temple itself. It should be observed that the word temple does not always denote the central edifice itself, but in many passages some of the outer courts are intended.
From the descriptions which are handed down to us of the temple of Solomon, it is utterly impossible to obtain so accurate an idea of its relative parts and their respective proportions, as to furnish such an account as may be deemed satisfactory to the reader. Hence we find no two writers agreeing in their descriptions. The following account may give a general idea of the building.
The Temple itself was seventy cubits long; the Porch being ten cubits, 1 Kings 6:3 , the Holy place forty cubits, 1 Kings 6:17 , and the Most Holy place, twenty cubits, 2 Chronicles 3:8 . The width of the Porch, Holy, and Most Holy places was thirty cubits, 1 Kings 6:2 ; but the height of the porch was much greater, being no less than one hundred and twenty cubits, 2 Chronicles 3:4 , or four times the height of the rest of the building. The Most Holy place was separated from the Sanctuary by an impervious veil, Luke 23:45 , and was perhaps wholly dark, 1 Kings 8:12 , but for the glory of the Lord which filled it. To the north and south sides, and the west end of the Holy and Most Holy places, or all around the edifice, from the back of the porch on one side, to the back of the porch on the other side, certain buildings were attached. These were called side chambers, and consisted of three stories, each five cubits high, 1 Kings 6:10 , and joined to the wall of the temple without. Thus the three stories of side chambers, when taken together, were fifteen cubits high, and consequently reached exactly to half the height of the side walls and end of the temple; so that there was abundance of space above these for the windows which gave light to the temple, 1 Kings 6:4 .
Solomon's temple appears to have been surrounded by two main courts: the inner court, that "of the Priests," 1 Kings 6:36 2 Chronicles 4:9 ; and the outer court, that "of Israel;" these were separated by a "middle wall of partition," with lodges for priests and Levites, for wood, oil, etc., 1 Chronicles 28:12 . The ensuing description is applicable to the temple courts in the time of our Lord.
The "court of the Gentiles" was so called because it might be entered by persons of all nations. The chief entrance to it was by the east or Shushan gate, which was the principal gate of the temple. It was the exterior court, and by far the largest of all the courts belonging to the temple, and is said to have covered a space of more than fourteen acres. It entirely surrounded the other courts and the temple itself; and in going up to the temple from its east or outer gate, one would cross first this court, then the court of the Women, then that of Israel, and lastly that of the Priests. This outmost court was separated from the court of the women by a wall three cubits high of lattice work, and having inscriptions on its pillars forbidding Gentiles and unclean persons to pass beyond it, on pain of death, Acts 21:28 Ephesians 2:13,14 . From this court of the Gentiles our Savior drove the persons who had established a cattle-market in it, for the purpose of supplying those with sacrifices who came from a distance, Matthew 21:12-13 . We must not overlook the beautiful pavement of variegated marble, and the "porches" or covered walks, with columns supported magnificent galleries, with which this court was surrounded. Those on the east, west, and north sides were of the same dimensions; but that on the south was much larger. The porch called Solomon's John 10:23 Acts 3:11 , was on the east side or front of this court, and was so called because it was built by this prince, upon a high wall rising from the alley of Kidron.
The "court of the Women," called in Scripture the "new court," 2 Chronicles 20:5 , and the "outer court," Ezekiel 46:21 , separated the court of the Gentiles from the court of Israel, extending along the east side only of the latter. It was called the court of the women because it was their appointed place of worship, beyond which they might not go, unless when they brought a sacrifice, in which case they went forward to the court of Israel. The gate which led into this court from that of the Gentiles, was "the Beautiful gate" of the temple, mentioned in Acts 3:2,10 ; so called, because the folding doors, lintel, and side-posts were all overlaid with Corinthian brass. The worshipper ascended to its level by a broad flight of steps. It was in this court of the women, called the "treasury," that our Savior delivered his striking discourse to the Jews, related in John 8:1-20 . It was into this court also that the Pharisee and the publican went to pray, Luke 18:10-13 , and hither the lame man followed Peter and John, after he was cured- the court of the women being the ordinary place of worship for those who brought no sacrifice, Acts 3:8 . From thence, after prayers, he went back with them, through the "Beautiful gate" of the temple, where he had been lying, and through the sacred fence, into the court of the Gentiles, where, under the eastern piazza, or Solomon's porch, Peter preached Christ crucified. It was in the same court of the women that the Jews laid hold of Paul, when they judged him a violator of the temple by taking Gentiles within the sacred fence, Acts 21:26-29 .
The "court of Israel" was separated from the court of the women by a wall thirty-two and a half cubits high on the outside, but on the inside only twenty-five. The reason of which difference was, that as the rock on which the temple stood became higher on advancing westward, the several courts naturally became elevated in proportion. The ascent into this court from the east was by a flight of fifteen steps, of a semicircular form, and the magnificent gate Nicanor. On these steps the Levites stood in singing the "songs of degrees." The whole length of the court from east to west was one hundred and eighty-seven cubits, and the breadth from north to south, one hundred and thirty-five cubits. In this court, and the piazza which surrounded it, the Israelites stood in solemn and reverent silence while their sacrifices were burning in the inner court, and while the services of the sanctuary were performed, Luke 1:8-11,21,22 .
Within this court, and surrounded by it, was the "court of the Priests;" one hundred and sixty-five cubits long and one hundred and nineteen cubits wide, and raised two and a half cubits above the surrounding court, from which it was separated by pillars and a railing. Within this court stood the brazen altar on which the sacrifices were consumed, the molten sea in which the priests washed, and the ten brazen lavers for washing the sacrifices; also the various utensils and instruments for sacrificing, which are enumerated in 2 Chronicles 4:1-22 . It is necessary to observe here, that although the court of the Priests was not accessible to all Israelites, as that of Israel was to all the priests, yet they might enter it for three several purposes: to lay their hands on the animals which they offered, or to kill them, or to wave some part of them.
From the court of the Priests, the ascent to the temple was by a flight of twelve steps, each half a cubit in height, which led into the sacred porch. Of the dimensions of this in Solomon's temple, as also of the Sanctuary and Holy of Holies, we have already spoken. It was within the door of the porch, and in the sight of those who stood in the courts immediately before it, that the two pillars, Jachiin and Boaz, were placed, 2 Chronicles 3:17 Ezekiel 40:49 .
The temple of Solomon retained its pristine splendor but thirtythree years, when it was plundered by Shishak king of Egypt, 1 Kings 14:25,26 2 Chronicles 12:9 . After this period it underwent sundry profanities and pillages from Hazael, Tiglath-pileser, Sennacherib, etc., 2 Kings 12:1-21 16:1-20 18:1-37 ; and was at length utterly destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, B. C. 588, after having stood according to Usher, four hundred and twenty-four years, three months, and eight days.
After lying in ruins for fifty-two years, the foundations of the second temple were laid by Zerubbabel, and the Jews who had availed themselves of the privilege granted by Cyrus and returned to Jerusalem, Ezra 1:1-4 2:1 3:8-10 . After various hindrances, it was finished and dedicated twenty-one years after it was begun, B. C. 515, Ezra 6:15-16 . The dimensions of this temple in breadth and height were double those of Solomon's. The weeping of the people at the laying of the foundation, therefore, Ezra 3:12-13 , and the disparaging manner in which they spoke of it, when compared with he first one, Haggai 2:3 , were occasioned by its inferiority not in size, but in glory. It wanted the five principal things which could invest it with this: namely, the ark and mercy seat, the divine presence or visible glory, the holy fire on the altar, the urim and thummin, and the Spirit of prophecy. In the year B. C. 163, this temple was plundered and profaned by Antiochus Epiphanes, who ordered the discontinuance of the daily sacrifice, offered swine's flesh upon the altar, and completely suspended the worship of Jehovah. Thus it continued for three years, when it was repaired and purified by Judas Maccabaeus, who restored the divine worship, and dedicated it anew.
Herod, having slain all the Sanhedrim, except two, in the first year of his reign, B. C. 37, resolved to atone for it by rebuilding and beautifying the temple. This he was the more inclined to do, both from the peace which he enjoyed, and the decayed state of the edifice. After employing two years in preparing the materials for the work, the temple of Zerubbabel was pulled down, B. C. 17, and fortysix years before the first Passover of Christ's ministry. Although this temple was fit for divine service in nine years and a half, yet a great number of laborers and artificers were still employed in carrying on the outbuildings all the time of our Savior's abode on earth. His presence fulfilled the predictions in Haggai 2:9 Malachi 3:1 . The temple of Herod was considerably larger than that of Zerubbabel, as that of Zerubbabel was larger than Solomon's. For whereas the second temple was seventy cubits long, sixty broad, and sixty high, this was one hundred cubits long, seventy broad, and one hundred high. The porch was raised to the height of one hundred cubits, and was extended fifteen cubits beyond each side of the rest of the building. All the Jewish writers praise this temple exceedingly for its beauty and the costliness of its workmanship. It was built of white marble, exquisitely wrought, and with stones of large dimensions, some of them twenty-five cubits long, eight cubits high, and twelve cubits thick. To these there is no doubt a reference in Mark 13:1 Luke 21:5 : "And as he went out of the temple, one of his disciples saith unto him, Master, see what manner of stones, and what buildings are here!" Luke says, "goodly stones." See a description of the ornaments of one of its gates under VINE .
This splendid building, which rose like a mount of gold and of snow, and was once the admiration and envy of the world, has forever passed away. According to our blessed Lord's prediction, that "there should not be left one stone upon another that should not be thrown down," Mark 13:2 , the whole structure above ground was completely demolished by the Roman soldiers, under Titus, A. D. 70. The temple area is now occupied by two Turkish mosques, into which, until recently, neither Jew nor Christian was permitted to enter. Beneath the vast area of El-Haram still exist immense arched ways and vaults of unknown date; also a large and deep well, and other indications that the temple always possessed a copious and perennial supply of water, derived perhaps in part from Gihon by Hezekiah's aqueduct, and in part from Solomon's pools, and flowing off through the fountain of the Virgin and the pool of Siloam. In the outer walls of the present area are seen at several places stones of vast size, evidently belonging to the ancient walls. Near the southwest corner certain huge stones mark the beginning of an arch, a part of the stately bridge which anciently connected the temple are with Mount Zion; and a little north of this spot is the celebrated wailing-place of the Jews. See WALL.
In the time of the kings, a regular guard of Levites was always on duty at the temple, 1 Chronicles 26:1-32 2 Chronicles 23:19 . During the supremacy of the Romans there was a Roman garrison in the strong tower of Antonia, which, with its various courts and fortifications, adjoined the temple area on the north, and was connected with it by passages both above and under ground, John 18:12 Acts 4:1 5:26 21:31-40 .
The utmost veneration and love were always cherished towards the temple by pious Jews, Psalm 84:1-12 . All the people also, from various motives, gloried in it, many with a bigoted and idolatrous regard. Hence the charge of blaspheming the temple, which was found the most effectual means of enraging the populace against Christ and his followers, Matthew 26:61 27:40 John 2:19,20 Acts 6:13 21:27-30 .
King James Dictionary - Temple
TEM'PLE, n. L. templum.
1. A public edifice erected in honor of some deity. Among pagans, a building erected to some pretended deity, and in which the people assembled to worship. Originally, temples were open places, as the Stonehenge in England. In Rome, some of the temples were open, and called sacella others were roofed, and called oedes. The most celebrated of the ancient pagan temples were that of Belus in Babylon, that of Vulcan at Memphis, that of Jupiter at Thebes, that of Diana at Ephesus, that of Apollo in Miletus,that of Jupiter Olympius in Athens, and that of Apollo at Delphi. The most celebrated and magnificent temple erected to the true God, was that built by Solomon in Jerusalem. In Scripture, the tabernacle is sometimes called by this name. 1 Samuel 1-3 .
2. A church an edifice erected among christians as a place of public worship. Can he whose life is a perpetual insult to the authority of God, enter with any pleasure a temple consecrated to devotion and sanctified by prayer?
3. A place in which the divine presence specially resides the church as a collective body. Ephesians 2 4. In England,the Temples are two inns of court, thus called because anciently the dwellings of the knights Templars. They are called the Inner and the Middle Temple. TEM'PLE, n. L. tempus, tempora. The primary sense of the root of this word is to fall. See Time.
1. Literally, the fall of the head the part where the head slopes from the top. 2. In anatomy, the anterior and lateral part of the head, where the skull is covered by the temporal muscles. TEM'PLE, To build a temple for to appropriate a temple to. Little used.
Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words - Idol's Temple
1: εἰδωλεῖον (Strong's #1493 — Noun Neuter — eidolion — i-do-li'-on ) an "idol's temple," is mentioned in 1 Corinthians 8:10 ; feasting in the temple usually followed the sacrifice.

Sentence search

Holy of Holies - The innermost sanctuary of the Temple. Separated from the other parts of the Temple by a thick curtain, the holy of holies was specially associated with the presence of Yahweh. In the early years of the existence of the Temple the holy of holies contained the ark of the covenant. See Temple
Templar - These Knights Templars, or Knights of the Temple, were so named because they occupied an apartment of the palace of Bladwin II. in Jerusalem, near the Temple. ) A student of law, so called from having apartments in the Temple at London, the original buildings having belonged to the Knights Templars. See Inner Temple, and Middle Temple, under Temple. ) Of or pertaining to a Temple
Templed - ) Supplied with a Temple or Temples, or with churches; inclosed in a Temple
Didrachma - A Greek coin worth two drachmas or a Jewish half shekel, the amount of the Temple tax paid by every male Jew above age 19 (Matthew 17:24 ). After the Temple's destruction in A. 70, the Roman government apparently continued to collect the Temple tax, possibly to support a Roman Temple. The first readers of Matthew's Gospel would have understood the Temple tax in the Roman context
Solomon's Porch - (John 10:23 ; Acts 3:11 ; 5:12 ), a colonnade, or cloister probably, on the eastern side of the Temple. It is not mentioned in connection with the first Temple, but Josephus mentions a porch, so called, in Herod's Temple (q
Antiochus iv epiphanes - (2century BCE) Greek-Syrian emperor who desecrated the Holy Temple and enacted laws against Jewish practices during the Second Temple era. The miracle 8634 of his defeat, and the subsequent rededication of the Temple, is commemorated on Chanukah
Western wall - Water Drawing Celebrations, The: the western retaining wall of the Temple Mount, the last remnant of the Temple in Jerusalem ...
Hexastyle - ) Having six columns in front; - said of a portico or Temple. ) A hexastyle portico or Temple
Gatekeeper - One who guards access to a place, either a city (2 Samuel 18:26 ; 2 Kings 7:10-11 ), a residence (John 18:17 ), the sacred precincts of the ark (1 Chronicles 15:23-24 ), or the Temple (1 Chronicles 23:5 ). Temple gatekeepers were charged with preventing anyone unclean from entering the Temple (2 Chronicles 23:19 ) and with guarding the Temple treasuries and storehouses (1 Chronicles 9:26 ; 1 Chronicles 26:20-22 ; Nehemiah 12:25 )
Tamid - tractate of the Mishnah which concerns itself with the daily service in the Temple and therefore concerns several particulars concerning the Temple�s structurepar ...
Kore -
A Levite and Temple-warder of the Korahites, the son of Asaph. He was father of Shallum and Meshelemiah, Temple-porters (1 Chronicles 9:19 ; 26:1 ). ...
...
A Levitical porter at the east gate of the Temple (2 Chronicles 31:14 )
Tempean - ) Of or pertaining to Temple, a valley in Thessaly, celebrated by Greek poets on account of its beautiful scenery; resembling Temple; hence, beautiful; delightful; charming
Zechariah ben jehoiada - 661 BCE) Mentioned in 2 Chronicles 24, was killed in the Holy Temple courtyard while trying to prevent the erection of an idol in the Holy Temple
Idol's Temple - 1: εἰδωλεῖον (Strong's #1493 — Noun Neuter — eidolion — i-do-li'-on ) an "idol's Temple," is mentioned in 1 Corinthians 8:10 ; feasting in the Temple usually followed the sacrifice
Dedication, Feast of - Commemorating the purging of the Temple and rebuilding of the altar after Judas Maccabaeus had driven out the Syrians, 164 B. It began on the 25th of Chisleu (December), the anniversary of Antiochus Epiphanes' pollution of the Temple 167 B. The Hallel was sung in the Temple daily. The "dedication of the second Temple" was on the 3rd of Adar (Ezra 6:15-16); that of Solomon's Temple at the feast of tabernacles (1 Kings 8:2; 2 Chronicles 5:3)
Solomon's Porch - The raised outermost part of Herod's Temple with columns that went all the way around the outer court (John 10:23 ; Acts 3:11 ). In Jesus' day this part of the Temple had been built by Herod's laborers. See Temple
Temple - First used of the tabernacle, which is called "the Temple of the Lord" (1 Samuel 1:9 ). Believers are called "the Temple of God" (1 Corinthians 3:16,17 ). The Church is designated "an holy Temple in the Lord" (Ephesians 2:21 ). Heaven is also called a Temple (Revelation 7:5 ). We read also of the heathen "temple of the great goddess Diana" (Acts 19:27 ). It is called "the Temple" (1 Kings 6:17 ); "the Temple [1] of the Lord" (2 Kings 11:10 ); "thy holy Temple" (Psalm 79:1 ); "the house of the Lord" (2 Chronicles 23:5,12 ); "the house of the God of Jacob" (Isaiah 2:3 ); "the house of my glory" (60:7); an "house of prayer" (56:7; Matthew 21:13 ); "an house of sacrifice" (2 Chronicles 7:12 ); "the house of their sanctuary" (2 Chronicles 36:17 ); "the mountain of the Lord's house" (Isaiah 2:2 ); "our holy and our beautiful house" (64:11); "the holy mount" (27:13); "the palace for the Lord God" (1 Chronicles 29:1 ); "the tabernacle of witness" (2 Chronicles 24:6 ); "Zion" (Psalm 74:2 ; 84:7 )
Temple - ...
Psalm 29:9 (b) Probably David was referring both to the actual house of GOD at Jerusalem and also to the mystical Temple of GOD which is His people. Every child of GOD like every piece of the Temple in some way represents the majesty, the glory, the beauty, and the usefulness into which we have been called by His grace. It is interesting to note the typology of the Temple, for there is a splendid comparison between parts of the Temple, and the individuals in the church of GOD. ...
1 Corinthians 3:16 (a) The church is called GOD's Temple. In this way it resembling the Temple of the Old Testament. ...
1 Corinthians 6:19 (a) In the previous reference the whole church is compared to the Temple, but in this passage the individual believer is compared to the Temple
Temple - While the Temple certainly has a history and integrity of its own, it was created by extension of the tabernacle and is associated with such diverse topics as a mountain and a city, the cosmos and a person's body, and God's glory and name. The biblical authors from Moses through Ezekiel and Haggai to John of Patmos never describe a complete Temple, but offer a vision of what the Temple was to be: the locus of the presence of God. ...
Offering a vision rather than a blueprint for the Temple is in keeping with the inherent ambiguity of the concept "temple of the Lord, " for how can the transcendent deity be localized in a building? The vision is also in keeping with the function of Temple as a symbol. The Temple is indeterminate literally and figuratively. ...
The Preexistence of the Temple . The foundation for Temple is laid in the Pentateuch. ...
The tent of the meeting in the Pentateuch, and the priestly tabernacle, is not, however, a projection (or retrojection!) of the Temple, but an independent dwelling reflecting the life of Israel prior to settlement and the centralization of worship. The tent is a "portable Temple" of sorts, but not provisional nor simply a pattern; rather, the tent is a unique "dwelling. "...
With the ritual performances in the tabernacle/ Temple complex, and the personnel and attendant appurtenances, we come to a theologically significant point about Temple practice: coming into the presence of a holy God. ...
The paradoxical and symbolic nature of the Temple is thus seen as the author(s) construct the parameters of Temple theology: the transcendent deity graciously appears before his holy people in the place of his choosing, a dwelling symbolically rich by virtue of its ability to generate varied metaphoric associations (fire, cloud, tent, ark, and most especially "name" in the Pentateuch). ...
The Construction of the Temple . The construction of the Temple began with David to serve as, at least on sociopolitical grounds, a "media event" of divine support and favor. How much less this Temple I have built!" (1 Kings 8:27 ). (This terminology underscores the point that the correspondence between God's presence and his "dwelling"tabernacle or Templeis more "textual" than physical. Finally, Solomon is portrayed as the central figure in the planning and implementation of the project: "As for this Temple that you are building " ( 1 Kings 6:12 ). The Lord does hallow the place, but it is still Solomon's doing: "I have consecrated this Temple which you have built" (v. ...
Responses to the Temple . What responses do we find in Scripture to the building of the Temple beyond those found in the immediate context of it being built?...
Rather than "going up" to the mountain of the house of the Lord to hear the word of the Lord, as in the eschatological visions of Isaiah and Micah (4:1-2), the Babylonians "descend" upon the Temple to break down its wall and carry off the Temple treasures. After centuries of covenant disloyalty, the Lord withdraws his presence from this place ( Ezekiel 10:18 ); in fact, he is driven from the Temple because of the abominations of the people (Ezekiel 8:6 ). This destruction could be seen as one of the contingencies of history except for the interpretations put upon it; the theologian of Lamentations states the destruction of the Temple in unequivocal terms: "The Lord determined to tear down the wall of the Daughter of Zion" (2:8). ...
Reconstructing the Temple . High on the agenda of the postexilic community was the rebuilding of the Temple. The means for rebuilding Temple theology are present in the preexilic theology itself, the selfsame theology that so thoroughly critiqued an overly literal-minded approach to the presence of God. ...
The Temple was always symbolic, "textual" even before (and as much as) it was physical. Although Jeremiah held little esteem for the ark/temple, he nevertheless prophesied that God's throne would be Jerusalem itself (3:17), and Torah would be written in their hearts (31:31-34). These extensions of the symbol are developed further in the New Testament (Revelation 21:22-27 : "I did not see a Temple in the city, because the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are its Temple Nothing impure will ever enter it. The relativizing of the Temple and moral earnestness that we see in Jeremiah were precisely the points of the Deuteronomic theology that influenced the short-lived reforms of Josiah. ...
The most extensive view of the new Temple comes from Ezekiel. The construction of the Temple is once again more ideal than real. In Ezekiel's new Temple a remarkable event takes place: water flows from the Temple (in Jerusalem) with such abundance that it calls to mind the rivers of paradise (see also Psalm 46:4 ; Revelation 21:6 ). ...
The Songs of Zion in the Psalter are particularly rich in their celebration of the Temple. With all their "sensuality"the reader is instructed to "behold" the beauty of the Temple; walk about it; clap and shout; smell; bow down; and other sense-oriented activitiesthe Songs show that one is not to ponder the Temple simply as a theological abstraction. The one who enters the Temple not only receives spiritual blessings but material ones as well (Psalm 36:7-9 ). "...
In sum, by building the Temple and by extending the metaphoric associations with Temple, a continuity between the pre- and postexilic community was established (Ezra 1:7 ; Haggai 2:9 ). For all the critique of the Temple, in the final analysis, Yahweh takes pleasure in this place and it is a source of delight for those who assemble there (Psalm 43:3-4 ; 65:4 ; 84:1 ). In Judaism the Temple was the religious, cultural, and national center; indeed, the Temple was a microcosm of the universe. The power of the Temple as a symbol is especially seen in its ability to continue long after the Temple building itself was destroyed in a. ...
According to the Gospels, Jesus participated fully in the practices and ethos of the Temple. Jesus' birth was announced in the Temple (Luke 1:17 ; 2:27-32 ), where he was also circumcised and studied with the rabbis as a lad (Luke 2:46 ). Later, of course, Jesus taught in the Temple himself (John 7:14 ). It is not without significance that while Jesus is teaching in the Temple precincts, he says, "If anyone is thirsty, let him come to me" (John 7:37 ), and the next day offers forgiveness to the woman taken in adultery (John 8:1-11 ). Blessing and forgiveness, priestly functions, are pronounced by Jesus in the shadow of the Temple. Thus, when the Temple practices are compromised, Jesus assails those who jeopardize the sanctity of the Temple: "My house will be called a house of prayer But you have made it a den of robbers" (Mark 11:17 ). Jesus, while teaching in its precincts, preserves the sanctity of the Temple by his ethical admonitions. ...
In the cleansing of the Temple we also find a development and extension of the metaphoric associations of Temple. John characteristically points out the error of their literal-mindedness: "But the Temple he had spoken of was his body" (John 2:21 ). Thus, in Jesus' acts and words we see the Temple once again as a place of holiness, of danger (words of judgment; Jesus's own death) as well as blessing, and further extensions of the symbol are generated. ...
Paul also makes the correspondence between the Temple and body: "Do you not know that your body is a Temple of the Holy Spirit?" (1 Corinthians 6:19 ; see also Romans 12:1-2 ). Of course, the believer can be called the Temple of God only because Christ himself is the Temple and the believer participates in Christ ( 1 Corinthians 3:9-17 ). If God can dwell in a holy place , by extension, he could dwell in a holy person!...
After the destruction of the Temple in a. 70, Temple theology loses none of its living and healing power since the Temple was always "beyond" its physical presence. A theology of Temple answers the problem of how God's presence is mediated. Specifically, Temple theology recognizes the importance of "sacred space. Humankind is oriented in time and space, thus Sabbath and Temple testify to "eternity" beyond the confines of our usual orientation. Sabbath and Temple redeem time and space. ...
Temple theology shows a high degree of theological sophisticationholding ambivalent attitudes/doctrines in tension, part of the mystery of faith, of paradox. Temple theology is most fruitful when it is functioning as a powerful symbol, with the ability to be fully grounded in (sacred) space and yet generate new metaphoric associationsa vision of life in the presence of the Lord. Even though the Temple is both protological and eschatological, it is always grounded in the realities of our lives: it is a mere edifice, yet, Behold! Thy God. Clements, God and Temple ; idem, Wisdom for a Changing World ; R. Haran, Temples and Temple Service in Ancient Israel ; A. Renwick, Paul, the Temple, and the Presence of God ; J
Pinnacle - NRSV referred to the pinnacles of the Temple or the city of Jerusalem (Isaiah 54:12 ). The pinnacle (literally, “little wing”) of the Temple (Matthew 4:5 ; Luke 4:9 ) is not mentioned in the Old Testament, intertestamental literature, or rabbinic sources. Possible identifications include the southeastern corner of the royal colonnade which overlooked the Kidron valley and a lintel or balcony above one of the Temple gates. The account of the martyrdom of James the Lord's brother by Hegesippus relates that James was thrown from the pinnacle of the Temple and then stoned and clubbed. This (likely conflated) account suggests a high structure overlooking the Temple court
Ziha - Family of Temple servants (nethinim) (Ezra 2:43 ); Nehemiah 7:46 ). Overseer of postexilic Temple servants (Nehemiah 11:21 )
Octostyle - ) Having eight columns in the front; - said of a Temple or portico. The Parthenon is octostyle, but most large Greek Temples are hexastele. ) An octostyle portico or Temple
Sanctuary - Denotes, (1) the Holy Land (Exodus 15:17 ; Compare Psalm 114:2 ); (2) the Temple (1 Chronicles 22:19 ; 2 Chronicles 29:21 ); (3) the tabernacle (Exodus 25:8 ; Leviticus 12:4 ; 21:12 ); (4) the holy place, the place of the Presence (Gr. hieron, the Temple-house; not the Naos , Which is the Temple area, with its courts and porches), Leviticus 4:6 ; Ephesians 2:21 , RSV, marg. In the final state there is properly "no sanctuary" (Revelation 21:22 ), for God and the Lamb "are the sanctuary" (RSV, "temple")
Tribute - The tribute (money) mentioned in (Matthew 17:24,25 ) was the half shekel (worth from 25 to 27 cents) applied to defray the general expenses of the Temple. After the destruction of the Temple this was sequestrated by Vespasian and his successors and transferred to the Temple of the Capitoline Jupiter. (Matthew 22:17 ) The Temple rate, though resting on an ancient precedent-- (Exodus 30:13 ) --was as above a fixed annual tribute of comparatively late origin
Chamber - For the Temple chambers, see Temple
Bajith - House, probably a city of Moab, which had a celebrated idol-temple (Isaiah 15:2 ). It has also been regarded as denoting simply the Temple of the idol of Moab as opposed to the "high place
Amzi - Member of Temple singer family (1 Chronicles 6:46 ). Ancestor of Adaiah, who helped build the second Temple (Nehemiah 11:12 )
Sheep Market - It was adjacent to the Temple, and was so named from the number of sheep introduced through it for the Temple service. Barclay thinks the "sheep market" was an enclosure for sheep and other animals designed for sacrifice, outside the Temple area on the east
Pseuso-Peripteral - ) Falsely or imperfectly peripteral, as a Temple having the columns at the sides attached to the walls, and an ambulatory only at the ends or only at one end. ) A pseudo-peripteral Temple
Sanctuary - See Temple
Solomon's Porch - See Temple
Temple - Hêykâl (הֵיכָל, Strong's #1964), “palace; Temple. In post-biblical Hebrew the meaning became limited to “temple. ” The Hekhal Chlomo (“Temple of Solomon”) in modern Jerusalem signifies the building of Israel’s chief rabbinate, in absence of the Temple. Amos prophesied that the “songs of the palace” (KJV, “temple”) were to turn to wailing at the destruction of the northern kingdom (Amos 8:3, NASB). ...
Hêykâl with the meaning “temple” is generally clarified in the context by two markers that follow. The first marker is the addition “of the Lord”: “And when the builders laid the foundation of the Temple of the Lord, they set the priests in their apparel with trumpets, and the Levites the sons of Asaph with cymbals, to praise the Lord, after the ordinance of David king of Israel” (Ezra 3:10). The second marker is a form of the word qodesh, “holy”: “O God, the heathen are come into thine inheritance; thy holy Temple have they defiled; they have laid Jerusalem on heaps” ( Temple” ( Temple” ( Temple, and my cry did enter into his ears” ( Temple, the Lord’s throne is in heaven: his eyes behold, his eyelids try, the children of men. ”...
The Septuagint has the words naos (“temple”) and oikos (“house; palace; dwelling; household”)
Hanukkah - An eight-day festival that commemorated the cleansing and rededication of the Temple following the victories of Judas Maccabeus in 167/165 B. ” After Antiochus Epiphanes conducted pagan worship in the Temple, Judas Maccabeus cleansed the Temple from the pollution of pagan worship. He made a new sacrificial altar and holy vessels, burned incense on the incense altar, lit the lampstands to give light to the Temple, placed bread on the table, and hung new curtains. ...
After the destruction of the Temple in A
Romamti-Ezer - ” Temple musician (1Chronicles 25:4,1 Chronicles 25:31 ). Some scholars recognize a prayer of praise behind the names of the Temple musicians Hananiah through Mahazioth (1 Chronicles 25:4 )
Chapiter - See Temple
Incense Altar - See Tabernacle ; Temple
Beautiful Gate - See Jerusalem ; Temple
Holy of Holies - See Tabernacle ; Temple ...
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Holy Place - See Tabernacle ; Temple ...
...
Mount moriah - the Temple Mount...
Holy of Holies Holy Place - See Tabernacle, Temple
Cleansing - —See Temple
Beautiful Gate - See Jerusalem ; Temple
Temple - There was no building in the church of God called the Temple, until the one built by Solomon. But when the Lord bad instructed his people by his servant Nathan the prophet, (see 2 Samuel 7:1-29) concerning the Temple, we find Solomon, by the Lord's appointment, building this first Temple on Mount Moriah. And independent of every other consideration, how blessedly did the very spot typify Christ, the true Temple for the glory of JEHOVAH to be manifested in. This Temple was begun somewhat about a thousand years before Christ, and took nine years in building. The desolation of Jerusalem by the king of Babylon at the captivity, brought on the desolation also of the Temple, until it was totally destroyed in the eleventh year of Zedikiah, after it had stood amidst many ravages and injuries, from the plunder of the enemies of Israel, somewhat more than four hundred years. ...
During the captivity of Babylon the Temple remained in ruins; but in the first year of Cyrus at Babylon, the Jews were permitted to return to Jerusalem, and to rebuild the Temple of the Lord. And amidst much persecution and many interruptions, the people accomplished the purpose, and the second Temple was completed at a period of somewhat more than five hundred years before the coming of Christ. ...
This second Temple continued until the manifestation of the Lord Jesus Christ in substance of our flesh, thereby confirming and fulfilling the prophecy of Haggai 2:9 "The glory of this latter house shall be greater than of the former, saith the Lord of hosts. " And this was literally the case from the presence of Jesus, notwithstanding it had none of the five signs which Solomon's Temple had, namely—1. When Jesus entered the Temple, his presence became the sum and substance which all these signs did but faintly resemble and minister unto; and therefore confirmed JEHOVAH'S promise of the greater glory of the second, than of the first Temple. ...
But the great object, the Temple itself in both, and indeed in all other instances represented, was the person of Christ in his human nature; "for in him dwelleth all the fulness of the GODHEAD bodily. " (Colossians 2:9) Hence, therefore, as in the tabernacle in the wilderness, and in the Temple at Jerusalem, the glory of the Lord was graciously manifested to the people to intimate the divine presence, so in the person of Christ Jesus, all that is visible it JEHOVAH did appear
Azaziah -
One of the Levitical harpers in the Temple (1 Chronicles 15:21 ). ...
...
One who had charge of the Temple offerings (2 Chronicles 31:13 )
Dedication, Feast of the - 164 to commemorate the purging of the Temple after its pollution by Antiochus Epiphanes (B. But there were other dedications of the Temple. (1) That of Solomon's Temple (1 Kings 8:2 ; 2 Chronicles 5:3 ); (2) the dedication in the days of Hezekiah (2 Chronicles 29 ); and (3) the dedication of the Temple after the Captivity (Ezra 6:16 )
Antonia - A tower or fortress built by Herod the Great near the Temple at Jerusalem in which he placed a guard to watch over the approaches to the sacred edifice. 5,8) says it was situated "at the corner of two cloisters of the court of the Temple; of that on the west, and that on the north; it was erected upon a rock fifty cubits in height and was on a great precipice. " Where this precipice was is not known, for it is a much disputed question upon what part of the Temple area the Temple was built
Beautiful Gate - See Temple
Benjamin Gate - See Temple
Brazen Sea - See Temple
Beautiful Gate - See Temple and Door
Porch - See HOUSE and Temple
Avodah - The Holy Temple service
Checker Work - Part of the decoration of the pillars of the Temple (1 Kings 7:17 ). With reference to the pillars of the Temple, it thus denotes a criss-crossed design
Gentiles, Court of the - Josephus says there was in the court of the Temple a wall or balustrade, breast high, having pillars at regular distances, with inscriptions on them in Greek and Latin, importing that strangers were forbidden to approach nearer to the altar, Ephesians 2:14 . See Temple
Chaggai - The book of Tanach containing Haggai's prophecies, admonishing the Jews to build the Second Holy Temple. ...
Chaggai: (4th century BCE) A contemporary of Zechariah and Malachi, the last of the prophets; member of the Great Assembly; urged the Jews to build the Second Temple
Nave - Term used by some modern translations (NAS, NRSV) for the main room of the Temple between the vestibule and the holy of holies (1Kings 6:3,1Kings 6:5,1 Kings 6:17 ; 1 Kings 7:50 ; 2Chronicles 3:4-5,2 Chronicles 3:13 ; 2 Chronicles 4:22 ). KJV referred to this room as the Temple or house. See Temple
Dedication, Feast of - An annual Feast to celebrate the dedication of the Temple by Judas Maccabeus after it had been polluted by Antiochus Epiphanes, B. The dedication of the Temple under Ezra was on the 3rd of Adar, Ezra 6:15,16 ; but this was not made an annual feast. The dedication of the Temple under Solomon was at the Feast of Tabernacles
Rakkath - Empty; Temple of the head
Beit hamikdash - the Holy Temple in Jerusalem ...
Temple of Jerusalem - A place of worship, especially the Temple of Solomon built in Jerusalem for national worship of Yahweh. Sacred or holy space is the meaning of our word Temple , very like the two Greek words, hieron (temple area) and naos (sanctuary itself) which are translated “temple” in the New Testament. The other Hebrew expression for Temple is hekal , “palace, great house” deriving from the Sumerian word for “great house,” whether meant for God or the earthly king. He would allow David's son to build Him a house (Temple), but He would build for David a house (dynasty, 2 Samuel 7:3-16 ). ...
Chronicles makes it clear that David planned the Temple and accumulated great wealth and gifts for it, though Solomon was the one who actually built it. Solomon's Temple may not have actually been the first Temple which housed the ark of the covenant, since there was a house of Yahweh, also called a Temple, at Shiloh (1Samuel 1:7,11 Kings 6:2-3 Samuel 1:24 ; 1 Samuel 3:3 ) but in Kings 6:8-1085 (NIV) it is called “tent of meeting,” whether the wilderness tabernacle or not. Jeremiah in his great Temple sermon warned all who came into the Lord's house in Jerusalem that if they trusted primarily in the Temple, instead of the Lord, He could destroy Solomon's Temple just as He had the previous one at Shiloh ( Jeremiah 7:1-15 ; Jeremiah 26:1-6 ). ...
Israel knew other worship places with history far older than the Jerusalem Temple. Former patriarchal holy places near Shechem or Bethel (Genesis 12:6-8 ; Genesis 28:10-22 ; compare Deuteronomy 11:29-30 ; Deuteronomy 27:1-26 ; Joshua 8:30-35 ; Joshua 24:1-28 ; Judges 20:26-27 ), these are not called Temples in Scripture though local inhabitants may have called them Temples. It cannot be determined what kind of sanctuaries were at Ophrah, Gilgal, Nob, Mizpah, Ramah, or other “high places” where Yahweh was worshiped, but “the Temple” is the one at Jerusalem from Solomon's time. ...
Solomon's Temple There were three historical Temples in succession, those of Solomon, Zerubbabel, and Herod in the preexilic, postexilic, and New Testament periods. Herod's Temple was really a massive rebuilding of the Zerubbabel Temple, so both are called the “second Temple” by Judaism. David had acquired the Temple hill from Araunah the Jebusite at the advice of the prophet Gad to stay a pestilence from the Lord by building an altar and offering sacrifices on the threshing floor (2 Samuel 24:18-25 ). So the Temple mount today in Jerusalem is called Mount Moriah, and the threshing floor of Araunah is undoubtedly the large rock enshrined within the Dome of the Rock, center of the Muslim enclosure called Haram es-Sharif (the third holiest place in Islam, after Mecca and Medina). This enclosure is basically what is left of Herod's enlarged Temple platform, the masonry of which may best be seen in its Western Wall, the holiest place within Judaism since the Roman destruction of Herod's Temple. ...
No stone is left that archaeologists can confidently say belonged to the Solomonic Temple. Ezekiel's vision of the new Jerusalem Temple after the Exile (Ezekiel 40-43 ) is idealistic and was perhaps never realized in Zerubbabel's rebuilding of the Temple, but many of its details would have reflected Solomon's Temple in which Ezekiel probably ministered as a priest before being deported to Babylon in 597 B. The treaty with Hiram, the king of Tyre, and the employment of the metalworker Hiram (or Huram-abi, a different person from the king) whom he provided show that considerable Phoenician influence, expertise, craftmanship, and artistic design went into the building of the Temple. ...
The primary meaning of the Temple was the same as that of the ark it was constructed to enshrine: a symbol of God's presence in the midst of His people (Exodus 25:21-22 ). The worshipers could gather for prayer and sacrifice in the Temple courtyard(s) where they could sing psalms as they saw their offerings presented to Yahweh on His great altar. The spirit of Israel's prayer and praise is to be found in the Psalms and in the worship experiences such as that of Isaiah when he surrendered to his prophetic call experience in the forecourt of the Temple (Isaiah 6:1-8 ). ...
The account of Isaiah's experience makes it clear that the earthly Temple was viewed as a microcosm of the heavenly Temple where the King of the universe really dwelt. ...
Solomon's Temple was shaped as a “long house” of three successive rooms from east to west, a vestibule of only 15-feet depth, a nave (the holy place) of 60 feet and an inner sanctuary (the most holy place) of 30 feet (Samuel 1:9,1 ; 1 Kings 16-17 ). This is similar to, though not precisely the same as, the shape of several Syrian and Canaanite Temples excavated in the past few decades (at Hazor, Lachish, tell Tainat). There is even one Israelite “temple” at the southeast border of Judah in the iron age fortress of Arad which some have compared with Solomon's Temple. None was so symmetrical or ornately decorated, nor even as large as the Jerusalem Temple, even though Solomon's palace complex of which the Temple was only a part (1 Kings 7:1-12 ) was much larger and took longer to build (tell Tainat, in northern Syria, is the closest analogy). Around the outside of the house proper was constructed three stories of side chambers for Temple storehouses, above which were recessed windows in the walls of the holy place (1Kings 6:4-6,1 1618416331_5 ). This arrangement is also known from the tell Tainat Temple. The pillars were named Jachin (“He shall establish”) and Boaz (“In the strength of”), perhaps to signify the visible symbolism of the Temple as a testimony to the stability of the Davidic dynasty to which it was intimately related. ...
At the Feast of Tabernacles, Solomon conducted an elaborate dedication festival for the Temple (1 Kings 8:1-9:9 ). Then the king blessed the assembly, praised God for His covenant mercies in fulfilling Nathan's promise to David, and gave a long, fervent prayer on behalf of seven different situations in which the prayers of his people should arise to the heavenly throne of God from His earthly Temple, closing with a benediction. The consistent emphasis of Solomon's prayer and God's answer is the awareness of sin and the necessity for wholehearted repentance to keep the Temple ceremonial a meaningful symbol of worship and devotion (2 Chronicles 7:13-14 ). The great prophets preached that, in their Temple worship, Israel was not able to avoid syncretism with pagan religious impulses or the hypocritical irrelevance of meaningless overemphasis upon ritual without righteous obedience to their sovereign Overlord (Isaiah 1:10-17 ; Micah 6:6-8 ; Jeremiah 7:1-26 ). ...
The history of Solomon's Temple has many ups and downs through its almost four hundred years of existence. King Asa plundered his own Temple treasuries to buy a military ally, Ben-Hadad of Syria against Baasha, king of North Israel (1 Kings 15:18-19 ), though he had previously repaired the Temple altar and carried out limited worship reforms (2 Chronicles 15:8-18 ). Temple repairs were carried out by Jehoash (Joash) of Judah after the murder of wicked Queen Athaliah, but even he had to strip the Temple treasuries to buy off Hazael, king of Syria (2 Kings 12:1 ). Jehoash (Joash), king of Israel, when foolishly challenged to battle by Amaziah, king of Judah, not only defeated him, but came to Jerusalem and plundered the Temple (1 Kings 14:12-14 ). King Ahaz plundered his own Temple for tribute to Assyria during the Syro-Ephraimitic war of 735 B. invasion, even stripping gold off the Temple doors (2 Kings 18:13-16 ). During the long and disastrous reign of King Manasseh many abominable idols and pagan cult objects were placed in the Temple which good King Josiah had to remove during his reform (2Kings 23:4-6,2 Kings 23:11-12 ). Both Hezekiah and Josiah were able to centralize worship in the Jerusalem Temple during their reforms and even recover some worshipers from the north for the Jerusalem sanctuary, but Josiah's successor, Jehoiakim, reversed all of Josiah's reforms and filled up the Temple with pagan abominations (Ezekiel 8:1 ). Despite the warnings of Jeremiah and Ezekiel, the people refused to repent of their political and religious folly, and their Temple and holy city were first plundered by Nebuchadnezzer in 597 B. ...
For both groups of Judah, those in Babylon, and those still in Jerusalem, the loss of the Temple and city were a grievous blow (Psalm 137:1 ; Lamentations 1-5 ). ...
Zerubbabel's Temple The decree of Cyrus in 538 B. permitted the Jews to return from the Babylonian Exile with the Temple vessels which had been taken. It charged them to rebuild the Temple of Jerusalem with Persian financial aid and free-will offerings from Jews who remained in Babylon (Ezra 1:1-4 ). The size seems to have been approximately that of Solomon's Temple. Ezekiel's Temple vision had considerable influence on the new Temple (Ezekiel 40-42 ), so that Zerubbabel's Temple perhaps was mounted on a platform and measured about 100 feet by 100 feet with the interior dimensions being virtually the same as those of Solomon's Temple. There was only one seven-branched lampstand, as had been true of the tabernacle, probably the one pictured by Titus in his triumphal arch at Rome as having been carried off when Herod's Temple was plundered. The importance of the new Temple was that it became a symbol of the Lord's holiness and the religious center of life for the new community. ...
The Maccabean revolt changed this, and Judas Maccabeus rededicated the Temple in 167 B. Judas' successors appointed themselves as high priests, and the Temple became more a political institution. Pompey captured the Temple in 63 B. ...
Herod's Temple Herod the Great came to power in 37 B. and determined that he would please his Jewish subjects and show off his style of kingship to the Romans by making the Jerusalem Temple bigger and better than it had ever been. His most notable contribution was the magnificent stonework of the Temple platform which was greatly enlarged. The steps south of the Temple, where Jesus may have taught on several occasions, have been excavated and reconstructed. An inscription: “To the place of trumpeting” was found below the southwest corner where there was a monumental staircase ascending into the Temple from the main street below. Perhaps this was the “Temple pinnacle” from which Satan tempted Jesus to throw Himself. ...
The Jerusalem Temple is the focus of many New Testament events. His cleansing of the Temple was instrumental in precipitating His death. He knew no earthly Temple was necessary to the worship of God (John 4:21-24 ). He predicted the Temple's destruction by the Romans, and His warnings to His followers to flee when this happened actually saved many Christians' lives (Mark 13:2 ,Mark 13:2,13:14-23 ). The Temple was destroyed in 70 A. Stephen's preaching tended to liberate Christian thinking from the necessity of a Temple (Acts 7:46-50 ), and Paul thought of the church and Christians as the new Temple (1 Corinthians 3:16-17 ; 1 Corinthians 6:19-20 ). For John, the ideal which the Temple represented will ultimately be realized in a “new Jerusalem” (Revelation 21:2 )
Holy Place - Later the expression was used in reference to the Temple and its environs. See Temple
Haggai - (4th century BCE) A contemporary of Zechariah and Malachi, the last of the prophets; member of the Great Assembly; urged the Jews to build the Second Temple. ...
Haggai, the book of: The book of Tanach containing Haggai's prophecies, admonishing the Jews to build the Second Holy Temple
Pseudo-Dipteral - ) A pseudo-dipteral Temple. ) Falsely or imperfectly dipteral, as a Temple with the inner range of columns surrounding the cella omitted, so that the space between the cella wall and the columns is very great, being equal to two intercolumns and one column
Pinnacle - ]'>[1] from the Vulgate of Matthew 4:5 ( pinnaculum ) to indicate the spot within the Temple enclosure from which the devil tempted our Lord to cast Himself down. The precise nature and location of ‘ the pinnacle of the Temple’ (Mt. The context and the use of the word usually employed for the whole complex of buildings as opposed to that which denotes the Temple proper (see plan in art. Temple, § 12 ) rather favour the view that the ‘pinnacle’ is to be sought in the neighbourhood of the S. Many authorities, on the contrary, favour some part of the roof of the Temple building itself
Solomon's Porch - See Temple, § 11 ( a )
Holy temple - The: the Holy Temple in Jerusalem ...
Worship (2) - —See Praise, Prayer, Synagogue, Temple
Crotaphitic - ) Pertaining to the Temple; temporal
Pinnacle - (of the Temple ), ( Matthew 4:5 ; Luke 4:9 ) The Greek word ought to be rendered not a pinnacle, but the pinnacle. The only part of the Temple which answered to the modern sense of pinnacle was the golden spikes erected on the roof to prevent birds from settling there. (According to Alford it was the roof of Herod's royal portico of the Temple,"which overhung the ravine of Kedron from a dizzy height" --600 or 700 feet
Asup'Pim, - Some understand it as the proper name of chambers on the south of the Temple others of certain store-rooms, or of the council chambers in the outer court of the Temple in which the elders held their celebrations
Hieron - , a Temple
Churches, Robbers of - This is 'temple-robbers
Temple, the - One thing that materially distinguishes the Temple from the tabernacle is that God said of it, "Mine eyes and mine heart shall be there perpetually:" it referred to the kingdom and a settled order of things; whereas the tabernacle was typical of God's ways, and gave the idea of movement. " When the Lord was on earth, though rejected by the rulers of Israel, He called the Temple 'My house,' and 'My Father's house;' but later on He said to the Jews 'your house. ...
Another thing that distinguished the Temple was its being surrounded with chambers, so that the priests that were serving God could dwell around Him. " The tabernacle had no flooring, the priests trod the earth; but in the Temple they were separated from the earth by a flooring. ...
In the interior of the Temple built by Solomon nothing but gold appeared: this is typical of divine righteousness, characterising the throne and presence of God, as will be manifested in the millennium. The ark was placed in the Temple, and had found there its abiding resting place: it was the token of God's presence. ...
In the court of the Temple were two pillars which received the names of JACHIN, "He will establish;" and BOAZ, "in him is strength," which perfectly agrees with the fact that it was God's house that was being built. ...
Another thing remarkable in the rearing of the Temple was that it was built of stones made ready before being brought, so that there should be no noise of hammer, or axe, or iron tool, while it was in progress. Thus the church is being formed of living stones who have come to the Living Stone (the chief corner stone, Christ Himself), and the whole building fitly framed together is growing into a holy Temple in the Lord. THE Temple BY SOLOMON. THE Temple BY ZERUBBABEL. Probably it was the same size as the Temple by Solomon: the breadth here of sixty cubits being its 'length,' and its width not mentioned; or, if the sixty cubits be the width, it may have included the chambers. It is not probable that it was larger than the first Temple. This Temple continued until the days of Herod. THE Temple BY HEROD. It was apparently built over the old one, so as not to hinder the Temple service: the priests themselves built the holy places. Though Josephus gives many details as to this Temple, they are not distinct enough to enable a plan to be made of it. Doubtless this Temple stood upon some part of mount Moriah, at the south-east corner of Jerusalem (q. A FUTURE Temple. They will apparently build a Temple, but this must not be confounded with the one described by Ezekiel, though the Jews may attempt to build it as there described. God cannot bless them until His anointed One is owned, and therefore this Temple will be destroyed. EZEKIEL'S Temple. In the centre of the land there will be a 'holy oblation' of 25,000 cubits square, which will contain both the city and the Temple. Other passages speak of the Temple, Zion, and Jerusalem as associated together, as Psalm 68:29 ; Psalm 122 ; Isaiah 2:2,3 ; Micah 3:12Micah 4:2 . ' Probably the city will be built on its old site, and the Temple may be somewhat farther north. ...
Christ refers to His body as a Temple in John 2:19 , and Christians are now God's Temple, in which the Spirit of God dwells. The body of each Christian is also spoken of as a Temple of the Holy Ghost. ...
In Revelation 11:19 the Temple of God is opened in heaven, in connection with which are the judgements that come forth to smite the earth: Revelation 14:15,17 ; Revelation 15:5-8 ; Revelation 16:1,17
Igdaliah - ” Ancestor of the prophets whose chamber in the Temple Jeremiah used to test the Rechabites loyalty to their oath not to drink wine (Jeremiah 35:4 ). This is apparently evidence for professional prophets on the Temple staff
Beautiful Gate - A gate of the Temple. Josephus says there were nine gates overlaid with silver and gold; but one without the Temple, made of Corinthian brass, far exceeded those of gold and silver
Shimon hatzaddik - In 313 BCE, when the Samaritans tried to have the Holy Temple destroyed, Simeon met with Alexander the Great who agreed to leave the Temple standing, foiling the Samaritans' plot
Simeon the righteous - In 313 BCE, when the Samaritans tried to have the Holy Temple destroyed, Simeon met with Alexander the Great who agreed to leave the Temple standing, foiling the Samaritans' plot
Temple - ) The building of the Temple marks an era in Israel's history, the nation's first permanent settlement in peace and rest, as also the name Solomon," man of peace, implied. The site was the threshing floor of Araunah the Jebusite, whereon David by Jehovah's command erected an altar and offered burnt offerings and peace offerings (2 Samuel 24:18-25; 1 Chronicles 21:18-30; 1 Chronicles 22:1); Jehovah's signifying by fire His acceptance of the sacrifice David regarded as the divine designation of the area for the Temple. " Warren identifies the "dome of the rock" with Ornan's threshing floor and the Temple altar. Solomon's Temple was there in the Haram area, but his palace in the S. The Temple was on the boundary line between Judah and Benjamin, and so formed a connecting link between the northern and the southern tribes; almost in the center of the nation. ...
The lower, bevelled stones of the wall still remain; the relics of the eastern wall alone being Solomon's, the southern and western added later, but still belonging to the first Temple; the area of the first Temple was ultimately a square, 200 yards, a stadium on each side, but in Solomon's time a little less. The Temple retained the general proportions of the tabernacle doubled; the length 60 cubits (90 ft. ten each way; the difference between the height of the oracle and that of the Temple, namely, ten cubits, was occupied by the upper rooms mentioned in 2 Chronicles 3:9, overlaid with pure gold. ...
The Temple looked toward the E. In front was a porch as broad as the Temple, 20 cubits, and ten deep; whereas the tabernacle porch was only five cubits deep and ten cubits wide. Thus, the ground plan of the Temple was 70 cubits, i. In 2 Chronicles 3:4 the 120 cubits for the height of the porch is out of all proportion to the height of the Temple; either 20 cubits (with Syriac, Arabic and Septuagint) or 30 cubits ought to be read; the omission of mention of the height in 1 Kings 6:3 favors the idea that the porch was of the same height as the Temple, i. Two brazen pillars (Boaz "strength is in Him", and Jachin "He will establish"), 18 cubits high, with a chapiter of five cubits - 23 cubits in all - stood, not supporting the Temple roof, but as monuments before the porch (1 Kings 7:15-22). ; the significance of the two pillars was eternal stability and the strength of Jehovah in Israel as representing the kingdom of God on earth, of which the Temple was the visible pledge, Jehovah dwelling there in the midst of His people. Rebates (three for the three floors of the side stories and one for the roof) or projecting ledges were attached against the Temple wall at the point where the lower beams of the different side stories were placed, so that the heads of the beams rested on the rebates and were not inserted in the actual Temple wall. As the exterior of the Temple wall contracted at each rebate, while the exterior wall of the side chamber was straight, the breadth of the chambers increased each story upward. They were on the Temple side walls in the ten cubits' space whereby the Temple walls, being 30 cubits high, out-topped the side stories, 20 cubits high. the roof rising five cubits above the internal walls, just half the Temple proportions: 20 cubits, 30 cubits, 10 cubits respectively. At the end are blocks half quarried, the marks of the chisel as fresh as on the day the mason ceased; but the Temple was completed without them, still they remain attached to their native bed, a type of multitudes, impressed in part, bearing marks of the teacher's chisel, but never incorporated into the spiritual Temple. ...
The masons' Phoenician marks still remain on the stones in this quarry, and the unique beveling of the stones in the Temple wall overhanging the ravine corresponds to that in the cave quarry. Compare 1 Peter 2:5; the election of the church, the spiritual Temple, in God's eternal predestination, before the actual rearing of that Temple (Ephesians 1:4-5; Romans 8:29-30), and the peace that reigns within and above, in contrast to the toil and noise outside in the world below wherein the materials of the spiritual Temple are being prepared (John 16:33), are the truths symbolized by the mode of rearing Solomon's Temple. Cherubim, palms, and flowers (1 Kings 6:29) symbolized the pure and blessed life of which the Temple, where God manifested His presence, was the pledge. The furniture of the Temple was the same mainly as that of the tabernacle. side and five for the left side of the Temple. Between this and the Temple door was the molten sea of ten cubits from brim to brim, 45 ft. Solomon dedicated the Temple with prayer and thank offerings of 20,000 oxen and 120,000 sheep (1 Kings 8; 2 Chronicles 5 to 7). ) The ritual of the Temple was a national, not a personal, worship. It was fixed to one Temple and altar, before the Shekinah. The stranger was not only permitted but encouraged to pray toward the Temple at Jerusalem; and doubtless the thousands (153,600) of strangers, remnants of the Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, and Jebusites, whom Solomon employed in building the Temple, were proselytes to Jehovah (2 Chronicles 2:17; 1 Chronicles 22:2). Temple of Zerubabel. ...
Erected by sanction of Cyrus, who in his decree alleged the command of the God of heaven (Ezra 1:12), on the stone site ("the place where they offered sacrifices") and to reproduce Solomon's Temple "with three rows (i. The golden and silver vessels taken by Nebuchadnezzar were restored; the altar was first set up by Jeshua and Zerubbabel, then the foundations were laid (Ezra 3) amidst weeping in remembrance of the glorious former Temple and joy at the restoration. Then after the interruption of the work under Artaxerxes I or Pseudo Smerdis, the Temple was completed in the sixth year of Darius (chapter 6). )...
The height, 60 cubits (Ezra 6:3), was double that of Solomon's Temple. Zerubbabel's Temple was 60 cubits broad (Ezra 6:3) as was Herod's Temple subsequently, 20 cubits in excess of the breadth of Solomon's Temple; i. , the chambers all around were 20 in width instead of the ten of Solomon's Temple; probably, instead of as heretofore each room of the priests' lodgings being a thoroughfare, a passage was introduced between the Temple and the rooms. Not merely (Haggai 2:3) was this Temple inferior to Solomon's in splendour and costly metals, but especially it lacked five glories of the former Temple:...
(1) the ark, for which a stone served to receive the sprinkling of blood by the high priest, on the day of atonement;...
(2) the sacred fire;...
(3) the Shekinab;...
(4) the spirit of prophecy;...
(5) the Urim and Thummim. Antiochus Epiphanes profaned this Temple; afterward it was cleansed or dedicated, a new altar of fresh stones made, and the feast of dedication thenceforward kept yearly (John 10:22). But "the glory of this latter house was greater than of the former" (Haggai 2:9) because of the presence of Messiah, in whose face is given the light of the knowledge of the glory of God (2 Corinthians 4:6; Hebrews 1:2) as Himself said, "in this place is one (Greek 'a something greater,' the indefiniteness marking the infinite vastness whereby He is) greater than the Temple" (Matthew 12:6), and who "sat daily teaching in it" (Matthew 26:55). The Millennial Temple at Jerusalem. )...
The dimensions are those of Solomon's Temple; an inner shrine 20 cubits square (Ezekiel 41:4); the nave 20 cubits by 40 cubits; the chambers round ten wide, including the thickness of the walls; the whole, with the porch, 40 cubits by 80 cubits; but the outer court 500 reeds on each of its sides (Ezekiel 42:16), i. a square of one mile and one seventh, considerably more than the area of the old Jerusalem, Temple included. The spiritual lesson is, the church of God, the Temple of the Holy Spirit, hereafter to be manifested on earth, shall be on a scale far surpassing its present dimensions; then first shall Jehovah be worshipped by the whole congregation of the earth, led by Israel the leader of the grand choir. The Temple of Herod had an outer court which with porticoes, measuring 400 cubits every way, was a counterpart on a smaller scale to the outer court of Ezekiel's Temple and had nothing corresponding in Solomon's Temple or Zerubbabel's. ...
The Temple interior waits for His entrance to fill it with His glory (Ezekiel 43:1-12). No space shall be within its precincts which is not consecrated; whereas in the old Temple there was a greater latitude as to the exterior precincts or suburbs (2 Kings 23:11). The full significance of the language shall not be exhausted in the millennial Temple wherein still secular things shall be distinguished from things consecrated, but shall be fully realized in the post-millennial city, wherein no part shall be separated from the rest as "temple," for all shall be holy (Revelation 21:10-12). The fact that the Shekinah glory was not in the second Temple whereas it is to return to the future Temple proves that Zerubbabel's Temple cannot be the Temple meant in Ezekiel (compare Ezekiel 43:2-4). As the sacrificial serrate at the tabernacle at Gibeon and the ark service of sacred song for the 30 years of David's reign, before separate (2 Samuel 6:17; 2 Chronicles 1:3-4; called "the tabernacle of David" Amos 9:11-12; Acts 15:16; 1 Chronicles 13:3; 1 Chronicles 16:37; 1 Chronicles 16:39), were combined in Solomon's Temple, so the priestly intercessory functions of our High priest in heaven and our service of prayer and praise carried on separately on earth, during our Judaeo universal dispensation, shall in the millennial Temple at Jerusalem be combined in perfection, namely, Christ's priesthood manifested among men and our service of outward and inward liturgy. ...
In the final new and heavenly Jerusalem on the regenerated earth, after the millennium, Christ shall give up the mediatorial and sacerdotal kingdom to the Father, because its purpose shall have been fully completed (1 Corinthians 15:24; 1 Corinthians 15:28); so there shall be no Temple, "the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb shall be the Temple" (Revelation 21:22). Herod's Temple (which was essentially the continuation of Zerubbabel's Temple: compare Haggai 2:9). As the Temple was prostrated by the Roman siege, there was no means of convicting him of error as to elevations. ...
Beyond this was an outer enclosure, 400 cubits or one stadium each way, with porticoes exceeding in splendour all the Temples of the ancient world, supporting a carved cedar roof; the pavement was mosaic. Herod sought to rival Solomon, reconcile the Jews to his dynasty as fulfilling Haggai 2:9 that the glory of the latter Temple should be greater than that of the former, and so divert them from hopes of a temporal Messianic king (Josephus, Temple was ready for the priests and Levites; in eight the courts were complete; but for the 46 years up to Jesus' ministry (John 2:20) various additions were being made, and only in the time of Agrippa II the works ceased. The Temple occupied the highest of terraces rising above one another; it occupied all the area of Solomon's Temple with the addition of that of Solomon's palace, and a new part added on by Herod at the S. led to the vaults and, water reservoirs of the Temple. one concealed passage led to the castle Antonia, the fortress commanding the Temple. The only remains of Herod's Temple in situ are the double gates on the S. In the center of this is a pillar crowned with a Corinthian capital, the acanthus and the waterleaf alternating as in the Athenian Temple of the winds, an arrangement never found later than Augustus' time. long leads to a flight of steps which rise to the surface in the court of the Temple just at the gateway of the inner Temple which led to the altar; it is the one of the four gateways on the S. ...
The gate of the inner Temple to which this passage led was called "the water gate": Nehemiah 12:37 (Talmud, Mid. Westward there were four gateways to the outer enclosure of the Temple (Josephus, Temple to the royal palace. angle of the Temple area. Previously outward stairs (Nehemiah 12:37; 1 Kings 10:5) led up from the western valley to the Temple. side, but open to the Temple inside; the breadth of the center aisle 45 ft. Ganneau has found a stone near the Temple site bearing a Greek inscription: "no stranger must enter within the balustrade round the Temple and enclosure, whosoever is caught will be responsible for his own death. ) Within this screen or enclosure was the flight of steps up to the platform on which the Temple stood. "Solomon's porch" was within the outer eastern wall of the Temple, and is attributed by Josephus ( Temple at the S. A parapet one cubit high surrounding the Temple and altar separated the people from the officiating priests (Josephus, B. ...
The Temple, 20 cubits by 60 cubits, occupied the western part of this whole enclosure. The holiest place was a square cube, 20 cubits each way; the holy place two such cubes; the Temple 60 cubits across and 100 E
Molten Sea - See Temple, § 6 ( c ) ‘Brazen Sea
Sanctuary - See High Place; Tabernacle, 11 ( b ); Temple
Menorah - The seven-branched gold candelabra in the Temple
Court - See House, § 2 ; Justice; Tabernacle; Temple
Pronaos - ) The porch or vestibule of a Temple
Parbar - (1 Chronicles 26:18 ), a place apparently connected with the Temple, probably a "suburb" (q. ), as the word is rendered in 2 Kings 23:11 ; a space between the Temple wall and the wall of the court; an open portico into which the chambers of the official persons opened (1 Chronicles 26:18 )
Censer - It probably was also used for carrying live coals employed in connection with worship in the tabernacle or the Temple, each priest having one (compare Numbers 16:17-18 ). Use of the censer in Temple worship was restricted to members of the Aaronic priesthood, as King Uzziah discovered in shocking fashion (2 Chronicles 26:16-21 ). See Containers and Vessels ; Tabernacle ; Temple
Holy of Holies, Holy Place - See Tabernacle, and Temple
Crotaphite - ) The Temple or temporal fossa
Partition - See the various courts under Temple
Anna - Being then disengaged from the ties of marriage, she thought only of pleasing the Lord; and continued without ceasing in the Temple, serving God night and day, with fasting and prayer, as the Evangelist expresses it. However, her serving God at the Temple night and day, says Dr. Prideaux, is to be understood no otherwise than that she constantly attended the morning and evening sacrifice at the Temple; and then with great devotion offered up her prayers to God; the time of morning and evening sacrifice being the most solemn time of prayer among the Jews, and the Temple the most solemn place for this devotion. Anna was fourscore years of age when the holy virgin came to present Jesus in the Temple; and entering accidentally, while Simeon was pronouncing his thanksgiving, she likewise began to praise God, and to speak of the Messiah to all those who waited for redemption in Jerusalem
Lily Work - Decorative work capping the two free-standing columns flanking the entrance to Solomon's Temple (1Kings 7:19,1 Kings 7:22 ). See Temple
East Gate - (2) The East Gate of the outer court of the Temple. Since the Temple faced east, this gate was the main entrance to the Temple complex (Ezekiel 47:1 ). Levites in charge of the East Gate of Solomon's Temple had responsibility for the free-will offerings (2 Chronicles 31:14 ). His vision of the new Temple included the return of God's glory through the same gate (Ezekiel 43:1-2 ). (3) The East Gate of the inner court of the Temple
Gate - See City, Fortification and Siegecraft § 5 , Jerusalem, Temple
Gentiles - For ‘Court of the Gentiles,’ see Temple
Jerusalem - holiest city; capital of Israel; site of the Holy Temple ...
Beit habechirah - "Chosen House") a name used to describe the Temple...
Pinnacle - The word (πτερύγιον) so rendered means ‘a little wing,’ and refers to some lofty point about the Temple, from which Jesus is said to have been invited by the tempter to cast Himself down. The word used for ‘temple’ in both passages (ἱερόν) denotes the whole enclosure, and not merely the Temple building proper (ναός). The ‘pinnacle ‘may therefore be sought for anywhere within the Temple precincts. It is evident, from the use of the phrase ‘the pinnacle of the Temple,’ that there was a definite point well known by this name when the Evangelists wrote; but now we are in some uncertainty as to where it was situated. Some understand the apex of the roof of the Temple building to be meant. Others suggest the roof of Solomon’s Porch, on the east side of the Temple area. But if ‘the pinnacle’ was not the summit of the Temple proper, the most likely position for it is the battlement of the Royal Portico, which ran from east to west across the south end of the enclosure, on the precipitous edge of a deep valley. 23), gives an account of the death of James the Lord’s brother, who, he says, was cast down by the Jews from the pinnacle of the Temple (ναός—the Temple proper). If this statement were reliable, it would be decisive in favour of the first supposition mentioned above; but the accuracy of the whole story is doubtful, and it may be questioned whether Hegesippus, writing nearly a century after the destruction of the Temple, knew any better than we do where ‘the pinnacle’ really was. On the one hand, the apex of the Temple proper would undoubtedly be the loftiest point of the whole group of buildings
Shebuel -
One of the descendants of Gershom, who had charge of the Temple treasures in the time of David (1 Chronicles 23:16 ; 26:24 ). ...
...
One of the sons of Heman; one of those whose duty it was to "lift up the horn" in the Temple service (1 Chronicles 25:4,5 ); called also Shubael (ver
Mithredath - Treasurer of Cyrus king of Persia; to Mithredath Cyrus gave the Temple vessels for Sheshbazzar (Ezra 1:8). A Persian officer in Samaria under Artaxerxes or Smerdis the Magian, who with others influenced him by letter to interrupt the building of the Temple (Ezra 4:7)
Gradual Psalms - (Latin: gradus, step) ...
Psalms 119-133 which were sung by the caravans of devout Israelites on their way to Jerusalem to celebrate the great feasts in the Temple. Other commentators say they were hymns sung in the liturgical service of the Temple as the Levites ascended in procession the steps, particularly in celebrating the Feast of Tabernacles
Abdi - A Levite whose grandson Ethan was one of the Temple musicians David appointed (1 Chronicles 6:44 ). A Levite whose son Kish followed King Hezekiah's wishes and helped cleanse the Temple (2 Chronicles 29:12 )
Par'Bar - (open apartment ), a word occurring in Hebrew and Authorized Version only in ( 1 Chronicles 26:18 ) It would seem that Parbar was some place on the west side of the Temple enclosure, probably the suburb mentioned by Josephus as lying in the deep valley which separated the west wall of the Temple from the city opposite it
Temporofacial - ) Of or pertaining to both the Temple and the face
Jachin - The name of a pillar in Solomon's Temple
Beaucatcher - ) A small flat curl worn on the Temple by women
Antetemple - ) The portico, or narthex in an ancient Temple or church
Solomonis Porch - See Porch, Temple
Laver - ...
For the Temple of Solomon, besides the vast brazen sea for the use of the priests, (see 2 Chronicles 4:6 . They were stationed within the court of the priests, in front of the Temple, five on each side. See Temple
Pinnacle of the Temple - We are told that here it was, on the pinnacle of the Temple, the devil, in his temptations of Christ, set the Redeemer. (Matthew 4:5) An ordinary reader might from here be led to conclude, that if the pinnacle of the Temple was like the present towers of our churches, it was hardly possible to have stood upon them. One of the Jewish historians relates, that the roof of the Temple had spikes of gold on it, to hinder the birds from resting there, that they might not defile it. The pinnacle of the Temple, therefore, though high and elevated, yet formed a sufficient spot for walking upon
Incense, Altar of - See Tabernacle, § 6 ( c ), and Temple, § 4
Peribolos - , one surrounding a Temple
Kohen; kohanim - priest, descendant of Aaron, responsible for the service in the Holy Temple ...
Chizkiyahu - Hezekiah, one of the last righteous kings of the first Temple period...
Gabbatha - , "the ridge of the house" = "the Temple-mound," on a part of which the fortress of Antonia was built. This "temple-mound" was covered with a tesselated "pavement" (Gr
Money-Changers - These were persons who supplied those who came from a distance to Jerusalem, to pay the regular tax to the Temple, with a half-shekel, in exchange for any money they might possess. The Lord's language to such, when He drove them out of the Temple, seems to imply that they took unfair advantage in the exchanges
Tarfon, rabbi - A Kohen, he served in the Temple and many of his recollections of the Temple service are recorded in the Talmud
Korban tamid - the daily sacrifice, offered in the Temple in the morning and before nightfall...
Rephael - ” Temple gatekeeper (1 Chronicles 26:7 )
Distyle - ) Having two columns in front; - said of a Temple, portico, or the like
Monopteron - ) A circular Temple consisting of a roof supported on columns, without a cella
Jachin - the name of a pillar in Solomon's Temple, 1 Kings 7:21
Sheep Gate, Sheep Market - This "sheep gate" was near the Temple; the sacrifices for the Temple probably entered by it
pi-Beseth - A city of Egypt, called by the Greeks Bubastos, and containing a famous Temple of the goddess Bubastis, who was compared to the Diana of Southern Europe. This Temple was annually visited by immense multitudes
Temporomaxillary - ) Of or pertaining to both the Temple or the temporal bone and the maxilla
Sia - ” Family of Temple servants or nethanim (Nehemiah 7:47 )
Barachias - Father of Zacharias who was slain between the Temple and the altar
Fane - ) A Temple; a place consecrated to religion; a church
Gas - His sons were among the ‘temple servants’ (Ezr
Kodashim - animals or other objects consecrated to the service of G-d in the Holy Temple...
Nathanmelech - Eunuch who had a chamber in the precincts of the Temple
Marai - ) A sacred inclosure or Temple; - so called by the islanders of the Pacific Ocean
Door, Doorkeeper, Doorpost - For ‘doorkeeper’ in the Temple, see Priests and Levites
Bikurim - (first fruits): the first fruits which the Jews would bring to the Temple in Jerusalem ...
Money Changers - Persons whose profession was to sell or exchange Roman or other moneys for Jewish money acceptable in the Temple worship. To help visitors change money into that acceptable in Jerusalem, money changers set up tables in the Temple court of the Gentiles. Syrian silver coins were the money of Jerusalem then, and worshipers used them to pay their Temple tax of a half shekel and to buy sacrifices for the altar. ...
Money changers were in the area with vendors who sold animals, birds, and other items used in Temple worship and sacrifices. ...
In anger at this corruption of the purpose of the Temple, Jesus turned over the tables of the money changers and drove them and the sellers of animals out of the Temple court (Matthew 21:12 )
Hanan - Clan or guild of prophets or priests living in the Temple. Jeremiah used their Temple chamber for his meeting with the Rechabites (Jeremiah 35:4 ). Clan of Temple servants who returned to Jerusalem from Babylonian Exile with Zerubbabel about 537 B. Man Nehemiah appointed as assistant Temple treasurer to receive and disperse tithes brought to care for the Levites (Nehemiah 13:13 )
Gallery - An architectural feature of the Temple annex (Ezekiel 41:15-16 ) and two buildings near the Temple (Ezekiel 42:3 ,Ezekiel 42:3,42:5 ). In this case the Temple measurements in Ezekiel 41:15-16 would refer to the base of the elevated inner court. English translators understand either a reference to interior corridors of the...
Temple annex or columned porches (contrast Ezekiel 42:6 )
Holy Place - In both the Tabernacle and the Temple, the outer or easternmost room. This room in the Tabernacle measured 20 X:10 cubits (about 30 X:15 feet); that of the Temple was 40 X:20 cubits. Whilst only a heavy screen of rich tapestry, hanging from five wooden posts, extended on the whole front of the Tabernacle, in the first Temple a double folding door of cypress wood with doorposts of olive wood closed the holy place from the porch. A veil probably covered this door in Herod's Temple
Temple - ) A place or edifice dedicated to the worship of some deity; as, the Temple of Jupiter at Athens, or of Juggernaut in India. ) To build a Temple for; to appropriate a Temple to; as, to Temple a god
Sanctuary - It appears to be the name sometimes of the entire Temple, Psalm 73. 1 ; sometimes of the "Holy place," where the altar on incense, the golden candlestick, and the showbread stood, 2 Chronicles 26:18 Hebrews 9:2 ; and sometimes of the "Holy of Holies," the most secret and retired part of the Temple, in which was the ark of the covenant, and where none but the high priest might enter, and he only once a year on the day of solemn expiation. See TABERNACLE , and Temple . ...
The Temple or earthly sanctuary is an emblem of heaven, Psalm 102:19 Hebrews 9:1,24 ; and God himself is called a sanctuary, Isaiah 8:14 Ezekiel 11:16 , in reference to the use of Temples as a place of refuge for fugitives, because he is the only safe and sacred asylum for sinners pursued by the sword of divine justice
Temporo-Auricular - ) Of or pertaining to both the Temple and the ear; as, the temporo-auricular nerve
Sekes - ) A place in a pagan Temple in which the images of the deities were inclosed
Pommels - KJV term for the bowl-shaped capitals topping the Temple pillars (2 Chronicles 4:12-13 )
Water drawing celebrations, the: - Celebration accompanying the water libation ceremony on Sukkot in Temple times, recalled today by Sukkot celebrations
Gazera - His sons were among the ‘Temple servants
Aphses - Head of the eighteenth course of priests for service in the Temple
Veil - —‘The veil of the Temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom’ when Jesus died (Matthew 27:51, Mark 15:38, Luke 23:45). The Temple is, of course, the Temple of Herod, and the veil is, the ‘second veil’ (Hebrews 9:3) which divided the הֵיבָל or Holy Place from the רְּבִיר or Holy of Holies. This is the only reference to the veil of the Temple in the NT, that in Hebrews being to the veil of the Tabernacle. It is asserted that in the Temple of Solomon there was no veil, since it is mentioned only in 2 Chronicles 3:14; but Thenius’ emendation of 1 Kings 6:21 ‘drew the veil across with golden chains’ is good. 1, where the mention of the ark shows that the writer is thinking of the Temple of Solomon. 4) mentions a gorgeously embroidered veil before the הֵיבָל, and a second veil, which he does not describe, in front of the דְּכִיר of the Temple as he knew it. ...
A difficulty is occasioned by the fact that there appear to have been in Herod’s Temple not one but two veils between the Holy Place and the Holy of Holies, each representing a surface of the wall one cubit thick, which in Solomon’s Temple separated the two places. 7 called מרקסין, that is, τἀραξις, because in the first Temple it was filled with the wall, and the builders of the second did not know whether to reckon the space as belonging to the Holy Place or to the Holy of Holies. ...
The rending of the veil of the Temple would indicate the end of its sanctity, just as the tearing of a woman’s veil means dishonouring her (Hamasa, Freytag, i. 3) enumerates several portents which presaged the destruction of the Temple: a sword appeared suspended over the city, a heifer about to be sacrificed brought forth a lamb, and the brazen gate opened of its own accord. Lightfoot (Prospect of the Temple, xx. 329]'>[1]) says: ‘There are three remarkable things, which the Jews do date from forty years before the destruction of the Temple—namely this of the Temple-doors’ opening of themselves, and the Sanhedrin’s flitting from the room Gazith, and the scarlet list on the scapegoat’s head not turning white
Veil - —‘The veil of the Temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom’ when Jesus died (Matthew 27:51, Mark 15:38, Luke 23:45). The Temple is, of course, the Temple of Herod, and the veil is, the ‘second veil’ (Hebrews 9:3) which divided the הֵיבָל or Holy Place from the רְּבִיר or Holy of Holies. This is the only reference to the veil of the Temple in the NT, that in Hebrews being to the veil of the Tabernacle. It is asserted that in the Temple of Solomon there was no veil, since it is mentioned only in 2 Chronicles 3:14; but Thenius’ emendation of 1 Kings 6:21 ‘drew the veil across with golden chains’ is good. 1, where the mention of the ark shows that the writer is thinking of the Temple of Solomon. 4) mentions a gorgeously embroidered veil before the הֵיבָל, and a second veil, which he does not describe, in front of the דְּכִיר of the Temple as he knew it. ...
A difficulty is occasioned by the fact that there appear to have been in Herod’s Temple not one but two veils between the Holy Place and the Holy of Holies, each representing a surface of the wall one cubit thick, which in Solomon’s Temple separated the two places. 7 called מרקסין, that is, τἀραξις, because in the first Temple it was filled with the wall, and the builders of the second did not know whether to reckon the space as belonging to the Holy Place or to the Holy of Holies. ...
The rending of the veil of the Temple would indicate the end of its sanctity, just as the tearing of a woman’s veil means dishonouring her (Hamasa, Freytag, i. 3) enumerates several portents which presaged the destruction of the Temple: a sword appeared suspended over the city, a heifer about to be sacrificed brought forth a lamb, and the brazen gate opened of its own accord. Lightfoot (Prospect of the Temple, xx. 329]'>[1]) says: ‘There are three remarkable things, which the Jews do date from forty years before the destruction of the Temple—namely this of the Temple-doors’ opening of themselves, and the Sanhedrin’s flitting from the room Gazith, and the scarlet list on the scapegoat’s head not turning white
Mattaniah -
A Levite, son of Heman, the chief of the ninth class of Temple singers (1 Chronicles 25:4,16 ). ...
...
A Levite who assisted in purifying the Temple at the reformation under Hezekiah (2 Chronicles 29:13 )
Sacred - The neuter singular, hieron, denotes "a Temple. " See Temple
Planks - Long, flat pieces of timber thicker than boards, used in shipbuilding (Ezekiel 27:5 ; Acts 27:44 ) and for the flooring of Solomon's Temple (1 Kings 6:15 KJV). The “thick planks upon the face of the porch” in Ezekiel's vision of the renewed Temple ( Ezekiel 41:25 KJV) likely refers to some type of canopy (NRSV; overhang, NIV; covering, TEV; cornice, REB) or to a threshold (NAS)
Haggai - ...
The Prophecy of, which is prose in farm, concerns the repair of the Temple, 1:1-12; 2:10-20, the glory of the second Temple, 2:1-9, and the triumph of Zerubbabel over his Treasury - 1: γαζοφυλάκιον (Strong's #1049 — Noun Neuter — gazophulakion — gad-zof-oo-lak'-ee-on ) from gaza, "a treasure," phulake, "a guard," is used by Josephus for a special room in the women's court in the Temple in which gold and silver bullion was kept. This seems to be referred to in John 8:20 ; in Mark 12:41 (twice),43; Luke 21:1 it is used of the trumpet-shaped or ram's-horn-shaped chests, into which the Temple offerings of the people were cast. ...
2: κορβανᾶς (Strong's #2878 — Noun Masculine — korbanas — kor-ban', kor-ban-as' ) signifying "the place of gifts," denoted the Temple "treasury," Matthew 27:6
Hakupha - ” Original ancestor of clan of Temple servants (Ezra 2:51 )
Temah - (tee' muh) A family of Temple servants (Nethinim) returning from Exile (Ezra 2:53 ; Nehemiah 7:55 )
Uta - His sons returned among the Temple servants under Zerub
Hatita - Exploration, one of the Temple porters or janitors (Ezra 2:42 )
Cella - ) The part inclosed within the walls of an ancient Temple, as distinguished from the open porticoes
Cutha - His sons were among the Temple servants who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel
Asuppim - The "house of Asuppim" was probably a storehouse in connection with the Temple, 1 Chronicles 26:15
Conaniah - Whom Jehovah hath set, a Levite placed over the tithes brought into the Temple (2 Chronicles 35:9 )
Amzi - A priest in the second Temple ( Nehemiah 11:12 )
Tikkun chatzot - �midnight service�); a prayer recited by pious Jews at midnight, lamenting the destruction of the Holy Temple...
Revestiary - ) The apartment, in a church or Temple, where the vestments, etc
Chatzot - (a) midnight; (b) the Tikkun Chatzot prayer recited at midnight, lamenting the destruction of the Temple; (c) midday
Mauzzim - " The reference may be to the fact that Antiochus Epiphanes erected a Temple to Jupiter Capitolinus at Antioch, and dedicated Jehovah's Temple at Jerusalem to Jupiter Olympius (Livy 41:20; 2 Maccabees 6:2)
Worshipper, - a translation of the Greek word neocoros , used once only, ( Acts 19:35 ) in the margin, "temple-keeper. " The neocoros was originally an attendant in a Temple probably intrusted with its charge
High Places - Before the Temple was built, there was nothing contrary to the law in the "high places" provided God alone was worshipped there, and no incense or victims were offered to idols. During the period of the Judges and the Kings, the Israelites erected idolatrous altars and Solomon built a Temple for the idol of the Moabites on the hill near Jerusalem (3Kings 11)
Anna - (an' nuh) An aged prophetess who recognized the Messiah when He was brought to the Temple for dedication (Luke 2:36 ). After seven years of marriage, she was widowed and became an attendant of the Temple
Tobiah - An Ammonite prince, in league with Sanballat and the Samaritans against the pious Jews, who were rebuilding the ruined Temple, Nehemiah 2:10 ; 4:3 . During Nehemiah's absence, Tobiah was unlawfully established by some of the chief men of Judah, his relatives, in a fine apartment of the new Temple; but was ignominiously expelled on the governor's return, Nehemiah 6:17-19 ; 13:1-9
Temporomalar - ) Of or pertaining to both the Temple and the region of the malar bone; as, the temporomalar nerve
Peridrome - ) The space between the columns and the wall of the cella, in a Greek or a Roman Temple
Tetrastyle - ) Having four columns in front; - said of a Temple, portico, or colonnade
Abject - In Psalms 35:15 ‘abject’ occurs as a noun, as in Herbert’s Temple ‘Servants and abjects flout me
Nisroch - An Assyrian idol, in the Temple of which at Nineveh Sennacheribwas slain
Bajith - The site of a Temple in Moab, where the king offered vain supplications against the Assyrians, Isaiah 15:2
Eli'Athah - (to whom God comes ), a musician in the Temple in the time of King David
Temple, the Second - The body of pilgrims, forming a band of 42,360, including children, having completed the long and dreary journey of some four months, from the banks of the Euphrates to Jerusalem, were animated in all their proceeding by a strong religious impulse, and therefore one of their first cares was to restore their ancient worship by rebuilding the Temple. First they erected and dedicated the altar of Jehovah on the exact spot where it had formerly stood, and they then cleared away the charred heaps of debris which occupied the site of the old Temple; and in the second month of the second year (B. 535), amid great public excitement and rejoicing (Psalm 116 ; 117 ; 118 ), the foundations of the second Temple were laid. Zerubbabel and Jeshua and the elders, however, declined all such cooperation: Judah must build the Temple without help. In the second year of this monarch the work of rebuilding the Temple was resumed and carried forward to its completion (Ezra 5 :: 617-17 ; 6:1-15 ), under the stimulus of the earnest counsels and admonitions of the prophets Haggai and Zechariah. This second Temple had not the ark, the Urim and Thummim, the holy oil, the sacred fire, the tables of stone, the pot of manna, and Aaron's rod. As in the tabernacle, there was in it only one golden lamp for the holy place, one table of shewbread, and the incense altar, with golden censers, and many of the vessels of gold that had belonged to Solomon's Temple that had been carried to Babylon but restored by Cyrus (Ezra 1:7-11 ). ...
This second Temple also differed from the first in that, while in the latter there were numerous "trees planted in the courts of the Lord," there were none in the former. The second Temple also had for the first time a space, being a part of the outer court, provided for proselytes who were worshippers of Jehovah, although not subject to the laws of Judaism. ...
The Temple, when completed, was consecrated amid great rejoicings on the part of all the people (Ezra 6:16 ), although there were not wanting outward evidences that the Jews were no longer an independent people, but were subject to a foreign power. The Temple, during the different periods of its existence, is regarded as but one house, the one only house of God (comp 2:3). "Christ himself, present bodily in the Temple on Mount Zion during his life on earth, present spiritually in the Church now, present in the holy city, the heavenly Jerusalem, of which he is the Temple, calling forth spiritual worship and devotion is the glory here predicted" (Perowne)
Temple - of Christ and the Gospels , and Encyclopaedia Biblica make another description of the Temple and its services unnecessary. Jewish Christians and the Temple. Luke evidently attached much importance to the fact recorded at the end of his Gospel, that after the resurrection of Christ the apostles ‘were continually in the Temple, blessing God’ (Luke 24:53). ’ ‘We have distinct evidence that Christian Jews like other Jews frequented the Temple, the sanctuary of the nation, and thereby maintained their claim to be Jews in the true sense’ (F. After the baptism of fire on the Day of Pentecost they are found ‘continuing stedfastly with one accord in the Temple’ (Acts 2:46). Peter and John went up into the Temple at the hour of prayer (Acts 3:1), and in the fulfilment of their commission as witnesses for Christ (Acts 1:8) they found their best audiences in the Temple-courts. At the Beautiful Gate-either the Gate of Nicanor leading into the court of the Israelites or the Eastern Gate of the outer court-they moved the crowd by performing an act of healing in Christ’s name; and in Solomon’s Porch-the long colonnade in the east of the Temple area-Peter testified to the raising of the Prince of Life whom the rulers had in ignorance killed. the head of the Temple police (στρατηγὸς τοῦ ἱεροῦ) and the Sadducees (Acts 4:1); and, if their freedom of speech was somewhat curtailed, this was not because of their attitude to the Temple and its services, which was evidently quite correct, but simply because they were said to be exciting the multitude and disturbing the peace. The reproof administered to them was as mild as their confinement was brief; and the Christian Jews, finding that they could not be excluded from the Temple precincts, continued to make Solomon’s Porch their ordinary rendezvous (Acts 5:12). A second arrest of apostles followed, but the report has it that the angel who released them bade them go and speak in the Temple all the words of this life (Acts 5:17-20), and accordingly they are again found standing there and teaching the people (Acts 5:25). Until the appearance of Stephen created a new situation, the apostles were daily in the Temple, teaching and preaching Jesus as the Messiah. Against so strict and thoroughgoing Jews the guardians of the national religion, as embodied in the Temple and its cultus, had no ground of complaint, and the apostles on their side ‘could still cherish the hope that the nation at large might be brought to turn and bow the knee to its true Messiah’ (Hort, op. For the present the bearing of their teaching upon the Temple itself was but dimly, if at all, perceived, and wholly unexpressed. Stephen and the Temple. His attitude to the Temple has been variously understood. On the contrary, it is at least in part equivalent to a substantial justification of the doctrine complained of, since it declares at its close that the worship of God in this Temple ‘made with hands’ had never been in accordance with the will of God. ) also thinks that the building of the Temple is represented by Stephen as an unauthorized and presumptuous act. It seems much more likely that he made no theoretical attack upon the Mosaic Law, while his declaration that ‘the Most High dwelleth not in houses made with hands’ (Acts 7:48-50) was so far from being new that it merely echoed the words of Solomon at the dedication of the first Temple (1 Kings 8:27). If he was in the habit of repeating Christ’s prediction of the destruction of the Temple at the Parousia-and this was probably what gave colour to the charges made against him-he interpreted that threat not as an abrogation of the Mosaic Law, but as a judgment upon the nation for its sin. The third Temple might fall as the first had fallen, and yet the Torah itself remain intact. For him, as for every other Jewish Christian in Jerusalem, the Law, without distinction of moral and ceremonial precepts, was ‘ordained of angels’; in his view the nation’s treatment of its prophets and its Messiah was the supreme proof that the Law had not been kept; and the burden of his preaching was a call to Jerusalem not to close her Temple and abolish her ritual, but to take the lead in a national repentance for a broken Law. Paul and the Temple. -The recognition of the validity of a Christianity to which Jerusalem and the Temple were negligible quantities was the result of a protracted controversy in which St. This he never did, and, to prove that the charge was groundless, he was advised, during his last visit to Jerusalem, to conciliate the great mass of Christian Jews by performing the vow of a Nazirite in the Temple. Paul as a profaner of the Temple, and the Romans arrested him as a disturber of the peace. James and the Temple. -James the Just, the Lord’s brother, represented two ideas-the continuance of the Church in union with the Temple, and the hope of the conversion of Israel. Their hope of a Jewish national Church, centralized in the Temple and giving both law and gospel to mankind, had at least to be postponed. In three years the Temple was destroyed, Jewish nationality shattered, and St. … And I saw no Temple therein’ (Revelation 21:10; Revelation 21:22)
Temple - Temple. dwelleth not in Temples made with hands. The word Temple occurs in the A. But the Temple at Babylon is alluded to, 2 Chronicles 36:7; Ezra 5:14; the Temple of Diana at Ephesus, Acts 19:27; the Temple of God, 2 Corinthians 6:16, meaning the saints, and the Temple in the Holy City—the New Jerusalem. There were three successive Temples there; 1. Zerubbabel's, known as the Second Temple; 3. Herod's Temple. Solomon's Temple, was built on Mount Moriah, in the eastern part of Jerusalem, by Solomon, the king, as conceived and planned by his father David. All the arrangements of the Temple were identical with those of the tabernacle, and the dimensions of every part exactly double those of the previous structure. All around the main structure there were attached to the north and south sides and at the west end certain buildings called side chambers, 1 Kings 6:10, three stories in height, which were much more extensive than the Temple itself. The Temple of Solomon stood 424 years; at times was allowed to fall into decay; was plundered by Shishak, king of Egypt, during the reign of Rehoboam. The Temple of Zerubbabel. Zerubbabel, as Jewish governor, and Joshua, the high priest, superintended the people in rebuilding the Temple. This second Temple, though inferior in many respects to the first—having no ark, no mercy-seat, no visible revelation of the divine glory, no sacred fire, no Urim and Thummim, and no spirit of prophecy, Ezra 3:12-13—still was in breadth and height, in almost every dimension, one-third larger than Solomon's. Temple of Herod. — The Temple of Zerubbabel after nearly 500 years had suffered much from wars, age, and decay, when Herod the Great, to secure the favor of the Jews, undertook to rebuild it. Along the ramparts of the Temple hill ran double cloisters or arcades, and there the money changers sat Matthew 21:12. There were several courts about the Temple which were upon different levels. The outer court, or court of the Gentiles, came first; then the court of the women, the court of Israel, the court of the priests, and then the Temple itself. The entrance of the Temple was 20 cubits wide and 40 high. The Temple was of two stories; in the lower there were 38 chambers in three tiers; in the upper, none. The Child Jesus was found amid the doctors of the law in the Temple courts. The Beautiful Gate, Acts 3:2, was one of the finest entrances to the Temple. The castle of Antonia, from which, by a secret passageway, the Roman soldiery could be led down into the Temple area to preserve order—as notably to rescue Paul, Acts 21:31-32—was situated upon the northwestern corner of the outer cloister, and had four towers with a large interior space. Jesus foretold the destruction of the third Temple: "There shall not be left here one stone upon another, that shall not be thrown down. , and was fulfilled about 40 years afterward, by the Roman soldiers, who set the Temple on fire and destroyed it in 70 a. ...
Up to quite recent times the Haram—as the enclosure containing the site of the Temple is called, and where the mosques of Omar and el-Aksar now stand—was closed to all non-Mohammedans; but the pressure brought to bear after the Crimean war, 1856, was too great, and now travellers find little difficulty in gaining admittance. ...
The Temple was a type of the Christian, for every Christian is a Temple of the Holy Ghost. The Temple seen by Ezekiel in vision is very fully described, and is supposed by some to be a figure of the actual Temple
Porch - The vast majority of Old Testament references concern the “porch” of the Jerusalem Temple as in 1Kings 6:3,1Kings 6:12,1 Kings 6:19 . This reflects a view of a two-room Temple with an attached porch. REB and NRSV translation, “vestibule,” reflects a view of a three-room Temple
Pinnacle - Matthew 4:5, "the pinnacle of the Temple," the summit of the southern portico, rising 400 cubits above the valley of Jehoshaphat (Josephus Daniel 9:27, "upon the wing (kenaph ) of abominations shall be that which causeth desolation," namely, an idol set up on a wing or pinnacle of the Temple by antichrist, who covenants with the restored Jews for the last of the 70 weeks of years (John 5:43) and breaks the covenant in the midst of the week, causing the daily sacrifices to cease. The pinnacle of the Temple restored may be the scene of Satan's tempting Israel by antichrist as it was of his tempting Jesus
Porters - The porters of the Temple were Levites, at one period four thousand in number, divided into courses, 1 Chronicles 16:42 23:5 . They stood on guard at every gate, and were on duty within the Temple in their regular courses, 1 Chronicles 16:42 23:5 . ...
They stood on guard at every gate, and were on duty within the Temple in their regular courses, 1 Chronicles 26:1,13,19 2 Chronicles 8:14 35:15
Dedication, Feast of the, - the festival instituted to commemorate the purging of the Temple and the rebuilding of the altar after Judas Maccabbeus had driven out the Syrians, B. (John 10:22 ) It commenced on the 25th of Chisleu (early in December), the anniversary of the pollution of the Temple by Antiochus Epiphanes, B. In the Temple at Jerusalem the "Hallel" was sung every day of the feast
Temple, Herod's - The Temple erected by the exiles on their return from Babylon had stood for about five hundred years, when Herod the Great became king of Judea. The main part of the building was completed in ten years, but the erection of the outer courts and the embellishment of the whole were carried on during the entire period of our Lord's life on earth (John 2:16,19-21 ), and the Temple was completed only A. The Roman legions took the city of Jerusalem by storm, and notwithstanding the strenuous efforts Titus made to preserve the Temple, his soldiers set fire to it in several places, and it was utterly destroyed (A. Several remains of Herod's stately Temple have by recent explorations been brought to light. ...
It is of importance to notice that the word rendered "sanctuary" in the inscription was used in a specific sense of the inner court, the court of the Israelites, and is the word rendered "temple" in John 2:15 and Acts 21:28,29 . Within this partition wall stood the Temple proper, consisting of, (1) the court of the women, 8 feet higher than the outer court; (2) 10 feet higher than this court was the court of Israel; (3) the court of the priests, again 3 feet higher; and lastly (4) the Temple floor, 8 feet above that; thus in all 29 feet above the level of the outer court. ...
The summit of Mount Moriah, on which the Temple stood, is now occupied by the Haram esh-Sherif, i. This mosque covers the site of Solomon's Temple. The exact position on this "sacred enclosure" which the Temple occupied has not been yet definitely ascertained. Some affirm that Herod's Temple covered the site of Solomon's Temple and palace, and in addition enclosed a square of 300 feet at the south-western angle. The Temple courts thus are supposed to have occupied the southern portion of the "enclosure," forming in all a square of more than 900 feet. It is argued by others that Herod's Temple occupied a square of 600 feet at the south-west of the "enclosure
Shechinah - A Chaldee word meaning resting-place, not found in Scripture, but used by the later Jews to designate the visible symbol of God's presence in the tabernacle, and afterwards in Solomon's Temple. We have, however, no special reference to it till the consecration of the Temple by Solomon, when it filled the whole house with its glory, so that the priests could not stand to minister (1 Kings 8:10-13 ; 2 Chronicles 5:13,14 ; 7:1-3 ). Probably it remained in the first Temple in the holy of holies as the symbol of Jehovah's presence so long as that Temple stood
Temporo - A combining form used in anatomy to indicate connection with, or relation to, the Temple, or temporal bone; as, temporofacial
Mehida - ” Family of Temple servants (KJV, Nethinim) at Ezra 2:52 ; Nehemiah 7:54
Bajith - Modern translations read, “temple
Zechariah ben iddo - (4th century BCE) A contemporary of Haggai and Malachi, the last prophets, prophesied during the construction of the Second Temple
Silversmith - Only referred to in scripture as those who formed the silver representations of the Temple at Ephesus
Shrine - Small representations of heathen Temples, as at Ephesus or elsewhere. The word is ναός, often translated 'temple
Asuppim - a word which signifies gatherings, and the name of the treasury of the Temple of Jerusalem, 1 Chronicles 26:15
Aph'Ses - (the dispersion ), chief of the 15th of the 24 courses in the service of the Temple
Temple - 1: ἱερόν (Strong's #2411 — Noun Neuter — hieron — hee-er-on' ) the neuter of the adjective hieros, "sacred," is used as a noun denoting "a sacred place, a Temple," that of Artemis (Diana), Acts 19:27 ; that in Jerusalem, Mark 11:11 , signifying the entire building with its precincts, or some part thereof, as distinct from the naos, "the inner sanctuary" (see No. The Temple mentioned in the Gospels and Acts was begun by Herod in 20 B. ...
2: ναός (Strong's #3485 — Noun Masculine — naos — nah-os' ) "a shrine or sanctuary," was used (a) among the heathen, to denote the shrine containing the idol, Acts 17:24 ; 19:24 (in the latter, miniatures); (b) among the Jews, the sanctuary in the "Temple," into which only the priests could lawfully enter, e. , Luke 1:9,21,22 ; Christ, as being of the tribe of Judah, and thus not being a priest while upon the earth (Hebrews 7:13,14 ; 8:4 ), did not enter the naos; for 2 Thessalonians 2:4 see Note (below); (c) by Christ metaphorically, of His own physical body, John 2:19,21 ; (d) in apostolic teaching, metaphorically, (1) of the Church, the mystical Body of Christ, Ephesians 2:21 ; (2) of a local church, 1 Corinthians 3:16,17 ; 2 Corinthians 6:16 ; (3) of the present body of the individual believer, 1 Corinthians 6:19 ; (4) of the "Temple" seen in visions in the Apocalypse, Revelation 3:12 ; 7:15 ; 11:19 ; 14:15,17 ; 15:5,6,8 ; 16:1,17 ; (5) of the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb, as the "Temple" of the new and heavenly Jerusalem, Revelation 21:22 . ...
Notes: (1) The "temple" mentioned in 2 Thessalonians 2:4 (naos), as the seat of the Man of Sin, has been regarded in different ways. The weight of Scripture evidence is in favor of the view that it refers to a literal "temple" in Jerusalem, to be reconstructed in the future (cp. (2) For oikos, rendered "temple," Luke 11:51 , AV, see HOUSE , No
Half-Shekel Tax - The Temple tax required annually of every Israelite twenty years of age and upwards (Exodus 30:13 ,Exodus 30:13,30:15 ; Exodus 38:26 ). The coin in the fish's mouth was a stater , a coin worth four drachmas or the Temple tax for two (Matthew 17:27 )
Solomon's Porch - Some porch or colonnade attached to the Temple built by Herod. It was probably an unfrequented part of the outer Temple, for the believers met there in the earliest days of the church
Barachias - the father of Zacharias, mentioned Matthew 23:35 , as slain between the Temple and the altar. ...
Some think him to be Zacharias, the son of Jehoiada, who was killed by the orders of Joash, between the Temple and the altar, 2 Chronicles 24:21
Hagaba - (hag' uh buh) Clan of Temple servants who returned home from Babylonian Exile with Zerubbabel about 537 B
Shalmai - Servant (Nethanim) in Temple (Ezra 2:46 ; Nehemiah 7:48 )
Checker Work - A designation applied in 1 Kings 7:17 (only) to the net-ornament on the pillars before the Temple
Shethar-Boznai - Star of splendour, a Persian officer who vainly attempted to hinder the rebuilding of the Temple (Ezra 5:3,6 ; 6:6,13 )
Amashai - The son of Azareel, appointed by Nehemiah to reside at Jerusalem and do the work of the Temple (Nehemiah 11:13 )
Eliathah - A Hemanite, whose family formed the twentieth division of the Temple service ( 1 Chronicles 25:4 ; 1 Chronicles 25:27 )
Amphiprostyle - ) An amphiprostyle Temple or edifice
Teocalli - ) Literally, God's house; a Temple, usually of pyramidal form, such as were built by the aborigines of Mexico, Yucatan, etc
Monopteral - of a Temple
Rak'Kon - (the Temple ) (of the head), a well-watered place in the inheritance of Dan, not fur from Joppa
Sign - I should not have paused at this word had it not been with a view to have noticed the five signs of the Jews, which they regarded as so highly important in the first Temple, and which they confessed the second Temple was destitute of. ...
Now as these five symbols or signs of the Lord's favour to his church and people were in the first Temple, but not in the second, what a blessed prophecy and promise was that of the Lord by Haggai, that the glory of the latter house should be greater than the former! (Haggai 2:9) A circumstance only to be explained by the actual presence of the Lord himself in the Temple, which those five signs typified and represented. And what a blessed accomplishment of both prophecy and promise was it, when the Lord Jesus himself came suddenly to his Temple in substance of our flesh! (Malachi 3:2) In him all the signs and symbols, shadows, types, and figures, had their whole meaning realized
Cherubim - From the images that were made for the tabernacle and the Temple, it seems that cherubim (plural of cherub) were winged creatures of some heavenly angelic order. In Solomon’s Temple also, the Most Holy Place had images of guardian cherubim. ...
Craftsmen who worked on the ornamentation of the tabernacle and the Temple included cherubim in many of their designs. Cherubim were pictured on the coverings and curtains of the tabernacle (Exodus 26:1; Exodus 26:31), the walls of the Temple (1 Kings 6:29; cf. Ezekiel 41:17-20; Ezekiel 41:25), and the mobile lavers that belonged to the Temple (1 Kings 7:29; 1 Kings 7:36)
Red heifer - The Mitzvah of: offering made in Temple times as part of a process of ritual cleansing (discussed in Numbers 19:1-22) ...
Siaha - ” Temple servants (Ezra 2:44 )
Zetham - ” Levite who served as a Temple treasurer (1 Chronicles 23:8 ; 1 Chronicles 26:22 )
Osoph - (5th century BCE) A Levite singer who lived through the Destruction of the Temple; authored many chapters of the Book of Psalms
Pythian - ) Of or pertaining to Delphi, to the Temple of Apollo, or to the priestess of Apollo, who delivered oracles at Delphi
Padon - ” Ancestor of a family of postexilic Temple servants (Ezra 2:44 ; Nehemiah 7:47 )
Jachin - God confirms, the name of the right-hand brazen column at the entrance of Solomon's Temple 1 Kings 7:21
Asaph - (5th century BCE) A Levite singer who lived through the Destruction of the Temple; authored many chapters of the Book of Psalms
Bukki'ah - (wasting from Jehovah ), a Kohathite Levite, of the sons of Heman, one of the musicians in the Temple
Laver - The Old Testament describes the lavers used in the tabernacle and in Solomon's Temple. Solomon's Temple employed a large laver, the molten sea (1 Kings 7:23-26 ; 2 Chronicles 4:2-5 ), and ten smaller lavers (1 Kings 7:38-39 ; 2 Chronicles 4:6 ). See Sea, Molten ; Temple
Parbar - A place or outbuilding with" chambers" for laying up Temple goods (Keil), on the W. or hinder side of the Temple enclosure, the same side as the causeway and gate of Shallechoth, on the S. wall of the Temple from the city opposite, i
Shrine - 1: ναός (Strong's #3485 — Noun Masculine — naos — nah-os' ) "the inmost part of a Temple, a shrine," is used in the plural in Acts 19:24 , of the silver models of the pagan "shrine" in which the image of Diana (Greek Artemis) was preserved. See Temple
Trophimus - He was with Paul in Jerusalem, and the Jews, supposing that the apostle had brought him with him into the Temple, raised a tumult which resulted in Paul's imprisonment. (See Temple, HEROD'S
Porch, Solomon's - A colonnade on the east of the Temple, so called from a tradition that it was a relic of Solomon's Temple left standing after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians
Heldai - A Jew from Babylon, from whom and Tobijah and Jedaiah the gold and silver which they presented toward building the Temple were to be taken, and crowns made for Joshua's head, afterward to be deposited in the Temple as a memorial of the donors (as Cornelius' prayers and ahns of faith "came up for a memorial before God," Acts 10:4), until Messiah should come
Chariots of the Sun - RSV translation in 2 Kings 23:11 for a sculpture that Josiah removed from the Jerusalem Temple. Deuteronomy 17:3 records God's injunction to Israel not to worship the sun, but Ezekiel attested to persons in the Temple worshiping the sun ( Ezekiel 8:16 )
Moriah, Mount - The mount on which the Temple was built: once only is it thus designated. of Jerusalem, where there is a large plain, called the 'temple area,' formed by stones being built into the sides of the rock
Sherezer - the congregation of priests at Jerusalem ministering at the altar, (the Temple was not yet completed), to ask whether they should still observe the fast on the tenth day of the fifth month, the anniversary of the burning of the Temple
Jupiter - his Temple was in front of the city). Antiochus Epiphanes (Daniel 8, 11), the Old Testament antichrist, to subvert the Jewish religion, dedicated the Temple of Jehovah at Jerusalem to the Greek Olympian Jupiter
House of Prayer - A church, the house of God, as Our Lord designated the Temple of Jerusalem: "My house is the house of prayer
Parnassus - ) A mountain in Greece, sacred to Apollo and the Muses, and famous for a Temple of Apollo and for the Castalian spring
Pentastyle - ) Having five columns in front; - said of a Temple or portico in classical architecture
Acub - His sons were among the ‘temple servants’ who returned with Zerubbabel
Mithredath - Persian officer who opposed the rebuilding of the Temple
Asipha - His sons were among the Temple servants who returned with Zerubbabel; called Hasupha , Ezra 2:43 , Nehemiah 7:46
Keruvim - (Cherubs): angels resembling young children; relief images of two winged cherubim were part of the cover of the holy Ark in the Temple ...
Tatnai - The king of Persia's satrap in Palestine, who sought to stop the Jews from rebuilding the Temple
Bul - Solomon's Temple was finished in Bul
Chagigah - "festival"); (a) festive offering, a sacrifice brought to the Temple on festivals; (b) a tractate of the Talmud dealing with such sacrifices...
Porch - stoa , was extended to signify a roofed colonnade running round a public building such as a Temple, or enclosing an open space, like the cloisters of a mediæval monastery. ...
In the OT a porch is named chiefly in connexion with the Temple (see below), or with the palace (wh. The pillars of the Temple of Dagon at Gaza which Samson pulled down, or rather slid from their stone bases, were probably two of those supporting the portico, as ingeniously explained by Macalister, Bible Sidelights , etc. ...
Solomon’s porch ( John 10:23 , Acts 3:11 ; Acts 5:12 ) was a covered colonnade or cloister running along the east side of the Temple enclosure (see Temple, § 1 ( a ), where the triple colonnade of Herod’s Temple the ‘Royal Porch’ of Josephus is also discussed
Diana - Her original Temple founded 580 B. The second Temple, alluded to in Acts, was built in the reign of Alexander the Great. The Temple was the public treasury and bank, and had the right of asylum. 120, and an inscription referring to the Temple of Diana, concerning its endowments and ritual, such as lists of votive statues of gold and silver with their weights and the regulations under which such objects were to be carried in procession. )...
The inscription orders such votive objects to be carried in procession on certain days from the Temple through the. Magnesian gate to the great theater, and thence through the Coressian gate back to the Temple. This clause gave a clue to the discovery of the Temple. At the convergence of these two roads he found the enclosing wall of the Temple and an inscription that Augustus built it; also a white marble pavement on a level bed of black marble and several drums of columns, 6 ft. Remains of a wide portico surrounding the Temple on three sides have been discovered. The Temple was octastyle, eight columns in front. making the Temple diastyle. The dimensions of the Temple itself, "out to out," are 163 ft
Asaph - Levite musician David appointed to serve in the tabernacle until the Temple was completed (1 Chronicles 6:39 ). Asaph was the father of the clan of Temple musicians who served through the history of the Temple. David established the tradition of delivering psalms to Asaph for the Temple singers to sing (1 Chronicles 16:7 )
Altars in the Temple of Jerusalem - The altar of holocaust was located in front of the Temple proper and the altar of incense stood in the Holy Place before the veil covering the door to the Holy of Holies. " Destroyed with the Temple by Nabuchodonosor, 586 B. Antiochus Epiphanes desecrated this second altar, 168, and on that account it was completely removed by Judas Machabeus, 165, and a new one was erected which apparently remained until the destruction of Herod's Temple by the Romans 70 A. The altar of incense in Solomon's Temple was of the same dimensions as that of the Tabernacle and made of cedar wood overlaid with gold, hence called "golden altar
Samaritans - 636, declined the Samaritans' request to be permitted to help build the Temple. Ezra In consequence of this refusal the Samaritans hindered the erection of the Temple and afterwards the rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem, b. The enmity was increased by the erection of a rival Temple on Mount Gerizim, where the Samaritans offered sacrifices according to the Mosaic law, referring to Deuteronomy 27:11-13, as proof that this was the proper site for the Temple
Ezra - the Book of: The book of Tanach relating Jewish history during the early Second Holy Temple Era under the leadership of Ezra and Nehemiah
Tabbaoth - ” Head of a family of Temple servants (Nethinim) returning from Exile (Ezra 2:43 ; Nehemiah 7:46 )
Beka - The amount contributed by each Israelite male for the use of the Temple (Exodus 38:26 )
Den - Matthew 21:13 (a) Here is a type of the desperate condition of the Temple, filled with cheating, lying, deceitful merchants bartering their wares
Bakbukiah - A leader of the Temple service in the days of Nehemiah
Decastyle - ) Having ten columns in front; - said of a portico, Temple, etc
Abomination of Desolation - 3) refers to the Jews' tradition that the Temple would be destroyed "if domestic hands should first pollute it. This was necessarily followed by the profanation of the Temple under the Old Testament antichrist, Antiochus Epiphanes. He built an idolatrous altar on the altar of burnt offering to Jupiter Olympius, and dedicated the Temple to him, and offered swine's flesh. The bringing of the idolatrous, Roman, image crowned standards into the Temple, where they were set over the E. They had taken possession of the Temple, and having made a profane country fellow, Phannias, their high priest, they made a mock of the sacred rites of the law. The last antichrist, many think, is about to set up an idol on a wing of the restored Temple (compare Matthew 4:5; John 5:43) in the latter half of the last, or 70th, of Daniel's prophetic weeks; for the former three and a half days (years) of the prophetic week he keeps his covenant with the Jews; in the latter three and a half breaks it (Zechariah 11:16-17; Zechariah 11:12; Zechariah 11:13; Zechariah 11:14; Daniel 9; 11). The Roman emperor Hadrian erected a Temple to Jupiter upon the site of the Jewish Temple; but probably "the consummation to be poured upon the desolate" is yet future
Antonia - A square fortress on the east side of Jerusalem, north of the Temple area, with which it had a covered communication. It was "the castle" from which soldiers came down to rescue Paul from the Jews in the Temple; and from its stairs he addressed the multitude, Acts 21:31-40
Ezekiel - His famous prophecies include his vision of the Merkavah, a detailed description of the Third Holy Temple, and the vision of the valley of dry bones. ...
Ezekiel, the Book of: The book of Tanach containing Ezekiel's prophecies, including his vision of the Merkavah, a detailed description of the Third Holy Temple, and the vision of the valley of dry bones
Anna - After seven years of married life her husband died, and during her long widowhood she daily attended the Temple services. When she was eighty-four years old, she entered the Temple at the moment when the aged Simeon uttered his memorable words of praise and thanks to God that he had fulfilled his ancient promise in sending his Son into the world (Luke 2:36,37 )
Eliathah - ” A Temple musician appointed under David to play and prophesy (1 Chronicles 25:4 ). He headed a division of Temple workers (1 Chronicles 25:27 , where the Hebrew spelling of the name varies slightly)
Nanaea - In 2Ma 1:10-17 we have a legendary account of the death of Antiochus Epiphanes, who is said to have attempted to plunder a Temple of Nanæa in Persia, and to have been treacherously killed in the Temple by the priests
Mahol - An alternate interpretation takes the phrase “sons of the place of dancing” as a title for those who danced as part of the Temple ritual (compare Psalm 149:3 ; Psalm 150:4 ). The wisdom of the Temple dancers may be akin to the prophetic wisdom associated with musicians (1 Samuel 10:5 ; 2 Kings 3:15 ; and especially 1 Chronicles 25:3 )
Yirmiyahu - His melancholy prophecies concerning the forthcoming destruction of the first Holy Temple and the Babylonian exile were viewed by many as treasonous, and resulted in his incarceration. ...
Yirmiyahu: The book of Tanach containing Jeremiah's prophecies, many of which concern the destruction of the holy Temple
Yechezkel - His famous prophecies include his vision of the Merkavah, a detailed description of the Third Holy Temple, and the vision of the valley of dry bones. ...
Yechezkel: The book of Tanach containing Ezekiel's prophecies, including his vision of the Merkavah, a detailed description of the Third Holy Temple, and the vision of the valley of dry bones
Anna - Her husband having died after she had been married seven years, she devoted herself to the Lord, and was very constant in her attendance on the services of the Temple. She did not, however, live in the Temple itself
Doorkeeper - Temple doorkeeper was an important office in biblical times. The reference is those waiting outside the Temple either to beg alms or to seek admission. The thought of the verse is that it is better to be standing outside the Temple than to be inside the tents of the wicked
Mauzzim - He had begun to build a Temple to Jupiter Capitolinus in Antioch (Livy, xli. But Antiochus also sent ‘an old man from Athens’ to ‘pollute the Temple in Jerusalem, and to call it the Temple of Jupiter Olympius’ ( 2Ma 6:2 )
Gerizim, Mount - History records that after the rebuilding of the Temple in the time of Ezra a Samaritan Temple was built on this mountain, where they had priests and sacrifices, which was the cause of great animosity between the Jews and the Samaritans. Though this Temple was destroyed by Hyrcanus, the Samaritans clung to the mountain as the right place of worship, as the woman of Samaria said to the Lord
Susanchites - The inhabitants of Shushan, who joined the other adversaries of the Jews in the attempt to prevent the rebuilding of the Temple (Ezra 4:9 )
Keros - ” One of the Temple servants whose descendants returned from the Exile with Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:44 ; Nehemiah 7:47 )
Lebana - ” Original ancestor of clan of Temple servants (Ezra 2:45 ; Nehemiah 7:48 )
Nephisim - (neh fi' ssihm) Family of Temple servants who returned from Exile (Ezra 2:50 ), probably identical with the Nephushesim (Nephishesim, KJV) of Nehemiah 7:52
Achipha - His children were among the ‘temple servants’ or Nethinim who returned with Zerubbabel; called Hakupha , Ezra 2:51 , Nehemiah 7:53
Pinnacle - The word πτερύγιον has the article, and refers to some elevated part of the Temple that is now unknown
Asana - His descendants were among the ‘temple servants’ or Nethinim who returned with Zerubbabel; called Asnah in Ezra 2:50 Kehunah - "priesthood"); G-d's sanctification of Aaron and his descendants to serve Him in the Holy Temple as the emissaries of the people of Israel...
Tevet 10 - fast day commemorating the date on which the Babylonians laid siege around the walls of Jerusalem, leading to the eventual destruction of the Holy Temple
an'na - (grace ), a "prophetess" in Jerusalem at the time of our Lord's Presentation in the Temple
Hen'Adad - (grace of Hadad ), the head of a family of the Levites who took a prominent part in the rebuilding of the Temple
Masons - These must have had much to do with the building of the Temple, and it may be that some of their handiwork is still to be seen in the foundations of the large level place in Jerusalem, called the Mosque enclosure, or the Temple area. It is generally supposed that the Temple was built on some part of this enclosure, which had to be erected on the sides of the rock, the lower stones being let into the rock, and stones built upon them until the whole, except the summit of the rock, was a level plain. These stones formed no part of the Temple, so that the Temple could be destroyed without disturbing them
Table - For ‘Table of Shewbread’ see Shewbread, Tabernacle, § 6 ( a ), Temple, §§ 5 , 9 , 12
Horse-Gate - A gate in the wall of Jerusalem, at the west end of the bridge, leading from Zion to the Temple (Nehemiah 3:28 ; Jeremiah 31:40 )
Besai - A clan of Temple employees who returned from Exile in Babylon with Zerubbabel about 537 B
Eliphelehu - ” Levite and musician in Temple under David (1Chronicles 15:18,1 Chronicles 15:21 )
Simchat beit hashoeivah - �the rejoicing of the place of the water-drawing�); celebration accompanying the water libation ceremony on Sukkot in Temple times, recalled today by Sukkot celebrations
Bul - ” Solomon finished building the Temple in this month (1 Kings 6:38 )
Mahazioth - ” Son of Heman who served as a Temple musician (1Chronicles 25:4,1Chronicles 25:6-7,1 Chronicles 25:30 )
Asara - His sons were among the Temple servants or Nethinim who returned under Zerubbabel: omitted in the parallel lists in Ezr
Asur - His sons returned among the Temple servants under Zerubbabel; called Harhur , Ezra 2:51 , Nehemiah 7:53
Tammuz 17 - (Fast): fast commemorating five calamities, including the breaching of the walls of Jerusalem during the Roman siege that led to the destruction of the Holy Temple ...
Mahazioth - ” Son of Heman who served as a Temple musician (1Chronicles 25:4,1Chronicles 25:6-7,1 Chronicles 25:30 )
Temple - There is perhaps no building of the ancient world which has excited so much attention since the time of its destruction as the Temple which Solomon built by Herod. When the French expedition to Egypt, int he first years of this century, had made the world familiar with the wonderful architectural remains of that country, every one jumped to the conclusion that Solomon's Temple must have been designed after an Egyptian model. Unfortunately, however, no Assyrian Temple has yet been exhumed of a nature to throw much light on this subject, and we are still forced to have recourse to the later buildings at Persepolis, or to general deductions from the style of the nearly contemporary secular buildings at Nineveh and elsewhere, for such illustrations as are available. THE Temple OF SOLOMON . In this and all other essential points the Temple followed the model of the tabernacle, from which it differed chiefly by having chambers built about the sanctuary for the abode of the priests and attendants and the keeping of treasures and stores. In all its dimensions, length, breadth and height, the sanctuary itself was exactly double the size of the tabernacle, the ground plan measuring 80 cubits by 40, while that of the tabernacle was 40 by 20, and the height of the Temple being 30 cubits, while that of the tabernacle was 15. [1] As in the tabernacle, the Temple consisted of three parts, the porch, the holy place, and the holy of holies. The front of the porch was supported, after the manner of some Egyptian Temples, by the two great brazen pillars, Jachin and Boaz, 18 cubits high, with capitals of 5 cubits more, adorned with lily-work and pomegranates. If contained an inner court, called the "court of the priests;" but the arrangement of the courts and of the porticos and gateways of the enclosure, though described by Josephus, belongs apparently to the Temple of Herod. We are told by Josephus and the Talmud that there was a superstructure on the Temple equal in height to the lower part; and this is confirmed by the statement in the books of Chronicles that Solomon "overlaid the upper chambers with gold. " ( 2 Chronicles 3:9 ) Moreover, "the altars on the top of the upper chamber," mentioned in the books of the Kings, (2 Kings 23:12 ) were apparently upon the Temple. The dedication of the Temple was the grandest ceremony ever performed under the Mosaic dispensation. The Temple was destroyed on the capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, B. Temple OF ZERUBBABEL . --We have very few particulars regarding the Temple which the Jews erected after their return from the captivity (about B. But there are some dimensions given in the Bible and elsewhere which are extremely interesting, as affording points of comparison between it and the Temple which preceded it and the one erected after it. We see by the description in Ezra that this Temple was about one third larger than Solomon's. From these dimensions we gather that if the priests and Levites and elders of families were disconsolate at seeing how much more sumptuous the old Temple was than the one which on account of their poverty they had hardly been able to erect, ( Ezra 3:12 ) it certainly was not because it was smaller; but it may have been that the carving and the gold and the other ornaments of Solomon's Temple far surpassed this, and the pillars of the portico and the veils may all have been far more splendid; so also probably were the vessels and all this is what a Jew would mourn over far more than mere architectural splendor. In speaking of these Temples we must always bear in mind that their dimensions were practically very far inferior to those of the heathen. Temple OF EZEKIEL . --The vision of a Temple which the prophet Ezekiel saw while residing on the banks of the Chebar in Babylonia, in the twenty-fifth year of the captivity, does not add much to our knowledge of the subject. It is not a description of a Temple that ever was built or ever could be erected at Jerusalem, and can consequently only be considered as the beau ideal of what a Shemitic Temple ought to be. Temple OF HEROD . 20 or 19, his intention of restoring the Temple; (probably a stroke of policy on the part of Herod to gain the favor of the Jews and to make his name great. 9 --eight years from the commencement --the court and cloisters of the Temple were finished, and the bridge between the south cloister and the upper city (demolished by Pompey) was doubtless now rebuilt with that massive masonry of which some remains still survive. ) The Temple or holy "house" itself was in dimensions and arrangement very similar to that of Solomon, or rather that of Zerubbabel --more like the latter; but this was surrounded by an inner enclosure of great strength and magnificence, measuring as nearly as can be made out 180 cubits by 240, and adorned by porches and ten gateways of great magnificence; and beyond this again was an outer enclosure measuring externally 400 cubits each way, which was adorned with porticos of greater splendor than any we know of as attached to any Temple of the ancient world. The Temple was certainly situated in the southwest angle of the area now known as the Haram area at Jerusalem, and its dimensions were what Josephus states them to be --400 cubits, or one stadium, each way. At the time when Herod rebuilt it, he enclosed a space "twice as large" as that before occupied by the Temple and its courts --an expression that probably must not be taken too literally at least, if we are to depend on the measurements of Hecataeus. According to them, the whole area of Herod's Temple was between four and five times greater than that which preceded it. What Herod did apparently, was to take in the whole space between the Temple and the city wall on its east side, and to add a considerable space on the north and south to support the porticos which he added there. As the Temple terrace thus became the principal defence of the city on the east side, there were no gates or openings in that direction, and being situated on a sort of rocky brow --as evidenced from its appearance in the vaults that bounded it on this side --if was at all later times considered unattackable from the eastward. These gates still exist at a distance of about 365 feet from the southwestern angle, and are perhaps the only architectural features of the Temple of Herod which remain in situ . From this a double funnel nearly 200 feet in length, leads to a flight of steps which rise to the surface in the court of the Temple, exactly at that gateway of the inner Temple which led to the altar, and is one of the four gateways on this side by which any one arriving from Ophel would naturally wish to enter the inner enclosure. We learn from the Talmud that the gate of the inner Temple to which this passage led was called the "water gate;" and it is interesting to be able to identify a spot so prominent in the description of Nehemiah. ( Nehemiah 12:37 ) Toward the west there were four gateways to the external enclosure of the Temple. The most magnificent part of the Temple, in an architectural point of view, seems certainly to have been the cloisters which were added to the outer court when it was enlarged by Herod. The cloisters in the west, north and east sides were composed of double rows of Corinthian columns, 25 cubits or 37 feet 6 inches in height, with flat roof, and resting against the outer wall of the Temple. It consisted of a nave and two aisled, that toward the Temple being open, that toward the country closed by a wall. " The court of the Temple was very nearly a square. The great ornament of these inner courts seems to have been their gateways, the three especially on the north end south leading to the Temple court. Both the altar and the Temple were enclosed by a low parapet, one cubit in height, placed so as to keep the people separate from the priests while the latter were performing their functions. Within this last enclosure, toward the westward, stood the Temple itself. As before mentioned, its internal dimensions were the same as those of the Temple of Solomon. the whole plan was augmented by the pteromata , or surrounding parts being increased from 10 to 20 cubits, so that the third Temple, like the second, measured 60 cubits across and 100 cubits east and west. The Temple of Herod was destroyed by the Romans under Titus, Friday, August 9, A
Treasury - The name was given to the thirteen brazen chests, called "trumpets," from the form of the opening into which the offerings of the Temple worshippers were put. , money-gifts instead of the sacrifices; four chests for freewill-offerings for wood, incense, Temple decoration, and burnt-offerings" (Lightfoot's Hor
Cornerstone - Some of the Temple ones are 19 ft. Compare Solomon's Temple, 1 Kings 5:17; 1 Kings 7:9
Helkias - He is mentioned in Esther 1:8 Esther 1:8 = 2 Chronicles 35:8 as a governor of the Temple, subscribing handsomely to Josiah’s great Passover; in Esther 8:1 Esther 8:1 (cf. Ezra 7:1 ) as the great-grandfather of Ezra; and in Bar 1:7 as father of Joakim, who was governor of the Temple in the reign of Zedekiah
Captain of the Temple - In Acts it appears that one of the main functions of this officer was to keep order in the Temple (Acts 4:1 ; Acts 5:24 ,Acts 5:24,5:26 ). The plural (Luke 22:4 ,Luke 22:4,22:52 ) may refer to officers under the command of the captain of the Temple
Shallecheth, the Gate - " The gate was at the road of ascent from the middle valley of Jerusalem to the western side of the Temple court. (See Temple; JERUSALEM
Jeremiah - His melancholy prophecies concerning the forthcoming destruction of the first Holy Temple and the Babylonian exile were viewed by many as treasonous, and resulted in his incarceration. ...
Jeremiah, the Book of: The book of Tanach containing Jeremiah's prophecies, many of which concern the destruction of the holy Temple
Treasury - A part of the Temple was called 'the treasury,' in which were kept things consecrated to Jehovah, as the gold, silver, and vessels of brass and iron captured from Jericho. On one occasion the Lord spoke to the people 'in the treasury, as He taught in the Temple,' doubtless in the outer part where He could watch the people bringing in their gifts
Temple Keeper - , "temple keeper" (AV, "worshiper"), is used in profane Greek of "one who has charge of a Temple
Captain - (Isaiah 1:10 ; 3:6 ) ...
The captain of the Temple, mentioned (Luke 22:4 ; Acts 4:1 ; 5:24 ) superintended the guard of priests and Levites who kept watch by night in the Temple
Almug - One of the kinds of timber which Solomon ordered from Tyre for the building of the Temple. Jewish historians describe it as a fine, white, glossy wood, and it was used for musical instruments, and the ornamental work of the Temple
Bilgah -
The head of the fifteenth sacerdotal course for the Temple service (1 Chronicles 24:14 )
Shrines, Silver - Little models and medallions of the Temple and image of Diana of Ephesus (Acts 19:24 )
Holy of holies - the inner chamber of the Temple where the Divine Presence was most revealed; contained the Holy Ark, was only entered by the High Priest on Yom Kippur ...
Gamul - ” Head of one of the priestly divisions in the Temple under David and Solomon (1 Chronicles 24:17 )
Gazzam - ” Leader of a clan of Temple servants who returned from Babylonian captivity with Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:48 )
Hattil - ” Clan of Temple servants who returned from Babylonian Exile with Zerubbabel about 537 B
Shimshai - ” Scribe who penned letter of Samaritan officials opposing rebuilding of Jerusalem and the Temple about 537 B
Ketab - Head of a family of Temple servants who returned with Zerubbabel
Sur - Gate of the Temple, or the king's house
Parthenon - ) A celebrated marble Temple of Athene, on the Acropolis at Athens
Three weeks - the Three Weeks of mourning from the Seventeenth of Tammuz through Tishah B'Av, commemorating the period between the fall of Jerusalem and the Destruction of the Temple ...
Ranges - " The Levites were appointed to guard the king's person within the Temple (2 Chronicles 23:7 ), while the soldiers were his guard in the court, and in going from the Temple to the palace. , Jehoiada orders that Athaliah should be kept surrounded by his own guards, and at the same time conveyed beyond the precincts of the Temple
Trophimus - Paul was in the Temple there, the Jews laid hold of him, crying out, "Men of Israel, help; this is the man that teacheth all men every where against the people, and the law, and this place; and farther, brought Greeks also into the Temple, and hath polluted this holy place," Acts 21:28-29 . Paul had introduced him into the Temple
Profane - Hence they were prohibited the use of wine during their attendance on the Temple service, that their spirits might not be discomposed by excitement. To profane the Temple, to profane the Sabbath, to profane the altar, are common expressions to denote the violation of the rest of the Sabbath, the entering of foreigners into the Temple, or the want of reverence in those that entered it, and the impious sacrifices that were offered on the altar of the Lord
Trophimus - When the apostle was in the Temple there, the Jews laid hold of him, crying out, "He hath brought Greeks into the Temple, and hath polluted this holy place;" because, having seen him in the city accompanied by Trophimus, they imagined that he had introduced him into the Temple
Eliashib - High priest in time of Nehemiah who led in rebuilding the sheep gate in the Jerusalem wall, a gate through which sheep were led to the nearby Temple for sacrifice (Nehemiah 3:1 ). He may be the Eliashib whose son had a room in the Temple (Ezra 10:6 ). A priest in the time of Nehemiah who administered the Temple storerooms and provided a place for Tobiah, Nehemiah's strong opponent (Nehemiah 13:4-9 ). A Levite and Temple singer in Ezra's day who agreed to divorce his foreign wife to avoid tempting Israel to worship other gods (Ezra 10:24 )
Holy of Holies - The innermost room of the Tabernacle and of the Temple of Jerusalem. In Solomon's, Zorobabel's, and Herod's Temples, the holy of holies was 20 cubits square and 20 high. No windows admitted light into it; it was entered into, at least in the first Temple, by a double folding door of olive wood with cherubim carved upon it. In the middle of the holy of holies of Solomon's Temple stood the Ark of the Covenant, overshadowed by the wings of the two colossal cherubim. As the Ark disappeared at the time of the ruin of that Temple (586 B. ), the holy of holies of Zorobabel's and Herod's Temples contained nothing
Worship - See Adoration, Praise, Prayer, Preaching, Synagogue, Temple
Mallothi - My fulness, a Kohathite Levite, one of the sons of Heman the Levite (1 Chronicles 25:4 ), and chief of the nineteenth division of the Temple musicians (26)
Eliathah - To whom God will come, one of the foureen sons of the Levite Heman, and musician of the Temple in the time of David (1 Chronicles 25:4 )
Shimshai - The shining one, or sunny, the secretary of Rehum the chancellor, who took part in opposing the rebuilding of the Temple after the Captivity (Ezra 4:8,9,17-23 )
Nisroch - Nisroch (nĭsrŏch), great eagle? An Assyrian deity in whose Temple at Nineveh Sennacherib was murdered by his sons, Adrammelech and Sharezer
Nathan-Melech - An official in the reign of Josiah, whose name is used to designate one of the halls or chambers of the Temple ( 2 Kings 23:11 )
Sho'ba-i - The children of Shobai were a family of the door-keepers of the Temple, who returned with Zerubbabel
Bakbuk - ” Levite who was a Temple servant after returning from Babylonian Exile with Zerubbabel about 537 B
Bukkiah - A Levite of the sons of Heman, and leader of the sixth band or course in the Temple service ( 1 Chronicles 25:4 ; 1 Chronicles 25:13 )
Acud - His sons were among the ‘temple servants’ who returned from captivity with Zerubbabel
Fillets - Ornamental bands or borders of gold and silver round the pillars of the Tabernacle and Temple
Zikkurat - ) A Temple tower of the Babylonians or Assyrians, consisting of a lofty pyramidal structure, built in successive stages, with outside staircases, and a shrine at the top
Preceptory - ) A religious house of the Knights Templars, subordinate to the Temple or principal house of the order in London
Zerubbabel - ZERUBBABEL, ZOROBABEL...
A man much engaged in building the second Temple
Diana - The Temple of this goddess was the pride and glory of Ephesus, and one of the seven wonders of the world. It was 425 feet long, and 220 broad, and had 127 graceful Ionic columns of white marble, each 60 feet high, and the Temple was 220 years in building. 356, an earlier Temple was burned down by one Herostratus, in order to immortalize his name: the splendid one above described had been rebuilt in its place. The "silver shrines for Diana," made by Demetrius and others, were probably little models of the Temple sold for amulets and household use. In her Temple at Ephesus were stored immense treasures, and any preaching that tended to lower the shrine in the minds of the people, as Paul's did, would naturally arouse a great tumult
Temple - Originally, Temples were open places, as the Stonehenge in England. In Rome, some of the Temples were open, and called sacella others were roofed, and called oedes. The most celebrated of the ancient pagan Temples were that of Belus in Babylon, that of Vulcan at Memphis, that of Jupiter at Thebes, that of Diana at Ephesus, that of Apollo in Miletus,that of Jupiter Olympius in Athens, and that of Apollo at Delphi. The most celebrated and magnificent Temple erected to the true God, was that built by Solomon in Jerusalem. Can he whose life is a perpetual insult to the authority of God, enter with any pleasure a Temple consecrated to devotion and sanctified by prayer? ...
3. In England,the Temples are two inns of court, thus called because anciently the dwellings of the knights Templars. They are called the Inner and the Middle Temple. TEM'PLE, To build a Temple for to appropriate a Temple to
Porch - Round the entire area of Herod’s Temple there ran a succession of magnificent porticces built against the enclosing wall. It was in the style of contemporary Hellenistic architecture, and was only less magnificent than the triple colonnade known as the ‘Royal Porch’-στοὰ βασιλική-which ran along the south side of the Temple court. Kennedy, ‘Some Problems of Herod’s Temple,’ in ExpT_ XX. _ ‘Temple’ in EBr_11; B. _ ‘Temple’ in JE_
Den - —In estimating the meaning of our Lord’s declaration that the Temple had been made a den or cave of robbers, the immediate occasion of the words must be kept in view. It was the feast of the Passover, and the Temple courts were crowded by those who sold sheep, oxen, and pigeons, while the moneychangers also carried on their trade. Foreign Jews would thus be able to obtain on the spot both the Temple half-shekel required by the Law (Exodus 30:13), and also animals necessary for sacrifice, probably with the additional advantage that the latter would have an official guarantee of Levitical fitness for sacrifice, which must be obtained for any animal purchased elsewhere. Besides the mere fact that the Temple was made a house of merchandise (John 2:16), many passages in the Rabbinical writings appear to indicate that the Temple market was notorious for dishonest dealings, upon which passages it has been remarked (Speaker’s Com. 24) writes: ‘The Temple ought to be common to all men, because He is the common God of all’; but, far from its being thus, it had become the possession of a few. Temple in vol. —Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, also The Temple, etc
Temple, Solomon's - Before his death David had "with all his might" provided materials in great abundance for the building of the Temple on the summit of Mount Moriah (1 Chronicles 22:14 ; 29:4 ; 2 Chronicles 3:1 ), on the east of the city, on the spot where Abraham had offered up Isaac (Genesis 22:1-14 ). From subterranean quarries at Jerusalem he obtained huge blocks of stone for the foundations and walls of the Temple. As the hill on which the Temple was to be built did not afford sufficient level space, a huge wall of solid masonry of great height, in some places more than 200 feet high, was raised across the south of the hill, and a similar wall on the eastern side, and in the spaces between were erected many arches and pillars, thus raising up the general surface to the required level. Solomon also provided for a sufficient water supply for the Temple by hewing in the rocky hill vast cisterns, into which water was conveyed by channels from the "pools" near Bethlehem. The engineers of the Palestine Exploration Fund, in their explorations around the Temple area, discovered what is believed to have been the "chief corner stone" of the Temple, "the most interesting stone in the world. " ...
At length, in the autumn of the eleventh year of his reign, seven and a half years after it had been begun, the Temple was completed in all its architectural magnificence and beauty. At the close of these thirteen years preparations for the dedication of the Temple were made on a scale of the greatest magnificence. The ark was solemnly brought from the tent in which David had deposited it to the place prepared for it in the Temple, and the glory-cloud, the symbol of the divine presence, filled the house. On the eighth day of the feast of tabernacles, Solomon dismissed the vast assemblage of the people, who returned to their homes filled with joy and gladness, "Had Solomon done no other service beyond the building of the Temple, he would still have influenced the religious life of his people down to the latest days. " ...
The Temple consisted of, ...
The oracle or most holy place (1 Kings 6:19 ; 8:6 ), called also the "inner house" (6:27), and the "holiest of all" (Hebrews 9:3 ). ), 1 Kings 8:8-10 , called also the "greater house" (2 Chronicles 3:5 ) and the "temple" (1 Kings 6:17 ). ...
The porch or entrance before the Temple on the east (1 Kings 6:3 ; 2 Chronicles 3:4 ; 29:7 ). ...
The chambers, which were built about the Temple on the southern, western, and northern sides (1 Kings 6:5-10 ). ...
The great court, which surrounded the whole Temple (2 Chronicles 4:9 ). This Temple erected by Solomon was many times pillaged during the course of its history, (1) 1 Kings 14:25,26 ; (2) 2 Kings 14:14 ; (3) 2 Kings 16:8,17,18 ; 2Kings 2 Kings 18:15,16 . He burned the Temple, and carried all its treasures with him to Babylon (2 Kings 25:9-17 ; 2 Chronicles 36:19 ; Isaiah 64:11 )
Horse Gate - Gate on east side of city wall of Jerusalem near the Temple
Telem -
A porter of the Temple in the time of (Ezra 10:24 )
Ismachiah - ” Priest and administrator in the Temple under Cononiah and Shimei when Hezekiah was king of Judah (2 Chronicles 31:13 )
Salmone - Temple to Athena Salmonia stood there
Beth - House, forms a part of many compounds names of places, and sometimes means the place or dwelling; and at others the Temple
Othni - A lion of Jehovah, a son of Shemaiah, and one of the Temple porters in the time of David (1 Chronicles 26:7 )
Regem-Melech - Friend of the king, one of the two messengers sent by the exiled Jews to Jerusalem in the time of Darius (Zechariah 7:2 ) to make inquiries at the Temple
Shimshai - The scribe of Rehum, the royal prefect of Judaea; he joined in writing in Syriac to Artaxerxes to stop the building of the Temple and city (Ezra 4:7-24)
ba'Jith - (the horse ), referring to the "temple" of the false gods of Moab, as opposed to the "high places" in the same sentence
Abomination of Desolation - The Daniel 9:27 denotes, probably, the image of Jupiter, erected in the Temple of Jerusalem by command of Antiochus Epiphanes. But by the Abomination of Desolation spoken of by our Lord, Matthew 24:15 Mark 13:14 , and foretold as about to be seen at Jerusalem during the last siege of that city by the Romans under Titus, is probably meant the Roman army, whose standards had the images of their gods and emperors upon them, and were worshipped in the precincts of the Temple when that and the city were taken
Mater Admirabilis - Title under which Our Lady is especially venerated in the convents of the Religious of the Sacred Heart, who began as a religious institute on the feast of the Presentation of Our Lady in the Temple. Our Lady is represented as a young girl at school in the Temple and as such has become the model of perfection to pupils in Sacred Heart convents
Ophel - Hill; mound, the long, narrow, rounded promontory on the southern slope of the Temple hill, between the Tyropoeon and the Kedron valley (2 Chronicles 27:3 ; 33:14 ; Nehemiah 3:26,27 ). This wall has been discovered by the engineers of the Palestine Exploration Fund at the south-eastern angle of the Temple area
Captain - CAPTAIN OF THE Temple (Luke 22:4; Acts 4:1; Acts 5:24): not military, but over the guard of the Temple, consisting of priests and Levites (2 Kings 12:9), "the priests that kept the door" (2 Kings 25:18); they visited the posts by night, and saw that the sentries were on the alert
Admirabilis, Mater - Title under which Our Lady is especially venerated in the convents of the Religious of the Sacred Heart, who began as a religious institute on the feast of the Presentation of Our Lady in the Temple. Our Lady is represented as a young girl at school in the Temple and as such has become the model of perfection to pupils in Sacred Heart convents
Meshelemiah - He was a Temple gate-keeper in the time of David
Rephael - He and his brethren, on account of their "strength for service," formed one of the divisions of the Temple porters (1 Chronicles 26:7,8 )
Sachar - ...
...
A son of Obed-edom the Gittite, and a Temple porter (1 Chronicles 26:4 )
Hatita - ” Clan of Temple gatekeepers who returned from Babylonian Exile with Zebrubbabel about 537 B
Raft - King Hiram's means of transporting timber for the Temple by lashing logs together and floating them down the coast from Tyre to Joppa (1 Kings 5:9 ; 2 Chronicles 2:16 )
Passover - (a) The seven-day festival (eight in the Diaspora) beginning on 15 Nissan, commemorating the Exodus from Egypt; (b) the sacrifice offered on the eve of that holiday during Temple times
Causeway - A raised way, an ascent by steps, or a raised slope between Zion and the Temple (1 Chronicles 26:16,18 )
Babel - The captive Jews at Babylon imagined they recognized it, however, in the famous Temple of Belus, which some identify with the Temple of Nebo at Borsippa, the modern Birs Nimrûd. Rawlinson thinks that Birs Nimrûd cannot be identical with either the Temple of Belus or the tower of Babel, but concedes that it may be used to show the probable form of the Babel tower. On the seventh story was a Temple, containing, perhaps, a statue of the god Belus
Bethesda - House of mercy, the name of a pool or fountain near the Temple in Jerusalem, with an open building over or near it, for the accommodation of the sick who came to try the healing efficacy of the water, John 5:2 . Tradition locates this pool in what is now a large dry reservoir, along the outside of he north wall of the Temple area. He suggests that the true Bethesda may perhaps be "The Fountain of the Virgin," so called, in the lower part of the valley of Jehoshaphat, eight hundred and fifty feet south of the Temple area. This pool is of great antiquity, and seems to be fed from ancient reservoirs under the Temple
Albendorf - The church, built 1730, is modeled after the Temple of Jerusalem
Bukkiah - Leader of the sixth bourse of musicians in the Temple service; "of the sons of Heman, the king's seer in the words of God
Draught-House - Jehu ordered the Temple of Baal to be destroyed, and the place to be converted to the vile use of receiving offal or ordure
Noadiah - Ezra 8:33; weighed the Temple gold and silver vessels brought from Babylon
Laver - See Tabernacle, § 4, Temple, § 6 ( d )
Shetharboznai - An official of the king of Persia who, instead of hindering the Jews, was ordered by Darius to help them in the building of the Temple
Judaizer - ), those Jews who accepted Christianity but still adhered to the law of Moses and worshiped in the Temple at Jerusalem
Mith'Redath -
The treasurer of Cyrus king of Persia, to whom the king gave the vessels of the Temple
Mikne'Iah - (possession of Jehovah ), one of the Levites of the second rank, gatekeepers of the ark, appointed by David to play in the Temple band "with harps upon Sheminith
Temple - The distinctive idea of a Temple, contrasted with all other buildings, is that it is the dwelling-place of a deity; and every heathen Temple had its idol, but the true and living God dwelt "between the cherubim" in the Holy of Holies at Jerusalem. Hence, figuratively applied, a Temple denotes the church of Christ, 2 Thessalonians 2:4 Revelation 3:12 ; heaven, Psalm 11:4 Revelation 7:15 ; and the soul of the believer, in which the Holy Spirit dwells, 1 Corinthians 3:16,17 6:19 2 Corinthians 6:16 . ...
After the Lord had instructed David that Jerusalem was the place he had chosen in which to fix his dwelling, that pious prince began to realize his design of preparing a Temple for the Lord that might be something appropriate to His divine majesty. The front or entrance to the Temple was on the eastern side, and consequently facing the Mount of Olives, which commanded a noble prospect of the building. The Temple itself, strictly so called, which comprised the Porch, the Sanctuary, and the Holy of Holies, formed only a small part of the sacred precincts, being surrounded by spacious courts, chambers, and other apartments, which were much more extensive than the Temple itself. It should be observed that the word Temple does not always denote the central edifice itself, but in many passages some of the outer courts are intended. ...
From the descriptions which are handed down to us of the Temple of Solomon, it is utterly impossible to obtain so accurate an idea of its relative parts and their respective proportions, as to furnish such an account as may be deemed satisfactory to the reader. ...
The Temple itself was seventy cubits long; the Porch being ten cubits, 1 Kings 6:3 , the Holy place forty cubits, 1 Kings 6:17 , and the Most Holy place, twenty cubits, 2 Chronicles 3:8 . These were called side chambers, and consisted of three stories, each five cubits high, 1 Kings 6:10 , and joined to the wall of the Temple without. Thus the three stories of side chambers, when taken together, were fifteen cubits high, and consequently reached exactly to half the height of the side walls and end of the Temple; so that there was abundance of space above these for the windows which gave light to the Temple, 1 Kings 6:4 . ...
Solomon's Temple appears to have been surrounded by two main courts: the inner court, that "of the Priests," 1 Kings 6:36 2 Chronicles 4:9 ; and the outer court, that "of Israel;" these were separated by a "middle wall of partition," with lodges for priests and Levites, for wood, oil, etc. The ensuing description is applicable to the Temple courts in the time of our Lord. The chief entrance to it was by the east or Shushan gate, which was the principal gate of the Temple. It was the exterior court, and by far the largest of all the courts belonging to the Temple, and is said to have covered a space of more than fourteen acres. It entirely surrounded the other courts and the Temple itself; and in going up to the Temple from its east or outer gate, one would cross first this court, then the court of the Women, then that of Israel, and lastly that of the Priests. The gate which led into this court from that of the Gentiles, was "the Beautiful gate" of the Temple, mentioned in Acts 3:2,10 ; so called, because the folding doors, lintel, and side-posts were all overlaid with Corinthian brass. From thence, after prayers, he went back with them, through the "Beautiful gate" of the Temple, where he had been lying, and through the sacred fence, into the court of the Gentiles, where, under the eastern piazza, or Solomon's porch, Peter preached Christ crucified. It was in the same court of the women that the Jews laid hold of Paul, when they judged him a violator of the Temple by taking Gentiles within the sacred fence, Acts 21:26-29 . The reason of which difference was, that as the rock on which the Temple stood became higher on advancing westward, the several courts naturally became elevated in proportion. ...
From the court of the Priests, the ascent to the Temple was by a flight of twelve steps, each half a cubit in height, which led into the sacred porch. Of the dimensions of this in Solomon's Temple, as also of the Sanctuary and Holy of Holies, we have already spoken. ...
The Temple of Solomon retained its pristine splendor but thirtythree years, when it was plundered by Shishak king of Egypt, 1 Kings 14:25,26 2 Chronicles 12:9 . ...
After lying in ruins for fifty-two years, the foundations of the second Temple were laid by Zerubbabel, and the Jews who had availed themselves of the privilege granted by Cyrus and returned to Jerusalem, Ezra 1:1-4 2:1 3:8-10 . The dimensions of this Temple in breadth and height were double those of Solomon's. 163, this Temple was plundered and profaned by Antiochus Epiphanes, who ordered the discontinuance of the daily sacrifice, offered swine's flesh upon the altar, and completely suspended the worship of Jehovah. 37, resolved to atone for it by rebuilding and beautifying the Temple. After employing two years in preparing the materials for the work, the Temple of Zerubbabel was pulled down, B. Although this Temple was fit for divine service in nine years and a half, yet a great number of laborers and artificers were still employed in carrying on the outbuildings all the time of our Savior's abode on earth. The Temple of Herod was considerably larger than that of Zerubbabel, as that of Zerubbabel was larger than Solomon's. For whereas the second Temple was seventy cubits long, sixty broad, and sixty high, this was one hundred cubits long, seventy broad, and one hundred high. All the Jewish writers praise this Temple exceedingly for its beauty and the costliness of its workmanship. To these there is no doubt a reference in Mark 13:1 Luke 21:5 : "And as he went out of the Temple, one of his disciples saith unto him, Master, see what manner of stones, and what buildings are here!" Luke says, "goodly stones. The Temple area is now occupied by two Turkish mosques, into which, until recently, neither Jew nor Christian was permitted to enter. Beneath the vast area of El-Haram still exist immense arched ways and vaults of unknown date; also a large and deep well, and other indications that the Temple always possessed a copious and perennial supply of water, derived perhaps in part from Gihon by Hezekiah's aqueduct, and in part from Solomon's pools, and flowing off through the fountain of the Virgin and the pool of Siloam. Near the southwest corner certain huge stones mark the beginning of an arch, a part of the stately bridge which anciently connected the Temple are with Mount Zion; and a little north of this spot is the celebrated wailing-place of the Jews. ...
In the time of the kings, a regular guard of Levites was always on duty at the Temple, 1 Chronicles 26:1-32 2 Chronicles 23:19 . During the supremacy of the Romans there was a Roman garrison in the strong tower of Antonia, which, with its various courts and fortifications, adjoined the Temple area on the north, and was connected with it by passages both above and under ground, John 18:12 Acts 4:1 5:26 21:31-40 . ...
The utmost veneration and love were always cherished towards the Temple by pious Jews, Psalm 84:1-12 . Hence the charge of blaspheming the Temple, which was found the most effectual means of enraging the populace against Christ and his followers, Matthew 26:61 27:40 John 2:19,20 Acts 6:13 21:27-30
Athaliah - One child, Joash, was concealed in the Temple, and after Athaliah had reigned six years, he was anointed king and crowned; Athaliah was taken outside the enclosures of the Temple and slain, B. The Temple and idol of Baal were at once destroyed, and the priest slain
Araunah - 3:1,2 we learn that the threshing floor was on Mount Moriah, and that the site was prepared by David for the Temple, which was built by Solomon. This no doubt formed a part of what is now called the Temple area, or Mosque enclosure, in the S. of Jerusalem, but on what part of that area the Temple was built is not known
Mori'ah - --The elevation on which Solomon built the Temple, where God appeared to David "in the threshing floor of Araunah the Jebusite. The tope was levelled by Solomon, and immense walls were built around it from the base to enlarge the level surface for the Temple area. A tradition which first appears in a definite shape in Josephus, and is now almost universally accepted, asserts that the "Mount Moriah" of the Chronicles is identical with the "mountain" in "the land of Moriah" of Genesis, and that the spot on which Jehovah appeared to David, and on which the Temple was built, was the very spot of the sacrifice of Isaac
Ark of the Covenant - Over this it was that the Shechinah, or visible display of the divine presence in a luminous cloud rested, both in the tabernacle, and in the Temple, ...
Leviticus 16:2 ; and from hence the divine oracles were given forth by an audible voice, as often as God was consulted in behalf of his people. The Philistines, having gotten possession of the ark, carried it in triumph to one of their principal cities, named Ashdod, and placed it in the Temple of Dagon, whose image fell to the ground and was broken. David conveyed it to the house of Obededom, and from thence to his palace at Zion; and lastly, Solomon brought in into the Temple which he had built at Jerusalem. It remained in the Temple till the times of the last kings of Judah, who gave themselves up to idolatry, and even dared to place their idols in the holy Temple itself. What became of the ark at the destruction of the Temple by Nebuchadnezzar, is a dispute among the rabbins. Had it been carried to Babylon with the other vessels of the Temple, it would, in all probability, have been brought back with them at the close of the captivity. But that this was not the case, is agreed on all hands; whence it is probable that it was destroyed with the Temple. ...
The ark of the covenant was, as it were, the centre of worship to all those of the Hebrew nation who served God according to the Levitical law; and not only in the Temple, when they came thither to worship, but every where else in their dispersions through the whole world; whenever they prayed, they turned their faces toward the place where the ark stood, and directed all their devotions that way, Daniel 6:10 . Whence the author of the book of Cosri, justly says, that the ark, with the mercy seat and cherubim, were the foundation, root, heart, and marrow of the whole Temple, and all the Levitical worship performed therein; and, therefore, had there been nothing else wanting in the second Temple but the ark only, this alone would have been a sufficient reason for the old men to have wept when they remembered the first Temple in which it stood; and for the saying of Haggai 2:3 , that the second Temple was as nothing compared with the first; so great a share had the ark of the covenant in the glory of Solomon's Temple. However, the defect was supplied as to the outward form, for in the second Temple there was also an ark of the same dimensions with the first, and put in the same place; but it wanted the tables of the law, Aaron's rod, and the pot of manna; nor was there any appearance of the divine glory over it; nor any oracles delivered from it. ...
For the Temple of Solomon a new ark was not made; but he constructed cherubim in the most holy place, which were designed to give additional state to this most sacred symbol of God's grace and mercy
Gahar - ” Clan head of family of Temple servants who returned from Babylonian captivity with Zerubbabel about 537 B
Hagab - ” Clan of Temple servants who returned to Jerusalem from Babylonian Exile with Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:46 )
Cathua - One of the heads of families of Temple servants who returned with Zerubbabel from captivity
Chuldah - She was approached for guidance when Hilkiah the High Priest found a Torah scroll in the Holy Temple in 458 BCE
Huldah - She was approached for guidance when Hilkiah the High Priest found a Torah scroll in the Holy Temple in 458 BCE
Shimeon ben gamaliel - 70 CE) Mishnaic sage, Nassi of the Sanhedrin during the years immediately preceding the of the Holy Temple
Shimon ben gamaliel - 70 CE) Mishnaic sage, Nassi of the Sanhedrin during the years immediately preceding the of the Holy Temple
Simeon ben gamaliel ii, rabbi - 70 CE) Mishnaic sage, Nassi of the Sanhedrin during the years immediately preceding the of the Holy Temple
Paphian - ) Of or pertaining to Paphos, an ancient city of Cyprus, having a celebrated Temple of Venus; hence, pertaining to Venus, or her rites
Inner - Interior farther inward than something else, as an inner chamber the inner court of a Temple or palace
Sacrarium - ) The adytum of a Temple
Parvaim - (pahr vay' ihm) Source of gold for Solomon's decoration of the Temple (2 Chronicles 3:6 )
Hel'da-i -
The twelfth captain of the monthly courses for the Temple service
Jealousy, Image of - An idolatrous object, seen in vision by Ezekiel (Ezekiel 8:3,5 ), which stood in the priests' or inner court of the Temple
Jehdeiah -
One of the Levitical attendants at the Temple, a descendant of Shubael (1 Chronicles 24:20 )
Temple (2) - TEMPLE...
i. The word which is most frequently used in the Gospels for the Temple is τὸ ἱερόν (בֵּית הַמִּקְרָּשׁ); it occurs nearly 50 times. Under this term is included, generally speaking, the whole of the Temple area, i. The particular part of the Temple referred to cannot always be ascertained with certainty, especially in the case of the Men’s Court (Court of the Israelites), but presumably the mention of ‘teaching in the Temple’ would usually refer to Christ teaching the Jews (in view of such passages as ‘I am not sent save unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel,’ Matthew 15:24), in which case the women, according to Jewish custom, would not be present. In a few instances ἱερόν is used of some particular part of the Temple, viz. of the actual sanctuary, Luke 21:5, John 8:20; in this passage the treasury is spoken of loosely, as being in the Temple (ἱερόν), strictly speaking it was in the Sanctuary (ναὁς). In reference to the wing or pinnacle of the Temple (Matthew 4:5, Luke 4:9) πτερύγιον τοῦ ἱεροῦ is used; as to where this spot was precisely scholars differ. the Hebrew name for the Temple as a whole, בִּיִח ‘house’), the ‘house of God’; the early conception of a Temple was that of being essentially a ‘dwelling-place’ for God (cf. that part of the Temple which was holy, and to which, therefore, none but the priests had access; it included the Holy Place and the Holy of Holies (see Luke 1:21-22). In John 2:20 ὁ ναός is inaccurately used in the words ‘Forty and six years was this Temple in building’ (i. has this Temple been in building up till now), for it was the whole Temple area with all included in it that had so far been worked at for forty-six years; it was not finished until shortly before its final destruction by Titus in a. A few other expressions used for the Temple may be briefly referred to: ὁ οἶκός μου,* [4] apparently also refers to the Temple, for it is in the Temple that these words were spoken, and it is to the Temple that the disciples point when admiring the beauty of the building, in reply to which Christ says: ‘There shall not be left here one stone upon another, which shall not be thrown down’; thus ‘your house’ evidently means the Temple building in its external form, in contradistinction to the ‘house of God,’ the spiritual building not made with hands. Herod’s Temple. —There are several admirable descriptions of Herod’s Temple published and easily available;§ [8] commenced rebuilding the Temple[10] on the south side of the hill on which the earlier Temple stood; by this means the area at his disposal was doubled. ]'>[11] in length, one in breadth, the perimeter being six stadia), which surrounded the Temple proper, was enclosed by a battlemented wall. On the south-west corner there was a bridge which led from the city into the Temple area; a huge arch which formed part of this bridge was discovered by Robinson, and is called after him. ]'>[14] All these gates led directly into the great Temple area, or outer court; around the whole area, within the walls, were ranged porticoes with double rows of pillars; but the finest was that on the south side; here there were four rows of Corinthian columns made of white marble. This Temple area was called the ‘Court of the Gentiles’; it was not part of the Temple proper, and therefore not sacred soil, consequently any one might enter it. , Luke 19:45; Luke 19:48, John 2:13-17; the money-changers‡ [15] and those who sold animals for the Temple sacrifices had free access here. || [23] there is no mention of this anywhere in reference to Herod’s Temple, but, as this was built on the site of the earlier Temple, it is difficult to believe that it was not there. Hebrews 6:19; Hebrews 9:3; Hebrews 10:20, though it is not Herod’s Temple that is referred to in these passages) only one veil†
From Luke 2:41 it may be assumed that Christ was brought annually to Jerusalem for the Passover celebration in the Temple; there was no need for Him to be left behind,§ [5] and the presence of children in the Temple was evidently of common occurrence (Matthew 21:15); the visit, therefore, recorded In Luke 2:42 was not the first time that Christ was present at the yearly Passover feast in the Temple. the third) is represented as having taken place on the pinnacle of the Temple. By far the most important part of Christ’s connexion with the Temple is His teaching given within its precincts. On a number of occasions we read of the representatives of different classes coming to Him in the Temple, often, no doubt, with the genuine object of profiting by His teaching, but frequently also for a more sinister purpose (e
Ahikam - Sent by Josiah to Huldah the prophetess, when the book of the law was found in the Temple, 2 Kings 22:12
Givon - one of the places which served as a center for the sacrificial worship for the Jewish people between the destruction of the sanctuary of Shiloh and the construction of the Holy Temple in Jerusalem...
Jachin (1) - pillar of the two "in the porch of" (1 Kings 7:21; 1 Kings 7:39), or "before," Solomon's Temple (2 Chronicles 3:17)
Yoma - Tractate of the Talmud which concerns itself with the sacrificial worship of Yom Kippur; accordingly, it serves as a source for much of our information concerning the structure of the Temple
Asnah - One of the Nethanims or Temple servants who returned to Jerusalem with Zerubbabel from Exile about 537 B
Henadad - Head of a Levite family who helped to rebuild the Temple, and to repair the wall of the city, one of whom sealed the covenant
Pommel - It formed some part of the chapiters of the two pillars in the Temple built by Solomon
Levites - Under this name may be comprised all the descendants of Levi; but it principally denotes those who were employed in the lowest ministries of the Temple, by which they were distinguished from the priests, who, being descended from Aaron, were likewise of the race of Levi by Kohath, but were employed in higher offices. God chose the Levites instead of the first-born of all Israel, for the service of his tabernacle and Temple, Numbers 3:6 , &c. They obeyed the priests in the ministrations of the Temple, and brought to them wood, water, and other things necessary for the sacrifices. They sung and played on instruments, in the Temple, &c; they studied the law, and were the ordinary judges of the country, but subordinate to the priests. While the Levites were actually employed in the Temple, they were subsisted out of the provisions in store there, and out of the daily offerings there made; and if any Levite quitted the place of his abode, to serve the Temple, even out of the time of his half-yearly or weekly waiting, he was received there, kept and provided for, in like manner as his other brethren, who were regularly in waiting, Deuteronomy 18:6-8 . 62, six years before the destruction of the Temple by the Romans, the Levites desired permission from that prince to wear the linen tunic like the priests; and this was granted. He adds, that Agrippa permitted likewise the families of the Levites, whose duty it was to guard the doors, and perform other troublesome offices, to learn to sing and play on instruments, that they might be qualified for the Temple service as musicians. But David, finding that they were no longer employed in these grosser offices of transporting the vessels of the tabernacle, appointed them to enter on service at the Temple at twenty years of age. The priests and Levites waited by turns, weekly, in the Temple. When an Israelite made a religious entertainment in the Temple, God required that the Levites should be invited to it, Deuteronomy 12:18-19
Hiram - King of Tyre, associated with David and Solomon in building the Temple. He raised banks at the eastern part of Tyre which enlarged the city, and he built a causeway to connect the city with the island Temple of Jupiter Olympius in the harbor, after which he modernized the Temple. The close relationship continued into Solomon's reign, and the two men made an agreement which resulted in the construction of the Temple in Jerusalem (1 Kings 5:1-12 ). Craftsman who did artistic metal work for Solomon's Temple (1 Kings 7:13-45 )
Money-Changer - There was a class of men, who frequented the Temple courts, who exchanged at a certain premium foreign moneys for these half-shekels to the Jews who came up to Jerusalem from all parts of the world. ) When our Lord drove the traffickers out of the Temple, these money-changers fared worst
Dagon's House - 15: 41; 19:27), was the sanctuary or Temple of Dagon. ...
That of 1 Chronicles 10:10 was in the western half-tribe of Manasseh, where the Philistines, after their victory at Gilboa, placed Saul's head in the Temple of their god
Joah - He helped repair the Temple (2 Chronicles 34:8 ). Levite who helped cleanse the Temple under King Hezekiah about 715 B
Curtains - Song of Solomon 1:5; "the curtains of Solomon" mean the hangings and veil of Solomon's Temple, typifying Christ's righteousness, the covering of saints who together constitute the living Temple of the antitypical Solomon (Isaiah 61:10; Revelation 19:8; 1 Corinthians 3:16)
Antonia - A fortress in Jerusalem, at the north-west corner of the Temple area. It was of great size, and commanded the Temple
Nebo (1) - The chief centre of his worship was the Temple of E-Zida in Borsippa, between which and the Temple of Marduk in Babylon took place the great annual processions of which we find a reminiscence in Isaiah 46:1 f
Shishak - Just after Rehoboam began to reign in Judah, Shishak invaded Jerusalem and carted off the Temple treasures (1 Kings 14:25-26 ). According to inscriptions on the walls of a Temple to the god Amon in Karnak, Shishak captured over 150 towns in Palestine including Megiddo, Taanash, and Gibeon
Porch - 1 Chronicles 28:11, of Solomon's Temple, a "vestibule open in front and on the sides". side of the Temple (Josephus, Haggai - 520; and the object of his prophesying as to excite his countrymen to begin again the building of the Temple, which had been so long interrupted. The exceeding glory of the second Temple was, as he foretold, that Christ "the Desire of all nations" came into it, and made the place of his feet glorious, Haggai 2:7-9
Ostiarius - (Latin: ostium, a door) ...
The first of the minor orders, by which spiritual power is conferred on the recipient, of opening and closing the doors of the Church, and of guarding the Temple of God
Talmon - The name of a family of Temple gate-keepers ( 1 Chronicles 9:17 , Ezra 2:42 , Nehemiah 7:45 ; Nehemiah 11:19 ; Nehemiah 12:25 ); called in 1Es 5:28 Tolman
Sacar - Temple gatekeeper (1 Chronicles 26:4 )
Latrine - Jehu demonstrated his utter contempt for Baal by ordering that his Temple be destroyed and converted into a latrine
Dipteral - ) Having a double row of columns on each on the flanks, as well as in front and rear; - said of a Temple
Penetralia - ) The recesses, or innermost parts, of any thing or place, especially of a Temple or palace
Chun - City in the North captured by David, from whence he took much brass, which was used by Solomon in the Temple
Anna - A prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel, of Asher, who gave thanks when the infant Jesus was presented in the Temple
Marishes - Marshy places, which shall not be healed when healing waters issue out of the future Temple in Palestine
Bekah - This sum each Israelite over twenty years old was to pay as a poll tax for the Temple service, Exodus 30:13
Chanukah (hanukkah) - �rededication�); eight-day festival beginning on 25 Kislev, celebrating the Maccabees� recapture of the second Temple from the Syrian Greeks, and its rededication, marked by the kindling of lights on a menorah or chanukiah ...
Beth, - It has the special meaning of a Temple or house of worship Beth is more frequently employed in compound names of places than any other word
Babel, Tower of - ) The Temple of Belus, which is supposed to occupy its site, is described by the Greek historian Herodotus as a Temple of great extent and magnificence, erected by the Babylonians for their god Belus. The treasures Nebuchadnezzar brought from Jerusalem were laid up in this Temple ( 2 Chronicles 36:7 ). " Others think it to be the ruins of the Temple of Belus
Zeredathah - Here Solomon erected the foundries in which Hiram made the great castings of bronze for the Temple
Maharai - One of David’s thirty heroes ( 2 Samuel 23:28 , 1 Chronicles 11:30 ); according to 1 Chronicles 27:13 , of the family of Zerah, and captain of the Temple guard for the tenth monthly course
Ami - A servant in the Temple after the Exile belonging to a group called “children of Solomon's servants” (Ezra 2:55-57 )
Ethanim - In this month the Temple of Solomon was dedicated
Vail, Veil - ’ See Dress, § 5 ( b ); also Tabernacle, § 5 ( d ), and Temple, §§ 9
Gong - (KJV “brass”) A loud percussion instrument, perhaps like a type of cymbal used in the Temple worship (1 Corinthians 13:1 )
Re - The chief Egyptian god, worshiped at his Temple in Thebes, credited with creating the universe and believed to have been the first pharaoh
New Gate - A gate of the Jerusalem Temple (Jeremiah 26:10 ; Jeremiah 36:10 ), which should perhaps be identified with the Upper Gate Jothan built (2 Kings 15:35 ) and/or with the Upper Benjamin Gate (Jeremiah 20:2 )
Pantheon - ) A Temple dedicated to all the gods; especially, the building so called at Rome
Shebuel - 1 Chronicles 25:4, SHUBAEL in 1 Chronicles 25:20; chief of the 13th order or band in the Temple choir
Trophimus - Convert of Ephesus who accompanied Paul to Jerusalem, and whom the Jews thought Paul had taken into the Temple
Ismachiah - A person in the days of Hezekiah, to whom the king intrusted the offerings of the Temple
Selah - This Hebrew musical term, which occurs 73 times in the Psalms, and elsewhere only in Habakkuk 3:3; Habakkuk 3:9; Habakkuk 3:13, is supposed to be connected with the use of the Temple music
Moriah - The hill on which the Temple of Jerusalem was built, 2 Chronicles 3:1
Mat'Tan -
The priest of Baal slain before his altars in the idol Temple at Jerusalem
Gerizim - " Smith's Bible Dictionary identifies Gerazim with the mount on which Abraham offered Isaac, (see Moriah); it is objected to the Temple mount being the site of Isaac's offering that "Abraham lifted up his eyes, and saw the place afar off," whereas the Temple mount is not conspicuous from afar; also the Samaritans identify the site of the sacrifice with the natural altar on Gerazim. The identity of name favors the Temple mount being the site (2 Chronicles 3:1). The distance, two days journey from Beersheba, which would bring him in sight of the Temple mount at Jerusalem on the third day whereas Gerazim could not be reached on the third day from Beersheba, favors the same view. Manasseh, brother of Jaddua the high priest, married the daughter of Sanballat the Cuthaean (2 Kings 17:24), who in order to reconcile his son-in-law to this forbidden affinity obtained leave from Alexander the Great to build a Temple on Gerazim (Josephus, Temple and worship were overthrown soon after our Lord's crucifixion, the Samaritan on Gerazim have continued from age to age, and the paschal lamb has been yearly offered by this interesting community; they possess a copy of the law, attributed to Manasseh, and known to the Christian fathers of the second and third centuries. " On this platform perhaps the Samaritan Temple stood
Barkos - ” The original ancestor of a clan of Nethinim or Temple employees who returned to Jerusalem from Exile in Babylon with Zerubbabel about 537 B
Mithredath - Cyrus' treasurer who returned the Temple vessels (Ezra 1:8 )
Desolation, Abomination of - A portent of the ruin of the House of God mentioned by Daniel, and referred to by Christ as a sign to the faithful to flee from Judea; commonly interpreted as a symbol of idolatry in the Temple
Hosah - A Levitical doorkeeper of the Temple ( 1 Chronicles 16:38 ; 1 Chronicles 26:10-11 ; 1 Chronicles 26:16 )
Malachi - Prophesied at the onset of the Second Temple Era
Abomination of Desolation - A portent of the ruin of the House of God mentioned by Daniel, and referred to by Christ as a sign to the faithful to flee from Judea; commonly interpreted as a symbol of idolatry in the Temple
Candlemass Day - Also known as Our Lady of the Candles...
Presentation of the Infant Jesus in the Temple...
Purification of the Blessed Virgin ...
Memorial February 2, ...
About the Feast The feast commemorates the purifying of the Blessed Virgin according to the Mosaic Law, 40 days after the birth of Christ, and the presentation of the Infant Jesus in the Temple. Candles are blessed on that day in commemoration of the words of Holy Simeon concerning Christ "a light to the revelation of the Gentiles" (Luke 2), and a procession with lighted candles is held in the church to represent the entry of Christ, the Light of the World, into the Temple of Jerusalem
Laver - kiyor), a "basin" for boiling in, a "pan" for cooking (1 Samuel 2:14 ), a "fire-pan" or hearth (Zechariah 12:6 ), the sacred wash-bowl of the tabernacle and Temple (Exodus 30:18,28 ; 31:9 ; 35:16 ; 38:8 ; 39:39 ; 40:7,11,30 , etc. ...
In the Temple there were ten lavers used for the sacrifices, and the molten sea for the ablutions of the priests (2 Chronicles 4:6 ). ...
No lavers are mentioned in the second Temple
Treasure, Treasury - ...
In Old Testament times treasure might be stored in the king's palace (2 Kings 20:13 ) or in the Temple (1 Kings 7:51 ). In Jesus' day the term also applied to thirteen trumpet-shaped offering receptacles in the Temple court of the women where Jesus watched people make their offerings (Mark 12:41 ). See Temple
Court - ) The great courts belonging to the Temple of Jerusalem were three; the first called the court of the Gentiles, because the Gentiles were allowed to enter so far, and no farther; the second was the court of Israel, because all the Israelites, provided they were purified, had a right of admission into it; the third was that of the priests, where the altar of burnt-offerings stood, where the priests and Levites exercised their ministry. Before the Temple was built, there was a court belonging to the tabernacle, but not near so large as that of the Temple, and encompassed only with pillars, and veils hung with cords
Haggai - The prophet reproves the people for their delay in building the Temple of God, and represents the unfruitful seasons which they had experienced as a divine punishment for this neglect. He exhorts them to proceed in the important work; and by way of encouragement predicts, that the glory of the second Temple, however inferior in external magnificence, shall exceed that of the first; which was accomplished by its being honoured with the presence of the Saviour of mankind. He farther urges the completion of the Temple by promises of divine favour, and under the type of Zerubbabel he is supposed by some to foretel the great revolutions which shall precede the second advent of Christ
Zachari'as - the eighth of the twenty-four courses who ministered at the Temple in turn. John was born to them in their old age, and the promise of this son was communicated to Zacharias by an angel while he was offering incense and praying in the Temple. ...
Son of Barachias, who, our Lord says, was slain by the Jews between the altar and the Temple
Pegasius, Bishop of Troas - It describes the graves of Hector and Achilles, and the Temple of Minerva as being still honoured with sacrifices; while the bishop of the place Pegasius seems to have acted as custodian of the Temple and of the images which were in their places and in good order. Julian, upon entering the Temple, recognized traces of sacrifices, and asked if the people still sacrificed to the gods
Diana - Her Temple was at Ephesus, built of choice marble. A Roman coin in the British Museum bears a representation of the Temple with the image of the goddess in the centre
Saints: What They Should be - Mark, in Venice: a marvelous building, lustrous with an Oriental splendor far beyond description: there are pillars said to have been brought from Solomon's Temple; these are of alabaster, a substance firm and durable as granite, and yet transparent, so that the light glows through them. A few such alabaster men we know; may the great Master- builder place more of them in his Temple! ...
...
Akkub - Gatekeeper of the Temple after the return from Exile (1 Chronicles 9:17 ; Ezra 2:42 ; Nehemiah 7:45 ; Nehemiah 11:19 ). The head of another family of Temple staff personnel (Ezra 2:45 )
Acra - King Antiochus gave orders for building a citadel at Jerusalem, north of the Temple, on an eminence; which commanded the holy place; and for that reason was called Acra. Josephus says, that this eminence was semicircular, and that Simon Maccabaeus, having expelled the Syrians, who had seized Acra, demolished it, and spent three years in levelling the mountain on which it stood; that no situation in future should command the Temple
Dagon - A Temple of Dagon at Gaza was pulled down by Samson, Judges 16:23 , &c. A city in Judah was called Beth-Dagon; that is, the house, or Temple, of Dagon, Joshua 15:41 ; and another on the frontiers of Asher, Joshua 19:27
Candelabrum - ) A highly ornamented stand of marble or other ponderous material, usually having three feet, - frequently a votive offering to a Temple
Sheep Gate - Apparently, sheep for Temple sacrifice entered the city through it
Meremoth - Exaltations, heights, a priest who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel (Nehemiah 12:3 ), to whom were sent the sacred vessels (Ezra 8:33 ) belonging to the Temple
Nethaniah -
One of Asaph's sons, appointed by David to minister in the Temple (1 Chronicles 25:2,12 )
Nisroch - Sennacherib was killed in the Temple of this idol ( 2 Kings 19:37 ; Isaiah 37:38 )
Nahath - ...
A Levite, one of the overseers of the sacred offerings of the Temple (2 Chronicles 31:13 )
Noadiah - Levite who returned from Exile and served as a Temple treasurer (Ezra 8:33 )
Emadabun - One of the Levites who superintended the restoration of the Temple
Beveled Work - NRSV translation describing scrollwork on the bronze stands of the laver in Solomon's Temple (1 Kings 7:29 ; KJV “thin work”; NAS, “hanging work”; REB, NIV, “hammered work”)
Altar in Scripture - , those of Noe and Abraham, altars erected for the worship of idols, altars of holocaust and of incense, of the Tabernacle and of the Temple, and the altar described in the Apocalypse
Parbar - Some place connected with the Temple, at which two doorkeepers were placed: its meaning or situation is not known
Torana - It is often minutely carved with symbolic sculpture, and serves as a monumental approach to a Buddhist Temple
Abdas, Saint - During the reign of Yezdegerd, he destroyed a Zoroastrian fire-temple; in retaliation a general destruction of all churches was ordered, followed by persecution, and Abdas was clubbed to death
Nisroch - Sennacherib was killed by two of his sons, while he was paying his adorations in the Temple of this deity, 2 Kings 19:37 ; Isaiah 37:38
Paseah - Ancestor of a family of Temple servants (Nehemiah 7:51 ; KJV Phaseah)
Scripture, Altar in - , those of Noe and Abraham, altars erected for the worship of idols, altars of holocaust and of incense, of the Tabernacle and of the Temple, and the altar described in the Apocalypse
Jachin And Boaz - The names of two brazen columns set up in Solomon's Temple (1 Kings 7:15-22 )
Concise Chronological Table of Bible History - —Most of the dates in Bible History, before the dedication of Solomon's Temple, are very uncertain. ...
1007...
Solomon's Temple. ...
516-5...
Second Temple completed. ...
170...
Temple plundered by Antiochus Epiphanes. ...
Temple plundered by Crassus. ...
Herod begins to rebuild the Temple
Arad - A Temple has been found there with architecture much like the biblical tabernacle and Temple, having similar chambers including a holy of holies. The Temple may well have been destroyed during Josiah's reforms which tolerated only the one Temple in Jerusalem
Candlestick - When Solomon had built the Temple, he was not satisfied with placing one golden candlestick there, but had ten put up, of the same form and metal with that described by Moses, five on the north, and five on the south side of the holy place, 1 Kings 7:49 . After the Jews returned from their captivity, the golden candlestick was again placed in the Temple, as it had been before in the tabernacle by Moses. Josephus says, that after the Romans had destroyed the Temple, the several things which were found within it, were carried in triumph to Rome, namely, the golden table, and the golden candlestick with seven branches. These were lodged in the Temple built by Vespasian, and consecrated to Peace; and at the foot of Mount Palatine, there is a triumphal arch still visible, upon which Vespasian's triumph is represented, and the several monuments which were carried publicly in the procession are engraved, and among the rest the candlestick with the seven branches, which are still discernible upon it
Huramabi - ” NAS, NIV, NRSV name for Huram/Hiram, the skilled artisan Hiram, King of Tyre, sent Solomon to help build the Temple (2 Chronicles 2:13 )
Shecaniah - He helped distribute to the other priests the offerings given by the people to the Temple (2 Chronicles 31:11-15 )
Judas Iscariot - When the priests refused to take back the silver, he cast the pieces down in the Temple and "went out and hanged himself with an halter" (Matthew 27)
Iscariot, Judas - When the priests refused to take back the silver, he cast the pieces down in the Temple and "went out and hanged himself with an halter" (Matthew 27)
Court - The enclosure of the tabernacle (Exodus 27:9-19 ; 40:8 ), of the Temple (1 Kings 6:36 ), of a prison (Nehemiah 3:25 ), of a private house (2 Samuel 17:18 ), and of a king's palace (2 Kings 20:4 )
Joshbekashah - He headed the seventeenth course or division of Temple musicians (1 Chronicles 25:24 )
Jehuel - Levite who helped cleanse the Temple under Hezekiah
Sanhedrim - A council or assembly of persons sitting together; the name whereby the Jews called the great council of the nation, assembled in an apartment of the Temple of Jerusalem, to determine the most important affairs both of church and state
Ben - ” A Levite who became head of a clan of Temple porters under David (1 Chronicles 15:18 NAS, KJV)
Nekoda - Family of Temple servants returning to Jerusalem after the Exile (Ezra 2:48 ; Nehemiah 7:50 )
Tzephaniah - 5th century BCE) A contemporary of Jeremiah, he prophesied shortly before the destruction of the first Holy Temple
Shechinah, Shekinah - A name not found in scripture, but used by the Rabbis and others for the visible symbol of the presence of God, as was seen at the dedication of the Temple built by Solomon, and at the Transfiguration
Lamentations - the Book of: The book of Tanach authored by Jeremiah, lamenting the destruction of the Holy Temple, the suffering the Jews experienced at that time, and the ensuing exile. It is read on Tisha b'Av, the anniversary of the Temples' destruction
Demetrius - A maker of silver shrines—models of the great Temple—of Diana or Artemis at Ephesus
Ahikam - He was sent by Josiah, king of Judah, to Huldah the prophetess, 2 Kings 22:12 , to consult her concerning the book of the law, which had been found in the Temple
Shecaniah - He helped distribute to the other priests the offerings given by the people to the Temple (2 Chronicles 31:11-15 )
re'Gem-me'Lech - ( Zechariah 7:2 ) They were sent on behalf of some of the captivity to make inquiries at the Temple concerning fasting (B
Artemis - The official local statue was carefully housed in a Temple honoring Artemis. ...
The most famous statue was located in the city of Ephesus, the official “temple keeper” for Artemis. Artemis was the chief deity of Ephesus, and her Temple was one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. The Temple ceremonies were carried out by priests who were eunuchs and priestesses who were virgins. ”...
The statues of the goddess, often miniature models of the Temple with an image of the goddess within, were sold widely
Captain of the Temple - Luke’s name for the commander of the Levitical guard who kept order in the Temple precincts and guarded the house. In the time of Claudius Caesar, one Ananus, the commander of the Temple, was sent in bonds to Rome to answer for his actions in a Jewish-Samaritan tumult (Jos. ...
In the NT period, some of the high priests were blamed for nepotism, because, among other things, they made their sons ‘captains of the Temple. ’...
In Acts 4:1 the captain intervened on the ground that the peace of the Temple was likely to be broken by the preaching of the apostles, who were regarded as unauthorized speakers, and as such were under the ban of Jeremiah 29:26; ‘that there might be an overseer in the house of the Lord for every man who is insane and prophesies, and that thou mightest put him in the stocks and in the block. ’...
In Acts 5:24; Acts 5:26 the captain of the Temple re-arrested Peter and John, who had escaped from prison the previous night
Abomination of Desolation - In these passages the most natural reference is to the desecration of the Temple under Antiochus Epihanes, when an altar to Olympian Zeus was erected on the altar of burnt sacrifices. ’ Other interpretations would be: (1) the threatened erection of the statue of Caligula in the Temple; or (2) the desecration of the Temple area by the Zealots, who during the siege made it a fortress; or (3) the desecration of the Temple by the presence of Titus after its capture by that general. It would seem natural to see this event in the coming of the Romans ( Luke 21:20 ), or in the seizure of the Temple by the Zealots under John of Giscala, before the city was completely invested by the Romans
Temple - Temple . The first Temple mentioned in connexion with the worship of J″ [2] 9 , are the most influential, have maintained that the Temple and its courts occupied an area about 600 ft. But the great majority of scholars, both at home and abroad, are agreed in placing the Temple in close connexion with the sacred rock ( es-Sakhra ) which is now enclosed in the mosque named after it ‘the Dome of the Rock,’ also, less appropriately, ‘the Mosque of Omar. This being so, the location of the Temple immediately to the west of the rock follows as a matter of course. The only possible alternative is to regard the rock as marking the site, not of the altar of burnt-offering, but of ‘the holy of holies’ of the successive Temples a view beset with insuperable difficulties. The Temple building Its arrangement and dimensions . The Temple and its furniture are described in 1 Kings 6:1-38 ; 1 Kings 7:13-51 two passages which are, unfortunately, among the most difficult in the OT, by reason of the perplexing technical terms employed and the unsatisfactory nature of the received text. (with plans), which deals fully with all the Temples (see Index, s. ‘Temple’). ...
The Temple proper was an oblong building, 60 cubits in length by 20 in breadth (1 Kings 6:2 ), with a porch in front, facing eastwards, of the same width as the main building and 10 cubits in depth. But inasmuch as Ezekiel, the Temple of whose vision is in all essential points a replica of that of Solomon, gives 6 cubits as the thickness of its walls ( Ezekiel 41:5 ), except the walls of the porch, which were 5 cubits thick ( Ezekiel 40:48 ), those of the first Temple are usually assumed to have been of the same dimensions. ...
On all sides, except the front which was occupied by the porch, the Temple proper was surrounded by a lateral building of three storeys, the whole 15 cubits high (so the emended text of 1 Kings 6:11 ), each storey containing a number of small chambers for storage purposes. The beams forming the floors and ceilings of these side chambers were not let into the Temple wall, but were supported by making three successive rebatements of a cubit each in the wall ( 1 Kings 6:6 ). ...
The question of the area covered by the complete building now described has usually been answered hitherto by a reference to Ezekiel’s Temple, which was exactly 100 cubits by 50. But a careful comparison of the measurements of the two Temples makes it extremely probable that the numbers just given are due to Ezekiel’s fondness for operating with 50 and its multiples. of the same dimensions as the upper half of the Temple walls, and the partition as 1 cubit thick in place of 2 ( Ezekiel 41:3 ), we find the area of the whole building to be 96 cubits by 48, the same relative proportion ( Ezekiel 2:1 ), it will be noted, as is found in Ezekiel. ) was written, is presented by the detailed measurements of the interior of Herod’s Temple in Josephus and the Mishna (see below, § 12). These are numerically the same as those of the first Temple, but the cubit employed in the 1st cent was the short cubit of 17. Now, it is certain that the actual dimensions of Herod’s Temple were not less than those of Solomon’s , as they would be if the cubits were in the ratio of 6 to 7. The interior of the Temple . The entrance to the Temple was through the open porch or vestibule on the eastern front. ‘For the entering of the Temple’ was provided a large folding-door of cypress wood ( 1 Kings 6:34 ), each leaf divided vertically into two leaves, one of which folded back upon the other. ...
The inner chamber of the Temple was separated from ‘the holy place,’ as has already been shown, by a partition wall, presumably of stone, which we have assumed above to have been a cubit in thickness. ...
But with regard to the excessive introduction of gold plating by the received text throughout, including even the Temple floor, as we have seen, there is much to be said in favour of the view, first advanced by Stade, that it is due to a desire on the part of later scribes to enhance the magnificence of the first Temple. The furniture of the Temple . ), the only article of Temple furniture is the altar of cedar introduced in the composite text of 1 Kings 7:20-22 . As there are good grounds for believing that a special altar of incense was first introduced into the second Temple (see § 9 ), the former is now identified by most writers with the table of shewbread (see Shewbread; and Tabernacle, § 6 ( a )). Although, from the date of the passage cited, we may hesitate to ascribe these to Solomon, they doubtless at a later time formed a conspicuous part of the Temple furniture (cf. ...
On the completion of the Temple, the sacred memorial of earlier days, the already venerable ark of J″ [14]), found a place somewhere within the Temple. The court of the Temple and its furniture ( a ) The court and gates . The Temple of Solomon formed part of a large complex of buildings, comprising an arsenal, a judgment-hall, the palace with its harem, and finally the royal chapel, the whole surrounded by ‘the great court’ of 1 Kings 7:9 ; 1 Kings 7:12 . Within this enclosure, at its upper or northern end, was ‘the inner court’ of 1 Kings 6:36 , 1 Kings 7:12 within which, again, stood the Temple ( 1 Kings 8:34 ). It is of importance to note that this single court of the Temple was open to the laity as well as to the priests ( 1 Kings 8:62 ), as is specially evident from Jeremiah 35:1 ff; Jeremiah 36:10 etc. The inner (or Temple) court. Temple. The ‘gate of the guard’ ( 2 Kings 11:19 ), on the other hand, may be looked for in the south wall separating the Temple court from ‘the other court’ ( 1 Kings 7:8 ) in which the royal palace was situated (cf. The precise position which the altars of the first and second Temples occupied on the surface of the rock, which measures at least some 50 ft. In the court, to the south of the line between the altar and the Temple ( 1 Kings 7:39 ), stood one of the most striking of the creations of Solomon’s Phœnician artist, Huram-abi of Tyre
Temple - the house of God; properly the Temple of Solomon. Solomon laid the foundation of the Temple, A. According to the opinion of some writers, there were three Temples, namely, the first, erected by Solomon; the second, by Zerubbabel, and Joshua the high priest; and the third, by Herod, a few years before the birth of Christ. But this opinion is, very properly, rejected by the Jews; who do not allow the third to be a new Temple, but only the second Temple repaired and beautified: and this opinion corresponds with the prophecy of Haggai 2:9 , "that the glory of this latter house," the Temple built by Zerubbabel, "should be greater than that of the former;" which prediction was tittered with reference to the Messiah's honouring it with his presence and ministry. The first Temple is that which usually bears the name of Solomon; the materials for which were provided by David before his death, though the edifice was raised by his son. It was surrounded, except at the front or east end, by three stories of chambers, each five cubits square, which reached to half the height of the Temple; and the front was ornamented with a magnificent portico, which rose to the height of one hundred and twenty cubits: so that the form of the whole edifice was not unlike that of some ancient churches, which have a lofty tower in the front, and a low aisle running along each side of the building. Seven years and six months were occupied in the erection of the superb and magnificent Temple of Solomon, by whom it was dedicated, A. It retained its pristine splendour only thirty-three or thirty-four years, when Shishak, king of Egypt, took Jerusalem, and carried away the treasures of the Temple; and after undergoing subsequent profanations and pillages, this stupendous building was finally plundered and burnt by the Chaldeans under Nebuchadnezzar, A. ...
After the captivity, the Temple emerged from its ruins, being rebuilt by Zerubbabel, but with vastly inferior and diminished glory; as appears from the tears of the aged men who had beheld the former structure in all its grandeur, Ezra 3:12 . The second Temple was profaned by order of Antiochus Epiphanes, A. Some years before the birth of our Saviour, the repairing and beautifying of this second Temple, which had become decayed in the lapse of five centuries, was undertaken by Herod the Great, who for nine years employed eighty thousand workmen upon it, and spared no expense to render it equal, if not superior, in magnitude, splendour, and beauty, to any thing among mankind. But though Herod accomplished his original design in the time above specified, yet the Jews continued to ornament and enlarge it, expending the sacred treasure in annexing additional buildings to it; so that they might with great propriety assert, that their Temple had been forty and six years in building, John 2:20 . ...
Before we proceed to describe this venerable edifice, it may be proper to remark, that by the Temple is to be understood not only the fabric or house itself, which by way of eminence is called the Temple, namely, the holy of holies, the sanctuary, and the several courts both of the priests and Israelites, but also all the numerous chambers and rooms which this prodigious edifice comprehended; and each of which had its respective degree of holiness, increasing in proportion to its contiguity to the holy of holies. This remark it will be necessary to bear in mind, lest the reader of Scripture should be led to suppose, that whatever is there said to be transacted in the Temple was actually done in the interior of that sacred edifice. To this infinite number of apartments, into which the Temple was disposed, our Lord refers, John 14:2 ; and by a very striking and magnificent simile, borrowed from them, he represents those numerous seats and mansions of heavenly bliss which his Father's house contained, and which were prepared for the everlasting abode of the righteous. The imagery is singularly beautiful and happy, when considered as an allusion to the Temple, which our Lord not unfrequently called his Father's house. ...
The second Temple, originally built by Zerubbabel after the captivity, and repaired by Herod, differed in several respects from that erected by Solomon, although they agreed in others. ...
The Temple erected by Solomon was more splendid and magnificent than the second Temple, which was deficient in five remarkable things that constituted the chief glory of the first: these were, the ark and the mercy seat: the shechinah, or manifestation of the divine presence, in the holy of holies; the sacred fire on the altar, which had been first kindled from heaven; the urim and thummim; and the spirit of prophecy. But the second Temple surpassed the first in glory; being honoured by the frequent presence of our divine Saviour, agreeably to the prediction of Haggai 2:9 . The superstructure was not inferior to this great work: the height of the Temple wall, especially on the south side, was stupendous. The Temple itself, strictly so called, which comprised the portico, the sanctuary, and the holy of holies formed only a small part of the sacred edifice on Mount Moriah, being surrounded by spacious courts, making a square of half a mile in circumference. One of these was called Solomon's porch, or piazza, because it stood on a vast terrace, which he had originally raised from a valley beneath, four hundred cubits high, in order to enlarge the area on the top of the mountain, and make it equal to the plan of his intended building; and as this terrace was the only work of Solomon that remained in the second Temple, the piazza which stood upon it retained the name of that prince. Solomon's portico was situated in the eastern front of the Temple, opposite to the mount of Olives, where our Saviour is said to have sat when his disciples came to show him the grandeur of its various buildings, of which, grand as they were, he said, the time was approaching when one stone should not be left upon another, Matthew 24:1-3 . From this court twelve steps ascended to the Temple, strictly so called; which was divided into three parts, the portico, the outer sanctuary, and the holy place. These votive offerings, it should seem, were visible at a distance; for when Jesus Christ was sitting on the mount of Olives, and his disciples called his attention to the Temple, they pointed out to him the gifts with which it was adorned, Luke 21:5 . ...
Magnificent as the rest of the sacred edifice was, it was infinitely surpassed in splendour by the inner Temple, or sanctuary. ' Improbable as this prediction must have appeared to the disciples at that time, in the short space of about thirty years after it was exactly accomplished; and this most magnificent Temple, which the Jews had literally turned into a den of thieves, through the righteous judgment of God upon that wicked and abandoned nation, was utterly destroyed by the Romans A. 70, or 73 of the vulgar era, on the same month, and on the same day of the month, when Solomon's Temple had been razed to the ground by the Babylonians!"...
Both the first and second Temples were contemplated by the Jews with the highest reverence. Of their affectionate regard for the first Temple, and for Jerusalem, within whose walls it was built, we have several instances in those Psalms which were composed during the Babylonish captivity; and of their profound veneration for the second Temple we have repeated examples in the New Testament. Our Saviour, in the course of his public instructions, having said, "Destroy this Temple, and in three days I will raise it up again,"...
John 2:19 , it was construed into a contemptuous disrespect, designedly thrown out against the Temple; his words instantly descended into the heart of the Jews, and kept rankling there for some years; for, upon his trial, this declaration, which it was impossible for a Jew ever to forget or to forgive, was immediately alleged against him, as big with the most atrocious guilt and impiety; they told the court they had heard him publicly assert, "I am able to destroy this Temple," Matthew 26:61 . The rancour and virulence they had conceived against him for this speech, was not softened by all the affecting circumstances of that wretched death they saw him die; even as he hung upon the cross, with triumph, scorn, and exultation, they upbraided him with it, contemptuously shaking their heads, and saying, "Thou that destroyest the Temple, and buildest it in three days, save thyself! If thou be the Son of God, come down from the cross!" Matthew 27:40 . It only remains to add, that it appears, from several passages of Scripture, that the Jews had a body of soldiers who guarded the Temple, to prevent any disturbances during the ministration of such an immense number of priests and Levites. Over these guards one person had the supreme command, who in several places is called the captain of the Temple, or officer of the Temple guard. "And as they spake unto the people, the priests and the captain of the Temple and the Sadducees came upon them," Acts 4:1 ; 1618416331_7 ; John 18:12
Shemiramoth - Temple Levitical musician in David's time (1Chronicles 15:18,1 Chronicles 15:20 ; 1 Chronicles 16:5 )
Float - The pine and cedar logs for construction of the Temple were lashed together to form rafts which were floated down the coast
Capitol - ...
(2):...
The Temple of Jupiter, at Rome, on the Mona Capitolinus, where the Senate met
Chun - , bronze or copper) from it for the Temple (1 Chronicles 18:8 )
Zephaniah - 5th century BCE) A contemporary of Jeremiah, he prophesied shortly before the destruction of the first Holy Temple
Moshiach - One of the 13 principles of the Jewish faith is that G-d will send the Messiah to return the Jews to the land of Israel, rebuild the Holy Temple and usher in the utopian Messianic Era
Asuppim - ' It probably refers to the apartments used as storehouses in the outer Temple
Stones, Precious - ) Josephus' nomenclature for the stones in the high priest's breast-plate is confirmed by the Vulgate of Jerome, at a time when the breast-plate was still open for inspection in the Temple of Concord, situated in the Forum
Joiarib - Ezra 8:16 , one of the two teachers sent by Ezra to Iddo to ask for ministers for the Temple
Tobijah - One who returned from exile, apparently bringing treasures of gold and silver, of which crowns were made, to be "for a memorial in the Temple of Jehovah
Pediment - See Temple
Ethanim - On this month Solomon's Temple was dedicated, 1 Kings 8:2
Bil'Gah -
A priest in the time of David; the head of the fifteenth course for the Temple service
Asahi'ah - (the Lord hath made ), a servant of King Josiah, sent by him to seek information of Jehovah respecting the book of the law which Hilkiah found in the Temple, ( 2 Kings 22:12,14 ) also called ASAIAH
Onias - During his rule Heliodorus made his ill-fatedexpedition to Jerusalem to seize the alleged treasures of the Temple. He fled into Egypt where he built, near Heliopolis, a new Temple for the use of the many Jews in Egypt (160 B
Beautiful Gate, the - One of the gates of Herod's Temple. This gate was situated on the east side of the inner enclosure at the top of a flight of 15 steps, and led from the outer court, or Court of the Gentiles, to the Women's Court, a most likely place for the scene narrated in Acts 3, as beggars were not allowed within the sacred precincts, and as all men and women entering the Temple on that side had to go through that gate
Jachin And Boaz - ” In 1 Kings 7:21 , the names of two bronze pillars that stood on either side of the entrance to Solomon's Temple. Analogous pillars have been found in front of Temples at Khorsabad, Tyre, Paphos, and other places. See Temple
Chamber - Included are sleeping quarters (2 Kings 6:12 ); bathroom (Judges 3:24 ); private inner room reserved for a bride (Judges 15:1 ; Joel 2:16 ); private, personal cubicle in the Temple furnished with benches (1 Samuel 9:22 ; 2 Kings 23:11 ); storage rooms (Nehemiah 12:44 ); a cool upper room built on the roof (Judges 3:20 ) or over the city gate (2 Samuel 18:33 ); and the ribs or beams forming side rooms in the Temple (1 Kings 7:3 )
Chains - A series of chains formed a partition in Solomon's Temple (1 Kings 6:21 ). Architectural ornaments on the Temple walls (2Chronicles 3:5,2 Chronicles 3:16 )
Adaiah - A Levite, one of the family of Temple singers (1 Chronicles 6:41 ). A priest in the Temple after the Exile (Nehemiah 11:12 ), probably the same as 4
Foursquare - Apparently it was the shape of the 'panels' of the base of the molten sea in Solomon's Temple, 1 Kings 7:31 ; also of the court of the future Temple, Ezekiel 40:47 ; the altar of the same, Ezekiel 43:16 ; the portion of the land offered as a holy oblation, Ezekiel 48:20 ; for the sanctuary, Ezekiel 45:2 ; and for the city, Ezekiel 48:16
Abomination - Hence our Lord forewarned his disciples, that when they saw the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, in the holy place, namely, the Temple, they should accept this, as a token, that Jerusalem would be destroyed, and should accordingly then take their flight. And this was done, when Titus Vespasian's army put up the image of idolatry in the Temple
Candlestick - In the first Temple there were ten candelabra of pure gold, half of them standing on the north, and half on the south side, within the Holy Place, 1 Kings 7:49,50 2 Chronicles 4:7 Jeremiah 52:19 . In the second Temple there was but one, resembling that of the tabernacle. This was carried to Rome, on the destruction of Jerusalem; it was lodged in Vespasian's Temple to Peace, and copied on the triumphal arch of Titus, where its mutilated image is yet to be seen
Zerubbabel or Zorobabel - Cyrus committed to his care the sacred vessels of the Temple, with which he returned to Jerusalem, Ezra 1:11 . He laid the foundations of the Temple, Ezra 3:8,9 Zechariah 4:9 , and restored the worship of the Lord, and the usual sacrifices. ...
When the Samaritans offered to assist in rebuilding the Temple, Zerubbabel and the principal men of Judah refused them this honor, since Cyrus had granted his commission to the Jews only, Ezra 4:2,3
Templars - TEMPLERS, or KNIGHTS OF THE Temple, a religious order instituted at Jerusalem, in the beginning of the twelfth century, for the defense of the holy sepulchre, and the protection of Christian pilgrims. They were first called The poor of the Holy City, and afterwards assumed the appellation of Templars, because their house was near the Temple. In every nation they had a particular governor, called Master of the Temple, or of the militia of the Temple
Nethinims - The Nethinims were servants who had been given up to the service of the tabernacle and Temple, to perform the meanest and most laborious services therein, in supplying wood and water. We read, Ezra 8:20 , that the Nethinims were slaves devoted by David and the other princes to the ministry of the Temple; and elsewhere, that they were slaves given by Solomon; the children of Solomon's servants, Ezra 2:58 ; and we see, in 1 Kings 9:20-21 , that this prince had subdued the remains of the Canaanites, and had constrained them to several servitudes; and, it is very probable, he gave a good number of them to the priests and Levites for the service of the Temple. This number was but small in regard to the offices that were imposed on them; so that we find them afterward instituting a solemnity called Xylophoria, in which the people carried wood to the Temple with great ceremony, to keep up the fire on the altar of burnt sacrifices
Imagery, Chamber of - The picture of the representatives of Israel worshiping idols within the Jerusalem Temple in Ezekiel's vision (Ezekiel 8:3 ) symbolizes the people's unfaithfulness to God
Parvaim - The name of a country from which Solomon obtained gold for the Temple (2 Chronicles 3:6 )
Flesh Hook - Those in the tabernacle were of brass (Exodus 27:3 ;Exodus 27:3;38:3 ), those in the Temple of bronze (2 Chronicles 4:16 ) or gold (1 Chronicles 28:17 )
Zarthan - A place near Succoth, in the plain of the Jordan, "in the clay ground," near which Hiram cast the brazen utensils for the Temple (1 Kings 7:46 ); probably the same as Zartan
Uri - A Temple gatekeeper; married a foreign wife (Ezra 10:24)...
Yael - When he fell into a deep sleep, she killed him by hammering a tent-peg through his Temple
Ater - The ancestor of certain Temple porters who returned with Zerubbabel, Ezra 2:15 ; Ezra 2:42 , Nehemiah 7:21 ; Nehemiah 7:45 ; cf
Jael - When he fell into a deep sleep, she killed him by hammering a tent-peg through his Temple
Shekinah - ) The visible majesty of the Divine Presence, especially when resting or dwelling between the cherubim on the mercy seat, in the Tabernacle, or in the Temple of Solomon; - a term used in the Targums and by the later Jews, and adopted by Christians
Cabul - So Hiram called the twenty cities Solomon gave him for his aid, in the materials he furnished him with for the building of the Temple
Haggai - The prophet, who lived after the Babylonish captivity, and at the time of building the second Temple
Haggai - , when Cyrus, actuated by Isaiah's prophecies concerning himself (Isaiah 44:28; Isaiah 45:1), decreed the Jews' restoration and the rebuilding of the Temple, for which he furnished all necessaries. ) In spite of Samaritan opposition the Temple building went on under Cyrus and Cambyses (Ahasuerus Ezra 4:6); but under the Magian usurper Smerdis (Artaxerxes Ezra 4:7-23) the Samaritans procured a royal decree suspending the work. ), whose accession virtually nullified the usurper's prohibition, they pretended that as the prophecy of the 70 years applied to the Temple as well as to the captivity in Babylon (Haggai 1:2), they were only in the 68th year, and that, the time not yet having come, they might build splendid cieled mansions for themselves. Reproves their apathy in leaving the Temple in ruins; reminds them of their ill fortune because of their neglect of God's house. Predicts that the new Temple's glory will exceed that of Solomon's Temple; therefore the outward inferiority which had moved the elders to tears at the foundation laying (Ezra 3:10-13) ought not to discourage them. Isaiah (Isaiah 60; Isaiah 2:2-4), Jeremiah (Jeremiah 3:16-18), and Ezekiel (Ezekiel 40-48), similarly, had foretold the glory of the latter house; but the Temple then being built so far showed no signs of glory, Haggai shows wherein the glory should consist, namely, in the presence of Him who is "the Desire of all nations. Besides Messiah is "all desires," containing collectively all desirable things in Himself such as they missed in the present Temple, splendor, riches, etc. He comes in His veiled glory to the Temple at His first advent (Matthew 21:12-14), in His revealed glory at His second advent (Malachi 3:1). The glory of the latter house did not exceed that of the former except in Messiah's advent; the silver and gold brought to it scarcely equaled those of Solomon's Temple, and certainly all nations did not bring their desirable things to it. He rectifies their past error of thinking that outward observances cleanse away the sin of disobeying God, as for instance in respect to the Temple building. The Temple was completed in the sixth year of Darius' reign, 515-516 B. ) first chanted the Hallelujah, the hymn of Haggai and Zechariah, in the second Temple
Building - God's glory rested over the ark of the covenant (Exodus 25:22 ), in the tabernacle (Exodus 40:34-38 ; Numbers 9:15 ; 2 Samuel 7:5-7,13 ), and in Solomon's Temple, God's house (1 Kings 8:10-21 ; Psalm 26:8 ; 27:4 ; 84:1-4 ; Ezekiel 10:18 ), and in Jerusalem (Psalm 50:1-2 ; 76:2 ; 132:13-14 ; Ezekiel 48:35 ). From Solomon's Temple to Something Greater In the Gospels, especially Luke, Temple worship figures prominently (1:9; 2:27,46; 19:47; 21:37; 24:53), and Jesus affirms the continuing sanctity of the Temple as the dwelling-place of God ( Matthew 23:21 ; cf. Nevertheless, as the drama unfolds, Jesus is revealed to be greater than the Temple (Matthew 12:6 ); he is driven to purify it (Mark 11:15-18 ; cf. Malachi 3:1-3 ), foresees its destruction (Matthew 24:2 ; Mark 13:2 ; John 4:21 ), and is tried, in part, for his alleged antitemple stance (Matthew 26:61 ). For John, Jesus is the new tabernacle (1:14) and Temple (2:19-21) of God. Although the early Christians continued to worship at the Temple (Acts 2:46 ; 5:42 ), Stephen's apology, echoing both Jesus and Isaiah 66 , betrayed a shifting perspective on the locus of God's presence with his people (Acts 6:14 ; 7:48-50 ; cf. The church is also, however, a fully occupied dwelling, the Temple of God's Holy Spirit (naos theou; 3:16). In 2 Corinthians 6:16-7:1 the church is called the Temple of the living God ( naos theou zomntos ) in stark contrast to a world characterized by lawlessness, darkness, disbelief, and idolatry. 1 Corinthians 10:19-22 ); as God's restored Temple, God's people must commit themselves to holy living (2 Corinthians 7:1 ). Images of nation, building, body, and Temple converge but the central message is clear: Because Christ's death has established peace, union with Christ dissolves all barriers between Jew and Gentile. A Spiritual House of Living Stones and Holy Priests The spiritual house ( oikos [ Psalm 118:22 ), is now a choice, living stone in God's Temple (Isaiah 28:16 ), sharing his life and bringing unity to all who come to him. This heavenly house is not so much a Temple for the Spirit (cf. Fisk See also Church, the ; Tabernacle ; Temple Bibliography . McKelvey, The New Temple: The Church in the New Testament ; P
Akkub - ...
A Levite who kept the gate of the Temple after the return from Babylon (1Chronicles 9:17; Ezra 2:42 ; Nehemiah 7:45 )
Meremoth - He weighed and registered the golden and silver vessels of the Temple, which Ezra had brought from Babylon (Ezra 8:24-30; Ezra 8:33; Nehemiah 3:4)
Beautiful Gate - The name of one of the gates of the Temple (Acts 3:2 )
Micha - One in a family line of Temple musicians (Nehemiah 11:17 ,Nehemiah 11:17,11:22 )
Bazlith - ” Original ancestor of clan of Temple employees who returned from Exile in Babylon with Zerubbabel in 537 B
North Gate - Designation of two gates in Ezekiel's vision of the renewed Temple, a gate entering the outer court (Ezekiel 8:14 ; Ezekiel 44:4 ; Ezekiel 46:9 ; Ezekiel 47:2 ) and a gate entering the inner court (Ezekiel 40:35 ,Ezekiel 40:35,40:40 ,Ezekiel 40:40,40:44 )
Asarelah - The person is a descendant or son of Asaph among the Temple singers
Asenath - Wife of Joseph and daughter of a priest in Egyptian Temple at On or Heliopolis
Janus - Numa is said to have dedicated to Janus the covered passage at Rome, near the Forum, which is usually called the Temple of Janus
Post - The posts of the doors of the Temple were of olive wood
Beth-Peor - Beth-peor (bĕth'pç'or), Temple of Peor
Heman - A Kohathite Levite, to whom as a chief musicians of the Temple of the eighty-eighty Psalm is inscribed, 1 Chronicles 6:33 ; 16:41,42
Rehum - An officer of the king of Persia, in Samaria, during the rebuilding of the Temple; by an insidious letter to the king he procured an edict for the discontinuance of this work for a time, probably two years or more preceding 520 B
Court - chatser ), an open enclosure surrounded by buildings, applied in the Authorized Version most commonly to the enclosures of the tabernacle and the Temple
Parva'im - (Oriental regions ), the name of an unknown place or country whence the gold was procured for the decoration of Solomon's Temple
Demetrius - , models either of the Temple of Diana or of the statue of the goddess. This trade brought to him and his fellow-craftsmen "no small gain," for these shrines found a ready sale among the countless thousands who came to this Temple from all parts of Asia Minor
Robber - ...
2: ἱερόσυλος (Strong's #2417 — Noun Masculine — hierosulos — hee-er-os'-oo-los ) an adjective signifying "robbing Temples" (hieron, "a Temple," and sulao, "to rob"), is found in Acts 19:37 . hierosuleo, "to rob a Temple," Romans 2:22 , AV, "commit sacrilege
Inn - The principal are the Inner Temple, the Middle Temple, Lincoln's Inn, and Gray's Inn
Aven - Herodotus informs us that in this city there was an annual assembly in honour of the sun, and a Temple dedicated to him. It appears, however, highly probable, by the behaviour of Pharaoh to Joseph and Jacob, and especially by Joseph's care to preserve the land to the priests, Genesis 47:22-26 , that the true religion prevailed in Egypt in his time; and it is incredible that Joseph should have married the daughter of the priest of On, had that name among the Egyptians denoted only the material light; which, however, no doubt they, like all the rest of the world, idolized in after times, and to which we find a Temple dedicated among the Canaanites, under this name, Joshua 7:2
Ur - , and took part in building the famous Temple of the moon-god Sin in Ur itself. The illustration here given represents his cuneiform inscription, written in the Sumerian language, and stamped upon every brick of the Temple in Ur. It reads: "Ur-Ba'u, king of Ur, who built the Temple of the moon-god. The same witness is still more decisively borne by the worship paid in it to the Babylonian moon-god and by its ancient Temple of Sin. Indeed, the Temple of the moon-god at Harran was perhaps even more famous in the Assyrian and Babylonian world than the Temple of the moon-god at Ur. It was like passing from one court of a Temple into another
Joash - But Jehosheba, the sister of Ahaziah, and wife to the High Priest Jehoiada, rescued young Joash, then a child, from the cruelty of Athaliah, and lodged him in the Temple with his nurse. In the seventh year Jehoiada procured him to be acknowledged king, and so well concerted his plan, that young Joash was placed on the throne, and saluted king in the Temple, before the queen was informed of it. She was killed without the Temple, 2 Kings 11:1 , &c. ...
Jehoiada, during the king's minority, had issued orders for collecting voluntary offerings to the holy place, with the design of repairing the Temple; but his orders were ill executed till the twentieth year of Joash. Then this prince directed chests to be placed at the entrance of the Temple, and an account to be given him of what money was received from them, that it might be faithfully employed in repairing the house of God. They began to forsake the Temple of the Lord, and to worship idols, and groves consecrated to idols. Joash, to redeem himself from the difficulties of a siege, and from the danger of being plundered, took what money he could find in the Temple, which had been consecrated by Ahaziah his father, Jehoram his grandfather, and himself, and gave the whole to Hazael
Wallet - * Joshua the Son of Jehozadak - In 539 BC Cyrus of Persia conquered Babylon and immediately gave permission to the captive Jews to return to their homeland and rebuild Jerusalem and the Temple. They laid the foundation of the Temple the next year (Ezra 3:8-11), but when opposition discouraged the builders, the work stopped (Ezra 4:1-5). ...
Sixteen years later God raised up the prophets Haggai and Zechariah to stir up Zerubbabel, Joshua and the people to get to work once more on the Temple (Ezra 4:24; Ezra 5:1-2; Haggai 1:1-11). ...
The rebuilding of the Temple was a preparation for the coming of the Messiah. They were therefore no longer fit to serve God or build him a Temple
Asahiah - Sent with Hilkiah to inquire of Jehovah concerning the book of the law found in the Temple (2 Kings 22:12-14)
Beth-Anoth - A Temple to the Canaanite goddess Anath may have been here
Giddalti - He became a leader of a clan of Temple musicians (1 Chronicles 25:29 )
Reaiah - Head of a family of Temple servants (Nethanim) returning from Exile (Ezra 2:47 ; Nehemiah 7:50 )
Talmon - Levite whom David and Samuel appointed a gatekeeper (1 Chronicles 9:17 ), ancestor of a family of Temple gatekeepers who returned from Exile (Ezra 2:42 ; Nehemiah 7:45 ); 2
si'on - ...
The Greek form of the Hebrew name Zion, the famous mount of the Temple
Treasury, - (Mark 12:41 ; Luke 21:1 ) a name given by the rabbins to thirteen chests in the Temple, called trumpets from their shape
Mishkan - The (Tabernacle): a) the tabernacle or temporary Sanctuary in which the Divine Presence dwelled during the Jews� journeys through the desert; b) the portion of the tabernacle and the Temple building before the Holy of Holies which contained the inner altar, the table for the showbread, and the menorah ...
Ater - They were Temple gatekeepers (Ezra 2:42 )
Pommels - The ball-like tops of the Temple pillars; convex projections of the capitals
Kadmiel - A Levite and his family who returned from exile, and helped in the rebuilding of the Temple
Marble - It was used in Solomon's Temple, and there were pillars of marble in the Persian palace
Threshold - ) The plank, stone, or piece of timber, which lies under a door, especially of a dwelling house, church, Temple, or the like; the doorsill; hence, entrance; gate; door
Paphos - a celebrated city of Cyprus, lying on the western coast of the island, where Venus (who from thence took the name of Paphia) had her most ancient and most famous Temple; and here the Roman proconsul, Sergius Paulus, resided, whom St
Basin - Among the smaller vessels for the tabernacle or Temple service, many must have been required to receive from the sacrificial victims the blood to be sprinkled for purification
Haggai, Theology of - to encourage the rebuilding of the Temple following the Babylonian exile. , work on the foundation of the Temple was completed by 536 b. Through their effective preaching, Zerubbabel the governor and Joshua the high priest were able to complete the "second Temple" by 515 b. Brief but hard-hitting, Haggai's messages reached the hearts of the Jewish remnant, and the people obediently responded to his call to finish the Temple. Rather than working to finish the Temple, the Israelites were beautifying their own homes and letting the Lord's work lag far behind (Haggai 1:4 ). ...
Stung by the truth of Haggai's words, the people repented of their lethargy and resumed work on the Temple in September 520 b. When Solomon was given the heavy responsibility of building the first Temple he, too, was told to take courage and do the work (1 Chronicles 28:10,20 ). Rebuilding the Temple would not be easy, but divine enablement would be assured. In the Old Testament the glory of the Lord referred to the pillar of cloud that filled the tabernacle and then the Temple. One way that the glory of the second Temple surpassed the glory of Solomon's Temple was the presence of the Son of God in Zerubbabel's Temple. When Jesus was brought to the Temple as a child the aged Simeon identified him as a light to the Gentiles and glory for Israel (Luke 2:32 )
Ab - ...
The first day of this month is observed as a fast by the Jews, in memory of Aaron's death; and the ninth, in commemoration of the destruction of the Temple by Nebuchadnezzar, in the year before Christ 587. Josephus observes, that the burning of the Temple by Nebuchadnezzar happened on the same day of the year on which it was afterward burned by Titus. On the twenty-first, or, according to Scaliger, the twenty-second day, was a feast called Xylophoria, from their laying up the necessary wood in the Temple: and on the twenty-fourth, a feast in commemoration of the abolishing of a law by the Asmoneans, or Maccabees, which had been introduced by the Sadducees, and which enacted, that both sons and daughters should alike inherit the estate of their parents
Mattani'ah - (1 Chronicles 9:15 ) He was leader of the Temple choir after its restoration, (Nehemiah 11:17 ; 12:8 ) in the time of Nehemiah, and took part in the musical service which accompanied the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem. (Nehemiah 13:13 ) ...
One of the fourteen sons of Heman, whose office it was to blow the horns in the Temple service appointed by David. (1 Chronicles 25:4,16 ) ...
A descendant of Asaph the Levite minstrel, who assisted in the purification of the Temple in the reign of Hezekiah
Hosanna - The scene is one of triumph, as Israel’s king enters the Temple for a public ceremony of praise to God for a recent victory in battle. By going direct to the Temple, Jesus showed that his messiahship was concerned chiefly with spiritual issues, not political. In the Temple also he was greeted with shouts of ‘Hosanna’, and again Jesus accepted the praise
Draught - ’ Jehu, according to the last-cited passage, turned the Temple of Baal in Samaria into public latrines
Shethar-Bozenai - One of those who corresponded with Darius about the re-building of the Temple ( Ezra 5:3 ; Ezra 5:6 ; Ezra 6:5 ; Ezra 6:13 )
Beth-Peor - , "temple of Baal-peor", a place in Moab, on the east of Jordan, opposite Jericho
Kadmiel - A Levite who returned with Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:40; Nehemiah 7:43): set forward the Temple workmen, and joined in the thanksgiving at the laying of the foundation (Ezra 3:9)
Honi hame'aggel - Mishnaic sage, lived through the Second Temple�s
Nehiloth - The psalm may be thus regarded as addressed to the conductor of the Temple choir which played on flutes and such-like instruments
Hen - In Zechariah 6:14 ‘Hen the son of Zephaniah’ is mentioned amongst those whose memory was to be perpetuated by the crowns laid up in the Temple (so AV Sanctuary - On sites where the patriarchs had erected altars, the people of Israel later built shrines and Temples to commemorate the encounters with God. Specifically, the tabernacle and the Temple in Jerusalem were revered as sanctuaries
Spoon - KJV translation for the dish in which incense was burned in the tabernacle and Temple (Numbers 7:14 )
Omer - ) the formal counting of the 49 days from the second day of Passover -- when the Omer offering was brought in the Holy Temple -- to the eve of Shavuot, signifying our preparation for the receiving of the Torah on the holiday of Shavuot
Ater - Apparently head of one of the families of porters to the Temple
Sea, the Molten - The name given to the 'laver' made by Solomon when he built the Temple
Algum - A rare wood Solomon imported from Lebanon for the Temple (2 Chronicles 2:8 )
Jahath - ...
...
A Levite of the family of Merari, one of the overseers of the repairs of the Temple under Josiah (2 Chronicles 34:12 )
Door - The examples of the concrete use of θύρα, ‘door,’ are all found in Acts, and may be treated under three heads: (1) house doors, (2) prison doors, (3) Temple doors. In Acts 3:2 the Beautiful Gate of the Temple (cf Acts 3:10) is described by the word for ‘door,’ which Revised Version brings out. This particular gate of the Temple is now believed to be the Corinthian Gate, which is identical with the Nicanor Gate, on the east side of the Temple precincts. They seem to have been double doors (Encyclopaedia Biblica , article ‘Temple’), standing at the entrance to the portal. Compare, for Babylonian Temples, PSBA Tabernacle - ...
Whereas the “tabernacle” was mobile, the Temple was built for the particular purpose of religious worship: “… I have not dwelt in any house since the time that I brought up the children of Israel out of Egypt, even to this day, but have walked in a tent and in a tabernacle” ( Temple instead of the dwelling place (mishkân) In later literature mishkân is a poetic synonym for “temple”: “I will not give sleep … until I find out a place for the Lord, a habitation for the mighty God of Jacob” ( Temple, as much as the city Jerusalem: “There is a river, the streams whereof shall make glad the city of God, the holy place of the tabernacles of the Most High” ( Temple area was sufficient reason for God to leave the Temple (Ezek. In the Lord’s providence He had planned to restore His people and the Temple so as to assure them of His continued presence: “My tabernacle also shall be with them: yea, I will be their God, and they shall be my people. John comments that Jesus Christ was God’s “tabernacle”: “And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth” (John 1:14), and Jesus later referred to Himself as the Temple: “But He spake of the Temple of his body” (John 2:21)
Door - The examples of the concrete use of θύρα, ‘door,’ are all found in Acts, and may be treated under three heads: (1) house doors, (2) prison doors, (3) Temple doors. In Acts 3:2 the Beautiful Gate of the Temple (cf Acts 3:10) is described by the word for ‘door,’ which Revised Version brings out. This particular gate of the Temple is now believed to be the Corinthian Gate, which is identical with the Nicanor Gate, on the east side of the Temple precincts. They seem to have been double doors (Encyclopaedia Biblica , article ‘Temple’), standing at the entrance to the portal. Compare, for Babylonian Temples, PSBA Mattaniah - Levitic leader of the Temple choir in Zerubbabel's time (Nehemiah 11:17 ,Nehemiah 11:17,11:22 ). Levitic Temple gatekeeper (Nehemiah 12:25 )
Oracle - ) The sanctuary, or Most Holy place in the Temple; also, the Temple itself
Access - Under the law, the high priest alone had access into the holiest of all; but when the veil of the Temple was rent in twain, at the death of Christ, it was declared that a new and living way of access was laid open through the veil, that is to say, his flesh. By his death, also, the middle wall of partition was broken down, and Jew and Gentile had both free access to God; whereas, before, the Gentiles had no nearer access in the Temple worship than to the gate of the court of Israel
Belshazzar - During the siege of the city of Babylon he gave a sumptuous entertainment to his courtiers, and impiously made use of the Temple furniture (of which Nebuchadnezzar had plundered the Temple at Jerusalem) as drinking-vessels
Zacharias - He was a priest of the course of Abia, the eighth of the 24 courses who ministered at the Temple in turn. Son of Barachias, who, our Lord says, was slain by the Jews between the altar and the Temple
Ger'Izim - [2] Gerizim was the site of the Samaritan Temple, which was built there after the captivity, in rivalry with the Temple at Jerusalem
Ashdod - The story most readily associated with Ashdod concerns the Temple of Dagon that was in the town. When the Philistines captured Israel’s ark of the covenant and placed it in the Temple, the god Dagon fell down in front of the ark and broke in pieces (1 Samuel 5:1-5)
Zacharias - The priests served at the Temple twice each year, and only for a week each time. During this period his home would be one of the chambers set apart for the priests on the sides of the Temple ground. The offering of incense was one of the most solemn parts of the daily worship of the Temple, and lots were drawn each day to determine who should have this great honour, an honour which no priest could enjoy more than once during his lifetime. ...
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The "son of Barachias," mentioned as having been slain between the Temple and the altar (Matthew 23:35 ; Luke 11:51 )
Laver - This appertained to the tabernacle and the Temple. The laver for the Temple was circular, being ten cubits in diameter, and (in round numbers) thirty in circumference, and five cubits in height. ...
The laver for the Temple is called 'a molten sea,' and 'a brazen sea,' and was supported on twelve oxen. It was used for the same purpose as the laver of the tabernacle; but in the Temple there were also ten smaller lavers at which the sacrifices were washed
Athaliah - But Jehosheba, the sister of Ahaziah, by the father's side only, was at this time married to Jehoiada, the high priest; and while Athaliah's executioners were murdering the rest, she conveyed Joash the son of Ahaziah away, and kept him and his nurse concealed in an apartment of the Temple, during six years. He then distributed arms among the people, whom he divided into three bodies, one to guard the person of the king, and the other two to secure the gates of the Temple. Athaliah, hearing the noise, made all haste to the Temple; but when, to her astonishment, she saw the young king seated on a throne, she rent her clothes and cried out, "Treason!" But at the command of Jehoiada, the guards seized and carried her out of the Temple, putting all to the sword who offered to rescue or assist her; and then taking her to the stable gate belonging to the palace, there put her to death
Henadad - ” Clan of Levites who supervised the rebuilding of the Temple under Zerubbabel after 537 B
Shethar-Bozenai - ” Persian provincial official who questioned Zerubbabel's right to begin rebuilding the Temple (Ezra 5:3 ,Ezra 5:3,5:6 ) but responded to King Darius' answer by helping the Jews build (Ezra 6:13 )
Boaz - The left or north pillar Solomon set up in the Temple (1 Kings 7:21 )
Elzabad - He was a porter or gatekeeper in the Temple
Eliehoenai - One of the Temple porters or gatekeepers under David (1 Chronicles 26:3 )
Porter - Such persons served at city gates (2 Samuel 18:26 ; 2 Kings 7:10 ), Temple gates (1Chron, 2Kings 9:22,2Kings 9:24,2 Kings 9:26 ), the doors of private homes (Mark 13:34 ), and even the gate of a sheepfold (John 10:3 )
Chest - 'Aron , Generally rendered "ark"), the coffer into which the contributions for the repair of the Temple were put ( 2 Kings 12:9,10 ; 2 Chronicles 24:8,10,11 )
Ahiman - A Levite and Temple gatekeeper (1 Chronicles 9:17 )
Demetrius - Silversmith of Ephesus, who made silver shrines of the Temple
Jeduthun - A Levite, one of the directors of music at the Temple, 1 Chronicles 16:38-42
Pediment - Ahab's changes in the Temple equipment were an attempt to gain favor with the Assyrians
Cabul - A name given by Hiram king of Tyre to a district in Northern Galilee containing twenty cities, which Solomon gave him for his help in building the Temple, 1 Kings 9:13 ; the term implying his dissatisfaction with the gift
Carving - The arts of carving and engraving were much in request in the construction of both the tabernacle and the Temple
Nethinim - But when they were offered within the walls of a Temple, and offered with great frequency and with large numbers of victims, some very disagreeable drudgery was always necessary. The chopping of wood, lighting of fires, sharpening of knives, drawing of water, the cleansing not only of the altar and its surroundings and utensils, but of the whole of the Temple precincts, and the performance of many menial offices for the priests, required a large staff of servants. The Greeks had hierodoutoi , ‘temple slaves,’ and the Mohammedans at Mecca similarly. It is not known at what date the practice arose in Israel; but there seem to have been three stages in the history of Temple servants. This employment of foreign slaves in the Temple continued till the beginning of the Exile ( Ezekiel 44:6 f. When the people were far from the land, every one who had held any sort of position in the Temple must have gained a certain prestige. The former Temple-slaves seemed to have formed themselves into a guild. By the very fact of their exile, they were freed from their slavery to the Temple, and thus when they and their sons returned to Jerusalem, they returned as free men, who were recognized as part of the nation. the southern and eastern slope of the Temple hill, or more particularly that part of it which reached to the Water-gate on the east, and to the tower projecting from the royal palace ( Nehemiah 3:28 ). They were thus near the Temple, and Bp. In 1 Chronicles 23:28 the Levites are spoken of in such a way as to suggest that the term included all Temple-servants
Zechariah, Book of - They settled in Jerusalem under the leadership of the governor Zerubbabel and the high priest Joshua, and set about rebuilding the city and the Temple (Ezra 1:1-4; Ezra 2:1-2). Soon they had set up the altar and laid the foundation of the Temple, but when local people began persecuting them, they became discouraged and stopped work (Ezra 4:1-5; Ezra 4:24). For sixteen years no work was done on the Temple. Then, in 520 BC, God raised up two prophets, Haggai and Zechariah, to stir up the people to get to work again and finish the Temple (Ezra 5:1-2; Haggai 1:1; Zechariah 1:1). The Temple was finished in 516 BC, after four and a half years work (Ezra 6:14-15). ...
Haggai and Zechariah were both concerned with rousing the people from their spiritual laziness and getting them to work on the Temple, but the preaching of Zechariah went further. ...
Contents of the book...
After an initial call to repentance (1:1-6), Zechariah recounts eight visions, all of which concern the rebuilding of the Temple and God’s purposes for his people. ...
At the half-way point in the building program, some representatives of the people asked Zechariah if they should still keep certain fasts to mourn the destruction of the former Temple
Gerizim And Ebal - The Jewish historian Josephus reported that Alexander the Great gave permission to the Samaritans to build a Temple on Mount Gerizim. Archaeologists think they have found remains of this Temple, 66 x 66 feet and 30 feet high, built of uncut rocks without cement. Josephus also reported that John Hyrcanus destroyed the Temple in 128 B. Archaeologists have also found remains of the Temple to Zeus Hypsistos which Hadrian, the Roman emperor, built after A. Over 1500 marble steps led to the pagan Temple
Mem'Phis - The Temple of Apis was one of the most noted structures of Memphis. It stood opposite the southern portico of the Temple of Ptah; and Psammetichus, who built that gateway, also erected in front of the sanctuary of Apis a magnificent colonnade, supported by colossal statues or Osiride pillars, such as may still be seen at the Temple of Medeenet Habou at Thebes. At Memphis was the reputed burial-place of Isis; it has also a Temple to that "myriad-named" divinity. The sacred cubit until other symbols used in measuring the rise of the Nile were deposited in the Temple of Serapis
Gerizim - As to the original of the Temple upon Gerizim, we must take Josephus's relation of it. 186, the Samaritans entreated him that their Temple upon Gerizim, which hitherto had been dedicated to an unknown and nameless god, might be consecrated to Jupiter the Grecian, which was easily consented to by Antiochus. The Temple of Gerizim subsisted some time after the worship of Jupiter was introduced into it; but it was destroyed by John Hircanus Maccabaeus, and was not rebuilt till Gabinius was governor of Syria; who repaired Samaria, and called it by his own name. It is certain, that, in our Saviour's time, this Temple was in being; and that the true God was worshipped there, since the woman of Samaria, pointing to Gerizim, said to him, "Our fathers worshipped in this mountain, and ye say, that in Jerusalem is the place where men ought to worship," John 4:20 . We are assured, that Herod the Great, having rebuilt Samaria, and called it Sebaste, in honour of Augustus, would have obliged the Samaritans to worship in the Temple which he had erected there, but they constantly refused
Men of the great assembly - A panel of 120 prophets and sages--including Ezra, Nehemiah, Mordecai, Daniel, Simeon the Righteous and the prophets Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi--which constituted the ultimate religious authority at the onset of the Second Temple Era (4th century BCE)
Herod - Later, out of remorse for his cruelty, he had the Holy Temple completely renovated
Jaaziel - ” Levite and Temple musician (1 Chronicles 15:18 ), apparently appearing in a variant Hebrew spelling in 1 Chronicles 15:20 as one who played the psalter ( 1 Chronicles 15:20 ) or harp (NRSV, NAS, TEV) or lute (REB), or lyre (NIV)
Gishpa - Supervisor of Temple servants in days of Nehemiah (Nehemiah 11:21 )
Uzza - Head of a family of postexilic Temple servants or nethinim (Ezra 2:49 )
Azaziah - Levite David appointed to play the harp for the Temple worship (1 Chronicles 5:21 )
Chambers of Imagery - Whatever “chambers of imagery” refers to, that which was taking place in the Temple during the days of Ezekiel was displeasing to God
Holy Simeon - The "just and devout" man of Jerusalem who greeted the infant Saviour on His presentation in the Temple, prophesied the sorrows of the Blessed Virgin, and uttered the canticle Nunc dimittis (Luke 2): "Now thou dost dismiss thy servant, O Lord, according to thy word in peace; because my eyes have seen thy salvation
Peristyle - ; specifically, a complete system of columns, whether on all sides of a court, or surrounding a building, such as the cella of a Temple
Podium - ) The masonry under the stylobate of a Temple, sometimes a mere foundation, sometimes containing chambers
Heldai - One who returned from exile, Zechariah 6:10 (probably the same as HELEMin Zechariah 6:14 ), who apparently had gold and silver of which crowns were made, to be 'for a memorial in the Temple of the Lord
Conaniah - Levite in charge of collecting Temple offerings under King Hezekiah (2 Chronicles 31:12 )
Jehaleleel - Levite whose son helped King Hezekiah purify the Temple (2 Chronicles 29:12 )
Uzza - Head of a family of postexilic Temple servants or nethinim (Ezra 2:49 )
Simeon, Holy - The "just and devout" man of Jerusalem who greeted the infant Saviour on His presentation in the Temple, prophesied the sorrows of the Blessed Virgin, and uttered the canticle Nunc dimittis (Luke 2): "Now thou dost dismiss thy servant, O Lord, according to thy word in peace; because my eyes have seen thy salvation
no-Adi'ah -
A Levite, son of Binnui who with Meremoth, Eleazar and Jozabad weighed the vessels of gold and silver belonging to the Temple which were brought back from Babylon
Anshei knesset hagdolah - A panel of 120 prophets and sages--including Ezra, Nehemiah, Mordecai, Daniel, Simeon the Righteous and the prophets Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi--which constituted the ultimate religious authority at the onset of the Second Temple Era (4th century BCE)
Josedech - Father of Joshua, or Jeshua, the priest, who returned from exile, and superintended the rebuilding of the Temple
Jehohanan -
A Korhite, the head of one of the divisions of the Temple porters (1 Chronicles 26:3 )
Jediael - ...
...
A Korhite of the family of Ebiasaph, and one of the gate-keepers to the Temple (1 Chronicles 26:2 )
Gate - ...
...
Of the Temple of Solomon (1 Kings 6:34,35 ; 2 Kings 18:16 ); of the holy place (1 Kings 6:31,32 ; Ezekiel 41:23,24 ); of the outer courts of the Temple, the beautiful gate (Acts 3:2 ). By the "gates of righteousness" we are probably to understand those of the Temple (Psalm 118:19 )
Dagon - a major Temple was erected for him in the maritime city of Ugarit. However, when Samson collapsed Dagon's Temple upon himself and the Philistines, he proved the superiority of Israel's God. Nevertheless the Philistines, later, displayed the head of Saul as a trophy in the Temple of Dagon (1 Chronicles 10:10 )
Tobiah - He was one of those who strenuously opposed the rebuilding of the Temple, after the return from the captivity of Babylon, Nehemiah 2:10 ; Nehemiah 4:3 ; Nehemiah 6:17-196 ; Nehemiah 5:12 ; Nehemiah 5:14 . Tobiah took this opportunity to come and dwell at Jerusalem; and even obtained of Eliashib, who had the care of the house of the Lord, to have an apartment in the Temple. But at Nehemiah's return from Babylon, some years after, he drove Tobiah out of the courts of the Temple, and threw his goods out of the holy place, Nehemiah 13:4-8
Gentiles - Josephus says there was, in the court of the Temple, a wall, or balustrade, breast-high, with pillars at particular distances, and inscriptions on them in Greek and Latin, importing that strangers were forbidden from entering farther; here their offerings were received, and sacrifices were offered for them, they standing at the barrier; but they were not allowed to approach to the altar. Pompey, nevertheless, went even into the sanctuary, but behaved with strict decorum; and the next day he commanded the Temple to be purified, and the customary sacrifices to be offered. The wisest in vain remonstrated with them on the danger this would bring on their country; urged that their ancestors had never rejected the presents of Gentiles; and that the Temple was mostly adorned with the offerings of such people; at the same time, the most learned priests, who had spent their whole lives in the study of the law, testified that their forefathers had always received the sacrifices of strangers
Money-Changers - In our Lord's time they had established themselves in the court of the Temple; a profanation which had probably grown up with the influence of Roman manners, which allowed the argentarii [1] to establish their usurious mensas, tables, by the statues of the gods, even at the feet of Janus, in the most holy places, in porticibus Basilicarum, or in the Temples, pone aedem Castoris. It was, indeed, a living picture of what we might believe the Temple at Jerusalem to have been, when those who sold oxen, and sheep, and doves, and the changers of money sitting there, were driven out by Jesus, with a scourge of cords, and their tables overturned. It was, in short, a place of public resort and thoroughfare, a house of merchandise, as the Temple of the Jews had become in the days of the Messiah
Moriah - Here Solomon's Temple was built, on the spot that had been the threshing-floor of Ornan the Jebusite (2 Samuel 24:24,25 ; 2 Chronicles 3:1 ). It has been supposed that the highest point of the Temple hill, which is now covered by the Mohammedan Kubbetes-Sakhrah, or "Dome of the Rock," is the actual site of Araunah's threshing-floor
Jerimoth - Temple musician under David and Solomon (1 Chronicles 25:4 ; compare 1 Chronicles 25:22 ). An overseer of Temple treasury under Hezekiah (2 Chronicles 31:13 )
Shekel, Half Shekel - 1: στατήρ (Strong's #4715 — Noun Masculine — stater — stat-air' ) a teradrachmon or four drachmae, originally 224 grains, in Tyrian currency, but reduced in weight somewhat by the time recorded in Matthew 17:24 ; the value was about three shillings, and would pay the Temple tax for two persons, Matthew 17:27 , RV, "shekel" (AV, "a piece of money"); in some mss. , due from every adult Jew for the maintenance of the Temple services, Matthew 17:24 (twice)
World, Ages of - The fourth, from the going out of Egypt to the foundation of the Temple by Solomon in 2992, four hundred and seventy-nine years. The fifth, from Solomon's foundation of the Temple to the Babylonish captivity in 3416, four hundred and twenty-one years
the Altar of Incense - In Solomon's Temple this altar was made of cedar overlaid with gold, but its size is not given. In the Temple described by Ezekiel the altar of incense is 2 cubits in length, and 3 cubits in height
Hiram - He aided David with materials for a palace, 2 Samuel 5:11; 1 Chronicles 14:1, and Solomon in the construction of the Temple, 1 Kings 5:1-12; 1 Kings 9:11-14, furnishing workmen as well as materials. An eminent artificer of Tyre who was employed by Solomon on some of the most difficult of the fixtures and furniture of the Temple
Prophetess - The only mention of a prophetess in the Gospels is that of Anna, who recognized the infant Messiah when His parents presented Him in the Temple (Luke 2:36). She spoke to the pious worshippers in the Temple concerning the work of Jesus
Huldah - She was consulted after Josiah the king of Judah saw a copy of the Book of the Law found as preparations were being made to restore the Temple
Dedication - The act of consecrating to a divine Being, or to a sacred use, often with religious solemnities solemn appropriation as the dedication of Solomons Temple
Undersetter - Only 1 Kings 7:30 ; 1 Kings 7:34 , in the difficult description of Solomon’s lavers (Temple, § 6 ( d ))
Firepan - (Exodus 27:3 ; 38:3 ), one of the vessels of the Temple service (rendered "snuff-dish" Exodus 25:38 ; 37:23 ; and "censer" Leviticus 10:1 ; 16:12 )
Musician, Chief - menatstseah), the precentor of the Levitical choir or orchestra in the Temple, mentioned in the titles of fifty-five psalms, and in Habakkuk 3:19 , Revised Version
Litter - " There they denote large and commodious vehicles drawn by oxen, and fitted for transporting the furniture of the Temple
Desolation, Abomination of - These standards, rising over the site of the Temple, were a sign that the holy place had fallen under the idolatrous Romans
Neginoth - The "chief musician on Neginoth" is the leader of that part of the Temple choir which played on stringed instruments
Jupiter - There was a Temple dedicated to this god outside the gates of Lystra (14:13)
el-Berith - ” A god worshiped in a Temple at Shechem
Giddel - The clan leader of a group of Temple servants who returned from the Babylonian captivity with Zerubbabel about 537 B
Regem-Melech - ” Delegate whom the people of Bethel sent to Jerusalem to inquire about continuing to fast in commemoration of the destruction of the Jerusalem Temple (Zechariah 7:2 )
Olympius - Antiochus Epiphanes caused the Temple at Jerusalem to be dedicated to Zeus Olympius in b
Satrap(y) - These officials aided the people of Israel in rebuilding Jerusalem and the Temple
Sur, Gate of - Some feel that it may be the gate leading from the king's palace to the Temple spoken of in the account of the murder of Queen Athaliah (2 Kings 11:1 )
Flesh-Hook - The flesh-hook used by the priest’s servant at Shiloh was a three-pronged fork ( 1 Samuel 2:13 ), as were probably those of bronze and gold mentioned in connexion with the Tabernacle ( Exodus 27:3 ; Exodus 38:3 ) and Temple ( 1 Chronicles 28:17 , 2 Chronicles 4:16 ) respectively
Ephesus, Third Council of - Presided over by Saint Cyril, Patriarch of Alexandria, it condemned Nestorius, the Bishop of Constantinople, who taught that Mary did not bring forth the Word of God, but the Man who became the Temple of the Godhead, "the animated purple of the King
Shallecheth - The 'going up' doubtless alluded to a pathway that ascended from the lower part of the city to some entrance of the Temple: cf
Athenaeum - ) A Temple of Athene, at Athens, in which scholars and poets were accustomed to read their works and instruct students
Venerable - ) Rendered sacred by religious or other associations; that should be regarded with awe and treated with reverence; as, the venerable walls of a Temple or a church
Ting - ) The apartment in a Chinese Temple where the idol is kept
Akkub - (1 Chronicles 3:24 ) ...
One of the porters or doorkeepers at the east gate of the Temple
Ark - 3:20; (b) the "ark" of the Covenant in the Tabernacle, Hebrews 9:4 ; (c) the "ark" seen in vision in the Heavenly Temple, Revelation 11:19
Eliashib - The same person probably was afterwards censured for profaning the Temple, by giving the use of one of its chambers to a heathen and an Ammonite, his relative, Deuteronomy 23:3,4 Nehemiah 12:10 13:1-9
Pinnacle - Literally a wing; probably some part of the battlements on the outer wall of the Temple, perhaps of Solomon's porch, accessible by stairs, Matthew 4:5-6
Baal-Berith - The god of Shechem, where he had a Temple ( Judges 8:33 ; Judges 9:4 ); called also El-berith ( Judges 9:46 )
Anto'Nia - (from Marc Antony ) (a square stone fortress or castle adjoining the northwest corner of the Temple area at Jerusalem
Neginah - "The chief musician on Neginoth " was therefore the conductor of that portion of the Temple-choir who played upon the stringed instruments, and who are mentioned in ( Psalm 68:25 )
Degrees, Song of - Others have suggested that “ascents” is a reference to the rising melody of the psalms, the step-like poetic form of some of the psalms, or to the steps upon which the Levites performed music in the Temple. Jewish tradition relates the title to the fifteen steps leading from the court of the women to the court of Israel in the Temple
Tribute - In Matthew 17:24-27 the word denotes the Temple rate (the "didrachma," the "half-shekel," as rendered by the RSV) which was required to be paid for the support of the Temple by every Jew above twenty years of age ( Exodus 30:12 ; 2 Kings 12:4 ; 2 Chronicles 24:6,9 )
Basin - k'for) among the vessels of the Temple (1 Chronicles 28:17 ; Ezra 1:10 ; 8:27 ). The vessels of the tabernacle were of brass (Exodus 27:3 ), while those of the Temple were of gold (2 Chronicles 4:8 )
Diana - Her most noted Temple was that at Ephesus. The Temple as St
Tobiah - One of the major adversaries to Nehemiah's rebuilding efforts at Jerusalem, Tobiah was a practicing Jew who lived in a residence chamber in the Temple. Zechariah used him as a witness for his crowning of Joshua, the high priest, and to preserve the crowns in the Temple (Zechariah 6:9-14 )
Zoan - It is now San el-Hagar, one of the most important of the ancient sites in Lower Egypt, with ruins of a great Temple. placed in the Temple a colossus of himself in granite, the greatest known, which Petrie calculates from the fragments to have measured 92 feet in height
Artaxerxes - When appealed to by the adversaries of the Jews, he stopped the building of the Temple. He greatly favoured both Ezra and Nehemiah; he beautified the Temple or bore the expense of its being done, Ezra 7:27 , and under his protection the wall of the city was finished
Window - There was a window in the ark Noah built, and windows in the Temple; and many are to be made in the Temple described by Ezekiel
Arch - Aside from 1 Kings 7:6 (where the word describes a covered porch whose roof is supported by columns; see Hall of Pillars), the word refers to the entrance room to the main building of the Temple just outside the holy place. In Ezekiel's vision of the Temple, each gate leading into the court of the Gentiles also had a vestibule (Ezekiel 40:7-26 ) as did the gates to the court of the Israelites (Ezekiel 40:29-37 )
Weights - The weight "of sanctuary," or weight of the Temple, Exodus 30:13,24 ; Leviticus 5:5 ; Numbers 3:50 ; 7:19 ; 18:16 , was perhaps the standard weight, preserved in some apartment of the Temple, and not a different weight from the common shekel; for though Moses appointed that all things valued by their price in silver should be rated by the weight of the sanctuary, Leviticus 27:25 , he made no difference between this shekel of twenty gerahs and the common shekel
Sanctuary - A sacred place particularly among the Israelites, the most retired part of the Temple at Jerusalem, called the Holy of Holies, in which was kept the ark of the covenant, and into which no person was permitted to enter except the high priest, and that only once a year to intercede for the people. The Temple at Jerusalem
Pashur - paqid nagid, meaning "deputy governor"]'>[1] of the Temple" (Jeremiah 20:1,2 ). At this time the Nagid , Or "governor," of the Temple was Seraiah the high priest ( 1 Chronicles 6:14 ), and Pashur was his Paqid , Or "deputy. " Enraged at the plainness with which Jeremiah uttered his solemn warnings of coming judgements, because of the abounding iniquity of the times, Pashur ordered the Temple police to seize him, and after inflicting on him corporal punishment (forty stripes save one, Deuteronomy 25:3 ; Compare 2 Corinthians 11:24 ), to put him in the stocks in the high gate of Benjamin, where he remained all night
Changers of Money - They set up their tables in the court of the Gentiles, to exchange at a price the foreign coin of Jews and proselytes coming from distant lands for the Hebrew half shekel (which was required from every adult from 20 years old and upward: Exodus 38:26) in presenting themselves to worship at the tabernacle or Temple. At the beginning of His ministry, and at its close, Christ marked His mission as the foretold Purifier of the Temple (Malachi 3:1-5), for the presence of Jehovah, of which His own divinely formed body was the type. Then and then only shall the Temple be mate "a house of prayer for all people" (Isaiah 2:2-4)
Architecture - The palace and Temple of Solomon were likewise the work of Phœnician architects, and the former doubtless supplied the model for the more ambitious private buildings under the monarchy. The many magnificent buildings of Herod, for example, including the colonnades and gates of the Temple, were entirely built in the prevailing Græco-Roman style. See, further, Fortification, Palace, Temple, Tomb
Zerubbabel - Cyrus committed to his care the sacred vessels of the Temple with which he returned to Jerusalem, Ezra 1:11 . He is always named first as being the chief of the Jews that returned to their own country, Ezra 2:2 ; Ezra 3:8 ; Ezra 5:2 ; he laid the foundations of the Temple, Ezra 3:8-9 ; Zechariah 4:9 , &c; and restored the worship of the Lord, and the usual sacrifices. When the Samaritans offered to assist in rebuilding the Temple, Zerubbabel and the principal men of Judah refused them this honour, since Cyrus had granted his commission to the Jews only, Ezra 4:2-3
Gerizim - ...
After the captivity, Manasseh, a seceding priest, by permission of Alexander the Great, built a Temple on Gerizim, and the Samaritans joined the worship of the true God to that of their idols; "They feared the Lord, and served their own gods, after the manner of the nations whom they carried away form thence," 2 Kings 17:33 . ...
This Temple was destroyed by John Hyrcanus; yet its site has always retained its ancient sacredness. Herod the Great having rebuilt Samaria, and called it Sebaste, in honor of Augustus, would have compelled the Samaritans to worship in the Temple which he had erected; but they constantly refused and have continued to this day to guard their sacred Scriptures, to keep the law, to pray towards their holy place on the summit of Gerizim, and to worship God there four times in the year
Candlestick - It was among the spoils taken by the Romans from the Temple of Jerusalem (A. ...
In Solomon's Temple there were ten separate candlesticks of pure gold, five on the right and five on the left of the Holy Place (1 Kings 7:49 ; 2 Chronicles 4:7 ). ...
In the Temple erected after the Exile there was again but one candlestick, and like the first, with seven branches. It was this which was afterwards carried away by Titus to Rome, where it was deposited in the Temple of Peace
Cherub, Cherubim - The other is Temple worship and the representations of cherubim which were a part of its furnishings (Exodus 25:18-22 ; 1 Kings 6:23-35 ; 2 Chronicles 3:7-14 ). ...
The most impressive of the Temple cherubim were the large sculptures (probably winged quadrapeds) in the holy of holies. Also, Ezekiel's cherubim bear as great a similarity to Isaiah's seraphim as they do to the Temple cherubim. However, a comparison of Ezekiel 1:1 and Ezekiel 10:1 with the Temple representations and with Isaiah's vision does clearly indicate that the function of these heavenly, living creatures was that of attending the presence of the living God
Pithom - Pithom (pî'thom), house or Temple, of Tum, who was the sun-god of Heliopolis, a "treasure city," or depot of provisions, built by the Israelites in Goshen
Huram - Also the Chronicler's form for Hiram, the artisan King Hiram sent to help with the metal work on the Temple (2 Chronicles 2:13 )
Hundred, Tower of - It may have been part of the Temple fortress (Nehemiah 2:8 )
Tal'Mon - (oppressor ), the head of a family of door-keepers in the Temple, "the porters for the camps of the sons: of Levi
Candelabrum - , the Candelabrum of Rheims and the Virgin's Tree of Milan, made in imitation of the candlestick of the Jewish Temple
Tiglath-Pileser - (tihg' lath-pih lee' zuhr) Personal name meaning, “My trust is the son of Esarra (the Temple of Asshur)
Nibhaz - Botta represents a bitch suckling a puppy on a slab at the entrance of a Temple at Khorsabad
Ziggurat - (zihg' guh rat) A stepped building, usually capped by a Temple
Hinge - In the Temple the hinges were of gold, and may have been of this description
Jahath - Descendant of Merari, and an overseer at the repairing of the Temple under Josiah
Jehovah-Shammah - ‘The prophet beheld the Lord forsake His Temple (ch
Parvaim - Whence gold was brought for Solomon's Temple (2 Chronicles 3:6)
a'Ter -
The children of Ater were among the porters or gate-keepers of the Temple who returned with Zerubbabel
Antonia - Paul out of the hands of the Jews, who had seized him in the Temple, and designed to have murdered him, Acts 21:31-32
Chenaniah - A Levite whose family had charge of business outside the Temple, including work as officials and judges (1 Chronicles 26:29 )
Parvaim - A region whence, according to 2 Chronicles 3:6 , the gold was obtained which was used for ornamenting the Temple of Solomon
Officer - These officials appear to have been under the command of the captain of the Temple (v
Swallows - " By the altars of Jehovah we are to understand the Temple. The words probably refer to the custom of several nations of antiquity,—that birds which built their nests on the Temples, or within the limits of them, were not suffered to be driven away, much less killed; but found a secure and uninterrupted dwelling. Hence, when Aristodicus disturbed the birds' nests of the Temple of Kumae, and took the young from them, a voice, according to a tradition preserved by Herodotus, is said to have spoken these words from the interior of the Temple: "Most villainous of men, how darest thou to drive away such as seek refuge in my Temple?" The Athenians were so enraged at Atarbes, who had killed a sparrow which built on the Temple of AEsculapius, that they killed him. Among the Arabs, who are more closely related to the Hebrews, birds which build their nests on the Temple of Mecca have been inviolable from the earliest times
Altar - ...
“Altar” is distinct from “temple. ” Whereas Temple implies a building or roofed structure, altar implies an open structure. Altar and Temple were often adjacent, though not all altars had a Temple adjacent. Such stone altars were probably the most common form of altar prior to the building of the Solomonic Temple. Apparently in later times, the requirement forbidding steps on Hebrew altars was not enforced, for in Ezekiel's vision of the restored Temple, the altar has three levels and many steps. The central altar in the court of Solomon's Temple was a bronze altar. The location of the altar of burnt offering of the tabernacle and Solomon's Temple is not given specifically. Generally reconstructions of the tabernacle and Temple locate the altar in the center of the courtyard, but the text seems to favor a location near the entrance of the tabernacle/Temple structure. ...
Ezekiel's vision of the restored Temple had the altar of burnt offering located in the center of the courtyard. It is likely that the altar of burnt offering in Solomon's Temple also had horns. During certain festivals a sacred procession led into the Temple and up to the horns of the altar (Psalm 118:27 ). ...
During the reign of Ahaz, the bronze altar or altar of burnt offering in Solomon's Temple was displaced by an altar that Ahaz had built on a Syrian model (2 Kings 16:10-16 ). ...
No biblical description exists for the altar of burnt offering from the Second Temple. However, such an altar was constructed even before the Temple was rebuilt (Ezra 3:2 ). Josephus described the altar in the rebuilt Temple of Herod. With the building of the Solomonic Temple, the presence of God was associated especially with the ark of the covenant
Jehoiada - ) Then when Athaliah's tyranny and foreign idolatries had disgusted the people, he with great prudence and tact made a secret compact in the Temple with the five captains of the king's body guard (literally, the executioners and runners), Azariah son of Jeroham, Ishmael, Azariah the son of Obed, Maaseiah, and Elishaphat. Then Jehoiada with the whole assembly "made a covenant with the king in the Temple, saying, Behold the king's son shall reign, as Jehovah hath said of the sons of David" (2 Chronicles 23:3), or, as 2 Kings 11:4 expresses it, "Jehoiada made a covenant with the rulers over hundreds, the captains, and the guard, taking an oath of them and showing them the king's son. " The Levite Temple servants entering upon the sabbath service (relieving guard), and those being relieved, Jehoiada directed, under the captains of the royal body "guard" (2 Kings 11:11, halberdiers ) to keep watch, the former in three divisions, the latter in two. ...
The second to guard the king's house (2 Chronicles 23:5, not the royal palace, but the young king's place of residence in the Temple), at the gate behind the guard, i. the gate of the guard (Numbers 18:15-163; 2 Kings 11:19), the gate leading from the Temple court to the royal palace on Zion; or else this division had to guard the royal avenue to the Temple from the palace outside, they watching from a post in the outer courts what went on in the palace. The third to guard the house (the Temple) "that it be not broken down" (Keil, "to ward off" intruders), "to be guards ('porters') of the thresholds" (of the ascent to the Temple, 1 Chronicles 9:19 margin, 2 Chronicles 23:4 margin). Jehoiada furnished them with David's weapons stored in the Temple. within the Temple precincts (2 Chronicles 23:7), were to be put to death. " He "dismissed not the courses" (who had charge of the Temple service, 1 Chronicles 24-26), answering to 2 Kings 11:7, "all you that go forth . " Jehoiada, having enthroned Joash, restored the Temple worship as David had settled it, it having been neglected under the idolatrous Athaliah. " Joash ordered "the money of the dedicated things" to be applied to the repair of the Temple, namely,...
(1) "the money of every one that passeth" the census (not "the account), half a shekel, Exodus 30:13;...
(2) "the money that every man is set (valued) at," namely, the valuation in redeeming the firstborn (1618416331_15), or in payment for a vow;...
(3) "all the money that cometh into any man's heart to bring into the house of Jehovah," freewill offerings. ...
When, in the 23rd year of Jonah's reign, the Temple was still not repaired, through the Levites' and priests' dilatoriness, he took the money and the repairs out of their hands; "the priests consented to receive no more money of the people (i. " The fickle people, princes, and king soon forgot all his benefits, and slew his son Zechariah "in the court of the Lord's house," (the very scene of Jehoiada's reverent care to remove pollution, 2 Chronicles 23:14, in restoring the throne and the Temple,) for his faithful reproofs of their idolatry (2 Chronicles 24:15-16; 2 Chronicles 24:20-22)
Haggai - Permission was given for the exiles to return and restore their Temples. Then Darius appointed Zerubbabel as governor with the specific responsibility of resuming work on the Temple, begun earlier by Shesh-bazzar. ...
Apparently the adjustments required of the returning exiles were so difficult that rebuilding their own homes and the Temple at the same time put a strain on their resources. They despaired of ever restoring the Temple to its former glory. Work on the Temple ceased. ...
The book consists of five short addresses and a description of the results of Haggai's efforts to persuade his people to resume work on the Temple. Haggai suggested how they should respond to the excuses people were making for not resuming work on the Temple (Haggai 1:2 ). Haggai's answer was that if it was right for them to rebuild their own houses, it was also right for them to rebuild the Temple (Haggai 1:3-4 ). He said the way to correct their neglect was to rebuild the Temple (Haggai 1:3-11 ). In response they resumed work on the Temple. ...
In the third address, given to both the leaders and the people (Haggai 2:1-2 ), Haggai asked the older members of the community to recall the glory of the former Temple and thus to stir the new generation to new enthusiasm. He promised that God would bring treasures from other nations to make the splendor of the new Temple even greater than the former one (Haggai 2:6-9 )
Shabbethai - He was in charge of “external business of the house of God” (Nehemiah 11:16 REB): either maintaining outward appearance of the Temple or collecting the tithes
Shemer - Modern translations' spelling of Shamer, the father of a Temple musician under David (1 Chronicles 6:46 )
Detained Before the Lord - To remain in the presence of the Lord at the Tabernacle or Temple (1 Samuel 21:7 )
Yochanan ben zakkai - He enacted many practices to memorialize the destroyed Holy Temple and to ensure Jewish continuity
Hiss - The destruction of the Temple is thus spoken of (1 Kings 9:8 )
Beth - Also "a Temple"
Stair - These were probably the steps leading down from the castle of Antonia to the Temple
Meraioth - Lightfoot (Temple Rehum - ...
...
The "chancellor" of Artaxerxes, who sought to stir him up against the Jews (Ezra 4:8-24 ) and prevent the rebuilding of the walls and the Temple of Jerusalem
Money Changers - They set up tables in the court of the Gentiles, to supply at a profit foreign Jews with the Jewish half shekels (1 shillings, 3 pence) required for the yearly payment into the Temple treasury, in exchange for foreign coin
Harsha - ” Clan of Temple servants who returned with Zerubbabel from Babylonian Exile about 537 B
Porter - Of the Levites, 4,000 were appointed as porters by David (1 Chronicles 23:5 ), who were arranged according to their families (26:1-19) to take charge of the doors and gates of the Temple
Rehum - royal prefect; with others wrote to Artaxerxes (Ρseudo Smerdis ) to induce him to stop the building of the Temple and city walls (Ezra 4:8-9; Ezra 4:17; Ezra 4:23)
Bath - It was used to measure the molten sea in the Temple (1Kings 7:26,1 Kings 7:38 ) as well as oil and wine (2 Chronicles 2:10 ; Ezra 7:22 ; Isaiah 5:10 ; Ezekiel 45:14 )
Callisthenes - At a festival in celebration of the victory, the Jews burnt Callisthenes to death, because he had set fire to the portals of the Temple (cf
Ahiman - A family of Levites who had charge of that gate of the Temple through which the king entered ( 1 Chronicles 9:17 f
Bishlam - He wrote against the rebuilding of the city, which resulted in the building of the Temple being stopped by the king
Johanan ben zakkai, rabbi - He enacted many practices to memorialize the destroyed Holy Temple and to ensure Jewish continuity
Temporal - ) Of or pertaining to the Temple or Temples; as, the temporal bone; a temporal artery
Cos - A small island in the Ægean sea off the coast of Caria, the birthplace of Hippocrates, with a chief town of the same name, in which was a famous Temple of Æsculapius
Mount Hermon - It was situated so near the Temple, that it formed a part of it; indeed Zion is called Hermon
Symbols of the Sacraments - Collectively, the seven-branched candlestick of the Jewish Temple
Sacraments, Symbols of the - Collectively, the seven-branched candlestick of the Jewish Temple
Nis'Roch - (the great eagle ) an idol of Nineveh, in whose Temple Sennacherib was worshipping when assassinated by his sons, Adrammelech and Shizrezer
Jaaz-Aniah - ...
...
The son of Azur, one of the twenty-five men seen by (Ezekiel 11:1 ) at the east gate of the Temple
Joah - Joahaz' son,"recorder" or annalist to Josiah; took part in repairing the Temple (2 Chronicles 34:8)
Building - Phoenician artists (2 Samuel 5:11 ; 1 Kings 5:6,18 ) assisted at the erection of the royal palace and the Temple at Jerusalem. Foreigners also assisted at the restoration of the Temple after the Exile (Ezra 3:7 ). ...
Herod and his sons and successors restored the Temple, and built fortifications and other structures of great magnificence in Jerusalem (Luke 21:5 )
Jozabad - Priest who witnessed transfer of gold Ezra's party brought from Babylon to the Temple in Jerusalem (Ezra 8:33 ), though a Hebrew manuscript reads Jonadab here. Levite in charge of external affairs of the Temple (Nehemiah 11:16 ). A supervisor of Temple treasures under Hezekiah about 715 B
Ark of the Covenant - It was afterwards placed in the Temple. Here the Shechinah rested both in the tabernacle and Temple in a visible cloud; hence were issued the Divine oracles by an audible voice; and the high priest appeared before the mercy-seat once every year on the great day of expiation; and the Jews, wherever they worshipped, turned their faces towards the place where the ark stood. In the second Temple there was also an ark, made of the same shape and dimensions with the first, and put in the same place, but without any of its contents and peculiar honours
Antonia, Tower of - names a fortress near the Temple built around A. Herod the Great built the tower at the northwest corner of the Temple court to replace the Maccabean fort. Capable of accommodating at least a Roman cohort (500-600 men), the tower housed portions of the Roman army used to guard the Jews inside the Temple court
Hezekiah - Ahaz's political involvements with Assyria brought idolatry and paganism into the Temple (2 Kings 16:7-20 ). The Temple in Jerusalem was reopened. The idols were removed from the Temple. Temple vessels that had been desecrated during Ahaz's reign were sanctified for use in the Temple. Hezekiah, dressed in sackcloth and ashes, went to the Temple to pray. Hezekiah took the letters to the Temple and prayed for God's help
Babel, Tower of - The Birs Nimrud was probably its site, and gives an idea of its construction, being the best specimen of a Babylonian Temple tower. This implies that the Temple towers were used as astronomical observatories; which Diodorus expressly states of the Temple of Belus. The Temple at Warka is of ruder style than the tower of Babel (Genesis 11). " The Mugheir Temple is exactly such in materials
Malachi - No allusion is made to him by Ezra, and he does not mention the restoration of the Temple, and hence it is inferred that he prophesied after Haggai and Zechariah, and when the Temple services were still in existence (Malachi 1:10 ; 3:1,10 )
Obed-Edom - ...
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A Merarite Levite, a Temple porter, who with his eight sons guarded the southern gate (1 Chronicles 15:18,21 ; 26:4,8,15 ). ...
...
One who had charge of the Temple treasures (2 Chronicles 25:24 )
Boaz - This and JACHINwere the names given to two pillars in the porch of the Temple built by Solomon. There appears to be an allusion to these pillars in Revelation 3:12 , the overcomer being made a 'pillar' in the Temple of God
Porch - 1: στοά (Strong's #4745 — Noun Feminine — stoa — sto-ah' ) "a portico," is used (a) of the "porches" at the pool of Bethesda, John 5:2 ; (b) of the covered colonnade in the Temple, called Solomon's "porch," John 10:23 ; Acts 3:11 ; 5:12 a portico on the eastern side of the Temple; this and the other "porches" existent in the time of Christ were almost certainly due to Herod's restoration
Uriah - High priest in Jerusalem Temple under King Ahaz who followed the king's instructions in setting up an altar in the Temple according to a Syrian pattern (2 Kings 16:10-16 )
Notre Dame, Paris - The site was occupied by a pagan Temple during the Roman Empire, by the Church of Saint Stephen during the 5th century, and finally by Saint Marie, or Notre-Dame, Cathedral. During the Revolution it was dedicated as a "Temple of Reason," 1793; mutilated and closed, 1794; given to the "constitutional" Catholics, 1795; and restored to the orthodox Catholics, 1802
Shechi'Nah - In the tabernacle and in the Temple of Solomon, but not in the second Temple
Tobiah, the Children of - Of the children of the captivity; came with Heldai and Jedaiah to Jerusalem with presents of gold and silver for building the Temple. The crowns were deposited in the Temple to the honour of the donors (compare Acts 10:4), a memorial of Joshua's coronation
Kidron Valley - ” The deep ravine beside Jerusalem separating the Temple mount and the city of David on the west from the Mount of Olives on the east. Here certain kings of Judah destroyed idols and other pagan objects removed from the Temple area (1 Kings 15:13 ; 2Kings 23:4,2Kings 23:6,2 Kings 23:12 ; 2 Chronicles 29:16 ; 2 Chronicles 30:14 )
Lame, Lameness - A proverb excluding the blind and lame from “the house” (that is, the Temple) is traced to the assault on Jerusalem ( 2 Samuel 5:8 ). By healing the lame in the Temple, Jesus restored these excluded ones to full participation in the worshiping community (Matthew 21:14 )
Anna - guided by Providence, when the infant Jesus was being presented in the Temple, to come in "that instant," and enabled by the Spirit to discern and to announce to others the Messiah, and to render praises accordingly. After seven years of married life she had given up all other concerns to join the women who devoted themselves to a continual attendance at the Temple services "night and day"; "a widow indeed" (1 Timothy 5:5)
Ophel - the "swelling declivity" by which the Temple hill slopes off on its southern side as a long round narrow promontory between the mouth of the Tyropeon central valley of the city and the Kedron valley of Jehoshaphat. He was martyred by being thrown from the Temple pinnacle near the boundary of Ophel
Ophel - The Ophel was just south of Mount Moriah, on which the Temple was constructed, joining the old city with the area of Solomon's palace and Temple
Booz - BOOZ, or BOAZ, was the name of one of the two brazen pillars which Solomon erected in the porch of the Temple, the other column being called Jachin. This last pillar was on the right hand of the entrance into the Temple, and BOOZ on the left, 1 Kings 7:21
Ur - The Temple ruins are in the form of a parallelogram 198 by 133 feet. The Temple was dedicated to the moon-god Hurki: hence perhaps the town derived its name
Nethinim - Given, or consecrated, a term first applied to the Levites, Numbers 8:19 ; but after the settlement in Canaan, to servants dedicated to the service of the tabernacle and Temple, to perform the most laborious offices, as carrying of wood and water. Many of them appear to have been first assigned to David, Solomon, and other princes, and by them transferred to the Temple service, 1 Kings 9:20,21 Ezra 2:58,70 8:20 Nehemiah 11:3
Joppa - ...
When timber was brought from Lebanon to be used in the construction of Solomon’s Temple, it was floated down from Tyre and Sidon in rafts, received at Joppa, and then taken to Jerusalem (2 Chronicles 2:16). A similar arrangement was apparently used four hundred years later when Zerubbabel rebuilt the Temple (Ezra 3:7)
Abomination That Causes Desolation, the - Jesus, in using these cryptic words of Daniel, is also predicting a desecration of the Temple, or at lest the Temple area, which will parallel the catastrophic event of the past, so well remembered by the Jews of his day. 70 or the desecration of the Temple at that time, whether by the apostate Jews beforehand or the Romans afterward, fulfilled Jesus' prophetic words. , the destruction of the Temple) and "what will be the sign of your coming and the end of the age?" (Matthew 24:3 )as well as to the destruction of Jerusalem in a
Zechariah - and urged the people of Judah to rebuild the Temple. Postexilic gatekeeper of Temple (1 Chronicles 9:21 ). Temple musician (1 Chronicles 15:20 ). One of Josiah's overseers in repairing the Temple (2 Chronicles 34:12 )
Firstfruits - They were offered in the Temple before the crop was gathered on the fifteenth of Nisan, in the evening, and threshed in a court of the Temple. In addition to these firstfruits, every private person was obliged to bring his firstfruits to the Temple, but Scripture prescribes neither the time nor the quantity. ...
Those offerings are also often called firstfruits, which were brought by the Israelites from devotion, to the Temple, for the feast of thanksgiving, to which they invited their relations and friends, and the Levites of their cities
Deme'Trius - These were small models of the great Temple of the Ephesian Artemis, with her statue, which it was customary to carry on journeys, and place on houses as charms
Pinnacle - On the southern side of the Temple court was a range of porches or cloisters forming three arcades
Ethan - ...
...
A Levite of the family of Merari, one of the leaders of the Temple music (1 Chronicles 6:44 ; 15:17,19 )
Fillets - In Jeremiah 52:21 the rendering of a different word, Hut , meaning a "thread," and designating a measuring-line of 12 cubits in length for the circumference of the copper pillars of Solomon's Temple
Solomon, king - Built the first Holy Temple in Jerusalem
Lubim - ) The Rebu or Lebu of the monumental Temple at Thebes (the Medeenet Haboo) of Rameses III, who conquered them
Essenes - They were ascetics who practiced community of goods, generally shunned marriage, refrained from attending worship in the Temple, and attached great importance to the study of the Scriptures
Insurrection - The tribune in charge of Temple security confused Paul with an Egyptian insurrectionist (Acts 21:38 )
Moriah - A mount on which Solomon built the Temple in Jerusalem
Meremoth - Priest in the time of Ezra and Nehemiah who assisted with the Temple treasury (Ezra 8:33 ), with the repair of the walls (Nehemiah 3:4 ,Nehemiah 3:4,3:21 ), and witnessed the renewal of the covenant (Nehemiah 10:5 )
Magor-Missabib - A nickname given ( Jeremiah 20:8 ) by Jeremiah to Pashhur, chief officer in the Temple, who had caused Jeremiah to be beaten and put in the stocks as a false prophet
Number, Golden - They are so called because the number for each current year was inscribed in gold on an Athenian Temple pillar
Shlomo - Built the first Holy Temple in Jerusalem
Nebuchadnezzar - When the last Jewish monarch, Zedekiah, revolted, Nebuchadnezzar destroyed the Temple, and exiled most of the remaining Jews
Daphne - Daphne was famous for its fountains, its Temple in honour of Apollo and Diana, its oracle, and its right of asylum
Golden Number - They are so called because the number for each current year was inscribed in gold on an Athenian Temple pillar
Cage - Jeremiah 5:27 (b) This is a name given to a home, synagogue, or Temple where Satan's deceits are housed and protected, as the church building of a cult which is anti-Christian
Jed'Uthun - ( 1 Chronicles 15:17,19 ) with 1 Chronicles 16:41,42 ; 25:1,3,6 ; 2 Chronicles 35:15 His office was generally to preside over the music of the Temple service, Jeduthun's name stands at the head of the 39th, 62d and 77th Psalms, indicating probably that they were to be sung by his choir
Doctor - In Luke 2:46 it is said that the boy Jesus was found in the Temple, ‘sitting in the midst of the doctors
e'Tam - (2 Chronicles 11:6 ) Here, according to the statements of Josephus and the Talmudists, were the sources of the water from which Solomon's gardens and the pleasure-grounds were fed, and Bethlehem and the Temple supplied
am'mi-el - (2 Samuel 9:4 ; 17:27 ) ...
Father of Bath-sheba, (1 Chronicles 3:5 ) called 2 Samuel 11:3 ) ...
The sixth son of Obed-edom, (1 Chronicles 26:5 ) and one of the doorkeepers of the Temple
Marble - There can be no doubt that Herod both in the Temple and elsewhere employed Parian or other marble
Joah - Son of Joahaz, and recorder: he was sent by Josiah to repair the Temple
Jerusalem - Although David was not allowed to construct a Temple, the arrival of the ark forever linked Jerusalem with the cult of Yahweh. Solomon, David's son, enhanced the religious dimension of the city by constructing the Temple of the Lord, symbolizing the presence of Yahweh in Jerusalem and Israel. In addition, Solomon described the Temple as the place for God to "dwell forever" (1 Kings 8:13 ). They were convinced that the indestructible city and Temple of the Lord would protect them in spite of their depravity (Jeremiah 7:4 ). When Jeremiah denied this and predicted the destruction of the Temple, a century-old echo of Micah, it nearly cost him his life. Upon the return of the Jews from the exile to the ruins of Jerusalem, they rebuilt the Temple but not the palace. ...
Zion was originally a geographic term for the City of David, but with the extension of the city northward to incorporate the Temple Mount, Zion came also to signify the dwelling place of Yahweh (Psalm 9:11 ; [3]). The move of the ark of the covenant from the tent in the city to the Temple proper may have prompted the shift of name. The Chronicler, writing in the postexilic period, has connected the place of the offering of Isaac with not only Jerusalem but specifically with the Temple Mount. This connection enhanced the sanctity of Jerusalem and the Temple Mount and contributed to the basis for the Islamic name for the city, El-Quds, "The Holy (City). During this time a meager attempt at rebuilding the Temple was undertaken. and work on the Temple was accelerated through the prodding of the prophets Haggai and Zechariah; the structure was completed and dedicated in 516 b. Finally, after Antiochus IV desecrated the Temple by sacrificing a hog on the altar, devout Jews led by the Hasmonean family (Maccabees) rose in rebellion to reclaim Jerusalem in 164 b. His reconstruction of the Temple and the expansion of its platform made it the crown jewel of Jerusalem. At the same time, the Dead Sea Scroll community who deemed the Jerusalem Temple despised by God, contemplated a New Jerusalem, completely rebuilt as a Holy City and with a new Temple as its centerpiece (Temple Scroll). In the Synoptic Gospels Jerusalem is first mentioned in connection with the birth stories of Jesus: Zechariah's vision in the Temple (Luke 1:5-23 ), the visit of the Magi (Matthew 2:1-12 ), and the presentation of the infant Jesus (Luke 2:22-38 ). Luke records the visit of Jesus to the Temple at age twelve (2:41-50), and in fact New Testament references to Jerusalem are predominantly in Luke-Acts. Jesus is tempted by Satan at the highest point of the Temple just prior to the start of his ministry in Galilee (4:9-13). Jerusalem and the Temple symbolized the covenant between God and his people, but the covenant relationship was askew. Jesus saw that the Temple had become a commercial establishment rather than a center of spirituality. By "cleansing" the Temple he reaffirmed its place of honor. ...
Mark's references to Jerusalem are set mainly in the Passion narrative; however, he notes the "massive stones" of the Temple (13:1). All three Synoptic Gospels record the splitting of the curtain in the Jerusalem Temple during the crucifixion. According to John, Jesus cleansed the Temple early in his ministry, following the "first sign" at Cana (John 2:13-16 ). Jesus also attended the Feast of Tabernacles and taught in the Temple (7:14). The city was central to the early Christian community, and its leaders frequented the Temple as a place of prayer. Paul remained in contact with the Temple, praying (22:17) and seeking purification there (24:18). Barker, The Gate of Heaven: The History and Symbolism of the Temple in Jerusalem ; G
Candlestick, Seven-Branched - In its place in Solomon's Temple there were ten lampstands (3King 3:7), which were taken away by the Babylonian army, 586 B. A new lampstand, perhaps of the old pattern, existed in the second Temple and was carried off by Antiochus Epiphanes (1Machabees 1). There is no reason to doubt that this was the one taken away by the Romans after the destruction of the Temple, A
Hashabiah - Temple musician and Levite under David (1 Chronicles 25:3 ) and leader of course of Levites (1 Chronicles 25:19 ). This shows the close connection between Temple and palace, religious and political activity in Israel. He shared responsibility for transporting Temple treasures on the journey (Ezra 8:24-30 )
Middle Wall - Investigation of the term has yielded several possible interpretations: (1) The wall that separated the inner and outer courts of the Temple and prevented Jews and Gentiles from worshiping together. (2) The curtain that separated the holy of holies from the rest of the Temple. See Ephesians; Gentiles ; Law; Salvation ; Sin ; Temple
Candlestick - This, in scripture, signifies a lamp-stand, as is plainly implied in 2 Chronicles 4:20 : 'the candlesticks with their lamps,' used in the Temple. ...
THE GOLDEN CANDLESTICK in the Tabernacle and Temple with its seven lamps is minutely described in Exodus 25:31-40 : it is also called the 'pure candlestick. ...
The Candlestick that was in the Temple in the time of the Lord was carried away at the siege of Jerusalem, and is portrayed on the triumphal 'Arch of Titus' at Rome, but as fabulous animals are depicted on its base it is very questionable whether it is a true representation
Anna - —When His parents brought the infant Jesus to the Temple to present Him to the Lord, two aged representatives of the OT Church received Him with songs of praise, Simeon and Anna (Luke 2:25 ff. She was a devout and saintly woman, worshipping constantly in the Temple, with fastings and supplications, night and day; and, like Deborah Huldah of the OT, she had prophetic gifts. Having entered the Temple at the same time as Jesus was brought in, she followed up the song of Simeon in similar strains, and spake of the Holy Child ‘to all them that were looking for the redemption of Jerusalem’ (Luke 2:38)
High Places - Before the Temple was built, the high places wore not absolutely contrary to the law, provided God only was there adored, and not idols. But after the Temple was built at Jerusalem, and the ark had a fixed settlement, it was no longer allowed to sacrifice out of Jerusalem. Prideaux thinks it probable that the proseuchae, open courts, built like those in which the people prayed at the tabernacle and the Temple, were the same as those called high places in the Old Testament
Seven-Branched Candlestick - In its place in Solomon's Temple there were ten lampstands (3King 3:7), which were taken away by the Babylonian army, 586 B. A new lampstand, perhaps of the old pattern, existed in the second Temple and was carried off by Antiochus Epiphanes (1Machabees 1). There is no reason to doubt that this was the one taken away by the Romans after the destruction of the Temple, A
Josiah - Son of Amon and great-grandson of Hezekiah, a pious king of Judah, who introduced great reforms in the Temple worship, and in the religious character of the nation in general. While cleaning and repairing the Temple at his command, the priests found the Temple copy of the five books of the law, perhaps the original copy from Moses' own hand
Ark - The Philistines recognized its holiness, and to neutralize its power they placed it in the Temple of Dagon, to Dagon's distress (1 Samuel 5:8 ). ...
In the Temple, the ark occupied the Holy of Holies. Interestingly, Solomon placed huge cherubim to flank the ark in the Temple, thus setting apart the entire ark and its surrounding space as God's seat. In the new Temple envisioned by Ezekiel, no ark is mentioned. Haran, Temple and Temple Service in Ancient Israel
on (2) - " The "standing images" may mean "obelisks," for which the On sun Temple was famed; they stood before the Temple gates. It was part of the Temple of the sun; its sculptured dedication is by Osirtasin I of the 12th dynasty. He persuaded Philometor to let him build a Temple (149 B. "City of destruction," if referring to this Temple, will mean censure of it, as violating God's law that sanctioned only the one Temple at Jerusalem
Fire - ...
Fire fell upon the sacrifices which Moses offered at the dedication of the tabernacle, Leviticus 9:24 ; and upon those of Manoah, Samson's father, Judges 13:19-20 ; upon Solomon's, at the dedication of the Temple, 2 Chronicles 7:1 ; and on Elijah's, at Mount Carmel, 1 Kings 18:38 . The fire which came down from heaven, first upon the altar in the tabernacle, and afterward descended anew upon the altar in the Temple of Solomon, at its consecration, was there constantly fed and maintained by the priests, day and night, in the same manner as it had been in the tabernacle. The Jews have a tradition, that Jeremiah, foreseeing the destruction of the Temple, took this fire and hid it in a pit; but that at the rebuilding of the Temple, being brought again from thence, it revived upon the altar. But this is a fiction: and the generality of them allow, that, at the destruction of the Temple, it was extinguished; and in the time of the second Temple, nothing was made use of for all their burnt offerings but common fire only
Veil of the Temple - There were two veils or curtains in the tabernacle (of which the Temple was the continuation), one before the tabernacle door (kalumma ), the second veil before the holy of holies (katapetasma ). "...
Therefore significantly "the veil of the Temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom" when Jesus yielded up the ghost (Matthew 27:50-51). When He put off His rent flesh, the Temple veil, its type, was simultaneously rent. Not His body, but His suffering flesh, was the veil; His body was the "temple" (naos , "the inner shrine," not the Temple building in general, hieron ) which men destroyed and He reared up again in three days (John 2:19; John 2:21). This veil given to Olympian Zeus at Elis may have been the very veil taken by Antiochus IV (Epiphanes) from the Temple of Jehovah (1 Maccabees 1:22-24; Josephus, Temple did not rise up but was dropped to the ground, according to Pausanias. Again, as the spoils of conquered deities were consecrated to the victorious ones, Antiochus naturally hung up Jehovah's veil in the Temple of Olympian Zeus; for this was the very god to whom he dedicated the Temple at Jerusalem, after defiling and plundering it (2 Maccabees 6:2)
Michaiah - He reported to the king's officers Jeremiah's prediction, which he had heard Baruch read (Jeremiah 36:11,13 ) from his father Gemariah's chamber in the Temple
Cun - David took bronze from the city as tribute, and Solomon used the materials in furnishing the Temple (1 Chronicles 18:8 )
Sherebiah - He had responsibility for the Temple gold Ezra took back to Jerusalem from Exile and helped Ezra teach the people the law
Chemosh - It was for this ‘abomination of Moab’ that Solomon erected a Temple ( 1 Kings 11:7 ), later destroyed by Josiah ( 2 Kings 23:13 )
Dedication, Feast of the - ) to be celebrated yearly in all synagogues the 25th day of the month Casleu and during its octave, in commemoration of the purification of the Temple of Jerusalem, which had been polluted by Antiochus Epiphanes on that day three years previously (1Macabees 4)
Feast of the Dedication - ) to be celebrated yearly in all synagogues the 25th day of the month Casleu and during its octave, in commemoration of the purification of the Temple of Jerusalem, which had been polluted by Antiochus Epiphanes on that day three years previously (1Macabees 4)
Feast of Lights - ) to be celebrated yearly in all synagogues the 25th day of the month Casleu and during its octave, in commemoration of the purification of the Temple of Jerusalem, which had been polluted by Antiochus Epiphanes on that day three years previously (1Macabees 4)
Lights, Feast of - ) to be celebrated yearly in all synagogues the 25th day of the month Casleu and during its octave, in commemoration of the purification of the Temple of Jerusalem, which had been polluted by Antiochus Epiphanes on that day three years previously (1Macabees 4)
Knop - peka'im, found only in 1 Kings 6:18,7:24 , an ornament resembling a small gourd or an egg, on the cedar wainscot in the Temple and on the castings on the brim of the brazen sea
Solomon's Porch - A portion of the Temple which according to Josephus (B
Potter's Field - Their reasoning was that the money had been used to bring about bloodshed and could not be returned to the Temple treasury
u'ri - ) ...
One of the gatekeepers of the Temple in the time of Ezra
Baal-Berith - The name means “lord of covenant,” and the god's Temple was located at Shechem
Ellasar - ’ Larsa, modern Senkereh in Lower Babylonia on the east bank of the Euphrates, was celebrated for its Temple and worship of the sun-god Shamash
Snuffers - Two different instruments used to tend the lamps in the tabernacle and the Temple
Dedication - ) The act of setting apart or consecrating to a divine Being, or to a sacred use, often with religious solemnities; solemn appropriation; as, the dedication of Solomon's Temple
Dedicate - ) To set apart and consecrate, as to a divinity, or for sacred uses; to devote formally and solemnly; as, to dedicate vessels, treasures, a Temple, or a church, to a religious use
Pibeseth - Its ruins at Tell Basta, 30 35' N, 31 30' E , attest its ancient grandeur; pieces of the finest red granite are there, which apparently formed part of a Temple
Achbor - Man King Josiah commissioned to ask God the meaning of the Book of the Law found in the Temple
Carve - They were practised in connection with the construction of the tabernacle and the Temple (Exodus 31:2,5 ; 35:33 ; 1 Kings 6:18,35 ; Psalm 74:6 ), as well as in the ornamentation of the priestly dresses (Exodus 28:9-36 ; Zechariah 3:9 ; 2 Chronicles 2:7,14 )
Net-Work - Exodus 27:4 ; Exodus 38:4 ; and in the Temple there was net-work of brass along with checker work and chain work, as ornaments on the chapiters of the pillars, which were carried away to Babylon
ja'Chin -
One of the two pillars which were set up "in the porch," (1 Kings 7:21 ) or before the Temple
Levite - , one subordinate to the priests (who were of the same tribe) and employed in various duties connected with the tabernacle first, and afterward the Temple, such as the care of the building, bringing of wood and other necessaries for the sacrifices, the music of the services, etc
Pillar - The stately column which adorns and supports the front of a Temple, Judges 16:25-30 Job 9:6 26:11 , illustrates the position of prophets, Jeremiah 1:18 , apostles, Galatians 2:9 , believers, Revelation 3:12 , and the church itself, respecting the truth, 1 Timothy 3:15
he'Man - He is called "the singer," rather the musician, (1 Chronicles 6:33 ) and was the first of the three Levites to whom was committed the vocal and instrumental music of the Temple service in the reign of David
Jerimoth - ...
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A Levite, one of the overseers of the Temple offerings (2 Chronicles 31:13 ) in the reign of Hezekiah
Top - "from above"), is used of the upper part of the Temple veil
Rehum - Chancellor of the king of Persia: he with others wrote to Artaxerxes against the rebuilding of the Temple
John - With Annas and Caiaphas, tried Peter and John for curing the impotent man and preaching in the Temple (Acts 4:6). The same as Rabbi Johanan ben Zaccai, who lived 40 years before the Temple's destruction, and presided over the great synagogue after its removal to Jabne or Jamnia (Lightfoot)
Levite - ...
Although the Levites had general duties in the tabernacle and Temple ceremonies, only those of one family within the tribe, the family of Aaron, were priests (Exodus 6:16-25; Exodus 29:9). Priests alone carried out the blood rituals of the sacrifices, and priests alone entered the inner shrine of the tabernacle (or later the Temple) (Numbers 3:5-10; see PRIEST). The cities for the priestly group were all within easy reach of Jerusalem, where the Temple was later built (Joshua 21:4-8). ...
Temple service...
In arranging the functions for priests and Levites in Israel’s Temple services, David divided the Levitical singers and musicians into the usual three family groups. ...
Other duties of Levites included cleaning the Temple (1 Chronicles 23:28), helping the priests in the Temple rituals (1 Chronicles 23:28-32), serving as Temple guards (1 Chronicles 9:17-27) and looking after the furniture, food and spices used in the ceremonies (1 Chronicles 9:28-32). A feature of some of the reforms was the organization of Temple duties for priests and Levites according to David’s original plan (2 Chronicles 29:25-30; 2 Chronicles 31:2-19; 2 Chronicles 35:1-15). They supervised the reconstruction of the Temple and participated in ceremonies connected with the building’s beginning and completion (Ezra 3:8-11; Ezra 6:16)
Altar - ...
In the tabernacle, and afterwards in the Temple, two altars were erected. ) ...
In Solomon's Temple the altar was of larger dimensions (2 Chronicles 4:1 . ...
In the Mosque of Omar, immediately underneath the great dome, which occupies the site of the old Temple, there is a rough projection of the natural rock, of about 60 feet in its extreme length, and 50 in its greatest breadth, and in its highest part about 4 feet above the general pavement. This rock seems to have been left intact when Solomon's Temple was built. ...
In Solomon's Temple the altar was similar in size, but was made of cedar-wood (1 Kings 6:20 ; 7:48 ) overlaid with gold. ) ...
In the Temple built after the Exile the altar was restored. It is the only altar which appears in the heavenly Temple (Isaiah 6:6 ; Revelation 8:3,4 )
Treasury - (1) In the two Synoptic passages it is used, in connexion with the incident of the poor widow who gave her two mites, to denote a treasure-chest, or receptacle into which offerings were cast by worshippers coming into the Temple—a sense in which the word is found also in Josephus (Ant. 5), there stood in the court of the women, the most frequented part of the sacred enclosure, 13 brazen chests, into which were dropped the contributions made for the service of the Temple, the support of the poor, and other pious purposes. (2) In the Authorized and Revised Versions rendering of John 8:20 Jesus is said to have spoken ‘in the treasury’ (ἐν τῷ γαζοφυλακίῳ), as He taught in the Temple. This rendering would imply that the γαζοφυλάκιον in question was not a treasure-chest merely, but a part of the Temple itself in which treasure was kept. Jesus was not in some closely guarded chamber of the inner Temple, but sitting ‘near the shôphârôth,’ or ‘in the colonnade where the shôphârôth stood. κορβᾶν; see Corban) occurs in NT only in Matthew 27:6, where it denotes the sacred treasury of the Temple. 4) the word is used not of the Temple treasury, but of the treasures it contained
King's Sons Free From Tribute, Parable of the - The time is after the Transfiguration; the place Capharnaum, probably the house of Peter; the occasion: the attempt to collect from Christ the annual Temple tax, ordained by "the Law" (Exodus 30). Thus Christ plainly declared that he claimed to be "the son of Jehovah; the God of Israel, to whom the Temple tax was due
Hanani - Temple musician and descendant of Heman (1 Chronicles 25:4 ). Original leader of one course of Temple musicians (1 Chronicles 25:25 )
Custom - ) of half a shekel was annually paid by every adult Jew for the Temple. ) were necessary, to enable the Jews who came up to Jerusalem at the feasts to exchange their foreign coin for Jewish money; but as it was forbidden by the law to carry on such a traffic for emolument (Deuteronomy 23:19,20 ), our Lord drove them from the Temple (Matthew 21:12 : Mark 11:15 )
Demetrius - A maker of silver portable models of the great Temple and statue of Artemis (Diana) at Ephesus (Acts 19:24). " Like many men he made regard for religion his plea, while really having an eye to self; "not only this our craft is in danger to be set at nought, but also that the Temple of the great goddess Diana should be despised and her magnificence destroyed, whom all Asia and the world worshippeth
Obed-Edom - A member of the Korhites (1Chronicles 26:1,1 Chronicles 26:4-8 ) who kept the south of the Temple (1 Chronicles 26:15 ). A keeper of the sacred vessels of the Temple
Ark of the Covenant Item - The ark was the only piece of furniture placed in the inner room (holy of holies) of the Temple. From Cariathiarim David brought it solemnly to Jerusalem, and Solomon had it later on placed in the Temple
Rove - ...
2 Kings 23:6 (a) It should be noted that these plantings of items to encourage immorality were found inside the Temple of GOD. They were to be removed from the Temple, burned, and, if they were covered with metal, that was to be ground up and scattered
Pibeseth - The Temple of the goddess Bubastis (Bahest), of the finest red granite, (of which fine remains exist) Herodotus declared the most beautiful he knew; in the midst of the city, which being raised on mounds overlooked it on every side. The Greek Artemis corresponds; at Benihassan is her cave Temple, with the lioness, "Pesht the lady of the cave
Candlestick - In the first Temple there were ten candelabra of pure gold, half of them standing on the north, and half on the south side, Within the Holy Place. In the second Temple there was but one, resembling that of the tabernacle
Athaliah - She was married to Jehoram, king of Judah; and, when her son Ahaziah was slam by Jehu, she destroyed the rest of the royal family except Joash, an infant, who was concealed in the Temple by his aunt Jehosheba (most likely not Athaliah's daughter), the wife of Jehoiada the high priest. Athaliah, probably engaged in her idolatrous worship in the house of Baal, heard the shouts of the people, rushed into the Temple, and saw the young king standing by, or perhaps on a pillar or platform; but her cry of "treason" only caused her own arrest and deserved execution
Hiram or Huram - He congratulated Solomon at the commencement of his reign, and furnished essential aid in building the Temple. The interior decorations and utensils of Solomon's Temple were made under his direction, 1 Kings 7:13,14 2 Chronicles 2:13,14
Porter - in connexion with the Temple ( 1 Chronicles 9:17 f. onwards), where they had charge of the various gates (see Temple, § 6 , Priests and Levites, § iii
Stephen - His success resulted in the first persecution of the Church, and false witnesses were brought who accused him of blasphemy, and of speaking against the Temple and the Law. He summarizes OT history from the call of Abraham to the building of Solomon’s Temple (cf. Some think that he disparages the Temple as having been built against God’s will ( Acts 13:48 ff. God had not confined His presence to the Tabernacle and the Temple; He had appeared to Abraham and others before the Law was given; Isaiah ( Isaiah 66:1 f
Ruler - ‘The ruler of the Temple’ occurs in Acts 4:1 AVm [1] , but is more correctly represented by ‘the captain of the Temple’ (Authorized Version and Revised Version ). He was a priest, second in command to the high priest himself, and had under him the officers who commanded the Temple police. His duty was to superintend the priests and Levites who guarded the Temple and its precincts
Jupiter - 13 Codex Bezae has a slightly different phrase which reads, ‘the Temple of Zeus-before-the-city. The Temple would be outside the city proper, and it is not quite clear whether ‘the gates’ where the sacrifice was prepared were those of the Temple, or of the city, or of the dwelling-house of the apostles. It is most probable that the Temple is referred to, the gates being chosen as a special place for the offering of a special sacrifice (Ramsay)
Stones - They were used in the breastplate of the high priest, Solomon garnished the Temple with them, and they also abound in the description of the New Jerusalem in the Revelation. For the foundation of the Temple Solomon ordered "great stones, costly stones, and hewed stones. " As Jerusalem was built on two or three hills, to obtain a level place for the Temple much stonework had to be erected on the shelving rock, before any part of the Temple itself could be commenced
Zerubbabel - ...
An altar was erected, and sacrifices offered; but the foundation of the Temple was not laid till the second year. Then the adversaries of Judah and Benjamin came and wanted to assist in the building of the Temple; but Zerubbabel and those with him declined their help. " Cyrus had made a decree that the Temple should be built; but God's word to Zerubbabel was "not by might, nor by power, but by my Spirit, saith Jehovah of hosts. In Zechariah 4 this son of David is taken as a type of Christ, the promised Son of David, who will be the cause in a yet future day of the Temple being built with shoutings, of "Grace, grace unto it
Hananel - It may well have been part of the earliest fortress protecting the Temple (Nehemiah 2:8 ; Nehemiah 7:2 NAS)
Anna - She was constant in attendance at the morning and evening sacrifices at the Temple; and there, at the age of eighty- four years, was blessed with a sight of the infant Savior, and inspired to announce the coming of the promised Messiah to many who longed to see him, Luke 2:36-38
te'Lem - ...
A porter or doorkeeper of the Temple in the time of Ezra
Asuppim - door of the Temple in the outer court; it had
Wall - Among the Jews walls were built of stone, some of those in the Temple being of great size (1 Kings 6:7 ; 7:9-12 ; 20:30 ; Mark 13:1,2 )
Gemariah - Son of Shaphan, the court scribe, who had a room in the Temple, where Baruch read from Jeremiah's sermons to the congregation (Jeremiah 36:10 )
Chosen - Spoken of warriors (Exodus 15:4 ; Judges 20:16 ), of the Hebrew nation (Psalm 105:43 ; Deuteronomy 7:7 ), of Jerusalem as the seat of the Temple (1 Kings 11:13 )
Kadmiel - 1Es 5:58 ), in connexion with the laying of the foundation of the Temple, as well as in Nehemiah 9:4 f
Jeduthun - His office was generally to preside over the music of the Temple service
Harder - Jeremiah 5:3 (a) These rebellious people had set their hearts against GOD, against His Temple, against His sacrifices, and against His law
Shaphan - He presented to the king the book of the law that had been found in the Temple
Pigeon - A pair of these birds were offered when the Lord was presented in the Temple
Eliashib - He was allied to Tobiah, for whom he unfaithfully prepared a chamber in the courts of the Temple
Elizaphan - Father of certain Levites that assisted Hezekiah in cleansing the Temple
Cabul - the name which Hiram, king of Tyre, gave to the twenty cities in the land of Galilee, of which Solomon made him a present, in acknowledgment for the great services in building the Temple, 1 Kings 9:31
Parbar - It was apparently a road, an open area, or a room near the Temple
Venerable - Rendered sacred by religious associations, or being consecrated to God and to his worship to be regarded with awe and treated with reverence as the venerable walls of a Temple or church
he'Ber - (1 Chronicles 5:13 ) ...
The husband of Jael, who slew Sisera by driving a nail into his Temple
Alexander jannaeus - During Sukkot, he publicly disparaged the Pharisaic traditions in the Temple courtyard, inciting the people to pelt him with their etrogim
Profaning, Profanity - in Matthew 12:5, where Jesus says, in defending His disciples and Himself from the charge of Sabbath-breaking, ‘Have ye not read in the law, how that on the sabbath day the priests in the Temple profane the sabbath, and are guiltless?’ Elsewhere in NT the vb. ) is found only in Acts 24:6, where the Jews accuse St Paul of profaning the Temple. pro = ‘before,’ and fanum= ‘temple’) means ‘without the Temple,’ and so ‘unconsecrated,’ as opposed to sacer. —The sin of profaning consists in treating sacred things with irreverence or contempt, and in the Bible the charge of profanation is found especially in connexion with the desecration or violation of the Sabbath, of the Temple, or of the name of God Himself. ...
(2) Profaning the Temple. —Jealous as the Jewish authorities were, after their slavish fashion, in the guardianship of the Sabbath, they were not less jealous in defending the sanctity of the Temple against the least taint of what they regarded as profanation. The Temple police were ever on the alert. And Josephus tells us how at one period the Samaritans were altogether excluded from the Temple enclosure because of an act of profanation committed by some of their people (Ant. The indignation shown by the chief priests and scribes at the hosannas of the children in the Temple was apparently due not merely to the hailing of Jesus as the Son of David, but to the raising of those joyful shouts within the consecrated building (Matthew 21:16). But, as Jesus in meeting the charge of Sabbath-breaking showed how misplaced the Rabbinic and Pharisaic ideas of sanctity were, so in connexion with the Cleansing of the Temple (Matthew 21:12 f. For the Temple authorities this was quite enough; they had no compunctions about a traffic that was technically legal—least of all as the rents paid by the traders for the privilege of using the Temple court as a bazaar passed into their own pockets. The Temple at Jerusalem has long since vanished from the world, but the acts and words of Jesus in driving out the profane traffickers still find abundant application. See, further, Temple, § ‘Cleansing of’. Partly, no doubt, for similar reasons, there had grown up in the time of Christ a custom of swearing not by the Divine name, but by heaven or earth or Jerusalem or the Temple (Matthew 5:33-37; Matthew 23:16-22)—though there emerges here, alongside of the desire to avoid the use of God’s name, the consideration that such oaths were less binding than those in which God was directly invoked (contrast the high priest’s adjuration ‘by the living God’ at the trial of Jesus, Matthew 26:63). And here again, as in His cleansing of the Temple, our Lord showed how poor and mean the thoughts of the Rabbis were on the subject of profanation. For an oath has no meaning if it is not an invocation of the Divine Being Himself as a witness; and, besides, heaven is God’s throne and the earth His footstool, Jerusalem is the city of the Great King, and the Temple the place of His indwelling (Matthew 5:34 f. ‘Oath,’ ‘Temple’; EBi Jachin And Boaz - These are the names borne by two brazen, or more probably bronze, pillars belonging to Solomon’s Temple. 1 Kings 7:41-42 , 2 Chronicles 3:15-17 ; 2 Chronicles 4:12-13 and Jeremiah 52:21-23 = 2 Kings 25:17 ), recent scholars have restored the text of the primary passage somewhat as follows: ...
And he cast the two pillars of bronze for the porch of the Temple; 18 cubits was the height of the one pillar, and a line of 12 cubits could compass it about, and its thickness was 4 finger bread the (for it was) hollow
As regards their position relative to the Temple, it may be regarded as certain that they were structurally independent of the Temple porch, and stood free in front of it probably on plinths or bases Jachin on the south and Boaz on the north (1 Kings 7:21 ), one on either side of the steps leading up to the entrance to the porch (cf. Such free-standing pillars were a feature of Phœnician and other Temples of Western Asia, the statements of Greek writers on this point being confirmed by representations on contemporary coins. A glass dish, discovered in Rome in 1882, even shows a representation of Solomon’s Temple with the twin pillars flanking the porch, as above described (reproduced in Benzinger’s Heb. The fact that they were the work of a Phœnician artist, however, makes it probable that their presence is to be explained on the analogy of the similar pillars of Phœnician Temples. To a Phœnician Temple-builder, Jachin and Boaz would appear as the natural adjuncts of such a building, and are therefore, perhaps, best explained as conventional symbols of the God for whose worship the Temple of Solomon was designed
Liberality - Luke 18:12), cannot be described as liberality, though it seems certain that many of the wealthier among the ‘dispersed’ regarded it as a duty to send, by way of Temple tribute, generous and even munificent contributions, far in excess of the legal requirement. These were collected at different centres abroad, and then sent by certain specially appointed ‘ambassadors’ to Jerusalem, where they were placed in three large chests within the Temple, which were opened with great solemnity at certain seasons of the year. Apart from the Temple tribute, the treasury was enriched by voluntary offerings of different kinds; and out of this grew the abuse which our Lord denounces in Matthew 15:5-6. It seems probable that the faithful rarely visited the Temple, at least on Sabbaths and feasts, without making some contribution to its revenues. ...
In the Court of the Women, within the Temple, were the shopharoth, or ‘trumpets,’ vessels whose shape is indicated by their name, in which contributions for religious purposes and for charitable objects might be placed. On the wealth of the Temple treasury and the pious purposes for which it was partly intended, cf. ]'>[1] ...
There are three utterances of our Lord with reference to liberality to the Temple and the purposes connected therewith. Natural duties are not to be set aside by a liberality which becomes sinful (Matthew 15:5) in devoting to the Temple what ought to be given to the support of parents. Dickie, Culture of the Spiritual Life, 183; Edersheim, The Temple: Its Ministry and Services; works on Jewish Antiqq
Lamp - Much is said in the holy Scripture concerning the lamps of the Temple. And when the Lord Jesus appeared to John, he was seen in the midst of the golden candlesticks (Revelation 1:12-13) And John saw before the throne, at another vision, seven lamps of fire burning before the throne, (Revelation 4:5) (See also Exodus 25:37; Exo 37:23; Numbers 8:2; Zechariah 4:2) No doubt, that besides the general use of lighting the Temple, they had a reference to spiritual things, and were meant as emblems of the illuminating and brightening offices of God the Holy Ghost to the churches and people. Oh, what unknown influence doth the Holy Ghost manifest in the hearts of those he makes his Temple! (1 Corinthians 6:19) what light, what grace, what information, what comfort, the Lord the Spirit imparts! Oh, ye ransomed of the Lord, who know the infinite preciousness his grace, see that ye"grieve not the Holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed unto the day of redemption!" (Ephesians 4:30) I cannot dismiss the subject of the sacred lamps of the Temple, emblems as they were of the light of the Spirit, without one observation more, namely, that it should seem, the perpetual, use of them was designed to keep alive the remembrance of his unceasing, presence, who is the light of his people. It is said in the history of Samuel, "that ere the lamp of God went out in the Temple of the Lord where the ark of God was, and Samuel was laid down to sleep, that the Lord called Samuel
Josiah - He then proceeded, in his twenty-sixth year, to a complete restoration of the worship of God, and the regular service of the Temple. While he was prosecuting this pious work, and repairing the Temple, which had been long neglected, and which had sunk into a state of dilapidation, the book of the law, which had been concealed in the Temple, was happily discovered. With this view he assembled all the elders of the people in the Temple at Jerusalem; and, having ascended the throne, read the book of the Mosaic law, and then entered into a solemn covenant to observe the statutes and ordinances which it enjoined. The ark was restored to its proper place; the Temple was purified; idolatrous utensils were removed, and those appropriate to the worship of God substituted in their room
Price of Blood - —An expression used by the priests of the Temple in reference to the money Judas Iscariot had received for the betrayal of his Master. They would neither accept it for themselves, when Judas offered to restore it, nor, when flung down in the sanctuary, did they regard it as fit for the holy uses of the Temple. ...
The reasoning of the Temple priests here has been usually condemned as a piece of pious hypocrisy, implying a display of honourable diffidence that stands in suspicious contrast with their previous dealings with the traitor. If the money was soiled, who was responsible, if not those who had taken it (perhaps directly from the Temple-treasury) and sent it on its dastardly mission? Why should they, who had paid the price of blood, scruple about taking it back? ‘If it was sinful to put back the price of blood in the sacred treasury, how was it any more permissible to take it out?’ (Calvin, NT Com. It was unhallowed gain; and they could use it only for some purpose less sacred than those connected with the Temple, and in which they themselves had no profit
Obed-Edom - The Temple-treasurer in the reign of Amaziah
Publican - Hence the Jews classed them with sinners, and would not allow them to enter the Temple or the synagogues, to partake of the public prayers or offices of judicature, or to give testimony in a court of justice
Shaphan - During Josiah's religious reforms and refurbishment of the Temple, Shaphan delivered the newfound book of the law (probably Deuteronomy) from Hilkiah the priest to the king's palace
Ahijah - He is thought to be the person who spoke in God's name to Solomon while building the Temple, 1 Kings 6:11 ; and again after he fell into sin, 1 Kings 11:11
Ape - They were at one time worshipped in Egypt; and still are adored in some parts of India, where one traveller describes a magnificent Temple dedicated to the monkey
Boaz - ...
...
The name given (for what reason is unknown) to one of the two (the other was called Jachin) brazen pillars which Solomon erected in the court of the Temple (1 Kings 7:21 ; 2 Chronicles 3:17 )
Korahites - ...
...
Some of the sons of Korah also were "porters" of the Temple (1 Chronicles 9:17-19 ); one of them was over "things that were made in the pans" (31), i
Artaxerxes -
The king who obstructed the rebuilding of the Temple (Ezra 4:7 )
Gebal - An important Phoenician text, referring to the Temple of Baalath, on a monument of Yehu-melek, its king (probably B
Hasshub - He was apparently a Levite at the Temple (1 Chronicles 9:14 ; Nehemiah 11:15 )
Tertullus - Tertullus accused Paul of being a political agitator and of attempting to defile the Temple
Desire of All Nations - Phrase Haggai used in his prophecy of a renewed Temple (Haggai 2:7 )
Doorkeeper - A place of dignity in the East; therefore translate as margin Psalms 84:10, "I had rather lie at the threshold (as the lame man at the Temple gate, Acts 3:2; or as the poor in the synagogue, James 2:3) in the house of my God than to dwell in the tents of wickedness;" for that is an abiding house, however low my position in it; these are but shifting tents, though one have a dwelling in them
Serapis - The Temple to him at Alexandria was the largest and best known among several
Agreement - What agreement hath the Temple of God with idols? 2 Corinthians 6
Aha - GOD noticed that the Ammonites and also other nations used this little word against His people, His land and His Temple
Chains - As ornaments: they were placed on parts of the Temple; were worn on the neck, and found among the spoils of war: Exodus 28:14 ; Numbers 31:50 ; 2 Chronicles 3:5,16 ; Song of Solomon 1:10
Zaccur - Son of Asaph (1 Chronicles 25:2; 1 Chronicles 25:10); "prophesied according to the order of the king"; over the third division of the Temple choir (Nehemiah 12:35)
Porter - The Levites kept the doors of the Temple: it was an honourable office
Sherezer - One of the messengers sent to the house of God in the fourth year of king Darius, to pray and to enquire concerning the continuation of fasting in the fifth month (probably in commemoration of the destruction of the Temple, etc
Shepherd - Isaiah 44:28 (a) It is used to represent King Cyrus as he took a leading place in the rebuilding of the Temple, and restoring Israel to their land
Hierapolis - In the city was the famous Temple of Pluto, remains of which are still to be seen. The ruins of the city are extensive, as Temples, churches, a triumphal arch, a theatre, gymnasium, baths, and highly ornamented sarcophagi
Censer - And Solomon, when he provided furniture for the Temple of the Lord, made, among other things, censers of pure gold, 1 Kings 7:50
Pashur - The son of Immer, a priest and a chief officer in the Temple; he violently opposed the prophet Jeremiah, and persecuted him even with blows and confinement in the stocks; but all recoiled on his own head, Jeremiah 20:1-6
Paphos - ...
About sixty furlongs from the city was the celebrated Temple of Venus, who was hence often called the "Paphian goddess
Organ - The modern pipe organ was not known in the biblical period, though primitive organs were used in the Jerusalem Temple after 100 B
Jasher - Josephus speaks of a book of Jasher as then existing in the Temple, but nothing is known respecting it
ju'Piter - Paul's visit to Lystra, ( Acts 14:12,13 ) where the expression "Jupiter, which was before their city," means that his Temple was outside the city
Beth-She'Mesh - (Joshua 19:38 ; Judges 1:33 ) ...
An idolatrous Temple, or place in Egypt
Ash'Kelon, as'Kelon - Near the town were the Temple and sacred lake of Derceto, the Syrian Venus
Degrees, Songs of - for the going up (Jerusalem and its Temple being regarded as on a moral elevation above other places, as it was in fact on the most elevated tableland of the country, requiring a going up from all sides) to the three great feasts (Exodus 34:24; 1 Kings 12:27-28); Psalms 122:1; Psalms 122:4, which is the oldest, being composed by David to supply the northern Israelites with a pilgrim song in their journeys to Zion, where Asaph had warned them to repair now that the ark was transferred from Shiloh there (Psalms 78:67-69). The posture of affairs contemplated in most of these psalms is that after the Babylonian captivity, when the building of the Temple was interrupted by the Samaritans. The Temple was completed under Zerubbabel the governor and Joshua the high priest, with the help of the prophets Haggai and Zechariah (Ezra 5:1-2; Ezra 6:14)
Ur - Now Mugheir (a ruined Temple of large bitumen bricks, which also "mugheir" means, namely, Um Mugheir "mother of bitumen"), on the right bank of the Euphrates, near its junction with the Shat el Hie from the Tigris; in Chaldaea proper. The Temple was sacred to 'Urki, the moon goddess; Ilgi son of Urukh completed it. The Temple is thoroughly Chaldaean in type, in stages of which two remain, of brick partly sunburnt, partly baked, cemented with bitumen
Shewbread - In the holy place of the Temple or tabernacle was the shewbread (Hebrews 9:2), lit. Among the spoils displayed at the triumph of Vespasian and Titus, ‘those that were taken in the Temple of Jerusalem made the greatest figure of them all: that is, the golden table, of the weight of many talents; the golden candlestick also’ (Josephus, Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) VII. Edersheim, The Temple, its Ministry and Services, n
Art - ), found a place in the Temple of Solomon. The coloured representations which Ezekiel saw with abhorrence on the Temple walls were not true paintings, but, as the original implies, figures chiselled in outline, with the contours filled in with vermilion (Ezekiel 23:14 f. See, further, Jewels, Music, Seals, Temple, Spinning and Weaving
Porters of the Temple - The Levites discharged the office of porters of the Temple both day and night, and had the care both of the treasure and offerings. They also kept guard by night about the Temple and its courts; and they are said to have been twenty-four, including three priests, who stood sentry at so many different places. Psalms 134, seems to be addressed to these watchmen of the Temple, "who by night stand in the house of the Lord;" in which they are exhorted to employ their waking hours in acts of praise and devotion
Abominable - This was Daniel's prediction of the pollution of the Temple at Jerusalem, by Antiochus Epiphanes, who set up in it the altar and the statue of Jupiter Olympus: the daily sacrifice was taken away, and the abomination that maketh desolate drove ail the true worshippers of God from the Temple. Now Josephus mentions a profanation by the Zealots who had got possession of the Temple; and to this or some similar deed our Lord, we may suppose, referred
Abomination - This was Daniel's prediction of the pollution of the Temple at Jerusalem, by Antiochus Epiphanes, who set up in it the altar and the statue of Jupiter Olympus: the daily sacrifice was taken away, and the abomination that maketh desolate drove ail the true worshippers of God from the Temple. Now Josephus mentions a profanation by the Zealots who had got possession of the Temple; and to this or some similar deed our Lord, we may suppose, referred
Ark of the Covenant - ( Numbers 7:9 ; 10:21 ) The ends of the staves were visible without the veil in the holy place of the Temple of Solomon. Subsequently the Temple, when completed, received, in the installation of the ark in its shrine, the signal of its inauguration by the effulgence of divine glory instantly manifested. 10:22, so that there was no ark in the second Temple
Offerings - words are represented by ‘offer,’ ‘offering,’ in the Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 : (1) προσφίρω, to bring to or near, the general term for the act of worshipper or priest, Matthew 5:23-24; Matthew 8:4 (= Mark 1:44, Luke 5:14), John 16:2; (2) ἀνάθημα, a votive offering set up in a Temple (Luke 21:5); (3) δίδωμι, to give (Luke 2:24, cf. Freewill offerings, over and above the requirements of the Law, were provided for in the Temple treasury (Mark 12:41, Luke 21:4). (See Edersheim, The Temple, p
the Publican - OUR Lord was teaching and healing daily in the Temple. The Pharisee came up to the Temple not caring who saw him or who heard him when he was at his prayers. But all the same, there was One teaching and healing in the Temple that day who not only saw both the Pharisee and the publican, but who, without listening, heard them both pray, and read all that was in both their hearts. He was a pillar of the Temple. There was no one in the Temple that day who did not do him obeisance as he passed by. Would that there were more men like him in all our cities and in all our Temples also. The publican felt utterly alone in the Temple that day. The saint had been speaking to herself about herself in her Journal, and that in the very same terms in which the publican spoke about himself in the Temple, and in the very same terms in which Paul speaks about himself in his first Epistle to Timothy, when the great critic breaks out upon her for her insincerity and her extravagant language in a way very distressing to his admirers to read, and very unlike himself. It was because Solomon's prayer, offered long ago at the dedication of the Temple, was fulfilled in the publican. For, if he is only justified today he will be back to the Temple tomorrow nothing better of having been justified but rather worse. Perhaps He tried to say sanctified that day in the Temple and could not. And, as many of yourselves know, it takes many a visit to the Temple, and many a far-off stand in the Temple, and many a penitent prayer both in the Temple and in your own house, and many a beat of the breast everywhere, before the exceedingly complex work of sanctification can be safely said to be begun in you, not to say finished in you. You are not to suppose that this was the first time, much less the one and the only time, those two men had come up in that way to the Temple to pray. And the oftener the Pharisee went up to the Temple the more he went down to his house despising others. And that went on till at last God was merciful to him, and took him up to the heavenly Temple where he was at last both sanctified and glorified as well as justified. And you must learn not to grudge or repine at your lifelong visits to this Temple in search or sanctification
Hiram - After the death of David he entered into a similar alliance with Solomon, and assisted him greatly in building the Temple (1 Kings 5:1 ; 9:11 ; 2 Chronicles 2:3 ). ) He cast the magnificent brazen works for Solomon's Temple in clay-beds in the valley of Jordan, between Succoth and Zarthan
Sanctuary - Usually, however, the sanctuary referred to God’s earthly dwelling place, the tabernacle, and later the Temple (Exodus 25:8; 1 Chronicles 28:10; Psalms 68:24-26; see TABERNACLE; Temple)
Wailing-Place, Jews' - A section of the western wall of the Temple area, where the Jews assemble every Friday afternoon to bewail their desolate condition (Psalm 79:1,4,5 ). "The congregation at the wailing-place is one of the most solemn gatherings left to the Jewish Church, and as the writer gazed at the motley concourse he experienced a feeling of sorrow that the remnants of the chosen race should be heartlessly thrust outside the sacred enclosure of their fathers' holy Temple by men of an alien race and an alien creed
Facets - The eschatological spring or stream is well known in visions of the Temple (Joel 3:18 ; Ezekiel 47:1 ; Zechariah 13:1 ; Zechariah 14:8 ). Some scholars believe the stone was a stone slab occupying the place held by the ark of the covenant in the first Temple
Nathan - It was he who revealed that the permanent Temple David desired to build was not necessary, and that God was more concerned with building a permanent dynasty for David (2 Samuel 7:1-17). God allowed the Temple to be built, though by David’s son, not by David himself (2 Samuel 7:12-13; 1 Chronicles 28:3; 1 Chronicles 28:6)
Nisroch - The god of Nineveh, in whose Temple Sennacherib was assassinated by his sons (2 Kings 19:37; Isaiah 37:38). Rawlinson says "Asshur had no Temple in Nineveh in which Sennacherib could have been worshipping
Athaliah - One infant was preserved, and was successfully concealed in the Temple six years. The destruction of the Temple of Baal, which is spoken of in the same connexion, indicates that Athaliah was addicted to the worship of the Phœnician Baal, introduced by her mother into Israel ( 2 Kings 11:1-21 )
Hiram - By his servants he supplied both timber and stone for the Temple and the palaces of Solomon. A skilful workman of Tyre, filled with wisdom and understanding, who was sent to make things for the Temple
Palm, Palm Tree, - There were many representations of palm-trees in the decorations of the Temple, as there will also be in the future Temple
Esdras - Esdras brought with him an exemption from taxation for the Temple officials, and gifts from Artaxerxes and the Jews of Babylon. With these the Temple worship was to be enhanced and subsidized
Assideanis - " They were a kind of religious society among the Jews, whose chief and distinguishing character was, to maintain the honour of the Temple, and observe punctually the traditions of the elders. They practised greater hardships and mortifications than others; and their common oath was, "By the Temple;" for which our Saviour reproves the Pharisees, who had learned that oath of them, Matthew 23:16
Walls - The huge stones in its lower part are believed by the Jews, and with good reason, to have formed a part of the substructions of their ancient Temple, and to be near the site of the Holy of Holies. A little beyond this spot, towards the south, is the fragment of an immense arch of forty-one feet span, one of five or six which supported a lofty causeway, from mount Zion to the Temple area at its southern portico, 1 Kings 10:5 1 Chronicles 26:16,18
Palms - Thus, images of palms were used in the decoration of the Temple (1Kings 6:29,1 Kings 6:35 ; 1 Kings 7:36 ) and were part of Ezekiel's vision of the new Temple (Ezekiel 40:16 ,Ezekiel 40:16,40:22 ,Ezekiel 40:22,40:26 )
Jeho-i'Ada - He married Jehosheba; and when Athaliah slew all the seed royal to Judah after Ahaziah had been put to death by Jehu, he and his wife stole Joash from among the king's sons and hid him for six years in the Temple, and eventually replaced him on the throne of his ancestors. [1] The destruction of Baal-worship and the restoration of the Temple were among the great works effected by Jehoiada
Candlestick - The candlestick stands in the outer sanctuary, the type of the present dispensation on earth; but not in the inner holiest place, the type of the heavenly world wherein the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are both the Temple and the light (Revelation 21:22-23). In Solomon's Temple there were ten golden candlesticks (1 Kings 7:49; 2 Chronicles 4:7). In the second Temple, namely, Zerubbabel's, a single candlestick was again placed (Zechariah 4:2-6; Zechariah 4:11), taken by Titus from the Temple as restored by Herod, and carried in his triumph at Rome and deposited in the Temple of Peace. In John 8:12, "I am the light of the world," there is allusion to the two colossal golden candlesticks lighted at the feast of tabernacles (which was then being held: John 7:2-37) after the evening sacrifice in one of the Temple courts, and casting their beams on mount Olivet and on Jerusalem. Jesus coming to the Temple at daybreak (John 8:1-2), as they were extinguishing the artificial lights in the face of the superior light of the rising sun, virtually says, "Your typical light is passing away, I am the Sun of righteousness, the True Light
Burnt-Offering - ...
The burnt-offering was the principal sacrifice of the Mosaic dispensation, and continued as such till the destruction of the Temple by Titus. The altar stood in the court of the priests in front of (eastward of) the Temple building. As a Jew, acquainted with the OT, He could not have been unacquainted with the Pentateuchal legislation on this point; nor is it conceivable that as a visitor to the Temple He failed to be a witness of this rite. At the Presentation in the Temple (Luke 2:24, cf. The Temple tax to which He contributed was in part used for the provision of burnt-offerings (Matthew 17:24). ’ In Hebrews 10:6; Hebrews 10:8, where only besides the word occurs, while the writer dwells on many points of the Temple, its furniture, and its service, he fails to apply the burnt-offering very closely to the redeeming work of Christ. ; Bible Archœology of Keil, Nowack; Kurtz, Sacrificial System of OT; OT Theology of Schultz, Oehler; Cave, Scriptural Doctrine of Sacrifice; Edersheim, The Temple: its Ministry, etc
Azariah - The first part of his reign was prosperous and happy; but afterwards, presuming to offer incense in the Temple, he was smitten with leprosy, and continued a leper till his death, 2 Chronicles 26:16 - 23
Daric - Offerings for the reconstruction of the Temple were made in darics (Ezra 2:69 ; Nehemiah 7:70 ,Nehemiah 7:70,7:72 )
Jahath - Levite verseer of Temple repair under King Josiah (2 Chronicles 34:12 )
New Moon - ) On it work was suspended (Amos 8:5), the Temple was opened for worship (Isaiah 66:23), and in northern Israel the godly repaired to the prophets for religious instruction (2 Kings 4:23)
Tabeel - Persian official in Samaria who joined in a letter protesting the reconstruction of the Jerusalem Temple (Ezra 4:7 )
Malluch - Ancestor of a Levitical singer in Solomon's Temple (1 Chronicles 6:44 ); 2
Obed - Gatekeeper in Solomon's Temple (1 Chronicles 26:7 )
Silversmith - Silver was used in making many of the utensils used in the tabernacle and Temple (Numbers 7:13 )
Lily - The lily was the inspiration for the rim of the molten sea in the Temple in Jerusalem (1 Kings 7:26 ; compare 1Kings 7:19,1 Kings 7:22 )
Jairus - Est 11:2) for Mordecai’s father Jair ( Esther 2:5 ); and ( 1Es 5:31 ) for the head of a family of Temple servants
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