What does Shepherds mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
רֹעִ֔ים to pasture 5
הָרֹעִ֖ים to pasture 4
רֹעִ֖ים to pasture 4
ποιμένες a herdsman 3
הָֽרֹעִ֔ים to pasture 3
הָרֹעִ֜ים to pasture 2
הָרֹעִֽים to pasture 2
הָרֹעִ֔ים to pasture 2
הָֽרֹעִים֙ to pasture 2
הָֽרֹעִ֑ים to pasture 1
רֹעֵיהֶ֣ם to pasture 1
הָרֹעִים֮ to pasture 1
רֹעִ֗ים to pasture 1
וְרֹעִ֖ים to pasture 1
רֹעֶ֙יךָ֙ to pasture 1
רֹעִ֤ים to pasture 1
וְרֹ֣עֵיהֶ֔ם to pasture 1
ποιμαίνει to feed 1
רֹעַ֖י to pasture 1
רֹעֵֽי־ to pasture 1
לָרֹעִ֜ים to pasture 1
רוֹעֵ֣י to pasture 1
הָרֹעִ֑ים to pasture 1
עֵ֥קֶד to pasture 1
הָרֹעִ֤ים to pasture 1
אַדִּירֵ֣י great 1
ποιμένας a herdsman 1
ποιμένων a herdsman 1
רֹעֵ֣י shepherd (subst). 1

Definitions Related to Shepherds

H7462


   1 to pasture, tend, graze, feed.
      1a (Qal).
         1a1 to tend, pasture.
            1a1a to shepherd.
            1a1b of ruler, teacher (fig).
            1a1c of people as flock (fig).
            1a1d shepherd, herdsman (subst).
         1a2 to feed, graze.
            1a2a of cows, sheep etc (literal).
            1a2b of idolater, Israel as flock (fig).
      1b (Hiphil) shepherd, shepherdess.
   2 to associate with, be a friend of (meaning probable).
      2a (Qal) to associate with.
      2b (Hithpael) to be companions.
   3 (Piel) to be a special friend.
   

G4166


   1 a herdsman, esp.
   a shepherd.
      1a in the parable, he to whose care and control others have committed themselves, and whose precepts they follow.
   2 metaph.
      2a the presiding officer, manager, director, of any assembly: so of Christ the Head of the church.
         2a1 of the overseers of the Christian assemblies.
         2a2 of kings and princes.
         Additional Information: The tasks of a Near Eastern shepherd were: 1) to watch for enemies trying to attack the sheep; 2) to defend the sheep from attackers; 3) to heal the wounded and sick sheep; 4) to find and save lost or trapped sheep; 5) to love them, sharing their lives and so earning their trust.
         During World War II, a shepherd was a pilot who guided another pilot whose plane was partially disabled back to the base or carrier by flying alongside him to maintain visual contact.
         

G4165


   1 to feed, to tend a flock, keep sheep.
      1a to rule, govern.
         1a1 of rulers.
         1a2 to furnish pasture for food.
         1a3 to nourish.
         1a4 to cherish one’s body, to serve the body.
         1a5 to supply the requisites for the soul’s need.
         Additional Information: For synonyms see entry 1006, bosko.
         See entry 5824 for comparison of synonyms.
         

H117


   1 great, majestic.
      1a of waters of sea.
      1b of a tree.
      1c of kings, nations, gods.
   2 great one, majestic one.
      2a of nobles, chieftains, servants.
      

Frequency of Shepherds (original languages)

Frequency of Shepherds (English)

Dictionary

The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Shepherds
I notice the character of shepherds in order to offer a short observation on what is said concerning the abomination the Egyptians had to shepherds, which may not perhaps so immediately strike the reader. It appears by the history of Joseph that the patriarch used this policy when bringing his father and his brethren before Pharaoh, in order that they might be separated from the Egyptians, and have the land of Goshen assigned them. (See Genesis 46:31-34, and Genesis 47:1-31.)
It hath been supposed by some that this abomination of the Egyptians to shepherds arose from their employment, because while the Egyptians worshipped animals the shepherds killed them occasionally for food. There might perhaps be somewhat %in this for which the hatred arose; but then had this been the sole motive in the mind of Joseph, his plan of separation must have had respect still farther—the hatred would not have subsided by the %mere separation, in putting his family in Goshen.
I rather think, (though I speak not in the most distant way decidedly upon the subject) that the mind of the patriarch Joseph had an eye to Christ and aimed, upon this and every other occasion, to keep up the gracious distinction of character of the seed of Abraham, whose first and most decisive feature all along was of "the people that dwell alone, and that were not to be reckoned among the nations." The character of shepherds, simply as shepherds, would not have been so odious to the Egyptians, for we read of the flock and cattle of Egypt, as well as those of Israel, and therefore they must have had shepherds also. But circumcised shepherds, and sacrificing shepherds, to the God of Abraham, when the cause of covenant grace and mercy was discovered, would have done then as it hath ever since done in the church of Jesus, stirred up the natural hatred of the heart against the chosen seed.
Reader, the offence of the cross is not yet ceased, and blessed is it for Christ's people it never will. The Egyptians of the present hour have their abomination still. It is the felicity of the Lord's people to dwell in Goshen—that is, to be separated from men of the world. They dwell alone in the purpose, council, will, and love of God the Father, the grace and favour of Christ, and the anointings quickenings, and fellowship of God the Holy Ghost.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Shepherds
The patriarchal shepherds, rich in flocks and herds, in silver and gold, and attended by a numerous train of servants purchased with their money, or hired from the neighbouring towns and villages, acknowledge no civil superior; they held the rank, and exercised the rights, of sovereign princes; they concluded alliances with the kings in whose territories they tended their flocks; they made peace or war with the surrounding states; and, in fine, they wanted nothing of sovereign authority but the name. Unfettered by the cumbrous ceremonies of regal power, they led a plain and laborious life, in perfect freedom and overflowing abundance. Refusing to confine themselves to any particular spot, (for the pastures were not yet appropriated,) they lived in tents, and removed from one place to another in search of pastures for their cattle. Strangers in the countries where they sojourned, they refused to mingle with the permanent settlers, to occupy their towns, and to form with them one people. They were conscious of their strength, and jealous of their independence; and although patient and forbearing, their conduct proved, on several occasions, that they wanted neither skill nor courage to vindicate their rights and avenge their wrongs. In the wealth, the power, and the splendour of patriarchal shepherds, we discover the rudiments of regal grandeur and authority; and in their numerous and hardy retainers, the germ of potent empires. Hence the custom so prevalent among the ancients, of distinguishing the office and duties of their kings and princes, by terms borrowed from the pastoral life: Agamemnon, shepherd of the people, ‘Αγαμεμνονα ποιμενα λαων , is a phrase frequently used in the strains of Homer. The sacred writers very often speak of kings under the name of shepherds, and compare the royal sceptre to the shepherd's crook: "He chose David also his servant, and took him from the sheep folds; from following the ewes great with young, he brought him to feed Jacob his people, and Israel his inheritance. So he fed them according to the integrity of his heart, and guided them by the skilfulness of his hands." And Jehovah said to David himself: "Thou shalt feed my people Israel, and thou shalt be a captain over Israel." The royal Psalmist, on the other hand, celebrates, under the same allusions, the special care and goodness of God toward himself, and also toward his ancient people. "The Lord is my shepherd, I shall not want." "Give ear; O shepherd of Israel, thou that leadest Joseph like a flock; thou that dwellest between the cherubim, shine forth." In many other places of Scripture, the church is compared to a sheep fold, the saints to sheep, and the ministers of religion to shepherds, who must render, at last, an account of their administration to the Shepherd and Overseer to whom they owe their authority.
The patriarchs did not commit their flocks and herds solely to the care of menial servants and strangers; they tended them in person, or placed them under the superintendence of their sons and their daughters, who were bred to the same laborious employment, and taught to perform, without reluctance, the meanest services. Rebecca, the only daughter of a shepherd prince, went to a considerable distance to draw water; and it is evident from the readiness and address with which she let down her pitcher from her shoulder, and gave drink to the servant of Abraham, and afterward drew for all his camels, that she had been long accustomed to that humble employment. From the same authority we know that Rachel, the daughter of Laban, kept her father's flocks, and submitted to the various privations and hardships of the pastoral life in the deserts of Syria. The patriarch Jacob, though he was the son of a shepherd prince, kept the flocks of Laban, his maternal uncle; and his own sons followed the same business, both in Mesopotamia, and after his return to the land of Canaan. This primeval simplicity was long retained among the Greeks. Homer often sends the daughters of princes and nobles to tend the flocks, to wash the clothes of the family at the fountain, or in the flowing stream, and to perform many other menial services. Adonis, the son of Cinyras, a king of Cyprus, fed his flocks by the streaming rivers:
Et formosus oves ad flumina pavit Adonis.
VIR. Ecl. x, 50. 18.
"Along the streams his flock Adonis fed." DRYDEN.
Andromache, the wife of Hector, complains that Achilles had slain her seven brothers when they were tending their flocks and herds. AEneas pastured his oxen on Mount Ida, when Achilles seized them, and forced the Trojan hero to flee. Phoebus himself was a keeper of oxen in the groves and valleys of Mount Ida. This custom has descended to modern times; for in Syria the daughters of the Turcoman and Arabian shepherds, and in India the Brahmin women of distinction, are seen drawing water at the village wells, and tending their cattle to the lakes and rivers.
The flocks and herds of these shepherds were immensely numerous. The sheep of the Bedoween Arabs in Egypt, and probably throughout the east, are very fine, black-faced and white-faced, and many of them clothed in a brown coloured fleece: and of this superior breed the ample flocks of the Syrian shepherds consisted. So great was the stock of Abraham and Lot, that they were obliged to separate, because "the land was not able to bear them." From the present which Jacob made to his brother Esau, consisting of five hundred and eighty head of different sorts, we may form some idea of the countless numbers of great and small cattle which he had acquired in the service of Laban. In modern times, the numbers of cattle in the Turcoman flocks, which feed on the fertile plains of Syria, are almost incredible. They occupy sometimes three or four days in passing from one part of the country to another. Chardin had an opportunity of seeing a clan of Turcoman shepherds on their march, about two days' distance from Aleppo. The whole country was covered with them. Many of their principal people with whom he conversed on the road, assured him, that there were four hundred thousand beasts of carriage, camels, horses, oxen, cows, and asses, and three millions of sheep and goats. This astonishing account of Chardin is confirmed by Dr. Shaw, who states, that several Arabian tribes, who can bring no more than three or four hundred horses into the field, are possessed of more than as many thousand camels, and triple the number of sheep and black cattle. Russel, in his "History of Aleppo," speaks of vast flocks which pass that city every year, of which many sheep are sold to supply the inhabitants. The flocks and herds which belonged to the Jewish patriarchs were not more numerous.
The care of such overgrown flocks, says Paxton, required many shepherds. These were of different kinds; the master of the family and his children, with a number of herdsmen who were hired to assist them, and felt but little interest in the preservation and increase of their charge. In Hebrew, these persons, so different in station and feeling, were not distinguished by appropriate names; the master, the slave, and the hired servant, were all known by the common appellation of shepherds. The distinction, not sufficiently important to require the invention of a particular term, is expressed among every people by a periphrasis. The only instance in the Old Testament, in which the hired servant is distinguished from the master, or one of his family, occurs in the history of David, where he is said to have left the sheep, על שומר , "in the hand of a keeper," while he went down to visit his brethren, and the armies who were fighting against the Philistines under the banners of Saul, 1 Samuel 17:20 . This word exactly corresponds with the Latin term custos, "a keeper," which Virgil uses to denote a hireling shepherd, in his tenth Eclogue:
Atque utinam ex vobis unus vestrique fuissem, Aut custos gregis, aut maturae vinitor uvae.
"O that your birth and business had been mine, To feed the flock and prune the spreading vine!" WHARTON.
In such extensive pastoral concerns, the vigilance and activity of the master were often insufficient for directing the operations of so many shepherds, who were not unfrequently scattered over a considerable extent of country. An upper servant was therefore appointed to superintend their labours, and take care that his master suffered no injury. In the house of Abraham, this honourable station was held by Eliezer, a native of Damascus, a servant in every respect worthy of so great and good a master. The numerous flocks of Pharaoh seem to have required the superintending care of many overseers, Genesis 47:6 . Doeg, an Edomite, was entrusted with the whole pastoral establishment of Saul, 1 Samuel 21:7 . But in the reign of David, the important office of chief herdsman was abolished, and the vast flocks and herds of that monarch were entrusted to a number of superintendents; animals of the same species forming a separate flock, under its proper overseer, 1 Chronicles 27:29 . These overseers, in the language of the Hebrews, were called the princes of the flock; they were treated with great distinction, and seem to have been selected in the reign of David from among the nobles of his court. Eumaeus, a person of noble birth, agreeably to this custom, was charged with the care of the herds of swine belonging to Ulysses. The office of chief shepherd is frequently mentioned by the classic authors of antiquity. Diodorus relates from Ctesias, that Simma was overseer of the royal flocks under Ninus, king of Assyria. According to Plutarch, one Samo managed the flocks and herds of Neoptolemus, the king of the Molossians. The office of chief shepherd was also known among the Latins; for, in the seventh AEneid, Tyrrheus is named as governor of the royal flocks:
Tyrrheusque pater, cui regia parent
Armenta, et late custodia credita camp.
"Their father, Tyrrheus, did his fodder bring Tyrrheus, chief ranger to the Latian king." DRYDEN.
And Livy informs us, that Faustulus held the same office under Numitor, king of the Latins. But it is needless to multiply quotations; every scholar knows that the Greek and Roman classics abound with allusions to this office, which in those days was one of great importance and dignity, on the faithful discharge of which the power and splendour of an eastern potentate greatly depended. The office of chief shepherd, therefore, being in pastoral countries one of great trust, of high responsibility, and of distinguished honour, is with great propriety applied to our Lord by the Apostle Peter:
"And when the chief shepherd shall appear, ye shall receive a crown of glory which fadeth not away," 1 Peter 5:4 . The same allusion occurs in these words of Paul: "Now the God of peace, that brought again from the dead our Lord Jesus Christ, that great shepherd of the sheep, through the blood of the everlasting covenant, make you perfect in every good work to do his will," Hebrews 13:20 .

Sentence search

Maud - ) A gray plaid; - used by Shepherds in Scotland
Shearing-House - , "house of Shepherds binding sheep. " RSV, "the shearing-house of the Shepherds;" marg
Shieling - ) A hut or shelter for Shepherds of fishers
Adlai - Father of Shaphat, one of David's chief Shepherds
Shepherds - I notice the character of Shepherds in order to offer a short observation on what is said concerning the abomination the Egyptians had to Shepherds, which may not perhaps so immediately strike the reader. )...
It hath been supposed by some that this abomination of the Egyptians to Shepherds arose from their employment, because while the Egyptians worshipped animals the Shepherds killed them occasionally for food. " The character of Shepherds, simply as Shepherds, would not have been so odious to the Egyptians, for we read of the flock and cattle of Egypt, as well as those of Israel, and therefore they must have had Shepherds also. But circumcised Shepherds, and sacrificing Shepherds, to the God of Abraham, when the cause of covenant grace and mercy was discovered, would have done then as it hath ever since done in the church of Jesus, stirred up the natural hatred of the heart against the chosen seed
Sling - A weapon carried by Shepherds and soldiers, dating to at least 4500 B
Adlai - (ad' law i) Personal name of father of one of David's chief Shepherds (1 Chronicles 27:29 )
Shepherd - Farmers such as in Egypt even hated Shepherds (Genesis 46:34 ). ...
The Bible mentions Shepherds and shepherding over 200 times. ” Shepherds led sheep to pasture and water (Psalm 23:1 ) and protected them from wild animals (1 Samuel 17:34-35 ). Shepherds guarded their flocks at night whether in the open (Luke 2:8 ) or in sheepfolds (Zephaniah 2:6 ) where they counted the sheep as they entered (Jeremiah 33:13 ). Later prophets referred to Israel's leaders as Shepherds (Jeremiah 23:1 ; Ezekiel 34:1 ). ...
In Bible times the sheep cared for by Shepherds represented wealth. ...
The New Testament mentions Shepherds 16 times. Paul likened the church and its leaders to a flock with Shepherds (Acts 20:28 )
Shearing-House - Some translate "shepherds' meeting-place
Sheephook - ) A hook fastened to pole, by which Shepherds lay hold on the legs or necks of their sheep; a shepherd's crook
Pastors - Pastors (shepherds). In all other places where the Greek word occurs it is translated shepherd, and Shepherds
Epistles, Pastoral - (Latin: pastor, shepherd; Greek: epistole, letter) ...
Letters written by Saint Paul to Saint Timothy and Saint Titus as bishops, and Shepherds of the flock
Shearing House - REB reads, “shepherds' shelter
Cottage - ...
The sea coast shall be dwellings and cottages for Shepherds
Sling, Slingers, Slingstones - Shepherds and professional soldiers used slings
Door - In John 10, Our Lord, explaining the parable of the sheepfold, calls Himself "the door" through which the true Shepherds must pass. Others, with Saint Augustine, think that Our Lord refers to the sheep rather than to the Shepherds in these verses; He would affirm that to be saved one must come under His influence. Archbishop MacRory holds that He compares himself to a door with reference both to the sheep and to the Shepherds; "I am the door of the sheep
Shearing House - Literally, "the place where Shepherds bound sheep when about to shear them," from 'aaqad "to bind. " Gesenius translated "the meeting place of Shepherds
Eclogue - ) A pastoral poem, in which Shepherds are introduced conversing with each other; a bucolic; an idyl; as, the Ecloques of Virgil, from which the modern usage of the word has been established
Sheeling - ) A hut or small cottage in an expessed or a retired place (as on a mountain or at the seaside) such as is used by Shepherds, fishermen, sportsmen, etc
Makkedah - Makkedah (mak-kç'dah), place of Shepherds
Ader - Jerom observes, that the place where the angels declared the birth of Jesus Christ to the Shepherds, was called by this name, Luke 2:8-9
Tower - It is said this tower was in the neighbourhood of Bethlehem, Genesis 35:21 , and that the Shepherds to whom the angels revealed the birth of our Saviour were near to this tower, Luke 2:8 ; Luke 2:15 . The towers of the watchmen, or of the Shepherds, stood alone in the midst of the plain, in which the Shepherds and herdsmen who looked after the flocks, or watchmen, might lodge. King Uzziah caused several towers to be built for the Shepherds in the desert, and made many cisterns there, because he had a great number of flocks, 2 Chronicles 26:10
Esek - The Shepherds of Gerar disputed Isaac's claim to the watering place
Pasture - Open land surrounding towns and villages, regarded as common property to be freely used by village Shepherds and herdsmen (Numbers 35:2 ,Numbers 35:2,35:7 ; Joshua 14:4 ; Joshua 21:11 )
Shepherd - In the dry semi-desert countries of the Bible story, Shepherds lived a hard tough life, battling against heat, drought and wild animals (Genesis 31:38-40; Amos 3:12). ...
Life of a shepherd...
Shepherds were a common sight in Palestine and neighbouring countries. ...
After the Israelites took possession of Canaan, the Shepherds among them settled down more or less permanently with their flocks. ...
Sheep had to be protected and watched by Shepherds constantly, otherwise they would wander away and be lost. ...
Leaders of God’s people...
The Old Testament often refers to the leaders of Israel as Shepherds, and to the people as the flock (Numbers 27:17; Isaiah 63:11). Many of Israel’s leaders were bad Shepherds, and because of them the nation crumbled (Isaiah 56:11; Jeremiah 50:6; 1 Samuel 17:34; Zechariah 11:15-17). ...
In the New Testament also leaders of God’s people are referred to as Shepherds of the flock
Eder - Micah 4:8 ) would have been the appellation given to a tower occupied by Shepherds for the protection of their flocks against robbers (cf. Jerome mentions a Jewish tradition that this Eder was the site of the Temple, but himself prefers to think that it was the spot on which the Shepherds received the angels’ message
in Excelsis - (Latin: excellere, to raise up) ...
On high, the highest, occurring in the hymn of the angels to the Shepherds at Our Lord's birth, meaning that God is eminently above all things, and perhaps alluding to the idolatrous altars, which occasionally the Jews themselves, and always the people about them, used to build on the "high places," the tops of hills
Edar, Tower of - ' Probably a tower built by the Shepherds for the protection of their flocks
Ark - It is a type of the manger which disclosed to the Shepherds Messiah, who, beginning with the manger, at last ascended to His Father's throne; also of the paper ark to which God has committed His revelation
Helbon - of Damascus, high up in a wild glen of Anti-Lebanon; still famed for the finest grapes, also a depot for wool through its trade with the Bedouin Shepherds
Astray - ...
Jeremiah 50:6 (a) This represents the path of wrong teaching into which people are led by false Shepherds
a'di-el - (1 Chronicles 4:36 ) He took part in the murderous raid made by his tribe upon the peaceable Hamite Shepherds of the valley of Gedor in the reign of Hezekiah
Zipporah - When Moses fled from Egypt into Midian, and there stood up in defense of the daughters of Jethro, priest or prince of Midian, against Shepherds who would have hindered them form watering their flocks, Jethro took him into his house, and gave him his daughter Zipporah in marriage, Exodus 2:15-22 ; 4:25 ; 18:2-4
Jubal - Pan and Apollo, to whom the Greeks attributed the invention of the pipe and lyre respectively, were represented as Shepherds
Beth-Eked - Whatever its location, it must have been a meeting place and perhaps a marketplace for Shepherds
Shepherd - Rachel the bride of Jacob was a shepherdess, Genesis 29:6 ; his sons, the fathers of the tribes of Israel were Shepherds, and so was David their king, Psalm 78:70-72 . In Palestine and its vicinity, besides those who united the keeping of flocks and herds with the tillage of the ground, there were and still are numbers of nomads or wandering Shepherds confining themselves to no settled home. But the heat of summer withered these "pastures of the wilderness," and drove the Shepherds and their flocks to seek for highlands and streams. ...
God sometimes takes the name of Shepherd of Israel, Psalm 80:1 Jeremiah 31:10 ; and kings, both in Scripture and ancient writers, are distinguished by the title of "Shepherds of the people. " The prophets often inveigh against the "shepherds of Israel," that is, the kings, who feed themselves and neglect their flocks; who distress, illtreat, seduce, and lead them astray, Ezekiel 34:10 . Paul calls him the great Shepherd of the sheep, Hebrews 13:20 , and Peter gives him the appellation of Prince of Shepherds, 1 Peter 5:4 . His ministers are in like manner the pastors or under-shepherds of the flock, Jeremiah 3:15 23:3 Ephesians 4:11
Omophorion - 400,when it was made of wool and symbolical of the duties of bishops as Shepherds of their flocks
Scrip - pera, which was a bag carried by travellers and Shepherds, generally made of skin (Matthew 10:10 ; Mark 6:8 ; Luke 9:3 ; 10:4 )
Scrip - The Hebrew word thus translated appears in (1 Samuel 17:40 ) as a synonym for the bag in which the Shepherds of Palestine carried their food or other necessities
Edar, Tower of - Jerome saw in it the foreshadowing of the announcement of His birth to the "shepherds
Abomination - The term was used respecting the Hebrews in Egypt, Genesis 43:32 Exodus 8:26 , either because they ate and sacrificed animals held sacred by the Egyptians, or because they did not observe those ceremonies in eating which made a part of the religion of Egypt; and in Genesis 46:34 , because they were "wandering Shepherds," a race of whom had grievously oppressed Egypt
Wolf - Wolves are still sometimes found in Palestine, and are the dread of Shepherds, as of old
Herd, Herdsman - All the sons of Jacob were introduced to Pharaoh as Shepherds, and men whose trade had been to feed cattle
Asaiah - One of the Simeonite princes who attacked the Shepherds of Gedor, 1 Chronicles 4:36
Castle - Castles are also mentioned (Genesis 25:16 ) as a kind of watch-tower, from which Shepherds kept watch over their flocks by night
Habiru - The Bible, however, depicts the patriarchs, not as nomads, but as pastoralists (shepherds who settled beside other Shepherds and farmers)
Abomination - This aversion to Shepherds, such as the Hebrews, arose probably from the fact that Lower and Middle Egypt had formerly been held in oppressive subjection by a tribe of nomad Shepherds (the Hyksos), who had only recently been expelled, and partly also perhaps from this other fact that the Egyptians detested the lawless habits of these wandering Shepherds
Makkedah - (mak kee' duh) Name meaning, “Place of Shepherds,” of a Canaanite city, the site of Joshua's rout of the combined forces of five Canaanite kings (Joshua 10:10 )
Makke'Dah - (place of Shepherds ), a place memorable in the annals of the conquest of Canaan as the scene of the execution by Joshua of the five confederate kings, ( Joshua 10:10-50 ) who had hidden themselves in a cave at this place
na'Bal - It was the custom of the Shepherds to drive them into the wild downs on the slopes of Carmel; and it was whilst they were on one of these pastoral excursions that they met a band of outlaws, who showed them unexpected kindness, protecting them by day and night, and never themselves committing any depredations. The moment that the messengers were gone, the Shepherds that stood by perceived the danger that their master and themselves would incur. (1 Samuel 25:17 ) To his wife, as to the good angel of the household, one of the Shepherds told the state of affairs
Abomination - ...
The Hebrew, not only as foreigners, accounted by the intolerant mythology of Egypt as unfit for intercourse except that of war or commerce, but also as nomad Shepherds, were an "abomination" to the Egyptians (Genesis 46:34). The Egyptians themselves reared cattle, as Pharaoh's offer to make Joseph's brethren "overseers of his cattle" proves (Genesis 47:6), and as their sculptures and paintings show; but they abominated the nomad Shepherds, or Bedouins, because the Egyptians, as being long civilized, shrank, and to the present day shrink, from the lawless predatory habits of the wandering shepherd tribes in their vicinity
Shepherd - ...
The Shepherds kept watches (plural in Greek, Luke 2:8, not "slumbering," Nahum 3:18) by turns at night, not on duty both night and day as Jacob (Genesis 31:40). There were chief and under Shepherds (Genesis 47:6; 1 Peter 5:4), and hirelings not of the family (John 10:11-13; 1 Samuel 21:7). Shepherds often contended with one another as to water (Genesis 26:17-22; Exodus 2:17). The Egyptian antipathy to Shepherds (whom the monuments always represent as mean) was due to their being themselves agriculturists, whereas the neighbouring Arabs with whom they so often strove were nomads. Princes, and even hostile leaders, are called Shepherds: Isaiah 44:28; Jeremiah 2:8; Jeremiah 3:15; Jeremiah 6:3; Ezekiel 34:2; Micah 5:5
Wolf - Shepherds knew the wolf as the greatest enemy of sheep
Bethlehem - Nearby was Rachel's burial-place (still marked by a white mosque near the town), and called Ephrath, Genesis 35:19; the home of Naomi, Boaz, and Ruth, Ruth 1:19; birthplace of David, 1 Samuel 17:12; burial-place of Joab's family, 2 Samuel 2:32; taken by the Philistines, and had a noted well, 2 Samuel 23:14-15; fortified by Rehoboam, 2 Chronicles 11:6; foretold as the birthplace of Christ, Micah 5:2; the birthplace of Jesus, Matthew 2:1; was visited by the Shepherds, Luke 2:15-17, and by the Magi, Matthew 2:1-23. The "plain of the Shepherds" is about a mile from the town
Sling - It was used by Shepherds to keep off such animals as wolves; David had one with which he smote Goliath
Tend - ) To accompany as an assistant or protector; to care for the wants of; to look after; to watch; to guard; as, Shepherds tend their flocks
Shepherds - The patriarchal Shepherds, rich in flocks and herds, in silver and gold, and attended by a numerous train of servants purchased with their money, or hired from the neighbouring towns and villages, acknowledge no civil superior; they held the rank, and exercised the rights, of sovereign princes; they concluded alliances with the kings in whose territories they tended their flocks; they made peace or war with the surrounding states; and, in fine, they wanted nothing of sovereign authority but the name. In the wealth, the power, and the splendour of patriarchal Shepherds, we discover the rudiments of regal grandeur and authority; and in their numerous and hardy retainers, the germ of potent empires. The sacred writers very often speak of kings under the name of Shepherds, and compare the royal sceptre to the shepherd's crook: "He chose David also his servant, and took him from the sheep folds; from following the ewes great with young, he brought him to feed Jacob his people, and Israel his inheritance. " In many other places of Scripture, the church is compared to a sheep fold, the saints to sheep, and the ministers of religion to Shepherds, who must render, at last, an account of their administration to the Shepherd and Overseer to whom they owe their authority. This custom has descended to modern times; for in Syria the daughters of the Turcoman and Arabian Shepherds, and in India the Brahmin women of distinction, are seen drawing water at the village wells, and tending their cattle to the lakes and rivers. ...
The flocks and herds of these Shepherds were immensely numerous. The sheep of the Bedoween Arabs in Egypt, and probably throughout the east, are very fine, black-faced and white-faced, and many of them clothed in a brown coloured fleece: and of this superior breed the ample flocks of the Syrian Shepherds consisted. Chardin had an opportunity of seeing a clan of Turcoman Shepherds on their march, about two days' distance from Aleppo. ...
The care of such overgrown flocks, says Paxton, required many Shepherds. In Hebrew, these persons, so different in station and feeling, were not distinguished by appropriate names; the master, the slave, and the hired servant, were all known by the common appellation of Shepherds. ...
In such extensive pastoral concerns, the vigilance and activity of the master were often insufficient for directing the operations of so many Shepherds, who were not unfrequently scattered over a considerable extent of country
Sheep - (Chardin says he saw a clan of Turcoman Shepherds whose flock consisted of 3,000,000 sheep and goats, besides 400,000 Feasts of carriage, as horses, asses and camels. (Job 30:1 ) Shepherds in Palestine and the East generally go before their flocks, which they induce to follow by calling to them, comp. The relation that exists between Christ, "the chief Shepherd," and his members is beautifully compared to that which in the East is so strikingly exhibited by the Shepherds to their flocks [1]
Cottage - , "caves") or "wells of water," such as Shepherds would sink
Bozrah - A center of Shepherds, it was known for woolen garments
Village - Shepherds often gathered around villages
Goshen - It was suited to Shepherds, and abounded in vegetables
Goats' Hair - The Shepherds carefully and frequently wash these goats in rivers
Nabal - His Shepherds and his flocks had been protected in the wilderness by David and his followers
Tekoa - God called Amos from among the Shepherds of Tekoa to preach to the Northern Kingdom of Israel (Amos 1:1 )
Wells - In this manner the well was covered, from which the flocks of Laban were commonly watered: and the Shepherds, careful not to leave them open at any time, patiently waited till all the flocks were gathered together, before they removed the covering, and then, having drawn a sufficient quantity of water, they replaced the stone immediately. The extreme scarcity of water in these arid regions, entirely justifies such vigilant and parsimonious care in the management of this precious fluid; and accounts for the fierce contentions about the possession of a well, which so frequently happened between the Shepherds of different masters. But after the question of right, or of possession, was decided, it would seem the Shepherds were often detected in fraudulently watering their flocks and herds from their neighbour's well. This was probably the reason that the Shepherds of Padanaram declined the invitation of Jacob to water the flocks, before they were all assembled; either they had not the key of the lock which secured the stone, or, if they had, they durst not open it but in the presence of Rachel, to whose father the well belonged. It is ridiculous to suppose the stone was so heavy that the united strength of several Mesopotamian Shepherds could not roll it from the mouth of the well, when Jacob had strength or address to remove it alone; or that, though a stranger, he ventured to break a standing rule for watering the flocks, which the natives did not dare to do, and that without opposition. The oriental Shepherds were not on other occasions so passive, as the violent conduct of the men of Gerar sufficiently proves
Flock - Paul commended the Shepherds to God and to the word of His grace
Drive Out - Evil “shepherds” or leaders did not lead but rather “drove away” and scattered Israel ( Wolf - The Syrian wolf is of lighter color than the wolf of Europe it is the dread of the Shepherds of Palestine
Dog - A species of quadrupeds, belonging to the genus Canis, of many varieties, as the mastiff, the hound, the spaniel, the Shepherds dog, the terrier, the harrier, the bloodhound, &c
Porter - In John 10:3 the porter is the man left in charge of a sheepfold by the shepherd or Shepherds whose sheep are there housed for the night
Babe - prefixed to βρέφος in this verse; the sign given to the Shepherds was ‘the sign of a babe. , so that what the Shepherds were told was ‘The sign is a babe
Gospel - Angels thought so, when at the command of God they posted down from heaven, at the birth of Christ, as if ambitious to be the first preachers of it to a lost world, and in a multitude of the heavenly host met together, to proclaim the blessed tidings to the Jewish Shepherds, saying, "Glory to God in the highest, and on earth, peace, good will towards men
Wolf - They are the peculiar object of terror to Shepherds, as the defenselessness and timidity of the sheep render it an easy prey to wolves, Luke 10:3 John 10:12
Shepherd - Especially Ezekiel 34 rebukes these ‘shepherds’ for their neglect of their charge, and ends up (v. 196) of spiritual rulers as Shepherds rests on the original Jewish Didascalia (preserved in the so-called Apostolic Constitutions, ii. In ancient Babylonia the chief stars bore the name of ‘Shepherds of Heaven
Sheep - , "the fold of the sheep," and John 10:2-27 ; 21:16,17 in some texts; Hebrews 13:20 ; of those who in a future day, at the introduction of the millennial kingdom, have shown kindness to His persecuted earthly people in their great tribulation, Matthew 25:33 ; of the clothing of false Shepherds, Matthew 7:15 ; (c) figuratively, by way of simile, of Christ, Acts 8:32 ; of the disciples, e
Nabal - One of the Shepherds that stood by and saw the reception David's messengers had met with, informed Abigail, Nabal's wife, who at once realized the danger that threatened her household
Women - (Genesis 24:64,65 ) Jacob saluted Rachel with a kiss in the presence of the Shepherds
Barbarian - It is most probably derived from berbir, "a shepherd;" whence Barbary, the country of wandering Shepherds; Bedouins, Sceni, Scythei, as if, wanderers in tents; therefore barbarians
Feed, Fed - ...
2: ποιμαίνω (Strong's #4165 — Verb — poimaino — poy-mah'ee-no ) "to act as a shepherd" (from poimen, "a shepherd"), is used (a) literally, Luke 17:7 , RV, "keeping sheep," for AV, "feeding cattle;" 1 Corinthians 9:7 ; (b) metaphorically, "to tend, to shepherd;" said of Christ, Matthew 2:6 , RV, "shall be Shepherd of" (for AV, "shall rule"); of those who act as spiritual Shepherds under Him, John 21:16 , RV, "tend" (for AV "feed"); so 1 Peter 5:2 ; Acts 20:28 , "to feed" ("to tend" would have been a consistent rendering; a shepherd does not only "feed" his flock); of base Shepherds, Jude 1:12
Shepherd - In its first appearance Jacob tells the Shepherds: “Lo, it is yet high day, neither is it time that the cattle should be gathered together: water ye the sheep, and go and feed them” ( Building - ...
The Israelites were by occupation Shepherds and dwellers in tents (Genesis 47:3 ); but from the time of their entering Canaan they became dwellers in towns, and in houses built of the native limestone of Palestine
Rameses - Aahmes I built cities in the Delta, especially on the eastern quarter from whence the invading Shepherds had come, and was likely as restorer of the sun (Ra ) worship to have given the name Rama to the treasure city which Israel fortified there, as he gave it also to his son
Shepherd - Joseph instructed his brethren to tell Pharaoh that they were Shepherds, and they asked permission to dwell in Goshen, for every shepherd was an abomination to the Egyptians
Sheep - Shepherds go before them and call them by name to follow (John 10:4; Psalms 77:20; Psalms 80:1)
Beth'Lehem - (2 Chronicles 11:6 ) It was here that our Lord was born, (Matthew 2:1 ) and here that he was visited by the Shepherds, (Luke 2:15-17 ) and the Magi
Architecture - The Israelites were by occupation Shepherds, and by habit dwellers in tents
Luke, Saint - He also excelled in painting and sculpture, the Annunciation, Visitation, Nativity, and Shepherds being his favorite themes; a painting of the Virgin in Saint Mary Major at Rome is attributed to him
Tekoa - " The derivation taaqa' "to strike" alludes to the stakes struck into the ground to secure the tents of the Shepherds who roamed in "the wilderness of Tekoa," which was E
Sandal, Shoe - Such protection was especially required by men on a journey, by Shepherds on the hills, and by peasants when cutting wood or collecting thorns for fuel
Lion - , 1 Kings 20:35 , 2 Kings 17:25 ), and especially to Shepherds’ flocks ( 1 Samuel 17:34 , Isaiah 31:4 , Amos 3:12 , Micah 5:8 )
Goat - As the word "shepherds" describes what they ought to have been, so "he goats" what they were; heading the flock, they were foremost in sin, so they shall be foremost in punishment
Sign - circumcision as a sign of the covenant); (3) as an ‘indication’-Matthew 26:48 (Judas’ kiss), Luke 2:12 (to the Shepherds) Luke 2:34 (the child Jesus set for a sign); (4) hence for some wonderful indication-Matthew 24:3; Matthew 24:30, Mark 13:4 (of Christ’s Coming), Matthew 16:1; Matthew 16:4, Mark 8:11, Mark 16:17; Mark 16:20, Luke 11:15; Luke 11:29 (to show Christ’s power), Matthew 16:3 (signs of the times) Matthew 16:4 (sign of Jonah), 1 Corinthians 14:22 (tongues and prophesying as a sign of the power of Christianity); and therefore for a ‘miracle’ or wonderful deed which has instruction as its object
Pan - ) The god of Shepherds, guardian of bees, and patron of fishing and hunting
Pan - ) The god of Shepherds, guardian of bees, and patron of fishing and hunting
Sarids - The inhabitants are for the most part Shepherds, who have charge of the numerous flocks and herds, which feed in the plains
Sign - circumcision as a sign of the covenant); (3) as an ‘indication’-Matthew 26:48 (Judas’ kiss), Luke 2:12 (to the Shepherds) Luke 2:34 (the child Jesus set for a sign); (4) hence for some wonderful indication-Matthew 24:3; Matthew 24:30, Mark 13:4 (of Christ’s Coming), Matthew 16:1; Matthew 16:4, Mark 8:11, Mark 16:17; Mark 16:20, Luke 11:15; Luke 11:29 (to show Christ’s power), Matthew 16:3 (signs of the times) Matthew 16:4 (sign of Jonah), 1 Corinthians 14:22 (tongues and prophesying as a sign of the power of Christianity); and therefore for a ‘miracle’ or wonderful deed which has instruction as its object
Cattle - Kings also had Shepherds "over their flocks" (1 Chronicles 27:31 ), from which they derived a large portion of their revenue (2 Samuel 17:29 ; 1 Chronicles 12:40 ). Sometimes they were kept by hired Shepherds (John 10:12 ), and sometimes by the sons of the family (1 Samuel 16:11 ; 17:15 )
Sheep - Ezekiel 34:1 uses the life of sheep and Shepherds to picture God's relationship with His people and their rulers
Lions - Shepherds sometimes, single-handed, encountered lions and slew them (1 Samuel 17:34,35 ; Amos 3:12 )
Abominable - All abomination, or an abominable thing, is a thing hateful or detestable, as the employment or calling of Shepherds was to the Egyptians
Abomination - All abomination, or an abominable thing, is a thing hateful or detestable, as the employment or calling of Shepherds was to the Egyptians
Shepherd - (Genesis 33:13 ) In large establishments there are various grades of Shepherds, the highest being styled "rulers," (Genesis 47:6 ) or "chief Shepherds," (1 Peter 5:4 ) in a royal household the title of abbir "mighty," was bestowed on the person who held the post
Pastor - In referring to leaders of God’s people as Shepherds, the New Testament writers were following a well established Old Testament usage of the word (Numbers 27:17; Isaiah 63:11; Jeremiah 50:6; see SHEPHERD)
Caves - Still the Shepherds dwell in caves during summer to be nearer their flocks and fields; at Gadara the dwellings are almost all caves
Drunk - ...
Ezekiel 34:18 (a) The Lord is reproving the Shepherds of Israel because they took for themselves the best of the land, its riches and its increase, while neglecting to care for the flock of GOD
Sechem - Upon the hills around flocks and herds were feeding, as of old; nor in the simple garb of the Shepherds of Samaria was there any thing repugnant to the notions we may entertain of the appearance presented by the sons of Jacob
Sheep - Shepherds in Palestine and the East generally go before their flocks, calling to them, and the sheep follow; comp
Shepherd - Shepherds in Palestine and the East generally go before their flocks, calling to them, and the sheep follow; comp
Sign - The ‘babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, and lying in a manger,’ is the simple and humble sign to the Shepherds of the birth of a Saviour, Christ the Lord ( Luke 2:12 ); and He is welcomed by Simeon as ‘a sign which is spoken against’ ( Luke 2:34 )
Amalekites - "...
They are supposed by some to have been a party or tribe of the Shepherds who invaded Egypt, and kept it in subjection for two hundred years. They may, however, be deduced from a higher origin; and viewing them as Cuthite Shepherds and warriors, we have an adequate explanation both of their imperious and warlike character, and of the motive of their hostility to the Jews in particular
Judah, Tribe of - The country was rich in corn, wine, oil, and fruit; and the daring Shepherds were able to lead their flocks far out over the neighbouring plains and through the mountains
Chief - Abir means the powerful one and is used of the chief of Saul's Shepherds ( 1 Samuel 21:7 )
Moses - Sitting at a well, the typical meeting place for the culture (see also Genesis 29:2 ), Moses witnessed the violent aggression of male Shepherds against female Shepherds who had already drawn water for their sheep. Moses saved the oppressed Shepherds, whose father, the priest of Midian, invited him to live and work under the protection of the Midianite's hospitality
Bag - Used by Shepherds and travelers to carry one or more days' supplies, it was made of animal skins and slung across the shoulder
Brother - 29:4: “And Jacob said unto them [3], My brethren, whence be ye?”...
The word 'âch sometimes represents someone or something that simply exists alongside a given person or thing: “And surely your blood of your lives will I require; at the hand of every beast will I require it, and at the hand of … every man’s brother will I require the life of man” ( Magi - They came to the infant Jesus some considerable time after the Shepherds in Luke 2, for now He is no longer in an inn but in the "house" (Matthew 2:11). Luke, dwelling more on His human sympathy, gives the history of the divinely guided visit of the humble Shepherds
Desert, Wilderness - It was in the wilderness that the Shepherds tended their flocks, and other forms of life were also to be found there. As the pasture to be found in the wilderness was scanty and insufficient to support a flock of sheep for any length of time, the Shepherds had to move from place to place in order to obtain the necessary food for their flocks
Gift, Giving - ...
Both Testaments witness to God's gift of leadership to God's people as: priests (Numbers 8:19 ; Zechariah 3:7 ); Davidic kings (2 Chronicles 13:5 ); deliverers (2 Kings 13:5 ); Shepherds with Godlike hearts (Jeremiah 3:15 ); apostles, prophets, evangelists, and pastor-teachers (Ephesians 4:11-12 )
Favor - When Christ was born the angelic host announced to the Shepherds that God would send "peace to men on whom his favor rests" (Luke 2:14 )
Bethlehem - )...
A field southeast of town has been identified as the place where the Shepherds had the vision of the angels
Fly - I'll fly from Shepherds, flocks, and flowery plains
Mary, the Mother of Jesus - Thither came Shepherds to whom His birth had been announced by angels, accompanied by a multitude of the heavenly host praising God
Flock - Jeremiah viewed the Judeans as having been guided astray by their Shepherds, or leaders ( Jesus - His birth was announced to the Shepherds (Luke 2:8-20 )
Elder - ...
Responsibilities of elders...
Elders are likened to Shepherds over a flock. Elders can learn how to be true Shepherds of the flock by following the example of the Chief Shepherd, Jesus Christ, who gave himself for it (1 Peter 5:4; cf
Wilderness (2) - The territories held by those nomads—called Bedawîn in modern times—are not without water and grass; but these indispensable resources, required for the herds, are both scarce, and the tribes of Shepherds, are compelled to remove their camps from one place to another for feeding and watering their cattle. At the boundary itself of those two tracts of land live some populations which hold a sort of intermediate position in the progress of civilization: they are half-sedentary, half-shepherds (half-Fellahîn, half-Bedawîn), and, dwelling still under tents, they cultivate the ground, plough, sow, and reap (cf. There were, however, spaces of land without human habitations, and probably left to the Shepherds and their cattle
Philistim - —O Canaan, the land of the Philistines, I will even destroy thee, that there shall be no inhabitant; and the sea coast shall be dwellings and cottages for Shepherds, and folds for flocks," Zephaniah 2:4-6 . In winter, they and their cattle may be said to live together; the part of the dwelling allotted to themselves being only raised two feet above that in which they lodge their beasts:"—"dwellings and cottages for Shepherds, and folds for flocks. "—Thus accomplishing the words of prophecy, "the remnant shall perish; the land of the Philistines shall be destroyed, that there shall be no inhabitant; and the sea coast shall be dwellings and cottages for Shepherds, and folds for flocks
Love Feast - More serious evils still were introduced by false teachers described by Judges 1:12 : ‘they who are hidden rocks at your love feasts when they feast with you, Shepherds that without fear feed themselves
Lion - Shepherds, as David, sometimes singly encountered it, and prevailed (1 Samuel 17:34-35; Amos 3:12); oftener in bands, frightening him with shouts into a pit covered over with reed or branches lightly, to entrap it (Ezekiel 19:4; Ezekiel 19:8-9)
Zechariah, Book of - He again notes the difference between the false Shepherds and the true shepherd, and looks forward to the final triumph of the Messiah’s kingdom (12:1-14:21)
Euthymius (4), Abbat in Palestine - They were, however, discovered by some Shepherds, who sent them gifts
Jacob's Well - Upon the hills around, flocks and herds are seen feeding as of old; nor in the simple garb of the Shepherds of Samaria, at this day, is there any thing repugnant to the notions we may entertain of the appearance formerly presented by the sons of Jacob
Abomination - This term was used with regard to the Hebrews, who, being Shepherds, are said to have been an abomination to the Egyptians; because they sacrificed the animals held sacred by that people, as oxen, goats, sheep, &c
Camel - ...
CAMELS' HAIR was woven into cloth in the East, some of it exceedingly fine and soft, but usually coarse and rough, used for making the coats of Shepherds and camel-drivers, and for covering tents
Peace - The multitude of them that came flying, down to the Jewish Shepherds at Bethlehem in the morning of Christ's nativity, hailed them with this joyful sound
Zechariah, Book of - The Shepherds of Judah, Jehovah’s flock, are condemned, and victory is promised to the flock. In 11:4 17, 13:7 9 the figure of the false Shepherds, introduced in the preceding section, is worked out into an allegory of the false and true shepherd, in a way that enables the prophet to illustrate the frustration of God’s beneficeot purpose by the obstinacy of His people, as well as the evil character of their rulers. The three Shepherds cut off in quick succession strongly suggest the conditions shortly before the Maccabæan uprising, but the highly symbolic and somewhat imitative character of the prophecy renders it precarious to seek any exact picture of immediate conditions; our ignorance, too, of large portions of the post-exilic age makes it impossible to say that some other time may not have furnished an equally appropriate occasion
Caesarea - To-day it is a wilderness of dreary ruins, tenanted only by a few wandering Shepherds
Wilderness - It was the land that neighbored inhabited land to which Shepherds could drive their sheep and goats for pasture
Bethlehem - is the traditional scene of the angels' vision to the Shepherds; but the hills were more likely to have been the scene of the flocks being kept than the grain abounding valley
Joy - Shepherds hear that news of the birth of Christ is an occasion for great joy for all people (Luke 2:10 )
Gregorius, Saint., the Illuminator - 332, and the Shepherds, finding his dead body without knowing whose it was, erected over it a cairn of stones
Elder - Be Shepherds of the church of God, which he bought with his own blood" (Acts 20:28 ). The pastoral character of this task of oversight is also indicated when Peter writes: "To the elders among you, I appeal as a fellow elder Be Shepherds of God's flock that is under your care, serving as overseers—not because you must, but because you are willing, as God wants you to be; not greedy for money, but eager to serve; not lording it over those entrusted to you, but being examples to the flock
Nabal - As a matter of fact, David had interposed again and again, and been a wall, as Nabal's Shepherds themselves said, round them and their sheep against the sheep-stealing tribes. That is to say, Nabal had allowed and indulged himself in his snarling, snappish ways till he was known in his own house, among his Shepherds, and all round about, as Nabal the churl. Nabal, and David, and Abigail, and the Shepherds, and the soldiers, we all come to Thee
Perish - Israel is called “lost sheep” whose “shepherds have caused them to go astray” ( Lily - So the Persian poet, Sadi, compares an amiable youth to "the white lily in a bed of narcissuses," because he surpassed all the young Shepherds in goodness
Babylon - Even before Babylon reached the summit of its glory, Isaiah prophesied: "Babylon, the glory of kingdoms, the beauty of the Chaldees' excellency, shall be as when God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah: It shall never be inhabited, neither shall it be dwelt in from generation to generation; neither shall the Arabian pitch tent there; neither shall the Shepherds make their fold there; but wild beasts of the desert shall lie there
Bethlehem - " The road winds round the top of a valley which tradition has fixed on as the scene of the angelic vision which announced the birth of our Lord to the Shepherds; but different spots have been selected, the Romish authorities not being agreed on this head. These concerts charm the Christian Arab, who, leaving his camels to feed, repairs, like the Shepherds of old, to Bethlehem, to adore the King of kings in the manger
Deborah - Those delivered from the plundering "archers "who infest "the places of drawing water" to plunder the Shepherds, shepherdesses, and their flocks in lawless times (Exodus 2:17), should rehearse there, now that all is peace, "the Lord's righteous acts
Reuben - "...
Reuben held meetings by their rural watercourses (pelagot ), passed spirited resolutions, but after all preferred remaining quietly among the sheepfolds (hurdles) and hearing the bleating of the flocks (or else the piping of Shepherds) rather than the blast of war trumpets
Mary - 6-7), the visit of the Shepherds (vv
Abide, Abode - ...
A — 9: αὐλίζομαι (Strong's #835 — Verb — aulizomai — ow-lid'-zom-ahee ) "to lodge," originally "to lodge in the aule, or courtyard," is said of Shepherds and flocks; hence, to pass the night in the open air, as did the Lord, Luke 21:37 ; "to lodge in a house," as of His visit to Bethany, Matthew 21:17
Moses - ...
They molded the character of the Hebrews, and transformed them from a nation of Shepherds into a people of fixed residence and agricultural habits
Jesus Christ - Shepherds heard, came, and wondered. Luke's Shepherds knew Him as “a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord” (Luke 2:11 )
Fear, Fearful, Fearfulness - 1), and is said of serving the Lord, Luke 1:74 ; of being among the Lord's people as His servant, 1 Corinthians 16:10 ; of ministering the Word of God, Philippians 1:14 ; of the evil of false spiritual Shepherds, Jude 1:12
Gad (1) - Like Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, of the tribes they two alone remained Shepherds still after the intervening centuries since Jacob left Canaan for Egypt
Now - equivalent, is translated "now" in Luke 2:15 , in the words of the Shepherds; in Acts 15:36 , RV (AV, "and")
Sepulchre - Deserted tombs were sometimes used as places of refuge and residence by the poor, Isaiah 65:4 Luke 8:27 ; the Shepherds of Palestine still drive their flocks into them for shelter, and wandering Arabs live in them during the winter
Arabia - They were wandering Shepherds rather than farmers, since most of the land was not suitable for cultivation and some of it was desert
Pharaoh - To the old native Egyptians, who were an African race, Shepherds were "an abomination;" but to the Hyksos kings these Asiatic Shepherds who now appeared with Jacob at their head were congenial, and being akin to their own race, had a warm welcome (Genesis 47:5,6 )
Keeping - For instance, ‘There were Shepherds in the same country abiding in the field, and keeping watch (φυλάσσοντες φυλακάς) by night over their flocks’ (Luke 2:8); ‘It is written, He shall give his angels charge over thee to keep (Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 guard) thee’ (Luke 4:10, where the verb used is διαφυλάσσω). When the Shepherds made known concerning the saying which had been spoken to them about the child in Bethlehem, ‘all that heard it wondered
mo'Ses - There were the Arabian Shepherds, and there were also seven maidens, whom the Shepherds rudely drove away from the water
Elder - In the address to the Ephesian elders Paul referred to them as overseeing the church and serving as Shepherds of the church ( Acts 20:28 )
Husbandry - Springs, therefore, fountains, and rivulets, were held in as much honour and worth by husbandmen as by Shepherds, Joshua 15:9 ; Judges 1:15 ; and we accordingly find that the land of Canaan was extolled for those fountains of water of which Egypt was destitute The soil was enriched, also, in addition to the method just mentioned, by means of ashes; to which the straw, the stubble, the husks, the brambles, and grass, that overspread the land during the sabbatical year, were reduced by fire
Know, Knowledge - Jacob questioned the Shepherds of Haran, "Do you know Laban?" (Genesis 29:5 )
Luke - This Gospel contains many things which are not found in the other Gospels; among which are the following: the birth of John the Baptist; the Roman census in Judea; the circumstances attending Christ's birth at Bethlehem; the vision granted to the Shepherds; the early testimony of Simeon and Anna; Christ's conversation with the doctors in the temple when he was twelve years old; the parables of the good Samaritan, of the prodigal son, of Dives and Lazarus, of the wicked judge, and of the publican and Pharisee; the miraculous cure of the woman who had been bowed down by illness eighteen years; the cleansing of the ten lepers; and the restoring to life the son of a widow at Nain; the account of Zaccheus, and of the penitent thief; and the particulars of the journey to Emmaus
Keep, Keeping - 2, above), of the mother of Jesus in regard to the words of the Shepherds; in Mark 6:20 it is used of Herod's preservation of John the Baptist from Herodias, RV, "kept (him) safe," AV, "observed (him)" (marg
Shechem - Upon the hills around, flocks and herds were feeding, as of old; nor in the simple garb of the Shepherds of Samaria was there any thing repugnant to the notions we may entertain of the appearance presented by the sons of Jacob
Babylon - It shall never be inhabited, neither shall it be dwelt in from generation to generation: neither shall the Arabian pitch tent there: neither shall the Shepherds make their fold there. Neither shall the Arabian pitch tent there, neither shall the Shepherds make their folds there. " It was prophesied of Ammon that it should be a stable for camels and a couching place for flocks; and of Philistia, that it should be cottages for Shepherds, and a pasture of flocks. "It is common in these parts for Shepherds to make use of ruined edifices to shelter their flocks in
Jesus Christ - Spring was probably the season for the Shepherds beginning to watch over their flocks by night. The humble (1 Corinthians 1:26-31) Jewish Shepherds were the earliest witnesses of the glory which attended His birth. "...
The Gentile wise men of the East (Persian magi possibly, the Zend religion teaching the expectation of a "Ζoziosh" or "Redeemer"; or magoi being used generally, these wise men coming from Balaam's region, the East, and knowing his prophecy, "there shall come a star out of Jacob, and a sceptre shall rise out of Israel": Numbers 24:17; Numbers 23:7, whence they ask for the "King of the Jews" and mention the "star") came later, and found Him no longer in a manger where the Shepherds found Him, but in a "house" (Matthew 2:11)
Zechariah, Prophecy of - The whole flock (nation) is given over to slaughter, and Jehovah takes up their cause, for their own Shepherds (scribes, elders, rulers, priests) did not pity them. The faithless Shepherds in Israel are cut off: cf
Unicorn - Balaam, a priest of Midian, and so in the neighbourhood of the haunts of the rhinoceros, and intimately connected with Ethiopia, for they themselves were Shepherds of that country, in a transport, from contemplating the strength of Israel, whom he was brought to curse, says, that they had as it were the strength of the reem, Numbers 23:22
Sign - The humble circumstances of the Christ-child in the manger confirmed the angel's announcement of a Savior to outcast Shepherds (Luke 2:12 )
Praise - God's most spectacular action involves the incarnation of Jesus, an event heralded in praises by angels in the heavens and Shepherds returning to their fields: "Glory to God in the highest" (Luke 2:14,20 )
Book of Life - , where the evil deeds of the Shepherds are recorded and read before the Lord; cf
Apocalyptic Literature - The chosen people were delivered into the hands of lions, tigers, wolves, and jackals (the Assyrians and Babylonians); then they were put under the care of seventy Shepherds (angels). (From this fact this section of the book takes the title of ‘Vision of the Seventy Shepherds’). The Shepherds allowed more of the faithful to perish than was the will of God, but at the critical moment there appeared a white lamb in their midst and entered into a fierce combat with the birds of prey, while a heavenly being gave him assistance
John, Gospel of - This resulted in Jesus’ contrasting himself as the good shepherd with them as worthless Shepherds (10:1-30)
Arabia - From this time, that is, about five hundred and fifty years after the flood, we read only of Ishmaelites and Midianites as the Shepherds and carriers of the deserts; who also appear to have been intermingled, and to have shared both the territory and the traffic, as the traders who bought Joseph are called by both names, and the same are probably referred to by Jeremiah , 25, as "the mingled people that dwell in the desert. The greater part of this division was more exclusively the possession of the Midianites, or land of Midian; where Moses, having fled from Egypt, married the daughter of Jethro, and spent forty years keeping the flocks of his father-in-law: no humiliating occupation in those days, and particularly in Midian, which was a land of Shepherds; the whole people having no other way of life than that of rearing and tending their flocks, or in carrying the goods they received from the east and south into Phenicia and Egypt. Instead of being Shepherds and robbers, they are fixed in towns and cities; and live by agriculture and commerce, chiefly maritime
Zechariah, the Book of - ...
Judah's "own Shepherds" (Zechariah 11:3; Zechariah 11:5; and Zechariah 11:8) by selfish rapacity sold their country to Rome (John 11:48; John 11:50). The three Shepherds (Zechariah 11:8) cut off in one month answer to the three last princes of the Asmonaean line, Hyrcanus, Alexander, and Antigonus (the last conquered by Rome and Herod, and slain by the executioner, 34 B
Angels (2) - Luke 2:13 ‘There was with the angel (who appeared to the Shepherds) a multitude of the heavenly host’ (στρατιά). We gather this from the evident joy with which angels announced the advent of the Messiah to the Shepherds at Bethlehem
Joseph - An inscription speaks of it as a district given up to the wandering Shepherds of Asia
Nativity of Christ - ...
It does not, however, appear probable that the vulgar account is right; the circumstance of the Shepherds watching their flocks by night, agrees not with the winter season
Jude, Epistle of - Would-be Shepherds, they sacrilegiously pollute the love-feasts; delusive prophets, hopelessly dead in sin, shameless in their apostasy, theirs is the doom foretold by Enoch on the godless
Agriculture - In Egypt the native prejudice against Shepherds kept them separate in Goshen (Genesis 47:4-6; Genesis 46:34)
Joseph - It is not the constancy with which the son's strong affection for his father had lived through an interval of twenty years' absence, and, what is more, through the temptation of sudden promotion to the highest estate;—it is not the noble- minded frankness with which he still acknowledges his kindred, and makes a way for them, "shepherds" as they were, to the throne of Pharaoh himself;—it is not the simplicity and singleness of heart which allow him to give all the first-born of Egypt, men over whom he bore absolute rule, an opportunity of observing his own comparatively humble origin, by leading them in attendance upon his father's corpse to the valleys of Canaan and the modest cradle of his race;—it is not, in a word, the grace, but the identity of Joseph's character, the light in which it is exhibited by himself, and the light in which it is regarded by his brethren, to which I now point as stamping it with marks of reality not to be gainsayed
Theophilus, Bishop of Antioch - Eusebius, however, speaks of the zeal which he and the other chief Shepherds displayed in driving away the heretics who were attacking Christ's flock, with special mention of his work against Marcion ( H
Egypt - It was to the Egyptians that Shepherds were an abomination, as scripture says, which may not have applied to the Hyksos (which signifies 'shepherds' and agrees with their being called shepherd-kings), and this may account, under the control of God, for 'the best of the land' being given to the Israelites
Joseph (2) - § [4] In Bethlehem Jesus was born; and there the Shepherds, to whom the angel had announced the birth of the Saviour, found Mary and Joseph and ‘the babe lying in a manger’ (Luke 2:16)
Abraham - Here disputes arose between Lot's Shepherds and those of Abram about water and pasturage
Synagogue - ...
The elders were called parnasiym , "pastors," "shepherds" (Ephesians 4:11; 1 Peter 5:1), ruling over the flock (1 Timothy 5:17; Hebrews 13:7); they with the ruler managed the affairs of the synagogue and had the power of excommunication
Appreciation (of Christ) - In the beginning, Shepherds and magi, angels and stars bear witness to the newborn King; so that to the last it is a strange mixed company, that seems to include (by his long faltering before judgment) Pilate himself, the lone, mysterious figure of Joseph of Arimathaea, and Nicodemus ‘bringing myrrh and aloes’ (John 19:29)
Mary - Angels made this event known to Shepherds, who were in the fields near Bethlehem, and these came in the night to Joseph and Mary and saw the child laying in the manger, and paid him their adoration
Enoch Book of - Israel is entrusted to the Seventy Shepherds (=angelic rulers) from the Captivity to the Maccabaean revolt (lxxxix. 13-19); a throne is erected in the pleasant land for Him; the sealed books are opened; the sinning stars are cast into the abyss of fire, also the Seventy Shepherds; the blinded sheep into the abyss in the midst of the earth (= Gehenna) (xc. , as the fourth period of twelve Shepherds would end then
Simple, Simplicity - Professing ostentatiously to be servants of God and Shepherds of the people, they were oppressors of the people and servants of their own selfish ambitions
Babylon - It shall never be inhabited, neither shall it be dwelt in from generation to generation: neither shall the Arabian pitch tent there; neither shall the Shepherds make their fold there: but wild beasts of the desert shall lie there, and their houses shall be full of doleful creatures; and owls shall dwell there, and satyrs shall dance there
Jeremiah, Book of - Woe to the Shepherds, but there was a day of blessing coming, when the true Son of David, the righteous Branch and King, should reign and prosper
Name, Names - Many places, however, got their designation from a salient natural feature, a well ( beer ), a fountain ( en , in En-gedi ), a meadow ( abel ), a vineyard ( karmel ), woods ( jearim ), in Kirath-jearim ), a hill ( Gibeah, Gibeon, Ramah ), trees ( Bethphage, Bethtappuah, Anab, Abel-hasshittim, Elah, Allon-bacuth ); from some circumstance belonging to the history or legends of the locality, an encampment ( Mahanaim ), a watch-tower ( Migdal, Megiddo, Mizpah ), a village ( Hazer ), a temporary abode of Shepherds ( Succoth ), a place of refuge ( Adullam ), a vision ( Bcer-lahai-roi ); from the clan which dwelt there ( Samaria )
Praise (2) - Mark 2:12, Luke 5:25-26, Luke 2:20 (shepherds) Luke 7:16; Luke 18:43, Luke 23:47 (the centurion at the cross); cf
Joseph - "Shepherds were an abomination" in Joseph's time, which could not have been the case under a shepherd king. " Egypt was exposed to incursions of Canaanite Hittites and Arabs, and the invasion of the Shepherds or Hyksos was already impending
Mary, the Virgin - The Shepherds' account of the angels caused wonder to others, "but Mary kept all these things and pondered them in her heart"; so again Luke 2:51, not superficial, but reflective and thoughtfully devout
Hymn - : (1) The Annunciation to Zacharias (Luke 1:13-17); (2) the Annunciation to Mary (4 parts: Luke 1:28; Luke 1:30-33; Luke 1:35-38); (3) the Annunciation to the Shepherds (2 parts: Luke 2:10; Luke 2:12; Luke 2:14); (4) the Song of Elisabeth (Luke 1:42-45); (5) the Song of Mary (= Magnificat, Luke 1:46-55); (6) the Song of Zacharias (= Benedictus, Luke 1:68-79); (7) the Song of Simeon (= Nunc Dimittis, Luke 2:29; Luke 2:32, to which should be appended Luke 2:34-35)
the Penitent Thief - A hundred times Barabbas and this one and that one of his band had disguised themselves as fishermen and Shepherds to come down to hear our Lord preach and to see the mighty works that He did
Prophecy, Prophets - After an angelic visitation to the Shepherds, the prophet and prophetess declared Jesus to be the redemption Israel awaited (Luke 2:10-12 ,Luke 2:10-12,2:25 ,Luke 2:25,2:36-38 )
Animals - " Leaders of God's people can also be described as Shepherds ( Ezekiel 34 ; Acts 20:28 ; cf
Angel - The birth of Jesus was announced to Bethlehem Shepherds by the angel of the Lord, and since he was accompanied by the divine glory he may well have been the Lord himself
Imagination - Thus He was fond of drawing His word-pictures from the occupations of such familiar folk as Shepherds, husbandmen, fishermen; from social customs in the home,—marriage ceremonies, feasts, salutations, journeyings; and even from bodily life and sensations,—the eye, ear, bones, feet, hunger and thirst, laughing, mourning, sickness, sleep, etc
Egypt - A Theban line of kings reigned in Upper Egypt while the Shepherds were in Lower. Shepherds were, according to Genesis, "an abomination to the Egyptians" in Joseph's time; this is decisive against his living under a shepherd king
Destroy, Destruction - Their Shepherds have failed them, so the Lord himself will become their shepherd and lead them home (Isaiah 40:10-11 ; Ezekiel 34:1-16 )
Jesus, Life And Ministry of - He claimed that God's joy at the recovery of all such sinners (tax collectors, prostitutes, Shepherds, soldiers, and others despised by the pious in Israel) was greater than any joy “over ninety and nine just persons, which need no repentance” (Luke 15:7 ; compare Luke 15:25-32 )
Scripture - There we see inspired Shepherds, tradesmen, and fishermen, surpassing as much the greatest philosophers, as these did the herd of mankind, both in meekness of wisdom and sublimity of doctrine
Exodus, the - As Shepherds they were "an abomination to the Egyptians" from the first; they sacrificed the very animal the Egyptians worshipped (compare Exodus 8:26); blood in sacrifices too was an offense to the Egyptians
Joy (2) - word for ‘gospel’ (εὐαγγέλιον) means ‘good tidings,’ or, as it is described in Luke 2:10, in the message of the angel to the Shepherds, ‘good tidings of great joy’ (εὐαγγελίζομαι ὑμῖν χαρὰν μεγάλην)
Abraham - Probably the Hyksos (akin to the Hebrew), or Shepherds' dynasty, reigned then at Memphis, which would make Abraham's visit specially acceptable there
Paul in Arabia - And till, on the rocks of Sinai the Shepherds would sometimes come on somewhat the same sweat of blood that the gardeners came on in the Garden of Gethsemane
Joseph And Mary - And later on, when all who heard it were wondering at the testimony of the Shepherds, it is instructively added that Mary kept all these things and pondered them in her heart
Synagogue - ...
The Jews anciently called those persons who, from their superior erudition, were capable of teaching in the synagogue, פרנסים , "shepherds," or "pastors
Multitude - Matthew 23:4); and ἐρριμμενοι, ‘scattered,’ without true spiritual Shepherds, John the Baptist being imprisoned and their regular teachers shamefully neglecting their duties
Gregorius (14) Nazianzenus, Bishop of Sasima And of Constantinople - The prophets dwelt on the fearful position of the Shepherds who feed themselves; the apostles and Christ Himself taught what the true Shepherds should be; and His condemnation of Scribes and Pharisees includes all false teachers
Occupations And Professions in the Bible - Shepherds ( Luke 2:8 ) were also engaged in food production
Lord (2) - (d) It is also found in the words of the angel to the Shepherds, ‘Unto you is born this day … a Saviour, who is Christ (the) Lord’ (Luke 2:11)
Mary, the Virgin - At Bethlehem, perhaps in the cave where now is the Church of the Nativity, she brought forth her firstborn Son, and there, too, she received the visit of the Shepherds, whose words as to the sign given them from heaven she ‘kept, pondering them in her heart
Body (2) - The child thus born was seen in His infancy by the Shepherds and the wise men, and, when He was eight days old, by Simeon and Anna (Luke 2:25; Luke 2:36)
Acts - The Shepherds who attended the birth of Christ would not have been admitted to the Temple or synagogue for worship because keeping sheep made them “unclean
Canaanites - Those who dwelt in the walled cities, and who had fixed abodes, cultivated the land; and those who wandered about, as the Perizzites seem to have done, grazed cattle: so that among the Canaanites, we discover the various classes of merchants, and, consequently, mariners; of artificers, soldiers, Shepherds, and husbandmen
Night (2) - ...
(d) It was the season of rest (John 11:9; John 9:4), but not for all men; Shepherds guarded their flocks by night (Luke 2:8); though from November to March the sheep were probably in the fold
Apocalyptic Literature - The years of misery are represented by a flock under seventy Shepherds, who, in the new age about to dawn, are to be cast with the evil men and angels into an abyss of fire
Zechariah, Theology of - However, in the second part dates are missing, the leaders are unnamed Shepherds, and the rebuilding of the temple has no place
Canaan - The Israelite invaders as Shepherds could not at once have become agriculturists, but would compel the subject Canaanites to until for them the land
Gospel - Luke mentions Shepherds as the witnesses of the Messiah's birth, because the filth associated with their occupation made them prime examples of society's outcasts
Matthew, Theology of - Thus, the Gospel addresses the problem of an Israel still led by the Pharisees even though it is clear that God's Messiah, Jesus, has appointed the apostles as the new Shepherds for the new Israel (9:35-11:1; 23)
Joseph - ), but there is no independent evidence that Shepherds were, and the contempt must be regarded as confined to those whose duties brought them into close contact with cattle, for the rearing of cattle received much attention, the superintendent of the royal herds being frequently mentioned in the inscriptions
Egypt - Among the various other allusions to Egypt in the Bible are those to its fertility and productions, Genesis 13:10; Exodus 16:3; Numbers 11:5; to its mode of irrigation as compared with the greater advantages of Canaan, which had rain and was watered by natural streams, Deuteronomy 11:10; its commerce with Israel and the people of western Asia, Genesis 37:25; Genesis 37:36; Ezekiel 30:13; Ezekiel 27:7; its armies equipped with chariots and horses, Exodus 14:7; Isaiah 31:1; its learned men and its priests, Genesis 41:8; Genesis 47:22; Exodus 7:11; 1 Kings 4:30; its practice of embalming the dead, Genesis 50:3; its aversion to Shepherds, and its sacrifices of cattle, Genesis 46:34; Exodus 8:26; how its people should be admitted into the Jewish Church, Deuteronomy 23:7-8; the warnings to Israel against any alliance with the Egyptians, Isaiah 30:2; Isaiah 36:6; Ezekiel 17:15; Ezekiel 29:6; and to the towns of the country
Poetry of the Hebrews - Considered with respect to its spiritual meaning, it is undoubtedly a mystical allegory; in its form it is a dramatic pastoral, or a perpetual dialogue between personages in the character of Shepherds; and, suitably to that form, it is full of rural and pastoral images from beginning to end
Idol - He placed them in a separate province; as Shepherds they were an abomination to Egyptians, and sacrificed to God the very animals Egypt worshipped (Exodus 8:26)
Gods, Pagan - He served as the god of medicine, law, and Shepherds
Holy Spirit, Gifts of - The lack of a second demonstrative adjective in the expression "some to be pastors and teachers" (Ephesians 4:11 ) suggests another overlap: Christian teachers ought always to exercise a pastoral role; Shepherds should always communicate accurate content
Woman - " This means that Paul envisioned women not only as apostles, prophets, and teachers but speaking in tongues, working miracles, ministering as evangelists, and pastors/shepherds (11:5; 12:8-10; Ephesians 4:11 ), indeed, exercising every other spiritual gift that God may choose to give them
Redemption (2) - The Shepherds in Lk
Bethlehem - When the fulness of the time had come, the Messianic hope became the place of broad rivers and streams which we so happily know and enjoy, and the glad tidings was heard on the plains of Bethlehem, addressed to the watchful Shepherds: ‘Fear not: for, behold, I bring you glad tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people
Government of the Hebrews - They were, therefore, in the providence of God, assigned to a particular country, the extent of which was so small, that they were obliged, if they would live independently of other nations, to give up in a great measure the life of Shepherds, and devote themselves to agriculture
Palestine - The dog can scarcely be called domesticated: it is kept by Shepherds for their flocks, but otherwise prowls about the streets of towns and villages seeking a living among the rubbish thrown from the houses
Animals - Common in Palestine in biblical times, the wolf constantly threatened sheep and Shepherds and earned a reputation for viciousness (Genesis 49:27 ; Matthew 7:15 ; Luke 20:3 )
Animals - Eastern Shepherds employ dogs (if they employ them at all) not to help in herding the sheep, but to ward off wolves
Egypt - Faber thinks, the work of the "Shepherds," or Cushite invaders, who, at an early period, held possession of Egypt for two hundred and sixty years, and reduced the Egyptians to bondage, so that "a shepherd was an abomination to the Egyptians" in Joseph's time
Moses - The same spirit prompted him to avenge his injured countryman, and to rescue the Midianite women from the Shepherds' violence, as afterward led him to confront Pharaoh; but in the first instance he was an illustration of the truth that "the wrath of man worketh not the righteousness of God" (James 1:20)
Roman Empire - It was a community of Shepherds, who, along with their wives, families, and property, were protected from an enemy by the strong walls surrounding the town
Jesus Christ - ...
A census decreed by Caesar Augustus sent Mary and Joseph to Bethlehem where, during the last years of Herod the Great, Jesus was born to the acclaim of angels and Shepherds
Hermas Shepherd of - In the next, two Shepherds are shown, one of pleasant mien sporting with his sheep, the other of sour countenance lashing his flock with a whip and otherwise maltreating them
Dates (2) - 9) inferred from the presence of the Shepherds in the fields that it was during winter, but Lewin (Fasti Sacri, pp
Jews - In 1320 and 1330, the croisades of the fanatic Shepherds, who wasted the south of France, massacred them; besides fifteen hundred that were murdered on another occasion
Rome - -There is a general consensus of opinion that the original Rome, Roma Quadrata (‘Square Rome’), was on the Palatine Hill only-the hill of Pales, the Shepherds’ god