What does Shepherd mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
ποιμένα a herdsman 6
ποιμανεῖ to feed 4
רֹעֶ֔ה to pasture 3
ποιμὴν a herdsman 3
ποιμήν a herdsman 3
רֹעֶ֑ה to pasture 3
הָֽרֹעֶה֙ to pasture 2
תִרְעֶ֤ה to pasture 2
רֹעֶֽה to pasture 2
רֹעֶ֣ה to pasture 1
רְעֵ֧ה to pasture 1
רֹ֝עִ֗י to pasture 1
וּֽרְעֵ֥ם to pasture 1
ἀρχιποίμενος chief shepherd. 1
לִ֭רְעוֹת to pasture 1
רֹ֘עֵ֤ה to pasture 1
רֹעֶ֥ה to pasture 1
כְּרֹעֶ֥ה to pasture 1
רֹעִ֑י shepherd (subst). 1
רֹעִ֔י shepherd (subst). 1
רֹעִ֤י shepherd (subst). 1
רֹעֶ֜ה to pasture 1
וְרוֹעֶ֥ה to pasture 1
מֵרֹעֶ֣ה to pasture 1
רֹעֵ֣י to pasture 1
כְּרֹעֶה֙ to pasture 1
רֹעֶ֖ה to pasture 1
ποιμαίνειν to feed 1
לְרֹעֶֽה to pasture 1
רֹעֶ֤ה to pasture 1
רֹעֶ֨ה to pasture 1
מֵרֹעֶ֥ה to pasture 1
הָרֹעֶ֜ה to pasture 1
לִרְע֛וֹת to pasture 1
הָרֹעִ֧ים to pasture 1
לִרְע֥וֹת to pasture 1
ποιμάνατε to feed 1
ποίμαινε to feed 1
רֹעִי֙ shepherd (subst). 1

Definitions Related to Shepherd

H7462


   1 to pasture, tend, graze, feed.
      1a (Qal).
         1a1 to tend, pasture.
            1a1a to Shepherd.
            1a1b of ruler, teacher (fig).
            1a1c of people as flock (fig).
            1a1d Shepherd, herdsman (subst).
         1a2 to feed, graze.
            1a2a of cows, sheep etc (literal).
            1a2b of idolater, Israel as flock (fig).
      1b (Hiphil) Shepherd, shepherdess.
   2 to associate with, be a friend of (meaning probable).
      2a (Qal) to associate with.
      2b (Hithpael) to be companions.
   3 (Piel) to be a special friend.
   

G4166


   1 a herdsman, esp.
   a Shepherd.
      1a in the parable, he to whose care and control others have committed themselves, and whose precepts they follow.
   2 metaph.
      2a the presiding officer, manager, director, of any assembly: so of Christ the Head of the church.
         2a1 of the overseers of the Christian assemblies.
         2a2 of kings and princes.
         Additional Information: The tasks of a Near Eastern Shepherd were: 1) to watch for enemies trying to attack the sheep; 2) to defend the sheep from attackers; 3) to heal the wounded and sick sheep; 4) to find and save lost or trapped sheep; 5) to love them, sharing their lives and so earning their trust.
         During World War II, a Shepherd was a pilot who guided another pilot whose plane was partially disabled back to the base or carrier by flying alongside him to maintain visual contact.
         

G4165


   1 to feed, to tend a flock, keep sheep.
      1a to rule, govern.
         1a1 of rulers.
         1a2 to furnish pasture for food.
         1a3 to nourish.
         1a4 to cherish one’s body, to serve the body.
         1a5 to supply the requisites for the soul’s need.
         Additional Information: For synonyms see entry 1006, bosko.
         See entry 5824 for comparison of synonyms.
         

H7473


   1 Shepherd (subst).
   

G750


   1 chief Shepherd.
      1a of Christ the head of the church.
      

Frequency of Shepherd (original languages)

Frequency of Shepherd (English)

Dictionary

Holman Bible Dictionary - Shepherd
A keeper of sheep. The first keeper of sheep in the Bible was Adam's son Abel (Genesis 4:2 ). Shepherding was the chief occupation of the Israelites in the early days of the patriarchs: Abraham (Genesis 12:16 ); Rachel (Genesis 29:9 ); Jacob (Genesis 30:31-40 ); Moses (Exodus 3:1 ).
As cultivation of crops increased, shepherding fell from favor and was assigned to younger sons, hirelings, and slaves (compare David in 1 Samuel 16:11-13 ). Farmers such as in Egypt even hated shepherds (Genesis 46:34 ).
The Bible mentions shepherds and shepherding over 200 times. However, the Hebrew word for shepherding is often translated, “feeding.” Shepherds led sheep to pasture and water (Psalm 23:1 ) and protected them from wild animals (1 Samuel 17:34-35 ). Shepherds guarded their flocks at night whether in the open (Luke 2:8 ) or in sheepfolds (Zephaniah 2:6 ) where they counted the sheep as they entered (Jeremiah 33:13 ). They took care of the sheep and even carried weak lambs in their arms (Isaiah 40:11 ).
Shepherd came to designate not only persons who herded sheep but also kings (2 Samuel 5:2 ) and God Himself (Psalm 23:1 ; Isaiah 40:11 ). Later prophets referred to Israel's leaders as shepherds (Jeremiah 23:1 ; Ezekiel 34:1 ).
In Bible times the sheep cared for by shepherds represented wealth. They provided food (1 Samuel 14:32 ), milk to drink (Isaiah 7:21-22 ), wool for clothing (Job 31:20 ), hides for rough clothing (Matthew 7:15 ), and leather for tents (Exodus 26:14 ). Furthermore, sheep were major offerings in the sacrificial system (Exodus 20:24 ). They were offered as burnt offerings (Leviticus 1:10 ), sin offerings (Leviticus 4:32 ), guilt offerings (Leviticus 5:15 ), and peace offerings (Leviticus 22:21 ).
The New Testament mentions shepherds 16 times. They were among the first to visit Jesus at His birth (Luke 2:8-20 ). Some New Testament references used a shepherd and the sheep to illustrate Christ's relationship to His followers who referred to Him as “our Lord Jesus, that great shepherd of the sheep” (Hebrews 13:20 ). Jesus spoke of Himself as “the good shepherd” who knew His sheep and would lay down His life for them (John 10:7-18 ). Jesus commissioned Peter to feed His sheep (John 21:1 ). Paul likened the church and its leaders to a flock with shepherds (Acts 20:28 ). The Latin word transliterated “pastor” means shepherd.
Elmer Gray
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - John Shepherd
Composer. Born in England c.1512;died there c1563 A chorister under Thomas Mulliner at Saint Paul's, he became in 1542 choir-master and organist at Magdalen College, Oxford, and in 1549 gained a fellowship. From 1553 to 1558 he belonged to Mary Tudor's Chapel Royal. The Music School, Oxford, has preserved in manuscripts many of his religious compositions. Notable selections are four masses, several alleluias, and ten motets.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Good Shepherd, Parable of the
Our Lord means to teach in this parable (Matthew 18) the care and love of God for the little ones, that is to say the weak, of whom He thinks so much that He has placed them under the protection of His angels. God wishes that not one of them should become lost; hence the duty of looking after them to secure their salvation. The lesson is conveyed in the parable of the lost sheep; a shepherd with a flock of 100 sheep will leave the 99 that are not in danger and in no special need of his care, in order to look for the one that has been lost, and will not give up the search until he has found the lost one. This parable resembles very closely that in Luke 15, and so quite naturally the two parables are commonly identified. The differences between them are of the kind that may be expected in two parallel versions of the same discourse, teaching essentially the same lesson; the value of the soul in the eyes of God, whence flows the necessity of doing everything to reclaim one on the way to perdition, the point brought out especially by Saint Matthew, and the joy of God over the conversion of the sinner, the point brought out especially by Saint Luke.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Shepherd
SHEPHERD . See Sheep.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Shepherd
A word naturally of frequent occurence in Scripture. Sometimes the word "pastor" is used instead (Jeremiah 2:8 ; 3:15 ; 10:21 ; 12:10 ; 17:16 ). This word is used figuratively to represent the relation of rulers to their subjects and of God to his people (Psalm 23:1 ; 80:1 ; Isaiah 40:11 ; 44:28 ; Jeremiah 25:34,35 ; Nahum 3:18 ; John 10:11,14 ; Hebrews 13:20 ; 1 Peter 2:25 ; 5:4 ). The duties of a shepherd in an unenclosed country like Palestine were very onerous. "In early morning he led forth the flock from the fold, marching at its head to the spot where they were to be pastured. Here he watched them all day, taking care that none of the sheep strayed, and if any for a time eluded his watch and wandered away from the rest, seeking diligently till he found and brought it back. In those lands sheep require to be supplied regularly with water, and the shepherd for this purpose has to guide them either to some running stream or to wells dug in the wilderness and furnished with troughs. At night he brought the flock home to the fold, counting them as they passed under the rod at the door to assure himself that none were missing. Nor did his labours always end with sunset. Often he had to guard the fold through the dark hours from the attack of wild beasts, or the wily attempts of the prowling thief (see 1 Samuel 17:34 ).", Deane's David.
Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words - Shepherd
1: ποιμήν (Strong's #4166 — Noun Masculine — poimen — poy-mane' ) is used (a) in its natural significance, Matthew 9:36 ; 25:32 ; Mark 6:34 ; Luke 2:8,15,18,20 ; John 10:2,12 ; (b) metaphorically of Christ, Matthew 26:31 ; Mark 14:27 ; John 10:11,14,16 ; Hebrews 13:20 ; 1 Peter 2:25 ; (c) metaphorically of those who act as pastors in the churches, Ephesians 4:11 . See PASTOR.
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Shepherd
The occupation of shepherd was one of the earliest recorded (Genesis 4:2). In the dry semi-desert countries of the Bible story, shepherds lived a hard tough life, battling against heat, drought and wild animals (Genesis 31:38-40; Amos 3:12). It is therefore not surprising that ‘shepherd’ became a word symbol for a leader of God’s people. The emphasis is not only on care and leadership, but also on the ability to endure hardship. The shepherd must be prepared to battle against all opponents who threaten the welfare of those in his care (John 10:1; John 10:10-12; Acts 20:28-29).
Life of a shepherd
Shepherds were a common sight in Palestine and neighbouring countries. They lived in tents and moved around from place to place with their flocks in search of grass and water (Exodus 3:1; Deuteronomy 8:15; Isaiah 13:20; see also SHEEP). Often the only water available was at wells that people had dug. These wells were frequently the cause of disputes (Genesis 26:12-32).
After the Israelites took possession of Canaan, the shepherds among them settled down more or less permanently with their flocks. They still faced the problem of finding good pastures and water, and still had to meet attacks by wild animals (Zechariah 11:15-1751; Psalms 23:2; Psalms 23:4-5; Matthew 10:16). Additional dangers came from thieves who stole sheep by night, and desert people who raided in groups (Genesis 31:39; Job 1:14-15; 2 Chronicles 21:16-17; John 10:10). The shepherd’s only weapons were a sling and a stick, though he may have used trained dogs to help him in his work (1 Samuel 17:40; 1 Samuel 17:49; Job 30:1; Psalms 23:4; Zechariah 11:7; Zechariah 11:10).
Sheep had to be protected and watched by shepherds constantly, otherwise they would wander away and be lost. If sheep became lost, the shepherd sometimes had to risk his life in searching for them and rescuing them (Ezekiel 34:8; Ezekiel 34:12; Matthew 18:12). The shepherd was responsible to pay the owner the cost of any sheep lost while in his care, unless he could satisfy the owner that he was not to blame for the loss (Genesis 31:39; Exodus 22:10-13).
At night the shepherd usually kept his sheep in a walled enclosure called a fold, as an added protection against dangers (Numbers 32:36; Micah 2:12; Habakkuk 3:17; Luke 2:8; John 10:1). He counted the sheep as they went in at night, to make sure that none was missing; then, in the morning, he led them out into the fields (Jeremiah 33:13; Ezekiel 20:37; John 10:3; John 10:27; John 17:12).
Leaders of God’s people
The Old Testament often refers to the leaders of Israel as shepherds, and to the people as the flock (Numbers 27:17; Isaiah 63:11). Many of Israel’s leaders were bad shepherds, and because of them the nation crumbled (Isaiah 56:11; Jeremiah 50:6; Ezekiel 34:2-6; 1618451480_2).
In the New Testament also leaders of God’s people are referred to as shepherds of the flock. As elders of a church they have the responsibility to lead it, feeding it with spiritual food and protecting it from spiritual harm (John 21:15-17; Acts 20:28-29; 1 Peter 5:1-3; see ELDER; PASTOR).
The true shepherd, however, is always God (Genesis 49:24; Psalms 23:1; Isaiah 40:11). This is seen clearly in the illustration Jesus used to picture himself as the good shepherd. He was so concerned for the sheep that he died for them (John 10:1-29; Hebrews 13:20; 1 Peter 2:25; 1 Peter 5:4; cf. Ezekiel 34:23-24).
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Shepherd
In a nomadic state of society every man, from the sheikh down to the slave, is more or less a shepherd. The progenitors of the Jews in the patriarchal age were nomads, and their history is rich in scenes of pastoral life. The occupation of tending the flocks was undertaken,not only by the sons of wealthy chiefs, (Genesis 30:29 ) ff.; Genesis37:12 ff., but even by their daughters. (Genesis 29:6,8 ; Exodus 2:10 ) The Egyptian captivity did march to implant a love of settled abode, and consequently we find the tribes which still retained a taste for shepherd life selecting their own quarters apart from their brethren in the transjordanic district. (Numbers 32:1 ) ff. Thenceforward in Palestine proper the shepherd held a subordinate position. The office of the eastern shepherd, as described in the Bible, was attended with much hardship, and even danger. He was exposed to the extremes of heat and cold, (Genesis 31:40 ) his food frequently consisted of the precarious supplies afforded by nature, such as the fruit of the "sycamore" or Egyptian fig, (Amos 7:14 ) the "husks" of the carob tree, (Luke 15:16 ) and perchance the locusts and wild honey which supported the Baptist, (Matthew 3:4 ) he had to encounter the attacks of wild beasts, occasionally of the larger species, such as lions, nerves, panthers and bears, (1 Samuel 17:34 ; Isaiah 31:4 ; Jeremiah 5:6 ; Amos 5:12 ) nor was he free from the risk of robbers or predators hordes. (Genesis 31:39 ) To meet these various foes the shepherd's equipment consisted of the following articles: a mantle, made probably of sheep skin with the fleece on, which he turned inside out in cold weather, as implied in the comparison in (Jeremiah 43:12 ) (cf. Juv. xiv. 187.); a scrip or wallet, containing a small amount of food (1 Samuel 17:40 ) a sling, which is still the favorite weapon of the Bedouin shepherd, (1 Samuel 17:40 ) and lastly, a which served the double purpose of a weapon against foes and a crook for the management of the flock. (1 Samuel 17:40 ; Psalm 23:4 ; Zechariah 11:7 ) If the shepherd was at a distance from his home, he was provided with a light tent, (Song of Solomon 1:8 ; Jeremiah 35:7 ) the removal of which was easily effected. (Isaiah 38:12 ) In certain localities, moreover, towers were erected for the double purpose of spying an enemy at a distance and of protecting the flock; such towers were erected by Uzziah and Jotham, (2 Chronicles 26:10 ; 27:4 ) while their existence in earlier times is testified by the name Migdal-edar (Genesis 35:21 ) Authorized Version "a tower of Edar;" (Micah 4:8 ) Authorized Version "tower of the flock." The routine of the shepherd's duties appears to have been as follows: In the morning he led forth his flock from the fold (John 10:4 ) which he did by going before them and calling to them, as is still usual in the East; arrived at the pasturage he watched the flock with the assistance of dogs, (Job 30:1 ) and should any sheep stray, he had to search for it until he found it, (Ezekiel 34:12 ; Luke 15:4 ) he supplied them with water, either at a running stream or at troughs attached to wells, (Genesis 29:7 ; 30:38 ; Exodus 2:16 ; Psalm 23:2 ) at evening he brought them back to the fold, and reckoned them to see that none were missing, by passing them "under the rod" as they entered the door of the enclosure (Leviticus 27:32 ; Ezekiel 20:37 ) checking each sheep, as it passed, by a motion of the hand, (Jeremiah 33:13 ) and, finally, he watched the entrance of the fold throughout the night, acting as porter. (John 10:3 ) [1] The shepherd's office thus required great watchfulness, particularly by night. (Luke 2:8 ) cf. Nahu 3:18 It also required tenderness toward the young and feeble, (Isaiah 40:11 ) particularly in driving them to and from the pasturage. (Genesis 33:13 ) In large establishments there are various grades of shepherds, the highest being styled "rulers," (Genesis 47:6 ) or "chief shepherds," (1 Peter 5:4 ) in a royal household the title of abbir "mighty," was bestowed on the person who held the post. ( 1 Samuel 21:7 ) [2]
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Shepherd
The name ‘shepherd’ is taken from the occupation of the Hebrews as a pastoral tribe (Genesis 13:7; Genesis 30:36; Genesis 37:2; Genesis 47:3, Exodus 3:1, 1 Samuel 17:34) and applied to God as the one who feeds and provides for His people (Genesis 48:15; Genesis 49:24, Isaiah 40:11, Psalms 23:1; Psalms 95:7; Psalms 100:3; cf. Ezekiel 34:11-31) and to the rulers of the nation (Numbers 27:17, 2 Samuel 7:7, 1 Kings 22:17, Jeremiah 2:8; Jeremiah 3:15; Jeremiah 23:1-4, Ezekiel 34:2-10, Zechariah 10:3; Zechariah 11:3 ff; Zechariah 13:5). The idea expressed in most of these passages is that the care of Israel, as ‘the flock of His pasture,’ is given by the Lord in charge of the rulers who are held to account for the welfare of every member of the same. Especially Ezekiel 34 rebukes these ‘shepherds’ for their neglect of their charge, and ends up (v. Ezekiel 34:23 b) with the prophecy that in the end one shepherd, like unto David the servant of the Lord, will tend them as prince. To this Messianic passage reference is made in John 10:11-16, where Jesus is represented as saying: ‘I am the good shepherd; … and I lay down my life for the sheep. And other sheep I have, which are not of this fold: … and they shall become one flock, one shepherd’; cf. Hebrews 13:20, 1 Peter 2:25; 1 Peter 5:4. To His office as Shepherd Jesus refers in Matthew 15:24; cf. Jeremiah 50:6. Moses also is represented in Ex. R. ii. 2-3 as the good shepherd to whom the Lord said: ‘Since thon takest such care of the lambs of thy flock, be thou the shepherd of My flocks.’ The same is said there also of David when chosen by the Lord to be king. Concerning the identification of Christ as the Good Shepherd with Orpheus on ancient Christian paintings see F. Piper, Mythologie und Symbolik der christl. Kunst, Weimar, 1847-51, i. 126; J. P. Lundy, Monumental Christianity, New York, 1876, pp. 187-196; also R. Reitzenstein, Poimandres, Leipzig, 1904, 11-13, 32 f., 113. But the title ‘shepherd’ or ‘pastor’ is given in the NT to all the heads of the Church, to the apostle Peter (John 21:17; cf. Matthew 10:6; Matthew 10:16) and to the elders of the Church (Acts 20:28, 1 Peter 5:2) as having charge of the ‘sheep of Christ,’ ‘the flock of God.’ The name Ποίμην (‘pastor’ or ‘shepherd’) is used in the sense of ‘overseer,’ episcopus (Ephesians 4:1), wherefore Jesus is also called the ‘arch-shepherd,’ ἀρχιποίμην (1 Peter 5:4). This conception (cf. Philo, ed. Mangey, i. 196) of spiritual rulers as shepherds rests on the original Jewish Didascalia (preserved in the so-called Apostolic Constitutions, ii. 6, 10, 15. 4, 18. 7-18, 19. 1-3, 20. 3-5, 9, 11), where the above-quoted passages from Jeremiah and Ezekiel are interpreted in a spiritual sense as referring to the duties and responsibilities of the overseer of the Church, viz. that he has to look after the spiritual health of each member of the flock, keep them in a sound state of perfect faith, strengthen those weakened by doubt, bind up those bruised by the remorse of sin, and bring back those that have gone astray, while expelling those that may affect the moral or spiritual well-being of the flock by evil conduct or evil doctrine (see article ‘Didascalia’ in Jewish Encyclopedia ). The name ‘shepherd’ or ‘pastor’ became henceforth the title of the bishop (Ignat. ad Phil. ii. 1, ad Rom. ix. 1; Iren. iv. 33; Cyprian, Ep. viii. [1], ‘Cleri Romani ad clerum Carthaginensem’; Clem. Alex. Strom. i. 26), and later on in Protestant Christianity of the minister of the Church in general. In Enoch lxxxix. 59, xc. 25, the name ‘shepherd’ is given to the 70 angels ruling the 70 nations of the earth (see R. H. Charles, ad loc., and F. Spitta, Zur Geschichte und Litteratur des Urchristentums, Göttingen, 1901, ii. 367 ff.), also to the angel in Hermas, Mand. iv. 2. 2, Sim. vi. 3. 2. In ancient Babylonia the chief stars bore the name of ‘Shepherds of Heaven.’
K. Kohler.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Hermas Shepherd of
This valuable and interesting relic of the life and thought of the early Roman Church may be described as a manual of personal religion, cast in an imaginative form. It has been compared in the latter respect with Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress, with Dante’s Divina Commedia, and with the visions of such mystics as St. Teresa and St. Catherine of Siena. Whether it be looked upon as a work of allegorical fiction, or, as G. Salmon strennuously maintains (Historical Introduction to the NT5, p. 529ff.), a record of actual dream experience, or again, as may well be, a combination of both, its strong moral earnestness and its didactic purpose are equally apparent. It is primarily a call to repentance, addressed to Christians among whom the memory of persecution is still fresh (Vis. iii. 2, 5, Sim. ix. 28), and over whom now hangs the shadow of another great tribulation (Vis. ii. 2, iv. 2). From the first Vision, with its revelation of the sinfulness of sins of thought, and of neglect of responsibility for others, to the last Parable, where the greatness of the Shepherd, the supernatural Being ‘to whom alone in the whole world hath authority over repentance been assigned’ (Sim. x. 1), is ordered to be declared to men, the theme is repentance and amendment of life.
Indeed, the little book would almost seem to have been written partly as an attempt to break through the iron ring of despair resulting from a rigorous acceptance of those words in the Epistle to the Hebrews which speak of the impossibility of repentance for sin committed after baptism (Hebrews 6:6; Hebrews 12:17). The subject is discussed in the Fourth Commandment (Mand. iv. 3) in a curiously simple manner. The authority of this teaching is admitted verbally, and then an exception is made, which covers the whole teaching of the book. ‘I have heard. Sir,’ says Hermas, ‘from certain teachers, that there is no other repentance, save that which took place when we went down into the water and obtained remission of our former sins.’ The Shepherd replies that this is so. They that have believed, or shall believe, have not repentance, but only remission of their former sins. He then, however, goes on to say that, if after this great and holy calling any one, being tempted of the devil, shall commit sin, he hath only one (opportunity of) repentance. This one opportunity, however, would seem to be embodied in the Shepherd himself, who was sent ‘to be with you who repent with your whole heart, and to strengthen you in the faith’ (Hebrews 12:6), and whose command to Hennas is, ‘Go, and tell all men to repent, and they shall live unto God; for the Lord in His compassion sent me to give repentance to all, though some of them do not deserve it, for their deeds’ (Sim. viii. 11).
1. Authorship.-There are a few references scattered through the work to the circumstances of its author. He had originally been a slave, and was sold to one Rhoda, in Rome (Vis. i. 1). After his freedom he had engaged in business and prospered (iii. 6), but he had been corrupted by the affairs of this world (i., iii.), practising deception in the course of his business (Mand. iii.). However, he had lost his riches, and become useful and profitable unto life (Vis. iii. 6). His worldly loss seems to have been connected with the misdeeds of his children (i., iii.), who had not been very strictly looked after by him. His wife is represented as a person who did not sufficiently restrain her tongue (ii. 2). Hermas depicts himself as slow of understanding, but insatiable in curiosity (Mand. xii. 4, Sim. v. 5), and at the same time as ‘patient and good tempered and always smiling,’ ‘full of all simplicity and of great guilelessness’ (Vis. i. 2).
The scene is laid partly in the house of Hermas in Rome, partly in the country where he abides (Vis. iii. 1), and once in Arcadia (Sim. ix. 1). Mention is made of the road to Cumae, the Campanian Way, and the river Tiber, in which Hermas sees Rhoda bathing (Vis. i. 1).
To the question who Hermas was there are three possible answers. (1) He may, as Origen supposes in his Commentary on Romans (x. 31 [1]), have been the Scriptural character mentioned by St. Paul as a member of the Roman Church c. [2] a.d. 58 (Romans 16:14). (2) According to the Muratorian fragment (circa, about a.d. 180), he was brother of Pope Pius I. during his Episcopate (circa, about a.d. 140-155). (3) He may have been an otherwise unknown person who was a contemporary of Pope Clement (circa, about a.d. 90-100). This theory involves the identification of the Church official mentioned in Vis. ii. 4 with the Bishop of Rome. ‘Thou shalt therefore write two little books, and shalt send one to Clement.… So Clement shall send to the foreign cities, for this is his duty.’ Of these views Lightfoot with some diffidence prefers the second, while G. Salmon, Zahn, and others accept the third (see J. B. Lightfoot, Apostolic Fathers, 294; G. Salmon, Introduction to the NT5, 46, 534).
2. Date and use by the Church.-Whether the work was written in the beginning or in the middle of the 2nd cent., there is evidence of its wide circulation soon after the latter date. Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyons in a.d. 177, accepted it and spoke of it as Scripture. ‘Well did the Scripture speak, saying, etc.’ (ap. Historia Ecclesiastica (Eusebius, etc.)v. 8). Clem. Alex. quotes it several times (e.g. Strom. I. xxix. 181), while Origen in the passage above referred to speaks of it as a very useful, and, as he thinks, Divinely-inspired writing. Tertullian approved of it in his pre-Montanist days, but afterwards condemned it (de Pudic.10). The author of the Muratorian Canon, while seeking to deprecate the public reading of the Shepherd in church, commends it for private use.
‘But the “Shepherd” was written quite lately in our times by Hermas, while his brother Pius, the bishop, was sitting in the chair of the Church of the city of Rome; and therefore it ought indeed to be read, but it cannot to the end of lime be publicly read in the Church to the people, either among the prophets, who are complete in number, or among the Apostles.’
3. Contents.-The book is divided up into five Visions, twelve Mandates or Commandments, and ten Similitudes or Parables. The Visions form the introduction to the rest, the Shepherd not appearing until the last of these. The following outline will give an idea of the purport of the work as a whole.
(1) Visions.-In the first Vision Hermas tells now, while journeying to Cumae, he saw in the opened heavens Rhoda, his former owner, whom he had recently met again, and whom he had begun to esteem as a sister. She rebukes him for an unchaste thought towards herself, and leaves him aghast at the strictness of God’s judgment. Then he sees a great white chair of snow-white wool upon which an aged lady in shining raiment seats herself. She tells Hermas that what God is really wroth about is his lack of strictness with his family whereby his children have become corrupt. She then reads from a book the glories of God, but Hermas can only remember the last words, for the rest is too terrible to bear. She rises, the chair is carried away towards the east by four young men, and two other men assist her to depart in the same direction. As she goes, she smiles and says, ‘Play the man, Hermas.’
The second Vision takes place a year later, and in the same locality. The aged lady again appears, and gives him a little book that he may copy its contents and report them to the elect of God. He copies it letter for letter, for he cannot make out the syllables, and when he has finished, the book is snatched away by an unseen hand. After fifteen days the meaning is revealed to Hermas, who is directed to rebuke his children for their wickedness, and his wife for her faults of the tongue, as well as to exhort the rulers of the Church. A great tribulation is at hand, with danger of apostasy by Christians. One Maximus, in particular, is to be warned against a second denial. Then it is revealed that the aged woman is not, as Hermas supposes, the Sibyl, but the Church, created before all things. He is directed by her to write two copies of the book, after the revelation is finished, and send one to Clement that he may send it to the foreign cities, and one to Grapte that she may instruct the widows and the orphans. Hermas is to read it to the city along with the elders that preside over the Church.
The main part of the third Vision is the revelation by the lady of the Church under the image of a tower being built by angels upon the waters of baptism. The stones of various degrees of suitability (some of them castaway), are explained to mean different kinds of members of the Church, among whom are ‘apostles and bishops and teachers and deacons,’ and ‘they that suffered for the name of the Lord.’ The tower is supported by seven women. Faith, Continence, Simplicity, Knowledge, Guilelessness, Reverence, and Love. Hermas is next commissioned to rebuke the self-indulgence of the well-to-do and the ignorance and divisions of the rulers of the Church. He inquires why the lady was aged and weak in the first Vision, more youthful and joyous in the second, and still more so in the third, and learns that these appearances were the reflexion of his own changing spiritual state.
The fourth Vision occurs twenty days later, on the Campanian Way. Hermas sees a huge cloud of dust, which resolves itself into the form of a beast like a sea-monster, emitting fiery locusts from its mouth. Its length is about a hundred feet, and its head was as it were of pottery, coloured black, fire and blood-colour, gold and white. This is a type of the impending tribulation, but it does not harm Hermas, for the angel Segri has shut its mouth. The colours represent this world (black), the blood and fire in which it must perish, those that have escaped from the world (gold), and the coming age (while).
The fifth episode is called a revelation (Ἀποκάλυψις, not Ὄρασις). The shepherd, the angel of repentance, now appears for the first time, glorious in visage, with sheepskin wallet and staff. He has been sent by the most holy angel to dwell with Hermas for the rest of his life. Hermas at first fails to recognize him as the being to whom he was delivered, but on recognition proceeds to write down the Commandments and the Parables dictated by the Shepherd.
(2) Mandates.-The first Commandment is to believe in and to fear the One God, the Creator, the incomprehensible (ἀχώρητος), and to practise continence; the second to avoid slander, whether by hearing or by speaking it, and to be generous of the needy; the third to abstain from falsehood; the fourth to be pure in thought as well as in deed. An adulterous wife is to be divorced, if unrepentant, but her husband may not marry again, for that would be committing adultery. If she repents after divorce her husband sins if he does not receive her again (after baptism only one opportunity of repentance is given, over which the Shepherd has authority). If a husband or a wife die, the other may marry without sin, but to remain single is better. The fifth Commandment enjoins longsuffering, the opposite of ill-temper (ὀξυχολία), that most evil spirit which causes bitterness, wrath, anger, and spite. The next three Mandates expand the provisions of the first-faith, fear, and temperance. Contrasts are drawn between the two ways (and the two angels) of righteousness and wickedness, between the fear of God and the fear of the devil, and between temperance as to what is evil, and indulgence in what is good. The ninth Commandment extols faith in prayer, and condemns doubtful-mindedness, while the tenth exhorts Hermas to be clothed in cheerfulness and to put away sadness. In the eleventh striking descriptions are given of the false prophet, who absents himself from the Christian assembly, and is consulted as a soothsayer by men in corners, and of the true prophet upon whom the Divine afflatus comes in the course of the Church’s worship. The last Commandment is to banish evil desire by the cultivation of desire which is good and holy.
(3) Similitudes.-The first Parable is a simple expansion of the theme that the Christian is a sojourner in a foreign city, and should act as a citizen of the city which is his true home. In the second the duty of the rich to give to the poor is illustrated by the figure of an elm and a vine. The former, though Fruitless, supports the fruitful vine. So the intercessions of the poor man prevail on behalf of the wealthy benefactor. In the nest two, a similitude is drawn between trees in winter, when all are leafless, and all seem equally withered, and in summer, when some are sprouting, while others remain withered. The winter represents the conditions of this world, the summer those of the world to come. The fifth Parable presents the story of a vineyard, a master, and a faithful servant, the exposition of which reveals an early belief in the doctrine of works of supererogation, and an Adoptianist conception of the personality of the Son of Cod (see below). In the next, two shepherds are shown, one of pleasant mien sporting with his sheep, the other of sour countenance lashing his flock with a whip and otherwise maltreating them. The former is the angel of self-indulgence and deceit, the latter the angel of punishment. A few days later Hermas is afflicted by this angel of punishment, and in the seventh Parable he is taught that this is because of the sins of his household. The nest two are long and complicated. First Hermas sees a great willow tree (the Law of God, which is the Son of God preached unto the ends of the earth) under which stands a multitude of believers. A glorious angel (Michael) cuts rods from the tree and gives them to the people, who in due course return them in great variety of condition-withered, grub-eaten, cracked, green, some with shoots, and some with a kind of fruit. These last are those who have suffered for Christ. They are crowned and sent into the tower with some of the others. The remainder are left to the care of the Shepherd, who, as the angel of repentance, plants the rods in the earth, and deals with the owners according to the results. The ninth Parable is an amplification of the third Vision. Hermas, seated on a mountain in Arcadia, sees a great plain surrounded by twelve mountains, each of which has a different appearance. These are the tribes of the world, varying in understanding and conduct. In the midst of the plain is a great and ancient rock, with a recently-hewn gate in it. This is the Son of God, older than creation, and yet recently made manifest. Upon the rock a tower (the Church) is being built by angels, of stones that are brought through the gate. The first course is of ten stones, the second of twenty-five, the third of thirty-five, the fourth of forty. These are the first and the second generation of righteous men, the prophets and ministers, and the apostles and teachers. These stones come from the deep, and the rest come from the mountains. Some are suitable and other’s are rejected. The Shepherd, as in the former Parable, deals with the latter, to fit those that are capable for a place in the building. A curious feature is the introduction of the Son of God, already symbolized by the rock and the gate, as the glorious man who inspects the tower and rejects certain of the stones. The purport of the concluding Parable is an exhortation to Hermas to keep the Shepherd’s commandments and to publish them to others.
4. References to organization and doctrine of the Church
(a) Organization.-In the first respect, the allusions are too slight to give more than a general picture. We read of the rulers (προηγούμενοι) of the Church, whom Hermas is directed to exhort (Vis. ii. 2) and even to rebuke for their divisions and their ignorance (iii. 9). There are apostles, bishops, teachers, and deacons (iii. 5), also prophets and ministers (διάκονοι; Sim. ix. 15). There are deacons who plunder the livelihood of widows and orphans, and make gain from the performance of their office (ix. 26), and, on the other hand, bishops who exercise hospitality and are like trees sheltering sheep, receiving into their houses the servants of God at all times, and sheltering the needy and the widows in their visitation (ix. 27). Clement, whose duty is to communicate with foreign cities, may, as we have seen, have been the bishop of Rome, while Grapte, who instructs the widows and the orphans, may have been a deaconess (Vis. ii. 4). Hermas, who is told to read his book to the city along with the elders who preside over the Church (μετὰ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων τῶν προϊσταμένων τῆς ἐκκλησίας), may well have been one of the order of prophets. The office of a prophet is held in estimation by the Church. ‘When then the man who hath the divine Spirit cometh into an assembly (συναγωγή) of righteous men, who have faith in a divine Spirit, and intercession is made to God by the gathering of those men, then the angel of the prophetic spirit who is attached to him, filleth the man, and the man, being filled with the Holy Spirit, speaketh to the multitude, according as the Lord willeth’ (Mand. xi.). The false prophet, on the contrary, is dumb in the Church assembly, and plies a wizard’s trade in corners. In view of the Roman character of the Shepherd, it is interesting to note that the tower which represents the Church is represented as founded, not on Peter, but, in the third Vision, upon the waters of baptism, and, in the ninth Parable, upon the rock of the Son of God.
(b) Doctrine.-The doctrinal references reveal, at least in the case of Hermas, a creed which is simple and yet has its own peculiarities. Perhaps the most striking of the latter is the conception of the Son of God. In the Parable of the vineyard (the fifth) the Son of God is represented as a slave placed in charge, with a promise of freedom if he fulfils his allotted duty. He does so much more than is expected of him that the Divine master of the vineyard resolves that he shall be made joint-heir with His Son, who is represented as the Holy Spirit. ‘The Holy Pre-existent Spirit, which created the whole creation, God made to dwell in flesh that He desired. This flesh therefore, in which the Holy Spirit dwelt, was subject unto the Spirit … When then it had lived honourably in chastity, and had laboured with the Spirit, and had co-operated with it in everything, behaving itself boldly and bravely, He chose it as a partner with the Holy Spirit’ (Sim. v. 6). This Adoptianist conception, which illustrates early Roman speculation on the Person of Christ, finds frequent expression in phrases identifying the Spirit with the Son of God, e.g. ‘For that Spirit is the Son of God’ (ix. 1). In this same fifth Parable we have an early trace of the doctrine of works of supererogation, which, in mediaeval times, was so prominent in the Church’s system. ‘If thou do any good thing outside the commandment of God, thou shalt win for thyself more exceeding glory, and shalt be more glorious in the sight of God than thou wouldest otherwise have been’ (v. 3).
Hermas also teaches that the first apostles and teachers who had died, went like Christ, and preached unto the Spirits in prison (ix. 16). His eschatology is in one respect severe and narrow. Not only are unrepentant sinners to be burned, but also the Gentiles, because of their ignorance of God (iv.). In the fifth Vision there is an apparent reference to the belief in guardian angels. When the Shepherd at first appears, Hermas fails to recognize him, as apparently he should have done.* [3] to be the being to whom he was ‘delivered,’ and only when the visitant changes his form does recognition come. It seems curious that while Baptism is plainly mentioned two or three times (Vis. iii, 3, Mand. iv. 3, Sim. ix. 16) the Lord’s Supper does not appear to be alluded to. Fasting is often mentioned, and once we find Hermas keeping a ‘station,’ as the early fast-days were called (Sim. v. 1). In this case he is commanded, not to abstain entirely from food, but to take bread and water.
While Hermas shows fewer traces of the influence of St. Paul than of that of St. James, with whose Epistle he shows great familiarity, he need not be definitely classed as a Judaizer. His office is that of a prophet, and his mission is to recall Christians from the danger of too intimate contact with pagan social influence. He speaks of those ‘who have never investigated concerning the truth, nor enquired concerning the deity, but have merely believed, and have been mixed up in business affairs and riches and heathen friendships, and many other affairs of this world’ (Mand. x. 1), as specially without understanding and corrupt. Hence his standard of Christian duty is put in the most practical shape: ‘faith, fear of the Lord, love, concord, words of righteousness, truth, patience, … to minister to widows, to visit the orphans and the needy, to ransom the servants, of God from their afflictions, to be hospitable, … to resist no man, to be tranquil, to show yourself more submissive than all men,’ etc. (viii.). The indwelling of the Spirit of God is a feature of Christian life prominently insisted on, and if intermediate. beings like Faith, Continence, Power, Longsuffering (Sim. ix. 15) seem to shape the Christian character, these are declared to be ‘powers of the Son of God’ (ix. 13), God is the Creator alike of the world and of the Church. ‘Behold, the God of Hosts, who by His invisible and mighty power and by His great wisdom created the world, and by His glorious purpose clothed His creation with comeliness, and by His strong word fixed the heaven, and founded the earth upon the waters, and by His own wisdom and providence formed His holy Church, which also He blessed’ (Vis. ii. 3).
Hermas, who was evidently acquainted with the contents of the Didache, does not directly cite Scripture by name, but he continually uses Scriptural words and ideas, handling them with a light touch, and working them into new combinations. C. Taylor (The Witness of Hermas to the Four Gospels) has investigated these allusions minutely, and considers Hermas to be a valuable witness to the Canon, especially in the case of the four Gospels. He finds in the four feet of the couch in the third Vision (13), with the associated cryptic utterance ‘for the world too is upheld by means of four elements,’ the source of the famous saying of Irenaeus that there can be neither more nor fewer than four Gospels, because there are four regions of the world, and four catholic winds, etc. (see p. 13ff.). There is a citation of the lost work Eland and Medad (Vis. ii. 3), and Segri, the name of the angel who shuts the monster’s month in Vis. iv. 2, is a word derived from the Hebrew verb in Daniel 6:22 ‘shut the lions’ months’ (The Johns Hopkins University Circular, April, 1884, iii. 75).
5. Text and Versions.-There is no complete Greek text of the Shepherd. About the first quarter of it is contained in the 4th cent. Sinaitic manuscript (א), while the Athos manuscript (A) written in the 14th cent. is the authority for the rest of the work, except the concluding portion, from Sim. ix. 30 to the end, which has to be supplied from the Latin versions. These are two in number, the so-called Old Latin Version (L) found in about twenty Manuscripts , and the Palatine Version (L2) existing in one manuscript of the 14th century. There is also an Ethiopic Version (E) published in 1860 with a Latin translation (see J. B. Lightfoot, Apostolic Fathers, p. 295).
Literature.-J. B. Lightfoot, The Apostolic Fathers, I vol., London, 1891; O. von Gebhardt and A. Harnack, Patrum Apost. Opera, Fasc. iii., Leipzig, 1877; F. X. Funk, Patres Apostolici, Tübingen, 1901; C. Taylor, The Shepherd of Hermas (Translation, Introduction, and Notes), London, 1903-1906; T. Zahn, Der Hirt des Hermas, Gotha, 1868; A. Hilgenfeld, Hermœ Pastor, Leipzig, 1887; C. Taylor, The Witness of Hermas to the Four Gospels, London, 1892; [4], Barnabas and Hermas, Oxford, 1685; G. Salmon, Historical Introduction to NT5, London, 1891.
A. Mitchell.
 
 
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Shepherd
I should not have paused at this word, being in itself so very well understood, but only to remark the very great blessedness and tenderness of it as assumed by the Lord Jesus Christ. He saith himself, "I am the good Shepherd; the good Shepherd giveth his life for the sheep." (John 10:11) And God the Father also sweetly holds forth the Lord Jesus, in his mediatorial character, under this endearing point of view, as the Shepherd of his church and people.
It would form the subject of a volume, rather than an article in a Concordance, to enter upon the character and office of a Shepherd as peculiarly suited and carried on by Christ; I cannot therefore propose such an undertaking. But while I refer to the Scriptural account of our Lord Jesus under this character, and which is more or less scattered over the whole Bible, I cannot content myself, without just observing how very blessed it must be for all the sheep of Christ and the lambs of his fold to know Jesus, and to make use of Jesus as God the Father evidently intended he should be used, as their Shepherd.
As Jesus is the Shepherd, so they are the flock; the one character implies the other; and the church made up of sheep and lambs are his property. He received them as the gift of his Father, and he hath purchased them with his blood; so that every tye of nature, interest, property, and grace, endears them to Christ. And hence he saith himself, "I give unto my sheep eternal life, and they shall never perish, neither shall any pluck them out, of my hand. My Father which gave.them me is greater than all, and none is able to pluck them out of my Fathers hand. I and my Father are one." (John 10:28-30)
I must not enlarge on this point, how sweet soever and interesting it is; but I do beg the reader who is conscious of being one of Christ's fold, and especially, the lambs of that fold, never to lose sight of Jesus under this pastoral office. Jesus knows all sheep, he calleth them all by name, his eye is always upon them, and his heart full of love towards them; he knows how helpless, poor, and prone to wandering they are; and he hath a suited grace for every one and for all. He saith himself that he will search and seek them out in every place whither they are scattered in the cloudy and dark day. His love, and not their deserts, is the cause of his care over them. He will feed them, protect them, help them, heal them, refresh them, restore them, and carry them through, the whole of this wilderness state, until he brings them all home to his fold in heaven. And all this and ten thousand things more, because he is their Shepherd, because he is, and ever must be, Jesus. "Hail, O thou almighty Shepherd of Israel, thou that leadest Joseph like a flock, thou that dwellest between the cherubim, shine forth!" (Psalms 80:1, etc. See Pastor.)
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Shepherd
A person's wealth in the East frequently consisted of flocks, the shepherd therefore held an important and honourable position. David was a keeper of sheep. Joseph instructed his brethren to tell Pharaoh that they were shepherds, and they asked permission to dwell in Goshen, for every shepherd was an abomination to the Egyptians. This is supposed to have been caused by some 'shepherd-kings' having usurped authority over Egypt. The difficulties and hardships of a shepherd's life in the East may be gathered from what Jacob passed through during the time he was with Laban. Genesis 31:39,40 .
The sheep following the shepherd is a sight often witnessed in the East, and that each sheep has a name and knows the shepherd's voice, has been tested and proved again and again. All this is beautifully typical of the relation of Jehovah to Israel and of Christ to the church. The sheep of Christ know the good Shepherd's voice, and find salvation, liberty, and pasture in following the One who leads. The good Shepherd gives them eternal life, having given His life for the sheep. Christ is called the great Shepherd, for the work which He accomplished could have been done only by One who was Himself God, though become man to work out redemption.
In the church there are those who by reason of gift are called pastors, to feed and shepherd the sheep; but Christ is the chief Shepherd, who is over all, whose own the sheep are, and who has given His word that they shall never perish. Psalm 23 ; Zechariah 13:7 ; John 10:2-16 ; Hebrews 13:20 ; 1 Peter 5:4 ; etc.
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Hermas, Known as the Shepherd
Hermas (2). In the latter half of the 2nd cent. there was in circulation a book of visions and allegories purporting to be written by one Hermas and commonly known as The Shepherd. This book was treated with respect bordering on that paid to the canonical Scriptures of N.T. and was publicly read in some churches. A passage from it is quoted by Irenaeus (iv. 20 p. 253) with the words "Well said the Scripture," a fact which Eusebius notes (H. E. v. 8). Probably n the time of Irenaeus the work was publicly read in the Gallican churches. The mutilated commencement of the Stromateis of Clement of Alexandria opens in the middle of a quotation from The Shepherd and about ten times elsewhere he cites the book always with a complete acceptance of the reality and divine character of the revelations made to Hermas but without suggesting who Hermas was or when he lived. Origen who frequently cites the book (in Rom. xvi. 14 vol. iv. p. 683) considered it divinely inspired. He suggests as do others after him but apparently on no earlier authority that it was written by the Hermas mentioned in Rom_16:14. His other quotations shew that less favourable views of the book were current in his time. They are carefully separated from quotations from the canonical books and he generally adds a saving clause giving the reader permission to reject them; he speaks of it (in Matt. xix. 7 vol. iii. p. 644) as a book current in the church but not acknowledged by all and (de Princ. iv. 11) as despised by some. Eusebius (iii. 25) places the book among the orthodox νόθα with the Acts of Paul Revelation of Peter Epistle of Barnabas etc. Elsewhere (iii. 3) while unable to place it among the ὁμολογουμένα because rejected by some he records its public use in churches and by some most eminent writers and that it was judged by some most necessary for elementary instruction in the faith. Athanasius (Ep. Fest. 39 vol. i. pt. ii. p. 963) classes it with some of the deutero-canonical books of O.T. and with The Teaching of the Apostles as not canonical but useful for catechetical instruction. It is found in the Sinaitic MS. following the Ep. of Barnabas as an appendix to the N.T. After the 4th cent. it rapidly passed out of ecclesiastical use in the East.
The Western tradition deserves more attention, as internal evidence shews the book to have been composed at Rome. The MURATORIAN FRAGMENT on the Canon tells us that it had been written during the episcopate of Pius by his brother Hernias, a period which the writer speaks of as within then living memory. He concludes that the book ought to be read but not publicly in the church among the prophetic writings, the number of which was complete, nor among the apostolic. The statement that the book not only might but ought to be read is a high recognition of the value attributed to it by the writer, and we gather that at least in some places its use in church was then such as to lead some to regard it as on a level with the canonical Scriptures. Tertullian, in one of his earliest treatises, de Oratione, has a reference to its influence on the practice of churches which shews it to have enjoyed high authority at the time, an authority which Tertullian's argument does not dispute. It had probably been used in church reading and translated into Latin, since Tertullian describes it by the Latin title Pastor, and not by a Greek title, as he usually does in the case of Greek writings. Some ten years later, after Tertullian had become a Montanist, and the authority of The Shepherd is urged in behalf of readmitting adulterers to communion, he rejects the book as not counted worthy of inclusion in the canon, but placed by every council, even those of the Catholic party, among false and apocryphal writings ( de Pudic. c. 10). Quoting Hebrews, he says that this is at least more received than that apocryphal Shepherd of the adulterers (c. 20). The phrase "more received" warns us to take cum grano Tertullian's assertion as to the universal rejection of The Shepherd; but doubtless the distinction between apostolic and later writings was then drawn more sharply, and in the interval between Tertullian's two writings The Shepherd may have been excluded from public reading in many churches which before had admitted it. The Liberian papal catalogue (probably here, as elsewhere, following the catalogue of Hippolytus) states that under the episcopate of Pius his brother Ermas wrote a book in which the commands and precepts were contained which the angel gave him when he came to him in the habit of a shepherd. Yet, while refusing to assign the book to apostolic times, it makes no doubt of the reality of the angelic appearance to Hermas. Later biographical notices of popes state that the message given to Hermas was that Easter should always be celebrated on a Sunday. These clearly shew that by then all knowledge of the book had been lost; and further notices shew a confusion between the name of Hermas and that of his book, which imply that the book was no longer in use. Jerome, when quoting Eusebius about the book ( de Vir. Ill. 10, vol. ii. 845), adds that among the Latins it was almost unknown. He speaks contemptuously of it ( in Habac. i. 14, vol. vi. 604), for it seems certain that the book of Hermas is here referred to. It is marked in the Gelasian decree as apocryphal. Notwithstanding, there;are indications that some use of the book continued in the West, e.g. the fact being that there still exist some 20 MSS. of the Latin version. In the African church of the 4th cent. we find f rom the list in the Codex Claromontanus (Westcott, Canon N. T. p. 557) that it was placed with the Acts of Paul and the Revelation of St. Peter as an appendix to the N.T. books; and it occupies a similar place in the Sinaitic MS., the only Greek Bible known to have contained it. But in some existing Latin MSS. it is placed with the apocryphal books of O.T.
The book is in three parts. The first part consists of visions. Hermas tells that he who had brought him up had sold him to Rome to a lady named Rhoda; that after a considerable time he renewed his acquaintance with her and began to love her as a sister; that he saw her one day bathing in the Tiber and assisted her out of the water ; that admiring her beauty he thought how happy he should be if he had a wife like her in person and disposition. Further than this his thought did not go. But a little time after he had a vision. He fell asleep, and in his dream was walking and struggling on ground so rugged and broken that it was impossible to pass. At length he succeeded in crossing the water by which his path had been washed away, and coming into smooth ground knelt to confess his sins to God. Then the heavens were opened and he saw Rhoda saluting him from the sky. On his asking her what she did there, she told him that she had been taken up to accuse him, because God was angry with him for having sinned in thought against her. Then Hermas was overwhelmed with horror and fear, not knowing how he could abide the severity of God's judgment, if such a thought as his was marked as sin. Rhoda now passes out of his dream and he sees a venerable aged lady clad in shining garments sitting on a great white chair and holding a book in her hand. She asks why he, usually so cheerful, is now so sad. On telling her, she owns what a sin any impure thought would be in one so chaste, so singleminded and so innocent as he; but tells him that this is not why God is displeased with him, but because of the sins of his children, whom he, through false indulgence, had allowed to corrupt themselves, but to whom repentance was open if he would warn them. Then she reads to him out of her book, but of all she reads he can remember nothing save the last comforting sentence, and that all which preceded was terrible and threatening. She parted from him with the words, "Play the man, Hermas." Hermas was an elderly man with a grown-up family, and Rhoda must have been at least as old as himself. If the tale is an invented one, this is certainly an incongruity; but if it be a true story, it is quite conceivable that the thought may have occurred to Hermas, who seems to have been not happy in his family relations, how much happier it would have been for him if Rhoda had been his wife; and that afterwards, in a dream, this thought may have recurred to his memory as a sin to be repented of. The vision presents all the characteristics of a real dream; the want of logical connexion between the parts, the changes of scene, the fading out of Rhoda as principal figure and the appearance of the aged lady in her room; the substitution of quite a different offence for the sinful thought which weighed on his conscience at the beginning; the physical distress in his sleep at first presenting the idea of walking on and on without being able to find an outlet, afterwards of mental grief at words spoken to him; the long reading of which only the words spoken immediately before awaking are remembered,—all these indicate that we are reading not a literary invention like the dream of the Pilgrim's Progress, but the recital, a little dressed up it may be, of a dream which the narrator really had. In another vision, a year after, he saw again the lady and her book, and received the book to copy, but still it conveyed no idea to his mind. He then set himself by fasting and prayer to learn its meaning, and after about a fortnight was gratified. He learns, too, that the lady is not, as he had imagined, the sibyl, but the church, and that she appeared as old because she was created first of all, and for her sake the world was made. Ephesians, which probably suggested this doctrine of the pre-existence of the church, is one of the N.T. books of whose use by Hermas there are clear traces. In subsequent visions we have a different account of the matter; he sees in each a woman more and more youthful in appearance, whom he is taught to identify with the church of his former vision; and it is explained that he saw her old at first because the spirit of Christians had been broken by infirmity and doubt, and afterwards more youthful as by the revelations made him their spirit had been renewed. After his first two visions Hermas watched eagerly for new revelations, and set himself to obtain them by fasting and prayer. In those later visions, while the pictures presented to his mind are such as we can well believe to have been dream representations, the explanations given of them have a coherence only to be found in the thoughts of a waking man. This is still more true of the second and third parts of the work. At the end of the first part he has the vision in which he sees a man dressed like a shepherd, who tells him that he is the angel of repentance and the guardian to whose care he had been entrusted. >From this shepherd he receives, for his instruction and that of the church, the "Commandments," which form the second, and the "Similitudes," which form the third part of the work. The Similitudes were probably suggested by N.T. parables, though the frigid compositions of Hermas fall infinitely below these.
The literary merits of the work of Herman are of little importance compared with the fundamental question as to the date of the book and whether it claims to be an inspired document, the writer of which aspires to no literary merit, save that of faithfully recording the revelations made him. Are we to suppose that Hernias in relating his visions intended no more than to present edifying lessons in an allegorical form, and that it was merely as an instructive fiction that the book was regarded when it was introduced into public reading in the church? Donaldson says: "If the book be not inspired, then either the writer fancied he had seen these visions, or tried to make other people fancy this, or he clothed the work in a fictitious form designedly and undisguisedly. If he did the first, he must have been silly. If he did the second he must have been an impostor." But as he believes the author to have been "an honest upright, and thoughtful man," he concludes that he did the third, "as multitudes of others have done after him, with John Bunyan at their head." If we took this view we could lay no stress on anything the author tells us about himself and his family. These details might be fictitious, as the angels, the towers, and the beasts of the visions. We could not even assume that his name was Hermas for the narrator of the visions, who bears this name, might be an imaginary personage But we ourselves feel bound to reject this as altogether mistaken criticism, and as an application to the 2nd cent. of the standards of to-day. To us it seems plain that, whatever the author intended, the first readers of Hermas did not receive the book as mere allegorical fiction. Bunsen (Hippolytus and his Age, i. 315) tells us that Niebuhr used to pity the Athenian ( sic, Qu. Roman? ) Christians for being obliged to listen to this "good but dull novel." If the authorities of the church regarded it merely as a novel, would they have appointed it for public reading? At the end of the century Clement and others shew no doubt of the reality of the visions Were the men of a couple of generations earlier likely to have been more severe in their judgments, and would an angelic appearance seem to them so incredible that one who related it would be regarded as the narrator of a fiction that he did not intend to be believed? The book itself contains directions to the rulers of the Roman church to send the volume to foreign churches. If we suppose it really was sent to them stamped as a prophetic writing by the authority of the Roman church, we have an explanation of the consideration, only second to that of the canonical Scriptures, which it enjoyed in so many distant churches. A man at the present day might publish a story of visions, and be persuaded that his readers would not take him seriously, but no one in the 2nd cent. would be entitled to hold such a persuasion, and if the book of Hermas was accepted as inspired, the writer cannot be acquitted of the responsibility of having foreseen and intended this result. Mosheim, de Rebus Christ. ante Const. 163, 166, holds that the writer must either have been "mente captus et fanaticus," or else "scientem volentemque fefellisse," the latter being the opinion to which he inclines, believing that the lawfulness of pious frauds was a fixed opinion with many Christians at the date of the composition we are discussing We maintain, however, that it is possible to disbelieve in the inspiration of Hermas without imputing folly either to him who made the claim or to those who admitted it We must not regard the men of the 2nd cent. as fools because their views as to God's manner of teaching His church were different from those which the experience of so many following centuries has taught us. A Christian cannot regard them as fools for believing that in the time of our Lord and His apostles a great manifestation of the supernatural was made to the world. How long and to what extent similar manifestations would present themselves in. the ordinary life of the church only experience could skew, and they are not to be scorned if their expectations have not been borne out by later experience. In particular, if we are to set down as fools all who have believed that supernatural intimations may be given in dreams, our list would be a long one, and would include many eminent names; and though modern science may regard visions as phenomena admitting a natural explanation, it is not reasonable to expect such a view from the science of the 2nd cent. What Hermas tells of his personal history and of the times and circumstances of his visions conveys to us the impression of artless truth. His information about himself is contained in incidental allusions, not very easy to piece together; and the author of a fictitious narrative would not have conveyed so obscurely what he tells about his hero. He would probably also have made him a man of some eminence, holding high church office, whereas Hermas always speaks of the presbyters as if he were not one of them, and could have no motive for making his hero one engaged in trade unsuccessfully and not very honestly, and an elderly man with a termagant wife and ill brought-up children. On the other hand, if the book be true history, it is very much to the point that Hermas should get a revelation, directing his wife to keep her tongue in better order, and his children to pay more respect to their parents; nor need we suppose Hermas guilty of dishonesty in thus turning his gift of prophecy to the advantage of his family comfort; for nothing can be more natural than that the thoughts which troubled his waking moments should present themselves in his visions. There is nothing incredible in the supposition that the pictures of the first vision did present themselves to the mind of Hernias as he relates them. They must have been very vivid, and have impressed him strongly. Still, it is a year before he has another vision. After this he begins to fast and pray and look out eagerly for more revelations. Finally he comes to believe himself to be under the constant guardianship of the shepherd angel of repentance, and he ascribes all the lessons he desires to teach to the inspiration of this heavenly monitor. But perhaps his language expresses no more than his belief in the divine inspiration under which he wrote, for elsewhere he states that he does not regard the personages of his visions as having objective reality, and those things which in the earlier part are represented as spoken to him by the church are afterwards said to have been spoken by God's Spirit under the form of the church. That be sincerely believed himself to be the bearer of a divine message appears to be the case. A summary of his convictions would serve also for those of a man in many respects very unlike, Savonarola ( a ) that the church of his time had corrupted itself, and had become deeply tainted with worldliness; (b ) that a time of great tribulation was at hand, in which the dross should be purged away; (c ) that there was still an intervening time, during which repentance was possible and would be accepted; (d ) that he was himself divinely commissioned to preach that repentance.
Date and Authorship.—Antiquity furnishes authority for three suppositions: (a) the author was the Hermas to whom a salutation is sent in Rom_16:14; or (b) brother to Pius bp. of Rome at the middle of the 2nd cent.; or (c) contemporary with Clement who was bishop at the very beginning of that century or the end of the preceding. The first may be set aside as a highly improbable guess of Origen. The author shews no wish to be taken for the apostolic Hermas but distinctly speaks of the apostles as all dead. A forger could have found many more suitable names than Hermas one of the least prominent in N.T. and of which except in connexion with this book there is no trace in ecclesiastical tradition. If our view of the book be correct the author had no motive for antedating it. His prophecy announced tribulation close at hand and only a short intervening period for repentance. To represent such a prophecy as being already 50 or 100 years old would be to represent it as having failed and in fact The Shepherd did lose credit when it had been so long in existence. Hermas seems to have thought that if the worldliness of the church could be repented of and reformed it would be possible to keep it pure during the brief remainder of its existence. He announced therefore forgiveness on repentance for sins of old Christians prior to the date of his revelation but none for those of new converts or for sins subsequent to his revelation. To date his revelation 50 years back would have defeated his own purpose and made his message inapplicable to those whom he addressed. Again the acceptance of the book by the church of Rome is inexplicable if it were introduced by no known person containing as it does revelations purporting to have been given among themselves and to a leading member of their church. If the first readers of the work of Elchesai or of the Clementine homilies asked Why did we never hear of these things before? these books had provided an answer in the fiction that the alleged authors had only communicated them under a pledge of strict secrecy; in this book on the contrary Hermas is directed (Vis. iii. 8) to go after three days and speak in the hearing of all the saints the words he had heard in his vision. Elsewhere he enables us to understand how this direction could be carried out. We learn (Mand. 11) that certain persons were then recognized in the church as having prophetic gifts and that at the Christian meetings for worship if after prayer ended one of them were filled with the Holy Spirit he might speak unto the people as the Lord willed. The simplest explanation how the Roman Church came to believe in its inspiration seems then to be that it had previously admitted the inspiration of its author that he held the position of a recognized prophet as in the East did Quadratus and Ammia of Philadelphia (Eus. H. E. v. 16) and that he really did publicly deliver his message in the church assembly. As the 2nd cent. went on the public exercise of prophetic powers in the church seems to have ceased and when revived by Montanus and his followers had to encounter much opposition. The ensuing controversy led the church to insist more strongly on the distinction between the inspiration of the canonical writers and that of holy men of later times and the Muratorian fragment exhibits the feeling entertained towards the end of the cent. that the list of prophetic writings had been closed and that no production of the later years of the church could be admitted.
But if, as we think, the Hermas of The Shepherd is not a fictitious character, but a real person known in the church of Rome in the 2nd cent., we incline to follow Zahn in relying more on his connexion with Clement than with Pius. Zahn places The Shepherd c. 97; but if we assign that date to the epistle of Clement we ought to allow a few years for that letter to have obtained the celebrity and success which the notice in Hermas implies. That notice need not necessarily have been published in the lifetime of Clement, for Hermas is not instructed to deliver his message immediately, but only after the completion of his revelations, and this may have been after Clement's death.
Are, then, any indications of date in the book inconsistent with such an early date?
There is much affinity between the leading ideas of Montanism and of the book of Hermas, especially as to the fall of many in the church from the ideal of holiness. The question was asked, Was it possible to renew such again to repentance? In both our Lord's second coming was eagerly looked forward to, and a knowledge of God's coming dealings with His church sought for from visions and revelations. But the teaching of Hermas is less rigorous than the Montanistic, and all that is special to Montanism is unknown to him.
Hermas directs his efforts almost exclusively to combating the relaxation of morality in the church; he scarcely notices doctrinal errors, and no reference to Gnostic doctrines can be found in his book, unless it be a statement (Sim. v. 7) that there were some who took licence to misuse the flesh on account of a denial of the resurrection of the body. But these false teachers seem to have been all in the church, not separate from it. In the passage which seems most distinctly to refer to Gnostics ( ib. ix. 22), they are described as "wishing to know everything and knowing nothing," as "praising themselves that they have understanding, and wishing to be teachers, though they were really fools." Yet, he adds, "to these repentance is open, for they were not wicked, but rather silly and without understanding." The seeds of Gnosticism had begun to spring up even in apostolic times; but we cannot think that Hermas would have written thus after Gnosticism had become dangerous to the Roman church.
Hermas rebukes the strifes for precedence among Christians (Vis. iii. 9; Mand. ix.; Sim. viii. 7), and it is difficult to find in his book evidence of the existence of the episcopal form of government or of resistance to its introduction. He appears to use ἐπίσκοπος as synonymous with πρεσβύτερος and always speaks of the government of the church as in the hands of the elders, without hinting that one elder enjoyed authority over others. Clement, indeed, is recognized as the organ by which the church of Rome communicated with foreign churches; but we are not told that implied a pre-eminence in domestic rule. Similarly, though we infer that the presbyters had seats of honour in the church assemblies, we are not told that one had a seat higher than the rest. Either it was not the case or it was too much a matter of course to be mentioned. But a message regarding dissensions is sent τοῖς προηγουμένοις τῆς ἐκκλησίας καὶ τοῖς πρωτοκαθεδρίταις . It is a very forced explanation of the last plural noun to suppose it means some one of the προηγούμενοι who desired to make himself the first, nor have we reason to think that the word implies any sarcasm. It is more natural to understand that besides the presbyters there were others, such as the teachers and prophets ( Mand. xi.), who in church assemblies were given seats of honour.
The church had at the time of this writing enjoyed a good deal of quiet, but this had evidently been broken by many harassing persecutions, in which some had apostatized. Usually their danger is described as no more than of loss of goods and of injury to worldly business; but there had been (though perhaps not recently) martyrs who had given their lives and endured crosses and wild beasts for the Name of the Son of God. They could have saved themselves by denial or by committing idolatry. Thus they suffered as Christians, and it has been inferred that the date must be later than the well-known letter of Trajan to Pliny which first made the profession of Christianity unlawful. Yet it seems possible to assign an earlier date to The Shepherd, and to I. Peter which is affected by the same argument, when we remember that Trajan only gave imperial sanction to the rule on which Pliny had been acting already, and on which others had probably been acting previously; or Pliny implies that trials of Christians were then well known. And it may be argued that after the edict of Trajan obstinate profession of Christianity was liable to be punished with death, whereas in the time of Hermas it seems to have been punished only by fine or imprisonment. Hermas lost his business in the persecution, having been betrayed, it seems, by his children. At the time of the visions he was apparently farming. Zahn, who places the persecution under Domitian, ingeniously conjectures (p. 133) that Hermas was one of those to whom, as Dion Cassius tells (68, 2), Nerva made restitution by giving land instead of the goods of which they had been despoiled by Domitian.
It is disappointing to have to add that an ordinary Christian of to-day would find in the book neither much interest nor edification, and that the historical student finds in it much less help than he might expect. Hermas is absorbed in trying to bring about a practical reform; he shews much less interest in doctrine, in which possibly as a layman he was perhaps not accurately instructed; he never quotes either O. or N. T., nor is his language much influenced by Scripture phraseology, and some would describe him as having preached not the Gospel, but merely a dry morality. The inference was natural, if Pauline Christianity is so much in the background in Hermas, that he must have been an anti-Pauline Jewish Christian; and this may seem confirmed by the fact that the N.T. book which has most stamped itself on his mind is the Ep. of St. James. Yet a closer examination finds no real trace of Judaism in him. It is scarcely credible that one brought up a Jew should seem so unfamiliar with O.T. The Jewish nation and its privileges are not even mentioned, nor the distinction between Jew and Gentile. Michael is not the guardian angel of the nation, but of the Christian church.
The only express quotation is from the lost apocryphal book of Eldad and Modad. His use of either O. or N. T, not being indicated by formal quotation, but only by coincidences of language or thought, there is room for difference of opinion as to his use of particular books. The proofs of the use of the Epp. of James and of Ephesians seem decisive, and only a little less strong in the case of I. Peter and I. Cor. Of his use of the Gospel and Revelation of St. John we are persuaded, though we admit that the evidence is not conclusive. We believe also that the knowledge of sayings of our Lord which Hermas unmistakably exhibits was obtained from our Synoptic Gospels, the coincidences with St. Mark (see Zahn, p. 457) being most striking.
Where Hermas had lived before he was sold to Rome we can only conjecture. According to a reading which there seems no good ground to question, he supposes himself in one of his visions to have been transported to Arcadia, and Mahaffy says (Rambles in Greece, p. 330, 2nd ed.) that the scenery he describes suits that in Arcadia, and does not suit the neighbourhood of Rome. Zahn conjectures that Hermas was born in Egypt because the architecture of the tower of Hermas's visions resembles the description in Josephus of the Jewish temple in the Egyptian Heliopolis.
The Shepherd has been edited by Hilgenfeld ( Nov. Test. ext. Can. Rec. 1866) and Gebhardt and Harnack ( Patres Apostolici, 1877). The latter ed. is indispensable, and contains a full list of editions, and of works treating of Hermas. Some interesting discussion is to be found in the reviews of Gebhardt's ed. by Overbeck (Schurer, Theol. Literaturzeitung, 1878), Donaldson in Theological Review (1878), and Zahn, Göttingen gelehrte Anzeigen (1878). Zahn, Der Hirt des Hermas (1868), is the work from which we have learned most. Another ed. is by Funk ( Pat. Apost. Tübingen, 1878). A Collation of the Athos Codex of the Shepherd with intro. by Dr. Lambros, trans. and ed. with preface and appendices by Dr. J. A. Robinson, has been pub. by Camb. Univ. Press; a cheap Eng. trans. of The Shepherd by Dr. C. Taylor (2 vols.) by S. P.C. K.; and in Ante-Nic. Fathers, vol. ii. See also F. Spitta, Zur Gesch. und Lit. der Urchristenthums, vol. ii. (Göttingen, 1898), and Funk, in Theol. Quartalschr. lxxii. and lxxxv.
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1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Hermas, Shepherd of
Name of a treatise highly esteemed in early times and once ranking next to the Holy Scriptures. It is an ethical rather than a theological work, preaching repentance, and consisting of five visions, twelve mandates, and two parables; particularly valuable as a contemporary record of 2century Christianity in Rome. The authorship has been attributed to Hermas, mentioned by Saint Paul in his letter to the Romans 14; but with more likelihood, to a brother of Pope Saint Pius I.
Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Shepherd
Isaiah 44:28 (a) It is used to represent King Cyrus as he took a leading place in the rebuilding of the temple, and restoring Israel to their land. Ezekiel 34:23 (a) This represents King David as he would guide the affairs and the destinies of Israel. Probably it also is prophetic of CHRIST when He returns to reign. John 10:14 (a) This is a type of the Lord JESUS. He cares for, protects and leads His people.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Shepherd
(See SHEEP.) The nomadic state is one of the earliest stages of society, and was regarded as honourable even to a chief (Genesis 4:2; Genesis 4:20; Genesis 30:29 ff; Genesis 37); chiefs' daughters did not disdain to tend flocks (Genesis 29:6, etc.; Exodus 2:19). The long stay in Egypt elevated Israel from the nomadic to a settled life. The two and a half nomadic tribes received their portion in the outlying regions beyond Jordan (Numbers 32). As agriculture increased pasturage decreased, and was limited to particular spots, the border of the wilderness of Judah, Carmel (1 Samuel 25:2), Bethlehem (1 Samuel 16:11; Luke 2:8), Tekoa (Amos 1:1), and Gedor (1 Chronicles 4:39). Hence the "shepherd's tent" came to symbolize desolation (Ezekiel 25:4; Zephaniah 2:6). The shepherd's occupation was now no longer dignified (Psalms 78:70; 2 Samuel 7:8; Amos 7:14).
The shepherd's office represents Jehovah's tender care of His people (Psalm 23; Isaiah 40:11; Isaiah 49:9-10; Jeremiah 23:3-4; Ezekiel 34:11-12; Ezekiel 34:23). Allusions occur to the exposure to heat and cold (Genesis 31:40), the precarious food (Amos 7:14), the husks of the carob (Luke 15:16), the attacks of beasts (1 Samuel 17:34; Isaiah 31:4; Amos 3:12), robbers (Genesis 31:39). The shepherd had a mantle of sheepskin with the fleece on (Jeremiah 43:12), a wallet for food (1 Samuel 17:40), a sling such as the Bedouin still carries, a staff to ward off foes and to guide the flock with its crook (Psalms 23:4; Zechariah 11:7; so Jehovah "lifts up His staff against" His people's foes, Isaiah 10:1-24; His word is at once our prop of support and our defense against Satan). The shepherd, when far from home, had his light tent (Song of Solomon 1:8), easily taken down and shifted (Isaiah 38:12).
Towers were sometimes erected to spy a foe afar off, and to guard the flock (2 Chronicles 26:10; 2 Chronicles 27:4, compare "tower of Edar," Genesis 35:21; Micah 4:8). (See EDAR.) His duty was to go before and call by name the sheep (John 10:4), watch it with dogs, a sorry animal in the East (Job 30:1), to search for stray sheep (Ezekiel 34:12; Luke 15:4), to supply water, either at a stream or at troughs by wells (Genesis 29:7; Genesis 30:38; Exodus 2:16), (so Jesus, Psalms 23:2), to bring back to the fold at evening and to reckon the sheep that none be missing (compare as to Jesus John 18:9; John 17:11-12; John 10:28-29), passing one by one "under the rod" (Leviticus 27:32; Jeremiah 33:13; Ezekiel 20:37), (i.e. you shall be counted as Mine, and subjected to My chastening discipline with a view to My ultimate saving of the elect, Micah 7:14), checking each sheep as it passed; to act as porter, guarding the entrance to the fold by night (John 10:3).
The shepherds kept watches (plural in Greek, Luke 2:8, not "slumbering," Nahum 3:18) by turns at night, not on duty both night and day as Jacob (Genesis 31:40). Tenderness to the young and feeble was the shepherd's duty, not to overdrive them (Genesis 33:13); so Jesus (Isaiah 40:11-29; Mark 6:31; Mark 8:2; Mark 4:33; John 16:12). There were chief and under shepherds (Genesis 47:6; 1 Peter 5:4), and hirelings not of the family (John 10:11-13; 1 Samuel 21:7). The shepherd had responsibility, and at the same time personal interest in the flock (1 Samuel 31:39; 1 Samuel 30:32; 1 Corinthians 9:7).
Playing on the pipe beguiled the monotony, and a feast at shearing time gave a yearly variety (1 Samuel 16:17; Genesis 31:19; Genesis 38:12; 2 Samuel 13:23). Shepherds often contended with one another as to water (Genesis 26:17-22; Exodus 2:17). The Egyptian antipathy to shepherds (whom the monuments always represent as mean) was due to their being themselves agriculturists, whereas the neighbouring Arabs with whom they so often strove were nomads. The seizure of Lower Egypt by shepherd kings (Hyksos) for centuries aggravated this dislike, though the Hyksos were subsequent to Joseph (Genesis 46:34). Princes, and even hostile leaders, are called shepherds: Isaiah 44:28; Jeremiah 2:8; Jeremiah 3:15; Jeremiah 6:3; Ezekiel 34:2; Micah 5:5. Teachers: Ecclesiastes 12:11. Messiah: Genesis 49:24; Psalms 80:1; Zechariah 13:7; John 10:14; Hebrews 13:20.
Webster's Dictionary - Shepherd
(1):
(n.) A man employed in tending, feeding, and guarding sheep, esp. a flock grazing at large.
(2):
(n.) The pastor of a church; one with the religious guidance of others.
(3):
(v. t.) To tend as a shepherd; to guard, herd, lead, or drive, as a shepherd.
Vine's Expository Dictionary of OT Words - Shepherd
A. Verb.
Râ‛âh (רָעָה, Strong's #7462), “to pasture, shepherd.” This common Semitic root appears in Akkadian, Phoenician, Ugaritic, Aramaic, and Arabic. It is attested in all periods of Hebrew and about 170 times in the Bible. (The word should be distinguished from the verb “to have dealings with or associate with.”)
Râ‛âh represents what a shepherd allows domestic animals to do when they feed on grasses in the fields. In its first appearance Jacob tells the shepherds: “Lo, it is yet high day, neither is it time that the cattle should be gathered together: water ye the sheep, and go and feed them” (Gen. 29:7).
Râ‛âh can also represent the entire job of a shepherd. So “Joseph, being seventeen years old, was feeding the flock with his brethren; and [1]” (Gen. 37:2). Used metaphorically this verb represents a leader’s or a ruler’s relationship to his people. At Hebron the people said to David: “Also in time past, when Saul was king over us, thou wast he that leddest out and broughtest in Israel: and the Lord said to thee, Thou shalt feed my people Israel, and thou shalt be a captain over Israel” (2 Sam. 5:2). The verb is used figuratively in the sense “to provide with nourishment” or “to enliven”: “The lips of the righteous feed many: but fools die for want of wisdom” (Prov. 10:21).
Râ‛âh is used intransitively describing what cattle do when they feed on the grass of the field. So Pharaoh dreamed that “there came up out of the river seven well-favored kine and fatfleshed; and they fed in a meadow” (Gen. 41:2). This usage is applied metaphorically to men in Isa. 14:30: “And [2] shall feed, and the needy shall lie down in safety.…” This word is used to describe destruction: “Also the children of Noph and Tahapanes have broken [3] the crown of thy head” (Jer. 2:16).
B. Nouns.
Ro’eh (רָעָה, Strong's #7462), “shepherd.” This noun occurs about 62 times in the Old Testament. It is applied to God, the Great Shepherd, who pastures or feeds His sheep (Ps. 23:1-4; cf. John 10:11). This concept of God, the Great Shepherd, is very old, having first appeared in the Bible on Jacob’s lips in Gen. 49:24: “… From thence is the shepherd, the stone of Israel.”
When applied to human kings, ro’eh recalls its usage among non-Israelites. There it depicts the king as the head of the cultus (official public worship) and the mediator between the god(s) and men. It also suggests that he is the center of national unity, the supreme protector and leader of the nation, the bestower of every earthly blessing, and the dispenser of justice. Interestingly, no biblical king claimed the title ro’eh for himself (cf. 2 Sam. 5:2). In later times leaders other than the kings were also called “shepherds” (cf. Isa. 44:28; Ezek. 34:2).
Other nouns derived from the verb râ‛âh occur infrequently. Mir’eh , which occurs 12 times, means “pasture or pasturage” in the sense of where animals graze, and/or what they graze on (Gen. 47:4). Mar’it appears 10 times and refers to a “pasture” (Ps. 74:1). Re’l is found once and means “pasture” (1 Kings 4:23).
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Shepherd
Sheep, Shepherd. Genesis 4:2; Genesis 46:32. Sheep were used in the sacrificial offerings, both the adult animal, Exodus 20:24, and the lamb. Exodus 29:38; Leviticus 9:3; Leviticus 12:6. Sheep and lambs formed an important article of food. 1 Samuel 25:18. The wool was used as clothing. Leviticus 13:47. "Rams' skins dyed red" were used as a covering for the tabernacle. Exodus 25:5. Sheep and lambs were sometimes paid as tributes. 2 Kings 3:4. Sheep-shearing is alluded to. Genesis 31:19. Sheep-dogs were employed in biblical times. Job 30:1. Shepherds in Palestine and the East generally go before their flocks, calling to them, and the sheep follow; comp. John 10:4; 1 Samuel 25:4-8; Psalms 80:1, though they also drive them. Genesis 33:13. Rev. John Hartley gives an illustration of John 10:1-16 : " Having had my attention directed to John 10:3, I asked a shepherd to call one of his sheep. He did so, and it instantly left its pasturage and its companions and ran up to the hands of the shepherd with signs of pleasure and with a prompt obedience which I had never before observed in any other animal. It is also true in this country that 'a stranger will they not follow, but will flee from him.'" The common sheep of Syria and Palestine are the broad-tailed, which, when fattened, have tails of an enormous size. "I have seen many in Lebanon so heavy," says Dr. Thomson, "that the owners could not carry them without difficulty... The cooks use this mass of fat instead of Arab butter.... This is the 'rump' so often mentioned in the Levitical sacrifices, which was to be taken off hard by the backbone. Exodus 29:22; Leviticus 3:9; Leviticus 7:3; Leviticus 9:19. It is, in fact, not properly a tail, but a mass of mar row-like fat, which spreads over the whole rump of the sheep, and down the caudal extremity, till near the end." The shearing of the sheep was celebrated anciently, as often now, with much festivity. Genesis 31:19; Genesis 38:12-13; Psalms 77:20; 1 Samuel 25:36; 2 Samuel 13:23-28.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Shepherd, John
Composer. Born in England c.1512;died there c1563 A chorister under Thomas Mulliner at Saint Paul's, he became in 1542 choir-master and organist at Magdalen College, Oxford, and in 1549 gained a fellowship. From 1553 to 1558 he belonged to Mary Tudor's Chapel Royal. The Music School, Oxford, has preserved in manuscripts many of his religious compositions. Notable selections are four masses, several alleluias, and ten motets.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Shepherd of Hermas
Name of a treatise highly esteemed in early times and once ranking next to the Holy Scriptures. It is an ethical rather than a theological work, preaching repentance, and consisting of five visions, twelve mandates, and two parables; particularly valuable as a contemporary record of 2century Christianity in Rome. The authorship has been attributed to Hermas, mentioned by Saint Paul in his letter to the Romans 14; but with more likelihood, to a brother of Pope Saint Pius I.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Shepherd
Or PASTOR .
Abel was a keeper of sheep, Genesis 4:2 , as were the greater number of the ancient patriarchs. When men began to multiply, and to follow different employments, Jabal son of Lamech was acknowledged as father, that is, founder of shepherd and nomads, Genesis 4:20 . A large part of the wealth of ancient patriarchs consisted in flocks and herds, the care of which was shared by their sons, daughters, and servants. Rachel the bride of Jacob was a shepherdess, Genesis 37:12-178 ; his sons, the fathers of the tribes of Israel were shepherds, and so was David their king, Psalm 78:70-72 . The employment is highly honored in the Bible, Luke 2:8-20 . In the time of the kings, the "chief herdsman" occupies a post of some importance, 1 Samuel 21:7 2 Kings 3:4 1 Chronicles 27:29-31 . In Palestine and its vicinity, besides those who united the keeping of flocks and herds with the tillage of the ground, there were and still are numbers of nomads or wandering shepherds confining themselves to no settled home. These dwellers in tents often had a wide range of pasture grounds, from one to another of which they drove their flocks as occasion required, 1618451480_98 . In the vast deserts east and south of Palestine they found many spots which in winter and spring were clothed with verdure, Exodus 3:1 Psalm 65:12 . But the heat of summer withered these "pastures of the wilderness," and drove the shepherds and their flocks to seek for highlands and streams. There are many indications in the Scripture of the conscious strength and independence of he ancient shepherd patriarchs, of the extent of their households, and the consideration in which they were held, Genesis 14:14-24 21:22-32 26:13-16 30:43 Job 1:3 .
God sometimes takes the name of Shepherd of Israel, Psalm 80:1 Jeremiah 31:10 ; and kings, both in Scripture and ancient writers, are distinguished by the title of "Shepherds of the people." The prophets often inveigh against the "shepherds of Israel," that is, the kings, who feed themselves and neglect their flocks; who distress, illtreat, seduce, and lead them astray, Ezekiel 34:10 . In like manner Christ, as the Messiah, is often called a shepherd,
Zechariah 13:7 , and also takes on himself the title of "the Good Shepherd," who gives his life for his sheep, John 10:11,14,15 . Paul calls him the great Shepherd of the sheep, Hebrews 13:20 , and Peter gives him the appellation of Prince of shepherds, 1 Peter 5:4 . His ministers are in like manner the pastors or under-shepherds of the flock, Jeremiah 3:15 23:3 Ephesians 4:11 .
In John 10:1-16 , our Savior says the good shepherd lays down his life for his sheep; that he knows them, and they know him; that they hear his voice, and follow him; that he goes before them; that no one shall force them out of his hands, and that he calls them by their names. These, however, being all incidents taken from the customs of the country, are by no means so striking to us as they must have been to those who heard our Lord, and who every day witnessed such methods of conducting this domesticated animal. Modern travelers in the East meet with many pleasing confirmation of the truth of Scripture in respect to these particulars; they see the shepherd walking before his flock, any one of which will instantly run to him when called by its own name. The hireling, or bad shepherd, forsakes the sheep, and the thief enters not by the door of the sheepfold, but climbs in another way. See SHEEP .
The Bible applies many of the excellences of the faithful shepherd in illustration of the Savior's care of his flock. The shepherd was responsible for each member of the flock intrusted to him, Genesis 31:39 Exodus 22:12 John 10:28 ; he had need of great courage and endurance, Genesis 31:40 1 Samuel 17:34,35 John 15:10 ; he exercised a tender care towards the feeble, and carried the lambs in his arms, Genesis 33:13 Isaiah 40:11 Mark 10:14,16 ; and searched for the lost sheep, bringing it back from the "land of drought and the shadow of death" into green pastures and still waters, Psalm 23:1-6 Luke 15:4-7 .
The American Church Dictionary and Cycopedia - Good Shepherd, Sunday of
The name given in the Western Church tothe Second Sunday after Easter. The French know it as the Sunday ofthe Bon Pasteur. The name is suggested by the Gospel for the daywhich sets forth our Lord as "the Good Shepherd," and who in theEpistle is called the "Shepherd and Bishop of our Souls."

Sentence search

Shepherdish - ) Resembling a Shepherd; suiting a Shepherd; pastoral
Pastor - Shepherd, one whose office it is to feed and guard the flock of Christ, Ephesians 4:11 1 Peter 5:2 . See Shepherd
Raguel - Shepherd
Ragau - Friend; Shepherd
Flock - See Shepherd
Pasturage - See Shepherd
Shepherd - A person's wealth in the East frequently consisted of flocks, the Shepherd therefore held an important and honourable position. Joseph instructed his brethren to tell Pharaoh that they were Shepherds, and they asked permission to dwell in Goshen, for every Shepherd was an abomination to the Egyptians. This is supposed to have been caused by some 'shepherd-kings' having usurped authority over Egypt. The difficulties and hardships of a Shepherd's life in the East may be gathered from what Jacob passed through during the time he was with Laban. ...
The sheep following the Shepherd is a sight often witnessed in the East, and that each sheep has a name and knows the Shepherd's voice, has been tested and proved again and again. The sheep of Christ know the good Shepherd's voice, and find salvation, liberty, and pasture in following the One who leads. The good Shepherd gives them eternal life, having given His life for the sheep. Christ is called the great Shepherd, for the work which He accomplished could have been done only by One who was Himself God, though become man to work out redemption. ...
In the church there are those who by reason of gift are called pastors, to feed and Shepherd the sheep; but Christ is the chief Shepherd, who is over all, whose own the sheep are, and who has given His word that they shall never perish
Shepherd - Shepherd
Pastors - Pastors (shepherds). In all other places where the Greek word occurs it is translated Shepherd, and Shepherds. It is often applied to Christ as the Shepherd and Bishop of our souls. It refers to the elders of the church, who are to "feed (shepherd) the flock of God which is among you, taking the oversight thereof
Shepherdling - ) A little Shepherd
Reu - His friend; his Shepherd
Shepherded - ) of Shepherd...
r.g.s. - = Religious of the Good Shepherd ...
Shepherding - ) of Shepherd...
Rei - My Shepherd; my companion; my friend
Reelaiah - Shepherd or companion to the Lord
Reuel - The Shepherd or friend of God
b.g.s. - = Little Brothers of the Good Shepherd ...
Shepherd - ) To tend as a Shepherd; to guard, herd, lead, or drive, as a Shepherd
Ahira - Brother of iniquity; brother of the Shepherd
Good Shepherd, Sunday of - The name is suggested by the Gospel for the daywhich sets forth our Lord as "the Good Shepherd," and who in theEpistle is called the "Shepherd and Bishop of our Souls
Shepherdly - ) Resembling, or becoming to, a Shepherd; pastoral; rustic
Jaziz - A Hagerite, David's chief Shepherd
Darah - Generation; house of the Shepherd or of the companion
Mayoral - ) The conductir of a mule team; also, a head Shepherd
Pastor - PASTOR, Shepherd...
A well-known office of the Lord Jesus Christ. Sometimes he represents him as the Great Shepherd, (Hebrews 13:20) —and sometimes he calls him the Good Shepherd, which giveth his life for the sheep, (John 10:11) —and by his servant the prophet Zechariah, he calls him JEHOVAH'S Shepherd, (Zechariah 13:7) —and by Peter, the Chief Shepherd, holding him forth to the under pastors of his flock as a glorious pattern for them to follow, assuring them that when the Chief Shepherd shall appear "they shall receive a crown of glory that fadeth not away. " (1 Peter 5:4) And to distinguish him from every other, and as the only Shepherd of JEHOVAH, to whom the flock is given, and who alone was, and is, able to purchase it with his blood, and to preserve it by his power, by his servant the prophet Ezekiel, he is expressly called the one Shepherd; "I will set up one Shepherd over them, and he shall feed them. "He shall feed his flock" (saith the Lord, by the prophet Isaiah, Isaiah 40:11) "like a Shepherd. " Oh, the precious office and character of the Lord Jesus as the Pastor and Shepherd of his people! He feeds, he protects, he heals, he watches over, restores when wandering, and gathers them out from all places whither they have wandered in the cloudy and dark day, and leads them in the paths of righteousness, for his name's sake
Raaya mehemna - �the faithful Shepherd,� alluding to Moses); the title of one of the parts of the Zohar...
Jaziz - ” Chief Shepherd under David
Pastor - 1: ποιμήν (Strong's #4166 — Noun Masculine — poimen — poy-mane' ) "a Shepherd, one who tends herds or flocks" (not merely one who feeds them), is used metaphorically of Christian "pastors," Ephesians 4:11 . See Shepherd
Abel - A Shepherd, he was slain by his brother Cain after G-d accepted his sacrifice and not Cain's
Shepherd - The name ‘shepherd’ is taken from the occupation of the Hebrews as a pastoral tribe (Genesis 13:7; Genesis 30:36; Genesis 37:2; Genesis 47:3, Exodus 3:1, 1 Samuel 17:34) and applied to God as the one who feeds and provides for His people (Genesis 48:15; Genesis 49:24, Isaiah 40:11, Psalms 23:1; Psalms 95:7; Psalms 100:3; cf. Especially Ezekiel 34 rebukes these ‘shepherds’ for their neglect of their charge, and ends up (v. Ezekiel 34:23 b) with the prophecy that in the end one Shepherd, like unto David the servant of the Lord, will tend them as prince. To this Messianic passage reference is made in John 10:11-16, where Jesus is represented as saying: ‘I am the good Shepherd; … and I lay down my life for the sheep. And other sheep I have, which are not of this fold: … and they shall become one flock, one Shepherd’; cf. To His office as Shepherd Jesus refers in Matthew 15:24; cf. 2-3 as the good Shepherd to whom the Lord said: ‘Since thon takest such care of the lambs of thy flock, be thou the Shepherd of My flocks. Concerning the identification of Christ as the Good Shepherd with Orpheus on ancient Christian paintings see F. But the title ‘shepherd’ or ‘pastor’ is given in the NT to all the heads of the Church, to the apostle Peter (John 21:17; cf. ’ The name Ποίμην (‘pastor’ or ‘shepherd’) is used in the sense of ‘overseer,’ episcopus (Ephesians 4:1), wherefore Jesus is also called the ‘arch-shepherd,’ ἀρχιποίμην (1 Peter 5:4). 196) of spiritual rulers as Shepherds rests on the original Jewish Didascalia (preserved in the so-called Apostolic Constitutions, ii. The name ‘shepherd’ or ‘pastor’ became henceforth the title of the bishop (Ignat. 25, the name ‘shepherd’ is given to the 70 angels ruling the 70 nations of the earth (see R. In ancient Babylonia the chief stars bore the name of ‘Shepherds of Heaven
Epistles, Pastoral - (Latin: pastor, Shepherd; Greek: epistole, letter) ...
Letters written by Saint Paul to Saint Timothy and Saint Titus as bishops, and Shepherds of the flock
Crosier - ) The pastoral staff of a bishop (also of an archbishop, being the symbol of his office as a Shepherd of the flock of God
Collie - ) The Scotch Shepherd dog
Feed - "He shall feed his flock like a Shepherd. " (Isaiah 44:11) And as feeding is a comprehensive expression, to denote every thing relating to the office of a Shepherd, so whenever this act of love and attention is spoken of in allusion to the Lord Jesus Christ, it means to convey the whole of his character, both in his relation as a Shepherd to his people, and the tenderness of his care over them. He protects from beasts of prey, heals the diseased, gathers home the wanderer, leads the flock out to wholesome pastures, and, in short, doth the whole office of a Shepherd; and doth it in such a way, and with so much love and tenderness, that they are most blessed who belong to his fold. Sweet thought of the Psalmist, and which equally may be taken up by every lamb of Christ's fo1d: "The Lord is my Shepherd, I shall not want
Shepherd - He saith himself, "I am the good Shepherd; the good Shepherd giveth his life for the sheep. " (John 10:11) And God the Father also sweetly holds forth the Lord Jesus, in his mediatorial character, under this endearing point of view, as the Shepherd of his church and people. ...
It would form the subject of a volume, rather than an article in a Concordance, to enter upon the character and office of a Shepherd as peculiarly suited and carried on by Christ; I cannot therefore propose such an undertaking. But while I refer to the Scriptural account of our Lord Jesus under this character, and which is more or less scattered over the whole Bible, I cannot content myself, without just observing how very blessed it must be for all the sheep of Christ and the lambs of his fold to know Jesus, and to make use of Jesus as God the Father evidently intended he should be used, as their Shepherd. ...
As Jesus is the Shepherd, so they are the flock; the one character implies the other; and the church made up of sheep and lambs are his property. And all this and ten thousand things more, because he is their Shepherd, because he is, and ever must be, Jesus. "Hail, O thou almighty Shepherd of Israel, thou that leadest Joseph like a flock, thou that dwellest between the cherubim, shine forth!" (Psalms 80:1, etc
Habited - ) Clothed; arrayed; dressed; as, he was habited like a Shepherd
Shepherd - When men began to multiply, and to follow different employments, Jabal son of Lamech was acknowledged as father, that is, founder of Shepherd and nomads, Genesis 4:20 . Rachel the bride of Jacob was a Shepherdess, Genesis 29:6 ; his sons, the fathers of the tribes of Israel were Shepherds, and so was David their king, Psalm 78:70-72 . In Palestine and its vicinity, besides those who united the keeping of flocks and herds with the tillage of the ground, there were and still are numbers of nomads or wandering Shepherds confining themselves to no settled home. But the heat of summer withered these "pastures of the wilderness," and drove the Shepherds and their flocks to seek for highlands and streams. There are many indications in the Scripture of the conscious strength and independence of he ancient Shepherd patriarchs, of the extent of their households, and the consideration in which they were held, Genesis 14:14-24 21:22-32 26:13-16 30:43 Job 1:3 . ...
God sometimes takes the name of Shepherd of Israel, Psalm 80:1 Jeremiah 31:10 ; and kings, both in Scripture and ancient writers, are distinguished by the title of "Shepherds of the people. " The prophets often inveigh against the "shepherds of Israel," that is, the kings, who feed themselves and neglect their flocks; who distress, illtreat, seduce, and lead them astray, Ezekiel 34:10 . In like manner Christ, as the Messiah, is often called a Shepherd, ...
Zechariah 13:7 , and also takes on himself the title of "the Good Shepherd," who gives his life for his sheep, John 10:11,14,15 . Paul calls him the great Shepherd of the sheep, Hebrews 13:20 , and Peter gives him the appellation of Prince of Shepherds, 1 Peter 5:4 . His ministers are in like manner the pastors or under-shepherds of the flock, Jeremiah 3:15 23:3 Ephesians 4:11 . ...
In John 10:1-16 , our Savior says the good Shepherd lays down his life for his sheep; that he knows them, and they know him; that they hear his voice, and follow him; that he goes before them; that no one shall force them out of his hands, and that he calls them by their names. Modern travelers in the East meet with many pleasing confirmation of the truth of Scripture in respect to these particulars; they see the Shepherd walking before his flock, any one of which will instantly run to him when called by its own name. The hireling, or bad Shepherd, forsakes the sheep, and the thief enters not by the door of the sheepfold, but climbs in another way. ...
The Bible applies many of the excellences of the faithful Shepherd in illustration of the Savior's care of his flock. The Shepherd was responsible for each member of the flock intrusted to him, Genesis 31:39 Exodus 22:12 John 10:28 ; he had need of great courage and endurance, Genesis 31:40 1 Samuel 17:34,35 John 15:10 ; he exercised a tender care towards the feeble, and carried the lambs in his arms, Genesis 33:13 Isaiah 40:11 Mark 10:14,16 ; and searched for the lost sheep, bringing it back from the "land of drought and the shadow of death" into green pastures and still waters, Psalm 23:1-6 Luke 15:4-7
Hermas - A Christian at Rome, Romans 16:14 ; supposed by some to have been the writer of the ancient work called "The Shepherd of Hermas"a singular mixture of truth and piety with folly and superstition
Shepherd - The occupation of Shepherd was one of the earliest recorded (Genesis 4:2). In the dry semi-desert countries of the Bible story, Shepherds lived a hard tough life, battling against heat, drought and wild animals (Genesis 31:38-40; Amos 3:12). It is therefore not surprising that ‘shepherd’ became a word symbol for a leader of God’s people. The Shepherd must be prepared to battle against all opponents who threaten the welfare of those in his care (John 10:1; John 10:10-12; Acts 20:28-29). ...
Life of a Shepherd...
Shepherds were a common sight in Palestine and neighbouring countries. ...
After the Israelites took possession of Canaan, the Shepherds among them settled down more or less permanently with their flocks. The Shepherd’s only weapons were a sling and a stick, though he may have used trained dogs to help him in his work (1 Samuel 17:40; 1 Samuel 17:49; Job 30:1; Psalms 23:4; Zechariah 11:7; Zechariah 11:10). ...
Sheep had to be protected and watched by Shepherds constantly, otherwise they would wander away and be lost. If sheep became lost, the Shepherd sometimes had to risk his life in searching for them and rescuing them (Ezekiel 34:8; Ezekiel 34:12; Matthew 18:12). The Shepherd was responsible to pay the owner the cost of any sheep lost while in his care, unless he could satisfy the owner that he was not to blame for the loss (Genesis 31:39; Exodus 22:10-13). ...
At night the Shepherd usually kept his sheep in a walled enclosure called a fold, as an added protection against dangers (Numbers 32:36; Micah 2:12; Habakkuk 3:17; Luke 2:8; John 10:1). ...
Leaders of God’s people...
The Old Testament often refers to the leaders of Israel as Shepherds, and to the people as the flock (Numbers 27:17; Isaiah 63:11). Many of Israel’s leaders were bad Shepherds, and because of them the nation crumbled (Isaiah 56:11; Jeremiah 50:6; Ezekiel 34:2-6; Zechariah 11:15-17). ...
In the New Testament also leaders of God’s people are referred to as Shepherds of the flock. ...
The true Shepherd, however, is always God (Genesis 49:24; Psalms 23:1; Isaiah 40:11). This is seen clearly in the illustration Jesus used to picture himself as the good Shepherd
Pastor - Ephesians 4:11 is the only passage in the NT in which ‘pastor’ occurs, although its Greek equivalent, ποιμήν, is frequent; everywhere else ποιμήν is rendered ‘shepherd. It is used of Christ as ‘the great Shepherd of the sheep’ (Hebrews 13:20 from LXX_ of Isaiah 63:11), as ‘the Shepherd and Bishop of your souls’ (1 Peter 2:25), and as ‘the chief Shepherd’ (1 Peter 5:4)-expressions suggested by Himself (John 10:11; John 10:14)
Flock - Sheep and goats under the care of a Shepherd (Genesis 30:31-32 ). God's people are sometimes described as sheep without a Shepherd (Numbers 27:17 ; Ezekiel 34:5 ,Ezekiel 34:5,34:8 ; Matthew 9:36 ; Mark 6:34 ), that is, in need of leaders who would rule them justly and nurture them spiritually. God's people can be described as a flock Shepherded by God (Psalm 100:3 ; Jeremiah 23:3 ; Ezekiel 34:31 ) or by Christ, the “great Shepherd of the sheep” (Hebrews 13:20 ; compare John 10:11 ; 1 Peter 5:4 )
Maimed - A worthless Shepherd (leader) does not care for the maimed (Zechariah 11:16 NRSV). Christ, the Good Shepherd, cared for the maimed in His healing ministry ( Matthew 15:30-31 )
Hermas - Some suppose him to have been the author of the celebrated religious romance called The Shepherd, but it is very probable that that work is the production of a later generation
Hire, Hireling - A hireling is a person ‘hired’ to work for a stipulated wage, such as a field-labourer ( Malachi 3:5 ), Shepherd ( John 10:12 f. No imputation of unfaithfulness or dishonesty is necessarily conveyed by the term, although these ideas have now become associated with it owing to our Lord’s application of the word to an unfaithful Shepherd in 1618451480_71
Herd - ) To act as a herdsman or a Shepherd. ) One who herds or assembles domestic animals; a herdsman; - much used in composition; as, a Shepherd; a goatherd, and the like
Sheep - In Palestine they follow the Shepherd and know his voice, and will not follow a stranger. " The Good Shepherd calls His own sheep by name, and when brought into His own company they have perfect security, liberty, and sustenance. The Lord led His sheep out of the Jewish fold: these were united with His 'other sheep' (Gentile believers), that they all should become 'one flock' with one Shepherd
Pastor - KJV translation of Hebrew term for Shepherd in Jeremiah 2:8 ; Jeremiah 3:15 ; Jeremiah 10:21 ; Jeremiah 12:10 ; Jeremiah 22:22 ; Jeremiah 23:1-2 ). Modern translations generally substituted Shepherd for pastor except at Ephesians 4:12-13 (leader, NIV; ruler, NAS, NRSV). Pastor translates the Greek term poimen (shepherd) only at Ephesians 4:11
Shepherd - ...
Râ‛âh (רָעָה, Strong's #7462), “to pasture, Shepherd. ”)...
Râ‛âh represents what a Shepherd allows domestic animals to do when they feed on grasses in the fields. In its first appearance Jacob tells the Shepherds: “Lo, it is yet high day, neither is it time that the cattle should be gathered together: water ye the sheep, and go and feed them” ( Shepherd. ...
Ro’eh (רָעָה, Strong's #7462), “shepherd. It is applied to God, the Great Shepherd, who pastures or feeds His sheep (
Shepherd, is very old, having first appeared in the Bible on Jacob’s lips in Shepherd, the stone of Israel. In later times leaders other than the kings were also called “shepherds” (cf
Pastor - ...
Another point that is clearer in the original language than in English is the connection between the words ‘pastor’, ‘shepherd’ and ‘flock’. A pastor, or Shepherd, is one who leads and cares for God’s flock, the church (John 21:15-17; Acts 20:28-29; 1 Peter 5:1-4). In referring to leaders of God’s people as Shepherds, the New Testament writers were following a well established Old Testament usage of the word (Numbers 27:17; Isaiah 63:11; Jeremiah 50:6; see Shepherd). But whereas the Shepherd-leaders of Israel were often concerned only for themselves (Ezekiel 34:2-6), the Christian’s example of a Shepherd-leader, Jesus Christ, gave himself for the flock (Matthew 9:36; Matthew 10:6; John 10:1-15; 1 Peter 5:1-4)
Suk'Kiim - The Sukkiim may correspond to some one of the Shepherd or wandering races mentioned on the Egyptian monuments
Adiel - An important leader of tribe of Simeon (1 Chronicles 4:36 ), a Shepherd people
Sheep - (Chardin says he saw a clan of Turcoman Shepherds whose flock consisted of 3,000,000 sheep and goats, besides 400,000 Feasts of carriage, as horses, asses and camels. (Job 30:1 ) Shepherds in Palestine and the East generally go before their flocks, which they induce to follow by calling to them, comp. He informed me that it was, and that the sheep obeyed the Shepherd when he called them by their names. Passing by a flock of sheep I asked the Shepherd the same question which I had put to the servant, and he gave me the same answer. He did so, and it instantly left its pasturage and its companions and ran up to the hands of the Shepherd with signs of pleasure and with a prompt obedience which I had never before observed in any other animal. The Shepherd told me that many of his sheep were still wild, that they had not yet learned their names, but that by teaching them they would all learn them. The relation that exists between Christ, "the chief Shepherd," and his members is beautifully compared to that which in the East is so strikingly exhibited by the Shepherds to their flocks [1]
Shepherd - Shepherding was the chief occupation of the Israelites in the early days of the patriarchs: Abraham (Genesis 12:16 ); Rachel (Genesis 29:9 ); Jacob (Genesis 30:31-40 ); Moses (Exodus 3:1 ). ...
As cultivation of crops increased, Shepherding fell from favor and was assigned to younger sons, hirelings, and slaves (compare David in 1 Samuel 16:11-13 ). Farmers such as in Egypt even hated Shepherds (John 10:7-188 ). ...
The Bible mentions Shepherds and Shepherding over 200 times. However, the Hebrew word for Shepherding is often translated, “feeding. ” Shepherds led sheep to pasture and water (Psalm 23:1 ) and protected them from wild animals (1 Samuel 17:34-35 ). Shepherds guarded their flocks at night whether in the open (Luke 2:8 ) or in sheepfolds (Zephaniah 2:6 ) where they counted the sheep as they entered (Jeremiah 33:13 ). ...
Shepherd came to designate not only persons who herded sheep but also kings (2 Samuel 5:2 ) and God Himself (Psalm 23:1 ; Isaiah 40:11 ). Later prophets referred to Israel's leaders as Shepherds (Jeremiah 23:1 ; Ezekiel 34:1 ). ...
In Bible times the sheep cared for by Shepherds represented wealth. ...
The New Testament mentions Shepherds 16 times. Some New Testament references used a Shepherd and the sheep to illustrate Christ's relationship to His followers who referred to Him as “our Lord Jesus, that great Shepherd of the sheep” (Hebrews 13:20 ). Jesus spoke of Himself as “the good Shepherd” who knew His sheep and would lay down His life for them (1618451480_10 ). Paul likened the church and its leaders to a flock with Shepherds (Acts 20:28 ). The Latin word transliterated “pastor” means Shepherd
Hermas - Some have tried to identify him with the author of “The Shepherd of Hermas,” but that is not likely
Sheep - : The people of God, as being under the government and protection of Christ, the great Shepherd
Hireling - Contemptuous name for one who works for wages only, and makes the reward his only motive (Job 7); through Our Lord's use of the word, it has come to express one who has no interest in his work and is unfaithful in performing it (John 10), the difference between the true and the mercenary Shepherd of souls
Pastor - A Shepherd one that has the care of flocks and herds
Didacus, Blessed - Known as "the Apostle of the Blessed Trinity and of Our Lady, the Mother of the Good Shepherd," he spent most of his time in the confessional
Diego, Blessed - Known as "the Apostle of the Blessed Trinity and of Our Lady, the Mother of the Good Shepherd," he spent most of his time in the confessional
Sceptre - As a symbol of authority, the use of the sceptre originated in the idea that the ruler was as a Shepherd of his people (Genesis 49:10 ; Numbers 24:17 ; Psalm 45:6 ; Isaiah 14:5 )
Flock - That Jesus is himself called the Shepherd of Israel. (Psalms 80:1) and sometimes the good Shepherd. (John 10:11) and chief Shepherd, (1 Peter 5:4) and the great Shepherd. (Hebrews 13:20) and the one Shepherd. And consequently, as every Shepherd is supposed to have a flock, otherwise his very character of Shepherd ceaseth; so the church hath various descriptions also as the flock of Christ by which she is known. "Fear not, little flock, (said that gracious Shepherd), for it is your Father's good pleasure to give you the kingdom
Herdsman - One who cares for cattle in contrast to a Shepherd who cares for sheep
Galerius, Valerius Maximianus - He was an illiterate Shepherd, who married the daughter of Diocletian and was adopted by him
Jethro - "Moses' father-in-law," a Shepherd-prince or priest of Midian, Exodus 3:1 4:18 18:1-27
Valerius Maximianus Galerius - He was an illiterate Shepherd, who married the daughter of Diocletian and was adopted by him
Flock - for Israel as sheep gathered by God as their Shepherd, and called Jehovah's flock. To these He added the Gentile believers; and all were united into one flock (not 'one fold'), with Christ as the one Shepherd. Paul commended the Shepherds to God and to the word of His grace
Pastor - A Latin word meaning Shepherd. Christ having calledHimself the Good Shepherd, or Good Pastor, the name has beenassumed for His Ministers
Bishop - The most common acceptation of the word in the New Testament, is that which occurs Acts 20:28 Philippians 1:1 , where it signifies Christ "the Shepherd and Bishop of your souls," 1 Peter 2:25
Her'Mas - ) Irenaeus, Tertullian and Origen agree in attributing to him the work called The Shepherd
Cattle - ...
Note: The verb poimaino, "to act as a Shepherd" (poimen), "to keep sheep," is translated "keeping sheep" in Luke 17:7 , RV, for AV, "feeding cattle
Pastoral Staff - The Pastoral Staff is made in the shape of ashepherd's crook and is frequently given to the Bishop at hisconsecration, to denote that he is then constituted a Shepherd overthe Flock of Christ
Hireling - John 10:12-13 contrasts the cowardice of a hired Shepherd with an owner's self-sacrificing concern for his sheep
Sheep - The flock is led by the Shepherd , though the Shepherd’s boy may bring up the rear; on a journey a Shepherd of experience must drive the flock ( Genesis 33:13 ), while another leads. When away from villages, the sheep are herded at night in folds , which are roughly made enclosures of piled-up stones; the Shepherd lives in a cave or hut adjoining, and is in very intimate touch with his sheep, each of which he knows unfailingly at a glance. The skin of a sheep, roughly tanned with all the wool on, is the common wioter jacket ( furweh ) of a Shepherd or peasant
Children's Crusade - In accordance with this belief thousands of children were gathered, under the leadership of a young Shepherd of Vendome and a youth from Cologne, for an expedition to Palestine in 1212
Fold - Gentile believers were added to them, and they became one flock (not 'one fold') with one Shepherd, the Lord Himself
Baylon, Pascal, Saint - He spent his early years as a Shepherd and even then showed the marked devotion to the Holy Eucharist which was a characteristic feature of his life; he became a Franciscan lay-brother of the Alcantarine reform
Ragged - What Shepherd owns those ragged sheep?...
Feed, Fed - ...
2: ποιμαίνω (Strong's #4165 — Verb — poimaino — poy-mah'ee-no ) "to act as a Shepherd" (from poimen, "a Shepherd"), is used (a) literally, Luke 17:7 , RV, "keeping sheep," for AV, "feeding cattle;" 1 Corinthians 9:7 ; (b) metaphorically, "to tend, to Shepherd;" said of Christ, Matthew 2:6 , RV, "shall be Shepherd of" (for AV, "shall rule"); of those who act as spiritual Shepherds under Him, John 21:16 , RV, "tend" (for AV "feed"); so 1 Peter 5:2 ; Acts 20:28 , "to feed" ("to tend" would have been a consistent rendering; a Shepherd does not only "feed" his flock); of base Shepherds, Jude 1:12
Bosom - It implies closest and secret intimacy (2 Samuel 12:8): the Son in the bosom of the Father with whom He is One (John 1:18); the lambs carried in the bosom of the Good Shepherd (Isaiah 40:11)
Porter - ...
In John 10:3 the Porter is the Spirit of Jehovah working in Israel, who recognised the Lord Jesus as entering in by the door into the sheepfold that as the Good Shepherd He might have access to the sheep
Syene - " The Shepherd kings had Syene for their chief city, from whence they are called Sebennyte Ρharaohs
Flock - Failing that leadership, or perhaps in rebellion to it, Israel is seen as a people without a Shepherd (Numbers 27:17 ; 1 Kings 22:17 ), helpless ones (2 Samuel 24:17 ) who wander and go astray (Isaiah 53:6 ; Zechariah 10:2 ). Isaiah makes it clear that such behavior is sinful, willful departure from the Shepherd. The reason for this hope is that Israel is under the care of Yahweh, the Good Shepherd (Psalm 95:7 ; Ezekiel 34:31 ; cf
Fellow - A Shepherd had one favorite dog he fed him with his own hand, and took more care of him than of his fellows. Awake, O sword, against my Shepherd, and against the man that is my fellow, saith Jehovah of hosts
Cattle - See also Ox, Sheep, Shepherd, etc
Institute of Our Lady of Charity of the Refuge - In 1835 a branch, the Religious of Our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd of Angers, was established
Hermas - Some have judged him to be one of the Apostolic Fathers, and the writer of a treatise called "THE Shepherd OF HERMAS,"which was highly esteemed in the early church
Rod - It also denotes a staff, used by one walking, Isaiah 3:1 Ezekiel 29:6 ; by a diviner, Hosea 4:12 ; by a surveyor, Psalm 74:2 ; by a Shepherd, Leviticus 27:32 Zechariah 11:10-14 ; as an instrument of correction, Proverbs 23:13 29:15 ; as a sceptre, Esther 8:4 Isaiah 14:5 ; and as a symbol of power, Psalm 2:9 , support and direction, Psalm 23:4
Flock, Fold - —For a general treatment of these words see Sheep, Shepherd. But it may be noted here that, whereas in John 10:1; John 10:16 we find in Authorized Version ‘fold’ three times (‘he that entereth not by the door into the sheep-fold’; and ‘other sheep I have which are not of this fold; them also I must bring, and … there shall be one fold and one Shepherd’), there is in the original a marked distinction. These too, He announces, He must bring, and put them along with His Jewish-born sheep; ‘and,’ He adds, ‘there shall be one flock (He uses here the other word ποίμνη), one Shepherd. The union whereof He speaks is to be the union of a flock, which is kept together on the one hand by its own instinct of gregariousness, or the mutual affection of the members, and on the other hand by its common subjection to its ‘one Shepherd,’ who loves it, died for it, and whom through all its members it knows. The unity of the flock, as it moves along the road under its Shepherd’s guidance, is just as visible to the beholder as the unity of the fold whose white walls gleam from the hillside
Shepherd - In a nomadic state of society every man, from the sheikh down to the slave, is more or less a Shepherd. (Genesis 29:6,8 ; Exodus 2:10 ) The Egyptian captivity did march to implant a love of settled abode, and consequently we find the tribes which still retained a taste for Shepherd life selecting their own quarters apart from their brethren in the transjordanic district. Thenceforward in Palestine proper the Shepherd held a subordinate position. The office of the eastern Shepherd, as described in the Bible, was attended with much hardship, and even danger. (Genesis 31:39 ) To meet these various foes the Shepherd's equipment consisted of the following articles: a mantle, made probably of sheep skin with the fleece on, which he turned inside out in cold weather, as implied in the comparison in (Jeremiah 43:12 ) (cf. ); a scrip or wallet, containing a small amount of food (1 Samuel 17:40 ) a sling, which is still the favorite weapon of the Bedouin Shepherd, (1 Samuel 17:40 ) and lastly, a which served the double purpose of a weapon against foes and a crook for the management of the flock. (1 Samuel 17:40 ; Psalm 23:4 ; Zechariah 11:7 ) If the Shepherd was at a distance from his home, he was provided with a light tent, (Song of Solomon 1:8 ; Jeremiah 35:7 ) the removal of which was easily effected. " The routine of the Shepherd's duties appears to have been as follows: In the morning he led forth his flock from the fold (John 10:4 ) which he did by going before them and calling to them, as is still usual in the East; arrived at the pasturage he watched the flock with the assistance of dogs, (Job 30:1 ) and should any sheep stray, he had to search for it until he found it, (Ezekiel 34:12 ; Luke 15:4 ) he supplied them with water, either at a running stream or at troughs attached to wells, (Genesis 29:7 ; 30:38 ; Exodus 2:16 ; Psalm 23:2 ) at evening he brought them back to the fold, and reckoned them to see that none were missing, by passing them "under the rod" as they entered the door of the enclosure (Leviticus 27:32 ; Ezekiel 20:37 ) checking each sheep, as it passed, by a motion of the hand, (Jeremiah 33:13 ) and, finally, he watched the entrance of the fold throughout the night, acting as porter. (John 10:3 ) [1] The Shepherd's office thus required great watchfulness, particularly by night. (Genesis 33:13 ) In large establishments there are various grades of Shepherds, the highest being styled "rulers," (Genesis 47:6 ) or "chief Shepherds," (1 Peter 5:4 ) in a royal household the title of abbir "mighty," was bestowed on the person who held the post
Hireling, Hired Servant - with the Shepherd who owned the sheep
Rule - " ...
B — 5: ποιμαίνω (Strong's #4165 — Verb — poimaino — poy-mah'ee-no ) "to act as a Shepherd, tend flocks," is translated "to rule" in Revelation 2:27 ; 12:5 ; 19:15 , all indicating that the governing power exercised by the Shepherd is to be of a firm character; in Matthew 2:6 , AV, "shall rule" (RV, "shall be Shepherd of")
Sheep - Sheep, Shepherd. Shepherds in Palestine and the East generally go before their flocks, calling to them, and the sheep follow; comp. John Hartley gives an illustration of John 10:1-16 : " Having had my attention directed to John 10:3, I asked a Shepherd to call one of his sheep. He did so, and it instantly left its pasturage and its companions and ran up to the hands of the Shepherd with signs of pleasure and with a prompt obedience which I had never before observed in any other animal
Shepherd - Sheep, Shepherd. Shepherds in Palestine and the East generally go before their flocks, calling to them, and the sheep follow; comp. John Hartley gives an illustration of John 10:1-16 : " Having had my attention directed to John 10:3, I asked a Shepherd to call one of his sheep. He did so, and it instantly left its pasturage and its companions and ran up to the hands of the Shepherd with signs of pleasure and with a prompt obedience which I had never before observed in any other animal
King david - A Shepherd boy, he rose to fame after slaying the Philistine hero Goliath
David, king - A Shepherd boy, he rose to fame after slaying the Philistine hero Goliath
Flock - 1: ποίμνη (Strong's #4167 — Noun Feminine — poimne — poym'-nay ) akin to poimen, "a Shepherd," denotes "a flock" (properly, of sheep), Matthew 26:31 ; Luke 2:8 ; 1 Corinthians 9:7 ; metaphorically, of Christ's followers, John 10:16 , RV, for the erroneous AV, "fold
Cain - ” Cain was a farmer, and his brother Abel was a Shepherd
Shoulder - Of Christ it is said, when He comes to reign, the 'government shall be on his shoulder,' Isaiah 9:6 ; and, as the Good Shepherd, when He finds a lost sheep He places it on His shoulders
Zoan - It was the capital of the Hyksos or Shepherd kings of Egypt
Goshen - It was a pasture land, especially suited to a Shepherd people, and sufficient for the Israelites, who there prospered, and were separate from the main body of the Egyptians
Akiba ben joseph - He was the son of converts, and an unlearned Shepherd
Shepherd - The duties of a Shepherd in an unenclosed country like Palestine were very onerous. In those lands sheep require to be supplied regularly with water, and the Shepherd for this purpose has to guide them either to some running stream or to wells dug in the wilderness and furnished with troughs
Sheep - , Matthew 12:11,12 ; (b) metaphorically, of those who belong to the Lord, the lost ones of the house of Israel, Matthew 10:6 ; of those who are under the care of the Good Shepherd, e. , "the fold of the sheep," and John 10:2-27 ; 21:16,17 in some texts; Hebrews 13:20 ; of those who in a future day, at the introduction of the millennial kingdom, have shown kindness to His persecuted earthly people in their great tribulation, Matthew 25:33 ; of the clothing of false Shepherds, Matthew 7:15 ; (c) figuratively, by way of simile, of Christ, Acts 8:32 ; of the disciples, e. , Matthew 10:16 ; of true followers of Christ in general, Romans 8:36 ; of the former wayward condition of those who had come under His Shepherd care, 1 Peter 2:25 ; of the multitudes who sought the help of Christ in the days of His flesh, Matthew 9:36 ; Mark 6:34
Flock - God is viewed as the Shepherd of His “flock,” God’s people: “Know ye that the Lord he is God: it is he that hath made us, and not we ourselves; we are his people, and the sheep of his pasture” ( Shepherd (1 Kings 22:17; cf. Jeremiah viewed the Judeans as having been guided astray by their Shepherds, or leaders ( Shepherd over them, and he shall feed them, even my servant David; he shall feed them, and he shall be their Shepherd
Hagarite - David's chief Shepherd was a Hagarite (1 Chronicles 27:31 )
Flock - He is the Shepherd, those who love Him are His sheep
Pastor - it is ποιμήν, which is applied to Christ Himself as the good Shepherd, etc
Amos - The third of the minor prophets was a Shepherd of Tekoa, a small town of Judah
Sheep - Sheep needed a Shepherd to protect and lead them, and in the same way people need God to care for them and give them the right leadership in life (Numbers 27:17; Matthew 10:16; John 10:11; John 10:27; John 21:15-17; 1 Peter 5:1-4; see Shepherd)
Sheep - Shepherds go before them and call them by name to follow (John 10:4; Psalms 77:20; Psalms 80:1). The image is frequent in Scripture: Jehovah the Shepherd, His people the flock (Psalms 23:1; Isaiah 40:11; Jeremiah 23:1-2; Ezekiel 34). Sinners are the straying sheep whom the Good Shepherd came to save (Psalms 119:176; Isaiah 53:6; Jeremiah 50:6; Luke 15:4-6; John 10:8; John 10:11)
Zechariah - The second division gives a prophetic description of the future fortunes of the theocracy in conflict with the secular powers, the sufferings and death of the Messiah under the figure of the Shepherd, the conversion of Israel to him, and the final glorification of the kingdom of God. The book contains six specific references to Christ: 3:8; 6:12; 9:9; 11:12; 12:10; 13:7, representing him as a lowly servant, a priest and king building Jehovah's temple, the meek and peaceful but universal monarch, the Shepherd betrayed for the price of a slave (thirty pieces of silver), the leader to repentance, and the Fellow of Jehovah smitten by Jehovah himself, at once the Redeemer and the Pattern of his flock
Shepherds - The patriarchal Shepherds, rich in flocks and herds, in silver and gold, and attended by a numerous train of servants purchased with their money, or hired from the neighbouring towns and villages, acknowledge no civil superior; they held the rank, and exercised the rights, of sovereign princes; they concluded alliances with the kings in whose territories they tended their flocks; they made peace or war with the surrounding states; and, in fine, they wanted nothing of sovereign authority but the name. In the wealth, the power, and the splendour of patriarchal Shepherds, we discover the rudiments of regal grandeur and authority; and in their numerous and hardy retainers, the germ of potent empires. Hence the custom so prevalent among the ancients, of distinguishing the office and duties of their kings and princes, by terms borrowed from the pastoral life: Agamemnon, Shepherd of the people, ‘Αγαμεμνονα ποιμενα λαων , is a phrase frequently used in the strains of Homer. The sacred writers very often speak of kings under the name of Shepherds, and compare the royal sceptre to the Shepherd's crook: "He chose David also his servant, and took him from the sheep folds; from following the ewes great with young, he brought him to feed Jacob his people, and Israel his inheritance. "The Lord is my Shepherd, I shall not want. " "Give ear; O Shepherd of Israel, thou that leadest Joseph like a flock; thou that dwellest between the cherubim, shine forth. " In many other places of Scripture, the church is compared to a sheep fold, the saints to sheep, and the ministers of religion to Shepherds, who must render, at last, an account of their administration to the Shepherd and Overseer to whom they owe their authority. Rebecca, the only daughter of a Shepherd prince, went to a considerable distance to draw water; and it is evident from the readiness and address with which she let down her pitcher from her shoulder, and gave drink to the servant of Abraham, and afterward drew for all his camels, that she had been long accustomed to that humble employment. The patriarch Jacob, though he was the son of a Shepherd prince, kept the flocks of Laban, his maternal uncle; and his own sons followed the same business, both in Mesopotamia, and after his return to the land of Canaan. This custom has descended to modern times; for in Syria the daughters of the Turcoman and Arabian Shepherds, and in India the Brahmin women of distinction, are seen drawing water at the village wells, and tending their cattle to the lakes and rivers. ...
The flocks and herds of these Shepherds were immensely numerous. The sheep of the Bedoween Arabs in Egypt, and probably throughout the east, are very fine, black-faced and white-faced, and many of them clothed in a brown coloured fleece: and of this superior breed the ample flocks of the Syrian Shepherds consisted. Chardin had an opportunity of seeing a clan of Turcoman Shepherds on their march, about two days' distance from Aleppo. ...
The care of such overgrown flocks, says Paxton, required many Shepherds. In Hebrew, these persons, so different in station and feeling, were not distinguished by appropriate names; the master, the slave, and the hired servant, were all known by the common appellation of Shepherds. This word exactly corresponds with the Latin term custos, "a keeper," which Virgil uses to denote a hireling Shepherd, in his tenth Eclogue:...
Atque utinam ex vobis unus vestrique fuissem, Aut custos gregis, aut maturae vinitor uvae. ...
In such extensive pastoral concerns, the vigilance and activity of the master were often insufficient for directing the operations of so many Shepherds, who were not unfrequently scattered over a considerable extent of country. The office of chief Shepherd is frequently mentioned by the classic authors of antiquity. The office of chief Shepherd was also known among the Latins; for, in the seventh AEneid, Tyrrheus is named as governor of the royal flocks:...
Tyrrheusque pater, cui regia parent ...
Armenta, et late custodia credita camp. The office of chief Shepherd, therefore, being in pastoral countries one of great trust, of high responsibility, and of distinguished honour, is with great propriety applied to our Lord by the Apostle Peter:...
"And when the chief Shepherd shall appear, ye shall receive a crown of glory which fadeth not away," 1 Peter 5:4 . The same allusion occurs in these words of Paul: "Now the God of peace, that brought again from the dead our Lord Jesus Christ, that great Shepherd of the sheep, through the blood of the everlasting covenant, make you perfect in every good work to do his will," Hebrews 13:20
Joseph Cottolengo, Blessed - In connection with this work he established houses of the Sisters of Saint Vincent de Paul, of Saint Thais, of Carmel, of Suffrage, of Mary of the Seven Dolors, of the Good Shepherd, of Brothers of Saint Vincent de Paul, of Hermits of Gassin, and of Fathers of the Holy Trinity
Katherine Eleanor Conway - Among her books are "The Christian Gentlewoman," "New Footsteps in Well-Trodden Ways," "Watchwords from Johu Boyle O'Reilly," "Fifty Years with Christ the Good Shepherd," and several volumes of poetry, including "A Dream of Lilies" and "The Color of Life
Hermas - Origen identifies this Hermas with the celebrated author of The Shepherd , a book considered by many in the 2nd cent
a'Mos - (burden ), native of Tekoa in Judah, about six miles south of Bethlehem, originally a Shepherd and dresser of sycamore trees, who was called by God s Spirit to be a prophet, although not trained in any of the regular prophetic schools
Sandal, Shoe - Such protection was especially required by men on a journey, by Shepherds on the hills, and by peasants when cutting wood or collecting thorns for fuel. An Oriental Shepherd with bare feet and a crook-headed staff is one of the ignorant traditions of Western sacred art. ...
The Roman soldier, like the Eastern Shepherd, had nails in the shoe to prevent slipping, and thus the missionary symbolism of Ephesians 6:15 meant determination as well as direction
zo'an - Its name indicates a place of departure from a country, and hence it has been identified with Avaris (Tanis, the modern San ), the capital of the Shepherd dynasty in Egypt, built seven years after Hebron and existing before the time of Abraham. It was taken by the Shepherd kings in their invasion of Egypt, and by them rebuilt, and garrisoned, according to Manetho, with 240,000 men
Names Titles And Offices of Christ - ...
Good Shepherd, John 10:11. ...
Shepherd and Bishop of souls, 1 Peter 2:25. ...
Shepherd in the land, Zechariah 11:16. ...
Shepherd of the sheep
Song of Songs - The second sees three main characters – a young Shepherd, his Shulammite lover, and King Solomon, who takes the girl from the Shepherd and unsuccessfully tries to win her love. ...
Perhaps the book is best understood not as a drama, but as a collection of poems that recount the exchanges of love between an unnamed Shepherd and an unnamed country girl. First the girl imagines her Shepherd-lover coming to visit her at her home (2:8-17), then she recalls a dream she had about him (3:1-5), and finally she imagines her wedding day, when he comes and praises her beauty (3:6-5:1)
Mixed Multitude - " Probably among the mixed multitude at the Exodus were the remains of the Hyksos or followers of the Shepherd kings who invaded from the N
Hermas - Irenaeus, Tertullian, and Origen attribute to him "The Shepherd," supposed by some to have been written in the episcopacy of Clement I; others deny Hermas of Romans 16 to be the author
Crook - ) The staff used by a Shepherd, the hook of which serves to hold a runaway sheep
Rufus - —Matthew 2:6 ‘And thou Bethlehem, in the land of Juda, art not the least among the princes of Juda: for out of thee shall come a Governor, that shall rule (Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ‘be Shepherd of’) my people Israel’ (ὅστις ποιμανεῖ τὸν λαόν μου τὸν Ἰσραήλ). into ‘a ruler who shall be Shepherd of my people Israel. ’ He thus introduces into his quotation the words of the promise to David, ‘And thou shalt be Shepherd of (תִּרְעֶה) my people Israel’ (2 Samuel 5:2 || 1 Chronicles 11:2). ) the words, ‘And he shall stand and be Shepherd of’ (וְרָעָה), are a reminiscence of the promise to David. —רָעָה is first applied to God by Jacob, Genesis 48:15, (‘who Shepherded me’), Genesis 49:24 (prob. ‘the Shepherd of the stone of Israel,’ and = ‘the God of Bethel’ [10] ἐποίμαινόν σε ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ, Isaiah 63:11, Jeremiah 2:2 ‘thou wentest after me’—the Shepherd leading); He will bring them back from the Dispersion (Ezekiel 34:12, cf. To David, as His vicegerent, He commits the care of His flock (2 Samuel 5:2, Psalms 78:71), and He will yet set up one Shepherd over them, who shall be pre-eminent in those qualities which David in a large measure manifested as a ruler (Micah 5:4, Ezekiel 34:23; Ezekiel 37:24, Psalms 2:9 [10]). this Shepherd is Jesus Christ, and it is fitting that in this early chapter he should employ this title respecting Him whose life on earth, as set forth in the succeeding chapters of his Gospel, was to illustrate so abundantly His Shepherd-rule in its tenderness and strength. Christ is the compassionate Shepherd (Matthew 9:36; Matthew 15:24); His flock fear no evil, because He is with them (Luke 12:32); He goes after that which is lost till He finds it (Matthew 12:11, Luke 15:4-6); He is the noble (καλός) Shepherd, who gives His life for His sheep (John 10:2; John 10:11; John 10:16), who provides for their being fed and tended after His departure to heaven (John 21:15-17; cf. Acts 20:28, Ephesians 4:11, 1 Peter 5:2), and who still carries on in glory His own work as ‘the great Shepherd of the sheep’ (Hebrews 13:20) and the ἀρχιποίμην (1 Peter 5:4—a title combining the two words of our present study);—moreover, their being under His Shepherd-rule will be the blessedness and joy of His people to all eternity (Revelation 7:17)
Rufus - —Matthew 2:6 ‘And thou Bethlehem, in the land of Juda, art not the least among the princes of Juda: for out of thee shall come a Governor, that shall rule (Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ‘be Shepherd of’) my people Israel’ (ὅστις ποιμανεῖ τὸν λαόν μου τὸν Ἰσραήλ). into ‘a ruler who shall be Shepherd of my people Israel. ’ He thus introduces into his quotation the words of the promise to David, ‘And thou shalt be Shepherd of (תִּרְעֶה) my people Israel’ (2 Samuel 5:2 || 1 Chronicles 11:2). ) the words, ‘And he shall stand and be Shepherd of’ (וְרָעָה), are a reminiscence of the promise to David. —רָעָה is first applied to God by Jacob, Genesis 48:15, (‘who Shepherded me’), Genesis 49:24 (prob. ‘the Shepherd of the stone of Israel,’ and = ‘the God of Bethel’ [10] ἐποίμαινόν σε ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ, Isaiah 63:11, Jeremiah 2:2 ‘thou wentest after me’—the Shepherd leading); He will bring them back from the Dispersion (Ezekiel 34:12, cf. To David, as His vicegerent, He commits the care of His flock (2 Samuel 5:2, Psalms 78:71), and He will yet set up one Shepherd over them, who shall be pre-eminent in those qualities which David in a large measure manifested as a ruler (Micah 5:4, Ezekiel 34:23; Ezekiel 37:24, Psalms 2:9 John of God, Saint - He worked as a Shepherd in Castile
Tammuz - He was celebrated as a Shepherd, cut off in early life or slain by the boar (winter)
Terah - What a wonderful part the descendants of this Chaldean Shepherd have played in the history of the world! ...
Experience, Experiment - , Numbers 14:23 , of youths; Jeremiah 2:6 , of a land, "untried;" Zechariah 11:15 , of a Shepherd
God, John of, Saint - He worked as a Shepherd in Castile
Porter - Obviously, he is the guardian of the fold, whose office is to open the door to any Shepherd (John 10:2 [2]) whose sheep are in the fold. ): ‘The interpretation will vary according to the special sense attached to the “sheep” and the “shepherd
Sceptre - " Whoever will not obey Thy loving sceptre, as the Good Shepherd, shall be crushed with an iron sceptre (Matthew 21:44; Daniel 2:34-35; Daniel 2:44)
Animals in Christian Art - In the catacombs we find the lamb, symbol of the soul, accompanying the Good Shepherd
Awake - Awake, O sword, against my Shepherd
Sin (1) - " But Lepsius explains Pelusium the Philistine town, the last held by the Shepherd dynasty (?)
Israel - (Romans 9:4) and the Lord Jesus, when speaking of his sheep under one view, saith, that they shall be brought into "one fold under one Shepherd
Bishop - (1 Timothy 3:2 ; Titus 1:8 ) Peter calls Christ "the Shepherd and bishop of your souls
Shepherd - Hence the "shepherd's tent" came to symbolize desolation (Ezekiel 25:4; Zephaniah 2:6). The Shepherd's occupation was now no longer dignified (Psalms 78:70; 2 Samuel 7:8; Amos 7:14). ...
The Shepherd's office represents Jehovah's tender care of His people (Psalm 23; Isaiah 40:11; Isaiah 49:9-10; Jeremiah 23:3-4; Ezekiel 34:11-12; Ezekiel 34:23). The Shepherd had a mantle of sheepskin with the fleece on (Jeremiah 43:12), a wallet for food (1 Samuel 17:40), a sling such as the Bedouin still carries, a staff to ward off foes and to guide the flock with its crook (Psalms 23:4; Zechariah 11:7; so Jehovah "lifts up His staff against" His people's foes, Isaiah 10:1-24; His word is at once our prop of support and our defense against Satan). The Shepherd, when far from home, had his light tent (Song of Solomon 1:8), easily taken down and shifted (Isaiah 38:12). ...
The Shepherds kept watches (plural in Greek, Luke 2:8, not "slumbering," Nahum 3:18) by turns at night, not on duty both night and day as Jacob (Genesis 31:40). Tenderness to the young and feeble was the Shepherd's duty, not to overdrive them (Genesis 33:13); so Jesus (Isaiah 40:11-29; Mark 6:31; Mark 8:2; Mark 4:33; John 16:12). There were chief and under Shepherds (Genesis 47:6; 1 Peter 5:4), and hirelings not of the family (1618451480_28; 1 Samuel 21:7). The Shepherd had responsibility, and at the same time personal interest in the flock (1 Samuel 31:39; 1 Samuel 30:32; 1 Corinthians 9:7). Shepherds often contended with one another as to water (Genesis 26:17-22; Exodus 2:17). The Egyptian antipathy to Shepherds (whom the monuments always represent as mean) was due to their being themselves agriculturists, whereas the neighbouring Arabs with whom they so often strove were nomads. The seizure of Lower Egypt by Shepherd kings (Hyksos) for centuries aggravated this dislike, though the Hyksos were subsequent to Joseph (Genesis 46:34). Princes, and even hostile leaders, are called Shepherds: Isaiah 44:28; Jeremiah 2:8; Jeremiah 3:15; Jeremiah 6:3; Ezekiel 34:2; Micah 5:5
Lamb - " One of the few Christian symbols dating from the first century is that of the Good Shepherd carrying a lamb on His shoulders with two others by His side, and on a sarcophagus of the 4th century, Christ in a series of Gospel scenes is represented as a lamb
Christ, Portraits of - Symbols of Christ the Good Shepherd are found in the catacombs
Newark, New Jersey, City of - A mother-house of the Sisters of Charity was established, 1860; the Christian Brothers began their educational work, 1866; the House of Good Shepherd was founded, 1875; and the Dominican Nuns from Ouillins, France, made a foundation, in 1880
Wolf - It is seldom seen to-day, and never goes in packs, though commonly in couples; it commits its ravages at night, hence the expression ‘wolf of the evening’ ( Jeremiah 5:6 , Zephaniah 3:3 ); it was one of the greatest terrors of the lonely Shepherd ( John 10:12 ); persecutors are compared to wolves in Matthew 10:18 , Acts 20:29
Zoan - This great and important city was the capital of the Hyksos, or Shepherd kings, who ruled Egypt for more than 500 years
Anakim - They were probably a remnant of the original inhabitants of Palestine before the Canaanites, a Cushite tribe from Babel, and of the same race as the Phoenicians and the Egyptian Shepherd kings
Bow - From thence (said the patriarch), is the Shepherd the stone of Israel
Religious of Our Lady of Charity of the Good Sheph - The Good Shepherd is a cloistered order and follows the Rule of Saint Augustine
Wallet - In it the Shepherd carries his supply of provisions when going with the flock to distant pasture. Milton (Comus, line 626) speaks of the Shepherd s ‘leathern scrip’ in which are carried ‘simples of a thousand names’ (cf
Abel - He became a Shepherd, and offered to God a sacrifice from his flocks, at the same time that Cain his brother offered the fruits of the earth
Staff, Pastoral - An ornamental staff in the shape of a Shepherd's crook, conferred on bishops, mitered abbots, and certain other prelates. The crook symbolizes that the bishop should act as a Shepherd to those who may wander from his fold; the pointed lower end, that he should goad on the spiritually indifferent; and the tall shaft, that he should support the weak
Porter - In John 10:3 the porter is the man left in charge of a sheepfold by the Shepherd or Shepherds whose sheep are there housed for the night
Theology, Pastoral - It comprises those practical rules and applications based on the doctrine and experience of the Church which the priest, as Shepherd of souls, should faithfully fulfill in the exercise of his sacred office. The model for priestly practise is Christ, the Good Shepherd, Whose life portrayed the ideal teacher, priest, and ruler
Christ in Art - There are found in the Catacombs at Rome at the commencement of Christian art not only the Fish symbol, but also pictures of the Good Shepherd, and of our Lord in certain Gospel scenes, all before the middle of the 2nd cent. ; and of these the Good Shepherd carrying a sheep occurs in the Catacomb of Domitilla before the end of the 1st century, ft will be, however, convenient to begin with the Symbols, proceeding thence through the Types to more direct representations of Christ. —The Fish was early combined with other symbols, such as the Dove, the Cross, the Ship, the Shepherd, and especially with the Anchor, the combination of the Fish and the Anchor (first found on the sarcophagus of Livia Primitiva about the middle of the 2nd cent. ...
Sometimes Orpheus is represented in his conventional Phrygian costume playing upon the lyre, while various heasts, birds, and reptiles listen to him; sometimes it is sheep that gather round, for Orpheus was a Shepherd, and thus his story was interwoven with the Good Shepherd theme; sometimes the figure of Orpheus is even painted in the centre of a vault—in the place usually reserved for the Good Shepherd. —The earliest manner of representing our Lord as a solitary figure was under the type which He Himself had given—that of the Good Shepherd. In its reserve, its tenderness, its gracious beauty, the figure of the Good Shepherd was characteristic of the first Christian art, and its subsequent disappearance was also characteristic of much. The Shepherd is always a typical Shepherd of the Campagna, a beardless youth, bareheaded, clad in the tunic of the peasant; the tunic is generally sleeveless, with sometimes a small cape over the shoulders, while leggings complete the realism of the attire. There are two distinct classes of Good Shepherd pictures in the Catacombs:—(a) 21 represent him feeding his flock (in one case he protects it against a pig and an ass); these belong to the 3rd and 4th cents. In spite of the realism of the Good Shepherd pictures, there is a certain hieratic grace and dignity about the figure that marks it at once as a Christian subject, though the figure of a Shepherd was common enough in pagan art (e. The theme is varied in many ways: occasionally the Good Shepherd carries a kid, sometimes other sheep or goats stand near him; in a fresco in the Catacomb of St. Tertullian (circa (about) 200) mentions the painting of the Good Shepherd on chalices as a common custom (de Pudic. Statues were probably not introduced before the time of Constantine, but an exception was made in the case of the Good Shepherd; and the most lovely example of all is the statue of the 3rd cent. Pictures of the Good Shepherd have become popular again in our own time, but they are attempts at portraiture and very far from the idealistic type—it may almost be called a symbol—of the early ages, which represents a Shepherd as Christ, and does not attempt to portray Christ as a Shepherd. ...
The symbolism of the Good Shepherd, which had held so prominent a place in the affections of the Church, disappeared rapidly after the 4th cent. Apparently it was not possible for men’s minds to keep in view the two ideas at once of Christ the Shepherd and Christ the Lamb, though this is attempted in the Catacomb of St
Vision - more than that of ‘The Shepherd of Hermas,’ in which, somewhat after the style of Dante’s Divina Commedia, teachings are presented for the instruction of the Church. The ‘Shepherd’ is the divine teacher, who imparts his lessons by means of precept and allegory, and the Church appears as an aged woman, whose features become increasingly youthful the oftener she is gazed upon. -Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) , articles ‘Vision’ and ‘Prophecy’; Shepherd of Hermas (Lightfoot [1] and other editions); F
Flaget, Benedict Joseph - Here he built a convent for the Religious of Our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd of Angers, 1843, with his private funds
Sheep - The care of a Shepherd over his flock is referred to as illustrating God's care over his people (Psalm 23:1,2 ; 74:1 ; 77:20 ; Isaiah 40:11 ; 53:6 ; John 10:1-5,7-16 )
Benedict Joseph Flaget - Here he built a convent for the Religious of Our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd of Angers, 1843, with his private funds
Fold - Hence in a scriptural sense, the church, the flock of the Shepherd of Israel
Mohammed - Of the powerful tribe of Fihr or Quraish, Mohammed spent his early life as a Shepherd and an attendant of caravans, and at 25 married Khadeejah, a rich widow
Good Shepherd, Parable of the - The lesson is conveyed in the parable of the lost sheep; a Shepherd with a flock of 100 sheep will leave the 99 that are not in danger and in no special need of his care, in order to look for the one that has been lost, and will not give up the search until he has found the lost one
Lost Sheep - The lesson is conveyed in the parable of the lost sheep; a Shepherd with a flock of 100 sheep will leave the 99 that are not in danger and in no special need of his care, in order to look for the one that has been lost, and will not give up the search until he has found the lost one
Abel - Abel was the first Shepherd and influenced the early Hebrews to place a priority on the pastoral life
Door - He also said that as the true Shepherd He entered into the sheepfold by the door, that is, though Son of God, He entered as obedient by God's appointed means, being circumcised, presented in the temple, and baptised
Lion - It was less daring than the longer named species, but when driven by hunger it not only ventured to attack the flocks in the desert in presence of the Shepherd, (1 Samuel 17:34 ; Isaiah 31:4 ) but laid waste towns and villages, (2 Kings 17:25,26 ; Proverbs 22:13 ; 26:13 ) and devoured men
Cain - Cain’s brother Abel, being a Shepherd, offered sheep
Goshen - Goshen, for every Shepherd is an abomination to the Egyptians,") proves that Goshen was regarded by Egyptians as scarcely Egypt proper, though having many Egyptians in it, as is recorded during the ten plagues; also foreigners. Joseph lived under the 12th or 13th dynasty, a native not a Shepherd dynasty (as Genesis 46:34 proves)
Leading - The OT metaphor of Jehovah as a Shepherd leading His people like a flock (Psalms 23:1; Psalms 80:1) is repeated in the parables representing Christ as a Shepherd whose sheep recognize and obey Him (John 10:3-4; John 10:27)
Bishop - ...
Elders were established to exercise godly care in the undivided local assembly — to 'shepherd' the flock. In one passage the Lord is Himself called the Shepherd and Bishop of souls; and who can care for and feed His saints as He? 1 Peter 2:25
Parable - The fourth Gospel contains no parable properly so called, although the illustration of the good Shepherd (John 10:1-16 ) has all the essential features of a parable
Pity - The images of the father and Shepherd illustrate God's pity (Psalm 103:13 ; Isaiah 49:10 )
Hire - ’...
The term ‘hired servant’ or ‘hireling’ (μισθωτός) is used in speaking of Zebcdee’s servants (Mark 1:20), and of the false Shepherd who deserts his flock at the approach of danger (John 10:12-13)
Zoan - Amosis or Aahmes captured Zoan or Avaris from the Shepherd kings, their last stronghold after ruling (See EGYPT for 511 years
Lion - When driven by hunger it not only ventured to attack the flocks in the desert in presence of the Shepherd, 1 Samuel 17:34; Isaiah 31:4, but laid waste towns and villages, 2 Kings 17:25-26; Proverbs 22:13; Proverbs 26:13, and devoured men
Hermas Shepherd of - From the first Vision, with its revelation of the sinfulness of sins of thought, and of neglect of responsibility for others, to the last Parable, where the greatness of the Shepherd, the supernatural Being ‘to whom alone in the whole world hath authority over repentance been assigned’ (Sim. ’ The Shepherd replies that this is so. This one opportunity, however, would seem to be embodied in the Shepherd himself, who was sent ‘to be with you who repent with your whole heart, and to strengthen you in the faith’ (Hebrews 12:6), and whose command to Hennas is, ‘Go, and tell all men to repent, and they shall live unto God; for the Lord in His compassion sent me to give repentance to all, though some of them do not deserve it, for their deeds’ (Sim. The author of the Muratorian Canon, while seeking to deprecate the public reading of the Shepherd in church, commends it for private use. ...
‘But the “Shepherd” was written quite lately in our times by Hermas, while his brother Pius, the bishop, was sitting in the chair of the Church of the city of Rome; and therefore it ought indeed to be read, but it cannot to the end of lime be publicly read in the Church to the people, either among the prophets, who are complete in number, or among the Apostles. The Visions form the introduction to the rest, the Shepherd not appearing until the last of these. The Shepherd, the angel of repentance, now appears for the first time, glorious in visage, with sheepskin wallet and staff. Hermas at first fails to recognize him as the being to whom he was delivered, but on recognition proceeds to write down the Commandments and the Parables dictated by the Shepherd. If she repents after divorce her husband sins if he does not receive her again (after baptism only one opportunity of repentance is given, over which the Shepherd has authority). In the next, two Shepherds are shown, one of pleasant mien sporting with his sheep, the other of sour countenance lashing his flock with a whip and otherwise maltreating them. The remainder are left to the care of the Shepherd, who, as the angel of repentance, plants the rods in the earth, and deals with the owners according to the results. The Shepherd, as in the former Parable, deals with the latter, to fit those that are capable for a place in the building. The purport of the concluding Parable is an exhortation to Hermas to keep the Shepherd’s commandments and to publish them to others. In view of the Roman character of the Shepherd, it is interesting to note that the tower which represents the Church is represented as founded, not on Peter, but, in the third Vision, upon the waters of baptism, and, in the ninth Parable, upon the rock of the Son of God. When the Shepherd at first appears, Hermas fails to recognize him, as apparently he should have done. -There is no complete Greek text of the Shepherd. Taylor, The Shepherd of Hermas (Translation, Introduction, and Notes), London, 1903-1906; T
Fog: a Figure of Our Partial Knowledge - In the distance through the fog the Shepherd 'stalks gigantic,' and his sheep are full-grown lions
Barbarian - It is most probably derived from berbir, "a Shepherd;" whence Barbary, the country of wandering Shepherds; Bedouins, Sceni, Scythei, as if, wanderers in tents; therefore barbarians
Imagery - Other images of God are personal: father (Luke 15:4-720 ); husband (Hosea 2:16 ); Shepherd (Psalm 23:1 ); judge, lawgiver, and king (Isaiah 33:22 ); teacher (Isaiah 28:26 ); healer (Jeremiah 30:17 ); warrior (Exodus 15:1 ,Exodus 15:1,15:3 ); farmer (Isaiah 5:2-7 ). ...
In His parables, Jesus continued the Old Testament practice of using vivid images for God: a Shepherd seeking one lost sheep (1618451480_1 ); a woman seeking one lost coin (Luke 15:8-10 ); a father waiting patiently for the return of one son and taking the initiative to reconcile the other (Luke 15:11-32 )
Outcasts - " So that it should seem, that there is a peculiar meaning in the term outcasts, as if the outcasts of other nations had a reference to that part of the Gentile church which is to be brought into one fold, under one Shepherd, Jesus Christ the Lord. Jesus speaks of both when he saith, (John 10:16) "And other sheep I have which are not of this fold, them also I must bring, and they shall hear my voice; and there shall be one fold and one Shepherd
Fourteen Holy Helpers - Its origin is usually traced to Germany, there having appeared to the Shepherd-boy of the Cistercian Abbey of Langheim in Frankenthal, 1445-1446, apparitions accompanied by the command to build a church there in honor of the Fourteen Holy Helpers
Scatter - ...
4: ῥίπτω (Strong's #4496 — Verb — rhipto — hrip'-to ) "to throw, cast, hurl, to be cast down, prostrate," is used in Matthew 9:36 of people who were "scattered" as sheep without a Shepherd
Micaiah - " The way in which this was said apparently convinced Ahab that it was spoken in irony, for he said, "How many times shall I adjure thee that thou say nothing but the truth to me in the name of the Lord?" Micaiah at once said that he saw all Israel scattered, having no Shepherd
Abomination - ...
The Hebrew, not only as foreigners, accounted by the intolerant mythology of Egypt as unfit for intercourse except that of war or commerce, but also as nomad Shepherds, were an "abomination" to the Egyptians (Genesis 46:34). The Egyptians themselves reared cattle, as Pharaoh's offer to make Joseph's brethren "overseers of his cattle" proves (Genesis 47:6), and as their sculptures and paintings show; but they abominated the nomad Shepherds, or Bedouins, because the Egyptians, as being long civilized, shrank, and to the present day shrink, from the lawless predatory habits of the wandering Shepherd tribes in their vicinity
Hermas, Known as the Shepherd - there was in circulation a book of visions and allegories purporting to be written by one Hermas and commonly known as The Shepherd. The mutilated commencement of the Stromateis of Clement of Alexandria opens in the middle of a quotation from The Shepherd and about ten times elsewhere he cites the book always with a complete acceptance of the reality and divine character of the revelations made to Hermas but without suggesting who Hermas was or when he lived. Some ten years later, after Tertullian had become a Montanist, and the authority of The Shepherd is urged in behalf of readmitting adulterers to communion, he rejects the book as not counted worthy of inclusion in the canon, but placed by every council, even those of the Catholic party, among false and apocryphal writings ( de Pudic. Quoting Hebrews, he says that this is at least more received than that apocryphal Shepherd of the adulterers (c. The phrase "more received" warns us to take cum grano Tertullian's assertion as to the universal rejection of The Shepherd; but doubtless the distinction between apostolic and later writings was then drawn more sharply, and in the interval between Tertullian's two writings The Shepherd may have been excluded from public reading in many churches which before had admitted it. The Liberian papal catalogue (probably here, as elsewhere, following the catalogue of Hippolytus) states that under the episcopate of Pius his brother Ermas wrote a book in which the commands and precepts were contained which the angel gave him when he came to him in the habit of a Shepherd. At the end of the first part he has the vision in which he sees a man dressed like a Shepherd, who tells him that he is the angel of repentance and the guardian to whose care he had been entrusted. >From this Shepherd he receives, for his instruction and that of the church, the "Commandments," which form the second, and the "Similitudes," which form the third part of the work. Finally he comes to believe himself to be under the constant guardianship of the Shepherd angel of repentance, and he ascribes all the lessons he desires to teach to the inspiration of this heavenly monitor. To represent such a prophecy as being already 50 or 100 years old would be to represent it as having failed and in fact The Shepherd did lose credit when it had been so long in existence. ...
But if, as we think, the Hermas of The Shepherd is not a fictitious character, but a real person known in the church of Rome in the 2nd cent. Zahn places The Shepherd c. Yet it seems possible to assign an earlier date to The Shepherd, and to I. ...
The Shepherd has been edited by Hilgenfeld ( Nov. A Collation of the Athos Codex of the Shepherd with intro. of The Shepherd by Dr
Names of God - ...
Yahweh-Rohi “The Lord is my Shepherd” ( Psalm 23:1 ). ...
Shepherd God is frequently described as a Shepherd. Yahweh is the Shepherd King ( Ezekiel 34:1 ). In the New Testament, the image of God as Shepherd is continued in parables (Luke 15:4-7 ) and in John's portrayal of Christ as the Good Shepherd (John 10:1-18 )
David, King - The son of Jesse, and a Shepherd-boy, he was anointed by the prophet Samuel in place of Saul, whom God had rejected
John, Gospel of Saint - Chapters specially commendable for reading: 1, Prologue, First Disciples; 2, Cana, Cleansing of the Temple; 4, Samaritan Woman; 6, Promise of the Holy Eucharist; 10, Good Shepherd; 11, Raising of Lazarus; 12-18, Discourses after the Last Supper; 20,21, the Risen Lord
Goat - As the word "shepherds" describes what they ought to have been, so "he goats" what they were; heading the flock, they were foremost in sin, so they shall be foremost in punishment. Amos (Amos 3:12) speaks of a Shepherd "taking out of the mouth of the lion a piece of an ear," alluding to the long pendulous ears of the Syrian breed
Abigail - She was praised for wisdom in contrast to Nabal, her arrogant and overbearing husband, who was a large landowner and successful Shepherd
Gospel of Saint John - Chapters specially commendable for reading: 1, Prologue, First Disciples; 2, Cana, Cleansing of the Temple; 4, Samaritan Woman; 6, Promise of the Holy Eucharist; 10, Good Shepherd; 11, Raising of Lazarus; 12-18, Discourses after the Last Supper; 20,21, the Risen Lord
Gethsemane - A recent traveler, Professor Hackett, passing by Gethsemane one day, saw a Shepherd in the act of shearing a sheep
Parable - For instance, take the "father" out of the prodigal son, the "bridegroom" out of the bridegroom, the "shepherd" out of the lost sheep, or the "rock" out of the two houses and the parable disintegrates. Jesus implicitly claimed to be performing the work of God: as the sower, sowing the kingdom and implanting his word in people; as the director of the harvest, assuming God's role as judge in the endtimes; as the rock, providing the only secure foundation; as the Shepherd, seeking out his lost sheep and leading his own; as the bridegroom in the wedding feast of the kingdom, where fasting is unthinkable; as the father, welcoming repentant sinners into the kingdom and calling his children into his service; as the giver of forgiveness, even to grievous sinners; as the vineyard owner, graciously giving undeserved favor; as the lord, who has final authority over his servants, who calls them into responsible participation in the kingdom, and who will ultimately determine the destiny of each of them, depending on their response to his lordship; and as the king, who has authority to allow or refuse entry into the kingdom, and to increase the responsibility of people who develop his resources, or to take away those resources from people who fail to develop them. ...
Not only do these parables depict Jesus as performing the work of God; they implicitly apply various titles of God to Jesus: the Sower, the Rock, the Shepherd, the Bridegroom, the Father, the Lord, and the King. Even those symbols that were occasionally also used of the Messiah in the Old Testament (shepherd, king, stone) in Jesus' parables refer more naturally to God. Many of the images through which Jesus refers to himself focus not so much on his activity as on who he is: the bridegroom of the kingdom, the good Shepherd, the one who will return as king, the one with authority as vineyard owner and lord to do what he wishes with what is his, the one with authority to forgive sins, and the lord with authority to give or refuse entry into the kingdom and to reward the faithful
Sheep - Sheep symbolized people without leadership and unity, scattered like sheep without a Shepherd (1 Kings 22:17 ), innocent people not deserving of punishment (1 Chronicles 21:17 ), as helpless facing slaughter (Psalm 44:11 ,Psalms 44:11,44:22 ) and death (Psalm 49:14 ). Ezekiel 34:1 uses the life of sheep and Shepherds to picture God's relationship with His people and their rulers. The Shepherd's separating his ts'on into sheep and goats illustrates the final judgment (Matthew 25:1 )
Lions - Yet it not only attacked flocks in the presence of the Shepherd, but also laid waste towns and villages (2 Kings 17:25,26 ) and devoured men (1 Kings 13:24,25 ). Shepherds sometimes, single-handed, encountered lions and slew them (1 Samuel 17:34,35 ; Amos 3:12 )
Leg - ...
Amos 3:12 (a) This probably indicates that GOD, the Shepherd, will deliver His people so that they may walk with Him again, and listen to Him as they should
Hyksos - The word, which does not appear in the Bible, was later misinterpreted by Josephus as meaning “shepherd kings
Wages - Still, a skilled Shepherd, like Jacob, might receive a portion of the flock and thus begin his own herd (Genesis 30:32-33 ; Genesis 31:8 ; and legal texts from both Assyria and Babylonia)
Ather - ...
John 11:52 (a) Our wonderful Saviour is telling us in this way that one day He will bring together Jews and Gentiles to make one worshipping body of people who will own Him as their Shepherd
Lord - ...
The Lord is my Shepherd Psalm 23:1
Emilianus (8), Solitary - ...
He began life as a Shepherd, and while following his flock over the mountains had the dream which caused his conversion
Bishop - Peter calls Jesus Christ "the Shepherd and Bishop of our souls," 1 Peter 2:25 ; and St
Guide - —To communities and to individuals, otherwise walking in darkness, Christ is their Guide, the Shepherd leading His sheep, the Light preceding His people. Without Him the mass of men are as sheep without a Shepherd (Matthew 9:36)
Abomination - ...
Every Shepherd was "an abomination" unto the Egyptians (Genesis 46:34 ). This aversion to Shepherds, such as the Hebrews, arose probably from the fact that Lower and Middle Egypt had formerly been held in oppressive subjection by a tribe of nomad Shepherds (the Hyksos), who had only recently been expelled, and partly also perhaps from this other fact that the Egyptians detested the lawless habits of these wandering Shepherds
Heal - ...
Zechariah 11:16 (a) The Lord indicates here that He will raise up a ruler over Israel who will pretend to be a Shepherd, but will really be an idolator who will deceive Israel, and will work for their eventual ruin
Shoulder - ...
Luke 15:5 (a) By this type we understand the loving care and the mighty power of the great Shepherd of the sheep
Spot - ...
Deuteronomy 32:5 (b) The Lord brands His people as the Shepherd brands the sheep
Pottery - In Matthew and Zechariah alike, the Lord's representative, Israel's Shepherd, has a paltry price set upon Him by the people; the transaction is done deliberately by men connected with the house of Jehovah; the money is given to the potter, marking the perpetrators' baseness, guilt, and doom, and the hand of the Lord overrules it all, the Jewish rulers while following their own aims unconsciously fulfilling Jehovah's "appointment
Lose, Loss, Lost - , Luke 15:4 (2nd part), "which is lost;" metaphorically, from the relation between Shepherd and flock, of spiritual destitution and alienation from God, Matthew 10:6 , "(the) lost (sheep)" of the house of Israel; Luke 19:10 (the perfect tense translated "lost" is here intransitive)
Micaiah - as sheep that have no Shepherd (quoted by the Lord Jesus Himself, Matthew 9:36, as it is previously the basis of Ezekiel 34:5; Zechariah 10:2), and Jehovah said, these have no master (Ahab falling), let them return every man to his house. " Instead of Moses' blessing on Ephraim awaiting Ahab, as Zedekiah had said, Moses' picture of what Israel would be at his death, "Jehovah's congregation as sheep having no Shepherd," if no successor were appointed, would be realized (Numbers 27:17)
Perpetua, Vibia - They came to a large garden, where was a Shepherd clad in white, feeding sheep, while thousands in white robes stood around. The Shepherd gave Perpetua a piece of cheese, which she received "junctis manibus" and consumed, the attendants saying "Amen
Moses - Having slain an Egyptian, however, he fled into the land of Midian, where he was a Shepherd chief
Albany - Charitable institutions in the city include Saint Peter's Hospital, in charge of the Sisters of Mercy, House of the Good Shepherd, for delinquent females and for the educating and reforming of wayward children, Saint Vincent's Female Orphan Asylum under the supervision of the Sisters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul, who also have under their care a maternity hospital and infant home, and two day nurseries in care of the Sisters of Mercy and the Sisters of Saint Joseph
Abel - Cain, as a husbandman, offered the fruits of the field; Abel, as a Shepherd, of the firstlings of his flock
Sleep (And Forms) - ...
Psalm 121:4 (c) This is a description of the eternal vigilance and the constant care of the Shepherd for His sheep
Jacob - Jacob was meek and peaceable, living a Shepherd life at home
Election, - Cyrus, who was called by God to be His 'shepherd' to work out His will, saying to Jerusalem, "Thou shalt be built; and to the temple, Thy foundation shall be laid
Chief, Chiefest, Chiefly - ...
B — 3: ἀρχιποίμην (Strong's #750 — Noun Masculine — archipoimen — ar-khee-poy'-mane ) "a chief Shepherd" (arche, "chief," poimen, "a Shepherd"), is said of Christ only, 1 Peter 5:4
Pius i., Bishop of Rome - 170) and the Liberian Catalogue, was brother to HERMAS, the writer of the Shepherd . The advocates of this view adduce passages from the Shepherd of Hermas, in which messages are sent in rebuke of strifes for precedence among the Christians at Rome ( Vis
Egypt - The sixth, the boils from ashes sprinkled toward the heaven, was a challenge to Neit, "the great mother queen of highest heaven," if she could stand before Jehovah, also a reference to the scattering of victims' ashes to the wind in honor of Sutech or Typhon; human sacrifices at Hellopolis, offered under the Shepherd kings, had been abolished by Amosis I, but this remnant of the old rite remained; Jehovah now sternly reproves it 'by Moses' symbolic act. The Shepherd kings came from the East as foreigners, and were obnoxious to native Egyptians. A Theban line of kings reigned in Upper Egypt while the Shepherds were in Lower. Hence arose the opinion that a Shepherd king, not a native Egyptian, was the foreigner Joseph's patron; Apophis is generally named. The absence of mention of the Israelites on the monuments would be accounted for by the troubled character of the times of the Shepherd kings. The Pharaohs of the 12th dynasty, and the early kings of the 13th, were lords of all Egypt, which the Shepherd kings were not; the latter must therefore belong to a subsequent period. ...
From the fourth king of the 13th dynasty to the last of the 17th, the period of the Hyksos or Shepherd kings, the monuments afford no data for the order of events. ...
SHEPHERD KINGS. - Salatis ("mighty", in Semitic) was first of the Shepherd dynasty, which lasted about 250 years and comprised six kings, Apophis last. The long term, 500 years, assigned by Manetho to the Shepherd kings, (and by Africanus 800,) is unsupported by the monuments, and is inconsistent with the fact that the Egyptians, at the return to native rulers under the 18th dynasty, after so complete an overthrow of their institutions for five or eight centuries (?), wrote their own language without a trace of foreign infusion, and worshipped the old gods with the old rites. Shepherds were, according to Genesis, "an abomination to the Egyptians" in Joseph's time; this is decisive against his living under a Shepherd king
Christ - Some types of CHRIST:...
Aaron, Exodus 28:2 (c)...
Adam, Genesis 5:2 (c)...
Ark, (covenant), Exodus 25:10 (c)...
Ark, (Noah's), Genesis 6:14 (c)...
Ass, Genesis 49:14 (c)...
Author, Hebrews 5:9 (c)...
Bishop, 1 Peter 2:25 (a)...
Body, 1 Corinthians 12:12 (a)...
Branch, Zechariah 3:8 (a)...
Bread, John 6:51 (a)...
Bridegroom, Matthew 25:1 (b)...
Bullock, Leviticus 1:5 (c)...
Burnt Offering, Leviticus 1:3 (b)...
Calf, Revelation 4:7 (b)...
Captain, Hebrews 2:10 (a)...
Chief, Song of Solomon 5:10 (b)...
Commander, Isaiah 55:4 (b)...
Cornerstone, Isaiah 28:16 (a)...
Covert, Isaiah 32:2 (a)...
David, 2 Samuel 19:10 (c)...
Day, Psalm 118:24 (b)...
Door, John 10:9 (a)...
Eagle, Revelation 4:7 (b)...
Flour, Leviticus 2:1 (c)...
Foundation, Isaiah 28:16 (b)...
Fountain, Zechariah 13:1 (b)...
Garment, Isaiah 61:10 (b), Romans 13:14...
Gate, Psalm 118:20 (b)...
Gold, Isaiah 13:12 (a)...
Headstone, Psalm 113:22 (b)...
Heir, Hebrews 1:2 (a)...
Hen, Matthew 23:37 (a)...
Hiding Place, Isaiah 32:2 (a)...
High Priest, Hebrews 4:14 (a)...
Isaac, Genesis 24:36 (c)...
Jacob, Genesis 32:28 (c)...
Jonah, Matthew 12:40 (a)...
Joseph, Genesis 37:7 (c)...
Joshua, Joshua 1:1 (c)...
Judge, Acts 17:31 (a)...
King, Psalm 2:6 (a)...
Lamb, Revelation 5:6 (a)...
Leaves, Revelation 22:2 (c)...
Light, John 8:12 (a)...
Lily of the Valleys, Song of Solomon 2:1 (c)...
Lion, Revelation 5:5 (a)...
Manna, John 6:32 (a)...
Master of the House, Luke 13:25 (b)...
Meal, 2 Kings 4:41 (c)...
Mediator (umpire), 1 Timothy 2:5 (a)...
Melchizedek, Genesis 14:18 (c)...
Merchantman, Matthew 13:45 (b)...
Owl, Psalm 102:6 (a)...
Ox:, Ezekiel 1:10 (b)...
Passover, 1 Corinthians 5:7 (a)...
Peace Offering, Leviticus 3:1 (c)...
Pelican, Psalm 102:6 (a)...
Physician, Jeremiah 8:22 (c)...
Pigeon, Leviticus 12:6 (c)...
Propitiation (mercy seat), Romans 3:25 (a)...
Ram, Genesis 22:13 (a)...
Rock, Matthew 16:18 (a)...
Rock of Ages, Isaiah 26:4 (margin) (a)...
Rose of Sharon, Song of Solomon 2:1 (c)...
Root, Revelation 22:16 (a)...
Sabbath, Colossians 2:16-17 (b)...
Seed, Genesis 3:15 (a)...
Serpent, John 3:14 (a)...
Shepherd, John 10:11 (a)...
Sin, 2 Corinthians 5:21 (a)...
Sin Offering, Leviticus 4:32 (c)...
Solomon, 1 Kings 10:13 (c)...
Sower, Matthew 13:37 (a)...
Sparrow, Psalm 102:7 (a)...
Star, Revelation 22:16 (a)...
Sun, Malachi 4:2 (a)...
Temple, John 2:19 (a)...
Thief, Revelation 3:3 (a)...
Tree, Revelation 22:2 (b)...
Trespass Offering, Leviticus 5:6 (c)...
Turtle dove, Leviticus 1:14 (c)...
Vine, John 15:5 (a)...
Worm, Psalm 22:6 (a)...
Adonis - ...
Fabulous history gives the following account of Adonis: He was a beautiful young Shepherd, the son of Cyniras, king of Cyprus, by his own daughter Myrrha
Wolf - The dispositions of the wolf to attack the weaker animals, especially those which are under the protection of man, is alluded to by our Saviour in the parable of the hireling Shepherd: "The wolf catcheth them, and scattereth the flock," Matthew 7:15
Antichrist - In Zechariah 11:15-17 he is referred to as the foolish and idol Shepherd, who cares not for the flock, in opposition to the Lord Jesus the good Shepherd
Bishop - ...
One of the five usages of episkopos in the New Testament was as a title applied to Jesus: “the Shepherd and Bishop of your souls” ( 1 Peter 2:25 )
Symbol - Jesus used symbolic language in talking about Himself and His relationship to persons: Bread of life, Light of the world, Good Shepherd, Water of life, and the Door
Widow - Tertullian ("De velandis Virginibus," 9), Hermas (Shepherd 1:2), and Chrysostom (Horn
Bishop - Ye were as sheep going astray, but are now returned to the Shepherd and bishop of your souls
Trade - The Shepherd bears ...
His house and household goods, his trade of war
Occupations And Professions in the Bible - Shepherds ( Luke 2:8 ) were also engaged in food production. Those persons who have rule over others are often described in terms of the Shepherd's duties. Psalm 23:1 identifies the Lord as a Shepherd and vividly describes the duties of the keeper of the sheep. Given the rugged terrain of Palestine, the constant threat from wild animals, and the ceaseless search for water and pasture land, the responsibilities and dangers of the Shepherd were great. Closely akin to the Shepherd was the herdsman ( Genesis 4:20 ). ” The only distinction that might be made between a Shepherd and herdsman is in their charges: the Shepherd, sheep; the herdsman, cattle
Sinaiticus Codex - Of these 199 belong to the Old Testament and 147 1/2 to the New, along with two ancient documents called the Epistle of Barnabas and the Shepherd of Hermas
Hunting - Deeds of prowess in the slaughter of such animals by Samson in self-defence ( Judges 14:6 ), David the Shepherd to rescue his charges ( 1 Samuel 17:34 ), and Benaiah ( 2 Samuel 23:20 ) gained for these men abiding fame
Pastor - Literally a Shepherd; figuratively a stated minister appointed to watch over and instruct a congregation
Staff - The staff represents GOD's promises and the loving care of the Shepherd on which we lean and repose with confidence
Sheep - See Shepherd
Memphis - ...
The Hyksos or Shepherd kings (Genesis 49:24), Shofo and Noushofo, 2500 B. , he thinks, built the great pyramid under God's guidance, and the cities Salem, of which Melchizedek was Shepherd priestking, and Damascus
Pha'Raoh, - ( Genesis 12:15 ) --At the time at which the patriarch went into Egypt, it is generally held that the country, or at least lower Egypt, was ruled by the Shepherd kings, of whom the first and moat powerful line was the fifteenth dynasty, the undoubted territories of which would be first entered by one coming from the east. --One of the Shepherd kings perhaps Apophis, who belonged to the fifteenth dynasty
Christ, Christology - At the failure of the princely and priestly Shepherd of Israel Ezekiel prophesies that the Lord God himself will come as Shepherd: "As a Shepherd looks after his scattered flock when he is with them, so will I look after my sheep. I will Shepherd the flock with justice" (34:12,15-16). Jesus similarly uses the personal pronoun "I" in claiming to fulfill Ezekiel's prophecy: "I am the good Shepherd. The good Shepherd lays down his life for the sheep" (John 10:11 )
Greeting - Some of the most familiar benedictions used in Christian worship come from such closing greetings: “The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the communion of the Holy Ghost” (2 Corinthians 13:14 ); “Now the God of peace, that brought again from the dead our Lord Jesus, that great Shepherd of the sheep make you perfect in every good work to do his will
Hittites - Their rulers were the Hyksos, or Shepherd kings
Canon of the Holy Scriptures - 170 AD) mentions all the New Testament books, except Hebrews, James, and probably 1,2Peter, but also includes vith reservations, the apocryphal Apocalypse of Peter and the Shepherd of Hermas
Galilee, Sea of - How different it was in the days of our Lord! Then all was life and bustle along the shores; the cities and villages that thickly studded them resounded with the hum of a busy population; while from hill-side and corn-field came the cheerful cry of Shepherd and ploughman
Rhetoric - Jesus' statement that He is the Good Shepherd ( John 10:11 ) is a metaphor because believers are not really sheep
Have - ...
--Sheep that have no Shepherd
Armor - This simple weapon, with which David killed the giant Philistine, was the natural attendant of a Shepherd
Arms - This simple weapon, with which David killed the giant Philistine, was the natural attendant of a Shepherd
Arms, Armor - ...
The SLING is first mentioned in (Judges 20:16 ) This simple weapon, with which David killed the giant Philistine, was the natural attendant of a Shepherd
Amos - ...
As a Shepherd-farmer who had to deal with ruthless merchants and corrupt officials, Amos knew how bad the situation was and he spoke out against it (Amos 1:1; Amos 7:14-15)
Egypt - ...
The Middle Empire was overthrown by the invasion of the Hyksos, or Shepherd princes from Asia, who ruled over Egypt, more especially in the north, for several centuries, and of whom there were three dynasties of kings. A short time after that, the Delta was conquered by the Hyksos, or Shepherd kings, who fixed their capital at Zoan, the Greek Tanis, now San, on the Tanic arm of the Nile. Abraham and Sarah went to Egypt in the time of the Shepherd kings
Lamb, Lamb of God - Within the culture, the metaphor of the Lord being the Shepherd of his people was quite vivid (Psalm 23:1 ; Isaiah 40:11 ; Ezekiel 34:12-16 ); thus, people without leaders are like sheep without a Shepherd (Numbers 27:17 ; 1 Kings 22:17 ; Ezekiel 34:5 )
Muratorian Fragment - The fragment next says that the Shepherd was written "very lately in our own time" in the city of Rome his brother-bishop Pius then occupying the chair of the Roman church; that therefore it ought to be read but not in the public reading of the church. There are also indications from the history of the varying position held by the Shepherd that the publication of our fragment may have been between Tertullian's two tracts de Oratione and de Pudicitia (see D
Elder - ...
Responsibilities of elders...
Elders are likened to Shepherds over a flock. They are the leaders of the church, whom God has placed over the church to guide it and care for it (Acts 20:28; 1 Timothy 3:5; 1 Timothy 5:17; Hebrews 13:17; 1 Peter 5:1-3; see PASTOR; Shepherd). Elders can learn how to be true Shepherds of the flock by following the example of the Chief Shepherd, Jesus Christ, who gave himself for it (1 Peter 5:4; cf
Laetare Medal - " Following is a partial list of the recipients of the award: ...
1883 - John Gilmary Shea, historian
1884 - Patrick J Keeley, architect
1885 - Eliza Allen Starr, artist
1886 - General John Newton, army engineer
1887 - Edward Preuss, journalist
1888 - Patrick V Hickey, founder "Catholic Review"
1889 - Anna Hanson Dorsey, novelist
1890 - William T Onahan, organizer Catholic Congress
1891 - Daniel Dougherty, orator
1892 - Henry F Brownson, philosopher
1893 - Patrick Donahoe, founder "Boston Pilot"
1894 - Augustin Daly, theatrical manager
1895 - Mrs James Sadlier, writer
1896 - General William S Rosecrans, leader Army of Cumberland
1897 - Thomas Addis Emmett, surgeon
1898 - Timothy E Howard, jurist
1899 - Mary Gwendolin Caldwell, benefactor Catholic University
1900 - John Creighton, founder Creighton University
1901 - William Bourke Cockran, orator
1902 - John B Murphy, surgeon
1903 - Charles J Bonaparte, attorney-general
1904 - Richard C Kerens, philanthropist
1905 - Thomas B Fitzpatrick, business man
1906 - Francis Quinlan, medical specialist
1907 - Katherine E Conway, author
1908 - James C Monaghan, lecturer
1909 - Frances Tiernan, (Christian Reid), litterateur
1910 - Maurice Francis Egan, writer
1911 - Agnes Repplier, essayist
1912 - Thomas M Mulry, charity worker
1913 - Charles G Herbermann, editor-in-chief "Catholic Encyclopedia"
1914 - Edward Douglas White, chief justice of the United States
1915 - Mary V Merrick, founder, Christ Child Society
1916 - James J Walsh, physician and author
1917 - William Shepherd Benson, admiral
1918 - Joseph Scott, lawyer
1919 - George Duval, philanthropist
1920 - Lawrence F Flick, physician
1921 - Elizabeth Nourse, artist
1922 - Charles P Neil, economist
1923 - Walter George Smith, lawyer
1924 - Charles D Maginnis, architect
1925 - Albert Francis Zahm, scientist
1926 - Edward N Hurley, business man
1927 - Margaret Anglin, actress
1928 - Jack J Spalding, lawyer
1929 - Alfred Emmanuel Smith, statesman
1930 - Frederick P Kenkel, director of Central Bureau of the Central Verein
1931 - James J Phelan, philanthropist
1932 - Stephen J Maher, tuberculosis expert
1933 - John McCormack, vocalist
1934 -
1935 - Frank H Spearman, author
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1942 - Helen Constance White, teacher and author
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1955 - George Meaney, labour leader
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1965 - Frederick Dominic Rossini, teacher and scientist
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1972 - Dorothy Day, activist
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1984 - John T Noonan, jurist
1985 - Guido Calabresi, jurist
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1992 - Daniel Patrick Moynihan, US senator
1993 - L John Durney, teacher and journalist
1994 -
1995 -
1996 - Sister Helen Prejean, anti-death penalty activist
1997 - Father Virgilio Elizondo, theologian and writer
1998 -
1999 -
2000 - Andrew J McKenna, businessman
2001 - Monsignor George G Higgins, labour activist priest
2002 - Father John Smyth, educator
2003 - Peter and Peggy Steinfels, writers
2004 - Father Bryan Hehir, theologian
2005 - Joseph E Murray, organ transplant pioneer
Convert, Conversion - First Peter 2:25 uses the picture of coming to the great Shepherd to express this idea
Nail - So Revelation 1:16; Hebrews 4:12; though the associated sacred writers are many, yet they "are given from One Shepherd," Jesus (Ephesians 4:11), the Inspirer of the word, from whom comes all their penetrating power (2 Timothy 3:16)
Night - Some day this night will be past, and CHRIST, the Sun of Righteousness, will resume His place on the earth, but not as a lowly Shepherd, but as the mighty King who will bring light and life to the nation of Israel
Laying on of Hands - Shepherd, IDB, 2:521-22; M
Caesarea - The Arab and the Shepherd avoid the spot’ (Giant Cities, 235)
Deliverance - Jesus calls Himself the Good Shepherd, who will even give His life for the sheep (John 10:11); He is the Way, the Truth, and the Life (John 14:6), leading from earth and time to heaven and eternity; He is the Light of the World (John 8:12), to bring all wanderers safely from darkness and danger to light and safety
Peter, First Epistle of - Again, in 1 Peter 4 it is said that the time has come for judgement to begin at the house of God; and if it begin first at us, where shall the ungodly and the sinner appear?...
The epistle closes with special and touching admonitions to the elders and the younger, the former being especially exhorted to Shepherd the flock of God
Poet - But the figure round which His emotion unquestionably gathered most of all was the favourite Israelite figure of the Shepherd and the sheep. The OT image repeated by later prophets from 1 Kings 22:17 (‘I saw all Israel scattered upon the hills as sheep that have no Shepherd’) had evidently touched His heart most deeply. Carlyle points out in his Essay on Burns how the Shepherd instinct of the poet puts him in the place of the suffering sheep; and it was the same instinct which drew from Psalms 23, and from the passage above quoted, so rich and wonderful a Shepherd poetry as the sayings of Jesus afford. He is touched with compassion for those lost ones of the House of Israel who are as sheep without a Shepherd (Matthew 9:36; Matthew 15:24). His Good Shepherd is seen in such detail as only the pitiful heart could have suggested, ‘leaving the ninety and nine in the wilderness’ (Luke 15:4, Matthew 18:12), and ‘going into the mountains’ in search of the wanderer. When the Shepherd is smitten, the sheep will be scattered abroad (Matthew 26:31), nevertheless He will ‘go before them into Galilee’ (Mark 16:7), bringing the scattered flock home
Abraham - A few years after, having buried his father, he again removed at the call of God, with his wife and nephew, and entered the land of promise as a nomad or wandering Shepherd
Unrighteousness - Interesting parallels are furnished in the Shepherd of Hermas (Mand, vi
Zechariah, Book of - He again notes the difference between the false Shepherds and the true Shepherd, and looks forward to the final triumph of the Messiah’s kingdom (12:1-14:21)
Understanding - David's understanding as Shepherd of his people is extolled (Psalm 78:72 )
Fame - And it is to the honour of human nature to remember that the common people heard Him gladly (Mark 12:37), and that not the nation at large, but the constituted authorities and their tools—a suspicious officialism, a proud and jealous priesthood—rejected the true Leader and Lord of men, the Shepherd and Bishop of souls
Amos, Book of - Though judgements would come there would be a remnant left, as when a Shepherd recovers from a lion "two legs or a piece of an ear " — a small remnant indeed! Amos 3:12
Lamb - John 5:6,8,12,13 ; 15:3 , the Leader and Shepherd of His saints, e
Animals - The king of Israel had dominion over the nation, but was expected to act as a Shepherd, who ensured the welfare of those entrusted to his care (Deuteronomy 17:14-20 ; 2 Samuel 5:2 ; Psalm 72 ). For example, in Isaiah 40:11 we read: "he tends his flock like a Shepherd: He gathers the lambs in his arms and carries them close to his heart; he gently leads those that have young" (cf. In John 10:14 Jesus says "I am the good Shepherd; I know my sheep and my sheep know me. " Leaders of God's people can also be described as Shepherds ( Ezekiel 34 ; Acts 20:28 ; cf
Baptism, Christian - There are lambs in the fold of the Good Shepherd (John 21:15 ; Compare Luke 1:15 ; Matthew 19:14 ; 1 Corinthians 7:14 ). Surely it would be more like the Good Shepherd to say, 'Come in, and bring your little ones along with you
Lion - " David, according to 1 Samuel 17:34 , had, when a Shepherd, once fought with a lion, and another time with a bear, and rescued their prey from them. Tellez relates, that an Abyssinian Shepherd had once killed a lion of extraordinary size with only two poles
Ethiopia - While the Shepherd kings ruled Lower Egypt the 13th native dynasty retired to the Ethiopian capital Napara
Redeem, Redemption, Redeemer - He purchased the church with His own blood (Acts 20:28 ), gave His flesh for the life of the world (Revelation 5:8-143 ), as the Good Shepherd laid down His life for His sheep (John 10:11 ) and demonstrated the greatest love by laying down His life for His friends (John 15:13 )
Transfiguration, the - They impressed a new seal upon the ancient, eternal truth that the partition wall which sin had raised could he broken down by no other means than by the power of his sufferings; that he as the good Shepherd could only ransom his sheep with the price of his own life
Hermes (1) Trismegistus, Writings of Unknown Authorship - The two principal are the Ποιμάνδρης (the "Shepherd of Men"), and the Λόγος τέλειος (or "Discourse of Initiation"), otherwise called "Asclepius
Foot - When an Oriental Shepherd wishes to punish a straying and inattentive sheep, he casts it on its side, and with all his weight presses and rubs the iron-studded sole of his shoe against its neck (1 Corinthians 15:25; 1 Corinthians 15:27)
Church - Some of these have been intimated above; others are that of husband and wife, Ephesians 5:30-32, a vine and its branches, John 15:1-6, and a Shepherd and his flock, John 10:11
Parable - ...
Good Shepherd, John 10:1-6
Elders - Their appointment was not to preach or teach (though if they took the lead well, and had the gift of teaching, they were worthy of double honour, 1 John 5:17 ), but 'to Shepherd' the assembly of God, Acts 20:28 , and to maintain it in order in the locality where they lived
Litany of the Holy Name of Jesus - ...
Jesus, good Shepherd, have mercy on us
Litany of the Holy Name - ...
Jesus, good Shepherd, have mercy on us
Holy Name, Litany of the - ...
Jesus, good Shepherd, have mercy on us
Joy - Shepherds hear that news of the birth of Christ is an occasion for great joy for all people (Luke 2:10 ). Upon finding the lost sheep, the Shepherd rejoices (15:3-7)
Baltimore, Maryland, City of - The Visitation Nuns were established in 1837 under Mother Juliana Matthews, Sisters of Notre Dame, 1847, of Mercy, 1855, of the Good Shepherd, 1864, in a home donated by Mrs
Joseph - He was sorely grieved, hated, and shot at, as was the Lord; but his bow abode in strength, and from him was the Shepherd, the stone of Israel (two titles of the Lord)
Elder - ...
The elders' task of oversight and discipline can be described in terms of keeping watch and Shepherding on behalf of the great Shepherd Jesus Christ. Be Shepherds of the church of God, which he bought with his own blood" (Acts 20:28 ). The pastoral character of this task of oversight is also indicated when Peter writes: "To the elders among you, I appeal as a fellow elder Be Shepherds of God's flock that is under your care, serving as overseers—not because you must, but because you are willing, as God wants you to be; not greedy for money, but eager to serve; not lording it over those entrusted to you, but being examples to the flock. And when the Chief Shepherd appears, you will receive the crown of glory that will never fade away" (1 Peter 5:1-4 )
Scribes - Scribe maybe meant in Ecclesiastes 12:11-12, "master of assemblies" under "one Shepherd," but the inspired writers are probably meant, "masters of collections," i. associates in the collected canon, given (Ephesians 4:11) from the Spirit of Jesus Christ the one Shepherd (Mark 12:32-345; 1 Peter 5:2-4)
Hebrews - Abraham, the founder of the Jewish nation, was a migratory Shepherd, whose property consisted mainly in vast flocks and herds, but who had no fixed residence, and removed from place to place as the convenience of water and pasturage dictated. David, a Shepherd youth, but the man after God's own heart, was afterwards king, and founded a family which continued to reign in Jerusalem until the entire subjugation of the country by the Chaldeans
Zechariah, Prophecy of - The whole flock (nation) is given over to slaughter, and Jehovah takes up their cause, for their own Shepherds (scribes, elders, rulers, priests) did not pity them. He raises up the true Shepherd, who feeds the remnant (the poor of the flock). The faithless Shepherds in Israel are cut off: cf. The true Shepherd having been refused, Jehovah speaks (Zechariah 11:15-17 ) of the false Shepherd, Antichrist, thus passing over unnoticed the whole of the present period, which makes it evident that the church is not alluded to in Zechariah: cf
Symbol - Examples of these are the Second Adam, the Firstborn, the Chief Shepherd, the Chief Corner-stone
Names of Our Lord - ...
IN THE OLD TESTAMENT ...
Almighty Word, Wisdom of Solomon 18:15
Brightness of Eternal Light, Wisdom of Solomon 7:26
Child, Isaiah 9:6
Counsellor, Isaiah 9:6
Desire of Eternal Hills, Genesis 49:26
Desired of all nations, Aggeus 2:8
Emmanuel, Isaiah 7:14
Expectation of nations, Genesis
Father of World to Come, Isaiah
God the Mighty, Isaiah 9:6
Holy One of Israel, Isaiah 43:3
Holy One, Psalms 15:10
Just Branch, Jeremiah 23:5
Just, Isaiah 45:8
King of Glory, Psalms 23:7
Lord of Hosts, Isaiah 9:7
Lord Our Just One, Jeremiah 23:6
Man of Sorrows, Isaiah 53:3
Man, Michah 5:5
My Just One, Isaiah 41:10
Orient, Zachariah 6:12
Prince of Peace, Isaiah 9:6
Root of Jesse, Isaiah 11:10
Ruler of the Earth, Isaiah 16:1
Sun of Justice, Malachi 4:2
Wonderful, Isaiah 9:6
USED BY HIMSELF ...
Bread of Life, John 6:35
Door, John 10:9
Good Shepherd, John 10:11
Life, John 11:25
Light of the World, John 9:5
Lord, John 13:13
Master, John 13:13
Resurrection and Life, John 11:25
Son of Man, Matthew 8:2O
Son, John 5:22
Vine, John 15:1
Way, Truth, and Life, John 14:6
USED BY THE APOSTLES and EVANGELISTS ...
Advocate, 1 John 2:1
Almighty, Apocalypse 1:8
Alpha and Omega, Apocalypse 1:8
Amen, Apocalypse 3:14
Author and Finisher of Faith, Hebrews 12:2
Author of Life, Acts 3:15
Beginning and End, Apocalypse 1:8
Blessed God, Mark 14:61
Child Jesus, Luke 2:43
Christ Jesus, 1 Timothy 1:1
Christ, Matthrew 1:18
Corner-Stone, Epheisans 2:21
Day Star, 2 Peter 1:19
Faith, Hebrews 12:2
Faithful Witness, Apocalypse 1:5
First and Last, Apocalypse 1:17
First Born from the Dead, Apocalypse 1:5
Galitean, Matthew 26:69
God of the Jews, Romans 3:29
Great Pastor, Hebrews 13:20
He that is to come, Hebrews 10:37
Head, Ephesians 4:15
High Priest, Hebrews 2:17
Jesus Christ the Just, 1 John 2:1
Jesus, Matthew 27:17
Key of David, Apocalypse 3:7
King of Kings, Apocalypse 19:16
Lamb of God, John 1:29
Life Eternal, 1 John 1:2
Lion of the Tribe of Juda, Apocalypse 5:5
Living Stone, 1 Peter 2:4
Lord Jesus Christ, Acts 10:48
Lord of All, Galatians 4:1
Lord of Lords, Apocalypse 19:16
Lord Our God, Apocalypse 4:11
Mediator, Hebrews 9:15
Messias, John 1:41 (passim)
Only Begotten of the Father, John 1:14
Our Lord Jesus Ghrist, Romans 1:4
Pascha Nostrum, 1 Corinthians 5:7
Power of God, 1 Corinthians 1:24
Priest, Hebrews 8:4
Prince of the kings of the earth, Apocalypse 1:5
Rabbi, John 1:18
Rock of Scandal, Romans 9:33
Root of David, Apocalypse 5:6
Saviour of the world, John 4:42
Saviour, Luke 2:11
Son of David, Mark 12:86
Son of God, Matthew 8:29
Son of Joseph, Luke 3:23
Son of the Living God, Matthew 16:16
Star of the morning, Apocalypse 2:23
Stone of stumbling, 1 Peter 2:8
Stone, Matthew 21:42
Teacher, John 3:2
That which was from the beginning, 1 John 1:1
Victim, Ephesians 5:2
Wisdom of God, 1 Corinthians 1:24
Word, John 1:1
Word of God, Apocalypse 19:13
Word of Life, 1 John 1:1
USED BY OTHERS ...
Adonai, O Antiphons
Angel in the liturgy of the Mass
Captain of our salvation, Ephiphany, Matins
Captain of the Martyrs, Octain of Saint Stephen, Matins
Carpenter's Son, Matthew 13:55
Christ our King, First Wednesday in Advent, Matins
Christ the Lord, Saturday within Octave of Christmas, Matins
Eagle, Saint Maximus, Homily 42
Eternal, Christmas Day, Lauds
Eternal Word of God made Flesh, Ember Saturday in Advent, Martins
Glory of Thy people Israel, Luke 2:32
God of God, title in Gloria
God our Saviour, Christmas Day, Vespers (I)
God the Son, Saturday within Octave of Christmas, Matins
Great Prophet, First Sunday in Advent, Lauds
Heavenly Bridegroom, Epiphany, Lauds
Holy, Luke 1:35
Holy One of God, Luke 4
King of all the earth, Second Monday in Advent, Vespers
King of Angel Hosts above, Circumcision, Matins
King of Heaven, Christmas Day, Matins
King of Israel, Mark 15:32
King of Righteousness, Third Thursday in Advent, Matins
King of the Gentiles, O Antiphons
King of the Jews, Matthew 2:2
King Peaceful, Christmas Day, Vespers (I)
Light to the revelation of the Gentiles, Luke 2:32
Light of Light, title in Gloria
Lord of Angels, Eve of Epiphany, Matins
Lord Our King, Fourth set of antiphons
Lord our Lawgiver, Fourth set of antiphons
Lord our Saviour, Circumcision, Matins
Lord that shall rule, Fourth set of antiphons
Lord the King, Ephiphany, Matins
Lord the Ruler, Second Sunday in Advent, Matins
Nimrod - The Egyptian and Ethiopic hyk (in hyk-sos , the "shepherd kings"), a "king," in Babylonian and Susianian is khak
Wilderness (2) - The territories held by those nomads—called Bedawîn in modern times—are not without water and grass; but these indispensable resources, required for the herds, are both scarce, and the tribes of Shepherds, are compelled to remove their camps from one place to another for feeding and watering their cattle. At the boundary itself of those two tracts of land live some populations which hold a sort of intermediate position in the progress of civilization: they are half-sedentary, half-shepherds (half-Fellahîn, half-Bedawîn), and, dwelling still under tents, they cultivate the ground, plough, sow, and reap (cf. In that respect, as well as in others, John is like Amos, the Shepherd of Tekoa. There were, however, spaces of land without human habitations, and probably left to the Shepherds and their cattle. We have to mention here (a) the multiplication of loaves (Matthew 14:13-21, Mark 6:30-44, Luke 9:10-17, Matthew 15:32-38, Mark 8:1-10); (b) Jesus withdrawing for prayer (Mark 1:35, Luke 5:16), or to avoid the crowd (Mark 1:45, Luke 4:42, John 11:54); (c) the demoniac of Gadara (Luke 8:29); (d) the parable of the Lost Sheep (Luke 15:3-7), where the 99 sheep remain ‘in the wilderness,’ whereas the Shepherd goes after that which is lost until he finds it
Apostolic Fathers - Thus the "Shepherd" of Hermas has been placed in this category because it was supposed to have been written by the person of this name mentioned by St. On the other hand, in the Shepherd of Hermas, and possibly in the Expositions of Papias (for in this instance the inferences drawn from a few scanty fragments must be precarious), the sympathy with the Old Dispensation is unduly strong, and the distinctive features of the Gospel are darkened by the shadow of the Law thus projected upon them
Gelasius (1) i, Bishop of Rome - The Shepherd ought, he says, to lead the flock, not the flock control the Shepherd
Bishop, Elder, Presbyter - In the NT it means an overseer of men in reference to their spiritual life, and is closely connected with the idea of Shepherding; ‘the Shepherd (ποιμήν) and overseer (ἐπίσκοπος) of your souls’ (1 Peter 2:25); ‘the flock (ποίμνιον) in the which the Holy Ghost had made you overseers (ἐπίσκοποι) to tend (ποιμαίνειν) the Church (ἐκκλησία) of God’ (Acts 20:28). Only once in the NT is ‘shepherd’ or ‘pastor’ used of Christian ministers (Ephesians 4:11); but it is used of Christ in Hebrews 13:20, 1 Peter 2:25; 1 Peter 5:4; cf
da'Vid - After this he returned to the old Shepherd life again. One incident alone of his solitary Shepherd life has come down to us --his conflict with the lion and the bear in defence of his father's flocks. With his Shepherd's sling and five small pebbles he goes forth and defeats the giant
Amos - A Shepherd (probably owning flocks) and dresser of sycamore fig trees; specially called of the Lord to prophesy, though not educated in the prophets' schools (Amos 1:1; Amos 7:14-15)
Anthropomorphism - He rules as king, tends as Shepherd, loves as father
Agriculture - God is the Shepherd of Israel (Psalms 80:1); Israel is ‘the people of his pasture, and the sheep of his hand’ (Psalms 95:7, cf. Christ compares Himself to the Shepherd who seeks his lost sheep until he finds it (Luke 15:4), or lays down his life for the sheep (John 10:11). The multitude are, to His compassionate eye, as ‘sheep I not having a Shepherd’ (Matthew 9:36, Mark 6:34)
Peter - And presently Jesus charged him to make good his protestation of love by diligent care of the flock for which He, the Good Shepherd, had died. ‘Be it the office of love to feed the Lord’s flock, if it was an evidence of fear to deny the Shepherd’ (Augustine)
Song of Solomon - ) Others see the Song as a drama in which the pure love of the Shulammite maid and her Shepherd prevails over Solomon's callous attempt to bring the girl into his harem
Image - 100: 10, of certain cups or chalices, as Beliarmine pretends, on which was represented the parable of the good Shepherd carrying the lost sheep on his shoulders: but this instance only proves that the church, at that time, did not think emblematical figures unlawful ornaments of chalices
Christ in the Early Church - ...
(e) A mystical work which enjoyed considerable popularity in the early Church, the Shepherd, attributed in the Muratorian Canon to that Hermas who was brother of Pope Pius i. From the very first Jesus Christ stands out in all the records of the early Church as the personal, living Master, not merely the Shepherd and High Priest of His faithful ones, but the true Lord and King of the Universe. ’...
(b) A remarkable hymn attributed to Clement of Alexandria, intended apparently to be sung by Christian children, in which Christ is addressed throughout and praised as Ruler, Shepherd, and King, is found in his Paedagogus (iii. ), was comforted before her sufferings by a vision of Christ as an aged man, a Shepherd, sitting in the midst of a spacious garden, who said to her, ‘Thou hast done well, my child, in coming. But the earliest personal representation is suggestive; it is the figure of the Good Shepherd, sometimes bearing the lost sheep on His shoulders, sometimes surrounded by His flock
John, the Gospel by - ...
Rejected both in word and work, the Lord is now revealed as the Shepherd of the sheep in John 10 , which must be read in close connection with what precedes. For this He was the Shepherd, and the door of the sheep. He is the good Shepherd, and gives His life for the sheep; and there is a reciprocal knowledge or an intimacy between Himself and the sheep who are of a new and heavenly order, as there is between the Father and Himself. Also there is no fold now, but one flock and one Shepherd: thus Jews and Gentiles are joined in one flock
Joseph - ...
Joseph's readiness at his father's calls answers to the good Shepherd, the Son of God's volunteering to come securing our eternal welfare at the cost of His life (Psalms 40:6-7; John 10:11). )...
Apophis the last of the Shepherd kings was supposed to be the Pharaoh over Joseph. "Shepherds were an abomination" in Joseph's time, which could not have been the case under a Shepherd king. Had it been a Shepherd king's work, it would have been set aside on the return of the native dynasties. " Egypt was exposed to incursions of Canaanite Hittites and Arabs, and the invasion of the Shepherds or Hyksos was already impending
Zechariah, the Book of - ...
Judah's "own Shepherds" (Zechariah 11:3; Zechariah 11:5; and Zechariah 11:8) by selfish rapacity sold their country to Rome (John 11:48; John 11:50). The three Shepherds (Zechariah 11:8) cut off in one month answer to the three last princes of the Asmonaean line, Hyrcanus, Alexander, and Antigonus (the last conquered by Rome and Herod, and slain by the executioner, 34 B. Jehovah gave them up to a foolish (wicked) Shepherd (Zechariah 11:15-17) since they would not have the good Shepherd; namely, Rome pagan and papal, and finally the blasphemous antichrist (John 5:43; Daniel 11:35-38; Daniel 12:1; Daniel 9:27; 2 Thessalonians 2:3-12; Revelation 13:5-6; Revelation 13:13-18). At Zechariah 13:7 the prophecy of Messiah's betrayal (Zechariah 11:4; Zechariah 11:10; Zechariah 11:13-14) is resumed, "Awake O sword against My Shepherd and against the Man that is My Fellow (the mighty Man of My union, 'geber 'amithiy ,' one indissolubly joined by a common nature; contrast the Levitical law against injuring one's fellow
Peter, the Epistles of - ...
Also he alludes often to Christ's language, 1618451480_34; "Shepherd of souls," 1 Peter 2:25; "feed the flock of God . the chief Shepherd," 1 Peter 5:2; 1 Peter 5:4; "whom ye love," 1 Peter 1:8; 1 Peter 2:7; also 2 Peter 1:14, "shortly I must put off this my tabernacle, even as our Lord Jesus Christ hath showed me. )...
Though not of "the universally confessed" (homologoumea ) Scriptures, but of "the disputed" (antilegomena ), 2 Peter is altogether distinct from "the spurious" (notha ); of these there was no dispute, they were universally rejected as the Shepherd of Hermas, the Revelation of Peter, the Epistle of Barnabas
Death, Mortality - They knew the valley of the shadow of death was unavoidable, but they also knew that in the end the Shepherd would walk it with them (Psalm 23:4 ). Death comes like a Shepherd to lead us into the grave
Canon of the New Testament - It condemns as spurious "the Shepherd, written very recently in our own times at Rome by Hermes, while his brother Plus was bishop of the see of Rome," i. A third class he calls "the spurious," as "the Shepherd of Hermas," "the Epistle of Barnabas," "the Acts of Paul," which all rejected
Messiah - Micah prophesied that the Messiah was to come through the royal Davidic seedline to Shepherd his people and bring them security (5:1-4). Ezekiel called the exiles' attention to the Son of Man, the covenant mediator who would restore and Shepherd his people (chaps
Prophecy Prophet Prophetess - 95, who further refers to the Shepherd of Hermas, a Roman presbyter who was also a ‘prophet’). If the Didache represents the situation immediately after the Apostolic Age, the Shepherd of Hermas may be reasonably regarded as fixing the time when the authority of Christian prophecy was beginning to decline
Manasseh (1) - "...
After the fall of the ten tribes, Psalm 80 expresses Judah's prayer of sympathy for her sister: "give ear, O Shepherd of Israel, Thou that leadest Joseph like a flock
Honesty - the false leaders of the people are compared to ‘thieves and robbers’ who ravage the flock, in contrast to the Good Shepherd who tends it
Angel - ...
Revelation 1:20 (b) This word is probably the title given to the leader or the Shepherd or the pastor of each of the seven churches mentioned in chapters 2,3
Pharaoh - The Ηyksos or "shepherd kings", who ruled only Lower Egypt while native kings ruled Upper Egypt, began with the fourth of the 13th dynasty, and ended with Apophis or Apopi, the last of the 17th
Angel - 538, 568; Shepherd of Angels; Gilpin on Temptations; Casmanni Angelographia; Gill and Ridgeley's Bodies of Divinity
Egypt - The Old Kingdom, from its commencement to the invasion of Egypt by those called Hyksos or Shepherd-kings. It was to the Egyptians that Shepherds were an abomination, as scripture says, which may not have applied to the Hyksos (which signifies 'shepherds' and agrees with their being called Shepherd-kings), and this may account, under the control of God, for 'the best of the land' being given to the Israelites. Some 'shepherd-kings' invaded Lower Egypt
Ezekiel - Jesus' presentation of Himself as the Good Shepherd in Ezekiel 37:15-23 surely was intended as a contrast to the wicked Shepherd in Ezekiel 34:1
Parable - ' The teaching is not in the form of a parable: the Lord is speaking of Himself as the good Shepherd. THE LOST SHEEP was followed by the Shepherd until it was found
Arms - The SLING (Judges 20:16), the usual weapon of a Shepherd, as David, to ward off beasts from the flock
Micah, Book of - God plans to raise up a Shepherd from Bethlehem to bring peace and victory to His beleagured flock (Micah 5:1-9 )
No - , the Hyksos or Shepherd kings, invaded Egypt and fixed their capital at Memphis, a native dynasty was maintained in Thebes
Bible, Formation And Canon of - There is the historical solidity of God's revelation in history, but there is also the need for God's sheep to hear the voice of their Shepherd
Galilee - The vineyard, fig tree, Shepherd, and desert where the man fell among thieves, were appropriate in Judaea; the grainfields (Mark 4:28), the merchants and fisheries (Matthew 13:45; Matthew 13:47), and the flowers (Matthew 6:28), suited Galilee
Husbandman - We see the labourers standing in the market-place for hire (Matthew 20:3), the prosperous farmer critical about his barns (Luke 12:18), the Shepherd searching the grassy plateau for his sheep (Matthew 18:12)
Lamb - The Lamb becomes the great Shepherd of the sheep, whom He guides and they follow Him (Revelation 7:17)
Coming Again - He is to come in the glory of His Father with His angels, and reward every man according to his works (Matthew 16:27); seated on the throne of His glory, He is to gather before Him all nations, and separate them one from another as a Shepherd divides His sheep from the goats (Matthew 25:31-32)
Apostolic Fathers - Using the form of an apocalypse or revelation, the Shepherd of Hermas deals with the heatedly debated question of repentance for serious post-baptismal sins such as apostasy, adultery, or murder
Wells - When the pool, the fountain, and the river fail, the oriental Shepherd is reduced to the necessity of digging wells; and, in the patriarchal age, the discovery of water was reckoned of sufficient importance to be the subject of a formal report to the master of the flock, who commonly distinguished the spot by an appropriate name. In this manner the well was covered, from which the flocks of Laban were commonly watered: and the Shepherds, careful not to leave them open at any time, patiently waited till all the flocks were gathered together, before they removed the covering, and then, having drawn a sufficient quantity of water, they replaced the stone immediately. The extreme scarcity of water in these arid regions, entirely justifies such vigilant and parsimonious care in the management of this precious fluid; and accounts for the fierce contentions about the possession of a well, which so frequently happened between the Shepherds of different masters. But after the question of right, or of possession, was decided, it would seem the Shepherds were often detected in fraudulently watering their flocks and herds from their neighbour's well. This was probably the reason that the Shepherds of Padanaram declined the invitation of Jacob to water the flocks, before they were all assembled; either they had not the key of the lock which secured the stone, or, if they had, they durst not open it but in the presence of Rachel, to whose father the well belonged. It is ridiculous to suppose the stone was so heavy that the united strength of several Mesopotamian Shepherds could not roll it from the mouth of the well, when Jacob had strength or address to remove it alone; or that, though a stranger, he ventured to break a standing rule for watering the flocks, which the natives did not dare to do, and that without opposition. The oriental Shepherds were not on other occasions so passive, as the violent conduct of the men of Gerar sufficiently proves
Jacob - Like his father, he was of a quiet and gentle disposition, and when he grew up followed the life of a Shepherd, while his brother Esau became an enterprising hunter
David - From humble beginnings as the youngest son of a Bethlehem Shepherd named Jesse, David rose to become Israel’s greatest king
Siricius, Bishop of Rome - They are: "We recognize in the letter of your holiness the watchfulness of a good Shepherd, diligently keeping the door committed to thee, and with pious solicitude guarding the sheepfold of Christ, worthy of being heard and followed by the sheep of the Lord
Animals - ’ The Son of Man shall separate all the nations ‘as a Shepherd separateth the sheep from the goats,’ and the simile is quite true to pastoral life. The wolf is the chief enemy against which the Shepherd has to guard his flock. Eastern Shepherds employ dogs (if they employ them at all) not to help in herding the sheep, but to ward off wolves. In contrast to the hireling, the Good Shepherd faces the wolf even at the risk of his life (John 10:12)
Destroy, Destroyer, Destruction, Destructive - , lost to the Shepherd, metaphorical of spiritual destitution, Luke 15:4,6 , etc
Bishop - " In the larger churches, as Ephesus and Smyrna, there were many presbyters, but only one angel under the one "chief Shepherd and Bishop of Souls," the term "bishop" thus being applicable to the highest pastoral superintendence (Numbers 27:18-207; 1 Peter 5:4)
Fig Tree - Hasselquist, in his journey from Nazareth to Tiberias, says, "We refreshed ourselves under the shade of a fig tree, where a Shepherd and his herd had their rendezvous; but without either house or hut
Praise - As king, God is judge, warrior, and Shepherd. God's most spectacular action involves the incarnation of Jesus, an event heralded in praises by angels in the heavens and Shepherds returning to their fields: "Glory to God in the highest" (Luke 2:14,20 )
Abercius, Bishop of Hierapolis - καιρῷ ) a resting-place for my body—Avircius by name, a disciple of the pure Shepherd, who on the mountains and plains feedeth the flocks of His sheep, who hath eyes large and beholding all things
Life, Living, Lifetime, Life-Giving - which holdeth our soul (psuche) in life (zoe),' and John 10:10 , 'I came that they may have life (zoe),' with John 10:11 , 'The Good Shepherd layeth down His life (psuche) for the sheep
Petrus, Saint, Archbaptist of Alexandria - 311 "the Christians found themselves again in great peril" (Burton); and one of the first acts of Maximin's renewed persecution was to smite the Shepherd of the flock at Alexandria
Ecclesiastes, Theology of - The only mention of the book in the first centuries of the church is in the Shepherd of Hermas, and that book alluded to only the last two verses. He registers criticism of Qohelet's conclusions in 12:11,12 (obscured in the NIV by its debatable translation and capitalization of "shepherd, " which is more probably a reference to human teachers)
Man (2) - He was often moved to compassion by the multitudes which followed Him; they were as sheep without a Shepherd; they heard Him gladly, and even tarried with Him a whole day, and that in a desert place (Mark 1:41; Mark 6:30-36). If the recovery of one sheep brought joy to the Shepherd in charge of the flock, a man, by his choice and pursuit of the good, could bring joy to the heart of God (Luke 15:3-7)
Bishop - ; in Titus 1:7 he gives a similar charge to Titus; and 1 Peter 2:25 speaks of Christ as ‘the Shepherd and bishop of your souls
Servant of the Lord - We have been healed by the wounds Christ suffered on our behalf as the good Shepherd gave his life to rescue the straying sheep (Isaiah 53:5-6 ; 1 Peter 2:25 )
Jesus, the Lord - He led them and went before them as the Good Shepherd, held them in His hand, securing them thus for eternal life, and finally laid down His life for the sheep
Zechariah, Book of - God will make a new covenant with the remnant of His people after striking His Shepherd (Zechariah 13:7-9 )
Faithfulness - Shepherd, The Responsibility of God
Judah - And surely, as it is said of Christ in one blessed Scripture, that the names of his people are all "written in the book of life," (Revelation 20:15) and in another he bids his people to "rejoice that their names are written there," (Luke 10:20) as when considering himself the Shepherd of his flock, and his people the sheep of his fold, he saith that "he calleth them all by name, and leadeth them out," (John 10:3) and as the whole flocks of the mountains and of the vale, and of the cities of Benjamin, Jerusalem, and Judah, shall all pass again under the hands of him that telleth them, (Jeremiah 33:13) surely it is not stretching the Scripture to say, that the Shebeth of Jehudah is as eminently descriptive of the greatness of his character, when speaking of this use of it, in writing, as in ruling, for sovereignty is implied in both, And the poor feeble hand that is now writing these lines, (earnestly begging forgiveness if he errs in the matter) cannot conclude this article without first saying, (and will not the reader for himself also join the petition?) Oh, that the almighty Jehudah may have graciously exercised the Shebeth of his power, and written my poor name, worthless as it is, among the millions he hath marked down in the book of life! Amen
John, Gospel of - This resulted in Jesus’ contrasting himself as the good Shepherd with them as worthless Shepherds (10:1-30)
Prudence - When He withdrew to the desert on hearing of John’s death, the crowds followed Him; and Jesus, seeing them as sheep without a Shepherd, had compassion on them, and began to teach them (Mark 6:34)
Song of Songs - The revised explanation was that Solomon carried off ‘ the Shulammite ’ to his harem, and, abetted by the women already there, the ‘daughters of Jerusalem,’ sought to divert her affections from her Shepherd-lover: failing in this, he at last magnanimously resigned her to the Shepherd
Egypt - In this period the nomadic horde called Hyksos for several centuries occupied and made Egypt tributary; their capital was Memphis; they constructed an immense earth-camp, which they called Abaris; two independent kingdoms were formed in Egypt, one in the Thebaid, which held intimate relations with Ethiopia; another at Xois, among the marshes of the Nile; but finally the Egyptians regained their independence, and expelled the Hyksos; Manetho supposes they were called hyksos, from hyk, a king, and sos, a Shepherd. 1920, which would bring it, according to some, at the date of the Hyksos, or Shepherd-kings; others regard this as too late a date, and put it in the beginning of the twelfth dynasty; and his favorable reception is supposed to be illustrated by a picture in the tombs at Beni Hassan (where are many remarkable sculptures), representing the arrival of a distinguished nomad chief with his family, seeking protection under Osirtasen II. Among the various other allusions to Egypt in the Bible are those to its fertility and productions, Genesis 13:10; Exodus 16:3; Numbers 11:5; to its mode of irrigation as compared with the greater advantages of Canaan, which had rain and was watered by natural streams, Deuteronomy 11:10; its commerce with Israel and the people of western Asia, Genesis 37:25; Genesis 37:36; 1 Kings 10:28-29; Ezekiel 27:7; its armies equipped with chariots and horses, Exodus 14:7; Isaiah 31:1; its learned men and its priests, Genesis 41:8; Genesis 47:22; Exodus 7:11; 1 Kings 4:30; its practice of embalming the dead, Genesis 50:3; its aversion to Shepherds, and its sacrifices of cattle, Genesis 46:34; Exodus 8:26; how its people should be admitted into the Jewish Church, Deuteronomy 23:7-8; the warnings to Israel against any alliance with the Egyptians, Isaiah 30:2; Isaiah 36:6; Ezekiel 17:15; Ezekiel 29:6; and to the towns of the country
Manicheans - A Shepherd sees a wild beast about to rush into the midst of his flock. The Shepherd, however, delivers the kid and leaves the lion to perish (Disp
Moses - Sitting at a well, the typical meeting place for the culture (see also Genesis 29:2 ), Moses witnessed the violent aggression of male Shepherds against female Shepherds who had already drawn water for their sheep. Moses saved the oppressed Shepherds, whose father, the priest of Midian, invited him to live and work under the protection of the Midianite's hospitality. ...
The event at the burning bush while Moses worked as a Shepherd introduced him to the critical character of his heroic work
Bereans - Barclay from succeeding to the church of Fettercairn (notwithstanding the almost unanimous desire of the parishioners) the Bereans had not left the established church, or attempted to erect themselves into a distinct society; but they add, that this was by no means necessary on their part, until by the assembly's decision they were in danger of being not only deprived of his instructions, but of being scattered as sheep without a Shepherd
Dress - The readiness with which their loose garments were changed is noted in Jeremiah 43:12; "he shall array himself with Egypt as (speedily and easily as) a Shepherd putteth on his garment" (compare Psalms 102:26)
Voice (2) - Jesus compares the call which He makes to that of the Shepherd to his sheep (John 10:3-5 ‘the sheep hear his voice’; cf
Moses - In his long life he also acted on behalf of God to bring into being an enduring nation, while functioning as a prophet, judge, recorder of God's pronouncements, intercessor, military leader, worker of miracles, and tireless Shepherd of the unruly Israelite tribes
Philistia - The opprobrious name given to the Shepherd kings, Philition (Herodotus ii
Joseph - "...
Now, what were the feelings in Joseph which responded to these? When the sons of Jacob went down to Egypt, and Joseph knew them, though they knew not him; for they, it may be remarked, were of an age not to be greatly changed by the lapse of years, and were still sustaining the character in which Joseph had always seen them; while he himself had meanwhile grown out of the stripling into the man, and from a Shepherd boy was become the ruler of a kingdom; when his brethren thus came before him, his question was, "Is your father yet alive?" Genesis 43:7 . It is not the constancy with which the son's strong affection for his father had lived through an interval of twenty years' absence, and, what is more, through the temptation of sudden promotion to the highest estate;—it is not the noble- minded frankness with which he still acknowledges his kindred, and makes a way for them, "shepherds" as they were, to the throne of Pharaoh himself;—it is not the simplicity and singleness of heart which allow him to give all the first-born of Egypt, men over whom he bore absolute rule, an opportunity of observing his own comparatively humble origin, by leading them in attendance upon his father's corpse to the valleys of Canaan and the modest cradle of his race;—it is not, in a word, the grace, but the identity of Joseph's character, the light in which it is exhibited by himself, and the light in which it is regarded by his brethren, to which I now point as stamping it with marks of reality not to be gainsayed
David - From what we know of his after history, doubtless he frequently beguiled his time, when thus engaged, with his Shepherd's flute, while he drank in the many lessons taught him by the varied scenes spread around him. David went back again to his Shepherd life, but "the Spirit of the Lord came upon David from that day forward," and "the Spirit of the Lord departed from Saul" (1 Chronicles 12:8-186 ). He played before the king so skilfully that Saul was greatly cheered, and began to entertain great affection for the young Shepherd
Kingdom Kingdom of God - ...
In the Catholic Epistles we have: ‘the Parousia of the Lord is at hand’ (James 5:8), ‘the apocalypse of Jesus Christ’ (1 Peter 1:13), ‘when the chief Shepherd is manifested’ (1 Peter 5:4), ‘the day of the Lord’ (2 Peter 3:10), the manifestation of Christ (1 John 3:2); in Hebrews: ‘he that cometh will come, and will not tarry’ (Hebrews 10:37); and in the Apocalypse, the many references to the Coming of Christ, beginning with Revelation 1:7. ]'>[4] ...
By thus expressing the Christian hope in terms of expectation of the Return of Christ, and by substituting for ‘King’ and ‘Son of Man’ such terms as ‘Lord,’ ‘Saviour,’ ‘Chief Shepherd,’ the apostolic writers were able to avoid suspicion of political propaganda, and to give to the thought of the Second Coming a far wider significance than any which they could have suggested by laying too much emphasis upon the future as the establishment of a Kingdom, however much they might have attempted to give to this term a spiritual and non-material connotation
Hope - ), as it animated the Chief Shepherd ( John 10:27 ff; John 12:26 ; John 14:2 ff; John 17:2 etc
Abraham - As such, Abraham emerged from a background of high culture, and was not the illiterate Shepherd envisaged by some nineteenth-century literary critics
Fall, the - Shepherd, BEB, 2:765-67; G
James, the General Epistle of - The Shepherd of Hermas soon after quotes James 4:7
Hospitality - Taking the role of host to the multitude, Jesus is portrayed as one like Yahweh, who fed the people in the wilderness (Exodus 16 ); as one like the prophets of Yahweh, who fed his disciples and had food left over (2 Kings 4:42-44 ); as one like the coming Davidic Shepherd, who would care for his flock in the wilderness (Genesis 18:1,10 )
Hearing - also the references in John 10 to the sheep ‘hearing’ the voice of the Good Shepherd
Exodus - The are termed Shepherd-kings, and represented as coming from the east
Babylon - It shall never be inhabited, neither shall it be dwelt in from generation to generation: neither shall the Arabian pitch tent there: neither shall the Shepherds make their fold there. " "Thus saith the Lord, that saith unto the deep, Be dry; and I will dry up thy rivers: that saith of Cyrus, He is my Shepherd, and shall perform all my pleasure,—and I will loose the loins of kings, to open before him the two-leaved gates; and the gates shall not be shut. Neither shall the Arabian pitch tent there, neither shall the Shepherds make their folds there. " It was prophesied of Ammon that it should be a stable for camels and a couching place for flocks; and of Philistia, that it should be cottages for Shepherds, and a pasture of flocks. ...
But Babylon was to be visited with a far greater desolation, and to become unfit or unsuited even for such a purpose; and that neither a tent would be pitched there, even by an Arab, nor a fold made by a Shepherd, implies the last degree of solitude and desolation. "It is common in these parts for Shepherds to make use of ruined edifices to shelter their flocks in. Instead of taking the bricks from thence, the Shepherd might very readily erect a defence from wild beasts, and make a fold for his flock amidst the heaps of Babylon; and the Arab who fearlessly traverses it by day, might pitch his tent by night
Teaching - ...
The teaching was oral, as a rule, but it might be conveyed by means of didactic epistles, such as those contained in the NT or those of Clement of Rome and Ignatius, or works like the Didache and the Shepherd of Hermas. The amplification and modification of this primitive norm of belief and practice can be traced in the Didache, the Epistles of Clement and Ignatius, and the Shepherd of Hermas in the immediately succeeding years
Bethlehem - With David, the great-grandson of Ruth, there entered the royal element into the genealogy of Jesus; and Bethlehem has no associations more sacred and tender than its associations with the Shepherd king of Israel, unless it be those that link it for ever with God manifest in the flesh. When the fulness of the time had come, the Messianic hope became the place of broad rivers and streams which we so happily know and enjoy, and the glad tidings was heard on the plains of Bethlehem, addressed to the watchful Shepherds: ‘Fear not: for, behold, I bring you glad tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people. And I Joseph walked and I walked not; and I looked up into the sky and saw the sky violently agitated; and I looked up at the pole of heaven, and I saw it standing still and the birds of the air still; and I directed my gaze on the earth, and I saw a vessel lying and workmen reclining by it and their hands in the vessel, and those who handled did not handle it, and those who presented it to the mouth did not present it, but the faces of all were looking up; and I saw the sheep scattered and the sheep stood, and the Shepherd lifted up his hand to strike them and his hand remained up; and I looked at the stream of the river, and I saw that the mouths of the kids were down and not drinking; and everything which was being impelled forward was intercepted in its course
Moses - Jacob and his retinue were accustomed to a Shepherd's life, and on their arrival in Egypt were received with favour by the king, who assigned them the "best of the land", the land of Goshen, to dwell in. The Hyksos or "shepherd" king who thus showed favour to Joseph and his family was in all probability the Pharaoh Apopi (or Apopis)
New Covenant - ...
In Ezekiel 34:25 , God promises that he will gather his sheep Israel and place his servant David over them as their Shepherd; then he will make a covenant of peace with them, so that Israel will live in the land in safety and prosperity
Babylon - ...
This also was prophesied of in scripture: it specifies that Cyrus was God's Shepherd, and He had holden him to subdue nations: God would loose the loins of kings to open before him the two-leaved gates; and the gates should not be shut: the gates of brass should be broken, and the bars of iron be cut asunder. It shall never be inhabited, neither shall it be dwelt in from generation to generation: neither shall the Arabian pitch tent there; neither shall the Shepherds make their fold there: but wild beasts of the desert shall lie there, and their houses shall be full of doleful creatures; and owls shall dwell there, and satyrs shall dance there
Psalms, Book of - In Psalm 23 in consequence of redemption being accomplished, the Lord becomes the Shepherd and takes care of the sheep
Song of Solomon - A favourite theory of German theologians and of many English is that it is literally a love story: that Solomon sought to draw away a lowly maiden from a Shepherd, to whom she was betrothed; but to whom she remained faithful
Twelve - Their voices are fleeting, their happiness is transient, their way is a way of tears and they know not the river of the water of life nor the green pastures provided by the good Shepherd
Ave Maria - In the ideal picture of the future fold, the one flock still needs the presence of the one Shepherd (John 10:16)
Discourse - Of these there are a great number and variety, spoken sometimes to great multitudes, sometimes to groups, but publicly: on Blasphemy (Matthew 12:22-37, Mark 3:19-30); on Signs (Matthew 12:38-45); latter part of discourse on Eating with Unwashen Hands, and Traditions (Matthew 15:1-20, Mark 7:1-23); on Signs again (1618451480_84 Mark 8:11-12); on Demons and Signs again (Luke 11:14-36); on Confession, Worldliness, Watchfulness (Luke 12); on Repentance, with parable of the Barren Fig-tree (Luke 13:1-9); on the Good Shepherd (John 10:1-18); on His Messiahship and Relations with the Father (John 10:22-38); Sabbath Healing, parables of Mustard Seed and Leaven (Luke 13:10-21); on the Salvation of the Elect (Luke 13:23-30); Lament over Jerusalem (Luke 13:34-35); on Counting the Cost of Following Him (Luke 14:25-35); reproof of the Pharisees, with parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus (Luke 16:14-31); on the Coming of the Kingdom (1618451480_9); on Prayer, with parables of the Importunate Widow, and of the Pharisee and Publican (Luke 18:1-14); the colloquies with His critics in the Temple, on His Authority, on the Tribute to Caesar, on the Resurrection, on the Great Commandment, on the Son of David (Matthew 21:23 to Matthew 22:46, Mark 11:27 to Mark 12:37, Luke 20); remarks on Belief and Unbelief (John 12:44-50)
Parable - the relation of love between the Eastern Shepherd and sheep (2 Samuel 12:3, an Old Testament parable, as the vineyard Isaiah 5 also) to catch the point of the parable of the lost sheep
Bethlehem - Here David was born, and spent his early years as a Shepherd. " The road winds round the top of a valley which tradition has fixed on as the scene of the angelic vision which announced the birth of our Lord to the Shepherds; but different spots have been selected, the Romish authorities not being agreed on this head. These concerts charm the Christian Arab, who, leaving his camels to feed, repairs, like the Shepherds of old, to Bethlehem, to adore the King of kings in the manger
Nationality - The harriers had been broken down between Jew and Gentile, Greek and barbarian, bond and free; they being brought by the blood of the Cross near to God, and so to one another, in order that henceforth the bonds of brotherhood might be of a purely human character, and that the parables of the Good Samaritan and of the Shepherd-judgment might be the pattern and sanction for next-door philanthropies and world-wide missions
Mark, Gospel According to - Indirectly the Shepherd of Hermas supplies a great argument for the antiquity of the Gospels, because it shows the uniqueness of our Lord’s parables as there narrated. Joshua - 'Let the Lord, the God of the spirits of all flesh, set a man over the congregation, which may go out before them, and which may lead them out, and which may bring them in; that the congregation of the Lord be not as sheep which have no Shepherd. To the young soldier He appears in vision as a captain, to the young preacher He appears as a preacher, to the young pastor He is the chief Shepherd, to the young merchant He is an example of successful buying and selling, to a master He appears as a master, and to a servant as a servant; sometimes He is a lover, sometimes He is a husband, sometimes a son, and sometimes a brother, and so on, till He never leaves any man at his entrance on life without a divine vision, and an ideal example, and a sacred summons to take his shoes off his feet
Novatianus And Novatianism - The origin of the Novatianist schism must be sought in the struggle which, originating with the Shepherd of Hermas (Baur, Church Hist. Archaeologists have often been puzzled by the symbol of a Good Shepherd carryings a kid, not a lamb, on his shoulders, found in the cemetery of St
Jesus Christ - Shepherds heard, came, and wondered. Luke's Shepherds knew Him as “a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord” (Luke 2:11 ). John portrays Jesus as the Water of life (John 4:14 ); the Bread of life (John 6:41 ); the Light (John 8:12 ); the Door (John 10:7 ); the Good Shepherd (John 10:11 ); the Resurrection and the Life (John 11:25 ); the Way, the Truth, the Life (John 14:6 )
Saul - At length David returned to his father's house and to his wonted avocation as a Shepherd for perhaps some three years
Amos - Much of his imagery is drawn from nature: earthquakes and the eclipse of the sun, the cedars and the oaks, the roaring of the lion, the snaring of birds, the bite of the viper; once only does he draw a comparison from Shepherd life ( Amos 3:12 )
John, Theology of - Most graphically, the Shepherd discourse of John 10 describes this voluntary death that will save the life of the sheep. This is Jesus' flock and he is the Shepherd (chap
Pharaoh - ...
The Pharaoh who was on the throne when Abram went down into Egypt (Genesis 12:10-20 ) was probably one of the Hyksos, or "shepherd kings. To the old native Egyptians, who were an African race, Shepherds were "an abomination;" but to the Hyksos kings these Asiatic Shepherds who now appeared with Jacob at their head were congenial, and being akin to their own race, had a warm welcome (Genesis 47:5,6 )
Zechariah, Book of - The Shepherds of Judah, Jehovah’s flock, are condemned, and victory is promised to the flock. In 11:4 17, 13:7 9 the figure of the false Shepherds, introduced in the preceding section, is worked out into an allegory of the false and true Shepherd, in a way that enables the prophet to illustrate the frustration of God’s beneficeot purpose by the obstinacy of His people, as well as the evil character of their rulers. The three Shepherds cut off in quick succession strongly suggest the conditions shortly before the Maccabæan uprising, but the highly symbolic and somewhat imitative character of the prophecy renders it precarious to seek any exact picture of immediate conditions; our ignorance, too, of large portions of the post-exilic age makes it impossible to say that some other time may not have furnished an equally appropriate occasion
David - David will not be the good Shepherd who will give his life for the sheep
Canticles; the Song of Solomon - The literalists explain it as displaying "the victory of humble and constant love over the temptations of wealth and royalty": Solomon tempting a Shulamite Shepherdess, who, in spite of the fascinations of his splendid court, pines for her Shepherd lover from whom she has been severed. A Shepherdess (Song of Solomon 1:7) would have been an abomination to the Egyptians; nor do Revelation 19:7-816; Song of Solomon 3:4; Song of Solomon 4:8; Song of Solomon 5:7 suit this view. " Taken allegorically there is nothing incongruous in what would be, if literally taken, inexplicable; she by turns being a vinedresser, Shepherdess, midnight inquirer, prince's consort, and at the same time daughter; just as under the same image in Psalms 45:9-10; Psalms 45:13-14, the church is at once the Lord's bride and daughter; as Psalm 45, "a song of loves," answers to Canticles, so Psalm 37 to Proverbs, and Psalm 39; Psalm 73 to Job
Balaam - because of the children of Israel, and Moab said unto the elders of Midian, Now shall this company lick up all that are round about us, as the ox licketh up the grass of the field" (how natural the image in the mouth of a Shepherd king, as "the king of Moab was a sheep master," 2 Kings 3:4)
Exodus, Book of - Thus Moses had to flee to the wilderness of Midian, where he helped seven endangered Shepherd girls
Stranger, Alien, Foreigner - The same faculty of discrimination, created and guided by the Spirit of Christ, enabled them to take the first steps in sifting the writings of the Apostolic Age, and setting apart those which spoke to them with the voice and authority of the Chief Shepherd
Micah, Theology of - He will Shepherd his flock in the strength of the Lord (v
Religion - To serve his historical purposes, God calls Assyria "the rod of my anger , the club of my wrath" (Isaiah 10:5 ), Nebuchadnezzar "my servant" (Jeremiah 25:9 ), and Cyrus "my Shepherd" to "accomplish all that I plan" (Isaiah 44:28 )
the Man Who Took a Rain of Mustard Seed And Sowed it in His Field - What could be a smaller seed, at the time, than the emigration of the son of Terah out of Ur of the Chaldees and into the land of the Canaanites? Again, what seed could well be smaller than that ark of bulrushes, daubed with slime and pitch, and hidden away among the flags by the river's brink? And, then, what less likely to spring up into all the psalms and hymns and spiritual songs of the Church of God than those little snatches of sacred psalmody that a Shepherd boy sang to his few sheep on the plains of Bethlehem? And to come to Old Testament institutions and ordinances also
Chronicles, Books of - As God's chosen Shepherd and line through whom God would build His house, David sought to order the life of Israel around the worship of God
mo'Ses - There were the Arabian Shepherds, and there were also seven maidens, whom the Shepherds rudely drove away from the water. He married Zipporah, daughter of his host, to whom he also became the slave and Shepherd
Canon of the New Testament - In this tract the Shepherd of Hermas and the Didache are both quoted as ‘Scripture. The third class, consisting of spurious works, contains the Acts of Paul; the Shepherd of Hermas; the Apocalypse of Peter; the Didache; and perhaps, according to some, the Revelation
Prophet, Prophetess, Prophecy - On the contrary, he was a most successful Shepherd in Tekoa and a grower of sycamore-fig fruit (1:1; 7:14). Haggai is uniquely called the "Lord's messenger" (1:13), while Ezekiel is called a "Shepherd" (chap
Destroy, Destruction - Their Shepherds have failed them, so the Lord himself will become their Shepherd and lead them home (Exodus 32:30 ; Ezekiel 34:1-16 ). Jesus himself claimed this Shepherding ministry perhaps partially quoting the Septuagint of Ezekiel 34:4 ( Matthew 10:6 ; 15:24 ; 18:11 ; Luke 19:10 )
Jesus, Life And Ministry of - ...
Jesus' Mission Who were “the lost sheep” to whom Jesus was called to be the Shepherd? The apparent answer is that they were those who were not expected to benefit from the coming of the Messiah. He claimed that God's joy at the recovery of all such sinners (tax collectors, prostitutes, Shepherds, soldiers, and others despised by the pious in Israel) was greater than any joy “over ninety and nine just persons, which need no repentance” (Luke 15:7 ; compare Luke 15:25-32 )
Children (Sons) of God - True, the Divine care for man and the Divine help are set forth under a wealth of imagery: God is shield, rock, fortress, refuge, Shepherd, light, salvation, but not Father
Numbers, the Book of - The building of Hebron seven years before Zoan (Tanis: probably connected here because both had the scale builder, one of the Hyksos, Shepherd kings of Egypt, who originally perhaps came from the region of the Anakim), the N
Bible, Texts And Versions - The earliest of these to contain the New Testament also contain the Old Testament (in the form of the Septuagint with the outside books) and other Christian writings such as 1,2Clement or The Shepherd of Hermas and the Letter of Barnabas
Wages - God is depicted as a Shepherd leading his sheep home to Judah from Babylon; the prophet switches the metaphor to describe God as a strong liberator who brings wages to distribute to his people: the wages of grace and salvation (Isaiah 40:10-11 ; 62:11 )
Joy (2) - word for ‘gospel’ (εὐαγγέλιον) means ‘good tidings,’ or, as it is described in Luke 2:10, in the message of the angel to the Shepherds, ‘good tidings of great joy’ (εὐαγγελίζομαι ὑμῖν χαρὰν μεγάλην). In the three famous parables that fill that chapter, the joy of God’s own heart is set forth under the images of the Shepherd with his sheep, the woman with her precious coin, and the father with his restored son
Disciple (2) - Matthew tells, immediately before he records the calling of the Twelve, that when Jesus ‘saw the multitudes he was moved with compassion for them, because they were distressed and scattered, as sheep not having a Shepherd
Almighty - The dead, small and great, stand before God, and are divided as a Shepherd divideth the sheep from the goats
Multitude - We read that on one occasion He had compassion on them because they were ἐσκυλμένοι καὶ ἐρριμμένοι, as sheep not having a Shepherd. Matthew 23:4); and ἐρριμμενοι, ‘scattered,’ without true spiritual Shepherds, John the Baptist being imprisoned and their regular teachers shamefully neglecting their duties
Prudentius, Marcus (?) Aurelius Clemens Prudentius - The Dittochaeon consists of titles for pictures, and nearly all the symbols which he uses (the Dove, the Palm, the Good Shepherd, etc
Art - Elsewhere he gives useful testimony by his incidental mention of Christian art work in the painting of the Good Shepherd and other subjects upon chalices (de Pudic. It would be an easier matter to have executed in the public studios a subject that could bear a pagan interpretation; and thus it is that we do find a statue of the Good Shepherd which probably belongs to the 3rd cent
Clemens Romanus of Rome - ...
(2) An independent proof that Clement held high position in the church of Rome is afforded by the Shepherd of Hermas, a work not later than the episcopate of Pius (a. The doctrine of the pre-existence of the church is, as Harnack noted, one of several points of contact between this work and the Shepherd of Hermas, making it probable that both emanate from the same age and the same circle
Teaching of the Twelve Apostles - the Wisdom of Solomon, the Wisdom of Sirach, Esther, Judith, Tobit, the so-called Teaching of the Apostles ( διδαχὴ καλουμένη τῶν ἀποστόλον ), and the Shepherd. of Clement, Ignatius, Polycarp, and the Shepherd, are all orthodox
Perfection (of Jesus) - He was not sent save as the physician of sick souls and the Shepherd of lost ones. And He drew nigh unto men in brotherly love as the physician of sick souls, the faithful Shepherd seeking the lost sheep of God, though thereby He outraged the sentiments of the Pharisees (Matthew 9:11; Matthew 11:19, Luke 15:2; Luke 19:7), though His friendship with them was helping to raise the eross on which He was slain
Ezra, the Book of - His restoring them in his first year immediately (Ezra 1:1), and his words "the Lord God of heaven has charged me to build Him a house at Jerusalem," plainly show he bad heard of God's words by Isaiah (Isaiah 44:28), "Cyrus is My Shepherd, and shall perform all My pleasure, even saying to Jerusalem, thou shalt be built, and to the temple, thy foundation shall be laid
Confession - Hermas, the prophet, tells us bluntly in the Shepherd of the confessions of untruthfulness and dishonesty which he was constrained to make publicly (Mand
Common Life - The physician, the sower, the reaper, the fisherman, the vinedresser, the Shepherd, the king at war, the housewife at her baking, the commonest incidents of daily life, the simplest phenomena of nature,—all have a place in His doctrine; all are used to illustrate the character and development of His kingdom
Cup - Tertullian (de Pudicitia, 10) speaks of the cup as being adorned with the figure of the Good Shepherd
the Man Who Found Treasure Hid in a Field - Just as our Lord is the Sower in another parable, and just as He is the Planter of the mustard seed in another, and the Good Shepherd in another, and the Good Samaritan in another, so He is the happy ploughing Man in this parable
Abel - His employment was that of a Shepherd; Cain followed the occupation of his father, and was a tiller of the ground
New Testament - The New Testament is entire, and the Epistle of Bamabas and parts of the Shepherd of Hermas are added
Christ in Mohammedan Literature - Then Jesus, when going on the way, asked a Shepherd to feed him, who said: ‘Tell one of my men to slay a sheep that it may be cooked. ‘Who art thou?’ said the Shepherd
Isaiah - The writer hailed Cyrus as the Shepherd of Yahweh who would build Jerusalem and set the exiles free (Isaiah 44:26-45:1 )
Jacob - ]'>[5] ), a Shepherd and herdsman
God, Names of - ...
Rich symbolism is also found in role descriptions that include language pictures like judge (Isaiah 33:22 ), warrior (Exodus 15:3 ), and Shepherd (Psalm 23 )
Soul - See also the Shepherd of Hermas, Simil
Zechariah, Theology of - However, in the second part dates are missing, the leaders are unnamed Shepherds, and the rebuilding of the temple has no place. Zechariah 13:7 says, "Strike the Shepherd, and the sheep will be scattered
Pseudo-Chrysostomus - ...
Besides the Scriptures he uses the Shepherd of Hermas (33 142) but acknowledges that it was not universally received; the Clementine Recognitions (20 94; 50 212; 51 214) the Apostolic Constitutions or Canons as he calls them (13 74; 53 221)
Soul - See also the Shepherd of Hermas, Simil
Matthew, the Gospel According to - darkened" Isaiah 13:10 Matthew 24:37 "The days of Noe" Genesis 6:11 Matthew 26:31 "I will smite the Shepherd" Zechariah 13:7 Matthew 26:52 "They that take the sword shall Genesis 9:6 perish with the sword" Psalms 22:8 "Son of man
Mission - , Luke 4:21; Luke 19:1-10), that He should foresee the approach of all men to Himself (John 12:32), and anticipate a time when He should be the Shepherd of one flock consisting of sheep gathered from far and near (John 10:16)
Calvinists - ...
The good Shepherd giveth his life for the sheep
Ethics - The Shepherd cares for the one lost sheep ( Luke 15:4-7 ), and has names for all the members of the flock ( John 10:14 )
Ministry - It appears in the announcement of the Forerunner (John 1:29; John 1:36), in the great saying to Nicodemus (John 3:14-16), in the discourse at Capernaum (John 6:32-33; John 6:48-51), in the parable of the Good Shepherd (John 10:11; John 10:15; John 10:17-18), in the remarks on the visit of the Greeks (John 12:20-33), and in the words of comfort to the disciples (John 15:13)
Messiah - The influence of the first and the last is clear in Ezekiel 34:23-31 ‘And I will set over them a Shepherd, and he shall feed them, even my servant David; … and I the Lord will be a God unto them, and my servant David a prince in their midst
Sorrow, Man of Sorrows - He feels sorrowful compassion over the multitude without a Shepherd (Matthew 9:36, Mark 6:34)
Hebrews, Epistle to the - The writer commends the saints to the God of peace, who brought again from the dead the Lord Jesus, the great Shepherd of the sheep, in the power of the blood of the everlasting covenant, that they might be perfect in every good work to do His will
Dress (2) - This is known as the u‘bb or ‘bosom,’ and in this are carried many things; for example, the bread and olives for the midday meal, the seed or corn for sowing (Luke 6:38), or, in the case of a Shepherd, a newborn lamb or kid (cf
David - in His Services - For, when the Holy Child said to Mary, Mother, teach Me to sing and to pray, what did Mary do, hiding all that in her heart, but put into her Child's hands David's golden Psalm beginning thus: The Lord is my Shepherd, I shall not want
Poetry of the Hebrews - Hence flowed, of course, the many allusions to pastoral life, to the "green pastures and the still waters," and to the care and watchfulness of a Shepherd over his flock, which carry to this day so much beauty and tenderness in them, in Psalms 23, and in many other passages of the poetical writings of Scripture. Considered with respect to its spiritual meaning, it is undoubtedly a mystical allegory; in its form it is a dramatic pastoral, or a perpetual dialogue between personages in the character of Shepherds; and, suitably to that form, it is full of rural and pastoral images from beginning to end
Dead Sea Scrolls - ...
The first cave, containing seven scrolls, was discovered accidentally in early 1947 by a young Bedouin Shepherd
Union With God - , outside the canon of Scripture, including the epistles of Clement and Barnabas and perhaps the Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, fragments of Papias, and the Shepherd of Hermas, so popular in the Church during the 2nd and 3rd centuries, contains nothing new or distinctive bearing on the subject of union with God as compared with the apostolic writings
Unity (2) - Unity is involved in the fact that its bond is a relation to Himself: the one Shepherd implies the one flock, the one door implies the one fold (John 11:9; John 11:16)
Universalism (2) - The Shepherd gives His life for the sheep (John 10:11)
Holy Spirit, Gifts of - The lack of a second demonstrative adjective in the expression "some to be pastors and teachers" (Ephesians 4:11 ) suggests another overlap: Christian teachers ought always to exercise a pastoral role; Shepherds should always communicate accurate content. ...
The expression poimen [ Ephesians 4:11 ) refers to a Shepherd
James Epistle of - As regards the indirect evidence of quotations, the earliest work for which a dependence on James can be established with any high degree of probability is the Shepherd of Hermas, which is variously dated between a
David - David was a Shepherd by calling, and he continued this occupation until he had reached full manhood; the courage and strength sometimes required for the protection of flocks make it clear that he was more than a mere youth when he first appeared upon the scene of public life ( 1 Samuel 17:34-35 )
Descent Into Hades - A curious passage in the Shepherd of Hermas (Sim
Ebionism And Ebionites - The tone of the Shepherd of Hermas —a work which emanated from the Roman church during the first half of the 2nd cent
Parable - In John 10:1-8 ; John 15:1-7 , there is no independent introductory narrative dealing with Shepherd life and the care of the vineyard
Parable - 15 is of exactly the same type; parallel to ‘I am the good Shepherd’ we there have ‘I am the true vine
Philanthropy - Last of all, He declared that He Himself would give unto the uttermost, for as Good Shepherd He was ready to lay down His life for His sheep (John 10:11)
Death of Christ - In the language of John 10 Jesus is the Good Shepherd who gave his life for the sheep
Marriage - One view of Canticles is that it is a drama celebrating the victory of a village maiden’s faithfulness to her Shepherd lover, in face of the attractions of a royal rival
Gospels - 854, and known as the Muratorian Fragment), recognizes the Gospels (Luke and John, the sentences as to Matthew and Mark are obliterated) as inspired, and condemns as uninspired the Shepherd by Hermes, "written very recently in our own times," i
Sin (2) - He was the Shepherd bringing home the lost sheep dispersed upon the mountains (John 10:16); or, somewhat to vary the idea, the Redeemer coming into the world, not to judge it along with its prince, but to save it from the Evil One (John 3:17-18, John 12:31; John 12:47, John 17:15), and casting out the indwelling Satan by the finger or Spirit of God (Romans 1:16-18)
Assumption of Moses - But not only is Moses regarded as Shepherd, compassionate guide, and intercessor; in 11:16 he is described as ‘the sacred spirit who was worthy of the Lord (cf
Baruch, Apocalypse of - 3); but ‘if ye have respect to the Law and are intent upon wisdom, the lamp will not fail, and the Shepherd will not depart, and the fountain will not run dry’ (lxxvii
Ephraim (4) the Syrian - word and means "head Shepherd
Religious Experience - The Divine Shepherd has ‘other sheep’ besides the Israelites (John 10:6)
Marriage - Hermas, on the other hand, in his Shepherd (Mand
Hell - In the 8th Similitude of the Shepherd of Hermas-that of the tower-builders-there are many references to judgment, but they are couched in such general terms as ‘shall lose his life,’ ‘these lost their life finally,’ or ‘these perished altogether unto God
Egypt - Faber thinks, the work of the "Shepherds," or Cushite invaders, who, at an early period, held possession of Egypt for two hundred and sixty years, and reduced the Egyptians to bondage, so that "a Shepherd was an abomination to the Egyptians" in Joseph's time
Hell - In the 8th Similitude of the Shepherd of Hermas-that of the tower-builders-there are many references to judgment, but they are couched in such general terms as ‘shall lose his life,’ ‘these lost their life finally,’ or ‘these perished altogether unto God
Liberius, Bishop of Rome - 357), Constantius went to Rome, and Theodoret tells us that the wives of the magistrates and nobles waited on the emperor, beseeching him to have pity on the city bereaved of its Shepherd and exposed to the snares of wolves
Offence (2) - Jesus on the last night of His life recalls to the Twelve the prophecy of Zechariah (Zechariah 13:7): ‘I will smite the Shepherd, and the sheep of the flock shall be scattered,’ and applies it by adding, ‘All ye σκανδαλισθήσεσθε ἐν ἐμοὶ ἐν τῇ νυκτὶ ταύτῃ
David - His Shepherd life, exposed to wild beasts, yet preserved by God amidst green pastures and still waters, furnishes imagery to Psalms 22:20-21; Psalm 23; Psalms 7:2. " Nothing could be more homely than his outward attire, with a staff or wand in hand used for dogs, and a pouch around his neck for carrying a Shepherd's necessaries (1 Samuel 17:40-43)
Moses - Aahmes I, the expeller of the Shepherd kings, had taken it. The same spirit prompted him to avenge his injured countryman, and to rescue the Midianite women from the Shepherds' violence, as afterward led him to confront Pharaoh; but in the first instance he was an illustration of the truth that "the wrath of man worketh not the righteousness of God" (James 1:20)
Quakers - Without this, there is a danger of receiving numbers into outward communion, without any addition to that spiritual sheep-fold, whereof our blessed Lord declared himself to be both the door and the Shepherd, John 7:11 ; that is, such as know his voice and follow him in the paths of obedience
Ideas (Leading) - God so cares for even the most sinful among His children, that He is compared to the Shepherd seeking the lost sheep, to the woman searching for her lost piece of money
Gospel (2) - He was the Good Shepherd giving His life for the sheep (John 10:11)
Heaven - ...
The Shepherd of Hermas lies outside our period, and is more curious than valuable for information as to the teaching of the Church of the Apostolic Age
Lord's Supper (ii) - ’ To adopt either of them involves putting aside the cumulative argument which has already been briefly detailed; the main argument by which they have been supported is the supposed merely metaphorical character of certain phrases, alleged to be parallel, in which our Lord described Himself as ‘the bread of life’ (John 6:35; John 6:41; John Joh_6:48), ‘the living bread’ (John 6:51), ‘the light of the world’ (John 8:12, John 9:5), ‘the door of the sheep’ (John 10:7-8), ‘the good Shepherd’ (John 10:11; John 10:14), ‘the way’ (John 14:6), ‘the true vine’ (John 15:1; John 15:5)
Manuscripts - and the Shepherd
Calendar, the Christian - 1) does not mention the days on which it was usual to fast; but he says that he was fasting and seated on a certain mountain, giving thanks to the Lord, when he met the Shepherd, who asked him why he was there
Complacency - He declares that He only is the Good Shepherd, and all that came before Him were thieves and robbers (John 10:3; John 10:5; John 10:8, cf
John, Gospel of - But it is in the same record that the characteristic ‘glory’ of His miracles is most fully brought out; in it the loftiest claims are made not only for the Master by a disciple, but by the Lord for Himself as the Light of the World, the Bread from Heaven, the only true Shepherd of men, Himself the Resurrection and the Life
Work - Both Cain and Abel have dominion over the earth as farmer and Shepherd respectively
Barnabas, Epistle of - In this Codex our Epistle follows Revelation, and is followed by the Shepherd of Hermas
Apocalyptic Literature - These are mostly pseudonymous, but include an occasional work in which the author does not conceal his name behind that of an apostle or older prophet (The Shepherd of Hermas). The chosen people were delivered into the hands of lions, tigers, wolves, and jackals (the Assyrians and Babylonians); then they were put under the care of seventy Shepherds (angels). (From this fact this section of the book takes the title of ‘Vision of the Seventy Shepherds’). The Shepherds allowed more of the faithful to perish than was the will of God, but at the critical moment there appeared a white lamb in their midst and entered into a fierce combat with the birds of prey, while a heavenly being gave him assistance
Announcements of Death - They are robbers, wolves, and hirelings, while Jesus is the Good Shepherd
Acts of the Apostles (Apocryphal) - 25 ranks the Acts of Paul, with the Shepherd of Hermas, Ep
Psalms (2) - One passage, indeed, does not seem even to regard the psalm as Messianic, at least in the narrower sense: in Revelation 2:27 the promise of Psalms 2:9 that the king would ‘break’ (LXX Septuagint and NT read ποιμανεῖ(ς), ‘shepherd,’ ‘rule,’ pointing תִּרְעֵם instead of תְּר֙עֵם) the nations with a rod of iron, as the vessels of the potter are broken, is applied, in the message addressed to Thyatira, to the Christian who overcomes and keeps the works of Christ to the end
New Testament - Only in 1859 did he obtain the whole - the Septuagint, the whole New Testament, the whole Epistle ascribed to Barnabas, and a large part of the Shepherd of Hermas (on vellum)
Bible - Paul to the Laodiceans, several spurious Gospels, Acts of the Apostles, and Revelations; the book of Hermas, entitled the Shepherd; Jesus Christ's letter to Abgarus; the epistles of St
Babel - Several words of the Babylonians and their kinsmen the Susianians are identical with ancient Egyptian or Ethiopic roots: thus, hyk or hak, found in the Egyptian name hyksos or Shepherd kings, appears in Babylonian and Susianian names as khak
Ignatius - 1: ‘Remember in your prayers the church which is in Syria, which hath God for its Shepherd in my stead
Vicarious Sacrifice - Consequently He compares Himself to the good Shepherd who lays down his life for the sheep, and states the terms of His discipleship as follows: ‘If any man will come after me, let him deny himself and take up his cross and follow me’ (Luke 9:23)
Gospels, Apocryphal - 25) mentions the Gospel as belonging to that class which, like the Shepherd of Hermas and the Didache , were accepted in some portions of the Empire and rejected in others
Messiah - Jehovah would care for His people as the Shepherd cared for his sheep, and the land to which they would return would be renewed ( Ezekiel 34:11-31 ), while the nations would support Israel and fear Jehovah ( Isaiah 49:22-23 )
Koran - ...
The Shepherd and the soldier, though awake to the charms of those wild but beautiful compositions in which were celebrated their favourite occupations of love or war, were yet little able to criticise any other works than those which were addressed to their imagination or their heart
Millenarians - The Lord, having promised to raise Israel out of their graves, to gather them from among the Heathen, and bring them into the church and kingdom of Christ, as one fold having one Shepherd, adds, "And I will set my sanctuary in the midst of them for evermore; my tabernacle also shall be with them; yea, I will be their God, and they shall be my people," Ezekiel 37:11-27
Moses - " For when, in the excess of his zeal to redress their grievances, he had slain an Egyptian, who injured one of them, in which he probably went beyond his commission, and afterward endeavoured to reconcile two of them that were at variance, they rejected his mediation; and "the man who had done wrong said, Who made thee a judge and a ruler over us? Intendest thou to kill me, as thou killedst the Egyptian yesterday?" So Moses, finding it was known, and that Pharaoh sought to slay him, fled for his life to the land of Midian, in Arabia Petraea, where he married Zipporah, the daughter of Jethro, or Reuel, prince and priest of Midian; and, as a Shepherd, kept his flocks in the vicinity of Mount Horeb, or Sinai, for forty years, Exodus 2:11-21 ; Exodus 3:1 ; Exodus 18:5 ; Numbers 10:29 ; Acts 7:23-30
Polycarp - By his suffering, Polycarp glorifies God and ‘our Lord Jesus Christ, saviour of our souls, pilot of our bodies, Shepherd of the Catholic Church in the whole inhabited world’ (ποιμένα τῆς κατὰ τὴν οἰκουμένην καθολικῆς ἐκκλησίας, xix
Montanus - The controversy also made Christians more scrupulous about paying to other books honours like those given to the books of Scripture, and we believe that it was for this reason that the Shepherd of Hermas ceased to have a place in church reading
Pharisees (2) - Out of His Messianic consciousness Jesus went forth to die as the great Shepherd for His sheep (Mark 8:31-38; Mark Mar_9:9 f
Text of the New Testament - Catherine at Sinai in 1844, and acquired by him for the University Library at Leipzig; while the remainder (156 leaves of the OT, and the entire NT, with the Epistle of Barnabas and part of the ‘Shepherd’ of Hermas, on 148 leaves) were found by him in the same place in 1859, and eventually secured for the Imperial Library at St
Gnosticism - With regard to the nature of Christ, the lowest view is held by Justinus, who describes Jesus but as a Shepherd boy commissioned by an angel to be the bearer of a divine revelation, and who attributes to Him at no time any higher character
Cyprianus (1) Thascius Caecilius - Shepherd has taken objections, which, if valid, would be fatal to the genuineness of much of the Cyprianic correspondence; but a rigorous investigation of those objections is conclusive in favour of the epistles
Worship - Therefore, they gladly put the likeness of a Shepherd carrying a lamb upon his shoulders, on their cups, as a symbol of the Redeemer, who saves the sinners that return to him, according to the parable in the Gospel
Egypt - were of the little-known Hyksos or ‘Shepherd kings,’ apparently invaders from the East, who for a time ruled all Egypt ( c -->