What does Stranger mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
גֵּ֣ר sojourner. 5
וְלַגֵּ֖ר sojourner. 5
לַגֵּ֛ר sojourner. 4
זָ֑ר to be strange 4
וְלַגֵּר֙ sojourner. 4
וְהַגֵּ֖ר sojourner. 3
וְהַגֵּ֛ר sojourner. 3
גֵּ֗ר sojourner. 2
כַּגֵּ֥ר sojourner. 2
הַגֵּ֔ר sojourner. 2
כַּגֵּר֙ sojourner. 2
ξένος a foreigner 2
ξένον a foreigner 2
וְלַגֵּ֤ר sojourner. 1
גֵּ֜ר sojourner. 1
וְלַגֵּ֣ר sojourner. 1
וְלַגֵּ֛ר sojourner. 1
גֵּֽר sojourner. 1
לְגֵ֤ר sojourner. 1
ἀλλοτρίῳ belonging to another. / foreign 1
לְזָ֣ר to be strange 1
גֵ֣ר sojourner. 1
וְגֵ֣ר sojourner. 1
זָֽר to be strange 1
לַזָּ֣ר to be strange 1
מ֭וּזָר to be strange 1
מְגֻרֶ֗יךָ sojourning place 1
וַיִּתְנַכֵּ֨ר to recognise 1
נָ֝כְרִ֗י foreign 1
וּלְתוֹשָׁ֣בְךָ֔ sojourner 1
גֵּ֧ר sojourner. 1
כְּגֵ֣ר sojourner. 1
הַגֵּ֣ר ׀ sojourner. 1
וְגֵֽרְךָ֙ sojourner. 1
גֵּרֽוֹ sojourner. 1
גֵּ֔ר sojourner. 1
הַגֵּ֑ר sojourner. 1
וְ֠הַגֵּר sojourner. 1
לַגֵּר֙ sojourner. 1
וְגֵ֣רְךָ֔ sojourner. 1
וְגֵרְךָ֖ sojourner. 1
בַּגֵּ֖ר sojourner. 1
גֵּ֖ר sojourner. 1
וְגֵרְךָ֖֙ sojourner. 1
וְגֵ֥ר sojourner. 1
וְגֵ֖ר sojourner. 1
וְהַגֵּֽר sojourner. 1
הַגֵּ֥ר sojourner. 1
הַגֵּ֖ר sojourner. 1
וְגֵר֩ sojourner. 1
וּבַגֵּ֑ר sojourner. 1
וְתוֹשָׁב֙ sojourner 1

Definitions Related to Stranger

H1616


   1 sojourner.
      1a a temporary inhabitant, a newcomer lacking inherited rights.
      1b of foreigners in Israel, though conceded rights.
      

H2114


   1 to be strange, be a Stranger.
      1a (Qal).
         1a1 to become estranged.
         1a2 strange, another, Stranger, foreigner, an enemy (participle).
         1a3 loathsome (of breath) (participle).
         1a4 strange woman, prostitute, harlot (meton).
      1b (Niphal) to be estranged.
      1c (Hophal) to be a Stranger, be one alienated.
      

H5234


   1 to recognise, acknowledge, know, respect, discern, regard.
      1a (Niphal) to be recognised.
      1b (Piel) to regard.
      1c (Hiphil).
         1c1 to regard, observe, pay attention to, pay regard to, notice.
         1c2 to recognise (as formerly known), perceive.
         1c3 to be willing to recognise or acknowledge, acknowledge with honour.
         1c4 to be acquainted with.
         1c5 to distinguish, understand.
      1d (Hithpael) to make oneself known.
   2 to act or treat as foreign or strange, disguise, misconstrue.
      2a (Niphal) to disguise oneself.
      2b (Piel).
         2b1 to treat as foreign (profane).
         2b2 to misconstrue.
      2c (Hithpael).
         2c1 to act as alien.
         2c2 to disguise oneself.
         

H8453


   1 sojourner, Stranger.
   

G245


   1 belonging to another.
   2 foreign, strange, not of one’s own family, alien, an enemy.
   

G3581


   1 a foreigner, a Stranger.
      1a alien (from a person or a thing).
      1b without the knowledge of, without a share in.
      1c new, unheard of.
   2 one who receives and entertains another hospitably.
      2a with whom he stays or lodges, a host.
      

H5237


   1 foreign, alien.
      1a foreign.
      1b foreigner (subst).
      1c foreign woman, harlot.
      1d unknown, unfamiliar (fig.
      ).
      

H4033


   1 sojourning place, dwelling-place, sojourning.
      1a dwelling-place.
      1b sojourning, lifetime.
      

Frequency of Stranger (original languages)

Frequency of Stranger (English)

Dictionary

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Stranger
STRANGER . This seems, on the whole, the most suitable English word by which to render the Heb. zâr , which is a participle denoting primarily one who turns aside, one who goes out of the way, i.e. for the purpose of visiting or dwelling in another country. It has frequently the meaning foreigner , in contrast to ‘Israelite,’ especially with the added notion of hostility (cf. ‘estranged’), and in antithesis to ‘Israel’ ( e.g. Hosea 7:9 ; Hosea 8:7 , Isaiah 1:7 , Ezekiel 7:21 ; Ezekiel 11:9 , Joel 3:17 , Obadiah 1:11 , Psalms 54:3 etc.). In P [1] the word takes on a technical meaning found nowhere outside the Hexateuch, and exclusively post-exilic. It means ‘layman’ (which might with advantage be substituted for EV [2] ‘stranger’), as opposed to a Levite (see Numbers 1:51 ; Numbers 18:7 ), or to a priest proper, or Aaronite (see Exodus 29:33 ; Exodus 30:33 , Numbers 3:10 ; Numbers 3:38 ; Numbers 18:2 , Leviticus 22:10 ; Leviticus 22:12 f. (H [3] )).
The ‘strange woman’ of Proverbs 2:16 etc. has the same technical sense as ‘foreign woman’ with which it stands in parallelism, viz. harlot .
Sojourner (sometimes tr. [4] of tôshâb , ‘settler’ [5]) is frequently substituted by RV [6] for the AV [7] ‘stranger,’ as tr. [4] of gçr . The ger was originally a man who transferred himself from one tribe or people to another, seeking, and usually obtaining, some of the rights of natives. A whole clan or tribe might be gçrîm in Israel, as e.g. the Gibeonites ( Joshua 9:1-27 ), the Beerothites ( 2 Samuel 4:2 ). The Israelites are themselves often spoken of as ‘sojourners’ in the land of Egypt (see Genesis 15:13 , Exodus 22:21 ; Exodus 23:9 , Leviticus 19:24 (H [3] ), Deuteronomy 10:19 ; Deuteronomy 23:7 etc.). In the oldest Israelitish code (the Book of the Covenant, Exodus 21:1 to Exodus 23:13 ), the gçr is protected against injustice and violence ( Exodus 21:20 , Exodus 23:9 ). The D [7]7 code ( c [11] . b.c. 620) goes much further, for, besides making more explicit and urgent the duty of defending, helping, and even loving the ‘sojourner’ ( Deuteronomy 10:18 ; Deuteronomy 14:29 ; Deuteronomy 24:14 ; Deuteronomy 24:19 ), and also securing to him his rights ( Deuteronomy 24:17 , Deuteronomy 27:1-9 ), the gçr was to be allowed to participate in the three great annual feasts ( Deuteronomy 16:11 ff; cf. Deuteronomy 5:14 and Exodus 23:12 ). He is not, however, compelled, though allowed, to follow his protector’s religion ( Deuteronomy 14:29 , 1 Kings 11:7 ). That he occupies a status inferior to that of the born Israelite is indicated by the fact that he is classed with the widow and orphan as needing special consideration ( Deuteronomy 10:18 , Deuteronomy 14:29 , Deuteronomy 29:14 ; Deuteronomy 29:19 ), and that the right of intermarrying is denied him ( Deuteronomy 7:1 ff., Deuteronomy 23:4 ). When, however, we come to P [1] and to other parts of the OT which belong to the same stage of history and religion, we find the ‘sojourner’ almost on an equal footing with the native Israelite, he is fast becoming, and is almost become, the proselyte of NT and Rabbinical times. His position has now religious rather than political significance. He is expected to keep the Sabbath and to observe the Day of Atonement, as well as the three great feasts ( Leviticus 16:29 ). He is to eat unleavened bread during Passover week ( Exodus 12:19 ; Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread are now blended), and, if circumcised (not otherwise), to keep the full Passover itself. But the gçr is not even yet the full equal of the Israelite, for he is not compelled to be circumcised, and no one can belong to the congregation who has not submitted to that rite ( Exodus 12:47 ff., Numbers 9:14 ); he has not yet received the right of intermarriage ( Genesis 34:14 ), and is prohibited from keeping Jewish slaves ( Leviticus 25:47 ff.).
The closing of the ranks of Judaism, helped by the Exile, by the reforms of Ezra and Nehemiah, by the Samaritan schism, and consummated by the Maccabæan wars, led to the complete absorption of the ‘sojourner.’ The word prosçlytos (representing the Heb. gçr ), common in classical Greek for one who has come to a place (Lat. advena ), acquired in Hellenistic Greek the meaning which meets us often in the NT ( Matthew 23:15 , Acts 2:6 etc.). See Proselyte.
The indiscriminate use of ‘stranger’ with the meaning of ‘sojourner,’ and of ‘alien’ and ‘foreigner’ is very confusing. ‘Foreigner’ is the proper rendering of Heb. nokri . The Heb. tôshâb (lit. ‘dweller’) is a post-exilic substitute for gçr (‘sojourner’) in the original non-religeous sense of the latter. For the sake of distinction it might be uniformly rendered ‘ settler ’ (EV [2] ‘sojourner,’ ‘stranger,’ ‘foreigner’). See, for the relations of Israel to foreigners proper, art. Nations.
T. Witton Davies.
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Stranger
A "stranger," in the technical sense of the term, may be defined to be a person of foreign, i.e. non-Israelitish, extraction resident within the limits of the promised land. He was distinct from the proper "foreigner," inasmuch as the latter still belonged to another country, and would only visit Palestine as a traveller: he was still more distinct from the "nations," or non-Israelite peoples. The term may be compared with our expression "naturalized foreigner." The terms applied to the "stranger" have special reference to the fact of residing in the land. The existence of such a class of persons among the Israelites is easily accounted for the "mixed multitude" that accompanied them out of Egypt, ( Exodus 12:38 ) formed one element the Canaanitish Population,which was never wholly extirpated from their native soil, formed another and a still more important one captives taken in war formed a third; fugitives, hired servants, merchants, etc., formed a fourth. With the exception of the Moabites and Ammonites, (23:3) all nations were admissible to the rights of citizenship under certain conditions. The stranger appears to have been eligible to all civil offices, that of king excepted. (17:15) In regard to religion, it was absolutely necessary that the stranger should not infringe any of the fundamental laws of the Israelitish state. If he were a bondman, he was obliged to submit to circumcision, (Exodus 12:44 ) if he were independent, it was optional with him but if he remained uncircumcised, he was prohibited from partaking of the Passover, (Exodus 12:48 ) and could not be regarded as a full citizen. Liberty was also given to an uncircumcised stranger in regard to the use of prohibited food. Assuming, however, that the stranger was circumcised, no distinction existed in regard to legal rights ha between the stranger and the Israelite; to the Israelite is enjoined to treat him as a brother. (Leviticus 19:34 ; 10:19) It also appears that the "stranger" formed the class whence the hirelings were drawn; the terms being coupled together in (Exodus 12:45 ; Leviticus 22:10 ; 25:6,40 ) The liberal spirit of the Mosaic regulations respecting strangers presents a strong contrast to the rigid exclusiveness of the Jews at the commencement of the Christian era. The growth of this spirit dates from the time of the Babylonish captivity.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Stranger, Alien, Foreigner
The word ‘stranger’ (from extraneus) has been so long in possession as the rendering of several distinct words in the Hebrew and Greek texts that it is difficult to introduce changes in translation that appear desirable in order to distinguish those words from each other, and doubtful in some instances whether an exact rendering would be tolerable to the ear of English readers. [1] Take an instance from the OT, and one from the NT. In Genesis 23:4 and Psalms 39:12, ‘I am a stranger and a sojourner’ could not well be changed for ‘I am a sojourner and a settler’ (or ‘dweller’). In John 10:5, ‘A stranger (ἀλλοτρίῳ) will they not follow … for they know not the voice of strangers (τῶν ἀλλοτρίων),’ we should not welcome the substitution of ‘alien’ for ‘stranger’ in order to distinguish ἀλλότριος from ξένος. ‘Aliens,’ however, might-fitly have been put in Revised Version margin in Matthew 17:25, ‘From their sons, or from strangers (ἀπὸ τῶν ἀλλοτρίων)?’ Cf. Luke 17:18, ‘Were there none found that returned to give glory to God, save this stranger?’ where the rendering of ἀλλογενής in Revised Version margin by ‘alien’ heightens the contrast to which our Lord draws attention.
In the numerous NT passages in which changes of a more considerable kind were called for by fidelity to the true meaning of the text, those changes have been judiciously and consistently made by the Revised Version . In Luke 24:18 the question σὺ μόνος παροικεῖς Ἰερουσαλήμ cannot mean ‘Art thou only a stranger?’ and is rightly changed for ‘Dost thou alone sojourn?’ (marg. [2] ‘Dost thou sojourn alone in Jerusalem?’), Cleopas implying that none but a solitary sojourner, who had not come in contact with other sojourners at the Passover season, could be ignorant of the death of Jesus. In Acts 2:10 οἱ ἐπιδημοῦντες Ῥωμαῖοι are mentioned in the list of nations present at Pentecost. Here the inadequate rendering ‘strangers of Rome’ becomes ‘sojourners from Rome,’ those meant being ‘Romans who had migrated to Jerusalem and had settled in that city’ (Overbeck, quoted by A. Harnack, The Acts of the Apostles [3], Eng. translation , London, 1909, p. 67). In the speech of St. Stephen (Acts 7:29, ἐγένετο πάροικος), we should read ‘became a sojourner,’ and in that of St. Paul (Acts 13:17, ἐν τῇ παροικίᾳ) ‘when they sojourned.’ Read also in Acts 17:21 (Ἀθηναῖοι δὲ πάντες καὶ οἱ ἐπιδημοῦντες ξένοι), ‘Now all the Athenians and the strangers sojourning there’: ‘the large number of foreign residents … was always a distinguishing feature of Athens’ (J. B. Lightfoot in Smith’s Dict. of the Bible 2, vol. i. pt. i. p. 36a).
The Christian communities addressed in 1 Peter 1:1 are called ἐκλεκτοὶ παρεπίδημοι διασπορᾶς. Authorized Version loosely translates ‘to the strangers scattered throughout Pontus,’ and wrongly transfers ἐκλεκτοῖς to the verse following. Read with Revised Version ‘to the elect who are sojourners of the Dispersion,’ or simply ‘to the elect sojourners of the Dispersion.’ It is now generally agreed that ‘St. Peter had in his mind predominantly, though probably not exclusively. Gentile readers,’ and that διασπορᾶς, like the preceding παρεπίδημοι, is used to describe their religious condition, both words being ‘taken from the vocabulary created by Jewish history and afterwards transferred to the Christian Church’ (F. H. Chase in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) iii. 783a; T. Zahn, Introduction to NT, Eng. translation , Edinburgh, 1909, ii. 141, 153, n. [4] 5), In 1 Peter 2:11 a strong moral appeal is made to Christians as πάροικοι καὶ παρεπίδημοι: here, πάροικοι having the first claim to ‘sojourners,’ it was necessary that παρεπίδημοι should be translated by a different word, and ‘pilgrims,’ which, in its Latin form peregrini, is used by the Vulgate in this verse, at once suggested itself. It is to be noticed that the rendering ‘sojourners’ for ‘strangers’ in 1 Peter 2:11 connects the appeal made with the exhortation given in 1:17, ἐν φόβῳ τὸν τῆς παροικίας ὑμῶν χρόνον ἀναστράφητε. [5] emphasises more definitely the merely temporary character of the residence’ (Zahn, ii. 139).]
‘Alien’ occurs twice in the NT (Authorized Version ). In Hebrews 11:34 the fine rendering ‘armies of the aliens’ (ἀλλοτρίων) could not be improved upon. In Ephesians 2:12 Revised Version rightly substitutes the verb for the noun, as required by the Greek text, ἀπηλλοτριωμένοι τῆς πολιτείας, ‘alienated from the common wealth of Israel’ (cf. 4:18, Colossians 1:21).
‘Foreigner’ (from foraneus) was not a word in common use when the Authorized Version was made, and in the NT is found only in Ephesians 2:19 (οὐκέτι ἐστὲ ξένοι καὶ πάροικοι). We regret the disappearance of the in-spiriting words ‘no more strangers and foreigners,’ but must admit the consistency of Revised Version in translating ‘no more strangers and sojourners.’
In what follows, this study of words is supplemented by some reflexions of a devotional and practical nature.
1. Christ and the stranger.-Kindness to the stranger-guest has always been one of the most attractive features of Eastern life and manners. ‘From the earliest times of Semitic life the lawlessness of the desert … has been tempered by the principle that the guest is inviolable’ (W. R. Religion of the Semites (W. Robertson Smith) 2, London, 1894, p. 76). The description in Genesis 18:2-8 of Abraham’s entertainment of his three mysterious visitors ‘presents a perfect picture of the manner in which a modern Bedawee sheykh receives travellers arriving at his encampment’ (E. W. Lane, Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians5, London, 1871, i. 364). The humanitarian laws enjoined on Israel included the following; ‘A stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt’ (Exodus 22:21; cf. Exodus 23:9, Leviticus 19:33-34, Deuteronomy 10:18-19). The stranger, who is to be made welcome, and whose rights are to be respected, often comes into view, e.g. in Ruth 2:10, Psalms 94:8; Psalms 146:9, Malachi 3:5. In Greece, Ζεὺς ἀγοραῖος, the Protector of the assembly of the people, was also Ζεὺς ξένιος, the Protector of strangers. The beautiful story of Philemon and Baucis, the aged Phrygian couple who received Zeus and Hermes into their but when others had refused to take them in (cf. J. B. Lightfoot, Colossians and Philemon, London, 1875, p. 370, who uses the legend to illustrate the scene at Lystra, Acts 14:11), must have had its origin in some mind which had conceived it possible that the gods might put men to the proof by visiting them in human form. The truth thus dimly shadowed forth was realized in Jesus Christ. He, when ‘found in fashion as a man,’ accepted the title of ‘Prophet’ as one which, ‘so far as it went, … was a true description of His work’ (H. B. Swete, The Ascended Christ, London, 1910, p. 53), and, in His preaching ministry, was dependent for food and lodging on those who ‘received him’ (Luke 10:38; Luke 19:5-6; cf. 2 Kings 4:9-10). In one of His last discourses He taught that the stranger was, along with others whom He named, one of His ‘brethren’ or next of kin, who had the right to the same ministering love which had been shown toward Himself, and solemnly said that men’s final acceptance before Him as their Judge depended upon their recognizing and doing justice to that right. His authoritative and affecting words ξένος ἤμην καὶ συνηγάγετέ με (Matthew 25:35) impressed it for ever on the heart of the Church that in receiving the stranger she fed and sheltered her Lord. [6] They made care for the stranger a standing rule of Christian life (cf. J. R. Seeley, Ecce Homo11, London, 1873, p. 194). Their effects are seen in Romans 12:13, 1 Timothy 3:2; 1 Timothy 5:10, Titus 1:8, 3 John 1:5, Clem, Rom. i. 1, 2, Didache, xi. 2. It is somewhat remarkable that in Hebrews 13:2 our Lord’s words are not referred to. The marked feature of apostolic Christianity presented to view in these passages pointed forward to the systematic provision which was made for the entertainment of strangers in the ξενοδοχία of post-apostolic times. ‘A “saint,” i.e. a Christian, provided with a letter of recommendation from his church, could travel from one end of the Roman Empire to the other without having any anxiety about a home. Wherever there was a Christian Church he was sure of receiving food and shelter, and attention in case of illness’ (G. Bonet-Maury in Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics vi. 804b; cf. Sanday-Headlam, International Critical Commentary , ‘Romans’5, Edinburgh, 1902, p. 363; W. E. H. Lecky, History of European Morals8, London, 1888, ii. 80). It is not necessary to do more than allude to the countless forms of helpful assistance and benevolence which Christ’s compassion for the stranger has prompted in recent times (cf. T. von Haering, Ethics of the Christian Life, London, 1909, p. 402; H. L. Martensen, Christian Ethics [7], Eng. translation , Edinburgh, 1882, ii. 71, 72).
2. The sheep and strangers.-Neither Authorized Version nor Revised Version gives the proper emphasis to δὲ οὐ μή in John 10:5. These words enrich the comparison between the two voices. We should read ‘But a stranger will they by no means follow,’ or ‘will they certainly not follow.’ Christ speaks with confident expectation of how His sheep will act. They will assuredly not follow a stranger: ‘on the contrary (ἀλλά) they will flee from him.’ ‘Fleeing’ implies a feeling of danger and alarm. The voice of the stranger whom they know not scares the sheep (cf. W. M. Thomson, The Land and the Book, London, 1864, p. 203; F. Godet, Com. on St. John’s Gospel, Edinburgh, 1876-77, ii. 382). The words may be applied to the Church of the Apostolic Age in a variety of ways. They who ‘knew that the Son of God was come’ (1 John 5:20) were not led astray by false Messiahs. They were gifted with a quickness of apprehension and a sharpness of penetration that enabled them to see the tendency and temper of false teaching. They accounted as strangers those teachers who came ‘to act as spies on the liberty which they had in Christ’ (Galatians 2:4), as well as others, still more dangerous, who sought to lead them into the thicket of Gnostic speculation in which they would have lost sight altogether of the nature and work of their Redeemer (Colossians 2:8). The same faculty of discrimination, created and guided by the Spirit of Christ, enabled them to take the first steps in sifting the writings of the Apostolic Age, and setting apart those which spoke to them with the voice and authority of the Chief Shepherd.
3. Christians not ξένοι but πάραιχοι.-It is worthy of attention that Christians are not called ξένοι in the NT. The Gentile believers addressed in Ephesians had once been ξένοι τῶν διαθηκῶν τῆς ἐπαγγελιας (Ephesians 2:12), but are now συνπολῖται τῶν ἁγίων καὶ οἰκεῖοι τοῦ Θεοῦ (Ephesians 2:19), fellow-citizens with full rights (cf. Philippians 3:20), and in household fellowship with the family of God. When Christians are described as ξένοι in early Christian literature, the word is used in a typical or metaphorical sense-as in the Epistle to Diognetus, Philippians 3:5 : πάνθʼ ὑπομένουσιν ὡς ξένοι· πᾶσα ξένη πατρίς ἐστιν αὐτῶν, καὶ πᾶσα πατρὶς ξἑνη. St. Peter’s impressive adaptation of Hosea 2:23 to the Gentile Christians of Asia Minor, οἵ ποτὲ σὐ λαὸς νῦν δὲ λαὸς θεοῖ (1 Peter 2:10), is immediately followed by his appeal to them as πάροικοι καὶ παρεπίδημοι. They are thus reminded that they are sojourners on earth, dependent on the protection of God, whose property the earth is, and to whom it belongs to determine the length of their sojourn and what mercies they shall receive. Such seems to be the force of the words ‘with thee’ in Psalms 39:12 (cf. A. F. Kirkpatrick, Book of Psalms, Cambridge, 1902, p. 207). In the Church the Christian finds ‘a home for the lonely’ (J. H. Newman, Parochial Sermons, new ed., London, 1868, iv. 196): but ‘so long as we are still at home (ἐνδημοῦντες) in the body, we are in a sort of exile from our home (ἐκδημοῦμεν) in the Lord’ (2 Corinthians 5:6; cf. A. Plummer, International Critical Commentary , ‘2 Corinthians,’ Edinburgh, 1915, pp. 124, 151). ‘Exilium vita est’ was the inscription carved above the doorway in Victor Hugo’s room at Hauteville, Guernsey.
Literature.-To the works cited throughout the article may be added: S. R. Driver, The Book of Exodus, Cambridge, 1911, p. 231, International Critical Commentary , ‘Deuteronomy’2, Edinburgh, 1896, p. 165; C. L. W. Grimm, Lexicon in Libros NT, Leipzig, 1868, s.v. ξένος, πάροικος, παρεπίδημος; J. A. Selbie, articles ‘Foreigner,’ ‘Ger,’ and ‘Strange, Stranger’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) .
James Donald.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Stranger
This word generally denotes a person from a foreign land residing in Palestine. Such persons enjoyed many privileges in common with the Jews, but still were separate from them. The relation of the Jews to strangers was regulated by special laws (Deuteronomy 23:3 ; 24:14-21 ; 25:5 ; 26:10-13 ). A special signification is also sometimes attached to this word. In Genesis 23:4 it denotes one resident in a foreign land; Exodus 23:9 , one who is not a Jew; Numbers 3:10 , one who is not of the family of Aaron; Psalm 69:8 , an alien or an unknown person. The Jews were allowed to purchase strangers as slaves (Leviticus 25:44,45 ), and to take usury from them (Deuteronomy 23:20 ).
Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words - Stranger
A — 1: ξένος (Strong's #3581 — Adjective — xenos — xen'-os ) "strange" (see No. 1 above), denotes "a stranger, foreigner," Matthew 25:35,38,43,44 ; 27:7 ; Acts 17:21 ; Ephesians 2:12,19 ; Hebrews 11:13 ; 3 John 1:5 .
A — 2: ἀλλότριος (Strong's #245 — Adjective — allotrios — al-lot'-ree-os ) "strangers," Matthew 17:25,26 ; John 10:5 (twice): see No. 2, above.
A — 3: ἀλλογενής (Strong's #241 — Adjective — allogenes — al-log-en-ace' ) (allos, "another," genos, "a race") occurs in Luke 17:18 , of a Samaritan. Moulton and Milligan illustrate the use of the word by the inscription on the Temple barrier, "let no foreigner enter within the screen and enclosure surrounding the sanctuary;" according to Mommsen this inscription was cut by the Romans: cp. PARTITION.
Notes: (1) For paroikos, in AV, see SOJOURN , B, No. 1. For parepidemos, in AV, see PILGRIM. (2) The pronoun heteros, "other," is translated "strangers" in 1 Corinthians 14:21 (2nd part), RV (AV, "other"); cp. STRANGE, A, Note.
B — 1: ξενοδοχέω (Strong's #3580 — Verb — xenodocheo — xen-od-okh-eh'-o ) "to receive strangers" (xenos, No. 1, above, and dechomai, "to receive"), occurs in 1 Timothy 5:10 , RV, "(if) she hath used hospitality to strangers," AV, "(if) she have lodged strangers."
Note: For epidemeo, in AV, see SOJOURNER , A, No. 2. For paroikeo, in AV, see SOJOURN , A, No. 1.
C — 1: φιλοξενία (Strong's #5381 — Noun Feminine — philoxenia — fil-on-ex-ee'-ah ) "love of strangers," occurs in Romans 12:13 , "hospitality," and Hebrews 13:2 , RV, "to show love unto strangers," AV, "to entertain strangers." See ENTERTAIN , Note.
Note: For parokia in Acts 13:17 , see SOJOURN , C.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Stranger
See Alien .
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Stranger
See Foreigner
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Stranger
1. This term was applied to any sojourning among the Israelites, who were not descendants of Israel. The law gave injunctions against the oppression of such. Numbers 15:14-30 .
2. Gentiles are also called 'strangers' from the covenants of promise ( Ephesians 2:12 ), showing that the covenants made with Israel did in no wise embrace the Gentiles, though God's grace at all times extended to them.
3. Those called strangers in 1 Peter 1:1 were Jews away from their own land: sojourners of the dispersion.
4. Both the O.T. and the N.T. saints were and are strangers upon earth. David said, "I am a stranger with thee, and a sojourner, as all my fathers were." Psalm 39:12 . They "confessed that they were strangers and pilgrims on the earth." Hebrews 11:13 . The same is true of the saints now. 1 Peter 2:11 . Their citizenship is in heaven, and this earth is no longer their home or their rest.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Stranger
A foreigner settled among the covenant people, without Israelite citizenship, but subject to Israel's laws, and having a claim to kindness and justice (Exodus 12:49; Leviticus 24:22; Leviticus 19:34; Leviticus 25:6; Deuteronomy 1:16; Deuteronomy 24:17-18; Deuteronomy 24:19; Deuteronomy 10:18-19; Deuteronomy 16:11; Deuteronomy 16:14; Deuteronomy 26:11). (See PROSELYTES.) In contrast to one "born in the land," not transplanted, "ezrach ." Geer , toshab ; geer implies the stranger viewed in respect to his foreign origin, literally, one turned aside to "another people"; toshab implies his permanent residence in the hind of hision. Distinguished from the "foreigner," nakri , who made no stay in Israel. The stranger included the "mixed multitude" from Egypt (Exodus 12:38); the Canaanites still remaining in Palestine and their descendants, as Uriah the Hittite and Araunah the Jebusite, Doeg the Edomite, Ittai the Gittite; captives in war, fugitives, and merchants, amounting under Solomon to 153,600 males (2 Chronicles 2:17), one tenth of the population.
Strictly, the stranger had no share in the land. It is to be a peculiarity of restored Israel that the stranger shall inherit along with the native born (Ezekiel 47:22). Still anomalies may have been tolerated of necessity, as that of Canaanites (on conversion to the law) retaining land from which Israel had been unable to eject their forefathers. Strangers were excluded from kingship. Though tolerated they must not violate the fundamental laws by blaspheming Jehovah, breaking the sabbath by work, eating leavened bread at the Passover, infringing the marriage laws, worshipping Moloch, or eating blood (Leviticus 24:16; Leviticus 18:26; Leviticus 20:2; Leviticus 17:10; Leviticus 17:15; Exodus 20:10; Exodus 12:19). If the stranger were a bondservant he had to be circumcised (Exodus 12:44). If free he was exempt, but if not circumcised was excluded from the Passover (Exodus 12:48); he might eat foods (Deuteronomy 14:21) which the circumcised stranger might not eat (Leviticus 17:10; Leviticus 17:15).
The liberal spirit of the law contrasts with the exclusiveness of Judaism after the return from Babylon. This narrowness was at first needed, in order to keep the holy seed separate from foreign admixture (Nehemiah 9; 10; 13; Ezra 10). But its degeneracy into proud, morose isolation and misanthropy our Lord rebukes in His large definition of "neighbour" in the parable of the good Samaritan (Luke 10:36). The law kept Israel a people separate from the nations, yet exercising a benignant influence on them. It secured a body of 600,000 yeomen ready to defend their own land, but unfit for invading other lands, as their force was ordained to be of infantry alone. Interest front a fellow citizen was forbidden, but from a stranger was allowed, subject to strict regard to equity. The hireling was generally taken from strangers, the law guarded his rights with tender considerateness (Deuteronomy 24:14-15). (See NETHINIM; SOLOMON'S SERVANTS.)
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Stranger
Moses inculcated and enforced by numerous and by powerful considerations, as well as by various examples of benevolent hospitality, mentioned in the book of Genesis, the exhibition of kindness and humanity to strangers. There were two classes of persons who, in reference to this subject, were denominated strangers, נרים . One class were those who, whether Hebrews or foreigners, were destitute of a home, in Hebrew תושבים . The others were persons who, though not natives, had a home in Palestine; the latter were נרום , strangers or foreigners, in the strict sense of the word. Both of these classes, according to the civil code of Moses, were to be treated with kindness, and were to enjoy the same rights with other citizens, Leviticus 19:33-34 ; Leviticus 24:16 ; Leviticus 24:22 ; Numbers 9:14 ; Numbers 15:14 ; Deuteronomy 10:18 ; Deuteronomy 23:7 ; Deuteronomy 24:17 ; Deuteronomy 27:19 . In the earlier periods of the Hebrew state, persons who were natives of another country, but who had come, either from choice or from necessity to take up their residence among the Hebrews, appear to have been placed in favourable circumstances. At a latter period, namely, in the reigns of David and Solomon, they were compelled to labour on the religious edifices which were erected by those princes; as we may learn from such passages as these: "And Solomon numbered all the strangers that were in the land of Israel, after the numbering wherewith David his father had numbered them; and they were found a hundred and fifty thousand and three thousand and six hundred; and he set three score and ten thousand of them to be bearers of burdens," &c, 1 Chronicles 22:2 ; 2 Chronicles 2:1 ; 2 Chronicles 2:16-17 . The exaction of such laborious services from foreigners was probably limited to those who had been taken prisoners in war; and who, according to the rights of war, as they were understood at that period, could be justly employed in any offices, however low and however laborious, which the conqueror thought proper to impose. In the time of Christ, the degenerate Jews did not find it convenient to render to the strangers from a foreign country those deeds of kindness and humanity which were not only their due, but which were demanded in their behalf by the laws of Moses. They were in the habit of understanding by the word רע , neighbour, their friends merely, and accordingly restricted the exercise of their benevolence by the same narrow limits that bounded in this case their interpretations; contrary as both were to the spirit of those passages which have been adduced above, Leviticus 19:18 .

Sentence search

Shamgar - Named a Stranger; he is here a Stranger
Foreigner - See Stranger
Foreigner - See Stranger
Jagur - Husbandman; Stranger
Alien - See Stranger
Pilgrim - See Stranger
Sojourner - See Stranger
Gershom - A Stranger here
Agur - Stranger; gathered together
Fren - ) A Stranger
Ger - See Stranger
Foreigner - See Nations, Stranger
Alien - See Nations, Stranger
Hagar - A Stranger; one that fears
Zerubbabel - A Stranger at Babylon; dispersion of confusion
Outlandish - Applied to any Stranger or foreigner
Aubaine - ) Succession to the goods of a Stranger not naturalized
Guest - A Stranger one who comes from a distance, and takes lodgings at a place, either for a night or for a longer time. A visitor a Stranger or friend, entertained in the house or at the table of another, whether by invitation or otherwise
Xenium - ) A present given to a guest or Stranger, or to a foreign ambassador
Stranger - A "stranger," in the technical sense of the term, may be defined to be a person of foreign, i. " The terms applied to the "stranger" have special reference to the fact of residing in the land. The Stranger appears to have been eligible to all civil offices, that of king excepted. (17:15) In regard to religion, it was absolutely necessary that the Stranger should not infringe any of the fundamental laws of the Israelitish state. Liberty was also given to an uncircumcised Stranger in regard to the use of prohibited food. Assuming, however, that the Stranger was circumcised, no distinction existed in regard to legal rights ha between the Stranger and the Israelite; to the Israelite is enjoined to treat him as a brother. (Leviticus 19:34 ; 10:19) It also appears that the "stranger" formed the class whence the hirelings were drawn; the terms being coupled together in (Exodus 12:45 ; Leviticus 22:10 ; 25:6,40 ) The liberal spirit of the Mosaic regulations respecting Strangers presents a strong contrast to the rigid exclusiveness of the Jews at the commencement of the Christian era
Hospitality - A — 1: φιλοξενία (Strong's #5381 — Noun Feminine — philoxenia — fil-on-ex-ee'-ah ) "love of Strangers" (philos, "loving," xenos, "a Stranger"), is used in Romans 12:13 ; Hebrews 13:2 , lit. ...
Note: For xenodocheo, 1 Timothy 5:10 , see Stranger , B
Safeguard - A passport a warrant of security given by a sovereign to protect a Stranger within his territories formerly, a protection granted to a Stranger in prosecuting his rights in due course of law
Shamgar - (Judges 3:31) His name seems to be derived from Shem, name—and Ger, Stranger
Barbarous - Uncivilized savage unlettered untutored ignorant unacquainted with arts Stranger to civility of manners
Foreigner - ) A person belonging to or owning allegiance to a foreign country; one not native in the country or jurisdiction under consideration, or not naturalized there; an alien; a Stranger
Added, Saint - According to the legend, while Felix was being led to his execution, a Stranger, inflamed by his heroic example, professed the Faith, and was also martyred. The name of the Stranger being unknown, he was called Adauctus (Added)
Felix, Saint 30 Aug - According to the legend, while Felix was being led to his execution, a Stranger, inflamed by his heroic example, professed the Faith, and was also martyred. The name of the Stranger being unknown, he was called Adauctus (Added)
Proselyte - 1: προσήλυτος (Strong's #4339 — Adjective — proselutos — pros-ah'-loo-tos ) akin to proserchomai, "to come to," primarily signifies "one who has arrived, a Stranger;" in the NT it is used of converts to Judaism, or foreign converts to the Jewish religion, Matthew 23:15 ; Acts 2:10 ; 6:5 ; 13:43 . , in Exodus 22:21 ; 23:9 ; Deuteronomy 10:19 , of the "stranger" living among the children of Israel
Adauctus, Saint - According to the legend, while Felix was being led to his execution, a Stranger, inflamed by his heroic example, professed the Faith, and was also martyred. The name of the Stranger being unknown, he was called Adauctus (Added)
Tramontane - ) One living beyond the mountains; hence, a foreigner; a Stranger
Stranger - " Geer , toshab ; geer implies the Stranger viewed in respect to his foreign origin, literally, one turned aside to "another people"; toshab implies his permanent residence in the hind of hision. The Stranger included the "mixed multitude" from Egypt (Exodus 12:38); the Canaanites still remaining in Palestine and their descendants, as Uriah the Hittite and Araunah the Jebusite, Doeg the Edomite, Ittai the Gittite; captives in war, fugitives, and merchants, amounting under Solomon to 153,600 males (2 Chronicles 2:17), one tenth of the population. ...
Strictly, the Stranger had no share in the land. It is to be a peculiarity of restored Israel that the Stranger shall inherit along with the native born (Ezekiel 47:22). Strangers were excluded from kingship. If the Stranger were a bondservant he had to be circumcised (Exodus 12:44). If free he was exempt, but if not circumcised was excluded from the Passover (Exodus 12:48); he might eat foods (Deuteronomy 14:21) which the circumcised Stranger might not eat (Leviticus 17:10; Leviticus 17:15). Interest front a fellow citizen was forbidden, but from a Stranger was allowed, subject to strict regard to equity. The hireling was generally taken from Strangers, the law guarded his rights with tender considerateness (Deuteronomy 24:14-15)
Cosinage - ) A writ to recover possession of an estate in lands, when a Stranger has entered, after the death of the grandfather's grandfather, or other distant collateral relation
Gershom - A Stranger there, one of the two sons of Moses and Zipporah, in the land of Midian, Exodus 2:22 ; 18:3
Besayle - ) A kind of writ which formerly lay where a great-grandfather died seized of lands in fee simple, and on the day of his death a Stranger abated or entered and kept the heir out
Pilgrim - The word is formed from the Flemish Pelgrim, or Italian, pelegrino, which signifies the same; and those originally from the Latin peregrinus, a Stranger or traveller
Alien - See MAN'S , Note (1), STRANGE , Stranger
Cleopas - Later, they discovered that the Stranger was Jesus Himself
Attention - Act of civility, or courtesy as attention to a Stranger
Tishbite - " Some interpret this word as meaning "stranger," and read the verse, "Elijah the Stranger from among the Strangers in Gilead
Proselyte - The Hebrews called a proselyte Ger, or Necher, which signifies a Stranger
Tishbite - Some suppose the word to signify 'the Stranger
Alienate - ) A Stranger; an alien
Pilgrim - ) A wayfarer; a wanderer; a traveler; a Stranger
Postures in Public Worship - While to the Stranger in the Church thevarious postures taken in the services seem complicated, yet therule for them is very simple, which is this: We stand in praise,kneel in prayer and are seated during the hearing of the Word
Attention - ) An act of civility or courtesy; care for the comfort and pleasure of others; as, attentions paid to a Stranger
Ger'Shom - (a Stranger or exile )
Host - hostis, a Stranger, an enemy, probably of the same family. hostis, a Stranger, an enemy
Sojourn, Sojourner, Sojourning - A — 1: παροικέω (Strong's #3939 — Verb — paroikeo — par-oy-keh'-o ) denotes "to dwell beside, among or by" (para, "beside," oikeo, "to dwell"); then, "to dwell in a place as a paroikos, a Stranger" (see below), Luke 24:18 , RV , "Dost thou (alone) sojourn . , "Dost thou sojourn (alone)" is preferable]'>[1], AV, "art thou (only) a Stranger?" (monos, "alone," is an adjective, not an adverb); in Hebrews 11:9 , RV, "he became a sojourner" (AV, "he sojourned"), the RV gives the force of the aorist tense. , "should be a sojourner;" in Acts 7:29 , RV, "sojourner" (AV, "stranger"); in Ephesians 2:19 , RV "sojourners" (AV, "foreigners"), the preceding word rendered "strangers" is xenos; in 1 Peter 2:11 , RV, ditto (AV, "strangers"). ...
B — 3: παρεπίδημος (Strong's #3927 — Adjective — parepidemos — par-ep-id'-ay-mos ) "sojourning in a strange place," is used as a noun, denoting "a sojourner, an exile," 1 Peter 1:1 , RV, "sojourners" (AV, "strangers"). 1), occurs in Acts 13:17 , rendered "they sojourned," RV, AV, "dwelt as Strangers," lit
Gera - (gee' ruh) Personal name meaning, “stranger,” “alien,” or “sojourner
Hospitality - "Use hospitality one to another without grudging," saith Peter, (1 Peter 4:9) And Paul begged the Hebrews," (Hebrews 13:2) not to be forgetful"to entertain Strangers, for thereby, he said, some had entertained angels unawares? alluding very probably, to the case of Abraham and Lot, as related Genesis 18:3 and Genesis 19:2. And Moses commanded the same gracious conduct, upon another account: "Love ye the Stranger, for ye were Strangers in the land of Egypt. " (Deuteronomy 10:19) But how infinitely higher are the motives enforced in the consideration, that Jesus, the heavenly Stranger, came to visit us in our ruined state, and so journeyed among us as a wayfaring man for a little space, that we might dwell with him for ever! And how blessed also, on the other hand, is the consideration, that when this divine Samaritan, as a Stranger, passed by, and saw our whole nature robbed and plundered by the great enemy of souls, he took us up, and brought us to the inn of his church and ordinances, and hath there commanded us to be well taken care of until his second coming, when he will recompense every minute act of kindness shewn us for his sake! Such views of Jesus enforce hospitality indeed, in the highest extent, and compel by a motive of the most persuasive nature. "And when the conscious sense of the littleness of services, and the unworthiness of the doer, shall make the souls of Christ's people exclaim,"Lord, when saw we thee a Stranger, and took thee in; or naked, and clothed thee; or when saw we thee sick, or in prison, and came unto thee? The Lord Jesus will graciously explain the seeming impossibility in manifesting, before a congregated world, the oneness between himself and his redeemed
Pelican - He was a Stranger in a strange land, and among enemies. So CHRIST was away from Heaven, His element, and was among Strangers where there was nothing upon which His soul could feed
Tishbite - Elijah was born here, but settled in Gilead as a Stranger
Gittites - (See GATH) The 600 who followed David from Gath under "Ittai the Gittites," "a Stranger and an exile" (2 Samuel 15:18-20)
Martha - 38-42 , does not imply that she was a Stranger to renewing grace
Stranger, Alien, Foreigner - The word ‘stranger’ (from extraneus) has been so long in possession as the rendering of several distinct words in the Hebrew and Greek texts that it is difficult to introduce changes in translation that appear desirable in order to distinguish those words from each other, and doubtful in some instances whether an exact rendering would be tolerable to the ear of English readers. In Genesis 23:4 and Psalms 39:12, ‘I am a Stranger and a sojourner’ could not well be changed for ‘I am a sojourner and a settler’ (or ‘dweller’). In John 10:5, ‘A Stranger (ἀλλοτρίῳ) will they not follow … for they know not the voice of Strangers (τῶν ἀλλοτρίων),’ we should not welcome the substitution of ‘alien’ for ‘stranger’ in order to distinguish ἀλλότριος from ξένος. ‘Aliens,’ however, might-fitly have been put in Revised Version margin in Matthew 17:25, ‘From their sons, or from Strangers (ἀπὸ τῶν ἀλλοτρίων)?’ Cf. Luke 17:18, ‘Were there none found that returned to give glory to God, save this Stranger?’ where the rendering of ἀλλογενής in Revised Version margin by ‘alien’ heightens the contrast to which our Lord draws attention. In Luke 24:18 the question σὺ μόνος παροικεῖς Ἰερουσαλήμ cannot mean ‘Art thou only a Stranger?’ and is rightly changed for ‘Dost thou alone sojourn?’ (marg. Here the inadequate rendering ‘strangers of Rome’ becomes ‘sojourners from Rome,’ those meant being ‘Romans who had migrated to Jerusalem and had settled in that city’ (Overbeck, quoted by A. ’ Read also in Acts 17:21 (Ἀθηναῖοι δὲ πάντες καὶ οἱ ἐπιδημοῦντες ξένοι), ‘Now all the Athenians and the Strangers sojourning there’: ‘the large number of foreign residents … was always a distinguishing feature of Athens’ (J. Authorized Version loosely translates ‘to the Strangers scattered throughout Pontus,’ and wrongly transfers ἐκλεκτοῖς to the verse following. It is to be noticed that the rendering ‘sojourners’ for ‘strangers’ in 1 Peter 2:11 connects the appeal made with the exhortation given in 1:17, ἐν φόβῳ τὸν τῆς παροικίας ὑμῶν χρόνον ἀναστράφητε. We regret the disappearance of the in-spiriting words ‘no more Strangers and foreigners,’ but must admit the consistency of Revised Version in translating ‘no more Strangers and sojourners. Christ and the Stranger. -Kindness to the Stranger-guest has always been one of the most attractive features of Eastern life and manners. The humanitarian laws enjoined on Israel included the following; ‘A Stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were Strangers in the land of Egypt’ (Exodus 22:21; cf. The Stranger, who is to be made welcome, and whose rights are to be respected, often comes into view, e. In Greece, Ζεὺς ἀγοραῖος, the Protector of the assembly of the people, was also Ζεὺς ξένιος, the Protector of Strangers. In one of His last discourses He taught that the Stranger was, along with others whom He named, one of His ‘brethren’ or next of kin, who had the right to the same ministering love which had been shown toward Himself, and solemnly said that men’s final acceptance before Him as their Judge depended upon their recognizing and doing justice to that right. His authoritative and affecting words ξένος ἤμην καὶ συνηγάγετέ με (Matthew 25:35) impressed it for ever on the heart of the Church that in receiving the Stranger she fed and sheltered her Lord. ]'>[3] They made care for the Stranger a standing rule of Christian life (cf. The marked feature of apostolic Christianity presented to view in these passages pointed forward to the systematic provision which was made for the entertainment of Strangers in the ξενοδοχία of post-apostolic times. It is not necessary to do more than allude to the countless forms of helpful assistance and benevolence which Christ’s compassion for the Stranger has prompted in recent times (cf. The sheep and Strangers. We should read ‘But a Stranger will they by no means follow,’ or ‘will they certainly not follow. They will assuredly not follow a Stranger: ‘on the contrary (ἀλλά) they will flee from him. The voice of the Stranger whom they know not scares the sheep (cf. They accounted as Strangers those teachers who came ‘to act as spies on the liberty which they had in Christ’ (Galatians 2:4), as well as others, still more dangerous, who sought to lead them into the thicket of Gnostic speculation in which they would have lost sight altogether of the nature and work of their Redeemer (Colossians 2:8). Selbie, articles ‘Foreigner,’ ‘Ger,’ and ‘Strange, Stranger’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols)
Strange - See Stranger. " See ALIEN , Stranger
Though - "If thy brother be waxen poor--thou shalt relieve him yea, though he be a Stranger. " Grant or admit the fact that he is Stranger, yet thou shalt relieve him
Abatement - ) The entry of a Stranger, without right, into a freehold after the death of the last possessor, before the heir or devisee
Barbarian - Indeed, "barbarian" is used in Scripture for every Stranger or foreigner who does not speak the native language of the writer, Psalm 114:1 , and includes no implication whatever of savage nature or manners in those respecting whom it is used
Entertain - , "love of Strangers" (phileo, "to love," and xenos, "a Stranger or guest"), is translated "to show love to," RV, for AV, "entertain
Sabbatical Year - Whatever grew of itself during that year was not for the owner of the land, but for the poor and the Stranger and the beasts of the field
Alienate - ...
Estranged withdrawn from Stranger to with from
Silvanus, Solitary of Sinai - " When the ninth hour came, no one came to call the Stranger to eat. " The Stranger confessed his fault and was forgiven, Silvanus playfully saying, "Martha is evidently necessary to Mary
Sojourn, Dwell - ...
Gêr (גֵּיר, Strong's #1616), “client; Stranger. ...
A “client” was not simply a foreigner (nakri) or a Stranger (zar). Every third year the tithe of the harvest was to be deposited at the city gate with the elders and distributed among “the Levite, (became he hath no part nor inheritance with thee,) and the Stranger, and the fatherless, and the widow, which are within thy gates …” ( Strangers that sojourn among you, which shall beget children among you: and they shall be unto you as born in the country among the children of Israel; they shall have inheritance with you among the tribes of Israel” ( Stranger that is with him” ( Stranger that sojourneth among you” ( Stranger, as for one of your own country: for I am the Lord your God” ( Hagar - Stranger, an Egyptian bondmaid in the household of Sarah, Genesis 12:16 , who, being barren, gave her to Abraham for a secondary wife, that by her, as a substitute, she might have children in accordance with the customs of the East in that age
Barbarian - The word לעז (rendered barbarian; LXX, βαρβαρος ,) in the Hebrew sense of it, signifies a Stranger; one who knows neither the holy language nor the law. Barbarian, therefore, is used for every Stranger or foreigner who does not speak our native language, and includes no implication whatever of savage nature or manners in those respecting whom it is used
Alien - Hence, a Stranger
Life: the Hidden - Joyous may be the inner language of those wires, swift as the lightning, far- reaching and full of meaning, but a Stranger intermeddles not therewith
Penuel - Site on River Jabbok northeast of Succoth where Jacob wrestled with the Stranger (Genesis 32:24-32 ; compare Hosea 12:4 )
Proselyte - Proselyte, a Stranger, sojourner
Lost - A Stranger is lost in London or Paris
Lodge, Lodging - , as a passing Stranger. " ...
A — 4: ξενίζω (Strong's #3579 — Verb — xenizo — xen-id'-xo ) "to receive as a guest" (xenos, "a guest, Stranger"), "to entertain, lodge," is used in the Active Voice in Acts 10:23 ; 28:7 , RV, "entertained" (AV, "lodged"); Hebrews 13:2 , "have entertained;" in the Passive Voice, Acts 10:6 (lit
Stranger - Stranger . ]'>[2] ‘stranger’), as opposed to a Levite (see Numbers 1:51 ; Numbers 18:7 ), or to a priest proper, or Aaronite (see Exodus 29:33 ; Exodus 30:33 , Numbers 3:10 ; Numbers 3:38 ; Numbers 18:2 , Leviticus 22:10 ; Leviticus 22:12 f. ]'>[7] ‘stranger,’ as tr. ...
The indiscriminate use of ‘stranger’ with the meaning of ‘sojourner,’ and of ‘alien’ and ‘foreigner’ is very confusing. ]'>[2] ‘sojourner,’ ‘stranger,’ ‘foreigner’)
Suretiship - " To be surety for a Stranger is totally condemned
Know - ) To be acquainted with; to be no Stranger to; to be more or less familiar with the person, character, etc
Shunem - This woman afterwards retired during the famine to the low land of the Philistines; and on returning a few years afterwards, found her house and fields in the possession of a Stranger
Stranger - Gentiles are also called 'strangers' from the covenants of promise ( Ephesians 2:12 ), showing that the covenants made with Israel did in no wise embrace the Gentiles, though God's grace at all times extended to them. Those called Strangers in 1 Peter 1:1 were Jews away from their own land: sojourners of the dispersion. saints were and are Strangers upon earth. David said, "I am a Stranger with thee, and a sojourner, as all my fathers were. They "confessed that they were Strangers and pilgrims on the earth
Hagar - (hay' gahr) Personal name meaning, “stranger
Death: Differently Viewed by Different Characters - He was a Stranger going amongst Strangers, and though sometimes during the voyage he had a momentary hope that something unexpected might occur, and that some friendly face might recognise him in regions where he was going an alien and an adventurer, no such welcoming face is there, and with reluctant steps he quits the vessel, and commits himself to the unknown country. When it comes to that, how shall you feel? Are you a Stranger, or a convict, or are you going home? Can you say,' I know whom I have believed'? Have you a Friend within the veil? And however much you may enjoy the voyage, and however much you may like your fellow passengers, does your heart sometimes leap up at the prospect of seeing Jesus as he is, and so being ever with the Lord?–James Hamilton, D
Alms - Every third year the tithe of the produce of the fanners was to be shared with the Levite, the fatherless, the Stranger, and the widow
Alms - Every third year also, (14:28) each proprietor was directed to share the tithe of his produce with "the Levite, the Stranger, the fatherless and the widow
Gershom - The inspired writer interpreted his name to mean “stranger” or “sojourner” from the Hebrew word ger , “sojourner
Alien - In scripture, one who is a Stranger to the church of Christ, or to the covenant of grace
Sheep - In Palestine they follow the shepherd and know his voice, and will not follow a Stranger
Mamre - Here Abraham dwelt after his separation from Lot; here he received from God himself a promise of the land, in which he was then a Stranger, for his posterity; here he entertained the angels under an oak, and received a second promise of a son; and here he purchased a burying place for Sarah; which served also as a sepulchre for himself and the rest of his family
Poor - (Leviticus 19:9,10 ; 24:19,21) ...
From the produce of the land in sabbatical years the poor and the Stranger were to have their portion
Hospitality - see) were comparatively few; and even in khans or places of lodgment for Strangers there were unfurnished rooms which were at the disposal of travellers, without cost. The innkeeper or host usually received remuneration for such extra service as the Stranger might require, as in a case like that of the wounded man cared for at the Samaritan’s expense (Luke 10:35). ...
The emphasis that Jesus laid upon the virtue of hospitality may be discovered in His description of the Last Judgment, in which the righteous are commended because ‘I was a Stranger and ye took me in’ (Matthew 25:35)
Proselyte - (a Stranger, a new comer ), the name given by the Jews to foreigners who adopted the Jewish religion. We find in the Talmud a distinction between proselytes of the gate and proselytes of righteousness,
The term proselytes of the gate was derived from the frequently occurring description in the law the Stranger that is within (Exodus 20:10 ) etc
Hospitality - see) were comparatively few; and even in khans or places of lodgment for Strangers there were unfurnished rooms which were at the disposal of travellers, without cost. The innkeeper or host usually received remuneration for such extra service as the Stranger might require, as in a case like that of the wounded man cared for at the Samaritan’s expense (Luke 10:35). ...
The emphasis that Jesus laid upon the virtue of hospitality may be discovered in His description of the Last Judgment, in which the righteous are commended because ‘I was a Stranger and ye took me in’ (Matthew 25:35)
Thigh - When the “stranger” at Peniel did not prevail against Jacob, he touched Jacob in the hollow of his thigh, leaving him limping ( Genesis 32:25-32 )
Abraham - The Holy Spirit knocks at the heart's door, tells of the loveliness, the riches and the glory of the Son of GOD, and thus wins the Stranger and makes him willing to leave his old haunts and companions to live for and with JESUS CHRIST, the Son
Redeemer - In the law of Moses, Leviticus 25:25,48 , this title is given to one who has the right of redemption in an inheritance, especially to a near kinsman, who may redeem it from a Stranger or any Jew who had bought it
Remainder - A writ of formedon in remainder, is a writ which lies where a man gives lands to another for life or in tail, with remainder to a third person in tail or in fee, and he who has the particular estate dies without issue heritable, and a Stranger intrudes upon him in remainder and keeps him out of possession in this case, the remainder-man shall have his writ of formedon in the remainder
Proselyte - Προσηλυτος , signifies a Stranger, a foreigner; the Hebrew word גר , or גכר , also denotes a Stranger, one who comes from abroad, or from another place. " He also observes that "the term proselytes of the gate is derived from an expression frequent in the Old Testament; namely, ‘the Stranger that is within thy gates;' but I think it evident that the Strangers were those Gentiles who were permitted to live among the Jews under certain restrictions, and whom the Jews were forbidden ‘to vex or oppress,' so long as they live in a peaceable manner
Milk - Still offered in hospitality to the passing Stranger, as by Abraham, Genesis 18:8
Faith: Appropriating - When the glories of heaven burst upon his view, he does not stand at a distance, like a Stranger, saying, 'O God, these are thine
Safety of Believers - The feeble Stranger has a charmed life in the midst of his enemies, because a royal arm unseen encompasses him as with a shield
Guest - The casual passer-by, the unknown Stranger, even the enemy, were welcomed to tent or house, provided with food and lodging, waited on often by the host himself, and dismissed without being expected or even allowed to pay for their entertainment. Underlying this ready hospitality of the East is the idea that every Stranger is daif Ullah, ‘the guest of God. gçr, Arab, jar) with God; the Stranger is a fellow-guest, and loyalty to God demands that he should be hospitably entertained. ‘Meals,’ ‘Stranger’; Jewish Encyc
Adoption - The act of adopting, or the state of being adopted the taking and treating of a Stranger as one's own child
Ruth - Upon learning who the Stranger was, Boaz treated her with the utmost kindness and respect, and sent her home laden with corn which she had gleaned
Herod the Great - "He was brutish and a Stranger to all humanity
Hagar - Flight, or, according to others, Stranger, an Egyptian, Sarah's handmaid (Genesis 16:1 ; 21:9,10 ), whom she gave to Abraham (q
Stranger - 1 above), denotes "a Stranger, foreigner," Matthew 25:35,38,43,44 ; 27:7 ; Acts 17:21 ; Ephesians 2:12,19 ; Hebrews 11:13 ; 3 John 1:5 . ...
A — 2: ἀλλότριος (Strong's #245 — Adjective — allotrios — al-lot'-ree-os ) "strangers," Matthew 17:25,26 ; John 10:5 (twice): see No. (2) The pronoun heteros, "other," is translated "strangers" in 1 Corinthians 14:21 (2nd part), RV (AV, "other"); cp. ...
B — 1: ξενοδοχέω (Strong's #3580 — Verb — xenodocheo — xen-od-okh-eh'-o ) "to receive Strangers" (xenos, No. 1, above, and dechomai, "to receive"), occurs in 1 Timothy 5:10 , RV, "(if) she hath used hospitality to Strangers," AV, "(if) she have lodged Strangers. ...
C — 1: φιλοξενία (Strong's #5381 — Noun Feminine — philoxenia — fil-on-ex-ee'-ah ) "love of Strangers," occurs in Romans 12:13 , "hospitality," and Hebrews 13:2 , RV, "to show love unto Strangers," AV, "to entertain Strangers
Preaching: Need of Prayer And Unction - A certain religious, a very popular preacher, was expected one day in a convent of his order, where he was a Stranger
Proselyte - ' It is used by the LXX where the Hebrew has 'the Stranger' that sojourneth among you. 'Proselytes of the Gate,' those spoken of as 'strangers within thy gates
Proselyte - The laws of the Hebrews make frequent mention of "the Stranger that is within thy gates," Leviticus 17:8-16 24:16 Numbers 15:14-16 , and welcomed him to all the privileges of the people of God
Salvina - Her fame having spread to Palestine, Jerome, though a Stranger, wrote her a letter—the arrogant tone of which might well have offended, if the coarseness had not shocked her
Apochrypha - The Christian church was for some ages a Stranger to them
Partridge - " This passage does not necessarily imply that the partridge hatches the eggs of a Stranger, but only that she often fails in her attempts to bring forth her young
Minister - When saw we thee hungry, or thirsty, or a Stranger, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and did not minister unto thee? ...
Matthew 25 ...
2
Loan - See Borrow, Borrowing; Coins ; Ethics in the Bible; Jubilee, Year of; Justice ; Law; Poor, Widows, Orphans, Levites ; Sabbatical Year ; Slavery; Stranger ...
David Nelson Duke...
...
Know - To be no Stranger to to be familiar
Proselytes - 1 Chronicles 22:2, "the Strangers," in Septuagint "proselytes, i. "The Stranger" was bound by the law of the Sabbath (Exodus 20:10; Exodus 23:12; Deuteronomy 5:14) and the Passover when he was circumcised (Exodus 12:19; Exodus 12:48), the feast of weeks (Deuteronomy 16:11), tabernacles (Deuteronomy 16:14), the day of atonement (Leviticus 16:29), prohibited marriages (Leviticus 18:26), and blood (Leviticus 17:10), and Moloch worship (Leviticus 20:2), and blasphemy (Leviticus 24:16). Kind treatment in remembrance of Israel's own position as Strangers formerly in Egypt (Exodus 22:21; Exodus 23:9; Deuteronomy 10:18-19; Leviticus 19:33-34), justice (Leviticus 24:22; Deuteronomy 1:16; Deuteronomy 24:17; Deuteronomy 24:19-21), share in gleanings and tithe of the third year (Deuteronomy 14:29), were the Stranger's right. But he could not hold land nor intermarry with Aaron's descendants (Leviticus 19:10; Leviticus 21:14), he is presumed to be in a subject condition (Deuteronomy 29:11); Hobab and the Kenites (Numbers 10:29-32; Judges 1:16), Rahab of Jericho (Joshua 6:25), and the Gibeonites as "hewers of wood and drawers of water" (Joshua 9), are instances of Strangers joined to Israel. The Strangers were assembled with Israel at the feast of tabernacles at the cnd of every seven years, to hear the law (Deuteronomy 31:10-12; Joshua 8:34-35). ...
Under the kings Strangers rose to influential positions: Doeg the Edomite (1 Samuel 21:7), Uriah the Hittite (2 Samuel 11:3), Araunah the Jebusite (2 Samuel 24:23), Zelek the Ammonite (2 Samuel 23:37), Ithmah the Moabite (1 Chronicles 11:46, the law in Deuteronomy 23:3 forbidding an Ammonite or Moabite to enter the congregation to the tenth generation does not forbid their settlement in Israel, the law must have been written in times long before David whose great grandmother was Ruth the Moabtress), Ittai the Gittite (2 Samuel 15:19), Shebna the secretary of state under Hezekiah (2 Kings 18:37; Isaiah 22:15), Ebedmelech the Ethiopian under Zedekiah (Jeremiah 38:7), the Cherethites and Pelethites. In times of judgment on Israel for apostasy the Stranger became "the head" (Deuteronomy 28:43-44); but under David and Solomon they were made to do bondservice, 70,000 bearers of burdens, 80,000 hewers, 3,600 overseers (1 Chronicles 22:2; 2 Chronicles 2:17-18). In Psalms 94:6, as the pagan do not make widow and Strangers their chief object of attack, "the Stranger" is probably the saint in relation to this world (Matthew 15:4-69), and "the widow" is the widowed church awaiting Christ's glorious epiphany to avenge her on antichrist (Luke 18:3-8). ...
The distinction between "proselytes of the gate" (from Exodus 20:10, "the Stranger that is within thy gates") and "proselytes of righteousness" was minutely drawn by the talmudic rabbis and Maimonides (Hilc
Alien - See Stranger
Faction - Paul’s arrival in Rome awoke another, Stranger kind of partisanship in the Roman Church (Philippians 1:15-18)
Gentile - Solomon, at the dedication of his temple, prays for "the Stranger" who should there entreat God
Alien - See Stranger
Temple, Herod's - It had two courts, one intended for the Israelites only, and the other, a large outer court, called "the court of the Gentiles," intended for the use of Strangers of all nations. Along the top of this dividing wall, at regular intervals, were placed pillars bearing in Greek an inscription to the effect that no Stranger was, on the pain of death, to pass from the court of the Gentiles into that of the Jews. Ganneau in 1871, built into the wall, bearing the following inscription in Greek capitals: "No Stranger is to enter within the partition wall and enclosure around the sanctuary
Obed-Edom - "...
Obed-edom was no Stranger to the dreadful consequences which had fallen on the Philistines for their daring impiety, in taking the ark of God, and detaining it. He could be no Stranger to the awful death of Uzzah, for touching it presumptuously; for, no doubt, it was in every one's mouth
Violence - 22:3 with the meaning of “to do no violence”: “… And do no wrong, do no violence to the Stranger, the fatherless, nor the widow, neither shed innocent blood in this place
Sheep - It is also true in this country that 'a Stranger will they not follow, but will flee from him
Shepherd - It is also true in this country that 'a Stranger will they not follow, but will flee from him
Citizenship - ...
Abraham viewed himself as a Stranger (ger [ Genesis 23:4 ). Their status as "strangers" (paroikoi ) and temporary residents provides an incentive for holy living (1 Peter 2:11 ). Abraham and the other patriarchs lived as Strangers and exiles on earth, seeking the city designed, built, and prepared for them by God (11:8-16)
Banquet - To these the "widow, and the fatherless, and the Stranger" were welcome (Deuteronomy 16:11 )
Proselyte - for "stranger" (1 Chronicles 22:2 ), i. In the time of Solomon there were one hundred and fifty-three thousand six hundred Strangers in the land of Israel (1 Chronicles 22:2 ; 2 Chronicles 2:17,18 ). And the prophets speak of the time as coming when the Strangers shall share in all the privileges of Israel (Ezekiel 47:22 ; Isaiah 2:2 ; 11:10 ; 56:3-6 ; Micah 4:1 )
Ward - She drove the Stranger to no other shift, than to ward and go back
Pen'Tecost, - The Pentecost was the Jewish harvest-home, and the people were especially exhorted to rejoice before Jehovah with their families their servants, the Levite within their gates, the Stranger, the fatherless and the widow in the place chosen by God for his name, as they brought a free-will offering of their hand to Jehovah their God
Adoption - Is an act by which a person takes a Stranger into his family, acknowledges him for his child, and constitutes him heir of his estate
Unclean Meats - (Leviticus 3:14-17 ; 7:23 ) The eating of blood was prohibited even to "the Stranger that sojourneth among you
Ittai - ...
David with characteristic generosity said to Ittai: "Wherefore goest thou also with me? return to thy place, and abide with the king (not that David recognizes Absalom as king, but he means 'with whoever shall prove king,' with the king de facto; whether he be rightful king you as a recent settler here are not called on to decide), for thou art a Stranger (not an Israelite) and also an exile (not yet having a fixed fatherland)
Hebrew - " Abram in Palestine was to the inhabitants the Stranger from beyond the river (Genesis 14:13)
Covenant - So to this day, if a Stranger in the East can get the head of a tribe to eat with him, he knows he is safe, the eating is regarded as a covenant
Proselyte - ]'>[2] has ‘ Stranger . The ‘ Stranger ’ of the OT becomes the ‘proselyte’ of the NT. Stranger. the ‘stranger’ had become a member of the Jewish Church a proselyte in the technical sense (Bertholet, Stellung der Israeliten , p. Up to the time of the Exile and for some time after, the attitude of the Hebrews towards ‘strangers’ was passive: they did not invite their presence into their community, and did not encourage them to be sharers of their faith
Hospitality - To entertain or receive a Stranger (sojourner) into one's home as an honored guest and to provide the guest with food, shelter, and protection. ...
Hospitality was regarded as a sacred obligation by the ancient Greeks and Romans, one that was approved by Zeus, the god and protector of Strangers. ...
The Pentateuch contains specific commands for the Israelites to love the Strangers as themselves (Leviticus 19:33-34 ; Deuteronomy 10:18-19 ), and to look after their welfare (Deuteronomy 24:17-22 ). The reason for practicing hospitality was that the Israelites themselves were once Strangers in the land of Egypt. See Sojourner; Strangers
Last - ...
'Achăryôn connotes “future,” or something that is yet to come: “… So that the generation to come of your children that shall rise up after you, and the Stranger that shall come from a far land, shall say, when they see the plagues of that land …” ( Enemy - ” Zur is a “stranger, foreigner, or alien. But it also was used of Strangers and foreigners in general
Sheep - It is also true in this country that a Stranger will they not follow, but will flee from him
Alms - Israel showed concern for the needy by not harvesting the corners of fields and by leaving the gleanings so the needy and the Stranger might gather what remained (Leviticus 19:9-10 ; Leviticus 23:22 ; Deuteronomy 24:19-22 )
Other - See ALIEN , MAN'S , Note (1), STRANGE , Stranger
Foreigner - A less permanent settler was known as a "stranger" or "temporary resident. Before the coming of the kingdom, they had to live a nomadic existence as Strangers and pilgrims, much like the patriarchs of the Old Testament (Hebrews 11:9-16 ). Meanwhile the church must act by helping literal Strangers and foreigners, remembering her own identity and God's love for the powerless (Matthew 25:35,38,43,44 ). love for the Stranger) is to be a characteristic of the follower of Christ (1 Peter 4:9 ; cf
Gold - The guest-law of the land would provide food and shelter for the passing Stranger; and where they were asked to prolong their stay, those who were thus interested in their words would attend to their wants
Pledge - "Take his garment (saith the wise man) that is surety for a Stranger: and take a pledge of him for a strange woman. " (Proverbs 20:16) This was indeed done in the person of the Strangers' best and truest friend, when the Lord Jesus came from his heavenly home to be a Surety for more than Strangers, yea, enemies to God by wicked works
Naked - (Ezekiel 16:1-14) Surely, every child of God may well say, "I was a Stranger, and Jesus took me in; naked, and he clothed me
Gold - The guest-law of the land would provide food and shelter for the passing Stranger; and where they were asked to prolong their stay, those who were thus interested in their words would attend to their wants
Harvest - Russel informs us, they sang the ziraleet, or song of thanks, when the passing Stranger accepted their present of a handful of corn, and made a suitable return. And thou shalt not glean thy vineyard, neither shalt thou gather every grape of thy vineyard: thou shalt leave them to the poor and the Stranger: I am the Lord your God," Leviticus 19:9
Tithe - (14:22-27) ...
Then follows the direction that at the end of three years all the tithe of that year is to be gathered and laid up "within the gates" and that a festival is to be held of which the Stranger, the fatherless and the widow together with the Levite, are to partake
Naming - Moses, the “stranger in a strange land,” named his son Gershom (Exodus 2:22 )
Alms - " The poor were entitled to leavings from the produce of the field, the vineyard, and the olive yard (Leviticus 19:9-10; Leviticus 23:22; Deuteronomy 15:11; Deuteronomy 24:19; Deuteronomy 26:2-13), the third year's tithing for the Levite, the Stranger, the fatherless, the widow
Noah - After the law of Moses was given, the Hebrews would not suffer any Stranger to dwell in their country, unless he would conform to the precepts of Noah
Hospitality - ...
Hospitality in the ancient world focused on the alien or Stranger in need. ...
Some forms of hospitality toward nonforeign Strangers appear to have been commonly practiced among the nations of the biblical world. Although the narratives of the patriarchal period advocate receiving the foreigner/stranger at least on a temporary basis (Genesis 18-19 ), landed Israel showed some ambivalence toward foreign Strangers by favorably distinguishing the sojourner, who made some allegiance to the Israelite community of faith, from the foreigner, who might represent some threat to cultic purity. God or the angel of the Lord at times unexpectedly appeared in the person of the Stranger (Genesis 18:1,10 ; 19:1 ; Judges 6:11-24 ; 13:2-23 ). Those who confess Jesus as Christ become aliens and Strangers in the world (John 15:18-19 ; 1 Peter 1:1 ; 2:11 ). Koenig, New Testament Hospitality: Partnership with Strangers as Promise and Mission ; A. Parker, The Company of Strangers: Christians and the Renewal of America's Public Life ; F
Wells - It is ridiculous to suppose the stone was so heavy that the united strength of several Mesopotamian shepherds could not roll it from the mouth of the well, when Jacob had strength or address to remove it alone; or that, though a Stranger, he ventured to break a standing rule for watering the flocks, which the natives did not dare to do, and that without opposition. Many of the Gwzerat wells have steps leading down to the surface of the water; others have not, nor do I recollect any furnished with buckets and ropes for the convenience of a Stranger; most travellers are therefore provided with them, and halcarras and religious pilgrims frequently carry a small brass pot affixed to a long string for this purpose
Rebekah - Rebekah comes out and offers to draw water for the Stranger and his camels
Athens - Its ruins, still sublime in decay, are the first object that attracts the eye of a Stranger
Brotherly Love - Israelites were called upon to love other people in many relationships: as friend to friend (Psalm 38:11 ; Proverbs 10:12 ); between slave and master (Exodus 21:5 ; Deuteronomy 15:16 ); with the neighbor (Leviticus 19:18 ); with the poor and unfortunate (Proverbs 14:21 ,Proverbs 14:21,14:31 ); and especially significant is the command to love the Stranger and foreigner (Leviticus 19:34 ; Deuteronomy 10:19 ). 1618530442_59 connects it with “hospitality to Strangers,” 1 Peter 1:22 with being pure, and 2 Peter 1:7 has it in a checklist of virtues which Christians should possess
Pentecost - The Levite, Stranger, fatherless, and widow were invited
Poor - The considerate provisions of the law for the poor (based on principles already recognized by the patriarchs: Job 20:19; Job 24:3-4; Job 24:9-10; especially Job 29:11-16; Job 31:17) were:...
(1) The right of gleaning; the corners of the field were not to be reaped, nor all the grapes to be gathered, nor the olive trees to be beaten a second time; the Stranger, fatherless, and widow might gather the leavings; the forgotten sheaf was to be left for them (Leviticus 19:9-10; Deuteronomy 24:19; Deuteronomy 24:21; Ruth 2:2)
Wayfaring Men - Buckingham in his "Travels among the Arab Tribes," says, "A foot passenger could make his way at little or no expense, as travellers and wayfarers of every description halt at the sheikh's dwelling, where, whatever may be the rank or condition of the Stranger, before any questions are asked him as to where he comes from, or whither he is going, coffee is served to him from a large pot always on the fire; and a meal of bread, milk, oil, honey, or butter, is set before him, for which no payment is ever demanded or even expected by the host, who, in this manner, feeds at least twenty persons on an average every day in the year from his own purse; at least, I could not learn that he was remunerated in any manner for this expenditure, though it is considered as a necessary consequence of his situation, as chief of the community, that he should maintain this ancient practice of hospitality to Strangers
the Ethiopian Eunuch - We are so partitioned off into churches, and sects, and sub-sects; into professions, and political parties, and social castes; into likes and dislikes; into sympathies and into antipathies; that, if the Ethiopian eunuch had his first introduction into any of those hot-beds of ours, he would return home a total Stranger, and almost an enemy, to many of the best men and to much of the best life of our city and our country. Philip was not astonished at the distinguished man reading aloud, but his astonishment and admiration were unbounded when he began to make out at a distance what the dark-skinned Stranger was reading. Only, it strikes me, and it struck Philip, as a remarkable fact that out of the whole Old Testament this utter Stranger to the Old Testament was pondering over its most central chapter, and its most profound prophecy, as he rode home in his chariot. Thou art a Stranger in Jerusalem, but thou must have heard something of the things that have come to pass there in these last days
Abraham - He was a genuine oriental patriarch, a prince in the land; his property was large, his retinue very numerous, and he commanded the respect of the neighboring people: and yet he was truly a Stranger and a pilgrim, the only land he possessed being the burial-place he had purchased
Banquets - At the three great religious feasts, when all the males appeared before Jehovah, the family had its feast, of which the Stranger, the fatherless, and the widow had their share (Deuteronomy 16:11)
Tabernacles, Feast of - It describes it as a day of joy for all, including servant, Stranger, and widow (Deuteronomy 16:13 ff
Cleopas - It is a too rigid interpretation which regards the breaking of the bread here as a celebration of the Eucharist; rather it was an ordinary meal at which the Stranger, who had so impressed them on the road, was put in the place of honour
Tithes - and the Stranger, and the fatherless, and the widow
Hospitality - The pleasing picture of the magnanimous sheik, bidding Strangers welcome to his tent and to the best he owns ( Genesis 18:1-33 ), is often repeated to this hour in the Arabian wilderness. By kindness to Strangers the Greeks secured the approval of Zeus Xenios, their protector. Every Stranger met in the open is assumed to be an enemy: he will owe his safety either to his own prowess or to fear that his tribe will exact vengeance if he is injured. But the Stranger who enters the tent is daif Ullah , the guest whom God has sent, to be well entreated for His sake. The Stranger eating with a clansman becomes ‘kinsman’ to all the members of the clan, as regards ‘the fundamental rights and duties that turn on the sanctity of kindred blood’ (Wellhausen, Reste Arab. Bringing in a portion of the flesh, the youth repeatedly remarked, as if for the Stranger’s re-assurance, edh-dhabîhah wâhideh , ‘the slaughtering sacrifice is one’; i
Lord of Hosts - So in Joshua 5:13-14 , when Joshua asks the unknown warrior whether he is on their side or on that of their enemies, the implied answer of the Divine Stranger is that he belongs to neither side, but is come as captain of the Lord’s host to succour His people
Resurrection - " So Manasseh ben Israel, "God said to Abraham, I will give to thee and to thy seed after thee the land wherein thou art a Stranger; but Abraham did not possess that land; wherefore it is of necessity that they should be raised up to enjoy the good promises, else God's promise would be vain
Levirate Law - ]'>[1] Among the Jews the law was laid down that ‘if brethren dwell together, and one of them die, and have no child (son), the wife of the dead shall not marry without unto a Stranger: her husband’s brother … shall take her to him to wife’ (Deuteronomy 25:5)
Beelzebub or Beelzebul - —It is strange that this name has never yet been satisfactorily explained; Stranger still that no trace of it has been found as yet among the scores of Jewish names for angels and spirits
Power - A proverb warns against adultery, because one’s “strength,” or one’s wealth, may be taken by others: “Lest Strangers be filled with thy wealth [2]; and thy labors be in the house of a Stranger” ( Herodians - In their zeal for the Roman authority they were diametrically opposite to the Pharisees, who esteemed it unlawful to submit or pay taxes to the Roman emperor; an opinion which they grounded on their being forbidden by the law to set a Stranger over them, who was not one of their own nation, as their king
Calvary - Jolliffe, forty-three yards from the cross, presents rather a singular and unexpected appearance to a Stranger; who, for such a place, would naturally expect to find an excavation in the ground, instead of which, he perceives it altogether raised, as if artificially, above its level
Hospitality - As we were at the table, there came by a Stranger, wearing a whit turban, who after have saluted the company, sat himself down to the table without ceremony, ate with us during some time, and then went away, repeating several times the name of God. Niebuhr says, "When a Bedaween sheik eats bread with Strangers, they may trust his fidelity and depend on his protection. ...
The primitive Christians considered one principal part of their duty to consist in showing hospitality to Strangers, Romans 12:13 1 Timothy 5:10 ; remembering that our Savior had said, whoever received those belonging to him, received himself; and that whatever was given to such a one, though but a cup of cold water, should not lose it reward, Matthew 10:40-42 25:34-45 . They were hospitable to all Strangers, but especially to those of the household of faith
Pentecost, Feast of - Leviticus 23:22 also prescribes freewill offerings for the poor and the Stranger, whilst Deuteronomy 16:10-11 ordains a freewill offering for the sanctuary, and states that the festal joy is to be shared by all classes
Meals - Great feasts were held at the end of each third year (Deuteronomy 14:28) when the Levite, Stranger, fatherless, and widow were invited (compare Luke 14:12-13; Nehemiah 8:10-12)
Tithes - In Deuteronomy 10:9; Deuteronomy 12:5-18; Deuteronomy 14:22; Deuteronomy 14:29; Deuteronomy 18:1-2; Deuteronomy 26:12-14, the general first tithe of all animal and vegetable increase for maintaining the priests and Levites is taken, for granted; what is added in this later time is the second additional tithe of the field produce alone, and for celebrating the sacred feasts each first and second year in the Shiloh or Jerusalem sanctuary, and every third year at home with a feast to the Levites, the Stranger, fatherless, and widow
Hagar - Her name Hagar signifies a Stranger
Veil - But, in the summer months, when they retire to their country seats, they walk abroad with less caution; though, even then, on the approach of a Stranger, they always drop their veils, as Rebekah did on the approach of Isaac
Vine - The Israelites were also required to indulge the poor, the orphan, and the Stranger, with the use of the grapes on the seventh year
Brother - " So again, "If thy brother be waxen poor, and fallen into decay with thee, then thou shalt relieve him; yea, though he be a Stranger or a sojourner, that he may live with thee. " (Leviticus 25:25-35)...
Who is the brother waxen poor, having fallen into decay, and sold away some of his possession, but our poor ruined nature; ruined by the fall, and by sin, having sold away our possession? And who is the brother to whom the precept is given, and by whom it hath been fulfilled, and is fulfilling, but the Lord Jesus Christ? Who but him could redeem our mortgaged inheritance? Who but him had a right so to do, as the nearest of all kin, and the most compassionate of all relations? And do observe in those gracious precepts how blessedly provision is made, in this almighty Brother's obedience to this precept, for all the relations of Jesus, both Jew and Gentile; "Yea, (saith the command of JEHOVAH,) though he be a Stranger, or a sojourner, that he may live with thee
the Queen of Sheba - And the place in the prayer which she reads and prays all the way from Jerusalem to the south is this-'Moreover, concerning a Stranger, that is not of Thy people Israel, but cometh out of a far country for Thy Name's sake. When the Stranger shall come and pray toward this house, hear Thou in heaven Thy dwelling-place, and do according to all that the Stranger calleth to Thee for, that all people of the earth may know Thy Name, to fear Thee, as do Thy people Israel
Intercession - Jeremiah responded to God's word of judgment on the nation with a plea for God not to be a Stranger among them who could not save themselves (1618530442_17 )
Zacchaeus - He looked up and saw Zaachaeus, as His eye had rested on Nathanael under the fig tree (John 1:48); "Zacchaeus (Zacchaeus could not but have joyfully wondered at being thus accosted by name, though a Stranger before: John 10:3; Isaiah 43:1; Revelation 2:17; Revelation 3:12
Slave - ...
A Hebrew sold to a Stranger sojourning in Israel did not go out after six years, but did at the year of Jubilee; meantime he might be freed by himself or a kinsman paying a ransom, the object of the law being to stir up friends to help the distressed relative
Tithes - Tob_1:6 , says, that every three years he punctually paid his tithe to Strangers and proselytes. And the Levite, (because he hath no part nor inheritance with thee,) and the Stranger, and the fatherless, and the widow, which are within thy gates, shall come, and shall eat and be satisfied; that the Lord thy God may bless thee in all the work of thine hand which thou doest,"...
Deuteronomy 14:28 ; Deuteronomy 26:12
Jubilee, the Year of - The land was not to be sown, nor the vineyards and oliveyards dressed; and neither the spontaneous fruits of the soil nor the produce of the vine and olive was to be gathered, but all was to be left for the poor, the slave, the Stranger and the cattle
Eating, Mode of - The head of the family was wont to send a double portion of food to a Stranger, as an honor, and to furnish him a greater variety, Genesis 43:31 1 Samuel 1:4 9:22-24 ; and often would select the choicest morsels and present them to his guest with his own fingers
Paulinus, Missionary to Northumbria - Whether Paulinus was the Stranger himself, or had gathered from the queen, or some courtier, that Edwin had seen and heard all this in a dream, is a matter of doubt
Israel in Egypt - ...
Age of Abraham when Isaac was born 100...
" " Abraham, when the promise was given 75...
25...
" " Israel when Jacob was born 60...
" " Jacob when he stood before Pharaoh 130...
" " Sojourn of Israel in Egypt 215...
430...
If then this be the correct period, how does it agree with Genesis 15:13 and Exodus 12:40 ? In Genesis 15:13 and Acts 7:6 , nothing is said about Egypt : "Thy seed shall be a Stranger in a land that is not theirs
Kill - The psalmist, too, metaphorically expresses the deprivation of the rights of helpless murder victims: “They slay the widow and the Stranger, and murder the fatherless” ( Quarter - I saw the Stranger at his quarters
Home - ...
The duty of showing hospitality is insisted on in the case of a ‘bishop’ in 1 Timothy 3:2, Titus 1:8 (he is to be φιλόξενος), and in the case of a widow in 1 Timothy 5:10 (ἐξενοδόχησεν); and Christians in general are bidden to ‘pursue’ (Romans 12:13) and ‘not to forget’ (Hebrews 13:2) love unto Strangers (φιλοξενία), to be ‘lovers of Strangers’ (φιλόξενοι, 1 Peter 4:9), i. not to be givers of feasts but to receive Strangers (C. In these injunctions there is a reminiscence of our Lord’s words, ‘I was a Stranger, and ye took me in’ (Matthew 25:35)
Lucifer - The movement of hell to meet this Stranger, this great one, is beyond all conception sublime, as if those infernal regions of horror felt convulsed at his approach, and thus testified their welcome
Bless - When expressed by men, a “blessing” was a wish or prayer for a blessing that is to come in the future: “And [3] give thee the blessing of Abraham, to thee, and to thy seed with thee; that thou mayest inherit the land wherein thou art a Stranger, which God gave unto Abraham” ( Go Down - Yârad is also used figuratively of a “descent in social position”: “The Stranger that is within thee shall get up above thee very high; and thou shalt come down very low” ( Banquet - The Jews welcomed a Stranger to their house in the same way; for our Lord complains to Simon, that he had given him no kiss, had welcomed him to his table with none of the accustomed tokens of respect. Our Saviour was in the circumstances of a traveller; he had no home to wash and anoint himself in, before he went to Simon's house; and, therefore, had a right to complain that his entertainer had failed in the respect that was due to him as a Stranger, at a distance from the usual place of his residence
Establishments - In the three first and purest ages of Christianity, the church was a Stranger to any alliance with temporal powers; and, so far from needing their aid, religion never flourished so much as while they were combined to suppress it
City - In addition to freemen, possessing the full rights of citizenship the ‘men of the city’ par excellence with their wives and children, the population will have included many slaves, mostly captives of war, and a sprinkling of sojourners and passing Strangers (see Stranger)
Areopagite, Areopagus - further, Ramsay truly remarks: ‘The Athenians were, in many respects, flippant; but their flippancy was combined with an intense pride in the national dignity and the historic glory of the city, which would have revolted at such an insult as that this Stranger should harangue them about his foreign deities on the spot where the Athenian elders had judged the god Ares and the hero Orestes’ (St
Separate - ” The prophet Ezekiel employed nâzar: “For every one of the house of Israel, or of the Stranger that sojourneth in Israel, which separateth himself from me, and setteth up his idols in his heart, and putteth the stumbling block of his iniquity before his face, and cometh to a prophet to inquire of him concerning me; I the Lord will answer him by myself” ( a'Braham - After this the thrice-repeated promise that his descendants should become a mighty nation and possess the land in which he was a Stranger was confirmed with all the solemnity of a religious ceremony. The patriarch, with true Eastern hospitality, welcomed the Strangers, and bade them rest and refresh themselves
Wells And Springs - The custom of demanding pay for water of the traveler is still found in some parts of the East; while in many other towns a place is provided where cold water and sometimes bread are offered gratuitously to the Stranger, at the expense of the village, or as an act of charity by the benevolent, Mark 9:41 . They were often covered with a large flat stone, to exclude the flying sand and secure the water to its owners, and also for the security of Strangers, who were liable to fall into them unawares- a mischance which very often occurs in modern Syria, and against which the beneficent law of Moses made provision, Exodus 21:33-34
Law - It is also remarkable, that this commandment, requiring that the rest of the Sabbath should include the man-servant, and the maid-servant, and the Stranger that was within their gates, nay, even their cattle, proved that the Creator of the universe extended his attention to all his creatures; that the humblest of mankind were the objects of his paternal love; that no accidental differences, which so often create alienation among different nations, would alienate any from the divine regard; and that even the brute creation shared the benevolence of their Creator, and ought to be treated by men with gentleness and humanity. The operation of this benevolence, thus solemnly required, was not to be confined to their own countrymen; it was to extend to the Stranger, who, having renounced idolatry, was permitted to live among them, worshipping the true God, though without submitting to circumcision or the other ceremonial parts of the Mosaic law: "If a Stranger," says the law, "sojourn with thee in your land, ye shall not vex him. But the Stranger that dwelleth with you shall be unto you as one born among you, and thou shalt love him as thyself; for ye were Strangers in the land of Egypt: I am the Lord thy God," Leviticus 19:33-34
Chronology - In Genesis 15:13-14, compare Acts 7:6-7; "thy seed shall be a Stranger in a land not theirs . and they shall afflict them 400 years"; by putting the comma after "afflict them," the "400 years" refers to the whole time of their being "a Stranger in a land not theirs," compare Hebrews 11:9
Sandemanians - And as self-love is a Stranger to all those strong affections expressed in the cxixth Psalm towards the law of God, he cannot admit of them as the language of a good man, but applies the whole psalm to Christ, though the person speaking acknowledges, that "before he was afflicted, he went astray
Nations - Stranger), by political alliances (cf
Galatians, the Epistle to the - ...
Acts 18:23 implies that at his second visit the Galatians were well established in the faith, which made their speedy declension the Stranger
Arabia - Paul’s conversion-it would scarcely have been possible for a Stranger to pass through the centre of the perturbed country without an escort of soldiers
People - Such individuals and their families were taken into Israel before they observed the Passover: “And when a Stranger shall sojourn with thee, and will keep the passover to the Lord, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it; and he shall be as one that is born in the land …” ( Maronites - Travellers may journey there, either by night or by day, with a security unknown in any other part of the empire, and the Stranger is received with hospitality, as among the Arabs: it must be owned, however, that the Maronites are less generous, and rather inclined to the vice of parsimony
Jehu - " When they were all assembled in Baal's temple, Jehu commanded to give each of them a particular habit, to distinguish them; at the same time directing that no Stranger should mingle with them; and then ordered his people to put them all to the sword, not sparing one of them; the image of Baal was also pulled down, broken to pieces, and burned, the temple itself destroyed, and the place where it stood reduced to a dunghill, 2 Kings 10:12-28
Vine - Nor did they gather their grapes on the sabbatical year; the fruit was then left for the poor, the orphan, and the Stranger, Exodus 23:11 Leviticus 25:4,5,11
Joel - They are plainly called "the pagan" (Joel 2:17), "the northern (a quarter from whence locusts do not come) army" (Joel 2:20), "all the nations" (Joel 3:2), "strangers" (Joel 3:17). Chasil, "the caterpillar," the fourth, represents the 108 years of the Romans' oppression, beginning with their minion Herod the Great, an Idumean Stranger, 38 B
Egypt - I will make the land waste and all that is therein, by the hand of Strangers. Each successive ruler was raised to supreme authority, from being a Stranger and a slave. When Egypt became tributary to the Turks in 1517, the Mamelukes retained much of their power; and every pasha was an oppressor and a Stranger. " "A more unjust and absurd constitution cannot be devised than that which condemns the natives of a country to perpetual servitude, under the arbitrary dominion of Strangers and slaves. " These are the words of Volney and of Gibbon; and what did the ancient prophets foretel?— "I will lay the land waste, and all that is therein, by the hands of Strangers. " The systematic oppression, extortion, and plunder, which have so long prevailed, and the price paid for his authority and power by every Turkish pasha, have rendered the country "desolate of that whereof it was full," and still show both how it has been "wasted by the hands of Strangers," and how it has been "sold into the hand of the wicked. But this pasha is still a Stranger, and the dominion is foreign
Sabbath - "The Stranger," too is comprehended in the benefit
Slave - (15:13,14) In the event of a Hebrew becoming the servant of a "stranger," meaning a non-Hebrew, the servitude could be terminated only in two ways, viz
Poor (Person), Weak (Person) - A hired servant as one who is in a lower (oppressive) social and material condition is described both as an ‘ebyon and ‘ani: “Thou shalt not oppress a hired servant that is poor and needy, whether he be of thy brethren, or of thy Strangers that are in thy land within thy gates: At his day thou shalt give him his hire, neither shall the sun go down upon it; for he is poor, and setteth his heart upon it: lest he cry against thee unto the Lord, and it be sin unto thee” ( Stranger in a land that is not theirs, and shall serve them; and they shall afflict them four hundred years
Lord, Lordship - Isaiah 26:13 ; (e) as a title of respect addressed to a father, Matthew 21:30 , a husband, 1 Peter 3:6 , a master, Matthew 13:27 ; Luke 13:8 , a ruler, Matthew 27:63 , an angel, Acts 10:4 ; Revelation 7:14 ; (f) as a title of courtesy addressed to a Stranger, John 12:21 ; 20:15 ; Acts 16:30 ; from the outset of His ministry this was a common form of address to the Lord Jesus, alike by the people, Matthew 8:2 ; John 4:11 , and by His disciples, Matthew 8:25 ; Luke 5:8 ; John 6:68 ; (g) kurios is the Sept
Violence - Elsewhere, Jeremiah portrays taking advantage of the disadvantaged (orphan, widow, and Stranger) as violence (Jeremiah 22:3 )
Manifestation - In one He is like a gardener (John 20:15), in another, a traveller walking to a country village (Luke 24:15), in another, a Stranger standing on the beach of the Lake (John 21:4)
Red Heifer - And this was to be both to the children of Israel, and the Stranger that sojourned among them, for a statute for ever
Shechem (1) - Probably too "the strange gods" or "the gods of the Stranger" were those carried away by Jacob's sons from Shechem among the spoils (Genesis 35:2; Genesis 34:26-29)
Abraham - ...
Abraham was by faith so much a Stranger (Hebrews 11:9 ) that, on the death of Sarah, he had to buy a piece of ground of the children of Heth, to secure a sepulchre in the land
Blood - And when the law was given to the children of Israel, we find the prohibition against the eating of blood still more explicitly enforced, both upon Jews and Gentiles, in the following words, "Whatsoever man there be of the house of Israel, or of the Strangers that sojourn among you, that eateth any manner of blood; I will even set my face against that soul that eateth blood, and will cut him off from among his people: for the life of the flesh is in the blood; and I have given it to you upon the altar to make atonement for your souls: for it is the blood that maketh an atonement for the soul,"...
Leviticus 17:10-11 . And to cut off all possibility of mistake upon this particular point, it is added: "Therefore I said unto the children of Israel, No soul of you shall eat blood, neither shall any Stranger that sojourneth among you eat blood; and whatsoever man there be of the children of Israel, or of the Strangers that sojourn among you, which hunteth and catcheth any beast or fowl that may be eaten; he shall even pour out the blood thereof and cover it with dust, for it is the life of all flesh; the blood of it is for the life thereof; therefore I said unto the children of Israel, Ye shall eat the blood of no manner of flesh: for the life of all flesh is the blood thereof; whosoever eateth it shall be cut off," Leviticus 17:12-14
Proselyte (2) - ‘one who has arrived at a place,’ hence ‘a Stranger,’ ‘a sojourner
Jephthah And His Daughter - He doth execute the judgment of the fatherless and the widow; He loveth the Stranger, and giveth him food and raiment. Love ye, therefore, the Stranger, for ye were Strangers in the land of Egypt
Tomb, Grave, Sepulchre - To allow a Stranger to be buried in the family tomb was a sign of the very greatest magnanimity and love (Matthew 27:60, Genesis 23:6)
Questions And Answers - John 20:15, like Luke 24:17; Luke 24:19, seems to be due to the character of a Stranger assumed for the moment by Christ. Very frequently Christ, by means of a question, led His hearers to admit the truth of matters of common knowledge, or of generally accepted principles, on which He was going to base His teaching: some characteristic examples are here classified:...
(a) Matters of common knowledge: Matthew 10:29 = Luke 12:6 (price of sparrows), Matthew 17:25 (tribute collected of Strangers)
Wine - In Isaiah 65:8 "the tirowsh (vintage) is found in the cluster"; Isaiah 62:8-9, "the Stranger shall not drink thy tirowsh , but they that have gathered it
Family - Polygamy was in part the cause of the large size of the Hebrew household; in part the cause of it may be found in the insecurity of early times, when safety lay in numbers, and consequently not only the married sons and daughters dwelt, for the sake of protection, with their father, but remote relatives and even foreigners (‘the Stranger within thy gates’) would attach themselves, with a similar object, to a great household
Agriculture - The corners of the field were left to be reaped, and the fallen ears to be gleaned, by the poor and the Stranger ( Leviticus 19:9 f
Hittites And Hivites - As a result, Abraham lived among this native population as a “stranger and a sojourner” ( Genesis 23:4 )
Love - Love as self-giving appears in the significant commandment that Israelites love the Stranger
Claim - A neighbour can be put to any inconvenience on behalf of a Stranger guest in their midst (Luke 11:5-8). The rich and noble confronted the poor and unclassed, the strong and conquering had their counterpart in the subject and enslaved, the wise and enlightened stood out in relief from the ignorant and barbarous, the male had defined authority and predominance over the female, and free-born citizens exercised a jealous censorship over the admission of Strangers and foreigners
Columbanus, Abbat of Luxeuil And Bobbio - , but with what immediate result we know not, though the haughty bearing and generally independent tone, in words and letters, of "Columbanus the sinner" were little calculated to propitiate the favour of bishops or popes; while Gregory's very friendly connexion with queen Brunehault would make that pope give little heed to the appeals of the Stranger whom she disliked
Ten Commandments - (1) The oldest is that of the Book of the Covenant in Exodus 23:12 , ‘that thine ox and thine ass may have rest, and the son of thine handmaid and the Stranger may be refreshed
Poor And Poverty, Theology of - Gleaning laws focused on the widow, fatherless, Stranger, and poor (Leviticus 19:9-10 ; 23:22 ; Deuteronomy 24:19-22 )
Proselyte - 158a]'>[1]), that its meaning was from the first that of ‘proselyte’-the meaning of ‘stranger’ being secondary, and arising from the proselyte’s having his home ‘in a strange land’ (like the Israelites themselves in Egypt: hence they are called προσήλυτοι, Exodus 22:21; Exodus 23:9, Leviticus 19:34, Deuteronomy 10:19): The statement of Philo (de Monarch
Widow - The fact that she was classed with the landless Stranger and Levite indicates that she was often unable to keep her husband's land
Balaam - Indeed his pretending to consult the Lord, at the first invitation of Balak, very fully proves, that he was no Stranger to the history of Israel; and the Lord's bringing them out of Egypt, which all the people of the East had heard of with trembling
Peter - On discovering that the Stranger on the beach was Jesus, impatient to reach his Master, he sprang overboard and swam ashore (cf
Nathanael - But his reply does not mean, ‘I know that I am all that; but how do you know it?’ Rather, he exhibits surprise that a total Stranger should express any opinion about him, lie somewhat coldly intimates that he doubts the value of praise which can hardly be based upon experience
Praise (2) - ’ Our Lord’s words in this connexion are striking: ‘Were there none found that returned to give glory to God, save this Stranger?’ (Luke 17:18)—words which imply that the duty of grateful praise to God was not always fully recognized in individual practice
Temple - The Stranger was not only permitted but encouraged to pray toward the temple at Jerusalem; and doubtless the thousands (153,600) of Strangers, remnants of the Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, and Jebusites, whom Solomon employed in building the temple, were proselytes to Jehovah (2 Chronicles 2:17; 1 Chronicles 22:2). Ganneau has found a stone near the temple site bearing a Greek inscription: "no Stranger must enter within the balustrade round the temple and enclosure, whosoever is caught will be responsible for his own death
Terah - How Enoch would have walked with God in Ur of the Chaldees, and in Haran, and in Canaan, and in Egypt, and back again in Canaan, confessing, all the time, that he was a Stranger and a pilgrim with God on the earth! How Enoch would have told and would have taught his children after him that without faith it is impossible to please God! How he would have gone before them and shown them the way to come to God, believing that He is, and that He is a rewarder of them that diligently seek Him! But the divine will was in a strait betwixt two in Enoch's case. As our magnificent New Testament commentary on the Old Testament has it, Abram came out of his trespass in Egypt more than ever a Stranger and a pilgrim with God on the earth
Abram - After this he had another encouraging vision of God, Genesis 15:1 ; and to his complaint that he was still childless, and that his name and property would descend to the Stranger Eliezer, who held the next rank in his tribe, the promise was given, that he himself should have a son, and that his seed should be countless as the stars of heaven. Here, as he sat in the door of his tent, three mysterious Strangers appeared. He addressed the people at the city gate, entreating them to allow him to bury his wife among them; for, being a Stranger, and having no land of his own, he could claim no right of interment in any sepulchre of that country. Paul, he lived in tents in preference to settling in the land of Canaan, though it had been given to him for a possession, in order that he might thus proclaim his faith in the eternal inheritance of which Canaan was a type; and in bearing this testimony, his example was followed by Isaac and Jacob, the "heirs with him of the same promise," who also thus "confessed that they were Strangers and pilgrims," and that "they looked" for a continuing and eternal city in heaven
the Wedding Guest Who Sat Down in the Lowest Room - Wherever at His Table our place is it will be ours alone, and no Stranger will intermeddle with it
Festivals - The feast was concluded by the eating of communal meals to which the poor, the Stranger, and the Levites were invited
Exodus, Book of - Care for the Stranger, widow, orphan, and poor (Exodus 22:21-27 )...
H
Zebedee - ’ All these and many more historical sites are to be seen, and thoughts of them rise and stir the heart of him who views the scene; and if so to the passing Stranger, what must they have been to the young Zebulunite, whose daily food they were, and who, in virtue of His blood, was the heir of all their most glorious memories?...
The relationship of this people to the Gentile world is also worthy of note
Kindness (2) - The duty of kindness to the Stranger in the land (as in Leviticus 19:9 f
Synagogue - When a likely Stranger was present, he was invited by the ruler of the synagogue to address the congregation ( Acts 13:15 )
Children (Sons) of God - see), by which a Stranger could be legally adopted as ‘son’ and endowed with all the privileges of the ‘child’ by birth (Ephesians 1:5-14 , cf
Atonement - In one of the Stranger passages of the Law, God instructs Moses and Aaron about the purification rites they are to apply to a house that has "a spreading mildew" and declares that, if a house responds to the treatment, then it can be declared clean (Leviticus 14:33-53 )
Numbers, the Book of - The followers of Israel were numbered with the holy seed, those born in the house or bought of a Stranger (1618530442_29)
Justice - It was otherwise when a Stranger had to decide between two men of whom he knew nothing; he had no personal interest in them, nor would it have been his main endeavour to try to secure a lasting peace between the two, as had been the case in earlier days among the sheiks and city elders; the tie of kinship was absent
Wages - Consequently, hired laborers could be classed with the personae miserabiles, the widow, orphan, and Stranger
Joy (2) - In the East when a Stranger enters a house it becomes at once a public place
Abraham - As "father of the faithful," who left home and all at the call of God, to be a sojourner in tents, he typifies Him who at the Father's call left His own heaven to be a homeless Stranger on earth, and to sacrifice Himself, the unspeakably precious Lamb, for us: "the Word tabernacled Greek John 1:14 among us
the Labourer With the Evil Eye - Even if you were a perfect Stranger to me; even if I had never seen you before, I would undertake to tell to all men the name of the man you both envy and hate, if I were near enough to see your eye when your rival is being praised and rewarded in your presence
Brotherhood (2) - This is the more likely in view of such OT passages as Genesis 1:26-28; Genesis 9:5-7, Job 31:13-15, and Malachi 2:10 (which regard it as a corollary of our creation by the one God and Father), and Matthew 5:43-482; Leviticus 19:34 (which not only commands love of neighbour, but also explicitly enjoins like love for the Stranger). They are identified with Him as others are not, and especially in a growing faith, to which others—even His mother and His brethren—are as yet Strangers
Paul in Arabia - In that lonely Stranger you are now looking at, and in his seed, shall all the families of the earth be blessed
Man - This idea is sometimes more explicitly expressed by the word series “men, women, and children”: “Gather the people together, men, and women, and children, and thy Stranger that is within thy gates …” ( Joseph And Mary - Was the Virgin an orphan, or was Mary's mother such a woman that Mary could have opened her heart to any Stranger rather than to her? Be that as it may, Mary found a true mother in Elizabeth of Hebron
Priest - The Lord ordained, Numbers 16:40 , that no Stranger, which was not of the seed of Aaron, should come near to offer incense unto the Lord, that he might not be as Korah and his company
Elijah - " The messengers of Ahaziah returned, and informed the king, that a Stranger had told them he should certainly die; and Ahaziah knew that this was the Prophet Elijah
Presence - There are collective experiences to which the recluse is a Stranger, and the monk, whether he live in a cell or walk the fields instead of joining with those who assemble themselves together, shuts himself off from some of the highest possibilities
Deuteronomy, the Book of - ...
The later in Deuteronomy refer to the second and additional tithe on the increase of the field only, and for celebrating the sacred feasts each first and second year in the sanctuary, every third year at home with a feast to the Levites, the Stranger, fatherless, and widow; like the love-feasts of New Testament (Deuteronomy 11:5
Essenes - After this purification, they assemble in an apartment of their own, into which it is not allowed to any Stranger to enter … They enter as if it were some holy temple, and sit down quietly
Matthias the Successor to Judas Iscariot - Not one of the hundred-and-twenty had ever heard this Stranger man Matthias once open his mouth
Lot - Every new acre of pasture land, and every new well of water for his cattle, and every new time of stocktaking, only made Abraham confess himself more and more a Stranger and a pilgrim with God on the earth
Economic Life - ...
Since life was uncertain and disease and war often took many of the village's inhabitants, laws were provided to insure that the widow, the orphan, and the Stranger would not go hungry
Minister, Ministration - Ministering to the wants of the poor, the sick, the Stranger, the prisoner, was constantly called for (1618530442_45 Romans 12:7, Hebrews 6:10; cf
Saul - 'Tell me, I pray thee,' said Saul to a Stranger he met on his way when he was in despair about his father's lost asses, 'where is the Seer's house
Philip: Deacon And Evangelist - 'Why were not my prophetical daughters employed to deliver this prophecy to Paul? Why was a Stranger brought in over our heads in this way? We cannot ever again have the same standing and esteem in Cæsarea after this so open slight
Solomon - Besides my innumerable sins, I confess before Thee that I am debtor to Thee for the gracious talent of Thy gifts and graces, winch I have neither put into a napkin nor put it as I ought to exchangers, but have mis-spent it in things for which I was least fit, so as I may truly say my soul hath been a Stranger in the house of my pilgrimage
Blessing (2) - ...
(Note here that the act of thanksgiving was accompanied by ‘glorifying God’ (Luke 17:15) and that it is on this feature that Jesus lays stress (Luke 17:18), ‘Were there none found that returned to give glory [27] to God save this Stranger?’)...
(c) and (d) The use of the terms ἐξομολογεῖν, ‘thank,’ and αἰνεῖν, ‘praise’ (cf
Priest - Of the rest their sons, daughters, and even home-born slaves, but not the Stranger and hired servant, ate (Leviticus 10:14; Leviticus 22:10-11)
Leprosy - Of six cases of well-marked leprosy among the Jews of Jerusalem which the present writer can recall, only one of them, a Stranger from India, was in any way isolated, and he only after he had been in the English Hospital for some days among all the other patients; when he could no longer be kept he was sent to the Leper Hospital, where he died
Sabbath - God appointed the observation of the sabbatical year, to preserve the remembrance of the creation of the world, to enforce the acknowledgment of his sovereign authority over all things, and in particular over the land of Canaan, which he had given to the Israelites, by delivering up the fruits to the poor and the Stranger. Beside, he intended to inculcate humanity upon his people, by commanding that they should resign to the slaves, the poor, and the Strangers, and to the brutes, the produce of their fields, of their vineyards, and of their gardens
Synagogue (2) - Matthew 5:1; Matthew 26:55, John 8:2); and though naturally the Rabbis were looked to for such service, they had not yet become a class of professional preachers, but any distinguished Stranger (cf
High Priest - the holy oil was poured on his head like a crown (Exodus 29:7), a uniquely-compounded ointment (Exodus 30:22-33) which it was death to imitate or to put upon a Stranger
Righteousness - Doughty, speaking of his hospitable host Maatuk, observes that ‘if the camels came home be milked a great bowlful for the Stranger, saying, it was his sádaka, or meritorious human kindness, for God’s sake,’ Jesus Christ, Name And Titles of - For example, if a Stranger expected hospitality, he first had to indicate to his host what his name was
Samuel - ' 'Tell me,' said Saul on one occasion to a Stranger he met, 'where the Seer's house is
Bethlehem - 72), ‘the Jew is even more a Stranger than in any other spot of his own land; and during the Middle Ages neither Crusader nor Saracen suffered him to settle there. ‘In spite,’ says Palmer, ‘of the numerous visits of Strangers and pilgrims, which are year by year on the increase, and in spite of the market-place which Bethlehem affords for the whole neighbourhood, and especially for the Bedawîn, who come from long distances from the southern end of the Dead Sea to make their purchases of clothing, tools, and weapons, and to leave the produce of their harvest and their pastures, Bethlehem appears likely to remain, unencumbered by trade and progress, what it has been for many years bygone—a shrunken, untidy village
Jeremiah - An Ethiopian Stranger, the eunuch Ebedmelech, saved the prophet whom his own countrymen tried to destroy
Thecla - The lover thus repulsed hurried into the street and watched the house where the Stranger was preaching whose eloquence had cast this deplorable spell over Thecla
Jerusalem - We find it in the hands of the Stranger, the Jebusite, in Judges 19:10-12
James And John, the Sons of Zebedee - It is not easy to determine whether his reason for the change is historical, to account for the promptness with which the call of an unknown Stranger is obeyed, or whether he is following a different tradition
Joshua - You will sometimes see Stranger young men crowding around a minister in his classes and in his congregational work, and saving their own souls by so doing, while those young men that have been born in the family are never so much as seen or heard of
Moses - Zipporah bore him Gershom and Eliezer whose names ("stranger," "God is my help") intimate how keenly he felt his exile (Exodus 18:3-4)
Regeneration (2) - The latter, though relatively infrequent, occurs in passages so characteristic that we can say that Paul was no Stranger to that intimate sense of kinship to God which is so notable in the Johannine type of Christianity (Romans 8:16-21, Ephesians 5:1)
Religion (2) - ...
Stranger nor exile can I be...
In new worlds where He leadeth me
John the Baptist - Even a Jew, if he is to be received, must come as a humble penitent who casts himself upon the Divine grace He must come like a Stranger and a proselyte renouncing the past, not as one who claims an inalienable right, but as one who seeks by fruits of repentance to flee from the wrath to come (1618530442_1 Luke 3:7-8)
John, Gospel of - The places mentioned are not such as a Stranger would or could have introduced into an imaginary narrative
New Testament - The unknown editor, without stating his critical principles, gravely declares in the preface: "texture habes ab omnibus receptum, in quo nihil immutatum aut corruptum damus "; Stranger still, the public for two centuries has accepted this so-called "Received Text" as if infallible
Socialism - ’ Membership in the Church meant the admission into a fellowship in which the rich man became poorer and the poor man richer; in which the Stranger, the outcast, and the slave were welcomed and loved as brothers
Miracles - Falsehood naturally entangles men in contradiction, and confounds them with dismay: but the love of truth invigorates the mind; the consciousness of integrity anticipates the approbation of God; and conscience creates a fortitude, to which mere unsupported nature is often a Stranger
Arabia - Gibbon, unwilling to pass by an opportunity of cavilling at revelation, says, "The perpetual independence of the Arabs has been the theme of praise among Strangers and natives; and the arts of controversy transform this singular event into a prophecy and a miracle in favour of the posterity of Ishmael. But perhaps their sense of perfect equality in the mind of their chief could not be more forcibly shown, than in the share they took in the objects which appeared to interest his feelings; and as I looked from the elders or leaders of the people, seated immediately around him, to the circles beyond circles of brilliant faces, bending eagerly toward him and his guest, (all, from the most respectably clad to those with hardly a garment covering their active limbs, earnest to evince some attention to the Stranger he bade welcome,) I thought I had never before seen so complete an assemblage of fine and animated countenances, both old and young: nor could I suppose a better specimen of the still existing state of the true Arab; nor a more lively picture of the scene which must have presented itself, ages ago, in the fields of Haran, when Terah sat in his tent door, surrounded by his sons, and his sons' sons, and the people born in his house
Montanus - Yet the Asiatic bishops might well be anxious how their decision would commend itself to the judgment of a Stranger at a distance
Prophet - And if it seems strange that Israel, which more than all other nations had spiritual instincts, should have habitually rejected those sent to them with the very message they above all should have received, and if it be Stranger still that they should have crucified the Messiah whom they so passionately desired, it must be remembered that mankind at all times has been unable to receive, with patience, rebukes that shattered its self-conceit and truth that attacked its vested interests
Clementine Literature - On the one hand, the account that Clement is delayed from following Barnabas by the necessity of collecting money due to him is perfectly in place if the scene is laid at Rome, but not so if Clement is a Stranger driven by stress of weather to Alexandria
Teaching of the Twelve Apostles - There are commands in a similar spirit for the hospitable treatment of ordinary Christian Strangers. only of apostles prophets and teachers; and of these apostles are only Stranger visitors of the church and prophets are men endowed with supernatural gifts of the Holy Ghost who may or may not be found in any particular church