What does Solomon mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
שְׁלֹמֹ֔ה son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 42
שְׁלֹמֹ֖ה son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 38
שְׁלֹמֹה֙ son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 24
שְׁלֹמֹ֑ה son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 23
שְׁלֹמֹ֗ה son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 19
שְׁלֹמֹֽה son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 18
שְׁלֹמֹ֣ה son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 16
שְׁלֹמֹ֛ה son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 14
שְׁלֹמֹ֜ה son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 13
שְׁלֹמֹ֥ה son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 9
לִשְׁלֹמֹ֔ה son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 6
שְׁלֹמֹ֤ה son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 6
σολομῶνος the son of David and was the wisest and richest king that ever lived. 5
לִשְׁלֹמֹ֣ה son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 5
לִשְׁלֹמֹ֖ה son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 5
לִשְׁלֹמֹ֑ה son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 4
שְׁלֹמֹ֨ה son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 4
לִשְׁלֹמֹה֙ son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 3
σολομὼν the son of David and was the wisest and richest king that ever lived. 3
שְׁלֹמֹה֮ son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 3
לִשְׁלֹמֹ֗ה son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 3
לִשְׁלֹמֹֽה son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 2
לִשְׁלֹמֹ֛ה son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 2
שְׁלֹמֹ֧ה son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 2
σολομῶντος the son of David and was the wisest and richest king that ever lived. 2
וְלִשְׁלֹמֹ֥ה son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 2
וּשְׁלֹמֹֽה son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 2
בָּֽנָה־ to build 1
לִשְׁלֹמֹ֨ה ׀ son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 1
לִשְׁלֹ֫מֹ֥ה son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 1
שְׁלֹ֫מֹ֥ה son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 1
לִשְׁלֹמֹ֜ה son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 1
σολομῶνα the son of David and was the wisest and richest king that ever lived. 1
מִשְּׁלֹמֹ֔ה son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 1
שְׁלֹמֹה֒ son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 1
וְלִשְׁלֹמֹ֔ה son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 1
וּשְׁלֹמֹ֖ה son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 1
לִשְׁלֹמֹ֡ה son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 1
שְׁלֹמֹ֡ה son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 1
וַֽיַּעֲמֹ֗ד to stand 1
וּשְׁלֹמֹה֩ son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 1
וּשְׁלֹמֹה֙ son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 1
וּשְׁלֹמֹ֗ה son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 1
וְלִשְׁלֹמֹ֞ה son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 1
וּשְׁלֹמֹ֕ה son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 1
؟ שְׁלֹמֹֽה son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 1
לִשְׁלֹמֹ֥ה son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 1
בִּשְׁלֹמֹ֑ה son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 1
בִּשְׁלֹמֹ֣ה son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 1
שְׁלֹמֹֽה־ son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 1
וְלִשְׁלֹמֹ֣ה son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 1
שְׁ֠לֹמֹה son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 1
σολομῶν the son of David and was the wisest and richest king that ever lived. 1
שֶׁלִּשְׁלֹמֹ֔ה son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs. 1

Definitions Related to Solomon

H8010


   1 son of David by Bathsheba and 3rd king of Israel; author of Proverbs and Song of Songs.
   Additional Information: Solomon = “peace”.
   

G4672


   1 the son of David and was the wisest and richest king that ever lived.
   Additional Information: Solomon = “peaceful”.
   

H1129


   1 to build, rebuild, establish, cause to continue.
      1a (Qal).
         1a1 to build, rebuild.
         1a2 to build a house (ie, establish a family).
      1b (Niphal).
         1b1 to be built.
         1b2 to be rebuilt.
         1b3 established (of restored exiles) (fig.
         ).
         1b4 established (made permanent).
         1b5 to be built up (of childless wife becoming the mother of a family through the children of a concubine).
         

H5975


   1 to stand, remain, endure, take one’s stand.
      1a (Qal).
         1a1 to stand, take one’s stand, be in a standing attitude, stand forth, take a stand, present oneself, attend upon, be or become servant of.
         1a2 to stand still, stop (moving or doing), cease.
         1a3 to tarry, delay, remain, continue, abide, endure, persist, be steadfast.
         1a4 to make a stand, hold one’s ground.
         1a5 to stand upright, remain standing, stand up, rise, be erect, be upright.
         1a6 to arise, appear, come on the scene, stand forth, appear, rise up or against.
         1a7 to stand with, take one’s stand, be appointed, grow flat, grow insipid.
      1b (Hiphil).
         1b1 to station, set.
         1b2 to cause to stand firm, maintain.
         1b3 to cause to stand up, cause to set up, erect.
         1b4 to present (one) before (king).
         1b5 to appoint, ordain, establish.
      1c (Hophal) to be presented, be caused to stand, be stood before.
      

Frequency of Solomon (original languages)

Frequency of Solomon (English)

Dictionary

Holman Bible Dictionary - Song of Solomon
Collection of romantic poetry comprising the twenty-second book of the English Old Testament. The Hebrew title, “Solomon's Song of Songs,” means that this is the best of songs and that it in some way concerns Solomon.
Author and Date While the title appears to name Solomon as the author, the Hebrew phrase can also mean for or about Solomon. Solomon or “king” is mentioned in the book several times (Song of Song of Solomon 1:1 ,Song of Song of Solomon 1:4-5 ,Song of Song of Solomon 1:12 ; Song of Song of Solomon 3:7 ,Song of Song of Solomon 3:9 ,Song of Song of Solomon 3:11 ; Song of Song of Solomon 7:5 ; Song of Song of Solomon 8:11-12 ), but scholars remain uncertain about its author. An ancient rabbinic tradition (Baba Bathra 15a) attributes the Song to Hezekiah and his scribes (compare Proverbs 25:1 ).
Similarly, it is hard to establish the date of the book from internal evidence. Some scholars argue on linguistic grounds for authorship much later than Solomon. Such grounds include the use of expressions akin to Aramaic and the presence of certain foreign loan-words (Persian: pardes “orchard,” Song of Song of Solomon 4:13 ; appiryon from Greek phoreion “carriage” or [1] “canopied bed,” Song of Song of Solomon 3:9 ). Others argue that such linguistic usages and borrowings can go back to the time of Solomon or merely reflect the date of the book's final editing.
Canon and Interpretation Because of its erotic language and the difficulty of its interpretation, the rabbis questioned the place of the Song of Solomon in the canon. The positive resolution of that debate is reflected in the famous declaration of Rabbi Akiva, “The whole world is not worth the day on which the Song of Songs was given to Israel; all the Writings are holy, but the Song of Songs is the holy of holies.”
The problems of the book's place in the canon and its interpretation are closely related. Under the influence of Greek views, which denigrated the body, and with the loss of a biblical view of the created goodness of the body and human love, many interpreters felt compelled to find in the Song an allegory of sacred love between God and Israel, Christ and the church, or Christ and the soul. With few exceptions, allegorical readings of the Song have prevailed for most of church history.
In the modern period, most scholars have returned to a literal reading of the Song. Conflict remains even about the literal sense of the text. Some compare Egyptian and Mesopotamian poems and see the Song as a mere collection of secular love ditties. Another view tries to see it as an adaptation of pagan fertility rituals. (This view is in reality a modern allegorical reading.) Others see the Song as a drama in which the pure love of the Shulammite maid and her shepherd prevails over Solomon's callous attempt to bring the girl into his harem. This view tries to do justice to the alteration of speakers in the Song in its various dialogues. (These shifts are indicated in Hebrew by shifts in grammatical person and number.)
A recent, promising approach is aware of parallels to Egyptian love poetry but shows that the Song itself gives expression to a uniquely biblical perspective on sexual love. While containing a number of smaller love poems, the Song is unified by patterns of dialogue, repetition, the use of catch words, and above all, a consistent vision of love. Like Genesis 2:23-25 , the Song celebrates God's gift of bodily love between man and woman. Here the Creator's wisdom and bounty are displayed. Thus, the Song is best taken as an example of Israel's wisdom poetry (compare Proverbs 5:15-20 ; Proverbs 6:24-29 ; Proverbs 7:6-27 ; Proverbs 30:18-20 ). Like many Psalms which praise God and also teach, the Song's main purpose is to celebrate rather than to instruct. Like music, it tends to joy rather than learning. Yet one can overhear in it biblical wisdom on love. “Love is as strong as death. Many waters cannot quench love. If one were to give all the wealth of his house for love, it would be utterly scorned” (Song of Song of Solomon 8:6-7 NIV). Moreover, there is a right time and place for love: “Daughters of Jerusalem, I charge you Do not arouse or awaken love until it so desires” (Song of Song of Solomon 3:5 NIV). In these poems love is portrayed in its power and splendor, its freshness and devotion to the beloved. Love in all its variety parades before us: moments of union and separation, ecstasy and anguish, longing and fulfillment.
Finally, a certain validity remains in the long history of interpretation, which saw in the pure love of the Song a reflection of divine-human love (compare Ephesians 5:21-32 ; Song of Song of Solomon 3:6-11 ; and the messianic typology of Psalm 45:1 .) Nonetheless, this parallel should not be pushed to the point of allegorizing details of the poem. See Allegory, Wisdom.
Outline
I. Longing Is a Part of Love (Song of Song of Solomon 1:1-8 ).
II. Love Will Not Be Silent (Song of Song of Solomon 1:9-2:7 ).
III. Spring and Love Go Together (Song of Song of Solomon 2:8-17 ).
IV. Love Is Exclusive (Song of Song of Solomon 3:1-5 ).
V. Love Is Enhanced by Friendship (Song of Song of Solomon 3:6-11 ).
VI. Love Sees Only the Beautiful (Song of Song of Solomon 4:1-7 ).
VII. Love Involves Giving and Receiving (Song of Song of Solomon 4:8-5:1 ).
VIII. Love Means Risking the Possibility of Pain (Song of Song of Solomon 5:2-6:3 ).
IX. Words Fail for Expressing Love (Song of Song of Solomon 6:4-7:9 ).
X. Love Must Be Given Freely (Song of Song of Solomon 7:10-13 ).
XI. True Love Is Priceless (Song of Song of Solomon 8:1-14 ).
Raymond C. Van Leeuwen
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Solomon
SOLOMON
1. Sources . 1 Kings 1:1-53 ; 1 Kings 2:1-46 ; 1Ki 3:1-28 ; 1 Kings 4:1-34 ; 1 Kings 5:1-18 ; 1 Kings 6:1-38 ; 1Ki 7:1-51 ; 1 Kings 8:1-66 ; 1 Kings 9:1-28 ; 1 Kings 10:1-29 ; 1 Kings 11:1-43 (cf. 1 Kings 11:41 ), with parallels in 2 Chronicles 1:1-17 ; 2 Chronicles 2:1-18 ; 2 Chronicles 3:1-17 ; 2Ch 4:1-22 ; 2 Chronicles 5:1-14 ; 2 Chronicles 6:1-42 ; 2 Chronicles 7:1-22 ; 2Ch 8:1-18 ; 2 Chronicles 9:1-31 (add references in closing chs. of 1 Ch.). In Chronicles the character of Solomon, as of the period as a whole, is idealized; e.g. nothing is said of the intrigues attending his accession, his foreign marriages and idolatry, or his final troubles, even with Jeroboam. Details are added or altered in accordance with post-exilic priestly conceptions ( 2 Chronicles 5:12-13 ; 2 Chronicles 7:5 ; 2 Chronicles 8:11-15 ); 2 Chronicles 1:3 (cf. 1 Kings 3:4 ) makes the sacrifice at Gibeon more orthodox; the dream becomes a theophany; in 2 Chronicles 7:1 ; Sir 47:12-2157 fire comes down from heaven. In 2 Chronicles 9:29 reference is made to authorities, possibly sections of 1Kings.; there is no evidence that the Chronicler was able to go behind 1, 2Kings. for his materials. The books of OT and Apocrypha ascribed to Solomon are of value only as giving later conceptions of his career. Josephus ( Ant. viii. i viii.) cannot be relied on where be differs from OT; the same holds good of the fragments quoted by Eusebius and Clemens Alexandrinus. Later legends, Jewish and Mohammedan, are interesting, but historically valueless; the fact that they have in no way influenced the OT narrative is an evidence of its general reliability; only two dreams and no marvels are recorded of Solomon. Archæology has so far contributed very little to our knowledge of his reign.
2. Chronology . His accession is dated c [1] . b.c. 969, i.e. about 50 years later than the traditional chronology. We have unfortunately no exact data, the dates of Hiram and Shishak ( 1 Kings 11:40 ) not having been precisely determined. The origin and interpretation of the 480 years in 1 Kings 6:1 are very doubtful. The ‘little child’ of 1 Kings 3:7 (cf. Jeremiah 1:6 ) does not require the tradition that Solomon was only twelve at his accession (Josephus); the probabilities point to his being about twenty. The 40 years of his reign, as of David’s (cf. Judges 3:11 ; Judges 3:30 ; Judges 5:31 ; Judges 8:28 etc.), would seem to represent a generation.
3. Early years . Solomon was the son of David and Bathsheba ( 2 Samuel 12:24-25 ), presumably their eldest surviving child; his position in the lists of 2 Samuel 5:14 , 1 Chronicles 3:5 ; 1 Chronicles 14:4 is strange, perhaps due to emphasis. The name means ‘peaceful’ (Heb. Shetômoh ; cf. Irenœus, Friedrich ), indicating the longing of the old king ( 1 Chronicles 22:9 ); cf. Absatom (‘father is peace’). The name given him by Nathan ( 2 Samuel 12:25 ), Jedidiah (‘beloved of J″ [2] ,’ the same root as David ), is not again referred to, perhaps as being too sacred. It was the pledge of his father’s restoration to Divine favour. We have no account of his training. ‘The Lord loved him’ ( 2 Samuel 12:24 ) implies great gifts; and 2 Samuel 12:25 and 1 Kings 1:1-53 suggest the influence of Nathan. His mother evidently had a strong hold over him ( 1 Kings 1:1-53 ; 1 Kings 2:1-46 ).
4. Accession . The appointment of a successor in Eastern monarchies depended on the king’s choice, which in Israel needed to be ratified by the people ( 1 Kings 12:1-33 ); where polygamy prevails, primogeniture cannot be assumed. 1 Kings 1:13 implies a previous promise to Bathsheba, perhaps a ‘court secret’; the public proclamation of 1 Chronicles 22:2-19 , if at all historical, must be misplaced. Adonijah, ‘a very goodly man’ ( 1 Kings 1:6 ), relying on the favour of the people ( 1 Kings 2:15 ) [3], made a bid for the throne, imitating the method of Absalom and taking advantage of David’s senility. He was easily foiled by the prompt action of Nathan and Bathsheba; Solomon himself was evidently young, though soon able to assert himself. The careful and impressive ritual of the coronation was calculated to leave no doubt in the people’s mind as to who was the rightful heir. The young king learned quickly to distinguish between his friends and enemies, as well as to rely on the loyalty of the Cherethites, his father’s foreign bodyguard. The sparing of Adonijah ( 1 Kings 1:53 ) suggests that he was not a very formidable competitor; his plot was evidently badly planned. His request to Bathsheba ( 1 Kings 2:13 ) may have been part of a renewed attempt on the kingdom (as heir he claims his father’s wives), or may have been due to real affection. At any rate the king’s suspicion or jealousy was aroused, and his rival was removed; Canticles suggests that Solomon himself was believed to have been the lover of Abishag. The deposition of Abiathar, and the execution of Joab and Shimei, were natural consequences; and in the case of the two last, Solomon was only following the advice of his father ( 1 Kings 2:5 ; 1 Kings 2:8 ). He thus early emphasized his power to act, and as a result ‘his kingdom was established greatly’ at a cheap cost. We shall hardly criticise the removal of dangerous rivals when we remember the fate which he himself would have met if Adonijah had succeeded ( 1 Kings 1:21 ), and the incidents common at the beginning of a new reign ( 2 Kings 11:1 ; cf. Proverbs 25:5 ).
5. Policy . The work of Solomon was to develop the ideas of his father. He consolidated the kingdom, welding its disorganized tribal divisions together into a short-lived unity, by the power of an Oriental despotism. The subjugation of the Canaanites was completed ( 1 Kings 9:20 ). The position of Jerusalem as the capital was secured by the building of the Temple and palaces and by the fortification of Millo ( 1 Kings 9:24 , 1 Kings 11:27 ). A chain of garrison and store cities was established ( 1 Kings 9:15 ), together with a standing army which included 12,000 horsemen and 1400 chariots ( 1 Kings 4:26 , 1 Kings 10:26 ). The extent of his dominions ( 1 Kings 4:21 ; 1 Kings 4:24 ) may represent the idea of a later age, and Eastern monarchs were ready to claim suzerainty where there was but little effective control. But inscriptions show us how kaleidoscopic were the politics of the period; kingdoms rose and fell very quickly, and the surrounding States were all at the time in a state of weakness. It was this that enabled his reign to be a generation of peace. His troubles ( 1 Kings 11:9-40 ) were very few for so long a life. The hostility of Hadad ( 1 Kings 11:14 ff.) was a legacy from David, but there is no evidence that he became king of Edom. Rezon ( 1 Kings 11:23 ) conquered Damascus and founded a dynasty, but we hear nothing of any serious war. Nothing is known of the Hamath-zobah which Solomon subdued ( 2 Chronicles 8:3 ). More than any other Jewish king, he realized the importance of foreign alliances , which were closely connected with his commercial policy . ( a ) Early in his reign he married Pharaoh’s daughter ( 1 Kings 3:1 ), who brought as her marriage portion Gezer ( 1 Kings 9:16 ). This Pharaoh was apparently the last of the Tanite (21st) dynasty a confused period of which little is known; we have no other notice of the connexion between Egypt and Palestine at this period. Solomon was able to control, and no doubt profited by, the caravan trade between the Euphrates and the Nile. The caravanserai of Chimham ( Jeremiah 41:17 ; cf. 2 Samuel 19:37 , 1 Kings 2:7 ) may have been established at this period in connexion with that trade. From Egypt (unless a N. Syrian Musri is intended) came horses and chariots for Solomon’s own use, and for the purposes of a Syrian trade ( 1 Kings 10:28-29 ). The alliance was apparently not disapproved at the time (cf. Psalms 45:1-17 ), but it was not continued; Shishak protects Jeroboam ( 1 Kings 11:40 ). ( b ) The alliance with Hiram of Tyre (according to Clem. Alex. [4] , Solomon also married his daughter, cf. 1 Kings 11:1 ; 1 Kings 11:5 ) was a continuation of the policy of David [5]. This was in connexion with his building operations ( 2 Samuel 5:1-12 ). Timber from Lebanon was brought by sea to Joppa, together with skilled workmen from Tyre, especially the Gebalites ( 2 Samuel 5:18 , cf. Ezekiel 27:8 ); Hiram, a worker in brass, is particularly mentioned ( 1 Kings 7:13 ). The yearly payment consisted of agricultural commodities ( 1 Kings 5:11 ; note exaggerations in 2 Chronicles 2:10 ). A grant of twenty cities in Galilee was unsatisfactory to Hiram, though he apparently paid for them ( 1 Kings 9:10-14 ). A more substantial return was the security which Solomon was able to offer to Phœnician trade with the E [6] ., and, above all, access to the port of Ezion-geber on the Red Sea, made possible by his suzerainty over Edom. Tamar ( 1 Kings 9:18 RV [7] [8] ‘Tadmor’]) in S. Judah apparently protected the route to the port. A lucrative trade was carried on by the two kings in partnership, in gold, spices, sandalwood, apes, peacocks, etc. ( 1 Kings 9:26 , 1 Kings 10:11 ; 1 Kings 10:22 ). The extent of their voyages is a mystery, the situation of both Ophir and Tarshish being unknown. Assuming that there was only one Tarshish, and that in the West, it is still very doubtful whether Solomon can have been allowed any share in the Mediterranean trade; ‘ships of Tarshish’ may be only a name for a particular type of vessel. The Ophir trade must have been connected with S. Arabia; hence no doubt the visit of the queen of Sheba ( 1 Kings 10:1 ); the ‘presents’ exchanged would be really of the nature of barter, as illustrated by the Tell el-Amarna tablets. The Jews never took kindly to the sea, and, except for the abortive attempt of Jehoshaphat ( 1 Kings 22:48 ), Solomon’s policy found no imitators.
6. Internal condition of his kingdom . The impression is given us of great wealth. Though the sums left by David ( 1 Chronicles 22:14 ) are incredible (equal to a thousand million pounds), Solomon’s own revenue (four millions, 1 Kings 10:14 ) is possible for an exceptional year. But the gold was used chiefly in unproductive forms of display ( 1 Kings 10:16 ff.), and probably but little was in circulation among the people; he had a difficulty in paying Hiram ( 1 Kings 9:11 ). His passion for buildings was extravagant; the Temple was seven years in building ( 1 Kings 6:38 ); his own house thirteen ( 1 Kings 7:1 ); there was also the palace for his wife ( 1 Kings 7:8 ). He had an enormous court (note list of officers in 1 Kings 4:2 ) and harem ( 1 Kings 11:1 ), necessitating a luxurious daily provision ( 1 Kings 4:22 ). The country was divided into twelve parts, under twelve officers, each responsible for a month’s supplies ( 1 Kings 4:7 ); these did not coincide with the tribal divisions, and Judah was exempt. For the building operations a mas or forced levy was organized under Adoram ( 1 Kings 5:13 , cf. 2 Samuel 20:24 ) with numerous subordinates ( 1 Kings 5:16 , 1 Kings 9:23 ); 30,000 men were sent to Lebanon, 10,000 a month; there were carriers and hewers ( 2 Samuel 5:15 ), and the aborigines were used as helots ( 1 Kings 9:20 , Ezra 2:55 mentions their descendants). The mas was the very word used of the labour in Egypt, and beneath the apparent prosperity ( 1 Kings 4:20 ; 1 Kings 4:25 ) was a growing discontent and jealousy of Judah, which broke out in the rebellion of Jeroboam. By his personal popularity and extravagant display Solomon won a great ‘name’ 1Ki 4:31 , 1 Kings 10:1 ; 1 Kings 10:7 ), and gave Israel a position among the nations. His reign came to be idealized, but his policy was clearly economically and socially unsound, and could only lead to ruin. From the religious point of view the outstanding feature is the building of the Temple. It is an anachronism to represent it as the centralization of the worship of J″ [2] according to the standard of Deut., to the exclusion of the ‘high places,’ and its effect was largely neutralized by the honour paid to other gods (11); none the less its elaborate magnificence was a visible proof of the triumph of J″ [2] over the Baal worship of Canaan, and of His exaltation as supreme God of the nation. It cannot be maintained that the material and local conception of the Deity which it suggested made entirely for spiritual religion ( Isaiah 1:13 , Jeremiah 7:4 , Acts 7:48 ); it meant a concentration of power in the hands of the Jerusalem priesthood at the cost of the prophets, who had no influence during Solomon’s reign (Nathan in 1 Kings 4:6 is probably his brother), and the attitude of Nathan, Ahijah, and Shemaiah makes it probable that they looked with suspicion on the new developments. It was, however, a necessary step in the religious history of the nation, and the Psalms prove that it made Zion the centre of its enthusiastic patriotism.
7. His wisdom was the special gift of God ( 1 Kings 3:5 ). His ‘judgment’ ( 1 Kings 3:18 ff.) is the typical instance. It presumably took place early in his reign (cf. the contemptuous laughter of the people in Jos. [11] Ant. VIII. ii. 2), and simply shows a shrewd knowledge of human nature; many parallels are quoted. It proves his fitness for judicial functions, and 1 Kings 4:29-34 gives the general idea of his attainments. He was regarded as the father of Jewish proverbial (or gnomic) wisdom; ‘wisdom books’ existed in Egypt long before, but it seems impossible to distinguish in our present ‘Proverbs’ ( c [1] . b.c. 250) what elements may be due to him. Sirach and Wis. have no title to his name. 1 Kings 4:20 ; 1 Kings 4:33 suggest general and poetical culture, parables drawn from nature, rather than the beginnings of science. Psalms 72:1-20 may possibly belong to his age, but not Psalms 127:1-5 or Canticles. Later tradition added much; the solving of ‘riddles’ held a large place in the wisdom of the East, and we hear of the ‘hard questions’ of the queen of Sheba ( Psalms 10:1 ), and of a contest between Solomon and Hiram (Jos. [11] Ant . VIII. v. 3). Josephus also speaks of his power over demons; Rabbinical legend of his control over beasts and birds, of his ‘magic carpet,’ and knowledge of the Divine name. Examples of the legendary material are accessible in Farrar’s Solomon .
8. Character . Solomon evidently began his reign with high ideals, of which his dream ( 1 Kings 3:5 ) was a natural expression. His sacrifice at Gibeon ( 1 Kings 3:4 ) gives another aspect; his religion was associated with external display. So the magnificence of the Temple, the pageantry and holocausts of its dedication ( 1 Kings 3:8 ), certainly ministered to his own glory, no less than to God’s. His prayer, however, if it he in any sense authentic, is lull of true piety, and he seems to have had a real delight in religious observances ( 1 Kings 9:25 ). His fall is connected with his polygamy and foreign wives ( 1 Kings 9:11 , cf. Nehemiah 13:26 ). He not only allowed them their own worship, a necessary concession, but shared in it; the memory of his ‘high places,’ within sight of his own Temple, was preserved in the name ‘Mount of Offence.’ This idolatry was, in fact, the natural syncretism resulting from his habitual foreign intercourse. Self-indulgence and the pride of wealth evidently played their part in his deterioration. Of his actual end nothing is known; he was an ‘old man’ ( 1 Kings 11:4 ) at sixty years, but Jeroboam’s flight suggests that he could still make his authority felt. Ecclesiastes gives a good impression of the ‘moral’ of his life; but whether he actually repented and was ‘saved’ was warmly debated by the Fathers. Deuteronomy 17:16 f. criticises his Egyptian alliance and harem, his love of horses and of wealth, and 1618064392_9 is a fair summary of the career of one whose ‘heart was not perfect with the Lord his God, as was the heart of David his father’ ( 1 Kings 11:4 ). His wisdom could not teach him self-control, and the only legacy of a violated home-life was a son ‘ample in foolishness and lacking in understanding.’
C. W. Emmet.
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Solomon, Wisdom of
[1]
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Canticles; the Song of Solomon
"The song of songs," i.e. the most excellent of songs; even as the antitypical Solomon, its subject and its author (by His Spirit), is King of kings, i.e. the greatest of kings (so the heaven of heavens means the highest heaven, Deuteronomy 10:14). The fourth of the hagiographa (chethubim, "writings") or the third division of the Old Testament (See CANON) and (See BIBLE.) Its divine canonicity and authority are certain, as it is found in all Hebrew manuscripts of Scripture; also in the Greek Septuagint version; in the catalogues of Melito, bishop of Sardis A.D. 170 (Eusebius, H. E., 4:26), and others. The literalists explain it as displaying "the victory of humble and constant love over the temptations of wealth and royalty": Solomon tempting a Shulamite shepherdess, who, in spite of the fascinations of his splendid court, pines for her shepherd lover from whom she has been severed.
But had it been a representation of merely human love, it would have been positively indelicate and never would have been inserted in the holy canon (see Song of Solomon 5:2-6; Song of Solomon 7:2-3). The sudden transitions from the court to the grove are inexplicable on the literal interpretation. Nor is the other literal interpretation tenable, namely, that the love of Solomon and Pharaoh's daughter is the subject. "Pharaoh's chariots" (Song of Solomon 1:9) allude not to this, but to the Old Testament church's miraculous deliverance from Pharaoh's hosts at the Red Sea. A shepherdess (Song of Solomon 1:7) would have been an abomination to the Egyptians; nor do Song of Solomon 1:6; Song of Solomon 3:4; Song of Solomon 4:8; Song of Solomon 5:7 suit this view. Origen and Theodover compare Solomon's teaching to a ladder with three steps; Ecclesiastes, natural (sensible things naturally vain); Proverbs, moral; Canticles, mystical, figuring the union of Christ and the church.
Proverbs, said the rabbis, are the outer court of Solomon's temple; Ecclesiastes, the holy place; Cantitles, the holy of holies. See the treatise Yadaim in the Mishna: "all the chethubim are holy, but the Canticles are holy of holies." Shulamith (Song of Solomon 6:13), i.e. the daughter of peace, is fitly the bride of Solomon, "the prince of peace." Taken allegorically there is nothing incongruous in what would be, if literally taken, inexplicable; she by turns being a vinedresser, shepherdess, midnight inquirer, prince's consort, and at the same time daughter; just as under the same image in Psalms 45:9-10; Psalms 45:13-14, the church is at once the Lord's bride and daughter; as Psalm 45, "a song of loves," answers to Canticles, so Psalm 37 to Proverbs, and Psalm 39; Psalm 73 to Job.
As Ecclesiastes sets forth them vanity of the love of the creature, so Canticles the all satisfying love which unites the church and her Lord. Love in man was created as the transcript of the divine love. This song portrays the latter in imagery from the former. The union of Christ and His church was the original fact in the mind of God, on which human marriage is based (Ephesians 5:23-32). This idea pervades all Scripture, from the original Eden (Genesis 2:21-24) down to the restored paradise (Revelation 19:7; Revelation 21:9-104; 1618064392_52; Revelation 22:17). Israel was the Old Testament wife of Jehovah (Isaiah 54:5; Isaiah 62:5; Jeremiah 3:1, etc.; Hosea 1; 2; 3; Ezekiel 16; 23). To her as His destined earthly bride the song primarily refers; secondarily to the spiritual and heavenly bride, the elect church, of all ages and countries (Matthew 9:15; Matthew 22:2; Matthew 25:1; John 3:29; 2 Corinthians 11:2).
"The experimental knowledge of Christ's loveliness, and the believer's love, is the best commentary on this allegorical song" (Leighton). The name of God does not occur, because throughout the allegory, to the exclusion of everything literal, is maintained, and Solomon throughout represents Messiah JEHOVAH, whose love is the grand theme. Love to Christ is the most intense, as it is the purest, of human passions, and therefore is expressed in the most intenselyardent language. The details of the imagery are not to be strained in the interpretation. Many lovely natural objects, not always mutually congruous if pressed literally, are combined, to bring out the varied, and often seemingly opposite, beauties which meet in the Lord Jesus. The significance of the name Solomon, "the peace giver," appears at the outset (Song of Solomon 1:3), "thy name is as ointment poured forth, diffusing peace and love (John 14:27); the same image as in Psalm 133.
Not until toward the close does the bride receive her name Shulamith (Song of Solomon 6:13), "the peace receiver," and so the "prince's daughter" (Song of Solomon 7:1; compare Matthew 5:9). She explains her name (Song of Solomon 8:10) as expressing "one that found peace" (Song of Solomon 8:10 margin). Not until her union with Solomon had been effected did she find peace, and received her name accordingly (Romans 5:1). Shulamith is passive in meaning, the reconciled one (Ephesians 2:14; 2 Corinthians 5:19-20). Her becoming sensible of His being the king, in whose presence is peace and fullness of joy (Song of Solomon 1:2; Song of Solomon 1:4; Song of Solomon 1:7) leads her to seek in Him peace, and finally to find it.
Driven from the vineyard of paradise which was once her own into the wilderness (Song of Solomon 3:6), and to keep very different vineyards (Satan's and the world's), she became black with affliction, though still beautiful (Song of Solomon 1:5-6; compare Lamentations 4:7-8; Psalms 120:5-6): in contrast to His countenance, "white and ruddy" (Song of Solomon 5:10). But He at the close brings her up from the wilderness of affliction (Song of Solomon 3:6; Song of Solomon 8:5; Revelation 12:6), and restores her her own vineyard (Song of Solomon 8:12), where He desires to hear her voice. If we view the bride as Israel (the primary sense), Hosea 2:14-16 is exactly parallel to the whole song.
Five parts are to be traced: Song of Solomon 1:1-2:7; Song of Solomon 2:8-3:5, both parts ending "I charge you, O ye daughters of Jerusalem," etc.; Song of Songs 3:6 - 6:9; Song of Songs 6:10 - 8:4; Song of Solomon 8:5-14, these three parts beginning severally with "Who is this?" etc. In the song's Israelite aspect the third or central part probably refers to the sealing of the union between Jehovah and the Old Testament church by Solomon's erection of the temple (Song of Solomon 3:6-11). "The daughter of Zion was at that time openly married to Jehovah; for it is thenceforth that the prophets in reproving Israel's sin speak of it as a breach of her marriage covenant.
The songs heretofore sung by her were the preparatory hymns of her childhood; the last and crowning 'song of songs' was prepared for the now mature maiden against the day of her marriage to the King of kings" (Origen: see Moody Stuart's admirable commentary). Her wilderness state then gave place to peaceful and prosperous settlement in manifested union with her God; "the day of Solomon's espousals" (Song of Solomon 3:11). But a further marriage is intended, that of the individual soul to the Lord, for Christ "loves one, as if that one were all"; and finally the yet future marriage of the whole elect church (Revelation 19:7-8; Revelation 21:2; Revelation 21:9). In the individual soul we have
(1) its longing for Christ's manifestation to it, and the various alternations in its experience of His manifestation (Song of Solomon 1:2-4; Song of Solomon 2:8; Song of Solomon 3:1; Song of Solomon 3:4; Song of Solomon 3:6-7);
(2) the abundant enjoyment of His sensible consolations, which is withdrawn through the bride's carelessness (Song of Solomon 5:1-3), and her longings after Him and reconciliation (Song of Solomon 5:8-16; Song of Solomon 6:3, etc.; Song of Solomon 7:1, etc.);
(3) effects of Christ's manifestation on the believer, assurance, labors of love, anxiety for the salvation of the impenitent, eagerness for His second coming. In the church aspect her longing for His first advent appears in the beginning (Song of Solomon 1:2); joyful anticipation of His advent (Song of Solomon 2:8-13; Song of Solomon 2:17); His stay with her during the one only whole day in the allegory (there are but two nights, Song of Solomon 2:17; Song of Solomon 4:6), answering to His sojourn here with His disciples, the last supper, the pledge of His return to her (Song of Songs 3:6 - 4:5); His death in figurative language, and ascension to the heavenly mount where still He is to be met with spiritually in prayer until the everlasting daybreak when we shall see face to face (Song of Solomon 4:6; Song of Solomon 4:8; Song of Solomon 4:15). "My sister, ... My spouse, excludes carnal ideas of love.
As Eve was formed from Adam, so Christ took our flesh to be brother and also husband (compare Hebrews 2:11; Mark 3:35). In Song of Solomon 5:1 "I am come into My garden" is the central point of the whole, the bridegroom and bride are one; the Spirit, answering to the awakening N. wind and the softly blowing S. wind, having been shed on the church at Pentecost, to make the spiritual union complete (Song of Solomon 4:10). "Eat, O friends," etc., follows immediately (Isaiah 55:1), the gospel being thenceforth preached in all its grace to all (Acts 2:38; Acts 3:19). Then succeeds the period of declension and the consequent withdrawing of the grieved Spirit (Song of Solomon 5:2-6). Then her earnest search for Him and praises of Him to others, wherein she regains her own assurance, "I am my Beloved's" (Song of Solomon 6:3).
Here Israel's sighing after Messiah, and finding Him hereafter as one united nation, combining "Tirzah" the northern capital and. "Jerusalem" the southern capital, is hinted at (Song of Solomon 6:4); she the queen, and the attendant Gentile churches" threescore queens and fourscore concubines" (Song of Solomon 6:8; Psalms 45:9-15). Then Shulamith having found Solomon, i.e. Israel," made like the chariots of Amminadib" ("My willing people") instead of as heretofore "Lo-ammi," not My people (Hosea 1:9-10), shall "look forth as, the morning, fair as the moon, clear as the sun, terrible as an army with banners" (Daniel 12:1-3; Revelation 12:1; Revelation 19:14). The nations shall then admire and flow unto her (Ephesians 2:11-222; Song of Solomon 7:1, etc., answering to Isaiah 52:7-10). The "return, return, O Shulamite" answers to "when the Lord shall bring again Zion" through the instrumentality of the nations who shall then long to "look upon" her as the source of spiritual blessing to them (Micah 5:7; Zechariah 8:13).
The daughters of Jerusalem, i.e. the nations (a phrase drawn by Jesus from the song, Luke 23:28, Galilean women standing in the same relation to the Jews as Gentiles afterward did), become united to Christ through the instrumentality of the bride, and they also appropriate her words, "I am my Beloved's," etc. (Song of Solomon 7:10). At the close of this part (Song of Solomon 8:4) is restored Israel's charge to the Gentile converted nations not to interrupt the millennial rest of Christ with His worldwide church, "I charge you, O ye daughters of Jerusalem, that ye stir not up ... My love;" for an apostasy succeeds, as one precedes, the millennium (Revelation 20:4-9).
Then the elect church from Jews and Gentiles, now being gathered, is described, Song of Solomon 8:5-14, which is chronologically before the millennial church just described, but fitly brought in as the closing subject ("make haste, My beloved," etc.) to remind us our position is to be "hasting unto the coming of the day of God" (2 Peter 3:12; Revelation 22:20). The "little sister" having "no breasts" (neither faith nor love, the springs of spiritual nourishment, 1 Thessalonians 5:8; compare in connection with breasts, Luke 11:27-28) answers to the Gentile church admitted to be a "wall" in Zion founded on Christ; "spoken for," i.e. sought in marriage by Him. No "stubble" of Jewish rites is to be built on her (1 Corinthians 3:11-12), but a "palace of silver," i.e. the highest privileges of church fellowship (Galatians 2:11-18; 1618064392_19). The "door" is that of faith opened to the Gentiles, implying universal accessibleness (1 Corinthians 16:9), but safely enclosed with fragrant enduring "cedar," lest it should be corrupted by latitudinarianism.
The bride's joyous anticipation and desires at the beginning (Song of Solomon 1:6; Song of Solomon 1:12, e
Chabad Knowledge Base - Solomon, king
(a) (849-797 BCE) Son of David and Bathsheba, appointed king over Israel at the age of twelve. Built the first Holy Temple in Jerusalem. During his reign, the Israelites enjoyed unprecedented peace and prosperity; they were feared and respected by the neighboring nations. The wisest man of all times, his superlative wisdom is recorded in the books of Song of Songs, Proverbs, and Ecclesiastes. (b) A common Jewish name.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Solomon, Song of
Called also, after the Vulgate, the "Canticles." It is the "song of songs" (1:1), as being the finest and most precious of its kind; the noblest song, "das Hohelied," as Luther calls it. The Solomonic authorship of this book has been called in question, but evidences, both internal and external, fairly establish the traditional view that it is the product of Solomon's pen. It is an allegorical poem setting forth the mutual love of Christ and the Church, under the emblem of the bridegroom and the bride. (Compare Matthew 9:15 ; John 3:29 ; Ephesians 5:23,27,29 ; Revelation 19:7-9 ; 21:2,9 ; 22:17 . Compare also Psalm 45 ; Isaiah 54:4-6 ; 62:4,5 ; Jeremiah 2:2 ; 3:1,20 ; Ezekiel 16 ; Hosea 2:16,19,20 .)
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Solomon
God’s choice to succeed David as king over Israel was Solomon, the son born to David and Bathsheba after their first (and illegitimate) son had died (2 Samuel 12:24-25; 1 Chronicles 28:5). He was anointed as king before his father died, in order to overthrow the attempts of his brother Adonijah to seize the throne for himself (1 Kings 1:5-53).
Establishing his authority
Once David was dead, Solomon quickly dealt with Adonijah and the two leaders who had supported him. He interpreted a request from Adonijah as treason and executed him (1 Kings 2:13-25). He also executed the commander-in-chief of the army, Joab (1 Kings 2:28-34), and sent the priest Abiathar into exile (1 Kings 2:26-27). After this he executed Shimei, a relative of Saul who had always been hostile to the house of David (1 Kings 2:36-46; cf. 2 Samuel 16:5-14).
By marrying the daughter of the king of Egypt, Solomon entered into a treaty with Egypt that guaranteed peace between the two nations (1 Kings 3:1). The formal treaty probably involved paying respect to foreign gods, a practice that was a repeated temptation to Solomon and brought him increasing trouble (1 Kings 11:1-8).
Solomon’s love for lavish religious ceremony also led him into trouble (1 Kings 3:3-4), but his request for wisdom won God’s approval (1 Kings 3:5-14). He soon proved his wisdom when he had to give a decision over which of two women was the mother of a disputed baby (1 Kings 3:16-28). His fame grew rapidly, and people came from countries far and near to hear his wisdom (1 Kings 4:29-34; 1 Kings 10:1-13; Matthew 12:42). People made collections of his proverbs and songs, and some of these are preserved in the Bible (1 Kings 4:32; Psalms 72; Psalms 127; 1 Kings 7:9-1278; Proverbs 10:1; Proverbs 25:1; Song of Song of Solomon 1:1). (For further details of Solomon’s writings see PROVERBS.)
Under Solomon there was a large increase in the numbers of officials in the royal court, the national administration and the armed forces. To maintain all these people, Solomon revised the taxation system. He divided Israel into twelve zones, each of which had to maintain the government for one month of the year (1 Kings 4:7). Neighbouring nations within the Israelite empire also paid taxes (1 Kings 4:21).
Development, trade and wealth
David had prepared plans, finances and materials for Solomon to build God a temple in Jerusalem (1 Chronicles 22:2-16; 1 Chronicles 28:11; Acts 7:45-47). Solomon’s plans, however, far exceeded David’s. His temple would be more lavish than anything David had in mind, and his extensive building program would make Jerusalem a showpiece to the world.
Solomon bought costly building materials from Hiram, king of Tyre, and paid for them with produce taken from Israel’s hard-working farmers (1 Kings 5:1-11). He also made all Israel’s working men give three months work to the king each year, which provided a year-round workforce of 30,000 men. An additional 150,000, mainly Canaanites, were made full-time slaves (1 Kings 5:13-18). The temple was a richly ornamented building that took seven years to build (1 Kings 6:38; see TEMPLE).
This temple was only part of a much larger building program that Solomon had planned. He built a magnificent palace, which took a further thirteen years (1 Kings 7:1; 1 Kings 9:10), a military headquarters called the House of the Forest of Lebanon (1 Kings 7:2; 1 Kings 10:17), an auditorium called the Hall of Pillars (1 Kings 7:6), a central law court called the Hall of Judgment (1 Kings 7:7) and a separate palace for his Egyptian queen (1 Kings 7:8). All these buildings, including the temple, were made of costly stone and best quality timber, and were enclosed in an area known as the Great Court (1618064392_2).
Solomon also greatly strengthened Jerusalem’s defences (1 Kings 9:15). In the country regions he rebuilt ruined cities, established army bases, and set up cities to store the farm produce that maintained his government (1 Kings 9:16-19).
To help finance his construction programs, Solomon borrowed huge amounts of gold from Hiram (1 Kings 9:14). Unable to repay his debts, Solomon decided to cut off twenty cities in northern Israel and give them to Hiram (1 Kings 9:10-11). This only increased the resentment that the people of northern Israel, and especially the farmers, felt towards Solomon and his showpiece city in the south. In spite of the hardship of the common people (1 Kings 12:4), Solomon spent extravagantly on himself (1 Kings 10:16-21; 1 Kings 10:25; 1 Kings 10:27; Song of Song of Solomon 3:7-10; cf. Matthew 6:29).
David’s power had come through military conquest, but Solomon’s came through political and commercial treaties with neighbouring countries. One profitable operation was a sea-land trading partnership he established with Hiram of Phoenicia. Goods from the Mediterranean were collected at Hiram’s port of Tyre, carried overland to Israel’s Red Sea port of Ezion-geber, then shipped east (1 Kings 9:26-28; 1 Kings 10:22; for map see PHOENICIA).
Solomon gained additional income by taxing all goods that passed through Israel on the international trade routes (1 Kings 10:14-15). He further enriched himself by becoming the middleman in a profitable international horse and chariot trade (1 Kings 10:28-29).
A splendid kingdom lost
Although he taught wisdom to others, Solomon did not follow that wisdom himself. He ignored the instructions that God had given concerning the conduct of an Israelite king (Deuteronomy 17:15-17), and in particular earned God’s wrath through worshipping the gods of the many foreign women whom he had taken as wives and concubines (1 Kings 11:1-10; 1 Kings 11:33; Nehemiah 13:26).
All the time that Solomon was developing his magnificent kingdom, he was preparing his own punishment. He had exploited the people in order to fulfil his ambitious plans, and now the people hated him. Soon they rebelled against him openly. The ten tribes to the north broke away from the Davidic rule, though for the sake of David, God withheld the inevitable judgment until after Solomon’s death (1 Kings 11:11-13).
The rebellion against Solomon was led by a young man from the north, Jeroboam. Solomon had recognized Jeroboam’s abilities earlier, and put him in charge of a large portion of the workforce from the northern tribes (1 Kings 11:28). When Solomon felt that Jeroboam was gaining support among the northerners, he tried to kill him, but Jeroboam escaped to the safety of Egypt (1 Kings 11:29-32; 1 Kings 11:40). After Solomon’s death, Jeroboam returned to Israel and successfully lead a breakaway rebellion (1 Kings 12:2-4; 1 Kings 12:16-20).
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Solomon
Peaceful, (Heb. Shelomoh), David's second son by Bathsheba, i.e., the first after their legal marriage (2 Samuel 12 ). He was probably born about B.C. 1035 (1 Chronicles 22:5 ; 29:1 ). He succeeded his father on the throne in early manhood, probably about sixteen or eighteen years of age. Nathan, to whom his education was intrusted, called him Jedidiah, i.e., "beloved of the Lord" (2 Samuel 12:24,25 ). He was the first king of Israel "born in the purple." His father chose him as his successor, passing over the claims of his elder sons: "Assuredly Solomon my son shall reign after me." His history is recorded in 1 Kings 1-11 and 2 Chronicles 1-9 . His elevation to the throne took place before his father's death, and was hastened on mainly by Nathan and Bathsheba, in consequence of the rebellion of Adonijah (1 Kings 1:5-40 ). During his long reign of forty years the Hebrew monarchy gained its highest splendour. This period has well been called the "Augustan age" of the Jewish annals. The first half of his reign was, however, by far the brighter and more prosperous; the latter half was clouded by the idolatries into which he fell, mainly from his heathen intermarriages (1 Kings 11:1-8 ; 14:21,31 ). Before his death David gave parting instructions to his son (1 Kings 2:1-9 ; 1 Chronicles 22:7-16 ; 28 ). As soon as he had settled himself in his kingdom, and arranged the affairs of his extensive empire, he entered into an alliance with Egypt by the marriage of the daughter of Pharaoh (1 Kings 3:1 ), of whom, however, nothing further is recorded. He surrounded himself with all the luxuries and the external grandeur of an Eastern monarch, and his government prospered. He entered into an alliance with Hiram, king of Tyre, who in many ways greatly assisted him in his numerous undertakings. (See HIRAM .)
For some years before his death David was engaged in the active work of collecting materials ( 1 Chronicles 29:6-9 ; 2 Chronicles 2:3-7 ) for building a temple in Jerusalem as a permanent abode for the ark of the covenant. He was not permitted to build the house of God (1 Chronicles 22:8 ); that honour was reserved to his son Solomon. (See TEMPLE .)
After the completion of the temple, Solomon engaged in the erection of many other buildings of importance in Jerusalem and in other parts of his kingdom. For the long space of thirteen years he was engaged in the erection of a royal palace on Ophel ( 1 Kings 7:1-12 ). It was 100 cubits long, 50 broad, and 30 high. Its lofty roof was supported by forty-five cedar pillars, so that the hall was like a forest of cedar wood, and hence probably it received the name of "The House of the Forest of Lebanon." In front of this "house" was another building, which was called the Porch of Pillars, and in front of this again was the "Hall of Judgment," or Throne-room (1 Kings 7:7 ; 10:18-20 ; 2 Chronicles 9:17-19 ), "the King's Gate," where he administered justice and gave audience to his people. This palace was a building of great magnificence and beauty. A portion of it was set apart as the residence of the queen consort, the daughter of Pharaoh. From the palace there was a private staircase of red and scented sandal wood which led up to the temple.
Solomon also constructed great works for the purpose of securing a plentiful supply of water for the city (Ecclesiastes 2:4-6 ). He then built Millo (LXX., "Acra") for the defence of the city, completing a line of ramparts around it (1 Kings 9:15,24 ; 11:27 ). He erected also many other fortifications for the defence of his kingdom at various points where it was exposed to the assault of enemies (1 Kings 9:15-19 ; 2 Chronicles 8:2-6 ). Among his great undertakings must also be mentioned the building of Tadmor (q.v.) in the wilderness as a commercial depot, as well as a military outpost.
During his reign Palestine enjoyed great commercial prosperity. Extensive traffic was carried on by land with Tyre and Egypt and Arabia, and by sea with Spain and India and the coasts of Africa, by which Solomon accumulated vast stores of wealth and of the produce of all nations (1 Kings 9:26-28 ; 10:11,12 ; 2 Chronicles 8:17,18 ; 9:21 ). This was the "golden age" of Israel. The royal magnificence and splendour of Solomon's court were unrivalled. He had seven hundred wives and three hundred concubines, an evidence at once of his pride, his wealth, and his sensuality. The maintenance of his household involved immense expenditure. The provision required for one day was "thirty measures of fine flour, and threescore measures of meal, ten fat oxen, and twenty oxen out of the pastures, and an hundred sheep, beside harts, and roebucks, and fallow-deer, and fatted fowl" (1 Kings 4:22,23 ).
Solomon's reign was not only a period of great material prosperity, but was equally remarkable for its intellectual activity. He was the leader of his people also in this uprising amongst them of new intellectual life. "He spake three thousand proverbs: and his songs were a thousand and five. And he spake of trees, from the cedar tree that is in Lebanon even unto the hyssop that springeth out of the wall: he spake also of beasts, and of fowl, and of creeping things, and of fishes" (1 Kings 4:32,33 ).
His fame was spread abroad through all lands, and men came from far and near "to hear the wisdom of Solomon." Among others thus attracted to Jerusalem was "the queen of the south" (Matthew 12:42 ), the queen of Sheba, a country in Arabia Felix. "Deep, indeed, must have been her yearning, and great his fame, which induced a secluded Arabian queen to break through the immemorial custom of her dreamy land, and to put forth the energy required for braving the burdens and perils of so long a journey across a wilderness. Yet this she undertook, and carried it out with safety." (1 Kings 10:1-13 ; 2 Chronicles 9:1-12 .) She was filled with amazement by all she saw and heard: "there was no more spirit in her." After an interchange of presents she returned to her native land.
But that golden age of Jewish history passed away. The bright day of Solomon's glory ended in clouds and darkness. His decline and fall from his high estate is a sad record. Chief among the causes of his decline were his polygamy and his great wealth. "As he grew older he spent more of his time among his favourites. The idle king living among these idle women, for 1,000 women, with all their idle and mischievous attendants, filled the palaces and pleasure-houses which he had built (1 Kings 11:3 ), learned first to tolerate and then to imitate their heathenish ways. He did not, indeed, cease to believe in the God of Israel with his mind. He did not cease to offer the usual sacrifices in the temple at the great feasts. But his heart was not right with God; his worship became merely formal; his soul, left empty by the dying out of true religious fervour, sought to be filled with any religious excitement which offered itself. Now for the first time a worship was publicly set up amongst the people of the Lord which was not simply irregular or forbidden, like that of Gideon (Judges 8:27 ), or the Danites (Judges 18:30,31 ), but was downright idolatrous." (1 Kings 11:7 ; 2 Kings 23:13 .)
This brought upon him the divine displeasure. His enemies prevailed against him (1 Kings 11:14-22,23-25,26-40 ), and one judgment after another fell upon the land. And now the end of all came, and he died, after a reign of forty years, and was buried in the city of David, and "with him was buried the short-lived glory and unity of Israel." "He leaves behind him but one weak and worthless son, to dismember his kingdom and disgrace his name."
"The kingdom of Solomon," says Rawlinson, "is one of the most striking facts in the Biblical history. A petty nation, which for hundreds of years has with difficulty maintained a separate existence in the midst of warlike tribes, each of which has in turn exercised dominion over it and oppressed it, is suddenly raised by the genius of a soldier-monarch to glory and greatness. An empire is established which extends from the Euphrates to the borders of Egypt, a distance of 450 miles; and this empire, rapidly constructed, enters almost immediately on a period of peace which lasts for half a century. Wealth, grandeur, architectural magnificence, artistic excellence, commercial enterprise, a position of dignity among the great nations of the earth, are enjoyed during this space, at the end of which there is a sudden collapse. The ruling nation is split in twain, the subject-races fall off, the pre-eminence lately gained being wholly lost, the scene of struggle, strife, oppression, recovery, inglorious submission, and desperate effort, re-commences.", Historical Illustrations.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Psalms of Solomon
See Pseudepigrapha .
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Wisdom, the, of Solomon,
a, book of the Apocrypha, may be divided into two parts, the first, chs. 1-9, containing the doctrine of wisdom in its moral and intellectual aspects: the second, the doctrine of wisdom as shown in history. chs. 10-19. The first part contains the praise of wisdom as the source of immortality, in contrast with the teaching of sensualists; and next the praise of wisdom as the guide of practical and intellectual life, the stay of princes, and the interpreter of the universe. The second part, again, follows the action of wisdom summarily, as preserving God's servants, from Adam to Moses, and more particularly in the punishment of the Egyptians and Canaanites. Style and language . --The literary character of the book is most remarkable and interesting. In the richness and freedom of its vocabulary it most closely resembles the Fourth Book of Maccabees, but it is superior to that fine declamation in both power and variety of diction. The magnificent description of wisdom ch. 7:22-8:1, must rank among the noblest passages of human eloquence, and it would be perhaps impossible to point out any piece of equal length in the remains of classical antiquity more pregnant with noble thought or more rich in expressive phraseology. Doctrinal character. --The theological teaching of the book offers, in many respects, the nearest approach to the language and doctrines of Greek philosophy that is found in any Jewish writing up to the time of Philo. There is much in the views which it gives of the world of man and of the divine nature which springs rather from the combination or conflict of Hebrew and Greek thought than from the independent development of Hebrew thought alone. The conception is presented of the body as a mere weight and clog to the soul. ch, 9:15; contrast ( 2 Corinthians 5:1-4 ) There is, on the other hand no trace of the characteristic Christian doctrine of a resurrection of the body. The identification of the tempter, (Genesis 3:1 ) ... directly or indirectly with the devil, as the bringer "of death into the world" ch. 2:23,24, is the most remarkable development of biblical doctrine which the book contains. Generally, too, it may be observed that, as in the cognate books, Proverbs and Ecclesiastes, there are few traces of the recognition of the sinfulness even of the wise man in his wisdom, which forms in the Psalms and the prophets, the basis of the Christian doctrine of the atonement: yet comp. (Genesis 15:2 ) In connection with the Old Testament Scriptures, the book, as a whole, may be regarded as carrying on one step farther the great problem of life contained in Ecclesiastes and Job. Date. --From internal evidence it seems most reasonable to believe that the work was composed in Greek at Alexandria some time before the time of Philo-about 120-80 B.C. It seems impossible to study this book dispassionately and not feel that it forms one of the last links in the chain of providential connection between the Old and New Covenants. It would not be easy to find elsewhere any pre-Christian view of religion equally wide, sustained and definite.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Pools of Solomon
The name given to three large open cisterns at Etam, at the head of the Wady Urtas, having an average length of 400 feet by 220 in breadth, and 20 to 30 in depth. These pools derive their chief supply of water from a spring called "the sealed fountain," about 200 yards to the north-west of the upper pool, to which it is conveyed by a large subterranean passage. They are 150 feet distant from each other, and each pool Isaiah 20 feet lower than that above it, the conduits being so arranged that the lowest, which is the largest and finest of the three, is filled first, and then in succession the others. It has been estimated that these pools cover in all a space of about 7 acres, and are capable of containing three million gallons of water. They were, as is generally supposed, constructed in the days of Solomon. They are probably referred to in Ecclesiastes 2:6 . On the fourth day after his victory over the Ammonites, etc., in the wilderness of Tekoa, Jehoshaphat assembled his army in the valley of Berachah ("blessing"), and there blessed the Lord. Berachah has been identified with the modern Bereikut, some 5 miles south of Wady Urtas, and hence the "valley of Berachah" may be this valley of pools, for the word means both "blessing" and "pools;" and it has been supposed, therefore, that this victory was celebrated beside Solomon's pools (2 Chronicles 20:26 ). These pools were primarily designed to supply Jerusalem with water. From the lower pool an aqueduct has been traced conveying the water through Bethlehem and across the valley of Gihon, and along the west slope of the Tyropoeon valley, till it finds its way into the great cisterns underneath the temple hill. The water, however, from the pools reaches now only to Bethlehem. The aqueduct beyond this has been destroyed.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Wisdom of Solomon
1. Place in Canon.-This apocryphal book is not quoted by name in the NT, unless the citation from ‘the wisdom of God’ in Luke 11:49 can be regarded as a paraphrase of Wisdom of Solomon 2:19-20, but it is used in the Epistle to the Romans where 9:21 is a reproduction of Wisdom of Solomon 15:7, while in the Epistle to the Hebrews 1:3 is a reference to Wisdom of Solomon 7:26 (for, indeed, the word ἀπαύγασμα occurs nowhere else in the NT); further, in Matthew 27:43 a reference to Wisdom of Solomon 2:18 appears to be conflated with one to Psalms 22:8, which perhaps has displaced the former (‘If the just man be the son of God, he will help him and deliver him from his enemies’), though enough remains to permit of the identification. The quotation in 1 Corinthians 15:45 bears some relation to Wisdom of Solomon 15:11 (where the ψυχὴ ἐνεργοῦσα and πνεῦμα ζωτικόν are distinguished like the ψυχὴ ζῶσα and πνεῦμα ζωοποιοῦν in the quotation), but is not likely to be taken directly from it.
The work was, therefore, accepted by the early Church as part of the OT, and figures as such in the Canon of Melito (c. a.d. 170), though some MSS of Eusebius alter the text (HE IV. xxxiii. 15) so as to identify it with Proverbs, and this method is followed in the Syriac version. It is cited by Irenaeua (Haer. iv. 37, noticed by Eusebius, HE v. 29); as ‘the Prophet’ by Hippolytus (adv. Judaeos, iv. 16); as ‘Solomon’ by Clement of Alexandria (Strom. VI. vii. 120); and as ‘Scripture’ by Dionysius of Alexandria (c. a.d. 260; M. J. Routh, Reliquiae Sacrae, 4 vols., Oxford, 1814-18, ii. 406); also by early Latin Fathers, e.g. Tertullian (adv. Valentin. 2). Eusebius in the 4th cent. classifies it with the Antilegomena (HE VI. xiii. 6), and Epiphanius (Haer. I. i. 6) says the Jews have it, but regard it as of doubtful authenticity. Jerome says (Praef. in Proverbia) ‘apud Hebraeos nusquam est.’ In the Muratorian Canon it is said to have been written by Solomon’s friends in his honour. It would seem then that its authenticity was assumed in the early Church, but that about the beginning of the 4th cent. its place in the Canon became insecure.
Nothing, it appears, is to be learned about it from the Jewish writers of the 1st cent., Philo and Josephus. To the former Solomon is ‘one of Moses’ disciples,’ and the author of the Proverbs; he shows no acquaintance with the remarkable comments of Wisdom on the manna. Josephus (Ant. VIII. ii. 5) transcribes what is said of Solomon’s works in Kings, and adds that he had left a collection of charms and spells whereby demons could he controlled; this, as we learn from Bab. Giṭṭin, 68a, was ultimately based on an interpretation of Ecclesiastes 2:8. The references to it in the Oral Tradition will be noticed in the next section.
2. The language.-Although the Greek, whence the remaining texts which we possess are in the main derived, is exceedingly ambitious and at times eloquent, the literary form of large portions (especially chs. 1-9) in which the Hebrew parallelism is observed indicates that Greek is not the original language in which the work was composed; for those Israelites who composed original works in Greek naturally adopted Hellenic literary styles, the tragedian Ezekiel (Clem. Alex. Strom. I. xxiii. 155) writing iambics, the Jewish Sibyl hexameters, and Josephus imitating Thucydides. Further, numerous passages display the irresponsibility of a translator. That the original language was Hebrew is made certain by the preservation in the Jewish Oral Tradition (Genesis Rabba, 96, and Jer. Hagiga, ii. 1) of a fragment which is clearly grossly mistranslated in 14:10f., καὶ γὰρ τὸ πραχθὲν σὺν τῷ δράσαντι κολασθήσεται· διὰ τοῦτο καὶ ἐν εἰδώλοις ἐθνῶν ἐπισκοπὴ ἔσται, ‘for that which is done shall be punished with the doer; on this account there shall be a visitation also on the idols of the Gentiles,’ where the first proposition is meaningless, while the attempt to give it a meaning in the AV , ‘for that which was made shall be punished together with him that made it,’ assigns to the two verbs πράττειν and δρᾶν a sense which they have in no Greek writing of any period,* and introduces a proposition which is very little better than the other. The true proposition is ‘that which is worshipped (äðòáø) shall be punished together with the worshipper (äòåáø); wherefore he says “and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgements” (Exodus 12:12).’ The verb òáø in both Jewish and Christian Aramaic frequently represents the Greek πράττειν, and this sense of ‘to do’ is wrongly given it in the LXX of Deuteronomy 12:30; that the Greek of Wisdom is in this case a mistranslation of the maxim quoted by the Rabbis does not therefore admit of question. And, as the text occurs in the middle of a paragraph with which it is closely related, the inference drawn extends further than the actual verse.
The work is otherwise used by the Oral Tradition, yet perhaps not in such a way as to permit of any inference with regard to its language, In Exodus Rabba, 25, the manna is described as ‘having in it all sorts of tastes, so that each Israelite was tasting what he wished’; this represents Wisdom of Solomon 16:20, πρὸς πᾶσαν ἡδονὴν ἱσχύοντα καὶ πρὸς πᾶσαν ἁρμόνιον γεῦσιν, but the correspondence is not quite literal. In Mechilta, 13, on Exodus 12:30 (= Pesikta, 7) it is stated that, when the first-born of any Egyptian died, the father made an image of him, which he set up in his house; this comes from Wisdom of Solomon 14:15, where it is suggested that idolatry thus arose, the intention being also to account for the apparent identification of the gods of Egypt with their first born in Exodus 12:12. The Oral Tradition employs it for a different purpose; if its phrase - be the original of εἰκόνα ποιήσας, the language must have already been affected by Greek. In the Midrash Tanchuma, i. 79b (ed. Warsaw, 1879), the substance of 18:4 is thus given: ‘they [1] thought to bind them [2] in the prison-house; He brought upon them the darkness.’ In Bab. Sanh. 63b (end) the substance of 14:12, 13 is represented by ‘the Israelites knew that the idols had no reality in them and only worshipped them in order to consummate unlawful unions,’ though the correspondence may be accidental.
The text of 14:22 appears to contain an indication of the language in which the book was written, but it is not easy to interpret. ‘Moreover this was not enough for them that they erred in the knowledge of God; but whereas they live in a great war of ignorance, they call such great evils peace’ (τὰ τοσαῦτα κακὰ εἰρήνην προσαγορεύουσιν). It is certain that the Greek word εἰρήνη is not a name for any idolatrous system; but the Hebrew phrase ‘to call peace to’ (-, Judges 21:13; cf. Deuteronomy 20:10) means not to designate by the name ‘peace,’ but to invite to peace, or offer friendship to; and this is what the phrase appears to signify in the passage cited, since the justification of the proposition in what follows is that the idolaters keep on perpetrating various atrocities. The thought is then somewhat like 1:16.
The fact of the work being a translation accounts for the infelicity of many passages, in some of which the underlying Hebrew can be restored with certainty, e.g. 4:18, ὄψονται καὶ ἐξουθενήσουσιν, ‘they shall see and despise,’ where the context requires ‘they shall see and pine away’; the original -, which signifies both, can be restored with certainty from Psalms 112:10; in 13:10, ‘or a useless stone, the work of an ancient hand,’ ‘useless’ is the new-Hebrew sense of -, which should have been rendered ‘carved.’ The word ‘hand’ should probably have been ‘monument,’ which is another sense of the Hebrew word for ‘hand.’ In 3:13, ἥτις οὐκ ἔγνω κοίτην ἐν παραπτώματι, the last words probably stand for Hebrew áòåi (as in Ezekiel 3:20; Ezekiel 18:26) and should have been rendered γαμικήν. In 12:22, ἡμᾶς οὖν παιδεύων τοὑς ἐχθροὺς ἡμῶν ἐν μυριότητι μαστιγοῖς, the sense required by the argument is ‘in order to teach us Thou dost chastise our enemies with leniency’; ἐν μυριότητι, ‘in ten-thousand-ness,’ is apparently a mistranslation of some Hebrew word which seemed to be an abstract noun from øáåà or øááä, but it is not clear what; possibly îøôà read îøáà, since these letters are confused in many scripts. In 19:9 (of the Israelites in the bed of the Red Sea), ὡς γὰρ ἵπποι ἐνεμήθησαν καὶ ὡς ἀμνοὶ διεσκίρτησαν, ‘they fed like horses and skipped like lambs,’ the author clearly did not intend ‘fed’; from Isaiah 63:13 as explained by Kimchi it would seem that the original had øöå, ‘they ran’ (used of horses in Joel 2:4, Amos 6:12), misread -. Kimchi’s words are, ‘just like the horse which runs (-) in the desert where there is no stone nor mud whereon he can stumble, so the Israelites were able to run (-) on that sea-bed.’
In many cases, however, the phrase employed shows clear signs of mistranslation, but restoration of the original is difficult; examples are 1:16b ‘thinking him a friend they melted,’ where the sense requires something like ‘they summoned him’; 7:4 ‘I was reared in swaddling-clothes and cares’; 4:19a ‘for he will break them voiceless prone’; 5:7 ‘we were filled (ἐνεπλήσθημεν) with the paths of lawlessness and destruction’; 12:24b ‘thinking gods the despicable even among the beasts of the enemies’; 18:3c ἥλιον δὲ ἀβλαβῆ φιλοτίμου ξενιτείας παρέσχες. These last words are in any case a paraphrase of Exodus 13:22 ‘and by night a pillar of fire to give light to them’; but by what process this has become ‘a harmless sun of ambitions peregrination,’ which appears to be an absolutely meaningless combination of words, is exceedingly obscure.
The notion that Greek is the original language of the book is probably due to its containing paragraphs which, both in style and in content, bear little resemblance to the OT. Against this we must set the fact that it is replete with Hebraisms (e.g. 9:5 ‘I am thy slave and the son of thine handmaid,’ v. 9 ‘knowing what is pleasing in thine eyes, and straight [3] in thy commandments,’ v. 10b ‘send her from the throne of thy glory’ [4], v. 11c ‘and she shall guard me in her glory’ [5]). It is most improbable that so ambitious a stylist as the person responsible for the Greek of this book would have admitted these idioms had his hands been free; but as a translator he could avoid them only with the greatest difficulty. Sometimes he takes the trouble, e.g. 5:14d, where μνεία καταλύτου μονοημέρου probably stands for Jeremiah’s- (14:8) or something equally simple.
The general elaboration of the Greek makes it probable that the translation is far from faithful; and in a few cases references to Greek authors can be identified. In 18:16 the Almighty Word which slew the first-born of the Egyptians is said to have ‘touched heaven, while standing upon the earth,’ καὶ οὐρανοῦ μὲν ἥπτετο, βεβήκει δʼ ἐπὶ γῆς; the original of the phrase seems to be found in 1 Chronicles 21:16, where the destroying angel ‘stands between heaven and earth’; yet the Greek of Wisdom may be influenced by the description of Strife in Il. iv. 443, οὐρανῷ ἐστήριξε κάρη, καὶ ἐπὶ χθονὶ βαίνει. The fragment preserved in the Oral Tradition indicates that the original did not exhibit the phenomenon which characterizes the Greek-complete absence of proper names. Thus in the latter the patriarchs and others are designated by such epithets as ‘the just one,’ ‘the servant of the Lord,’ ‘the refugee from his brother’s wrath,’ the nearest approach to a proper name being the Red Sea, and Pentapolis, used of the cities of the Plain. The proper names Noah, Moses, Jacob, etc., are usually supplied by the Syriac version, which is (at any rate in the main) made from the Greek. The most probable explanation of their omission in the latter is a stylistic objection to the use of barbarous words in a Hellenic text. Josephus resorts where possible to such expedients as substituting ‘aegisthe’ for ‘Haggith,’ ‘Chalkeus’ for ‘Calcol,’ in order to deal with this difficulty. Plato (Critias, 113a) explains how in his narrative Egyptians come to have Hellenic names; Solon had translated them! Even in the Iliad the Trojans with rare exceptions have Greek names owing to this sentiment.
3. Date and authorship.-The date of the Greek text can be fixed only by its relation to other books. There can be little doubt that it is quoted in the Pauline Epistles; yet this would not necessarily imply that it was earlier than Philo, to whose language and even style it occasionally shows some resemblance. So late a date, however, seems to be excluded by the fact that it appears to have been used by the LXX translator of Isaiah; for the rendering of Song of Solomon 14:15, ‘say of the righteous that it is well,’ by δήσωμεν τὸν δίκαιον ὅτι δύσχρηστος ἡμῖν ἐστιν, ‘let us bind the righteous because he is disagreeable to us,’ is most easily explained as a reminiscence of Wisdom of Solomon 2:12, ἐνεδρεύσωμεν τὸν δίκαιον ὅτι δύσχρηστος ἡμῖν ἐστιν, since on the one hand the adjective belongs to the choice vocabulary of the latter rather than to that of the Greek Isaiah, and on the other the substitution of the 1st for the 2nd person seems to require this explanation; for if àîøå had been merely misread -, the 2nd person would have been retained. The same account is probably to be given of LXX Isaiah 44:20 compared with Wisdom of Solomon 15:10, while in 11:22 of the latter the substitution of ‘a drop of morning dew descending to the earth’ for ‘a drop of a bucket’ (Isaiah 40:15) makes it improbable that the Greek of Wisdom is borrowing from that of Isaiah. Since the LXX translation of Isaiah cannot well be later than 150 b.c., that of Wisdom should be somewhat earlier than that date.
On the other hand, it is probably later than the LXX translation of the Pentateuch, since it exhibits certain technicalities which are likely to have been introduced by that work, e.g. ὁλοκαύτωμα, ποδήρης, ἐξιλασμός, χειροποίητον for -, βδελύγματα for -, etc. Yet where passages of the Pentateuch are reproduced the translator of Wisdom did not always consult the LXX , e.g. 18:6, ἐκείνη ἡ νὺξ προεγνώσθη πατράσιν ἡμῶν represents Exodus 12:42,-, where the LXX renders the words differently. In 16:21 the unintelligible ἡ μὲν γὰρ ὑπόστασίς σου τὴν σὴν πρὸς τέκνα γλυκύτητα ἐνεφάνιζε appears to treat the word iáæ, ‘white,’ in Exodus 16:31 as the Hebrew for ‘to a son,’ where the LXX renders the word correctly.
The character of the language is probably in agreement with the date thus indicated, i.e. about 200 b.c.
The relation of the original work to the books of the OT is very much more difficult to determine. Except for the statement of the author that he had been commanded by God to build the Temple in imitation of the Tabernacle (9:8), wherein he clearly claims to be Solomon, its historical information scarcely goes beyond Numbers, the last event narrated being the plague described in Numbers 17:9-13 (18:23). There are, indeed, numerous cases in which the matter contained in Wisdom is parallel to passages in the other books of the OT; in some of these, if we could trust the canon that the author of a passage is the person who understands it best, we should certainly assign the priority to Wisdom. Thus in Deuteronomy 8:3 the lesson of the manna is said to have been ‘that man does not live by bread alone, but by every utterance of the mouth of God’-an obscure proposition, since the manna is repeatedly called ‘bread’; and even if it be admitted that the Deuteronomist does not allow it that title (29:6), the ‘utterance of the mouth of God’ is far from clear. In Wisdom of Solomon 16:26 the lesson is worded ‘that the fruits which grow do not feed the man, but Thy word maintains them that trust in Thee,’ and it is inferred from the fact that the nutritive power of the manna was dependent on the observation of certain precepts: collected in the morning, it would resist the heat of the oven; but the heat of the sun would melt it, etc. Hence the nutritive power must have lain in the observation of the precepts, not in the substance itself. Were there no other facts to be considered, we should naturally regard the text of Deuteronomy as a mis-statement of the passage of Wisdom.
Much the same is to be said of the description of the making of wooden images: Isaiah 44:13-19; Isaiah 40:20, compared with Wisdom of Solomon 13:11-16. In the latter the carpenter selects suitable timber* for some article of furniture, uses the chippings to cook his food, and, if some crooked and knotty piece remain which is of no use for either purpose, fashions it in his leisure into a god. In the account in Isaiah, ‘half of it he burneth in the fire; on half of it he eateth flesh, he roasteth roast and is satisfied; yea he warmeth himself; and the residue thereof he maketh a god,’ wherein apparently two parts of the timber are employed as firewood, and the remainder used for the idol-the important matter, that the primary object was a piece of furniture, the secondary firewood, being forgotten by the prophet, yet very clearly somehow in his mind. The fact that the idol so fashioned has then to be secured by a nail appears in its right place in Wisdom of Solomon 13:15, whereas in Isaiah 41:7 it is remembered, but is out of its right place; further, Isaiah 41:6-7 gives the appearance of being a confused reminiscence of Wisdom of Solomon 15:9, where the potter is shown to be the most contemptible of all idol-makers, for, instead of reflecting that he is clay himself, he tries to rival the goldsmith and the worker in bronze.
Similarly, whereas, according to the author of the Book of Kings, Solomon was told in a dream to make a wish and chose wisdom, the account of the matter in this book is much less fantastic; he was, he says, a lad of great talent, and pursued the study with all his might, employing among other expedients prayer. In the prayer (9:7) he says: ‘Thou hast chosen me to be king of thy people, and judge of thy sons and daughters’; in Kings, in lieu of this modest description of his subjects, he calls them (1 Kings 3:8) ‘a great people, that cannot be numbered nor counted for multitude,’ which in the Chronicles (2 Chronicles 1:9) is improved to ‘a people like the dust of the earth in multitude.’ Here too sobriety is on the side of Wisdom.
Internal evidence then, at least to some extent, would be in favour of making Wisdom older than the OT books which contain these parallels; nor is it easy to charge the writer-on the supposition that the work is pseudonymous-with any actual anachronism; thus, whereas Philo gives as the list of his own accomplishments (‘the handmaids of Wisdom,’ ed. Mangey, i. 530) grammar, geometry, and music, those claimed for Solomon (7:17-20) are ‘to know how the world was made and the operation of the elements, the beginning, ending, and midst of the tunes (i.e. probably ancient, modern, and mediaeval history), the alterations of the turnings (of the sun) and the change of seasons, the circuits of years and the position of stars, the natures of living creatures and the dispositions of beasts, the forces of the winds and the reasonings of men, the diversities of plants and the virtues of roots’-a list which shows little sign of Greek influence, but is much more suggestive of the learning of Egypt, Phœnicia, and Arabia. It may be observed that ‘the operation of the elements,’ i.e. the use to which substances can be put, is thought by many to be what is meant by knowledge of good and evil in Genesis 3:5. The most decided Hellenism in the book appears to be the Platonic tetrad of the virtues in 8:7, which, however, is likely (cf. the Syriac version) to be an introduction of the Greek editor. And, with regard to those ideas which are peculiarly Jewish, too little is known of the real history of the Israelitish mind to permit of any certain chronology of its products.
Besides this, it seems surprising that an author of such marked ability should employ a pseudonym, and in particular adopt the mask of Solomon, in whose mouth the fierce condemnation of idolatry is peculiarly inappropriate, whilst the attack on unlawful unions and their fruit is scarcely tolerable. On the other hand, it is undoubtedly true that the tone and style of many sections are suggestive of a date many centuries later than Solomon; side by
Holman Bible Dictionary - Solomon
(ssahl' oh mahn) Personal name whose meaning is variously interpreted as “his peace,” “(God) is peace,” “Salem (a god),” “intact,” or “his replacement.” Tenth son of David and the second son of Bathsheba, Solomon became the third king of Israel and reigned forty years about 1000 B.C.
Old Testament Solomon was born to David and Bathsheba after the death of their first son (2 Samuel 12:24 ). Although not the oldest living son of David, he was crowned king after his mother and Nathan the prophet intervened with David and secured David's decision to have Solomon succeed him (1 Kings 1-2 ). Solomon is remembered most for his wisdom, his building program, and his wealth generated through trade and administrative reorganization.
Solomon was remembered as having three thousand proverbs and a thousand and five songs in his repertoire (1 Kings 4:32 ). Thus, it is not surprising that Proverbs and Song of Solomon in the Bible are attributed to Solomon. (Proverbs 1:1 ; Song of Song of Solomon 1:1 ) as are several apocryphal and pseudepigraphal books. See 1 Kings 3:16 ) and by the visit of the queen of Sheba (1 Kings 10:1 ).
While Solomon's Temple was the most famous of his building projects (1 Kings 5-8 ), it was by no means the only one. Solomon fortified a number of cities that helped provide protection to Jerusalem, built “store-cities” for stockpiling the materials required in his kingdom, and established military bases for contingents of charioteers (1 Kings 9:15-19 ). The Temple complex in Jerusalem was composed of several buildings including Solomon's palace, the “house of the forest of Lebanon,” the “hall or porch of pillars,” the “hall or porch of the throne,” and a palace for one of his wives, the daughter of the pharaoh of Egypt (1 Kings 7:1 ). See Archaeology; Gezer ; Hazor ; Megiddo ; Temple.
Solomon divided the country into administrative districts that did not correspond to the old tribal boundaries (1 Kings 4:7-19 ) and had the districts provide provisions for the central government. This system, combined with control of vital north/south trade routes between the Red Sea and what was later known as Asia Minor, made it possible for Solomon to accumulate vast wealth. This wealth was supplemented both from trading in horses and chariots and from trade carried on by a fleet of ships (1 Kings 9:26-28 ; 1 Kings 10:26-29 ). See Eloth ; Ezion-geber .
The Bible clearly notes that Solomon had faults as well as elements of greatness. The “seven hundred wives, princesses, and three hundred concubines” came from many of the kingdoms with which Solomon had treaties (1 Kings 11:1 ). He apparently allowed his wives to worship their native gods and even had altars to these gods constructed in Jerusalem (1 Kings 11:7-8 ). This kind of compromise indicated to the historian a weakness in Solomon not found in David. Rebellions led by the king of Edom, Rezon of Damascus, and Jeroboam, one of Solomon's own officers, indicates that Solomon's long reign was not without its turmoil.
New Testament Solomon was an ancestor of Jesus (Matthew 1:6-7 ) and is mentioned in Jesus' teaching about anxiety (Matthew 6:29 ; Luke 12:27 ). Jesus noted that the queen of Sheba came a long way to see Solomon and that “something greater than Solomon is here” (Matthew 12:42 ; Luke 11:31 ). Jesus walked in “Solomon's porch,” a part of the Temple area (John 10:23 ; compare Acts 3:11 ; Acts 5:12 ). Stephen noted that though David sought to find a place for God, it was Solomon who “built a house for him” (Acts 7:47 ).
Joe O. Lewis
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Song of Solomon, Theology of
At first reading it seems impossible to describe a theology of the Song of Songs. After all, the name of God may appear only one time in the book, and that is debated (8:6). Moreover, God is not the only surprising absence in the book; we look in vain for a reference to Israel, the covenant, worship institutions, or anything explicitly religious. How then could Rabbi Akiba call this book the Bible's "Holy of Holies"?
The way chosen by many during the history of interpretation was to suppress the obviously sexual language of human love in the book by allegorizing it. Jewish interpreters, as represented by the Targum of the book (ca. seventh century a.d.), thought that the lover of the Song was Yahweh and the beloved Israel. Thus, when the woman pleads with the king to take her into his chamber (1:4), this has nothing to do with human lovemaking but rather describes the exodus from Egypt, God's bedroom being the land of Palestine. Early Christian interpreters also desexed the Song in this way, but, of course, identified the main characters with Jesus Christ and the church and/or the individual Christians. Hippolytus (ca. a.d. 200) was the first known Christian to allegorize the Song. From fragments of his commentary we learn that he takes the statement in 1:4 to mean that Christ has brought the worthy ones whom he has wedded into the church. The Targum and Hippolytus are just examples of an interpretive tendency that was dominant from early times until the nineteenth century and still is occasionally found today.
The allegorical method, however, lacks any external justification. The Song gives no indication that it should be read in any but a straightforward way. The discovery and publication of formally similar love poetry from modern Arabic literature as well as ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia signaled the end of the allegorical approach to the text, but left the church with a number of questions about the theological meaning of the Song.
The Song serves an important canonical function with its explicit language of love. Allegorization in early times arose from the belief that such a subject was unsuitable for the Holy Scriptures. The church and the synagogue had been influenced by foreign philosophy (Neo-Platonism) to the point where bodily functions were seen in opposition to the things of the Spirit and thus to be avoided. The same attitudes and beliefs that motivated the monastic movement led to the allegorization of the Song. The Song, however, stands against such attempts and tells the church that sexuality within the context of marriage is something God created for the pleasure of his human creatures. Thus, the woman delights in the physical beauty of the man (5:10-16) and vice versa (4:1-15), and this physical attraction culminates in passionate lovemaking (5:1-2). God endowed humans at creation with sexuality as a blessing, not as a curse.
Indeed, the Song must be read in the context of the garden of Eden, where human sexuality is first introduced. The pervasive garden theme in the Song evokes memories of the garden before the fall. Since Adam had no suitable partner, God created Eve, and the man and the woman stood naked in the garden and felt no shame (Genesis 2:25 ), exulting in one another's "flesh" (Genesis 2:23-24 ).
This perfect harmony between the male and female tragically ended at the fall. Eve, then Adam, rebelled against God and a horrible distance grew between the sinful human race and their holy God. This separation between the divine and the human had repercussions in the human sphere as well. Now Adam and Eve were naked and they felt shame and fled from one another (Genesis 3:7,10 ). The sin of Adam and Eve was not a specifically sexual sin, but the alienation that resulted from the sin is recounted in sexual terms.
The Song of Songs, then, describes a lover and his beloved rejoicing in each other's sexuality in a garden. They feel no shame. The Song is as the story of sexuality redeemed.
Nonetheless, this reading does not exhaust the theological meaning of the Song. When read in the context of the canon as a whole, the book forcefully communicates the intensely intimate relationship that Israel enjoys with God. In many Old Testament Scriptures, marriage is an underlying metaphor for Israel's relationship with God. Unfortunately, due to Israel's lack of trust, the metaphor often appears in a negative context, and Israel is pictured as a whore in its relationship with God (Jeremiah 2:20 ; 3:1 ; Ezekiel 16,23 ). One of the most memorable scenes in the Old Testament is when God commands his prophet Hosea to marry a prostitute to symbolize his love for a faithless Israel. In spite of the predominantly negative use of the image, we must not lose sight of the fact that Israel was the bride of God, and so as the Song celebrates the intimacy between human lovers, we learn about our relationship with God.
So we come full circle, reaching similar conclusions to the early allegorical approaches to the Song. The difference, though, is obvious. We do not deny the primary and natural reading of the book, which highlights human love, and we do not arbitrarily posit the analogy between the Song's lovers and God and Israel. Rather, we read it in the light of the pervasive marriage metaphor of the Old Testament.
From a New Testament Perspective . The New Testament also uses human relationships as metaphors of the divine-human relationship, and none clearer than marriage. According to Ephesians 5:22-23 , the church is the bride of Christ (see also Revelation 19:7 ; 21:2,9 ; 22:17 ). So Christians should read the Song in the light of Ephesians and rejoice in the intimate relationship that they enjoy with Jesus Christ.
Tremper Longman Iii
Bibliography . G. L. Carr, Song of Solomon ; F. Delitzsch, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs ; M. Falk, Love Lyrics from the Bible ; W. G. Lambert, JSS 4 (1959): 1-15; M. H. Popoe, Song of Songs ; P. Trible, God and the Rhetoric of Sexuality ; J. B. White, A Study of the Language of Love in the Song of Songs and Ancient Near Eastern Poetry .
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Solomon
SOLOMON.—Jesus makes two references to Solomon, speaking on one occasion of his ‘glory,’ and on another of his ‘wisdom.’ In Matthew 6:29 = Luke 12:27 He places the pure natural beauty of the lilies above the consummate type of artificial splendour, and uses the contrast to point the lesson of trustful dependence upon God, the Giver of all that is necessary for the body as well as for the spirit. In Matthew 12:42 = Luke 11:31 the eagerness of Solomon’s contemporaries to hear his words of worldly wisdom is contrasted with the indifference and spiritual blindness of the men of Jesus’ own day, who failed to understand and appreciate the truer wisdom of a greater teacher.
For ‘Solomon’s Porch’ see Temple.
C. H. Thomson.
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Solomon
Son of David, king of Israel: his name is derived from Shalem, peaceable. His history we have at large in the first book of the Kings. But the greatest improvement we can make of the view of Solomon, is to consider him in those features of his character which were typical of the Lord Jesus Christ. I shall beg to detain the reader for a few moments on this account respecting Solomon, as it is striking.
As Solomon was the son of David after the flesh, so Christ in his human nature is expressly, marked for the comfort of the faithful, as of the same stock. "Remember (saint Paul to Timothy) that Jesus Christ, of the seed of David, was raised from the dead according to my gospel." (2 Timothy 2:8) Hence when Christ "whose son he was, they answered, the son of David." (Matthew 22:42) And it is remarkable that the Lord should have sent by the hand of Nathan, at the birth of Solomon, and called him Jedidiah, that is, beloved of the Lord. (2 Samuel 12:24-25) And we need not be told how the Lord, by a voice from heaven, proclaimed Christ to be his"beloved Son in whom he was well pleased."Add to these, Solomon king of Israel typified Christ as a king and as a preacher in Jerusalem; and also in his wisdom, in the riches, magnitude; peaceableness, and glory of his kingdom, and in the building of the temple, which was a beautiful type of the Lord Jesus; who is not only the builder of the temple, which is his church, but the foundation of it, the substance, and the glory of it; for he and he alone, as the Lord said by the prophet, was the only one fit to build the temple of the Lord, and he alone "could only bear the glory." (Zechariah 6:13)
But when we have looked at Solomon, king of Israel, as in those and the like instances, as becoming a lively type of the ever-blessed Jesus, and see in our Lord Jesus Christ a greater than Solomon in every one, I would request the reader to detach from the person and character of David's son all that belongs not to him in those Scriptures, and particularly in the book of the Psalms, which are as if directed to him and spoken of him, but certainly with him have nothing to do. I mean such as Psalms 20:1-9; Psalms 21:1-13 and Psalms 72:1-20. I know that some commentators have supposed that what is there said is said first of Solomon, king of Israel, and secondly in an higher sense of the Lord Jesus Christ. But oh, what a degradation of the subject is it thus to suppose! Oh, what indignity is thereby offered to the Lord Jesus Christ! I have said so much on this point in my Poor Man's Commentary on the Book of the Psalms, that I think it unnecessary in this place to enlarge; but I could not suffer the subject even in this little work, while speaking of Solomon, to pass by without remarking the great perversion of the Scripture to suppose that there is in those things the least reference to Solomon, king of Israel.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Song of Solomon, the
(See SOLOMON.)
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Song of Solomon, the Book of
(See SOLOMON.)
Whyte's Dictionary of Bible Characters - Solomon
LEST I MYSELF SHOULD BE A CASTAWAY
THE shipwreck of Solomon is surely the most terrible tragedy in all the world. For if ever there was a shining type of Christ in the Old Testament church, it was Solomon. If ever any one was once enlightened, and had tasted the heavenly gift, and was made a partaker of the Holy Ghost, and had tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the world to come, it was Solomon. If ever any young saint sought first the kingdom of God and His righteousness, and had all these things added unto him, it was Solomon. If the kingdom of heaven was ever like a lord's servant with five talents, who went and traded with the same and made them other five talents, it was Solomon. If ever there was any one of whom it could be said that he had attained, and was already perfect, it was Solomon. If ever ship set sail on a sunny morning, but all that was left of her was a board or two on the shore that night, that ship was Solomon. A board or two of rare and precious wood, indeed; and some of them richly worked and overlaid with silver and gold-it was Solomon with his sermons, and his prayers, and his proverbs, and his songs, and his temple. If ever a blazing lighthouse was set up in the sea of life to warn every man and to teach every man, it was Solomon.
Solomon was born of a father and a mother, the knowledge of which was enough to sanctify and dedicate both him and them from his mother's womb. If ever it was said over any child's birth, Where sin abounded, grace did much more abound, it was surely over the birth, and the birth-gifts and graces of Solomon. If ever a father's and a mother's son said when he was come to years, And is this the manner of man, O Lord God? that son come to years was surely Solomon. And, then, with a tutor and governor like Nathan-Judge, I pray you, betwixt me and my vineyard. What more could have been done to my vineyard that I have not done in it? And then his father's deathbed, and all those terrible tragedies on the back of that; all ending in Solomon sitting down on the throne of Israel amid such a blaze of glory. Solomon would have been made of stone not to have been moved to make those vows, and promises, and choices of wisdom and truth and righteousness, which we read so beautifully that he did make at the beginning of his reign in Jerusalem.
The Holy Child Himself never dreamed a better dream than that dream was which Solomon dreamed after that day of a thousand burnt-offerings on the altar of Gibeon. And a nobler choice was never made by any elect man in his most waking and most enlightened hours, than was the choice that Solomon made that midnight in his sleep. As soon as Lord Melbourne had announced to the young Princess Victoria that she was now Queen of England, he opened the Bible and read to the young sovereign the story of Solomon's dream at Gibeon. It was a stroke of genius. It was an inspiration. It was a prophetic Scripture in her case and in ours. Would God it had come half as true in his case who dreamed the dream! 'And the speech pleased the Lord that Solomon had asked this thing. And God said unto him, Because thou hast asked this thing, and hast not asked for thyself long life; neither hast asked riches for thyself, nor hast asked the life of thine enemies; but hast asked for thyself understanding to discern judgment. Behold, I have done according to thy words; lo, I have given thee a wise and an understanding heart; so that there was none like thee before thee, neither after thee shall any one arise like unto thee. And I have also given thee that which thou hast not asked, both riches and honour; so that there shall not be any among the kings like unto thee all thy days.' And both the riches and the honour promised at Gibeon were all fulfilled in Jerusalem, till the half had not been told to Solomon.
Magnifical, a mountain of ceder and wrought gold, as Solomon's temple was, it is all gone to dust and ashes millenniums ago. As the Lord warned Solomon, the temple soon became an astonishment and a hissing. But the dedication prayer that Solomon offered on the opening day before the altar is a far better prayer to us today than it was that day on which it first fell from Solomon's lips. Stone and timber, gold and silver, crumble to dust and are forgotten. But once a piece like that is composed, and spoken, and taken down, and read, it lasts for ever. No doubt it may be said in suspicion and in depreciation of Solomon that kings are wont to get their speeches and their prayers written for them by their ministers, secular and sacred; and that what falls from a king's lips before his people need not have come from his heart. But in the case of a king of Solomon's birth and upbringing and great gifts, such a libel would never have been let light had it not been that it is a real relief to hear it. If Solomon actually, and all of himself, made and offered that wonderful prayer, then when we think of it, he is more a mystery of perdition to us than ever. That wonderful discovery and operation of our day which is called Biblical Criticism has let in a most piercing and searching and edifying light, not only upon Bible books, but also upon Bible men. And upon no man more than upon both Solomon and his books. 'The prayer of Solomon,' says a scholar of no less grace and genius than of scholarship, 'so fully reproduced, and so evidently precomposed, may well have been written under Nathan's guidance.' He does not say positively that it was so precomposed and written. But he evidently believes, for his part, that it was; and he says what he does say in this matter for the sake of those who will let him say it, and not for those who will not. Had Solomon lived up to that prayer; no, I must not say that, for no man could do that, not Nathan himself; but if Solomon in all his unspeakable sensualities and idolatries had ever given the least sign or symptom that he felt shame for his life, or remorse when he remembered his prayer: had it not been for that, I, for one, could never have let it light on my mind that any one but Solomon himself composed what is here called Solomon's prayer. But I must say it is both a relief and an edification to my mind that the greatest castaway in the Bible may not have been the original and real and only author of one of the greatest and best prayers in the Bible. I can hold up my head better when I am opening a church and am reading and expounding this prayer, when I think of Nathan's pure and noble soul rather than of Solomon, who is so soon to be such a scandal and reprobation. I do not know how you feel about a matter like that. But I shall always return to that splendid prayer with the author of the parable of the one little ewe lamb before my mind, rather than the reprobate lover of no end of strange women, and the fatal father of Rehoboam. I can imagine many open-minded young men here, and many open-minded old men like Jonathan Edwards, who will go back to the prophetic precomposition and the prophetic reproduction of this great prayer with thankfulness to God for the splendid service that Christian scholarship is doing to Holy Scriptures, and not least to Solomon's psalms and songs and prayers and proverbs in our open-eyed, believing, and truly reverential day.
Our own Lord Bacon always comes to my mind when I think about Solomon. For Bacon also took all wisdom and all knowledge, past, present, and yet to be discovered, for his province. Bacon also spake of trees, from the cedar tree that is in Lebanon, even to the hyssop that springeth out of the wall. He spake also of beasts, and of fowls, and of creeping things, and of fishes. Bacon, like Solomon, put tongues into trees and made them speak proverbs. The streams round Verulam and Gorhambury ran excellent books to Bacon, till he extracted wisdom absolutely out of everything. Solomon's House in The New Atlantis is the best commentary that will ever be written on the wisdom of Solomon. Bacon's Essays are our English Book of Proverbs, and an English Ecclesiastes could easily be collected out of Bacon's Letters and Speeches. For he, too-
he felt from time to timeThe littleness that clings to what is human,And suffered from the shame of having felt it.And then, with it all, Bacon's superb genius followed by his awful fall, makes us almost believe that Solomon has come back to this earth again in the lord chancellor of England. Only, how happy it would have made us had Nathan found among Solomon's parchments, and in Solomon's own handwriting, a psalm or prayer like that which Bacon's executors found in his dead desk. Will you join me in the following petitions out of Bacon's prostrate prayer: 'Most gracious Lord God, my merciful Father from my youth up, my Creator, my Redeemer, my Comforter. Thou, O Lord, soundest and searchest the depths and secrets of all hearts. Thou acknowledgest the upright in heart, Thou judgest the hypocrite, Thou ponderest men's thoughts and doings as in a balance, Thou measurest their intentions as with a line, vanity and crooked ways cannot be hidden from Thee. Lord, I have loved Thy assemblies. I have mourned for the divisions of Thy church. I have delighted in the brightness of Thy sanctuary. Thy creatures have been my books, but Thy Scriptures much more. I have sought Thee in the courts, in the fields, and in the gardens, but I have found Thee in Thy temples. Thousands have been my sins, and ten thousand my transgressions; but Thy sanctifications have remained with me, and my heart, through Thy grace, hath been an unquenched coal upon Thy altar. As Thy favours have increased upon me, so have Thy corrections; so as Thou hast been always near me, O Lord, and ever as my worldly blessings were exalted, so secret darts from Thee have pierced me; and when I have ascended before men, I have descended in humiliation before Thee. Besides my innumerable sins, I confess before Thee that I am debtor to Thee for the gracious talent of Thy gifts and graces, winch I have neither put into a napkin nor put it as I ought to exchangers, but have mis-spent it in things for which I was least fit, so as I may truly say my soul hath been a stranger in the house of my pilgrimage. Be merciful unto me, O Lord, and guide me in Thy ways, and afterwards receive me to glory.' No. That is not Solomon come back again. Would God it were! Solomon has nothing like that to come back with. That is Solomon's father come back to fallen Bacon. That is the man after God's own heart.
What malice there must be in our hearts when God's very best gifts to us, and our very best blessings, are turned by us to be our temptation and our snare! David's terrible fall took place not among the cruel rocks of his exile, but on the roof of the king's palace in Jerusalem. And it was Solomon's very wisdom and wide understanding; it was his great riches; it was his wide dominion; it was his largeness of heart and his long and peaceful life that all worked together to make his path so slippery and so deadly. It is not to be wiser than what is written to say that it was not a vulgar and an everyday sensuality that made Solomon in the end such a castaway. There was that in it. But there were more things, and more seductive and dangerous things in it than that. There was this; There was what the inspired text calls largeness of heart-very much what we would call in our day openness and breadth of mind, hospitality and catholicity of mind, even to sympathy and symbolism with beliefs, with ways of worship, and with ways of no worship, against which it had been the divine call and whole ministry of Moses, and Aaron, and Joshua, and David to warn and to protect the children of Israel. That Solomon should go down to Egypt, of all places on the face of the earth, for his queen; that Pharaoh's daughter should sit on the throne of David, that must have given a shock to the more conservative, and sober, and thoughtful, and religious, and far-seeing minds in Israel-a shock that we wonder we do not hear more about it while Solomon is yet young and yet alive. We shall hear plenty about it when he is dead, and when Rehoboam's teeth are set on edge. No doubt, largeness of heart, even as the sand that is on the seashore, and breadth and openness of mind, and a catholic and a hospitable temper, and the charity that believeth all things and hopeth all things, is all of God, and is all to be seen in Jesus Christ and in His church. At the same time, such is the malignity of our hearts, that even charity itself has its temptations and its snares when it becomes our charity. Even grace itself, says Shepard, is flesh in respect of God. And Solomon's largeness of heart soon ended in sheer flesh itself. His wisdom as his life went on descended not from above. The wisdom that is from above is first pure, then peaceable. We see it every day. We see men absolutely revolting against all smallness of heart. They loath all your bigotry, and narrowness, and hardness, and suspicion, and superstition. They see a soul of good especially in things evil. They fraternise with men and with movements that their fathers abominated. They pare down and prune away the decalogue, and the creed, and the catechism, and the books of discipline of their godly upbringing. They rehabilitate and reinvest names and reputations that were a shame and a reproach in their father's house. They go down to Egypt for a wife, and they bring up her false gods with her. 'And it came to pass that, when Solomon was old, his wives turned away his heart after other gods; and his heart was not perfect with the Lord his God, as was the heart of David his father.' And, if not in them, then in their children, all that Moses, and Aaron, and Joshua, and David had won for them and for their children at a great price is surrendered up and sold for naught, till the old great price has to be paid for it again in their children's sin, and suffering, and defeat, and captivity. Every generation has its own sword sent to it: its own peculiar trial of faith and holiness and severe obedience. And there is no shipwreck of faith and holiness and severe obedience in all the world that is written more for the men of our generation than just the terrible shipwreck of Solomon amid his wealth, and his wisdom, and his largeness of horizon and hospitality of heart, even to strange women and to their strange gods, till that end came which always comes.
The books of Solomon so-called-the Proverbs, the Ecclesiastes, and the Song-had a great struggle to get a footing inside the Old Testament. Each one of Solomon's books had its own difficulty to those who sifted out and sealed up the Hebrew Bible. There was something in all the books that were in any way associated with Solomon's name that made the Hebrew Fathers doubt their fitness for a place in Holy Scripture. There is one fatal want in them all. There is no repentance anywhere in Solomon. There is no paschal lamb, or young pigeon, or bitter herb among all the beasts, and birds, and hyssop-plants of which Solomon spoke and sang so much. There is no day of atonement, or so much as one of the many ordained sacrifices for sin, in any of Solomon's real or imputed writings. Both the sense of truth and the instinct of verisimilitude kept back all those who ever assumed Solomon's name from ever putting a penitential psalm, or a proverb of true repentance, in Solomon's mouth. The historical sense, as we call it, was already too strong for that even in the deathbed moralisings and soliloquisings that have come down to us under Solomon's name. There is no thirty-second, or fifty-first, or hundred and thirtieth Psalm of David in all the volume of 'Psalms of Solomon' that were composed in the century before Christ. No; there is no real repentance, real or assumed, anywhere in Solomon. There is remorse in plenty, and weariness of life, and discontent, and disgust, and self-contempt, bitterer to drink than blood. There is plenty of the sorrow that worketh death; but there is not one syllable of the repentance to salvation not to be repented of. 'All taste for pleasure is extinguished in the king's heart,' wrote Madame de Maintenon from the deathbed of Louis the Fourteenth. 'Old age and disappointment have taught him to make serious reflections on the vanity of everything he was formerly fond of.' Bathsheba might have written that letter from her dying son's bedside. Vanity of vanities, groaned out Solomon, with his heart full of the ashes of a lost life. All is vanity and vexation of spirit. Dreams at Gibeon, building of temples and kings' houses, largeness of heart, gifts of prophecy, a tongue of men and angels, proverbs and songs and Songs of songs-all is vanity if there is not along with it all constant repentance, daily self-denial, and a heart more and more perfect with God. The wise men of the east, wiser than Solomon, have a proverb upon the secret worm that was gnawing all the time in the royal staff upon which Solomon leaned. What, to end with, is the secret worm that is gnawing in your staff on which you lean?
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Solomon
Shlomoh in Hebrew. Second child of David by Bathsheba. Josephus makes Solomon last born of David's sons (Ant. 7:14, section 2). His history is contained in 2 Samuel 12:24-25; 1 Chronicles 22:6-16; 1 Chronicles 22:1 Kings 1-11; 2 Chronicles 1-9. The leading events of his life were selected, under inspiration: namely, his grandeur, extensive commerce, and wisdom, etc. (1 Kings 9:10-10:29), from "the book of the Acts of Solomon"; his accession and dedication of the temple (1 Kings 1 - 1 Kings 8:66) from "the book of Nathan the prophet"; his idolatry and its penal consequences (1 Kings 11) from "the book of Ahijah the Shilonite and the visions of Iddo the seer." Psalm 72 was his production under the Spirit. Its objective character accords with Solomon's other writings, whereas subjective feeling characterizes David's psalms. Solomon's glorious and wide kingdom typifies Messiah's. The Nile, Mediterranean, and Euphrates, were then Israel's bounds (1 Kings 4:21; 2 Chronicles 9:26) as promised in Genesis 15:18; Deuteronomy 11:24.
From thence Messiah is to reign to the ends of the earth (Deuteronomy 11:8; Isaiah 9:5-6; Isaiah 11; Zechariah 9:10; see Micah 5:4; Numbers 24:19). "The song of degrees," i.e. for Israelites going up to the great feasts at Jerusalem (Psalm 127), was also Solomon's. It has no trace of the sadness which pervades "the songs of degrees" without titles, and which accords with the post captivity period. The individual comes into prominence here, whereas they speak more of the nation and church. The theme suits Solomon who occupied chiefly the domestic civic territory. The main thought answers to Proverbs 10:22, "so God giveth His beloved sleep," i.e. undisturbed repose and wealth without the anxieties of the worldly, in a way they know not how (Mark 4:27). So God gave to His beloved S. in sleep (Hengstenberg supplies "in"); Matthew 6:25; Matthew 6:34. Jedidiah ("beloved of Jehovah," Psalms 127:2) was his God-given name (Psalms 60:5). Solomon evidently refers (Psalms 60:2) to his own experience (1 Kings 3:5-13; 1 Kings 4:20-25), yet in so unstudied a way that the coincidence is evidently undesigned, and so confirms the authenticity of both psalm and independent history. (See PROVERBS; CANTICLES; ECCLESIASTES.)
His name Solomon , "peaceful", was given in accordance with the early prophecy that, because of wars, David should not build Jehovah's house, but that a son should be born to him, "a man of rest," who should build it (1 Chronicles 22:9; compare the fulfillment 1 Kings 4:25; 1 Kings 5:4, and the Antitype Matthew 11:29; Psalms 132:8-14; Isaiah 11:10; Isaiah 9:6; Ephesians 2:14). His birth was to David a pledge that God is at peace with him. Jehovah commissioned Nathan ("sent by the hand of Nathan"), and Nathan called David's son Jedidiah "for Jehovah's sake," i.e. because Jehovah loved him. Jehovah's naming him so assured David that Jehovah loved Solomon. Jedidiah was therefore not his actual name, but expressed Jehovah's relation to him (2 Samuel 12:24-25). Tradition makes Nathan the prophet his instructor, Jehiel was governor of the royal princes (1 Chronicles 27:32). Jehovah chose Solomon of all David's sons to be his successor, and promised to be his father, and to establish his kingdom for ever, if he were constant to His commandments (1 Chronicles 28:5-6-7).
Accordingly David swore to Bathsheba that her son should succeed. She pleaded this at the critical moment of Adonijah's rebellion (1 Kings 1:13; 1 Kings 1:17; 1 Kings 1:30). (See ADONIJAH.) By the interposition of Nathan the prophet, Zadok the priest, Benaiah, Shimei, and Rei, David's mighty men, Solomon was at David's command taken on the king's own mule to Gihon, anointed, and proclaimed king. Solomon would have spared Adonijah but for his incestuous and treasonous desire to have Abishag his father's concubine; he mercifully spared the rest of his brothers who had joined Adonijah. (See ADONIJAH.) Abiathar he banished to Anathoth for treason, thus fulfilling the old curse on Eli (1 Samuel 2:31-35). (See ABIATHAR.) Joab the murderer he put to death, according to his father's dying charge, illustrating Solomon's own words, Ecclesiastes 8:12-13. Shimei fell by breaking his own engagement on oath.
Solomon's reverent dutifulness to his mother amidst all his kingly state appears in the narrative (1 Kings 2:12; Exodus 20:12; Psalms 45:9; Proverbs 1:8; Proverbs 4:3; Proverbs 6:20; Proverbs 10:1). The ceremonial of coronation and anointing was repeated more solemnly before David and all the congregation, with great sacrifices and glad feastings, Zadok at the same time being anointed "priest"; and Jehovah magnified Solomon exceedingly in the sight of all Israel, and bestowed upon him such royal majesty as had not been on any king before him in Israel (1 Chronicles 29:20-25). He was "yet young and tender" (1 Chronicles 29:1; 1 Chronicles 22:5; 1 Kings 3:7; "I am but a little child," Proverbs 4:3); perhaps 20 years of age: as Rehoboam was 41 at his accession and Solomon had reigned 40 years, Rehoboam must have been born before Solomon's accession (1 Kings 11:42; 1 Kings 14:21). Solomon loved the Lord who had first loved him; 1 Kings 3:3. (See JEDIDIAH.)
He walked in David's godly ways but there being no one exclusive temple yet, he sacrificed in high places, especially at the great high place in Gibeon, where was the tabernacle with its altar, while the ark was in Zion. After his offering there a thousand burnt offerings God in vision gave him his choice of goods. In the spirit of a child (see 1 Corinthians 2:14) he asked for an understanding heart to discern between good and bad (compare James 1:5; James 3:17; 2 Timothy 3:17; Proverbs 2:3-9; Psalms 72:1-2; Hebrews 5:14). God gave him, besides wisdom, what he had not asked, riches, honour, and life, because he made wisdom his first desire (James 4:3; 1 John 5:14-15; Ecclesiastes 1:16; Matthew 6:33; Ephesians 3:20; Proverbs 3:2; Proverbs 3:16; Psalms 91:16). His wise decision as to the owner of the living child established his reputation for wisdom.
His Egyptian queen, Pharaoh's daughter, is distinguished from "the strange women" who seduced him to idolatry (1 Kings 11:1), and no Egyptian superstitions are mentioned. Still he did not let her as a foreigner stay in the palace of David, sanctified as it was by the presence of the ark, but assigned her a dwelling in the city of David and then brought her up out of the city of David to the palace he had built for her (2 Chronicles 8:11; 1 Kings 9:24; 1 Kings 3:1). Gezer was her dowry. (See GEZER.) Toward the close of his reign God chastised him for idolatry because, beginning with latitudinarian toleration of his foreign wives' superstitions, be ended with adopting them himself; retaining at the same time what cannot be combined with idolatry, Jehovah's worship (Ezekiel 20:39; Ezekiel 20:1 Kings 11). Jeroboam "lifted up his hand against the king, and fled to Shishak (of a new dynasty) of Egypt"; Rezon of Zobah on the N.E. frontier and Hadad the Edomite became his adversaries, Solomon otherwise had uninterrupted peace. (See JEROBOAM; REZON; HADAD.)
Among his buildings were the famous Tadmor or Palmyra in the wilderness, to carry on commerce with inland Asia, and store cities in Hamath; Bethhoron, the Upper and the Nether, on the border toward Philistia and Egypt; Hazor and Megiddo, guarding the plain of Esdraelon; Baalath or Baalbek, etc. (See TADMOR.) (On 1 Kings 10:28, see LINEN, and on 1 Kings 10:29, see HORSE.) Tiphsah ("Thapsacus") on the Euphrates (1 Kings 4:24) was his limit in that direction. On Lebanon he built lofty towers (2 Chronicles 8:6; Song of Solomon 7:4) "looking toward Damascus" (1 Kings 9:19). The Hittite and Syrian kings, vassals of Solomon, were supplied from Egypt with chariots and horses through the king's merchants. Hiram was his ally, and supplied him with timber in return for 20,000 measures (core ) of wheat and 20 measures of pure oil (1 Kings 5). Solomon gave him at the end of his great buildings 20 cities in Galilee, with which Hiram was dissatisfied. (See CABUL.)
Solomon had his navy at Ezion Geber, near Eloth on the Red Sea, which went to Ophir and brought back 420 talents of gold; and a navy of Tarshish which sailed with Hiram's navy in the Mediterranean, bringing every three years "gold, silver, ivory, apes, and peacocks." (See TARSHISH.) For the first time Israel began to be a commercial nation, and Solomon's occupation of Edom enabled him to open to Hiram his ally a new field of commerce. His own interest in it is evidenced by his going in person to Elath and Ezion Geber to view the preparations for expeditions (2 Chronicles 8:17; compare his allusions to seafaring life, Proverbs 23:34-35). Silver flowed in so plentifully that it was "nothing accounted of"; of gold yearly came in 666 (the number of the beast, Revelation 13:18) talents; a snare to him and his people, seducing the heart from God to luxurious self indulgence (1 Kings 4:20; 1 Kings 4:25). Heretofore "dwelling alone, and not reckoned among the nations," Israel now was in danger of conformity to them in their idolatries (1 Kings 10:14). The Temple and his palace were his great buildings. (See TEMPLE.)
Hiram, a widow's son of Naphtali by a Tyrian father, was his chief artificer in brass. Solomon's men, 30,000, i.e. 10,000 a month, the other 20,000 having two months' relief, cut timber in Lebanon; 70,000 bore loads; 80,000 hewed stone in the mountains and under the rock, where the mason's Phoenician marks have been found; chiefly Canaanites, spared on conforming to Judaism; 3,300 officers were over these workmen. The preparation of stones took three years (Septuagint 1 Kings 5:18). The building of the temple began in Ζif , the second month of his fourth year; the stones were brought ready, so that no sound of hammer was heard in the house; in seven years it was completed, in the month Βul ('November"), his 11th year (1 Kings 6:37-38); eleven months later Solomon offered the dedication prayer, after the ark had been placed in the holiest place and the glory cloud filled the sanctuary; this was during the feast of tabernacles.
He recognizes in it God's covenant-keeping faithfulness (1 Kings 8:23-26); His being unbounded by space, so that "the heaven of heavens cannot contain Him," much less any temple; yet he begs God to regard the various prayers which should, under various exigencies, be offered there (Isaiah 66:1; Jeremiah 23:24; Acts 7:24). He acknowledges His omniscience as knowing already the plague of each heart which the individual may confess before Him. After kneeling in prayer Solomon stood to bless God, at the same time begging Him to incline Israel's heart unto Himself and to "maintain their cause at all times as the matter shall require" (Hebrew "the thing of a day in its day") 1 Kings 8:59; Luke 11:3. God's answer (1 Kings 9:3) at His second appearance to Solomon in Gibeon was the echo of his prayer (1 Kings 8:29), "Mine eyes and Mine heart shall be there perpetually" (1 Kings 9:3), but God added a warning that if Israel should apostatize the temple should become "a bye-word among all people." The building of Solomon's palace occupied 13 years, after the temple, which was built in seven. It consisted of
(1) the house of the forest of Lebanon, built of a forest of cedar pillars, and serving also as an armory (1 Kings 10:17), 1 Kings 10:100 cubits long, 50 broad, 30 high, on four rows of cedar pillars and hewn cedar beams over the pillars. There were 45 side rooms, forming three stories of 15 rooms each, built upon the lower rows of pillars in ranges of 15 each; the windows of the three stories on one side were vis a vis to those on the opposite side of the inner open court enclosed between them (Keil on 1 Kings 7). An artificial platform of stones of ten and eight cubits formed the foundation; as in Sennacherib's palace remains at Koyunjik, and at Baalbek stones 60 ft. long, probably laid by Solomon.
(2) The pillar hall with the porch (1 Kings 7:6) lying between the house of the forest of Lebanon and
(3) The throne room and judgment hall (1 Kings 7:7).
(4) The king's dwelling house and that of Pharaoh's daughter (1 Kings 7:8). All four were different parts of the one palace. His throne, targets, stables, harem (both the latter forbidden by God, Deuteronomy 17:16-17), paradises at Εtham ("wady Urtas"), men and women singers (Ecclesiastes 2:5-8), commissariat, and officers of the household and state, all exhibit his magnificence (1 Kings 4; 1 Kings 10-11).
His might and greatness of dominion permanently impressed the oriental mind; Solomon is evidently alluded to in the Persian king Artaxerxes' answer, "there have been mighty kings over Jerusalem which have ruled overall countries beyond the river; and toll, tribute, and custom was paid unto them." The queen of Sheba's (Arabian tradition calls her Βalkis ) visit illustrates the impression made by his fame, which led "all the earth to seek to hear his wisdom which God had put in his heart"; she "hearing of his fame concerning the name of Jehovah" (i.e. which he had acquired through Jehovah's glorification of Himself in him) brought presents of gold, spices, and precious stones. (See SHEBA.)
Josephus attributes to her the introduction of the balsam for which Judaea was afterward famed (1 Kings 10:1-25). Northern Arabia was at this time ruled by queens not kings, but she probably came from southern Arabia or Arabia Felix. Like the wise men coming to the Antitype, she came with a great train, and with camels laden with presents, in search of Heaven-sent wisdom (Proverbs 1:6; Matthew 2:1), "to prove Solomon with hard questions" (chidah , pointed sayings hinting at deep truths which are to be guessed; very common in Arabic literature), and to commune with him of all that was in her heart; compare as to these "hard questions" Proverbs 30:18, etc., Proverbs 30:15-16; Judges 14:12-19; also Josephus (Ant. 8:5, section 3) quotes Phoenician writers who said that Solomon and Hiram puzzled one another with sportive riddles; Hiram at first had to pay forfeits, but was ultimately the winner by the help of a sharp Tyrian lad Abdemon.
The queen of Sheba confessed that she believed not the report until her own eyes saw its truth, yet that half was not told her, his wisdom and prosperity exceeded the fame which she had heard (compare spiritually John 1:46; John 4:42). Her coming to Solomon from so far condemns those who come not to Him who is infinitely greater, Wisdom itself, though near at hand, and needing no long pilgrimage to reach Him (Matthew 12:42; Proverbs 8:34). He is the true "Prince of peace," the Jedid-jah "the well beloved of the Father." "God gave Solomon wisdom (chokmah , "practical wisdom" to discern the judicious course of action), and understanding (tebunah , "keenness of intellect" to solve problems), and largeness of heart ("large mental capacity" comprising varied fields of knowledge) as the sand," i.e. abundant beyond measure (1 Kings 4:29). He excelled the famous wise men of the East and of Egypt (Isaiah 19:11; Isaiah 31:2; Acts 7:22). Of his 3,000 proverbs we have a sample in the Book of Proverbs; of his 1,005 songs we have only the Song of Solomon (its five divisions probably are referred to in the odd five), and Psalm 72 and Psalm 127. (See PROVERBS.)
He knew botany, from the lowly hyssop (probably the tufty wall moss, Οrthotrichum saxatile , a miniature of the true and large hyssop) to the stately cedar. He also spoke of the results of his observations in the natural history of beasts, birds, creeping things, and fish. As an autocrat, Solomon was able to carry on his magnificent buildings and works, having an unbounded command of wealth and labour. But the people's patience was tried with the heavy taxes and levies of provisions (1 Samuel 8:15; 1 Kings 4:21-23) and conscriptions required (1 Kings 5:13). Thus by divine retribution the scourge was being prepared for his apostasy through his idolatrous mistresses. God declared by His prophet His purpose to rend the kingdom, except one tribe, from his son (1 Kings 11:9, etc.). One trace of the servitude of the "hewers of stone" existed long after in the so-called children or descendants of "SOLOMON'S SERVANTS" attached to the temple (Ezra 2:55-58; Nehemiah 7:57; Nehemiah 7:60); inferior to the Nethinim, hewers of wood (1 Kings 5:13-15; 1 Kings 5:17-18; 1 Kings 9:20-21; 2 Chronicles 8:7-8; 1 Chronicles 22:2), compelled to labour in the king's stone quarries. (See NETHINIM.)
His apostasy was the more glaring, contrasted with God's goodness in appearing to him twice, blessing him so much, and warning him so plainly; also with his own former scrupulous regard for the law, so that he would not let his Egyptian queen remain in the neighbourhood of the ark; and especially with his devout prayer at the dedication. See the lesson to us, 1 Corinthians 10:12. Solomon probably repented in the end; for Chronicles make no mention of his fall. Again Ecclesiastes is probably the result of his melancholy, but penitent, retrospect of the past; "all is vanity and vexation of spirit": it is not vanity, but wisdom as well as our whole duty, to "fear God and keep His commandments." (See ECCLESIASTES.)
God having made him His Jedidiah ("beloved of Jehovah") "visited his transgression with the rod, nevertheless His lovingkindness He did not utterly take from him" (Psalms 89:30-36). As the Song of Solomon represents his first love to Jehovah in youth, so Proverbs his matured experience in middle age, Ecclesiastes the sad retrospect of old age. "Solomon in all his glory" was not arrayed as one of the "lilies of the field": a reproof of our pride (Matthew 6:29). The sudden rise of the empire under David and Solomon, extending 450 miles from Egypt to the Euphrates, and its sudden collapse under Rehoboam, is a feature not uncommon in the East. Before Darius Hystaspes' time, when the satrapial system was introduced of governing the provinces on a common plan by officers of the crown, the universal system of great empires was an empire consisting of separate kingdoms, each under its own king, but "paying tribute or presents to the one" suzerain , as Solomon.
The Tyrian historians on whom Dius and Menander base their histories (Josephus, Apion 1:17) confirm Hiram's connection with Solomon, and state that letters between them were preserved in the Tyrian archives and fix the date as at the close of the 11th century B.C., and the building of the temple 1007 B.C. Menander (in Clem. Alex., Strom. 1:386) states that Solomon took one of Hiram's daughters to wife, so "Zidonians" are mentioned among his wives (1 Kings 11:1). At first sight it seems unlikely Israel could be so great under David and Solomon for half a century in the face of two mighty empires, Egypt and Assyria. But independent history confirms Scripture by showing that exactly at this time, from the beginning of the 11th to the close of the 10th century B.C., Assyria was under a cloud, and Egypt from 1200 B.C. to Shishak's accession 990 B.C. Solomon was prematurely "old" (1 Kings 11:4), for he was only about 60 at death.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Solomon
Son of David and Bathsheba. [1] He reigned forty years over the united kingdom from B.C. 1015 to 975. David when near his death appointed Solomon his son, whom God had chosen to sit upon the throne of the kingdom of Jehovah, to be his successor, and he began his reign by executing righteous judgement, as Christ will when He comes to reign, followed by a reign of peace. He put to death Adonijah who had usurped the throne, and Joab who had shed innocent blood; and he cast Abiathar out of the priesthood. His marriage with the daughter of Pharaoh, king of Egypt, is symbolical of Christ having the church (mainly Gentiles) with Him when He comes to reign.
Solomon loved the Lord, and worshipped Him at the altar at Gibeon, and there the Lord appeared to him in a dream, and said, "Ask what I shall give thee." Solomon asked for an understanding heart to judge the people wisely. The choice pleased God, and He gave him wisdom such as no king before nor since has had, and added to it both riches and honour beyond all others. If he would be obedient God would lengthen his days. His wisdom soon became apparent by his judgement in the case of the two women with the living and dead child. And people came from all the kings of the earth to hear his wisdom. The queen of Sheba came also. This is again symbolical of the reign of Christ during the millennium. It is further exemplified by all dwelling in safety, "every man under his vine and under his fig tree . . . . all the days of Solomon."
He was occupied for seven years in building the temple, for which David had made preparation. He built also his own house and one for Pharaoh's daughter. When the temple was dedicated, Solomon sacrificed and prayed to Jehovah. In answer to which Jehovah appeared to him a second time, and said, He had hallowed the house, had put His name there, and His heart should be there perpetually. God would continue to bless him and establish his house in Israel, on the condition that Solomon was obedient, and turned not to other gods.
Everything for a time was ordered wisely. The riches of Solomon increased so much that silver was of little value in his days. He had his navy of ships, which brought him riches, and he increased his chariots and his horsemen, and brought horses out of Egypt (an act that had been forbidden in the law, Deuteronomy 17:16 ). He tells us that he had tried everything under the sun, but had to declare that all was vanity and vexation of spirit. The Lord declared that Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed as a simple lily of the field. His fall, alas, followed, for he loved many strange women, which turned his heart away, and he went after their gods, and built high places for them.
God then stirred up adversaries against Solomon, and by the prophet Ahijah He foretold that Jeroboam would reign over ten of the tribes. He would reserve two to keep in memorial before Him the name of David. Still Solomon did not repent, but sought the life of Jeroboam. God did not prolong Solomon's days, for he died at about the age of 58.
We read of Solomon that he spake three thousand proverbs, and his songs were a thousand and five. He was the writer of the books of the Proverbs, the Ecclesiastes, and the Canticles. His reign is given in 1 Kings 1 - 1 Kings 12 ; 2 Chronicles 1 - 2 Chronicles 9 .
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Song of Solomon
This is also called "the Song of Songs, or The Canticles," though it is one poem, and not a collection of poems. The first verse states that it is by Solomon. The book stands alone, and has been variously interpreted. A favourite theory of German theologians and of many English is that it is literally a love story: that Solomon sought to draw away a lowly maiden from a shepherd, to whom she was betrothed; but to whom she remained faithful. That such a poem, with no higher teaching than this, should find a place in holy scripture, is impossible for the Christian who believes in inspiration to accept. With others it is held to represent 'the pure love and mystical union and marriage of Christ and His church,' which will be seen to be the idea in the headings of the chapters in the A.V. Passages in the N.T. that refer to the union of Christ and the church are referred to as bearing out this interpretation.
But a great deal of damage has been done to the right understanding of the O.T. by supposing that wherever blessing is there spoken of, it must refer to the church. God has blessed and will bless others besides the church, especially His ancient people Israel. He uses also endearing terms to Israel. He says to her, "I will betroth thee unto me for ever; yea, I will betroth thee unto me in righteousness, and in judgement, and in loving-kindness, and in mercies." This declaration is associated with a day when she will call Jehovah Ishi (that is, husband), and shall no more call Him Baali (that is, master). Hosea 2:16,19 . This is doubtless the key to the Song of Solomon. This is the union spoken of, with which the words of affection, that pass between Christ as Jehovah and the remnant of Israel that will be brought into blessing, are in accord. The song is prophetic, but does not reach to Christ and the church, though, when its right interpretation is seen, the Christian can apply some of its language as his own to the same Lord, who will also be manifested as the Bridegroom of the church. There is however this important difference: in the Canticles the result is more in anticipation, while with the Christian there is present realisation of relationship: in other words, more of desire than of satisfaction.
From the above it will be seen that the bride is not simply a person, but symbolic of the earthly Jerusalem and the remnant whose names are registered as connected with God's foundation, embracing all the faithful of Israel, looked upon as 'the daughters of Jerusalem,' which represents the whole nation. This agrees with the language in many parts: for instance, "Draw me, we will run after thee. The king hath brought me into his chambers; we will be glad . . . . the upright [1] love thee." Song of Solomon 1:4 . Further, it is helpful to see who is the speaker in the various parts of the Song. As far as the bridegroom and the bride are concerned this is pointed out by the gender in the Hebrew. It seems evident too that a company, usually called virgins, also take part in the Song. The heart of Jerusalem is now being turned to the One they once refused: comp. Matthew 23:37 .
Song of Solomon 1:2 . BRIDE AND VIRGINS. They value the love of the bridegroom more than wine. The bride owns that she is dark, but she is comely: the rays of affliction have scorched her like the sun: cf. Isaiah 3:24 . She has been keeping the vineyards of the nations, not her own.
Song of Solomon 1:8 . BRIDEGROOM. He delights in her, and esteems her as the fairest among women.
Song of Solomon 1:12 . BRIDE. The bridegroom is 'the king:' her spikenard sends forth a perfume: cf. John 12:1-8 .
Song of Solomon 1:15 . BRIDEGROOM. He acknowledges her beauty: cf. Ezekiel 16:14 .
Song of Solomon 1:16 . BRIDE. She admires her Lord, and appreciates her relationship: she says, 'our house.'
Song of Solomon 2:1 . BRIDE. She is a rose of Sharon, and a lily of the valleys.
Song of Solomon 2:2 . BRIDEGROOM. His loved one is as a lily among thorns.
Song of Solomon 2:3 . BRIDE. She calls him 'my beloved,' and charges the daughters of Jerusalem not to disturb her loved one until he please. 'Behold he cometh:' she does not yet possess him.
Song of Solomon 2:10 . BRIDEGROOM. He invites her to partake of the pleasant fruits. The foxes must be caught that spoil the tender fruit. The joy must be full.
Song of Solomon 2:16 . BRIDE. She is conscious of the relationship. He is hers, and she is his.
Song of Solomon 3 . BRIDE. She is aloneand in darkness; she seeks her beloved, but does not find him. She questions the watchmen, and as soon as she passes them she finds him. King Solomon is described, his bed, his chariot, etc.: it is he who will bring in peace.
Song of Solomon 4:1 . BRIDEGROOM. He declares what she is in hissight. She is the garden of his delights. He calls upon the north and thesouth winds to cause the fragrance to come forth. (Some believe Song of Solomon 4:6 to be the language of the bride.)
Song of Solomon 4:16 . BRIDE. She responds, "Let my beloved come into his garden, and eat his pleasant fruits."
Song of Solomon 5:1 . BRIDEGROOM. He has come into his garden and tasted its delights: he calls his friends to share his joys: cf. John 3 :29.
Song of Solomon 5:2 . BRIDE. She has slept, and he is outside.
Song of Solomon 5:2 . BRIDEGROOM. He asks to be admitted: his locks are wet with the drops of the night.
Song of Solomon 5:3 . BRIDE. She is slothful and makes excuses. When she opens the door she finds he is gone. She goes about the city in search of him, and is smitten and shamed. She charges the daughters of Jerusalem that if they find him they will tell him that she is 'sick of love.' They ask her what her beloved is more than another. She declares that he is "the chiefest among ten thousand;" "yea, he is altogether lovely."
Song of Solomon 6:1 . The bride is asked whither he is gone: they willseek him with her.
Song of Solomon 6:2 . BRIDE. She says he is gone into his garden. She declares her confidence that she is her beloved's, and her beloved is hers.
Song of Solomon 6:4 . BRIDEGROOM.He describes her as beautiful and undefiled: she exceeds all; she is the only one of her mother.
When Israel is thus brought into blessing she will be, as the virgins say in Song of Solomon 6:10 , "terrible as an army with banners."
Song of Solomon 6:11 . BRIDEGROOM. He goes to look for the fruits, and before he is aware he is carried up on the chariots of Ammi-nadib, 'my willing people: ' cf. Psalm 110:3 .
In Song of Solomon 6:13 the bride is called upon to return under the name of Shulamite, 'peaceable' (the feminine of Shalom, from which is also Solomon); and in the Shulamite they see, as it were, the company of two armies, doubtless alluding to the union in a future day of Judah and Israel.
Song of Solomon 7:1 . BRIDEGROOM. He now describes his beloved as what she is to him.
Song of Solomon 7:9 . "And the roof of thy mouth like the best wine." . . . .
BRIDE(interposing). "That goeth down smoothly for my beloved, and stealeth over the lips of them that are asleep." (N.T.)
Song of Solomon 7:10 . BRIDE. The bride's experience has advanced: she responds, "I am my beloved's, and his desire is toward me." She invites him to come forth among the pleasant fruits — mutual enjoyment.
Song of Solomon 8:1 . This is a recapitulation of the whole book. The bride speaks as if she was only longing after him.
Song of Solomon 8:5 . The virgins ask who it is that comes up from the wilderness leaning upon her beloved.
Song of Solomon 8:5 . BRIDEGROOM. He raised her up under the apple tree (which the bridegroom is called in Song of Solomon 2:3 ). The remnant will be recovered under Christ under the new covenant.
Song of Solomon 8:6 . BRIDE.She asks to be set as a seal upon his heart and upon his arm: his love and his power will be for her.
Song of Solomon 8:8 . The virgins speak of their 'little sister:' what shall be done for her? This is doubtless an allusion to the ten tribes, who did not have to do with Christ when on earth, and who will be dealt with differently from the two tribes; but will be brought into the land and blessed there.
Song of Solomon 8:9 . BRIDE. If the little sister be a wall, she shall be built upon; if a door, she shall be enclosed; but the bride is a wall, and is grown to maturity. She has a vineyard of her own, but Solomon must have a vineyard, from which he will receive fruit: not like Israel of old, which yielded no fruit.
Song of Solomon 8:13 . BRIDEGROOM. He desires to hear the voice of her that walks in the gardens.
Song of Solomon 8:14 . BRIDE. She responds, and bids her beloved to come without delay.
The whole Song has been otherwise divided into six parts, beginning at Song of Solomon 1:1 ; Song of Solomon 2:8 ; Song of Solomon 3:6 ; Song of Solomon 5:2 ; Song of Solomon 6:13 ; and Song of Solomon 8:5 .
It is worthy of remark that whereas the bridegroom describes the bride to herself, the bride describes the bridegroom, not to himself, but to others. This is surely becoming of her. He tells her plainly of her preciousness in his sight, and of the perfection he beholds in her. This calls forth her assurance, and she declares his preciousness in her eyes. As said above, the interpretation of the book is that it embraces the union of Christ and the Jewish remnant in a future day. But it is the same Christ that loves the church, and His love demands the deepest affection in return. He cares for her love, and in Revelation 2:4,5 , reproaches the Ephesian assembly that they had left their first love.
As a matter of interest it may be added that in the Alexandrian copy of the LXX some of the above divisions are made, and the speaker pointed out. In the Codex Sinaiticus these intimations are much more numerous than in the Alexandrian copy.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Solomon
or SALOMON, son of David and Bathsheba, was born A.M. 2971. The Lord loved him, and sent Nathan to David to give Solomon the name of Jedidiah, or, "beloved of the Lord," 2 Samuel 12:24-25 . This was probably when Nathan assured David that his son should succeed him, and that he should inherit those promises which had been made to him some years before, when he had conceived the design of building a temple to the Lord; for then God declared, by the prophet Nathan, that the honour of building a temple should be reserved for his son, 2 Samuel 7:5 , &c. Solomon, being confirmed in his kingdom, contracted an alliance with Pharaoh, king of Egypt, and married his daughter, A.M. 2291. He brought her to Jerusalem, and had apartments for her in the city of David, till he should build her a palace, which he did some years afterward, when he had finished the temple. It is thought that on occasion of this marriage, Solomon composed the Canticles, which are a kind of epithalamium. The Scripture speaks of the daughter of Pharaoh, as contributing to pervert Solomon, 1 Kings 11:1-2 ; Nehemiah 13:26 ; and it is very likely, that if at first this princess might seem converted to the Lord, she afterward might retain her private disposition to idolatry, and might engage her husband in it.
Solomon, accompanied by his troops and all Israel, went up to Gibeon, where was then the brazen altar, upon which he offered a thousand burnt- offerings. The night following, God appeared to him in a dream, and said, "Ask of me what thou wilt." Solomon begged of God a wise and understanding heart, and such qualities as were necessary for the government of the people committed to him. This request pleased the Lord, and was fully granted by him. Solomon returned to Jerusalem, where he offered a great number of sacrifices on the altar before the ark of the Lord, and made a great feast for his servants. He enjoyed a profound peace throughout his dominions; Judah and Israel lived in security; and his neighbours either paid him tribute, or were his allies; he ruled over all the countries and kingdoms from the Euphrates to the Nile, and his dominions extended even beyond the former; he had abundance of horses and chariots of war; he exceeded the orientals, and all the Egyptians, in wisdom and prudence; he was the wisest of mankind, and his reputation was spread through all nations. He composed or collected, three thousand proverbs, and one thousand and five canticles. He knew the nature of plants and trees, from the cedar on Libanus to the hyssop on the wall; also of beasts, of birds, of reptiles, of fishes. There was a concourse of strangers from all countries to hear his wisdom, and ambassadors from the most remote princes.
When Hiram, king of Tyre, knew that Solomon was made king of Israel, he sent ambassadors to congratulate him on his accession to the crown. Some time afterward, Solomon desired him to supply wood and workmen, to assist in building a temple to the Lord. Hiram gladly undertook this service, and Solomon, on his part, obliged himself to give twenty thousand measures of wheat, and twenty thousand measures of oil. The Hebrew and the Vulgate have only twenty measures of oil; but the reading ought no doubt to be twenty thousand. Solomon began to build the temple in the fourth year of his reign, and the second after the death of David; four hundred and eighty years after the exodus from Egypt. He employed in this great work seventy thousand proselytes, descendants of the ancient Canaanites, in carrying burdens, fourscore thousand in cutting stones out of the quarries, and three thousand six hundred overseers of the works; besides thirty thousand Israelites in the quarries of Libanus.
The temple was completed in the eleventh year of Solomon, so that he was but seven years in performing this vast work. The dedication was made the year following, A.M. 3001. To make this ceremony the more August, Solomon chose for it the eighth day of the seventh month of the holy year, which was the first of the civil year, and answered to our October. The ceremony of the dedication lasted seven days, at the end of which began the feast of tabernacles, which continued seven days longer; so that the people continued at Jerusalem fourteen or fifteen days, from the eighth to the twenty-second of the seventh month. When the ark was placed in the sanctuary, while the priests and Levites were celebrating the praises of the Lord, the temple was filled with a miraculous cloud, so that the priests could no longer stand to perform the functions of their ministry. Then Solomon, being on his throne, prostrated himself with his face to the ground; and rising up, and turning toward the sanctuary, he addressed his prayer to God, and besought him that the house which he had built might be acceptable to him, that he would bless and sanctify it, and hear the prayers of those who should address him from this holy place. He besought him also to fulfil the promises he had made to David his servant in favour of his family, and of the kings his successors. Then turning himself to the people, he solemnly blessed them. Fire coming down from heaven consumed the victims and burnt sacrifices on the altar, and the glory of the Lord filled the whole temple. On this day the king caused to be sacrificed twenty-two thousand oxen, and one hundred and twenty thousand sheep for peace-offerings. And because the altar of burnt-offerings was not sufficient for all these victims, the king consecrated the court of the people.
Solomon afterward built a palace for himself, and another for his queen, the king of Egypt's daughter. He was thirteen years in finishing these buildings, and employed in them whatever the most exquisite art, or the most profuse riches, could furnish. The palace in which he generally resided was called the house of the forest of Lebanon; probably because of the great quantity of cedar used in it. Solomon also built the walls of Jerusalem, and the place called Millo in this city; he repaired and fortified Hazor, Megiddo, Gezer, the two Bethhorons, Upper and Lower, Baal-ath, and Palmyra, in the desert of Syria. He also fortified the cities where he had magazines of corn, wine, and oil; and those where his horses and chariots were kept. He brought under his government the Hittites, the Hivites, the Amorites, and the Perizzites, which remained in the land of Israel. He made them tributaries, and compelled them to work at the public works. He fitted out a fleet at Ezion-Geber, and at Elath, on the Red Sea, to go to Ophir. Hiram, king of Tyre, furnished him with mariners, who instructed the subjects of Solomon. They performed this voyage in three years, and brought back gold, ivory, ebony, precious wood, peacocks, apes, and other curiosities. In one voyage they brought Solomon four hundred and fifty talents of gold, 2 Chronicles 9:21 . About the same time, the queen of Sheba came to Jerusalem, attracted by the great fame of the king. She brought rich presents of gold, spices, and precious stones; and proposed several enigmas and hard questions, to which Solomon gave her such satisfactory answers, that she owned what had been told her of his wisdom and magnificence was far short of what she had found. The king, on his part, made her rich presents in return.
Solomon was one of the richest, if not the very richest, of all princes that have ever lived; and the Scripture expressly tells us he exceeded in riches and wisdom all the kings of the earth. His annual revenues were six hundred and sixty-six talents of gold, without reckoning tributes from kings and nations, or paid by Israelites, or sums received for customs. The bucklers of his guards, and the throne he sat on, were overlaid with gold. All the vessels of his table, and the utensils of his palaces, were of gold. From all parts he received presents, vessels of gold and silver, precious stuffs, spices, arms, horses, and mules; and the whole earth desired to see his face, and to hear the wisdom which God had put into his heart. But the latter actions of his life disgraced his character. Beside Pharaoh's daughter, he married wives from among the Moabites, Ammonites, Idumeans, Sidonians, and Hittites. He had seven hundred wives, who were so many queens, beside three hundred concubines. These women perverted his heart in his declining age, so that he worshipped Ashtoreth, goddess of the Sidonians, Moloch, idol of the Ammonites, and Chemosh, god of the Moabites. To these he built temples on the Mount of Olives, over against and east of Jerusalem, and thus insulted openly the Majesty he had adored.
Solomon died after he had reigned forty years, A.M. 3029. He might be about fifty-eight years of age; for he was about eighteen when he began to reign. Josephus makes him to have reigned eighty years, and to have lived ninety-four years; but this is a manifest error. The history of this prince was written by the prophets Nathan, Ahijah, and Iddo. He was buried in the city of David; and Rehoboam his son reigned in his stead. Of all the ingenious works composed by Solomon, we have nothing remaining but his Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Canticles; that is, every literary monument respecting him has perished, except those written under inspiration—the inspired history which registers his apostasy, and his own inspired works, which, in all the principles they contain, condemn his vices. Some have ascribed to him the book of Wisdom, and Ecclesiasticus; but these were written by Hellenistic Jews.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Solomon
Solomon (sŏl'o-mon), pacific. The son of David by Bathsheba, and the third king of Israel. 2 Samuel 12:24; 1 Chronicles 22:9; Matthew 1:6; 1 Kings 2:12. He was also called the wisest of men, and Jedidiah = friend of Jehovah. 2 Samuel 12:24-25; 1 Kings 4:29-30; 1 Kings 7:51; 1 Kings 10:1; 1 Kings 11:41-43; 2 Chronicles 9:1-31. David voluntarily resigned the government to Solomon, giving him at the same time a solemn charge respecting the administration of it. 1 Kings 2:1-11. Solomon was celebrated for his wealth, splendor, and wisdom. The great event of his reign, however, was the erection of the temple at Jerusalem. 1 Kings 5:1-18. Solomon also established a navy of snips at the port of Ezion-geber, on the Red Sea. 1 Kings 9:26-28. Jerusalem, the capital of his vast dominions, became renowned for wealth and splendor. Matthew 6:29; Matthew 12:42; Acts 7:47. His arbitrary exercise of the royal power, however, his numerous harem, the introduction of cavalry, the expenditure of the royal house, and his toleration of idolatry in the land of Jehovah, led him into weak and sinful indulgences. 1 Kings 11:1-11; 1 Kings 12:1-4. The prosperity of his reign was interrupted by disquiets in Edom and Syria; and he was foretold of the revolt of the ten tribes. Solomon died b.c. 975, after a reign of 40 years; and, notwithstanding his glory, was little lamented. 1 Kings 11:11-43; 2 Chronicles 9:31. He is said to have written 3000 proverbs, 1005 Songs, and much on natural history. 1 Kings 4:32-33. Some of his proverbs and songs probably exist in the Book of Proverbs, in Song of Solomon, and in the Psalms. The Acts of Solomon appears to have been a full history of his reign. 1 Kings 11:41; 2 Chronicles 9:29.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Solomon the Song of
Solomon, the Song of. This book, called also Canticles, and according to its Hebrew appellation "the Song of Songs," always had a place in the Jewish canon, and has consequently been received into that of the Christian church. This book, according to its spiritual meaning, is understood to delineate the mutual love of God and his people, in which there are vicissitudes and trials, and backslidings and repentance, and finally a perfect union betwixt the Redeemer and his ransomed church. The same similitude, not indeed wrought out with such particularity, is to be found in other parts of Scripture. God frequently condescends to take the marriage-tie as illustrative of the close fellowship of himself with his chosen. Departure from him is spiritual adultery. His kindness is pre-eminent in receiving back the polluted one. And the last glorious triumph is called the marriage-supper of the Lamb, where the bride is presented pure and undefiled, every stain obliterated, resplendent in glistening robes, the meet consort of a royal spouse. The idea is repeated in both the Old and New Testaments. See, for example, Psalms 45:1-17; Isaiah 54:4-6; Isaiah 62:4-5; Jeremiah 2:2; Jeremiah 3:1; Jeremiah 3:20; Ezekiel 16:1-63; Hosea 2:16; Hosea 2:19-20; Matthew 9:15; John 3:29; 2 Corinthians 11:2; Ephesians 5:23; Ephesians 5:29-30; Ephesians 5:32; Revelation 19:7-9; Revelation 21:2. Such passages as these show how familiarly the idea was used, even in prose composition; we need not be surprised to find it expanded in impassioned poetry. Another view is that the book presents a picture of pure domestic love and happiness.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Solomon
He was called "The Peaceful," because in contrast to David, his father, he secured victories by treaties and accommodation rather than by war; and Jedidiah (Beloved of Yahweh), because of the wisdom and goodness characteristic of his earlier years. The sources for his life are: III Kings, 1-12; 2Par 1-9. Although not the logical heir, being the second son by Bethsabee (Bathsheba), he was the favorite, and was chosen to succeed his father. Coming to the throne at the age of eighteen, he ruled for forty years. Unsurpassed among the Hebrews for sagacity, peace enabled him to organize the kingdom; provide for its defense by means of fortresses and a standing army; advance the orderly administration of justice; develop trade; and embellish the capital with magnificent edifices, the most noteworthy being the temple and his own palace. The expenses for these, however, as well as for his harem in later years, became so burdensome that on his death the kingdom was rent asunder. Many scholars think that the number of his wives and concubines should be set at 70,300, respectively, and that the last number may have represented female slaves in attendance upon the women. His voluptuousness and his efforts to please foreign consorts brought him so low that he practised idolatry. Some think that he received the grace of final repentance.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Solomon Islands
Parliamentary democracy and member of the British Commonwealth in the South Pacific. Consisters of a series of islands, the major of which are San Cristoval, Guadalcanal, Ysabel, Malaita, Florida, New Georgia, the Russell Group, Santa Cruz Group, Choiseul, and the Shortland Group. Original missionary work was entrusted to the Marist Fathers. About a fifth of the population is Catholic. Ecclesiastically the nation is governed by the archdiocese of
Honiara
and the dioceses of
Auki
Gizo
See also
Catholic-Hierarchy.Org
World Fact Book
Hitchcock's Bible Names - Solomon
Peaceable; perfect; one who recompenses
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Solomon
Peaceful, the son and successor of David, born of Bathsheba, B. C. 1033. The prophet Nathan called him Jedidiah, "beloved of the Lord," 2 Samuel 12:25 and he was a child of promise, 1 Chronicles 22:9,10 . At the age of eighteen he received from David the throne which his brother Adonijah had endeavored to usurp. Scripture records his earnest and pious petition for wisdom from above, that he might govern that great people well; and the bestowal of the wisdom, with numerous other blessings in its train, Matthew 6:33 . His unequalled learning and sagacity soon became renowned throughout the East, and continue so even to this day. In every kind of temporal prosperity he was preeminently favored. His unquestioned dominion extended from the Euphrates to the "river of Egypt;" Palmyra in the desert and Eziongeber on the Red Sea were in his possession.
He accomplished David's purpose by erecting a temple for Jehovah with the utmost magnificence. Many other important public and private works were executed during his reign. He established a lucrative commerce with Tyre, Egypt, Arabia, India, and Babylon, by the fruits of which he himself first and chiefly, and indirectly the whole land, were greatly enriched. He was the wisest, wealthiest, most honored, and fortunate of men. But through the temptation connected with this flood of prosperity, he became luxurious, proud, and forgetful of God; plunged into every kind of self-indulgence; allowed his wives, and at length assisted them, in their abominable idolatries; and forfeited the favor of God. Yet divine grace did not forsake him; he was reclaimed, and has given us the proofs of his repentance and the fruits of his experience in his inspired writings.
His reign continued forty years, B. C. 1015-975, and was uniformly peaceful, and favorable to the people, if we except the evils of a corrupt example and an excessive taxation. His history is less fully recorded than David's is by the sacred historians, 1 Kings 1:11 1 Chronicles 1:19-31 ; but we may learn much respecting him from his writings, especially from the book of Ecclesiastes. Nothing could more emphatically teach us the weakness of human nature, even when accompanied with the utmost learning and sagacity, the perils of prosperity, or the insufficiency of all possible earthy good to satisfy the wants of man.
The writings of Solomon covered a wide range in the natural sciences as well as in philosophy and morals. "He spake three thousand proverbs; and his songs were a thousand and five: and he spake of trees-of beasts, and of foul, and of creeping things, and of fishes," 1 Kings 4:32,33 .
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Psalms of Solomon
PSALMS OF SOLOMON . See Apocalyptic Literature, 3.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Solomon, Song of
The 24th book of the Old Testament as found in the Catholic Bible. It is an allegorical poem which expresses: basically, the predilection of the Lord for the Chosen People; prophetically, the betrothal of Christ with His Church; universally, the love of God for a devoted soul; accommodatively, in the liturgy of the Church, the delight of God in the soul of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Protestant versions call it Song of Solomon or Song of Songs. But Catholics name it "Canticle" rather than "Song" to distinguish it as a liturgical song, and Canticle of Canticles to describe it as the superlative song. It was adapted to choral recitation, and was read in the Jewish liturgy on the octave day of the Passover. The contents are as follows: The Spouse, languishing for her Lover (chapter 1), is suffused with the delight of Him (2), pursues Him and finds Him, and exults in His grandeur (3); He praises her incomparable beauty (4); the Lover comes, but, before the Spouse opens the bolt of the door, "He had turned aside and was gone"; she delights in the thought of His all-loveliness (5); the Lover dwells on the regal radiance of the Spouse (6); she is mighty and fruitful (7); the Spouse sings the greatness, joy, and abandon of union with her Lover (8). The Canticle of Canticles was composed by Solomon, in Jerusalem, under Divine inspiration. The earlier interpreters all agreed with the traditional view that Solomon wrote it; and the familiar acquaintance with matters of natural science and with the geographical features of Palestine accords well with the genius of Solomon. No other name could be suggested to replace his. Some philological difficulties raised by late critics are so few and so shadowy that they confirm the older position by their jejuneness. They deride the idea of Solomon parading his amours in such fashion; but Solomon is not parading himself or his wives or his amours. He sings, in allegory, of Divine love and human souls. As to the inspiration of the book, it was not disputed by the Jews, as Rabbi Akiba (1century) has observed in sweeping rabbinical phrase: "No one in Israel has ever doubted that the Canticle of Canticles 'defiles the hands.'" All Christian lists of the canonical Scriptures have it noted. Some critics interpret the book as an erotic poem, composed by some Palestinian to celebrate the pursuit by Solomon of a shy Shulemite shepherdess. The imagery thus becomes distorted and the thought grotesque.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Song of Solomon
The 24th book of the Old Testament as found in the Catholic Bible. It is an allegorical poem which expresses: basically, the predilection of the Lord for the Chosen People; prophetically, the betrothal of Christ with His Church; universally, the love of God for a devoted soul; accommodatively, in the liturgy of the Church, the delight of God in the soul of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Protestant versions call it Song of Solomon or Song of Songs. But Catholics name it "Canticle" rather than "Song" to distinguish it as a liturgical song, and Canticle of Canticles to describe it as the superlative song. It was adapted to choral recitation, and was read in the Jewish liturgy on the octave day of the Passover. The contents are as follows: The Spouse, languishing for her Lover (chapter 1), is suffused with the delight of Him (2), pursues Him and finds Him, and exults in His grandeur (3); He praises her incomparable beauty (4); the Lover comes, but, before the Spouse opens the bolt of the door, "He had turned aside and was gone"; she delights in the thought of His all-loveliness (5); the Lover dwells on the regal radiance of the Spouse (6); she is mighty and fruitful (7); the Spouse sings the greatness, joy, and abandon of union with her Lover (8). The Canticle of Canticles was composed by Solomon, in Jerusalem, under Divine inspiration. The earlier interpreters all agreed with the traditional view that Solomon wrote it; and the familiar acquaintance with matters of natural science and with the geographical features of Palestine accords well with the genius of Solomon. No other name could be suggested to replace his. Some philological difficulties raised by late critics are so few and so shadowy that they confirm the older position by their jejuneness. They deride the idea of Solomon parading his amours in such fashion; but Solomon is not parading himself or his wives or his amours. He sings, in allegory, of Divine love and human souls. As to the inspiration of the book, it was not disputed by the Jews, as Rabbi Akiba (1century) has observed in sweeping rabbinical phrase: "No one in Israel has ever doubted that the Canticle of Canticles 'defiles the hands.'" All Christian lists of the canonical Scriptures have it noted. Some critics interpret the book as an erotic poem, composed by some Palestinian to celebrate the pursuit by Solomon of a shy Shulemite shepherdess. The imagery thus becomes distorted and the thought grotesque.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Odes of Solomon
It was in 1909 that Rendel Harris, whose researches in the domain of Christian antiquities have been so fruitful, enriched the learned world by the discovery of a collection of forty-two old Syriac hymns known as ‘The Odes of Solomon.’ Since their publication many useful essays by eminent scholars have been written to elucidate the difficult questions attaching to a composition which reflects the state of mind of communities belonging to so early a period as the first centuries of the Christian era. The result of these discussions has unfortunately not been such as to lead to unanimity of judgment. We shall try to analyze the principal theories, and examine which of them seems to be most in accordance with the original text and with the general course of ecclesiastical history.
1. Manuscripts and principal editions of the Odes.-Themanuscript [1] from which Rendel Harris published his first and second editions is not very ancient. It cannot be older than the 15th cent.; but apart from occasional passages which point to a corruption of some words by careless copyists, it exhibits generally a text which can be relied upon for critical purposes. It is written in Syro-Occidental letters, and its editor tells us that it came from the valley of the Tigris, in Northern Mesopotamia. It is truncated at the beginning and at the end. Odes i and ii and some lines of Ode iii are missing; these stood, with the title of the book, on the three leaves which are lost at the beginning.
In 1911 Harris published a second edition, revised and enlarged, of the text, with a facsimile of Odes xxvi. 13-14, xxvii. 1-4. In the same year H. Grimme edited the Syriac text at Heidelberg, and translated it into Hebrew, with the intention of showing that the Syriac version was dependent on a Hebrew original. In 1914 Kittel published, at the close of a discussion of the Odes, a glossary of the words used in the text. [2]
At the moment of writing we are informed that a third edition is being published at Oxford for the Rylands Library, with a complete reproduction in facsimile of all the pages of themanuscript . We expect that this publication will answer a legitimate desideratum felt everywhere for a critical editio princeps, which, so far as the text and its literal translation are concerned, will be a safe guide to all students of Christian antiquities and a solid basis for subsequent researches.
Besides the Syriac text, five Odes are preserved in Coptic in a fantastic book entitled Pistis Sophia. These are Odes i., v., vi., xxii., and xxv., which are not only quoted and given a Gnostic interpretation in that book, but cited as Solomon’s and commented on in extenso as if they were canonical portions of the Bible. The sentence which introduces them is προεφήτευσε per Salomonem, the subject being vis luminis.
In April, 1912, F. C. Burkitt published in the Journal of Theological Studies some variants, from amanuscript of the Nitrian collection in the British Museum, previously described by the skilled hand of W. Wright (Cod. Mus. Brit. Add. 14, 538). This newmanuscript , dating probably from the 10th to the 13th cent., is very important, but it frequently exhibits a truncated text, as many words are quite illegible, and it begins only at Ode xvii. 7. Being more ancient than Cod. H, it occasionally exhibits readings which, for critical reasons, have commended themselves to scholars.
As to the modern versions made upon these texts, besides the works that we have mentioned concomitantly with the editions of the original, the following publications appear to be the most important. (1) ‘Ein jüdisch-christlich Psalmbuch aus dem ersten Jahrhundert,’ in TU [3] , new ser., v. 4 [4]. The translation is by J. Flemming, and the critical study by A. Harnack. (2) G. Diettrich, ‘Eine jüdisch-christliche Liedersammlung aus dem apostolischen Zeitalter,’ in Die Reformation, ix. [4]. (3) Les odes de Salomon: separate edition of articles printed in Revue Biblique vii. [4] 483 ff., viii. [7] 5 ff., 161 ff. The translation is due to J. Labourt, and the critical study to P. Batiffol. (4) F. Schulthess, ‘Textkritische Bemerkungen zu den syrischen Oden Salomos,’ in ZNTW [8] xi. [4]. This study contains some valuable remarks, its author being a good Semitic scholar. (5) A. Ungnad and W. Stärk, ‘Die Oden Salomos,’ in Kleine Texte für theol. und phil. Vorlesungen und Übungen, lxiv. [4]. (6) J. H. Bernard, ‘The Odes of Solomon,’ in Texts and Studies viii. 3 [11].
In addition, hundreds of useful articles are to be found in theological magazines of Germany, Great Britain, and France; and all of them testify to the importance of these beautiful Odes for Christian dogma. No book, not even the Teaching of the Apostles, has excited so keen an interest among Christian students; and its discovery is to be placed, from a theological point of view, among the events of which the 20th cent. may justly be proud. So far as the text is concerned, few amendments worth noticing have been suggested, and the very few linguistic difficulties that the original offers will remain for a long time insoluble, owing to the scarcity of Manuscripts and the lack of exact Patristic quotations.
2. Character of the Odes.-Three principal theories as to the nature of the Odes have been launched by scholars since their publication. (a) The first theory, put forward by Harnack, and fully endorsed by Grimme, considers them a Jewish composition, interpolated towards the end of the 1st cent. by a Christian hand. (b) The second theory regards them as entirely Christian hymns, and Bernard, a well-known holder of this view, goes so far as to believe them to be hymns recited by new proselytes, for baptismal purposes.
‘The conclusion which seems to the present writer to emerge most clearly from an examination of the Odes is, … that they are baptismal hymns intended for use in public worship, either for catechumens or for those who have recently been baptized.… A few parallelisms here and there might be set down to chance, but when we find that this scheme of Interpretation, applied to every Ode, provides a consistent explanation of their phraseology in every case, and in some cases illuminates obscure phrases for which no other explanation has been suggested, we are entitled to claim for it serious consideration’ (op. cit. p. 42). ‘The Odes do not differ in this respect from Ephraim’s baptismal hymns’ (ib. p. vi).
(c) The third theory, upheld by Harris, who put it forward at the very beginning, considers the Odes (or most of them) to be the work of a Jewish-Christian, but rejects entirely the idea of an Ebionite source.
Before we try to form a judgment as to which of these three principal theories is likely to receive most support, it is useful to know how the Odist introduces his subject, what person he uses in speaking, and what kind of man he believes himself to be.
In Ode xx, the author speaks as a priest of the Most High: ‘I am a priest of the Lord, and to Him I do priestly service: and to Him I offer the sacrifice of His thought.’ In the following Ode the writer believes himself to be a bondman that God has released by His grace: ‘My arms I lifted up on high, even to the grace of the Lord: because He had cast off my bonds from me.’ In Ode xlii, we read the following lines: ‘I stretched out my hands and approached my Lord: for the stretching of my hands is His sign: my expansion is the outspread wood which was set up on the way of the Righteous One. And I became of no account to those who know me, for I shall not reveal myself to those who did not take hold of me; and I shall be with those who love me. All my persecutors are dead; and they have sought me who announced me, [11] because I live, and I rose and am with them; and I will speak by their mouths.… And I was not rejected, though I was reckoned to be so.… Death cast me up, and many along with me. I was gall and bitterness to him.’ Few will read these passages without immediately thinking of Christ as the speaker.
In many other passages the Christ is spoken of in the third person. Ode xxiv.: ‘The Dove fluttered over the Christ, because He was her head; and she sang over Him, and her voice was heard.’
In some passages the tone of the Odist is homiletic and didactic, referring, as in some prophetical books, neither directly nor indirectly to Christ. Ode xxiii.: ‘Joy is of the saints! and who shall put it on, but they alone? Grace is of the elect! and who shall receive it, except those who trust in it from the beginning? Love is of the elect! and who shall put it on, except those who have possessed it from the beginning? Walk ye in the knowledge of the Most High, and you shall know the grace of the Lord without grudging.’ This change of tone may have been one of the reasons which gave birth to the theory of interpolation referred to above. But, as Syriac hymnology constantly exhibits this characteristic of an interchange of speakers, no serious conclusion can be drawn from it in favour either of diversity of authorship or of the theory of interpolation. On the contrary, the main idea which may be gathered from a group of three or four Odes remains the same throughout, and the author lays stress continually on the same theme. The features which principally strike a reader of the Odes, besides some general counsels of piety, may be summarized as follows.
(1) Love.-iii. 2-4: ‘And my members are with him. And on them do I hang, and He loves me: for I should not have known how to love the Lord, if He had not loved me. For who is able to distinguish love, except the one that is loved?.’ vi. 2: ‘So speaks in my members the Spirit of the Lord, and I speak by His love.’ See, further, viii. 2, 14, 23; xi. 2; xii. 11; xvi. 4; xviii. 1; xxiii. 3; x. 7.
(2) Knowledge.-vi. 5: ‘The Lord has multiplied the knowledge of Himself, and is zealous that these things should be known, which by His grace have been given to us.’ vii. 24: ‘For ignorance hath been destroyed, because the knowledge of the Lord hath arrived.’ See, further, vii. 4; viii. 13; xi. 4; xii. 3; xv. 5; xxiii. 4.
(3) Faith.-viii. 11: ‘Keep my secret, ye who are kept by it.’ iv. 5: ‘Thou hast given thy heart, O Lord, to thy believers: never wilt thou fail, nor be without fruits: for one hour of thy Faith is more precious than all days and years.’ See, further, xvi. 5; xxviii. 4; xxix. 6; xxxix. 11; xli. 1; xlii. 12.
(4) Truth.-viii. 9: ‘Hear the word of truth, and receive the knowledge of the Most High.’ xxxviii. 1-7: ‘I went up to the light of truth as if into a chariot: and the Truth took me and led me.… And it went with me and made me rest, and suffered me not to wander, because it was the Truth.… And I did not make an error in anything because I obeyed the Truth; for Error flees away from it, and meets it not: but the Truth proceeds in the right path.’ See, further, ix. 8; xi. 3, 4; xii. 1, 11, 12; xvii. 5, 7; xxv. 10; xxxii. 2; xxxiii. 8.
(5) Rest.-iii. 6: ‘And where His rest is, there also am I.’ xi. 10: ‘And the Lord renewed me in His raiment, and possessed me by His light, and from above He gave me rest in incorruption.’ See, further, xx.8; xxvi. 13; xxviii. 4; xxx. 2; xxxvi. 1; xxxvii. 4; xxxviii. 4.
(6) Grace.-v. 2-3: ‘O most High, thou wilt not forsake me, for thou art my hope: freely I have received thy grace, I shall live thereby.’ iv. 7: ‘For who is there that shall put on thy grace, and be hurt?’ See, further, vii. 12, 25; ix. 5; xi. 1; xv. 8; xx. 7; xxi. 1; xxiii. 2; xxv. 4; xxxiii. 1; xxxiv. 6.
Many allusions are made to crowns or garlands (see i. 1; v. 10; ix.8; xvii. 1; xx. 7); several passages are found also in which the Christian is compared to a harp on which the Spirit seeks to play (see vi. 1; xiv. 8; xxvi. 3). The idea of God being a helper of man is also expressed in many verses (see vii. 3; viii. 7; xxi. 1; xxv. 2). For the transfiguration of the face of the believer, see xvii.; xxi.; xl.; xli. For the offering to God of the fruit of the lips (Hebrews 13:15) see viii.; xii.; xiv.; xvi. For the figure of milk from the breasts of God, see viii.; xiv.; xix.; xxxv.; iv. For the joy felt by good people, see xxxii.; vii.; xxxiii. On the rescue from bonds effected by Christ, see below. For the peace in which true believers shall live, see viii.; ix.; xxxv. 2; x. 2. On the good fruits to be offered to the Lord, see xiv.; xi.; viii. 3; xxxviii. 18. On the light of the Lord, see vii.; viii.; xii. 3; xxv. 7; xl. 6; x. 7. For the putting on of Christ, see vii.; xii.; xi. 10; xxxiii. 10. On the hope of the believer, see xxix.; v. 2, etc.
These are the ordinary themes that the Odist emphasizes chiefly, and it is difficult to find an Ode in which the above scheme is not explicitly developed. They constitute a kind of spiritual mysticism, of which the Johannine writings and some Pauline doctrines convey a vague but true idea. We cannot find in them any clear implication of sacramentalism, or any special interest in legal observances, either Judaic or Christian; but, as the reader has already surmised, all the forty-two Odes are closely joined together in a series whose keynote is the Johannine theology and experience.
The ideal of holiness, of which the Odist is the champion, is so marked in all the Odes that it appears very difficult not to ascribe the whole collection to a single man. It seems, therefore, that the theory of interpolation launched by Harnack has little to commend it. On the contrary, a study of the Syriac text makes it highly probable that all the verses which have been bracketed as Christian interpolations of a Jewish composition are in spirit, thought, and vocabulary so intimately related to the genuine passages that nothing short of identity of authorship can satisfactorily account for them (cf. R. H. Connolly in Journal of Theological Studies xiii. [11] 298 ff.).
Harnack’s hypothesis postulates many things that even a priori are not to be easily admitted. We have seen that the thread of the narrative is unmistakably one throughout the book; to suppose that a second writer changed some verses that savoured of Judaism and gave them a Christian tone, or to believe that he interpolated existing passages with sentences altogether opposed in spirit to those he wished to modify, would imply that this second writer was a consummate artist. He had to conform his thoughts and his phraseology, and sometimes to assimilate even his personality, to that of the Jewish Odist; both writers must have been deeply influenced by the same Johannine atmosphere; and the Christian interpolator must have lived in a milieu not far removed from that of the original Jewish writer. All these are suppositions for which stronger evidence is demanded.
The passages which Harnack considers as Christian interpolations are the following: iii. 9; vii. 4-8, 14, 15, 18; viii. 23-26; ix. 2; x. 4-6, 8; xvii. 10-14, 15; xix.; xxiii. 16, 19; xxiv. 1; xxvii.; xxix. 6-7, 8; xxxi. 3-11; xxxvi. 3; xxxix. 10; xli. 1-7, 11-17; xlii. 1-3, 17-25. We shall examine the last passage (xlii. 17-25), which, according to Harnack, exhibits the most distinct traces of interpolation:
‘Sheol saw me and was made miserable: Death cast me up and many along with me; I was gall and bitterness to him, and I went down with him to the utmost of his depths: and the feet and the head he let go, for they were not able to endure my face: and I made a congregation of living men amongst his dead men, and I spake with them by living lips: in order that my word might not be void: and those who had died ran towards me: and they cried and said, Son of God, have pity on us and do with us according to thy kindness, and bring us out from the bonds of darkness: and open to us the door by which we shall come out to thee. For we see that our death has not touched thee. Let us also be redeemed with thee: for thou art our Redeemer.’
Before we compare this passage with other verses of the Odes which exhibit the same idea, it is useful to notice that the Descensus ad inferos which is so clearly represented in these verses is one of the commonest themes of the Syrian writers when speaking of the death of Christ. The breviaries of the two branches of the Syrian Church are full of such ideas, and the Syrian Fathers deal with them in more than one homily. Two citations will suffice for our purpose: ‘He bought us and saved us by His precious blood, and He went down to Sheol, and loosed the bonds of death’ (Missale juxta Ritum Ecclesiae Syrorum Orientalium, Mosul, 1901, p. 76); ‘O Living One who went down to the dwelling of the dead, and who proclaimed good hope to the souls which were bound in Sheol … and who by His death rent asunder the tombs and quickened the dead’ (Breviarium Chaldaicum, Paris, 1887, vol. ii. p. 370). Then follows on the same page a long hymn in which all the good men of the OT are summoned to rise and look at their Saviour. See, further, the following passages of Syrian authors which would be too long to quote here: Acts of Judas Thomas, ed. W. Wright, London, 1871, pp. 155, 288; S. Ephraemi Syri Hymni et Sermones, ed. T. J. Lamy, Malines, 1882-1902, vol. i. p. 145, etc. For Aphrahaṭ, see Patrologia Syriaca, ed. R. Graffin, Paris, 1894, vol. i. col. 524, etc.
Many other verses of the Odes contain indubitable allusions to the idea of Christ loosing bonds and descending into Hades, and, if we try to detach these from their context, the whole structure of the passage breaks down. For instance, Ode xvii.: ‘And from thence He gave me the way of His foot-steps and I opened the doors that were closed, and brake in pieces the bars of iron; but my iron melted and dissolved before me; nothing appeared closed to me: because I was the door of everything. And I went over all my bondmen to loose them; that I might not leave any man bound or binding: … and they were gathered to me and were saved; because they were to me as my own members and I was their Head.’ Ode xxii.: ‘He who scattered my enemies and my adversaries: He who gave me authority over bonds that I might loose them … and thy hand has levelled the way for those who believe in thee: and thou didst choose them from the graves and didst separate them from the dead. Thou didst take dead bones and didst cover them with bodies; they were motionless, and thou didst give (them) energy for life.’ See, further, Odes xv., xxv., xxi., x.
The numerous verses of the Odes which contain allusions to the remaining eighteen topics mentioned above exhibit the whole collection as so coherent in its unity that any critic who should seriously try to break it up into different pieces would find himself face to face with strong and sometimes unanswerable objections.
On the other hand, Bernard’s theory, while recognizing the perfect unity of the Odes and their Christian character, assigns to them too narrow a scope in restricting them to exclusively baptismal purposes. The nineteen features already mentioned, which, generally speaking, form the essence of the Odes, are cast into a baptismal mould, by means of some coincidences of speech found in the style of Christian Fathers or in the phraseology of baptismal rituals. An example will show the nature of this process. In the first verses of the first Syriac Ode (iii.) we find the following passage: ‘I love the Beloved, and my soul loves Him.’ To prove that this verse alludes to baptism, a sentence is cited from the book entitled Exposition of Baptism by the Syrian writer Moses Bar Kéfa (9th cent.): ‘The betrothals of Rebecca, Rachel, and Zipporah were beside water. So also are the betrothals of the Holy Church beside the waters of Baptism.’ Several other alleged coincidences are much nearer the point. For instance, as parallels to the following sentence of the same Ode, ‘for he that is joined to Him that is immortal, will also himself become immortal,’ a quotation from Clement and another from Ephrem are cited which run thus: ‘Being baptized, we are illuminated; illuminated, we become sons; being made sons, we are made perfect; being made perfect, we are made immortal’ (Paed. i. 6); ‘Go down to the fountain of Christ, and receive life in your members, as armour against death’ (Epiphany Hymns, vii. 17). For many other verses there are even stronger Patristic quotations, but in the opinion of the present writer none of them can be regarded as decisive. On theoretical grounds this hypothesis has to face the following objections.
(1) It is scientifically inexplicable that a book written for baptismal purposes should not so much as name baptism, or even allude with any clearness to immersion, aspersion, or affusion, essential ceremonies of this sacrament. Bernard answers this objection by falling back on the so-called disciplina arcani. But such an argument is a dernier ressort. Why should we extend the ‘secret discipline’ to the simple practice of washing with water represented in Israelite circles by various ablutions with which the commonest pagan was familiar? How then could Tertullian have written his treatise de Baptismo? The field that this theory gives to the disciplina arcani is probably too extensive to be taken seriously into consideration.
‘There is no trace of this “reserve” or disciplina arcani in the writers of the New Testament, who never shun to declare unto us the whole counsel of God. We do not find it either in the subapostolic Fathers; and Justin has no hesitation in fully describing the observance of the Lord’s Supper in writing to the heathen emperor. Yet he tells us that Baptism was already called φωτισμός (illumination)-the technical term for initiation in the mysteries. Clement speaks of Christianity as a mystery, and uses freely the language of the mysteries in the invitation to the heathen which is the peroration of his Protrepticus’ (H. M. Gwatkin, Early Church History, 2 vols., London, 1909, i. 272 f.).
(2) We are also unable to subscribe to the possibility of a constant relation between the Odes and the Baptismal Hymns of St. Ephrem. The hymns of this Father, written exclusively for baptism, contain always in their tone allusions which unmistakably refer to this sacrament, while the Odes are devoid of anything that would turn the thought of a reader in this direction.
There are two verses which might seem to point to baptismal practices. Ode xxiv. 1: ‘The Dove fluttered over the Christ, because He was her head; and she sang over Him, and her voice was heard.’ Ode vi. 17: ‘And in water they lived an eternal life.’ But it is obvious that the first quotation refers to the baptism of Christ in the same manner as other Odes refer to the mysteries of the Incarnation or of redemption; and we are not entitled to infer from it that either this Ode or the whole collection has any special interest in the ritual of baptism. As to the second quotation, it is possible that it alludes to the grace of God, and by extension, to Christian doctrine, the word ‘water’ being frequently used in Syriac literature to express this idea. St. Ephrem, speaking of Judas, says: ‘He drank living water’ (Breviarium Chaldaicum, ii. 380). At all events, even if the word ‘water’ be taken in its material sense, it affords no support for the notion that the forty-two Odes as a whole were written for baptismal purposes.
With regard to the third theory, the only passage that might suggest the work of a Jewish, or, more probably, a Jewish-Christian writer, is the following (Ode iv.): ‘No man, O my God, changeth thy holy place; and it is not [14] that he should change it and put it in another place: because he hath no power over it: for thy sanctuary Thou hast designed before Thou didst make places: that which is the elder shall not be altered by those that are younger than itself.’ These sentences seem to allude to the Temple of Solomon, the principal place of worship for Judaism. No other verse points with any clearness to a Judaizing writer; but the above statement is precise, and we cannot wholly ignore it. On the other hand, allusions to Christian mysteries and Christian doctrine in general are, as we shall see, numerous and undoubted, and compel us not to exclude from our mind a Christian author. Our Odes are separate hymns, extolling sometimes special articles of faith, but exhibiting always a high ideal of mysticism. By their outward form they are not linked closely together, and we could invert the order in themanuscript without doing the slightest injury to the sense. In this respect they resemble their prototype, the canonical Psalms of the prophet king, and there is no internal evidence to prevent us from holding that they are simply an attempt to imitate, in Christian circles, the Davidic Psalms.
3. The original language of the Odes.-The question of the original language of the Odes is very important, because it may furnish a good starting-point for the solution of many problems dealing with the country, the age, and the aim of the whole collection. Critics here again have adopted three different views. The majority (but we ought to say at once that some of them are not good Semitic scholars) hold to a Greek original. A second opinion, represented by Grimme, favours Hebrew, this theory being essential to the establishing of a Jewish authorship. The present writer has ventured to suggest that Aramaic may have been the language in which they were originally written. [15] 234 ff.]
Before we discuss this tangled question, a preliminary remark will not be out of place. After the invasion of Palestine, Syria, and neighbouring countries by the Hellenic troops, under the leadership of Alexander, the Greek language acquired a firm footing in these countries, and from the time of the Seleucids onwards it began to supersede, in great centres, the Canaanitish and Aramaic dialects which were doomed to disappear. Thousands of Greek words were introduced into Aramaic, which had come to be the vernacular of all the Semitic tribes, inclusive of the remnants of the once prosperous people of Jahweh. The ordinary population spoke Aramaic, and the sacred national documents were written also in Aramaic, but the official decrees and the general regulations of the State were worded, at least at the beginning of the Christian era, in Greek. This fact is not surprising; Hellenic culture had, with the glorious arms of the Macedonian hegemony, conquered the old civilized world, and in Rome itself it was considered an honour to speak the language of Homer. The Aramaeans were far more influenced by this current than any other Semitic people, and distinct traces of Hellenism are frequent in books originally written in Aramaic, or directly translated from the Hebrew. The OT Peshiṭta is an irrefragable testimony to this assertion, and the literary compositions of Aphrahaṭ and Ephrem, in which Greek words and Greek expressions are counted by hundreds, would not tend to weaken it. The instance of these two writers, who could not even understand Greek, may easily be extended to scores of pcems and historical lucubrations, of which Edessa and the neighbouring countries are justly proud. But in this matter there is a difference between the style of a writer who knew Greek and that of one who did not. How deep, for instance, is the gap between the stylistic method adopted by Ephrem in his hymns, and that used by Narsai in his homilies. As concerns the style of the Odes, we may assume that it is not moulded on that of Ephrem, but it would be precarious to assert that it is completely foreign to that of Narsai, or of Bardesanes. The only conclusion that we can safely draw from the arguments of some critics for a Greek original of the Odes, is that their problematic author was a man of good Hellenic culture; and, as a matter of fact, in Syria and in Palestine, from the 1st to the 8th cent., the writers were few who were without any Hellenic culture.
We may open our discussion with an examination of Grimme’s theory of a Hebrew original. In spite of the excellence of his Hebrew translation of the Syriac text, we are unable to discern any strong philological foundations for his view. His argument is two-fold. He tries, first of all, to find in the Odes an acrostic arrangement of their reconstructed text, which should suggest a dependence of the Syriac upon the supposed Hebrew.
Here is the order of this complicated acrostic system: Ode i begins with א; Ode ii and the beginning of Ode iii are missing. Odes iv and v have again א; Odes vi and vii have a ב; Odes viii., ix. נ; Odes x., xi., xii., xiii., xiv. a ה; Odes xv., xvi., xvii. a נ; Ode xviii. a ה; Odes xix., xx., xxi. a כ; Odes xxii., xxiii. a מ; Odes xxiv., xxv., xxvi. a ג; Ode xxvii. a פ; Ode xxviii. a ב; Ode xxix. a שׂ; Odes xxx., xxxi., xxxii., xxxiii. a שׁ; Ode xxxiv. an א; Ode xxxv. a ר; Ode xxxvi. a נ; Ode xxxvii. a פ; Ode xxxviii. a
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Solomon
SOLOMON.—Jesus makes two references to Solomon, speaking on one occasion of his ‘glory,’ and on another of his ‘wisdom.’ In Matthew 6:29 = Luke 12:27 He places the pure natural beauty of the lilies above the consummate type of artificial splendour, and uses the contrast to point the lesson of trustful dependence upon God, the Giver of all that is necessary for the body as well as for the spirit. In Matthew 12:42 = Luke 11:31 the eagerness of Solomon’s contemporaries to hear his words of worldly wisdom is contrasted with the indifference and spiritual blindness of the men of Jesus’ own day, who failed to understand and appreciate the truer wisdom of a greater teacher.
For ‘Solomon’s Porch’ see Temple.
C. H. Thomson.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Psalms of Solomon
These Psalms are eighteen in number, and were probably written in the 1st cent. b.c. It is doubted whether they are even indirectly cited in the NT; but both the language and the thought in them are of importance for a complete study of the Apostolic Age.
1. MSS_ and VSS_.-It is generally admitted and is practically certain that these Psalms were originally written in Hebrew; but not even a fragment of any Hebrew MS_ of them, nor any Hebrew quotation from them, exists. The MSS_ in which the Psalms have survived are (1) Greek, and (2) Syriac. The Syriac is a secondary version, made from the Greek; but the Greek is probably a direct version from the lost Hebrew original.
Eight Greek MSS_ are now known. Of these the earliest (H) was written in the 10th or 11th cent., the latest in 1419, the rest in the 11th to the 14th centuries. The first edition of the Greek text was published in 1626 by John Louis de la Cerda; it was printed from a faulty copy of a MS_ which is now in Vienna (V) and which is derived from H. Later editions of the Psalms, down to and including that of Ryle and James in 1891, also rested entirely on H, or MSS_ derived from it. A more accurate text became possible when use could be made of other MSS_, especially R (reproduced in vol. iii. of Swete’s Old Testament in Greek) and J, which, though written later, were independent of H and in many respects superior to it. A critical text based on the eight known MSS_ was published in 1895 by Oscar von Gebhardt.
The Syriac Version first became known in 1909, when Rendel Harris published the Syriac text from a nearly complete MS_ which came into his possession ‘from the neighbourhood of the Tigris.’ This MS_ is probably no older than the 16th or 17th century. Subsequently a fragment of another MS_ of the Syriac text was found in the Cambridge University Library, and yet another and much earlier (incomplete) MS_ in the British Museum.
The Syriac MS_ edited by Rendel Harris is defective both at the beginning and at the end, and title and colophon are consequently missing; the separate psalms are numbered, but are without titles. The same is true of the more ancient British Museum MS_ described by Burkitt (see Literature). A general title to the whole collection occurs only in the Greek MSS_ L, H which represent a late stage in the textual history. On the other hand, in most of the Greek MSS_, including R and J, nearly every individual psalm is entitled ‘of Solomon,’ τῷ Ζαλωμών, with which we may compare the τῷ Δαυείδ in the LXX_ version of the canonical Psalter. (For details, von Gebhardt’s textual apparatus and his remarks on p. 47 f. should be consulted; see also E. A. Abbott, Light on the Gospel from an Ancient Pcet, 1912, pp. 1-7.)
But for the connexion of Solomon’s name with these Psalms we can pass behind the MSS_. They originally stood in the Codex Alexandrinus (5th cent. a.d.) of the Bible; and, though the part which contained them has perished, the entry in the table of contents or catalogue at the beginning of the Codex survives and reads: ‘Psalms of Solomon 18.’ This entry constitutes the earliest direct external evidence not merely of the association of Solomon’s name with the Psalms, but of the existence of the Psalms themselves.
Rather earlier indirect external evidence of the existence of the Psalms has sometimes been sought elsewhere; but it is at least doubtful whether the fifty-ninth canon of the Council of Laodicea (c._ a.d. 360), when it directs that ‘private psalms (ἰδιωτικοὺς ψαλμούς) are not to be read in the church,’ and a similarly vague reference in Ambrose, refer to the Psalms of Solomon; and it is now certain that the Odes of Solomon mentioned in the Pistis Sophia (c._ a.d. 250) and by Lactantius (4th cent.) are not these Psalms, but a different set of pcems, which actually precede the 18 Psalms in Harris’s Syriac MS_.
The inclusion of these Psalms originally in the Codex Alexandrinus, and perhaps, too, in the Codex Sinaiticus, the association of them in most of the eight Greek MSS_ in which they now survive with other Solomonic works, canonical and apocryphal-the Psalms commonly standing between Wisdom and Ecclesiasticus-indicate the position which they occupied in the early history of the Church; but the paucity of references to them and quotations from them shows at the same time that they proved neither very attractive nor very influential: they probably owed their preservation to the fact that they bore the name of Solomon.
2. Contents.-The chief contents of the Psalms may be briefly indicated as follows:
Psalms 1.-Suddenly, in the midst of prosperity, threatened with war and assault, Sion, confident in her righteousness, had appealed to God; but closer examination had convinced her that secret sins, surpassing those of the heathen, had been committed, and the sanctuary of God polluted.
Psalms 2.-Foreigners have shattered the walls of Jerusalem with a battering-ram, and treated God’s altar profanely. This and the captivity of many Jews that followed seem to the writer to be the punishment meted out by God for the previous profanation of the sacrifices by some of the Jews, ‘the sons of Jerusalem,’ themselves. Nevertheless, the foreign executant of God’s anger had outgone his commission: he too is punished; he is slain in Egypt, and his body exposed to dishonour.
Psalms 3.-The character, conduct, and faith of the righteous and unrighteous are contrasted.
Psalms 4.-The ‘men-pleasers’ are described as hypocrites-outwardly, even extravagantly respectable and severe in their condemnation of sinners; but actually consumed with lust, in their gratification of which they destroy the peace of family after family. May God reward them with dishonour in life and death, with penury and lonely old age.
Psalms 5.-The goodness of God towards animals and men alike is without stint: man’s is a grudging goodness.
Psalms 6.-Happy is the man who prays.
Psalms 7.-Let God, if needs be, chasten Israel, but not by giving them up to the nations.
Psalms 8.-A more elaborate treatment of the theme of the first Psalm: the wickedness of a party of the Jews had consisted in immorality and the profanation of the sacred precincts and the sacrifices by disregard of the laws of ritual cleanness. In vv. 15-24 a specific account is given of the progress of the invader and of his reception.
Psalms 9.-Righteousness in God and man: man’s free-will, and God’s goodness to the penitent. Through God’s goodness Israel hopes not to be rejected for ever.
Psalms 10.-Happy is the man whom God chastiseth: Israel shall praise Him for His goodness.
Psalms 11.-The return of the Diaspora to Jerusalem.
Psalms 12.-May God curse the slanderers, and preserve the quiet and peace-loving.
Psalms 13.-God has preserved the righteous at a time when the ‘sinners’ perished miserably. If God chastens the righteous, it is as a father his first-born. The life of the righteous and the destruction of the sinners are for ever.
Psalms 14.-Eternal life and joy await the pious; but Sheol, darkness, and destruction are the lot of sinners, whose delight is in ‘fleeting corruption.’
Psalms 15.-Similar to 13 and 14.
Psalms 16.-But for God’s mercy and strength, even the righteous would slip down to the fate of the wicked. A prayer for preservation from sin, from beautiful but beguiling women, and for strength to bear affliction with cheerfulness.
Psalms 17.-Sinners who had set up a non-Davidic monarchy have been removed: a man of alien race has laid waste the land of Judah and carried men captive to the West. The psalm closes (vv. 23-51) with a long description of the Messianic king, for whose advent the author prays.
Psalms 18.-‘Again of the anointed of the Lord.’
3. Date.-Two things in particular stand out clearly in these Psalms: (1) the Jewish nation is divided sharply into two sects or parties, the ‘righteous,’ to whom the writer belongs, and the ‘sinners,’ or the party of his opponents; (2) the nation has suffered severely from the invasion of unnamed foreigners. More than one period in Jewish history would satisfy these conditions, and certainly the period of the Maccabaean revolt (167 b.c. and following years); and in the profanation of the altar to which Psalms 2 refers it is tempting at first to see an allusion to Antiochus Epiphanes’ act in setting up on the altar the ‘abomination of desolation’ (1 Maccabees 1:54). To this period, then, some scholars have assigned the Psalms. But the whole of the more specific allusions taken together, and most of them even taken separately, are far better satisfied by the circumstances of the middle of the 1st cent. b.c.-a period of bitter feud between the Pharisees and the Sadducees, and of the invasion of Judah by the Romans under Pompey. It is to this period, therefore, that most recent scholars refer the Psalms. The (alien) nations (2:2, 6, 20, 24, 7:3, 6, 8:16) who attack Jerusalem, and by whom the Jewish captives are led away, and against whom the writer prays for deliverance, are the Romans. Their commander, ‘who is from the end of the earth, who smiteth mightily’ (8:16), who is met by the Jewish princes and at first invited by them to Jerusalem, but ultimately has to capture the fortresses and the walls of Jerusalem by force (8:18-21), by bringing battering-rams to play upon them (2:1), who allows his soldiers profanely to trample upon the altar (2:2), who carries his captives to the West (17:14), and whose end was a dishonoured death ‘on the mountains of Egypt’ (2:30, 31) is Pompey. For he, as a Roman, came from the West, and thither he led back to grace his triumph in Rome the Jewish prince Aristobulus; he availed himself of the quarrels between the Jewish princes Hyrcanus and Aristobulus and their supporters to secure the Roman power in Judah; he was at first approached and welcomed by both these princes, but in the end he was resolutely resisted by Aristobulus in Jerusalem, so that he was compelled to bring up battering-rams from Tyre where-with to break down the fortified wall of Jerusalem; he shocked Jewish feeling by intruding into the Holy of Holies, and fifteen years after he had captured Jerusalem and profaned the Temple, he was slain beside Mons Cassius near Pelusium, his body being at first left unburied on the Egyptian shore, and then hastily and unceremoniously burned
A considerable similarity of tone and temper and the possibility of satisfying all the specific allusions, more or less completely, by what is known independently of the condition of the Jews between about 80 and 40 b.c. and of the circumstances of Pompey’s treatment of them, and of his death, favour the commonly accepted view that these Psalms (possibly with the exception of Psalms 18) were written in Palestine (and probably indeed in Jerusalem) within a single generation, and not improbably by a single writer; absolute proof, however, of single authorship is not forthcoming, and some of the more colourless of the Psalms might then belong to another age. The second Psalm, which refers to the death of the foreign invader, must have been written after, but probably soon after, Pompey’s death in 48 b.c.; the rest of the Psalms (except 18) were probably written rather earlier, most of them soon after Pompey’s capture of Jerusalem in 63 b.c., but one or two (4 and 12) perhaps earlier still, before the Jews in general had suffered at Pompey’s hands and the party of the ‘sinners’ had received that severer treatment which Pompey measured out to Aristobulus and his party.
4. Main ideas
(1) Pharisees and Sadducees.-The chief interest of these Psalms is that they reveal the temper and ideals of those two parties which in the period of the formation of the NT played so conspicuous a part in Jewish life: the author is a Pharisee, and the opponents whom he denounces are Sadducees. The Psalms indeed run back two or three generations before the separation of the Christian Church from the Jewish religion, but we can trace in them much that was still characteristic of the two parties later
The Sadducees are to the writer ‘the unrighteous’ (ἄδικοι), ‘sinners’ (ἁμαρτωλοί), ‘transgressors’ (παράνομοι), ‘the profane’ (βέβηλοι), the ‘men-pleasers’ (ἀνθρωπάρεσκοι). The use of these terms and the charges brought against the Sadducees of insolence, self-reliance, disregard of God, and gross sensual sins may largely represent the generalizations, exaggerations, or inventions of a political or religious opponent. But in charging them with profanation of the sanctuary and its sacrifices he implies that somewhat intimate association of the priesthood with the Sadducees which is conspicuous later. So again in charging them with setting up a non-Davidic monarchy (17:7, 8), i.e. with recognizing the royal dignity which the Hasmonaeans had claimed since Aristobulus I. (104 b.c.), he implies a readiness in that party to acquiesce in an existing polity, even though it was inconsistent with the Messianic promises, which seems natural enough in the ancestors of the Sadducees of the 1st cent. a.d.
Over against these ‘sinners’ the writer sees in his own party, i.e. the Pharisees, ‘the righteous’ (δίκαιοι), ‘the pious’ (ὅσιοι, representing the Hebrew ḥasîdim), ‘those that fear the Lord’ ([1] φοβούμενοι τὸν κύριον), ‘the guileless’ (ἄκακοι); occasionally too this party appears as ‘the poor’ (πτωχοί, πένητες). They were devoted to the Law (14:1), troubled about sins done in ignorance yet convinced that the punishment of the righteous for sins done in ignorance was something very unlike that which awaited the ‘sinners’ (13:4, 5). As a matter of fact, though ‘righteous’ and ‘sinners’ alike must have suffered greatly from the necessary results of Pompey’s attack on and capture of Jerusalem, it was the party of the Sadducees, the adherents of Aristobulus, who with his children were taken captive, that suffered most. But in their view of a future life these Pharisees of the 1st cent. b.c. already found further ground for differentiating the lot of the sinners and the righteous. ‘They that fear the Lord shall rise to life eternal, and their life shall be in the light of the Lord, and shall come to an end no more’ (3:12). When the wicked depart into ‘Sheol and darkness and destruction,’ the righteous will obtain mercy and ‘the pious of the Lord shall inherit life in gladness’ (14:6, 7; cf. also 13:9-11, 14:2, 3, 13:5, 16:1-5). On the other hand, the end of the wicked, if not actual annihilation, is but the miserable life of Sheol indefinitely prolonged: whereas the righteous ‘rise to life eternal,’ the sinner ‘falls and rises no more’ and his destruction is for ever (3:11-12; cf. 9:9, 12:6, 13:10, 14:6, 15:11). With this hope the righteous pray that they may, and the writer claims that they already do, accept with patience the present passing chastisement of God.
(2) Free-will.-In their view of man’s free-will the author of the Psalms and his party are at one with the Pharisees of the 1st cent. a.d. as described by Josephus (Ant. II. viii. 14): i.e. like the Sadducees they assert man’s freedom, but at the same time they differ from the Sadducees by asserting and indeed emphasizing the Divine knowledge and control of human action: ‘Man and his portion lie before Thee in the balance: he cannot add to, so as to enlarge, what has been prescribed by Thee’ (5:6). ‘Our works are subject to our own choice and power to do right or wrong in the work of our hands.’
(3) The Messianic hope.-Lastly, we may note the very important light cast by Psalms 17, 18 on the Messianic hope as cherished in this circle. The Messiah is to be, unlike the actual king whom the sinners had presumptuously set up (17:7, 8), a descendant of David (v. 23). He will enjoy the old title of the Hebrew kings-the anointed of Jahweh (or the Lord); for the phrase ‘Christ (the) Lord’ (cf. Luke 2:11) which occurs in the MSS_ Sol. 1:1-317 is probably, even if it be the original Greek reading, nothing but a mistranslation (as in Lamentations 4:20) of the ordinary Hebrew genitival phrase ‘the anointed of the Lord.’ This Messiah is also called ‘the king of Israel’ (17:42) and ‘the son of David’ (v. 23). He will appear at a time determined by God (18:6), being raised up, or brought forward again (though the idea of a pre-existing Messiah detected by some in this phrase is very doubtful) by God Himself. He will purge Jerusalem alike from heathen enemies who profane it, and from native unrighteous rulers. He will then restore the true kingdom to Israel-a kingdom righteous, holy, glorious, worldwide-and rule as the vicegerent of God, who Himself remains over and above this human ruler, the king of Israel, ‘for ever and ever’ (17:21).
Literature.-(1) Greek Text.-O. von Gebhardt, Die Psalmen Salomo’s (TU_ xiii. 2 [2]); H. B. Swete, The Old Testament in Greek, 1894-96, iii. 765-787 (text of MS_ R with the variants of H and three MSS_ dependent on H).
(2) Syriac Text.-J. Rendel Harris, The Odes and Psalms of Solomon, 1909 (21911, where the variants of a Cambridge University MS_ discovered by Barnes [3] and containing part of Psalms 16 are given); F. C. Burkitt, in JThSt_ xiii. [4] 372-385 (a description of a British Museum MS_ containing in immediate continuation of the Odes of Solomon and with continuous enumeration Pss.-1618064392_6:5 and 10:4-18:5).
(3) Commentaries, etc.-H. E. Ryle and M. R. James, Psalms of the Pharisees, 1891 (the Greek text here printed is antiquated; but on account of the fullness and excellence of the introduction and commentary this work remains of the first importance); J. Wellhausen, Die Pharisäer und die Sadducäer, 1874 (contains a German translation); J. Viteau, Les Psaumes de Salomon, 1911 (text, translation, and full introduction and commentary); G. B. Gray, ‘The Psalms of Solomon’ (brief introduction and notes to an English translation arranged in parallel lines in Charles’s Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament, 1913, ii. 625-652). For a full bibliography, see Viteau, op. cit. pp. 240-251.
G. Buchanan Gray.

Sentence search

Song of Songs - , the two other works to which Solomon’s name was attached. ’ The opening words of the Targum are equally strong: ‘Songs and praises which Solomon the prophet, the king of Israel, spake by the Holy Spirit before Jahweh, the Lord of the whole world. This is implied by its title in the Syriac Version: ‘Wisdom of Wisdoms, which is Solomon’s: the book which is called in Hebrew Shirath Shirim ( i. Luther read here Solomon’s thanksgivings for the blessings bestowed on his kingdom. Solomon and a country maiden were supposed to be the two leading characters. The revised explanation was that Solomon carried off ‘ the Shulammite ’ to his harem, and, abetted by the women already there, the ‘daughters of Jerusalem,’ sought to divert her affections from her shepherd-lover: failing in this, he at last magnanimously resigned her to the shepherd. ]'>[1] show how keenly this defect was felt; to each longer or shorter section they prefix ‘The Bridegroom,’ ‘The Bride,’ ‘A second time the Bride adjures the maidens,’ or the like, and one MS (23) runs to the following length, before Song of Solomon 5:7 , ‘Not having found the bridegroom, the bride went out, and, as one found by the city-watchmen in the night, she is wounded and the keepers of the wall take her veil. ’...
And how is it that there is, within the poem itself, no movement towards a climax, no knot united or cut, no dénouement? Matters are as far advanced at Song of Solomon 1:4 ; Song of Solomon 2:4 as at Song of Solomon 8:5 . Some of these ditties, especially those which enumerate the charms of the bride, ate of exactly the same character as certain sections of Canticles, and Song of Solomon 7:1 ff. 3, ‘Brothers of the Bride,’ which is made up of Song of Solomon 6:3 , Song of Solomon 7:11 , Song of Solomon 2:1 , Song of Solomon 1:5-6 , Song of Solomon 8:8-10 , Song of Solomon 8:1-2 . The recurrence of certain phrases ( Song of Solomon 2:7 , Song of Solomon 3:6 , Song of Solomon 8:4 ; Song of Solomon 2:17 , Song of Solomon 4:6 , Song of Solomon 8:14 ) is meant to indicate connexions and transitions of thought, and there is no overwhelming reason against our ascribing them to the original writer. Song of Solomon 2:5 , Song of Solomon 5:8 ; Song of Solomon 1:16 , Song of Solomon 4:1 ; Song of Solomon 4:2 , Song of Solomon 6:6 ; Song of Solomon 2:16 , Song of Solomon 6:3 ; Song of Solomon 6:4 , Song of Solomon 6:10 ; Song of Solomon 2:9 , Song of Solomon 8:14 ). A few of the smaller parts have probably been removed from their intended place, and it hardly admits of doubt that Song of Solomon 4:8 is a belated fragment, unintelligible where it now stands. ( Song of Solomon 1:2 to Song of Solomon 2:7 ): in Song of Solomon 1:2-4 the bride declares her affection; In Song of Solomon 1:6 f. deprecates unfavourable criticism; in Song of Solomon 1:7 f. In Song of Solomon 1:9 to Song of Solomon 2:8 we have their praise of each other; in Song of Solomon 2:4-7 her experience of love. ( Song of Solomon 2:8 to Song of Solomon 2:17 ): Song of Solomon 2:8-14 a spring visit, Song of Solomon 2:16 the foxes, Song of Solomon 2:16 f. ( Song of Solomon 3:1 to Song of Solomon 3:11 ): Song of Solomon 3:1-5 a dream, Song of Solomon 3:6-11 interlude. ( Song of Solomon 4:1 to Song of Solomon 5:1 ): in Song of Solomon 4:1-7 he sets forth her charms; Song of Solomon 4:8 a fragment, Song of Solomon 4:9-11 his ecstasy of love, Song of Solomon 4:12 to Song of Solomon 5:1 a ‘garden. ( Song of Solomon 5:2 to Song of Solomon 6:9 ): Song of Solomon 5:2-8 a dream, Song of Solomon 5:8 to Song of Solomon 6:8 wasf sung by bride; Song of Solomon 5:4-9 his praise of her. ( Song of Solomon 6:10 to Song of Solomon 8:4 ): Song of Solomon 6:10 inquiry by women, Song of Solomon 6:11 f. her rapture, Song of Solomon 6:13 to Song of Solomon 7:10 wasf sung during sword-dance (‘dance of camps,’ Song of Solomon 7:1 ), Song of Solomon 7:11 to Song of Solomon 8:4 songs of the bride. ( Song of Solomon 8:5-14 ): Song of Solomon 8:6 a reminiscence, Song of Solomon 8:6 f. the power of love, Song of Solomon 8:8-10 the solicitude of the brothers, Song of Solomon 8:11 f. an apologue, Song of Solomon 8:13 f. The title ( Song of Solomon 1:1 ), according to which Solomon was the poet, is entirely destitute of authority. The ascription of the authorship to the famous king is due partly to his being mentioned in Song of Solomon 1:5 , Song of Solomon 8:12 ( Song of Solomon 3:7 ; Song of Solomon 3:11 are doubtful), and partly to his reputation as the typically wise man, the composer of songs a thousand and five ( 1 Kings 4:32 ). Had it indeed been Solomon’s, it would have been, as the title asserts, his Song of Songs, the fine fleur of his poetry. There are many passages where our view of the interpretation suggests alterations ( Song of Solomon 1:2 ; Song of Solomon 1:4 ; Song of Solomon 1:8-9 ; Song of Solomon 2:9 ; Song of Solomon 3:10 ; Song of Solomon 4:14 ; Song of Solomon 4:16 ; Song of Solomon 5:1 ; Song of Solomon 5:6 ; Song of Solomon 6:2 ; Song of Solomon 6:6 ; Song of Solomon 6:8 ; Song of Solomon 7:8 ; Song of Solomon 7:8 ; Song of Solomon 7:13 ), but it is obviously easy to allow ourselves too much licence. Bearing in mind what might be advanced on both sides, who shall determine whether Nergal is to be substituted for nidhgaloth (‘banners’) at Song of Solomon 6:10 ? The Versions, especially LXX Myrrh - מור , Exodus 30:23 ; Esther 2:19 ; Psalms 45:8 ; Proverbs 7:17 ; Song of Solomon 1:13 ; Song of Solomon 3:6 ; Song of Solomon 4:6 ; Song of Solomon 4:14 ; Song of Solomon 5:1 ; Song of Solomon 5:5 ; Song of Solomon 5:13 ; σμυρνα , Sir_24:15 ; Matthew 2:11 ; Mark 15:23 ; John 19:39 ; a precious kind of gum issuing by incision, and sometimes spontaneously, from the trunk and larger branches of a tree growing in Egypt, Arabia, and Abyssinia
Pomegranate - , Exodus 39:24-26 , Numbers 13:23 ; Numbers 20:5 , Deuteronomy 8:8 , 1 Samuel 14:2 ; 1 Samuel 14:1 k 7:18, 20, 42, 2 Kings 25:17 , 2Ch 3:16 ; 2 Chronicles 4:13 , Song of Solomon 4:3 ; Song of Solomon 4:13 ; Song of Solomon 6:7 ; Song of Solomon 7:12 ; Song of Solomon 8:2 , Jeremiah 52:22 f. The pomegranate ( Punica granatum ) is one of the familiar fruit trees of the OT; it is usually a shrub, hut may attain the height of a tree ( 1 Samuel 14:2 ); it was much admired for its beauty ( Song of Solomon 4:3 ; Song of Solomon 6:11 ), and its flower was copied in ornamentation ( Exodus 28:33 , 1 Kings 7:13 ). Its dark green leaves and brilliant scarlet blossom make it a peculiarly attractive object, especially when growing in orchards ( Song of Solomon 4:13 ), mixed with trees of other shades of green; its buds develop with the tender grapes ( Song of Solomon 7:12 ), and the round, reddish fruit, with its hrilliant crimson, juicy seeds, ripens at the time of the vintage
Jedidiah - The name given to Solomon by the prophet Nathan ( 2 Samuel 12:25 ) ‘for the Lord’s sake. ’ See Solomon
Camphire - KJV translation in Song of Song of Solomon 1:14 ; Song of Song of Solomon 4:13
Canticles; the Song of Solomon - the most excellent of songs; even as the antitypical Solomon, its subject and its author (by His Spirit), is King of kings, i. The literalists explain it as displaying "the victory of humble and constant love over the temptations of wealth and royalty": Solomon tempting a Shulamite shepherdess, who, in spite of the fascinations of his splendid court, pines for her shepherd lover from whom she has been severed. ...
But had it been a representation of merely human love, it would have been positively indelicate and never would have been inserted in the holy canon (see Song of Solomon 5:2-6; Song of Solomon 7:2-3). Nor is the other literal interpretation tenable, namely, that the love of Solomon and Pharaoh's daughter is the subject. "Pharaoh's chariots" (Song of Solomon 1:9) allude not to this, but to the Old Testament church's miraculous deliverance from Pharaoh's hosts at the Red Sea. A shepherdess (Luke 11:27-28) would have been an abomination to the Egyptians; nor do Song of Solomon 1:6; Ephesians 5:23-324; Song of Solomon 4:8; Song of Solomon 5:7 suit this view. Origen and Theodover compare Solomon's teaching to a ladder with three steps; Ecclesiastes, natural (sensible things naturally vain); Proverbs, moral; Canticles, mystical, figuring the union of Christ and the church. ...
Proverbs, said the rabbis, are the outer court of Solomon's temple; Ecclesiastes, the holy place; Cantitles, the holy of holies. " Shulamith (Song of Solomon 6:13), i. the daughter of peace, is fitly the bride of Solomon, "the prince of peace. The name of God does not occur, because throughout the allegory, to the exclusion of everything literal, is maintained, and Solomon throughout represents Messiah JEHOVAH, whose love is the grand theme. The significance of the name Solomon, "the peace giver," appears at the outset (Song of Solomon 1:3), "thy name is as ointment poured forth, diffusing peace and love (John 14:27); the same image as in Psalm 133. ...
Not until toward the close does the bride receive her name Shulamith (Song of Solomon 6:13), "the peace receiver," and so the "prince's daughter" (Song of Solomon 7:1; compare Matthew 5:9). She explains her name (Song of Solomon 8:10) as expressing "one that found peace" (Song of Solomon 8:10 margin). Not until her union with Solomon had been effected did she find peace, and received her name accordingly (Romans 5:1). Her becoming sensible of His being the king, in whose presence is peace and fullness of joy (Song of Solomon 1:2; Song of Solomon 1:4; Song of Solomon 1:7) leads her to seek in Him peace, and finally to find it. ...
Driven from the vineyard of paradise which was once her own into the wilderness (Song of Solomon 3:6), and to keep very different vineyards (Satan's and the world's), she became black with affliction, though still beautiful (Song of Solomon 1:5-6; compare Lamentations 4:7-8; Psalms 120:5-6): in contrast to His countenance, "white and ruddy" (Song of Solomon 5:10). But He at the close brings her up from the wilderness of affliction (Song of Solomon 3:6; Song of Solomon 8:5; Revelation 12:6), and restores her her own vineyard (Song of Solomon 8:12), where He desires to hear her voice. ...
Five parts are to be traced: Song of Solomon 1:1-2:7; Song of Solomon 2:8-3:5, both parts ending "I charge you, O ye daughters of Jerusalem," etc. ; Song of Songs 3:6 - 6:9; Song of Songs 6:10 - 8:4; Song of Solomon 8:5-14, these three parts beginning severally with "Who is this?" etc. In the song's Israelite aspect the third or central part probably refers to the sealing of the union between Jehovah and the Old Testament church by Solomon's erection of the temple (Song of Solomon 3:6-11). Her wilderness state then gave place to peaceful and prosperous settlement in manifested union with her God; "the day of Solomon's espousals" (Song of Solomon 3:11). In the individual soul we have...
(1) its longing for Christ's manifestation to it, and the various alternations in its experience of His manifestation (Song of Solomon 1:2-4; Song of Solomon 2:8; Song of Solomon 3:1; Song of Solomon 3:4; Song of Solomon 3:6-7);...
(2) the abundant enjoyment of His sensible consolations, which is withdrawn through the bride's carelessness (Song of Solomon 5:1-3), and her longings after Him and reconciliation (Song of Solomon 5:8-16; Song of Solomon 6:3, etc. ; Song of Solomon 7:1, etc. In the church aspect her longing for His first advent appears in the beginning (Song of Solomon 1:2); joyful anticipation of His advent (Song of Solomon 2:8-13; Song of Solomon 2:17); His stay with her during the one only whole day in the allegory (there are but two nights, Song of Solomon 2:17; Song of Solomon 4:6), answering to His sojourn here with His disciples, the last supper, the pledge of His return to her (Song of Songs 3:6 - 4:5); His death in figurative language, and ascension to the heavenly mount where still He is to be met with spiritually in prayer until the everlasting daybreak when we shall see face to face (Song of Solomon 4:6; Song of Solomon 4:8; Song of Solomon 4:15). In Song of Solomon 5:1 "I am come into My garden" is the central point of the whole, the bridegroom and bride are one; the Spirit, answering to the awakening N. wind, having been shed on the church at Pentecost, to make the spiritual union complete (Song of Solomon 4:10). Then succeeds the period of declension and the consequent withdrawing of the grieved Spirit (Song of Solomon 5:2-6). Then her earnest search for Him and praises of Him to others, wherein she regains her own assurance, "I am my Beloved's" (Song of Solomon 6:3). "Jerusalem" the southern capital, is hinted at (Song of Solomon 6:4); she the queen, and the attendant Gentile churches" threescore queens and fourscore concubines" (Song of Solomon 6:8; Psalms 45:9-15). Then Shulamith having found Solomon, i. The nations shall then admire and flow unto her (Song of Solomon 6:13; Song of Solomon 7:1, etc. (Song of Solomon 7:10). At the close of this part (Song of Solomon 8:4) is restored Israel's charge to the Gentile converted nations not to interrupt the millennial rest of Christ with His worldwide church, "I charge you, O ye daughters of Jerusalem, that ye stir not up . ...
Then the elect church from Jews and Gentiles, now being gathered, is described, Song of Solomon 8:5-14, which is chronologically before the millennial church just described, but fitly brought in as the closing subject ("make haste, My beloved," etc. The "little sister" having "no breasts" (neither faith nor love, the springs of spiritual nourishment, 1 Thessalonians 5:8; compare in connection with breasts, Song of Solomon 1:7) answers to the Gentile church admitted to be a "wall" in Zion founded on Christ; "spoken for," i. ...
The bride's joyous anticipation and desires at the beginning (Song of Solomon 1:6; Song of Solomon 1:12, e
Song of Solomon - The Hebrew title, “Solomon's Song of Songs,” means that this is the best of songs and that it in some way concerns Solomon. ...
Author and Date While the title appears to name Solomon as the author, the Hebrew phrase can also mean for or about Solomon. Solomon or “king” is mentioned in the book several times (Song of Song of Solomon 1:1 ,Song of Song of Solomon 1:4-5 ,Song of Song of Solomon 1:12 ; Song of Song of Solomon 3:7 ,Song of Song of Solomon 3:9 ,Song of Song of Solomon 3:11 ; Song of Song of Solomon 7:5 ; Song of Song of Solomon 8:11-12 ), but scholars remain uncertain about its author. Some scholars argue on linguistic grounds for authorship much later than Solomon. Such grounds include the use of expressions akin to Aramaic and the presence of certain foreign loan-words (Persian: pardes “orchard,” Song of Song of Solomon 4:13 ; appiryon from Greek phoreion “carriage” or [1] “canopied bed,” Song of Song of Solomon 3:9 ). Others argue that such linguistic usages and borrowings can go back to the time of Solomon or merely reflect the date of the book's final editing. ...
Canon and Interpretation Because of its erotic language and the difficulty of its interpretation, the rabbis questioned the place of the Song of Solomon in the canon. ) Others see the Song as a drama in which the pure love of the Shulammite maid and her shepherd prevails over Solomon's callous attempt to bring the girl into his harem. If one were to give all the wealth of his house for love, it would be utterly scorned” (Song of Song of Solomon 8:6-7 NIV). Moreover, there is a right time and place for love: “Daughters of Jerusalem, I charge you Do not arouse or awaken love until it so desires” (Song of Song of Solomon 3:5 NIV). ...
Finally, a certain validity remains in the long history of interpretation, which saw in the pure love of the Song a reflection of divine-human love (compare Ephesians 5:21-32 ; Song of Song of Solomon 3:6-11 ; and the messianic typology of Psalm 45:1 . Longing Is a Part of Love (Song of Song of Solomon 1:1-8 ). Love Will Not Be Silent (Song of Song of Solomon 1:9-2:7 ). Spring and Love Go Together (Song of Song of Solomon 2:8-17 ). Love Is Exclusive (Song of Song of Solomon 3:1-5 ). Love Is Enhanced by Friendship (Song of Song of Solomon 3:6-11 ). Love Sees Only the Beautiful (Song of Song of Solomon 4:1-7 ). Love Involves Giving and Receiving (Song of Song of Solomon 4:8-5:1 ). Love Means Risking the Possibility of Pain (Song of Song of Solomon 5:2-6:3 ). Words Fail for Expressing Love (Song of Song of Solomon 6:4-7:9 ). Love Must Be Given Freely (Song of Song of Solomon 7:10-13 ). True Love Is Priceless (Song of Song of Solomon 8:1-14 )
Lily, - " Song of Solomon 2:1,2 . The lily is extolled by the Lord as exceeding in beauty all the glory of Solomon. 1 Kings 7:19,22,26 ; Song of Solomon 2:16 ; Song of Solomon 4:5 ; Song of Solomon 5:13 ; Song of Solomon 6:2,3 ; Song of Solomon 7:2 ; Matthew 6:28 ; Luke 12:27
Solomon - ” Tenth son of David and the second son of Bathsheba, Solomon became the third king of Israel and reigned forty years about 1000 B. ...
Old Testament Solomon was born to David and Bathsheba after the death of their first son (2 Samuel 12:24 ). Although not the oldest living son of David, he was crowned king after his mother and Nathan the prophet intervened with David and secured David's decision to have Solomon succeed him (1 Kings 1-2 ). Solomon is remembered most for his wisdom, his building program, and his wealth generated through trade and administrative reorganization. ...
Solomon was remembered as having three thousand proverbs and a thousand and five songs in his repertoire (1 Kings 4:32 ). Thus, it is not surprising that Proverbs and Song of Solomon in the Bible are attributed to Solomon. (Proverbs 1:1 ; Song of Song of Solomon 1:1 ) as are several apocryphal and pseudepigraphal books. ...
While Solomon's Temple was the most famous of his building projects (1 Kings 5-8 ), it was by no means the only one. Solomon fortified a number of cities that helped provide protection to Jerusalem, built “store-cities” for stockpiling the materials required in his kingdom, and established military bases for contingents of charioteers (1 Kings 9:15-19 ). The Temple complex in Jerusalem was composed of several buildings including Solomon's palace, the “house of the forest of Lebanon,” the “hall or porch of pillars,” the “hall or porch of the throne,” and a palace for one of his wives, the daughter of the pharaoh of Egypt (1 Kings 7:1 ). ...
Solomon divided the country into administrative districts that did not correspond to the old tribal boundaries (1 Kings 4:7-19 ) and had the districts provide provisions for the central government. This system, combined with control of vital north/south trade routes between the Red Sea and what was later known as Asia Minor, made it possible for Solomon to accumulate vast wealth. ...
The Bible clearly notes that Solomon had faults as well as elements of greatness. The “seven hundred wives, princesses, and three hundred concubines” came from many of the kingdoms with which Solomon had treaties (1 Kings 11:1 ). This kind of compromise indicated to the historian a weakness in Solomon not found in David. Rebellions led by the king of Edom, Rezon of Damascus, and Jeroboam, one of Solomon's own officers, indicates that Solomon's long reign was not without its turmoil. ...
New Testament Solomon was an ancestor of Jesus (Matthew 1:6-7 ) and is mentioned in Jesus' teaching about anxiety (Matthew 6:29 ; Luke 12:27 ). Jesus noted that the queen of Sheba came a long way to see Solomon and that “something greater than Solomon is here” (Matthew 12:42 ; Luke 11:31 ). Jesus walked in “Solomon's porch,” a part of the Temple area (John 10:23 ; compare Acts 3:11 ; Acts 5:12 ). Stephen noted that though David sought to find a place for God, it was Solomon who “built a house for him” (Acts 7:47 )
Lilly - More commonly it is applied to the bride and her various perfections: Song of Solomon 2:1,2 , where the bride speaks, Song of Solomon 2:1 , the bridegroom answers, Song of Solomon 2:2 , and the bride again responds, Song of Solomon 2:3 . The bridegroom's lips are compared to lilies in Song of Solomon 5:13 , and he is described as feeding among the lilies, Song of Solomon 2:16; 6:3 ; which typically represents Christ as delighting himself with the graces of his people. From the lily our Savior had also drawn one of his most striking figures: "Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow;" "even Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these. We must be careful not to confound the lily of the valleys, Song of Solomon 2:1 , which means simply the lily growing in valleys, with our "lily of the valley," which belongs to another class of flowers
Baal-Hamon - ) Tthe sun god, and a city where Solomon had a vineyard with a multitude of vines. of Samaria (compare Isaiah 28:1; Song of Solomon 8:11)
Dove - The most noticeable are: the wood pigeons or ring-doves ( Columba palumbus ), which fly in great flocks all over the land; the turtle-dove ( Turtur communis ), a harbinger of spring, arriving in the land in April ( Jeremiah 8:7 , Song of Solomon 2:12 ); and the palm turtle-dove ( Turtur senegalensis ), which is common in a semi-domesticated state in the streets and courts of Jerusalem. ‘Dove’ is a favourite name of affection ( Song of Solomon 1:15 ; Song of Solomon 4:1 ; Song of Solomon 5:2 ; Song of Solomon 5:12 ; Song of Solomon 6:9 ), and to-day it is one of the commonest names given to girls by Eastern Jewish parents
Bethsabee - Wife of Urias the Hethite, and afterwards wife of David and mother of Solomon (2 Kings 11). In David's old age she prevailed upon him to have her son Solomon crowned king in place of his older brother Adonias (3Kings 1), who had proclaimed himself king without the knowledge of David. Solomon on his accession pardoned Adonias; soon after, however, the latter instigated another conspiracy and was put to death. Two genealogies of Our Lord include two sons of Bethsabee, Solomon (Matthew 1) and Nathan (Luke 3)
Bathsheba - She afterwards became David's wife and was the mother of Solomon and other children. When Adonijah sought to make himself king, Bathsheba, moved by Nathan, appealed to David to fulfil his promise to her that Solomon should be his successor. When Solomon was king Adonijah begged Bathsheba to use her influence to obtain Abishag for him as wife. She asked this of Solomon, but it led to Adonijah's death
Song of Songs, the - (See Solomon
Song of Solomon, the - (See Solomon
Crocus - The flower mentioned in the Bible (Song of Song of Solomon 2:1 ; Isaiah 35:1 ) has been identified as either the narcissus (N. The Hebrew word is sometimes translated “rose” (see KJV in Song of Song of Solomon 2:1 ; Isaiah 35:1 and NRSV, REB, NAS, NIV Song of Song of Solomon 2:1 )
Lily - It was of gorgeous beauty, Matthew 6:28-29, growing near the place where the Sermon on the Mount was delivered, luxuriant and probably rapid in its growth, Hosea 14:5; it was found in the valleys among thorns and on pasture land, Song of Solomon 2:1-2; Song of Solomon 2:16; Song of Solomon 4:5; Song of Solomon 6:3; still, whether it was scarlet, or emitted a fragrant odor, we cannot gather with certainty from Song of Solomon 5:13, as critics differ in their interpretation of this verse
Baalhamon - Place where Solomon had a vineyard. Song of Solomon 8:11
Camphire - Song of Solomon 1:14 (c) CHRIST and His love toward the Church are compared to the sweet perfume of camphire. See also Song of Solomon 4:13 where our love for CHRIST is to Him as the fragrance of camphire
Song of Solomon - The first verse states that it is by Solomon. A favourite theory of German theologians and of many English is that it is literally a love story: that Solomon sought to draw away a lowly maiden from a shepherd, to whom she was betrothed; but to whom she remained faithful. This is doubtless the key to the Song of Solomon. " Song of Solomon 1:4 . ...
Song of Solomon 1:2 . ...
Song of Solomon 1:8 . ...
Song of Solomon 1:12 . ...
Song of Solomon 1:15 . ...
Song of Solomon 1:16 . '...
Song of Solomon 2:1 . ...
Song of Solomon 2:2 . ...
Song of Solomon 2:3 . ...
Song of Solomon 2:10 . ...
Song of Solomon 2:16 . ...
Song of Solomon 3 . King Solomon is described, his bed, his chariot, etc. ...
Song of Solomon 4:1 . (Some believe Song of Solomon 4:6 to be the language of the bride. )...
Song of Solomon 4:16 . "...
Song of Solomon 5:1 . ...
Song of Solomon 5:2 . ...
Song of Solomon 5:2 . ...
Song of Solomon 5:3 . "...
Song of Solomon 6:1 . ...
Song of Solomon 6:2 . ...
Song of Solomon 6:4 . ...
When Israel is thus brought into blessing she will be, as the virgins say in Song of Solomon 6:10 , "terrible as an army with banners. "...
Song of Solomon 6:11 . ...
In Song of Solomon 6:13 the bride is called upon to return under the name of Shulamite, 'peaceable' (the feminine of Shalom, from which is also Solomon); and in the Shulamite they see, as it were, the company of two armies, doubtless alluding to the union in a future day of Judah and Israel. ...
Song of Solomon 7:1 . ...
Song of Solomon 7:9 . )...
Song of Solomon 7:10 . ...
Song of Solomon 8:1 . ...
Song of Solomon 8:5 . ...
Song of Solomon 8:5 . He raised her up under the apple tree (which the bridegroom is called in Song of Solomon 2:3 ). ...
Song of Solomon 8:6 . ...
Song of Solomon 8:8 . ...
Song of Solomon 8:9 . She has a vineyard of her own, but Solomon must have a vineyard, from which he will receive fruit: not like Israel of old, which yielded no fruit. ...
Song of Solomon 8:13 . ...
Song of Solomon 8:14 . ...
The whole Song has been otherwise divided into six parts, beginning at Song of Solomon 1:1 ; Song of Solomon 2:8 ; Song of Solomon 3:6 ; Song of Solomon 5:2 ; Song of Solomon 6:13 ; and Song of Solomon 8:5
Shulam(m)Ite - (sshuh' lam ite) Description of woman in Song of Song of Solomon 6:13 either as from Shunem through a copying change; from Shulam, an otherwise unknown town; Solomonite, referring to a relationship to Solomon; or a common noun meaning, “the replaced one
Canticles - See Song of Solomon
Canticles - See SONG OF Solomon
Kue - ” If the Masoretes and the KJV are correct, then Solomon imported horses and linen yarn from Egypt. If the NRSV, NAS, NIV, REB, and TEV are correct (which in all likelihood they are), then Solomon imported horses from Egypt and Kue—that is, Cilicia in southeast Asia Minor (see NEB which has the spelling Coa). From Egypt, Solomon acquired chariots (1 Kings 10:29 ). Thus, Solomon acted as the middle man, putting horses with chariots and exporting them to other kingdoms. This proved to be a very lucrative arrangement for Solomon. See Cilicia ; Mizraim ; Musri; Solomon
Adonijah - But God had showed David that Solomon was to succeed him (1 Chronicles 28:5), and Solomon had the support of the commander of the royal bodyguard Benaiah, the other leading priest Zadok, and the prophet Nathan (1 Kings 1:8). As a result of swift action by Nathan, David promptly declared Solomon to be king. The ambitious Adonijah could do nothing but cry to Solomon for mercy (1 Kings 1:6-53). ...
Soon after David’s death, however, Solomon executed Adonijah for treason
Hiram - Hiram also sent ambassadors to Solomon, to congratulate him on his accession to the crown. Solomon desired of him timber and stones for building the temple, with labourers. These Hiram promised, provided Solomon would furnish him with corn and oil
Baal-Hamon - Place of a multitude, a place where Solomon had an extensive vineyard (Song of Solomon 8:11 )
Psalms of Solomon - PSALMS OF Solomon
Song of Songs - Solomon had the reputation of being one of Israel’s greatest wisdom teachers and song writers (1 Kings 4:29-34). The book contains a number of references to the splendour of Solomon and his court, and is sometimes called the Song of Solomon (Song of Song of Solomon 1:1; Song of Solomon 1:5; Song of Solomon 3:7-11; Song of Solomon 8:11-12). ...
Interpretation...
Although the book declares that it was written by Solomon, it is not necessarily about Solomon personally. ...
Among those who regard the book as a drama involving Solomon himself, there are two main interpretations. The first sees two main characters, Solomon and a Shulammite girl who fall in love and marry. The second sees three main characters – a young shepherd, his Shulammite lover, and King Solomon, who takes the girl from the shepherd and unsuccessfully tries to win her love. Always, however, the love is in the context of a relationship where a man and a woman commit themselves to each other in marriage, to the exclusion of all others (Song of Song of Solomon 2:16; Song of Solomon 6:3; Song of Solomon 7:10)
Ape - Apes were imported along with peacocks from Ophir by Solomon ( 1 Kings 10:22 , 2 Chronicles 9:21 ). In importing monkeys, Solomon here imitated the custom of the Assyrian and Egyptian monarchs, as we now know by the monuments
Ivory - ...
1 Kings 10:18 ; 1 Kings 22:39 ; Psalm 45:8 ; Song of Solomon 5:14 ; Song of Solomon 7:4 ; Amos 3:15 ; Amos 6:4 ; Revelation 18:12 . It was imported into Palestine by the Assyrians and was brought by the ships of Solomon
Darkon, the Children of - ("Servants of Solomon"
Hiram - He helped David to build a palace (2 Samuel 5:11) and later helped Solomon in his extensive building projects. He provided Solomon with huge amounts of materials and many skilled workmen in return for great quantities of farm produce (1 Kings 5). He lent Solomon money, in payment of which Solomon offered to give him a large section of Israel’s northern territory (which bordered Lebanon) (1 Kings 9:10-14). (For further details of Hiram’s relations with Israel see Solomon. He was a highly skilled craftsman, also from Lebanon, whom Hiram the king sent to Jerusalem to do the bronze work and other decorations for Solomon’s temple (1 Kings 7:13-14; 1 Kings 7:40-46; 2 Chronicles 2:7; 2 Chronicles 2:13-14)
Songs - Of Moses (Exodus 15 ; Numbers 21:17 ; Deuteronomy 32 ; Revelation 15:3 ), Deborah (Judges 5 ), Hannah (1 Samuel 2 ), David (2 Samuel 22 , and Psalms), Mary (Luke 1:46-55 ), Zacharias (Luke 1:68-79 ), the angels (Luke 2:13 ), Simeon (Luke 2:29 ), the redeemed (Revelation 5:9 ; 19 ), Solomon (see Solomon , SONGS OF)
Cheek - Song of Solomon 5:13 (c) Solomon is pouring out his love and praise to his Lord
Hiram - He was contemporary with, David and Solomon, and on terms of political and personal friendship with them, under his reign the city of Tyre became celebrated for its wealth and magnificence, and the vast supplies he furnished to the kings of Israel show the greatness of his resources. He aided David with materials for a palace, 2 Samuel 5:11; 1 Chronicles 14:1, and Solomon in the construction of the temple, 1 Kings 5:1-12; 1 Kings 9:11-14, furnishing workmen as well as materials. He also allowed Solomon to send ships with the Tyrian ships Under Tyrian management. An eminent artificer of Tyre who was employed by Solomon on some of the most difficult of the fixtures and furniture of the temple
Goblet - Basin, bowl: used metaphorically in Song of Solomon 7:2
Cheek - The seat of health and beauty ( Song of Solomon 1:10 ; Song of Solomon 5:13 )
Ahishar - A prince 'over the household' of Solomon
Eliadah - Father of Rezon, an adversary of Solomon
Curtains - Song of Solomon 1:5; "the curtains of Solomon" mean the hangings and veil of Solomon's temple, typifying Christ's righteousness, the covering of saints who together constitute the living temple of the antitypical Solomon (Isaiah 61:10; Revelation 19:8; 1 Corinthians 3:16)
Balsam - Balsam is also a translation of basam in the NAS, where other versions have “spice” and “spices” (Song of Song of Solomon 5:1 ,Song of Song of Solomon 5:13 ; Song of Song of Solomon 6:2 )
Roe - Slender, graceful, shy, and timid; the image of feminine loveliness (Song of Solomon 4:5; Song of Solomon 2:9; Song of Solomon 2:17; Song of Solomon 8:14)
Flowers - The most commonly mentioned are those of the lily family (Song of Song of Solomon 2:16; Song of Solomon 6:2; Hosea 14:5; Matthew 6:28). A kind of wild rose is also mentioned (Song of Song of Solomon 2:1; Isaiah 35:1). The flower of the mandrake plant had a strong smell that people believed could excite sexual passion (Genesis 30:14-16; Song of Song of Solomon 7:13)
Hamath-Zobah - Conquered by Solomon (2 Chronicles 8:3)
Paruah - Father of Jehoshaphat, a commissariat officer of Solomon
Litter - A covered and curtained couch with shafts so that it can be carried by porters (Song of Song of Solomon 3:7 NRSV, REB; Isaiah 66:20 , KJV, NAS, NRSV). The NIV takes the term at Song of Song of Solomon 3:7 in this sense as well (carriage)
Shulamite - It is a feminine noun traceable, like Solomon, to Shalom , 'peace. Song of Solomon 6:13
Benaiah - He adhered to Solomon when some favored the pretensions of Adonijah, slew Joab at the command of Solomon, and was made general of the army in his stead, 1 Kings 1:36 2:29-35
Taphath - Daughter of Solomon and wife of Ben-abinadab ( 1 Kings 4:11 )
Assuredly - ...
Assuredly thy son Solomon shall reign
Elihoreph - Son of Shisha and scribe or secretary of Solomon
Baal-Hamon - The unknown site of Solomon’s vineyard ( Song of Solomon 8:11 )
Agur - An inspired Hebrew, author of thirtieth chapter of proverbs, incorporated with those of Solomon
Zabud - Son of Nathan, and 'principal officer and friend of Solomon
Sophereth - Servant of Solomon, whose descendants returned from exile
Sotai - Servant of Solomon, whose descendants returned from exile
Pomegranate - (See Song of Solomon 4:13). ...
Song of Solomon 4:3 (c) Solomon is describing the beauty of the church and indicates that the thoughts in the minds of GOD's people would be beautiful ones and fruitful ones
Galleries - Song of Solomon 1:17, "rafters (galleries margin) of fir"; the crossbeams, the carved ceiling, fretted work: rachit . In Song of Solomon 7:5 translated "the king is held bound with the flowing ringlets"; compare Song of Solomon 6:5
Goblet - KJV term for a bowl-shaped drinking vessel without handles (Song of Song of Solomon 7:2 ). Modern translations are divided over the reference in Song of Solomon: bowl (RSV, TEV), goblet (NAS, NIV, REB)
Abishag - Adonijab persuaded Bathsheba to entreat Solomon to give her to him in marriage. This Solomon construed into virtual treason: as regal rights followed the possession in marriage of a deceased king's wife, and caused him to be killed (1 Kings 1:1-4; 1 Kings 2:13-25)...
...
Ornament - ) Song of Solomon 1:10-11; "thy cheeks are comely with rows" (of pearls), torim , alluding to torah the law (Ezekiel 16:11). See Song of Solomon 7:1, "the rounding ("graceful curve") of thy thighs is like (the rounding of) the knobs of a necklace
Agur - It was thought by many of the Fathers that this was a symbolical name for Solomon; but this is very improbable, as his father's name is given, and Solomon is described in the same book as son of David
Shalamite - ) Feminine of Solomon, "prince of peace. Caught up in chariot like flight by her Lord to sit with Him in heavenly places (Ephesians 2:6), she is entreated by the daughters of Jerusalem "Return, return, O Shulamite" (Song of Solomon 6:13). There is a beautiful reciprocity of character, name, and blessedness between the heavenly Solomon and His Shulamite the redeemed church. " (Μahanaim , "two camps") to be seen in the Shulamite (Song of Solomon 6:13) are Christ's family in heaven and that on earth conjoined in Him, the one militant the other at rest. Not until toward the close does the bride receive her name Shulamite (Song of Solomon 6:13), "the peace receiver. " In Song of Solomon 8:10 margin she explains her name, "one that, found peace. " Not until her union with Solomon did site find it and received her name accordingly (Romans 5:1)
Solomon - Solomon (sŏl'o-mon), pacific. David voluntarily resigned the government to Solomon, giving him at the same time a solemn charge respecting the administration of it. Solomon was celebrated for his wealth, splendor, and wisdom. Solomon also established a navy of snips at the port of Ezion-geber, on the Red Sea. Solomon died b. Some of his proverbs and songs probably exist in the Book of Proverbs, in Song of Solomon, and in the Psalms. The Acts of Solomon appears to have been a full history of his reign
Bether - Dissection or separation, certain mountains mentioned in Song of Solomon 2:17 ; probably near Lebanon
Elon Beth Hanan - ) A commissariat district of Solomon (1 Kings 4:9)
Baalath - A town of Dan, enlarged by Solomon (1 Kings 9:18; 2 Chronicles 8:6)
Powders, Fragrant - Pulverized spices used as a fragrance (Song of Song of Solomon 3:6 )
Rehoboam - —Son of Solomon, mentioned as a link in our Lord’s genealogy (Matthew 1:7)
Shisha - Father of Elihoreph and Ahiah, royal scribes under Solomon
Garden, Gardener - ...
The garden was also looked upon as a place of delights, and is often used figuratively in this sense in the Canticles; Song of Solomon 4:12-16 ; Song of Solomon 5:1 ; Song of Solomon 6:2,11 ; Song of Solomon 8:13 . Genesis 3:19 ; Song of Solomon 1:6 ; and in Eden, before the curse, Adam was placed in the garden 'to dress it and to keep it
Myrrh - It has a pleasant, though faint, smell ( Psalms 45:8 , Proverbs 7:17 , Song of Solomon 1:13 ; Song of Solomon 3:5 ). Exodus 30:23 and Song of Solomon 5:5 ; Song of Solomon 5:13 , where the ‘myrrh’ appears to have been liquid, support this view
Rehoboam - the son and successor of Solomon; his mother was Naamah, an Ammonitish woman, whom Solomon had married, 1 Kings 14:20-21 . After the death of Solomon, Rehoboam came to Shechem, because all Israel was there assembled to make him king, 1 Kings 12. Jeroboam, the son of Nebat, who had headed a sedition against Solomon, and had been compelled, toward the close of his reign, to take refuge in Egypt, as soon as he heard that this prince was dead, returned into Judea, and came to the assembly of the people of Shechem
Adonijah - When his father was old, he, being a man of fine person and probably popular, aspired to the crown, in order to exclude Solomon. But David, being informed by Bath-sheba and Nathan, immediately ordered Solomon to be anointed king; and the intelligence of this broke up the conspiracy. Solomon promised, if Adonijah remained quiet, that this offence should be overlooked. Solomon, regarding this as a renewal of his attempt upon the crown, commanded him to be executed
Saro'Thie - are among the sons of the servants of Solomon who returned with Zerubbabel
Basmath - Daughter of Solomon and wife of Ahimaaz, one of Solomon's commissariat officers
Eli'Adah, - father of Rezon, the captain of a marauding band that annoyed Solomon
Spices - Some spices were grown locally, but many were imported from the East, bringing wealth to traders and to the governments who taxed them (Genesis 37:25; 1 Kings 10:2; Song of Song of Solomon 3:6; Isaiah 60:6; Jeremiah 6:20; Ezekiel 27:17; Revelation 18:11-13). Among these spices were frankincense, myrrh, galbanum, stacte, onycha, cassia, aloes, cummin, dill, cinnamon, mint, rue, mustard, balm, sweet cane, henna, nard, saffron and calumus (Genesis 37:25; Exodus 30:23-24; Exodus 30:34; Song of Song of Solomon 3:6; Song of Solomon 4:13-14; Jeremiah 6:20; Matthew 23:23; Luke 11:42; Luke 13:19). ...
Spices came from the gum of certain trees and from plants and herbs (Song of Song of Solomon 4:14). People used spices in preparing food and drinks (Song of Song of Solomon 8:2; Ezekiel 24:10; Matthew 23:23), and in making a variety of oils, medicines, cosmetics, deodorants and disinfectants (Esther 2:12; Psalms 45:8; Proverbs 7:17; Song of Song of Solomon 4:10; Song of Solomon 4:14; Song of Solomon 5:13; Jeremiah 8:22; Jeremiah 51:8; Luke 7:46; John 12:3; John 19:39)
Zadokites - (zay' dahk ihtess) Descendants of Zadok, a chief priest with David and Solomon. As a reward for Zadok's loyalty to Solomon and as punishment for the sins of Eli's sons, Zadok's descendants (the line of Eliezer) replaced the descendants of Ithamar as the leading priests
Zadok - He joined David at Hebron, 1 Chronicles 12:28, and subsequently anointed Solomon king, 1 Kings 1:39, and was rewarded by Solomon for his faithful service by being made sole high priest
Riddle, - The riddles which the queen of Sheba came to ask of Solomon, (1 Kings 10:1 ; 2 Chronicles 9:1 ) were rather "hard questions" referring to profound inquiries. Solomon is said, however, to have been very fond of riddles
Cabul -
A town on the eastern border of Asher (Joshua 19:27 ), probably one of the towns given by Solomon to Hiram; the modern Kabul, some 8 miles east of Accho, on the very borders of Galilee. ...
...
A district in the north-west of Galilee, near to Tyre, containing twenty cities given to Hiram by Solomon as a reward for various services rendered to him in building the temple (1 Kings 9:13 ), and as payment of the six score talents of gold he had borrowed from him. " Hiram seems afterwards to have restored these cities to Solomon (2 Chronicles 8:2 )
Shenir - (sshee' nuhr) KJV alternate spelling of Senir (Deuteronomy 3:9 ; Song of Song of Solomon 4:8 )
Ahinadab - Son of Iddo, one of the 12 commissariat officers appointed by Solomon ( 1 Kings 4:14 )
Ahishar - Brother of song = singer, the officer who was "over the household" of Solomon (1 Kings 4:6 )
Jedidiah - The name the Lord gave to Solomon; meaning beloved of the Lord
Lebanon, Tower of - Only mentioned symbolically in Song of Solomon 7:4 : it is supposed to refer to mount Hermon
Lemuel - Some suppose it to be an enigmatical name for Solomon
ta'Phath - (ornament ), the daughter of Solomon, who was married to ben-Abinadab
Mahol - Dance, the father of four sons (1 Kings 4:31 ) who were inferior in wisdom only to Solomon
Zabud - Gift, the son of Nathan, who was "king's friend" in the court of Solomon (1 Kings 4:5 )
Chalcol - A wise man whose wisdom was excelled by Solomon
Darda - Son of Mahol: a wise man whose wisdom was surpassed by that of Solomon
Lily - The plant must have been a conspicuous object on the shores of the Lake of Gennesaret, ( Matthew 6:28 ; Luke 12:27 ) it must have flourished in the deep broad valleys of Palestine, (Song of Solomon 2:1 ) among the thorny shrubs, ib. (Song of Solomon 2:2 ) and pastures of the desert, ib. (Song of Solomon 2:16 ; 4:5 ; 6:3 ) and must have been remarkable for its rapid and luxuriant growth. That its flowers were brilliant in color would seem to be indicated in (Matthew 6:28 ) where it is compared with the gorgeous robes of Solomon; and that this color was scarlet or purple is implied in (Song of Solomon 5:13 ) There appears to be no species of lily which so completely answers all these requirements as the Lilium chalcedonicum , or scarlet martagon, which grows in profusing in the Levant
Jedidiah - A name God told David to give to his son Solomon (2 Samuel 12:25 ). Despite David's sin with Bathsheba and the death of the child of their sinful relationship, God showed His love to their child Solomon, thus underlining God's forgiving nature and His continued commitment to David and his royal house
Marble - Song of Solomon 5:15 (c) This beautiful stone is a symbol of strength, vigor, stamina and symmetry. The picture is given to us by Solomon to represent the Lord JESUS who would always walk with us and never tire
Cabul - Name given by Hiram king of Tyre to the twenty cities in Galilee given him by Solomon, because he was displeased with them. ' Apparently Hiram returned them to Solomon
Shenir - =Senir, (Deuteronomy 3:9 ; Song of Solomon 4:8 ), the name given to Mount Hermon (q
Cylinder - Song of Solomon 5:14 RVm Taphath - Daughter of Solomon, and wife of the son of Abinadab, one of Solomon's commissariat officers
he'Sed - (kindness ), the son of Hesed or Ben-Chesed, was commissary for Solomon
Garden - The gardens of the Hebrews were planted with flowers and aromatic shrubs, Song of Solomon 6:2; Song of Solomon 4:16, besides olives, fig trees, nuts or walnuts, Song of Solomon 6:11, pomegranates, and others for domestic use
Bath'-Sheba, - ) The child which was the fruit of her adulterous intercourse with David died; but after marriage she became the mother of four sons, Solomon, (Matthew 1:6 ) Shimea, Shobab and Nathan. When Adonijah attempted to set aside the succession promised to Solomon, Bath-sheba informed the king of the conspiracy. (1 Kings 1:11,15,23 ) After the accession of Solomon, she, as queen-mother, requested permission of her son for Adonijah to take in marriage Abishag the Shunammite
Apple Tree - A tree known in the Old Testament for its fruit, shade, beauty, and fragrance (Joel 1:12 ; Proverbs 25:11 ; Song of Song of Solomon 2:3 ,Song of Song of Solomon 2:5 ; Song of Song of Solomon 7:8 ; Song of Song of Solomon 8:5 )
Lock - The Hebrew term which the KJV translated locks at Song of Song of Solomon 4:1 ,Song of Song of Solomon 4:3 ; Song of Song of Solomon 6:7 ; and Isaiah 47:2 is rendered veil by modern translations. In the Old Testament period, door locks were bolts with holes into which small iron or wooden pins would drop to secure the bolt ( Nehemiah 3:3 ,Nehemiah 3:3,3:6 ,Nehemiah 3:6,3:13 ,Nehemiah 3:13,3:15 ; Song of Song of Solomon 5:5 ; compare Judges 3:23-24 )
Apple - Apple tree is named in the English Versions in Song of Solomon 2:3; Song of Solomon 8:5, and Joel 1:12, The fruit of this tree is alluded to in Proverbs 25:11 and Song of Solomon 2:5; Song of Solomon 7:8
Ibhar - David's next son after Solomon (2 Samuel 5:15; 1 Chronicles 3:6; 1 Chronicles 14:5); born in Jerusalem
Zeredathah - Place in the Jordan valley, near to which the foundries of Solomon were established
Ami - One of the servants of Solomon, whose posterity returned from exile
Jedidiah - Beloved of the Lord, a name given to Solomon at his birth, by Nathan the prophet, 2 Samuel 12:25
Solomon - God’s choice to succeed David as king over Israel was Solomon, the son born to David and Bathsheba after their first (and illegitimate) son had died (2 Samuel 12:24-25; 1 Chronicles 28:5). ...
Establishing his authority...
Once David was dead, Solomon quickly dealt with Adonijah and the two leaders who had supported him. ...
By marrying the daughter of the king of Egypt, Solomon entered into a treaty with Egypt that guaranteed peace between the two nations (1 Kings 3:1). The formal treaty probably involved paying respect to foreign gods, a practice that was a repeated temptation to Solomon and brought him increasing trouble (1 Kings 11:1-8). ...
Solomon’s love for lavish religious ceremony also led him into trouble (1 Kings 3:3-4), but his request for wisdom won God’s approval (1 Kings 3:5-14). People made collections of his proverbs and songs, and some of these are preserved in the Bible (1 Kings 4:32; Psalms 72; Psalms 127; Proverbs 1:1; Proverbs 10:1; Proverbs 25:1; Song of Song of Solomon 1:1). (For further details of Solomon’s writings see PROVERBS. )...
Under Solomon there was a large increase in the numbers of officials in the royal court, the national administration and the armed forces. To maintain all these people, Solomon revised the taxation system. ...
Development, trade and wealth...
David had prepared plans, finances and materials for Solomon to build God a temple in Jerusalem (1 Chronicles 22:2-16; 1 Chronicles 28:11; Acts 7:45-47). Solomon’s plans, however, far exceeded David’s. ...
Solomon bought costly building materials from Hiram, king of Tyre, and paid for them with produce taken from Israel’s hard-working farmers (1 Kings 5:1-11). ...
This temple was only part of a much larger building program that Solomon had planned. ...
Solomon also greatly strengthened Jerusalem’s defences (1 Kings 9:15). ...
To help finance his construction programs, Solomon borrowed huge amounts of gold from Hiram (1 Kings 9:14). Unable to repay his debts, Solomon decided to cut off twenty cities in northern Israel and give them to Hiram (1 Kings 9:10-11). This only increased the resentment that the people of northern Israel, and especially the farmers, felt towards Solomon and his showpiece city in the south. In spite of the hardship of the common people (1 Kings 12:4), Solomon spent extravagantly on himself (1 Kings 10:16-21; 1 Kings 10:25; 1 Kings 10:27; Song of Song of Solomon 3:7-10; cf. ...
David’s power had come through military conquest, but Solomon’s came through political and commercial treaties with neighbouring countries. ...
Solomon gained additional income by taxing all goods that passed through Israel on the international trade routes (1 Kings 10:14-15). ...
A splendid kingdom lost...
Although he taught wisdom to others, Solomon did not follow that wisdom himself. ...
All the time that Solomon was developing his magnificent kingdom, he was preparing his own punishment. The ten tribes to the north broke away from the Davidic rule, though for the sake of David, God withheld the inevitable judgment until after Solomon’s death (1 Kings 11:11-13). ...
The rebellion against Solomon was led by a young man from the north, Jeroboam. Solomon had recognized Jeroboam’s abilities earlier, and put him in charge of a large portion of the workforce from the northern tribes (1 Kings 11:28). When Solomon felt that Jeroboam was gaining support among the northerners, he tried to kill him, but Jeroboam escaped to the safety of Egypt (1 Kings 10:22; 1 Kings 11:40). After Solomon’s death, Jeroboam returned to Israel and successfully lead a breakaway rebellion (1 Kings 12:2-4; 1 Kings 12:16-20)
Paruah - Flourishing, the father of Jehoshaphat, appointed to provide monthly supplies for Solomon from the tribe of Issachar (1 Kings 4:17 )
Jeriah - ” Priest under David and Solomon (1 Chronicles 23:19 ; 1 Chronicles 24:23 )
Darda - Pearl of wisdom, one of the four who were noted for their wisdom, but whom Solomon excelled (1 Kings 4:31 )
Taphath - ” Daughter of Solomon and wife of Ben-abinadab, a Solomonic official (1 Kings 4:11 )
Ashtoreth - Josiah finally destroyed the altars Solomon built (2 Kings 23:13 )
Elonbethhanan - One of the commissariat towns of Solomon, 1 Kings 4:9
Bas'Math - (fragrant, pleasing ), a daughter of Solomon, married to Ahimaaz, one of his commissariat officers
Handles - (Literally hands) The thumb pieces or knobs of the bolt or latch of a door (Song of Song of Solomon 5:5 )
Rei - ” David's officer who sided with Solomon in his succession struggle with Adonijah (1 Kings 1:8 )
David, Tower of - Doubtless part of the castle in Zion, wherein armour was stored: it is mentioned only symbolically in Song of Solomon 4:4
Wisdom - This book has been commonly ascribed to Solomon, either because the author imitated the king's manner of writing, or because he sometimes speaks in his name. But it is certain Solomon was not the author of it; for it was not written in Hebrew, nor was it inserted in the Jewish canon, nor is the style like that of Solomon; and therefore St
Solomon - But the greatest improvement we can make of the view of Solomon, is to consider him in those features of his character which were typical of the Lord Jesus Christ. I shall beg to detain the reader for a few moments on this account respecting Solomon, as it is striking. ...
As Solomon was the son of David after the flesh, so Christ in his human nature is expressly, marked for the comfort of the faithful, as of the same stock. " (Matthew 22:42) And it is remarkable that the Lord should have sent by the hand of Nathan, at the birth of Solomon, and called him Jedidiah, that is, beloved of the Lord. "Add to these, Solomon king of Israel typified Christ as a king and as a preacher in Jerusalem; and also in his wisdom, in the riches, magnitude; peaceableness, and glory of his kingdom, and in the building of the temple, which was a beautiful type of the Lord Jesus; who is not only the builder of the temple, which is his church, but the foundation of it, the substance, and the glory of it; for he and he alone, as the Lord said by the prophet, was the only one fit to build the temple of the Lord, and he alone "could only bear the glory. " (Zechariah 6:13)...
But when we have looked at Solomon, king of Israel, as in those and the like instances, as becoming a lively type of the ever-blessed Jesus, and see in our Lord Jesus Christ a greater than Solomon in every one, I would request the reader to detach from the person and character of David's son all that belongs not to him in those Scriptures, and particularly in the book of the Psalms, which are as if directed to him and spoken of him, but certainly with him have nothing to do. I know that some commentators have supposed that what is there said is said first of Solomon, king of Israel, and secondly in an higher sense of the Lord Jesus Christ. But oh, what a degradation of the subject is it thus to suppose! Oh, what indignity is thereby offered to the Lord Jesus Christ! I have said so much on this point in my Poor Man's Commentary on the Book of the Psalms, that I think it unnecessary in this place to enlarge; but I could not suffer the subject even in this little work, while speaking of Solomon, to pass by without remarking the great perversion of the Scripture to suppose that there is in those things the least reference to Solomon, king of Israel
Ahijah - A prophet and chronicler of the times of Solomon and Jeroboam, 1 Kings 11:29 2 Chronicles 9:29 . He is thought to be the person who spoke in God's name to Solomon while building the temple, 1 Kings 6:11 ; and again after he fell into sin, 1 Kings 11:11
Yarn - The Authorized Version has: "And Solomon had horses brought out of Egypt, and linen yarn: the king's merchants received the linen yarn at a price;" but the Revised Version correctly renders: "And the horses which Solomon had were brought out of Egypt; the king's merchants received them in droves, each drove at a price
Solomon - David when near his death appointed Solomon his son, whom God had chosen to sit upon the throne of the kingdom of Jehovah, to be his successor, and he began his reign by executing righteous judgement, as Christ will when He comes to reign, followed by a reign of peace. ...
Solomon loved the Lord, and worshipped Him at the altar at Gibeon, and there the Lord appeared to him in a dream, and said, "Ask what I shall give thee. " Solomon asked for an understanding heart to judge the people wisely. all the days of Solomon. When the temple was dedicated, Solomon sacrificed and prayed to Jehovah. God would continue to bless him and establish his house in Israel, on the condition that Solomon was obedient, and turned not to other gods. The riches of Solomon increased so much that silver was of little value in his days. The Lord declared that Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed as a simple lily of the field. ...
God then stirred up adversaries against Solomon, and by the prophet Ahijah He foretold that Jeroboam would reign over ten of the tribes. Still Solomon did not repent, but sought the life of Jeroboam. God did not prolong Solomon's days, for he died at about the age of 58. ...
We read of Solomon that he spake three thousand proverbs, and his songs were a thousand and five
Baal-Hamon - ” Location of Solomon's vineyard according to Song of Song of Solomon 8:11
Banqueting House - 'house of wine,' Song of Solomon 2:4 ; used figuratively for the house of delights to which the Bridegroom brings the bride
Senir - Wrongly changed to Shenir in Deuteronomy 3:9-10; Song of Solomon 4:8
Jedidi'ah - (beloved of Jehovah ) , Jedid-jah ( darling of Jehovah ), the name bestowed, through Nathan the prophet, on David's son Solomon
ma'Hol - (dancing ), the father of the four men most famous for wisdom next to Solomon himself
be'Ther - ( Song of Solomon 2:17 ) There is no clue to guide us as to what mountains are intended here
Hiram - King of Tyre, who loved David and was a friend of Solomon. By his servants he supplied both timber and stone for the temple and the palaces of Solomon. Solomon gave to Hiram twenty cities in the land of Galilee, but Hiram was not pleased with them: he called them, in Aramaic CABUL,'displeasing or dirty;' and the cities were eventually returned to Solomon
Darkon - ” A servant of Solomon whose descendants returned from Exile with Zerubbabel about 537 B
Mikloth -
An officer under Dodai, in the time of David and Solomon (1 Chronicles 27:4 )
Spouse - (Song of Solomon 4:8-12 ; Hosea 4:13,14 ) may denote either husband or wife, but in the Scriptures it denotes only the latter
Shulamite - The same, as some think, with "Shunammite," from "Shunem:" otherwise, the import of the word is uncertain (Song of Solomon 6:13 ; RSV, "Shulammite")
Aruboth - The third commissariat district of Solomon, probably the rich corn-growing country in the Shephelah or low hills of Judah
Pochereth - Servant of Solomon, described as 'of Zebaim': ancestor of some who returned from exile
Baal-Hamon - I am inclined to think that this was not an idol, but a place; for the church, celebrating the glories of her Solomon, saith, that he had a vineyard at Baal-hamon (Song of Song of Solomon 8:11) Hamon, is people, multitudes, or riches
Pomegranates, Rimmon - It was represented alternately with bells, at the bottom of the high priest's robe, as a type of fruitfulness, and was copied as an ornament on the columns of Solomon's temple. ' Song of Solomon 4:3 ; Song of Solomon 6:7 . Song of Solomon 8:2 ; Exodus 39:24-26 ; Numbers 20:5 ; Deuteronomy 8:8 ; 1 Kings 7:18,42 ; Jeremiah 52:22,23 ; Joel 1:12 ; Haggai 2:19
Lemuel - The rabbis identified him with Solomon
King - Song of Solomon 1:4 (c) In this way we see the Lord JESUS CHRIST in His glory as the sovereign ruler of His church
Milcom - The idol of the Ammonites, the worship of which was adopted by Solomon
Peacocks - Appear not to have been known in Palestine, until imported in the navy of Solomon, 1 Kings 10:22 2 Chronicles 9:21
Batsheba - Mother of King Solomon
Dar'Kon - Children of Darkon were among the "servants of Solomon" who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel
Divided Kingdom - The two political states of Judah and Israel that came into existence shortly after the death of Solomon and survived together until the fall of Israel in 722 B. The events that led to the division can be traced to the reign of Solomon. God chose Jeroboam, son of Nebat, to lead the rebellion of the northern tribes after the death of Solomon (1 Kings 11:26-40 ). Neither Judah nor Israel had the ability to maintain the empire that David and Solomon had built. From the religious perspective, Judah and Israel continued the apostate practices of Solomon
Apple Tree - תפוח , Proverbs 25:11 ; Song of Solomon 2:3 ; Song of Solomon 2:5 ; Song of Solomon 7:8 ; Song of Solomon 8:5 ; Joel 1:12 . ...
There are five places, beside this in Joel, in which the word occurs; and from them we learn that it was thought the noblest of the trees of the wood, and that its fruit was very sweet or pleasant, Song of Solomon 2:3 ; of the colour of gold, Proverbs 25:11 ; extremely fragrant, Song of Solomon 7:8 ; and proper for those to smell that were ready to faint, Song of Solomon 2:5 . ...
The exhilarating effects of the fruit are mentioned Song of Solomon 2:5 , "Comfort me with citrons. ...
To the manner of serving up these citrons in his court, Solomon seems to refer, when he says, "A word fitly spoken is like golden citrons in silver baskets;" whether, as Maimonides supposes, in baskets wrought with open work, or in salvers curiously chased, it nothing concerns us to determine; the meaning is, that an excellent saying, suitably expressed, is as the most acceptable gift in the fairest conveyance
Bether - ” A mountain range used as an emotional image in Song of Song of Solomon 2:17
Bul - ” Solomon finished building the Temple in this month (1 Kings 6:38 )
Zabud - Priest (kohen , KJV "principal officer") and "king's friend" to Solomon, i
Amana - ” Mountain peak in Anti-lebanon mountains where lovers meet and then descend (Song of Song of Solomon 4:8 )
Nathan (2) - ...
Nathan the Prophet: (a) Prophesied during the times of Kings David and Solomon, in the 9th century BCE. Famous for his rebuke of David after the Batsheba debacle as well as ensuring that Solomon would be named as David's successor
Ashtaroth, Ashtoreth - Goddess of the Phoenicians and Zidonians, worshipped by Israel after the death of Joshua, and by Solomon. Josiah destroyed the emblems of her worship as introduced by Solomon
Abishag - They had no sexual relations, but Solomon considered her David's wife when his brother Adonijah asked to marry her after David's death (1 Kings 2:17 ). Solomon interpreted the request as a step toward becoming king and had Adonijah executed (1 Kings 2:23-25 )
Gallery - rahit (Song of Solomon 1:17 ), translated "rafters," marg
Gamul - ” Head of one of the priestly divisions in the Temple under David and Solomon (1 Chronicles 24:17 )
Ruddy - Having a healthy, reddish color (1 Samuel 16:12 ; 1 Samuel 17:42 ; Song of Song of Solomon 5:10 ; Lamentations 4:7 ; compare Genesis 25:25 )
Pomegranate - This is of the size of an orange, flattened at the ends like an apple, is of a beautiful brown-red color, Song of Solomon 4:3; Song of Solomon 6:7, has a hard rind and is filled with pulp of a highly grateful flavor. The abundant juice was made into wine, Song of Solomon 8:2, and used for a cooling drink
Bathsheba - Mother of Solomon, whose mind she helped much to mold; also of Shimea (or Shammua), Shobab, and Nathan (1 Chronicles 3:5). Nathan and Solomon were both ancestors of the Lord Jesus (Luke 3:31; Matthew 1:6). She is said by tradition to have composed Proverbs 31 as an admonition to Solomon on his marriage to Pharaoh's daughter
Adonijah - But Solomon, a younger brother, was preferred to him. But Nathan and Bathsheba induced David to give orders that Solomon should at once be proclaimed and admitted to the throne. Adonijah fled and took refuge at the altar, and received pardon for his conduct from Solomon on the condition that he showed himself "a worthy man" (1Kings 1:5-53)
Nathan - And when Adonijah began to take upon him the state, and to assume the dignity of a sovereign, and to form a party in opposition to his brother Solomon, Nathan repaired to Bathsheba, and sent her immediately to the king with instructions what to say and while she was yet discoursing with the king, Nathan came in, reminded David of his promise, that Solomon should be his successor, and procured Solomon to be immediately anointed king of Israel
Nathan - He approved the king's purpose of building a temple to the lord, but by divine direction transferred this accomplishment to Solomon, 2 Samuel 7:1-17 . He wrote some memorials, long since lost, of both David and Solomon, 1 Chronicles 29:29 2 Chronicles 9:29 . How long he lived under the reign of Solomon is unknown; but two of his sons were high officers at court, 1 Kings 4:5
Zebaim - Place to which Pochereth, a servant of Solomon, belonged
Camphire - Song of Solomon 1:14 ; Song of Solomon 4:13 . ...
In the Song of Solomon, the bride is described as saying, "My beloved is unto me as a cluster of camphire in the vineyards of Engedi," Song of Solomon 1:14 ; and again, "Thy plants are an orchard of pomegranates, with pleasant fruits, camphire with spikenard," Song of Solomon 4:13
Canticle of Canticles - Protestant versions call it Song of Solomon or Song of Songs. The Canticle of Canticles was composed by Solomon, in Jerusalem, under Divine inspiration. The earlier interpreters all agreed with the traditional view that Solomon wrote it; and the familiar acquaintance with matters of natural science and with the geographical features of Palestine accords well with the genius of Solomon. They deride the idea of Solomon parading his amours in such fashion; but Solomon is not parading himself or his wives or his amours. Some critics interpret the book as an erotic poem, composed by some Palestinian to celebrate the pursuit by Solomon of a shy Shulemite shepherdess
Solomon, Song of - Protestant versions call it Song of Solomon or Song of Songs. The Canticle of Canticles was composed by Solomon, in Jerusalem, under Divine inspiration. The earlier interpreters all agreed with the traditional view that Solomon wrote it; and the familiar acquaintance with matters of natural science and with the geographical features of Palestine accords well with the genius of Solomon. They deride the idea of Solomon parading his amours in such fashion; but Solomon is not parading himself or his wives or his amours. Some critics interpret the book as an erotic poem, composed by some Palestinian to celebrate the pursuit by Solomon of a shy Shulemite shepherdess
Song of Solomon - Protestant versions call it Song of Solomon or Song of Songs. The Canticle of Canticles was composed by Solomon, in Jerusalem, under Divine inspiration. The earlier interpreters all agreed with the traditional view that Solomon wrote it; and the familiar acquaintance with matters of natural science and with the geographical features of Palestine accords well with the genius of Solomon. They deride the idea of Solomon parading his amours in such fashion; but Solomon is not parading himself or his wives or his amours. Some critics interpret the book as an erotic poem, composed by some Palestinian to celebrate the pursuit by Solomon of a shy Shulemite shepherdess
Amana - ) A mountain near Lebanon, perhaps the southern top of Antilibanus (Song of Solomon 4:8)
Fishpools - Song of Solomon 7:4 (b) This is a poetic figure of the enticing beauty of the clear, deep eyes of the lover, so full of expression and passion
Hiram - A name rendered memorable from his friendship with Solomon
Zabud - A son of Nathan the prophet, the confidential friend and adviser of king Solomon, probably having shared with him the instructions of the venerable prophet, 1 Kings 4:5
Winter - Winter is also the rainy season for that land (Song of Song of Solomon 2:11 )
Jedidiah - Beloved by Jehovah, the name which, by the mouth of Nathan, the Lord gave to Solomon at his birth as a token of the divine favour (2 Samuel 12:25 )
Cabul - Region of cities in Galilee Solomon gave Hiram, king of Tyre, as payment for materials and services in building the Temple and the palace. ” Apparently, the “gift” expected a gift in return, according to Near Eastern etiquette, for Hiram gave Song of Solomon 120 talents of gold ( 1 Kings 9:10-14 )
Bathsheba - The child died ( 2 Samuel 12:18 ), but another son, Solomon, was subsequently born ( 2 Samuel 12:24 ). Acting as Adonijah’s intercessor in the matter of Abishag, she was most respectfully received by Solomon, but her unwise request was refused ( 1 Kings 2:13-25 )
Nathan - ...
Nathan the Prophet: (a) Prophesied during the times of Kings David and Solomon, in the 9th century BCE. Famous for his rebuke of David after the Batsheba debacle as well as ensuring that Solomon would be named as David’s successor
Apes - Imported once every three years in Solomon's and Hiram's Tarshish fleets (1 Kings 10:22; 2 Chronicles 9:21). Solomon, as a naturalist, collected specimens from various lands. Tarshish is identified by Sir Emerson Tennent with some Ceylon seaport; so the apes (quophim ) brought to Solomon probably came from Ceylon, which abounds also in "ivory and peacocks
Ecclesiastes - One of the books of Solomon, and so called by the Septuagint. But that it is Solomon who is the writer, and who is describing in many parts of it himself, there can be no question, since we have in it so ample an account of his riches and treasure, and at the same time, of his discovery of the vanity of all
Millo - "David built round about from Millo and inward," 2 Samuel 5:9 ; that is, he built round about from the place where Millo was afterward erected by Solomon, or where more probably the senate house, or Millo of the Jebusites, had stood, which was pulled down to make room for the more sumptuous edifice of Solomon, to his own house; so that David built from Mount Zion, quite round to the opposite point
Calcol - (1 Chronicles 2:6 ), sustenance, the same probably as Chalcol (1 Kings 4:31 ), one of the four sages whom Solomon excelled in wisdom; for "he was wiser than all men
ma'Kaz - (end ), a place, apparently a town, named once only-- ( 1 Kings 4:9 ) --in the: specification of the jurisdiction of Solomon a commissariat officer, Ben-Dekar
Rezon - God stirred him up against Solomon
Solomon - LEST I MYSELF SHOULD BE A CASTAWAY...
THE shipwreck of Solomon is surely the most terrible tragedy in all the world. For if ever there was a shining type of Christ in the Old Testament church, it was Solomon. If ever any one was once enlightened, and had tasted the heavenly gift, and was made a partaker of the Holy Ghost, and had tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the world to come, it was Solomon. If ever any young saint sought first the kingdom of God and His righteousness, and had all these things added unto him, it was Solomon. If the kingdom of heaven was ever like a lord's servant with five talents, who went and traded with the same and made them other five talents, it was Solomon. If ever there was any one of whom it could be said that he had attained, and was already perfect, it was Solomon. If ever ship set sail on a sunny morning, but all that was left of her was a board or two on the shore that night, that ship was Solomon. A board or two of rare and precious wood, indeed; and some of them richly worked and overlaid with silver and gold-it was Solomon with his sermons, and his prayers, and his proverbs, and his songs, and his temple. If ever a blazing lighthouse was set up in the sea of life to warn every man and to teach every man, it was Solomon. ...
Solomon was born of a father and a mother, the knowledge of which was enough to sanctify and dedicate both him and them from his mother's womb. If ever it was said over any child's birth, Where sin abounded, grace did much more abound, it was surely over the birth, and the birth-gifts and graces of Solomon. If ever a father's and a mother's son said when he was come to years, And is this the manner of man, O Lord God? that son come to years was surely Solomon. What more could have been done to my vineyard that I have not done in it? And then his father's deathbed, and all those terrible tragedies on the back of that; all ending in Solomon sitting down on the throne of Israel amid such a blaze of glory. Solomon would have been made of stone not to have been moved to make those vows, and promises, and choices of wisdom and truth and righteousness, which we read so beautifully that he did make at the beginning of his reign in Jerusalem. ...
The Holy Child Himself never dreamed a better dream than that dream was which Solomon dreamed after that day of a thousand burnt-offerings on the altar of Gibeon. And a nobler choice was never made by any elect man in his most waking and most enlightened hours, than was the choice that Solomon made that midnight in his sleep. As soon as Lord Melbourne had announced to the young Princess Victoria that she was now Queen of England, he opened the Bible and read to the young sovereign the story of Solomon's dream at Gibeon. Would God it had come half as true in his case who dreamed the dream! 'And the speech pleased the Lord that Solomon had asked this thing. ' And both the riches and the honour promised at Gibeon were all fulfilled in Jerusalem, till the half had not been told to Solomon. ...
Magnifical, a mountain of ceder and wrought gold, as Solomon's temple was, it is all gone to dust and ashes millenniums ago. As the Lord warned Solomon, the temple soon became an astonishment and a hissing. But the dedication prayer that Solomon offered on the opening day before the altar is a far better prayer to us today than it was that day on which it first fell from Solomon's lips. No doubt it may be said in suspicion and in depreciation of Solomon that kings are wont to get their speeches and their prayers written for them by their ministers, secular and sacred; and that what falls from a king's lips before his people need not have come from his heart. But in the case of a king of Solomon's birth and upbringing and great gifts, such a libel would never have been let light had it not been that it is a real relief to hear it. If Solomon actually, and all of himself, made and offered that wonderful prayer, then when we think of it, he is more a mystery of perdition to us than ever. And upon no man more than upon both Solomon and his books. 'The prayer of Solomon,' says a scholar of no less grace and genius than of scholarship, 'so fully reproduced, and so evidently precomposed, may well have been written under Nathan's guidance. Had Solomon lived up to that prayer; no, I must not say that, for no man could do that, not Nathan himself; but if Solomon in all his unspeakable sensualities and idolatries had ever given the least sign or symptom that he felt shame for his life, or remorse when he remembered his prayer: had it not been for that, I, for one, could never have let it light on my mind that any one but Solomon himself composed what is here called Solomon's prayer. I can hold up my head better when I am opening a church and am reading and expounding this prayer, when I think of Nathan's pure and noble soul rather than of Solomon, who is so soon to be such a scandal and reprobation. I can imagine many open-minded young men here, and many open-minded old men like Jonathan Edwards, who will go back to the prophetic precomposition and the prophetic reproduction of this great prayer with thankfulness to God for the splendid service that Christian scholarship is doing to Holy Scriptures, and not least to Solomon's psalms and songs and prayers and proverbs in our open-eyed, believing, and truly reverential day. ...
Our own Lord Bacon always comes to my mind when I think about Solomon. Bacon, like Solomon, put tongues into trees and made them speak proverbs. Solomon's House in The New Atlantis is the best commentary that will ever be written on the wisdom of Solomon. And then, with it all, Bacon's superb genius followed by his awful fall, makes us almost believe that Solomon has come back to this earth again in the lord chancellor of England. Only, how happy it would have made us had Nathan found among Solomon's parchments, and in Solomon's own handwriting, a psalm or prayer like that which Bacon's executors found in his dead desk. That is not Solomon come back again. Would God it were! Solomon has nothing like that to come back with. That is Solomon's father come back to fallen Bacon. And it was Solomon's very wisdom and wide understanding; it was his great riches; it was his wide dominion; it was his largeness of heart and his long and peaceful life that all worked together to make his path so slippery and so deadly. It is not to be wiser than what is written to say that it was not a vulgar and an everyday sensuality that made Solomon in the end such a castaway. That Solomon should go down to Egypt, of all places on the face of the earth, for his queen; that Pharaoh's daughter should sit on the throne of David, that must have given a shock to the more conservative, and sober, and thoughtful, and religious, and far-seeing minds in Israel-a shock that we wonder we do not hear more about it while Solomon is yet young and yet alive. And Solomon's largeness of heart soon ended in sheer flesh itself. 'And it came to pass that, when Solomon was old, his wives turned away his heart after other gods; and his heart was not perfect with the Lord his God, as was the heart of David his father. And there is no shipwreck of faith and holiness and severe obedience in all the world that is written more for the men of our generation than just the terrible shipwreck of Solomon amid his wealth, and his wisdom, and his largeness of horizon and hospitality of heart, even to strange women and to their strange gods, till that end came which always comes. ...
The books of Solomon so-called-the Proverbs, the Ecclesiastes, and the Song-had a great struggle to get a footing inside the Old Testament. Each one of Solomon's books had its own difficulty to those who sifted out and sealed up the Hebrew Bible. There was something in all the books that were in any way associated with Solomon's name that made the Hebrew Fathers doubt their fitness for a place in Holy Scripture. There is no repentance anywhere in Solomon. There is no paschal lamb, or young pigeon, or bitter herb among all the beasts, and birds, and hyssop-plants of which Solomon spoke and sang so much. There is no day of atonement, or so much as one of the many ordained sacrifices for sin, in any of Solomon's real or imputed writings. Both the sense of truth and the instinct of verisimilitude kept back all those who ever assumed Solomon's name from ever putting a penitential psalm, or a proverb of true repentance, in Solomon's mouth. The historical sense, as we call it, was already too strong for that even in the deathbed moralisings and soliloquisings that have come down to us under Solomon's name. There is no thirty-second, or fifty-first, or hundred and thirtieth Psalm of David in all the volume of 'Psalms of Solomon' that were composed in the century before Christ. No; there is no real repentance, real or assumed, anywhere in Solomon. Vanity of vanities, groaned out Solomon, with his heart full of the ashes of a lost life. The wise men of the east, wiser than Solomon, have a proverb upon the secret worm that was gnawing all the time in the royal staff upon which Solomon leaned
Amana - The southern part or summit of Anti-Lebanon, adjacent to and north of Hermon, from which the river Amana or Abana poured down towards Damascus, Song of Song of Solomon 4:8
Goblet - In Song of Solomon 7:2 , a bowl or drinking vessel, a bowl for mixing wine; in Exodus 24:6 , a sacrificial basin
Bath-Rabbim - The name of a gate of Heshbon, near which were pools, to which the Shulammite’s eyes are compared ( Song of Solomon 7:4 )
Attai - Son of Rehoboam andgrandsonof Solomon
Shaalbim - A town of God, long held by the Amorites, Joshua 19:42 ; Judges 1:35 , but in the time of Solomon the headquarters of one of his commissaries, 1 Kings 4:9
gi'Hon - (Genesis 2:13 ) [1] ...
A place near Jerusalem, memorable as the scene of the anointing and proclamation of Solomon as king
Hiram - So he made a "league" with his son Solomon (beriyt , "a covenant," recognizing Jehovah, and guaranteeing to Jewish sojourners at Tyre religious liberty). ...
The mention that "there was peace between Hiram and Solomon" may hint at there having been once war between Hiram and David, before Hiram became "a lover of David. " Hiram gave Solomon for the temple cedars and firs, and gold, six score talents, according to all his desire, and Solomon in return gave Hiram 20,000 measures of wheat and 26 measures of pure oil yearly; the mercantile coast cities being dependent on the grain and olive abounding region of Palestine (Acts 12:20 end). Solomon also gave Hiram 20 cities in Galilee, which did not satisfy him, and which therefore he called Cabul. ...
Tyre is threatened with punishment for delivering the Jewish captives to Edom, and not remembering "the brotherly covenant," namely, between Hiram and David and Solomon. Hiram sent also in the navy expert shipmen to Ophir from Ezion-Geber, with Solomon's servants; and a navy. ) With Solomon's navy of Tharshish (1 Kings 10:22) to share in the Mediterranean trade. 8:2, section 8) States that the correspondence between Hiram and Solomon was kept in his day among the Tyrian archives. King Hiram sent to Solomon an overseer of workmen skilled in working gold, silver, brass, iron, stone, wood, purple, linen, etc
Ecclesiastes - " The old and traditional view of the authorship of this book attributes it to Solomon. The writer represents himself implicitly as ( Song of Solomon 1:12 ). It has been appropriately styled The Confession of King Solomon
Nathan -
A prophet in the reigns of David and Solomon (2 Chronicles 9:29 ). He was charged with the education of (Song of Solomon 12:25 ), at whose inauguration to the throne he took a prominent part (1 Kings 1:8,10,11,22-45 ). He seems to have written a life of David, and also a life of Solomon (1 Chronicles 29:29 ; 2 Chronicles 9:29 )
Myrrh - It was an ingredient in the holy anointing oil, Exodus 30:23; it was used in perfumes, Psalms 45:8; Proverbs 7:17; Song of Solomon 1:13; Song of Solomon 8:6; in unguents, Esther 2:12; Song of Solomon 5:5; for strengthening wine, Mark 15:23; also in embalming, John 19:30
Jedidiah - Jedid-Jah, ("darling of Jehovah"), name given by God through Nathan the prophet to Solomon (2 Samuel 12:25) combining David's own name (Jedid akin to David "beloved") and Jehovah's; a pledge of David's restoration to God's favor after his fall in the matter of Bathsheba, implying the union of the earthly and the heavenly king. David himself had first given him the name Solomon "the man of peace," because he regarded his birth as a token of his restored peace with God, and also of God'S promise to give peace and rest to Israel in his days (2 Chronicles 22:9). Jedidiah was not therefore his ordinary name, but Solomon
Flowers - nizzân , only Song of Solomon 2:12 . Song of Solomon 2:2 . Flowers are one of the attractive features of Palestine: they come in the early spring ( Song of Solomon 2:12 ), but fade all too soon, the brilliant display being a matter of but a few short weeks
Lily - —The lily (שׁוּשַׁן, שׁוֹשַׁנָּה, κρίνον) is mentioned by various OT writers (1 Kings 7:19, 2 Chronicles 4:5, Song of Solomon 2:1 etc. From the expression ‘lilies of the field,’ we gather that they were wild flowers, while the comparison of them with the regal robes of Solomon (Matthew 6:29) implies that they were not white, but coloured (cf. Song of Solomon 5:13)
Ship - Solomon had a 'navy of ships' at Ezion Geber, the eastern branch of the Red Sea; but Hiram sent his shipmen 'that had knowledge of the sea' with the servants of Solomon. Ships of Tharshish are also mentioned both in connection with Solomon and Jehoshaphat
Abiathar - In this state things continued, until the reign of Solomon, when Abiathar, being attached to the party of Adonijah, was, by Solomon, divested of his priesthood, A. 2989 and the race of Zadok alone performed the functions of that office during the reign of Solomon, to the exclusion of the family of Ithamar, according to the word of the Lord to Eli
Adonijah - David at once proclaimed Solomon as king. Adonijah ran in fear to the horns of the altar, but Solomon promised if he showed himself a worthy man he should not be hurt. 68) this was in eastern countries considered as a pretension to the crown, which agrees with Solomon saying, 'Ask for him the kingdom also,' and explains also the advice given by Ahithophel to Absalom, to go in publicly to his father's wives
Amminadib - A person mentioned in Song of Solomon 6:12 , whose chariots were famed for their swiftness
Baalath - It was fortified by Solomon (1 Kings 9:18 ; 2 Chronicles 8:6 )
Adiel -
The father of Azmaveth, who was treasurer under David and Solomon (1Chronicles 27:25)
Rezon - ” An Aramaean leader who led a successful revolt against Solomon and established an independent state with its capital at Damascus (1 Kings 11:23-25 )
Cabul - The district was ceded by Solomon to Tyre
Jehdeiah - ...
...
A Meronothite, herdsman of the asses under David and Solomon (1 Chronicles 27:30 )
Lily - שושן , 1 Kings 7:19 ; 1 Kings 7:22 ; 1 Kings 7:26 ; 2 Chronicles 4:5 ; Song of Solomon 2:2 ; Song of Solomon 2:16 ; Song of Solomon 4:5 ; Song of Solomon 5:13 ; Song of Solomon 6:2-3 ; Song of Solomon 7:2 ; Hosea 14:5 ; κρινον , Matthew 6:28 ; Luke 12:27 ; a well known sweet and beautiful flower, which furnished Solomon with a variety of charming images in his Song, and with graceful ornaments in the fabric and furniture of the temple. By "the lily of the valley," Song of Solomon 2:2 , we are not to understand the humble flower, generally so called, with us, the lilium convallium, but the noble flower which ornaments our gardens, and which in Palestine grows wild in the fields, and especially in the valleys. ...
As, in Song of Solomon 5:13 , the lips are compared to the lily, Bishop Patrick supposes the lily here instanced to be the same which, on account of its deep red colour, is particularly called by Pliny rubens lilium, and which, he tells us, was much esteemed in Syria. Such may have been the lily mentioned in Matthew 6:28-30 ; for the royal robes were purple: "Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow; they toil not, neither do they spin: and yet I say unto you, that Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these;" so in Luke 12:27 . Those beautiful productions of nature, so richly strayed, and so exquisitely perfumed, that the splendour even of Solomon is not to be compared to theirs, shall soon wither and decay, and be used as fuel. This superb plant excited the admiration of the whole party; and it brought immediately to my recollection the beautiful comparison used on a particular occasion by our Saviour: ‘I say unto you, that Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these. Smith observes, "It is natural to presume the divine Teacher, according to his usual custom, called the attention of his hearers to some object at hand; and as the fields of the Levant are overrun with the amaryllis lutea, whose golden lilaceous flowers in autumn afford one of the most brilliant and gorgeous objects in nature, the expression of ‘Solomon in all his glory not being arrayed like one of these,' is peculiarly appropriate
Meronothite - A name given to Jehdeiah, the herdsman of the royal asses in the time of David and Solomon (1 Chronicles 27:30 ), probably as one being a native of some unknown town called Meronoth
Mount of Corruption - Hill on the southern ridge of the Mount of Olives upon which Solomon built pagan shrines for use by his wives
Armoury - ' In Song of Solomon 4:4 it is talpiyyoth, 'armoury' or heap of swords
Pommel - It formed some part of the chapiters of the two pillars in the temple built by Solomon
Palanquin - (pa lan' quihn) REB, RSV term for an enclosed seat or couch carried on servants' shoulders (Song of Song of Solomon 3:9 )
Mount of Corruption - Hill on the southern ridge of the Mount of Olives upon which Solomon built pagan shrines for use by his wives
Rezon - The founder of a dynasty in Syria-Damascus in the time of David, and a great annoyance to Solomon, 1 Kings 11:23-25
Rehoboam - Son of Solomon and Naamah an Ammonitess: he succeeded his father. On the tribes seeking relief from some of the burdens laid upon them by Solomon, Rehoboam unwisely turned from the counsellors of his father, and followed the advice of his young companions. It was because of the sin of Solomon. Shishak took away the treasures of the temple and of the king's house, and the shields of gold that Solomon had made. Thus the glory of Solomon soon passed away! Rehoboam reigned over Judah and Benjamin, under the title of JUDAH, seventeen years, from B
Spikenard - SPIKENARD ( nçrd , Song of Solomon 1:12 ; Song of Solomon 4:13-14 ; also Gr
Flowers - Their beauty is often alluded to (Song of Solomon 2:12 ; Matthew 6:28 ). Gardens containing flowers and fragrant herbs are spoken of (Song of Solomon 4:16 ; 6:2 )
Bath-Sheba - After her husband was slain (11:15) she was married to David (11:27), and became the mother of (Song of Solomon 12:24 ; 1 Kings 1:11 ; 2:13 ). She took a prominent part in securing the succession of Solomon to the throne (1 Kings 1:11,16-21 )
Camphire - Song of Solomon 1:14; "My beloved is unto Me as a cluster of camphire" (Song of Solomon 4:13)
Stable - Solomon kept large numbers of horses in stalls (1 Kings 4:26 ). See Manger ; Solomon
Palace - Solomon built several for himself and for his wives. The temple built by Solomon is also called 'the palace
Shimel - On both occasions David spared and forgave him; but when dying he cautioned Solomon against a man who knew no restraints but those of fear. An officer under David, and perhaps under Solomon, 1 Kings 1:8 ; 4:18
Ring - In Song of Solomon 5:14 RVm Fish-Pools - (Song of Solomon 7:4 ) should be simply "pools," as in the Revised Version
Tahpenes - Her sister was given in marriage to Hadad the Edomite, an enemy of David, and later of Solomon
Shi'Sha - (Jehovah contends ), father of Elihoreph and Ahiah, the royal secretaries in the reign of Solomon
Chun - City in the North captured by David, from whence he took much brass, which was used by Solomon in the Temple
ca'Bul - ...
Name of the land given to Hiram by Solomon
am'Ana - ( Song of Solomon 4:8 ) It is commonly assumed that this is the mountain in which the river Abana, (2 Kings 5:12 ) has its source
Conduit, - Tradition, both oral and as represented by Talmudical writers, ascribes to Solomon the formation of the original aqueduct by which water was brought to Jerusalem
Bathsheba - ...
The child born to David and Bathsheba died (2 Samuel 12:14-23), but later they had another son, Solomon (2 Samuel 12:24). In David’s closing years another son, Adonijah, tried to outdo Solomon in their claims for the throne, but Bathsheba’s influence ensured that Solomon became king (1 Kings 1:11-31). When Adonijah then tried to use Bathsheba to advance himself in Solomon’s court, Solomon executed him for treason (1 Kings 2:13-25)
Zeredathah - Here Solomon erected the foundries in which Hiram made the great castings of bronze for the temple
Calcol - ]'>[1] has Chalcol ) as a son of Mahol, famous for wisdom, but surpassed by Solomon
Abda -
The father of Adoniram, whom Solomon set over the tribute (1Kings 4:6); i
Hamathzobah - A city conquered by Solomon
Ethanim - In this month the temple of Solomon was dedicated
Hart - Or STAG, a species of deer, clean by the Levitical law, Deuteronomy 12:15 , and celebrated for its elegance, agility, and grace, Song of Song of Solomon 2:9 Isaiah 35:6
Baalath - Store-city of Solomon apparently in the north
Ahiah - Son of Shisha, and a scribe or secretary to Solomon
he'Zion - ( 1 Kings 15:18 ) He is probably identical with REZON , the contemporary of Solomon, in (1 Kings 11:23 ) (B
Hiram - A real friendship, however, undoubtedly existed between the two ( 1 Kings 5:1 ), and this was extended to Solomon after the death of David. A regular alliance was made when Solomon came to the throne, Hiram supplying men and materials for the building of the house of the Lord, while Solomon, in return, sent corn and oil to Hiram. A curious episode is recounted in 1 Kings 9:10 ; 1 Kings 9:14 , according to which Solomon gave Hiram ‘twenty cities in the land of Galilee. ’ Hiram was dissatisfied with the gift, though he gave Solomon ‘sixscore talents of gold. ’ In the parallel account ( 2 Chronicles 8:1-2 ) it is Hiram who gives cities (the number is not specified) to Solomon. While, therefore, the friendly intercourse between Hiram and Solomon (as well as with David) is unquestionably historical, it is not always possible to say the same of the details
Solomon - The Lord loved him, and sent Nathan to David to give Solomon the name of Jedidiah, or, "beloved of the Lord," 2 Samuel 12:24-25 . Solomon, being confirmed in his kingdom, contracted an alliance with Pharaoh, king of Egypt, and married his daughter, A. It is thought that on occasion of this marriage, Solomon composed the Canticles, which are a kind of epithalamium. The Scripture speaks of the daughter of Pharaoh, as contributing to pervert Solomon, 1 Kings 11:1-2 ; Nehemiah 13:26 ; and it is very likely, that if at first this princess might seem converted to the Lord, she afterward might retain her private disposition to idolatry, and might engage her husband in it. ...
Solomon, accompanied by his troops and all Israel, went up to Gibeon, where was then the brazen altar, upon which he offered a thousand burnt- offerings. " Solomon begged of God a wise and understanding heart, and such qualities as were necessary for the government of the people committed to him. Solomon returned to Jerusalem, where he offered a great number of sacrifices on the altar before the ark of the Lord, and made a great feast for his servants. ...
When Hiram, king of Tyre, knew that Solomon was made king of Israel, he sent ambassadors to congratulate him on his accession to the crown. Some time afterward, Solomon desired him to supply wood and workmen, to assist in building a temple to the Lord. Hiram gladly undertook this service, and Solomon, on his part, obliged himself to give twenty thousand measures of wheat, and twenty thousand measures of oil. Solomon began to build the temple in the fourth year of his reign, and the second after the death of David; four hundred and eighty years after the exodus from Egypt. ...
The temple was completed in the eleventh year of Solomon, so that he was but seven years in performing this vast work. To make this ceremony the more August, Solomon chose for it the eighth day of the seventh month of the holy year, which was the first of the civil year, and answered to our October. Then Solomon, being on his throne, prostrated himself with his face to the ground; and rising up, and turning toward the sanctuary, he addressed his prayer to God, and besought him that the house which he had built might be acceptable to him, that he would bless and sanctify it, and hear the prayers of those who should address him from this holy place. ...
Solomon afterward built a palace for himself, and another for his queen, the king of Egypt's daughter. Solomon also built the walls of Jerusalem, and the place called Millo in this city; he repaired and fortified Hazor, Megiddo, Gezer, the two Bethhorons, Upper and Lower, Baal-ath, and Palmyra, in the desert of Syria. Hiram, king of Tyre, furnished him with mariners, who instructed the subjects of Solomon. In one voyage they brought Solomon four hundred and fifty talents of gold, 2 Chronicles 9:21 . She brought rich presents of gold, spices, and precious stones; and proposed several enigmas and hard questions, to which Solomon gave her such satisfactory answers, that she owned what had been told her of his wisdom and magnificence was far short of what she had found. ...
Solomon was one of the richest, if not the very richest, of all princes that have ever lived; and the Scripture expressly tells us he exceeded in riches and wisdom all the kings of the earth. ...
Solomon died after he had reigned forty years, A. Of all the ingenious works composed by Solomon, we have nothing remaining but his Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Canticles; that is, every literary monument respecting him has perished, except those written under inspiration—the inspired history which registers his apostasy, and his own inspired works, which, in all the principles they contain, condemn his vices
Song of songs - A book of Tanach authored by Solomon, depicting the love between G-d and the Jewish people, employing the metaphor of the love between husband and wife
Wean - Among the Hebrews children (whom it was customary for the mothers to nurse, Exodus 2:7-9 ; 1 Samuel 1:23 ; Song of Solomon 8:1 ) were not generally weaned till they were three or four years old
Necklace - An ornament worn around the neck (Song of Song of Solomon 1:10 ; Ezekiel 16:11 )
Ahilud - Father of Jehoshaphat the 'recorder' of David and Solomon, 2 Samuel 8:16 ; 2 Samuel 20:24 ; 1 Kings 4:3,12 ; 1 Chronicles 18:15 , and father of Baana, one of Solomon's commissariat officers
Abishag - After David's death, his son Adonijah asked to have Abishag for wife, for which Solomon put him to death
Baalath - It is uncertain whether it is the same as the Baalath rebuilt by Solomon, 1 Kings 9:18 2 Chronicles 8:6
Ishmaiah - ...
...
Son of Obadiah, and viceroy of Zebulun under David and Solomon (1 Chronicles 27:19 )
Proverbs, Book of - As to the origin of this book, "it is probable that Solomon gathered and recast many proverbs which sprang from human experience in preceeding ages and were floating past him on the tide of time, and that he also elaborated many new ones from the material of his own experience. Towards the close of the book, indeed, are preserved some of Solomon's own sayings that seem to have fallen from his lips in later life and been gathered by other hands' (Arnot's Laws from Heaven, etc. ...
...
Containing proverbs of Solomon "which the men of Hezekiah, the king of Judah, collected" (ch. ...
Solomon is said to have written three thousand proverbs, and those contained in this book may be a selection from these (1 Kings 4:32 )
Heman - In 1 Kings 4:31 , a notable sage to whose wisdom that of Solomon is compared. He was one of the Temple singers under David and Solomon
Black - Often used to denote the color of physical objects: hair (Leviticus 13:31 ,Leviticus 13:31,13:37 ; Song of Song of Solomon 5:11 ), skin (Job 30:30 ; Song of Song of Solomon 1:5-6 ; Lamentations 4:8 ), the sky as a sign of rain (1 Kings 18:45 ), and animals (Genesis 30:32-43 ; Zechariah 6:2 ,Zechariah 6:2,6:6 ; Revelation 6:5 )
Host - Solomon afterwards added cavalry (1 Kings 4:26 ; 10:26 ). This example was followed by David (1 Chronicles 27:1 ), and Solomon (1 Kings 4:26 ), and by the kings of Israel and Judah (2 Chronicles 17:14 ; 26:11 ; 2 Kings 11:4 , etc
Zoheleth - ) feasted all the royal princess except Solomon and the men who took part with him in his effort to succeed to the throne. While they were assembled here Solomon was proclaimed king, through the intervention of Nathan
Pomegranate - It is frequently mentioned in the Song of Solomon (Song of Solomon 4:3,13 , etc
Camphire - CAMPHIRE ( kôpher , Song of Solomon 1:14 ; Song of Solomon 4:13 ) is the henna plant ( Lawsonia alba ), a small shrub which may still be found at Engedi
Sister - Sister was also used of people held in special esteem as a counterpart to brotherly affection (Song of Song of Solomon 4:9 ; Song of Song of Solomon 8:8 )
Ivory - In Solomon’s day the Israelites imported it from Ophir ( 1 Kings 10:22 ): it was used in the decorations of palaces ( 1 Kings 22:39 ). The ‘tower of ivory’ ( Song of Solomon 7:4 ) may also have been a building decorated with ivory. Solomon had a throne of ivory ( 1 Kings 10:18-20 )
Laver - In the Septuagint כִּיוֹר, ‘a layer,’ is always rendered by λουτήρ, while λουτρόν is used for רַהְצָה, ‘washing,’ in Song of Solomon 4:2; Song of Solomon 6:6, Sirach 31:30
Ammi-Nadib - (am' mih-nuh' dihb) The KJV takes these words as a personal name in Song of Song of Solomon 6:12 . The NRSV takes the words in Song of Song of Solomon 6:12 as coming from the maiden who spoke about her fancy (perhaps her imagination) setting her in a chariot beside her prince
Abishag - After David’s death, his son Adonijah asked the new king Solomon for Abishag as a wife. 2 Samuel 3:7-10; 2 Samuel 12:7-8; 2 Samuel 16:22), Solomon considered Adonijah’s request to be an attempt to gain David’s throne
Jedidiah - Symbolical name, signifying 'Beloved of Jehovah,' given by God to Solomon, when an infant
Chemosh - The national god of the Moabites, and of the Ammonites, worshipped also under Solomon at Jerusalem, Numbers 21:29 ; Judges 11:24 ; 1 Kings 11:7 ; 2 Kings 23:13 ; Jeremiah 48:7
Unweighed - Solomon left all the vessels unweighed
Flowers - ...
(3) Calamus leaves (Exodus 30:23 ; Song of Song of Solomon 4:14 ; Isaiah 43:24 ; Jeremiah 6:20 ; Ezekiel 27:19 ). ...
(4) Camphire flowers (sometimes referred to as Henna) (Song of Song of Solomon 1:14 ; Song of Song of Solomon 4:13 ; Song of Song of Solomon 7:11 —see REB). ...
(7) Crocus (Song of Song of Solomon 2:1 ; Isaiah 35:1 ) was a spring flowering herb with a long yellow floral tube tinged with purple specks or stripes. ...
(10) Lily (1Kings Numbers 7:19 ,Numbers 7:19,7:22 ,Numbers 7:22,7:26 ; 2 Chronicles 4:5 ; Song of Song of Solomon 2:1-2 ,Song of Song of Solomon 2:16 ; Song of Song of Solomon 5:13 ; Song of Song of Solomon 6:2-3 ; Song of Song of Solomon 7:2 ; Hosea 14:5 ). The lily mentioned in Song of Song of Solomon 5:13 refers to a rare variety of lily that had a bloom similar to a glowing flame. The “lily of the valley” (Song of Song of Solomon 2:1-2 ,Song of Song of Solomon 2:16 ) is known as the Easter lily. The beautiful water lily or lotus was a favorite flower in Egypt and was used to decorate Solomon's Temple (1Kings 7:19,1Kings 7:22, 1 Kings 7:26 ; 2 Chronicles 4:5 ). ...
(11) Mandrake (Genesis 30:14-16 ; Song of Song of Solomon 7:13 ). ...
(15) Rose (Song of Song of Solomon 2:1 ; Isaiah 35:1 ). ...
(16) Saffron (Song of Song of Solomon 4:14 ). The type meant in Song of Song of Solomon 4:14 may be an exotic plant imported from India. The flowers of spring (Song of Song of Solomon 2:12 ) signify renewal
Adoni'Jah - (1 Kings 1:5 ) and these, together with all the princes except Solomon, were entertained by Adonijah at the great sacrificial feast held "by the stone Zoheleth, which is by En-rogel. " [2] Apprised of these proceedings, David immediately caused Solomon to be proclaimed king, (1 Kings 1:33,34 ) at Gihon. [3] This decisive measure struck terror into the opposite party, and Adonijah fled to the sanctuary, but was pardoned by Solomon on condition that he should "show himself a worthy man. " (1 Kings 1:52 ) The death of David quickly followed on these events; and Adonijah begged Bath-sheba to procure Solomon's consent to his marriage with Abishag, who had been the wife of David in his old age. (1 Kings 1:3 ) This was regarded as equivalent to a fresh attempt on the throne [4]; and therefore Solomon ordered him to be put to death by Benaiah
Bath-Rabbim - Song of Song of Solomon 7:4 uses its beauty as comparison for the beauty of the beloved lady's eyes
Huramabi - ” NAS, NIV, NRSV name for Huram/Hiram, the skilled artisan Hiram, King of Tyre, sent Solomon to help build the Temple (2 Chronicles 2:13 )
Monkey - TEV, REB include monkeys among the exotic animals brought as gifts to King Solomon (1 Kings 10:22 ; 2 Chronicles 9:21 )
Eliada - Father of Rezon, an ‘adversary’ of Solomon ( 1 Kings 11:23 )
Ahilud - Father of Jehoshaphat, the chronicler under David and Solomon ( 2 Samuel 8:16 ; 2Sa 20:24 , 1 Kings 4:3 , 1 Chronicles 18:15 ). Father of Baana, one of Solomon’s twelve commissariat officers ( 1 Kings 4:12 )
Banquet - Song of Solomon 2:4 (c) A type of the happy condition of the heart of one who sits in the presence of GOD to feast on the precious truths of His Word, and to enjoy the blessings of His ministry
Shechinah, Shekinah - A name not found in scripture, but used by the Rabbis and others for the visible symbol of the presence of God, as was seen at the dedication of the temple built by Solomon, and at the Transfiguration
Ahohite - In time of David and Solomon military figures of this clan or place became military leaders
Spikenard - Song of Solomon 1:12 (c) The worship of the heart to our Lord, and the fragrant love of the devoted follower of the Saviour, is a sweet-smelling savour to the GOD of Heaven
Amminadib - This occurs in Song of Solomon 6:12
Jealousy - Suspicion of a wife's purity, one of the strongest passions (Numbers 5:14 ; Proverbs 6:34 ; Song of Solomon 8:6 ); also an intense interest for another's honour or prosperity (Psalm 79:5 ; 1 Corinthians 10:22 ; Zechariah 1:14 )
Shulamite - This name is given to the church in the Songs of Solomon. (Song of Song of Solomon 6:13) It hath been variously accounted for. Some have supposed that it is in consequence of her marriage with Solomon, and bearing therefore his name; for Shulamite is the feminine, as Solomon is the masculine, both being derived from Shalem peace. (Song of Song of Solomon 6:4)...
Hezion - It has been plausibly suggested that Hezion is identical with Rezon of 1 Kings 11:23 , the founder of the kingdom of Damascus, and an adversary to Solomon
Water - The heat of summer and many mouths of drought necessitated also appliances for storing and conveying water; and remains still exist of the (See POOLS of Solomon situated near Bethlehem, and of the aqueduct near Jericho which was constructed by the Romans
Naamah - Naamah, the daughter of Lamech, (Genesis 4:22) and Naamah the wife of Solomon, an Ammonitess, (1 Kings 14:21) The same signification as Naaon, beautiful
Adonijah - Eventually he was killed by his brother, King Solomon for an attempted act of treason
Adonijah - After the death of Amnon and Absalom, he aspired to the throne, although it was promised to Solomon, his younger brother. Solomon dismissed him with only an admonition
Frankincense - Arabia ( Isaiah 60:6 , Jeremiah 6:20 ); it was a constituent of incense ( Exodus 30:34 ); it is often associated with myrrh ( Song of Solomon 3:6 ; Song of Solomon 4:6 , Matthew 2:11 ); it was offered with the shewbread ( Leviticus 24:7 )
Solomon - SOLOMON. —Jesus makes two references to Solomon, speaking on one occasion of his ‘glory,’ and on another of his ‘wisdom. In Matthew 12:42 = Luke 11:31 the eagerness of Solomon’s contemporaries to hear his words of worldly wisdom is contrasted with the indifference and spiritual blindness of the men of Jesus’ own day, who failed to understand and appreciate the truer wisdom of a greater teacher. ...
For ‘Solomon’s Porch’ see Temple
Cluster - ...
Song of Solomon 1:14 (a) The Lord by this illustration reveals to us the great abundance of love that exists between the Saviour and His Church. (See also Song of Solomon 7:7)
Hart, - It was a clean animal, and was one supplied to Solomon's table. Song of Solomon 2:9,17 ; Song of Solomon 8:14
Adoniram - ” Officer in charge of the work gangs Solomon conscripted from Israel (1 Kings 4:6 ; 1 Kings 5:14 ). The king forced Israel's citizens to work for the state to secure materials to build the Temple and the other projects of Solomon
Sick - ...
Song of Solomon 2:5 (b) The wise man is telling us by this expression that his whole soul and being is given up to love and loving, so that nothing else in the world matters. (See also Song of Solomon 5:8)
Solomon - SOLOMON. —Jesus makes two references to Solomon, speaking on one occasion of his ‘glory,’ and on another of his ‘wisdom. In Matthew 12:42 = Luke 11:31 the eagerness of Solomon’s contemporaries to hear his words of worldly wisdom is contrasted with the indifference and spiritual blindness of the men of Jesus’ own day, who failed to understand and appreciate the truer wisdom of a greater teacher. ...
For ‘Solomon’s Porch’ see Temple
Hart - It was clean by the Levitical law, Deuteronomy 12:15; Deuteronomy 14:5, and the grace and agility of its motions are alluded to in Song of Solomon 2:9; Isaiah 35:6. The instinctive affection of the hart and hind is alluded to, Proverbs 5:18-19, and Song of Solomon 2:7; Song of Solomon 3:5
Turtle - תזו , τρυγων , Genesis 15:9 ; Leviticus 1:14 ; Leviticus 5:7 ; Leviticus 5:11 ; Leviticus 12:6 ; Leviticus 12:8 ; Leviticus 14:22 ; Leviticus 14:30 ; Leviticus 15:14 ; Leviticus 15:29 ; Numbers 6:10 ; Psalms 74:19 ; Song of Solomon 2:12 ; Jeremiah 8:7 ; τρυγων , Luke 2:24 . Thus Solomon, Song of Solomon 2:12 , mentions the return of this bird as one of the indications of spring: "The voice of the turtle is heard in the land
Pomegranate - the upper part of the cheek near the temples) of the bride are "like a piece of pomegranate within her locks" (Song of Solomon 4:3). The church's blush of modesty is not on the surface but within, which Christ sees into (Song of Solomon 4:13). Her "plants are an orchard of pomegranates with pleasant fruits," not merely flowers (John 15:8); Song of Solomon 8:2, "spied wine of the juice of my pomegranate. "Spices" are only introduced in the Song of Solomon when he is present, not in his absence. The pomegranate was carved on the tops of the pillars in Solomon's temple (1 Kings 7:18; 1 Kings 7:20), and on the hem of the robe of the ephod (Exodus 28:33-34)
Mount of Corruption - , "mount of offence"), the name given to a part of the Mount of Olives, so called because idol temples were there erected in the time of Solomon, temples to the Zidonian Ashtoreth and to the "abominations" of Moab and Ammon
Parvaim - The name of a country from which Solomon obtained gold for the temple (2 Chronicles 3:6 )
Eliada - ...
...
An Aramite of Zobah, captain of a marauding band that troubled Solomon (1 Kings 11:23 )
Orchard - Song of Solomon 4:13 (c) We may understand this to be a sweet expression which describes the various groups of GOD's people
Shekinah - ) The visible majesty of the Divine Presence, especially when resting or dwelling between the cherubim on the mercy seat, in the Tabernacle, or in the Temple of Solomon; - a term used in the Targums and by the later Jews, and adopted by Christians
Cabul - So Hiram called the twenty cities Solomon gave him for his aid, in the materials he furnished him with for the building of the temple
Ape - The ape is not indigenous to Palestine; they were brought in the days of Solomon, with gold, silver, ivory and peacocks by the ships of Tarshish
Engedi - We read of the vineyards of Engedi Song of Song of Solomon 1:14
Perfumes - Were used in religious worship, and for personal and domestic enjoyment (Exodus 30:35-37 ; Proverbs 7:17 ; Song of Solomon 3:6 ; Isaiah 57:9 ); and also in embalming the dead, and in other funeral ceremonies (Mark 14:8 ; Luke 24:1 ; John 19:39 )
Amana - ...
...
A mountain ( Song of Solomon 4:8 ), probably the southern summit of Anti-Libanus, at the base of which are the sources of the Abana
Ezion-Geber - A port on the Red Sea (on the Gulf of Akabah) used by Solomon for his commerce ( 1 Kings 9:26 )
Gid'Del - (Ezra 2:47 ; Nehemiah 7:49 ) ...
Bene-Giddel were also among the "servants of Solomon" who returned to Judea in the name caravan
Gezer, Gezrites - It was taken and burnt by Pharaoh as a Canaanitish city, and the site given to his daughter whom Solomon had married. Solomon rebuilt the city
Leopard - namer ) is invariably given by the Authorized Version as the translation of the Hebrew word, which occurs in the seven following passages: ( Song of Solomon 4:8 ; Isaiah 11:6 ; Jeremiah 5:6 ; 13:23 ; Daniel 7:6 ; Hosea 13:7 ); Habb 1:8 Leopard occurs also in Sirach 28:23 and in ( Revelation 13:2 ) From (Song of Solomon 4:8 ) we learn that the hilly ranges of Lebanon were in ancient times frequented by these animals
Shaalabbin - It was one of the chief towns from which Solomon drew his supplies (1 Kings 4:9 )
Lattice - eshuwab , sebakah , charakkim (Judges 5:28; 2 Kings 1:2; Proverbs 7:6, "casement"; Song of Solomon 2:9)
Azmaveth - ...
...
An overseer over the royal treasury in the time of David and Solomon (1 Chronicles 27:25 )
Senir - Song of Song of Solomon 4:8 may indicate that Senir was a different peak than Hermon in the Antilebanon range or that it indicated the entire range (compare 1 Chronicles 5:23 )
Banquet - Thus Song of Solomon 2:4 ‘He brought me to the banqueting house’ (Heb
Naamah - An Ammonitess, wife of Solomon and mother of Rehoboam
Abyss - (Greek: abyssos, bottomless) ...
Primarily an adjective signifying very deep (Wisdom of Solomon 10); as a substantive it means a great cavity, primeval waters, or primal chaos, and as used in the New Testament the abode of the dead, or limbo, and the abode of evil spirits, or hell
Marble - It was used in Solomon's temple, and there were pillars of marble in the Persian palace. 1 Chronicles 29:2 ; Esther 1:6 ; Song of Solomon 5:15 ; Revelation 18:12
Rezon - He harassed the kingdom of Solomon during his whole reign
Stones, Precious - They are figuratively introduced to denote value, beauty, durability (Song of Solomon 5:14 ; Isaiah 54:11,12 ; Lamentations 4:7 )
Sea, the Molten - The name given to the 'laver' made by Solomon when he built the temple
Abda - The father of Adoniram, whom Solomon entrusted with his labor force (1 Kings 4:6 )
Ashmedai - In the Talmud he plays a great part in the legends concerning Solomon
Asmodeus - In the Talmud he plays a great part in the legends concerning Solomon
Algum - A rare wood Solomon imported from Lebanon for the Temple (2 Chronicles 2:8 )
Saffron - The common Crocus Sativus, a small bluish flower, whose yellow, thread-like stigmata yield an agreeable aromatic odor; and also the Indian saffron, Song of Song of Solomon 4:14
Zido'Nians, - They were among the nations of Canaan; left to give the Israelites practice in the art of war, (Judges 3:3 ) and colonies of them appear to have spread up into the hill country from Lebanon to Misrephothmaim, (Joshua 13:4,6 ) whence in later times they hewed cedar trees for David and Solomon. (Judges 18:7 ) They were skillful in hewing timber, (1 Kings 5:8 ) and were employed for this purpose by Solomon
Gilead - Hence the hill upon which it was erected, was called Mount Gilead, Song of Solomon 4:1 ; Song of Solomon 6:5 ; Jeremiah 50:19
Bether - We meet with this word only in the Songs of Solomon. In Song of Song of Solomon 2:17, the word is retained in its original, Berber; but in Song of Song of Solomon 8:14, it is translated "mountains of spices. " (Song of Song of Solomon 2:17; Son 8:14)...
Surety - Solomon warns against incautiously becoming security for another (Proverbs 6:1-5 ; 11:15 ; 17:18 ; 20:16 )
Canticle - ) The Song of Songs or Song of Solomon, one of the books of the Old Testament
Boaz - The left or north pillar Solomon set up in the Temple (1 Kings 7:21 )
Ape - Solomon imported animals in international shipping (1 Kings 10:22 ). The Hebrew term qoph may refer to apes (papio hamadrias arabicus ), using a loan-word from Egyptian, but the exact animal referred to by this term is far from certain, the animal apparently being an imported novelty for the people of Solomon's day
Algum - This is the name of a kind of wood, or tree, large quantities of which were brought by the fleet of Solomon from Ophir, of which he made pillars for the house of the Lord, and for his own palace; also musical instruments
Cabul - A name given by Hiram king of Tyre to a district in Northern Galilee containing twenty cities, which Solomon gave him for his help in building the temple, 1 Kings 9:13 ; the term implying his dissatisfaction with the gift
Banners - On festal occasions banners are often carried in choirprocessionals "to signify yet more clearly the progress and futuretriumph of the Church, according to that description of herin the Song of Solomon: 'Who is she that looketh forth as themorning, fair as the moon, clear as the sun, and terrible as anarmy with banners?'"...
Ahimaaz - The son and successor of Zadok became high priest in the reign of Solomon
Levy - Solomon raised a "great levy" of 30,000 men, about two per cent
Che'Mosh - Solomon introduced, and Josiah abolished, the worship of Chemosh at Jerusalem
Fir - The Hebrew word often seems to mean the Ezekiel 27:5 ; for musical instruments, 2 Samuel 6:5 ; for beams and rafters of houses, 1 Kings 5:8,10 9:11 Song of Song of Solomon 1:17
Honey - ya'ar, occurs only 1 Samuel 14:25,27,29 ; Song of Solomon 5:1 , where it denotes the honey of bees. ...
...
Nopheth, honey that drops (Psalm 19:10 ; Proverbs 5:3 ; Song of Solomon 4:11 ). Honey and milk also are put for sweet discourse (Song of Solomon 4:11 )
Rehobo'am - (enlarger of the people ), son of Solomon by the Ammonite princess Naamah, ( 1 Kings 14:21,31 ) and his successor. The people demanded a remission of the severe burdens imposed by Solomon, and Rehoboam, rejecting the advice of his father's counsellors, followed that of his young courtiers, and returned an insulting answer, which led to an open rebellion among the tribes, and he was compelled to fly to Jerusalem, Judah and Benjamin alone remaining true to him. Jerusalem itself was taken and Rehoboam had to purchase an ignominious peace by delivering up the treasures with which Solomon had adorned the temple and palace
Tirza - Solomon refers to its beauty (Song of Solomon 6:4 )
Abishag - After his death, Adonijah requested her in marriage, for which he lost his life; Solomon perceiving in this a design upon the crown also. By this request he convinced Solomon, that he was still actuated by political views, and this brought upon him the punishment of treason
hi'Ram, - 1064), whom he ever loved, (1 Kings 5:1 ) and again, 1 Kings 5:10 ; 7:13 ; 2 Chronicles 2:16 To build the temple for Solomon, with whom he had a treaty of peace and commerce ( 1 Kings 5:11,12 ) He admitted Solomon's ships issuing from Joppa, to a share in the profitable trade of the Mediterranean, (1 Kings 10:22 ) and the Jewish sailors, under the guidance of Tyrians, were taught to bring the gold of India, (1 Kings 9:26 ) to Solomon's two harbors on the Red Sea. ...
Hiram was the name of a man of mixed race, (1 Kings 7:13,40 ) the principal architect and engineer sent by King Hiram to Solomon
Agur - The thirtieth chapter of Proverbs begins with this title: "The words of Agur, the son of Jakeh;" and the thirty-first, with "the words of king Lemuel;" with respect to which some conjecture that Solomon describes himself under these appellations; others, that these chapters are the production of persons whose real names are prefixed. These, of course, can only be considered as mere conjectures; for, in the absence of historic evidence, who can venture to pronounce with certainty? The opinion, however, that Agur and Lemuel are appellations of Solomon, is sanctioned by so many and such respectable writers, that it demands a more particular examination. ...
As the custom of imposing descriptive names prevailed in the primitive ages, it is not impossible that Agur and Lemuel may be appropriated to Solomon, and Jakeh to David, as mystic appellations significative of their respective characters. It is even some confirmation of this opinion, that Solomon is denominated Jedidiah (beloved of the Lord) by the Prophet Nathan; and that in the book of Ecclesiastes, he styles himself Koheleth, or the Preacher. When Solomon is called Jedidiah, it is added that it was "because of the Lord;" and when he styles himself Koheleth, an explanatory clause is annexed, describing himself "the son of David, the king of Jerusalem. " But if Solomon be meant by the titles Agur and Lemuel, he is so called without any statement of the reasons for their application, and without any explanation of their import; a circumstance unusual with the sacred writers, and the reverse to what is practised in the book of Proverbs, where his proper name, Solomon, is attributed to him in three different places. The name of Agur is not of easy explanation; some giving it the sense of recollectus, that is, recovered from his errors, and become penitent; an explanation more applicable to David than to Solomon. If such be its meaning, it is suitable to Solomon, who was not the collector or compiler, but the author, of the Proverbs. With respect to the name Lemuel, it signifies one that is for God, or devoted to God; and is not, therefore, peculiarly descriptive of Solomon. It appears, then, that nothing can be inferred from the signification of the names Agur and Lemuel in support of the conjecture, that they are appellations of Solomon. ...
When all these circumstances are taken into consideration, together with the extreme improbability that Solomon should be denominated three times by his proper name, and afterward, in the same work, by two different enigmatical names, we are fully warranted in rejecting the notion, that the wise monarch is designed by the appellations Agur and Lemuel
Nathan - God by Nathan commended David's desire to build the temple, but reserved the accomplishment for his son Solomon, the type of Him who should build the true temple (2 Samuel 7; 1 Chronicles 17). ...
Nathan conveyed Jehovah's command to David, to name Solomon" Jedidiah," not as a mere appellation, but an assurance that Jehovah loved him. Nathan was younger than David, as he wrote with Ahijah the Shilonite and Iddo the seer" the acts of Solomon first and last" (2 Chronicles 9:29). Nathan secured the succession of Solomon by advising Bathsheba to remind David of his promise (1 Chronicles 22:9, etc. Nathan by David's direction with Zadok the priest brought Solomon to Gihon on the king's own mule, and anointed him king (1 Kings 1:10-38). ...
"Azariah son of Nathan was over the officers, and Zabud son of Nathan was the king's friend" under Solomon (1 Kings 4:5; 1 Chronicles 27:33; 2 Samuel 15:37). A similarity between the apologue style of Solomon in Ecclesiastes 9:14-16 and Nathan's in 2 Samuel 12:1-4 may be due to Nathan's influence
Queen (2) - ’ The visit of the queen of Sheba to king Solomon is related in 1 Kings 10:1-13 and in 2 Chronicles 9:1-9, and the chief object of her journey was to satisfy herself as to his great wisdom, the report of which had reached her, although she was also attracted by the accounts which had been brought to her of his riches and magnificence. Then, referring to the celebrated queen, He added: ‘The queen of the south shall rise up in the judgment with this generation, and shall condemn it; for she came from the uttermost parts of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon, and, behold, a greater than Solomon is here. ’ Solomon was ‘wiser than all men’ (1 Kings 4:31), and later Jewish literature delighted to magnify his wisdom (cf. Wisdom of Solomon 7:17-21). For our Lord, then, to claim before a Jewish audience to be ‘something more’ than Solomon, was to claim to be Wisdom itself. ...
Abyssinian legend has many strange tales of the queen of Sheba, declaring that she came from Ethiopia, that her name was Maqueda, and that she had a son by Solomon
House of the Forest of Lebanon - A designation for a great hall Solomon constructed as part of his palace complex in Jerusalem (1 Kings 7:2-5 ), so called because of the extensive use of cedar for the pillars, beams, and roofing material
Hart - The hart is frequently alluded to in the poetical and prophetical books (Isaiah 35:6 ; Song of Solomon 2:8,9 ; Lamentations 1:6 ; Psalm 42:1 )
Fleet - Solomon built a fleet of ships at Ezion-Geber with the help of Hiram of Tyre (1 Kings 9:26-27 ; 1Kings 10:11,1 Kings 10:22 ). Solomon's fleet was used for commercial rather than military purposes
Sharon - Its wildflowers were typical of the Palestinian plains (Song of Song of Solomon 2:1)
Malobathron - ]'>[1] of Song of Solomon 2:17 for EV Baalath - Same or different town which Solomon rebuilt (1 Kings 9:18 ). Some would identify Solomon's town with Simeon's Balah, with Kirjath-jearim, or with Baalath-beer
Adoniram, Adoram - Adoniram superintended the levies employed in the public works during the reigns of David, Solomon, and Rehoboam
Ethan - A wise man, 'the Ezrahite,' whose wisdom was exceeded by that of Solomon
Ahilud - ” The father of Jehoshaphat, David's court recorder (2 Samuel 8:16 ), who retained the position under Solomon (1 Kings 4:3 ). Probably the same Ahilud was father of Baana, Solomon's official to get court provisions from the province around Taanach, Megiddo, and Beth-shean (1 Kings 4:12 )
Gihon - A place near Jerusalem where Solomon was proclaimed king
Mahol - A man whose sons were renowned for their wisdom, but whose wisdom was excelled by that of Solomon
Conduit - " It probably included an aqueduct, such as must have been used to convey the water from the Pool of Solomon to Jerusalem
Zobah - It seems to have lain near Damascus, and to have included the city Hamath conquered by Solomon, 2 Chronicles 8:3 , but also to have extended towards the Euphrates, 2 Samuel 8:3
Cane - Or CALAMUS, SWEET, Song of Song of Solomon 4:14 , an aromatic reed mentioned among the drugs of which the sacred perfumes were compounded, Exodus 30:23
za'Bud - (given ), son of Nathan, ( 1 Kings 4:5 ) is described as a priest (Authorized Version "principal officer"), and as holding at the court of Solomon the confidential post of "king's friend," which had been occupied by Hushai the Archite during the reign of David
Camphire - The whole shrub is from four to six feet high, ( Song of Solomon 4:13 )
Solomon - Josephus makes Solomon last born of David's sons (1 Kings 9:10-10:29), from "the book of the Acts of Solomon"; his accession and dedication of the temple (1 Kings 1 - 1 Kings 8:66) from "the book of Nathan the prophet"; his idolatry and its penal consequences (1 Kings 11) from "the book of Ahijah the Shilonite and the visions of Iddo the seer. Its objective character accords with Solomon's other writings, whereas subjective feeling characterizes David's psalms. Solomon's glorious and wide kingdom typifies Messiah's. for Israelites going up to the great feasts at Jerusalem (Psalm 127), was also Solomon's. The theme suits Solomon who occupied chiefly the domestic civic territory. Solomon evidently refers (Psalms 60:2) to his own experience (1 Kings 3:5-13; 1 Kings 4:20-25), yet in so unstudied a way that the coincidence is evidently undesigned, and so confirms the authenticity of both psalm and independent history. )...
His name Solomon , "peaceful", was given in accordance with the early prophecy that, because of wars, David should not build Jehovah's house, but that a son should be born to him, "a man of rest," who should build it (1 Chronicles 22:9; compare the fulfillment 1 Kings 4:25; 1 Kings 5:4, and the Antitype Matthew 11:29; Psalms 132:8-14; Isaiah 11:10; Isaiah 9:6; Ephesians 2:14). Jehovah's naming him so assured David that Jehovah loved Solomon. Jehovah chose Solomon of all David's sons to be his successor, and promised to be his father, and to establish his kingdom for ever, if he were constant to His commandments (1 Chronicles 28:5-6-7). ) By the interposition of Nathan the prophet, Zadok the priest, Benaiah, Shimei, and Rei, David's mighty men, Solomon was at David's command taken on the king's own mule to Gihon, anointed, and proclaimed king. Solomon would have spared Adonijah but for his incestuous and treasonous desire to have Abishag his father's concubine; he mercifully spared the rest of his brothers who had joined Adonijah. ) Joab the murderer he put to death, according to his father's dying charge, illustrating Solomon's own words, Ecclesiastes 8:12-13. ...
Solomon's reverent dutifulness to his mother amidst all his kingly state appears in the narrative (1 Kings 2:12; Exodus 20:12; Psalms 45:9; Proverbs 1:8; Proverbs 4:3; Proverbs 6:20; Proverbs 10:1). The ceremonial of coronation and anointing was repeated more solemnly before David and all the congregation, with great sacrifices and glad feastings, Zadok at the same time being anointed "priest"; and Jehovah magnified Solomon exceedingly in the sight of all Israel, and bestowed upon him such royal majesty as had not been on any king before him in Israel (1 Chronicles 29:20-25). He was "yet young and tender" (1 Chronicles 29:1; 1 Chronicles 22:5; 1 Kings 3:7; "I am but a little child," Proverbs 4:3); perhaps 20 years of age: as Rehoboam was 41 at his accession and Solomon had reigned 40 years, Rehoboam must have been born before Solomon's accession (1 Kings 11:42; 1 Kings 14:21). Solomon loved the Lord who had first loved him; 1 Kings 3:3. frontier and Hadad the Edomite became his adversaries, Solomon otherwise had uninterrupted peace. On Lebanon he built lofty towers (2 Chronicles 8:6; Song of Solomon 7:4) "looking toward Damascus" (1 Kings 9:19). The Hittite and Syrian kings, vassals of Solomon, were supplied from Egypt with chariots and horses through the king's merchants. Solomon gave him at the end of his great buildings 20 cities in Galilee, with which Hiram was dissatisfied. )...
Solomon had his navy at Ezion Geber, near Eloth on the Red Sea, which went to Ophir and brought back 420 talents of gold; and a navy of Tarshish which sailed with Hiram's navy in the Mediterranean, bringing every three years "gold, silver, ivory, apes, and peacocks. ) For the first time Israel began to be a commercial nation, and Solomon's occupation of Edom enabled him to open to Hiram his ally a new field of commerce. Solomon's men, 30,000, i. The building of the temple began in Ζif , the second month of his fourth year; the stones were brought ready, so that no sound of hammer was heard in the house; in seven years it was completed, in the month Βul ('November"), his 11th year (1 Kings 6:37-38); eleven months later Solomon offered the dedication prayer, after the ark had been placed in the holiest place and the glory cloud filled the sanctuary; this was during the feast of tabernacles. After kneeling in prayer Solomon stood to bless God, at the same time begging Him to incline Israel's heart unto Himself and to "maintain their cause at all times as the matter shall require" (Hebrew "the thing of a day in its day") 1 Kings 8:59; Luke 11:3. God's answer (1 Kings 9:3) at His second appearance to Solomon in Gibeon was the echo of his prayer (1 Kings 5:13-154), "Mine eyes and Mine heart shall be there perpetually" (1 Kings 9:3), but God added a warning that if Israel should apostatize the temple should become "a bye-word among all people. " The building of Solomon's palace occupied 13 years, after the temple, which was built in seven. long, probably laid by Solomon. ...
His might and greatness of dominion permanently impressed the oriental mind; Solomon is evidently alluded to in the Persian king Artaxerxes' answer, "there have been mighty kings over Jerusalem which have ruled overall countries beyond the river; and toll, tribute, and custom was paid unto them. Like the wise men coming to the Antitype, she came with a great train, and with camels laden with presents, in search of Heaven-sent wisdom (Proverbs 1:6; Matthew 2:1), "to prove Solomon with hard questions" (chidah , pointed sayings hinting at deep truths which are to be guessed; very common in Arabic literature), and to commune with him of all that was in her heart; compare as to these "hard questions" Proverbs 30:18, etc. 8:5, section 3) quotes Phoenician writers who said that Solomon and Hiram puzzled one another with sportive riddles; Hiram at first had to pay forfeits, but was ultimately the winner by the help of a sharp Tyrian lad Abdemon. Her coming to Solomon from so far condemns those who come not to Him who is infinitely greater, Wisdom itself, though near at hand, and needing no long pilgrimage to reach Him (Matthew 12:42; Proverbs 8:34). " "God gave Solomon wisdom (chokmah , "practical wisdom" to discern the judicious course of action), and understanding (tebunah , "keenness of intellect" to solve problems), and largeness of heart ("large mental capacity" comprising varied fields of knowledge) as the sand," i. Of his 3,000 proverbs we have a sample in the Book of Proverbs; of his 1,005 songs we have only the Song of Solomon (its five divisions probably are referred to in the odd five), and Psalm 72 and Psalm 127. As an autocrat, Solomon was able to carry on his magnificent buildings and works, having an unbounded command of wealth and labour. One trace of the servitude of the "hewers of stone" existed long after in the so-called children or descendants of "SOLOMON'S SERVANTS" attached to the temple (Ezra 2:55-58; Nehemiah 7:57; Nehemiah 7:60); inferior to the Nethinim, hewers of wood (1618064392_26; 1 Kings 5:17-18; 1 Kings 9:20-21; 2 Chronicles 8:7-8; 1 Chronicles 22:2), compelled to labour in the king's stone quarries. Solomon probably repented in the end; for Chronicles make no mention of his fall. As the Song of Solomon represents his first love to Jehovah in youth, so Proverbs his matured experience in middle age, Ecclesiastes the sad retrospect of old age. "Solomon in all his glory" was not arrayed as one of the "lilies of the field": a reproof of our pride (Matthew 6:29). The sudden rise of the empire under David and Solomon, extending 450 miles from Egypt to the Euphrates, and its sudden collapse under Rehoboam, is a feature not uncommon in the East. Before Darius Hystaspes' time, when the satrapial system was introduced of governing the provinces on a common plan by officers of the crown, the universal system of great empires was an empire consisting of separate kingdoms, each under its own king, but "paying tribute or presents to the one" suzerain , as Solomon. ...
The Tyrian historians on whom Dius and Menander base their histories (Josephus, Apion 1:17) confirm Hiram's connection with Solomon, and state that letters between them were preserved in the Tyrian archives and fix the date as at the close of the 11th century B. 1:386) states that Solomon took one of Hiram's daughters to wife, so "Zidonians" are mentioned among his wives (1 Kings 11:1). At first sight it seems unlikely Israel could be so great under David and Solomon for half a century in the face of two mighty empires, Egypt and Assyria. Solomon was prematurely "old" (1 Kings 11:4), for he was only about 60 at death
Frankincense - , "white"), an odorous resin imported from Arabia (Isaiah 60:6 ; Jeremiah 6:20 ), yet also growing in Palestine (Song of Solomon 4:14 ). When burnt it emitted a fragrant odour, and hence the incense became a symbol of the Divine name (Malachi 1:11 ; Song of Solomon 1:3 ) and an emblem of prayer (Psalm 141:2 ; Luke 1:10 ; Revelation 5:8 ; 8:3 )
Tadmor - Palm, a city built by Solomon "in the wilderness" (2 Chronicles 8:4 ). (See Solomon
Sea, the Molten - The great laver made by Solomon for the use of the priests in the temple, described in 1 Kings 7:23-26 ; 2 Chronicles 4:2-5 . It was made of "brass" (copper), which Solomon had taken from the captured cities of Hadarezer, the king of Zobah (1 Chronicles 18:8 )
Honey - Its "dropping" symbolizes speech, sweet, loving, and profitable (Song of Solomon 4:11). As wine and meat express strong spiritual nourishment in faith, so honey and milk sometimes symbolize incipient faith (Song of Solomon 5:1)
Rose - Song of Solomon 2:1; Isaiah 35:1; the autumn crocus, the meadow saffron of a white and violet color, Colchicum autumnale (Gesenius). The narcissus is very fragrant, and therefore more likely than the crocus; the lily is associated with it in the Song of Solomon
Mule - David had his own mule, upon which Solomon was made to ride when he was proclaimed king. Mules were among the animals that were brought as presents by the nations to Solomon
Apocrypha - The entire list of books of the apocrypha are: 1 Esdras 2Esdras, Tobit, Judith, the Rest of Esther, the Wisdom of Solomon, Sirach, (also titled Ecclesiasticus), Baruch, The Letter of Jeremiah, Song of the Three Young Men, Susanna, Bel and the Dragon, The Additions to Daniel, The Prayer of Manasseh, and 1,2Maccabees. ...
The books accepted as inspired and included in the Catholic Bible are Tobit, Judith, 1,2Maccabees Wisdom of Solomon Sirach (also known as Ecclesiasticus), and Baruch...
The Jews never recognized these books as being canonical (inspired)
Ecclesiastes - The preacher, the name of a book of the Old Testament, usually ascribed to Solomon. It appears to have been written by Solomon in his old age, when freed from the entanglements of idolatry, luxury, and lust, B
en'-Gedi - " ( 1 Samuel 24:1-4 ) The vineyards of Engedi were celebrated by Solomon. (Song of Solomon 1:14 )
Abiathar - At the time of Adonijah’s rebellion, however, the two took different sides, Abiathar supporting Adonijah, and Zadok supporting Solomon. Upon becoming king, Solomon promoted Zadok to chief priest, but sent Abiathar into exile (1 Kings 1:5-8; 1 Kings 1:43-45; 1 Kings 2:26; 1 Kings 2:35)
Nathan - The prophet, who held an influential position during the reigns of David and Solomon. He also took a prominent part in securing the throne for Solomon, 2 Samuel 7:2-17 ; 2 Samuel 12:1-25 ; 1 Kings 1:8-45 ; 1 Chronicles 17:1-15 ; 2 Chronicles 29:25 ; Psalm 51 : title. He wrote a 'book' containing the Acts of David the king and of Solomon, which does not form a part of scripture
Banner, Ensign, Standard - Psalms 74:4 where the reference is probably to the standards of Antiochus’ army) of the ‘fathers’ houses,’ and the standards (the banner of Song of Solomon 2:4 ; cf. Song of Solomon 6:4 ; cf. Song of Solomon 6:10 ) of the four great divisions of the Hebrew tribes in the wilderness, according to the artificial theory of the priestly writer
Canticles - (Song of Songs ), entitled in the Authorized Version THE SONG OF Solomon . It was probably written by Solomon about B. This basis is either the marriage of Solomon with Pharoah's daughter or his marriage with an Israelitish woman, the Shulamite
Rehoboam, - REHOBOAM , son of Solomon, is said to have reigned seventeen years. The coherence of the tribes was evidently imperfect under Solomon. In this they had reference particularly to the forced labour exacted by Solomon. This condition, however, is no more than prevailed under Solomon
Moloch - (Hebrew: molech, king) ...
A divinity worshiped by the idolatrous Israelites, his cult being supposed to have been introduced into Israel by Solomon (3Kings 11); a form of Baal, representing the sun-god in his destructive aspect
Calamus - An ingredient in the holy anointing oil (Song of Solomon 4:14; Ezekiel 27:19), an import to Tyre
Jeush - Son of King Rehoboam and grandson of Solomon (2 Chronicles 11:19 )
Naamah - Ammonite wife of Solomon and mother of Rehoboam (1Kings 14:21,1 Kings 14:31 ; 2 Chronicles 12:13 )
Baanah - Commissariatofficer of Solomon in Asher
Siloam, Village of - The village Κeir Silwan is at the foot of the third height of Olivet, at the spot where Solomon built the temples to Chemosh, Ashtoreth, and Milcom; "the mount of corruption," E
Hamath-Zobah - A city in the neighbourhood of Tadmor, conquered by Solomon ( 2 Chronicles 8:3 )
Lem'Uel - (dedicated to God ), the name of an unknown king to whom his mother addressed the prudential maxims contained in ( Proverbs 31:1-9 ) The rabbinical commentators identified Lemuel with Solomon
Dor - It was tributary to David and Solomon
Chemosh - Solomon introduced, and Josiah abolished, the worship of Chemosh at Jerusalem
Shishak - The first year of Shishak would about correspond to the 26th of Solomon, b
Sadoc - To foil Adonias' plans, he anointed Solomon king before David's death (3Kings 1), and as a reward was appointed sole high priest (id
Litter - Solomon's chariot, Song of Song of Solomon 3:9 , or bed, is supposed to have been an elegant mule-litter
Parvaim - A region whence, according to 2 Chronicles 3:6 , the gold was obtained which was used for ornamenting the Temple of Solomon
Nathan - Prophet in royal court during reign of David and early years of Solomon. Bathsheba and Nathan spoke to David about an earlier decision to appoint Solomon as the next king. David declared Solomon to be king (1 Kings 1:5-53 ). ...
Later references indicate that Nathan wrote the chronicles for David (1 Chronicles 29:29 ) and a history of Solomon (2 Chronicles 9:29 ). See David ; Solomon ; Bathsheba . The two Nathans mentioned as fathers of Azariah and Zabud may be same man and identified as the prophet Nathan (1 Kings 4:5 ) during Solomon's reign
Solomon's Porch - It is called “the portico of Solomon” (NAS, NRSV, REB) and “Solomon's Colonnade” (NIV), since Solomon's workers constructed at least the oldest portico on the east side
Silk - It is however, in the highest degree probable that the texture was known to the Hebrews from the time that their commercial relations were extended by Solomon
India - Solomon imported through the Red Sea from Ophir Indian articles, of which some have Indian names; algumiym "sandal wood," kophim "apes," thucim "peacocks," pitdah "topaz," Sanskrit pita
Barzillai - David on his death-bed, remembering his kindness, commended Barzillai's children to the care of Solomon (1 Kings 2:7 )
Naamah - ...
...
The daughter of the king of Ammon, one of the wives of Solomon, the only one who appears to have borne him a son, viz
Kabzeel - The home of Benaiah, an officer under David and Solomon (2 Samuel 23:20 ; 1 Chronicles 11:22 )
Beaten Gold - Several objects were overlayed with gold in this manner: the golden shields of Solomon (1 Kings 10:16-17 ), the lampstands of the tabernacle (Exodus 25:18 ,Exodus 25:18,25:31 ,Exodus 25:31,25:36 ; Exodus 37:7 ,Exodus 37:7,37:22 ; Numbers 8:4 ), and idols (Isaiah 40:19 )
Darda - Mentioned with Ethan the Ezrahite, Heman, and Calcol as a son of Mahol, and a proverbial type of wisdom, but yet surpassed by Solomon ( 1 Kings 4:31 )
Chemosh - One of the chief gods of the Moabites and the Ammonites, the worship of which was introduced at Jerusalem by Solomon, and abolished by Josiah
Rehoboam - Son of Solomon, and successor to his kingdom
Fallow Deer, - The only description of it in scripture is that it was a clean animal that the Israelites might eat, and that it was supplied to the table of Solomon
Peacocks - These were imported by Solomon along with ivory and apes
Abel-Meholah - Solomon places Abel-meholah in a district including Taanach, Megiddo, and Beth-shean (1 Kings 4:12 )
Rose - Song of Solomon 2:1 (c) Some, because of its beauty and fragrance, believe it is a type of the Lord JESUS
Stairs - Song of Solomon 2:14 (c) It may be that this is a picture of those sweet experiences that the child of GOD has with His Lord
Lattice - Song of Solomon 2:9 (c) It may be that this indicates an obscured vision of the Lord
Foxes - (Song of Song of Solomon 2:15) The Lord Jesus makes application of the name to Herod
Ahi'Lud -
Father of Jehoshaphat, the recorder or chronicler of the kingdom in the reigns of David and Solomon. ) ...
The father of Baana, one of Solomon's twelve commissariat officers
Millo - Probably a bastion of the citadel of Zion, at Jerusalem, mentioned in the history of David and Solomon, 2 Samuel 5:9 2 Kings 12:20 1 Chronicles 11:8 2 Chronicles 32:5
Aloes, Lign Aloes - Ahalim, Ahaloth ), The name of a costly and sweet-smelling wood which is mentioned in ( Numbers 24:6 ; Psalm 45:8 ; Proverbs 7:17 ; Song of Solomon 4:14 ; John 19:39 ) It is usually identified with the Aquilaria agollochum , an aromatic wood much valued in India
zo'ba, - (station ), the name of a portion of Syria which formed a separate kingdom in the time of the Jewish monarchs Saul, David and Solomon. A man of Zobah, Rezon son of Eliadah, made himself master of Damascus where he proved a fierce adversary to Israel all through the reign of Solomon. (1 Kings 11:23-25 ) Solomon also was, it would seem engaged in a war with Zobah itself
Hair - Song of Solomon 5:11, the bridegroom's locks are "bushy" (curled), betokening headship; Song of Solomon 4:1, the hair of goats in the East being fine like silk and flowing, the token of the bride's subjection; Song of Solomon 1:5; Song of Solomon 7:5, "purple," i. "...
In Song of Solomon 7:5, for "galleries" translated "the king is held (fascinated) with the flowing ringlets
Kedar - "I am black, but comely, O ye daughters of Jerusalem, as the tents of Kedar, as the curtains of Solomon. " (Song of Song of Solomon 1:5) And the whole doctrine is blessedly explained Ezekiel 16:1-14. Indeed, the spouse's figure of the black tents of Kedar, and the golden curtains of Solomon, that is, the wretchedness of a desert, and the rich tapestry of a palace, is very obvious. Considered in nature, we are black as the tents of Kedar; viewed in grace, comely as the curtains of Solomon; and still going humble and softly all our days, from the consciousness of the remains of indwelling corruption; still taking comfort in the assurance, that we are "beautiful as Tirzah, comely as Jerusalem, and terrible as an army of banners. " (Song of Song of Solomon 6:4)...
Translation - also Sirach 49:14, ‘he was taken up from the earth’), and is probably alluded to in Wisdom of Solomon 4:7; Wisdom of Solomon 4:10 : ‘a righteous man, though he die before his time, shall be at rest … and while living among sinners he was translated
Cabul - Solomon gave to Hiram a district containing 20 cities, Cabal included. " Solomon borrowed sixscore talents of gold from Hiram for his extensive buildings, and gave the 20 cities as an equivalent
Tadmor - City built in the wilderness by Solomon. Though this was also built by Solomon in the wilderness, it is added 'in the land,' whereas Tadmor was outside
Booz - BOOZ, or BOAZ, was the name of one of the two brazen pillars which Solomon erected in the porch of the temple, the other column being called Jachin. Hutchinson has an express treatise upon these two columns, attempting to show that they represented the true system of the universe, which he insists were given by God to David, and by him to Solomon, and was wrought by Hiram upon these pillars
Chariots - Sisera, general of Jabin, king of Hazor, had 900 chariots of iron, Judges 4:3; and Solomon raised 1400, 1 Kings 10:26, in spite of the prohibition in Deuteronomy 17:16; 1 Samuel 8:11-12. " In Song of Solomon 3:9, chariot seems to mean a portable sedan or palanquin, as it is translated in the R
Horses - Solomon, however, procured a large cavalry and chariot force, 2 Chronicles 1:14-17 9:25
Mori'ah - --The elevation on which Solomon built the temple, where God appeared to David "in the threshing floor of Araunah the Jebusite. The tope was levelled by Solomon, and immense walls were built around it from the base to enlarge the level surface for the temple area
Lip - Only rarely are the lips referred to from the point of view of description of physical beauty and charm ( Song of Solomon 4:3 ; Song of Solomon 4:11 ; Song of Solomon 5:13 ). Once they are associated with kissing ( Proverbs 24:26 ), once with drinking ( Song of Solomon 7:9 , with which cf
Corruption, Mount of - Hill east of Jerusalem near the Mount of Olives where Solomon built altars to the gods of his foreign wives (1 Kings 11:7 )
Leopard - namer, so called because spotted, Song of Solomon 4:8 ), was that great spotted feline which anciently infested the mountains of Syria, more appropriately called a panther (Felis pardus)
Peacock - It was brought to Solomon by his ships from Tarshish (1 Kings 10:22 ; 2 Chronicles 9:21 ), which in this case was probably a district on the Malabar coast of India, or in Ceylon
Lock - The key with its pins raises the sliding pins of the lock so that the bolt can be drawn back (Judges 3:23; Judges 3:25; Song of Solomon 5:5; Nehemiah 3:3)
Ape - It was brought from India by the fleets of Solomon and Hiram, and was called by the Hebrews Koph_, and by the Greeks _kepos , both words being just the Indian Tamil name of the monkey, kapi, i
Towers - Of Babel (Genesis 11:4 ), Edar (Genesis 35:21 ), Penuel (Judges 8:9,17 ), Shechem (9:46), David (Song of Solomon 4:4 ), Lebanon (7:4), Syene (Ezekiel 29:10 ), Hananeel (Zechariah 14:10 ), Siloam (Luke 13:4 )
Rezon - He "became an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon
Moriah - A mount on which Solomon built the temple in Jerusalem
Bundle - A bundle of money is spoken of in Genesis 42:35 , of myrrh in Song of Solomon 1:13 , of life in 1 Samuel 25:29 (on wh
Whip - 1 Kings 12:11 (b) The expression is used to illustrate the burdens and distressing conditions imposed upon the people of Israel by King Solomon, who probably oppressed them by imposing severe taxes, and causing them to do difficult work
Carmel - ...
Song of Solomon 7:5 (b) This indicates that the beauty of GOD's people is as great, colorful, delightful, and attractive as this wonderful mountain
Embrace - Song of Solomon 2:6 (c) This is typical of the close fellowship which the Lord JESUS has with those whom He loves and who have learned to trust Him
Saffron - Hebrew carcom , Latin crocus (Song of Solomon 4:14)
Antonomasia - ) The use of some epithet or the name of some office, dignity, or the like, instead of the proper name of the person; as when his majesty is used for a king, or when, instead of Aristotle, we say, the philosopher; or, conversely, the use of a proper name instead of an appellative, as when a wise man is called a Solomon, or an eminent orator a Cicero
Abana - See Song of Song of Solomon 4:8
Virtues, the Cardinal - The four virtues, namely, Prudence, Justice,Temperance and Fortitude, which Solomon sets forth in the Book ofWisdom, VIII, 7, are called Cardinal Virtues because they are mostimportant in the Christian Life
Nathan - Later, in token that an atonement has been made, he adds to Solomon’s name the significant title Jedidiah (‘beloved of Jah’). The third service was rendered alike to David and to Solomon. It was Nathan’s watchfulness that discovered the plot, and his ingenuity that saved the kingdom for Solomon ( 1 Kings 1:1-53 ). His service to Solomon was recognized by the king, who appointed his sons, Azariab and Zabud, to important offices ( 1 Kings 4:5 )
Veil - ) The mitpachath (Ruth 3:15), tsaiph (Genesis 24:65; Genesis 38:14; Genesis 38:19), and radial (Song of Solomon 5:7; Isaiah 3:23). Tzammah, translated "locks" (Song of Solomon 4:1; Song of Solomon 4:3), the bride's veil, a mark of modesty and subjection to her lord
Chariot - (2 Kings 2:12) So again, in the book of the Songs, (Song of Song of Solomon 3:9) Solomon is said to have made a chariot of the wood of Lebanon; the pillars silver, the bottom of gold, the covering purple, and the midst thereof paved with love, for the daughters of Jerusalem. Hence, the church in return, feeling all her affections awakened by grace, to the love of Jesus, cries out in an holy rapture of joy and delight," Or ever I was aware, my soul made me like the chariots of Ammi-nadib?' (Song of Song of Solomon 6:12)...
See Amminadib...
Spices - Solomon had an extensive commercial venture with Hiram, king of Tyre, dealing in spices and other commodities. Solomon also taxed the caravan groups that passed through his lands. The queen of Sheba made a long journey of 1,200 miles because she was afraid that her caravan spice business would be hurt by Solomon's merchant fleet. In her visit she gave to Solomon “a very great quantity of spices” (2 Chronicles 9:9 ). Cassia, aloes, and spikenard were some of the spices used in the preparation of cosmetics (Song of Song of Solomon 4:14 ; Mark 14:3 ; John 12:3 ). Henna A plant used as a cosmetic; its leaves produced a dye women used (Song of Song of Solomon 1:14 ; Song of Song of Solomon 4:13 ). When mixed with oil, it was used as medicine and perfume (Song of Song of Solomon 4:14 ). Spikenard (Nardos tacs jatamansi ) A very expensive fragrant oil used in the manufacture of perfumes and ointments (Song of Song of Solomon 1:12 ; Song of Song of Solomon 4:13 ; Mark 14:3 ; John 12:3 )
Cun - David took bronze from the city as tribute, and Solomon used the materials in furnishing the Temple (1 Chronicles 18:8 )
Amminadab - "The Chariots of Amminadib," Song of Song of Solomon 6:12 , were very light and swift, in allusion perhaps to some noted charioteer of that day
Chemosh - It was for this ‘abomination of Moab’ that Solomon erected a temple ( 1 Kings 11:7 ), later destroyed by Josiah ( 2 Kings 23:13 )
Throne - The throne of Solomon is described at length in 1 Kings 10:18-20
Sharon, Saron - The "rose of Sharon" is celebrated (Song of Solomon 2:1 )
Hind - It is referred to as an emblem of activity (Genesis 49:21 ), gentleness (Proverbs 5:19 ), feminine modesty (Song of Solomon 2:7 ; 3:5 ), earnest longing (Psalm 42:1 ), timidity (Psalm 29:9 )
Bowels - In the KJV, “bowels” is also used to refer to the sexual reproductive system (2 Samuel 16:11 ; Psalm 71:6 ) and, figuratively, to strong emotions (Job 30:27 ), especially love (Song of Song of Solomon 5:4 ) and compassion (Colossians 3:12 )
Shu'Lamite, the, - one of the personages in the poem of Solomon's (Song of Solomon 6:13 ) The name denotes a woman belonging to a place called Shulem, which is probably the same as Shunem. [1] If, then, Shulamite and Shunammite are equivalent, we may conjecture that the Shunammite who was the object of Solomon's passion was Abishag, the most lovely girl of her day, and at the time of David's death the most prominent person at Jerusalem
Chemosh - The worship of this god, "the abomination of Moab," was introduced at Jerusalem by Solomon (1 Kings 11:7 ), but was abolished by Josiah (2 Kings 23:13 )
Silk - Some think that Solomon may have gotten silk from India
Zoheleth - David named Solomon to follow him on the throne (1 Kings 1:29-30 )
Amminadib - ]'>[2] of a very obscure passage, Song of Solomon 6:12 , ‘my soul made me like the chariots of Amminadib
Fame - Favorable report report of good or great actions report that exalts the character celebrity renown as the fame of Howard or of Washington the fame of Solomon
High Places - During the period of the Judges and the Kings, the Israelites erected idolatrous altars and Solomon built a temple for the idol of the Moabites on the hill near Jerusalem (3Kings 11)
Abel-Meholah - A place in the Jordan valley, the limit of Gideon’s pursuit of the Midianites ( Judges 7:22 ); in the administrative district of Taanach and Megiddo under Solomon ( 1 Kings 4:12 ); the native place of Adriel, husband of Merab, Saul’s daughter ( 1 Samuel 18:19 ), and of Elisha ( 1 Kings 19:16 )
ja'Chin - (2 Chronicles 3:17 ) of Solomon
Adoni'Ram - (lord of heights ), ( 1 Kings 4:6 ) by an unusual contraction ADORAM , (2 Samuel 20:24 ) and 1 Kings 12:18 Also HADORAM , (2 Chronicles 10:18 ) chief receiver of the tribute during the reigns of David, (2 Samuel 20:24 ) Solomon, (1 Kings 4:6 ) and Rehoboam
Nuts - (Song of Song of Solomon 6:11) The word rendered nuts in this passage is never used elsewhere in the Bible
Mandrakes - Hebrew Dudaim, Genesis 30:14-16 Song of Song of Solomon 7:13 , a plant to which was attributed, probably without reason, the power of rendering barren women fruitful
Etam - A town in Judah near Bethlehem and Tekoa; a favorite resort of Solomon, and fortified by Rehoboam, 1 Chronicles 4:3,32 2 Chronicles 11:6 . Its supposed site is now occupied by a ruined village balled Urtas, a mile and a half southwest of Bethlehem, not far Solomon's Pools
Tirzah - Pleasant, Song of Song of Solomon 6:4 , a city of the Canaanites, Joshua 12:24 , and afterwards of the tribe of Manasseh or Ephraism; and the royal seat of the kings of Israel from the time of Jeroboam to the reign of Omri, who built the city of Samaria, which then became the capital of this kingdom, 1 Kings 15:21,33 16:6,23 2 Kings 15:14,16
Degrees, Songs of, - Four of them are attributed to David, one is ascribed to the pen of Solomon, and the other ten give no indication of their author
Ammin'Adib - (Song of Solomon 6:12 ) It is uncertain whether we ought to read here AMMINADIB, with the Authorized Version, or my willing people , as in the margin
Balm - There is an Arab tradition that the tree yielding this balm was brought by the queen of Sheba as a present to Solomon, and that he planted it in his gardens at Jericho. It is rendered "spice" ( Song of Solomon 5:1,13 ; 6:2 ; margin of Revised Version, "balsam;" Exodus 35:28 ; 1 Kings 10:10 ), and denotes fragrance in general
Pool - Solomon also made pools to water his nursery (Ecclesiastes 2:6 ). Pools are also used as an illustration of God's power to transform the barren into something fruitful (Isaiah 41:18 ), judgment (Isaiah 42:15 ), and the beauty of a woman's eyes (Song of Song of Solomon 7:4 )
Rizpah - Foreigners were generally chosen as inferior wives by Solomon, Rehoboam, etc. ) A striking instance of motherly devotion, stronger than death, and clinging at all costs with desperate tenacity even to the lifeless remains of the loved ones (Song of Solomon 8:6; Isaiah 49:15)
Hiram or Huram - He congratulated Solomon at the commencement of his reign, and furnished essential aid in building the temple. Josephus relates that he and Solomon were wont to exchange enigmas with each other; that he greatly improved his city and realm, and died after a prosperous reign of thirty-four years, at the age of fifty-two. The interior decorations and utensils of Solomon's temple were made under his direction, 1 Kings 7:13,14 2 Chronicles 2:13,14
Adoniram - A receiver of tributes under David and Solomon, and director of the thirty thousand men sent to Lebanon to cut timber, 1 Kings 5:14
Apple-Trees - Mentioned in Song of Song of Solomon 2:3 8:5 Joel 1:12
League - Thus David maintained friendly intercourse with the kings of Tyre and Hamath, and Solomon with the kings of Tyre and Egypt
Log - The timber which king Hiram of Tyre sent to Solomon was likely logs lashed together to form rafts (1 Kings 5:8-9 )
Nard - The term appears twice in the Song of Solomon (Romans 1:12 ; Romans 4:13-14 ) and in two of the gospel accounts of the woman anointing Jesus at Simon's house in Bethany (Mark 14:3 ; John 12:3 ; “spikenard,” KJV)
Beam - ]'>[1] , Song of Solomon 1:17 ) and gilded ( 2 Chronicles 3:7 )
Adoniram - Son of Abda; over the tribute for about 47 years under David, Solomon, and Rehoboam; also over Solomon's levy of 30,000 sent by ten thousands monthly to cut timber in Lebanon (1 Kings 4:6)
Eziongaber or Eziongeber - It was where Solomon had a navy of ships and where the ships of Jehoshaphat were broken
Abishag - After David's death Adonijah persuaded Bathsheba, Solomon's mother, to entreat the king to permit him to marry Abishag. Solomon suspected in this request an aspiration to the throne, and therefore caused him to be put to death (1 Kings 2:17-25 )
Gallery - Song of Solomon 7:5 is better translated "The king is held by the tresses" of the 'hair' mentioned in the line before
Wisdom Literature - It is comprised chiefly in the books of Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiasticus, Ecclesiastes, and Wisdom of Solomon
Amminadab - The chariots of Amminadab are mentioned, Song of Solomon 6:12 , as being extremely light
Cabul - the name which Hiram, king of Tyre, gave to the twenty cities in the land of Galilee, of which Solomon made him a present, in acknowledgment for the great services in building the temple, 1 Kings 9:31
Adoram - By an unusual contraction from Adoniram, 2 Samuel 20:24, and 1 Kings 4:6, and also Hadoram, 2 Chronicles 10:18, chief receiver of the tribute during the reigns of David, 2 Samuel 20:24; Solomon, 1 Kings 4:6, and Rehoboam, 1 Kings 12:18
Kedar - They were nomads, living in black hair-tents, Song of Solomon 1:5, as the modern Bedouins do, or in villages, Isaiah 42:11, and were rich in flocks and herds, and noted as archers and mighty men
Zobah - A Syrian kingdom, sometimes called Aram Zobah, and also written "Zoba," whose kings made war with Saul, 1 Samuel 14:47; with David, 2 Samuel 8:3; 2 Samuel 10:6; 2 Samuel 10:8; 1 Chronicles 18:5; 1 Chronicles 18:9; and with Solomon, 2 Chronicles 8:3
Gezer - The Canaanites long retained a foothold in it, Joshua 16:10 Judges 1:29 ; but were dispossessed by a king of Egypt, and the place given to his daughter, the wife of Solomon, 1 Kings 9:16 , who fortified it
Hittites - They were not, however, exterminated: Uriah was a Hittite, 2 Samuel 11:3 ; Solomon used their services, 1 Kings 10:29 2 Kings 7:6 ; and they were not lost as a people until after the Jews' return from captivity, Ezra 9:1
Flagon, - a word employed in the Authorized Version to render two distinct Hebrew terms:
Ashishah , ( 2 Samuel 6:19 ; 1 Chronicles 16:3 ; Song of Solomon 2:5 ; Hosea 3:1 ) It really means a cake of pressed raisins
Pool - (Isaiah 42:15 ) Of the various pools mentioned in Scripture, perhaps the most celebrated are the pools of Solomon near Bethlehem called by the Arabs el-Burak , from which an aqueduct was carried which still supplies Jerusalem with wafer
Adonijah - When David was seemingly too old to offer energetic resistance, Adonijah as now the oldest son, about 35 years old (compare 2 Samuel 3:2-4 with 2 Samuel 5:5), Amnon, Chileab, and Absalom being dead, claimed the throne, in defiance of God's expressed will, and David's oath to Bathsheba that Solomon should inherit the throne (1 Chronicles 22:9-10). ...
Nathan the prophet, Zadok (Eleazar's descendant, and so of the older line of priesthood), Benaiah son of Jehoiada, captain of the king's guard, Shimei and Rei (or Shimma, Raddai), David's own brothers, supported Solomon. Adonijah was supported by Abiathar, Eli's descendant of Ithamar's (Aaron's fourth son's) line, the junior line, and Joab who perhaps had a misgiving as to the possibility of Solomon's punishing his murder of Abner and Amasa, and a grudge toward David for having appointed the latter commander in chief in his stead (2 Samuel 19:13). Adonijah had also invited to a feast by the stone Zoheleth at En-rogel all the king's sons except Solomon, and the captains of the host, the king's servants, of Judah. Nathan and Bathsheba foiled his plot by inducing David to have Solomon conducted in procession on the king's mule to Gihon, a spring W. Solomon would have spared him had he shown himself "a worthy man
Lattice - harakim, the network or lattice of a window (Song of Solomon 2:9 )
Ape - Solomon imported them from Ophir, 1 Kings 10:22 2 Chronicles 9:21
Tiphsah - It is named as the north-east limit of the dominions of Solomon ( 1 Kings 4:24 )
Boaz - ...
...
The name given (for what reason is unknown) to one of the two (the other was called Jachin) brazen pillars which Solomon erected in the court of the temple (1 Kings 7:21 ; 2 Chronicles 3:17 )
Perizzites - Still lingering in the land, however, they were reduced to servitude by Solomon (1 Kings 9:20 )
Ant - To the latter class belongs the ant to which Solomon refers
Bashemath - ...
...
A daughter of Solomon, and wife of Ahimaaz, one of his officers (1 Kings 4:15 )
Beaten Oil - Solomon also used beaten oil in his trade with Hiram (1 Kings 5:11 )
Yoav - Before his passing, David instructed Solomon to kill Joab to avenge the blood of two innocent generals � Abner and Amasa � whom Joab slew
Chains - As ornaments: they were placed on parts of the temple; were worn on the neck, and found among the spoils of war: Exodus 28:14 ; Numbers 31:50 ; 2 Chronicles 3:5,16 ; Song of Solomon 1:10
Peculiar People, or Treasure - Except in Ecclesiastes 2:8 , where 'the peculiar treasure of kings' is gathered by Solomon, these expressions both in the O
Salathiel, Shealtiel - The royal line would thus revert from the descendants of Solomon (Jeremiah 22:30 ), to those of David through Nathan
Joab ben zeruiah - Before his passing, David instructed Solomon to kill Joab to avenge the blood of two innocent generals � Abner and Amasa � whom Joab slew
Havoth-Jair - These towns were a part of one of the revenue districts of Solomon
Bride - If the reader wishes to see some beautiful instances, in which the whole church as one collective body is called the Lamb's wife, I refer him to the Songs of Solomon, and to the book of the Revelation at large
Calamus - Calamus, Song of Solomon 4:14; Ezekiel 27:19, or Sweet Calamus, Exodus 30:23, or Sweet Cane, Isaiah 43:24; Jeremiah 6:20
Censer - And Solomon, when he provided furniture for the temple of the Lord, made, among other things, censers of pure gold, 1 Kings 7:50
Cinnamon - One of the ingredients in the perfumed oil with which the tabernacle and its vessels were anointed, Exodus 30:23 Proverbs 7:17 Song of Song of Solomon 4:14
Kedar - Their black camel's hair tents are a picturesque feature in a landscape, Song of Song of Solomon 1:5
hu'Ram - (1 Chronicles 8:5 ) ...
The form in which the name of the king of Tyre in alliance with David and Solomon --and elsewhere given as HIRAM -- appears in Chronicles
Rose - in (Song of Solomon 2:1 ; Isaiah 35:1 ) There is much difference of opinion as to what particular flower is here denoted; but it appears to us most probable that the narcissus is intended
Hiram - King of Tyre, associated with David and Solomon in building the Temple. The close relationship continued into Solomon's reign, and the two men made an agreement which resulted in the construction of the Temple in Jerusalem (1 Kings 5:1-12 ). His friendship with David and Solomon undoubtedly explains, at least in part, the prosperity and success of their reigns. See David ; Phoenicia ; Solomon ; Tyre . Craftsman who did artistic metal work for Solomon's Temple (1 Kings 7:13-45 )
Abiathar - Solomon succeeding to the throne, degraded him from the priesthood, and sent him to Anathoth, 1 Kings 2:26,27 ; thus fulfilling the prediction made to Eli 150 years before, 1 Samuel 2:27-36 . This double priesthood continued from the death of Ahimelech till the reign of Solomon, after which the office was held by Zadok and his race alone. ...
A difficulty arises from the circumstance that, in 1 Kings 2:27 , Abiathar is said to be deprived of the priest's office by Solomon; while in 2 Samuel 8:17 1 Chronicles 18:16 24:3,6,31 , Ahimelech the son of Abiathar is said to be high priest along with Zadok
Apple - It is true that the tree in size and foliage would answer to the reference in Song of Solomon 8:5 , Joel 1:12 ; the fruit too in its sweetness ( Song of Solomon 2:3 ) and its smell ( Song of Solomon 7:8 ) is very appropriate
Jeroboam (1) - He had been an officer under Solomon, but Ahijah the prophet, having found him, tore his new garment into twelve pieces, and gave him ten of them, telling him that he should be king over ten of the tribes. Solomon thereupon sought to kill him, but he fled to Egypt and stayed there till the death of Solomon
Lebanon - ...
The western range is the Lebanon generally referred to in scripture and the one from whence Solomon obtained cedar and fir trees for the temple. Olives, figs, and mulberries also abound, and a number of aromatic shrubs, which perfume the air, as alluded to in Song of Solomon 4:11 . 2 Kings 14:9 ; Song of Solomon 4:8 ; Habakkuk 2:17
Hair - The usual and favorite color of the hair was black, (Song of Solomon 5:11 ) as is indicated in the comparisons in (Song of Solomon 1:5 ; 4:1 ) a similar hue is probably intended by the purple of ( Song of Solomon 7:6 ) Pure white hair was deemed characteristic of the divine Majesty
David - In his first role as king, David acquires the kingdom and assures his tenure in office (the accounts about David and Saul, the rebellions of Absalom and Sheba) and founds a dynasty (the birth of Solomon, the rebellion of Adonijah, the elimination of other contenders and factions). These narratives are intertwined with the theme of David as a man: a husband and father (Michal, Bathsheba, Amnon, Absalom, Solomon, Adonijah). The account of David's relationship with Bathsheba not only prepares for the eventual accession of Solomon, but it also sets in motion a curse that will dog the remainder of David's life: death and sexual outrage will follow, and "the sword will never depart from [2] house" (2 Samuel 12:10 ). For example, the king who will not seize the kingdom from Saul (2 Samuel 2-5 ) is nevertheless willing to seize a woman who is the object of his desire (Bathsheba); she who is seemingly passive in her seduction will later seize the kingdom for Solomon. When comparing the Chronicler's account of David and Solomon with that in Samuel/Kings, perhaps the most striking difference is the material that the Chronicler has chosen to omit. With the exception of the account of David's census (1 Chronicles 21 // 2 Samuel 24 ), the Chronicler has not recorded incidents that would in any way tarnish the image of David or Solomon. The Chronicler deletes the narrative of Solomon's taking vengeance on David's enemies (1 Kings 2 ) and does not report the sins of Solomon which, according to Kings, were ultimately the reason for the break-up of the kingdom (1 Kings 11 ). Even the blame for the schism is shifted from Solomon to Jeroboam (2 Chronicles 13:6-7 ). ...
In Chronicles David and Solomon are portrayed as glorious, obedient, all-conquering figures who enjoy not only divine blessing, but also the support of all the nation. Instead of an aged, bed-ridden David who only saves the kingdom for Solomon at the last minute due to the promptings of Bathsheba and Nathan (1 Kings 1 ), the Chronicler shows a smooth transition of power without a ripple of dissent (1 Chronicles 21,28-29 ). David himself publicly announces Solomon's appointment as his successor, an announcement greeted with enthusiastic and total support on the part of the people (1 Chronicles 28:1-29:25 ), including the other sons of David, the officers of the army, and others who had supported Adnoijah's attempted coup (1 Chronicles 29:24 ; 1 Kings 1:7-10 ). Whereas in Kings Solomon's sins are a reason for the schism and Solomon is contrasted to his father David (1 Kings 11 ), in Chronicles Rehoboam is commended for "walking in the ways of David and Solomon" (2 Chronicles 11:17 ). ...
This idealization of the reigns of David and Solomon could be dismissed as a kind of glorification of the "good old days. " Yet when coupled with the Chronicler's emphasis on God's promise to David of an enduring dynasty (1 Chronicles 17:11-14 ; 2 Chronicles 13:5,8 ; 21:7 ; 23:3 ), the Chronicler's treatment of David and Solomon reflects a "messianic historiography. " David and Solomon in Chronicles are not just the David and Solomon who were, but the David and Solomon of the Chronicler's eschatological hope. At a time when subject to the Persians the Chronicler still cherished hopes of a restoration of Davidic rule, and he describes the glorious rule of David and Solomon in the past in terms of his hopes for the future
Hiram - After the death of David he entered into a similar alliance with Solomon, and assisted him greatly in building the temple (1 Kings 5:1 ; 9:11 ; 2 Chronicles 2:3 ). He also took part in Solomon's traffic to the Eastern Seas (1 Kings 9:27 ; 10:11 ; 2 Chronicles 8:18 ; 9:10 ). ...
...
The "master workman" whom Hiram sent to Solomon. ) He cast the magnificent brazen works for Solomon's temple in clay-beds in the valley of Jordan, between Succoth and Zarthan
Dove - In their wild state doves generally build their nests in the clefts of rocks, but when domesticated "dove-cots" are prepared for them (Song of Solomon 2:14 ; Jeremiah 48:28 ; Isaiah 60:8 ). It is a symbol of the Holy Spirit (Genesis 1:2 ; Matthew 3:16 ; Mark 1:10 ; Luke 3:22 ; John 1:32 ); also of tender and devoted affection (Song of Solomon 1:15 ; 2:14 )
Tirzah (2) - ...
Celebrated for beauty (Song of Solomon 6:4); some derive Tirzah from ratsah , "pleasant. " Its mention is no ground for assigning the Song to a date later than Solomon, as it was in his time the chief city of northern Israel as Jerusalem of southern Israel
Nathan - Nathan seems also to have been the person through whom God revealed that Solomon would be David’s successor as king (2 Samuel 12:24-25; 1 Chronicles 28:5-6; 1 Kings 1:17). Significantly, Nathan came to the defence of Solomon when Adonijah challenged him (1 Kings 1:11-14; 1 Kings 1:22-24; 1 Kings 1:32-34)
Amminadab - Song of Solomon 6:12; "My soul made me like the chariots of Amminadib," one noted for swift driving; compare Song of Solomon 1:9
Banner - ...
Song of Solomon 2:4 (c) This banner represents the leadership of the Lord in the lives of His people. ...
Song of Solomon 6:4 (c) In a war where the army is composed of many allies, each nation carries its own banner, thus displaying the great resources behind the forces
Pomegranate - " (Song of Song of Solomon 4:3) And the church, speaking of the glories of her Husband, saith, "I would lead thee, and bring thee into my mother's house; I would cause thee to drink of spiced wine of the juice of my pomegranate. " (Song of Song of Solomon 8:2) The sense is, the church would treat Jesus with her best fare
Hadad - Here he began to raise disturbances against Solomon; but the Scripture does not mention particulars. Josephus says, that Hadad did not return to Edom till long after the death of David, when Solomon's affairs began to decline, by reason of his impieties. He also observes, that, not being able to engage the Edomites to revolt, because of the strong garrisons which Solomon had placed there, Hadad got together such people as were willing, and carried them to Razon, then in rebellion against Hadadezer, king of Syria. Razon received Hadad with joy, and assisted him in conquering part of Syria, where he reigned, and from whence he insulted Solomon's territories
Horse-Leech - Solomon says, "The horse-leech hath two daughters, Give, give. Solomon, having mentioned those that devoured the property of the poor as the worst of all the generations which he had specified, proceeds to state the insatiable cupidity with which they prosecuted their schemes of rapine and plunder
Proverb, the Book of - A collection of pointed and sententious moral maxims, the fruit of Solomon's profound sagacity and unexampled experience, but above all, of the inspiration of God. Solomon is said to have uttered three thousand proverbs, 1 Kings 4:32 , B. Proverbs 25:1-29:27 are proverbs of Solomon collected under the direction of King Hezekiah
ha'Math - (2 Samuel 8:9 ) Hamath seems clearly to have been included in the dominions of Solomon. (1 Kings 4:21-24 ) The "store-cities" which Solomon "built in Hamath," (2 Chronicles 8:4 ) were perhaps staples for trade
Garden - The gardens of the Hebrews were planted with flowers and aromatic shrubs, (Song of Solomon 6:2 ; 4:16 ) besides olives, fig trees, nuts or walnuts, (Song of Solomon 6:12 ) pomegranates, and others for domestic use
Colour - Another Hebrew word so rendered is applied to marble (Esther 1:6 ), and a cognate word to the lily (Song of Solomon 2:16 ). A different term, meaning "dazzling," is applied to the countenance (Song of Solomon 5:10 ). ...
Black, applied to the hair (Leviticus 13:31 ; Song of Solomon 5:11 ), the complexion (Song of Solomon 1:5 ), and to horses (Zechariah 6:2,6 ). ...
Red, applied to blood (2 Kings 322;22 ), a heifer (Numbers 19:2 ), pottage of lentils (Genesis 25:30 ), a horse (Zechariah 1:8 ), wine (Proverbs 23:31 ), the complexion (Genesis 25:25 ; Song of Solomon 5:10 ). With this colour was associated the idea of royalty and majesty (Judges 8:26 ; Song of Solomon 3:10 ; 7:5 ; Daniel 5:7,16,29 ). The only natural object to which this colour is applied in Scripture is the lips, which are likened to a scarlet thread (Song of Solomon 4:3 )
Hart - Resorting to the mountains (Song of Solomon 8:14); sure-footed there (2 Samuel 22:34; Habakkuk 3:19). "...
Easily agitated (Song of Solomon 2:7; Song of Solomon 3:5), so that the hunter must advance on them with breathless caution if he would take them; an emblem of the resting (Zephaniah 3:17) but easily grieved Holy Spirit (Ezekiel 16:43; Matthew 18:7; Ephesians 4:30). The hind is emblematic of the grace, innocence, and loveliness (Song of Solomon 2:9) of the Antitype to Joseph (Genesis 49:23-24)
Christ - Some types of CHRIST:...
Aaron, Exodus 28:2 (c)...
Adam, Genesis 5:2 (c)...
Ark, (covenant), Exodus 25:10 (c)...
Ark, (Noah's), Genesis 6:14 (c)...
Ass, Genesis 49:14 (c)...
Author, Hebrews 5:9 (c)...
Bishop, 1 Peter 2:25 (a)...
Body, 1 Corinthians 12:12 (a)...
Branch, Zechariah 3:8 (a)...
Bread, John 6:51 (a)...
Bridegroom, Matthew 25:1 (b)...
Bullock, Leviticus 1:5 (c)...
Burnt Offering, Leviticus 1:3 (b)...
Calf, Revelation 4:7 (b)...
Captain, Hebrews 2:10 (a)...
Chief, Song of Solomon 5:10 (b)...
Commander, Isaiah 55:4 (b)...
Cornerstone, Isaiah 28:16 (a)...
Covert, Isaiah 32:2 (a)...
David, 2 Samuel 19:10 (c)...
Day, Psalm 118:24 (b)...
Door, John 10:9 (a)...
Eagle, Revelation 4:7 (b)...
Flour, Leviticus 2:1 (c)...
Foundation, Isaiah 28:16 (b)...
Fountain, Zechariah 13:1 (b)...
Garment, Isaiah 61:10 (b), Romans 13:14...
Gate, Psalm 118:20 (b)...
Gold, Isaiah 13:12 (a)...
Headstone, Psalm 113:22 (b)...
Heir, Hebrews 1:2 (a)...
Hen, Matthew 23:37 (a)...
Hiding Place, Isaiah 32:2 (a)...
High Priest, Hebrews 4:14 (a)...
Isaac, Genesis 24:36 (c)...
Jacob, Genesis 32:28 (c)...
Jonah, Matthew 12:40 (a)...
Joseph, Genesis 37:7 (c)...
Joshua, Joshua 1:1 (c)...
Judge, Acts 17:31 (a)...
King, Psalm 2:6 (a)...
Lamb, Revelation 5:6 (a)...
Leaves, Revelation 22:2 (c)...
Light, John 8:12 (a)...
Lily of the Valleys, Song of Solomon 2:1 (c)...
Lion, Revelation 5:5 (a)...
Manna, John 6:32 (a)...
Master of the House, Luke 13:25 (b)...
Meal, 2 Kings 4:41 (c)...
Mediator (umpire), 1 Timothy 2:5 (a)...
Melchizedek, Genesis 14:18 (c)...
Merchantman, Matthew 13:45 (b)...
Owl, Psalm 102:6 (a)...
Ox:, Ezekiel 1:10 (b)...
Passover, 1 Corinthians 5:7 (a)...
Peace Offering, Leviticus 3:1 (c)...
Pelican, Colossians 2:16-171 (a)...
Physician, Jeremiah 8:22 (c)...
Pigeon, Leviticus 12:6 (c)...
Propitiation (mercy seat), Romans 3:25 (a)...
Ram, Genesis 22:13 (a)...
Rock, Matthew 16:18 (a)...
Rock of Ages, Isaiah 26:4 (margin) (a)...
Rose of Sharon, Song of Solomon 2:1 (c)...
Root, Revelation 22:16 (a)...
Sabbath, 1618064392_43 (b)...
Seed, Genesis 3:15 (a)...
Serpent, John 3:14 (a)...
Shepherd, John 10:11 (a)...
Sin, 2 Corinthians 5:21 (a)...
Sin Offering, Leviticus 4:32 (c)...
Solomon, 1 Kings 10:13 (c)...
Sower, Matthew 13:37 (a)...
Sparrow, Psalm 102:7 (a)...
Star, Revelation 22:16 (a)...
Sun, Malachi 4:2 (a)...
Temple, John 2:19 (a)...
Thief, Revelation 3:3 (a)...
Tree, Revelation 22:2 (b)...
Trespass Offering, Leviticus 5:6 (c)...
Turtle dove, Leviticus 1:14 (c)...
Vine, John 15:5 (a)...
Worm, Psalm 22:6 (a)...
Kingdom of Juda - Formed after the death of Solomon c
Juda, Kingdom of - Formed after the death of Solomon c
Israel, Kingdom of - Formed by the ten tribes which seceded from Roboam, the son of Solomon (c
Kingdom of Israel - Formed by the ten tribes which seceded from Roboam, the son of Solomon (c
Solomon's Servants - They were the descendants of the Canaanites who were reduced by Solomon to the helot state, and compelled to labor in the king's stone-quarries and in building his palaces and cities
Flagon - ashishah, (2 Samuel 6:19 ; 1 Chronicles 16:3 ; Song of Solomon 2:5 ; Hosea 3:1 ), meaning properly "a cake of pressed raisins
Uphaz - (Song of Song of Solomon 5:11) And John's account of the Lord Jesus Christ is much to the same amount
Joash - ...
...
One who had charge of the royal stores of oil under David and Solomon (1 Chronicles 27:28 )
Armlet - The signet was sometimes a jewel on the armlet; which explains, "Set me as a seal upon thine arm" (Song of Solomon 8:6)
Saffron - , "yellow"), mentioned only in Song of Solomon 4:13,14 ; the Crocus sativus
Beryl - The beloved man of Song of Song of Solomon 5:14 had beryl in his gold rings
Lily - The Song of Solomon uses it to beautify the writer's description of love (1 Kings 2:1 ; 1 Kings 4:5 )
Sharon - Its excellency is spoken of, and the bride in Song of Solomon 2:1 calls herself a 'rose of Sharon
Abia, Abiah - Son of Rehoboam, the son of Solomon
Amasa - David left it to his son Solomon to revenge this act
Dedication, Feast of - The dedication of the Temple under Solomon was at the Feast of Tabernacles
Zadok - After the death of David, 1 Kings 2:35 , Solomon excluded Abiathar from the high priesthood, because he espoused the party of Adonijah, and made Zadok high priest alone
Ethan - the Ezrahite, one of the wisest men of his time; nevertheless, Solomon was wiser than he, 1 Kings 4:31
Censer - (2 Chronicles 26:19 ; Luke 1:9 ) The only distinct precepts regarding the use of the censer are found in (Leviticus 16:12 ) and in (Numbers 4:14 ) Solomon prepared "censers of pure gold" as part of the temple furniture
Hind, - It is frequently noticed in the poetical parts of Scripture as emblematic of activity, ( Genesis 49:21 ; Psalm 18:33 ) gentleness, (Proverbs 5:19 ) feminine modesty, (Song of Solomon 2:7 ; 3:5 ) earnest longing, (Psalm 42:1 ) and maternal affection
Bramble - ...
...
Hebrew Hoah , Isaiah 34:13 (RSV "thistles"); "thickets" in 1 Samuel 13:6 ; "thistles" in 2Kings 2 Kings 25:18 , Job 31:40 ; "thorns" in 2 Chronicles 33:11 , Song of Solomon 2:2 , Hosea 9:6
Ladislaus, Saint - His father was Bela I and upon the death of his brother, Geisa I, the nobles chose Ladislaus to succeed him rather than Solomon, the son of Andrew I
Black - It is a different word which is rendered "black" in Leviticus 13:31,37 ; Song of Solomon 1:5 ; 5:11 ; and Zechariah 6:2,6
Calcol - Probably identical with Chalcol or Calcol, the same in the Hebrew, one of the four wise men whom Solomon exceeded (1 Kings 4:31)
Kedar - They lived in black hair-tents (Song of Solomon 1:5 )
Tadmor - A city in northern Palestine built by Solomon (2 Chronicles 8:4 ), probably to control a caravan route. The city enjoyed prosperity at various periods, but especially so during Solomon's reign and again in the third century A
Dor - The original inhabitants were not expelled, but David made them tributary, and Solomon stationed one of his commissariat officers there (1 Kings 4:11; Judges 1:27-28)
Berothai - The parallel passage (1 Chronicles 18:8 ) reads Chun or Cun and says Solomon used the brass for Temple vessels
Bether - BETHER (‘mountains of cutting’ or ‘of divisions,’ Song of Solomon 2:17 )
Aloe - The beloved's garden includes aloe (Song of Song of Solomon 4:14 )
Winter - Song of Solomon 2:11 (c) We may use this type as a picture of the long life of hardship, sorrow, darkness and difficulty which one may live on this earth
Black - Under the figure of a bride the remnant of Israel says, I am 'black,' describing herself as having become dark or swarthy by the rays of the sun; the scorching effect of affliction, Song of Solomon 1:5,6 : 'burning instead of beauty
Ophir - Place from whence Solomon imported gold, precious stones, and almug trees
Shishak - King of Egypt, to whom Jeroboam fled for protection from Solomon
Gone - It was told Solomon that Shimei had gone from ...
Jerusalem to Gath
Hadoram - Chief officer over the tribute in the days of Solomon
Evil, Powers of - Since original sin is ascribed to the instigation of the devil: "By the envy of the devil, death came into the world" (Wisdom of Solomon 2), and according to Saint Paul (Ephesians 6), the evil spirits are the most dangerous enemies of our souls, the real powers of evil in the world are the fallen angels
Engedi - Engedi was first called Hazazon-tamar, Genesis 14:7; 2 Chronicles 20:2; it was David's hiding-place from Saul, 1 Samuel 23:29; 1 Samuel 24:1; and where David cut off the skirt of Saul's robe, 24:4; its vineyards are mentioned, Song of Solomon 1:14; now called ʾAin Jidy
Tadmor - A city in the wilderness, built by Solomon
Pharaoh - Josephus says, that all the kings of Egypt, from Minaeus, the founder of Memphis, who lived several ages before Abraham, always had the name of Pharaoh, down to the time of Solomon, for more than three thousand three hundred years
Gihon - Gihon was also the name of a fountain to the west of Jerusalem, at which Solomon was anointed king by the high priest Zadok, and the Prophet Nathan, 1 Kings 1:33
Porch - ( 1 Chronicles 28:11 ) ...
Misderon ulam , ( Judges 3:23 ) strictly a vestibule, was probably a sort of veranda chamber in the works of Solomon, open in front and at the sides, but capable of being enclosed with awnings or curtains
Almug - One of the kinds of timber which Solomon ordered from Tyre for the building of the temple
Baana - Two officers under Solomon
Leopard - Beth-nimrah, Numbers 32:36, means the house of the leopards; and in Song of Solomon 4:8, are mentioned the mountains of the leopards
Pelethites - Following his death, they helped Solomon purge the kingdom of David's enemies
Hadad - After the death of David and Joab, he returned to Edom and made an ineffectual effort to throw off the yoke of Solomon, 1 Kings 11:14-22 2 Chronicles 8:17
Ethan - One of four men renowned for wisdom, though excelled by Solomon, 1 Kings 4:31 1 Chronicles 2:6
Engedi - See cut in Song of Song of Solomon 1:14
Collar - This word is used to translate various Hebrew words and may describe (1) the opening for the head in a garment (Exodus 28:32 NIV; Job 30:18 ; Psalm 133:2 NIV), (2) a decorative ornament around the necks of the Midianite Kings (NRSV) or their camels ( Judges 8:26 ; see Proverbs 1:9 ; Song of Song of Solomon 4:9 ), (3) stocks or a pillory used to restrain a person (Jeremiah 29:26 NRSV, NAS), and (4) a shackle of iron placed around the neck of a prisoner ( Psalm 105:18 NRSV, REB, TEV)
Tiphsah - The ancient Thapsacus, an important city on the western bank of the Euphrates, which constituted the northeastern extremity of Solomon's dominions, 1 Kings 4:24 . The ford at this place being the last one on the Euphrates towards the south, its possession was important to Solomon in his design to attract the trade of the East to Palestine
Ointments - Were much used by the ancient Hebrews, not chiefly for medical purposes as among us, but as a luxury, Ruth 3:3 Psalm 104:15 Song of Song of Solomon 1:2 Matthew 6:17 Luke 7:46
Jop'pa, - ( Joshua 19:46 ) Having a harbor attached to it --though always, as still, a dangerous one --it became the port of Jerusalem in the days of Solomon, and has been ever since
Pharaoh's Daughter, - 5]'>[1] ...
A wife of Solomon
Banner - These standards, of which there were four, were worked with embroidery and beautifully ornamented (Numbers 1:52 ; 2:2,3,10,18,25 ; Song of Solomon 2:4 ; 6:4,10 ). ) ...
God's setting up or giving a banner (Psalm 20:5 ; 60:4 ; Song of Solomon 2:4 ) imports his presence and protection and aid extended to his people
Spice, Spices - In ( Song of Solomon 5:1 ) "I have gathered my myrrh with my spice," the word points apparently to some definite substance. In the other places, with the exception perhaps of (Song of Solomon 1:13 ; 6:2 ) the words refer more generally to sweet aromatic odors, the principal of which was that of the balsam or balm of Gilead; the tree which yields this substance is now generally admitted to be the Balsam-odendron opobalsamum
Amasa - This served as reason for David to advise Solomon to do away with Joab (1 Kings 2:5 ) and thus reason for Solomon to kill Joab (1 Kings 2:28-34 )
Thigh - Sometimes the reference is simply physical (Judges 3:16 ; Psalm 45:3 ; Song of Song of Solomon 3:8 ; Song of Song of Solomon 7:1 )
Zadok -
A son of Ahitub, of the line of Eleazer (2 Samuel 8:17 ; 1 Chronicles 24:3 ), high priest in the time of David (2 Samuel 20:25 ) and Solomon (1 Kings 4:4 ). Zadok and Abiathar acted as high priests on several important occasions (1 Chronicles 15:11 ; 2 Samuel 15:24-29,35,36 ); but when Adonijah endeavoured to secure the throne, Abiathar went with him, and therefore Solomon "thrust him out from being high priest," and Zadok, remaining faithful to David, became high priest alone (1 Kings 2:27,35 ; 1 Chronicles 29:22 )
Mahanaim - Solomon put Abinadab in authority in this city ( 1 Kings 4:14 ). There is apparently a reference to Mahanaim in Song of Solomon 6:13 (see RV Zadok - Later, however, in the palace conflict over David’s successor, Zadok supported Solomon, and Abiathar supported Adonijah. As a result Solomon promoted Zadok to chief priest and sent Abiathar into exile (1 Kings 1:5-8; 1 Kings 1:43-45; 1 Kings 2:26; 1 Kings 2:35)
Flagon - ]'>[1] gives ‘flagons’ ( 2 Samuel 6:19 , 1 Chronicles 16:3 , Hosea 3:1 , Song of Solomon 2:5 ), the meaning of the Heb. ]'>[1] ‘flagon [14],’ in Hosea 3:1 ‘cakes of raisins’ for ‘flagons of wine,’ and in Song of Solomon 2:5 ‘raisins’ (RVm Kiss - The kiss was a token of love ( Song of Solomon 1:2 ; Song of Solomon 8:1 ), of homage and submission ( Genesis 41:40 , Job 31:27 , Psalms 2:12 ), and was also an act of idolatrous worship ( 1 Kings 19:18 , Hosea 13:2 )
Vine - " (Song of Song of Solomon 1:14) And evidently on this account, because Jesus is not one blessing, but every one and all. Song of Song of Solomon 7:8-12, etc
Spices - , but aromatic woods, seeds, or gums (Song of Solomon 6:2; Song of Solomon 5:1)
Gifts - When Solomon reigned supreme, 'all the earth' sought to Solomon to hear his wisdom, and brought presents, as did the queen of Sheba
Hamath, Hemath - It was more than a hundred miles farther north than Dan, but it became tributary to Solomon and he built store cities there. On the death of Solomon it appears to have gained its independence, for it was recovered by Jeroboam II
Abi'Athar - (2 Samuel 15;24,29,35,36 ; 17:15-17 ; 19:11 ) When, however, Adonijah set himself up fro David's successor on the throne, in opposition to Solomon, Abiathar sided with him, while Zadok was on Solomon's side. Zadok had joined David at Hebron, (1 Chronicles 12:28 ) so that there was henceforth who high priests in the reign of David, and till the deposition of Abiathar by Solomon, when Zadok became the sole high priest
Shishak - 971, with an innumerable multitude of people out of Egypt, the countries of Lubim, of Suchim, and of Cush, captured the strongest places in the country, and carried away from Jerusalem the treasures of the Lord's house and of the king's palace, as well as the golden bucklers of Solomon. He dethroned the dynasty into which Solomon married, 1 Kings 3:1 , and made many foreign conquests
Apple Tree, Apple - Mention of the apple tree occurs in the Authorized Version in ( Song of Solomon 2:3 ; 8:5 ) and Joel 1:12 The fruit of this tree is alluded to in ( Proverbs 25:11 ) and Song of Solomon 2:5 ; 7:8 It is a difficult matter to say what is the specific tree denoted by the Hebrew word tappuach
Kings, the Books of - They contain the annals of the Jewish commonwealth from the accession of Solomon till the subjugation of the kingdom by Nebuchadnezzar and the Babylonians (apparently a period of about four hundred and fifty-three years). But the more probable supposition is that Ezra, after the Captivity, compiled them from documents written perhaps by David, Solomon, Nathan, Gad, and Iddo, and that he arranged them in the order in which they now exist. ...
The sources of the narrative are referred to (1) "the book of the acts of Solomon" (1 Kings 11:41 ); (2) the "book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah" (14:29; 15:7,23, etc
Jeroboam - His first appearance in history is as head of the forced labourers levied by Solomon. This was perhaps because he was hereditary chief in Ephraim, but we must also suppose that he attracted the attention of Solomon by his ability and energy. The design came to the knowledge of Solomon, and Jeroboam fled to Egypt
Sabeans - ...
The queen of Sheba, who visited Solomon, 1 Kings 10:1-29 2 Chronicles 9:1-31 Matthew 12:42 , and made him presents of gold, ivory, and costly spices, was probably the mistress of this region; indeed, the Sabeans were celebrated, on account of their important commerce in these very products, among the Greeks also, Job 6:19 Isaiah 60:6 Jeremiah 6:20 Ezekiel 27:22 38:13 Psalm 72:10,15 Joel 3:8 . The tradition of this visit of the queen of Sheba to Solomon has maintained itself among the Arabs, who call her Balkis, and affirm that she became the wife of Solomon
Letters - There are convincing indications, however, that Jesus was to some extent familiar with the literature studied in the schools, both from His direct reference to passages contained in it, and from striking parallelisms in language and thought between various sayings of His and maxims of uncanonical books such as Sirach and the Wisdom of Solomon. Wisdom of Solomon 3:14; Matthew 27:43; Matthew 27:55, cf. Wisdom of Solomon 2:16 to Wisdom of Solomon 18:20; Mark 9:44, cf
Jeroboam - Solomon was so impressed with the young man that he put him in charge of the Ephraim-Manasseh workforce (1 Kings 11:28). The ambitious Jeroboam cleverly used his position to gain a following among his fellow northerners, in opposition to the southerner Solomon, whose policies he found oppressive. From the prophet Ahijah, Jeroboam learnt that God would punish Solomon by splitting his kingdom and giving ten tribes to Jeroboam. When Solomon tried to kill Jeroboam, Jeroboam escaped to Egypt, where he remained till the end of Solomon’s reign (1 Kings 11:29-40). ...
As soon as Solomon was dead, Jeroboam returned from Egypt and led a rebellion (930 BC). The northern tribes readily crowned Jeroboam their king, in opposition to Solomon’s son, Rehoboam. He brought territorial expansion and economic growth on a scale not seen in Israel since the days of David and Solomon (2 Kings 14:25-28)
Bathsheba - She became the mother of Solomon and played an important role in ensuring he became king (1 Kings 1:11-2:19 )
Hagiographa - The hagiographa in their Hebrew order include: Psalms, Proverbs, and Job; the “five scrolls” (Megilloth ) read at major festivals, namely, Song of Solomon, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and Esther; Daniel; and Ezra-Nehemiah and Chronicles
Suretyship - In the entire absence of commerce the law laid down no rules on the subject of suretyship; but it is evident that in the time of Solomon commercial dealings had become so multiplied that suretyship in the commercial sense was common
Heshbon - There are reservoirs in this district, which are probably the "fishpools" referred to in Song of Solomon 7:4
Hivites - A remnant of them still existed in the time of Solomon (1 Kings 9:20 )
Mahol - The father of Ethan the Ezrahite, Heman, Chalcol, and Darda ( 1 Kings 4:31 ), who are mentioned as famous for their wisdom, though surpassed in this respect by Solomon
Mother - King Solomon rose up to meet and bowed himself unto Bathsheba, and set her on his right hand (Leviticus 19:3)
Mandrakes - The odor of the plant seems to be enjoyed by Orientals, Song of Solomon 7:13, and by some Occidentals
Lattice - Lattices were used as window covering to allow some light to penetrate while keeping heat and rain to a minimum (Judges 5:28 ; 2 Kings 1:2 ; Proverbs 7:6 , KJV casement; Song of Song of Solomon 2:9 )
Magnify - ...
The Lord magnified Solomon exceedingly
Bundle - ...
Song of Solomon 1:13 (c) All of GOD's gracious loving kindnesses and mercies are grouped by the Psalmist, as a bundle is wrapped together
Chamber - ...
Song of Solomon 1:4 (c) The different experiences of blessing in the Christian life are compared to chambers in the palace of the king
Moon - Song of Solomon 6:10 (c) This orb is probably a type of the church
Wall - (Song of Song of Solomon 2:9)...
Gebal - It provided builders for Solomon ( 1 Kings 5:18 RV Sockets - ...
Song of Solomon 5:15 (c) The legs support the body and strong legs are necessary to success for the runner, the wrestler, the prize fighter, and all of those who use the legs constantly in their vocations
Spice - ...
Song of Solomon 4:14 (c) We may take this to represent the sweet fragrance to GOD of the worship and godly living of His people
Tirzah - In Song of Solomon 6:4 it is referred to as being 'beautiful,' but the LXX and the Vulgate do not in this passage regard it as a proper name
Boaz - One of the brazen pillars erected by Solomon before the portico of the temple
na'Amah - " She was therefore one of the foreign women whom Solomon took into his establishment
Cinnamon - It is mentioned, Exodus 30:23 , among the materials in the composition of the holy anointing oil; and in Proverbs 7:17 ; Song of Solomon 4:14 ; Sir_24:15 ; and Revelation 18:13 , among the richest perfumes
Rehoboam - The son and successor of Solomon
Camphire - In Song of Song of Solomon 1:14 4:13 , is not the gum Camphor of our apothecaries, but the Cyprus-flower, as it is sometimes called, the Athena of the Arabs, a whitish fragrant flower, hanging in clusters like grapes
Rose - The "rose of Sharon," sacredly associated with the heavenly Bridegroom, Song of Song of Solomon 2:1 Isaiah 35:1 , appears from the derivation of its Hebrew name to have been a bulbous plant; and is generally believed, in accordance with the ancient versions, to denote a plant of the narcissus family, perhaps the meadow-saffron, which grows in rich profusion on the plain of Sharon
na'Amah - " She was therefore one of the foreign women whom Solomon took into his establishment
Hado'Ram - ) ...
The form assumed in Chronicles by the name of the intendant of taxes under David, Solomon and Rehoboam
Washing - , Song of Song of Solomon 4:2 ; 6:6
Ezion-Geber - Under Solomon the city became a major port. Solomon commissioned the building of a fleet of ships there for use in the gold trade (1Kings 9:26,1 Kings 9:28 ). After Solomon's death the city reverted to Edomite control
Spice, Spices - bâsâm , Song of Solomon 5:2 , RVm Ezion-Geber - Under Solomon the city became a major port. Solomon commissioned the building of a fleet of ships there for use in the gold trade (1Kings 9:26,1 Kings 9:28 ). After Solomon's death the city reverted to Edomite control
Tadmor - Built by Solomon in the wilderness. " Solomon fixed on the site, an oasis in the desert which lies between Palestine and Babylonia, as the commercial entrepot between Jerusalem and Babylon
Ahimaaz - An officer of Solomon in Naphtali who married Basmath, daughter of Solomon
Ointment - Dry perfumes were kept in bags (Song of Song of Solomon 1:13 ) and in perfume boxes (Isaiah 3:20 NRSV; NIV: “perfume bottles”; KJV: “tablets”). Matthew 4:13-14 ; Mark 14:3 ; KJV: “spikenard”), frankincense (KJV: “incense”; Isaiah 60:6 ; Matthew 2:11 ); balsam or balm (Genesis 37:25 ; Jeremiah 8:22 ); cassia (Exodus 30:24 ; Ezekiel 27:19 ), calamus (Exodus 30:23 ; Song of Song of Solomon 4:14 ; NRSV: “aromatic cane”), cinnamon (Exodus 30:23 ; Revelation 18:13 ), stacte (Exodus 30:34 ), and onycha (Exodus 30:34 ). Solomon received an annual payment of perfume as tribute from his subjects (1 Kings 10:25 ); the queen of Sheba brought many costly spices as gifts to Solomon (1 Kings 10:2 ); Hezekiah, king of Judah, included valuable perfumed ointment and spices as part of his treasure (2 Kings 20:13 ; Exodus 30:22-25 ). The breath was perfumed (Song of Song of Solomon 7:8 ), probably with spiced wine (Song of Song of Solomon 8:2 ). The garments of the king were perfumed with myrrh, aloes , and cassia (Psalm 45:8 ), or myrrh, frankincense, and “with all powders of the merchant” (Song of Song of Solomon 3:6 ). Perfumes were used inside the clothes (Song of Song of Solomon 1:13 ) and by women who desired to be attractive to men (Esther 2:12 )
Garden - Flowers were cultivated ( Song of Solomon 6:2 ), and doubtless, as in modern times, crops of grain or vegetables were grown in the spaces between the trees. at Jenîn ( Song of Solomon 4:15 ). ’ The cool shade of the trees, the music of the stream, and the delightful variety of fruits in their season, make the gardens a favourite place of resort ( Esther 7:7 , Song of Solomon 4:16 etc
Beautiful - it is very frequent, and especially in Genesis and the Song of Solomon. It is used five times in the Song of Solomon, Song of Solomon 1:16 ; 2:14 ; 4:3 ; 6:3,5
Jehosh'Aphat - He was one of the best, most pious and prosperous kings of Judah, the greatest since Solomon. , and Solomon. (1 Chronicles 15:24 ) ...
Son of Paruah; one of the twelve purveyors of King Solomon
Raven - Its glossy plumage is referred to in Song of Solomon 5:11 ; it often dwells in the wilderness ( Isaiah 34:11 ), and yet God cares for and watches over it ( Job 38:41 , Psalms 147:8 , Luke 12:24 )
Senir - The name of Hermon among the Amorites, according to Deuteronomy 3:9 , but in Song of Solomon 4:8 and 1 Chronicles 5:23 distinguished from Hermon
Abner - He also charged Solomon to punish the crime of Joab with death, 1 Kings 2:5,6
King david - Succeeded by his son Solomon
David, king - Succeeded by his son Solomon
Millo - It was rebuilt by Solomon (1 Kings 9:15,24 ; 11:27 ) and repaired by Hezekiah (2 Chronicles 32:5 )
Dara - One of the four men noted for wisdom, but excelled by Solomon (1 Kings 4:31), sons of Zerach, of Pharez' distinguished family of Judah
Ironsmith - Solomon appealed to Hiram, the king of Tyre, for a skilled ironsmith (2 Chronicles 2:7 )
Nephtoah - The Talmud identifies Nephtoah with Etam , the modern ‘Ain ‘Atâm , at what are popularly called the Pools of Solomon, S
Saffron - ( Song of Solomon 4:14 ) Saffron has front the earliest times been in high esteem as a perfume
Window - (Judges 5:28 ; Proverbs 7:6 ) Authorized Version "casement;" (Ecclesiastes 12:3 ) Authorized Version "window;" (Song of Solomon 2:9 ; Hosea 13:3 ) Authorized Version "chimney
Nut - ...
(2) Εgowz ; Song of Solomon 6:11, "the garden of nuts
Moriah - However, God gave that task to his son Solomon (1 Chronicles 28:3-6 )
Shishak - Some equate him with the pharaoh whose daughter married Solomon (1 Kings 3:1 ) and who later burned Gezer and gave it to his daughter (1 Kings 9:16 )
Barzillai - On his deathbed David charged Solomon to ‘shew kindness to the sons of Barzillai’ ( 1 Kings 2:7 )
Gallery - ]'>[1] in Song of Solomon 7:6 reads ‘The king is held in the galleries
Milcom - Solomon established a sanctuary for him on the Mount of Olives, which seems to have continued till it was destroyed by Josiah ( 1Ki 11:5 ; 1 Kings 11:33 , 2 Kings 23:13 )
Coat - The tunic worn like the shirt next the skin (Leviticus 16:4 ; Song of Solomon 5:3 ; 2 Samuel 15:32 ; Exodus 28:4 ; 29:5 )
Ithamar - The high-priesthood came into the family of Ithamar in the person of Eli, and it reverted to the descendants of Eleazar in Zadok on the deposition of Abiathar by Solomon
Flagon - In Song of Solomon 2:5 it is simply 'flagons
Solomon's Servants - (See Solomon. ) Canaanites, living until Solomon's time in comparative freedom, were forced to slaves' work in the stone quarries, and degraded below the Nethinim ("given" or "dedicated to the Lord"), as the Gibeonites were; hewers of wood and drawers of water for the sanctuary, Joshua 9:23): 1 Kings 5:13-18; 1 Kings 9:20-21; 2 Chronicles 8:7-8; 1 Chronicles 22:2. Their names betray their Canaanite origin: only 392, in contrast with Solomon's 150,000
Ahitub - Father of Zadok, the high priest under David and Solomon (2 Samuel 8:17 )
Almug - This tree was imported by Solomon from Ophir ( 1 Kings 10:11-12 ) and from Lebanon ( 2 Chronicles 2:8 ) for staircases, balustrades, and musical instruments
Jeshimon - of the Dead Sea and east of the river (so apparently in Numbers), or to the eastern part of the hill-country of Judah on the western shore of the Dead Sea ( Song of Solomon 1:1-17 Samam
Jaw - ...
Proverbs 30:14 (b) Solomon describes the cruel wickedness of the oppressors of his day who sought to injure the poor and needy
Chains - Thus Christ speaks of his church; (Song of Song of Solomon 1:10; Son 4:9) and again, by way of shewing Christ's property in his church, "I put bracelets upon thine hands, and a chain on thy neck
Armies - (Song of Song of Solomon 6:10) And in allusion to the same, the Lord himself is called the Lord of hosts
Mount Carmel - (See Isaiah 35:2; Amos 1:2) Hence Christ, when describing his church's beauty, saith, "Thine head upon thee is like Carmel:" (Song of Song of Solomon 7:5
Millo - A part of ancient Jerusalem, though afterwards said to be 'built' by Solomon; it was repaired by Hezekiah
Perizzites - Solomon subdued the remains of the Canaanites and Perizzites, which the children of Israel had not rooted out, and made them tributary to him, 1 Kings 9:20-21 ; 2 Chronicles 8:7
in'Dia - The trade opened by Solomon with Ophir through the Red Sea consisted chiefly of Indian articles
Abinadab - One of the twelve officers appointed by Solomon to provide alternately, month by month, food for the king and his household
Ahijah - He is thought to be the person who spoke twice to Solomon from God
Hazor - Hazor revived, however, and for a time oppressed the Israelites; but was subdued by Barak, fortified by Solomon, and remained in the possession of Israel until the invasion of Tiglathpileser, Joshua 19:36 ; Judges 4:2 ; 1 Kings 9:15 ; 2 Kings 15:29
Laver - ...
For the temple of Solomon, besides the vast brazen sea for the use of the priests, (see 2 Chronicles 4:6
Mil'lo - ( 2 Samuel 5:9 ; 1 Chronicles 11:8 ) Its repair or restoration was one of the great works for which Solomon raised his "levy," (1 Kings 9:15,24 ; 11:27 ) and it formed a prominent part of the fortifications by which Hezekiah prepared for the approach of the Assyrians
e'Than -
Ethan the Ezrahite, one of the four sons of Mahol, whose wisdom was excelled by Solomon
Brother - nephew, (Genesis 13:8 ; 14:16 ) husband, (Song of Solomon 4:9 ) ...
One of the same tribe
Two Hundred - 1: διακόσιοι (Strong's #1250 — Adjective — diakosioi — dee-ak-os'-ee-oy ) occurs in Mark 6:37 ; John 6:7 ; 21:8 ; Acts 23:23 (twice); 27:37, "two hundred (threescore and sixteen);" Revelation 11:3 , "(a thousand) two hundred (and threescore);" Song of Solomon 12:6
Bethshan (Bethshean) - The town was still hostile to Israel in the time of Saul (1 Samuel 31:10-12), but by the time of Solomon it was firmly under Israelite control (1 Kings 4:12)
Hazor - In the reign of Solomon, Hazor became Israel’s main defence outpost on its northern frontier (1 Kings 9:15)
Tadmor - a city built by Solomon, 1 Kings 9:18 , afterward called Palmyra; situated in a wilderness of Syria, upon the borders of Arabia Deserta, inclining toward the Euphrates. "...
It is probable, says Mansford, that, although Tadmor is said to have been built by Solomon, or, in other words, to have been erected by him into a city, it was a watering station between Syria and Mesopotamia before; with perhaps accommodations suited to the mode of travelling in those times, as we read of palm trees being found there, which are not trees that come by chance in these desert regions. This was probably the condition of Tadmor long before it received its name and its honours from Solomon. But, after all, what motive could there be to induce a peaceable king, like Solomon, to undertake a work so distant, difficult, and dangerous? There is but one which at all accords with his character, or the history of the times,— commercial enterprise. Solomon was at great pains to secure himself in the possession of the ports of Elath and Ezion-Geber on the Red Sea, and to establish a navy for his Indian commerce, or trade to Ophir,—in all ages the great source of wealth
Myrrh - An ingredient of the holy anointing oil (Exodus 30:23), typical of Messiah's graces (Psalms 45:8) as well as the church's through Him (Song of Solomon). In Song of Solomon 1:13 translated "a scent box of myrrh
Wine - (Isaiah 25:6) But the sweetest commendation of Jesus and his gospel, is that which under the similitude of wine is given by the spouse, (Song of Song of Solomon 1:2) where she desires to be kissed with the kisses of Jesus's mouth, for, said she, thy love is better than wine. His language is: "Eat, O friends: drink, yea, drink abundantly, O beloved!" (Song of Song of Solomon 5:1)...
Garden - Biblical references include cedar, cypress, and fruit trees (Ecclesiastes 2:5 ; Ezekiel 31:8 ); vegetables (KJV “herbs”; Deuteronomy 11:10 ); fragrant spices such as myrrh and balsam (Song of Song of Solomon 4:16 ; Song of Song of Solomon 5:1 );...
flowers such as lilies (Song of Song of Solomon 6:2 ); and a wide variety of other plants—mint, rue (Luke 11:42 ), dill, cummin (Matthew 23:23 ), and mustard (Luke 13:19 ). As a guarded and protected place (Song of Song of Solomon 4:12 ), persons could retreat there for prayer (Matthew 26:36-46 ), for quiet or solitude (Esther 7:7 ), or even for bathing (Susanna 1:15 )
Arden - ...
Song of Solomon 4:12 (c) We may take the expression as a picture of the Church in which GOD's people are the flowers, and their worship is the fragrance. (See also Song of Solomon 5:1; Song of Solomon 6:2; Song of Solomon 6:11)
Coney - The saphan, then, is not the rabbit; which last, unless it was brought to him by his ships from Europe, Solomon never saw. He is in Judea, Palestine, and Arabia, and consequently must have been familiar to Solomon. David describes him very pertinently, and joins him to other animals perfectly known: ‘The hills are a refuge for the wild goats, and the rocks for the saphan:' and Solomon says that ‘they are exceeding wise,' that they are ‘but a feeble folk, yet make their houses in the rocks. From their tenderness these are very liable to be excoriated or hurt; notwithstanding which, they build houses in the rocks more inaccessible than those of the rabbit, and in which they abide in greater safety, not by exertion of strength, for they have it not, but are truly, as Solomon says, ‘a feeble folk,' but by their own sagacity and judgment; and are therefore justly described as wise
Graving - ...
...
Pathah refers to intaglio work, the cutting and engraving of precious stones (Exodus 28:9-11,21 ; Zechariah 3:9 ; Song of Solomon 1:10,11 )
Hamath-Zobah - ” City Solomon captured in Syria (2 Chronicles 8:3 )
Horse - But Solomon, from his connection with Egypt, greatly multiplied their number (1 Kings 4:26 ; 10:26,29 )
Hadoram - Over the tribute, under David, Solomon, and Rehoboam
Cinnamon - It is mentioned elsewhere only in Proverbs 7:17 ; Song of Solomon 4:14 ; Revelation 18:13
Agur - The rabbis, according to Rashi and Jerome, interpreted the name as symbolizing Solomon the Koheleth
Blow - ...
Song of Solomon 4:16 (b) This is symbolical of the ministry of the Spirit in giving or withholding or in providing what is needed to make the garden fruitful
Heman - Son of Zerah, or Mahol: he was renowned for his wisdom, which, however, was surpassed by that of Solomon
Street - Shuq like chuts is seemingly "the narrow street" distinguished from "the broad way," rechob , in Song of Solomon 3:2
Preaching - ...
Solomon in the Ecclesiastes calls himself 'the preacher,' and it is said of Noah that he was 'a preacher of righteousness
Akkub - Descendant of Solomon in post-exilic Judah about 420 B
Hadad - On the death of David he returned to his own country, and, being stirred up by God, was an enemy and did mischief to Solomon
Gihon - Place near Jerusalem where Solomon was anointed and proclaimed king
Peacocks - Probably Solomon first brought it by his Tarshish ships to the West from the East
Tirzah - 772, 2 Kings 15:14; 2 Kings 15:16, and its fame for beauty appears from Song of Solomon 6:4
Bowels - The true mother of the child whom Solomon commanded to be divided, felt her bowels move, and consented that it should be given to the woman who was not its real mother, 1 Kings 3:26
Bath-Sheba - Bath-sheba was the mother of Solomon, whose succession to the throne she took pains to secure, 1 Kings 1:15-31, and of three other sons, 1 Chronicles 3:5
Dor - It was administered by Ben-abinadab for Solomon ( 1 Kings 4:11 )
Bath-Sheba - Bath-sheba was the mother of Solomon, whose succession to the throne she took pains to secure, 1 Kings 1:15
Dor - (Joshua 11:1,2 ) It appears to have been within the territory of the tribe of Asher, though allotted to Manasseh, (Joshua 17:11 ; Judges 1:27 ) Solomon stationed at Dor one of his twelve purveyors
Perfumes - (Exodus 30:22-38 ) Nor were they less used in private life; not only were they applied to the person, but to garment, (Psalm 45:8 ; Song of Solomon 4:11 ) and to articles of furniture, such as beds
Cherethites - They were fiercely loyal to David through the rebellions of Absalom and Sheba, and they supported David’s chosen successor, Solomon, when there was an attempted coup against him (2 Samuel 15:18; 2 Samuel 20:7; 1 Kings 1:38)
Jeroboam - He was made by Solomon the superintendent of the taxes exacted from the tribe of Ephraim. He made the most of his position, and at last was perceived by Solomon to be aiming at the monarchy. Solomon attempting to arrest Jeroboam, caused his night into Egypt. There he remained until Solomon's death
Copper - The original excavator thought these were built by Solomon for processing both copper and iron, but subsequent research has shown them to be earlier than Solomon. So also were the two huge pillars, the mammoth tank, and other major features for the Temple designed by Hiram of Tyre for Solomon (1 Kings 7:14-47 )
Lebanon - In the recesses of the range wild beasts as of old still abound (2 Kings 14:9 ; Song of Solomon 4:8 ). The scenes of the Lebanon are remarkable for their grandeur and beauty, and supplied the sacred writers with many expressive similes (Psalm 29:5,6 ; 72:16 ; 104:16-18 ; Song of Solomon 4:15 ; Isaiah 2:13 ; 35:2 ; 60:13 ; Hosea 14:5 ). It is famous for its cedars (Song of Solomon 5:15 ), its wines (Hosea 14:7 ), and its cool waters (Jeremiah 18:14 )
Black - ...
Song of Solomon 1:5 (c) This probably represents the Saviour as He appears to unsaved people. ...
Song of Solomon 5:11 (c) This black hair is probably a type of the eternal youth, vigor and strength of our Lord as a young king thirty-three and a half years old. (See also Song of Solomon 7:5; Revelation 1:14)
Mount Olivet - ) The reader, if not much acquainted with the sacred history will be surprized to find that the spot rendered so memorable to David by sorrow should be prophaned by Solomon his son. But so it was, when king Solomon loved many strange wives, those illicit connexions led him into idolatry; hence we read that Solomon built an high place for Chemosh, the abomination of Moab, in the hill that is before Jerusalem, and for Moloch, the abomination of the children of Ammon
Jeroboam - It was King Solomon's many and terrible falls from godliness and from virtue that first set such a fatal snare before Jeroboam's feet. Solomon by this time was rushing insensate to his own ruin, and to the ruin of his royal house. Solomon's beautiful dream at Gibeon, his splendid prayer at the dedication of the temple, his wisdom, and his understanding, and his largeness of heart-it is all clean forgotten now. Can this be the same Solomon? Can this be that Solomon to whom the Lord appeared twice? For Solomon went after Ashtoreth, the goddess of the Zidonians, and after Molech, the abomination of the Ammonites. Then did Solomon build an high place for Chemosh, the abomination of Moab, in the hill of God that is before Jerusalem, and for Molech, the abomination of Ammon. In his old age, and when he should have been by this time a rare and a ripe saint of God, Solomon added this also to his other transgressions, an insane passion for building palaces both for himself and for his heathen queens, and temples and altars for their cruel and unclean gods, and great fortifications, and all manner of proud and costly and reckless public works. And, with it all, there was this also; Every stone of all Solomon's temples and palaces and heathen altars was laid wet with the blood of an oppressed and exasperated people. But every jot and tittle of God's great prophet had by this time been long proved true; and every warning word of his was now like a fire in the bones of Solomon's miserable subjects. And it was amid all the terrible oppression and suffering of that day that Jeroboam rose so fast and so high in Solomon's service. Jeroboam's outstanding talents in public affairs, his skilful management of men, his great industry, and his great loyalty, as was thought, all combined to bring the son of Nebat under Solomon's royal eye, till there was no trust too important, and no promotion too high for young Jeroboam. Solomon is old, and his son is a fool. And who is to be king after Solomon dies? Thinkest thou ever who is fit to be king? Saul was but the son of Kish. ...
All this time, Ahijah the prophet, with those terrible eyes of his, was sleeplessly watching both the fast-coming fall of Solomon, as well as the immense industry and steady rise of Jeroboam. ' And Jeroboam laid down his building and came out after Ahijah, Then Ahijah suddenly turned and stripped off his new garment that was upon Jeroboam, and tore it up into twelve pieces, and said, 'Thus and thus hast thou torn up the kingdom of Solomon in thine heart. And it came to pass that when Solomon heard of all that, Solomon turned to be against Jeroboam. And Solomon eyed Jeroboam as Saul had eyed David, and as we all eye those gifted men who are fast rising to push us out of our seat. And just as David fled to Ramah from the javelin of Saul, so Jeroboam fled to Egypt from the same weapon of Solomon. In a short space of time the fugitive overseer of Solomon's works had actually become the son-in-law of Pharaoh himself. ...
All this time, matters went on from bad to worse in Jerusalem, till Solomon died and Rehoboam his son reigned in his stead. But with all that God's prophets and God's providences could do, neither Solomon nor his son altered their insane and suicidal ways one iota. The ten tribes continued to go up to Jerusalem to Solomon's temple to worship God
Adonijah - But Bathsheba, it appears, was anxious to secure the succession for her son, Solomon; with this object in view, she, assisted by the prophet Nathan, heads a party at the court inimical to the claims of Adonijah. These, naturally on the alert, represent the gathering to David, now very aged, as an attempt to usurp the throne while he is yet alive; Bathsheba reminds David of his promise that Solomon, her son, should succeed him on the throne ( 1 Kings 1:17 ) [1]; David, remembering perhaps the rebellion of Absalom (whom Adonijah seems to have resembled in temperament as well as in outward appearance), is easily prevailed upon to transfer the succession to Solomon ( 1 Kings 1:33 ff. Adonijah is ‘pardoned’ ( 1 Kings 1:52-53 ); it would nave been dangerous, owing to the attitude of the people ( 1 Kings 2:15 ), to put him to death until Solomon was secure on the throne; but as he was rightful heir, the safety of Solomon’s throne could never be guaranteed as long as Adonijah was alive. Bathsheba was not the woman to be oblivious of this fact, accordingly she recommences her intrigues; she represents to Solomon that Adonijah is desirous of marrying Abishag the Shunammite, the maiden who was brought to David in his old age ( 1 Kings 1:3-4 ), and who, according to Oriental ideas, was regarded as one of the royal wives. Such a desire was naturally interpreted by Solomon as an intention of seeking the kingdom ( 1 Kings 2:22 ), and self-preservation compelled him to decree Adonijah’s death, a sentence which was carried out by Benaiah ( 1 Kings 2:25 )
Tent - mishcan (Song of Solomon 1:8 ), used also of a dwelling (Job 18:21 ; Psalm 87:2 ), the grave (Isaiah 22:16 ; comp 14:18), the temple (Psalm 46:4 ; 84:2 ; 132:5 ), and of the tabernacle (Exodus 25:9 ; 26:1 ; 40:9 ; Numbers 1:50,53 ; 10:11 ). Tents have always occupied a prominent place in Eastern life (1 Samuel 17:54 ; 2 Kings 7:7 ; Psalm 120:5 ; Song of Solomon 1:5 )
Engedi - The Song of Solomon (Song of Solomon 1:14) celebrates Engedi's vineyards and clusters of "camphire," i
Joab - David named Solomon king and told him to avenge Abner and Amasa by killing Joab. Although Joab fled to the tabernacle for sanctuary, Solomon ordered Benaiah to kill Joab (1 Kings 2:1 )
Benaiah - His unquestioned loyalty to David led Adonijah not to include him as he attempted to replace David as king instead of Solomon (1 Kings 1:8-26 ). He followed David's orders and helped annoint Solomon as king (1 Kings 1:32-47 ). He became Solomon's executioner (1 Kings 2:25-46 ) and army commander (1 Kings 4:4 )
Architecture - (Leviticus 14:34,45 ; 1 Kings 7:10 ) The peaceful reign and vast wealth of Solomon gave great impulse to architecture; for besides the temple and his other great works, he built fortresses and cities in various places, among which Baalath and Tadmor are in all probability represented by Baalbec and Palmyra. The enormous stones employed the Assyrian Persepolitan and Egyptian buildings find a parallel in the substructions of Baalbec and in the huge blocks which still remain at Jerusalem, relics of the buildings either of Solomon or of Herod
Solomon - Solomon...
1. In Chronicles the character of Solomon, as of the period as a whole, is idealized; e. The books of OT and Apocrypha ascribed to Solomon are of value only as giving later conceptions of his career. Later legends, Jewish and Mohammedan, are interesting, but historically valueless; the fact that they have in no way influenced the OT narrative is an evidence of its general reliability; only two dreams and no marvels are recorded of Solomon. Jeremiah 1:6 ) does not require the tradition that Solomon was only twelve at his accession (Josephus); the probabilities point to his being about twenty. Solomon was the son of David and Bathsheba ( 2 Samuel 12:24-25 ), presumably their eldest surviving child; his position in the lists of 2 Samuel 5:14 , 1 Chronicles 3:5 ; 1 Chronicles 14:4 is strange, perhaps due to emphasis. He was easily foiled by the prompt action of Nathan and Bathsheba; Solomon himself was evidently young, though soon able to assert himself. At any rate the king’s suspicion or jealousy was aroused, and his rival was removed; Canticles suggests that Solomon himself was believed to have been the lover of Abishag. The deposition of Abiathar, and the execution of Joab and Shimei, were natural consequences; and in the case of the two last, Solomon was only following the advice of his father ( 1 Kings 2:5 ; 1 Kings 2:8 ). The work of Solomon was to develop the ideas of his father. Nothing is known of the Hamath-zobah which Solomon subdued ( 2 Chronicles 8:3 ). Solomon was able to control, and no doubt profited by, the caravan trade between the Euphrates and the Nile. Syrian Musri is intended) came horses and chariots for Solomon’s own use, and for the purposes of a Syrian trade ( 1 Kings 10:28-29 ). ]'>[4] , Solomon also married his daughter, cf. A more substantial return was the security which Solomon was able to offer to Phœnician trade with the E Canticles - Solomon, therefore, in celebrating the circumstances of his marriage, was naturally led, by a train of correspondent reflections, to consider that spiritual connection which it was often employed to symbolize; and the idea must have been the more forcibly suggested to him, as he was at this period preparing to build a temple to God, and thereby to furnish a visible representation of the Hebrew church. The spiritual allegory thus worked up by Solomon to its highest perfection, was very consistent with the prophetic style, which was accustomed to predict evangelical blessings by such parabolical figures; and Solomon was more immediately furnished with a pattern for this representation by the author of the forty-fifth Psalm, who describes, in a compendious allegory, the same future connection between Christ and his church. Solomon, in the glow of an inspired fancy, and unsuspicious of misconception or deliberate perversion, describes God and his church, with their respective attributes and graces, under colourings familiar and agreeable to mankind, and exhibits their ardent affection under the authorized figures of earthly love. Solomon and his queen assume the pastoral simplicity of style, which is favourable to the communication of their sentiments
Thistle - " It is also rendered "thorn" in 2 Chronicles 33:11 ; Proverbs 26:9 ; Song of Solomon 2:2 ; "brambles" in Isaiah 34:13
Nathan - A distinguished prophet of Judæa, in the reigns of David and Solomon. Nathan was one of David's biographers, 1 Chronicles 29:29, and also Solomon's
Lebanon - In the latter, Mount Hermon reaches the height of 9300 feet Lebanon is often mentioned poetically in the Old Testament (Osee 14; Nahum 1), and is noted for its abundance of wood, especially the cedar (Zachariah 11; 1 Esdras 3), which was used by Solomon in building the Temple (3Kings 5)
Libanus - In the latter, Mount Hermon reaches the height of 9300 feet Lebanon is often mentioned poetically in the Old Testament (Osee 14; Nahum 1), and is noted for its abundance of wood, especially the cedar (Zachariah 11; 1 Esdras 3), which was used by Solomon in building the Temple (3Kings 5)
Mountain, White - In the latter, Mount Hermon reaches the height of 9300 feet Lebanon is often mentioned poetically in the Old Testament (Osee 14; Nahum 1), and is noted for its abundance of wood, especially the cedar (Zachariah 11; 1 Esdras 3), which was used by Solomon in building the Temple (3Kings 5)
Benjamin, Tribe of - At the death of Solomon, the 10 tribes separated from Roboam; but the tribe of Benjamin, with that of Juda, remained faithful (3Kings 12)
Rei - The name is given to one of the supporters of Solomon at the time of Adonijah’s attempt to secure the throne ( 1 Kings 1:8 )
Mandrakes - , "love-plants", occurs only in Genesis 30:14-16 and Song of Solomon 7:13
Hallelujah - If the Odes of Solomon may be ascribed to an early date (see article Hymns), we may quote the frequent use of ‘Hallelujah’ at the end of these hymns as a mark of the joyousness of early Christian worship
Kedar - Representing the Arabs in general, with flocks, and goat's or camel's hair tents, black as their own complexion (Song of Solomon 1:5; Psalms 120:5)
Jeremoth - Priest in days of David and Solomon (1 Chronicles 23:23 ; spelled Jerimoth in 1 Chronicles 24:30 )
Ships - Solomon constructed a navy at Ezion-geber by the assistance of Hiram's sailors (1 Kings 9:26-28 ; 2 Chronicles 8:18 )
Brier - " The wicked are often so called (2 Samuel 23:6; Song of Solomon 2:2)
Degrees, Song of - " Four of them were written by David, one (127) by Solomon, and the rest are anonymous
Censer - Solomon made some of gold
Achish - King of Gath to whom Shimei went to retrieve his servants but in so doing violated his agreement with Solomon and lost his life (1 Kings 2:36-46 )
Shoe - ...
Song of Solomon 7:1 (c) This indicates that the natural walk represented by natural feet is not beautiful nor acceptable to GOD unless affected and covered by those graces which He supplies for the work
Kedar - The bride in Song of Solomon 1:5 was black, or dark, like the black tents of Kedar
id'do - ) ...
A seer whose "visions" against Jeroboam incidentally contained some of the acts of Solomon
Paradise - (par' uh disse) Old Persian term which means literally “enclosure” or “wooded park,” used in the Old Testament to speak of King Artaxerxes' forest (Nehemiah 2:8 ), and twice of orchards (Ecclesiastes 2:5 ; Song of Song of Solomon 4:13 )
White Mountain - In the latter, Mount Hermon reaches the height of 9300 feet Lebanon is often mentioned poetically in the Old Testament (Osee 14; Nahum 1), and is noted for its abundance of wood, especially the cedar (Zachariah 11; 1 Esdras 3), which was used by Solomon in building the Temple (3Kings 5)
Tribe of Benjamin - At the death of Solomon, the 10 tribes separated from Roboam; but the tribe of Benjamin, with that of Juda, remained faithful (3Kings 12)
Megiddo - In the reign of Solomon, Megiddo was fortified, 1 Kings 9:15
Ecclesias'Tes - Koheleth is the name by which Solomon, probably the author, speaks of himself throughout the book
ba'Asha - Baasha died in the 24th year of his reign, and was buried in Tirzah, (Song of Solomon 6:4 ) which he had made his capital
Adoniram - Chief over the tribute in the days of Solomon
Valley - ...
...
'Emek, "deep;" "a long, low plain" (Job 39:10,21 ; Psalm 65:13 ; Song of Solomon 2:1 ), such as the plain of Esdraelon; the "valley of giants" (Joshua 15:8 ), usually translated "valley of Rephaim" (2 Samuel 5:18 ); of Elah (1 Samuel 17:2 ), of Berachah (2 Chronicles 20:26 ); the king's "dale" (Genesis 14:17 ); of Jehoshaphat (Joel 3:2,12 ), of Achor (Joshua 7:24 ; Isaiah 65:10 ), Succoth (Psalm 60:6 ), Ajalon (Joshua 10:12 ), Jezreel (Hosea 1:5 ). nahal, a wady or water-course (Genesis 26:19 ; Song of Solomon 6:11 )
Cedar - It was stately (Ezekiel 31:3-5 ), long-branched (Psalm 80:10 ; 92:12 ; Ezekiel 31:6-9 ), odoriferous (Song of Solomon 4:11 ; Hosea 14:6 ), durable, and therefore much used for boards, pillars, and ceilings (1 Kings 6:9,10 ; 7:2 ; Jeremiah 22:14 ), for masts (Ezekiel 27:5 ), and for carved images (Isaiah 44:14 ). Hiram supplied Solomon with cedar trees from Lebanon for various purposes connected with the construction of the temple and the king's palace (2 Samuel 5:11 ; 7:2,7 ; 1 Kings 5:6,8,10 ; 6:9,10,15,16,18,20 ; 7:2,3,7,11,12 ; 9:11 , etc
Shimei - David forgave him; but on his death-bed he gave Solomon special instructions regarding Shimei, of whose fidelity he seems to have been in doubt (1 Kings 2:8,9 ). He was put to death at the command of Solomon, because he had violated his word by leaving Jerusalem and going to Gath to recover two of his servants who had escaped (36-46)
Rehoboam - Upon the death of Solomon, Rehoboam his son became king of Israel (930 BC). He inherited the judgment that God had previously prepared for the throne of Solomon (1 Kings 11:11-13)
Shimei - Solomon followed David's advice and had Shimei slain (1 Kings 2:1 ). Court personality who refused to support Adonijah against Solomon (1 Kings 1:8 ). District supervisor in territory of Benjamin responsible for supplying Solomon's court one month each year (1 Kings 4:18 ); he could be identical with 4
Queen - Nathan enlisted Bathsheba rather than Solomon in his plan to have Solomon confirmed as king (1 Kings 1:11-40 )
Eye - ]'>[1] ], Song of Solomon 1:15 ; Song of Solomon 5:12 , and the name Dorcas in Acts 9:36 ; in Genesis 29:17 the reference seems to be to Leah’s weak eyes (so Driver, ad loc
Tents - ...
Song of Solomon 1:5 (c) The two-fold aspect of CHRIST is found in this passage. The curtains of Solomon are beautiful, attractive, gorgeous, and that is the way CHRIST looks to His children who are in love with Him
Gibeon - In the days of Solomon, before the temple was built, the tabernacle was pitched at Gibeon, and thither Solomon went and offered a thousand sacrifices, and there God appeared to him in a dream, and gave him the desire of his heart — wisdom and understanding
Kings, First And Second Book of - They do not give the commencement of the kingdom under Saul, nor the history of David, but begin with the reign of Solomon. The kingdom was at its height in the reign of Solomon, but because of his sin the kingdom was divided, and after many warnings from God through His prophets, to both Israel and Judah, both kingdoms were brought to a close, the people being carried away into captivity, and Jerusalem and the temple destroyed
Leopard - נמר Song of Solomon 4:8 ; Isaiah 11:6 ; Jeremiah 5:6 ; Jeremiah 13:23 ; Hosea 13:7 ; Habakkuk 1:8 ; Daniel 7:6 ; παρδαλις , Revelation 13:2 ; Sir_28:23 . Probably, these animals were numerous in Palestine; as we find places with a name intimating their having been the haunts of leopards: Nimrah, Numbers 32:3 ; Beth-Nimrah, Numbers 32:36 ; Joshua 13:27 ; and "waters of Nimrim," Isaiah 15:6 ; Jeremiah 48:34 ; and "mountains of leopards," Song of Solomon 4:8
Jerobo'am - He was raised by Solomon to the rank of superintendent over the taxes and labors exacted from the tribe of Ephraim. (1 Kings 11:28 ) he made the most of his position, and at last was perceived by Solomon to be aiming at the monarchy. (1 Kings 11:29-40 ) The attempts of Solomon to cut short Jeroboam's designs occasioned his flight into Egypt. There he remained until Solomon's death
Dove (Turtle) - ...
Song of Solomon 2:14 (a) Some believe that the church is referred to in this passage, and others believe that it is the Lord JESUS. (See also Song of Solomon 5:2; Song of Solomon 6:9)
High Place - At the beginning of the reign of Solomon the people sacrificed in high places because the temple was not yet built. This was failure, for we read that "Solomon loved the Lord, walking in the statutes of David his father: only he sacrificed and burnt incense in high places. The tabernacle was there (Gibeon), 1 Chronicles 16:39 ; 2 Chronicles 1:3 , so that it appeared to be the right place to go to, and it was where God appeared to Solomon in the night; yet it was 'the great high place. At the close of Solomon'slife he sinned greatly in building a high place for the gods of all his strange wives
Lebanon - Moses longed to enter the Holy Land, that he might "see that goodly mountain and Lebanon," Deuteronomy 3:24,25 ; and Solomon says of the Beloved, the type of Christ, "his countenance is as Lebanon," Song of Song of Solomon 5:15 . "The tower of Lebanon which looketh towards Damascus," Song of Song of Solomon 7:4 , is brought to recollection by the accounts given by modern travelers of the ruins of ancient temples, built of stones of vast size
Lebanon - ) Odorous flowers and aromatic shrubs and vines still yield" the smell of Lebanon" wafted by the mountain breeze (Song of Solomon 4:11). Hyaenas, panthers, jackals, wolves, and bears still haunt its glens and peaks (compare Song of Solomon 4:8; 2 Kings 14:9). It was under the Phoenicians in Solomon's time and subsequently (1 Kings 5:2-6; Ezra 3:7). Antilibanus is less peopled than Lebanon, and has more wild beasts: Song of Solomon 4:8, "look from the top of Amana, from . "The tower of Lebanon which looketh toward Damascus" is Hermon (Song of Solomon 7:4)
Ahijah - He met outside of Jerusalem in the way, and foretold to, Jeroboam, the transfer of ten tribes to him from Solomon, for Solomon's idolatries, by the symbolic action of rending the garment on him into twelve pieces, of which he gave ten to Jeroboam. Jeroboam fled from Solomon to Shishak, king of Egypt, where he stayed until Solomon died. Reference to his prophecy as one of the records of Solomon's reign is made in 2 Chronicles 9:29. Probably it was he through whom the Lord encouraged Solomon in building the temple (1 Kings 6:11)
Breast - ...
Song of Solomon 1:13 (b) Here is a picture of the perfect love, sweetness and satisfaction which exists between the Lord and His bride, the children of GOD. ...
Song of Solomon 4:5 (b) This will remind us of the sufficiency, devotion and activity of the love of the children of GOD for the Lord JESUS CHRIST. (See also Song of Solomon 7:7-8). ...
Song of Solomon 8:8 (b) This peculiar picture will remind us that the Christian may lose his love and affection for the bridegroom, the Saviour
Hair - Black hair was greatly admired by the Hebrews ( Song of Solomon 4:1 ; Song of Solomon 5:11 ; Song of Solomon 7:5 ). rules for priests, Ezekiel 44:20 ), but men seem to have worn the hair longer than is seemly among us ( Song of Solomon 5:2 ; Song of Solomon 5:11 ). Josephus says that young gallants among the horsemen of Solomon sprinkled gold dust on their long hair, ‘so that their heads sparkled with the reflexion of the sunbeams from the gold’ ( Ant
Bracelet - Bracelets were worn by men as well as by women (Song of Solomon 5:14 , RSV)
Moloch - Solomon (1 Kings 11:7 ) erected a high place for this idol on the Mount of Olives, and from that time till the days of Josiah his worship continued (2 Kings 23:10,13 )
Spikenard - nerd), a much-valued perfume (Song of Solomon 1:12 ; 4:13,14 )
Roe - ghazal), permitted for food (Deuteronomy 14:5 ; Compare Deuteronomy 12:15,22 ; 15:22 ; 1 Kings 4:23 ), noted for its swiftness and beauty and grace of form (2 Samuel 2:18 ; 1 Chronicles 12:8 ; Song of Solomon 2:9 ; 7:3 ; 8:14 )
Araunah - On the same place Solomon afterwards erected the temple (2 Samuel 24:16 ; 2 Chronicles 3:1 )
Rose - In Song of Solomon 2:1 and Isaiah 35:1 the Hebrew word Habatstseleth (found only in these passages), rendered "rose" (RSV marg
Negeb - David incorporated it into his kingdom, and Solomon established fortresses in the region
Basemath - A daughter of Solomon, who became the wife of Ahimaaz, one of the king’s officers ( 1 Kings 4:15 )
Anathoth - Abiathar the priest was banished thither by Solomon after his attempt to put Adonijah on the throne (1 Kings 2:26)
Yarn, Linen - — similarly to what it had been previously translated by others — reads "And the horses which Solomon had were brought out of Egypt; and the king's merchants received them 'in droves,' each 'drove' at a price
Joppa - The harbor, though always as now a dangerous one, became the port of Jerusalem in the days of Solomon, and has been ever since
Hivites - In the days of Solomon they were still in the land, and were made tributary to Israel
River - " (Psalms 46:4) God the Father is thus described, Jeremiah 2:13; Psalms 65:9; God the Son is thus described, Song of Song of Solomon 4:15; Zechariah 13:1; and God the Holy Ghost, John 7:38 and John 4:14
Engedi - The vineyards of En-gedi are spoken of in Song of Solomon 1:14
Paradise - There are three places in the Hebrew text of the Old Testament where this word is found, namely, Nehemiah 2:8 ; Song of Solomon 4:13 ; Ecclesiastes 2:5
Questions - Agreeably to this custom, the queen of Sheba came to prove Solomon with hard questions, 1 Kings 10:1
Ivory - The skilled work-men of Hiram, king of Tyre, fashioned the great ivory throne of Solomon, and overlaid it with pure gold
Spikenard - Song of Song of Solomon 1:12 4:13,14 , a highly perfumed ointment prepared from a plant in India growing in short spikes
Gihon - A fountain near Jerusalem on the west, besides which Solomon was anointed king, 1 Kings 1:33,38
Gold - The Ark of the Covenant was overlaid with pure gold; the mercy seat, the vessels and utensils belonging to the tabernacle, and those also of the house of the Lord, as well as the drinking-vessels of Solomon, were of gold
Flagon - The Hebrew word everywhere rendered in the English version flagon, 2 Samuel 6:19 1 Chronicles 16:3 Song of Song of Solomon 2:5 Hosea 3:1 , means rather a cake, especially of dried grapes or raisins, pressed into a particular form
Elath, Eloth - First mentioned in the wanderings of the Israelites; it was afterwards included in the dominion of Solomon, near to which, at Ezion-geber, he had a navy of ships
Dove - The dove's rapidity of flight is alluded to in (Psalm 55:6 ) the beauty of its plumage in (Psalm 68:13 ) its dwelling int he rocks and valleys in (Jeremiah 48:28 ) and Ezekiel 7:16 Its mournful voice in ( Isaiah 38:14 ; 59:11 ; Nahum 2:7 ) its harmlessness in (Matthew 10:16 ) its simplicity in (Hosea 7:11 ) and its amativeness in (Song of Solomon 1:15 ; 2:14 ) Doves are kept in a domesticated state in many parts of the East
Sheba, Queen of - 1 Kings 10:1-13 narrates a visit of the contemporary queen of Sheba to king Solomon. At the present day there is a strong tendency to regard this as a legendary addition made by the later editor for the purpose of emphasizing Solomon’s wealth and wisdom. Solomon marries the queen, and the Abyssinians, to whom the story passed from the Arabs, call her Makeda, and trace from this marriage the lineage of all their kings. ), without naming Sheba, gives an account of the visit to Solomon of a woman who was queen of Egypt and Ethiopia
Tadmor or Tamar - A palm-tree, 1 Kings 9:18 , a city founded by Solomon in the desert of Syria, on the borders of Arabia Dessert, towards the Euphrates, 2 Chronicles 8:4 . It was remote from human habitations, on an oasis in the midst of a dreary wilderness; and it is probable that Solomon built it to facilitate his commerce with the East, as it afforded a supply of water, a thing of the utmost importance in an Arabian desert. " Most of the edifices the ruins of which are above described, date from the first three centuries of the Christian era; while shapeless mounds of rubbish, covered with soil and herbage, contain the only memorials of the Tadmor of Solomon
Almug - A kind of tree or wood, which Hiram brought from Ophir for the use of Solomon in making pillars for the temple and his own house, and also musical instruments, 1 Kings 10:11 2 Chronicles 2:8
Tirzah - The doubtful reference in Song of Solomon 6:4 compares the Shulammite to Tirzah in beauty
Queen - In Song of Solomon 6:8,9 , the king's wives are styled "queens" (Heb
Merchant - After the Hebrews became settled in Palestine they began to engage in commercial pursuits, which gradually expanded (49:13; Deuteronomy 33:18 ; Judges 5:17 ), till in the time of Solomon they are found in the chief marts of the world (1 Kings 9:26 ; 10:11,26,28 ; 22:48 ; 2 Chronicles 1:16 ; 9:10,21 ). After Solomon's time their trade with foreign nations began to decline
Nathanael - " Philip, like Andrew finding his own brother Simon (John 1:41), and the woman of Samaria (John 4:28-29) inviting her fellow townsmen, having been found himself by Jesus, "findeth" his friend Nathanael, and saith, "we have found (he should have said, we have been found by: Isaiah 65:1; Philippians 3:12 ff, Song of Solomon 1:4) Him of whom the prophets did write, Jesus of Nazareth the son of Joseph" (he should have said the Son of God)
Aloes - 'ahalim), a fragrant wood (Numbers 24:6 ; Psalm 45:8 ; Proverbs 7:17 ; Song of Solomon 4:14 ), the Aquilaria agallochum of botanists, or, as some suppose, the costly gum or perfume extracted from the wood
Raven - 'orebh, from a root meaning "to be black" (Compare Song of Solomon 5:11 ); first mentioned as "sent forth" by Noah from the ark (Genesis 8:7 )
Millo - Solomon raised his levy to repair Millo (1 Kings 9:15; 1 Kings 9:24; 1 Kings 11:27)
Consecration - Travelers have said that they have discovered gardens of Solomon, which were of old enclosed as private places wherein the king walked in solitude; and they have also found wells of a most deliciously cold water, dexterously covered, so that no person unacquainted with the stone in the wall, which either revolved or slid away with a touch, could have found the entrance to the spring
Ramoth-Gilead - Solomon made Ramoth-gilead a district capital (1 Kings 4:13 )
Of - ‘of’), as Mark 11:8 ‘Others cut down branches of the trees,’ John 15:15 ‘All things that I have heard of my Father,’ John 16:13 ‘He shall not speak of himself’; (2) concerning , as Acts 5:24 ‘They doubted of them, whereunto this would grow,’ Matthew 18:13 ‘He rejoiceth more of that sheep than of the ninety and nine,’ John 2:17 ‘The zeal of thine house’; (3) with , Song of Solomon 2:5 ‘I am sick of love
Socoh, Soco, Shocho - A town belonging to Ben-hesed (1 Kings 4:10 NRSV), one of the twelve officials who provided food for Solomon and his household
Navel - Ezekiel 16:4 graphically portrays Jerusalem's hopeless state before God's adoption in the image of a child whose navel string (umbilical cord) is not cut (See Job 40:16 ; Proverbs 3:8 ; Song of Song of Solomon 7:2 )
Perfume - ...
Song of Solomon 3:6 (c) This no doubt refers to the loveliness of the Lord JESUS CHRIST who is admired by His people, and whose Name is as ointment poured forth
Aloe - An image for all that is lovely, fragrant, flourishing, and incorruptible (Numbers 24:6; Song of Solomon 4:14)
Chariot - Except in Song of Solomon 3:9 , where the word is appiryon and signifies 'sedan, portable couch,' the chariots were vehicles with two wheels, used either for travelling or for war: they are often seen portrayed on Egyptian and Assyrian monuments
Footsteps - ...
Song of Solomon 1:8 (c) This is probably a call for Christians to walk together in happy fellowship
Flagon - "dried by heat") "a cake of pressed dried grapes"; so 1 Chronicles 16:3; Song of Solomon 2:5; Hosea 3:1 margin; such were offered to idols (Jeremiah 7:18)
Perizzites - In the days of Solomon those that were still in the land were made bondservants
Calamus - The Latin for cane, Hebrew Kaneh , Mentioned ( Exodus 30:23 ) as one of the ingredients in the holy anointing oil, one of the sweet scents (Song of Solomon 4:14 ), and among the articles sold in the markets of Tyre (Ezekiel 27:19 )
Perizzite - Reduced to bond service by Solomon (1 Kings 9:20; 2 Chronicles 7:7)
Hivites - They paid tribute to Solomon
Coney - It is called by Solomon "wise," and "a feeble folk;" is quiet and gregarious in habit, and so timid that it starts at the shadow of a passing bird
Peacock - If the fleet of Solomon visited India, they might easily procure this bird, whether from India itself, or from Persia; and certainly the bird by its beauty was likely to attract attention, and to be brought among other rarities of natural history by Solomon's servants, who would be instructed to collect every curiosity in the countries they visited
Barzillai - David, in his final charge to Solomon, enjoined upon him to show kindness to Barzillai's family, and to make them members of the royal household, 1 Kings 2:7 ...
3
Turtle-Dove - It is a bird of passage, Jeremiah 8:7 , leaving Palestine for a short trip to the south, and returning early in spring, Song of Song of Solomon 2:12
Cave - Petra, in Idumea, was a city of caves, Numbers 24:21 Song of Song of Solomon 2:14 Jeremiah 49:16 Obadiah 1:3
Thigh - Warriors wore their swords upon the left thigh, unless left-handed in readiness for use, Judges 3:15-21 Psalm 45:3 Song of Song of Solomon 3:8 ; so too they may have borne their names and titles, not only on their shields, but on their swords, or on the rove or mailed coat covering the thigh, Revelation 19:16
Dew - Maundrell tells us that the tents of his company, when pitched on Tabor and Hermon, "were as wet with dew as if it had rained on them all night," Judges 6:38 Song of Song of Solomon 5:2
Gold - (1 Kings 6:22 ) 10 passim ; ( Esther 1:6 ; Song of Solomon 3:9,10 ; Jeremiah 10:9 ) The chief countries mentioned as producing gold are Arabia, Sheba and Ophir
David, City of - Solomon lived there until he built his own palace and the Temple outside the traditional city of David (1 Kings 3:1 ). Solomon did repair the defense system of the old city (1 Kings 11:27 )
Joab - When David was dying Joab espoused the cause of Adonijah in preference to that of Solomon. He was afterwards slain by Benaiah, by the command of Solomon, in accordance with his father's injunction (2 Samuel 3:29 ; 20:5-13 ), at the altar to which he had fled for refuge
Mahanaim - One of Solomon's commissariat officers was at Mahanaim (1 Kings 4:14. Solomon's bride, the church, is compared to "the company of two armies" (margin, "Mahanaim," Song of Solomon 6:13). Though "one" (Song of Solomon 6:9) she is nevertheless "two," the family of Jesus Christ in heaven and that on earth, that militant and that triumphant
Degrees, Songs of - Fifteen: Psalm 120-134: four by David, one by Solomon, ten anonymous. Solomon wrote Psalm 127, round which as a center a third poet, on the return from Babylon, grouped, with David's four psalms, ten others, seven on one side and seven on the other
Spikenard - (Song of Song of Solomon 1:12) —And the woman who anointed the head of Jesus before his sufferings, is said to have done it with the ointment of spikenard. What so humble, low, despised, and overlooked as Jesus, though the plant of renown? (Ezekiel 34:29) "There was no beauty that we should desire him"—and yet what fragrancy, like the sweet incense of his blood and righteousness, to perfume the persons and offerings of his people? So his church; what more contemptible in the eyes of the great ones of the earth?—or his gospel, what more despised and set at nought? Yet how lovely, and how fragrant, in the view of Jesus! Hear what Jesus saith,"How fair is thy love, my sister, my spouse; how much better is thy love than wine, and the smell of thine ointments than all spices!" (Song of Song of Solomon 4:10) Oh, for grace to echo back to such matchless grace—While the king sitteth at his table—while his grace and the influences of his Holy Spirit, are calling forth into lively exercise those blessed principles he himself hath planted in my heart—"my spikenard sendeth forth the smell thereof
Pharaoh - The Pharaoh whose daughter was married to Solomon (about B. The Pharaoh who received Hadad when he fled from Solomon, and gave him his sister-in-law to wife (about A
Engedi - Solomon speaks of the "vineyards of Engedi," Song of Solomon 1:14
Kings - The two books of Kings deal especially with the theocratic promise of 2 Samuel 7:12 : see 1 Kings 14:7-11; 1 Kings 15:29; 1 Kings 16:1-7; and treat the history from the kingly side, and show the evil of schism and the worship of idols set up for political reasons, as by Solomon, 1 Kings 11:1-43, and Jeroboam, 1 Kings 12:26. The reign of Solomon is described, with a minute account of the glorious temple and the royal houses
Horse - David first established a force of cavalry and chariots, (2 Samuel 8:4 ) but the great supply of horses was subsequently effected by Solomon through his connection with Egypt. (1 Kings 4:26 ) Solomon also established a very active trade in horses, which were brought by dealers out of Egypt and resold, at a profit, to the Hittites
Apparition - ]'>[1] only: Wisdom of Solomon 17:3 (Gr. 131) refers to Job 4:15 ff; Job 20:8, and especially to Wisdom of Solomon 17:3 (4) and Wisdom of Solomon 17:14 (Wisdom of Solomon 17:15) for earlier evidence of a popular belief in apparitions among the Hebrew people
King, Kings - Somewhat in this sense, Moses is said to have been "king in Jeshurun," or Israel, Deuteronomy 33:5 ; he was the chief, the leader, the guide of his people, though not king in the same sense as David or Solomon. ...
The Israelites had no kings till Saul; having been governed, first by elders, as in Egypt; then by rulers of God's appointment, as Moses and Joshua; then by judges, as Othniel, Ehud, Gideon, Samuel; and lastly by kings, as Saul, David, Solomon. Of the two kingdoms, Judah and Israel, the latter most rapidly and fully threw off its allegiance, 2 Chronicles 13:4-12 ; therefore it was the first to perish, having continued two hundred and fiftyfour years from the death of Solomon, B. ...
The two BOOKS OF KINGS contain a history of the kings of Judah and Israel intermingled, commencing with Solomon and ending with Zedekiah; unlike the books of Chronicles, which give an account only of the kings of Judah
World - -The temporal conception of the world as a saeculum, a cycle of history, complete within itself yet related to a before and an after, is distinctively expressed by αἰών, or in contrast with the ‘world to come,’ as actually it always is, by ὁ αἰὼν οὗτος (1 Corinthians 1:20; 1 Corinthians 2:6-8; Song of Solomon 7:17-23, 2 Corinthians 4:4, Ephesians 1:21; variants, ὁ ἐνεστὼς αἰών, Galatians 1:4; ὁ αἰὼν τοῦ κόσμου τούτου, Ephesians 2:2; ὁ νῦν αἰών, 1 Timothy 6:17, 2 Timothy 4:10, Titus 2:12; ὁ νῦν καιρός, Romans 3:26; Romans 8:18). ἡ σύστασις κόσμου is formed by the word of God out of formless matter (Wisdom of Solomon 1:14; Wisdom of Solomon 7:17; Wisdom of Solomon 11:7) and the ever-living Spirit of God is active in all things (Wisdom of Solomon 12:1); Divine wisdom and beauty pervade the world in all its diverse parts, establishing all things by number, measure, and weight (Wisdom of Solomon 7:24, Wisdom of Solomon 8:1, Wisdom of Solomon 11:20), at the same time giving to human intelligence its power to apprehend the Divine ordering of all things (Wisdom of Solomon 7:17-23, Wisdom of Solomon 8:8), a striking anticipation of Romans 1:20. Thus Adam is described as πρωτόπλαστος πατὴρ κόσμου Wisdom of Solomon 10:1); a multitude of wise men is the salvation of the world (Wisdom of Solomon 6:24), as the family of Noah was its hope (Wisdom of Solomon 14:6)
World - Luke 2:1); but in the apostolic writings it has the larger significance, the world-wide abode of man (Acts 11:28; Acts 17:6; Acts 19:27 by passionate exaggeration, Acts 24:5, Romans 10:18, Song of Solomon 7:17-23,; Revelation 16:14), or, by a natural transition, mankind (Acts 17:31, Revelation 12:9). ἡ σύστασις κόσμου is formed by the word of God out of formless matter (Wisdom of Solomon 1:14; Wisdom of Solomon 7:17; Wisdom of Solomon 11:7) and the ever-living Spirit of God is active in all things (Wisdom of Solomon 12:1); Divine wisdom and beauty pervade the world in all its diverse parts, establishing all things by number, measure, and weight (Wisdom of Solomon 7:24, Wisdom of Solomon 8:1, Wisdom of Solomon 11:20), at the same time giving to human intelligence its power to apprehend the Divine ordering of all things (Wisdom of Solomon 7:17-23, Wisdom of Solomon 8:8), a striking anticipation of Romans 1:20. Thus Adam is described as πρωτόπλαστος πατὴρ κόσμου Wisdom of Solomon 10:1); a multitude of wise men is the salvation of the world (Wisdom of Solomon 6:24), as the family of Noah was its hope (Wisdom of Solomon 14:6). Acts 17:24, Romans 1:20, Ephesians 1:4, Song of Solomon 10:172)
Proverbs, the Book of - ) gives the order, Ruth, Psalms, Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, Lamentations, Daniel, Esther, Ezra (including Nehemiah), Chronicles. The same heading, "the proverbs of Solomon the son of David king of Israel" (Proverbs 1:1; Proverbs 10:1; Proverbs 25:1), marks the three divisions. Solomon spoke 3,000 proverbs (1 Kings 4:32) and "set in order" the present selection (Proverbs 1-24; Ecclesiastes 12:9). "Hezekiah" directed his pious "men" (perhaps Isaiah, Micah, Shebna, and Joah: 2 Kings 18:18) to supplement the collection with a series of proverbs of Solomon, not included in the collection by the royal author (Proverbs 25:1; compare Sirach 47:14; Sirach 47:17). The Holy Spirit did not appoint all Solomon's proverbs indiscriminately to be put into the canon for all ages, but a selection suited for the ends of revelation. The Jews assign the composition of the Song of Solomon to Solomon's youth, Proverbs to his manhood, and Ecclesiastes to his old age. ...
The repetition of many proverbs in a similar form in the middle division is due, not to their emanating from different authors, but to their having been selected out of different collections oral or written, of the same author Solomon, in which the same proverb appeared in a different connection; just as Jesus' sayings repeated in different connections (Proverbs 14:12; Proverbs 16:25; Proverbs 21:2; Proverbs 21:9; Proverbs 21:19; Proverbs 10:1; Proverbs 15:20; Proverbs 10:2; Proverbs 11:4; Proverbs 10:15; Proverbs 18:11; Proverbs 15:33; Proverbs 18:12; Proverbs 11:21; Proverbs 16:5; Proverbs 14:31; Proverbs 17:5; Proverbs 19:12; Proverbs 20:2). " When the nation's experiences had become matured Solomon in a time of national peace embodied them in gnomic proverbs. accords with his selection of these proverbs of Solomon. The similarity is probably due to Solomon's having become imbued with the spirit of the book of Job, through study of it. ...
Keil truly says, after all these distinctions of parts, "one historical background is shown throughout, the contents corresponding only to the relations, culture, and experiences of life acquired by the political development of Israel under Solomon
Ensign - In Song of Solomon 2:4 it is rendered "banner
Mahanaim - Mahanaim was the seat of one of Solomon's commissariat officers, 1 Kings 4:14, and it is alluded to in his Song of Solomon 6:13
Spikenard - in ( Song of Solomon 1:12 ; 4:13,14 ) The ointment with which our Lord was anointed as he sat at meat in Simon's house at Bethany consisted of this precious substance, the costliness of which may be inferred from the indignant surprise manifested by some of the witnesses of the transaction
Veil - In ancient times the veil was adopted only in exceptional cases, either as an article of ornamental dress, (Song of Solomon 4:1,3 ; 6:7 ) or by betrothed maidens in the presence of their future husbands, especially at the time of the wedding, (Genesis 24:65 ) or lastly, by women of loose character for purposes of concealment
Laish (2) - shall leap from Bashan"; also Song of Solomon 4:8)
Jerimoth - Temple musician under David and Solomon (1 Chronicles 25:4 ; compare 1 Chronicles 25:22 )
Dream - The most remarkable instances of this are recorded in the history of Jacob (Genesis 28:12 ; 31:10 ), Laban (31:24), Joseph (37:9-11), Gideon (Judges 7 ), and Solomon (1 Kings 3:5 )
Deputy - , chief of the commissariat appointed by Solomon (1 Kings 4:5 , etc
Doors - They were fastened by a lock (Judges 3:23,25 ; Song of Solomon 5:5 ) or by a bar (Judges 16:3 ; Job 38:10 )
Shishak i - He pillaged the treasures of the temple and of the royal palace, and carried away the shields of gold which Solomon had made (1 Kings 11:40 ; 14:25 ; 2 Chronicles 12:2 )
Dor - Dor served as a district headquarters under Solomon, governed by Solomon's son-in-law Ben-abinadab (1 Kings 4:11 )
Elath - It was significant enough to serve as a point of reference to identify Ezion-geber, where King Solomon made his naval vessels (1 Kings 9:26 ; compare 2 Chronicles 8:17-18 )
Rehoboam - ” One of Solomon's sons and his successor to the throne of the united monarchy (1 Kings 11:43 ). He continued the pagan ways which Solomon had allowed (1 Kings 14:21-24 ) and fought against Jeroboam and Shishak of Egypt
Sea, Molten - In the place of the laver of the tabernacle Solomon caused a laver to be cast for a similar purpose, which from its size was called a sea
Drink, Strong - Strong drink was extracted from other fruit also, as the pomegranate (Song of Solomon 8:2)
Basemath - Daughter of Solomon who married Ahimaaz, district supervisor providing supplies for the royal court from Naphtali (1 Kings 4:15 )
Ethan - In the first of these passages he is mentioned along with other contemporaries (?) of Solomon, who were all surpassed in wisdom by the Jewish monarch
Forest - ]'>[1] ‘orchards,’ Song of Solomon 4:13 , Ecclesiastes 2:5 , RV Lily - LILY ( shûshan , 1 Kings 7:10 ; shôshannah , 2 Chronicles 4:5 , Song of Solomon 2:1 , Hosea 14:5 )
Hur - Ben-hur, or 'son of Hur,' commissariat officer of Solomon in mount Ephraim
World, Ages of - The fourth, from the going out of Egypt to the foundation of the temple by Solomon in 2992, four hundred and seventy-nine years. The fifth, from Solomon's foundation of the temple to the Babylonish captivity in 3416, four hundred and twenty-one years
Ahitub - to 1 Chronicles 9:11 , Nehemiah 11:11 the grandfather, of Zadok the priest who was contemporary with David and Solomon
Bethshan, Bethshean - In the time of Solomon Beth-shean was under the charge of one of his commissariat officers
Bud - ...
Ezekiel 16:7 (a) Here is a type of the freshness and loveliness with which GOD endowed the nation of Israel under the reign of David and Solomon
Shushan - Jesus calls his church by this name, Song of Song of Solomon 2:2
Cisterns - Solomon also brought water from long distances to be stored in cisterns, of which there are many under the Temple area
Cinnamon - It was known to the Hebrews (Exodus 30:23, Proverbs 7:17, Song of Solomon 4:14); and Hero dotus (iii
Exceed - King Solomon exceeded all the kings of the earth for riches and for wisdom
Camphire - copher), mentioned in Song of Solomon 1:14 (RSV, "henna-flowers"); 4:13 (RSV, "henna"), is the al-henna of the Arabs, a native of Egypt, producing clusters of small white and yellow odoriferous flowers, whence is made the Oleum Cyprineum
Province - Provinces existed under Solomon in his wide empire (Ecclesiastes 2:8; Ecclesiastes 5:8)
Mount Amana - It was from hence Christ called his Spouse the church--"Come with me from Lebanon, (my spouse) with me from Lebanon: look from the top of Amana, from the top of Shenir and Hermon, from the lions' den, from the mountains of the leopards;" (Song of Song of Solomon 4:8
Clean - Solomon demands, (Proverbs 20:9) "Who can say, I have made my heart clean, I am pure from my sin?" None among the sons of Adam can lay claim to this cleanness, much less, that any have made themselves so
Fountain - " (Song of Song of Solomon 4:15)...
Genoa, Italy, City of - Its first bishop was Saint Solomon, martyred, 269; first archbishop, Saint Dyrus, 1133
Ecclesiastes - a canonical book of the Old Testament, of which Solomon was the author, as appears from the first sentence. But this may be accounted for by supposing that it was Solomon's method to propose the objections of infidels and sensualists, and then to reply to them
Beth-Horon - Jerom associates it with Rama, in the remark that they were in his time, together with other noble cities built by Solomon, only poor villages
Ahijah - He is thought to be the person who spoke twice to Solomon from God, once while he was building the temple, 1 Kings 6:11 , at which time he promised him the divine protection; and again, 1 Kings 11:11 , after him falling into his irregularities, with great threatenings and reproaches
Birthright - Thus Isaac was preferred to Ishmael, Jacob to Esau, Joseph to Reuben, David to his elder brethren, Solomon to Adonijah
Sheba - The queen of Sheba visited Solomon, coming "to Jerusalem with a very great train, with camels that bear spices, and very much gold, and precious stones
Throne - That of Solomon was of ivory, overlaid with gold; having six broad steps, every one guarded by a golden lion at each end, 1 Kings 10:18-20
Joab - But as a man he was imperious, revengeful, and unscrupulous: witness his treacherous assassination of Abner, and of his cousin Amasa, 2 Samuel 3:27 20:9-10 ; his bearing towards David, 2 Samuel 3:39 19:5 , and connivance with him in the matter of Uriah; his slaying Absalom, and conspiring with Adonijah against the divinely appointed heir to the throne; for all which he was at length put to death by order of Solomon, 1 Kings 2:1-46
Ensign - (nes ; in the Authorized Version generally "ensign," sometimes "standard;" degel , "standard," with the exception of ( Song of Solomon 2:4 ) "banner;" oth , "ensign")
Hamath - In the time of David its leaders were friendly with Israel (2 Samuel 8:9-10), and in the time of Solomon it was controlled by Israel (2 Chronicles 8:3-4). After Solomon’s death it regained its independence, but it again came briefly under Israelite control during the reign of Jeroboam II (2 Kings 14:25)
Hair - ...
Song of Solomon 4:1 (a) The mixture of white hair with dark hair as age progresses is compared to the white goats and dark goats mingled together on the hillside as seen from afar. ...
Song of Solomon 5:11 (b) The black hair of our wonderful Lord JESUS was an indication of his youthful character, His power, vigor, vision and activity as a rich young king. ...
Song of Solomon 7:5 (b) The purple hair of our Lord JESUS is a picture of His royal character, being the Son of GOD, in the royal family, and with all the royal prerogatives of the living GOD
Jehoshaphat - He turned to the Lord, proclaimed a fast, and prayed for help in the house of the Lord, where the Lord had set His name, pleading that He was their God, who had given the land to the seed of Abraham His friend, pleading also His response to the prayer of Solomon. Son of Ahilud, and recorder to David and Solomon. Son of Paruah, and a commissariat officer of Solomon
Israel, Kingdom of - Soon after the death of Solomon, Ahijah's prophecy (1 Kings 11:31-35 ) was fulfilled, and the kingdom was rent in twain. Rehoboam, the son and successor of Solomon, was scarcely seated on his throne when the old jealousies between Judah and the other tribes broke out anew, and Jeroboam was sent for from Egypt by the malcontents (12:2,3). Rehoboam fled to Jerusalem (1 Kings 12:1-18 ; 2 Chronicles 10 ), and Jeroboam was proclaimed king over all Israel at Shechem, Judah and Benjamin remaining faithful to Solomon's son. In the time of Solomon the area of Palestine, excluding the Phoenician territories on the shore of the Mediterranean, did not much exceed 13,000 square miles
Temple, Solomon's - In the beginning of his reign Solomon set about giving effect to the desire that had been so earnestly cherished by his father, and prepared additional materials for the building. Solomon also provided for a sufficient water supply for the temple by hewing in the rocky hill vast cisterns, into which water was conveyed by channels from the "pools" near Bethlehem. In all these preparatory undertakings a space of about three years was occupied; and now the process of the erection of the great building began, under the direction of skilled Phoenician builders and workmen, in the fourth year of Solomon's reign, 480 years after the Exodus (1 Kings 6 ; 2 Chronicles 3 ). Then Solomon ascended a platform which had been erected for him, in the sight of all the people, and lifting up his hands to heaven poured out his heart to God in prayer ( 1 Kings 8 ; 2 Chronicles 67,7 ). On the eighth day of the feast of tabernacles, Solomon dismissed the vast assemblage of the people, who returned to their homes filled with joy and gladness, "Had Solomon done no other service beyond the building of the temple, he would still have influenced the religious life of his people down to the latest days. This temple erected by Solomon was many times pillaged during the course of its history, (1) 1 Kings 14:25,26 ; (2) 2 Kings 14:14 ; (3) 2 Kings 16:8,17,18 ; 2Kings 2 Kings 18:15,16
Wisdom of Solomon - -This apocryphal book is not quoted by name in the NT, unless the citation from ‘the wisdom of God’ in Luke 11:49 can be regarded as a paraphrase of Wisdom of Solomon 2:19-20, but it is used in the Epistle to the Romans where 9:21 is a reproduction of Wisdom of Solomon 15:7, while in the Epistle to the Hebrews 1:3 is a reference to Wisdom of Solomon 7:26 (for, indeed, the word ἀπαύγασμα occurs nowhere else in the NT); further, in Matthew 27:43 a reference to Wisdom of Solomon 2:18 appears to be conflated with one to Psalms 22:8, which perhaps has displaced the former (‘If the just man be the son of God, he will help him and deliver him from his enemies’), though enough remains to permit of the identification. The quotation in 1 Corinthians 15:45 bears some relation to Wisdom of Solomon 15:11 (where the ψυχὴ ἐνεργοῦσα and πνεῦμα ζωτικόν are distinguished like the ψυχὴ ζῶσα and πνεῦμα ζωοποιοῦν in the quotation), but is not likely to be taken directly from it. 16); as ‘Solomon’ by Clement of Alexandria (Strom. ’ In the Muratorian Canon it is said to have been written by Solomon’s friends in his honour. To the former Solomon is ‘one of Moses’ disciples,’ and the author of the Proverbs; he shows no acquaintance with the remarkable comments of Wisdom on the manna. 5) transcribes what is said of Solomon’s works in Kings, and adds that he had left a collection of charms and spells whereby demons could he controlled; this, as we learn from Bab. ...
The work is otherwise used by the Oral Tradition, yet perhaps not in such a way as to permit of any inference with regard to its language, In Exodus Rabba, 25, the manna is described as ‘having in it all sorts of tastes, so that each Israelite was tasting what he wished’; this represents Wisdom of Solomon 16:20, πρὸς πᾶσαν ἡδονὴν ἱσχύοντα καὶ πρὸς πᾶσαν ἁρμόνιον γεῦσιν, but the correspondence is not quite literal. In Mechilta, 13, on Exodus 12:30 (= Pesikta, 7) it is stated that, when the first-born of any Egyptian died, the father made an image of him, which he set up in his house; this comes from Wisdom of Solomon 14:15, where it is suggested that idolatry thus arose, the intention being also to account for the apparent identification of the gods of Egypt with their first born in Exodus 12:12. So late a date, however, seems to be excluded by the fact that it appears to have been used by the LXX translator of Isaiah; for the rendering of Isaiah 3:10, ‘say of the righteous that it is well,’ by δήσωμεν τὸν δίκαιον ὅτι δύσχρηστος ἡμῖν ἐστιν, ‘let us bind the righteous because he is disagreeable to us,’ is most easily explained as a reminiscence of Wisdom of Solomon 2:12, ἐνεδρεύσωμεν τὸν δίκαιον ὅτι δύσχρηστος ἡμῖν ἐστιν, since on the one hand the adjective belongs to the choice vocabulary of the latter rather than to that of the Greek Isaiah, and on the other the substitution of the 1st for the 2nd person seems to require this explanation; for if àîøå had been merely misread -, the 2nd person would have been retained. The same account is probably to be given of LXX Isaiah 44:20 compared with Wisdom of Solomon 15:10, while in 11:22 of the latter the substitution of ‘a drop of morning dew descending to the earth’ for ‘a drop of a bucket’ (Isaiah 40:15) makes it improbable that the Greek of Wisdom is borrowing from that of Isaiah. Except for the statement of the author that he had been commanded by God to build the Temple in imitation of the Tabernacle (9:8), wherein he clearly claims to be Solomon, its historical information scarcely goes beyond Numbers, the last event narrated being the plague described in 1618064392_91 (18:23). In Wisdom of Solomon 16:26 the lesson is worded ‘that the fruits which grow do not feed the man, but Thy word maintains them that trust in Thee,’ and it is inferred from the fact that the nutritive power of the manna was dependent on the observation of certain precepts: collected in the morning, it would resist the heat of the oven; but the heat of the sun would melt it, etc. ...
Much the same is to be said of the description of the making of wooden images: Isaiah 44:13-19; Isaiah 40:20, compared with Wisdom of Solomon 13:11-16. The fact that the idol so fashioned has then to be secured by a nail appears in its right place in Wisdom of Solomon 13:15, whereas in Isaiah 41:7 it is remembered, but is out of its right place; further, Isaiah 41:6-7 gives the appearance of being a confused reminiscence of Wisdom of Solomon 15:9, where the potter is shown to be the most contemptible of all idol-makers, for, instead of reflecting that he is clay himself, he tries to rival the goldsmith and the worker in bronze. ...
Similarly, whereas, according to the author of the Book of Kings, Solomon was told in a dream to make a wish and chose wisdom, the account of the matter in this book is much less fantastic; he was, he says, a lad of great talent, and pursued the study with all his might, employing among other expedients prayer. 530) grammar, geometry, and music, those claimed for Solomon (7:17-20) are ‘to know how the world was made and the operation of the elements, the beginning, ending, and midst of the tunes (i. ...
Besides this, it seems surprising that an author of such marked ability should employ a pseudonym, and in particular adopt the mask of Solomon, in whose mouth the fierce condemnation of idolatry is peculiarly inappropriate, whilst the attack on unlawful unions and their fruit is scarcely tolerable. On the other hand, it is undoubtedly true that the tone and style of many sections are suggestive of a date many centuries later than Solomon; side by
Sol'Omon - --Solomon was the child of David's old age, the last born of all his sons. ( 1 Chronicles 3:5 ) The yearnings of the "man of war" led him to give to the new-horn infant the name of Solomon (Shelomoth, the peaceful one ). (2 Samuel 14:13 ; 15:1-6 ) The death of Absalom when Solomon was about ten years old left the place vacant, and David pledged his word in secret to Bath-sheba that he, and no other, should be the heir. When David was old and feeble, Adonijah, Solomon's older brother attempted to gain possession of the throne; but he was defeated, and Solomon went down to Gihon and was proclaimed and anointed king. A few months more and Solomon found himself, by his father's death, the sole occupant of the throne. --Of Solomon's personal appearance we have no direct description, as we have of the earlier kings. They tell of one who was, in the eyes of the men of his own time, "fairer than the children of men," the face "bright, and ruddy" as his father's, (Song of Solomon 5:10 ; 1 Samuel 17:42 ) bushy locks, dark as the raven's wing, yet not without a golden glow, the eyes soft as "the eyes of cloves," the "countenance as Lebanon excellent as the cedars," "the chiefest among ten thousand, the altogether lovely. " (Song of Solomon 5:13-18 ) Add to this all gifts of a noble, far-reaching intellect large and ready sympathies, a playful and genial humor, the lips "full of grace," and the soul "anointed" as "with the oil of gladness," (Psalm 45:1 ) . --All the data for a continuous history that we have of Solomon's reign are-- (a) The duration of the reign, forty sears, B. " As soon as he heard of Solomon's accession he sent ambassadors to salute him. (2 Chronicles 2:16 ) In return for these exports, the Phoenicians were only too glad to receive the corn and oil of Solomon's territory. The absence of any reference to Babylon and Assyria, and the fact that the Euphrates was recognized as the boundary of Solomon's kingdom, (2 Chronicles 9:26 ) suggests the inference that the Mesopotamian monarchies were at this time comparatively feeble. (2 Chronicles 9:28 )
The survey of the influence exercised by Solomon on surrounding nations would be incomplete if we were to pass over that which was more directly personal the fame of his glory and his wisdom. --
The first prominent scene in Solomon's reign is one which presents his character in its noblest aspect.
A description of the temple erected by Solomon is given elsewhere. The widespread belief of the East in the magic arts of Solomon is not, it is believed, without its foundation of truth
Ophir - A seaport or region from which the Hebrews in the time of Solomon obtained gold. It is safe to conclude that Ophir was in southern Arabia, upon the border of the Indian Ocean; for even if all the things brought over in Solomon's ships are not now found in Arabia, but are found in India, yet there is evidence that they once were known in Arabia
Ezion-Geber - Here Solomon built ships, "Tarshish ships," like those trading from Tyre to Tarshish and the west, which traded with Ophir (1 Kings 9:26 ; 2 Chronicles 8:17 ); and here also Jehoshaphat's fleet was shipwrecked (1 Kings 22:48 ; 2 Chronicles 20:36 )
Ashtoreth - Solomon introduced the worship of this idol (1 Kings 11:33 )
Pharaoh's Daughters - ...
...
The wife of Solomon (1 Kings 3:1 )
Recorder - , "the mentioner," "rememberancer"), the office first held by Jehoshaphat in the court of David (2 Samuel 8:16 ), also in the court of Solomon (1 Kings 4:3 )
Basin - aggan') for washing (Exodus 24:6 ); rendered also "goblet" (Song of Solomon 7:2 ) and "cups" (Isaiah 22:24 )
Riddle - The Queen of Sheba tested Solomon with “hard questions” or riddles ( 1 Kings 10:1-13 )
Hazor - Solomon fortified it ( 1 Kings 9:15 )
Gates of Jerusalem And the Temple - This latter gate may date to the reign of Solomon, being similar to Solomonic gates found at Megiddo, Gezer, and Hazor
Shi'Shak, - The first year of Shishak would about correspond to the 26th of Solomon (B
Exorcism - ) Practiced with spells, as the name of Solomon, magic charms, and incantations among the Jews
Antecedent - ) The noun to which a relative refers; as, in the sentence "Solomon was the prince who built the temple," prince is the antecedent of who
Kedar - They may best be described as nomadic, living in tents (Psalm 120:5 ; Song of Song of Solomon 1:5 ) and raising sheep and goats (Isaiah 60:7 ; Jeremiah 49:28-29 ,Jeremiah 49:28-29,49:32 ), as well as camels, which they sold as far away as Tyre (Ezekiel 27:21 )
Milcom - Solomon built sanctuaries to Milcom on the Mount of Olives at the request of his foreign wives, reviving the ancient cult (1Kings 11:5,1 Kings 11:33 ). The sites of Solomon's sanctuaries were destroyed and defiled during Josiah's reforms in 621 B
en-Gedi - The Shulammite compares her beloved to henna flowers in En-gedi ( Song of Solomon 1:14 ); and in Ezekiel’s idealistic vision of the healing of the Dead Sea waters, a picture is drawn of fishers here spreading their nets ( Ezekiel 47:10 )
Leopard - ‘the leopards,’ Song of Solomon 4:8 )
Cavalry - Solomon then developed a military force featuring horses (1 Kings 4:26 ; 1 Kings 9:17 ; 1 Kings 10:26 )
Conduit - ) There are also the remains of a conduit which conducted water from the so-called "Pools of Solomon," beyond Bethlehem, into the city
Gold - Ρaz , "native gold" (Job 28:17; Song of Solomon 5:15)
Sapphire - Ezekiel 1:26; Ezekiel 10:1; Job 28:6; Job 28:16; Song of Solomon 5:14, sapphire, sparkling in the girdle round Him; Isaiah 54:11; Lamentations 4:7, "their polishing was of sapphire," they were like beautifully cut and polished sapphires
Chain - ...
...
It was used as an ornament (Proverbs 1:9 ; Song of Solomon 1:10 )
Hermon - 1 Chronicles 5:23 ; Song of Solomon 4:8 ; Ezekiel 27:5 ); and once it was called SION
Lip - Thus JEHOVAH takes to himself the sovereignty of this work, when he saith, (Isaiah 57:19) "I create the fruit of the lips" Hence the church is represented as speaking the effusions of the heart, when she saith; "So will we render thee the claves of our lips" (Hosea 14:2) And hence, when commending the beauties of Jesus, she saith; "his lips are like lilies, dropping sweet smelling myrrh:" (Song of Song of Solomon 5:13) meaning, that so sweet and fragrant are Christ's words, his gospel of salvation, and his tokens of grace, so refreshing to the soul of a poor sinner conscious of the want of it; that as lilies, they charm and afford a sweet smelling savour, by which all the spiritual senses are ravished and made glad
Bethhoron - Solomon also built or rebuilt them
Census - ...
Solomon made a census of the foreigners in the land, and found 153,600 able-bodied workmen (2 Chronicles 2:17,18 )
Tent - mishkan , rightly translated 'tabernacle' but is 'tent' in Song of Solomon 1:8
Kiss - A few Scriptures are given herewith to show the many ways in which the word "kiss" is used in the Scriptures:...
Genesis 27:26 (c) Kiss of devotion...
Genesis 45:15 (c) Kiss of reconciliation...
Genesis 50:1 (c) The farewell kiss...
Ruth 1:14 (c) Kiss of desertion...
1 Samuel 10:1 (c) Kiss of honor...
1 Samuel 20:41 (c) Kiss of confidence...
2 Samuel 15:5 (c) Kiss of treason...
2 Samuel 20:9 (c) Kiss of hypocrisy...
Job 31:27 (c) Kiss of connivance...
Psalm 2:12 (c) Kiss of trust...
Psalm 85:10 (c) Kiss of justice...
Proverbs 7:13 (c) Kiss of impudence...
Proverbs 27:6 (c) The enemy's kiss...
Song of Solomon 1:2 (c)Kiss of affection...
Luke 7:45 (c) Kiss of gratitude...
Luke 22:48 (c) Kiss of betrayal...
Acts 20:37 (c) Kiss of sorrow...
Romans 16:16 (c) Holy kiss of saints...
Gibeon - Near it Joshua commanded the sun to stand still, Joshua 10:12-13; Isaiah 28:21; the city was given to Benjamin and to the Levites, Joshua 18:25; Joshua 21:17; it was the scene of a notable battle, 2 Samuel 2:12-24; 2 Samuel 20:8-10; of the hanging of seven of Saul's sons, 2 Samuel 21:1-6; the tabernacle was set up at Gibeon, 1 Chronicles 16:39; and Solomon offered great sacrifices there, 1 Kings 3:4-5; 1 Kings 9:2; 2 Chronicles 1:3; 2 Chronicles 1:13; Jehoram recovered captives at Gibeon, Jeremiah 41:12-16; its people helped to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem after the captivity, Nehemiah 3:7; Nehemiah 7:25; Ezra 2:20, margin
Hamath - Its king, Toi, blessed David for his victory over Zobah, 2 Samuel 8:9-12; Solomon extended his kingdom to Hamath, 1 Kings 8:65; 2 Chronicles 8:4, and built store-cities in that region; afterward the city and country became independent, but were again subdued by Jeroboam II
Daughter - (Psalms 45:9-10; Song of Song of Solomon 6:9) How frequently do we find the Lord speaking of his church under the endeared character of daughter
Earring - " (Song of Song of Solomon 1:11)...
Amminadib - We meet with this word in Song of Song of Solomon 6:12
Moriah - On the same spot Solomon afterward built the temple, 2 Chronicles 3:1 ; when it was included within the walls of the city
Nose - " (Song of Song of Solomon 7:4) It is a beautiful metaphor, intimating the quickness of discernment by smell of all that is fragrant in Jesus, and his redemption in mount Lebanon, his gospel church
Marble - שיש , 1 Chronicles 29:2 ; Esther 1:6 ; Song of Solomon 5:15 ; a valuable kind of stone, of a texture so hard and compact, and of a grain so fine, as readily to take a beautiful polish
Ashtaroth - Solomon introduced the worship of it
Elath - The Edomites being subdued, 2 Samuel 8:14, David took possession of Elath or Eloth: and after him Solomon, whose fleet sailed from the neighboring town Ezion-geber to Ophir
Boaz - ...
Boaz was also the name of one of the two brazen pillars which Solomon erected in the porch of the temple, the other being called 1 Kings 7:15,16,21
Gibeon - Here the tabernacle was set up for many years, 1 Chronicles 16:39 21:29 2 Chronicles 1:3,4 ; and here god communed by night with young king Solomon, 1 Kings 3:4-15
Obey - All Israel obeyed Solomon
Saba - These details point to two Sabas, one in the south near Hadhramot, one in the north near Taima; the place of their original home cannot be decided, some identify it with the Saba whose queen visited Solomon (3Kings 10)
Sabeans - These details point to two Sabas, one in the south near Hadhramot, one in the north near Taima; the place of their original home cannot be decided, some identify it with the Saba whose queen visited Solomon (3Kings 10)
ha'Zor - (Joshua 11:10 ) It was fortified by Solomon, (1 Kings 9:15 ) and its inhabitants were carried captive by Tiglath-pileser
Bed - (Esther 1:6 ; Song of Solomon 3:9,10 ) The ordinary furniture of a bedchamber in private life is given in (2 Kings 4:10 )
Pillar - Lastly, the figurative use of the term "pillar," in reference to the cloud and fire accompanying the Israelites on their march or as in (Song of Solomon 3:6 ) and Reve 10:1 Is plainly derived from the notion of an isolated column not supporting a roof
Gibeon - It was the last location of the tabernacle before Solomon replaced it with a permanent temple in Jerusalem (1 Chronicles 16:39; 1 Chronicles 21:29; 2 Chronicles 1:3; 2 Chronicles 1:13)
Plants in the Bible - ...
Lily and Rose Red lips of Song of Song of Solomon 5:13 indicate a red-flowered “lily,” such as scarlet tulip or anemone. Other references, such as Song of Song of Solomon 2:1-2 , may refer to the actual white madonna lily (Lilium candidum ), now very rare in the area, or wild hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis ) wild crocus (Croccus species ), the rose of Isaiah 35:1-2 (see NAS). The “rose of Sharon” (Song of Song of Solomon 2:1 ) has been equated with anemone, rockrose, narcissus, tulip, and crocus. Henna ( Lawsonia inermis ) leaves were crushed and used both as a perfume (Song of Song of Solomon 1:14 NIV) and as a yellow dye for skin, nails, and hair. Spikenard or nard , an expensive perfumed oil (Song of Song of Solomon 4:13-14 ; John 12:3 ), obtained either from the leaves of a desert grass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus ) or, traditionally, the valerian relative Nardostachys jatamansi from the Himalayas. ...
Saffron ( Crocus sativus ), a yellow powder prepared from the stigmas, is used as a subtle flavor (Song of Song of Solomon 4:14 ) and also as a food coloring and a medicine. The balm of Gilead or opohybalsam is yielded by Commiphora gileadensis , a non-spiny shrub of dry country in Southern Arabia and said to have been cultivated by Solomon at En-Gedi near the Dead Sea (Song of Song of Solomon 5:1 , “spice”). Pomegranate bushes were often grown in gardens and beside houses (Deuteronomy 8:8 ; Song of Song of Solomon 6:11 ). Moses was instructed to embroider pomegranate fruits on the hem of the priests' robes (Exodus 28:33 ), and their form ornamented the columns of Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem (1 Kings 7:18 ; 2 Chronicles 3:16 ). ...
Another questionable fruit is that referred to as “apple ” (Song of Song of Solomon 2:3 ,Song of Song of Solomon 2:5 ; Song of Song of Solomon 7:8 ), although some versions translate the word as “apricot. However, it is possible that Solomon grew it in his garden (Song of Song of Solomon 6:11 )
the Queen of Sheba - And while the sacred writer has told us her story in his very best manner, at the same time, it is our Lord's acknowledgment and confession of her in the judgment-it is this that lifts her up in my eyes till I see her among the foremost of those who shall come from the east, and the west, and the north, and the south, and who shall hear the wisdom, and taste the grace, and share the glory of a greater than Solomon in the Jerusalem which is above, and which is the mother of us all. Some of those merchantmen who went down to the Red Sea in ships, and did business for Solomon all along its shores in gold, and silver, and ivory, and apes, and peacocks, and almug-trees, and what not, one of their ships on one occasion was driven in for want of fresh water near the summer palace of the Queen of Sheba. And as the seamen of Israel filled their water-pots, it was an ordinance that they should sing, saying, Spring up, O well; in the Name of the Lord, spring up! When, who should pass by but the Queen of Sheba herself with her maidens with her? Sing still another of the songs of Zion, she said to Solomon's sailors. ' And ever after that day the Queen of Sheba watched at her window for the ships of Solomon, till, above all else, the Name of the Lord took entire hold of her heart. And that is the explanation of Matthew Henry's unaccountable slander that some of the Queen of Sheba's questions that she put to Solomon, some were frivolous, some were captious, and some were over-curious. The sacred writer knew far more about the Queen of Sheba than the minister of Chester did; and what he says about her questions is this, that they were hard to Solomon to answer; especially when she went deep down into her heart for her questions. The Queen of Sheba had heard in the south country all about Solomon's dream at Gibeon. But from the day when she first heard the Name of the Lord, from that day her heart had grown every day and every night deeper and fuller of hard questions; questions so hard that I doubt if she broke them all even to Solomon. Of no New Testament heart does the New Testament ever say that its owner ever told to any man all that was in her heart; unless it was to our New Testament Solomon. And, then, He is such a Solomon that He does not need that communication to be made to Him. She told Solomon so much about herself and about her people, and got so much help and advice from Solomon, that 'all that was in her heart' is just your hyperbolical and impressive way of putting her before us in your great regard for her, and in your great admiration of him. ...
Matthew Henry is more like himself when he goes on to say that we may be sure that Solomon gave the inquiring Queen a rationale of the temple and all its offices and all its services. The Queen of Sheba was like one of those children in Israel who asked their fathers at every passover supper, What mean ye by this service? Only, she was not a child, but a woman of a strong understanding and a deep heart, and both Solomon and the high priest and the prophet, all three together, were at their wits' end; it took them all their might to open up all the parts of the temple and its sacrifices to her satisfaction: the reason of this, and the reason of that; the use of this, and the use of that; the antitype of this, and the antitype of that-she both hearing them and asking them questions. What say you? Had I been in her place, I do not feel guilty that I would have been either captious or frivolous in the house of God or in Solomon's own house. But I would have had things in my heart worse than captiousness or frivolousness; things that I would never have told to Solomon, or to Nathan, or even to the high priest over the scapegoat. Had I been a king, and had I been shown through Solomon's temple, and through his palace, and through all that the Queen of Sheba saw in Jerusalem, I know only too well what would have been in my heart. She had Solomon's prayer at the dedication of the temple in her hand. ' And then this beside it in the same gold from a Psalm for Solomon: 'The kings of Tarshish and of the isles shall bring presents; the kings of Sheba and Seba shall offer gifts
Selah - It occurs ( a ) in the OT, ( b ) in the Psalms of Solomon, and ( c ) in the Jewish (Synagogue) Liturgy. In the Psalms of Solomon ‘Selah’ occurs twice (17:31 and 18:10), and in the oldest parts of the Jewish Liturgy (apart from the canonical Psalms, which are incorporated in it) 5 times (3 in the ‘Eighteen Blessings’ and 2 in the morning Benedictions preceding the Shema ‘)
Ring - Song of Solomon 5:14, "his hands" bent are compared to "rings" in which "beryls" are set, as the nails in the fingers; compare as to our names being "sealed" upon His heart, Song of Solomon 8:6, and palms, Isaiah 49:16
Pillar - ...
Song of Solomon 3:6 (c) This peculiar figure may represent the case and the certainty of the presence of GOD in one's life. ...
Song of Solomon 5:15 (a) It is said that athletes must have firm, substantial legs in order to endure whether it be in wrestling or prize fighting or on the track
Shimei - David at his death reminded Solomon of Shimei's wickedness, for he had cursed the Lord's anointed king. Solomon promised Shimei his life on the condition that he did not go out of Jerusalem; but he broke the compact and was put to death. Son of Elah and one of Solomon's commissariat officers
Frankincense - Song of Solomon 3:6, "Who is this that cometh out of the wilderness, like pillars of smoke, perfumed with myrrh and frankincense?" Israel, with Jehovah's pillar of smoke by day and fire by night, and smoke from the altars of incense and atonement, was the type. The bride too comes up with Him from the wilderness, exhaling frankincense-like graces, faith, love, joy, peace, prayer, praise; of her too it is asked, "Who is this that cometh up from the wilderness, leaning upon her Beloved?" (Song of Solomon 8:5; Revelation 7:13-17
Abiathar - While Abiathar remained faithful to David during Absalom's rebellion (2 Samuel 15:1 ), he later supported Adonijah as successor of King David instead of Solomon (1 Kings 1:7 ). Solomon deposed him from the priesthood and banished him to Anathoth, his home town, fulfilling the prophecy to Eli (1 Samuel 2:31-35 ). Only because of his faithful service to Solomon's father, King David, was he spared the death penalty (1 Kings 2:26-27 )
Jewel - ...
Song of Solomon 1:10 (c) This is a lover's comment on the beauty and the sweetness of the one to whom he is attracted. (See also Song of Solomon 7:1; Isaiah 61:10)
Abiathar - When, however, Adonijah set himself up for David's successor on the throne, in opposition to Solomon, Abiathar sided with him, while Zadok was on Solomon's side. Zadok had joined David at Hebron, 1 Chronicles 12:28, so that there were henceforth two high priests in the reign of David, and till the deposition of Abiathar by Solomon, when Zadok became the sole high priest, thus fulfilling the prophecy of 1 Samuel 2:30
Veil - " To lift or remove one's veil was to insult and degrade her, Genesis 24:65 Song of Song of Solomon 5:7 1 Corinthians 11:5,10 . The other veil, to be worn in the street, is a large mantle or sheet, of black silk, linen, or some coarse material, so ample as to envelope the whole person and dress, leaving but one of the eyes exposed, Song of Song of Solomon 4:9
Chronicles - The second book contains the history of the kings of Judah, without those of Israel, from the beginning of the reign of Solomon only, to the return from the captivity of Babylon. The two books of Chronicles dwell more on ecclesiastical matters than the books of Kings; they enlarge upon the ordinances of public worship; and detail minutely the preparation of David for the building of the temple, and its erection and dedication by Solomon; the histories of the other kings also are specially full in respect to their religious character and acts, 1 Chronicles 13:8-11 2 Chronicles 11:13 19:8-11 26:16-19 , etc
Incense - ...
Spices used in the making of incense came from the gum of certain trees and from various plants and herbs (Song of Song of Solomon 4:14). Some of these were grown locally, but many were imported from the east and were an important source of income for ancient traders (Genesis 37:25; Song of Song of Solomon 3:6; Isaiah 60:6; Jeremiah 6:20)
Prov'Erbs, Book of - ( Proverbs 1:1 ; 10:1 ; 25:1 ) attribute the authorship of those portions to Solomon the son of David, king of Israel. With the exception of the last two chapters, which are distinctly assigned to other author it is probable that the statement of the superscriptions is in the main correct, and that the majority of the proverbs contained in the book were uttered or collected by Solomon. 10-24 with the title "The Proverbs of Solomon," consist of three parts: (Proverbs 10:1-22 ; Proverbs 10:16 ) a collection of single proverbs and detached sentences out of the region of moral teaching and worldly prudence; (Proverbs 22:17-24 ; Proverbs 22:21 ) a more connected didactic poem, with an introduction, (Proverbs 22:17-22 ) which contains precepts of righteousness and prudence; (Proverbs 24:23-34 ) with the inscription "These also belong to the wise," a collection of unconnected maxims, which serve as an appendix to the preceding. 25-29, which, according to the superscription, professes to be collection of Solomon's proverbs, consisting of single sentences, which the men of the court of Hezekiah copied out
Tree (2) - In course of time, when Solomon was building the Temple, the tree was cut down, but it refused to be fitted into any part of the Temple, and was placed over a stream to serve as a bridge. It suggested a reference to the Cross in Song of Solomon 2:3; Song of Solomon 2:5, which runs thus in the Vulgate: ‘Sicut malus inter ligna silvarum, sic dilectus meus inter filios
Proverbs - The biblical book of Proverbs is largely a collection of miscellaneous Hebrew proverbs, most of them from Solomon (Proverbs 1:1; Proverbs 10:1; Proverbs 25:1). Of about 3,000 proverbs that Solomon wrote or collected (1 Kings 4:32), 375 are collected here. The sayings here are longer than those of Solomon and often cover several verses (22:17-24:22 and 24:23-34). After this is a further collection of Solomon’s proverbs. This collection was added more than two hundred years after the time of Solomon, at the time of Hezekiah’s reforms (25:1; cf
Gallery - " (Song of Song of Solomon 3:4)...
That this is the sense of the expression of "holding the king in the galleries" seems plain, from another consideration; namely, that the word held signifies being bound as a prisoner with chains and fetters. " (Song of Song of Solomon 4:9)...
The reader will indulge me, I hope, with barely adding, that if such was the sweet result of Jesus being held by the church in the galleries of old, surely, believers now ought to take confidence and delight to detain the Lord in the galleries of ordinances; from whence, while they hold him fast by the lively actings of faith and prayer, like the wrestlings of their father Jacob of old, (See Genesis 32:26) they may be led by him into the chambers of rich communion, in the high privilege of near and familiar enjoyment of all covenant blessings. " (Song of Song of Solomon 1:4) For there Jesus manifesteth himself to his people otherwise than he doeth to the world
Month - (See Numbers 1:1; Ezra 3:8; Jeremiah 36:9; Ezekiel 31:1; Haggai 1:1; Hag 1:15; Zechariah 8:19; Luke 1:26; Luk 1:36)...
In Solomon's days we find names more particulary given to their months, yet still preserving the ancient method of speaking of their months after their numbers. Thus 1 Kings 6:1 "And it came to pass, in the four hundred and eighteenth year, after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon's reign over Israel, in the month Zif, which is the second month, that he began to build the house of the Lord. " So 1 Kings 8:2 Solomon held a feast in the month Ethanim, which is the seventh month. But it was only in the time of Solomon that the months were named, for we do not meet with the mention of the months by names, except that of Abib in Exodus and Deuteronomy, either before or after Solomon, until the Babylonish captivity. But whether the name Abib, which signifies green fruit, or ears of corn, and which was the spring answering to our March, was so particularly called in Egypt, and the Hebrews borrowed the name from thence, or Solomon learnt the names of Zif and Bul from the Phenicians When trading with them, is not easy to determine, neither perhaps is it important to know
Garden - " (Song of Song of Solomon 6:9) The Jerusalem which is above, and which is the mother of us all, knows but of one church, of which Jesus is the Head; for both Jew and Gentile will ultimately be brought into one fold. " (Song of Song of Solomon 4:15)...
And while we eye Jesus as the source of life and fruitfulness to his garden the church, it is blessed to see how very lovely the similitude of a garden, corresponds to the state of Christ's church. (Song of Song of Solomon 4:12; Isaiah 5:1-2) Secondly, a garden is the property of some owner; it is not alike common or open to all: so is the church. " (Song of Song of Solomon 6:2) And elsewhere she invites Jesus to come into his garden, and to eat of his pleasant fruits. " (Song of Song of Solomon 4:16; Son 5:1) Sixthly, a garden requires much care in dressing, and pruning, and weeding, and the like; so the church of Jesus hath the constant care of her Lord
Proverbs - ...
The Meshalim, or Proverbs of Solomon, on account of their intrinsic merit, as well as of the rank and renown of their author, would be received with submissive deference; in consequence of which, they would rapidly spread through every part of the Jewish territories. These, either preserved in writing, or handed down by oral communication, were subsequently collected into one volume, and constitute the book in the sacred canon, entitled, "The Proverbs of Solomon, the son of David, king of Israel. They were persons, however, as we may reasonably suppose, well qualified for the undertaking, who collected what were known to be the genuine proverbs of Solomon from the various writings in which they were dispersed, and arranged them in their present order. Both collections, however, being made at so early a period, is a satisfactory evidence that the Proverbs are the genuine production of Solomon, to whom they are ascribed; for, from the death of Solomon to the reign of Hezekiah, according to the Bible chronology, was a period of two hundred and forty-nine years, or, according to Dr
Ecclesiastes, the Book of - The feminine form, and its construction once with a feminine verb (Ecclesiastes 7:27), show that divine Wisdom herself speaks through the inspired king Solomon. Solomon's authorship is supported by Ecclesiastes 1:12; Ecclesiastes 1:16; Ecclesiastes 2:1-15; Ecclesiastes 12:9. Probably, since the book is poetical not historical, a later writer, in the person of Solomon as an idealized Solomon, writes under inspiration the lessons that such an experience as that of Solomon would properly afford. Hence, Solomon is not named; the writer speaks as Qoheleth , "the preacher. " If it were merely Solomon's penitent confession in old age, he would have used his own name. The spirit of Solomon speaks, the true Qoheleth ("gatherer"), a type of Him who is "Wisdom" and calls Himself so, and who "would have gathered Jerusalem's children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings"; compare Luke 11:49 with Matthew 23:34-37. ...
The writer makes Solomon's saying after his late repentance, "Vanity of vanities, all is vanity," his text which he expands under the Spirit. It is just possible that the peculiarities of language may be due to Solomon's long intercourse with foreigners; also the Chaldaisms may be fragments preserved from the common tongue of which Hebrew, Syriac, Chaldee, and Arabic were offshoots. So Solomon himself would be the writer. ...
David, Solomon's father (Ecclesiastes 4:1-39), and Job (Job 7:16), had already taught the vanity of man and man's earthly aims. So Solomon speaks of man ('adam , not 'iysh ) as such, frail and mortal, not redeemed man nor the elect nation Israel. , was mistaken as recommending the Epicurean sensuality against which Paul (1 Corinthians 15:32-33) protests, and was made an objection to the book; but the eating and drinking recommended is that associated with labor, not idleness; with pious "fear of God," not sensual ignoring of the future Judge; the cheerful, contented "eating and drinking" which characterized Judah and Israel under Solomon (1 Kings 4:20), and under Josiah (Jeremiah 22:15, "Did not thy father (Josiah) eat and drink, and do judgment and justice, and then it was well with him?")...
So Nehemiah enjoins (Nehemiah 8:10-12). But even in Solomon's days, in the provinces, and especially when he fell into idolatry and consequent troubles, oppression must have often occurred, which his power was not able to prevent altogether in subordinate governors
Proverbs, Theology of - Woman Wisdom, a personification of Solomon's teachings, was both present when the Lord created the cosmos with its vast seas, its high heavens, and its good earth (8:22-26), and celebrated daily the way in which he fixed the limits of these vast cosmic entities, enabling humanity to live within them (vv. Solomon explains why accepting his teachings pertaining to fixed social structures is equivalent to knowing God: "For the Lord gives wisdom, and from his mouth come knowledge and understanding" (2:6). Solomon's mouth has become God's mouth. Unlike Moses, who spoke to God face to face, and the prophets, to whom he gave visions and dreams (Numbers 12:6-8 ), the Lord "spoke" to Solomon and other inspired sages such as Agur (Proverbs 30:1 ) and King Lemuel (31:1) through their observations of creation and humanity. Rather, Solomon speaks as the king of Israel (1:1), and as such has himself been carefully schooled in the Mosaic Law. In this book Solomon consistently uses God's name, "the Lord, " which signifies his covenantal relationship with Israel (Exodus 3:13-15 ; 6:2-8 ). ...
Solomon likens his teachings to a tree of life (3:18). For example, after the wonderful promises in 3:1-10, Solomon adds: "My son, do not despise the Lord's discipline" (vv. Solomon's explanation, "because the Lord disciplines those he loves, as a father the son he delights in, " shows that the father's tutelage passes into the heavenly Father's. Solomon does not deliver his teachings in cold, rational propositions calling for an equally rational, dispassionate response. Solomon calls on the son in turn to "raise your voice" ("call out, " NIV) to wisdom (2:3). When Solomon's wisdom is accepted with the whole heart, then wisdom that was in God's heart enters the believer's heart: "For wisdom, " which originated in God's mouth (v. The choice or rejection of Solomon's teachings is affective, not merely cognitive. Solomon so ordered this book that covenantal parents could teach it within the home, the place of education in ancient Israel. Parents are armed by Solomon with all his rhetorical skill in robust man-to-man talk to outduel the temptation to easy money, offered by apostate men (1:10-19; 2:12-15), and to easy sex, offered by unfaithful women (2:16-19; 5:1-23; 6:20-35; 7:1-27; 9:13-18). ...
Throughout Solomon assumes the power of speech: indeed, it has the power of life and death (18:21)
Proverbs, Book of - Proverbs 1:1-33 ; Proverbs 2:1-22 ; Proverbs 3:1-35 ; Proverbs 4:1-27 ; Proverbs 5:1-23 ; Proverbs 6:1-35 ; Proverbs 7:1-27 ; Proverbs 8:1-36 ; Proverbs 9:1-18 , The proverbs of Solomon, son of David, king of Israel (heading for more than this section). Proverbs 10:1 to Proverbs 22:16 , The proverbs of Solomon. Proverbs 25:1-28 ; Proverbs 26:1-28 ; Proverbs 27:1-27 ; Proverbs 28:1-28 ; Proverbs 29:1-27 , These also are the proverbs of Solomon which the men of Hezekiah copied out. We may suppose that the proverbs ‘of Solomon’ in II a and II b were collected separately and then combined in II. , were then joined together, becoming known as the proverbs ‘of Solomon’; that the collection in V. As for the date of the book, the traditional ascription of parts of it to king Solomon must, of course, be discarded
Curtain - “Curtain” is often used synonymously with “tent” (Song of Song of Solomon 1:5 ; Isaiah 54:2 ; Jeremiah 4:20 ; Jeremiah 10:20 ; Jeremiah 49:29 ; Habakkuk 3:7 )
Ant - The language of Solomon, Proverbs 6:6 , commends them for toiling as soon and as long as the season permits and rewards their labor, and bids us make the same diligent use of life and opportunities, Proverbs 30:24,25
Tamar - fortresses built up by Solomon
Dates - ...
The NAS of Song of Song of Solomon 5:11 describes the hair of the king as “like a cluster of dates,” perhaps a reference to a full head of hair
Wars of the Lord, Book of the - As it deals with the heroic age, it likely originated in the period immediately following, and it has been dated in the reign of Omri (Stade), and by others as early as the time of David or Solomon
Moon - yareah, from its paleness (Ezra 6:15 ), and lebanah, the "white" (Song of Solomon 6:10 ; Isaiah 24:23 ), was appointed by the Creator to be with the sun "for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years" (Genesis 1:14-16 )
Corn - ...
From the time of Solomon, corn began to be exported from Palestine ( Ezekiel 27:17 ; Amos 8:5 )
Boaz - This and JACHINwere the names given to two pillars in the porch of the temple built by Solomon
Leopard - "The mountains of the leopard" (Song of Solomon 4:8), namely, Lebanon and Hermon, where still they are found; "the mountains of prey" (Psalms 76:4), symbolizing the rapacious world kingdoms
Machpelah - The beveling is shallow, and at latest belongs to the age of Solomon; Jewish ancient tradition ascribes it to David
Rain - " The heavy winter rain is mentioned in Genesis 7:12 ; Ezra 10:9 ; Song of Solomon 2:11
Tirzah - Originally a Canaanite city noted for its beauty (Song of Song of Solomon 6:4 ) but captured in the conquest of the Promised Land (Joshua 12:24 )
Iddo - 1 Kings 4:14 father of Abinadab, who was Solomon’s commissariat officer in Mahanaim in Gilead (see No. A seer and prophet cited by the Chronicler as an authority for the reigns of Solomon ( 2 Chronicles 9:29 ), Rehoboam ( 2 Chronicles 12:15 ), Abijah ( 2 Chronicles 13:22 )
Shechi'Nah - In the tabernacle and in the temple of Solomon, but not in the second temple
Tin - (Ezekiel 27:12 ) It was used for plummets, (Zechariah 4:10 ) and was so plentiful as to furnish the writer of Ecclesiasticus, Sirach 47:18 , with a figure by which to express the wealth of Solomon
Achish - This led Shimei to go to Gath in pursuit of them, and the consequence was that Solomon put him to death (1Kings 2:39-46)
Tema - 550), attributed by tradition to Solomon, now in ruins; originally meant to protect the caravan route on the N
Hinnom, Valley of - An aqueduct on nine low arches, 290) yards from the Jaffa gate, crosses the valley, and conveys water from "the pools of Solomon" to the temple mount, below which is "the lower pool
Bahurim - Solomon followed David's orders and had Shimei of Bahurim killed (1Kings 2:8-9,1 Kings 2:36-46 )
Kidron Valley - Solomon warned Shimei not to cross it or he would die (1 Kings 2:37 )
Lebo-Hamath - Whatever its precise location, Lebo-hamath represented the northern boundary of Canaan promised to Israel (Numbers 13:21 ; compare Ezekiel 48:1 ), not conquered by Joshua (Joshua 13:5 ; Judges 3:3 ), controlled by David (1 Chronicles 13:5 ) and Solomon (1 Kings 8:65 ), and restored to Israel by Jeroboam II about 793-753 B
Judgment-Hall - Thus Solomon had his ‘throne-room’ or portico erected within the complex of his palace buildings (1 Kings 7:7), where justice continued to be administered no doubt till the latest period of the Monarchy
Geliloth - They always occur near water, and in alluvial clay plains, as in the clay lands between Succoth and Zarthan, where Solomon east his temple brasswork
Allegory - ) not that the history is unreal as to the literal meaning, (such as is the Song of Solomon, a continued allegory); but, besides the literal historical fact, these events have another and a spiritual significance, the historical truths are types of the antitypical truths; the child of the promise, Isaac, is type of the gospel child of God who is free to love and serve his Father in Christ; the child of the bondwoman, Ishmael, is type of those legalists who, seeking justification by the law, are ever ill the spirit of bondage
Mandrakes - (Song of Song of Solomon 7:13) The original name is Dudaim, and is only mentioned in the instance of Reuben finding them in the field, and bringing them to his mother, (See Genesis 30:14-18) and in this place of the Canticles
Tirzah - "Thou art beautiful, O my love, as"Tirzah, said the Redeemer, "comely as Jerusalem and terrible as an army with banners," (Song of Song of Solomon 6:4) And is not the church all this when beautiful, in his salvation and comely in the comeliness which he hath put upon her? And what an awe do Jesus's little ones strike even now upon the ungodly, when they behold them living in his faith, and fear and love? And who, will dare to oppose them, by and by, when they shall see the Lord Jesus come to be "glorified in his saints, and admired in all them that believe?"...
Forty - ...
1 Kings 11:42 (c) Solomon reigned forty years and ended his period of testing in idolatry
Olive, Olive Tree - In the temple, within the holy of holies, Solomon made two cherubim of olive wood; the doors into the oracle were also made of the same wood
Hence - Hence perhaps it is, that Solomon calls the fear of the Lord, the beginning of wisdom
Skip - ...
Song of Solomon 2:8 (b) Again we understand this to represent the feelings of the bride about the poet-King whom she loves so much
Pool - The three pools of Solomon near Bethlehem are famous, and still supply Jerusalem with water by an aqueduct (Ecclesiastes 2:6)
Hazor - It was fortified by Solomon, 1 Kings 9:15; its people were carried into captivity by Tiglath-pileser
Anathoth - King Solomon sent Abiathar the priest there after removing him as high priest (1 Kings 2:26-27 )
Araunah - 3:1,2 we learn that the threshing floor was on Mount Moriah, and that the site was prepared by David for the temple, which was built by Solomon
Ephod - Hence the church, in allusion to it, vehemently urgeth Christ in that request, "Set me as a seal upon thine heart, as a seal upon thine arm;" (Song of Song of Solomon 8:6) meaning, that she might be always in his remembrance, to live in his heart, and to be always looked upon as a seal, or signet, on the arm
Breastplate - (Song of Song of Solomon 8:6) And hence, in allusion to the same, the apostle exhorts the church to put on "the breastplate of faith and love;" meaning, a steadfast looking unto Christ in the exercise of those graces, by relying wholly on him for mercy and salvation
Degrees, Songs of - ' These Psalms have been grouped together: four are by David, one by Solomon, and the rest are without a name
Coney - They are called by Solomon, "wise," and "a feeble folk;" they are timid and gregarious in their habits, and so gentle and quiet, that they shrink from the shadow of a passing bird
Nethinim - Many of them appear to have been first assigned to David, Solomon, and other princes, and by them transferred to the temple service, 1 Kings 9:20,21 Ezra 2:58,70 8:20 Nehemiah 11:3
Reed - The reed of spice, or good reed, (English version, "sweet calamus," Exodus 30:23 , "sweet cane" Jeremiah 6:20 ) also called simply reed, (English version, "calamus" or "sweet cane,") Isaiah 43:24 ; Song of Song of Solomon 4:14 ; Ezekiel 27:19 , is the sweet flag of India, calamus odoratus
Pinnacle - corner, where the royal ‘porch’ met that of Solomon
na'Than -
An eminent Hebrew prophet in the reigns of David and Solomon
Mandrakes - dudraim ) are mentioned in ( Genesis 30:14,16 ) and in Song of Solomon 7:13 The mandrake, Atropa mandragora , is closely allied to the well-known deadly nightshade, A
First-Born - Under the monarchy the eldest son usually, but no always, as appears in the case of Solomon, succeeded his father in the kingdom
Chariot - During the reign of Solomon, Israel’s chariot forces were expanded considerably, and from his time on they were an important part of Israel’s army (1 Kings 4:26; 1 Kings 9:22; 1 Kings 10:26; 1 Kings 20:21; 1 Kings 22:35; 2 Kings 8:21; 2 Kings 9:21; 2 Kings 10:2; 2 Kings 13:7)
Shadow - In the evening cool, shadows disappear (Song of Song of Solomon 2:17 ). ...
Powerful people offer the shadow of protection and security (Song of Song of Solomon 2:3 )
Zadok - He was appointed priest by Solomon in place of Abiathar ( 1 Kings 2:26 f. From the time of Solomon the descendants of Zadok constituted the most prominent family among the priests, the high priests being taken from them till the time of the Maccabees
Jebus - hill, the modern, "Zion," not mount Moriah, the city of Solomon, in the center of which was a perennial spring. ) In Zechariah 9:7 "Ekron (shall be) as a Jebusite," the sense is, Even the ignoble remnant of the Jews shall be sacred to "our God" and "as a governor in Judah," whereas Philistine "Ekron" shall be a tributary bond servant "as a Jebusite," in the servile position to which Solomon consigned them (1 Kings 9:20-21). Some of them appear as late as the return from Babylon, termed "Solomon's servants" (Nehemiah 7:57; Nehemiah 11:3; Ezra 9:1)
Kiss - With the exception of three occurrences (Proverbs 7:13 ; Song of Song of Solomon 1:2 ; Song of Song of Solomon 8:1 ), the term is used without any erotic overtones
Drunk - ...
Song of Solomon 5:1 (a) Solomon is expressing by this means the exquisite pleasure he had in reveling in all the good things of life which he had so abundantly
Hind - " (Song of Song of Solomon 2:17) And who shall speak of the earnestness of the Lord Jesus to come over the mountains of sin, and hills of corruption, in our nature, when he came to seek and save that which was lost? Who shall describe those numberless anticipations which we find in the Old Testament of Jesus, in appearing sometimes as an angel, and sometimes in an human from? as if to say, how much he longed for the time to come, when he should openly appear, in the substance of our flesh, as "the hind of the morning!"...
And there is another beautiful resemblance in the hind, or roe, to Christ, in the loveliness as well as swiftness of this beautiful creature. " (Song of Song of Solomon 8:14)...
Cedar - Psalms 92:12; Ezekiel 31:3-6; 1 Kings 7:2; 1 Kings 10:27; Song of Solomon 4:11; Hosea 14:6; Isaiah 2:13; Isaiah 10:19. Cedar was used for the most noble and costly edifices, as the palace of Persepolis, the palace of Solomon, and the temple at Jerusalem
za'Dok - (2 Samuel 19:11 ) When Adonijah, in David's old age, set up for king, and had persuaded Joab, and Abiathar the priest, to join his party, Zadok was unmoved, and was employed by David to anoint Solomon to be king in his room. (1 Kings 1:34 ) For this fidelity he was rewarded by Solomon who "thrust out Abiathar from being priest unto the Lord," and "put in Zadok the priest" in his room
Gold - " (Song of Song of Solomon 5:14) And the Lord Jesus, speaking of his church, made comely in his comeliness, saith, "Thy cheeks are comely with rows of jewels; thy neck with Chains of gold. " (Song of Song of Solomon 1:10-11) As gold is the richest and most valued of all metals, so by this figure is meant to say, that the Headship of Christ is every thing that is rich, valuable and glorious to his body the church. "In his right hand, saith Solomon, is length of days, and in his left hand riches and honour. " (Song of Solomon 5:11)...
It is blessed to behold also the church spoken of under the same similitude, from her union and oneness with her Lord
Solomon - " His father chose him as his successor, passing over the claims of his elder sons: "Assuredly Solomon my son shall reign after me. He was not permitted to build the house of God (1 Chronicles 22:8 ); that honour was reserved to his son Solomon. ) ...
After the completion of the temple, Solomon engaged in the erection of many other buildings of importance in Jerusalem and in other parts of his kingdom. ...
Solomon also constructed great works for the purpose of securing a plentiful supply of water for the city (Ecclesiastes 2:4-6 ). Extensive traffic was carried on by land with Tyre and Egypt and Arabia, and by sea with Spain and India and the coasts of Africa, by which Solomon accumulated vast stores of wealth and of the produce of all nations (1 Kings 9:26-28 ; 10:11,12 ; 2 Chronicles 8:17,18 ; 9:21 ). The royal magnificence and splendour of Solomon's court were unrivalled. ...
Solomon's reign was not only a period of great material prosperity, but was equally remarkable for its intellectual activity. ...
His fame was spread abroad through all lands, and men came from far and near "to hear the wisdom of Solomon. The bright day of Solomon's glory ended in clouds and darkness. " ...
"The kingdom of Solomon," says Rawlinson, "is one of the most striking facts in the Biblical history
Chronicles, Books of - Solomon, his son, built the Temple (2 Chronicles 2:1 ), and Zerubbabel, his son of succeeding generations, rebuilt the Temple (Ezra 3:8 ). The division seems quite appropriate with 1Chronicles concluding the reign of David, and 2Chronicles beginning the reign of Solomon. Included, historically, would be the many forms in which we find the house of God, namely: the various altars established by the patriarchs, the tabernacle of God erected by Moses, the Temple built by Solomon, the Temple rebuilt by Zerubbabel, the Temple refurbished by Herod, and the various church-houses throughout the ages. Solomon built the temple in Jerusalem, but the Son who is building and shall build to completion God's true house and the Son whose reign God will establish forever is the Lord Jesus Christ (1 Chronicles 17:12 ; Luke 1:31-33 ; Acts 15:14-16 ). Preparing Solomon to build (1 Chronicles 22:6-16 )...
C. Charging the princes to help Solomon (1 Chronicles 22:17-19 )...
D. Making Solomon king (1 Chronicles 23:1 )...
E. Charging Solomon and the people (1 Chronicles 28:1-21 )...
G. Worshiping God and enthroning Solomon (1 Chronicles 29:10-25 )...
I. Solomon's Building God's House (2 Chronicles 1:1-9:31 )...
A. God's blessing of Solomon to build (2 Chronicles 1:1-17 )...
B. Solomon's other achievements (2 Chronicles 8:1-18 )...
D. Solomon's wisdom and wealth and fame (1Chronicles 1:1,11 )...
E. Concluding Solomon's reign (2 Chronicles 9:29-31 )...
V
Cluster - First, when the spies went up to search the promised land, and brought back the cluster of the rich fruit of Eshcol, (Numbers 13:23) And again, the church, in the book of the Songs, (Song of Song of Solomon 1:14) where she commends her beloved, under the sweet similitude of the same, "My beloved is unto me as a cluster of camphire in the vineyards of Engedi. ...
In the other instance, in direct allusion to Christ, in the church's commendation of him, (Song of Song of Solomon 1:14) there in an uncommon degree of beauty in the similitude. I leave the reader to his own observation upon the subject, with only remarking, that on the supposition the Hebrew Doctors were right, what a lovely Scripture this is in the Songs, (Song of Song of Solomon 1:14) when the church so sings of Christ
Birthright - By divine appointment, however, David excluded Adonijah in favour of Solomon
Jerusalem - Its most famous rulers were David, who brought the Ark of the Covenant into the city, and his son Solomon, who built the Temple, and during whose reign Jerusalem attained the height of its glory and grandeur
Parlour - The "inner parlours" in 1 Chronicles 28:11 were the small rooms or chambers which Solomon built all round two sides and one end of the temple ( 1 Kings 6:5 ), "side chambers;" or they may have been, as some think, the porch and the h