What does Slavery mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
δουλείας slavery 2
δουλείαν slavery 1
δουλεύει to be a slave 1
נִכְבָּשׁוֹת֙ to subject 1

Definitions Related to Slavery

H3533


   1 to subject, subdue, force, keep under, bring into bondage.
      1a (Qal).
         1a1 to bring into bondage, make subservient.
         1a2 to subdue, force, violate.
         1a3 to subdue, dominate, tread down.
      1b (Niphal) to be subdued.
      1c (Piel) to subdue.
      1d (Hiphil) to bring into bondage.
      

G1397


   1 Slavery, bondage, the condition of a slave.
   

G1398


   1 to be a slave, serve, do service.
      1a of a nation in subjection to other nations.
   2 metaph.
   to obey, submit to.
      2a in a good sense, to yield obedience.
      2b in a bad sense, of those who become slaves to some base power, to yield to, give one’s self up to.
      

Frequency of Slavery (original languages)

Frequency of Slavery (English)

Dictionary

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Slave, Slavery
SLAVE, SLAVERY . The Heb. ‘ebhedh , usually tr. [1] ‘servant,’ has a variety of meanings, between which it is not always easy to distinguish. E.g. in 2 Samuel 9:2 ‘servant’ = retainer, in 1 Kings 9:20-2235 b = bondman, in 2 Samuel 9:11 = a polite expression of self-depreciation (cf. 2 Kings 4:1 and 1 Kings 9:22 ). In a discussion of Hebrew slavery only those passages will be dealt with in which the word probably has the sense of bondage .
1 . Legally the slave was a chattel . In the earliest code (Book of the Covenant [2]) he is called his master’s money ( Exodus 21:21 ). In the Decalogue he is grouped with the cattle ( Exodus 20:17 ), and so regularly in the patriarchal narratives ( Genesis 12:16 etc.). Even those laws which sought to protect the slave witness to his degraded position. In the BC the master is not punished for inflicting even a fatal flogging upon his slave, unless death follows immediately. If the slave lingers a day or two before dying, the master is given the benefit of the doubt as to the cause of his death, and the loss of the slave is regarded as a sufficient punishment ( Exodus 21:21 ). The jus talionis was not applicable to the slave as it was to the freeman (cf. Exodus 21:26 ff. with Exodus 21:22 ff.); and it is the master of the slave, not the slave himself, who is recompensed if the slave is gored by an ox ( Exodus 21:32 ). In these last two instances BC follows the Code of Hammurabi [3] (§§ 196 199, 252).
In practice the slave as a chattel was often subject to ill usage. He was flogged ( Exodus 21:20 , Proverbs 29:19 ), and at times heartlessly deserted ( 1 Samuel 30:11 ff.). Though the master is here an Amorite, the cases of runaway slaves in Israel bear testimony to their sufferings even at the hands of their fellow-countrymen; cf. the experiences of the churl Nabal ( 1 Samuel 25:10 ), of the passionate Shimei ( 1 Kings 2:39 ), and of Sarah ( Genesis 16:6 ); the implications as to the frequency of such cases in the law of Deuteronomy 23:15 ff. and in later times ( Sir 33:24-31 ). The position of the maid-servant was in general the same as that of the manservant. In the BC it is assumed that the maid-servant is at the same time a concubine ( Exodus 21:7 ff.; cf. Hagar, Zilpah, and Bilhah in the patriarchal narratives). Even in P [4] the idea of the slave-girl as property is still retained ( Leviticus 19:20 ). Here the punishment ‘for the violation of a slave-girl was almost certainly a fine to be paid to the master, if we may judge from the analogous law in Exodus 22:16 = Deuteronomy 22:28 ; i.e. it is an indemnity for injury to property. In practice the maid-servant, though the concubine of the master, is often the special property of the mistress ( Genesis 16:6 a, Genesis 16:9 , Genesis 25:12 , Genesis 30:3 ), at times having been given to her at marriage ( Genesis 24:56 ; Genesis 29:24 ; Genesis 29:29 ). She is subject to field labour ( Ruth 2:8 ff.) and to the lowest menial labour ( 1 Samuel 25:41 , figurative, but reflecting actual conditions).
Slaves were recruited (1) principally from war, at least in earliest times. Captives or subject populations were often employed not only as personal attendants, but also as public slaves at the Temple ( Joshua 9:23 ; Joshua 9:27 [5], Nehemiah 7:57-60 , and see art. Nethinim) or on public works in the corvçe ( Joshua 16:10 , Judges 1:28 ff., 1618737757_9 = 2 Chronicles 8:7-9 ), while captive women were especially sought as concubines or wives ( Deuteronomy 21:10-14 ). (2) From the slave-trade, of which the Israelites undoubtedly a vailed themselves (cf. the implications in Genesis 37:26 ; Genesis 17:12 , Leviticus 25:44 ). This trade was mainly in the hands of the Phœnicians and Edomites ( Amos 1:6 ; Amos 1:9 , Ezekiel 27:13 , Joel 3:6 ). (3) From native Israelites who bad become enslaved as a punishment for theft ( Exodus 22:1-4 ), whether for other crimes also is not stated; Josephus ( Ant. XVI. i. 1) knows of no other. (4) From native Israelites who, through poverty and debt, had been forced to sell themselves ( Exodus 21:2 , Amos 2:6 ; Amos 8:6 , Deuteronomy 15:12 , Leviticus 25:39 , Proverbs 11:29 [6] Proverbs 22:7 [6]) or their children ( Exodus 21:7 , 2 Kings 4:1 , Nehemiah 5:6 ; Nehemiah 5:8 , Isaiah 50:1 , Job 24:9 ) into servitude.
Whether the creditor had the right to force the debtor into slavery against his will is not clear. Exodus 21:2 and 2 Kings 4:1 (cf. Matthew 18:25 ) rather favour this view. The reflexive verb in Leviticus 25:39 a and in Deuteronomy 15:12 , where the same verbal form should probably be again translated by the reflexive, not by the passive as in RV [8] , favours voluntary servitude. But possibly the later codes are modifications of the earlier practice. Nehemiah 5:5 is ambiguous.
As to the number of slaves we have no adequate data. Genesis 14:14 cannot be used as evidence. The numbers in the corvçe ( 1 Kings 5:13 ; 1 Kings 5:15 ) are discrepant, and in any case probably do not refer to slaves proper. The prosperous retainer of Saul has 20 servants ( 2 Samuel 9:10 ). The proportion of slaves to freemen in Nehemiah 7:66 ff. 1 Timothy 6 1 Timothy 6 . The price of slaves naturally varied. The BC ( Exodus 21:32 ) fixes the average price at 30 shekels (about £4). CH in the same law allows but 17 shekels (§ 252, cf. 214). Joseph is sold for 20 shekels ( Genesis 37:26 ). In later times the price in Exodus seems to have been maintained ( 2Ma 8:11 ; Ant. XII. ii. 3).
2 . But while the slave was a chattel, nevertheless certain religious and civil rights and privileges were accorded him. In law the slave was regarded as an integral part of the master’s household ( Exodus 20:17 ), and, as such, an adherent of the family cult (cf. the instructive early narratives in Genesis 24:1-67 ; Genesis 16:1-16 ). Accordingly the BC ( Exodus 23:12 ) and the Decalogue ( Exodus 20:10 ) guarantee to him the Sabbath rest. Deuteronomy allows him a share in the religious feasts ( Deuteronomy 12:12 ; Deuteronomy 12:18 ; Deuteronomy 16:11 ; Deuteronomy 16:14 ), the humanitarian viewpoint being chiefly emphasized. In P [4] the more primitive idea of the slave as a member of the family, conceived as a religious unit, is still retained and utilized in the interest of religious exclusiveness. Thus, while the gçr (sojourner) cannot partake of the Passover unless circumcised, the slave must be circumcised and so is entitled to partake ( Exodus 12:44 ; cf. the narrative Genesis 17:12 ff.). Again, while the gçr in a priest’s family, or even the daughter of a priest who has married into a non-priestly family, may not eat of the holy things, the priest’s slave is allowed to do so ( Leviticus 22:10 ff.).
As to civil rights: In the BC, murder of the slave as well as of the freeman is punishable with death (Exodus 21:12 = Leviticus 24:17 ; the law is Inclusive). If death results from flogging, the master is also punished, conjecturally by a fine ( Exodus 21:20 ff.). If the slave is seriously maimed by his master, he is given his freedom ( Exodus 21:26 ff.). At this point the BC contrasts very favourably with the CH. The latter does not attempt to protect the slave’s person from the master, but only provides for an indemnity to the master if the slave is injured by another (199, 213, 214). While a man could be sold into slavery for debt (see above), man-stealing is prohibited on pain of death ( Exodus 21:16 = Deuteronomy 24:7 ). Deuteronomy interprets the Exodus law correctly as a prohibition against stealing a fellow-countryman. Deut. also forbids returning a slave who has escaped from a foreign master ( Deuteronomy 23:15 ff.). If the slave in this case were a non-Israelite (which, however, is not certain), the law would be a remarkable example of the humane tendencies in Deut. and would again contrast favourably with CH, which prescribes severe penalties for harbouring fugitive slaves ( Deuteronomy 23:16 ; Deuteronomy 23:19 ). The humane law for the protection of captive wives ( Deuteronomy 21:10-14 ) is also noticeable.
But practice often went far beyond law in mitigating the severity of servitude. Indeed, slavery in the ancient East generally was a comparatively easy lot. The slave is grouped with wife and child as part of the master’s household ( Exodus 20:17 ). Children are property and can be sold as well as slaves ( Exodus 21:7 ; cf. Exodus 22:16 = Deuteronomy 22:28 where the daughter is regarded as the father’s property). Children are flogged as well as slaves ( Proverbs 13:24 ). Wives were originally bought from the parents, and wives and concubines are often almost indistinguishable. Hence the lot of the slave was probably not much harder than that of wife or child (cf. Galatians 4:1 ), and the law implies the possibility of a genuine affection existing between master and man ( Exodus 21:5 = Deuteronomy 15:16 ). Accordingly we find many illustrations of the man-servant rising to a position of importance. He may he intrusted with the most delicate responsibilities ( Genesis 24:1-67 ), may be the heir of his master ( Genesis 15:1-4 ), is often on intimate terms with and advises the master ( Judges 19:3 ff., 1 Samuel 9:5 ff.), the custom of having body-servants (Heb. na‘ar , Num 22:22 , 1 Kings 18:43 , 2 Kings 4:12 , Nehemiah 4:22 etc.) favouring such intimacies, and he may even marry his master’s daughter ( 1 Chronicles 2:34 ff.; cf. similar cases in CH § 175 ff.). Especially servants of important men enjoy a reflected dignity ( 1 Samuel 9:22 , 2 Kings 8:4 ). The rise of servants into positions of prominence was so frequent as to be the subject of making-making ( Proverbs 14:35 ; Proverbs 17:2 ; Proverbs 19:10 ; Proverbs 30:22 a).
Whether a servant could own property while remaining a servant is not clear. The passages adduced in favour of it (1 Samuel 9:8 [10], 2 Samuel 9:2 ff; 2 Samuel 16:1 ff. [11], Leviticus 25:49 b [12]) are not pertinent. Deuteronomy 15:13 makes against it, but not necessarily, and the fact that in Arabia and Babylonia (CH § 176) the slave could own property awakens a presumption in favour of the same custom in Israel.
Under a good house-wife the maid-servant would be well taken care of (
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Slave, Slavery
State of being subjected to involuntary servitude. It usually included being legally owned as property by another person. Slavery in the biblical world was complex and normally very different than the slavery of the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Western world.
Slavery in the Ancient Near East . This historical and legal antecedents to slavery in the Old Testament are derived from the nations of the Fertile Crescent, ranging from Babylon to Egypt. The society of the ancient Near Eastern world had three major categories: free, semifree, and slave. All social structures were defined within these categories. Pictorial impressions of war captives suggesting slavery have survived from the fourth millennium b.c. The specific literary evidence, however, is contained in a number of law codes that have survived from Babylonia and Assyria. These documents provide information concerning slavery in the ancient Near East that conditioned the culture in which Israel's ideologies developed. The Ur-Nammu Code (2050 b.c.) is one of the oldest; the Code of Hammurabi (ca. 1700 b.c.) is probably the most well known. The earliest Sumerian terms for slaves indicate that enslaved captives of war from foreign countries constituted the initial category of slaves. Slaves were treated in the legal codes as property, not human beings. If a slave was killed by another, the main concern was to settle on the price for the lost property.
The Old Testament . The Old Testament record of Israel's origin and development demonstrates that they functioned within the cultural milieu of their own time. God's self-disclosure and direction to his elect nation often accommodated existing cultural aspects. While such accommodation reflects God's way of dealing with his creation, it does not necessarily imply his ideal will. Slavery is accepted in the Old Testament as part of the world in which Israel functioned. It is not abolished but regulated. The legal codes for that regulation (Exodus 21 ; Leviticus 25 ; Deuteronomy 15 ) and the numerous texts that reflect Israel's development in this domain indicate an increasing humanization of slavery in contrast to the rest of the ancient Near East. The Hebrew slave was more protected than those of other nationalities. The Old Testament raised the status of the slave from property to that of a human being who happened to be owned by another person (
Exodus 21:20,26-27 ; Job 31:13-15 ; Ecclesiastes 7:21-22 ). The fact that Israel was enslaved in Egypt may have influenced this development (Leviticus 25:39-43 ; Deuteronomy 5:15 ; 15:13-15 ; Joel 2:29 ).
The Old Testament provides numerous opportunities for the manumission of slaves. Freedom could be purchased (Leviticus 25:48-55 ). The Hebrew slave was to be released in the Sabbatical and Jubilee year cycles (Exodus 21:2-4 ; Leviticus 25:40-43 ). Inhumane treatment by masters was grounds for release (Exodus 21:7-11,26-27 ; Deuteronomy 21:14 ). Some were released by the direct command of Yahweh (Jeremiah 34:8-10 ).
The terminology for slavery permeated relational metaphors in Israel. It was adopted as a metaphor to image the believer's relationship to Yahweh and is more appropriately translated servant rather than slave (cf. Jeremiah 2:14 ). Leaders such as Moses, Joshua, and David were servants of the Lord. All the citizens of Israel were viewed as servants of their earthly king (1 Samuel 17:8 ). Those who were in subordinate positions to others were referred to as servants without implying formal slavery.
The New Testament . The New Testament in contrast with the Old Testament does not record the origin and development of a national entity. Therefore, its references to slaves and slavery are more coincidental and secondary. The Gospels refer to slaves as part of the fabric of society. The personal slave of a centurion (Matthew 8:5-13 ) or of a high priest (Matthew 26:51 ) is a natural part of the narrative. Incidental references to the everyday functions of slaves are numerous. Jesus frequently used slave motifs in his parables because such images were the common stock of his audiences. His mere reference to the social phenomenon neither approved nor condemned its existence.
Paul's epistle to Philemon and his treatment of household codes directly addresses the issue of owner and slave relationships. Paul reflects the dual worlds for which Christians are responsible. He recognizes the legal ownership of Philemon by returning the runaway slave Onesimus (vv. 12-14). He also emphasizes the human relational changes that are the result of believing in Christ. Onesimus now has the status of a brother (v. 16) and thereby deserves to be viewed as such. Paul's statement in verse 16a, "no longer as a slave, " does not abolish the legal issue but highlights the new spiritual relationship. The tone of Paul's appeal for Onesimus may well imply his desire that Philemon give Onesimus his freedom, but Paul comes short of demanding this response. It is Philemon's decision.
The household codes that address slaves call for Christian integrity within existing structures, even when these structures have what can be perceived as negative consequences (cf. Ephesians 5:22-6:9 ; Colossians 3:18-4:1 ; 1 Timothy 6:1-2 ; cf. 1 Peter 2:13-3:7 ). Paul's instructions to slaves calls for them to fulfill their obligations to human masters as if they were rendering service to Christ. The motive for providing honest and dedicated service is that the Christian witness may be advanced. These texts reflect the missionary mandate Christ gave to the apostles for his church (Matthew 28:18-20 ). While early Christian teaching contained humanitarian emphases (cf. Matthew 24:45-51 ; Luke 15:22 ; 17:7 ) and has often resulted in social change, there is no social mandate to abolish slavery in these texts. The revolutionary nature of the early church is contained in the concept of being "in Christ." The result of being "in Christ" is, on the one hand, spiritual egalitarianism (Galatians 3:23-25 ), and on the other, responsible behavior within existing structures.
Christ plays on the concept of servant to image his own mission (Mark 10:45 ; Luke 22:27 ). The epistolary literature focuses on the figurative usage of slave. These books frequently use the primary term for slave, doulos [ Romans 1:1 ; Philippians 1:1 ; 2 Timothy 2:24 ; Titus 1:1 ; James 1:1 ; 1 Peter 2:16 ; 2 Peter 1:1 ), to fellow believers (2 Corinthians 4:5 ), and even to sin (Romans 6:20 ). This is a most striking metaphor because a Greek person linked personal dignity and freedom together. Freedom was power and something about which to be proud. The use of doulos [ 1 Corinthians 7:22 ; Ephesians 6:6 ; Colossians 4:12 ).
Gary T. Meadors
Bibliography . R. Lyall, Slaves, Citizens, Sons ; I. Mendelsohn, IDB, 4:383-91; N. R. Petersen, Rediscovering Paul: Philemon and the Sociology of Paul's Narrative World ; J. Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts ; E. Schrer, The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ ; J. E. Stambaugh and D. L. Balch, The New Testament in Its Social Environment ; W. L. Westermann, The Slave Systems of Greek and Roman Antiquity .
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Slave, Slavery
1. Universal prevalence in the Apostolic Age.-Slavery was a conspicuous and unchallenged feature of the social order into the midst of which Christianity was born. Modern readers easily fail to realize its presence in the background of the NT Scriptures, so great are the social changes that have been brought about in the course of time, and so much is the harsh fact softened by the phrasing of our versions. The Authorized Version ‘servant,’ with its present connotation, is a very mild equivalent for δοῦλος; the Revised Version ‘bond-servant’ is clearer, but is still a euphemistic substitute for ‘slave’-the term which exactly represents what the δοῦλος of the NT really was. In the only instance in which the English Versions use the term ‘slaves’ in the NT (Revelation 18:13) it represents a late but significant use of σῶμα (‘body’). Similarly, the English Versions ‘master’ stands for terms (whether δεσπότης or the commoner κύριος) that imply ownership. The existence of slavery must have lent special vividness and point to the early use of redemption as a figure to describe the experience of salvation.
In the old civilization of the world slavery appears as a most natural and inevitable fact. The well-known Code of Hammurabi, fragmentary as it is, affords us considerable insight into the social conditions of Babylonia as existing more than twenty centuries before the Christian era. Therein we have a number of remarkable laws regulating relations between slaves and their owners, side by side with others dealing with the wages payable for the employment of different kinds of free labour. And, most probably with a real relation to this older legal system, we have at a later period the Mosaic legislation similarly embodying slave laws, slavery having been just as much a recognized part of the system of things among the Hebrews as among other ancient peoples. Only the Pentateuchal Code (or Codes) must be admitted to be marked by a conspicuous humanity in this as in some other respects, and especially in the Deuteronomic form (see, e.g., Deuteronomy 15:12 ff.). The existence of slavery, indeed, was so old and general a phenomenon in human history that St. Augustine could explain it only as a result of sin, so sure was he that it was not the Divine intention that man should own and lord it over his fellow-man (de Civ. Dei, xix. 15). (St. Chrysostom takes a similar line in Hom. xl. ad 1 Cor. x. 5.) Incidentally he comments more suo on the fact that the term ‘servus’ first appears in Scripture in the strange Genesis story of the curse of Canaan (Genesis 9:25)-a source whence, curiously enough, many a Christian owner of negro slaves in modern times has derived ‘flattering unction’ in defence of his position.
But never was slavery more conspicuous as a social institution than it was in the Roman Empire in the 1st cent. a.d. Numerous wars of conquest had swollen the numbers of the slave class to an enormous extent: for all prisoners of war were made slaves as a matter of course. Slave-dealers followed the armies on their campaigns and purchased on the spot those who were taken captive. Indeed, St. Augustine (loc. cit.) gives currency to a popular etymology of the term ‘servus,’ deriving it from the verb ‘servare.’ The servus was a man who might justly have been slain, but was preserved alive by the conqueror, though inevitably doomed to lose his freedom. There was, moreover, a regular slave-trade carried on in the East, the markets being abundantly supplied from the barbarous tribes of Western Asia. Barbarians were regarded as being naturally designed to be the slaves of their superiors-a sentiment not wholly wanting even yet in many white people towards the ‘inferior races.’
As in the Greek States at an earlier period the slaves numbered four or five times as many as the citizens proper, so the proportion in the Roman Empire must have been similarly great. Thus Pliny (Historia Naturalis (Pliny) xxxiii. 47) mentions a wealthy Roman, named Claudius Isidorus, of the time of Augustus, who left by will 4116 slaves as part of his possessions. When, too, it was proposed that slaves should wear a distinctive dress, the proposal was abandoned lest this should reveal their strength; and Roman history had already furnished evidence of grim possibilities in the serious slave wars of Sicily which occurred in the latter part of the 2nd cent. b.c. Similar considerations caused the enactment of severe laws that supplied drastic in terrorem methods for keeping slaves in subjection. Tacitus mentions the case of Pedanius Secundus, prefect of the city, who had been murdered by one of his slaves, and under a law requiring that, should a slave kill his master, all the slaves of the same household should forfeit their lives, some 400 of the culprit’s fellow-slaves were put to death at Rome a.d. 61 (Ann. xiv. 42).
2. The ‘libertini.’-As an outcome of the system of slavery, the class of libertini or freedmen, which formed so conspicuous a feature of Roman society, calls for passing notice. These were citizens who either had actually been slaves themselves aforetime or were the immediate descendants of freed slaves. They must have far outnumbered the free-born, and possessed overwhelming influence in the State. Manumission was of frequent occurrence. The enormous numbers of captives reduced to slavery after every war, and the frequent fluctuations in great Roman establishments, all tended to make manumission easy. Many slaves were permitted by their masters to accumulate savings and purchase their freedom with the money. Sometimes the enfranchisement was accomplished by the solemn rite of fictitious purchase on the part of some divinity. The slave first paid the purchase money which he had saved into the treasury of some temple: then owner and slave went together to the temple, and the latter was supposed to be sold to the god, the price being duly paid to the master. The slave became technically the property of the god (and was indeed regarded as his protégé), but was to all intents and purposes, and especially as regards his former master, a completely free man. In inscriptions and papyri frequent references are to be found to slaves who had been bought by this or that god for freedom. The practice sheds much light on the argument pursued by St. Paul in Galatians 4, 5 (see A. Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East [1]). Manumission was often regarded as a normal result of faithful service. A man would emancipate slaves in individual cases during his own life-time, whilst very commonly a master would set a multitude at liberty on his death-bed or by will. But such wholesale emancipation was attended with evils of its own. One result was to flood the citizens’ roll with crowds of ‘undesirables.’ On this account Augustus ordained (lex Furia Caninia, a.d. 8) that in no case should more than 100 slaves be emancipated by will.
When a slave was set free not by a legal but by an extra-legal process, i.e. by a simple exercise of authority on the part of his master, a kind of feudal tie still united the two. The freedman was his master’s cliens, his master being now known as his patronus. A Roman noble depended very much on the multitude of his ‘clients’ for his political and social importance. Only in the third generation did these restrictions disappear and the family of the freedman come into the enjoyment of complete liberty. But the power possessed by this class in the early Christian period was very great: emancipated slaves or their descendants occupied all kinds of State offices. The libertini, too, prospered greatly in trade and commerce, being, indeed, as a class notorious for their ambition to amass wealth. The literature of the early Empire exhibits many of them as playing the part of the nouveaux riches and vulgarly emulating the luxury of aristocratic palaces.
3. Evils of slavery.-The evils of slavery were manifold, deep-seated, far-reaching. If, as Matthew Arnold puts it,
‘On that hard Pagan world disgust
And secret loathing fell.
Deep weariness and sated lust
Made human life a hell’
(Obermann once More, lines 93-96),
the evils of slavery contributed materially to that result.
(a) The slave population was necessarily a hot-bed of vice, contaminating all who came into contact with it. Moral excellence was not expected in a slave. He was only ‘an animated chattel’ (κτῆμα ἔμψυχον): a tool could similarly be described as ‘an inanimate slave’ (ἄψυχος δοῦλος). (Cf. Varro’s classification of implements, in de Re rust. I. xvii. 1: (1) those with voice and speech, e.g. slaves; (2) those with voice but not speech, e.g. oxen; (3) those without voice, e.g. wagons.) The term ‘slaves’ occurs only once in English Versions of the NT, viz. in Revelation 18:13 as a crowning item in Babylon’s merchandise: and there it represents σώματα (‘bodies’). How significant that σῶμα thus came to denote a slave! The somewhat similar use of the term ‘hands’ in modern industrialism-with subtle possibilities of suggestion lurking in the use-has often been remarked upon. Vast numbers of slaves hailed from Greece, from Western Asia, and from Egypt, whose great cities were the notorious seats of the wildest abominations; and their vices flourished with unimpeded growth.
(b) Luxury and extravagance increased in society as slaves increased in numbers and were more easily acquired. Friedländer points out that in great houses large numbers of slaves were kept merely for ostentatious display. Their service was often limited to ridiculously insignificant functions. Some had only to act as torch-bearers, or as street-attendants: there were instances in which slaves had merely ‘to serve as clocks and announce the hours’ (Roman Life and Manners under the Early Empire, ii. 219). Masters and mistresses were thus spared every kind of personal exertion. Clement of Alexandria gives a scathing account of these evils in PCEdagogus, iii. 4.
(c) A tyrannical and ferocious spirit found easy development in the masters. There was always the temptation to treat slaves worse than dogs. Moreover, an iron rule seemed the only means of keeping slaves in subjection and guarding against outbreaks of violence. Masters could not feel perfectly sure even of slaves born on their estates, how much less of those who could be described as a rabble of various nationalities! (Tacitus, Ann. xiv. 44). This state of things gave rise to the proverb: ‘Quot servi, tot hostes.’ The master might reckon every slave he had as a foe.
(d) The economic influence of slavery was disastrous. Trade and labour came more and more to be carried on by slaves. Poor citizens found themselves almost entirely excluded from ways of getting an honourable livelihood, and suffered degradation in consequence. Many even came to regard trade with repugnance. They betook themselves to corrupt and corrupting occupations, as actors, pantomimes, hired gladiators, political spies, and the like. Large numbers lived in idleness, having corn given them as a right and amusements gratuitously provided (‘panem et circenses’).
(e) Friedländer and others emphasize as the most revolting feature of slavery its ‘contemptuous disregard of human dignity’ (op. cit., p. 221). But this is to speak from a modern point of view. We may well agree with J. S. Mill that what most injures and dishonours a country is ‘the personal slavery of human beings’; but it has taken the world many centuries to realize this. The average Roman citizen of the 1st cent. would be incapable of such a sentiment.
4. The better side of things.-There must, however, have been not a few lights to relieve the heavy shadows of such a system. Instances are not wanting of kindly affection in masters and of loyal devotion in slaves. Tacitus tells of the slave-girls of Octavia who braved torture and death in defence of her good name (Ann. xiv. 60). Slaves were to be found who preferred to remain slaves even when offered the chance of manumission (see the case of a slave belonging to the famous Maecenas referred to by Suetonius, de Gramm. Illustr. 21). Deuteronomy 15:16 f., it may be remembered, provides for such a case as a quite possible thing as regards slavery among the Hebrews. There must have been many houses like that of the younger Pliny, in which, as Seneca says, slaves were regarded as ‘humble friends and real members of the family’ (Ep. 47. See also de Benef. iii. 21). Inscriptions, again, often reveal a better side of slave life, testifying to mutual love between master and servant, and also to faithful love between slave-husband and wife, even though de iure slaves could not occupy the status of matrimony (Dill, Roman Society from Nero to Marcus Aurelius, p. 117).
Many a slave found some amelioration of his lot in being (with his master’s permission) a member of one of the numerous collegia or sodalities which formed such a feature of plebeian society in those days. These clubs or unions, as an institution, were of great antiquity, and were maintained ‘for protection against oppression, for mutual sympathy and support, for relief from the deadly dulness of an obscure and sordid life’ (Dill, op. cit., p. 256). In their gatherings fraternity found expression: slave could meet with freeman on equal terms and fully share in the same rights and privileges. Such gilds, indeed, most probably furnished to some extent the model on which the first societies of Christians were formed.
It must also be said that from the time of Augustus onwards a growingly humane sentiment made itself felt in legislation which decidedly improved the condition of the slave. The fact, also, that many people of superior ability, such as physicians, sculptors, and littérateurs, were of this class made legislative reforms urgent. The mass of laws dealing with slavery was immense (see Buckland, The Roman Law of Slavery). By the changes that were made from time to time the absolute power of masters over slaves for life or death was curtailed. Thus, the Lex Petronia (in the time of Augustus or Nero) prohibited masters from condemning slaves to fight with wild beasts unless with judicial sanction. Under Nero, a special judge was appointed to hear complaints of slaves, and now masters could be punished for ill-treating them. There is on record a case in which Hadrian exiled a Roman lady for five years for treating her slaves with atrocious cruelty.
5. Christianity and slavery.-One thing is clear, however surprising it may seem to some: it was no part of the Christian propaganda to attack slavery as a system and seek its overthrow. But, as B. F. Westcott incidentally remarks, ‘the abolition of slavery would have seemed in the first age more impossible than universal peace’ (Lessons from Work, London, 1901, p. 179). The existing social order was accepted as a fact. The Christian message addressed itself primarily to men in themselves. It had nothing to say as to their environment, their social status, the government and laws under which they lived-except so far as there were usages and characteristics of society to be denounced (e.g. idolatry, impurity, cruelty) as in deadly conflict with the cultivation of Christian character. So far from directly advocating efforts to effect social changes, Christianity rather counselled its adherents to acquiesce in their condition, though, as far as the servile class was concerned, their lot too commonly was degraded and hopeless.
Jesus Himself used the relation of master and slave to illustrate His teaching, without any word condemning slavery as an evil in itself (see, e.g., Matthew 18:23 ff.). So, too, St. Paul in his Epistles has nothing to say against the institution. Indeed, in one important passage (1 Corinthians 7:20-24) he definitely counsels slave converts to stay contentedly in their lot, even if they should have an opportunity to become free. The rendering of the English Versions (‘use it rather’) is enigmatical; and certainly from early times some have understood the Apostle’s phrase (μᾶλλον χρῆσαι) thus rendered to mean, ‘take your freedom, if you can get it,’ but there is more to be said for viewing it as counselling them to stay as they were. (Revised Version margin dimly indicates this.) Again, in his letter to Philemon (that little classic in the literature of slavery), St. Paul does not dream of suggesting that Onesimus should be set at liberty because he has become a Christian. Nor is this attitude to be explained merely by the fact that St. Paul was absorbed in the expectation of the Parousia and the break-up of all society in the near future (as A. E. Garvie suggests in Studies of Paul and his Gospel, London, 1911, pp. 73, 304). Rather, surely, slavery was so ancient and established a feature in the social framework as to be regarded as quite natural. Besides, in the Apostle’s eyes, a slave could be as good a Christian as a freeman. The life of faith, the spiritual experience, was the one thing that mattered; and ‘in Christ’ the distinction between slave and freeman, like other distinctions, was of no moment (Colossians 3:11, etc.). And then, did not the Lord Himself assume the μορφὴ δούλου?-a consideration repeatedly used by the Fathers of the Early Church in consoling and encouraging believers who were slaves.
From the first both slaves and slave-owners were found in the ranks of the Christian society. No doubt the greater proportion of converts to the Faith came from the servile class-witness St. Paul’s references in 1 Corinthians 1 and elsewhere; but, as Friedländer says, the evangel ‘certainly penetrated often enough from the cell of the slave to the house of the master’ (op. cit., iii. 195). There was many another Philemon as well as many another Onesimus. Otherwise there would be little point in the reiterated NT counsels addressed to masters and slaves. Athenagoras, the 2nd cent. apologist, mentions as a simple matter of fact: ‘We have slaves, some more and some fewer’ (Apol. 35). In the persecution at Lyons, a.d. 177, pagan slaves gave evidence against their Christian masters (Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiastica (Eusebius, etc.) v. 1). And, again, from Constantine’s time onwards we find numerous laws in operation dealing with the case of Christian slaves. Thus, Jews (against whom, especially as proselytizers, strict laws also existed in the Early Empire) were forbidden to possess such.
Yet the principles of Christianity were bound in time to act as powerful solvents on this institution. They contributed to its ultimate downfall. For one thing, Christianity set up a new order of relations that did not recognize class-distinctions. Master and slave sat together at the Agape, received the sacred elements together, and joined together in public worship. The Epistle to Philemon, though written to restore a runaway slave to his master, had within it the seeds of revolution in the words, ‘No longer as a bondservant, but … a brother beloved’ (v. 16). In penitential discipline, wrongs done to a slave were not distinguished from wrongs done to a freeman. Church legislation carefully guarded the chastity of female slaves. Slave-birth was no bar to admission to the priesthood; e.g. Callistus, a 3rd cent. bishop of Rome, was originally a slave. Many names of slaves appear in the roll of the martyrs, and the memories of such as Blandina, Felicitas, and Vitalis, who suffered in the persecutions of the first two centuries, received highest honour.
Again, Christianity placed a high value on what might be called servile virtues-the qualities that any master would esteem as most desirable in his slaves. Humility, obedience, patience, gentleness, resignation are cardinal virtues in a Christian. Jesus said to His disciples, when speaking of the high-handed exercise of authority and power in the world, ‘Not so shall it be among you’ (Matthew 20:26), and apostolic teaching followed the same line. It emphasized qualities that paganism neglected or under-rated, as was only natural since Roman society in general held slaves in utter contempt.
Primitive Christian teaching, however, in relation to the various duties of life, kept the balance even as between masters and slaves. That teaching in its essence still supplies the fundamental principle for regulating similar relations (masters and servants, employers and employees) under whatever changed conditions they may continue to exist. Masters were warned against a tyrannical spirit, a disdainful inhumanity; slaves were counselled to avoid ‘eye-service’ and do their work as for Christ (Ephesians 6:5 ff.), and even to be patiently submissive towards hard masters (1 Peter 2:18). So also the Didache (4) exhorts Christian masters not to show harshness towards their slaves, ‘whose hope is in the same God,’ and slaves to submit to their lords as being a type, or copy, of God. The regulating consideration for both parties is summarily given in the so-called Apostolic Constitutions (iv. 12); it is their common humanity-‘even as he is a man.’ The warning addressed to slaves in 1 Timothy 6:1 f. is noticeable, and by no means superfluous, human nature being what it is. If their masters were fellow-believers, they were not to despise them, ‘because they are brethren.’ similarly Ignatius (Ep. ad Polyc. 4): ‘Do not despise slaves, yet neither let them be puffed up with conceit, but rather submit themselves the more (sc. as Christian slaves with Christian masters) for the glory of God.’ He adds: ‘Let them not long to be set free at the public expense, lest they be found slaves to their own desires.’ With the continuance of slavery in the Christian era the need for such counsels continued. How imperfectly Christians sometimes followed them may be gathered from the simple fact that the Synod of Elvira (circa, about a.d. 300) could legislate for the possibility that a Christian mistress might whip her handmaid to death (Canon v.).
The Church also in the course of time sought to bring about practical ameliorations of the state of servitude. A surprising illustration of this is afforded by Apostolic Constitutions, viii. 33, where it is laid down that slaves are to be exempt from labour at all the great ecclesiastical seasons, on the days of apostles and martyrs, and on both the Jewish Sabbath and the Lord’s Day. The reference to enfranchisement ‘at the public expense’ found in the quotation from Ignatius given above points also to the encouragement given by Christianity to the liberation of slaves as its influence increased. Christian slaves, as such, had no claim to help from the Church in order to purchase their freedom, yet cases occurred in which such help was given. After the time of Constantine still more is heard of the manumission of slaves by Christian masters. It came to be regarded as a meritorious, and even expiatory, act.
It must be fully admitted that in the ancient non-Christian world there were those who felt the manifold evils of slavery. Sentiments of enlarged philanthropy were not wanting. Among the Jews, the community of the Essenes, with their interesting experiment in social reconstruction, must not be forgotten. Philo says: ‘There is not a slave amongst them, but all are free’ (Quod omnis probus liber, 12). The Stoics held the fraternity of mankind. ‘We are members of one great body,’ says Seneca (Ep. 95), and the same spirit breathes in many of his writings. Cicero, too, emphatically proclaims universal brotherhood (see, e.g., de Officiis, iii. 6). Still, such voices were comparatively rare. Men for the most part acquiesced in the system: some argued for its necessity. It is idle to ask if humaner sentiments would have gained force in time and brought about the overthrow of slavery, had Christianity not emerged. All that we know is that Christianity, with all its imperfections, is the one power that has most effectively led to such a result.
6. In no instance has the incubus of slavery been easily or speedily removed. Serfdom, that modified form of slavery, lingered in Europe well into the last century. In Scotland colliers were legally serfs up to the end of the 18th cent.; and Archibald Geikie (Scottish Reminiscences, Glasgow, 1904, p. 341) speaks of having talked in his boyhood with men and women who had been born in servitude and had worked as serfs in the pits of Midlothian. And long after the system itself in any particular instance has disappeared, its baneful effects are clearly traceable, sometimes in conditions of national decadence, as Wallon says regarding Greece: ‘degradation of the man, disorganization of the family, ruin of the States-these were the certain effects of slavery’ (Histoire de l’esclavage dans l’antiquité, i. 452). Our very language, too, bears witness to long-lingering legacies in character and temper derived from this source, e.g. in ‘servility’ and a ‘domineering’ spirit-both hateful things.
Slavery still exists in various parts of the world, and anti-slavery campaigns are not unnecessary. The sons of freedom themselves sometimes succumb to the temptation to make slaves practically of their weaker fellow-men. If the cause of worldwide liberty for men is to prosper, the teaching of the NT must have full effect given to it. Christians have, indeed, sometimes defended slavery (as in America), and often failed to carry out the Christian doctrine of brotherhood: but the doctrine is there, and its corollary is liberty. Nor has Christianity wholly failed in exemplifying both brotherhood and the passion for freedom. It is surely bias that makes I. Benzinger hold up Islâm and ancient Israel as perfect examples of ‘the brotherhood in the faith,’ and declare that this ‘has come to be, in the Christian world, a mere empty phrase’ (article ‘slavery,’ in Encyclopaedia Biblica iv. 4658; also in his Hebräische Archäologie2, Tübingen, 1907, article ‘sklaven’).
Literature.-H. Wallon, Histoire de l’esclavage dans l’antiquité2, 3 vols., Paris, 1879; W. W. Buckland, The Roman Law of Slavery, Cambridge, 1908; L. Friedländer, Roman Life and Manners under the Early Empire (translation from Die Sittengeschichte Roms7, Leipzig, 1901), 3 vols., London, 1908-1909; S. Dill, Roman Society from Nero to Marcus Aurelius, do., 1904; W. E. H. Lecky, History of European Morals7, 2 vols., do., 1886; J. B. Lightfoot, Colossians and Philemon, do., 1879, Philippians 4, do., 1878 (Excursus on ‘Caesar’s Household’).
J. S. Clemens.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Slave, Slavery (2)
SLAVE, SLAVERY.—While δοῦλος is the general term for ‘a slave,’ οἰκέτης (Luke 16:13; cf. Acts 10:7, Romans 14:4, 1 Peter 2:18) denotes specifically one employed in household service or in immediate attendance upon the master or δεσπότης. Except in the latter form the institution did not flourish amongst the Jews in NT times. Field-work was done generally by hired labourers (μίσθιος, Luke 15:17; or less technically ἐργάτης, Matthew 10:10; Matthew 20:1, cf. James 5:4). In large houses, especially of a Gentile (Luke 7:2) or foreign type, there would be slaves, generally of non-Jewish or mixed blood, as also in the great establishments of the Sadducaean and priestly aristocracy. In Palestine the institution was familiar enough in experience as well as tradition to supply popular illustrations and give point to practical religious teaching; but features met with in Greek and especially in Roman usage must not be transferred without modification to the Jewish practice. Not only were the dimensions different, but the prevalent oppression and fear in the one case were replaced in the other by a general spirit of kindliness and content.
1. Jewish slaves abroad.—On several occasions before the Fall of Jerusalem, large numbers of Jews had been deported and sold into captivity. Such incidents were frequent during the wars of the Seleucids and Ptolemies (cf. 1 Maccabees 3:41, 2 Maccabees 8:21), and recur during the period of the Roman over-rule (Josephus BJ vi. ix. 3). Herod ordained that thieves should be sold to foreigners; but the enactment aroused such a degree of animosity as rendered its enforcement impracticable (Josephus Ant. xvi. i. 1). The supply of Jewish slaves was kept up almost entirely from among prisoners taken in the numerous campaigns, and the children of those who were already in captivity, with a few who lost their freedom under the laws of the foreign country or city in which they resided. Their treatment, like that of other slaves, was as a rule cruel to the degree of barbarity. Exceptions are met with, where courtesy to slaves is commended, as by Seneca (Ep. xlvii.). But the great mass of evidence is on the other side. Pallas, a brother of Felix (Acts 23:24), considered his slaves too abject to be spoken to, and would signify his pleasure to them only by a gesture or nod (Tac. Ann. xiii. 23). The slave was merely property, and could be transferred like any other property. He was incapable of contracting a legal marriage, and was not regarded as invested with any rights. On the ground of expediency, he was gradually protected against excessive cruelty. By the Lex Petronia, which may have been first enacted in the time of Augustus, a slave could not be punished by condemnation to fight with gladiators or wild beasts; and the master’s power of life and death was threatened, if not actually restricted, by Claudius. In such hesitating improvements of their condition Jewish slaves abroad would share.
The redemption of Jewish slaves was regarded in theory as a sacred duty (cf. Nehemiah 5:8); but there is no evidence of any general attempt during our period to acquire the merit of such service. The wealth of the country was chiefly in the hands of those sections of the people in whom racial feeling was not strong; and the majority were at once too poor and too much hindered by political conditions to be able to act in other than rare individual cases. The price of a slave, or of his redemption, varied with his qualities, and with the state of the market. Exact particulars for the 1st cent, are not available. Ptolemy Philadelphus redeemed Jewish captives in Egypt at the price of 120 drachmae, or about £4 each (Josephus Ant. xii. ii. 3). And Nicanor endeavoured to raise the Roman tribute of 2000 talents by the sale of Jews at the rate of ninety per talent (2 Maccabees 8:10 f.).
2. Slaves in Palestine.—Nehemiah’s influence had made it a fundamental rule in Jewish practice that no Jew should be held as a slave by another Jew (cf. Nehemiah 5:8); and as the rule obtained also in Talmudical times (cf. Winter, Die Stellung der Sklaven, 10 ff.), it is almost certain to have been observed in the intermediate period. Even thieves were not to be reduced to a state of permanent slavery; and while the disorganization of trade due to a strict observance of the Sabbatic law of Deuteronomy 15:1-11 was prevented by Hillel’s statute of Prosbol, which made registered debts always recoverable, other means were adopted of freeing poor Jews from the burden of their mortgages than that of their reduction to actual servitude. Work was accepted and required as a substitute for repayment, but as far as possible the personal freedom of the debtor was respected. In regard to females, the Talmud decides that a wife can never be sold into slavery, but that a daughter under marriageable age can; with the apparent proviso that, if she be sold again, the purchaser must not be a foreigner. Amongst the Essenes, the holding of slaves was unknown and not allowed (Philo, ed. Mang. ii. 457, 482; Josephus Ant. xviii. i. 5). In a few of the great houses of alien officials there would be the retinue usual in other lands; but even then the slaves would be chiefly of Canaanitish or mixed blood. In Jewish houses free service was the rule for men, whilst some of the girls might be servile in status, though comparatively unrestrained. By law, and even more effectually by usage and public sentiment, they were protected from many cruelties customarily practised upon their class elsewhere.
3. Treatment of slaves.—Discipline without undue laxity was recognized as the right treatment of slaves (cf. Sirach 33:24 ff., where the two prominent features are the severity to which the discipline might legally be carried, viz., ‘yoke and thong’ and even ‘racks and tortures.’ and the kindliness that was the customary rule). So in NT times the master could legally imprison or chastise a slave (Matthew 25:30, Luke 12:46 with the alternative rendering ‘severely scourge’), though the power of life and death was withheld, as also any punishment that led to the loss of a limb. An early tradition recounts a controversy between Pharisees and Sadducees, assumed to have taken place in or about our period, as to the incidence of the responsibility for an injury done by a slave (Yadayim, iv. 7). The solution of the Pharisees was that the slave himself, and not the master, must be held responsible, as the slave was capable of reasoning, and not to be classed with beasts of burden. Another regulation (Babâ kammâ, viii. 4) required the slave to make compensation on his release, and thus has clearly in view a case of temporary servitude amongst Jews, akin to those met with in the OT.
At a time when Pharisaism was predominant, such slaves as were found in a Jewish household, whether Hebrews or aliens by birth, had on religious grounds to be treated humanely. They shared the family worship, and in regard to obligations were classed with the women and children as bound to observe all religious ritual in the home, except the repetition of the Shema‘ and the wearing of phylacteries. Laws of an earlier date required the circumcision of slaves (Genesis 17:12) and their participation in feast and sacrifice (Deuteronomy 12:18; Deuteronomy 16:11). Such regulations could not have fallen into desuetude without involving the ceremonial pollution from which it was one of the first objects of the legalists of the first century to escape. The knitting together of master and slave in religious bonds supplied a strong motive for kindness and forbearance. And in later literature the life of the Jewish home is represented as united and happy, master and slave partaking of the same food, exchanging words of respect and tenderness, and mourning over the separation effected by death (Berakhôth 16b, Kethubôth 61). Altogether the condition of slavery, as far as it existed, was much less oppressive than in Greece or Rome, and was already being superseded by the freer relationships of voluntary service, which alone are in complete accord with the genius of Christianity.
4. Teaching of the Gospels.—The institution of slavery was not directly condemned by Christ, but its continuance was undermined by the new principles of social life which He emphasized. Supreme praise is passed upon service marked by absolute submission (Mark 10:44). The title of slave is appropriated to the highest usage (Matthew 21:34, Mark 12:2; Mark 12:4, Luke 20:10 f.), and sanction is thus given to the practice which had applied it to Moses (cf. Joshua 14:7, Psalms 105:26), and made it the formal style of a prophet (cf. Jeremiah 7:25, Zechariah 1:6, and the Pauline usage of the term). Redemptive love recognizes no distinctions of sex or status, but makes men of all social ranks equally responsible for their attitude towards God; and thus society becomes an organism of free men, amongst whom the only authority that is strictly imperial or beyond questioning is that of Christ. The bond-servant of Jesus Christ can be bound to no other master; and in their equal dependence upon Him disciples cease to be able to maintain artificial distinctions of grade or privilege.
Literature.—Articles in the handbooks of Jewish Archaeology, and in such Cyclopaedias as those of Hamburger, Riehm, and Herzog-Hauck; Winter, Die Stellung der Sklaven bei den Juden … nach talm. Quellen; Grünfeld, Die Stellung … nach bibl. und talm. Quellen; Brace, Gesta Christi, ch. v. For the conditions in non-Jewish districts see Mommsen, and Smith’s Dict. of Gr. and Rom. [1] Ant.
R. W. Moss.
Webster's Dictionary - Slavery
(1):
(n.) The condition of a slave; the state of entire subjection of one person to the will of another.
(2):
(n.) A condition of subjection or submission characterized by lack of freedom of action or of will.
(3):
(n.) The holding of slaves.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Slavery
The subjection of a human being to another as a captive of war, descent from such captive, or by purchase. As an institution it would seem to have existed from the earliest times. Mosaic legislation placed certain limitations on it which were generally observed. Even in pagan Greece and Rome the slave was often treated humanely, never so badly as the slaves under Moslem masters, and never worse than slaves under reputed Christian masters in modern times. As an institution it has now practically disappeared from the earth, though conditions similar to those of slavery prevail in many civilized countries owing to industrial tyranny, especially when women and children are concerned.
In the beginning the Church had to recognize slavery as something with which she could not abruptly interfere without creating disorders which would result in anarchy. To have attempted to bring about the release of all the slaves in the Roman Empire would mean throwing on the world millions of human beings without means of support and without any understanding of civiclife. It took Saint Melania many years to release the slaves on her many estates who numbered over a hundred thousand. The Church, however, succeeded gradually in helping to abolish slavery as a system.
There was not in earlier times the same disgrace attached to slavery as in its last days. Saint Patrick had been a slave in Ireland before he returned there to Christianize the country. Even in early modern days many a distinguished Catholic priest and layman became a slave to the Moslems in order to ransom some poor captive whose faith was in danger. Saint Vincent de Paul spent some time in slavery for this purpose.

Sentence search

Proslavery - ) Advocacy of Slavery. ) Favoring Slavery
Antislavery - ) Opposed to Slavery. ) Opposition to Slavery
Slavocracy - ) The persons or interest formerly representing Slavery politically, or wielding political power for the preservation or advancement of Slavery
Masters And Servants - See Slave, Slavery
Slaveries - ) of Slavery...
Servage - ) Serfage; Slavery; servitude
Slaveborn - ) Born in Slavery
Mancipation - ) Slavery; involuntary servitude
Slaveholding - ) Holding persons in Slavery
Bondage, Bondmaid, Bondman, - See Slave, Slavery
Disinthrallment - ) A releasing from thralldom or Slavery; disenthrallment
Slave - " Slavery as it existed under the Mosaic law has no modern parallel. That law did not originate but only regulated the already existing custom of Slavery ( Exodus 21:20,21,26,27 ; Leviticus 25:44-46 ; Joshua 9:6-27 ). The gospel in its spirit and genius is hostile to Slavery in every form, which under its influence is gradually disappearing from among men
Joseph - As the oldest son of his favored wife, Jacob loved him dearly and gave him preferential treatment, causing Joseph's brothers to envy him and sell him into Slavery. He landed in Egypt, where, after enduring Slavery and prison, he interpreted Pharaoh’s puzzling dreams and became viceroy of the land. During the famine that followed he brought his family down to Egypt, setting the stage for their Slavery and ultimately their Exodus
Bond Service - The condition of a bond servant; service without wages; Slavery
Disenslave - ) To free from bondage or Slavery; to disenthrall
Helotism - ) The condition of the Helots or slaves in Sparta; Slavery
Unchain - ) To free from chains or Slavery; to let loose
Manservant - See Slavery
Thraldom - ) The condition of a thrall; Slavery; bondage; state of servitude
Bondservice - The condition of a bond-servant Slavery
Enslavement - ) The act of reducing to Slavery; state of being enslaved; bondage; servitude
Abolitionist - ) A person who favors the abolition of any institution, especially negro Slavery
Disenthrall - ) To release from thralldom or Slavery; to give freedom to; to disinthrall
Enslave - ) To reduce to Slavery; to make a slave of; to subject to a dominant influence
Manumit - ) To release from Slavery; to liberate from personal bondage or servitude; to free, as a slave
Free-Soil - ) Pertaining to, or advocating, the non-extension of Slavery; - esp
Enfranchisement - ) Releasing from Slavery or custody
Kidnapping - In biblical times the usual purpose for kidnapping was to use or sell the person into Slavery (see Genesis 37:28 ; Genesis 40:15 ). Kidnapping freeborn Israelites either to treat them as slaves or to sell them into Slavery was punishable by death (Exodus 21:16 ; Deuteronomy 24:7 )
Captivity - Subjection servitude Slavery. ...
To lead captivity captive, in scripture, is to subdue those who have held others in Slavery, or captivity
Slavery - As an institution it has now practically disappeared from the earth, though conditions similar to those of Slavery prevail in many civilized countries owing to industrial tyranny, especially when women and children are concerned. ...
In the beginning the Church had to recognize Slavery as something with which she could not abruptly interfere without creating disorders which would result in anarchy. The Church, however, succeeded gradually in helping to abolish Slavery as a system. ...
There was not in earlier times the same disgrace attached to Slavery as in its last days. Saint Vincent de Paul spent some time in Slavery for this purpose
Slave/Servant - ...
Slavery was prevalent and widely accepted in the ancient world. Still, the institution of Slavery was unquestioned. The Stoics insisted that slaves were humans and should be treated accordingly; Israel's law protected slaves in various ways; Christian preachers called upon masters to be kind, but only the Essenes opposed Slavery. Slavery cut across races and nationalities. ...
Slavery in the Old Testament Slavery laws appear in Exodus 21:1-11 ; Leviticus 25:39-55 ; and Deuteronomy 15:12-18 . ...
Slavery in the New Testament Paul and Peter insisted that Christian slaves be obedient to their masters (Ephesians 6:5-8 ; Colossians 3:22-25 ; 1 Timothy 6:1-2 ; 1 Peter 2:18-21 ) and not seek freedom just because of conversion (1 Corinthians 7:20-22 ). But neither Jesus nor the apostles condemned Slavery. Why? Because Slavery was so much a part of their society that to call for abolition would have resulted in violence and bloodshed. ...
Metaphorical Uses of Slavery In most ancient societies, few things were more despicable than to be a slave. ...
There are three other metaphorical uses of Slavery in the New Testament. A life of sin is spoken of as Slavery (John 8:34 ; Romans 6:6 ,Romans 6:6,6:16-20 ; Hebrews 2:15 ). Legalism is a kind of Slavery (Galatians 4:24-25 ; Galatians 5:1 ). Paradoxically, however, there is also a blessed Slavery to righteousness (Romans 6:16-22 )
Abolition - ) The act of abolishing, or the state of being abolished; an annulling; abrogation; utter destruction; as, the abolition of Slavery or the slave trade; the abolition of laws, decrees, ordinances, customs, taxes, debts, etc
Exodus - the Book of: The second of the Five Books of Moses, relates the story of the Israelites' Slavery in Egypt, their Exodus, the Giving of the Torah, the sin of the Golden Calf, and the construction of the Tabernacle
Shemot - �names�); the Book of Exodus ...
Shemot: The second of the Five Books of Moses, relates the story of the Israelites' Slavery in Egypt, their Exodus, the Giving of the Torah, the sin of the Golden Calf, and the construction of the Tabernacle
Thrall - ) Slavery; bondage; servitude; thraldom
Bondage - ) The state of being bound; condition of being under restraint; restraint of personal liberty by compulsion; involuntary servitude; Slavery; captivity
Abolish - ; as, to abolish Slavery, to abolish folly
Barnburner - ) A member of the radical section of the Democratic party in New York, about the middle of the 19th century, which was hostile to extension of Slavery, public debts, corporate privileges, etc
Bondage - ‘Bondage’ in the English Version uniformly represents δουλεία, which can equally well be rendered ‘slavery. So far as literal Slavery is meant in the use of this and kindred expressions, see article Slavery. The place filled by Slavery in the social structure of that age made such a figure natural and forceful. It is evident that he was far more deeply interested in man’s spiritual bondage and his deliverance than in Slavery as an institution open to challenge in the cause of humanity. No Slavery in his view was comparable with that of a man ‘sold under sin,’ whether lord or slave. In Galatians 4:3 and Galatians 4:8-10 Slavery ὑπὸ τὰ στοιχεῖα τοῦ κόσμου includes apparently reference both to Jewish legalism and to Gentile devotion to false gods
Leeks - After a steady diet of manna in the wilderness, they were ready to return to Slavery and the foods of servitude (Numbers 11:5 )
Vassalage - ) Political servitude; dependence; subjection; Slavery; as, the Greeks were held in vassalage by the Turks
Reuben - His shining moment was when he dissuaded his brothers from killing Joseph before they sold him into Slavery
Bitter Herbs - They were interpreted as symbolizing the bitter experiences of the Israelites' Slavery in Egypt
Emancipation - ) The act of setting free from the power of another, from Slavery, subjection, dependence, or controlling influence; also, the state of being thus set free; liberation; as, the emancipation of slaves; the emancipation of minors; the emancipation of a person from prejudices; the emancipation of the mind from superstition; the emancipation of a nation from tyranny or subjection
Bondage - Slavery or involuntary servitude captivity imprisonment restraint of a person's liberty by compulsion
Enfranchise - ) To set free; to liberate from Slavery, prison, or any binding power
Slave, Slavery - Slavery in the biblical world was complex and normally very different than the Slavery of the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Western world. ...
Slavery in the Ancient Near East . This historical and legal antecedents to Slavery in the Old Testament are derived from the nations of the Fertile Crescent, ranging from Babylon to Egypt. Pictorial impressions of war captives suggesting Slavery have survived from the fourth millennium b. These documents provide information concerning Slavery in the ancient Near East that conditioned the culture in which Israel's ideologies developed. Slavery is accepted in the Old Testament as part of the world in which Israel functioned. The legal codes for that regulation (Exodus 21 ; Leviticus 25 ; Deuteronomy 15 ) and the numerous texts that reflect Israel's development in this domain indicate an increasing humanization of Slavery in contrast to the rest of the ancient Near East. ...
The terminology for Slavery permeated relational metaphors in Israel. Those who were in subordinate positions to others were referred to as servants without implying formal Slavery. Therefore, its references to slaves and Slavery are more coincidental and secondary. Matthew 24:45-51 ; Luke 15:22 ; 17:7 ) and has often resulted in social change, there is no social mandate to abolish Slavery in these texts
Herbs, Bitter - Later the bitter herbs were associated with the bitterness of Egyptian Slavery (compare Exodus 1:14 )
Arcadius, Saint - The last three are brothers, the youngest of whom, Paulillus, was sold into Slavery and died later of exposure
Onesimus - Christianity did not come in to set the world right thus: Onesimus was sent back to his master, and slaves are elsewhere exhorted to be faithful to their masters; but Slavery is doubtless one of the fruits of man's sin
Delivery - Release rescue as from Slavery, restraint, oppression or danger
Tlinkit - Slavery, the potlatch, and the use of immense labrets were characteristic
Eutychianus, Saint - The last three are brothers, the youngest of whom, Paulillus, was sold into Slavery and died later of exposure
Servitude - The condition of a slave the state of involuntary subjection to a master Slavery bondage
Slave, Slavery - -Slavery was a conspicuous and unchallenged feature of the social order into the midst of which Christianity was born. The existence of Slavery must have lent special vividness and point to the early use of redemption as a figure to describe the experience of salvation. ...
In the old civilization of the world Slavery appears as a most natural and inevitable fact. And, most probably with a real relation to this older legal system, we have at a later period the Mosaic legislation similarly embodying slave laws, Slavery having been just as much a recognized part of the system of things among the Hebrews as among other ancient peoples. The existence of Slavery, indeed, was so old and general a phenomenon in human history that St. ...
But never was Slavery more conspicuous as a social institution than it was in the Roman Empire in the 1st cent. ’-As an outcome of the system of Slavery, the class of libertini or freedmen, which formed so conspicuous a feature of Roman society, calls for passing notice. The enormous numbers of captives reduced to Slavery after every war, and the frequent fluctuations in great Roman establishments, all tended to make manumission easy. Evils of Slavery. -The evils of Slavery were manifold, deep-seated, far-reaching. ...
Deep weariness and sated lust...
Made human life a hell’...
(Obermann once More, lines 93-96),...
the evils of Slavery contributed materially to that result. ...
(d) The economic influence of Slavery was disastrous. ...
(e) Friedländer and others emphasize as the most revolting feature of Slavery its ‘contemptuous disregard of human dignity’ (op. Mill that what most injures and dishonours a country is ‘the personal Slavery of human beings’; but it has taken the world many centuries to realize this. , it may be remembered, provides for such a case as a quite possible thing as regards Slavery among the Hebrews. The mass of laws dealing with Slavery was immense (see Buckland, The Roman Law of Slavery). Christianity and Slavery. -One thing is clear, however surprising it may seem to some: it was no part of the Christian propaganda to attack Slavery as a system and seek its overthrow. Westcott incidentally remarks, ‘the abolition of Slavery would have seemed in the first age more impossible than universal peace’ (Lessons from Work, London, 1901, p. ...
Jesus Himself used the relation of master and slave to illustrate His teaching, without any word condemning Slavery as an evil in itself (see, e. ) Again, in his letter to Philemon (that little classic in the literature of Slavery), St. Rather, surely, Slavery was so ancient and established a feature in the social framework as to be regarded as quite natural. ’ With the continuance of Slavery in the Christian era the need for such counsels continued. ...
It must be fully admitted that in the ancient non-Christian world there were those who felt the manifold evils of Slavery. It is idle to ask if humaner sentiments would have gained force in time and brought about the overthrow of Slavery, had Christianity not emerged. In no instance has the incubus of Slavery been easily or speedily removed. Serfdom, that modified form of Slavery, lingered in Europe well into the last century. And long after the system itself in any particular instance has disappeared, its baneful effects are clearly traceable, sometimes in conditions of national decadence, as Wallon says regarding Greece: ‘degradation of the man, disorganization of the family, ruin of the States-these were the certain effects of Slavery’ (Histoire de l’esclavage dans l’antiquité, i. ...
Slavery still exists in various parts of the world, and anti-slavery campaigns are not unnecessary. Christians have, indeed, sometimes defended Slavery (as in America), and often failed to carry out the Christian doctrine of brotherhood: but the doctrine is there, and its corollary is liberty. Benzinger hold up Islâm and ancient Israel as perfect examples of ‘the brotherhood in the faith,’ and declare that this ‘has come to be, in the Christian world, a mere empty phrase’ (article ‘slavery,’ in Encyclopaedia Biblica iv. Buckland, The Roman Law of Slavery, Cambridge, 1908; L
Niccolo Sfondrati - As pope he supported the Holy League in its struggle against Henry of Navarre, ordered the abolition of Indian Slavery in the Philippine Islands, and appointed commissions for the revision of the Sixtine Bible and the Pian Breviary
Gregory Xiv, Pope - As pope he supported the Holy League in its struggle against Henry of Navarre, ordered the abolition of Indian Slavery in the Philippine Islands, and appointed commissions for the revision of the Sixtine Bible and the Pian Breviary
Freedom - And Jesus, in a very striking manner, represents the greatness of it by a contrast, drawn to a state of Slavery
Southern Baptist Convention - A group of separatists from the Baptist Church, who formed an organization at Augusta, Georgia in May 1845 owing to a dispute over the Slavery question
Sfondrati, Niccolo - As pope he supported the Holy League in its struggle against Henry of Navarre, ordered the abolition of Indian Slavery in the Philippine Islands, and appointed commissions for the revision of the Sixtine Bible and the Pian Breviary
Deliverance - Release from captivity, Slavery, oppression, or any restraint
Issachar - The character of the tribe is told in the words of Jacob (Genesis 49), satisfied with the richness of its territory, through which passed numerous caravans, the tribe of Issachar thought only of its own well-being; and so, rendering itself subordinate to strangers, found Slavery (rest) preferable to liberty
Gal, Saint - He assisted at the Council of Orleans, 541, which decreed the abolition of Slavery, and at the 5th council, 549, at which the errors of Eutyches and Nestorius were condemned
Servant - It does not at all follow, because the Mosaic law and the Christian dispensation found Slavery existing in the world, and made regulations for it, that God approved the system of one man's holding another as his property. The kidnapping or unlawful stealing of men for Slavery was branded as a capital crime. Jewish Hebrew Slavery terminated at the captivity. This sort of Slavery survived the captivity, but was opposed by the Pharisees
Surety - See Loan ; Pledge ; Slavery
Freedom - A state of exemption from the power or control of another liberty exemption from Slavery, servitude or confinement
Citizen, Citizenship - ...
Becoming a Citizen Roman citizenship could be gained in several ways: birth to Roman parents, including birth to a Roman woman without regards to identity of the father; retirement from the army; being freed from Slavery by a Roman master; buying freedom from Slavery; being given citizenship by a Roman general or emperor as an individual or as part of a political unit; purchase of citizenship
Slave - Slavery was well established throughout the ancient world long before Israel formally became a nation (Genesis 15:2-3; Genesis 16:1-2; Genesis 17:12; Genesis 30:1-3). Israelite law recognized the evils of Slavery, but it also recognized that Slavery had for so long been part of society that it could not be removed quickly or easily. Nevertheless, it introduced values of human dignity that undermined the foundations on which Slavery was built, and so started the process that led eventually to its removal. Kidnapping for Slavery was an offence that carried the death penalty (Deuteronomy 24:7), and the practice of returning runaway slaves to their masters was prohibited (Deuteronomy 23:15-16). ...
All these restrictions helped to decrease the practice of Slavery in Israel. ...
Some New Testament examples...
In the Roman Empire of New Testament times Slavery was widespread
Freely - At liberty without vassalage, Slavery or dependence
Influence of the Church on Civil Law - The Church revolutionized legislation in regard to Slavery, marriage, paternal authority, and legal procedure
Law, Influence of the Church on Civil Law - The Church revolutionized legislation in regard to Slavery, marriage, paternal authority, and legal procedure
Kinsman - He was also required to redeem his relation who had sold himself into Slavery (Leviticus 25:48,49 )
Burning Bush - When he turned aside to investigate, the Lord spoke to him from the bush, instructing him to return to Egypt to deliver the Hebrew people from Slavery
Antigua - Slavery was established to run the sugar plantations on Antigua, but was abolished in 1834
Philemon - Paul's approach eventually caused the end of Slavery. See Onesimus ; Paul ; Slavery
Guardian - The basic thrust of Paul's message is clear: Before experiencing of God's grace in Christ, the believers' lives were lives of Slavery (Luke 4:3 ,Luke 4:3,4:8 )
Patmos - It is unvisited by Turks, without any mosque, and saddled with moderate tribute, free from piracy, Slavery, and any police but their own
Ear - The perforated ear was a sign of Slavery or dependence, indicating the obligation to attend ( Exodus 21:6 , Deuteronomy 15:16 f
na'Hash -
King of the Ammonites who dictated to the inhabitants of Jabesh-gilead that cruel alternative of the loss of their right eyes or Slavery which roused the swift wrath of Saul, and caused the destruction of the Ammonite force
Loan - Because of Israel's experience of deliverance from Slavery, her moral code, gave special care to marginal folk (Exodus 22:21-24 ; Habakkuk 2:6-945 ; Psalm 82:3-4 ; Proverbs 31:8-9 ). See Borrow, Borrowing; Coins ; Ethics in the Bible; Jubilee, Year of; Justice ; Law; Poor, Widows, Orphans, Levites ; Sabbatical Year ; Slavery; Stranger ...
David Nelson Duke...
...
Slave - Hired service was little known anciently; Slavery was the common form of service. ...
Christianity does not begin by opposing the external system prevailing, but plants the seeds of love, universal brotherhood in Christ, communion of all in one redemption from God our common Father, which silently and surely undermines Slavery. Paul's sending back Onesimus to Philemon does not sanction Slavery as a compulsory system, for Onesimus went back of his own free will to a master whom Christianity had made into a brother. In Deuteronomy 15:17 Paul exhorts slaves not to be unduly impatient to cast off even Slavery by unlawful means (Exodus 21:21), as Onesimus did by fleeing. The precept (Greek) "become not ye slaves of men" implies that Slavery is abnormal (Leviticus 25:42)
Bondage - It is not unfrequently made use of for the whole of spiritual Slavery, in those who are under a covenant of works
Servants Godìs: Their Ruling Motive - And it makes a difference, now and ever, believe me, whether you serve him who has on his vesture and thigh written, 'King of kings,' and whose service is perfect freedom; or him on whose vesture and thigh the name is written, 'Slave of slaves,' and whose service is perfect Slavery
Essenes', - Slavery, war and commmerce were alike forbidden
Ransom - Suppose some generous prince, out of compassion to any of his captive subjects, were to abridge his pleasures, and give large sums of money to bring them out of captivity—how would the deed be applauded, and his name be idolized to all gene rations! But supposing this generous prince was to give himself for them, and exchange their persons in Slavery by voluntarily surrendering up himself to such a state—what would be said of this? And yet the Lord Jesus hath done this, and infinitely more, not for friends, but enemies, not for those who loved him, but those who hated him; and not only by Slavery, but by death. He hath died for them, washed them in his blood, brought them out of Slavery and the shadow of death, and hath broke their bonds asunder, and purchased for them an endless state of happiness, and is gone before to take possession of it in their name, and will come again to receive them to himself, that where he is there they may be also
Foul - The followers are kept in abject Slavery, and therefore the verse describes the situation of the wicked leaders as being in a cage and a prison cell
Error - A substantial error exists in the case of one marrying other than the intended person, or, where Slavery is legal, of a freeman marrying a slave
Scourge - Slavery is a terrible scourge
Iron - "Iron" is used to illustrated Slavery, strength, obstinacy, fortitude, affliction, etc
Hagar - ” In Galatians 4:1 Paul used the Hagar story to stand for Slavery under the old covenant in contrast to freedom of the new covenant symbolized by Isaac
Isaac Jogues, Blessed - Captured while returning to Quebec, he spent thirteen months in Slavery, until he was rescued by the Dutch and brought back to France
Affliction - In some parts of the earth Slavery still exists and in more enlightened parts the rich oppress the poor
Yoke - A mark of servitude Slavery bondage
Concubine - Both Slavery and concubinage were wrong, but the practices were so deeply rooted that they could not be removed immediately. However, laws could control them and so start a movement that would lead to their eventual removal (Exodus 21:7-11; Deuteronomy 21:15-17; see also Slavery)
Exodus, the - This is the term commonly used to express the bringing out of the children of Israel from the Slavery of Egypt. Under PLAGUES OF EGYPTare considered the preliminary dealings with Pharaoh which were intended to show him the power of that God whose people he was holdingin Slavery. It must have been a wonderful sight to have seen such a number moving away fromthe scene of their Slavery, and it is often referred to as the workof the mighty God
Liberty - ) The state of a free person; exemption from subjection to the will of another claiming ownership of the person or services; freedom; - opposed to Slavery, serfdom, bondage, or subjection
Escape - ) To get free from that which confines or holds; - used of persons or things; as, to escape from prison, from arrest, or from Slavery; gas escapes from the pipes; electricity escapes from its conductors
Chain - Bondage Slavery. To enslave to keep in Slavery
Hatch - To be under the hatches, to be confined, or to be in distress, depression or Slavery
Robbery - If a thief could not return or replace it, the thief could be sold into Slavery until restitution was made (Exodus 22:3 )
Sabbatical Year - Hebrews sold into Slavery were to be released in that year (Exodus 21:2 )
Servant - This sort of Hebrew slaves continued in Slavery but to the year of jubilee; then they might return to liberty again, and their masters could not retain them against their wills
Self-Righteousness: Destroyed by Conviction of Sin - Slavery in mines where the sun never shines must be preferable to the miseries of a soul goaded by an awakened conscience to seek salvation by its own merits
New - Isaiah 43:14-21 promised Babylonian exiles that God was now “doing a new thing” which paralleled God's acts saving Israel from Egyptian Slavery
Maid, Maiden - See Slavery for literal uses
Malchus, a Hermit in Syria - His master required him to marry a woman who was his companion in Slavery
Freedom - Also, every fifty years, all slaves are to be freed, regardless of how many years of their Slavery they have served (Exodus 21:2-11 ,Exodus 21:2-11,21:26-27 ; Romans 6:1-2,6 ; Deuteronomy 15:12-18 ). The New Testament depicts all persons as being in Slavery—the Slavery of sin (John 8:34 ; Romans 3:9-12 ; 2 Peter 2:19 ). See Election, Slavery
Jubilee - It would utterly do away with Slavery
Gilgal - Here they kept their first Passover in the land of Canaan (5:10) and renewed the rite of circumcision, and so "rolled away the reproach" of their Egyptian Slavery
Power - God revealed His power by miraculously delivering Israel from Egyptian Slavery (Exodus 4:21 ; Exodus 9:16 ; Exodus 15:6 ; Exodus 32:11 ) and in the conquest of Canaan (Psalm 111:6 )
Nothing - ...
We are industrious to presere our bodies from Slavery, but we make nothing of suffering our souls to be slaves to our lusts
Bond - In a state of servitude, or Slavery captive
Philemon - Such Christian masters, treating their slaves as "above servants" (Philemon 1:16), "brothers beloved both in the flesh and in the Lord," mitigated the evil of Slavery and paved the way for its abolition
Liberty - Denotes a state of freedom, in contradistinction to Slavery or restraint
General Association of the Presbyterian Church in - " In December 1861, due to dissessions over Slavery, a group of southern Presbyterians organized at Augusta, Georgia, as the General Association of the Presbyterian Church in the Confederate States of America; they were strictly Calvinistic in doctrine, adhering firmly to the standards
Bondage - ...
B — 1: δουλεύω (Strong's #1398 — Verb — douleuo — dool-yoo'-o ) "to serve as a slave, to be a slave, to be in bondage," is frequently used without any association of Slavery, e
Jealousy - Joseph's brothers were jealous ( Genesis 37:11 ) and thus sold their brother into Slavery (Acts 7:9 )
Concubine - See Marriage ; Polygamy; Slavery
Owner - By translating δοῦλος as ‘servant,’ the fact is concealed from English readers that Slavery was an institution in the social life of the Jews
Adoption - ...
The present reality of the believer's adoption into the family of God is release from the Slavery of sin and the law and a new position as a free heir of God. The intimacy of a relationship with God the Father in contrast to the ownership of Slavery is a remarkable feature of salvation
Meekness - For the application of this principle to Slavery in the Christian economy of life, see article Slave, Slavery
Egypt - ...
The place of wisdom, the land of refuge and hope, becomes the land of Slavery when "a new king, who did not know about Joseph, came to power in Egypt" (Exodus 1:8 ). "Do not forget the Lord; who brought you out of Egypt, out of the land of Slavery" (Deuteronomy 6:12 ). This was done because "the Lord loved you and brought you out with a mighty hand and redeemed you from the land of Slavery, from the power of Pharaoh king of Egypt" (7:8)
Slave, Slavery (2) - SLAVE, Slavery. Even thieves were not to be reduced to a state of permanent Slavery; and while the disorganization of trade due to a strict observance of the Sabbatic law of Deuteronomy 15:1-11 was prevented by Hillel’s statute of Prosbol, which made registered debts always recoverable, other means were adopted of freeing poor Jews from the burden of their mortgages than that of their reduction to actual servitude. In regard to females, the Talmud decides that a wife can never be sold into Slavery, but that a daughter under marriageable age can; with the apparent proviso that, if she be sold again, the purchaser must not be a foreigner. Altogether the condition of Slavery, as far as it existed, was much less oppressive than in Greece or Rome, and was already being superseded by the freer relationships of voluntary service, which alone are in complete accord with the genius of Christianity. —The institution of Slavery was not directly condemned by Christ, but its continuance was undermined by the new principles of social life which He emphasized
Christian Church, General Convention - In 1854, on account of a resolution adopted condemning Slavery, delegates from the South to the general convention withdrew and formed a separate organization until 1890, when Southern delegates resumed their seats in the convention
Lavigerie, Charles Martial Allemand - He will be best remembered in connection with his furthering the policy of Pope Leo XIII, directing French Catholics to adhere to the republic, and with his promotion of the anti-slavery movement
Dispute - They had a dispute on the lawfulness of Slavery, a subject which, one would think, could admit of no dispute
Birth - ...
Revelation 12:2 (b) This difficult passage may refer to the sorrows of Israel in their Slavery under the Romans at the time that JESUS was born
Freedom - When by faith they receive God’s salvation, they are freed from this Slavery (Luke 13:16; John 8:31-34; Romans 6:17-18; Galatians 4:5-7). They should see that God wants people to have freedom from sin and all its evil consequences: freedom from disease and suffering (Mark 5:1-6; Mark 5:18-19; Luke 13:16; Acts 10:38); freedom from hunger and poverty (Deuteronomy 15:1-11; Deuteronomy 24:19-22; Matthew 25:37-40; Acts 11:27-29); freedom from the domination of foreign nations and oppressive rulers (Exodus 6:6; Nahum 3:18-19; Zephaniah 3:19; Revelation 19:20); freedom from human Slavery and social injustice (Exodus 22:21-27; Deuteronomy 23:15-16; Luke 4:17-19; James 5:4-6); in fact, freedom from every kind of bondage, even the bondage in the world of nature (Romans 8:21-24)
Slave, Slavery - SLAVE, Slavery . In a discussion of Hebrew Slavery only those passages will be dealt with in which the word probably has the sense of bondage . ...
Whether the creditor had the right to force the debtor into Slavery against his will is not clear. While a man could be sold into Slavery for debt (see above), man-stealing is prohibited on pain of death ( Exodus 21:16 = Deuteronomy 24:7 ). Indeed, Slavery in the ancient East generally was a comparatively easy lot
Quakers - Although the first attitude of the Friends was to treat Slavery with toleration, many dissensions arose and finally in 1776 slaveholders were to be 'disowned' if they refused to manumit their slaves
Quakers, Fighting - Although the first attitude of the Friends was to treat Slavery with toleration, many dissensions arose and finally in 1776 slaveholders were to be 'disowned' if they refused to manumit their slaves
Quakers, Free - Although the first attitude of the Friends was to treat Slavery with toleration, many dissensions arose and finally in 1776 slaveholders were to be 'disowned' if they refused to manumit their slaves
Friends - Although the first attitude of the Friends was to treat Slavery with toleration, many dissensions arose and finally in 1776 slaveholders were to be 'disowned' if they refused to manumit their slaves
Friends, Hicksite Society of - Although the first attitude of the Friends was to treat Slavery with toleration, many dissensions arose and finally in 1776 slaveholders were to be 'disowned' if they refused to manumit their slaves
Friends of Truth - Although the first attitude of the Friends was to treat Slavery with toleration, many dissensions arose and finally in 1776 slaveholders were to be 'disowned' if they refused to manumit their slaves
Children of Light - Although the first attitude of the Friends was to treat Slavery with toleration, many dissensions arose and finally in 1776 slaveholders were to be 'disowned' if they refused to manumit their slaves
Friends, Orthodox Society of - Although the first attitude of the Friends was to treat Slavery with toleration, many dissensions arose and finally in 1776 slaveholders were to be 'disowned' if they refused to manumit their slaves
Friends, Wilburite Orthodox Conservative - Although the first attitude of the Friends was to treat Slavery with toleration, many dissensions arose and finally in 1776 slaveholders were to be 'disowned' if they refused to manumit their slaves
Children of Truth - Although the first attitude of the Friends was to treat Slavery with toleration, many dissensions arose and finally in 1776 slaveholders were to be 'disowned' if they refused to manumit their slaves
Fighting Quakers - Although the first attitude of the Friends was to treat Slavery with toleration, many dissensions arose and finally in 1776 slaveholders were to be 'disowned' if they refused to manumit their slaves
Free Quakers - Although the first attitude of the Friends was to treat Slavery with toleration, many dissensions arose and finally in 1776 slaveholders were to be 'disowned' if they refused to manumit their slaves
Orthodox Society of Friends - Although the first attitude of the Friends was to treat Slavery with toleration, many dissensions arose and finally in 1776 slaveholders were to be 'disowned' if they refused to manumit their slaves
Light, Children of - Although the first attitude of the Friends was to treat Slavery with toleration, many dissensions arose and finally in 1776 slaveholders were to be 'disowned' if they refused to manumit their slaves
Essenes - A sect of the Jews who practiced a strict ceremonial asceticism, discouraging marriage, having community of goods, temperate, industrious, charitable, opposed to all oaths, Slavery, and war, like the modern Society of Friends, and also, unlike t temple of the soul, tinged their deep veneration for Moses' laws, which in every way favor marriage
Merchant - Abuses by mercants were often condemned: holding back grain to force up prices (Proverbs 11:26 ); impatience for sabbath or holy days to conclude so that commerce might resume; dishonest scales (Amos 8:5 ); forcing fellow Israelites into Slavery to buy food (Nehemiah 5:1-8 ); violation of the Sabbath (Nehemiah 13:15-21 )
Wages - See Commerce ; Economic Life ; Slavery
Hicksite Society of Friends - Although the first attitude of the Friends was to treat Slavery with toleration, many dissensions arose and finally in 1776 slaveholders were to be 'disowned' if they refused to manumit their slaves
Society of Friends (Orthodox) - Although the first attitude of the Friends was to treat Slavery with toleration, many dissensions arose and finally in 1776 slaveholders were to be 'disowned' if they refused to manumit their slaves
Truth, Children of - Although the first attitude of the Friends was to treat Slavery with toleration, many dissensions arose and finally in 1776 slaveholders were to be 'disowned' if they refused to manumit their slaves
Truth, Friends of - Although the first attitude of the Friends was to treat Slavery with toleration, many dissensions arose and finally in 1776 slaveholders were to be 'disowned' if they refused to manumit their slaves
Religious Society of Friends of Philadelphia - Although the first attitude of the Friends was to treat Slavery with toleration, many dissensions arose and finally in 1776 slaveholders were to be 'disowned' if they refused to manumit their slaves
Wilburite Orthodox Conservative Friends - Although the first attitude of the Friends was to treat Slavery with toleration, many dissensions arose and finally in 1776 slaveholders were to be 'disowned' if they refused to manumit their slaves
Ishmael - As Ishmael was the child of a slave-girl, so they are the children of Slavery
Onesimus - Instead of violently convulsing society by stirring up slaves against their masters, Christianity introduces love, a principle sure to undermine Slavery at last; "by christianizing the master, Christianity enfranchises the slave" (Wordsworth)
Yoke - ) A mark of servitude; hence, servitude; Slavery; bondage; service
Freedom - That long period of Egyptian Slavery became a powerful symbol of oppression, and so the deliverance of the Israelites through Moses spoke to them of freedom in a more profound sense—indeed, of spiritual redemption. ...
The notion of Slavery to sin is especially prominent in Paul, who writes to Gentile audiences against the background of Greco-Roman thought. Undoubtedly, Paul's writing parallels some ideas current in his day, such as the emphasis on internal freedom even in the midst of social Slavery (cf. Writing to the Roman Christians, he reflects Old Testament teaching when he argues that freedom and Slavery are simply relative to whatever it is that has our allegiance ( Romans 6:15-23 )
Jubilee, Year of - Even when one was in Slavery, redemption was possible
Firstborn - ...
At the time of Israel’s escape from Slavery in Egypt, God preserved the lives of the Israelites’ firstborn, both people and animals
Slave - The institution of Slavery was recognized, though not established, by the Mosaic law with a view to mitigate its hardship and to secure to every man his ordinary rights. Vast numbers of Hebrews were reduced to Slavery as war-captives at different periods by the Phoenicians, (Joel 3:6 ) the Philistines, (Joel 3:6 ; Amos 1:6 ), the Syrians, 1 Maccabees 3:42 ; 2 Maccabees 8:11 , the Egyptians, Joseph Ant. It will be seen that the whole tendency of the Bible legislation was to mitigate Slavery, making it little than hired service, and to abolish it, as indeed it was practically abolished among the Jews six hundred years before Christ
Galatians, Letter to the - To turn back to the law was to return to Slavery. To return to legalism is to accept Slavery instead of sonship (Galatians 3:1-5:12 ). Return to legalism from faith is a son's return to Slavery (Galatians 4:8-11 ). Interpretation of Scripture shows legalism leads to Slavery, while Christ leads to the promised freedom of sons (Galatians 4:20-5:1 )
Philemon Epistle to - Incidental instruction...
(1) Christianity and Slavery. -We have in this letter an illustration of the two-fold relation of primitive Christianity to Slavery. On the other hand, there is fearless proclamation of the grand truth of universal Christian brotherhood, through which eventually Slavery was to be expelled from Christendom; along with emphatic encouragement of Christian masters, like Philemon, to treat their slaves with humane consideration, and their Christian slaves as brethren in the Lord. For Christianity and Slavery, see W
Leo Xiii, Pope - A letter to the Brazilian bishops pointed out the evils of Slavery
Joshua - Joshua was born in Egypt during the period of Slavery
Dove (Turtle) - Genesis 15:9 (c) This covenant was instituted by GOD with Abram; and the animals used in establishing the covenant were to assure Abram that though his people would be in the furnace of Egypt suffering under the lash and Slavery, yet through it all the sacrifice would be effective for them, and they would be able to maintain a light for GOD through all their tribulation
Lift - ...
Lift up Thy people Psalm 28:9 Bring them out of Slavery and poverty
Jubilee - The political design of the law of the jubilee was to prevent the too great oppression of the poor, as well as their being liable to perpetual Slavery
Deep, the - This was, theologically speaking, an act of creation—creating a people for the Lord, by freeing them from Slavery in Egypt
Sabbath - God had delivered Israel out of the Slavery of Egypt, therefore God commanded them to keep the Sabbath
Injury - We may injure another in his body, by homicide, murder, preventing life, dismembering the body by wounds, blows, Slavery, and imprisonment, or any unjust restraint upon its liberty; by robbing it of its chastity, or prejudicing its health
Liberty - -As denoting the status of a free citizen and in direct contrast with the state of Slavery, the word figures in one of the great dichotomies used by the apostolic writers in classifying men from the standpoint of their age (Colossians 3:1 -‘bondman, freeman’). The existence of the huge, overgrown system of Slavery had a sinister effect on the great mass of citizens, inasmuch as ‘paid labour was thought unworthy of any freeborn man’ (C. See, further, article Slave, Slavery. -See works referred to in article Slavery, and in addition to works quoted in foregoing article , T
Bond - ) In a state of servitude or Slavery; captive
Allegory - ...
In Galatians 4:21-31Paul uses the story of the children of Sarah (Isaac) and Hagar (Ishmael) and the images of Jerusalem above and Mount Sinai as a double allegory, both pairs contrasting the covenant of freedom and the covenant of Slavery
Year of Jubilee - Permanent Slavery in Israel was rendered impossible
Avenger - The avenger or go'el is responsible to take the life of one who killed a family member ( Numbers 35:12 ), to receive restitution for crimes against a deceased relative (Numbers 5:7-8 ), buy back property lost to the family (Leviticus 25:25 ), redeem a relative who sold himself into Slavery (Leviticus 25:48-49 ), or marry the widow of a relative without sons and perpetuate the family (Deuteronomy 25:5-10 )
Philemon, Epistle to - 321): if it is, it is rather that Onesimus may be permitted to return to continue his ministry to the imprisoned Apostle than that Christianity, as he conceives it, forbids Slavery. into the impossibility of Slavery within a Christian nation
Middle Ages - To these precious heirlooms Godefroid Kurth would add the independence of the papacy, the celibacy of the clergy, the gradual extirpation of Slavery, liberty generally and the rights of the individual citizen, the foundation of charitable institutions, of monasticism; in a word, all the most saving elements of civilization
Celebrate, Celebration - Passover marks the passing from Slavery in Egypt to freedom in the promised land
Salvation - Another picture is that of Slavery, which shows that God has freed believers from the bondage of sin (1 Peter 1:18-19; see REDEMPTION)
Sabbath - The second was a reminder of their redemption from Slavery in Egypt (Deuteronomy 5:12-15 )
Lydda - ) Cassius sold the inhabitants of Lydda into Slavery for refusing the sinews of war, but Antony gave them back their liberty (Ant
Ages, Middle - To these precious heirlooms Godefroid Kurth would add the independence of the papacy, the celibacy of the clergy, the gradual extirpation of Slavery, liberty generally and the rights of the individual citizen, the foundation of charitable institutions, of monasticism; in a word, all the most saving elements of civilization
Free - To set at liberty to rescue or release from Slavery, captivity or confinement to loose
War - Compliance meant subjugation to Slavery ( Nilus, an Ascetic of Sinai - He rejects numerous crosses in the nave, but orders the erection of one cross at the east end of the sanctuary, "Inasmuch as by the cross man was delivered from spiritual Slavery, and hope has been shed on the nations
Adam, the Second - He was "made like his brothers in every way" so that "by his death he might destroy him who holds the power of death" and free those held in Slavery by fear of death (Hebrews 2:14,17 )
Foot - To walk barefoot was the symbol of mourning ( 2 Samuel 15:30 ) or Slavery ( Isaiah 20:2 )
Deliverance - ’ His days are passed in saving men from every Slavery that binds them to the transient
Thirteen - ...
2ki13 - Israel is delivered into Slavery under Hazael, King of Syria
Alexander the Great - As to his cruelty let one instance suffice: at the capture of Tyre which then belonged to Persia, provoked by the long resistance and valiant defence, 8,000 of the inhabitants were massacred, 2,000 being crucified: of the rest, except those who escaped by sea, 30,000 were sold into Slavery, the king and the chief magistrates were spared, doubtless as trophies
Exodus - Israel’s escape from Slavery in Egypt is commonly known as the exodus (meaning ‘a going out’)
Hammurabi - The large economic dependence upon Slavery and the overwhelming personal indebtedness provided the means and reason for developing a standard of law. By setting the wages for technical and agricultural laborers and by decreeing the release from debt or Slavery, the king could control much of the life of the nation. The references to concubinage and the protection of the female from reduction to Slavery or divorce, except for offenses against the first wife, shed light on patriarchal practices (Genesis 16:2 ,Genesis 16:2,16:4 ; Genesis 21:8 )
Yoke - Ideas of opposing character—joy and woe, freedom and Slavery, peace and war, plenty and poverty—are symbolized by it (Deuteronomy 28:48, Job 1:3; Job 42:12, Jeremiah 2:20, Isaiah 58:6, 1 Kings 12:4, Lamentations 3:27)
Nehemi'ah - During his government Nehemiah firmly repressed the exactions of the nobles and the usury of the rich, and rescued the poor Jews from spoliation and Slavery
Hosea - Like Gomer, Israel has been unfaithful to her husband God (Yahweh) (2:2-23), but as Hosea redeemed Gomer from Slavery, so God will redeem Israel from the coming captivity (3:1-5)
Joseph the Son of Jacob - Although, after Joseph’s death, they suffered a period of Slavery, in due course they left Egypt and took possession of Canaan (cf
Charities - In Greece and Rome, the majority of the population was bound in Slavery, and the misery of their condition aroused no sense of charitable obligation
Elisha - ...
The prophet used his power to provide a widow with an abundance of valuable oil to save her children from Slavery (2 Kings 4:1-7 )
Hezekiah - The inscriptions tell us that the invaders captured forty-six walled towns, and carried 200,000 Judahites into Slavery
Redeem, Redemption, Redeemer - At the sea God redeemed His people from Slavery in Egypt (for example, Exodus 6:6 ; Exodus 15:13 ; Deuteronomy 7:8 ; Psalm 77:15 )
Parents - Nor have parents any right to sell their children into Slavery; to shut up daughters and younger sons in nunneries and monasteries, in order to preserve entire the estate and dignity of the family; or to use any arts, either of kindness or unkindness, to induce them to make choice of this way of life themselves; or in countries where the clergy are prohibited from marriage, to put sons into the church for the same end, who are never likely to do or receive any good in it sufficient to compensate for this sacrifice; nor to urge children to marriages from which they are averse, with the view of exalting or enriching the family, or for the sake of connecting estates, parties, or interests; nor to oppose a marriage in which the child would probably find his happiness, from a motive of pride or avarice, of family hostility or personal pique
Wicked (2) - And further, he may not only be completely ransomed from the Slavery in which he was formerly held (Matthew 6:13, John 17:15, 2 Thessalonians 3:3, 1 John 5:18 Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ), but may become actually victorious, through the imparted power of Christ, over the evil one, who is now bitterly antagonistic to his former subject (1 John 2:13-14, Ephesians 6:11-13)
Mill, Millstone - In large establishments, it fell to the slaves, male ( Judges 16:21 ) and female ( Exodus 11:5 ), particularly the latter, hence the figure for the Slavery of captivity in Isaiah 47:2
Adoption - ‘To redeem those under the law’ (Galatians 4:5 ) suggests that God’s action in sending His Son to buy out mankind from Slavery to the Law, may be illustrated by the adopting parent’s purchase of a son from his natural father
Baptists - In that year the Slavery question divided Baptists into Northern, Southern, and Colored
Aichmalotarch - These chiefs of the learned men then delivered an address, exhorting the new monarch not to abuse his power; and reminded him that he was called to Slavery rather than to sovereignty, for he was prince of a captive people
Servant - ...
Roman Slavery, as it existed in the time of Christ, was comparatively unknown to the Jews
Paul as Sold Under Sin - This is the Slavery of the spirit in a supremely spiritual man: a Slavery past all imagination of the commonplace Christian mind. ...
And no wonder, for the most complete and cruel captivity, the most utter and hopeless Slavery you ever heard of, falls far short of being sold under sin
Moses - ” The Old Testament depicts Moses as the leader of the Israelites in their Exodus from Egyptian Slavery and oppression, their journey through the wilderness with its threats in the form of hunger, thirst, and unpredictable enemies, and finally in their audience with God at Mount Sinai/Horeb where the distinctive covenant bonding Israel and God in a special treaty became a reality. (2) As the man of God, he would represent God in delivering the people from their Egyptian Slavery
Paul - ...
Philemon: Slavery
Redemption - ...
Paul at times makes a slightly different use of the illustration of Slavery and redemption to remind Christians of their present responsibilities
Fall of Man - From this one sin arose another, and then another, from the connection of causes and effects, till this repetition brought on a habit of sin, consequently a state of moral Slavery; called by divines a death in sin, a spiritual death, a defect of power to act according to the law, and from the motive of the divine perfections, as death in general is such a defect of power of action; and this defect or inability, with all its consequences, man entailed on his posterity, remaining upon them, till one greater man remove this, and reinstate them in all they forfeited in Adam
Adoption - Paul recognized here an unfinished quality in the experience, for believers struggle in their weaknesses and groan for freedom from the Slavery of sin
Serve - ...
The Septuagint translations are: leitourgia (“service”); doulia (“slavery”); ergon (“work; deed; occupation”); and ergasia (“pursuit; practice; working; profit; gain”). 2:15; KJV, RSV, “bondage”; NASB, NIV, “slavery”)
Exodus, Book of - ...
In short, the Book of Exodus shows the redemption of the Israelites from Slavery; their being brought into relationship with God, with a priesthood to maintain that relationship; and God leading and dwelling among them
Evil - This type of evil includes war, crime, cruelty, and Slavery
Go Out, Go Forth - One of the most important formulas in the Old Testament uses the verb yâtsâ': “the Lord [2] brought [3] out of [4]”; He brought them from Slavery into freedom ( Jubilee, the Year of - (2) It tended to abolish Slavery, and in fact did abolish it; and it greatly mitigated it while it existed
Genseric, King of the Vandals - Paulillus, a younger brother of Paschasius and Eutychius, was cruelly scourged and reduced to Slavery. The bishops and noble laity were stripped of their possessions and offered the alternative of Slavery or exile
Poor And Poverty, Theology of - ...
Further stipulations to aid the poor included the right of redemption from Slavery by a blood relative (Leviticus 25:47-49 ), support from the third-year tithe (Deuteronomy 14:28-29 ), and special provisions regarding the guilt offerings. The Lord based this position on his relationship with his people; he was their God (Job 29:12-178 ) and had redeemed them from Slavery (Deuteronomy 24:18 )
Nethinim - By the very fact of their exile, they were freed from their Slavery to the Temple, and thus when they and their sons returned to Jerusalem, they returned as free men, who were recognized as part of the nation
Type - EGYPTas the place where the Israelites were in Slavery to the Egyptians — type of the world where mankind is in bondage to Satan, the god of this world
Think, Devise - Joseph had to remind his brethren that he did not seek to do them harm because they had sold him into Slavery, since God “meant” it for the good of the preservation of Jacob’s sons ( Economic Life - ...
Israelites could sell their families or themselves into Slavery to resolve a debt (Exodus 21:7-11 ; Leviticus 25:39 ; Matthew 18:25 ). This was regulated by the law so that the normal term of Slavery or indenture was no more than six years. Perpetual Slavery was only to occur if the Israelite himself chose to remain a slave
Sabbath - Israel's keeping of the Sabbath was a reminder of her very identity as a people liberated from Slavery to the Egyptians and for a special role in the cosmic drama of human salvation. ...
Third, the Sabbath is a day of rest and worship given as a gift from the restless condition of Slavery
Black People And Biblical Perspectives - ...
The only Bible passages some Black people have difficulty with are the Pauline passages which seem to ignore the problem of Slavery as an evil
Devil, Satan, Evil, Demonic - In the Old Testament a primary emphasis is placed on the supremacy of and the power of the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, who delivered the Hebrews from the Slavery of Egypt
Servant of the Lord, the - See Christology; Isaiah ; Jesus Christ ; Slavery; Son of God ...
Allan A
Zebedee - On the latter occasion the city was burned, and many of the inhabitants were sold into Slavery. They would lament many a friend and brother there, and during the years to come they would be making efforts to redeem their relatives from Slavery
Salvation - The content of God's salvation includes personal and national deliverance from one's enemies, deliverance from Slavery (Deuteronomy 24:18 ), ongoing protection and preservation from evil (Psalm 121 ), escape from death (Psalm 68:19 ), healing (Psalm 69:29 ; Jeremiah 17:14 ), inheritance of land, descendants, and long life. While salvation is a fait accompliGod saved Israel from Slavery in Egypt unto a covenant relationship with himselfIsrael still awaits God's salvation
Corinth - Mummius, the Roman consul, burned the city, killed the men, and sold the women and children into Slavery
Sabbatical Year - All slaves were to be emancipated (this may be a modified substitute for the earlier provisions with regard to emancipation after 7 years); no mention is made of the possibility of perpetual Slavery, but it is ordained that the Hebrew slave of a foreigner may be redeemed by a relative, all Jews being essentially Jehovah’s servants
Virtue - Paul appears to acquiesce in the system of Slavery, and the apostolic ideals of womanhood are obviously imperfect
Covenant, Book of the - The service of a slave cannot last beyond six years unless with his own consent, and then his determination to remain in Slavery is sealed by a solemn act
Redeem, Redemption - Finding its context in the social, legal, and religious customs of the ancient world, the metaphor of redemption includes the ideas of loosing from a bond, setting free from captivity or Slavery, buying back something lost or sold, exchanging something in one's possession for something possessed by another, and ransoming
Genesis, Theology of - Joseph is first cruelly sold into Slavery by his brothers and then wrongly accused of rape by his master's wife, but through this series of cruel circumstances, he rises to the summit of power in the Egyptian empire (chaps. Abraham believes, offers a sacrifice, and hears a prophecy concerning his offspring of dark days of Slavery followed by the possession of the promised land
Roman Empire - There were no hospitals for the sick, no establishments for the relief of the poor, no societies for ameliorating men's condition, no instruction for the lower classes, no antidote to the curse of Slavery
Lamb, Lamb of God - The Passover Feast marked the crucial tenth plague, which resulted in the deliverance of Israel from Egypt and Slavery
Covenant - ...
King Zedekiah made a covenant with the people of Jerusalem, releasing the Hebrews from Slavery (Hosea 2:19-204 ). ...
Redemption from Egyptian Slavery found its climax in God's covenant with Israel
Exodus - Israel's escape from Slavery in Egypt and journey towards the Promised Land under Moses
Capital Punishment - Abducting persons for Slavery (Exodus 21:16 ; Deuteronomy 24:7 ); 5
Thankfulness, Thanksgiving - As God said to Israel through Moses, "I am the Lord your God who brought you out of Egypt, out of the land of Slavery
Debt, Debtor - Jesus draws a picture of imprisonment, and even Slavery, for debt in the Parable of the Two Creditors (Matthew 18:23-35; cf
Stumbling - They live by plunder; and often descend from those mountains, cross, the Tigris which runs between them and us, and plunder and ravage this country in bands of great number and formidable strength, carrying away into Slavery all they can catch, and killing all who resist them
Work - As a result, Slavery is imposed as a curse on the descendants of Ham. Devoted to God, Joseph is blessed in everything he does, whether living at home, serving in Slavery, or working in prison. "...
After a significant period of time, the Israelites are oppressed by the Egyptians (Exodus 1-3 ), who teach them the harsh meaning of Slavery as they are forced to build earthly cities for the Pharaoh
Mahometanism - But the caliphs did not accomplish their principal object when they reduced to subjection the countries which they ravaged: to them it was of infinitely more moment to propagate the Musselman faith; and, accordingly, although in the commencement of that faith some indulgence was, from political considerations, granted to the Christians, there was soon no alternative left to the trembling captives but to embrace the doctrine of the prophet, or to submit to Slavery or death. ...
The effect of this signal revolution was first experienced by those Christians who inhabited the eastern parts of the empire; but the account of it must have been speedily conveyed throughout Christendom, and the gigantic enterprises of the Saracens soon threatened all nations with Slavery and superstition. But the Koran renews and perpetuates the Slavery, by prescribing to its votaries a ritual still more oppressive, and entangling them again in a yoke of bondage yet more severe than that of the law
Exodus, Theology of - Continuity with the past rests in the covenant made with their forefathers (6:4-5), but full revelation of the name will involve liberation from the Slavery of Egypt, redemption by God's own mighty deeds, election as his people, relational knowledge of Yahweh as their God, and the completion of the promises involving the inheritance of a land (6:6-8). Its main significance lies in God's deliverance of Israel from Egyptian Slavery
Greek Church - Since the Greeks became subject to the Turkish yoke, they have sunk into the most deplorable ignorance, in consequence of the Slavery and thraldom under which they groan; and their religion is now greatly corrupted
Heresy - 100: 9; when, in one and the same reign, our lands were delivered from the Slavery of military tenures; our bodies from arbitrary imprisonment by the habeas corpus act: and our minds from the tyranny of superstitious bigotry, by demolishing this last badge of persecution in the English law
Worship - The sabbath theology includes the archetypal testimonies of God's saving action in creation from chaos and in Exodus from Slavery
Salvation - Israel recounted God's deliverance from Egyptian Slavery in the Passover ritual (Exodus 12:1-13 ), in sermon (Nehemiah 9:9-11 ), and in psalms (for example, Psalm 74:12-13 ; Psalm 78:13 ,Psalms 78:13,78:42-54 ; Psalm 105:26-38 )
Nebuchadnezzar the Great - A Persian mule shall one day come into this country, who, supported by the power of your gods, shall bring you into Slavery
Socialism - ]'>[1] had been a powerful leaven of commercial morality; Wilberforce and his friends had, after a protracted battle of 20 years, conquered Individualism in the interests of the black slaves; Shaftesbury (a Conservative in politics) had already won a signal victory over the even more horrible ‘white Slavery’ that went on in English factories. Thus the Fathers held that all men were naturally equal, but at the same time they accepted Slavery, though indeed the manumission of slaves was a recognized Christian virtue. They assume the existence of private property as an institution, and that it is not evil if rightly used; but they do not consider it as belonging to the state of innocence—like Slavery it is due to the fall into sin; ‘their whole thought,’ Mr
Freedom of the Will - First, the actual experience of Slavery to sin, or (what to St. There is no mention of law, but sin is felt to mean Slavery; and freedom is only attained through the gift of the Son. This breaks the Slavery: to believe in the Son makes the believer himself a son
Ethics - " Avaricious moneylenders exploiting hardship, wealthy landlords dispossessing small landowners, merchants who oppressed the poor by ruthless competition and unjust balances, those who sold debtors into Slavery or prostitution or exacted forced labor—all are indicted. The book tolerates Slavery but civilizes it; kidnapping slaves deserves death, and so do sorcery, idolatry, and bestiality
Tyre - Tyre was stormed, 8000 of her inhabitants massacred, 2000 crucified on the shore, and 30,000 sold into Slavery
Exodus - The plagues that successively fell upon the land loosened the bonds by which Pharaoh held them in Slavery, and at length he was eager that they should depart
Caracalla, the Nickname of m. Aurelius Severus Antoninus Bassianus - But we hear no more of Christians being crucified, unless they were slaves, or first reduced to Slavery
Land (of Israel) - ...
Monson observes that the purpose of the land was to serve as God's testing ground of faith! The Lord wanted to see if his people, redeemed by his matchless grace and mighty power out of Slavery in Egypt, and brought through the wilderness and into the promised land, would worship him and him alone
Redeem - ” Slavery appears as a condition from which one may be “ransomed” ( Pass'Over, - Further than this (1) the Passover is a type of deliverance from the Slavery of sin
Creation - He also wrote of a time when “the creation itself also will be set free from its Slavery to corruption into the freedom of the glory of the children of God” (Romans 8:21 NAS)
World - Paul describes the pre-Christian life as Slavery to ‘the rudiments of the world’ ( Galatians 4:3 , cf
Genesis - They sell favored brother Joseph into Slavery in Egypt
New Covenant - The former produced Slavery to the law (represented by Mount Sinai/present Jerusalem), whereas the latter produced freedom from the law and correlatively life in the Spirit (represented by Jerusalem above)
Debt, Debtor (2) - Imprisonment for debt appears in Matthew 5:25-26; and in unmitigated form in the story of the Two Creditors (Matthew 18:21-35), with selling into Slavery, accompanied by the horror of ‘tormentors’ (Matthew 18:34), although the whole passage is to be interpreted with caution, because Jesus in the fancied features of His tale may be reflecting, not the manners of His own land, but the doings of some distant and barbaric potentate
Egypt - Every thing the traveller sees or hears reminds him he is in the country of Slavery and tyranny. A...
universal air of misery, manifest in all the traveller meets, points out to him the rapacity of oppression, and the distrust attendant upon Slavery
Sin - Christ has negated the power of Satan in making death horrible and has freed the person from Slavery to this awful fear (Hebrews 2:14-15
Ideas (Leading) - It is the principle which has overthrown tyrannies, abolished Slavery, and justified all our modern enthusiasms for liberty and for the welfare of humanity. Ancient civilizations were for the most part founded on Slavery or on the subjection of races or classes
Festivals - It functioned as a reminder of the Lord's rest at the end of the creation week (Genesis 2:3 ) and also of the deliverance from Slavery in Egypt (Deuteronomy 5:12-25 )
Exodus, Book of - God knows the situation of His people even when another nation has forced them into Slavery
Gospel - The first debtor in Matthew 18:23-35 has earned nothing but the right to be sold into Slavery; instead the king cancels his enormous debt
Mercy - What God did for Israel in rescuing them from Slavery in Egypthe "saved" themwas a part of the relationship he made with this people
Diocletian, Emperor - Next morning an edict ordained that (1) all churches were to be demolished; (2) all sacred books burnt; (3) all Christian officials stripped of their dignities, and deprived of civil rights, and therefore rendered liable to torture and other outrages; while Christian men who were not officials were to be reduced to Slavery
Ammonites - Their ambassadors were exhorted to submit to Nebuchadnezzar, and threatened, on their refusal, with captivity and Slavery, Jeremiah 27:2-4
Ethics - Exodus 21:1-11; Deuteronomy 24:1-4; see DIVORCE; Slavery)
Law - ...
God had chosen Israel to be his people, saved them from Slavery in Egypt, and taken them into a close relationship with himself, all in fulfilment of his covenant promise made to Abraham
Jews - While Joseph lived, they were kindly used by the Egyptian monarchs; but soon after, from a suspicion that they would become too strong for the natives, they were condemned to Slavery; but the more they were oppressed, the more they grew. There relapses into idolatry also brought on them repeated turns of Slavery from the heathen among or around them
Tatianus - My soul being thus taught of God I understand how the writings of the Gentiles lead to condemnation, but the sacred Scriptures to freedom from this world's Slavery, liberating us from thousands of tyrants, and giving us, not indeed what we had not received, but what we had once received but had lost through error. ); and men thus God-taught were helped by them to break down the Slavery in the world, and gain back what they had once received, but had lost through the deceit of their spiritual foes (c
Galatians, Theology of - ...
Flesh Spirit Works of the law...
Faith, promise...
Curse...
Blessing, inheritance...
Slavery...
Freedom, sonship...
Sin and death...
Justification and life...
Hagar the slave woman...
[1] the free woman...
Sinai and present Jerusalem...
Jerusalem from above...
Ishmael...
Isaac...
Persecutor...
Persecuted...
Cast away...
Heir...
Being under law...
Being led by the Spirit...
Works of the flesh...
Fruit of the Spirit...
The last two sets of items occur in the hortatory section, particularly in 5:13-26
Worship - Paul expressly declares all sanctifying of certain seasons, as far as men deduced this from the divine command, to be Jewish and unevangelical, and to be like returning to the Slavery of the law, and to captivity to outward precepts. The passover of the Old Testament was easily ennobled and converted to a passover which suited the New Testament, by merely substituting the idea of deliverance from spiritual bondage, that is, from the Slavery of sin, for that of deliverance from earthly bondage
Lord - ); on one occasion he uses that term as a worthy designation of a faithful disciple (Colossians 4:12), and reminds believers that such Slavery is the condition into which they have surrendered themselves (1 Corinthians 7:22)
Croisade, or Crusade - Peter, commonly called the Hermit, a native of Amiens in Picardy, had made the pilgrimage to Jerusalem; and being deeply affected with the dangers to which that act of piety now exposed the pilgrims, as well as with the oppression under which the eastern Christians now laboured, formed the bold, and, in all appearance, impracticable design of leading into Asia, from the farthest extremities of the West, armies sufficient to subdue those potent and warlike nations that now held the holy land in Slavery
Money - Joseph was sold for less than the price of a slave (twenty shekels, Genesis 37:28 ), but he became the savior of Egypt who ironically purchased its entire population into Slavery (Genesis 47:13-25 )
Law - Some laws assume the existence of conditions such as debt Slavery ( Exodus 21:2-11 ), specific species of animals (Exodus 29:22 -fat; tail sheep ), or the climate of Palestine (feast held at end of harvest season, Leviticus 23:33-39 ), which make these laws inapplicable in other cultural environments
Old Testament in the New Testament, the - Paul applies the exodus themes of "slavery" and "redemption" spiritually to the work of the cross (e
Essenes - They condemned Slavery (Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) ii
Josiah - Josiah's father and grandfather were the two worst kings that had ever sold Israel into Slavery
Incarnation - Many metaphors are used in the NT to describe the effect of His death and resurrection, such as redemption, which conveys the idea of a deliverance at a great cost from Slavery; propitiation, or an act or process by which sin is neutralized; salvation, or bringing into a condition of health or safety; reconciliation with God, and remission of sin (see Atonement)
Homosexuality - In the case of Slavery, for example, the biblical message is ambiguous; in the case of homosexual Acts, on the other hand, what little material we have is all decidedly negative
Will of God - Viewed more specifically, for the slave, being a Christian within the social institution of Slavery called for obedience to the master—this was doing the will of God from the heart (Ephesians 6:6 )
Church, the - (1) Historically, the Lord's Supper was a rite commemorating Christ's redemptive death, even as the Passover was a remembrance of God's deliverance of Israel from Egyptian Slavery (Exodus 12:14 ; 13:3,9 ; Deuteronomy 16:3 )
Day of the Lord, God, Christ, the - These nations are indicted for appropriating parts of the land of Israel (3:2), for inhumane treatment of young boys and young girls (3:3,6), for traffic in Slavery (3:6), and for expropriating temple articles (3:5)
Matthew, Theology of - As such, it was a reenactment of the story of Israel's deliverance from the bondage of Egypt; the reformation of this meal into Jesus' last supper as a meal of remembrance, not of Egypt but of his death, demonstrates that Jesus saw his role in Israel's history as the antitype of the deliverance of Israel from Slavery
Philippians, Theology of - For by Christ and only by him God has worked in a truly indescribable way to save human beings, to reconcile them to himself, to bring them out of Slavery to sin, out of desperation and despair into hope, out of death into life
Individual - Most ancient civilizations were based on Slavery, which at once refused to recognize a large section of the members of the State as individuals, and placed the individuality of the others not on an equal moral basis, but on a basis of social inequality
Family - Yet their inclusion in the ‘family’ somewhat mitigated the rigours of Slavery even among the heathen in NT times; and this mitigation was much greater in Christian households
Egypt - These wonderful ruins attest the magnificence and grandeur, but also the absolute despotism and Slavery, of this land in the earliest ages and as far back as before the days of Abraham, and they also attest in the most impressive manner the fulfillment of prophecy
Preaching - On some occasions, the preachers appeared in public with visible signs, with implements of war, with yokes of Slavery, or something adapted to their subject
Division of the Earth - It had manifestly a direct tendency to tyranny, oppression, and Slavery
Sibylline Oracles - ]'>[13] far away...
From thy fair shrine shalt flee, for ‘tis thy fate...
To leave thy sacred soil all desolate;...
Borne to Assyria, thou shalt there behold...
Thy wives and children into Slavery sold,...
And greedy hands despoiling all thy gold
Aaron - And till all that Israel could ever need as a nation and as a church, as fathers and as mothers, as masters and as servants, as slaves and as redeemed from Slavery, as sinners and as the chosen people of God-all Israel was complete in Moses and Aaron and Miriam, even as they also were complete in God and in one another
Red Sea - That the recovery of the jewels of silver and jewels of gold and raiment, which they asked and obtained of the Egyptians, according to the divine command, Exodus 12:35-36 , was a leading motive with the Egyptians to pursue them; as the bringing back the Israelites to Slavery had been with Pharaoh and his servants, or officers
Jesuits - The gradation of ranks was only a gradation in Slavery; and so perfect a despotism over a large body of men, dispersed over the face of the earth, was never before realized
Egypt - At length a king arose who knew not Joseph, doubtless at the commencement of a new dynasty, and the children of Israel were reduced to Slavery
Philanthropy - Plato speaks with commendation of ‘the pure and innate hatred of the foreign nature,’ and Aristotle condones the Slavery of his age, and complacently regards the slave as ‘a kind of animate machine
Death of Christ - ...
This in turn links with the language of redemption, as the Passover stood for the redemption of the people from their Slavery in Egypt and was celebrated with the hope of a new and greater redemption
Marriage - Solomon); ( c ) the existence of Slavery, which almost implies it
Metaphor - -‘It is unquestionable that various legal metaphors, such as adoption, inheritance, tutelage, Slavery, manumission, were consecrated by him to the high office of conveying his doctrine and facilitating its comprehension by heathen minds, impoverished of spiritual conceptions and strangers to the novel truths he proclaimed’ (W
Sin (2) - Compliance with evil involves an obedience (Romans 6:16), a Slavery (Romans 6:17)
Peter, First Epistle of - , marriage, Slavery, obedience to civil rulers; and how much of this was common Christian belief and practice
Amos, Theology of - It is he who elected or chose the people of Israel for a special covenant relationship with himself, who rescued them from Slavery in Egypt, and who led them through the blistering wilderness to their territorial inheritance, which he wrested from the Amorites (2:9-10; 3:1-2; cf
Religious Experience - It is not only an epidemic universal and fatal (John 1:29), a blood-poisoning (John 9:41, John 15:22; John 15:24), worse than a lifelong paralysis (John 5:14), which may be eternal (Mark 3:29), a Slavery (John 8:34), and an insanity (Luke 15:17); it is ungrateful (Luke 16:6), traitorous (Mark 14:56), unfilial (Luke 15:11); the assassination of one’s higher self (Luke 9:25), and a fratricidal blow at Jesus Christ (Matthew 21:38, Luke 9:22)
Preaching - On some occasions, the preachers appeared in public with visible signs, with implements of war, yokes of Slavery, or something adapted to their subject
Moses - ) Intendest thou to kill me as thou killedst the Egyptian?"...
Slavery had debased them, and Moses dispirited gave up as hopeless the enterprise which he had undertaken in too hasty and self-relying a spirit
Sin - Sin is a Slavery (John 8:34)
Canaan - Had they been included in it, this would neither have justified their oppressors, nor proved that Christianity is not designed to remove the evil of Slavery
Personality - Self-consciousness becomes thereby a conscience of Slavery, of impotence (Romans 7, esp
Joseph - Severance from his father was the bitterest ingredient in his cup of Slavery
Covenant - But the Israelites were under severe strain, because of oppressive Slavery, to obey the cultural and spiritual mandates
Arabia - It was a mixed flock of this kind which was the sole care of Moses, during a third part of his long life; in which he must have had abundance of leisure, by night and by day, to reflect on the unhappy condition of his own people, still enduring all the rigours of Slavery in Egypt
Clementine Literature - All now return to the main land, and on telling the story to their companions who had been left behind, Nicetas and Aquila recognize their own story and declare themselves to be the twin sons, who had been saved from the wreck and sold into Slavery by their rescuers
Babylon - And at a later period, or about 130 years before the birth of Christ, Humerus, a Parthian governor, who was noted as excelling all tyrants in cruelty, exercised great severities on the Babylonians; and having burned the forum and some of the temples, and destroyed the fairest parts of the city, reduced many of the inhabitants to Slavery on the slightest pretexts, and caused them, together with all their households, to be sent into Media
Jews - Then began the Jewish war, which was terminated, after an obstinate defence and unparalleled sufferings on the part of the Jews, by the total destruction of the city and temple of Jerusalem, by the overthrow of their civil and religious polity, and the reduction of the people to a state of the most abject Slavery; for though, in the reign of Adrian, numbers of them collected together, in different parts of Judea, it is to be observed, they were then considered and treated as rebellious slaves; and these commotions were made a pretence for the general slaughter of those who were taken, and tended to complete the work of their dispersion into all countries under heaven
Justinianus i, Emperor - provinces villages were destroyed, cultivated land laid waste, and immense numbers of the inhabitants carried into Slavery