What does Sea mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
θάλασσαν the sea. 41
θαλάσσης the sea. 29
הַיָּ֖ם sea. 26
הַיָּ֔ם sea. 21
הַיָּ֑ם sea. 15
יַם־ sea. 14
θαλάσσῃ the sea. 13
הַיָּֽם sea. 12
יָ֔ם sea. 11
הַיָּם֙ sea. 11
יָ֑ם sea. 11
יָ֣ם sea. 10
הַיָּ֣ם sea. 9
הַיָּ֥ם sea. 8
יָם־ sea. 7
יָֽם sea. 7
הַיָּ֗ם sea. 6
θάλασσα the sea. 6
וְהַיָּ֥ם sea. 4
הַ֭יָּם sea. 4
בְּיַם־ sea. 3
בַּיָּ֖ם sea. 3
כַּיָּ֣ם sea. 3
מִיַּם־ sea. 3
יָ֧ם sea. 3
הַיָּ֤ם sea. 3
מִיָּ֣ם sea. 3
הַיָּ֜ם sea. 2
יָ֥ם sea. 2
בַיָּֽם sea. 2
יָ֖ם sea. 2
בְיַם־ sea. 2
הַיָּ֥מָּה sea. 2
בַּיָּ֜ם sea. 2
בַיָּם֙ sea. 2
בַּיָּ֑ם sea. 2
מִיָּ֖ם sea. 2
בַּיָּ֔ם sea. 2
יָֽמָּה sea. 2
הַיָּֽמָּה sea. 2
הַיָּ֑מָּה sea. 2
בַיָּ֖ם sea. 2
וְיָ֥ם sea. 2
לַיָּ֖ם sea. 2
בַּיָּם֙ sea. 2
הַיָּם֒ sea. 2
יָ֤ם sea. 2
כַּיָּ֛ם sea. 1
יָ֨ם sea. 1
הַיָּ֖מָּה sea. 1
יָ֑מָּה sea. 1
לְיַם־ sea. 1
וָיָ֑מָּה sea. 1
הַיָּ֗מָּה sea. 1
βυθῷ the bottom or depth of the sea. / the sea itself 1
בַּיָּ֤ם sea. 1
וְהַיָּם֙ sea. 1
לְיַמָּ֥א sea. 1
תַּ֝נִּינִ֗ים dragon 1
תַּנִּ֑ין dragon 1
הַתַּנִּינִ֖ם dragon 1
הַשָּׁ֑חַף a ceremonially unclean bird. 1
מַ֗יִם water 1
יַמָּ֑א sea. 1
הַ֝יָּ֗ם sea. 1
הַיָּ֛ם sea. 1
בַיָּ֣ם sea. 1
יָ֭ם sea. 1
יַמִּ֣ים sea. 1
יָ֨ם ׀ sea. 1
יַמִּֽים sea. 1
לַיָּ֨ם ׀ sea. 1
הֲ‍ֽיָם־ sea. 1
הַיָּ֧ם sea. 1
יָ֝֗ם sea. 1
מִיַּמִּ֔ים sea. 1
ἐναλίων that which is in the sea 1
παραθαλασσίαν besides the sea 1
παραλίου by the sea 1
גַּלָּֽיו heap 1
מִיָּ֑ם sea. 1
יָ֗מָּה sea. 1
וְהַיָּ֕ם sea. 1
יָם֒ sea. 1
וְהַיָּ֖ם sea. 1
יָ֣מָּה sea. 1
הַ֠יָּם sea. 1
בַיָּ֑ם sea. 1
؟ הַיָּֽם sea. 1
הַיָּם֩ sea. 1
؟ יָ֑ם sea. 1
הַיָּ֔מָּה sea. 1
διαπλεύσαντες to sail across. 1
יַמִּ֖ים sea. 1
לַיָּ֥ם sea. 1
מֵֽהַיָּ֑ם sea. 1
מִיָּֽם sea. 1
בַּיָּֽם sea. 1
יָ֗ם sea. 1
מִיָּ֗ם sea. 1
בַּיָּ֥ם sea. 1
בַּיָּ֣ם sea. 1
לַיָּ֔ם sea. 1
יַמָּ֔הּ sea. 1
תַ֝נִּינִ֗ים dragon 1

Definitions Related to Sea

G2281


   1 the Sea.
      1a used of the Sea in general.
      1b used specifically of the Mediterranean Sea or the Red Sea.
      

H3220


   1 Sea.
      1a Mediterranean Sea.
      1b Red Sea.
      1c Dead Sea.
      1d Sea of Galilee.
      1e Sea (general).
      1f mighty river (Nile).
      1g the Sea (the great basin in the temple court).
      1h seaward, west, westward.
      

H7828


   1 a ceremonially unclean bird.
      1a cuckow, gull, seagull, Sea-mew.
      1b maybe an extinct bird, exact meaning unknown.
      

G3864


   1 besides the Sea, by the Sea.
   

G1037


   1 the bottom or depth of the Sea.
   2 the Sea itself, the deep Sea.
   

H1530


   1 heap, spring, wave, billow.
      1a heap (of stones).
         1a1 over dead body.
         1a2 alone.
         1a3 used in ratifying a covenant.
      1b waves (fig.
      of chastisement of Jehovah).
      1c spring.
      

H8577


   1 dragon, serpent, Sea monster.
      1a dragon or dinosaur.
      1b Sea or river monster.
      1c serpent, venomous snake.
      

G3882


   1 by the Sea, maritime, the Sea coast.
   

G1277


   1 to sail across.
   

H4325


   1 water, waters.
      1a water.
      1b water of the feet, urine.
      1c of danger, violence, transitory things, refreshment (fig.
      ).
      

H3221


   1 Sea.
   

G1724


   1 that which is in the Sea, marine.
   

Frequency of Sea (original languages)

Frequency of Sea (English)

Dictionary

Webster's Dictionary - Sea Orange
A large American holothurian (Lophothuria Fabricii) having a bright orange convex body covered with finely granulated scales. Its expanded tentacles are bright red.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Coot
A scoter duck.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Grass
Eelgrass.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Sandwort
See Sea chickweed.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Pigeon
The common guillemot.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Compass
The mariner's compass. See under Compass.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea-Gate
(n.) Alt. of Sea-gait
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Pig
(1):
A porpoise or dolphin.
(2):
A dugong.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Dead Sea Apple
(Dead Sea Apple) A fruit said to grow on or near the site of the biblical Sodom; it turns to smoke and ashes when plucked.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Dead Sea
Inland lake at the end of the Jordan Valley on the southeastern border of Canaan with no outlets for water it receives; known in the Bible as Salt Sea, Sea of the Plain, and Eastern Sea. Its current English name was applied to it through writings after A.D. 100. It is about fifty miles long and ten miles wide at its widest point. The surface of the sea Isaiah 1292 feet below the level of the Mediterranean Sea. At its deepest point the lake Isaiah 1300 deep. At its most shallow it is only ten to fifteen feet deep.
The main source of water for the sea is the Jordan River, but other smaller rivers empty into the sea also. The Jordan River empties an average of six million tons of water every twenty-four hours into the sea. Despite this and the fact that the sea has no outlet, the surface does not rise more than ten to fifteen feet. The reason for this lies in the rapid evaporation of the water because of the heat and acidness of its location below sea level.
This plus other geographical factors gives it a salt content which is approximately five times the concentration of the ocean. This makes it one of the world's saltiest. It also causes a condition where no form of marine life can live even though some fish have reportedly been found in adjacent less salty pools. The surrounding land area can support vegetation and life, however. These features of the Dead Sea plus its location in an hot and arid area inspired the biblical writers to use it as an example of a life apart from the law of God.
Bob Sheffield
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Dead Sea
Lake about 47 miles long, 10 miles wide, on the southeastern border of Palestine, 16 miles east of Jerusalem, into which flow the River Jordan and other streams. Although 6,500,000 tons of fresh water pour into it every day, there is no outlet, the excess water being taken off by evaporation, and the water is so salt that no organic life can exist in it. In the Old Testament it is called "sea of the wilderness" (Joshua 1:3); "east sea" (Joel 2; Zachariah 14); "salt sea" (Genesis 14); and "sea of the desert" (Deuteronomy 3).
Holman Bible Dictionary - Great Sea
Mediterranean Sea (Numbers 34:6-7 ; Joshua 15:12 ). See Mediterranean Sea.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Molten Sea
MOLTEN SEA. See Temple, § 6 ( c ) ‘Brazen Sea.’
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Red Sea
RED SEA . The body of water, over 1000 miles in length, which divides Africa from Arabia. The Biblical interest of the name centres at its northern end in its two projections, the Gulf of Suez, running north-west, and the Bay of Akabah almost due north. The former once extended much farther to the north, along the route of the present Suez Canal. Anciently it was known as the Gulf of Heroöepolis, running as far north as the Bitter Lakes. In this region it is probable that the passage of the sea described in Exodus 14:1-31 took place, though it has been located by some at the present Suez, and by others still farther south.
This primitive extension of the gulf to the north, the region of weeds, probably accounts for its name, Yam Suph , ‘ sea of weeds ’ ( Exodus 10:19 ; Exodus 15:4 ), which was later applied also to the eastern extension, the Bay of Akabah ( Numbers 21:4 ), to the entire body of water now known as the Red Sea, stretching from the Ras Mohammed southward to the straits, and perhaps even to the Persian Gulf ( Exodus 23:31 ). No satisfactory explanation of the term ‘red’ (Gr. Erythra , Lat. Rubrum ) has been found.
Biblical history is concerned with the western gulf (Suez, 130 m. long) only in connexion with the Exodus. Those who locate Mt. Sinai in the peninsula between the two gulfs, either at Mt. Serhal or at Jebel Musa, trace the route of the wanderings down the eastern shore of this water as far as Ras Abu Zenimeh , or (with Shaw, Pococke, etc.) as far as Tor , and then through the mountain wadys to Sinai. Those who locate the mountain of the Law farther north in the region north of Akahah, trace the wanderings directly eastward from the sea ( Judges 11:16 ).
The Bay of Akabah, 90 m. long, lies in the southern end of the long trench which extends from the Red Sea proper northward to the Lehanons, the upper portion of which is occupied by the Jordan and the Dead Sea. Between the latter and the Bay of Akabah lies the Arabah . At the northern end was an important maritime highway in the reign of Solomon. At the harbour of Ezion-geber (near to, or perhaps the same as, Elath), at its northern end, Solomon built his navy, with the help of Phœnician seamen ( 1 Kings 9:26 ), and sent out expeditions to India. Jehoshaphat was less successful ( 1 Kings 22:48 ).
H. L. Willett.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Salt Sea
SALT SEA . See Dead Sea.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Sea of Glass
SEA OF GLASS . One of the features of the heavenly landscape described in Revelation 4:6 ; Revelation 15:2 . By its side stood those who had been victorious in the struggle with the beast, singing to the glory of God. Its location was apparently before the throne of God. Just what the symbolism here intended is, it is difficult to state. The probability is, however, that there is no distinct symbolism whatever, but that the reference is rather to the brilliancy of the waters as one element in the supremely beautiful land of heaven.
Shailer Mathews.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Sea-Monster
SEA-MONSTER . See Dragon, Leviathan, Rahab, Sea.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Sodomitish Sea,
SODOMITISH SEA , Esther 5:7 Esther 5:7 = the Dead Sea (wh. see).
Holman Bible Dictionary - Dead Sea Scrolls
The Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered between 1947,1960 in a cave on the western Dead Sea shore near a ruin called khirbet Qumran . Eleven caves from the Qumran area have since yielded manuscripts, mostly in small fragments. About sixty percent of the scrolls have so far been published. These were composed or copied between 200 B.C. and A.D. 70, mostly around the lifetime of Jesus, by a small community living at Qumran.
Contents They comprise three main kinds of literature: (1) copies of Old Testament books, the oldest we now possess; (2) some non-biblical Jewish books known from elsewhere (such as 1Enoch and Jubilees), probably written by the Essenes; (3) the community's own compositions, including: biblical commentaries (for example, on Habakkuk and Nahum), which interpret biblical prophecies as applying to the community and its times; rules of community conduct; and liturgical writings such as prayers and hymns.
The Essenes The Qumran community belonged to the Essenes, one of four major Jewish religious movements described by the first century A.D. historian Josephus, but, strangely, unmentioned in the New Testament. The origins of the Essenes are uncertain: one major view is that they descended from the “Pious,” who had fought for religious independence with the Maccabees; on another view they originated in Exile in Babylonia, returning to Palestine sometime in the third or second century B.C. They opposed the cultic laws operating at the Temple, rejecting its priesthood, and following a different calendar. They lived apart from other Jews in strictly-disciplined groups. One such rather special group lived at Qumran. Unlike many Essene groups, they were celibates, and they traced their origin to a “Teacher of Righteousness,” a messianic figure of whom little is known except that he was a priest, possibly a high priest. The Qumran biblical commentaries speak of his confrontation with a “Wicked Priest,” possibly a Maccabean high priest of about 150 B.C.
Beliefs and Practices The Scrolls show a surprising variety of beliefs, accounted for by two hundred years of community history, beginning with a belief in an eminent “end of days” which faded as the fulfilment did not materialize. Like other Essenes, they believed that by observing their own interpretation of the Jewish law and by frequent ritual bathing they preserved a faithful remnant. Thus they were ready for the restoration of the land by God, who would punish the wicked through two messiahs—one priestly, one lay. They had an interest in angels, astrology, and prophetic prediction. Peculiar to Qumran was a dualistic view of the world in which God had appointed an angel of light (one of his names being Melchizedek; see Genesis 14:1 ; Hebrews 7:1 ) and an angel of darkness to govern the world, all persons being assigned to the realm of one or the other. They also avoided the Temple and developed distinctive liturgical beliefs and practices based on a communion between earthly and angelic worship.
Philip R. Davies
Easton's Bible Dictionary - East Sea
(Joel 2:20 ; Ezekiel 47:18 ), the Dead Sea, which lay on the east side of the Holy Land. The Mediterranean, which lay on the west, was hence called the "great sea for the west border" (Numbers 34:6 ).
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Tiberias, Sea of
Called also the Sea of Galilee (q.v.) and of Gennesaret. In the Old Testament it is called the Sea of Chinnereth or Chinneroth. (John 21:1 ) is the only evangelist who so designates this lake. His doing so incidentally confirms the opinion that he wrote after the other evangelists, and at a period subsequent to the taking of Jerusalem (A.D. 70). Tiberias had by this time become an important city, having been spared by the Romans, and made the capital of the province when Jerusalem was destroyed. It thus naturally gave its name to the lake.
Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Sea
Exodus 14:2 (c) It may be used to represent extremely difficult problems and situations which arise in the Christian's path and are impossible to conquer unless the Lord performs a miracle.
1 Chronicles 16:32 (b) This represents peoples, nations and tongues. GOD is comparing the great praises of the people to the roaring of the ocean. (See Psalm 96:11; Psalm 98:7; Revelation 17:15).
Psalm 80:11 (b) Here is a type which represents Israel as reaching out all her influence to gather and to give blessing for all the earth.
Isaiah 23:4 (a) The sea has covered the site of this city and rendered it desolate. Therefore, human activity has ceased on the site. The sea is represented as telling the world of this destruction.
Isaiah 43:16 (b) This represents the great difficulties and serious hindrances in life. GOD opens a path for His child to enter and pass safely through them. Since the ocean seems to typify "people," this figure may represent difficulties caused in the life by relatives or neighbors or enemies, or even officials. In all of these troubles caused by "people," our Lord makes a way of escape and deliverance.
Isaiah 48:18 (a) It is a figure of the many blessings and sweet benedictions which GOD gives to those who walk with Him. They keep coming and never cease.
Isaiah 57:20 (a) As the sea is constantly moving and is restless, throwing debris on the shore, so the ungodly live. They too exhibit in their lives the evil of their hearts. They constantly reveal to others the wickedness of their unsatisfied lives.
Lamentations 2:13 (a) As the ocean separates lovers who must live far apart, so GOD is separated oftentimes from His people whom He loves. (See Isaiah 59:2).
Nahum 1:4 (c) GOD is assuring us He has power to rebuke all peoples and to restrain their fury. This picture is seen also in His power to calm the storm, the storms of life. (See also Zechariah 10:11).
James 1:6 (a) This is a picture of the professing Christian who is not rooted and grounded in the faith. His life is constantly in a turmoil.
Judges 1:13 (a) This symbolizes the great power and energy put forth by the enemies of GOD who rise up out of the great mass of people (the sea), and are leaders in opposing the work of GOD and the people of GOD.
Revelation 13:1 (a) The word in this verse evidently refers to the great multitudes of the earth. (See Revelation 17:15).
Revelation 15:2 (b) The physical ocean hides all that is in its depths; but our Lord will unfold all the hidden sins and iniquities of the human heart so that nothing is hidden from His sight. It is a picture of the wrath of GOD revealing all secret sins.
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Dead Sea Scrolls
Name given to over eight hundred ancient Jewish manuscripts recovered from eleven caves along the northwest shore of the Dead Sea.
The first cave, containing seven scrolls, was discovered accidentally in early 1947 by a young Bedouin shepherd. Between 1952,1956 ten more caves containing manuscripts and related material were found. Scholars have dated these manuscripts from the third century b.c. to the first century a.d. Most were not found intact; rather, scholars have had to piece together, and thereby attempt to understand, thousands of fragments. This process has been very tedious and slow; hence, many fragments remain unpublished.
Near the caves in which the scrolls were discovered lies an archaeological site known as Khirbet Qumran. Archaeologists excavated the ruins between 1951,1956 and determined that the site was inhabited by a community of Jews from the middle of the second century b.c. to a.d. 68. There were two main periods of occupation. The first period (c. 141-107 b.c.) consists of two phases: an initial phase involving modest, temporary buildings, and a second phase (107-31 b.c.) characterized by extensive building activity, which fixed the permanent lines of the settlement. Following an earthquake and fire in 31 b.c. the settlement was abandoned. The site lay deserted until 4 b.c., which marked the beginning of the second main period of occupation (4 b.c.-a.d. 68), during which the site was repaired and rebuilt along the same plan. Evidence of a great fire and the presence of Roman arrowheads and coins signal the destruction of the settlement by the Romans during the Jewish revolt in a.d. 68.
The Qumran complex included a large building and several smaller ones. In the large building was a tower, a kitchen, storage rooms, a large cistern, and several other rooms, one of which contained tables, benches, and inkwells, and seems to have been used for copying manuscripts. Just to the south of the main building was a large meeting hall with an adjoining pantry, from which over a thousand pieces of pottery were recovered. The settlement also included a pottery complex, a grain complex, a number of large cisterns and smaller pools, and an extensive aqueduct system. Outside the settlement are three cemeteries containing over a thousand graves. The main cemetery contains only men; two secondary cemeteries include women and children. At an oasis one mile to the south is a smaller settlement called Ain Feshka. This was apparently an agricultural and industrial center for Qumran. It included an irrigation system, an enclosure for animals, and what seems to have been a tannery.
Links between the ruins and the scrolls suggest that the scrolls belonged to this community. First, the caves are close to the ruins, most within five to ten minutes' walking distance. Cave 4, which contained more than five hundred of the eight hundred manuscripts, is literally a stone's throw from the site. Second, the manuscripts were copied during the same period of time that the settlement was occupied. Third, pottery found in the ruins matches pottery found in the caves. Fourth, writing found on pottery in the ruins matches that found on pottery in several of the caves. Finally, the character of the ruins provides the logical setting for the ritual washings, sacred meal, and manuscript copying reflected in the scrolls. The Qumran inhabitants probably hid the scrolls in the caves in anticipation of the advance of the Roman forces. Most scholars identify this community as a group of Essenes, a monastic sect of Jews described by the ancient writers Josephus, Philo, and Pliny the Elder.
The scrolls consist of four types of material. First, there are copies of Old Testament books. Only Esther is missing among the scrolls. Second, there are apocryphal books. Some, such as Tobit and Jubilees, were known prior to the discovery of the scrolls. Many others, such as the Genesis Apocryphon and the Testament of Amram, were not. Third, there are books that exhibit the distinctive doctrines and practices of the sect. These consist primarily of rules, poetical and liturgical books, and books of biblical interpretation. Finally, there are books that do not fit into any particular category, such as the Copper Scroll.
This article will focus on the sectarian documents. It will survey the main ideas found in these documents and, hence, give some insight into this community of Jews that, in its later stages, was contemporary with Jesus and the early church.
Although the origins of the sect are obscure, they seem to have centered around differences that the sect had with the temple leadership. The key figure in the early history of the sect was the Teacher of Righteousness, an otherwise unnamed individual who gave the sect direction and focus in its early stages. The sect believed that God had revealed to the Teacher of Righteousness the mysteries concerning the Law. Thus, he alone could properly interpret the Law; other Jews misunderstood it. Led by the Teacher of Righteousness, who was himself a priest, the sect rejected the temple cult in Jerusalem as it was currently practiced and probably even the ruling priesthood as being illegitimate. Guided by Isaiah 40:3 ("In the desert prepare the way for the Lord" cf. Matthew 3:3 ), the sect removed itself to the desert area by the Dead Sea to await the final war, from which, with God's help, they as the true Israel would emerge victorious and after which they would restore the sacrificial cult and proper priesthood to Jerusalem.
The community was governed by stringent entrance procedures, a detailed code of conduct, and a strict organizational hierarchy under the leadership of the priests. The sectarians had a communal lifestyle, sharing property and work, studying the Torah, and meeting together for discussion of community matters and ceremonies. Worship was an important aspect of communal life; the sect understood itself as participating in the angelic worship of God. Especially significant was the sacred Meal. Ceremonial washings for purification were regular, and emphasis was placed on the use of the solar calendar rather than the lunar calendar of official Judaism. Unable to offer sacrifices in the defiled Jerusalem temple, the community viewed prayer and obedience as acceptable offerings. Other aspects of personal piety included a deep sense of human frailty and sinfulness and thanksgiving to God for his grace and election.
One of the foundational documents of the Qumran community is the Manual of Discipline (1QS) or the Rule of the Community . The Manual depicts its members as the Sons of Light; outsiders are the Sons of Darkness, from whom they have been called to separate. They have united together as the Community of God that has received his Covenant of Grace. They live a communal life, sharing property and work, studying the Law, and meeting together for discussion of community matters and ceremonies, such as the communal Meal. The community has a strict organizational hierarchy; virtually all matters, from the seating arrangement to the order of speaking, are determined by rank. At the top are the priests, the Sons of Zadok. Next come the Levites, or elders. Finally, there are the people, who are ranked in Thousands, Hundreds, Fifties, and Tens (cf. Exodus 18:25 ). Over the entire community stands the Master. Each individual is examined annually, at which time his rank may be adjusted upward or downward, depending on his understanding and behavior.
Entrance into the community is carefully regulated. The initiate first takes an oath, in the presence of the entire community, to obey the Law as it is interpreted in the community and to separate from the Men of Falsehood. He is examined by the Master and, if pronounced fit for the discipline, is admitted into the Covenant to begin receiving instruction in the rules of the community. During the first year he does not partake of the communal Meal, and he keeps his property separate from that of the community. At the end of the first year he undergoes a second examination. If he is allowed to continue, he embarks upon a second probationary year, during which he does not partake of the communal Drink and his property is held in trust by the community. At the end of the second year he undergoes a third examination. If he is found acceptable, he becomes a full-fledged member of the community and is given a rank, and his property is merged with that of the community.
The Manual also gives insight into some of the fundamental doctrines of the community. God has created for people Two Spirits in which to walk until the End: the Prince of Light/Angel of Truth/ Spirit of Truth and the Angel of Darkness/Spirit of Falsehood (cf. 1 John 4:6 ). Those who walk according to the Prince of Light will receive everlasting life; those who follow the Angel of Darkness, eternal torment. The spirit to which people belong is determined by God's choice, not theirs. The hymn that concludes the Manual expresses a deep sense of human sinfulness and dependence on the mercy of God. The Manual also reveals the messianic expectations of the sect. Three figures are anticipated: the Prophet and two Messiahs—the Messiah of Aaron, presumably a priestly Messiah, and the Messiah of Israel, presumably a royal Messiah.
A number of concepts in the Manual have striking New Testament parallels. The centrality of the sacred Meal (and Drink) calls to mind the importance of the Lord's Supper in the early church and reference to being sprinkled with purifying water has led some to think of baptism. Aspects of the organizational structure (elders, overseer) are reminiscent of that found in the Pastorals. The dependence on God's grace has been linked by some to justification by faith. In addition, there is list of attitudes that characterize those led by each of the Two Spirits (cf. Galatians 5:19-23 ), a call to love the sons of light (cf. John 13:34 ) and to hate the sons of darkness (cf. Matthew 5:43-44 ), and identification of the sect as the Way (cf. Acts 9:2 ), the use of Isaiah 40:3 to justify a movement in the wilderness (cf. Mark 1:2 ), the notion of prayer as sacrifice (cf. Hebrews 13:15 ), and an interpretation of the cornerstone of Isaiah 28:16 (cf. 1 Peter 2:4-8 ).
A second important rule containing legal statutes and organizational regulations for the community is the Damascus Rule (CD). This document also provides important information about the origins of the community, praising the Teacher of Righteousness and castigating his chief adversary, the Scoffer, or the Man of Lies. The Damascus Rule seems to exhibit an expectation of one Messiah, the Messiah of Aaron and Israel, rather than two. In addition, it anticipates the coming of the Interpreter of the Law and the Prince of the whole congregation. In the meantime, the sect understands itself to be the community of the New Covenant.
The Rule of the Congregation (1QSa) is a short document setting forth regulations for ordering the Qumran community in the last days. It describes, among other things, the council meeting called by the priestly Messiah, to which the Messiah of Israel will come, and the ritual of the messianic meal. Significant is the preeminence of the priestly Messiah over the royal Messiah in this document. The Rule of the Congregation provides some noteworthy parallels to the New Testament. Its exclusion of those with physical defects from the council meetings (and, hence, from the messianic meal) forms a striking contrast to Jesus' teaching in Luke 14:12-24 . To connect the rationale for this exclusion with the presence of angels is similar to one aspect of Paul's argument concerning a woman's head covering in 1 Corinthians 11:10 . Its comments on the Meal, which are the most extensive in the scrolls, appear to link the regular communal meal with the eschatological messianic meal, much as Jesus does in Matthew 26:26-29 .
The Temple Scroll (11QT) is a restatement of the Law given to Moses. It takes laws related by subject matter, but scattered throughout the Pentateuch, and brings them together to form a systematic code. It also rewrites some of the laws and adds new ones. In particular, it fills in the obvious gaps in the Pentateuch with detailed regulations concerning the temple and the king. It exhibits a special concern for the layout and purity of the temple, as well as of Jerusalem itself, and for the cycle of festivals and their sacrifices according to a solar calendar.
The War Rule (1QM) is a description of the eschatological war between the Sons of Light (i.e., the sect), and the Sons of Darkness, sometimes called the Kittim (cf. Daniel 11:30 ). The Sons of Light are under the dominion of the Prince of Light, apparently identified as the archangel Michael (cf. Daniel 12:1 ); the Sons of Darkness are ruled by Belial. The priests continue their preeminent role; they lead the troops into battle, although not as fighters themselves. The community's trust, however, lies not in its own military proficiency, but in the power of God. A large part of the War Rule is taken up with detailed descriptions of weapons, battle regalia, and strategy. On the surface, the Rule seems to have been written to provide a manual for how the final war was to be conducted. Its real purpose was probably to confirm the members of the community in their sectarian outlook by reassuring them their sojourn in the desert would not last forever; ultimately God would give them victory over their enemies and exalt them to their proper standing as his elect.
There are parallels between the War Rule and certain parts of Revelation. Certainly the idea of a final war depicted in cosmic terms is strong in both (cf. Revelation 12:7 ; 16:13-16 ; 19:11-21 ). They also share songs celebrating the defeat of the enemy (cf. Revelation 18 ). There is an interest in the role of trumpets (cf. Revelation 8-9 ) and in precise specifications and precious stones (cf. Revelation 21:12-21 ). Although overshadowed by Christ, the figure of Michael has a significant place at one point in Revelation (12:7); also, while the War Rule mentions the kingdom of Michael, Revelation speaks of the kingdom of Christ (11:15). The use of military imagery in the context of spiritual conflict is paralleled in Ephesians 6:13-17 .
In addition to the rules, there are a number of poetical and liturgical documents among the scrolls. The longest is the Thanksgiving Scroll (1QH), a collection of psalms of thanksgiving and praise. Themes that permeate these hymns include a deep sense of human frailty and sinfulness, an affirmation of God's grace and election, a division of humanity into the righteous and the wicked, and God's revelation of this knowledge within the covenant community. One hymn speaks of the birth of a wonderful counselor, which some scholars have interpreted messianically; another depicts an eschatological war between God and Belial (i.e., Satan). Whether the collection was intended for private reading and meditation or had a liturgical role in communal worship is unclear.
The Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice (4QShirShabb) is a collection of thirteen liturgical songs, one for each Sabbath during the first quarter of the year. The songs seem to follow a certain progression over the thirteen-week cycle: songs 1-5 focus on the earthly worshiping community; songs 6-8 shift the attention to the heavenly worship, highlighting the number seven, which is developed elaborately in Song of Solomon 7 in seven calls to praise directed to the seven angelic priesthoods; and songs 9-13 center on the features of the heavenly sanctuary and the participants in the heavenly worship. The songs may have been intended to lead the worshiper into an experience of angelic worship and thereby reinforce the community's understanding of itself as God's faithful and legitimate priesthood. Such mystical participation in the heavenly worship is paralleled in Revelation and may stand behind the problem addressed in Colossians.
The Blessings (1QSb) is a series of blessings pronounced by the Master over the members of the community, the high priest, the priests, the Sons of Zadok, and the Prince of the congregation, an eschatological figure who will establish, and rule, God's eternal kingdom. The Berakoth (11QBer) is a liturgical benediction petitioning God for natural blessings (e.g., rain, an abundant harvest) upon the community.
One of the most striking characteristics of the sect was its distinctive manner of interpreting the Old Testament. The members believed that the Old Testament books were full of mysteries that were fulfilled in the history of the community. The meaning of these mysteries was hidden until God revealed them to the Teacher of Righteousness and some of his followers; hence the need for interpretation. One approach to such interpretation was the production of continuous commentaries on the following Old Testament books: Habakkuk, Micah, Psalms, Isaiah, Hosea, Nahum, and Zephaniah. The commentaries are filled with enigmatic historical allusions to figures related to the history of the sect, such as the Teacher of Righteousness, the Man of Lies, the Wicked Priest, and the Lion of Wrath. Furthermore, they illustrate the sect's understanding of how the Old Testament has been fulfilled in it. One noteworthy example is the interpretation of Habakkuk 2:4 ("The righteous shall live by faith"), which was so important for Paul's understanding of justification by faith in Christ ( Romans 1:17 ; Galatians 3:11 ): the commentator views the righteous as those who are characterized by obedience to the Law and faithfulness to (the teachings of) the Teacher of Righteousness.
Another interpretive strategy of the sect was to collect and interpret Old Testament passages in accordance with a particular theme. 4QTestimonia (4QTestim) seems to be an anthology of messianic texts; 4QFlorilegium (4QFlor) is an amalgam of eschatological texts and interpretations. Together they anticipate a number of eschatological figures (the Prophet, the Star of Jacob, the Sceptre of Israel, the Branch of David, and the Interpreter of the Law), the precise relationship among which is not clear. By contrast, Melchizedek (11QMelch), a collection of Old Testament texts and interpretations centering around the mysterious Old Testament person of the same name (cf. Genesis 14:18-20 ; Hebrews 5:10 ; 6:20-7:17 ), views Melchizedek as the key figure in the final jubilee who will restore and make atonement for the sons of light and will execute God's judgment against Belial and his lot.
Since their discovery the Dead Sea Scrolls have aroused intense controversy. Many have made sensationalistic claims about alleged connections between the scrolls and Christianity. The long delay in publishing all of the fragments has only fueled the controversy, leading to accusations of a scholarly and/or ecclesiastical conspiracy to suppress fragments that would be detrimental to Christianity and/or Judaism. Such allegations are surely false. Indeed, most conjectures of any direct link between the scrolls and early Christianity (e.g., that Jesus and/or John the Baptist were at one time a part of the Qumran community) have little support. On the other hand, the scrolls serve as important background material for the study of the New Testament and contain numerous verbal and conceptual parallels with New Testament books, especially the Gospel of John. Yet such parallels should not overshadow the differences between a monastic sect of Jews obeying the teachings of a dead Teacher and a missionary-minded movement of Jews and Gentiles proclaiming the death and resurrection of a living Lord.
Joseph L. Trafton
Bibliography . M. Black, The Scrolls and Christian Origins ; idem, ed., The Scrolls and Christianity ; J. H. Charlesworth, ed., Jesus and the Dead Sea Scrolls ; idem, John and the Dead Sea Scrolls ; idem, Paul and the Dead Sea Scrolls ; idem, The Dead Sea Scrolls ; E. M. Cook, Solving the Mysteries of the Dead Sea Scrolls ; F. M. Cross, The Ancient Library of Qumran and Modern Biblical Studies ; R. de Vaux, Archaeology and the Dead Sea Scrolls ; W. S. LaSor, The Dead Sea Scrolls and the New Testament ; H. Shanks, ed., Understanding the Dead Sea Scrolls ; K. Stendahl, The Scrolls and the New Testament ; G. Vermes, The Dead Sea Scrolls: Qumran in Perspective ; idem, The Dead Sea Scrolls in English ; J. C. Vander Kam The Dead Sea Scrolls Today .
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Red Sea
The Hebrew name generally given to this sea is Yam Suph . This word Suph Means a woolly kind of sea-weed, which the sea casts up in great abundance on its shores. In these passages, Exodus 10:19 ; 13:18 ; 15:4,22 ; 23:31 ; Numbers 14:25 , etc., the Hebrew name is always translated "Red Sea," which was the name given to it by the Greeks. The origin of this name (Red Sea) is uncertain. Some think it is derived from the red colour of the mountains on the western shore; others from the red coral found in the sea, or the red appearance sometimes given to the water by certain zoophytes floating in it. In the New Testament (Acts 7:36 ; Hebrews 11:29 ) this name is given to the Gulf of Suez.
This sea was also called by the Hebrews Yam-mitstraim, i.e., "the Egyptian sea" (Isaiah 11:15 ), and simply Ha-yam, "the sea" (Exodus 14:2,9,16,21,28 ; Joshua 24:6,7 ; Isaiah 10:26 , etc.).
The great historical event connected with the Red Sea is the passage of the children of Israel, and the overthrow of the Egyptians, to which there is frequent reference in Scripture (Exodus 1415,15 ; Numbers 33:8 ; Deuteronomy 11:4 ; Joshua 2:10 ; Judges 11:16 ; 2 Samuel 22:16 ; Nehemiah 9:9-11 ; Psalm 66:6 ; Isaiah 10:26 ; Acts 7:36 , etc.).
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Chinnereth, Chinneroth, Sea of
The lake subsequently called LAKE OF GENNESARET, SEA OF TIBERIAS,and SEA OFGALILEE,q.v. Numbers 34:11 ; Joshua 12:3 ; Joshua 13:27 .
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Sea, the
(Heb. yam), signifies (1) "the gathering together of the waters," the ocean (Genesis 1:10 ); (2) a river, as the Nile (Isaiah 19:5 ), the Euphrates (Isaiah 21:1 ; Jeremiah 51:36 ); (3) the Red Sea (Exodus 14:16,27 ; 15:4 , etc.); (4) the Mediterranean (Exodus 23:31 ; Numbers 34:6,7 ; Joshua 15:47 ; Psalm 80:11 , etc.); (5) the "sea of Galilee," an inland fresh-water lake, and (6) the Dead Sea or "salt sea" (Genesis 14:3 ; Numbers 34:3,12 , etc.). The word "sea" is used symbolically in Isaiah 60:5 , where it probably means the nations around the Mediterranean. In Daniel 7:3 , Revelation 13:1 it may mean the tumultuous changes among the nations of the earth.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Sea of Jazer
(Jeremiah 48:32 ), a lake, now represented by some ponds in the high valley in which the Ammonite city of Jazer lies, the ruins of which are called Sar.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Salt Sea
(Joshua 3:16 ). See DEAD SEA .
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Galilee, Sea of
(Matthew 4:18 ; 15:29 ), is mentioned in the Bible under three other names.
In the Old Testament it is called the "sea of Chinnereth" (Numbers 34:11 ; Joshua 12:3 ; 13:27 ), as is supposed from its harp-like shape. (2). The "lake of Gennesareth" once by (Luke 5:1 ), from the flat district lying on its west coast.
(John 6:1 ; 21:1 ) calls it the "sea of Tiberias" (q.v.). The modern Arabs retain this name, Bahr Tabariyeh. This lake Isaiah 12 1/2 miles long, and from 4 to 7 1/2 broad. Its surface Isaiah 682 feet below the level of the Mediterranean. Its depth is from 80 to 160 feet. The Jordan enters it 10 1/2 miles below the southern extremity of the Huleh Lake, or about 26 1/2 miles from its source. In this distance of 26 1/2 miles there is a fall in the river of 1,682 feet, or of more than 60 feet to the mile. It Isaiah 27 miles east of the Mediterranean, and about 60 miles north-east of Jerusalem. It is of an oval shape, and abounds in fish.
Its present appearance is thus described: "The utter loneliness and absolute stillness of the scene are exceedingly impressive. It seems as if all nature had gone to rest, languishing under the scorching heat. How different it was in the days of our Lord! Then all was life and bustle along the shores; the cities and villages that thickly studded them resounded with the hum of a busy population; while from hill-side and corn-field came the cheerful cry of shepherd and ploughman. The lake, too, was dotted with dark fishing-boats and spangled with white sails. Now a mournful, solitary silence reigns over sea and shore. The cities are in ruins!"
This sea is chiefly of interest as associated with the public ministry of our Lord. Capernaum, "his own city" ( Matthew 9:1 ), stood on its shores. From among the fishermen who plied their calling on its waters he chose Peter and his brother Andrew, and James and John, to be disciples, and sent them forth to be "fishers of men" (Matthew 4:18,22 ; Mark 1:16-20 ; Luke 5 :: 1-11 ). He stilled its tempest, saying to the storm that swept over it, "Peace, be still" (Matthew 8:23-27 ; Mark 7:31-35 ); and here also he showed himself after his resurrection to his disciples (John 21 ).
"The Sea of Galilee is indeed the cradle of the gospel. The subterranean fires of nature prepared a lake basin, through which a river afterwards ran, keeping its waters always fresh. In this basin a vast quantity of shell-fish swarmed, and multiplied to such an extent that they formed the food of an extraordinary profusion of fish. The great variety and abundance of the fish in the lake attracted to its shores a larger and more varied population than existed elsewhere in Palestine, whereby this secluded district was brought into contact with all parts of the world. And this large and varied population, with access to all nations and countries, attracted the Lord Jesus, and induced him to make this spot the centre of his public ministry."
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Sea
(θάλασσα)
The term is employed in apostolic history to designate (1) a large body of water or collection of waters; (2) the Red Sea; (3) the Mediterranean Sea; (4) with γῆ and οὐρανός, the whole created universe; and (5) the ‘sea of glass’ before the throne of God.
1. A large body of water or collection of waters (Acts 27:30; Acts 27:38; Acts 27:40 (41), Acts 28:4, Romans 9:27, 2 Corinthians 11:26, Hebrews 11:12, James 1:6, Judges 1:13, Revelation 7:1-3; Revelation 8:8-9; Revelation 10:2; Revelation 10:5; Revelation 10:8; Revelation 12:12; Revelation 13:1; Revelation 16:3; Revelation 18:17; Revelation 18:19; Revelation 18:21; Revelation 20:8; Revelation 20:13; Revelation 21:1; cf. Acts 27:5, πέλαγος; James 3:7, εὐάλιος).-In the first of these passages, the sailors with Paul on his memorable voyage to Rome, pretending that additional anchors from the prow of the vessel would help to steady the ship, and that they must go off in a boat to carry them out to cables’ length rather than drop them over the prow, ‘lowered the boat into the sea’ (Acts 27:30). But he saw through their scheme and warned the centurion. Later they cast the cargo of wheat into the sea (Acts 27:38); and again they loosened the cables of the anchors and let them fall off into the sea (Acts 27:40). Then, chancing on a sand bank between two seas, in the narrow channel leading into St. Paul’s Bay, between the little island of Salmonetta and the mainland of Melita, they ran the vessel aground (Acts 27:41); Going on shore, the barbarians, seeing a viper clinging to Paul’s hand, regarded him as a murderer, whom, though he had escaped from the sea, the goddess Justice would not suffer to live (Acts 28:4).
Paul was thrice shipwrecked. He also suffered other ‘perils in the sea’ (2 Corinthians 11:26); but he does not pause to specify them. In writing to the Romans he again alludes to the ‘sea.’ Quoting Isaiah 10:22, he says that though Israel be as numerous ‘as the sand of the sea,’ yet it is not the unbelieving many but the faithful few who are the object of God’s care. Only the remnant shall be saved (Romans 9:27). A similar reference is found in Hebrews 11:12, in which the writer emphasized how faith on Abraham’s part brought life out of death, giving him posterity ‘as the sand which is upon the sea shore innumerable.’ On the other hand, another writer describes the doubter as ‘like the surge of the sea’ (ἔοικεν κλύδωνι θαλάσσης, James 1:6), driven by the wind and tossed. The instability of a billow changing rapidly from moment to moment furnishes a wonderfully apt symbol of the mind that cannot steady itself in belief. Jude uses a similar figure when he describes the ungodly and libertines as ‘wild waves of the sea’ (κύματα ἄγρια θαλάσσης, James 1:13) foaming out their own lawlessness and shame (cf. Isaiah 57:20).
John likewise, in the Apocalypse, often uses the term in its natural sense. Thus, no hurt is to befall the earth or the sea until the servants of God are sealed in their foreheads; no physical convulsions are to take place until the saints of God are secured (Revelation 7:1-3). On the other hand, judgment is imminent. Pausing in the process of unrolling judgment and consolation, the Seer beholds a strong angel standing like a colossus astride the earth and sea, holding in his hand an open book (Revelation 10:2; Revelation 10:5; Revelation 10:8). He hears woes pronounced upon the earth and sea (Revelation 12:12). A monster dragon comes up out of the sea, as the father of cruelty and blasphemy (Revelation 13:1; cf. Daniel 7:2 ff.). When the second angel sounds, one third of the creatures which are in the sea die (Revelation 8:8-9); when the same angel pours out his bowl into the sea, it becomes blood and every living thing dies (Revelation 16:3). At the fall of Babylon (i.e. Rome) mariners on every hand take up a lamentation because of her commercial loss to the world of trade (Revelation 18:17; Revelation 18:19; Revelation 18:21); while in the final issue of events, after the millennium and after Satan has been loosed to deceive the nations, ‘the number of whom is as the sand of the sea,’ and after he is cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, and the dead are summoned to judgment, then, we read, ‘the sea gave up the dead which were in it’-in its great maw-to be judged every man according to his works (Revelation 20:8; Revelation 20:13). But, when heaven is described and the abode of the blessed is portrayed, and a new heaven and a new earth are created, the Seer is careful to say, ‘and the sea is no more’ (Revelation 21:1). This passage is a most instructive witness to the estimate of the sea among the ancient Hebrews. They had a universal horror of it. To them it was a synonym of turbulence, estrangement, hostility, fickleness, isolation, and separation. It was the home of storms and tempests and vague terrors. As a great monster enemy it devoured men; yea, the sea was the prolific mother of monsters. Naturally the sea, therefore, could have no place in an ideal universe. According to Plutarch, the ancient Egyptians regarded the sea as no part of nature, but an alien element full of destruction and disease. The priests of Isis are said to have shunned it as impure and unsocial for swallowing up the sacred Nile. One favourite tradition made the sea disappear in the final conflagration of the world. But John ignores this view, and regards the sea rather as no longer existent. God’s dread opponent, the dragon, he practically says, shall disappear from the abode of the redeemed; and the powers hostile to God, whether men or demons, shall be brought to naught.
2. The Red Sea (Acts 7:36, 1 Corinthians 10:1-2, Hebrews 11:29).-In some respects this is the most remarkable body of water on the globe. It is subject to extreme evaporation; and, though no rivers empty into it, it is never exhausted. It is 1350 miles long, and 205 miles broad at its widest part. There are three references to it in apostolic history: (a) Stephen in his memorable apology speaks of Moses thus: ‘This man led them forth, having wrought wonders and signs in Egypt, and in the Red sea, and in the wilderness forty years’ (Acts 7:36). His argument is that, as Moses’ Divine appointment was attested by signs and wonders, so signs and wonders formed part of the credentials of Christ. (b) Paul also, in writing to the Corinthians, says, ‘For I would not, brethren, have you ignorant, how that our fathers were all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea; and were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea’ (1 Corinthians 10:1-2). The Apostle’s point is that ancient Israel started well; all were protected and guided by the cloud; all were safely brought through the sea; all were sealed as by a baptism into trustful allegiance to Moses as their deliverer; yet in the end all except two failed to enter Canaan. Those who sang victory at the crossing of the Red Sea never reached the promised land. (c) A different use is made of the same fact in Hebrews 11:29. The author here emphasizes how faith finds a path in life. ‘By faith they passed through the Red sea as by dry land: which the Egyptians assaying to do were swallowed up.’ What the writer means to teach is, that Israel’s passage through the Red Sea was due to the discovery of faith. It was not a path which anyone could find. Indeed, to the Egyptians who had no faith, it became a sea. Hence it is an example of the wonder-working power of faith.
3. The Mediterranean Sea (Acts 10:6; Acts 10:32; Acts 17:14).-The Mediterranean was to the Hebrews ‘the great sea’ (Numbers 34:6). It was probably the largest expanse of water with which they were familiar; it was like a mighty mirror flashing the glories of the sun. Two passages are in point here, though one refers more particularly to the aegean. (a) The first recounts how Cornelius sent to Joppa to fetch Peter, who lodged with one Simon, a tanner, ‘whose house is by the sea side’ (Acts 10:6; Acts 10:32). The sea here alluded to is obviously the Mediterranean. Simon’s house, which doubtless was a very humble abode, was by the sea because there he would have easy access to water; and it was outside the city, at least 50 cubits, because tanning was held to be an ‘unclean’ employment, bringing one constantly into contact with dead animals. (b) The other passage tells how the brethren of BerCEa sent forth Paul, whose safety was in jeopardy, ‘to go as far as to the sea’ (Acts 17:14). The main road from Macedonia to Thessaly bent about the base of Mt. Olympus close along the sea. Whether St. Paul, on arriving at the coast, changed his plan, and, instead of taking ship for Athens at Methone or Pydna, went on foot, it is impossible to say.
4 With γῆ and οὐρανός, the whole created universe (Acts 4:24; Acts 14:15, Revelation 5:13; Revelation 10:6; Revelation 14:7).-For example, in Acts 4:24 ff., after the healing of the lame man, Peter and John, who had been accused and brought before the elders, and charged and even threatened by them not to speak any more in the name of Jesus, prayed, ‘O Lord, thou that didst make the heaven and the earth and the sea and all that in them is … grant unto thy servants to speak thy word with all boldness’ (Acts 4:24; Acts 4:29). The opening words were probably not altogether unfamiliar to them, as they seem to have belonged to the earliest known psalm of thanksgiving in the Christian Church (cf. Isaiah 37:16; Isaiah 37:20). In similar language, Barnabas and Paul remonstrated with the men of Lystra, saying, ‘We also are men of like passions with you, and bring you good tidings, that ye should turn from these vain things unto the living God, who made the heaven and the earth and the sea, and all that in them is’ (Acts 14:15). The Lystrans are thus introduced by the apostles to the true and living God. In Revelation 14:7 there is a striking parallel to their summons, the implication being that the God who creates has a right also to judge His creatures. In Revelation 5:13, also, by a sweep of prophetic imagination, even sea-monsters join with departed spirits in a doxology of praise to the Lamb; while in Revelation 10:6 the thought of God’s creatorship, of earth and heaven and sea, prepares the way for the announcement that the God of creation and providence is also a God of judgment.
5. The apocalyptic sea of glass before the throne of God (Revelation 4:6; Revelation 15:2).-The first passage (Revelation 4:6) reminds one of the ‘molten sea’ in Solomon’s Temple (1 Kings 7:23; 1 Kings 7:39). In fancy the Rabbis compared the shining floor of the Temple to crystal. To John heaven is a sort of glorified Temple, and the crystal pavement is a kind of sea. The figure greatly enhances the splendour of the picture. The Apostle was probably attempting to portray the other with all its clearness and calm, shimmering yet motionless. In the other and only remaining passage (Revelation 15:2) he beholds ‘a glassy sea mingled with fire.’ On its shores the redeemed stand, as the children of Israel did on the shores of the Red Sea, victorious, singing the song of Moses and of the Lamb. See, further, next article.
George L. Robinson.
Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words - Sea
A — 1: θάλασσα (Strong's #2281 — Noun Feminine — thalassa — thal'-as-sah ) is used (a) chiefly literally, e.g., "the Red Sea," Acts 7:36 ; 1 Corinthians 10:1 ; Hebrews 11:29 ; the "sea" of Galilee or Tiberias, Matthew 4:18 ; 15:29 ; Mark 6:48,49 , where the acts of Christ testified to His Deity; John 6:1 ; 21:1 ; in general, e.g., Luke 17:2 ; Acts 4:24 ; Romans 9:27 ; Revelation 16:3 ; 18:17 ; 20:8,13 ; 21:1 ; in combination with No. 2, Matthew 18:6 ; (b) metaphorically, of "the ungodly men" described in Jude 1:13 (cp. Isaiah 57:20 ); (c) symbolically, in the apocalyptic vision of "a glassy sea like unto crystal," Revelation 4:6 , emblematic of the fixed purity and holiness of all that appertains to the authority and judicial dealings of God; in Revelation 15:2 , the same, "mingled with fire," and, standing by it (RV) or on it (AV and RV marg.), those who had "come victorious from the beast" (ch. 13); of the wild and restless condition of nations, Revelation 13:1 (see Revelation 17:1,15 ), where "he stood" (RV) refers to the dragon, not John (AV); from the midst of this state arises the beast, symbolic of the final gentile power dominating the federated nations of the Roman world (see Dan., chs. 2; 7; etc.).
Note: For the change from "the sea" in Deuteronomy 30:13 , to "the abyss" in Romans 10:7 , see BOTTOM , B.
A — 2: πέλαγος (Strong's #3989 — Noun Neuter — pelagos — pel'-ag-os ) "the deep sea, the deep," is translated "the depth" in Matthew 18:6 , and is used of the "Sea of Cilicia" in Acts 27:5 . See DEPTH , No. 2. Pelagos signifies "the vast expanse of open water," thalassa, "the sea as contrasted with the land" (Trench, Syn., xiii).
B — 1: ἐνάλιος (Strong's #1724 — Adjective — enalios — en-al'-ee-os ) "in the sea," lit., "of, or belonging to, the salt water" (from hals, "salt"), occurs in James 3:7 .
B — 2: παράλιος (Strong's #3882 — Adjective — paralios — par-al'-ee-os ) "by the sea," Luke 6:17 : see COAST.
B — 3: παραθαλάσσιος (Strong's #3864 — Adjective — parathalassios — par-ath-al-as'-see-os ) "by the sea," Matthew 4:13 , see COAST , Note 2.
B — 4: διθάλασσος (Strong's #1337 — Adjective — dithalassos — dee-thal'-as-sos ) primarily signifies "divided into two seas" (dis, "twice," and thalassa); then, "dividing the sea," as of a reef or rocky projection running out into the "sea," Acts 27:41 .
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Sea of Glass
A figurative expression used in Revelation 4:6,15:2 . According to the interpretation of some, "this calm, glass-like sea, which is never in storm, but only interfused with flame, represents the counsels of God, those purposes of righteousness and love which are often fathomless but never obscure, always the same, though sometimes glowing with holy anger." (Compare Psalm 36:6 ; 77:19 ; Romans 11:33-36 .)
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Red Sea, Passage of
The account of the march of the Israelites through the Red Sea is given in Exodus 14:22-31 . There has been great diversity of opinion as to the precise place where this occurred. The difficulty of arriving at any definite conclusion on the matter is much increased by the consideration that the head of the Gulf of Suez, which was the branch of the sea that was crossed, must have extended at the time of the Exodus probably 50 miles farther north than it does at present. Some have argued that the crossing took place opposite the Wady Tawarik, where the sea is at present some 7 miles broad. But the opinion that seems to be best supported is that which points to the neighbourhood of Suez. This position perfectly satisfies all the conditions of the stupendous miracle as recorded in the sacred narrative. (See EXODUS .)
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Sea, the Molten
The great laver made by Solomon for the use of the priests in the temple, described in 1 Kings 7:23-26 ; 2 Chronicles 4:2-5 . It stood in the south-eastern corner of the inner court. It was 5 cubits high, 10 in diameter from brim to brim, and 30 in circumference. It was placed on the backs of twelve oxen, standing with their faces outward. It was capable of containing two or three thousand baths of water (Compare 2 Chronicles 4:5 ), which was originally supplied by the Gibeonites, but was afterwards brought by a conduit from the pools of Bethlehem. It was made of "brass" (copper), which Solomon had taken from the captured cities of Hadarezer, the king of Zobah (1 Chronicles 18:8 ). Ahaz afterwards removed this laver from the oxen, and placed it on a stone pavement (2 Kings 16:17 ). It was destroyed by the Chaldeans (25:13).
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Dead Sea
The name given by Greek writers of the second century to that inland sea called in Scripture the "salt sea" (Genesis 14:3 ; Numbers 34:12 ), the "sea of the plain" (Deuteronomy 3:17 ), the "east sea" (Ezekiel 47:18 ; Joel 2:20 ), and simply "the sea" (Ezekiel 47:8 ). The Arabs call it Bahr Lut, i.e., the Sea of Lot. It lies about 16 miles in a straight line to the east of Jerusalem. Its surface Isaiah 1,292 feet below the surface of the Mediterranean Sea. It covers an area of about 300 square miles. Its depth varies from 1,310 to 11 feet. From various phenomena that have been observed, its bottom appears to be still subsiding. It is about 53 miles long, and of an average breadth of 10 miles. It has no outlet, the great heat of that region causing such rapid evaporation that its average depth, notwithstanding the rivers that run into it (see JORDAN ), is maintained with little variation. The Jordan alone discharges into it no less than six million tons of water every twenty-four hours. The waters of the Dead Sea contain 24.6 per cent. of mineral salts, about seven times as much as in ordinary sea-water; thus they are unusually buoyant. Chloride of magnesium is most abundant; next to that chloride of sodium (common salt). But terraces of alluvial deposits in the deep valley of the Jordan show that formerly one great lake extended from the Waters of Merom to the foot of the watershed in the Arabah. The waters were then about 1,400 feet above the present level of the Dead Sea, or slightly above that of the Mediterranean, and at that time were much less salt.
Nothing living can exist in this sea. "The fish carried down by the Jordan at once die, nor can even mussels or corals live in it; but it is a fable that no bird can fly over it, or that there are no living creatures on its banks. Dr. Tristram found on the shores three kinds of kingfishers, gulls, ducks, and grebes, which he says live on the fish which enter the sea in shoals, and presently die. He collected one hundred and eighteen species of birds, some new to science, on the shores, or swimming or flying over the waters. The cane-brakes which fringe it at some parts are the homes of about forty species of mammalia, several of them animals unknown in England; and innumerable tropical or semi-tropical plants perfume the atmosphere wherever fresh water can reach. The climate is perfect and most delicious, and indeed there is perhaps no place in the world where a sanatorium could be established with so much prospect of benefit as at Ain Jidi (Engedi).", Geikie's Hours, etc.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Dead Sea
The name in the Old Testament is never this, but "the Salt Sea" , "sea of the plain." (See SALT SEA.)
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Sea of Galilee
The Sea of Galilee is a freshwater lake in northern Palestine. It is approximately twenty kilometres long, twelve kilometres wide, and about two hundred metres below sea level. In Bible times it was known also as the Sea of Chinnereth (Numbers 34:11), the Lake of Gennesaret (Luke 5:1) and the Sea of Tiberias (John 6:1; John 6:16-25; John 21:1). (For details see PALESTINE, sub-heading ‘Upper Jordan and Sea of Galilee’.)
Chabad Knowledge Base - Song at the Sea
The song that Moses and the Israelites sang after the parting of the sea; recorded in Exodus 15 and recited during the Shacharit prayer service
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Red Sea
When the Bible speaks of the Red Sea, it refers only to the northern part where the sea divides into two arms, between which lies the Sinai Peninsular. The western arm is the Gulf of Suez (Numbers 33:10) and the eastern arm the Gulf of Aqabah (Numbers 14:25; Numbers 21:4; 1 Kings 9:26; see also EZION-GEBER).
Sea-Bordering
(a.) Bordering on the sea; situated beside the sea.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea-Built
(a.) Built at, in, or by the sea.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea-Walled
(a.) Surrounded, bounded, or protected by the sea, as if by a wall.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea-Bar
(n.) A tern.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea-Mell
(n.) The sea mew.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea-Maid
(1):
(n.) The mermaid.
(2):
(n.) A sea nymph.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Galilee, Sea of
(Gal' ih lee) Place name meaning, “circle.” A freshwater lake nestled in the hills of northern Palestine. Its surface is nearly 700 feet below the level of the Mediterranean, some thirty miles to the west. The nearby hills of Galilee reach an altitude of 1,500 feet above sea level. To the east are the mountains of Gilead with peaks of more than 3,300 feet. To the north are the snow-covered Lebanon mountains. Fed chiefly by the Jordan River, which originates in the foothills of the Lebanon Mountains, the sea of Galilee is thirteen miles long north and south and eight miles wide at its greatest east-west distance. Because of its location, it is subject to sudden and violent storms which are usually of short duration.
In the Old Testament this sea is called Chinnereth. See Matthew 5:1 ); the Jewish historian Josephus always called it by that name, and so did the author of First Maccabees. Once John called it the “sea of Tiberias” (Matthew 6:1 ).
In the first century the sea of Galilee was of major commercial significance. Most Galilean roads passed by it, and much travel to and from the east crossed the Jordan rift there. Fish was a major food in the area, and the fishing industry flourished because there was no other significant freshwater lake in the region. Capernaum, which played a major role in the ministry of Jesus, was a center of that industry. The other lake towns of importance were Bethsaida, which means “the fishing place”, and Tiberias, a Gentile city constructed by Herod Antipas when Jesus was a young man.
Roger Crook
Holman Bible Dictionary - Mediterranean Sea, the
(meh ih tuhr ray' nih uhn) Designated in the OT and the NT simply as “the sea” (Joshua 16:8 ; Acts 10:6 ); also referred to as the “Western Sea” (Deuteronomy 11:24 , RSV, NIV); and as the “Sea of the Philistines” (Exodus 23:31 ). The Mediterranean Sea is an inland ocean extending about 2,200 miles from Gibraltar to the Lebanon coast and varies in width from one hundred to six hundred miles. Most of the important nations of ancient times were either on the Mediterranean's shores or operated in its 2,200 miles of water: Israel, Syria, Greece, Rome, Egypt, Philistia, and Phoenicia. Strangely, nature has provided few natural habors for Israel (Dor, Joppa, and Acco). The shoreline is almost straight. In many places a high ridge rises up sharply from behind a narrow strip of beach.
The Hebrews were not a seafaring people. A more apt description might be that they were a sea-fearing people. The Hebrew's fear of the sea was partially due to their desert origin; therefore, their culture developed chiefly around agriculture. The story of Jonah demonstrates the Hebrew's fear of the sea.
God exercises leadership over all creation. As part of God's creation, the sea is subserviant to him. He rules over the raging sea (Psalm 89:9 ) and causes a storm on it (Jonah 1:4 ).
For the Hebrews, the Great Sea served as the western border for the land of Canaan (Numbers 34:6 ) and the territory of Judah (Joshua 15:12 ). Only with the aid of the Phoenicians was Solomon able to assemble and operate a fleet of ships at Ezion Geber on the Red Sea. Timber was brought on rafts from Lebanon to Joppa (2 Chronicles 2:16 ). Jehoshaphat's attempt at a navy ended in disaster (1 Kings 22:47-50 ). His ships were wrecked in the same harbor. Maritime commerce remained limited during most periods in Israel's history. Phoenicians were famous in the ancient world for their capacity as sailors and pilots.
Tyre eventually became the principal sea power in the Mediterranean. The extensive use of the Mediterranean by the Phoenicians was continued by the Romans, who called it “Our Sea.” Following the conquest of Palestine by Pompey in 63 B.C., traffic on the Mediterranean increased. This development helped to make possible the missionary activity of Paul, Silas, Barnabas, and others. Paul made three missionary journeys across the Mediterranean. Under Roman arrest, Paul made his final voyage across the Mediterranean Sea and shipwrecked (Acts 27:1 ). Paul's work involved such Mediterranean cities as Caesarea, Antioch, Troas, Corinth, Tyre, Sidon, Syracuse, Rome, and Ephesus. See Phoenicia ; Tyre ; Transportation and Travel .
Philip Lee
Holman Bible Dictionary - Red Sea (Reed Sea)
Body of water God dried up in the Exodus. Red Sea is a common translation of two Hebrew words yam suph . Yam means “sea,” but suph does not normally mean “red.” Suph often means “reeds” ( Exodus 2:3 ,Exodus 2:3,2:5 ; Isaiah 19:6 ) or “end,” “hinder part” (Joel 2:20 ; 2 Chronicles 20:16 ; Ecclesiastes 3:11 ). Yam suph could be translated “Sea of Reeds” or “Sea at the end of the world.” The earliest known translation of the Hebrew Bible (the Greek Septuagint about 200 B.C.) translated yam suph consistently with Erthra Thalassa “Red Sea.” Jerome continued the process in the Latin Vulgate (A.D. 400) by using Mare Rubrum “Red Sea” for yam suph . Most English translations have followed the Vulgate and use “Red Sea” in the text with a footnote indicating the literal translation is “Reed Sea.” TEV uses various terms to translate yam suph : “Gulf of Suez (Exodus 10:19 ); “Red Sea” (see footnote on Exodus 13:18 ); and “Gulf of Aqaba (1 Kings 9:26 ).
We do not know who first suggested the translation “Reed Sea.” In the eleventh century the French Jewish scholar Rashi spoke of yam suph in terms of a marsh overgrown with weeds. In the twelfth century Ibn Ezra, a Spanish Jew, commented that yam suph in Exodus 13:18 may be so named because reeds grow around it. Martin Luther translated yam suph as Schilfmeer : “Reed Sea.” Although the name “Reed Sea” has been widely accepted by many scholars, there have been many recent attempts to prove the term “Sea of Reeds” is not a legitimate reading for yam suph .
The Old Testament uses the term yam suph to refer to more than one location. In Exodus 10:19 it refers to the Gulf of Suez as the place where the locusts were driven and destroyed. In 1 Kings 9:26 it refers to the Gulf of Aqaba where the ships of Solomon's navy were stationed. The same location may be indicated in Jeremiah 49:21 where the cries of Edom could be heard. The “Way of the ( yam suph ) Red Sea” is part of the name of a highway out of Egypt (Exodus 13:18 ; Numbers 14:45 ; Numbers 21:4 ; Deuteronomy 1:40 ; Deuteronomy 2:1 ; Judges 11:16 ). The “Red Sea” was the name of a camp along the way from Egypt (Numbers 33:10-11 ). Yam suph marked the ideal southern border of Israel ( Exodus 23:31 ), but the most significant reference of “Red Sea” in the Old Testament was to the place where God delivered Israel from Pharaoh's army (Exodus 15:4 ,Exodus 15:4,15:22 ; Numbers 21:14 ; Duet. Numbers 11:4 ; Joshua 2:10 ; Joshua 4:23 ; Joshua 24:6 ; Nehemiah 9:9 ; Psalm 106:7 ,Psalms 106:7,106:9-11 ,Psalms 106:9-11,106:22 ; Psalm 136:13-15 ).
No one knows the exact location of the place where Israel crossed the “Red Sea” on their way out of Egypt. Four primary theories have been suggested as to the place of the actual crossing of the isthmus of Suez: (1) the northern edge of the Gulf of Suez; (2) a site in the center of the isthmus near Lake Timsah; (3) a site at the northern edge of the isthmus and the southern edge of Lake Menzaleh; and (4) across a narrow stretch of sandy land which separates Lake Sirbonis from the Mediterranean Sea. Although no one knows the exact site of the crossing, the weight of the biblical evidence is on the side of suggested site number two. See Exodus Event.
Ralph L. Smith
Holman Bible Dictionary - East Sea
Ezekiel's expression for the Dead Sea (Ezekiel 47:18 ). See Dead Sea .
Holman Bible Dictionary - Brasen Sea
See Molten Sea .
Holman Bible Dictionary - Brazen Sea
See Molten Sea .
Holman Bible Dictionary - Bronze Sea
See Molten Sea .
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Tibe'Rias, the Sea of,
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Salt Sea,
[1]
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Sea, Molten
In the place of the laver of the tabernacle Solomon caused a laver to be cast for a similar purpose, which from its size was called a sea. It was made partly or wholly of the brass, or rather copper, which was captured by David from "Tibhath and Chun, cities of Hadarezer king of Zobah." (1 Kings 7:23-26 ; 1 Chronicles 18:8 ) It is said to have been 15 feet in diameter and 7 1/2 feet deep, and to have been capable of containing 2000, or according to (2 Chronicles 4:5 ) 3000 Baths (16,000 to 24,000 gallons). The lever stood on twelve oxen three toward each quarter of the heavens, and all looking outward. It was mutilated by Ahaz by being removed from its basis of oxen and placed on a stone base, and was finally broken up by the Assyrians. (2 Kings 16:14,17 ; 25:13 )
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Sea
The sea, yam , is used in Scripture to denote--
"The gathering of the waters," "the Ocean." (Genesis 1:2,10 ; 30:13) etc.
Some portion of this, as the Mediterranean Sea, called the "hinder," the "western" and the "utmost" sea, (11:24; 34:2; Joel 2:20 ) "sea of the Philistines," (Exodus 23:31 ) "the great sea," (Numbers 36:6,7 ; Joshua 15:47 ) "the sea." Genesis49:13; Psal 80:11 Also frequently of the Red Sea. (Exodus 15:4 ) [1]
Inland lakes termed seas, as the Salt or Dead Sea. [2]
Any great collection of waters, as the river Nile (Isaiah 19:5 ) and the Euphrates. (Jeremiah 51:36 )
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Sea, the Salt,
the usual and perhaps the most ancient name for the remarkable lake which to the western world is now generally known as the Dead Sea. I. Names.-- (1) The Salt Sea, (Genesis 14:3 ) (2) Sea of the Arabah (Authorized Version "sea of the plain," which is found in (4:49) ); (3) The East Sea (Joel 2:20 ) (4) The sea, (Ezekiel 47:8 ) (5) Sodomitish Sea, 2Esdras; (6) Sea of Salt and Sea of Sodom, in the Talmud; (7) The Asphaltic Lake, in Josephus; (8) The name "Dead Sea" appears to have been first used in Greek by Pausanias and Galen, and in Latin (mare mortuum ) by Justin xxxvi. 3,6, or rather by the older historian Trogus Pompeius (cir. B.C. 10), whose work he epitomized. (9) The Arabic name is Bahr Lut , the "Sea of Lot." II Description . --The so-called Dead Sea is the final receptacle of the river Jordan, the lowest and largest of the three lakes which interrupt the rush of its downward course. It is the deepest portion of that very deep natural fissure which runs like a furrow from the Gulf of Akabah to the range of Lebanon, and from the range of Lebanon to the extreme north of Syria. Viewed on the map, the lake is of an oblong form, of tolerably regular contour, interrupted only by a large and long peninsula which projects from the eastern shore near its southern end, and virtually divides the expanse of the water into two portions, connected by a long, narrow and somewhat devious passage. Its surface is from north to south as nearly as possible 40 geographical or 46 English miles long. Its greatest width is about 9 geographical or 10 1/2English miles. Its area is about 250 geographical square miles. At its northern end the lake receives the stream of the Jordan; on its eastern side the Zurka Ma'in (the ancient Callirrhoe, and possibly the more ancient en-Eglaim), the Mojib (the Arnon of the Bible), and the Beni-Hemad ; on the south the Kurahy or el-Ahsy ; and on the west that of Ain Jidy . The depression of its surface, and the depth which it attains below that surface, combined with the absence of any outlet, render it one of the most remarkable spots on the globe. The surface of the lake in May, 1848, was 1316.7 feet below the level of the Mediterranean at Jaffa. Its depth, at about one third of its length from the north end, Isaiah 1308 feet. The water of the lake is not less remarkable than its other features. Its most obvious peculiarity is its great weight. Its specific gravity has been found to be as much as 12.28; that is to say, a gallon of it would weigh over 12 1/4 lbs., instead of 10 lbs., the weight of distilled water. Water so heavy must not only be extremely buoyant, but must possess great inertia. Its buoyancy is a common theme of remark by the travellers who have been upon it or in it. Dr. Robinson "could never swim before, either in fresh or salt water," yet here he "could sit, stand, lie or swim without difficulty." (B.R.i 506) The remarkable weight of the water is due to the very large quantity of mineral salts which it holds in solution. Each gallon of the water, weighing 12 1/4 lbs., contains nearly 3 1/3 lbs. of matter in solution --an immense quantity when we recollect that seawater, weighing 10 1/4 lbs. per gallon, contains less than 1/2 a lb. Of this 3 1/2 lbs. nearly 1 lb. is common salt (chloride of sodium), about 2 lbs. chloride of magnesium, and less than 3 a lb. chloride of calcium (or muriate of lime). The most usual ingredient is bromide of magnesium, which exists in truly extraordinary quantity. It has been long supposed that no life whatever existed in the lake; but recent facts show that some inferior organizations do find a home even in these salt and acrid waters. The statements of ancient travellers and geographers to the effect that no living creature could exist on the shores of the lake, or bird fly across its surface, are amply disproved by later travellers. The springs on the margin of the lake harbor snipe, partridges, ducks, nightingales and other birds as well as frogs; and hawks, doves and hares are found along the shore. The appearance of the lake does not fulfill the idea conveyed by its popular name. "The Dead Sea," says a recent traveller, "did not strike me with that sense of desolation and dreariness which I suppose it ought. I thought it a pretty, smiling lake --a nice ripple on its surface." The truth lies, as usual, somewhere between these two extremes. On the one hand, the lake certainly is not a gloomy, deadly, smoking gulf. In this respect it does not at all fulfill the promise of its name. At sunrise and sunset the scene must be astonishingly beautiful. But on the other hand, there is something in the prevalent sterility and the dry, burnt look of the shores, the overpowering heat, the occasional smell of sulphur, the dreary salt marsh at the southern end, and the fringe of dead driftwood round the margin, which must go far to excuse the title which so many ages have attached to the lake, and which we may be sure it will never lose. The connection between this singular lake and the biblical history is very slight. In the topographical records of the Pentateuch and the book of Joshua it forms one among the landmarks of the boundaries of the whole country, as well as of the inferior divisions of Judah and Benjamin. As a landmark it is once named in what to be a quotation from a lost work of the prophet Jonah, ( 2 Kings 14:25 ) itself apparently a reminiscence of the old Mosaic statement. (Numbers 34:8,12 ) Besides this the name occurs once twice in the imagery of the prophets the New Testament there is not even an allusion to it. There is however, one passage in which the "Salt Sea" is mentioned in a manner different from any of those already quoted viz. as having been in the time of Abraham the vale of Siddim. (Genesis 14:3 ) In consequence of this passage it has been believed that the present lake covered a district which in historic times had been permanently habitable dry land. But it must not he overlooked that the passage in question is the only one in the whole Bible to countenance the notion that the cities of the plain were submerged; a notion which does not date earlier than the Christian era. [1] The belief which prompted the idea of some modern writers that the Dead Sea was formed by the catastrophe which overthrew the "cities of the plain" is a mere assumption. It is not only unsupported by Scripture, but is directly in the teeth of the evidence of the ground itself of the situation of those cities, we only know that, being in the "plain of the Jordan, they must have been to the north of the lake. Of the catastrophe which destroyed them we only know that it is described as a shower of ignited sulphur descending from the skies. Its date is uncertain, but we shall be safe in placing it within the Limit of 2000 years before Christ. (It is supposed that only the southern bay of the Dead Sea was formed by the submergence of the cities of the plain, and is still probable. If Hugh Miller's theory of the flood in correct --and it is the most reasonable theory yet propounded --then the Dead Sea was formed by the depression of that part of the valley through which the Jordan once flowed to the Red Sea. But this great depression caused all the waters of the Jordan to remain without outlet, and the size of the Dead Sea must be such that the evaporation from its surface just balances the amount of water which flows in through the river. This accounts in part for the amount of matter held in solution by the Dead Sea waters; for the evaporation is of pure water only, while the inflow contains more or less of salts and other matter in solution. This theory also renders it probable that the lake was at first considerably larger than at present, for in earlier times the Jordan had probably a larger flow of water. --ED.) The destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah may have been by volcanic action, but it may be safely asserted that no traces of it have yet been discovered, and that, whatever it was, it can have had no connection with that far vaster and far more ancient event which opened the great valley of the Jordan and the Dead Sea, and at some subsequent time cut it off from communication with the Red Sea by forcing up between them the tract of the Wady Arabah .
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Red Sea
Hebrew: Sea of Suph ("seaweed"; like wool, as the Arabic means: Gesenius). The Egyptians called it the Sea of Punt (Arabia). Called "red" probably from the color of the weed, and the red coral and sandstone, not from Εdom ("red") which touched it only at Elath; nor from Himyerites (hamar , "red" in Arabic; the Phoenicians too are thought to mean red men, and to have come from the Red Sea), as their connection with it was hardly so dose and so early as to have given the name. An ancient canal, begun by Sesostris, continued by Darius Hystaspes and Ptolemy Philadelphus, joined the Nile to it. Boundaries. On the W. Egypt, Nubia, and Abyssinia; on the E. Arabia; on the N. the isthmus of Suez; on the S. the straits of Βab el Μandeb ("gate of tears") joining it to the Indian ocean; 1,600 English miles long, by an average of 150 broad. The mountains on each side vary from 3,000 to 6,000 ft. high; the tops granite, underneath limestone, on the seashore light colored sandstone.
The northern end ("the tongue of the Egyptian Sea"), since the Exodus, has dried up for 50 miles. The land at the head of the gulf has risen, that on the Mediterranean has fallen (compare Isaiah 11:15; Isaiah 19:5). This drying up has caused the ancient canal which conveyed the Red Sea commerce to the Nile (from about Hereopolis on the Birket et Timsah and lake of the crocodile to Bubastis at the Nile), and irrigated the country (wady Τumeylat ) to be neglected and ruined. The country about has consequently become a gravely sand desert, with rank marsh land round the old sea bottom, called "the bitter lakes." Near them was the town Heroopolis, from which the gulf of Suez was called the Heroopolite gulf. Ras Mohammed, the headland of the Sinaitic peninsula, divides the Red Sea into two tongues: the western one the gulf of Suez, 130 miles long by 18 broad, narrowing to ten at the head; the eastern one the gulf of Akabah ("a declivity"), 90 long by an average of 15 broad.
Precipitous mountains 2,000 ft. high rise from the shore. The Arabah or Ghor connects it with the Dead Sea and Jordan valley. Anciently the gulf of Akabah was the Sinus Elaniticus, from Oelana or Elath at the northern end. No considerable stream falls into this large sea. The gulf of Suez is the shallowest part. The waters are remarkably transparent, so that the plants, corals, and rocks are visible to a great depth. Its phosphorescence is also noteworthy. This is the most northern part of the ocean where coral reefs are found. These take the outline of the coast, and being covered for some distance with only five or sir feet of water render access to land difficult. The western or Egyptian side of the Red Sea is of limestone formation; gebel Gharib 6,000 ft. high; the porphyry mountain, gebel ed Dukhkhan, inland, is about the same height; gebel ez Zeyt, "the oil ("petroleum") mount," is close to the sea.
On these barren and solitary hills lived many of the early Christian hermits. The patriarch of the Coptic church is chosen from the monks of the convent of Anthony. Sesostris (Rameses II) was the "first who, passing the Arabian gulf in a fleet of long war vessels, reduced the inhabitants bordering the Red Sea" (Herodotus). Solomon built a navy at "Ezion Geber (now dry land), beside Elath on the Red Sea in Edom " (1 Kings 9:26). (See EZION GEBER.) Jehoshaphat's ships were wrecked here on the reef Edh Dhahab (Ezion Geber, "giant's backbone"): 1 Kings 22:48. Pharaoh Necho built ships in the Arabian gulf, manned by Phoenicians (Herodotus ii. 159). Pliny says their ship were of papyrus, like the Nile boats.
The Arab jelebehs , carrying pilgrims along the coast, have the planks sewed together with coconut fibber, and caulked with the date palm fibber and oil of the palma Christi , and sails of mats made of the dom palm. The Himyerite Arabs formed mostly the crews of the seagoing ships. On the Heroopolite gulf, besides Heroopolis (now perhaps Aboo Kesheyd) at its head, was Arsinoe founded by Ptolemy Philadelphus, and Berenice on the southern frontier of Egypt. On the Arabian coast Mu'eyleh, Yembo (the port of El Medeeneh), Juddah (the port of Mecca), and Mocha. The Red Sea and Egypt after the time of Alexander the Great was the channel of commerce between Europe and India. Subsequently the trade passed round the Cape of Good Hope. But now the overland mail and Suez canal are again bringing it by way of Egypt and the Red Sea. (On Israel's passage of the Red Sea, see EXODUS.)
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Sea of Glass
In the literature of the Apostolic Age the conception of the Sea of Glass occurs only in Revelation 4:6; Revelation 15:2. In the former passage, the Sea of Glass like crystal (θάλασσα ὑαλίνη ὁμοία κρυστάλλῳ) forms a part of the surroundings of the throne in heaven. In the latter passage the position of the Sea is not mentioned, but is no doubt understood to be the same, and the Sea itself is further described as ‘mingled with fire’ (μεμιγμένην πυρί). The martyrs are seen standing upon it, singing the song of Moses and of the Lamb.
It is easier to trace back into the OT the origin of the symbolism of the Apocalypse, and to collect parallels from the religious literature of other nations, than to interpret the precise meaning of this particular symbol in the mind of the author of the Apocalypse. We shall in this article endeavour to collect the various parallels and possible sources of this conception, afterwards attempting to classify them, in order to show the various streams of thought that have combined to yield this climax of apocalyptic symbolism. Finally, an attempt will be made to interpret its meaning in the Apocalypse.
1. Sources of the symbol.-It may be remarked that all the parallels collected below are not of necessity to be regarded as sources of this particular conception, but they all offer possible links of connexion with it.
(a) We have, first, the conception, at once mythological and cosmological, of the upper sea, the waters in the heavens, separated by the firmament (στερέωμα) from the waters below (Genesis 1:6-7). This is directly connected with the Babylonian chaos-myth of the conquest of the chaos-dragon Tiâmat by Marduk. Moreover, in the Babylonian cosmogony the heavenly universe is divided into three parts corresponding to those of the earthly universe, the third and lowest division being the heavenly ocean (cf. A. Jeremias, The OT in the Light of the Ancient East, Eng. translation , 2 vols., London, 1911, i. 6 ff.). See 2 En. xxvii. 1-3.
(b) In the theophany in Exodus 24:10 a pavement of sapphire is described as being under the feet of God.
(c) In the apocalyptic vision of Ezekiel, upon which the symbolism of Revelation 4 is most directly based, a firmament like the colour of the terrible crystal is stretched over the heads of the four living creatures, and upon it is placed the throne like sapphire stone (Ezekiel 1:22; Ezekiel 1:26).
(d) In the vision of the Ancient of Days in Daniel 7:9-10 a fiery stream issues from the throne.
(e) In 1 En. xiv. 10-17, is the similar vision of the house and of the throne of God, the floor of the first house is of crystal and that of the second house is of fire, also from underneath the throne come streams of flaming fire (cf. also lxxi. 6).
(f) In Test. Lev. ii. 7 a hanging sea divides the first heaven from the second in the later recension; in the earliest farm of the document the hanging sea is in the first heaven.
(g) Finally, an interesting passage from the Bundahiš may be quoted (SBE [1] v. 125 f.): ‘Afterwards, the fire and halo melt the metal of Shatvaîrô, in the hills and mountains, and it remains on this earth like a river. Then all men will pass into that melted metal and become pure’ (cf. Sib. Orac. iii. 84 f., ii. 285 f.). The list might be enlarged, but these passages are representative both of the distribution of the conception and of the different forms which it assumed.
2. Classification of motives underlying the symbol.-(a) We find the cosmological significance of the heavenly sea. The celestial universe is the counterpart of the earthly. The Zodiac, the abode of the gods, rises above and upon the heavenly sea. Later the sea itself and the solid firmament conceived of as supporting it seem to unite in the symbol, and we have the throne resting upon a crystalline sapphire foundation or pavement. There may also enter into the symbol some element of the myth of the conquest of Tiâmat. The sea stretched out calm and glassy before the throne may in part symbolize the victory of the divinity over the element of chaos.
(b) There is the eschatological element. In the period view of history based on astronomical observations and characteristic of Babylonian religion, the world was to be destroyed by a fire-flood at the close of the age which was ushered in by the water-flood. This idea is present also in the Avesta and in most early religions. Hence the sea of glass mingled with fire may contain a trace of this conception. From the throne proceeded not only the heavenly river of water of life, clear as crystal, but also the fire-stream of judgment. The martyrs also standing upon the fiery sea suggest the symbolism of purification and triumph (cf. the idea in the passage quoted above from the Bundahiš, where the righteous walking through the fire-flood are unharmed by it).
(c) It is possible to find links with the Jewish ritual system. Before the approach to the holy place stood the brazen sea, whose form and decoration suggest remoter links with Babylonian cosmology. In the priestly system, whatever the past significance of the laver, it certainly stood for the necessity of purification for entry into the presence of God.
(d) There may enter into the form of the imagery details taken from the local surroundings of the vision. It has been suggested that much of the form of early eschatological schemes is due to the local characteristics (cf. Gressmann, Der Ursprung der israelitisch-jüdischen Eschatologie, p. 31 ff.). H. B. Swete (The Apocalypse of St. John 2, London, 1907, p. 70) suggests that the aegean Sea, fired by the rays of the setting sun, has yielded the form of the splendid imagery of this vision. While this may be so, yet all the elements of the vision and their ensemble are an inheritance from the past.
3. Interpretation.-The central motive in the Seer’s vision is certainly the relation between heaven and earth. The apparently confused and disorderly sequence of events on earth is really being ordered and determined by what takes place in heaven. Hence the Seer’s first vision, as he gazes through the open door, is the throne, the centre and source of all the subsequent action of the book. The history of the world for him is dominated by that throne. The description of scenery surrounding the throne gathers up all the symbolism of the past, the cosmological, eschatological, and ritual elements, coloured, it may be, by the local scenery of Patmos. Before the throne the Sea, the emblem of chaos and destruction, lies calm and motionless, petrified and clear, the symbol of the throne’s victory over the opposing forces of darkness and disorder. As the approach to the throne it symbolizes the holiness required of those who draw near. As the final tribulation draws to a close, that sea mingled with fire symbolizes the source of the throne’s judgment on the earth below. The martyrs, having passed through those judgments, stand triumphant on it and sing the song of the new Exodus. Finally it becomes the source of the healing and purifying streams for the redeemed earth.
Literature.-H. Gressmann, Der Ursprung der israelitisch-jüdischen Eschatologie, Göttingen, 1905; R. H. Charles, Eschatology, Hebrew, Jewish, and Christian, London, 1899, The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the OT, Oxford, 1913; H. B. Swete, The Apocalypse of St. John 2, London, 1907; C Clemen, Primitive Christianity and its Non-Jewish Sources, Edinburgh, 1912.
S. H. Hooke.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - East Sea
Joel 2:20; Ezekiel 47:18. Literally, the front sea, i.e. the Dead Sea, which one looking E. would face; "the utmost (hinder) sea" is the Mediterranean, at such a one's back (Numbers 34:6).
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Tiberias, Sea of
John's (John 6:1; John 21:1) designation as better understood by the Gentile Romans, etc., whom he addressed. (See GALILEE, SEA or, the local designation.) Lieut. Kitchener makes the depth 682.554 ft. The neighbouring Kurn Hattin is an extinct volcano, and the plain is strewn with basalt and debris. He thinks Khirbet Minyeh the site of Capernaum. Josephus says the fountain Capharnaum waters the plain. This may correspond to the modern Ain et Tabighah, the water of which being brought past Khirbet Minyeh waters the plain, and would naturally take its name Capharnaum from that place (presuming that it was Capernaum). The source is only three quarters of a mile away, whereas it is one mile and three quarters from Tel Hum and all the water was carried in an opposite direction, so that it could hardly have taken its name from Tel Hum. In John 6:16, etc., we read "the disciples went by ship over the sea toward Capernaum (the same side as Tiberias), and the sea arose by reason of a great wind that blew"; then Jesus walked on the sea to them, and "immediately the ship was at the land where they went."
The day following, when the people on the other side of the sea (the eastern side) saw that there was none other boat there save the one whereinto His disciples were entered, ... howbeit there came other boats from Tiberias, nigh unto the place where they did eat bread ... they also took shipping, and came to Capernaum seeking for Jesus; and when they had found Him on the other side ... they said, ... When camest Thou here?" In Matthew 14:22 "Jesus constrained His disciples to get into a ship and go unto the other side. And He went up into a mountain apart to pray .... But the ship was now in the midst of the sea, tossed with waves, for the wind was contrary." It might seem strange that the people did not suppose Jesus had used one of the return boats which had come from Tiberias, to cross back to that side in the night.
Matthew undesignedly shows why they could not suppose so, namely, because "the wind was contrary," i.e. blowing from Tiberias and Capernaum; owing to this the ships, probably fishing vessels, were driven to the opposite side for shelter for the night, for what else could have taken to the desert eastern side so many boats as sufficed to convey the people across (Matthew 14:24) back again? Their question, "Rabbi, when camest Thou here?" implies plainly that under the circumstances they considered that His crossing in the night could only have been by some extraordinary means. The mention of many ships coming from Tiberias explains also how the people could take shipping to Capernaum after it had been stated there was no other boat there save that which took the disciples. The undesigned harmony of details, incidentally and separately noticed by the two evangelists, confirms their truthfulness, and therefore the miracle of Jesus' walking on the sea. The Gospels - according to Matthew, Mark, and Luke - never use the designation "sea of Tiberias" (still bahr Τubariyeh ), but the local name," sea" or "lake of Galilee," which shows they must have written before that became the universal designation, as it had in the time of John's writing.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Chinnereth, Sea of
Sea of Chinnereth or Chinneroth.
1. Afterward the lake of Gennesaret, a corruption of Chinnereth (Joshua 12:3; Joshua 13:27). The district of Chinnereth is called "all Chinnereth" (1 Kings 15:20).
2. A fortified city of Naphtali (Joshua 19:35); probably the same as Tiberius, from which the lake or sea was named in a similar way (Numbers 34:11; John 6:1).
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Sea of Galilee
SEA OF GALILEE
i. Names.—The OT name Chinnereth had disappeared, so far as our purpose is concerned, by the time of the Maccabees, and in its place we find a variety of designations. It is then that the familiar name Gennesaret first makes its appearance in the τὸ ὕδωρ Γεννησάρ of 1 Maccabees 11:67. Josephus uses the forms λίμνη Γεννησάρ (BJ iii. x. 1), ὕδατα Γεννήσαρα (Ant. xiii. v. 7), λίμνη Γεννησαρῖτις (Ant. xviii. ii. 1; Vita, 65); Pliny has Gennesara (HN v. 15). In the Targums and other Jewish writings the name of the Sea appears as גְּנֵיסָר or גִּנּוֹסָר, these forms supplementing the Heb. Chinnereth. But though the word Gennesaret was so familiar to contemporary writers, it appears only once in the NT as applied to the Lake, in the ἡ λίμνη Γεννησαρέτ of Luke 5:1. Following close upon this, however, ἡ λίμνη occurs alone in Luke 5:2; Luke 8:22-23; Luke 8:33. The most popular name in the NT is ‘the Sea of Galilee’ (ἡ θάλασσα τῆς Γαλιλαίας), which occurs five times (Matthew 4:18; Matthew 15:29, Mark 1:16; Mark 7:31, John 6:1). The word ‘Sea’ (θάλασσα) stands alone in John 6:17-25, and the form ‘Sea of Tiberias’ (θάλασσα τῆς Τιβεριάδος) occurs in John 6:1; John 21:1. The modern designation, ‘Lake of Tiberias,’ does not occur in the NT. It is found for the first time as λίμνη Τιβερίς in Pausanias (John 21:7).
Many explanations have been offered of the origin of the word Gennesaret. Lightfoot (and others) sought to derive it from the OT Chinnereth, which it was supposed to replace. Such an origin, however, seems very improbable, not only on philological grounds, but because the latter name also remains simply transliterated in the LXX Septuagint as χενέρεθ, and was thus quite familiar to the Hellenistic world. Ritter (Geog. of Pal.) suggests that it is derived from נַּן אוֹצָר or נַּן עשֶׁר ‘garden of treasure,’ which term, of course, he refers to the Plain, deriving thence the name of the adjoining Sea. This process is quite natural, and probably correct, but still we may be permitted to doubt his derivation of the name. G. A. Smith (HGHL [1] 443 n. [2] ) has also noted that the form points to some compound of נַּן ‘garden,’ or נַּי valley; and to us this seems indisputable, so that on the whole we must admit that either the explanation given by Caspari (§ 64), נני סר (‘gardens of the [3] basin’), or that of the older Rabbis (Ber. Rab 98), גני שׂד (‘gardens of the prince’), is most satisfactory. The termination in Gennesaret might then be regarded as the Aramaic determinative form, and compared with Nazareth from Nazara.
With reference to the name ‘Galilee,’ it has been said that it originally designated only that small tract of land given by Solomon to Hiram (1 Kings 9:11), and that the name gradually extended till in the days of the Maccabees it included Zebulun and Naphtali, so that only after this took place could the Sea be known by that name. Furrer (Wanderungen) has also drawn attention to the other names. He asserts that Gennesar or Gennesaritis is characteristic of the 1st cent., being found in Josephus, Pliny, and Strabo, while from the 2nd cent. onwards the official designation became ‘Sea of Tiberias’; and as proof of this statement he cites the Palestinian Talmud. He then ventures to infer that John 21:1 indicates a later date than the rest of the book demands, and at the same time he suggests that John 6:1 has been emended. This reasoning, however, seems inconclusive; for, apart from the fact that the Palestinian Talmud contains much that is old, it seems impossible, in view of the conservatism of the Rabbis, that such a name as ‘Sea of Tiberias’ should be found in their writings, unless it had been in common use for a considerable time. For the history of the district surrounding the Lake see art. Galilee.
ii. Description.—The Lake presents ‘a beautiful sheet of limpid water in a deeply depressed basin’ (BRP [4] 2 ii. 380), its average below sea level being 682½ ft.; but with the season of the year the level may vary to the extent of 10 ft. The rise and fall are dependent on the rainy season on the one hand, and, on the other, on the melting of the snows on Hermon as the spring advances; and it is this latter cause that generally, in conjunction with the later rains, brings about the high level at the time of harvest (Joshua 3:15). But as the heavier rains decrease before the melting of the snow begins, there may have been already a fall of as much as 3 ft. even in March. The Sea is 13 miles long by 7 across at its broadest part—between Mejdel and Kersa; but in the clear Eastern atmosphere it looks much smaller than it really is. From no point on the western shore can it be seen in its whole extent at one time; but from the slopes above Tell Hûm, or from almost any point on the eastern shore, it is all visible. It is not quite oval, but rather pear- or harp-shaped (כִּנּוֹר), narrowing to the southern end. The sea level and the configuration of the shores have not changed to any considerable extent during the past nineteen centuries, so that, in so far as hills and valleys, ravines and slopes to the seashore are concerned, their present description gives a very true conception of what they were in Gospel days. On the west the hills are not so high and generally not so steep as on the eastern side; but they approach more closely to the shore, and are more rugged and stony. On the western side, from a short distance above what was once the western outlet of the Lake into the Jordan, and stretching some 3 miles up the Lake-side, the hills—here somewhat rounded and tame, and with but little that is picturesque in their form—slope down to the water’s edge. Then to the north of this comes a strip (Heb. רקח, which seems to justify the identification of Tiberias with the older Rakkath, Joshua 19:35; Megilla, 5b, 6a; G. A. Smith, HGHL [1] p. 447) about 2½ miles long and ¼ of a mile broad at its widest part, and at the north end of this is the modern town of Tiberias. Passing it, we have another 3 miles of sloping hills, broken about midway by the Wady Abu el-Amîs. At Mejdel we now enter el-Ghuweir, the well-known Plain of Gennesaret. Behind the village to the west is Wady Hamâm, known in the early centuries as בִּקְעַח אַרְבֵּאל, and containing in its cliffs the once famous caves of Arbela (Ant. xiv. xv. 4). This is certainly the wildest and most impressive gorge around the whole Lake. On its south side it bears some resemblance, though on a far grander scale, to the crags around Arthur’s Seat. There is the same perpendicular wall, but here it rises in places to a height of 1500 ft.; and there is also the same mass of broken rocks, making a steep slope to the plain below.
El-Ghuweir curves along the Lake from Mejdel to Khân Minyeh, a distance of 3 miles, and it has a breadth of one mile. In addition to the stream from Wady Hamâm, it is watered by three others from ‘Ain Mudauwarah, Wady Rabadï̀yeh, and Wady Leimôn, and these flow throughout the year. Just behind Khân Minyeh and its fountain ‘Ain et-Tîn at the N.W. corner of the Lake, the rounded hill Tell Oreime slopes down to the water’s edge, ending in a series of sharp rocks—the only place around the Lake where we find anything like a cliff beside the shore. Around the face of Tell Oreime there is a deep rock-cutting now used as a pathway, but in ancient times an aqueduct, as is attested by the discovery of the remains of the old piers of its continuation across the next valley to ‘Ain et-Tâbigha. Remains of masonry show that the water was led eastward as well as westward from the towers built around the springs of et-Tâbigha (Ἑπτάπηγον of Nicephorus), so that there can be little doubt that this is the spring of Capernaum mentioned by Josephus (BJ iii. x. 8). From this point onward to the Jordan the hills again extend down to the shore, but by gentler slopes than even to the south of Tiberias. Between et-Tâbigha and Tell Hûm the shore forms a number of semicircular creeks, which, with the sloping embankment at this point, assume the shape of amphitheatres. Studying the subject on the spot, the present author was convinced that one of these must be the place where the sermon from the boat was preached (Matthew 13:2 etc.). Something peculiar in the tones of our voices induced us to test the acoustic properties of the place, and we found that a speaker on the boat could be heard far up the slope, while the hum and bustle of a crowd on the shore would not disturb him.
After crossing the Jordan we meet with another plain—el-Batiha—corresponding to the one on the west, but somewhat more extensive. It is covered with green grass (Mark 6:39, John 6:10) at nearly all seasons of the year. With a breadth of 1 to 1½ miles, it extends 3 miles along the coast, and then narrows, extending nearly 3 miles more to Kersa, a short distance to the south of which we meet with the only steep place (Matthew 8:32) on the eastern side of the Lake. At this point there is practically no shore, but immediately the eastern rampart of hills—2000 ft. high, now bleak and bare, but showing streaks of green where the springs trickle out between the white sandstone and the black superimposed lava—begins to recede, leaving a plain ¼ to ½ mile broad, and this to the south of Kul at el-Husn widens out into the Ghor or Jordan Valley. At the village of Semakh, the southern end of the Lake forms a beautiful circular bay, which is enclosed by earth walls 16 to 32 ft. in height. There is deep water close in to the shore, and the currents manifestly wear away the rich alluvial soil. In so far as physical changes have taken place, we should expect that the land has suffered losses here, while there may have been slight gains by deposits on the shore of the plains of el-Batiha and el-Ghuweir (Gennesaret). What used to be the western outlet of the Jordan has also become silted up, for it must be remembered that in former times the Jordan flowed out from the two sides of a triangular island, now occupied by the ruins of Kerak—without doubt the remains of the once famous Taricheae (BJ iii. x. 1).
Compared with other lakes, the Sea of Galilee cannot be said to be deep. The maximum depth is from north to south along the course of the Jordan, and here it is 130 to 148 ft. according to the season [6], and except along the shores of the Plain of Gennesaret, deep water is reached all round the Lake within a few yards of the shore. The steep place at Kersa slopes down at once to a depth of 49 ft., and a short distance farther out the sounding gives 102 ft. A mile to the southeast of Tell Hûm the depth is 78 ft., and midway between Tiberias and Kersa it is 114.
One more notable feature of the Lake valley is to be found in the hot springs with which it abounds. The best known of these are at Hammam (cf. Josephus Vita, 16), south of Tiberias (132° to 144°), ‘Ain Bârideh (80°), ‘Ain Mudauwarah (73°), ‘Ain et-Tîn (82°), and ‘Ain et-Tâbigha (73° to 86°). Others certainly exist in the Lake itself. A brackish taste can be perceived at different places, and especially at a point ⅔ across between Tiberias and Kersa, where in the warmer water great shoals of fish are wont to congregate. It was probably the drinking from a spot of this kind that led Strabo (Geog. xvi. 45) to express so bad an opinion of the waters of the Lake (ὕδωρ μοχθηρὸν λιμναῖον). These springs are all more or less sulphurous, and in all the centuries they have been used for medicinal purposes—especially those at Tiberias (BJ ii. xxi. 6). A reference to these in the Talmud shows us the relationship of the Rabbis to the Sabbath, and throws some light on their attacks on Jesus (Luke 13:14 etc.). The use of the means of healing was forbidden on the Sabbath; but these baths, though medicinal, were permitted, because in addition they ministered to indulgence in pleasure and luxury, and that was permitted. (Pesach. 8b).
Complaint has been made by some of the tameness of the scenery around the Lake, and of the want of picturesqueness of the hills; while, on the other hand, Seetzen (Reisen, in loc.) has declared that ‘in the whole land of Palestine there is no district whose natural charms could compare with those of this.’ There can be no doubt that much depends upon the season of the year when the district is first visited, as well as upon the expectations formed. In the present unwooded state, with its uncultivated fields and barren hills often, as at the north end of the Lake, washed down to the bare rock by the rains of centuries, there may be little to attract, especially when the whole country has been blackened by the summer suns and the burning siroccos. But even now the earliest rains change the whole aspect of nature. The hills and the valleys on both shores become clothed in a luxuriant greenness, while, as the season advances, the fresh bursting buds of the olive, the fig, the vine, and the pomegranate, with here and there a palm tree, add variety and pleasantness to the landscape. Very soon, too, the fields are covered with great patches of anemones of varied colours—white, red, purple, and deep dark-blue, interspersed with various species of the lily family and stretches of the dark green-leaved and yellow-flowered mustard, while the watercourses and shores of the Lake are marked out by the red blooms of the oleander with its dark-green and silvery-backed leaves; and on the western shore variety is added by the gigantic reeds of the papyrus, topped by their reddish-brown waving plumes; on the higher grounds, too, every crevice of the rock is shaded by the blossoms of the cyclamen and many another flower of the field. But what must it have been in the year a.d. 27–28? It had been passing through, was indeed still in the period of transition after, the desolations of war, famine, and pestilence; but the worst was now long past, and 20 years of uninterrupted peace and prosperity had made it blossom like the rose. There was nothing in the rule of the tetrarchs Antipas and Philip to discourage perseverance, so that the land was coming more and more under cultivation. It must have been beautiful, indeed, when human industry was developing all its resources and changing the whole scene into a blooming paradise. Nothing can give a better idea of what the whole district was becoming, than the classic passage in which Josephus (BJ iii. x. 8) describes the Plain of Gennesaret in his own day (see art. Gennesaret [7] in vol. i.).
With Josephus’ glowing description the Rabbis are in fullest harmony. Rish Laqish says: ‘If Paradise be in the land of Israel, Beth-Shan is its entrance’ (ביתשאן פיתחה). Again we read: ‘Seven seas,’ spake the Lord God, ‘have I created in the land of Israel, but only one have I chosen for myself, that is the sea of Gennesar’ (Midr. Teh, fol. 4). Siphrê on Deuteronomy 33:23 explains the fulness of the blessing of the Lord as the Plain of Gennesaret. On the hills around the Lake were ‘vines and fruitful fields’ (Meg. 6a). ‘It is easier,’ saith Rabbi Eliezer ben Simon, ‘to nourish a legion of olives in Galilee than to bring up one child in the land of Israel’ (Ber. Rab. c. 20). The oil of the Galilaean hills was more plentiful than any in Palestine (Men. 85b), and the wheat of Chorazin is specially commended (ib. 86a). An illustration of the productiveness of the district, and a parallel to the hundredfold of the parable, may be seen in the enumeration of the products of a single סאה ארבלית ‘half bushel of Arbela’ (Jerus. [4] Peah, vii. 3). The Gentile world also lends its testimony. To the early Fathers the district was τὰ χράτιστα τῆς Γαλιλαίας, ‘the crown of Galilee,’ while in the 3rd cent. C. Julius Solinus (Collectanea, xxxv. 13) says: ‘Lacus Tiberiadis omnibus anteponitur ingenuo aestu et ad sanitatem usu efficaci.’
But the district was not yet reduced to the calm beauty of a prosperous agricultural country. There would still be stretches of woodland remaining, tenanted by birds of brilliant colours and various forms. There would be here and there beautiful oaks, either singly or in groups, that had grown up during the years when the population was small (Baba Bathra v. 1). There would be rocky stretches, especially to the north-east of the Lake, covered with brambles, wild mustard, and coarse grass, or dotted with prickly bushes (nubk), where the wolf, the jackal, the fox, and the hyaena would make their homes, and where the brown serpent and the silvery-breasted poisonous snake would glide about.
The population would not be so dense nor the land so fully cultivated as in the days when Josephus wrote, so that there would be a more equal mingling of the wild beauties of nature with the advancing and taming conquests of agriculture. The landscape, too, was becoming varied by the presence of many buildings. It has been said that ‘the shores of the Lake seem to have borne cities and towns instead of harvests’ (Tristram, Land of Israel, 444); and this, understood in the light of what we have already said, is very true. These would for the most part be constructed of black stone, but varied at times by buildings of white marble, while even the polished granite of Syene helped to break the monotony; and although, on the whole, the majority of the buildings would be dull and sombre, still, in the midst of waving fields of green and gold, the presence of the humble village, and the beach sparkling with the houses and the palaces, the synagogues and the temples of Jewish and Roman inhabitants, would present a scene of great beauty, so that we can well understand how the wild desolations of the pre-Christian century, and the calm and peaceful years that followed the advent of the Messiah, combined to render the district more beautiful when Christ was a citizen of Capernaum than at any other time during its whole history.
iii. Climate.—The climate of the Jordan Valley is in many ways very peculiar. Its low level—the lowest depression in the world—gives it many characteristics which are all its own. The absence of all frost, and the general warmth throughout the whole year, explain to us fully the peculiar open-air life that we meet with in the Gospels. For the most part Christ speaks out of doors. So did the Rabbis of His time. Ben Azzai taught on the shores of Tiberias (Erubin, 29a), and Rabbi Jehudah in the open air (Moed Katon, 16a). In the Gospels the sick are freely carried about (Matthew 4:23, Mark 2:3), are allowed to wait in the crowd (Luke 8:43 f.), and the people are indifferent if the night find them away from home (Matthew 15:32, Mark 8:2-3). The average temperatures of the air (night and day) in January are 37° and 74° respectively, while in June they are 68° and 108°; but in July the thermometer frequently rises many degrees higher. The present writer has seen it at 106° at 6 a.m., and 139° has been recorded on the shore of the Lake at midday in August; and even the soil, the rocks, and the pebbles around the Lake side become so intensely heated that the bather must wait till long after sunset if he would enter the water without the risk of burning his feet. In such conditions, under the fiery glow of the sun and with months of drought, we can well understand that all the grass and herbage are burned up, and so in its present state of naked dreariness, visitors at such a season are naturally disappointed; but in other circumstances, and in days of universal irrigation, the whole scene would be very different (cf. Robinson’s Researches under 19th June). Another noteworthy point is that the temperature of the body may rise much higher in cases of fever, and without serious results, than would be possible in other climates, e.g. a temperature of 110° is not uncommonly recorded. This may explain the expression ‘great fever’ (πυρετῶ̣ μεγάλω̣) of Luke 4:38.
The temperature of the waters of the Lake does not vary so much as might be expected, and is very little lowered even by the melting of the snows on Hermon. This is to be accounted for by the fact that such waters have already passed through Lake Huleh and have also had a considerable course in the upper Jordan. The average to a depth of 30 ft. is 68°, from 30 to 50 ft. it is 62°, and at a greater depth there is a constant temperature of 59° (PEFSt [9] , 1894, pp. 211–220).
Rain.—The average number of rainy days during the year is 60, and the rainfall 22·5 inches. There is no rain during the months of June, July, August, and September. Two-thirds of the rainfall occurs in December, January, and February; the other months having only one to five days on which rain falls, which may mean either now and again, a whole day, or merely slight showers. The degree of humidity is greatest in January, when it stands at 77. It decreases till June, when it is 42; but in August, again, it has risen to 45; while in September it drops as low as 39.
Winds.—From May till October there are often sirocco days. They generally come 3, 7, or 10 at a time, though sometimes the hot wind lasts but one day, and then the day following brings a delightful sensation of coolness, enjoyment, and satisfaction. On the sirocco days the heat on the Lake and in the surrounding region is intensely depressing, but between the visits of the hot wind, westerly breezes blow in summer, and this makes the east side of the Lake pleasant. The western shore, however, south of Mejdel benefits little, as the winds pass over the protecting hills and strike the Sea far out, leaving the air inshore close and stifling. The north end of the Lake does not suffer to the same extent, because to the west of the Plain of Gennesaret the hills are somewhat lower and farther back, and, besides, the wind blows freely down the Valley of Pigeons, and gives the district around Capernaum all that the east side enjoys at such seasons. These westerly winds usually spring up in the afternoon, they become strong as the evening advances, but generally cease about 10 p.m. During the rest of the year the weather is more variable, and the winds blow from different directions. Strong winds sometimes come from the north-east, and when they diverge to the north and come over Hermon the temperature is still more reduced, and a sensation of chill is felt in the atmosphere. This sometimes occurs till well on in May; while, on the other hand, a hot south wind will sometimes blow up the Ghor (Jordan Valley) in April, bringing with it clouds of dust which dim the sunlight and darken the hills, giving one a premature sensation of the summer’s glow.
Storms.—The rainy season is generally introduced by thunderstorms. In October and November, small clouds, scarcely larger than a man’s hand, gather on Tabor, Jebel Jarmuk, and the other hills of Upper Galilee. They grow in size and in threatening aspect, and generally in three days’ time a violent thunderstorm with heavy rains bursts over the valley. This is then usually followed by a time of calm with a clear blue sky overhead. Such storms, but not generally so violent, occur from time to time during the winter, and the rainy season may be closed by something of the same nature. In the beginning of May the sky will be clouded, and there will be one or two days’ rain with or without thunder. Sometimes, however, when the valley has been enjoying the most peaceful calm, it will be affected by storms that have occurred elsewhere. The hills of Upper Galilee may have been hidden in dense mists for a day or two, but nothing has disturbed the peace of the Lake. There have been rains, however, on the high lands only a few hours distant, and these, forming themselves into mountain torrents, have come down, sweeping all before them (Matthew 7:27, Luke 6:49) in their descent, and flooding what but a few minutes earlier had been a dry channel. The present writer has personally watched the Wady Rabadḯyeh and the Wady Leimôn, both of which cross the Plain of Gennesaret, as they became in an incredibly short time changed from little more than dry, stony river-beds to impassable foaming torrents; and, when the hills have been dark with clouds, has heard the warning given to get over these wadys ‘before the stream comes down.’
Storms may occur on the Lake at any season, and there are few places where changes come so suddenly. The experience of Lynch is that of every one who has spent any time here: ‘While pulling about the Lake, a squall swept down one of the ravines, and gave us a convincing proof of how soon the placid sea could assume an angry look’ (p. 164). The storms on the Sea of Galilee are in many ways peculiar, and sometimes the wind seems to blow from various directions at one time, tossing the boat about. This arises from the fact that the winds blow violently down the narrow gorges and strike the Sea at an angle, stirring the waters to a great depth. Many of the storms, too, are quite local in their character. This may be understood by the fact that when a westerly wind is blowing, all may be smooth along the shores to the north and south of Tiberias and for a mile out, but there we may pass in a moment from the region of perfect calm into a gale so violent that the only chance of safety is to run before the wind to the eastern shore. At other times the south end of the Lake may be comparatively peaceful, but, sailing northward, we no sooner reach Mejdel than the wind from Wady el-Hamâm will seize the sail, and, unless it be instantly lowered, overturn the boat. These winds are from the west, but it is generally the wind from the north-east that raises a general storm over the whole Sea. This wind blows right into the Sea from el-Batiha, and from this direction no part is sheltered. The suddenness, too, with which the storms spring up may be illustrated by a storm which came from this direction, and which the present writer observed. A company of visitors were standing on the shore at Tiberias, and, noting the glassy surface of the water and the smallness of the Lake, they expressed doubts as to the possibility of such storms as those described in the Gospels. Almost immediately the wind sprang up. In 20 minutes the sea was w
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Red Sea
The passage of the Red Sea with the destruction of Pharaoh’s army was one of the great miracles of Jewish history which the people loved to recall. There are three distinct references to this event in the NT. In Acts 7:36 St. Stephen mentions it as manifesting the glory of Moses. In Hebrews 11:29 it is referred to as a striking instance of what faith can do. But the chief reference is in 1 Corinthians 10:1-2, where St. Paul, in warning the Corinthians of the danger of neglecting their Christian benefits, quotes Israel’s escaping from Egypt as an illustration. Of several great benefits bestowed by God on His people Israel one was that they all passed through the Sea; while a second was that they were all baptized in the Sea as followers of Moses. But all their great benefits did not save them when they afterwards became disobedient. St. Paul here conceives the passage through the Red Sea to have been an initiatory rite like baptism (see G. G. Findlay, Expositor’s Greek Testament , ‘1 Corinthians,’ 1900, p. 857).
J. W. Duncan.
Webster's Dictionary - Bering Sea Controversy
A controversy (1886 - 93) between Great Britain and the United States as to the right of Canadians not licensed by the United States to carry on seal fishing in the Bering Sea, over which the United States claimed jurisdiction as a mare clausum. A court of arbitration, meeting in Paris in 1893, decided against the claim of the United States, but established regulations for the preservation of the fur seal.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Molten Sea
A large cast bronze basin that stood in the courtyard to the southeast of Solomon's Temple (1 Kings 7:23-26 ; 2 Chronicles 4:2-5 ). The basin was cast by Hiram of Tyre who was responsible for all the bronze work in the Temple (1 Kings 7:13-14 ). The bronze for the molten sea was supplied by the spoils from David's campaigns (1 Chronicles 18:8 ). The basin was over fourteen feet in diameter, over seven feet high, and over forty-three feet in circumference. It was about three inches thick. The estimated weight is about 30 tons, and the estimated volume is about 12,000 gallons (U.S.). The brim was turned outward resembling a lily, and below the brim were two rows of gourds (but compare 1 Kings 7:24 ; 2 Chronicles 4:3 ). The sea rested on the backs of twelve oxen. The oxen were arranged in groups of three, each group facing toward one of the four compass directions (1 Kings 7:25 ; 2 Chronicles 4:4 ). The oxen were later removed by Ahaz and replaced with a stone base (2 Kings 16:17 ; compare Jeremiah 52:20 ). After the fall of Jerusalem in 587 B.C., the basin was broken in pieces and taken to Babylon (2 Kings 25:13 ; Jeremiah 52:17 ). The basin was used for the purification of the priests (2 Chronicles 4:6 ). Some have suggested that the molten sea was also symbolic of the great sea present when God began to create the heavens and the earth thus making the sea symbolic of God's creative activity (Genesis 1:2 ).
Phil Logan
Holman Bible Dictionary - Sea of Jazer
Body of water connected with town of Jazer (Jeremiah 48:32 ) but unknown to modern Bible students. Some commentators use manuscript and Isaiah 16:8 evidence to eliminate “sea of” from the text (NRSV, REB). See Jazer .
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Brazen Sea
BRAZEN SEA . See Temple.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Encampment by the Sea
ENCAMPMENT BY THE SEA . One of the stations in the itinerary of the children of Israel, where they encamped after leaving Elim, Numbers 33:10 . If the position of Elim be in the Wady Gharandel , then the camp by the sea is on the shore of the Gulf of Suez, somewhere south of the point where the Wady Tayibeh opens to the coast. The curious return of the line of march to the seashore is a phenomenon that has always arrested the attention of travellers to Mt. Sinai: and if Mt. Sinai be really in the so-called Sinaitic peninsula, the camp can be located within a half-mile.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Galilee, Sea of
GALILEE, SEA OF
1. Situation , etc. The Sea of Galilee is an expansion of the Jordan, 13 miles long, about 8 miles in maximum breadth; its surface is 680 feet below that of the Mediterranean; its maximum depth is about 150 feet. In shape it is like a pear, the narrow end pointing southward. Like the Dead Sea, it is set deep among hills, which rise on the east side to a height of about 2000 feet. At the emergence of the Jordan, however, the Lake impinges on the plain of the Ghôr.
2. Names . The original name of the Sea seems to have been Chinnereth or Chinneroth , which a hazardous etymology connects with the Heb. kinnôr , ‘harp.’ The name is supposed to be given to the Sea on account of its fancied resemblance to such an instrument. It more probably takes its name from an as yet unrecognized town or district in Naphtali (which bordered the Lake on the west side) referred to in Joshua 11:2 ; Jos 19:35 , 1 Kings 15:20 . By this name it is referred to in assigning the border of the Promised Land ( Numbers 34:11 ), in stating the boundary of the trans-Jordanic tribes ( Deuteronomy 3:12 , Joshua 13:27 ), and in enumerating the kings conquered by Joshua ( Joshua 12:3 ). The Lake is referred to also by the name Gennesar in Josephus (always), and in 1Ma 11:67 (AV [1] ). This name also is of uncertain origin; strong grounds exist for questioning its derivation as a corruption of the earlier appellation. In the Gospels it is referred to under a variety of names: besides such general terms as ‘the lake’ ( Luke 8:22 etc.), or ‘the sea’ ( John 6:16 ), we find Lake of Gennesaret (only in Luke 5:1 ), Sea of Tiberias ( John 21:1 , and also as an explanatory or alternative name in John 6:1 ), but most frequently Sea of Galilee , which seems to have been the normal name. The modern name is Bahr Tubarîya , which is often rendered in English as ‘Lake of Tiberias,’ by which name the Sea is now frequently described (as in Baedeker’s Syria and Palestine ).
3. Importance in NT Times . The Sea in the time of Christ was surrounded by a number of important cities, each of them the centre of a cultured population. Such were Tiberias, Bethsaida, Capernaum, Chorazin, Magdala, and others. The fishing industry was extensive, and where now but a few small boats are to be seen, there evidently were formerly large fleets of fishing vessels. The fishing trade of Galilee was of great importance, and was renowned throughout the world. Owing to the great height of the mountains surrounding the Lake, differences of temperature are produced which give rise to sudden and violent storms. Two such storms are mentioned in the Gospels one in Matthew 8:23 , Mark 4:36 , Luke 8:22 , the other in Matthew 14:22 , Mark 6:46 , John 6:16 . The repetition of the event within the narrow historical limits of the Gospels indicates that such tempests, then as now, were matters of frequent occurrence.
R. A. S. Macalister.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Sea Monster
KJV translation in Lamentations 4:3 . See Dragon .
Holman Bible Dictionary - Sea Cow
NIV translation, explained in text note as dugong (Exodus 25:5 ; Exodus 26:14 ; Numbers 4:1 ). See Badger Skins .
Holman Bible Dictionary - Sea Gull
See Cuckow .
Holman Bible Dictionary - Salt Sea
See Dead Sea .
Holman Bible Dictionary - Sea of the Plain
See Dead Sea .
Holman Bible Dictionary - Sea of Galilee
See Galilee, Sea of ; Palestine .
Holman Bible Dictionary - Sea of Glass
See Glass .
Holman Bible Dictionary - Sea, Molten
See Molten Sea .
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Galilee, Sea of
(Matthew 4:18; Mark 7:31; Matthew 14:28-2946). So called from its washing the E. side of Galilee. In Luke 5:1 "the sea of Gennesaret," called so from the fertile plain of Gennesurer at its N.W. angle, three and a half miles long by two and a half broad (Matthew 14:34). In Old Testament "the sea of Chinnereth" or Cinneroth, from the town so named on its shore (Joshua 19:35), of which Gennesaret is probably the corruption, though others derive it from gannah , a "garden," and Sarown , a plain between Tabor and the lake. "The sea of Tiberias" is another designation, from the city (John 6:1). All its names were drawn from places on the western side. Now Bahr Tubariyeh (Tiberius, S.W. of the lake). Close to it was "His own city" Capernaum (Matthew 4:13). Nine cities stood on the shores of the lake, of which only two are now inhabited, namely, Magdala, consisting of a few mud huts, and Tiberias, sadly changed from its ancient prosperity.
Silence now reigns where formerly the din of industry was heard. On its shore Jesus called His first disciples (Matthew 4:18; Matthew 9:9; Luke 5:1-11; John 1:43, etc.). The bed of the lake is but a lower section of the great Jordan valley. Its depression is 653 ft. below the level of the Mediterranean, according to Lt. Lynch. Its length is about 13 miles, its breadth is about five or six. The view from the Nazareth road to Tiberias is beautiful. The hills from the eastern side rise apparently out of the water with a uniform slope, to the height of 2,000 ft., destitute of verdure, and shut in the lake; while far to the N. is seen snowy Hermon. The eastern hills, which are flat along the summit, are the wall that supports the table land of Bashan; from which on the N. there is a gradual descent to the valley of the Jordan, and then a rise to a plateau skirting the mountains of upper Galilee.
The hills on the W., except at Khan Minyeh, where there is a small cliff, are recessed from the shore. On a western recess stands Tiberias. The whole basin betrays its volcanic origin, which also accounts for the warm spring at Tiberius The cliffs are hard porous basalt. The vegetation is tropical; the lotus thorn, palms, indigo, etc. The water is sweet, sparkling and transparent; the fish abundant as of old, many species being those of the Nile, the silurus, mugil, and sparers Galiloeus. Dr. Tristram says: "the shoals of fish Were marvelous, black masses of many hundred yards long, with the black fins projecting out of the water, as thickly as they could pack. There are the European loach, bethel, blenny and cyprinodont; the African chromis, hemichromis, and eellike clarias; and the Asiatic discognathus. The cyprinodonts are viviparous, and the sexual differences marked; they can live in cold water, or hot springs up to 90ø, fresh, brackish, or briny water.
This marks a former connection between these waters and those of N.E. and S.E. Africa, the Nile, the Zambesi, and the great lakes in the interior. The papyrus also, no longer found in the Nile, is found on the shores of the sea of Galilee. As Asia, Africa, and Europe respectively were represented at Christ's cross by the Jews, Simon of Cyrene, and the Romans respectively, so the Asiatic, African, and European fish in the sea of Galilee represent the various races of mankind gathered by the spiritual fishermen into the one gospel net. Only one little boat represents the fleets of fishing vessels that once covered the lake. The fish are now taken with a hand net jerked round the fish by the fisher, usually naked, along the shore (John 21:7); or else crumbs of bread mixed with bichloride of mercury are scattered to poison the fish, and the floating dead bodies are picked up for the Tiberias market (Porter, Handbook, p. 432).
Sudden and violent storms agitate the waters, sweeping down the ravines and gorges converging to the head of the lake, from the vast naked plateau of the Jaulan and the Hauran and mount Hermon in the background. It was such a storm that Jesus stilled by a word, as He had a few hours before rebuked and cast out demons. Mark 4:39, "Peace, be still," Greek "Be silent, be muzzled"; addressing the sea and warring elements as rebel forces; compare Revelation 21:1.
The apostles were trying to reach Bethsaida on the western coast, when the gale from. the S.W. that brought vessels from Tiberias to the N.E. coast (John 6:23) delayed the vessel of the former, until at the fourth watch Jesus came walking over the tempest tossed waves; then followed Peter's temporary walking through faith and sinking through unbelief in the same waters, and his rescue by Jesus; then they immediately reach their desired haven for which they had set out the evening before (1618450903_8; Matthew 14:33; John 6:17; John 6:21; Mark 6:45).
So impressed were the disciples that "they worshipped Him, saying, Of a truth Thou art the Son of God." Bethsaida Julias, the city of Andrew and Peter, lay on the E. bank of the Jordan where it enters the sea of Galilee on the N. Close by, and on the E. of the river and N.E. of the lake, stretched the "green grass" (Mark 6:39) plain of Batihah, the scene of feeding the 5,000. Gergesa (now Kersa) lay E. of the lake. The Jordan's outlet is at Kerak, the S.W. extremity of the lake. The lake, mirroring heaven in its union of rest and energy, represents Him who best combined the calm repose which reflected His Father's image with energetic labors for God and man.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Gennesaret, Sea of
(See CINNEROTH; GALILEE, SEA OF). At the N.W. angle was the fertile plain "Gennesaret." Crescent in shape, extending from Khan Minyeh on the N. to the steep hill behind Mejdel on the S., called el Ghuweir, "the little ghor," watered by the spring Capharnaum (B. J., 3:10, sec. 8). It is also called "the Sea of Tiberias." All its names are drawn from places on the W. side. "The land of Gennesaret" was close to Capernaum on the opposite side to the N.E. of the lake, where the feeding of the 5,000 took place (John 6:1; John 6:17; John 6:24-25). (See CAPERNAUM.)
In the land of Gennesaret was spoken the parable of the sower. There was the grainfield descending to the water's edge, the trodden path through its midst, without fence to prevent the seed from falling on either side or on it, itself hardened with treading; there was the rich soil of the plain, the rocky hillside protruding here and there, the stony soil, and the thorn bushes springing up in the midst of the grain.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Peach
A beautiful American ascidian (Cynthia, / Halocynthia, pyriformis) having the size, form, velvety surface, and color of a ripe peach.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Turn
A breeze, gale, or mist from the sea.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Bug
A chiton.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Mew
A gull; the mew.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Hawk
A jager gull.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Withwind
A kind of bindweed (Convolvulus Soldanella) growing on the seacoast of Europe.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Tang
A kind of seaweed; tang; tangle.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Heath
A low perennial plant (Frankenia laevis) resembling heath, growing along the seashore in Europe.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Milkwort
A low, fleshy perennial herb (Glaux maritima) found along northern seashores.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Cocoa
A magnificent palm (Lodoicea Sechellarum) found only in the Seychelles Islands. The fruit is an immense two-lobed nut. It was found floating in the Indian Ocean before the tree was known, and called sea cocoanut, and double cocoanut.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea God
A marine deity; a fabulous being supposed to live in, or have dominion over, the sea, or some particular sea or part of the sea, as Neptune.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Robber
A pirate; a sea rover.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Thief
A pirate.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Blite
A plant (Suaeda maritima) of the Goosefoot family, growing in salt marches.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Butterfly
A pteropod.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Mud
A rich slimy deposit in salt marshes and along the seashore, sometimes used as a manure; - called also sea ooze.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Hedgehog
A sea urchin.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Mantis
A squilla.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Surgeon
A surgeon fish.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Wing
A wing shell (Avicula).
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Gherkin
Alt. of Sea girkin
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Otter
An aquatic carnivore (Enhydris lutris, / marina) found in the North Pacific Ocean. Its fur is highly valued, especially by the Chinese. It is allied to the common otter, but is larger, with feet more decidedly webbed.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Squirt
An ascidian. See Illust. under Tunicata.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Mat
Any bryozoan of the genus Flustra or allied genera which form frondlike corals.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Porcupine
Any fish of the genus Diodon, and allied genera, whose body is covered with spines. See Illust. under Diodon.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Fan
Any gorgonian which branches in a fanlike form, especially Gorgonia flabellum of Florida and the West Indies.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Slater
Any isopod crustacean of the genus Ligia.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Pudding
Any large holothurian.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Monster
Any large sea animal.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Snake
Any one of many species of venomous aquatic snakes of the family Hydrophidae, having a flattened tail and living entirely in the sea, especially in the warmer parts of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. They feed upon fishes, and are mostly of moderate size, but some species become eight or ten feet long and four inches broad.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Louse
Any one of numerous species of isopod crustaceans of Cymothoa, Livoneca, and allied genera, mostly parasites on fishes.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Amenone
Any one of numerous species of soft-bodied Anthozoa, belonging to the order Actrinaria; an actinian.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Lemon
Any one of several species of nudibranchiate mollusks of the genus Doris and allied genera, having a smooth, thick, convex yellow body.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Clam
Any one of the large bivalve mollusks found on the open seacoast, especially those of the family Mactridae, as the common American species. (Mactra, / Spisula, solidissima); - called also beach clam, and surf clam.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Girkin
Any small holothurian resembling in form a gherkin.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea King
One of the leaders among the Norsemen who passed their lives in roving the seas in search of plunder and adventures; a Norse pirate chief. See the Note under Viking.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Rover
One that cruises or roves the sea for plunder; a sea robber; a pirate; also, a piratical vessel.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Risk
Risk of injury, destruction, or loss by the sea, or while at sea.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Room
Room or space at sea for a vessel to maneuver, drive, or scud, without peril of running ashore or aground.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Hulver
Sea holly.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Piet
See 1st Sea pie.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Bat
See Batfish (a).
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Anchor
See Drag sail, under 4th Drag.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Needle
See Garfish (a).
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Lavender
See Marsh rosemary, under Marsh.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Monk
See Monk seal, under Monk.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Froth
See Sea foam, 2.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Cabbage
See Sea kale, under Kale.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Robin
See under Robin, and Illustration in Appendix.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Plover
the black-bellied plover.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Captain
The captain of a vessel that sails upon the sea.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Lamprey
The common lamprey.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Letter
The customary certificate of national character which neutral merchant vessels are bound to carry in time of war; a passport for a vessel and cargo.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Gudgeon
The European black goby (Gobius niger).
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Apple
The fruit of a West Indian palm (Manicaria Plukenetii), often found floating in the sea.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Partridge
The gilthead (Crenilabrus melops), a fish of the British coasts.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Green
The green color of sea water.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Lettuce
The green papery fronds of several seaweeds of the genus Ulva, sometimes used as food.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Poppy
The horn poppy. See under Horn.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Poker
The lyrie.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Pad
The puffin.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Maw
The sea mew.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Quail
The turnstone.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Trout
(1):
A California sciaenoid fish (Cynoscion nobilis); - called also white sea bass.
(2):
The common squeteague, and the spotted squeteague.
(3):
A California fish of the family Chiridae, especially Hexagrammus decagrammus; - called also spotted rock trout. See Rock trout, under Rock.
(4):
Any one of several species of true trouts which descend rivers and enter the sea after spawning, as the European bull trout and salmon trout, and the eastern American spotted trout.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Scorpion
(1):
A European sculpin (Cottus scorpius) having the head armed with short spines.
(2):
The scorpene.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Horse
(1):
A fabulous creature, half horse and half fish, represented in classic mythology as driven by sea dogs or ridden by the Nereids. It is also depicted in heraldry. See Hippocampus.
(2):
The walrus.
(3):
Any fish of the genus Hippocampus.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Bass
(1):
A large marine food fish (Serranus, / Centropristis, atrarius) which abounds on the Atlantic coast of the United States. It is dark bluish, with black bands, and more or less varied with small white spots and blotches. Called also, locally, blue bass, black sea bass, blackfish, bluefish, and black perch.
(2):
A California food fish (Cynoscion nobile); - called also white sea bass, and sea salmon.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Pike
(1):
A large serranoid food fish (Centropomus undecimalis) found on both coasts of America; - called also robalo.
(2):
The garfish.
(3):
The merluce.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Pincushion
(1):
A sea purse.
(2):
A pentagonal starfish.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Holm
(1):
A small uninhabited island.
(2):
Sea holly.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Toad
(1):
A toadfish.
(2):
The angler.
(3):
A sculpin.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Cat
(1):
Any marine siluroid fish, as Aelurichthys marinus, and Arinus felis, of the eastern coast of the United States. Many species are found on the coasts of Central and South America.
(2):
The wolf fish.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Turtle
(1):
Any one of several very large species of chelonians having the feet converted into paddles, as the green turtle, hawkbill, loggerhead, and leatherback. They inhabit all warm seas.
(2):
The sea pigeon, or guillemot.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Cock
(1):
In a steamship, a cock or valve close to the vessel's side, for closing a pipe which communicates with the sea.
(2):
The black-bellied plover.
(3):
A gurnard, as the European red gurnard (Trigla pini).
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Grape
(1):
The clusters of gelatinous egg capsules of a squid (Loligo).
(2):
The gulf weed. See under Gulf.
(3):
A shrubby plant (Coccoloba uvifera) growing on the sandy shores of tropical America, somewhat resembling the grapevine.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Dog
(1):
The dogfish.
(2):
The common seal.
(3):
An old sailor; a salt.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Wolf
(1):
The European sea perch.
(2):
The wolf fish.
(3):
A sea lion.
(4):
The sea elephant.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Swallow
(1):
The storm petrel.
(2):
The gannet.
(3):
See Cornish chough, under Chough.
(4):
The common tern.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Apple, Dead Sea
(Dead Sea Apple) A fruit said to grow on or near the site of the biblical Sodom; it turns to smoke and ashes when plucked.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Galilee, Sea of
A lake in Palestine, about 13 miles long, and 7.5 miles wide, which lies in the Jordan gorge. In the time of Our Lord, vines and fig-trees and thick forests surrounded it, the nearby plains yielded rich harvests twice a year, and many cities were situated on its shores. Today they are barren and desolate, with only a few straggling villages. The Sea of Galilee is closely connected with the life of Our Lord: He came and went from one side to another with His disciples, to spread His teaching and perform miracles; commanded the winds and sea, and there came a great calm (Matthew 8); walked on its surface (Matthew 14); and explained the parables (Matthew 13). There took place the two miraculous draughts of fishes, after the first of which the Apostles were called (Luke 5) and after the second Peter was made Vicar of Jesus Christ on earth (John 21). On another occasion a tax was paid through a miraculous catch (Matthew 17).
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Dead Sea
DEAD SEA . An inland lake 47 miles long and from 2¾ to 9 miles in breadth, which receives the waters of the Jordan. Its level is 1293 ft. below that of the Mediterranean, being the lowest body of water on the surface of the earth. It has no outlet, and the water received by it is all carried off by evaporation. In consequence, the waters of the Lake are impregnated with mineral substances to a remarkable degree; they yield 25 per cent. of salt, whereas the ocean yields but 4 to 6 per cent.
The modern name is of late origin (first used apparently by Pausanias) and refers to the total absence of life in its waters. It has no Scripture warrant; Hebrew writers speak of it as the ‘Salt Sea’ (Genesis 14:8 , Numbers 34:3 , Joshua 15:5 etc.), the ‘sea of the Arabah’ ( Deuteronomy 3:17 ; Deuteronomy 4:49 ), the ‘east or eastern sea’ ( Ezekiel 47:18 , Joel 2:20 ). In Arabic it is known as Bahr Lut , ‘the sea of Lot,’ a name which, however, is more probably due to the direct influence of the history as related in the Koran than to a survival of local tradition. Somewhere near the sea were Sodom and Gomorrah , but whether north or south of it is not settled; the one certain fact about their sites is that the popular belief that they are covered by the waters of the Lake is quite inadmissible.
The Dead Sea owes its origin to a fault or fracture produced in the surface of the region by the earth-movements whereby the land was here raised above the sea-level. This fault took place towards the end of the Eocene period; it extends along the whole Jordan valley from the Gulf of Akabah to Hermon; and it may be taken as fairly certain that the general appearance of the Lake has not radically altered during the whole time that the human race has existed in the world.
Round the border of the Lake are numerous small springs, some bursting actually under its waters, others forming lagoons of comparatively brackish water (as at ‘Ain Feshkhah on the western side). In these lagoons various specimens of small fish are to be found; but in the main body of the water itself life of any kind is impossible.
Recent observations tend to show that the surface of the Lake is slowly rising. An island that was a conspicuous feature at the N. end disappeared under the surface in 1892, and has never been seen since.
R. A. S. Macalister.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - God Whom Earth, And Sea, And Sky
Hymn for Matins on those feasts of Our Lady which have no proper hymn for Matins. It is attributed to Fortunatus (530-609). There are 18 translations. The English title given above is by J. Neale.
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Sea
The Hebrews called the ocean Jam, and they called also the lakes and rivers, and even large pools, by the same name. They distinguished the different seas with which they were acquainted with different names, as the Red Sea, the Salt Sea, the Great Sea, the Dead Sea, and the like; and the entrance is sometimes called the tongue of the sea. (Isaiah 11:15)
It is worthy remark, however, that Jerusalem, which the Lord chose for his people had no sea or navigable river near it. There was no river of any consequence belonging to it but the sacred river Jordan, so that Jerusalem had not, as most cities, a garrison, or rocks, or water, to defend it, neither of maritime resources to open commerce and trade with other powers. But what the holy city wanted in those supplies of nature and art the Lord abundantly, compensated in his presence to protect, and in the supply of his manifold gifts, to bless. The prophet beautifully speaks of this in his usual style of devotion and elegance—"Thou shall not see (saith he, speaking of the glory of all lands) a fierce people, a people of a deeper speech than thou canst perceive, of a stammering tongue that thou canst not understand. Look upon Zion, the city of our solemnities; thine eyes shall see Jerusalem a quiet habitation, a tabernacle that shall not be taken down, not one of the stakes thereof shall ever be removed, neither shall any of the cords thereof be broken: but there the glorious Lord will be unto us a place of broad rivers and streams, wherein shall go no galley with oars, neither shall gallant ship pass thereby." (Isaiah 33:19-21)
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Sea
The seas referred to in scripture are:
1. THE MEDITERRANEAN,under the names of 'the great sea,' Numbers 34:6,7 ; Ezekiel 48:28 ; 'the uttermost sea,' or 'the hinder sea,' Deuteronomy 11:24 ; Zechariah 14:8 ; 'the sea of Joppa,' Ezra 3:7 ; 'sea of the Philistines,' Exodus 23:31 .
The 'SEA OF CILICIA AND PAMPHYLIA,'Acts 27:5 , is the N.E. corner of the Mediterranean Sea.
2. THE SALT SEA,Numbers 34:3,12 ; also called 'the east sea,' Ezekiel 47 :18; Joel 2:20 ; 'the former sea,' Zechariah 14:8 ; 'the sea of the plain,' Deuteronomy 3:17 ; Joshua 3:16 ; Joshua 12:3 ; 2 Kings 14:25 . See SALT SEA
3. THE RED SEA,Exodus 10:19 ; Psalm 106:7,9,22 ; Hebrews 11:29 ; alsocalled 'the Egyptian sea,' Isaiah 11:15 . See RED SEA.
4. THE SEA OF GALILEE,Mark 1:16 ; also called the 'Sea of Tiberias,' John 21:1 ; the 'Sea of Chinnereth,' Numbers 34:11 ; Joshua 12:3 ; Joshua 13 :27; the 'Lake of Gennesaret,' Luke 5:1 . See GALILEE, SEA OF.
5. SEA OF JAZER,a small lake in Gilead, now represented by someponds, near where Jazer stood. Jeremiah 48:32 .
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Sea, the
This is used as a symbol of the mass of the people unorganised. Revelation 13:1 . In Revelation 13:11 a beast arises out of the earth, pointing to organisation.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Sea, the Salt
Now the "Dead Sea". Midway in the great valley stretching from Mount Hermon to the gulf of Akabah (Genesis 14:3; Numbers 34:3; Numbers 34:12). "The sea of the plain" (Arabah): Deuteronomy 3:17; Deuteronomy 4:49; Joshua 3:16. "The East Sea" (Ezekiel 47:8; Ezekiel 47:10-11; Joel 2:20). "The former sea," in opposition to "the hinder sea," i.e. the Mediterranean, because in taking the four points of the sky the spectator faced the E., having it in front of him and the W. behind him (Zechariah 14:8). It is 40 geographical miles long by nine to nine and three quarters broad. Its surface is 1,292 ft. (or, according to Lynch, 1,316; it varies greatly at different seasons) below the Mediterranean level. Its greatest depth in the northern part is 1,308 ft. Its intense saltness, specific gravity, and buoyancy, are well known. The saltness is due to masses of fossil salt in a mountain on its S.W. border, and to rapid evaporation of the fresh water which flows into it. Neither animals nor vegetables live in it.
Its shores are encrusted with salt. Earthquakes (as in 1834 and 1837) throw up large quantities of bitumen, detached from the bottom, upon the southern shore. The great depth of the northern division does not extend to the southern. It was observed by Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake that the bottom is still subsiding. At the southern end the fords between Lisan and the western shore are now impassable, though but three feet deep some years ago; again the causeway between the Rijm el Bahr and the mainland has been submerged for 12 years, though previously often dry. Dr. Tristram's theory seems probable, that the valley was formed by a depression of the strata subsequent to the English chalk period. The area was filled by a chain of large lakes reaching to the sea. The depression continuing, the heat and the consequent evaporation increased, until there remained only the present three lakes, Merom, Galilee, and the Dead Sea which depends on evaporation alone for maintaining its level. Conder has traced the old shore lines of the ancient great lakes.
The southern bay is shallow, and the shores marshy. It occupies probably what was originally the plain of Jordan, the vale of Siddim. Possibly the Jordan originally flowed on through the Arabah into the gulf of Akabah. The southern part of the sea, abounding in salt, bitumen, sulphur, and nitre, was probably formed at a recent date, and answers to the description of the valley of Siddim, "full of slime pits" (Genesis 14:10), and to the destruction of Sodom; etc., by fire and brimstone, and to the turning of Lot's wife into a pillar of salt. Scripture, however, nowhere says that Sodom, etc., were immersed in the sea, but that they were overthrown by fire from heaven (Deuteronomy 29:23; Jeremiah 49:18; Jeremiah 50:40; Zephaniah 2:9; 2 Peter 2:6). Josephus speaks of Sodomitis as burnt up, and as adjoining the lake Asphaltitis.
Ancient testimony, the recent formation of the sea, its bituminous, saline, volcanic aspect, the traditional names (Usdum ), and the traditional site of Zoar (called by Josephus Zoar of Arabia), the hill of salt traditionally made Lot's wife, all favor the southern site for Sodom, etc. Genesis 13:10 is not to be pressed further than to mean that Lot from between Bethel and Ai saw enough to arrive at the conclusion that the Ciccar ("circuit") of the Jordan, i.e. the whole valley N. and S., was fertile and well watered. The lake, comparatively small before, after Sodom's destruction enlarged itself so as to cover the low valley land. It forms an oval divided into two parts by a peninsula projecting from its eastern side, beyond which the southern lagoon, for ten miles (one fourth of the whole length) is shallow, varying from 12 feet in the middle to three at the edges. The northern bottom lies half a mile below the level of the coast at Jaffa, and more than two thirds of a mile below that of Jerusalem! the deepest depression on the earth.
The surrounding region is in many places fertile, and teeming with animal and vegetable life; but every living thing carried by the Jordan into the waters dies. Their specific gravity exceeds that of any other water. A gallon weighs over 12 1/2 lbs. instead of 10, the weight of distilled water. Dr. Robinson could never swim before, but here could sit, stand, lie, or swim. It holds in solution ingredients six times those contained in common salt water: one third common salt (chloride of sodium) and two thirds chloride of magnesium. Of the rest chloride of calcium is the chief ingredient, besides silica, bitumen, and bromine in small quantities. The greasy look attributed to it exists in imagination only; it is transparent and generally clear. The lime and earthy salts, with the perspiration of the skin, make the water feel greasy. Sulphur springs abound around, and sulphur lies over the plains in layers or in fragments. Only in the district near wady Zurka have igneous rocks been found; the lake basin's formation is mainly due to the action of water.
Before the close of the eocene period the sea flowed the whole length of the Ghor and Arabah connecting them with the Red Sea; it is in fact a pool left by the retreating ocean. It receives the Jordan at the northern end; Zurka Main on its E. side (anciently Callirrhoe , and perhaps the older Εn Εglaim ), also the Mojib (Arnon) and the Beni Hemad; on the S. the Kurahy or el Ahsy; on the W. Ain Jidy. Besides it receives torrents, full in winter though dried up in summer. The absence of any outlet is one of its peculiarities; evaporation through the great heat carries off the supply from without. Owing to this evaporation a haze broods over the water. The mountain walls on either side run nearly parallel; the eastern mountains are higher and more broken by ravines than the western. In color they are brown or red, whereas the western are greyish.
On the western side, opposite the peninsula separating the northern lake from the southern lagoon, stood Masada, now the rock Sebbeh, 1,300 ft. above the lake, where the Jewish zealots made their last stand against Sylva the Roman general, and slew themselves to escape capture, A.D. 71. On the western shore three parallel beaches exist, the highest about 50 ft. above the water. The Khasm Usdum or salt mount, a ridge five miles long, is at the S.W. corner. Its northern part runs S.S.E., then it bends to the right, then runs S.W.; 300 or 400 ft. high, of crystallized rock salt, capped with chalky limestone. The lower part, the salt rock, rises abruptly from the plain at its eastern base. It was probably the bed of an ancient salt lake, upheaved during the convulsion which depressed the bed of the present lake. Between the northern end of Usdum and the lake is a mound covered with stones, Um Zoghal, 60 ft. in diameter, 10 or 12 high, artificial; made by some a relic of Sodom or of Zoar.
The N. and S. ends are not enclosed by highlands as the E. and W. are; the Αrabah between the S. of the Dead Sea and the Red Sea is higher than the Ghor or Jordan valley; the valley suddenly rises 100 ft. at the S. of the Dead Sea, and continues rising until it reaches 1,800 ft. above the Dead Sea, or 500 above the ocean, at a point 35 miles N. of Akabah. The peninsula separating the northern lake from the southern lagoon is called Ghor el Μezraah or el Lisan (the Tongue: so Joshua 15:2 margin); it is ten geographical miles long by five or six broad. "The Tongue," Lisan , is probably restricted to the southern side of the peninsula. The peninsula is formed of post-tertiary aqueous deposits, consisting of friable carbonate of lime, mixed with sandy marl and sulphate of lime ("gypsum"); these were deposited when the water of the lake stood much higher than now, possibly by the action of a river from the quarter of wady Kerak forming an alluvial bank at its embouchure. It is now undergoing a process of disintegration.
The torrents of the Jeib, Ghurundel, and Fikreh on the S., El Ahsy, Numeirah, Humeir, and Ed Draah on the E., Zuweirah, Mubughghik, and Senin on the W., draining about 6,000 square miles, bring down the silt and shingle which have filled up the southern part of the estuary. The Stylophora pistillata coral in the Paris Cabinet d'Hist. Naturelle was brought from the lake in 1837. Ρolygasters , polythalamiae , and phytolithariae were found in the mud and water brought home by Lepsius; the phosphorescence of the waters too betokens the presence of life. Lynch mentions that the birds, animals, and insects on the western side were of a stone color, undistinguishable from the surrounding rocks. The heat is what tries health rather than any miasma from the water. The lake is said to resemble Loch Awe, glassy, blue, and transparent, reflecting the beautiful colours of the encircling mountains; but the sterile look of the shores, the stifling heat, the sulphureous smell, the salt marsh at the S. end, and the fringe of dead driftwood, justify the name "Dead Sea."
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Sea Monster
See MONSTER.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Sea of Glass
Symbolical laver seen in heaven, signifying fixed, accomplished holiness, with no need of the hands or feet being washed. Revelation 4:6 . In Revelation 15:2 the saints are seen standing upon 'a sea of glass mingled with fire': they had come out of the tribulation.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Monster, Sea
The Hebrew word is tannin, and is used for any huge creature whether of sea or land. Lamentations 4:3 . The word is also translated 'whales,' 'dragons,' and 'serpents.'
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Salt Sea
The lake on the south of Palestine, now commonly called the Dead Sea, because it was for long judged that nothing having life could exist in it; but some inferior organisms (as the polygaster) have been found in it at its northern end. It is called, 'the Salt Sea' in Numbers 34:3,12 ; Deuteronomy 3:17 ; Joshua 3:16 ; 'the Sea of the plain' ('Sea of the Arabah,' R.V.), in Deuteronomy 4:49 ; 2 Kings 14:25 ; 'the East Sea' in Ezekiel 47:18 ; Joel 2:20 ; and simply, 'the Sea' in Ezekiel 47:8 . The term, 'Salt Sea' is very appropriate; for it contains much more salt than is found in ordinary sea water, which makes it extremely nauseous. It is also very heavy, so that a person cannot sink in it; and after bathing it leaves a crust of salt on the flesh.
The river Jordan and some streams run into the Salt Sea, but there is no outlet. The rocks that surround it make the heat there very great, and evaporation must be rapid. Its size is about 48 miles long, and 10 miles across at its widest part. Its surface is at times (for it varies according to the rain) about 1,292 feet below the level of the sea, making it, as far as is known, the lowest lake in existence. Its deepest part is about 1,300 feet below the surface. Altogether it is like no other known lake, and is characteristic of death and dreary desolation.
On the restoration of Israel in a future day a river will issue out of the house, the future temple, which river will go down into the desert and run into this sea, and the waters will be healed. En-gedi (Ain Jidy , about half way along the coast of the Dead Sea, on the west) will be one of the stations of the fishermen. Ezekiel 47:1-10 . A beautiful figure of God's future bringing to life the dead and dry bones of Israel and Judah, and making them the means of life to others.
What connection there is, if any, between the present state of the Salt Seaand the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, is not known. In Genesis 14 the battle of the four kings against the five was in "the vale of Siddim, which is the Salt Sea." Genesis 14:3 . The four kings had come from a distance, but the five kings, of whom the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah were two, were near home; farther than this the connection cannot be traced. This sea is now called Bahr Lut, the 'Sea of Lot.'
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Sea, the Molten
The name given to the 'laver' made by Solomon when he built the temple. It was five cubits high, ten in diameter frombrim to brim and thirty in circumference. It stood upon twelve oxen, three facing each way. 1 Kings 7:23-26 ; 2 Chronicles 4:2-5 . See LAVER.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Wormwood
A European species of wormwood (Artemisia maritima) growing by the sea.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Chickweed
A fleshy plant (Arenaria peploides) growing in large tufts in the sands of the northern Atlantic seacoast; - called also sea sandwort, and sea purslane.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Girdles
A kind of kelp (Laminaria digitata) with palmately cleft fronds; - called also sea wand, seaware, and tangle.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Barrow
A sea purse.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Elephant
A very large seal (Macrorhinus proboscideus) of the Antarctic seas, much hunted for its oil. It sometimes attains a length of thirty feet, and is remarkable for the prolongation of the nose of the adult male into an erectile elastic proboscis, about a foot in length. Another species of smaller size (M. angustirostris) occurs on the coast of Lower California, but is now nearly extinct.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Corn
A yellow cylindrical mass of egg capsule of certain species of whelks (Buccinum), which resembles an ear of maize.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Acorn
An acorn barnacle (Balanus).
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Fight
An engagement between ships at sea; a naval battle.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Feather
Any gorgonian which branches in a plumelike form.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Fern
Any gorgonian which branches like a fern.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Bream
Any one of several species of sparoid fishes, especially the common European species (Pagellus centrodontus), the Spanish (P. Oweni), and the black sea bream (Cantharus lineatus); - called also old wife.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Fennel
Samphire.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Colewort
Sea cabbage.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Wrack
See Wrack.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Woodcock
The bar-tailed godwit.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Green
The green color of sea water.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Dove
The little auk, or rotche. See Illust. of Rotche.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Fox
The thrasher shark. See Thrasher.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Dotterel
The turnstone.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea-Roving
(a.) Cruising at random on the ocean.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea-Orb
(n.) A globefish.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea-Mail
(n.) A gull; the mew.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea-Gait
(n.) A long, rolling swell of the sea.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea-Pen
(n.) A pennatula.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Bear
(1):
Any fur seal. See under Fur.
(2):
The white bear.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Devil
(1):
Any large cephalopod, as a large Octopus, or a giant squid (Architeuthis). See Devilfish.
(2):
The angler.
(3):
Any very large ray, especially any species of the genus Manta or Cepholoptera, some of which become more than twenty feet across and weigh several tons. See also Ox ray, under Ox.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Foam
(1):
Meerschaum; - called also sea froth.
(2):
Foam of sea water.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Ape
(1):
The sea otter.
(2):
The thrasher shark.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea-Born
(1):
(a.) Born of the sea; produced by the sea.
(2):
(a.) Born at sea.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Great Sea
GREAT SEA . See Sea.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Apostleship of the Sea
Society for promoting the spiritual welfare of Catholic seafarers throughout the world, with headquarters in London. Working in cooperation with the twelve sailor centers which existed in 1920, the Apostleship began in that year a crusade which has resulted in the establishing of more tan 100 enrolling centers where sailors can add their names to the seafarers of all nations. Apostleship publicity, broadcast in many languages to the Catholic press throughout the world, has results in the formation of national section in Holland and Spain, regional headquarters in Australia, Canada, India, Italy, New Zealand, and South America. In this effort the Brothers of the Saint Vincent de Paul Society have taken a generous part. The coordinating Council of the Society and the Apostleship of the Sea provides a general clearing-house for all Catholic sailor-service activities and apostleship organizing machinery, and is at the disposal of all Catholic organizations and of individual Catholics who desire to help sailors. The Apostleship published a monthly newspaper in English, with bulletins in Dutch, French, German, Italian, Spanish and other languages. The Apostleship in the United States maintain a web site.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Galilee, Sea of
This was situate about the centre of the district of Galilee on the east. The Jordan enters it on the north, and leaves it on the south. Its waters are about 630 feet below the level of the Mediterranean, and its depth about 156 feet. Its length is about thirteen miles, and its widest part about eight miles. On the east of it was the country of the Gergesenes and the Gadarenes. Chorazin was on its north; Capernaum on its N.W.; then, coming southward, was Bethsaida of Galilee, with the plain of Gennesaret (or Chinnereth) near; then Magdala, Dalmanutha and Tiberias on the west. These places being near accounts for the sea being called the LAKE OF GENNESARET and the SEA OF TIBERIAS and of CHINNERETH.
The Lord crossed the sea several times, and taught from a ship near the shore, and once He walked upon its waters. Storms often arise suddenly, as did the one when the Lord was asleep on a pillow. Mark 4:37-41 ; Luke 8:22-25 .
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Tiberias, Sea of
See GALILEE, SEA OF.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Boy
A boy employed on shipboard.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Breach
A breaking or overflow of a bank or a dike by the sea.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Chart
A chart or map on which the lines of the shore, islands, shoals, harbors, etc., are delineated.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Lily
A crinoid.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Pass
A document carried by neutral merchant vessels in time of war, to show their nationality; a sea letter or passport. See Passport.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Daffodil
A European amarylidaceous plant (Pancratium maritimum).
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Mile
A geographical mile. See Mile.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Goddess
A goddess supposed to live in or reign over the sea, or some part of the sea.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Willow
A gorgonian coral with long flexible branches.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Gown
A gown or frock with short sleeves, formerly worn by mariners.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Ginger
A hydroid coral of the genus Millepora, especially M. alcicornis, of the West Indies and Florida. So called because it stings the tongue like ginger. See Illust. under Millepore.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Thongs
A kind of blackish seaweed (Himanthalia lorea) found on the northern coasts of the Atlantic. It has a thonglike forking process rising from a top-shaped base.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Laces
A kind of seaweed (Chorda Filum) having blackish cordlike fronds, often many feet long.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Colander
A large blackfish seaweed (Agarum Turneri), the frond of which is punctured with many little holes.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Jelly
A medusa, or jellyfish.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Pear
A pedunculated ascidian of the genus Boltonia.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Goose
A phalarope.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Pool
A pool of salt water.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Flewer
A sea anemone, or any related anthozoan.
Webster's Dictionary - Open Sea
A sea open to all nations. See Mare clausum.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Wood Louse
A sea slater.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Egg
A sea urchin.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Fir
A sertularian hydroid, especially Sertularia abietina, which branches like a miniature fir tree.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Arrow
A squid of the genus Ommastrephes. See Squid.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Star
A starfish, or brittle star.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Term
A term used specifically by seamen; a nautical word or phrase.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Catfish
Alt. of Sea cat
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Crawfish
Alt. of Sea crayfish
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Poacher
Alt. of Sea poker
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Pork
An American compound ascidian (Amoraecium stellatum) which forms large whitish masses resembling salt pork.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Holly
An evergeen seashore plant (Eryngium maritimum). See Eryngium.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Fowl
Any bird which habitually frequents the sea, as an auk, gannet, gull, tern, or petrel; also, all such birds, collectively.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Moss
Any branched marine bryozoan resembling moss.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Scurf
Any bryozoan which forms rounded or irregular patches of coral on stones, seaweeds, etc.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Crayfish
Any crustacean of the genus Palinurus and allied genera, as the European spiny lobster (P. vulgaris), which is much used as an article of food. See Lobster.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Gull
Any gull living on the seacoast.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Cucumber
Any large holothurian, especially one of those belonging to the genus Pentacta, or Cucumaria, as the common American and European species. (P. frondosa).
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Beast
Any large marine mammal, as a seal, walrus, or cetacean.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Urchin
Any one of numerous species of echinoderms of the order Echinoidea.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Lion
Any one of several large species of seals of the family Otariidae native of the Pacific Ocean, especially the southern sea lion (Otaria jubata) of the South American coast; the northern sea lion (Eumetopias Stelleri) found from California to Japan; and the black, or California, sea lion (Zalophus Californianus), which is common on the rocks near San Francisco.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Leopard
Any one of several species of spotted seals, especially Ogmorhinus leptonyx, and Leptonychotes Weddelli, of the Antarctic Ocean. The North Pacific sea leopard is the harbor seal.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Bird
Any swimming bird frequenting the sea; a sea fowl.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Hare
Any tectibranchiate mollusk of the genus Aplysia. See Aplysia.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Coal
Coal brought by sea; - a name by which mineral coal was formerly designated in the south of England, in distinction from charcoal, which was brought by land.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Salt
Common salt, obtained from sea water by evaporation.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Marge
Land which borders on the sea; the seashore.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Legs
Legs able to maintain their possessor upright in stormy weather at sea, that is, ability stand or walk steadily on deck when a vessel is rolling or pitching in a rough sea.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Card
Mariner's card, or compass.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Bean
Same as Florida bean.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Brief
Same as Sea letter.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Pyot
See 1st Sea pie.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Pye
See 1st Sea pie.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Bow
See Marine rainbow, under Rainbow.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Pink
See Thrift.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Gauge
See under Gauge, n.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Kale
See under Kale.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Purslane
See under Purslane.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Rocket
See under Rocket.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Canary
The beluga, or white whale.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Cob
The black-backed gull.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Hen
the common guillemot; - applied also to various other sea birds.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Calf
The common seal.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Dace
The European sea perch.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Lawyer
The gray snapper. See under Snapper.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Purse
The horny egg case of a skate, and of certain sharks.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Level
The level of the surface of the sea; any surface on the same level with the sea.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Owl
The lumpfish.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Unicorn
The narwhal.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Language
The peculiar language or phraseology of seamen; sailor's cant.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Drake
The pewit gull.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Pheasant
The pintail duck.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Hog
The porpoise.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Sandpiper
The purple sandpiper.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Titling
The rock pipit.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Reed
The sea-sand reed. See under Reed.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Loach
The three-bearded rockling. See Rockling.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea-Island
(a.) Of or pertaining to certain islands along the coast of South Carolina and Georgia; as, sea-island cotton, a superior cotton of long fiber produced on those islands.
Webster's Dictionary - Deep-Sea
(a.) Of or pertaining to the deeper parts of the sea; as, a deep-sea line (i. e., a line to take soundings at a great depth); deep-sea lead; deep-sea soundings, explorations, etc.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea-Blubber
(n.) A jellyfish.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Saurian
(n.) Any marine saurian; esp. (Paleon.) the large extinct species of Mosasaurus, Icthyosaurus, Plesiosaurus, and related genera.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea-Ear
(n.) Any species of ear-shaped shells of the genus Haliotis. See Abalone.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Trumpet
(1):
A great blackish seaweed of the Southern Ocean, having a hollow and expanding stem and a pinnate frond, sometimes twenty feet long.
(2):
Any large marine univalve shell of the genus Triton. See Triton.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Slug
(1):
A holothurian.
(2):
A nudibranch mollusk.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Rat
(1):
A pirate.
(2):
The chimaera.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Snail
(1):
A small fish of the genus Liparis, having a ventral sucker. It lives among stones and seaweeds.
(2):
Any small creeping marine gastropod, as the species of Littorina, Natica, etc.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Salmon
(1):
A young pollock.
(2):
The spotted squeteague.
(3):
See Sea bass (b).
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Spider
(1):
Any maioid crab; a spider crab. See Maioid, and Spider crab, under Spider.
(2):
Any pycnogonid.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Serpent
(1):
Any marine snake. See Sea snake.
(2):
A large marine animal of unknown nature, often reported to have been seen at sea, but never yet captured.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Snipe
(1):
The bellows fish.
(2):
A sandpiper, as the knot and dunlin.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Raven
(1):
The cormorant.
(2):
An American cottoid fish (Hemitripterus Americanus) allied to the sculpins, found on the northeren Atlantic coasts.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Crow
(1):
The cormorant.
(2):
The blackheaded pewit, and other gulls.
(3):
The chough.
(4):
The razorbill.
(5):
The coot.
(6):
The skua.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Mouse
(1):
The dunlin.
(2):
A dorsibranchiate annelid, belonging to Aphrodite and allied genera, having long, slender, hairlike setae on the sides.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Adder
(1):
The European tanglefish, or pipefish (Syngnathus acus).
(2):
The European fifteen-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus spinachia); - called also bismore.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Cow
(1):
The mantee.
(2):
The walrus.
(3):
The dugong.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Perch
(1):
The name is applied also to other species of fishes.
(2):
The sea bass.
(3):
The cunner.
(4):
The European bass (Roccus, / Labrax, lupus); - called also sea dace.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Pie
(1):
The oyster catcher, a limicoline bird of the genus Haematopus.
(2):
A dish of crust or pastry and meat or fish, etc., cooked together in alternate layers, - a common food of sailors; as, a three-decker sea pie.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Dragon
(1):
The pegasus.
(2):
A dragonet, or sculpin.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Lark
(1):
The rock pipit (Anthus obscurus).
(2):
Any one of several small sandpipers and plovers, as the ringed plover, the turnstone, the dunlin, and the sanderling.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Bank
(1):
The seashore.
(2):
A bank or mole to defend against the sea.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea
(1):
(n.) One of the larger bodies of salt water, less than an ocean, found on the earth's surface; a body of salt water of second rank, generally forming part of, or connecting with, an ocean or a larger sea; as, the Mediterranean Sea; the Sea of Marmora; the North Sea; the Carribean Sea.
(2):
(n.) An inland body of water, esp. if large or if salt or brackish; as, the Caspian Sea; the Sea of Aral; sometimes, a small fresh-water lake; as, the Sea of Galilee.
(3):
(n.) The ocean; the whole body of the salt water which covers a large part of the globe.
(4):
(n.) The swell of the ocean or other body of water in a high wind; motion of the water's surface; also, a single wave; a billow; as, there was a high sea after the storm; the vessel shipped a sea.
(5):
(n.) A great brazen laver in the temple at Jerusalem; - so called from its size.
(6):
(n.) Fig.: Anything resembling the sea in vastness; as, a sea of glory.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Galilee Sea of
Galilee, Sea of. Named from the province of Galilee, which bordered on its western side, Matthew 4:18. It was also called the "Sea of Tiberias," from the city of that name, John 6:1, and "Sea of Chinneroth" in the Old Testament. At its northwestern angle was a beautiful and fertile plain called "Gennesaret," and from that it derived the name of "Lake of Gennesaret." Luke 5:1; Numbers 34:11; Joshua 12:3, and Galilee, Joshua 19:35. Its modern name is Bahr Tubarîyeh. Most of our Lord's public life was spent in the environs of this sea. The Sea of Galilee is of an oval shape, about 12 miles long and 6 broad. It is 60 miles northeast of Jerusalem and 27 east of the Mediterranean sea. The river Jordan enters it at its northern end and passes out at its southern end. Its most remarkable feature is its deep depression, being no less than 700 feet below the level of the ocean. The scenery is bleak and monotonous, being surrounded by a high and almost unbroken wall of hills, on account of which it is exposed to frequent sudden and violent storms. The great depression makes the climate of the shores almost tropical. In summer the heat is intense, and even in early spring the air has something of an Egyptian balminess. The water of the lake is sweet, cool, and transparent; and as the beach is everywhere pebbly it has a beautiful sparkling look. It abounds in fish now as in ancient times. There were large fisheries on the lake, and much commerce was carried on upon it. There are only a few small boats now to be found on the lake.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Great Sea
Great Sea. Numbers 34:6. The Mediterranean sea; called also "utmost sea" and the "hinder sea;" R. V., "eastern sea" and "western sea." Joel 2:20; Zechariah 14:8. See Sea.
Vine's Expository Dictionary of OT Words - Sea
Yâm (יָם, Strong's #3220), “sea; ocean.” This word has cognates in Aramaic, Akkadian, Ugaritic, Phoenician, and Ethiopic. It occurs about 390 times and in all periods of biblical Hebrew.
This word refers to the body of water as distinct from the land bodies (continents and islands) and the sky (heavens): “For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea and all that in them is …” (Exod. 20:11). Used in this sense yâm means “ocean.” This is its meaning in Gen. 1:10, its first biblical appearance; unlike the use in the singular, where the word is a collective noun, it appears here in the plural: “And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas.…”
Yâm may be used of “seas,” whether they are salty or fresh. The Great Sea is the Mediterranean: “From the wilderness and this Lebanon even unto the great river, the river Euphrates, all the land of the Hittites, and unto the Great Sea toward the going down of the sun, shall be your coast” (Josh. 1:4). This sea is also called the sea of the Philistines (Exod. 23:31) and the hinter or western sea (Deut. 11:24; KJV, “uttermost sea”). The Dead Sea is called the Salt Sea (Gen. 14:3), the Arabah (Deut. 3:17; KV, “plain”), and the east sea (Ezek. 47:18). Thus, yâm can be used of an inland salty “sea.” It can also be used of a fresh water “sea” such as the Sea of Galilee: “… And the border shall descend, and shall reach unto the side of the Sea of Chinnereth eastward” (Num. 34:11).
The word is sometimes used of the direction west or westward, in the sense of toward the (Great) Sea: “Lift up now thine eyes, and look from the place where thou art northward, and southward, and eastward, and westward” (Gen. 13:14). In Gen. 12:8 yâm means “on the west side”: “And he removed from thence unto a mountain on the east of Beth-el, and pitched his tent, having Beth-el on the west, and Hai on the east.…” This word can also refer to a side of something and not just a direction, but it is the side that faces westward: “He turned about to the west side …” (Ezek. 42:19). Exod. 10:19 uses yâm as an adjective modifying “wind”: “And the Lord turned a mighty strong west wind, which took away the locusts.…”
Yâm is used of the great basin immediately in front of the Holy Place: “And the pillars of brass that were in the house of the Lord, and the bases, and the brazen sea that was in the house of the Lord, did the Chaldees break in pieces, and carried the brass of them to Babylon” (2 Kings 25:13). This is also called the “sea” of cast metal (1 Kings 7:23; KJV, “molten sea”) or simply the “sea” (Jer. 27:19).
Yâm is used of mighty rivers such as the Nile: “And the waters shall fail from the sea, and the river shall be wasted and dried up” (Isa. 19:5). This statement occurs in the middle of a prophecy against Egypt. Therefore, “the river” is the Nile. But since the term “river” is in synonymous parallelism to “the sea,” this latter term also refers to the Nile. Ezek. 32:2 uses yâm of the branches of the Nile: “… And thou art as a whale in the seas: and thou camest forth with thy rivers, and troubledst the waters with thy feet, and fouledst their rivers.” This word can also be used of the Euphrates River (Jer. 51:36).
In some instances the word yâm may represent the Canaanite god Yamm, “which alone spreadeth out the heavens, and treadeth upon the waves of the sea” (Job 9:8). If understood as a statement about Yamm, this passage would read: “and tramples upon the back of Yamm.” The parallelism between “heavens” and “seas,” however, would lead us to conclude that the reference here is to the literal “sea.” Ps. 89:9- 10 is a more likely place to see a mention of Yamm, for there the word is identified as one of God’s enemies in immediate proximity to the goddess Rahab: “Thou rulest the raging of the sea [1]: when the waves thereof arise, thou stillest them. Thou hast broken Rahab in pieces, as one that is slain; thou hast scattered thine enemies with thy strong arm.” Especially note Job 7:12: “Am I a sea [1], or a whale, that thou settest a watch over me?” (cf. Job 26:12; Ps. 74:13).
Webster's Dictionary - Mid Sea
Alt. of Mid-sea
Webster's Dictionary - a-Sea
(adv.) On the sea; at sea; toward the sea.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Brazen Sea
Brazen Sea. 2 Kings 25:13. See Laver.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Sea (2)
Sea of Chinnereth (kĭn'ne-rĕth). Numbers 34:11. See Galilee, Sea of.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Sea (2)
Sea of Chinnereth (kĭn'ne-rĕth). Numbers 34:11. See Galilee, Sea of.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Sea (2)
Sea of Chinnereth (kĭn'ne-rĕth). Numbers 34:11. See Galilee, Sea of.
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Chin'Nereth, Sea of
(Numbers 34:11 ; Joshua 13:27 ) the inland sea, which is most similarly known to us as the "Lake of Gennesareth" or "Sea of Galilee."
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Red Sea
celebrated chiefly for the miraculous passage of the Israelites through its waters. They were thrust out of Egypt, says Dr. Hales, on the fifteenth day of the first month; "about six hundred thousand men on foot, beside women and children. And a mixed multitude went up also with them; and flocks and herds, even very much cattle," Exodus 12:37-39 ; Numbers 11:4 ; Numbers 33:3 . After they set out from Rameses, in the land of Goshen, in the neighbourhood of Cairo, their first encampment was at Succoth, signifying "booths," or an "enclosure for cattle," after a stage of about thirty miles; their second, at Etham, or Adsjerud, on the edge of the wilderness, about sixty miles farther; "for the Lord led them not by the way of the land of the Philistines, although that was near; for God said, Lest peradventure the people repent when they see war, and they return to Egypt: but God led the people about by the way of the wilderness of the Red Sea," or by a circuitous route to the land of promise, in order to train them and instruct them, in the solitudes of Arabia Petraea, Exodus 13:17-20 ; Deuteronomy 32:10 . Instead of proceeding from Etham, round the head of the Red Sea, and coasting along its eastern shore, the Lord made them turn southward along its western shore, and, after a stage of about twenty or thirty miles, to encamp in the valley of Bedea, where there was an opening in the great chain of mountains that line the western coast, called Pi-hahiroth, the mouth of the ridge between Migdol westward, and the sea eastward, "over against Baal-zephon," on the eastern coast; to tempt Pharaoh, whose heart he finally hardened, to pursue them when they were "entangled in the land," and shut in by the wilderness on their rear and flanks, and by the sea in their front. The leading motive with Pharaoh and his servants was to bring back the Israelites to bondage, and of the Egyptians in general, to recover the treasures of which they had been spoiled, Exodus 14:1-5 . So Pharaoh pursued the Israelites by the direct way of Migdol, with six hundred chariots, his horsemen, and his army, and overtook them encamping by the sea, beside Pi-hahiroth, over against Baal-zephon. When their destruction, or their return to bondage, seemed to be inevitable, the Lord interposed and fought for Israel. He opened for them a passage across the Red Sea, where it was about twelve miles wide, and brought them through in safety; while he drowned the Egyptians, who blindly followed them to their own destruction, Psalms 77:18 , &c.
On this memorable deliverance Moses composed a thanksgiving, which he and the Israelites sung unto the Lord. It is also a sublime prophecy, foretelling the powerful effect of this tremendous judgment on the neighbouring nations of Edom, Moab, Palestine, and Canaan, the future settlement of the Israelites in the promised land; and the erection of the temple and sanctuary on Mount Zion, and the perpetuity of the dominion and worship of God.
The precise place of this passage has been much contested. Some place it near Suez, at the head of the gulf; others, with more probability, about ten hours' journey lower down, at Clysma, or the vale of Bedea. The day before the passage, by the divine command, the Israelites encamped beside Pi-hahiroth "between Migdol and the sea, over against Baal-zephon,"
Exodus 14:2 ; Numbers 33:7 . Pi-hahiroth signifies "the mouth of the ridge," or chain of mountains, which line the western coast of the Red Sea, called Attaka, "deliverance," in which was a gap, which formed the extremity of the valley of Bedea, ending at the sea eastward, and running westward to some distance, toward Cairo; Migdol, signifying "a tower," probably lay in that direction; and Baal-zephon, signifying "the northern Baal," was probably a temple on the opposite promontory, built on the eastern coast of the Red Sea. And the modern names of places in the vicinity tend to confirm these expositions of the ancient. Beside Attaka, on the eastern coast opposite, is a head land, called Ras Musa, or "the Cape of Moses;" somewhat lower, Hamam Faraun, "Pharaoh's Springs;" below Girondel, a reach of the gulf, called Birket Faraum; and the general name of the gulf is Bahr al Kolsum, "the Bay of Submersion." These names indicate that the passage was considerably below Suez, according to the tradition of the natives. The depth and breadth of the gulf, from Suez downward, is thus described by Niebuhr: "I have not found in this sea, from Suez southward, any bank or isthmus under water. When we departed from Suez, we sailed as far as Girondel, without fear of encountering any such. We had in the first place, the road of Suez, four fathom and half; at three German leagues from Suez, in the middle of the gulf, four fathoms; and about Girondel, near the shore, even to ten fathoms." Bruce, also, describing the place of passage opposite Ras Musa, or a little below it, says, "There is here about fourteen fathom of water in the channel, and about nine in the sides, and good anchorage every where.
The farthest side, the eastern, is a low sandy coast, and a very easy landing place." Shaw reckons the breadth of the gulf at this place about ten miles; Niebuhr, three leagues and more; Bruce, something less than four leagues; we may therefore estimate it about twelve miles, from their joint reports. But this space the host of the Israelites could easily have passed in the course of a night, from the evening to the ensuing morning watch, or dawn of day, according to the Mosaical account. And surely the depth of the sea was no impediment, when the Lord divided it by "a strong east wind," which blew across the sea all that night, and made the bottom of the sea dry land; "and the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea upon the dry ground, and the waters were a wall unto them, on their right hand and on their left," Exodus 14:21-22 .
In the queries of Michaelis, sent to Niebuhr, when in Egypt, it was proposed to him to inquire upon the spot, whether there were not some ridges of rocks where the water was shallow, so that an army at particular times may pass over; secondly, whether the Etesian winds, which blow strongly all summer from the north-west could not blow so violently against the sea as to keep it back on a heap, so that the Israelites might have passed without a miracle. And a copy of these queries was left, also, for Bruce, to join his inquiries likewise; his observations on which are excellent: "I must confess, however learned the gentlemen were who proposed these doubts, I did not think they merited any attention to solve them. This passage is told us by Scripture to be a miraculous one; and if so, we have nothing to do with natural causes. If we do not believe Moses, we need not believe the transaction at all, seeing that it is from his authority alone we derive it. If we believe in God, that he made the sea, we must believe he could divide it when he sees proper reason; and of that he must be the only judge. It is no greater miracle to divide the Red Sea than to divide the river Jordan. If the Etesian wind, blowing from the north-west in summer, could keep up the sea as a wall on the right, or to the south, of fifty feet high, still the difficulty would remain of building the wall on the left hand, or to the north. Beside, water standing in that position for a day must have lost the nature of fluid. Whence came that cohesion of particles which hindered that wall to escape at the sides? This is as great a miracle as that of Moses. If the Etesian winds had done this once, they must have repeated it many a time before and since, from the same causes. Yet Diodorus Siculus says the Troglodytes, the indigenous inhabitants of that very spot, had a tradition from father to son, from their very earliest ages, that ‘once this division of the sea did happen there; and that, after leaving its bottom some time dry, the sea again came back, and covered it with great fury.' The words of this author are of the most remarkable kind: we cannot think this Heathen is writing in favour of revelation: he knew not Moses, nor says a word about Pharaoh and his host; but records the miracle of the division of the sea in words nearly as strong as those of Moses, from the mouths of unbiassed, undesigning Pagans." Still skeptical queries have their use; they lead to a stricter investigation of facts, and, thereby tend strongly to confirm the veracity of the history they mean to impeach. Thus it appears from the accurate observations of Niebuhr and Bruce, that there is no ledge of rocks running across the gulf any where, to afford a shallow passage. And the second query, about the Etesian or northerly wind, is refuted by the express mention of a strong easterly wind blowing across, and scooping out a dry passage; not that it was necessary for Omnipotence to employ it there as an instrument, any more than at Jordan; but it seems to be introduced in the sacred history by way of anticipation, to exclude the natural agency that might in after times be employed for solving the miracle; and it is remarkable that the monsoon in the Red Sea blows the summer half of the year from the north, the winter half from the south, neither of which therefore, even if the wind could be supposed to operate so violently upon the waters, could produce the miracle in question.
Wishing to diminish, though not to deny, the miracle, Niebuhr adopts the opinion of those who contend for a higher passage near Suez. "For," says he, "the miracle would be less if they crossed the sea there than near Bedea. But whosoever should suppose that the multitude of the Israelites could be able to cross it here without a prodigy would deceive himself; for, even in our days, no caravan passes that way to go from Cairo to Mount Sinai, although it would considerably shorten the journey. The passage would have been naturally more difficult for the Israelites some thousands of years back, when the gulf was probably larger, deeper, and more extended toward the north; for, in all appearance, the water has retired, and the ground near this end has been raised by the sands of the neighbouring desert." But it sufficiently appears, even from Niebuhr's own statement, that the passage of the Israelites could not have been taken near Suez; for,
1. He evidently confounded the town of Kolsum, the ruins of which he places near Suez, and where he supposed the passage to be made, with the bay of Kolsum, which began about forty-five miles lower down; as Bryant has satisfactorily proved, from the astronomical observations of Ptolemy and of Ulug Beigh, made at Heroum, the ancient head of the gulf.
2. Instead of crossing the sea at or near Ethan, their second station, the Israelites turned southward, along the western shore; and their third station at Pi-hahiroth, or Bedea, was at a full day's journey below Ethan, as Bryant has satisfactorily proved from Scripture, Exodus 14:2 . And it was this unexpected change in the direction of their march, and the apparently disadvantageous situation in which they were then placed, entangled in the land, and shut in by the wilderness, with a deep sea in front, the mountains of Attaka on the sides, and the enemy in their rear, that tempted the Egyptians to pursue them through the valley of Bedea, by the direct route from Cairo, who overtook them encamping by the sea, beside Pi-hahiroth, opposite to Baal-zephon, Exodus 14:2-9 .
Niebuhr wonders how the Israelites could suffer themselves to be brought into such a disadvantageous situation, or be led blindfold by Moses to their apparent destruction. "One need only travel with a caravan," says he, "which meets with the least obstacle, namely, a small torrent, to be convinced that the orientals do not let themselves be led, like fools, by their caravan baschi," or leader of the caravan. But the Israelites went out of Egypt with "a high hand," though led by Moses, yet under the visible guidance and protection of "the Lord God of the Hebrews," who "went before them by day in a pillar of a cloud, and by night in a pillar of fire;"
and who, for their encouragement, to enter the passage of the sea miraculously prepared for them, removed the cloud which went before the camp of Israel hitherto, and placed it behind them. "And it came between the camp of the Egyptians and the camp of Israel; and it was a cloud and darkness to the one, but gave light by night to the other: so that the one came not near the other all the night," Exodus 14:8-20 .
Niebuhr wonders, also, how Pharaoh and the Egyptians could be led to follow the Israelites. "Pharaoh must have wanted prudence. if, after having seen so many prodigies in Egypt, he had entered into a sea of more than three leagues wide: all the Egyptians, too, must have been bereft of understanding, in wishing to pursue the Israelites into such a sea.
Doubtless they knew their own country well enough to distinguish the bottom of a large sea, which bounds Egypt on that side, from a desert." But Pharaoh and the Egyptians probably did not know their situation. The cloud which separated them from the Israelites increased the darkness of the night; and they probably did not enter into the sea till about midnight, by which time the van of the Israelites might have reached the eastern shore. Meanwhile the bed of the sea, now beaten by the feet of the immense multitude of men and cattle that had gone before, might not have been easily distinguishable from the desert. If we ask, Why did the Egyptians venture to pursue the Israelites by night? Why did they not wait till day light, when they could see whither they were going? Niebuhr himself has unwittingly answered the question: Pharaoh wanted "prudence," indeed, and the Egyptians were "bereft of understanding." And this is the Scriptural solution; for God hardened the heart of Pharaoh to follow after them, that he might be honoured upon Pharaoh and all his host; and that, by their miraculous destruction, the Egyptians might know that he was the Lord supreme, Exodus 14:4-18 . The Egyptians did not find out their mistake till the "morning appeared," or till day-break, when the rear of the Israelites had gained the shore, and the Egyptians had reached the middle of the sea, and their whole host had entered into it: then, indeed, they attempted to fly back, but in vain; for "their chariot wheels were broken off, so that they drave them heavily, and their host was troubled" by the Lord, who looked or frowned upon them through the cloudy pillar of fire, and overwhelmed all their host in the midst of the sea; when the sea suddenly returned to his strength at the signal of Moses stretching forth his hand over it, Exodus 14:24-28 .
The particulars of this transaction demonstrate, that neither the host of the Israelites, nor the host of Pharaoh, could possibly have passed at the head of the gulf near Suez; where the sea was only half a league broad, according to Niebuhr's own supposition, and consequently too narrow to contain the whole host of Pharaoh at once; whose six hundred chariots alone, exclusive of his cavalry and infantry, must have occupied more ground. Manetho, and the Egyptian writers, have passed over in silence this tremendous visitation of their nation. An ancient writer, however, Artapanus, who wrote a history of the Jews, about B.C. 130, has preserved the following curious Egyptian traditions:— "The Memphites relate, that Moses, being well acquainted with the country, watched the influx of the tide, and made the multitude pass through the dry bed of the sea. But the Heliopolitans relate, that the king, with a great army, accompanied by the sacred animals, pursued after the Jews, who had carried off with them the substance of the Egyptians; and that Moses, having been directed by a divine voice to strike the sea with his rod, when he heard it, touched the water with his rod; and so the fluid divided, and the host passed over through a dry way. But when the Egyptians entered along with them, and pursued them, it is said, that fire flashed against them in front, and the sea, returning back, overwhelmed the passage. Thus the Egyptians perished, both by the fire, and by the reflux of the tide."
The latter account is extremely curious: it not only confirms Scripture, but it notices three additional circumstances:
1. That for their protection against the God of Israel, the Egyptians brought with them the sacred animals; and by this means God executed judgment upon all the bestial gods of Egypt, as foretold, Exodus 12:12 , that perished with their infatuated votaries; completing the destruction of both, which began with smiting the first-born both of man and beast.
2. That the recovery of the jewels of silver and jewels of gold and raiment, which they asked and obtained of the Egyptians, according to the divine command, Exodus 12:35-36 , was a leading motive with the Egyptians to pursue them; as the bringing back the Israelites to slavery had been with Pharaoh and his servants, or officers.
3. That the destruction of the Egyptians was partly occasioned by lightning and thunderbolts from the presence of the Lord; exactly corresponding to the psalmist's sublime description: "The waters saw thee, O God, the waters saw thee; they were afraid: the depths also were troubled. The clouds poured out water, the air thundered, thine arrows also went abroad. Yea, he sent out his arrows, and scattered them; he shot forth lightnings, hail stones, and coals of fire, and discomfited them. Then the channels of waters were seen, and the foundations of the world were discovered, at thy rebuke, O Lord, at the blast of the breath of thy nostrils," Psalms 77:16-17 ; Psalms 18:13-15 .
The Red Sea derived its name from Edom, signifying "red," a title of Esau, to whom the bordering country of Edom, or Idumaea, belonged, Genesis 25:30 ; Genesis 36:31-40 . It was also called Yam Suph, "the weedy sea," in several passages, Numbers 33:10 ; Psalms 106:9 , &c, which are improperly rendered "the Red Sea." Some learned authors have supposed that it was so named from the quantity of weeds in it. "But in contradiction to this," says Bruce, "I must confess, that I never in my life, and I have seen the whole extent of it, saw a weed of any sort in it. And indeed, upon the slightest consideration, it will appear to any one, that a narrow gulf, under the immediate influence of monsoons, blowing from contrary points six months each year, would have too much agitation to produce such vegetables, seldom found but in stagnant water, and seldomer, if ever, found in salt ones. My opinion then is, that it is from the large trees, or plants, of white coral, perfectly in imitation of plants on land, that the sea has taken the name ‘weedy.' I saw one of these, which, from a root nearly central, threw out ramifications in a nearly central form, measuring twenty-six feet diameter every way." This seems to be the most probable solution that has been hitherto proposed of the name. The tides in this sea are but moderate. At Suez the difference between high and low water did not exceed from three to four feet, according to Niebuhr's observations on the tides in that gulf, during the years 1762 and 1763.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Sea
The Hebrews gave the name of sea to all great collections of water, to great lakes or pools. Thus the sea of Galilee, or of Tiberias, or of Cinnereth, is no other than the lake of Tiberias, or Gennesareth, in Galilee. The Dead Sea, the sea of the Wilderness, the sea or the East, the sea of Sodom, the sea of Salt, or the Salt Sea, the sea of Asphaltites, or of bitumen, is no other than the lake of Sodom. The Arabians and orientals in general frequently gave the name of sea to great rivers, as the Nile, the Euphrates, the Tigris, and others, which, by their magnitude, and by the extent of their overflowings, seemed as little seas, or great lakes. In Isaiah 11:15 , these words particularly apply to the Nile at the Delta.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Dead Sea
This was anciently called the Sea of the Plain, Deuteronomy 3:17 ; Deuteronomy 4:49 , from its situation in the great hollow or plain of the Jordan; the Salt Sea, Deuteronomy 3:17 ; Joshua 15:5 , from the extreme saltness of its waters; and the East Sea, Ezekiel 47:18 ; Joel 2:20 , from its situation relative to Judea, and in contradistinction to the West Sea, or Mediterranean. It is likewise called by Josephus, and by the Greek and Latin writers generally, Lacus Asphaltites, from the bitumen found in it and the Dead Sea, its more frequent modern appellation, from a tradition, commonly though erroneously received, that no living creature could exist in its saline and sulphureous waters. It is at present known in Syria by the names of Almotanah and Bahar Loth: and occupies what may be considered as the southern extremity of the vale of Jordan; forming, in that direction, the western boundary to the Holy Land. The Dead Sea is about seventy miles in length, and twenty in breadth at its broadest part; having, like the Caspian, no visible communication with the ocean. Its depth seems to be altogether unknown; nor does it appear that a boat has ever navigated its surface. Toward its southern extremity, however, in a contracted part of the lake, is a ford, about six miles over, made use of by the Arabs: in the middle of which they report the water to be warm; indicating the presence of warm springs beneath. In general, toward the shore, it is shallow; and rises and falls with the seasons, and the quantity of water carried into it by seven streams, which fall into this their common receptacle, the chief of which is the Jordan.
The water now covering these ruins occupies what was formerly the vale of Siddim; a rich and fruitful valley, in which stood the five cities, called the cities of the plain, namely, Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboim, and Bela or Zoar: the four first of which were destroyed, while the latter, being "a little city," was preserved at the intercession of Lot; to which he fled for refuge from the impending catastrophe, and where he remained in safety during its accomplishment.
The specific gravity of the waters of the Dead Sea is supposed to have been much exaggerated by the ancient writers, but their statements are now proved to be by no means very wide of the truth. Pliny says, that no living bodies would sink in it; and Strabo, that persons who went into it were borne up to their middle. Van Egmont and Heyman state, that, on swimming to some distance from the shore, they found themselves, to their great surprise, lifted up by the water. "When I had swam to some distance," says the latter, "I endeavoured to sink to the bottom, but could not; for the water kept me continually up, and would certainly have thrown me upon my face, had I not put forth all the strength I was master of, to keep myself in a perpendicular posture; so that I walked in the sea as if I had trod on firm ground, without having occasion to make any of the motions necessary in treading fresh water; and when I was swimming, I
was obliged to keep my legs the greatest part of the time out of the water. My fellow traveller was agreeably surprised to find that he could swim here, having never learned. But this proceeded from the gravity of the water, as this certainly does from the extraordinary quantity of salt in it."
Mr. Joliffe says, he found it very little more buoyant than other seas, but he did not go out of his depth. "The descent of the beach," he says, "is so gently gradual, that I must have waded above a hundred yards to get completely out of my depth, and the impatience of the Arabians would not allow of time sufficient for this." Captain Mangles says: "The water is as bitter and as buoyant as the people have reported. Those of our party who could not swim, floated on its surface like corks. On dipping the head in, the eyes smarted dreadfully." With regard to the agents employed in this catastrophe, there might seem reason to suppose that volcanic phenomena had some share in producing it; but Chateaubriand's remark is deserving of attention. "I cannot," he says, "coincide in opinion with those who suppose the Dead Sea to be the crater of a volcano. I have seen Vesuvius, Solfatara, Monte Nuovo in the lake of Fusino, the peak of the Azores, the Mamalif opposite to Carthage, the extinguished volcanoes of Auvergne; and remarked in all of them the same characters; that is to say, mountains excavated in the form of a tunnel, lava, and ashes, which exhibited incontestable proofs of the agency of fire." After noticing the very different shape and position of the Dead Sea, he adds: "Bitumen, warm springs, and phosphoric stones are found, it is true, in the mountains of Arabia; but then, the presence of hot springs, sulphur, and asphaltos is not sufficient to attest the anterior existence of a volcano." The learned Frenchman inclines to adopt the idea of Professors Michaelis and Busching, that Sodom and Gomorrah were built upon a mine of bitumen; that lightning kindled the combustible mass, and that the cities sunk in the subterraneous conflagration. M. Malte Brun ingeniously suggests, that the cities might themselves have been built of bituminous stones, and thus have been set in flames by the fire of heaven. We learn from the Mosaic account, that the vale of Siddim, which is now occupied by the Dead Sea, was full of "slime pits," or pits of bitumen. Pococke says: "It is observed, that the bitumen floats on the water, and comes ashore after windy weather; the Arabs gather it up, and it serves as pitch for all uses, goes into the composition of medicines, and is thought to have been a very great ingredient in the bitumen used in embalming the bodies in Egypt: it has been much used for cerecloths, and has an ill smell when burnt. It is probable that there are subterraneous fires, that throw up this bitumen at the bottom of the sea, where it may form itself into a mass, which may be broken by the motion of the water occasioned by high winds; and it is very remarkable, that the stone called the stone of Moses, found about two or three leagues from the sea, which burns like a coal, and turns only to a white stone, and not to ashes, has the same smell, when burnt, as this pitch; so that it is probable, a stratum of the stone under the Dead Sea is one part of the matter that feeds the subterraneous fires, and that this bitumen boils up out of it." To give force to this last conjecture, however, it would be requisite to ascertain, whether bitumen is capable of being detached from this stone, in a liquid state, by the action of fire. The stone in question is the black fetid limestone, used at Jerusalem in the manufacture of rosaries and amulets, and worn as a charm against the plague. The effluvia which it emits on friction, is owing to a strong impregnation of sulphuretted hydrogen. If the buildings were constructed of materials of this description, with quarries of which the neighbouring mountains abound, they would be easily susceptible of ignition by lightning. The Scriptural account, however, is explicit, that "the Lord rained upon Sodom and Gomorrah brimstone and fire from heaven;" which we may safely interpret as implying a shower of inflamed sulphur, or nitre. At the same time it is evident, that the whole plain underwent a simultaneous convulsion, which seems referable to the consequences of a bituminous explosion. In perfect accordance with this view of the catastrophe, we find the very materials, as it were, of this awful visitation still at hand in the neighbouring hills; from which they might have been poured down by the agency of thunder storms, directed by the hand of offended Heaven. Captains Irby and Mangles collected, on the southern coast, lumps of nitre and fine sulphur, from the size of a nutmeg up to that of a small hen's egg, which, it was evident from their situation, had been brought down by the rain: "their great deposit must be sought for," they say, "in the cliff." These cliffs then were probably swept by the lightnings, and their flaming masses poured in a deluge of fire upon the plain.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Dead Sea
See SALT SEA.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Red Sea
This sea is renowned in O.T. history on account of the miraculous passage made for the Israelites, and the destruction of their enemies therein.
The Red Sea, situated on the east of Egypt and the west of South Arabia, is somewhat in the form of the letter Y. Its southern extremity opens into the Indian Ocean, from whence it runs N.N.W. for about 1,400 miles, when it divides into two branches; the one on the east being the Gulf of Akaba, about 112 miles long; and the one on the west, the Gulf of Suez, about 200 miles long. It is the latter that the Israelites crossed, and, as is supposed, farther north than the gulf now extends, but the position is not known. It is to this branch that theSuez Canal has been attached, opening a passage to the MediterraneanSea.
THE PASSAGE OF THE RED SEA.The number of the Israelites wasprobably about two millions. They encamped by the sea shore and Pharaoh naturally thought they were entangled in the land. With his army and his chariots he pursued after them. The Israelites greatly feared, but Moses said, "Fear ye not, stand still, and see the salvation of Jehovah." The angel of God and the pillar of the cloud went between the Israelites and the Egyptians. To the Israelites the cloud gave light, but to the Egyptians it was a cloud of darkness, all night. Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and God caused a strong east wind to blow all that night, and the waters were divided, and the Israelites went over on dry land.
Pharaoh had not yet learned the power of Jehovah, and the Egyptians pursued them. God fought for the Israelites: He embarrassed the Egyptians, took off the chariot wheels, and thus so hindered them that they began to see that Jehovah was opposing them. It was, however, too late to retreat, Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea, and it returned in its strength, and they were overwhelmed. Their dead bodies were cast up on the sea shore.
The faith of the Israelites was confirmed by the destruction of the Egyptians: they feared Jehovah, and believed Jehovah and His servant Moses. He and the Israelites could then sing the song of redemption, and praise Him who had purchased them. He also would plant them in the mountain of His inheritance, yea, in the sanctuary which His hands had established. Jehovah shall reign for ever and ever. Exodus 14 , Exodus 15 . For the typical teaching of the passage of the Red Sea, see JORDAN.
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Red Sea
Name. --The sea known to us as the Red Sea was by the Israelites called "the sea," (Exodus 14:2,9,16,21,28 ; 15:1,4,8,10,19 ; Joshua 24:6,7 ) and many other passages, and specially "the sea of Suph ." ( Exodus 10:19 ; 13:18 ; 15:4,22 ; 23:31 ; Numbers 14:25 ) etc. This word signifies a sea-weed resembling wool , and such sea-weed is thrown up abundantly on the shores of the Red Sea; hence Brugsch calls it the sea of reeds or weeds . The color of the water is not red. Ebers says that it is of a lovely blue-green color, and named Red either from its red banks or from the Erythraeans, who were called the red people.
Physical description . --In extreme length the Red Sea stretches from the straits of Bab el-Mendeb (or rather Ras Bab el-Mendeb), 18 miles wide. in lat. 12 degrees 40' N., to the modern head of the Gulf of Suez, lat. 30 degrees N., a distance of 1450 miles. Its greatest width may be stated at about 210 miles. At Ras Mohammed, on the north, the Red Sea is split by the granitic peninsula of Sinai into two gulfs; the westernmost, or Gulf of Suez, is now about 150 miles in length, with an average width of about 20, though it contracts to less than 10 miles; the easternmost or Gulf of el-'Akabeh, is about 100 miles long, from the Straits of Tiran to the 'Akabeh, and 15 miles wide. The average depth of the Red Sea is from 2500 to 3500 feet, though in places it Isaiah 6000 feet deep. Journeying southward from Suez, on our left is the peninsula of Sinai; on the right is the desert coast of Egypt, of limestone formation like the greater part of the Nile valley in Egypt, the cliff's on the sea margin stretching landward in a great rocky plateau while more inland a chain of volcanic mountains, beginning about lat. 28 degrees 4' and running south, rear their lofty peaks at intervals above the limestone, generally about 15 miles distant.
Ancient limits. --The most important change in the Red Sea has been the drying up of its northern extremity, "the tongue of the Egyptian Sea." about the head of the gulf has risen and that near the Mediterranean become depressed. The head of the gulf has consequently retired gradually since the Christian era. Thus the prophecy of Isaiah has been fulfilled, ( Isaiah 11:15 ; 10:5 ) the tongue of the Red Sea has dried up for a distance of at least 50 miles from its ancient head. An ancient canal conveyed the waters of the Nile to the Red Sea, flowing through the Wadi-t Tumeylat and irrigating with its system of water-channels a large extent of country. It was 62Roman miles long, 54 feet wide and 7 feet deep. The drying up of the head of the gulf appears to have been one of the chief causes of the neglect and ruin of this canal. The country, for the distance above indicated, is now a desert of gravelly sand, with wide patches about the old sea-bottom, of rank marsh land, now called the "Bitter Lakes." At the northern extremity of this salt waste is a small lake, sometimes called the Lake of Heropolis; the lake is now Birket-et-Timsah "the lake of the crocodile," and is supposed to mark the ancient head of the gulf. The canal that connected this with the Nile was of Pharaonic origin. It was anciently known as the "Fossa Regum" and the "canal of Hero." The time at which the canal was extended, after the drying up of the head of the gulf, to the present head is uncertain, but it must have been late, and probably since the Mohammedan conquest. Traces of the ancient channel throughout its entire length to the vicinity of Bubastis exist at intervals in the present day. The land north of the ancient gulf is a plain of heavy sand, merging into marsh-land near the Mediterranean coast, and extending to Palestine. This region, including Wadi-t-Tumeylat , was probably the frontier land occupied in pact by the Israelites, and open to the incursions of the wild tribes of the Arabian desert.
Navigation. --The sea, from its dangers and sterile shores, is entirely destitute of boats. The coral of the Red Sea is remarkably abundant, and beautifully colored and variegated; but it forms so many reefs and islands along the shores that navigation is very dangerous, and the shores are chiefly barren rock and sand, and therefore very sparsely inhabited so that there are but three cities along the whole 1450 miles of its west coast --Suez, at the head, a city of 14,000 inhabitants; Sanakin, belonging to Soudan, of 10,000; and Massau, in Albyssinia, of 5000. Only two ports, Elath and Ezion-geber, are mentioned in the Bible. The earliest navigation of the Red Sea (passing by the pre-historical Phoenicians) is mentioned by Herodotus: --"Seostris (Rameses II.) was the first who passing the Arabian Gulf in a fleet of long vessels, reduced under his authority the inhabitants of the coast bordering the Erythrean Sea." Three centuries later, Solomon's navy was built "in Ezion-geber, which is beside Eloth, on the shore of the Red Sea (Yam Suph), in the land of Edom." ( 1 Kings 9:20 ) The kingdom of Solomon extended as far as the Red Sea, upon which he possessed the harbors of Elath and Ezion-geber. [1] It is possible that the sea has retired here as at Suez, and that Ezion-geber is now dry land. Jehoshaphat also "made ships of Tharshish to go to Ophir for gold; but they went not; for the ships were broken at Ezion-geber." (1 Kings 22:48 ) The scene of this wreck has been supposed to be Edh-Dhahab. The fleets appear to have sailed about the autumnal equinox, and returned in December or the middle of January. The Red Sea, as it possessed for many centuries the most important sea-trade of the East contained ports of celebrity. The Heroopolite Gulf (Gulf of Suez) is of the chief interest; it was near to Goshen, it was the scene of the passage of the Red Sea, and it was the "tongue of the Egyptian Sea." It was also the seat of the Egyptian trade in this sea and to the Indian Ocean.
Passage of the Red Sea . --The passage of the Red Sea was the crisis of the exodus. It is usual to suppose that the most northern place at which the Red Sea could have been crossed is the present head of the Gulf of Suez. This supposition depends upon the erroneous idea that in the time of Moses the gulf did not extend farther to the northward then at present. An examination of the country north of Suez has shown, however, that the sea has receded many miles. The old bed is indicated by the Birket-et Timsah , or "lake of the crocodile," and the more southern Bitter Lakes, the northernmost part of the former probably corresponding to the head of it the at the time of the exodus. It is necessary to endeavor to ascertain the route of the Israelites before we can attempt to discover where they crossed the sea. The point from which they started was Rameses, a place certain in the land of Goshen, which we identified with the Wadi-t-Tumeylat . They encamped at Succoth. At the end of the second day's journey the camping place was at Etham, "in the edge of the wilderness." ( Exodus 13:20 ; Numbers 33:6 ) Here the Wadi-t-Tumeylat was probably left, as it is cultivable and terminates in the desert. At the end of the third day's march for each camping place seems to mark the close of a day's journey the Israelites encamped by the sea, place of this last encampment and that of the passage would be not very far from the Persepolitan monument at Pihahiroth. It appears that Migdol was behind Pi-hahiroth and on the other hand Baalzephon and the sea. From Pi-hahiroth the Israelites crossed the sea. This was not far from halfway between the Bitter Lakes and the Gulf of Suez, where now it is dry land. The Muslims suppose Memphis to have been the city at which the Pharaoh of the exodus resided before that event occurred. From opposite Memphis a broad valley leads to the Red Sea. It is in part called the Wadi-t-Teeh , or "Valley of the Wandering." From it the traveller reaches the sea beneath the lofty Gebel-et-Takah , which rises in the north and shuts off all escape in that direction excepting by a narrow way along the seashore, which Pharaoh might have occupied. The sea here is broad and deep, as the narrative is generally held to imply. All the local features seem suited for a great event. The only points bearing on geography in the account of this event are that the sea was divided by an east wind. Whence we may reasonably infer that it was crossed from west to east, and that the whole Egyptian army perished, which shows that it must have been some miles broad. On the whole we may reasonably suppose about twelve miles as the smallest breadth of the sea. The narrative distinctly states that a path was made through the sea, and that the waters were a wall on either hand. The term "wall" does not appear to oblige us to suppose, as many have done, that the sea stood up like a cliff on either side, but should rather be considered to mean a barrier, as the former idea implies a seemingly needless addition to the miracle, while the latter seems to be not discordant with the language of the narrative. It was during the night that the Israelites crossed, and the Egyptians followed. In the morning watch, the last third or fourth of the night, or the period before sunrise Pharaoh's army was in full pursuit in the divided sea, and was there miraculously troubled, so that the Egyptians sought to flee. ( Exodus 14:23-25 ) Then was Moses commanded again to stretch out his hand and the sea returned to its strength, and overwhelmed the Egyptians, of whom not one remained alive, Ibid. 26-28. (But on the whole it is becoming more probable that the place where the Israelites crossed "was near the town of Suez, on extensive shoals which run toward the southeast, in the direction of Ayim Musa (the Wells of Moses). The distance is about three miles at high tide. This is the most probable thee Near here Napoleon, deceived by the tidal wave, attempted to cross in 1799, and nearly met the fate of Pharaoh. But an army of 600,000 could of course never have crossed it without a miracle."--Schaff's Through Bible Lands . Several routes and places of crossing advocated by learned Egyptologists can be clearly seen by the accompanying maps. The latest theory is that which Brugsch-bey has lately revived that the word translated Red Sea is "Sea of Reeds or Weeds," and refers to the Serbonian bog in the northeastern part of Egypt, and that the Israelites crossed here instead of the Red Sea. "A gulf profound, as that Serbonian bog . . . where armies whole have sunk." --Milton. And among these armies that of Artarerxes, king of Persia, B.C. 350. But it is very difficult to make this agree with the Bible narrative, and if is the least satisfactory of all the theories. --ED.)
Webster's Dictionary - Mid Sea
Alt. of Mid-sea
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Dead Sea
Dead Sea. See Salt Sea.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Red Sea
Red Sea. The Greeks meant by the Erythraean or Red Sea not only the Arabian Gulf but also the ocean between the Indian and Arabian peninsulas. Some suppose it was so named from the red color of the mountains on the western shores, some from the red coral, or the red appearance of the water occasioned by certain zoophytes; others think that, as the Edomitish territory reached down to this gulf, it might be the Sea of Edom, Edom meaning red. The Red Sea, from the straits of Bab el-Mandeb to its most northerly point at Suez, is about 1400 miles in length, its greatest width being about 200 miles; it is divided by the Sinaitic peninsula into two large arms or gulfs, the eastern extending northeast or northerly about 100 miles, with an average width of 15 miles, while the western extends northwest near 180 miles, with an average width of 20 miles. The great event associated with the Red Sea is the passage of the Israelites and the overthrow of the Egyptians. Ex. chaps. 14, 15. This miraculous event is frequently referred to in the Scriptures. Numbers 33:8; Deuteronomy 11:4; Joshua 2:10; Judges 11:16; 2 Samuel 22:16; Nehemiah 9:9-11; Psalms 66:6; Isaiah 10:26; Acts 7:36; 1 Corinthians 10:1-2; Hebrews 11:29, etc. The place of the crossing has been a matter of much controversy. The head of the gulf is probably at least 50 miles farther south than it was at the time of the Exodus. If the Red Sea then included the Bitter Lakes of Suez, the crossing may have been farther north than would now appear possible. Thus the predictions of Isaiah 11:15; Isaiah 19:5, "The Lord shall utterly destroy the tongue of the Egyptian Sea," "The waters shall fail from the sea," are fulfilled. After crossing, the Israelites marched down and encamped on the east side of the Red Sea (Gulf of Suez). Numbers 33:10. From the way of the Red Sea came locusts, Exodus 10:12-19, and the quails which supplied them with food came from the same source. Numbers 11:31. They journeyed by the way of the Red Sea (the eastern arm or Gulf of Akabah) to compass Edom. Numbers 21:4. In the prosperous reign of Solomon he "made a navy of ships" at Ezion-geber and Elath, which were ports at the head of the Gulf of Akabah. 1 Kings 9:26; 1 Kings 10:22; 2 Chronicles 8:17-18.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Sea (2)
Sea of Chinnereth (kĭn'ne-rĕth). Numbers 34:11. See Galilee, Sea of.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Sea the Salt
Sea, the Salt. Genesis 14:3. See Salt Sea.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Sea
Sea. The Hebrew word yam, or "sea," is used in Scripture: 1. For the "gathering of waters," or the ocean. Genesis 1:2; Numbers 34:6-79; Deuteronomy 30:13. 2. As referring to the Mediterranean Sea, under the title of the "hinder," the "western," the "utmost," sea, or the "sea of the Philistines," the "great sea," or simply "the sea." Deuteronomy 11:24; Deuteronomy 34:2; Joel 2:20; Exodus 23:31; 1618450903_22; Joshua 15:47; Genesis 49:13; Psalms 80:11; Psalms 107:23; 1 Kings 4:20. 3. As referring to the Red Sea. Exodus 15:4. 4. As referring to inland lakes, like the Salt or Dead Sea. 5. To any great collection of waters, as the Nile or the Euphrates in time of a flood or high water. Isaiah 19:5; Amos 8:8, A. V., "flood;" Nahum 3:8; Ezekiel 32:2; Jeremiah 51:36.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Sea of Galilee
A lake in Palestine, about 13 miles long, and 7.5 miles wide, which lies in the Jordan gorge. In the time of Our Lord, vines and fig-trees and thick forests surrounded it, the nearby plains yielded rich harvests twice a year, and many cities were situated on its shores. Today they are barren and desolate, with only a few straggling villages. The Sea of Galilee is closely connected with the life of Our Lord: He came and went from one side to another with His disciples, to spread His teaching and perform miracles; commanded the winds and sea, and there came a great calm (Matthew 8); walked on its surface (Matthew 14); and explained the parables (Matthew 13). There took place the two miraculous draughts of fishes, after the first of which the Apostles were called (Luke 5) and after the second Peter was made Vicar of Jesus Christ on earth (John 21). On another occasion a tax was paid through a miraculous catch (Matthew 17).
Holman Bible Dictionary - Molten Sea
A large cast bronze basin that stood in the courtyard to the southeast of Solomon's Temple (1 Kings 7:23-26 ; 2 Chronicles 4:2-5 ). The basin was cast by Hiram of Tyre who was responsible for all the bronze work in the Temple (1 Kings 7:13-14 ). The bronze for the molten sea was supplied by the spoils from David's campaigns (1 Chronicles 18:8 ). The basin was over fourteen feet in diameter, over seven feet high, and over forty-three feet in circumference. It was about three inches thick. The estimated weight is about 30 tons, and the estimated volume is about 12,000 gallons (U.S.). The brim was turned outward resembling a lily, and below the brim were two rows of gourds (but compare 1 Kings 7:24 ; 2 Chronicles 4:3 ). The sea rested on the backs of twelve oxen. The oxen were arranged in groups of three, each group facing toward one of the four compass directions (1 Kings 7:25 ; 2 Chronicles 4:4 ). The oxen were later removed by Ahaz and replaced with a stone base (2 Kings 16:17 ; compare Jeremiah 52:20 ). After the fall of Jerusalem in 587 B.C., the basin was broken in pieces and taken to Babylon (2 Kings 25:13 ; Jeremiah 52:17 ). The basin was used for the purification of the priests (2 Chronicles 4:6 ). Some have suggested that the molten sea was also symbolic of the great sea present when God began to create the heavens and the earth thus making the sea symbolic of God's creative activity (Genesis 1:2 ).
Phil Logan
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Sea, Confession at
Any priest making a sea voyage is empowered to administer the Sacrament of Penance provided he has received sacramental jurisdiction from his own Ordinary or from the Ordinary of the port of embarkation or from the Ordinary of any port touched on during the voyage. Such a priest can validly and licitly impart sacramental absolution to his fellow-voyagers and to those who for any reason visit the ship at some port; moreover, in case he goes on shore for a brief visit (not more than three days) he can hear the confessions of persons who ask him to do so, and can even absolve from cases reserved to the Ordinary of the place.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - East Sea, Eastern Sea
EAST SEA, EASTERN SEA . See Dead Sea.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - What a Sea of Tears And Sorrow
Hymn for Matins on September 15,. Feast of the Seven Dolors of Our Lady. It is attributed to Callisto Palumbella who lived in the 18th century. Six translations are in existence; the English title given is by E. Caswall.
King James Dictionary - Sea
SEA, n. see. This word, like lake, signifies primarily a seat, set or lay, a repository, a bason.
1. A large bason, cisternor laver which Solomon made in the temple, so large as to contain more than six thousand gallons. This was called the brazen sea, and used to hold water for the priests to wash themselves. 1 Kings 7 . 2 Chronicles 4 2. A large body of water, nearly inclosed by land, as the Baltic or the Mediterranean as the sea of Azof. Seas are properly branches of the ocean, and upon the same level. Large bodies of water inland, and situated above the level of the ocean, are lakes. The appellation of sea, given to the Caspian lake, is an exception, and not very correct. So the lake of Galilee is called a sea, from the Greek. 3. The ocean as, to go to sea. The fleet is at sea, or on the high seas. 4. A wave a billow a surge. The vessel shipped a sea. 5. The swell of the ocean in a tempest, or the direction of the waves as, we head the sea. 6. Proverbially, a large quantity of liquor as a sea of blood. 7. A rough or agitated place or element. In a troubled sea of passion tost. Milton.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Dead Sea
See SEA .
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Red Sea
See SEA .
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Sea, Apostleship of the
Society for promoting the spiritual welfare of Catholic seafarers throughout the world, with headquarters in London. Working in cooperation with the twelve sailor centers which existed in 1920, the Apostleship began in that year a crusade which has resulted in the establishing of more tan 100 enrolling centers where sailors can add their names to the seafarers of all nations. Apostleship publicity, broadcast in many languages to the Catholic press throughout the world, has results in the formation of national section in Holland and Spain, regional headquarters in Australia, Canada, India, Italy, New Zealand, and South America. In this effort the Brothers of the Saint Vincent de Paul Society have taken a generous part. The coordinating Council of the Society and the Apostleship of the Sea provides a general clearing-house for all Catholic sailor-service activities and apostleship organizing machinery, and is at the disposal of all Catholic organizations and of individual Catholics who desire to help sailors. The Apostleship published a monthly newspaper in English, with bulletins in Dutch, French, German, Italian, Spanish and other languages. The Apostleship in the United States maintain a web site.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Sea
The Hebrews give the name of sea to any large collection of water, Job 14:11 ; as to the lakes of Tiberias and Asphaltites, and also to the rivers Nile and Euphrates, Isaiah 11:15 18:2 21:1 Jeremiah 51:36,42 . The principal seas mentioned in Scripture are the following:
1. The GREAT SEA, the Mediterranean, called also the Hinder or Western Sea. Indeed, the Hebrew word for sea, meaning the Mediterranean, is often put for the west. The Great Sea Isaiah 2,200 miles long, and in the widest part 1,200 miles in width. In many places it is so deep as to give no soundings. It is little affected by tides, but is often agitated by violent winds. The prevailing direction of the wind in spring is from the southeast and southwest and from the northeast and northwest the rest of the year.
2. The Exodus 10:19 13:18 Psalm 106:7,9,22 , derived its name from Edom, which lay between it and Palestine; or from the hue of the mountains on its western coast, or of the animalcule which float in masses on its surface. It lies between Arabia on the east and northeast, and Abyssinia and Egypt on the west and southwest, and extends from the straits of Babelmandel to Suez, a distance of about 1,400 miles, with an average width of 150 miles, and a depth of 1,800 feet. At the northern end it is divided into the two gulfs Suez and Akaba, anciently called the Gulf of Heroopolis and the Elanitic Gulf. The first of these Isaiah 190 miles in length and the second Isaiah 100 miles. Between these gulfs lies the celebrated peninsula of Mount Sinai. That of Akaba is connected with the Dead Sea by the great sand valley El Arabah described under the article Zechariah 10:11 , both the Red Sea and the Nile appear to be mentioned.
3. The Genesis 14:3 ; The sea of the Plain, Deuteronomy 4:40 ; The Eastern sea, Zechariah 14:8 ; by the Greeks and Romans, lake Asphaltites; and by the modern Arabs, The sea of Lot. It lay at the southeast corner of the Holy Land, and receives the wastes of the Jordan from the north, and of the Arnon and several smaller streams from the east. It is over forty miles long, and eight or nine miles wide, and lies as in a chaldron between bare limestone cliffs, which rise on the west side 1,200 or 1,500 feet above its surface, and on the east side 2,000 feet or more. At the south end is a broad and low valley, overflowed after the annual rains. The general aspect of the region is dreary, sterile, and desolate; but at a few points there are brooks or fountains of fresh water, which in their way to the sea pass through spots of luxuriant verdure, the abode of birds in great numbers.
The waters of the Dead Sea are clear and limpid, but exceedingly salt and bitter. Their specific gravity exceeds that of all other waters known, being one-fifth or one-fourth greater than that of pure water. They are found by repeated analyses to contain one-fourth their weight of various salts, chiefly the chlorides of magnesium and sodium. Salt also is deposited by evaporation on the shore, or on garments wet in the sea. In the bed of the sea it is found in crystals and near the shore in incrustation deposited on the bottom. No fish can live in these acrid waters, and those which are brought down by the Jordan quickly die. Compare Ezekiel 47:8-10 , where the healing of this deadly sea, and its abounding in fish, as well as the new fertility and beauty of the dreary wilderness between it and Jerusalemby means of the healing power of the Kidron flowing from beside that altar of Godforcibly illustrate the healing and renovating power of gospel grace.
A person unacquainted with the art of swimming floats at ease upon the surface of lake Asphaltites, and it requires an effort to submerge the body. The boat of Lieutenant Lynch met with a gale on entering it from the Jordan; and "it seemed at if the bows, so dense was the water, were encountering the sledgehammers of the Titans, instead of the opposing waves of an angry sea."
At times, and especially after earthquakes, quantities of asphaltum are dislodged from the bottom, rise and float on the surface, and are driven to the shores, where the Arabs collect them for various uses. Sulphur is likewise found on the shores and a kind of stone or coal, called Musca by the Arabs, which on being rubbed exhales an intolerable odor. This stone, which also comes from the neighboring mountains, is black, and takes a fine polish. Maundrell saw pieces of it two feet square, in the convent of St. John in the Wilderness, carved in bas-relief, and polished to as great a lustre as black marble is capable of. The inhabitants of the country employ it in other places of public resort. In the polishing its disagreeable odor is lost. When placed by Mr. King upon hot coals, a strong stench of sulphur issued from it, and it soon began to blaze. The blaze rose four or five inches high, and continued about two minutes.
An uncommon love of exaggeration is observable in all the older narratives, and in some of modern date, respecting the nature and properties of the Dead Sea. Chateaubriand speaks of a "dismal sound proceeding from this lake of death, like the stifled clamors of the people ingulfed in its water," and says that its shores produce a fruit beautiful to the sight, but containing nothing but ashes; and that the heavy metals float on the surface of the sea. Others allege that black and sulphurous exhalations are constantly issuing from the water, and that birds attempting to fly across it are struck dead by its pestiferous fumes. These legends are corrected by more reliable accounts, which show that the birds fly over or float upon the sea uninjured; that no vapor is exhaled from its surface, except that caused by the rapid evaporation or its waters under the hot sun; and that the low level and excessive heat of the valley of the Jordan and the Dead Sea account for the diseases prevailing there, without imagining any more fearful cause. The "apostle of Sodom" above referred to by Chateaubriand, and described by Josephus and others answer, with some exaggerations, to fruits now growing around the Dead Sea.
In 1848, Lieutenant Lynch of the United States' navy passed down the Jordan from the Sea of Tiberias, with two metallic boats, and spent three weeks in a survey of the Sea of Sodom. He found it nearly 1,300 feet deep and its surface more than 1,300 feet below the level of the Mediterranean. From the eastern side, some eight miles from the south end, a low promontory projects three-fourths of the way towards the western cliffs, and sends up a point five miles towards the north. Below this point the lake becomes suddenly shallow, the southern bay not averaging more than twelve or fifteen feet in depth, Joshua 15:2 .
This lower part is believed to cover the sites of the cities destroyed by fire from heaven, Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboim. The vale of Siddim was once a smiling plain, well-watered, and like a garden of the Lord, Genesis 13:10 ; it is now, and for all future ages, a monument of his just indignation, Deuteronomy 29:23 , and an awful warning to reckless sinners that the day of the Lord will come upon them also suddenly and without remedy, Matthew 10:15 11:22-24 2 Peter 2:4-9 Jude 1:7 . The bottom of the shallow bay is a deep slimy mud, Genesis 14:10 . On its southwest border lies a mountain or ridge composed chiefly of rock salt, and called Usdum or Sodom, between which and the sea stands a round pillar of salt forty feet high, reminding one of Lot's wife.
At present the Dead Sea has no perceptible outlet, and the waters poured into it by the Jordan are probably evaporated by the intense heat of the unclouded sun, or in part absorbed in the earth. It is thought by some that the northern and principal part of the sea was the product of some convulsion of nature, long before that which destroyed Sodom and formed the south bay; that the Jordan at first flowed into the Red Sea through the remarkable crevasse which extends from its sources to the Gulf of Akabah; and that at some period beyond the reach of history, its bed and valley sunk down to their present level and formed the Dead Sea. Lieutenant Lynch in sounding discovered a ravine in the bed of the sea, corresponding to the channel of the Jordan in its valley north of the sea. See JORDAN .
4. The SEA OF TIBERIAS or of Galilee; the lake of Gennesareth, or of Cimmereth, Numbers 34:11 , is so called from the adjacent country, or from some of the principal cities on its shores. It resembles, in its general appearance, the Lake of Geneva in Switzerland, though not so large. The Jordan passes through it from north to south. It is twelve or fourteen miles long, six or seven miles in breadth, and 165 feet deep. Its waters lie in a deep basin, surrounded on all sides by rounded and beautiful hills, from 500 to 1,000 feet high, except the narrow entrance and outlet of the Jordan at either end. Its sheltered location protects it in some degree from the wind, but it is liable to sudden squalls and whirlwinds, and many travellers on its shores have met with violent tempests-reminding them of those encountered by Christ and his disciples. A strong current marks the passage of the Jordan through the middle of the lake, on its way to the Dead Sea. The volcanic origin of the basin of this lake is strongly inferred from numerous indications, such as the black basaltic rocks which abound, frequent and violent earthquakes, and several hot springs. According to Lieutenant Symonds, it Isaiah 328 feet below the level of the Mediterranean. Lieutenant Lynch makes it 653 feet below. Its waters are clear and sweet, and contain various kinds of excellent fish in great abundance. The appearance of the sea from the hills on the western shore is far less grand and more beautiful than that of the Dead Sea. It should be seen in spring, when the hills around it are clothed with grain and festooned wit flowers. The towns that once crowed its shores with a teeming population, the groves and shrubbery that covered its hills, and the boats and galleys that studded its surface are gone. But the sea remains, hallowed by many scenes described in the gospels. The Saviour of mankind often looked upon its quiet beauty and crossed it in his journeys; he stilled its waves by a word, and hallowed its shores by his miracles and teachings. Here several of the apostles were called to become "fishers of men," Matthew 4:18 14:22 Luke 8:22 John 21:1 .
"How pleasant to me thy deep blue wave,
O sea of Galilee,
For the glorious One who came to save
Hath often stood by thee.
O Savior gone to God's right hand,
Yet the same Savior still,
Graved on thy heart is this lovely strand
And every fragrant hill."
M'CHEYNE.
5. SEA or WATERS OF MEROM. See MEROM .
The BRAZEN or MOLTEN SEA, made by Solomon for the temple, was
a circular vessel at least fifteen feet in diameter, which stood in
the court of the temple, and contained three thousand baths,
according to 2 Corinthians 4:5 , or two thousand baths according to 1Ki
7:26. Calmet supposes this may be reconciled by saying that the cup
or bowl contained two thousand baths, and the foot or basin a
thousand more. It was supported by twelve oxen of brass, and was
probably the largest brazen vessel ever made-an evidence of the skill
of the workers in metal at that period. It contained from 16,000 to
24,000 gallons, and was supplied with water either by the labor of
the Gibeonites, or as Jewish writers affirm, by a pipe from the well
of Etam, so that a constant flow was maintained. This water was used
for the various ablutions of the priests, 1 Chronicles 4:6 ; a perpetual
and impressive testimony from God of the necessity of moral
purification in the inexhaustible foundation of Christ's grace. The
preceding engraving must be chiefly imaginary.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Red Sea
The northwest arm of the Indian Ocean, about 1400 miles long and 200 miles wide, lying between Arabia on the east, and Africa on the west, connected with the Mediterranean Sea by the Gulf of Suez and the Suez Canal, and with the Indian Ocean by the Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb. No important river flows into it, and it is noted principally for its heat. In the Bible it is famous as the scene of the miraculous crossing of the Israelites at the time of the Exodus (Exodus 14).
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Sea, Red
The northwest arm of the Indian Ocean, about 1400 miles long and 200 miles wide, lying between Arabia on the east, and Africa on the west, connected with the Mediterranean Sea by the Gulf of Suez and the Suez Canal, and with the Indian Ocean by the Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb. No important river flows into it, and it is noted principally for its heat. In the Bible it is famous as the scene of the miraculous crossing of the Israelites at the time of the Exodus (Exodus 14).
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Gennes'Aret, Sea of
[1]
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Joppa, Sea of
In Ezra 3:7 , the meaning is 'the sea at Joppa.'
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Gal'Ilee, Sea of
So called from the province of Galilee, which bordered on the western side. (Matthew 4:18 ) It was also called the "Sea of Tiberias," from the celebrated city of that name. (John 6:1 ) At its northwestern angle was a beautiful and fertile plain called "Gennesaret," and from that it derived the name of "Lake of Gennesaret." (Luke 5:1 ) It was called in the Old Testament "the Sea of Chinnereth" or "Cinneroth," (Numbers 34:11 ; Joshua 12:3 ) from a town of that name which stood on or near its shore. (Joshua 19:35 ) Its modern name is Bahr Tubariyeh . Most of our Lord's public life was spent in the environs of this sea. The surrounding region was then the most densely peopled in all Palestine. no less than nine very populous cities stood on the very shores of the lake. The Sea of Galilee is of an oval long and six broad. It Isaiah 60 miles northeast of Jerusalem and 27 east of the Mediterranean Sea. The river Jordan enters it at its northern end and passes out at its southern end. In fact the bed of the lake is just a lower section of the Great Jordan valley. Its more remarkable feature is its deep depression, being no less than 700 feet below the level of the ocean. The scenery is bleak and monotonous, being surrounded by a high and almost unbroken wall of hills, on account of which it is exposed to frequent sudden and violent storms. The great depression makes the climate of the shores almost tropical. This is very sensibly felt by the traveller in going down from the plains of Galilee. In summer the heat is intense, and even in early spring the air has something of an Egyptian balminess. The water of the lake is sweet, cool and transparent; and as the beach is everywhere pebbly is has a beautiful sparkling look. It abounds in fish now as in ancient times. There were large fisheries on the lake, and much commerce was carried on upon it.
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Dead Sea
This name nowhere occurs in the Bible, and appears not to have existed until the second century after Christ. [1]
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Dead Sea
One of Palestine’s most unusual geological features is the Dead Sea. It is part of a deep north-south valley that extends along the Jordan River as far as the Gulf of Aqabah (north-eastern arm of the Red Sea) to the south. The Dead Sea, which is the lowest part of this valley, has a water level approximately 400 metres below sea level. It is about seventy-five kilometres long and fifteen kilometres wide. People in ancient times gave it the names Salt Sea and Dead Sea because it was extremely salty and, so far as they could see, nothing could live in it (Numbers 34:12; Joshua 3:16; cf. Ezekiel 47:8-9). (See also PALESTINE, sub-heading ‘Jordan Valley and Dead Sea’.)

Sentence search

Great Sea - Great Sea. The Mediterranean Sea; called also "utmost Sea" and the "hinder Sea;" R. , "eastern Sea" and "western Sea. See Sea
Sea - The Seas referred to in scripture are: ...
1. THE MEDITERRANEAN,under the names of 'the great Sea,' Numbers 34:6,7 ; Ezekiel 48:28 ; 'the uttermost Sea,' or 'the hinder Sea,' Deuteronomy 11:24 ; Zechariah 14:8 ; 'the Sea of Joppa,' Ezra 3:7 ; 'sea of the Philistines,' Exodus 23:31 . ...
The 'SEA OF CILICIA AND PAMPHYLIA,'Acts 27:5 , is the N. corner of the Mediterranean Sea. THE SALT Sea,Numbers 34:3,12 ; also called 'the east Sea,' Ezekiel 47 :18; Joel 2:20 ; 'the former Sea,' Zechariah 14:8 ; 'the Sea of the plain,' Deuteronomy 3:17 ; Joshua 3:16 ; Joshua 12:3 ; 2 Kings 14:25 . See SALT Sea...
3. THE RED Sea,Exodus 10:19 ; Psalm 106:7,9,22 ; Hebrews 11:29 ; alsocalled 'the Egyptian Sea,' Isaiah 11:15 . See RED Sea. THE Sea OF GALILEE,Mark 1:16 ; also called the 'Sea of Tiberias,' John 21:1 ; the 'Sea of Chinnereth,' Numbers 34:11 ; Joshua 12:3 ; Joshua 13 :27; the 'Lake of Gennesaret,' Luke 5:1 . See GALILEE, Sea OF. Sea OF JAZER,a small lake in Gilead, now represented by someponds, near where Jazer stood
East Sea, Eastern Sea - EAST Sea, EASTERN Sea . See Dead Sea
a-Sea - ) On the Sea; at Sea; toward the Sea
Bosporus - ) A strait or narrow Sea between two Seas, or a lake and a Seas; as, the Bosporus (formerly the Thracian Bosporus) or Strait of Constantinople, between the Black Sea and Sea of Marmora; the Cimmerian Bosporus, between the Black Sea and Sea of Azof
Sea - The Sea, yam , is used in Scripture to denote--
"The gathering of the waters," "the Ocean. ...
Some portion of this, as the Mediterranean Sea, called the "hinder," the "western" and the "utmost" Sea, (11:24; 34:2; Joel 2:20 ) "sea of the Philistines," (Exodus 23:31 ) "the great Sea," (Numbers 36:6,7 ; Joshua 15:47 ) "the Sea. " Genesis49:13; Psal 80:11 Also frequently of the Red Sea. (Exodus 15:4 ) [1] ...
Inland lakes termed Seas, as the Salt or Dead Sea
Sea-Born - ) Born of the Sea; produced by the Sea. ) Born at Sea
Sea - ) One of the larger bodies of salt water, less than an ocean, found on the earth's surface; a body of salt water of second rank, generally forming part of, or connecting with, an ocean or a larger Sea; as, the Mediterranean Sea; the Sea of Marmora; the North Sea; the Carribean Sea. if large or if salt or brackish; as, the Caspian Sea; the Sea of Aral; sometimes, a small fresh-water lake; as, the Sea of Galilee. ) The swell of the ocean or other body of water in a high wind; motion of the water's surface; also, a single wave; a billow; as, there was a high Sea after the storm; the vessel shipped a Sea. : Anything resembling the Sea in vastness; as, a Sea of glory
Sea - The Hebrews gave the name of Sea to all great collections of water, to great lakes or pools. Thus the Sea of Galilee, or of Tiberias, or of Cinnereth, is no other than the lake of Tiberias, or Gennesareth, in Galilee. The Dead Sea, the Sea of the Wilderness, the Sea or the East, the Sea of Sodom, the Sea of Salt, or the Salt Sea, the Sea of Asphaltites, or of bitumen, is no other than the lake of Sodom. The Arabians and orientals in general frequently gave the name of Sea to great rivers, as the Nile, the Euphrates, the Tigris, and others, which, by their magnitude, and by the extent of their overflowings, seemed as little Seas, or great lakes
Sea Wolf - (1):...
The European Sea perch. ...
(3):...
A Sea lion. ...
(4):...
The Sea elephant
Deep-Sea - ) Of or pertaining to the deeper parts of the Sea; as, a deep-sea line (i. , a line to take soundings at a great depth); deep-sea lead; deep-sea soundings, explorations, etc
Dead Sea - The name in the Old Testament is never this, but "the Salt Sea" , "sea of the plain. " (See SALT Sea
Lakes - Lake of Gennesaret, 682 feet below the Sea. See GALILEE, Sea OF. The Dead Sea, 1292 feet below the Sea. See SALT Sea
Great Sea - GREAT Sea . See Sea
Salt Sea - SALT Sea . See Dead Sea
Dead Sea - Dead Sea. See Salt Sea
Sea God - A marine deity; a fabulous being supposed to live in, or have dominion over, the Sea, or some particular Sea or part of the Sea, as Neptune
Sea - Sea. The Hebrew word yam, or "sea," is used in Scripture: 1. As referring to the Mediterranean Sea, under the title of the "hinder," the "western," the "utmost," Sea, or the "sea of the Philistines," the "great Sea," or simply "the Sea. As referring to the Red Sea. As referring to inland lakes, like the Salt or Dead Sea
Sea-Monster - Sea-MONSTER . See Dragon, Leviathan, Rahab, Sea
Molten Sea - MOLTEN Sea. See Temple, § 6 ( c ) ‘Brazen Sea
Sea-Bordering - ) Bordering on the Sea; situated beside the Sea
Sea Bird - Any swimming bird frequenting the Sea; a Sea fowl
Sea the Salt - Sea, the Salt. See Salt Sea
Dead Sea - One of Palestine’s most unusual geological features is the Dead Sea. It is part of a deep north-south valley that extends along the Jordan River as far as the Gulf of Aqabah (north-eastern arm of the Red Sea) to the south. The Dead Sea, which is the lowest part of this valley, has a water level approximately 400 metres below Sea level. People in ancient times gave it the names Salt Sea and Dead Sea because it was extremely salty and, so far as they could see, nothing could live in it (Numbers 34:12; Joshua 3:16; cf. (See also PALESTINE, sub-heading ‘Jordan Valley and Dead Sea
Sea of Galilee - The Sea of Galilee is a freshwater lake in northern Palestine. It is approximately twenty kilometres long, twelve kilometres wide, and about two hundred metres below Sea level. In Bible times it was known also as the Sea of Chinnereth (Numbers 34:11), the Lake of Gennesaret (Luke 5:1) and the Sea of Tiberias (John 6:1; John 6:16-25; John 21:1). (For details see PALESTINE, sub-heading ‘Upper Jordan and Sea of Galilee’
Sea - Sea, n. This word, like lake, signifies primarily a Seat, set or lay, a repository, a bason. This was called the brazen Sea, and used to hold water for the priests to wash themselves. A large body of water, nearly inclosed by land, as the Baltic or the Mediterranean as the Sea of Azof. Seas are properly branches of the ocean, and upon the same level. The appellation of Sea, given to the Caspian lake, is an exception, and not very correct. So the lake of Galilee is called a Sea, from the Greek. The ocean as, to go to Sea. The fleet is at Sea, or on the high Seas. The vessel shipped a Sea. The swell of the ocean in a tempest, or the direction of the waves as, we head the Sea. Proverbially, a large quantity of liquor as a Sea of blood. In a troubled Sea of passion tost
Sea Foam - (1):...
Meerschaum; - called also Sea froth. ...
(2):...
Foam of Sea water
East Sea - Literally, the front Sea, i. the Dead Sea, which one looking E. would face; "the utmost (hinder) Sea" is the Mediterranean, at such a one's back (Numbers 34:6)
Great Sea - Mediterranean Sea (Numbers 34:6-7 ; Joshua 15:12 ). See Mediterranean Sea
East Sea - Ezekiel's expression for the Dead Sea (Ezekiel 47:18 ). See Dead Sea
Davy Jones - The spirit of the Sea; Sea devil; - a term used by sailors
Haliography - ) Description of the Sea; the science that treats of the Sea
Sea (2) - Sea of Chinnereth (kĭn'ne-rĕth). See Galilee, Sea of
Sea (2) - Sea of Chinnereth (kĭn'ne-rĕth). See Galilee, Sea of
Sea (2) - Sea of Chinnereth (kĭn'ne-rĕth). See Galilee, Sea of
Sea (2) - Sea of Chinnereth (kĭn'ne-rĕth). See Galilee, Sea of
Sodomitish Sea, - SODOMITISH Sea , Esther 5:7 Esther 5:7 = the Dead Sea (wh
Erne - ) A Sea eagle, esp. the European white-tailed Sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla)
Sea Risk - Risk of injury, destruction, or loss by the Sea, or while at Sea
Seaward - ) Directed or situated toward the Sea. ) Toward the Sea
Rosmarine - ) Dew from the Sea; Sea dew. ) A fabulous Sea animal which was reported to climb by means of its teeth to the tops of rocks to feed upon the dew
Seaboat - (1):...
A boat or vessel adapted to the open Sea; hence, a vessel considered with reference to her power of resisting a storm, or maintaining herself in a heavy Sea; as, a good Sea boat
Wingfish - ) A Sea robin having large, winglike pectoral fins. See Sea robin, under Robin
Red Sea - The Hebrew name generally given to this Sea is Yam Suph . This word Suph Means a woolly kind of Sea-weed, which the Sea casts up in great abundance on its shores. , the Hebrew name is always translated "Red Sea," which was the name given to it by the Greeks. The origin of this name (Red Sea) is uncertain. Some think it is derived from the red colour of the mountains on the western shore; others from the red coral found in the Sea, or the red appearance sometimes given to the water by certain zoophytes floating in it. ...
This Sea was also called by the Hebrews Yam-mitstraim, i. , "the Egyptian Sea" (Isaiah 11:15 ), and simply Ha-yam, "the Sea" (Exodus 14:2,9,16,21,28 ; Joshua 24:6,7 ; Isaiah 10:26 , etc. ...
The great historical event connected with the Red Sea is the passage of the children of Israel, and the overthrow of the Egyptians, to which there is frequent reference in Scripture (Exodus 1415,15 ; Numbers 33:8 ; Deuteronomy 11:4 ; Joshua 2:10 ; Judges 11:16 ; 2 Samuel 22:16 ; Nehemiah 9:9-11 ; Psalm 66:6 ; Isaiah 10:26 ; Acts 7:36 , etc
Adria - The name was at first confined to the northern part of what we call the Adriatic Sea, or to a stretch of land near that, and was derived from a once important Etruscan city, Atria, situated at the mouth of the Po. The rest of what we call the Adriatic Sea appears to have been at that time included in the term Ionian Sea or Ionian Gulf. It was only later, with the growth of the Syracusan colonies on the coasts of Italy and Illyria, that the name ‘Hadria’ came to include the whole Adriatic, and even then, at first, it was the practice to call the southernmost part the Ionian Sea. This reduction of the Ionian Sea to a part of Hadria led, when the name ‘Ionian Sea’ was transferred to the Sicilian Sea in the W. ’ It was extended to include the Tarentine Gulf, the Sicilian Sea, the Corinthian Gulf, and even the waters between Crete and Malta, as in Acts 27:27
Weeds - sûph , Jonah 2:6 , referring to Sea-weeds (cf. the designation yam sûph ‘sea of weeds,’ applied to the Red Sea Dipsy - ) A sinker attached to a fishing line; also, a line having several branches, each with such a sinker, used in deep-sea fishing. ) A deep-sea lead. ) Deep-sea; as, a dipsey line; a dipsy lead
Sea Goddess - A goddess supposed to live in or reign over the Sea, or some part of the Sea
Sea Level - The level of the surface of the Sea; any surface on the same level with the Sea
Sea Rover - One that cruises or roves the Sea for plunder; a Sea robber; a pirate; also, a piratical vessel
Aegean - ) Of or pertaining to the Sea, or arm of the Mediterranean Sea, east of Greece
Thalassic - ) Of or pertaining to the Sea; - sometimes applied to rocks formed from sediments deposited upon the Sea bottom
Adria - (Acts 27:27 ; RSV, "the Sea of Adria"), the Adriatic Sea, including in Paul's time the whole of the Mediterranean lying between Crete and Sicily. It is the modern Gulf of Venice, the Mare Superum_ of the Romans, as distinguished from the Mare Inferum_ or Tyrrhenian Sea
Suph - ]'>[1] reads ‘over against the Red Sea,’ in which case it has been assumed that the word for ‘Sea’ had fallen out in the received Hebrew text. Suph means ‘weeds,’ and the ‘Sea of Weeds’ was the Hebrew name of the Red Sea. It is evident that by the ‘Red Sea’ the Gulf of ‘Akabah is meant, as in Numbers 21:4 and elsewhere
Baltic - ) Of or pertaining to the Sea which separates Norway and Sweden from Jutland, Denmark, and Germany; situated on the Baltic Sea
Seagoing - ) Going upon the Sea; especially, sailing upon the deep Sea; - used in distinction from coasting or river, as applied to vessels
Hellespont - It connects the Aegean Sea and the Sea of Marmora
Dead Sea - Inland lake at the end of the Jordan Valley on the southeastern border of Canaan with no outlets for water it receives; known in the Bible as Salt Sea, Sea of the Plain, and Eastern Sea. The surface of the Sea Isaiah 1292 feet below the level of the Mediterranean Sea. ...
The main source of water for the Sea is the Jordan River, but other smaller rivers empty into the Sea also. The Jordan River empties an average of six million tons of water every twenty-four hours into the Sea. Despite this and the fact that the Sea has no outlet, the surface does not rise more than ten to fifteen feet. The reason for this lies in the rapid evaporation of the water because of the heat and acidness of its location below Sea level. These features of the Dead Sea plus its location in an hot and arid area inspired the biblical writers to use it as an example of a life apart from the law of God
Chinnereth, Chinneroth, Sea of - The lake subsequently called LAKE OF GENNESARET, Sea OF TIBERIAS,and Sea OFGALILEE,q
Sea - Yâm (יָם, Strong's #3220), “sea; ocean. ...
This word refers to the body of water as distinct from the land bodies (continents and islands) and the sky (heavens): “For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the Sea and all that in them is …” ( Seas. …”...
Yâm may be used of “seas,” whether they are salty or fresh. The Great Sea is the Mediterranean: “From the wilderness and this Lebanon even unto the great river, the river Euphrates, all the land of the Hittites, and unto the Great Sea toward the going down of the sun, shall be your coast” (
Sea is also called the Sea of the Philistines ( Sea ( Sea”). The Dead Sea is called the Salt Sea ( Sea ( Sea of Galilee: “… And the border shall descend, and shall reach unto the side of the Sea of Chinnereth eastward” ( Sea: “Lift up now thine eyes, and look from the place where thou art northward, and southward, and eastward, and westward” ( Sea that was in the house of the Lord, did the Chaldees break in pieces, and carried the brass of them to Babylon” (2 Kings 25:13). This is also called the “sea” of cast metal (1 Kings 7:23; KJV, “molten Sea”) or simply the “sea” ( Sea, and the river shall be wasted and dried up” ( Sea,” this latter term also refers to the Nile. 32:2 uses yâm of the branches of the Nile: “… And thou art as a whale in the Seas: and thou camest forth with thy rivers, and troubledst the waters with thy feet, and fouledst their rivers. ...
In some instances the word yâm may represent the Canaanite god Yamm, “which alone spreadeth out the heavens, and treadeth upon the waves of the Sea” (Job 9:8). ” The parallelism between “heavens” and “seas,” however, would lead us to conclude that the reference here is to the literal “sea. 89:9- 10 is a more likely place to see a mention of Yamm, for there the word is identified as one of God’s enemies in immediate proximity to the goddess Rahab: “Thou rulest the raging of the Sea [1]: when the waves thereof arise, thou stillest them. ” Especially note Job 7:12: “Am I a Sea [1], or a whale, that thou settest a watch over me?” (cf
Sea Chickweed - A fleshy plant (Arenaria peploides) growing in large tufts in the sands of the northern Atlantic Seacoast; - called also Sea sandwort, and Sea purslane
Benthos - ) The bottom of the Sea, esp. ), the fauna and flora of the Sea bottom; - opposed to plankton
Seaboard - ) The Seashore; Seacoast. ) Bordering upon, or being near, the Sea; Seaside; Seacoast; as, a Seaboard town. ) Toward the Sea
Chin'Nereth, Sea of - (Numbers 34:11 ; Joshua 13:27 ) the inland Sea, which is most similarly known to us as the "Lake of Gennesareth" or "Sea of Galilee
Sea Lion - Any one of several large species of Seals of the family Otariidae native of the Pacific Ocean, especially the southern Sea lion (Otaria jubata) of the South American coast; the northern Sea lion (Eumetopias Stelleri) found from California to Japan; and the black, or California, Sea lion (Zalophus Californianus), which is common on the rocks near San Francisco
Depth - 1: βάθος (Strong's #899 — Noun Neuter — bathos — bath'-os ) see DEEP ...
2: πέλαγος (Strong's #3989 — Noun Neuter — pelagos — pel'-ag-os ) "the Sea," Acts 27:5 , denotes also "the depth" (of the Sea), Matthew 18:6 . Some would connect it with plax, "a level board," but this is improbable, and less applicable to the general usage of the word, which commonly denotes the Sea in its restless character. See Sea
Arabah - In particular they used the word as a name for that deep, hot and dry valley that ran north-south from the Sea of Galilee to the Gulf of Aqabah (the north-eastern arm of the Red Sea) (Deuteronomy 1:1; Deuteronomy 2:8; Deuteronomy 4:49; Joshua 11:2; Joshua 18:18-19). The Dead Sea, which was the deepest part of this long valley, was known as the Sea of the Arabah (Deuteronomy 3:17)
Sea Serpent - See Sea snake. ...
(2):...
A large marine animal of unknown nature, often reported to have been seen at Sea, but never yet captured
Sea, the - yam), signifies (1) "the gathering together of the waters," the ocean (Genesis 1:10 ); (2) a river, as the Nile (Isaiah 19:5 ), the Euphrates (Isaiah 21:1 ; Jeremiah 51:36 ); (3) the Red Sea (Exodus 14:16,27 ; 15:4 , etc. ); (5) the "sea of Galilee," an inland fresh-water lake, and (6) the Dead Sea or "salt Sea" (Genesis 14:3 ; Numbers 34:3,12 , etc. The word "sea" is used symbolically in Isaiah 60:5 , where it probably means the nations around the Mediterranean
Chinnereth - The Sea or lake otherwise called the Sea of Galilee, Lake of Gennesaret, or Sea of Tiberias. A city on the western edge of the Sea of Chinnereth, also called Chinneroth (Joshua 11:2 ), though this could be a reference to the Sea. The city apparently gave its name to the Sea and to the surrounding region with its several bays, thus explaining the plural form in 1 Kings 15:20 , which tells of Ben-hadad of Syria defeating the area in answer to the request of King Asa of Judah
Salt Sea - The lake on the south of Palestine, now commonly called the Dead Sea, because it was for long judged that nothing having life could exist in it; but some inferior organisms (as the polygaster) have been found in it at its northern end. It is called, 'the Salt Sea' in Numbers 34:3,12 ; Deuteronomy 3:17 ; Joshua 3:16 ; 'the Sea of the plain' ('Sea of the Arabah,' R. ), in Deuteronomy 4:49 ; 2 Kings 14:25 ; 'the East Sea' in Ezekiel 47:18 ; Joel 2:20 ; and simply, 'the Sea' in Ezekiel 47:8 . The term, 'Salt Sea' is very appropriate; for it contains much more salt than is found in ordinary Sea water, which makes it extremely nauseous. ...
The river Jordan and some streams run into the Salt Sea, but there is no outlet. Its surface is at times (for it varies according to the rain) about 1,292 feet below the level of the Sea, making it, as far as is known, the lowest lake in existence. ...
On the restoration of Israel in a future day a river will issue out of the house, the future temple, which river will go down into the desert and run into this Sea, and the waters will be healed. En-gedi (Ain Jidy , about half way along the coast of the Dead Sea, on the west) will be one of the stations of the fishermen. ...
What connection there is, if any, between the present state of the Salt Seaand the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, is not known. In Genesis 14 the battle of the four kings against the five was in "the vale of Siddim, which is the Salt Sea. This Sea is now called Bahr Lut, the 'Sea of Lot
Sea Perch - ...
(2):...
The Sea bass. ...
(4):...
The European bass (Roccus, / Labrax, lupus); - called also Sea dace
Seashore - ) The coast of the Sea; the land that lies adjacent to the Sea or ocean
Dead Sea - In the Old Testament it is called "sea of the wilderness" (Joshua 1:3); "east Sea" (Joel 2; Zachariah 14); "salt Sea" (Genesis 14); and "sea of the desert" (Deuteronomy 3)
Anemone - ) The Sea anemone. See Actinia, and Sea anemone
Mermaid - ) A fabled marine creature, typically represented as having the upper part like that of a woman, and the lower like a fish; a Sea nymph, Sea woman, or woman fish
Rotche - ) A very small arctic Sea bird (Mergulus alle, or Alle alle) common on both coasts of the Atlantic in winter; - called also little auk, dovekie, rotch, rotchie, and Sea dove
Sea Bass - Called also, locally, blue bass, black Sea bass, blackfish, bluefish, and black perch. ...
(2):...
A California food fish (Cynoscion nobile); - called also white Sea bass, and Sea salmon
Cragsman - , one who makes a business of climbing the cliffs overhanging the Sea to get the eggs of Sea birds or the birds themselves
Sea Legs - Legs able to maintain their possessor upright in stormy weather at Sea, that is, ability stand or walk steadily on deck when a vessel is rolling or pitching in a rough Sea
Mediterranean Sea, the - (meh ih tuhr ray' nih uhn) Designated in the OT and the NT simply as “the Sea” (Joshua 16:8 ; Acts 10:6 ); also referred to as the “Western Sea” (Deuteronomy 11:24 , RSV, NIV); and as the “Sea of the Philistines” (Exodus 23:31 ). The Mediterranean Sea is an inland ocean extending about 2,200 miles from Gibraltar to the Lebanon coast and varies in width from one hundred to six hundred miles. ...
The Hebrews were not a Seafaring people. A more apt description might be that they were a Sea-fearing people. The Hebrew's fear of the Sea was partially due to their desert origin; therefore, their culture developed chiefly around agriculture. The story of Jonah demonstrates the Hebrew's fear of the Sea. As part of God's creation, the Sea is subserviant to him. He rules over the raging Sea (Psalm 89:9 ) and causes a storm on it (Jonah 1:4 ). ...
For the Hebrews, the Great Sea served as the western border for the land of Canaan (Numbers 34:6 ) and the territory of Judah (Joshua 15:12 ). Only with the aid of the Phoenicians was Solomon able to assemble and operate a fleet of ships at Ezion Geber on the Red Sea. ...
Tyre eventually became the principal Sea power in the Mediterranean. The extensive use of the Mediterranean by the Phoenicians was continued by the Romans, who called it “Our Sea. Under Roman arrest, Paul made his final voyage across the Mediterranean Sea and shipwrecked (Acts 27:1 )
Jordan - The Jordan River, which formed the boundary along the eastern side of the land of Canaan, rose in the region of Mt Hermon in the north and finished in the Dead Sea in the south. For details see PALESTINE, sub-headings ‘Upper Jordan and Sea of Galilee’ and ‘Jordan Valley and Dead Sea
Sibmah (1) - Jeremiah 48:32, "thy plants are gone over the Sea," i. shall be transported beyond Sea to Cyprus and lands subject to Babylon; or else "they wandered through the wilderness, they are gone over the Dead Sea," in wild luxuriance overrunning the wilderness round Moab and spreading round the Sea so as to reach beyond to the other side
Marine - ) Formed by the action of the currents or waves of the Sea; as, marine deposits. ) A solider serving on shipboard; a Sea soldier; one of a body of troops trained to do duty in the navy. ) The sum of naval affairs; naval economy; the department of navigation and Sea forces; the collective shipping of a country; as, the mercantile marine. ) Of or pertaining to the Sea; having to do with the ocean, or with navigation or naval affairs; nautical; as, marine productions or bodies; marine shells; a marine engine
Dehavites - They were probably a nomad Persian tribe on the east of the Caspian Sea, and near the Sea of Azof
Whale - ; but RSV, "sea-monster"). of RSV, "sea-monsters"); Isaiah 27:1 ; and "serpent" in Exodus 7:9 (RSV marg. The words of ( Job 7:12 ), uttered in bitter irony, where he asks, "Am I a Sea or a whale?" simply mean, "Have I a wild, untamable nature, like the waves of the Sea, which must be confined and held within bounds, that they cannot pass?" "The serpent of the Sea, which was but the wild, stormy Sea itself, wound itself around the land, and threatened to swallow it up. "Even the Sea-monsters [1] draw out the breast. ketos means properly any kind of Sea-monster of the shark or the whale tribe, and that in the book of (Jonah 1:17 ) it is only said that "a great fish" was prepared to swallow Jonah. The white shark is known to frequent the Mediterranean Sea, and is sometimes found 30 feet in length
Red Sea (Reed Sea) - Red Sea is a common translation of two Hebrew words yam suph . Yam means “sea,” but suph does not normally mean “red. Yam suph could be translated “Sea of Reeds” or “Sea at the end of the world. ) translated yam suph consistently with Erthra Thalassa “Red Sea. 400) by using Mare Rubrum “Red Sea” for yam suph . Most English translations have followed the Vulgate and use “Red Sea” in the text with a footnote indicating the literal translation is “Reed Sea. ” TEV uses various terms to translate yam suph : “Gulf of Suez (Exodus 10:19 ); “Red Sea” (see footnote on Exodus 13:18 ); and “Gulf of Aqaba (1 Kings 9:26 ). ...
We do not know who first suggested the translation “Reed Sea. Martin Luther translated yam suph as Schilfmeer : “Reed Sea. ” Although the name “Reed Sea” has been widely accepted by many scholars, there have been many recent attempts to prove the term “Sea of Reeds” is not a legitimate reading for yam suph . The “Way of the ( yam suph ) Red Sea” is part of the name of a highway out of Egypt (Exodus 13:18 ; Numbers 14:45 ; Numbers 21:4 ; Deuteronomy 1:40 ; Deuteronomy 2:1 ; Judges 11:16 ). The “Red Sea” was the name of a camp along the way from Egypt (Numbers 33:10-11 ). Yam suph marked the ideal southern border of Israel ( Exodus 23:31 ), but the most significant reference of “Red Sea” in the Old Testament was to the place where God delivered Israel from Pharaoh's army (Exodus 15:4 ,Exodus 15:4,15:22 ; Numbers 21:14 ; Duet. ...
No one knows the exact location of the place where Israel crossed the “Red Sea” on their way out of Egypt. Four primary theories have been suggested as to the place of the actual crossing of the isthmus of Suez: (1) the northern edge of the Gulf of Suez; (2) a site in the center of the isthmus near Lake Timsah; (3) a site at the northern edge of the isthmus and the southern edge of Lake Menzaleh; and (4) across a narrow stretch of sandy land which separates Lake Sirbonis from the Mediterranean Sea
Caribbee - ) Of or pertaining to the Caribs, to their islands (the eastern and southern West Indies), or to the Sea (called the Caribbean Sea) lying between those islands and Central America
Seir - A Horite, one of the primitive rulers of the country south and southeast of the Dead Sea, Genesis 36:20 Deuteronomy 2:12 . A mountainous tract lying between the southern extremity of the Dead Sea and the eastern gulf of the Red Sea
en-Eglaim - On the confines of Moab, over against Engedi, near where Jordan enters the Dead Sea (Isaiah 15:8). The two limits, Engedi and En-eglaim, comprise the whole Dead Sea
Nereus - (nee' rewss) Personal name borrowed from Greek mythology where Nereus is the Sea god who fathers the Nereids (sea nymphs)
Aqaba, Gulf of - TEV translation in 1 Kings 19:26 to show that the part of the Red Sea meant is the eastern arm below the Dead Sea
Mediterranean - ) Of or pertaining to the Mediterranean Sea; as, Mediterranean trade; a Mediterranean voyage. ) Inclosed, or nearly inclosed, with land; as, the Mediterranean Sea, between Europe and Africa
Pontus - The Sea
Sea Hulver - Sea holly
Sea Colewort - Sea cabbage
Dead Sea - See Sea
Red Sea - See Sea
East Sea - (Joel 2:20 ; Ezekiel 47:18 ), the Dead Sea, which lay on the east side of the Holy Land. The Mediterranean, which lay on the west, was hence called the "great Sea for the west border" (Numbers 34:6 )
Siddim, Vale of - One passage reads "the vale of Siddim, which is the salt Sea;" and another the vale was "full of slime-pits," that is, bitumen springs. It was doubtless near the Salt Sea, but is not identified
Migdol - A tower, a frontier town in Northern Egypt towards the Red Sea, Jeremiah 44:1 ; 46:14 ; Ezekiel 29:10 ; 30:6 . The Hebrews, on leaving Egypt, encamped between it and the Sea, Exodus 14:2 ; Numbers 33:7
Sea - , "the Red Sea," Acts 7:36 ; 1 Corinthians 10:1 ; Hebrews 11:29 ; the "sea" of Galilee or Tiberias, Matthew 4:18 ; 15:29 ; Mark 6:48,49 , where the acts of Christ testified to His Deity; John 6:1 ; 21:1 ; in general, e. Isaiah 57:20 ); (c) symbolically, in the apocalyptic vision of "a glassy Sea like unto crystal," Revelation 4:6 , emblematic of the fixed purity and holiness of all that appertains to the authority and judicial dealings of God; in Revelation 15:2 , the same, "mingled with fire," and, standing by it (RV) or on it (AV and RV marg. ...
Note: For the change from "the Sea" in Deuteronomy 30:13 , to "the abyss" in Romans 10:7 , see BOTTOM , B. ...
A — 2: πέλαγος (Strong's #3989 — Noun Neuter — pelagos — pel'-ag-os ) "the deep Sea, the deep," is translated "the depth" in Matthew 18:6 , and is used of the "Sea of Cilicia" in Acts 27:5 . Pelagos signifies "the vast expanse of open water," thalassa, "the Sea as contrasted with the land" (Trench, Syn. ...
B — 1: ἐνάλιος (Strong's #1724 — Adjective — enalios — en-al'-ee-os ) "in the Sea," lit. ...
B — 2: παράλιος (Strong's #3882 — Adjective — paralios — par-al'-ee-os ) "by the Sea," Luke 6:17 : see COAST. ...
B — 3: παραθαλάσσιος (Strong's #3864 — Adjective — parathalassios — par-ath-al-as'-see-os ) "by the Sea," Matthew 4:13 , see COAST , Note 2. ...
B — 4: διθάλασσος (Strong's #1337 — Adjective — dithalassos — dee-thal'-as-sos ) primarily signifies "divided into two Seas" (dis, "twice," and thalassa); then, "dividing the Sea," as of a reef or rocky projection running out into the "sea," Acts 27:41
Sea - (θάλασσα)...
The term is employed in apostolic history to designate (1) a large body of water or collection of waters; (2) the Red Sea; (3) the Mediterranean Sea; (4) with γῆ and οὐρανός, the whole created universe; and (5) the ‘sea of glass’ before the throne of God. -In the first of these passages, the sailors with Paul on his memorable voyage to Rome, pretending that additional anchors from the prow of the vessel would help to steady the ship, and that they must go off in a boat to carry them out to cables’ length rather than drop them over the prow, ‘lowered the boat into the Sea’ (Acts 27:30). Later they cast the cargo of wheat into the Sea (Acts 27:38); and again they loosened the cables of the anchors and let them fall off into the Sea (Acts 27:40). Then, chancing on a sand bank between two Seas, in the narrow channel leading into St. Paul’s Bay, between the little island of Salmonetta and the mainland of Melita, they ran the vessel aground (Acts 27:41); Going on shore, the barbarians, seeing a viper clinging to Paul’s hand, regarded him as a murderer, whom, though he had escaped from the Sea, the goddess Justice would not suffer to live (Acts 28:4). He also suffered other ‘perils in the Sea’ (2 Corinthians 11:26); but he does not pause to specify them. In writing to the Romans he again alludes to the ‘sea. ’ Quoting Isaiah 10:22, he says that though Israel be as numerous ‘as the sand of the Sea,’ yet it is not the unbelieving many but the faithful few who are the object of God’s care. A similar reference is found in Hebrews 11:12, in which the writer emphasized how faith on Abraham’s part brought life out of death, giving him posterity ‘as the sand which is upon the Sea shore innumerable. ’ On the other hand, another writer describes the doubter as ‘like the surge of the Sea’ (ἔοικεν κλύδωνι θαλάσσης, James 1:6), driven by the wind and tossed. Jude uses a similar figure when he describes the ungodly and libertines as ‘wild waves of the Sea’ (κύματα ἄγρια θαλάσσης, James 1:13) foaming out their own lawlessness and shame (cf. Thus, no hurt is to befall the earth or the Sea until the servants of God are Sealed in their foreheads; no physical convulsions are to take place until the saints of God are secured (Revelation 7:1-3). Pausing in the process of unrolling judgment and consolation, the Seer beholds a strong angel standing like a colossus astride the earth and Sea, holding in his hand an open book (Revelation 10:2; Revelation 10:5; Revelation 10:8). He hears woes pronounced upon the earth and Sea (Revelation 12:12). A monster dragon comes up out of the Sea, as the father of cruelty and blasphemy (Revelation 13:1; cf. When the second angel sounds, one third of the creatures which are in the Sea die (Revelation 10:8); when the same angel pours out his bowl into the Sea, it becomes blood and every living thing dies (Revelation 16:3). Rome) mariners on every hand take up a lamentation because of her commercial loss to the world of trade (Revelation 18:17; Revelation 18:19; Revelation 18:21); while in the final issue of events, after the millennium and after Satan has been loosed to deceive the nations, ‘the number of whom is as the sand of the Sea,’ and after he is cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, and the dead are summoned to judgment, then, we read, ‘the Sea gave up the dead which were in it’-in its great maw-to be judged every man according to his works (Revelation 20:8; Revelation 20:13). But, when heaven is described and the abode of the blessed is portrayed, and a new heaven and a new earth are created, the Seer is careful to say, ‘and the Sea is no more’ (Revelation 21:1). This passage is a most instructive witness to the estimate of the Sea among the ancient Hebrews. As a great monster enemy it devoured men; yea, the Sea was the prolific mother of monsters. Naturally the Sea, therefore, could have no place in an ideal universe. According to Plutarch, the ancient Egyptians regarded the Sea as no part of nature, but an alien element full of destruction and disease. One favourite tradition made the Sea disappear in the final conflagration of the world. But John ignores this view, and regards the Sea rather as no longer existent. The Red Sea (Acts 7:36, 1 Corinthians 10:1-2, Hebrews 11:29). There are three references to it in apostolic history: (a) Stephen in his memorable apology speaks of Moses thus: ‘This man led them forth, having wrought wonders and signs in Egypt, and in the Red Sea, and in the wilderness forty years’ (Acts 7:36). (b) Paul also, in writing to the Corinthians, says, ‘For I would not, brethren, have you ignorant, how that our fathers were all under the cloud, and all passed through the Sea; and were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the Sea’ (1 Corinthians 10:1-2). The Apostle’s point is that ancient Israel started well; all were protected and guided by the cloud; all were safely brought through the Sea; all were Sealed as by a baptism into trustful allegiance to Moses as their deliverer; yet in the end all except two failed to enter Canaan. Those who sang victory at the crossing of the Red Sea never reached the promised land. ‘By faith they passed through the Red Sea as by dry land: which the Egyptians assaying to do were swallowed up. ’ What the writer means to teach is, that Israel’s passage through the Red Sea was due to the discovery of faith. Indeed, to the Egyptians who had no faith, it became a Sea. The Mediterranean Sea (Acts 10:6; Acts 10:32; Acts 17:14). -The Mediterranean was to the Hebrews ‘the great Sea’ (Numbers 34:6). (a) The first recounts how Cornelius sent to Joppa to fetch Peter, who lodged with one Simon, a tanner, ‘whose house is by the Sea side’ (Acts 10:6; Acts 10:32). The Sea here alluded to is obviously the Mediterranean. Simon’s house, which doubtless was a very humble abode, was by the Sea because there he would have easy access to water; and it was outside the city, at least 50 cubits, because tanning was held to be an ‘unclean’ employment, bringing one constantly into contact with dead animals. (b) The other passage tells how the brethren of BerCEa sent forth Paul, whose safety was in jeopardy, ‘to go as far as to the Sea’ (Acts 17:14). Olympus close along the Sea. , after the healing of the lame man, Peter and John, who had been accused and brought before the elders, and charged and even threatened by them not to speak any more in the name of Jesus, prayed, ‘O Lord, thou that didst make the heaven and the earth and the Sea and all that in them is … grant unto thy servants to speak thy word with all boldness’ (Acts 4:24; Acts 4:29). In similar language, Barnabas and Paul remonstrated with the men of Lystra, saying, ‘We also are men of like passions with you, and bring you good tidings, that ye should turn from these vain things unto the living God, who made the heaven and the earth and the Sea, and all that in them is’ (Acts 14:15). In Revelation 5:13, also, by a sweep of prophetic imagination, even Sea-monsters join with departed spirits in a doxology of praise to the Lamb; while in Revelation 10:6 the thought of God’s creatorship, of earth and heaven and Sea, prepares the way for the announcement that the God of creation and providence is also a God of judgment. The apocalyptic Sea of glass before the throne of God (Revelation 4:6; Revelation 15:2). -The first passage (Revelation 4:6) reminds one of the ‘molten Sea’ in Solomon’s Temple (1 Kings 7:23; 1 Kings 7:39). To John heaven is a sort of glorified Temple, and the crystal pavement is a kind of Sea. In the other and only remaining passage (Revelation 15:2) he beholds ‘a glassy Sea mingled with fire. ’ On its shores the redeemed stand, as the children of Israel did on the shores of the Red Sea, victorious, singing the song of Moses and of the Lamb
Territorial Waters - , the belt (often called the marine belt or territorial Sea) of Sea subject to such jurisdiction, and subject only to the right of innocent passage by the vessels of other states
Dalmanutha - A town on the Sea of Galilee, near Magdala, in R. Magadan, Mark 8:10; Matthew 15:39; probably at ʾAin-el-Bârideh, on the west side of the Sea, two miles from Tiberias, where are ruins
Sea Sandwort - See Sea chickweed
Brasen Sea - See Molten Sea
Brazen Sea - See Molten Sea
Bronze Sea - See Molten Sea
Salt Sea - See Dead Sea
Sea of the Plain - See Dead Sea
Sea, Molten - See Molten Sea
Sea Hedgehog - A Sea urchin
Seawand - See Sea girdles
Sea Maw - The Sea mew
Sea Barrow - A Sea purse
Saph - Rushes; Sea-moss
Sea Wood Louse - A Sea slater
Sea Egg - A Sea urchin
Dead Sea - See SALT Sea
Siddim - See Sea 3
Arabah - Modern usage refers specifically to the rift area below the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Elath or Aqaba, a distance of 110 miles. Control of the Arabah along with control of the Red Sea port on its southern end meant control of valuable trade routes and Sea routes connecting to southern Arabia and eastern Africa. The entire Jordan Valley running 70 miles from the Sea of Galilee to the Dead Sea, or more precisely the desert areas above the actual Zor or lushly fertile areas on the immediate shore of the Jordan. Sea of the Arabah is the Dead Sea. The Araboth of Moab or plains of Moab includes the eastern shore of the Dead Sea south of the wadi Nimrim. The desert area or the eastern border of the Jordan River from the Sea of Galilee to the Dead Sea
Tiberias - a city situated in a small plain, surrounded by mountains, on the western coast of the Sea of Galilee, which, from this city, was also called the Sea of Tiberias. He is supposed to have chosen, for the erection of his new city, a spot where before stood a more obscure place called Chenereth or Cinnereth, which also gave its name to the adjoining lake or Sea
Archipelago - ) Hence: Any Sea or broad sheet of water interspersed with many islands or with a group of islands. ) The Grecian Archipelago, or Aegean Sea, separating Greece from Asia Minor
Orgonia - ) A genus of Gorgoniacea, formerly very extensive, but now restricted to such species as the West Indian Sea fan (Gorgonia flabellum), Sea plume (G
a'Dria - more properly A'drias, the Adriatic Sea. In Paul's time it included the whole Sea between Greece and Italy, reaching south from Crete to Sicily
en-Egla'im - (fountain of the two calves ), a place named only by Ezekiel, ( Ezekiel 47:10 ) apparently as on the Dead Sea; but whether near to or far from Engedi, on the east or the west side of the Sea, it is impossible to ascertain
Sea-Mell - ) The Sea mew
Brazen Sea - BRAZEN Sea
Adoraim - Strength of the Sea
Sea Gherkin - of Sea girkin...
Sea Monster - Any large Sea animal
Sea Piet - See 1st Sea pie
Sea Froth - See Sea foam, 2
Abijam - Father of the Sea
Tiberias, Sea of - See GALILEE, Sea OF
Gennesaret, Lake of - See GALILEE, Sea OF
Sea Catfish - of Sea cat...
Sea Crawfish - of Sea crayfish...
Sea Poacher - of Sea poker...
Sea Brief - Same as Sea letter
Sea Pyot - See 1st Sea pie
Sea Pye - See 1st Sea pie
Sea Dace - The European Sea perch
Thalassian - ) Any Sea tortoise
Mid Sea - of Mid-sea...
Kalan - ) The Sea otter
Mid Sea - of Mid-sea...
Eglaim - Drops of the Sea
Puffin - ) An arctic Sea bird Fratercula arctica) allied to the auks, and having a short, thick, swollen beak, whence the name; - called also bottle nose, cockandy, coulterneb, marrot, mormon, pope, and Sea parrot
Unner - ) One who works a gun, whether on land or Sea; a cannoneer. ) The Sea bream
Lagoon - ) A shallow sound, channel, pond, or lake, especially one into which the Sea flows; as, the lagoons of Venice. ) A lake in a coral island, often occupying a large portion of its area, and usually communicating with the Sea
Dead Sea - The name given by Greek writers of the second century to that inland Sea called in Scripture the "salt Sea" (Genesis 14:3 ; Numbers 34:12 ), the "sea of the plain" (Deuteronomy 3:17 ), the "east Sea" (Ezekiel 47:18 ; Joel 2:20 ), and simply "the Sea" (Ezekiel 47:8 ). , the Sea of Lot. Its surface Isaiah 1,292 feet below the surface of the Mediterranean Sea. The waters of the Dead Sea contain 24. of mineral salts, about seven times as much as in ordinary Sea-water; thus they are unusually buoyant. The waters were then about 1,400 feet above the present level of the Dead Sea, or slightly above that of the Mediterranean, and at that time were much less salt. ...
Nothing living can exist in this Sea. Tristram found on the shores three kinds of kingfishers, gulls, ducks, and grebes, which he says live on the fish which enter the Sea in shoals, and presently die
Sea-Gate - of Sea-gait...
Seabound - ) Bounded by the Sea
Salt-Green - ) Sea-green in color
Pontius - Marine; belonging to the Sea
Sea of Galilee - See Galilee, Sea of ; Palestine
Sea Robber - A pirate; a Sea rover
Sea Cabbage - See Sea kale, under Kale
Hippodame - ) A fabulous Sea monster
Overseas - ) Over the Sea; abroad
Ulaund - ) An arctic Sea bird
Repkie - ) Any edible Sea urchin
Slime - See PITCH , and Sea 3
Red Sea - Red Sea. The Greeks meant by the Erythraean or Red Sea not only the Arabian Gulf but also the ocean between the Indian and Arabian peninsulas. Some suppose it was so named from the red color of the mountains on the western shores, some from the red coral, or the red appearance of the water occasioned by certain zoophytes; others think that, as the Edomitish territory reached down to this gulf, it might be the Sea of Edom, Edom meaning red. The Red Sea, from the straits of Bab el-Mandeb to its most northerly point at Suez, is about 1400 miles in length, its greatest width being about 200 miles; it is divided by the Sinaitic peninsula into two large arms or gulfs, the eastern extending northeast or northerly about 100 miles, with an average width of 15 miles, while the western extends northwest near 180 miles, with an average width of 20 miles. The great event associated with the Red Sea is the passage of the Israelites and the overthrow of the Egyptians. If the Red Sea then included the Bitter Lakes of Suez, the crossing may have been farther north than would now appear possible. Thus the predictions of Isaiah 11:15; Isaiah 19:5, "The Lord shall utterly destroy the tongue of the Egyptian Sea," "The waters shall fail from the Sea," are fulfilled. After crossing, the Israelites marched down and encamped on the east side of the Red Sea (Gulf of Suez). From the way of the Red Sea came locusts, Exodus 10:12-19, and the quails which supplied them with food came from the same source. They journeyed by the way of the Red Sea (the eastern arm or Gulf of Akabah) to compass Edom
Cinneroth - or CINNERETH, a city on the north-western side of the Sea of Galilee; which, from it, is frequently called in the Old Testament the Sea of Cinneroth: from which word, that of Genesaret, in the New Testament, is conjectured by Dr
Red Sea - --The Sea known to us as the Red Sea was by the Israelites called "the Sea," (Exodus 14:2,9,16,21,28 ; 15:1,4,8,10,19 ; Joshua 24:6,7 ) and many other passages, and specially "the Sea of Suph . This word signifies a Sea-weed resembling wool , and such Sea-weed is thrown up abundantly on the shores of the Red Sea; hence Brugsch calls it the Sea of reeds or weeds . --In extreme length the Red Sea stretches from the straits of Bab el-Mendeb (or rather Ras Bab el-Mendeb), 18 miles wide. At Ras Mohammed, on the north, the Red Sea is split by the granitic peninsula of Sinai into two gulfs; the westernmost, or Gulf of Suez, is now about 150 miles in length, with an average width of about 20, though it contracts to less than 10 miles; the easternmost or Gulf of el-'Akabeh, is about 100 miles long, from the Straits of Tiran to the 'Akabeh, and 15 miles wide. The average depth of the Red Sea is from 2500 to 3500 feet, though in places it Isaiah 6000 feet deep. Journeying southward from Suez, on our left is the peninsula of Sinai; on the right is the desert coast of Egypt, of limestone formation like the greater part of the Nile valley in Egypt, the cliff's on the Sea margin stretching landward in a great rocky plateau while more inland a chain of volcanic mountains, beginning about lat. --The most important change in the Red Sea has been the drying up of its northern extremity, "the tongue of the Egyptian Sea. Thus the prophecy of Isaiah has been fulfilled, ( Isaiah 11:15 ; 10:5 ) the tongue of the Red Sea has dried up for a distance of at least 50 miles from its ancient head. An ancient canal conveyed the waters of the Nile to the Red Sea, flowing through the Wadi-t Tumeylat and irrigating with its system of water-channels a large extent of country. The country, for the distance above indicated, is now a desert of gravelly sand, with wide patches about the old Sea-bottom, of rank marsh land, now called the "Bitter Lakes. --The Sea, from its dangers and sterile shores, is entirely destitute of boats. The coral of the Red Sea is remarkably abundant, and beautifully colored and variegated; but it forms so many reefs and islands along the shores that navigation is very dangerous, and the shores are chiefly barren rock and sand, and therefore very sparsely inhabited so that there are but three cities along the whole 1450 miles of its west coast --Suez, at the head, a city of 14,000 inhabitants; Sanakin, belonging to Soudan, of 10,000; and Massau, in Albyssinia, of 5000. The earliest navigation of the Red Sea (passing by the pre-historical Phoenicians) is mentioned by Herodotus: --"Seostris (Rameses II. ) was the first who passing the Arabian Gulf in a fleet of long vessels, reduced under his authority the inhabitants of the coast bordering the Erythrean Sea. " Three centuries later, Solomon's navy was built "in Ezion-geber, which is beside Eloth, on the shore of the Red Sea (Yam Suph), in the land of Edom. " ( 1 Kings 9:20 ) The kingdom of Solomon extended as far as the Red Sea, upon which he possessed the harbors of Elath and Ezion-geber. [1] It is possible that the Sea has retired here as at Suez, and that Ezion-geber is now dry land. The Red Sea, as it possessed for many centuries the most important Sea-trade of the East contained ports of celebrity. The Heroopolite Gulf (Gulf of Suez) is of the chief interest; it was near to Goshen, it was the scene of the passage of the Red Sea, and it was the "tongue of the Egyptian Sea. " It was also the Seat of the Egyptian trade in this Sea and to the Indian Ocean. ...
Passage of the Red Sea . --The passage of the Red Sea was the crisis of the exodus. It is usual to suppose that the most northern place at which the Red Sea could have been crossed is the present head of the Gulf of Suez. An examination of the country north of Suez has shown, however, that the Sea has receded many miles. It is necessary to endeavor to ascertain the route of the Israelites before we can attempt to discover where they crossed the Sea. At the end of the third day's march for each camping place seems to mark the close of a day's journey the Israelites encamped by the Sea, place of this last encampment and that of the passage would be not very far from the Persepolitan monument at Pihahiroth. It appears that Migdol was behind Pi-hahiroth and on the other hand Baalzephon and the Sea. From Pi-hahiroth the Israelites crossed the Sea. From opposite Memphis a broad valley leads to the Red Sea. " From it the traveller reaches the Sea beneath the lofty Gebel-et-Takah , which rises in the north and shuts off all escape in that direction excepting by a narrow way along the Seashore, which Pharaoh might have occupied. The Sea here is broad and deep, as the narrative is generally held to imply. The only points bearing on geography in the account of this event are that the Sea was divided by an east wind. On the whole we may reasonably suppose about twelve miles as the smallest breadth of the Sea. The narrative distinctly states that a path was made through the Sea, and that the waters were a wall on either hand. The term "wall" does not appear to oblige us to suppose, as many have done, that the Sea stood up like a cliff on either side, but should rather be considered to mean a barrier, as the former idea implies a seemingly needless addition to the miracle, while the latter seems to be not discordant with the language of the narrative. In the morning watch, the last third or fourth of the night, or the period before sunrise Pharaoh's army was in full pursuit in the divided Sea, and was there miraculously troubled, so that the Egyptians sought to flee. ( Exodus 14:23-25 ) Then was Moses commanded again to stretch out his hand and the Sea returned to its strength, and overwhelmed the Egyptians, of whom not one remained alive, Ibid. The latest theory is that which Brugsch-bey has lately revived that the word translated Red Sea is "Sea of Reeds or Weeds," and refers to the Serbonian bog in the northeastern part of Egypt, and that the Israelites crossed here instead of the Red Sea
Arabah - The name given by the Hebrews to the whole of the great depression from the Sea of Galilee to the Gulf of Akabah. of the Dead Sea, see Jordan. of the Dead Sea. , and grows narrower, until, at a height of 2000 feet above the Dead Sea, nearly opposite Mt. Up to the level of the Red Sea everything indicates that we are traversing an old Sea-bottom. Apart from stunted desert shrub and an occasional acacia, the only greenery to be seen is around the springs on the edges of the valley, and in the wadys which carry the water from the adjoining mountains into the Wâdy el-Jaib , down which it flows to the Dead Sea
Huppim - A chamber covered; the Sea-shore
Salt Sea - See DEAD Sea
Eringo - ) The Sea holly
Glass - See House, Mirror, Sea of Glass
Sea Green - The green color of Sea water
Scray - ) A tern; the Sea swallow
Sea Green - The green color of Sea water
Haak - ) A Sea fish
Libya - The heart of the Sea; fat
Paralian - ) A dweller by the Sea
Seaquake - ) A quaking of the Sea
Manta - ) See Coleoptera and Sea devil
Ocean - ) The whole body of salt water which covers more than three fifths of the surface of the globe; - called also the Sea, or great Sea. ) Of or pertaining to the main or great Sea; as, the ocean waves; an ocean stream
Baal Zephon - or the god of the watch tower, was probably the temple of some idol, which served at the same time for a place of observation for the neighbouring Sea and country, and a beacon to the travellers by either. It was situated on a cape or promontory on the eastern side of the western or Heroopolitan branch of the Red Sea, near its northern extremity, over against Pi-hahiroth, or the opening in the mountains which led from the desert, on the side of Egypt, to the Red Sea
Deep, the - In Romans 10:7 'the deep' probably refers to the deep Sea, for in Deuteronomy 30:13 (from whence the quotation is made) it is "Who shall go over the Sea for us?" and the Sea is called 'the deep' elsewhere, as Isaiah 51:10 ; Isaiah 63:13 , etc
Suph - Hebrew name for Red Sea. See Red Sea
Cuckoo - The cuckoo is known in Palestine; but more likely some of the lesser kinds of Sea-fowl are meant. reads "sea-mew" in both the above places
Storm - See Galilee [1], 3; Whirlwind
Tempest - See Galilee [1], 3 ; Whirlwind
Tempest - —See Sea of Galilee, p
Lake of Gennesaret - See Gennesaret, Lake of; Galilee, Sea of
Gennesaret, Lake of - —See Sea of Galilee
Lake of Gennesaret - —See Sea of Galilee
Hirling - ) The young of the Sea trout
Seabeach - ) A beach lying along the Sea
Gennesaret, Lake of - See Galilee [1]...
Sea Flewer - A Sea anemone, or any related anthozoan
Sea Reed - The Sea-sand reed
Transmarine - ) Lying or being beyond the Sea
Waterscape - ) A Sea view; - distinguished from landscape
Marigenous - ) Produced in or by the Sea
Marinorama - ) A representation of a Sea view
Coast - From the river to the uttermost Sea shall your coast be. The edge or margin of the land next to the Sea the Sea-shore. This is the more common application of the word and it seems to be used for Sea-coast, the border of the Sea. The country near the Sea-shore as, populous towns along the coast
Buccaneer - ) To act the part of a buccaneer; to live as a piratical adventurer or Sea robber. ) A robber upon the Sea; a pirate; - a term applied especially to the piratical adventurers who made depredations on the Spaniards in America in the 17th and 18th centuries
en-Eglaim - ” A spring near the Dead Sea, where Ezekiel predicted a miracle, the salt waters being made fresh and becoming a paradise for fishing (Ezekiel 47:10 ). It is apparently Ain Feshcha on the western coast of the Dead Sea
Maritime - ) Bordering on, or situated near, the ocean; connected with the Sea by site, interest, or power; having shipping and commerce or a navy; as, maritime states. ) Of or pertaining to the ocean; marine; pertaining to navigation and naval affairs, or to shipping and commerce by Sea
Fish, Fishers, Fishing - and God created great whales," or Sea monsters. To man was given dominion over the fish of the Sea. Any one may catch it in the Sea and appropriate it to his own use. The fish in the Sea of Galilee was very plentiful, and there was much fishing. ...
In the river that in a future day will flow from the threshold of the house and run into and heal the Dead Sea, there will be a "very great multitude of fish . their fish shall be according to their kinds, as the fish of the great Sea, exceeding many. " In accordance with this the kingdom of heaven is compared to a net being cast into the Sea, which gathered of every kind: the good fish were put into vessels by the fishermen, but the bad were cast away
Sodom - See Dead Sea, Plain [1]
Sea-Built - ) Built at, in, or by the Sea
Batture - ) An elevated river bed or Sea bed
Gennesaret - (gehn nehss' uh reht) See Galilee, Sea of
Cronian - ) Saturnian; - applied to the North Polar Sea
Sea Turn - A breeze, gale, or mist from the Sea
Seascape - ) A picture representing a scene at Sea
Fretum - ) A strait, or arm of the Sea
Firth - ) An arm of the Sea; a frith
Sea Pincushion - (1):...
A Sea purse
Sea Holm - ...
(2):...
Sea holly
Sea-Gait - ) A long, rolling swell of the Sea
Sea Ape - (1):...
The Sea otter
Lubin - Heart of a man; heart of the Sea
Sea Salt - Common salt, obtained from Sea water by evaporation
Sea Marge - Land which borders on the Sea; the Seashore
Semita - ) A fasciole of a spatangoid Sea urchin
Brazen Sea - Brazen Sea
Adria - The Adriatic Sea. Paul's time it included the whole Sea lying between Italy and Greece, and extending on the south from Crete to Sicily, within which the island of Malta or Melita lies
Cormorant - ) Any species of Phalacrocorax, a genus of Sea birds having a sac under the beak; the shag. They are generally black, and hence are called Sea ravens, and coalgeese
Adria - (ay' dri a) or ADRIATIC Sea (NAS, NIV) The Sea separating Italy and Greece in which Paul's ship drifted for fourteen days as he sailed toward Rome to appeal his case to Caesar (Acts 27:27 )
Pamphylia - It is opposite to Cyprus, and the Sea between the coast and the island is called the "sea of Pamphylia
Chinnereth - It applied both to the Lake of Gennesaret (the Sea of Galilee) and to the small Plain of Gennesaret on the lake’s western shore (Numbers 34:11; Joshua 19:35; Luke 5:1). For fuller details see PALESTINE, sub-heading ‘Upper Jordan and Sea of Galilee’
Cormorant - Cormorant is supposed to be corrupted from corvus marinus, Sea raven. The Welsh also call the fowl morvran, Sea crow. This fowl occupies the cliffs by the Sea, feeds on fish, and is extremely voracious
Adria - The Adriatic Sea, wherein Paul was 'driven up and down' and afterwards shipwrecked. The term 'Adriatic' is now confined to the Sea that lies between Italy and Dalmatia and Albania; but formerly it had a wider signification and included that part of the Mediterranean which was bounded by Sicily, Italy, Greece and Africa. The difference is of importance inasmuch as Malta (Melita) where Paul was shipwrecked is not within the present Adriatic Sea, though it is within that which was formerly called so
Westward - Sea-ward, i
Sea-Maid - ) A Sea nymph
Adrian - ) Pertaining to the Adriatic Sea; as, Adrian billows
Ruttier - at Sea
Sea Fight - An engagement between ships at Sea; a naval battle
Icebird - ) An Arctic Sea bird, as the Arctic fulmar
Open Sea - A Sea open to all nations
Organling - ) A large kind of Sea fish; the orgeis
Tanglefish - ) The Sea adder, or great pipefish of Europe
Dimon, Waters of - Streams east of the Salt Sea
Haliographer - ) One who writes about or describes the Sea
Midmain - ) The middle part of the main or Sea
Elath - In Edom, on the Red Sea, near Ezion Geber (Deuteronomy 2:8). Now in Arabic Eyleh, at the point of the eastern horn of the Red Sea. Solomon's navy rode at Sea near Ezion Geber, beside Eloth (1 Kings 9:26; 2 Chronicles 8:17). From Elath the Elanitic gulf, the eastern arm of the Red Sea, takes its name. Herodotus makes the Phoenicians come from the Red Sea; if they were Cushites, their maritime propensities would accord with the characteristics of that race
Frith - ) A narrow arm of the Sea; an estuary; the opening of a river into the Sea; as, the Frith of Forth
Europe - ...
The great quarter of the earth that lies between the Atlantic ocean and Asia, and between the Mediterranean Sea and the North Sea
Trinity: Its Mystery - It was reported of Alanus, when he promised his auditory to discourse the next Sunday more clearly of the Trinity, and to make plain that mystery, while he was studying the point by the Sea-side, he spied a boy very busy with a little spoon trudging often between the Sea and a small hole he had digged in the ground. The boy answers, 'I intend to bring all the Sea into this pit. ' Alanus replies, 'Why dost thou attempt such impossibilities, and misspend thy time?' The boy answers, 'So dost thou, Alanus: I shall as soon bring all the Sea into this hole, as thou bring all the knowledge of the Trinity into thy head
Anadrom - ) A fish that leaves the Sea and ascends rivers
Seaware - ) Seaweed; esp. , coarse Seaweed. See Ware, and Sea girdles
Erlind - ) A salmon returning from the Sea the second time
Sea Captain - The captain of a vessel that sails upon the Sea
Alerite - ) A cretaceous fossil Sea urchin of the genus Galerites
Polynia - ) The open Sea supposed to surround the north pole
Sea Hen - the common guillemot; - applied also to various other Sea birds
Transfrete - ) To pass over a strait or narrow Sea
Jewstone - ) A large clavate spine of a fossil Sea urchin
Adria - (ὁ Ἀδρίας [1], ‘the Adrias,’ Revised Version ‘the [2] Adria’)...
The name was derived from the important Tuscan town of Atria, near the mouths of the Padus, and was originally (Herod. 92) confined to the northern part of the gulf now called the Adriatic, the lower part of which was known as the ‘Ionian Sea. ’ In later times the name ‘Adria’ was applied to the whole basin between Italy and Illyria, while the ‘Ionian Sea’ came to mean the outer basin, south of the Strait of Otranto. Strabo, in the beginning of our era, says: ‘The mouth (strait) is common to both; but this difference is to be observed, that the name “Ionian” is applied to the first part of the gulf only, and “Adriatic” to the interior Sea up to the farthest end’ (vii. Strabo, however, indicates a wider extension of the meaning by adding that ‘the name “Adrias” is now applied to the whole Sea,’ so that, as he says elsewhere, ‘the Ionian Gulf forms part of what we now call “Adrias” ’ (ii. ‘With the accuracy of a geographer, he distinguishes the Gulf of Adria from the Sea of Adria; thus, in enumerating the boundaries of Italy, he tells us that it is bounded on one side by the shores of the Gulf of Adria, and on the south by the shores of the Adria (iii. 1); and that Sicily is hounded on the east by the Sea of Adria (4). He further informs us that Italy is bounded on the south by the Adriatic Sea (14), that the Peloponnesus is bounded on the west and south by the Adriatic Sea (16), and that Crete is bounded on the west by the Adriatic Sea (17)’ (Smith, Vayage and Shipwreck of St. 2), and of the Straits of Messina as communicating with the Adriatic and the Tyrrhenian Sea (v. 14) makes the islands of Gaulos and Melita (Gozo and Malta) the boundary between the Adriatic; and the Tyrrhenian Sea. His ship was ‘driven through Adria’ (διαφερομένων ἡμῶν ἐν τῷ Ἀδρίᾳ, Acts 27:27); perhaps not ‘driven to and fro in the Sea of Adria’ (Revised Version ) (unless St. Paul’s experience is found in the life of Josephus, who relays that his ship foundered in the midst of the same Sea (κατὰ μέσον τὸν Ἀδρίαν), and that he and some companions, saving themselves by swimming, were picked up by a vessel sailing from Cyrene to Puteoli (Vit
Samothrace - ” Mountainous island in northern Aegean Sea thirty-eight miles south of coast of Thrace with peaks rising 5,000 feet above Sea level
Turnstone - They are so called from their habit of turning up small stones in Search of mollusks and other aquatic animals. Called also brant bird, sand runner, Sea quail, Sea lark, sparkback, and skirlcrake
Lake - 1: λίμνη (Strong's #3041 — Noun Feminine — limne — lim'-nay ) "a lake," is used (a) in the Gospels, only by Luke, of the Sea of Galilee, Luke 5:2 ; 8:22,23,33 , called Gennesaret in Luke 5:1 (Matthew and Mark use thalassa, "a Sea"); (b) of the "lake" of fire, Revelation 19:20 ; 20:10,14,15 ; 21:8
Siddim, Vale of - The battlefield is doubtless thought of as being in the neighbourhood of the Dead Sea, where bitumen is still abundant, masses of it, which have been detached from the bottom, being often found floating on the surface after shocks of earthquake; and the Vale of Siddim is expressly identified in Genesis 14:3 with the Dead Sea by the explanatory insertion, ‘the same is the Salt Sea. ’ If by this is meant that the vale was co-extensive with the Dead Sea, the statement must be erroneous, for the greater part of the Dead Sea (the N. half of which has in places a depth of 1300 feet) is the remains of an inland Sea which existed ‘long before the appearance of man on the earth,’ and consequently long before the age of Abraham. But it is possible that the Vale of Siddim is intended to be identified with only a portion of the Dead Sea; and those who consider Sodom and the other four ‘cities of the plain’ to have been situated at the S. end of the Dead Sea (where the morass of es-Sebkha now is) have taken the site of Siddim to be the southern portion of the Sea itself, which is very shallow and may once have been dry ground that has been covered by water through subsidence (cf
Aristotle's Lantern - The five united jaws and accessory ossicles of certain Sea urchins
Becker - ) A European fish (Pagellus centrodontus); the Sea bream or braise
Photic Region - The uppermost zone of the Sea, which receives the most light
Free-Swimming - ) Swimming in the open Sea; - said of certain marine animals
Tarshish - The Sea-port where Solomon's fleets were
Sea Wormwood - A European species of wormwood (Artemisia maritima) growing by the Sea
Waveless - ) Free from waves; undisturbed; not agitated; as, the waveless Sea
Pontic - ) Of or pertaining to the Pontus, Euxine, or Black Sea
Seapiece - ) A picture representing a scene at Sea; a marine picture
Rilse - ) A young salmon after its first return from the Sea
Rockweed - ) Any coarse Seaweed growing on Sea-washed rocks, especially Fucus
Transfretation - ) The act of passing over a strait or narrow Sea
Oversea - ) Beyond the Sea; foreign. of Overseas...
Merluce - ) The European hake; - called also herring hake and Sea pike
Joppa, Sea of - In Ezra 3:7 , the meaning is 'the Sea at Joppa
Salt (2) - Salt Sea or Dead Sea. This Sea is called in the Scriptures the "sea of the plain," R. "of the Arabah," Deuteronomy 4:49; 2 Kings 14:25; the "salt Sea," Deuteronomy 3:17; Joshua 3:16; Joshua 12:3; the "east Sea," Joel 2:20; Ezekiel 47:18; Zechariah 14:8; and "the Sea," Ezekiel 47:8. The title "Dead Sea" is not found in Jewish writers, but was introduced at an early period by the Greek authors. The most extraordinary fact in regard to the Dead Sea is that it lies in so deep a cleft among its mountains that its surface is about 1293, or according to Lynch 1316, feet below the level of the Mediterranean. The cities of the plain, which were destroyed by "brimstone and fire from the Lord out of heaven," were near the Dead Sea. The supposition, formerly most common was that these cities were submerged by the waters of the Sea at the time of the great catastrophe—a theory which appears to be inconsistent with the geological and physical character of the region
Arabah - It denotes the hollow depression through which the Jordan flows from the Lake of Galilee to the Dead Sea. But the Ghor is sometimes spoken of as extending 10 miles south of the Dead Sea, and thence to the Gulf of Akabah on the Red Sea is called the Wady el-Arabah
Gadara - of the Sea of Galilee, but the town is too far from the Sea to have been the scene of the miracle; besides which there is a deep ravine between the ruins of the town and the Sea
Willows, Brook of the - in the Arabah, and flows into the southern end of the Dead Sea, so that in Amos' time Moab's southern bound was now become Israel's southern bound and Israel had no enemy W. end of the peninsula of the Dead Sea, so that Arabah in Amos 6:14 may mean "willow brook" instead of brook of the Arabah, or Ghor, the southern continuation of the depressed valley of the Jordan and Dead Sea, toward the Red Sea
Chian - ) Of or pertaining to Chios, an island in the Aegean Sea
Diomedea - ) A genus of large Sea birds, including the albatross
Waveson - ) Goods which, after shipwreck, appear floating on the waves, or Sea
Afoam - ) In a foaming state; as, the Sea is all afoam
Merman - ) The male corresponding to mermaid; a Sea man, or man fish
Halophyte - ) A plant found growing in salt marshes, or in the Sea
Tarpan - ) A wild horse found in the region of the Caspian Sea
Muride - ) Bromine; - formerly so called from its being obtained from Sea water
Assos - A Sea-port town of Proconsular Asia, in the district of Mysia, on the north shore of the Gulf of Adramyttium. It was about 30 miles distant from Troas by Sea
Zin - It lay south-west of the Dead Sea, between the Dead Sea and Kadesh-barnea (Numbers 20:1-2; Numbers 27:14; Numbers 33:36; Numbers 34:3-5)
Siddim - ” A variant name for the Dead Sea where the coalition faced Chedorlaomer and his allies, leading to Abraham's rescue of Lot (Genesis 14:1 ). The reference is apparently to the land bordering the Dead Sea
Cow - ...
Sea-cow, the Manatus, a species of the Trichechus. See Sea-cow
Haven - A harbor; a port; a bay, recess or inlet of the Sea, or the mouth of a river which affords good anchorage and a safe station for ships; any place in which ships can be sheltered by the land from the force of tempests and a violent Sea
Lumpfish - The color is usually translucent Sea green, sometimes purplish. The ventral fins unite and form a ventral sucker for adhesion to stones and Seaweeds. Called also lumpsucker, cock-paddle, Sea owl
Amphip'Olis - (a city surrounded by the Sea ), a city of Macedonia, through which Paul and Silas passed on their way from Philippi to Thessalonica ( Acts 17:1 ) It was distant 33Roman miles from Philippi, to the southwest, and about three miles from the Sea
Red Sea - Hebrew: Sea of Suph ("seaweed"; like wool, as the Arabic means: Gesenius). The Egyptians called it the Sea of Punt (Arabia). Called "red" probably from the color of the weed, and the red coral and sandstone, not from Εdom ("red") which touched it only at Elath; nor from Himyerites (hamar , "red" in Arabic; the Phoenicians too are thought to mean red men, and to have come from the Red Sea), as their connection with it was hardly so dose and so early as to have given the name. high; the tops granite, underneath limestone, on the Seashore light colored sandstone. ...
The northern end ("the tongue of the Egyptian Sea"), since the Exodus, has dried up for 50 miles. This drying up has caused the ancient canal which conveyed the Red Sea commerce to the Nile (from about Hereopolis on the Birket et Timsah and lake of the crocodile to Bubastis at the Nile), and irrigated the country (wady Τumeylat ) to be neglected and ruined. The country about has consequently become a gravely sand desert, with rank marsh land round the old Sea bottom, called "the bitter lakes. Ras Mohammed, the headland of the Sinaitic peninsula, divides the Red Sea into two tongues: the western one the gulf of Suez, 130 miles long by 18 broad, narrowing to ten at the head; the eastern one the gulf of Akabah ("a declivity"), 90 long by an average of 15 broad. The Arabah or Ghor connects it with the Dead Sea and Jordan valley. No considerable stream falls into this large Sea. The western or Egyptian side of the Red Sea is of limestone formation; gebel Gharib 6,000 ft. high; the porphyry mountain, gebel ed Dukhkhan, inland, is about the same height; gebel ez Zeyt, "the oil ("petroleum") mount," is close to the Sea. Sesostris (Rameses II) was the "first who, passing the Arabian gulf in a fleet of long war vessels, reduced the inhabitants bordering the Red Sea" (Herodotus). Solomon built a navy at "Ezion Geber (now dry land), beside Elath on the Red Sea in Edom " (1 Kings 9:26). The Himyerite Arabs formed mostly the crews of the Seagoing ships. The Red Sea and Egypt after the time of Alexander the Great was the channel of commerce between Europe and India. But now the overland mail and Suez canal are again bringing it by way of Egypt and the Red Sea. (On Israel's passage of the Red Sea, see EXODUS
Sea-Walled - ) Surrounded, bounded, or protected by the Sea, as if by a wall
Bathymetry - ) The art or science of sounding, or measuring depths in the Sea
Dophkah - A station in the wilderness (Numbers 33:12) between Rephidim and the Sea
Dobbin - ) Sea gravel mixed with sand
Elver - ) A young eel; a young conger or Sea eel; - called also elvene
Seafarer - ) One who follows the Sea as a business; a mariner; a sailor
Carvel - ) A species of jellyfish; Sea blubber
Sea Breach - A breaking or overflow of a bank or a dike by the Sea
Corfute - ) A native or inhabitant of Corfu, an island in the Mediterranean Sea
Tideland - ) Land that is overflowed by tide water; hence, land near the Sea
Scrobicula - ) One of the smooth areas surrounding the tubercles of a Sea urchin
Sea Salmon - ...
(3):...
See Sea bass (b)
Sea Bank - (1):...
The Seashore. ...
(2):...
A bank or mole to defend against the Sea
Turtle Peg - A sharp steel spear attached to a cord, used in taking Sea turtles
Longipennes - ) A group of longwinged Sea birds, including the gulls, petrels, etc
Voyager - ) One who voyages; one who sails or passes by Sea or water
Celadon - ) A pale Sea-green color; also, porcelain or fine pottery of this tint
Adamah - of the Sea of Galilee (Joshua 19:36)
Regularia - ) A division of Echini which includes the circular, or regular, Sea urchins
Polder - ) A tract of low land reclaimed from the Sea by of high embankments
Alush - (ay' luhssh) Wilderness camping place not far from Red Sea (Numbers 33:13-14 )
Seagirt - ) Surrounded by the water of the Sea or ocean; as, a Seagirt isle
Scoter - ) Any one of several species of northern Sea ducks of the genus Oidemia
Livonian - ) Of or pertaining to Livonia, a district of Russia near the Baltic Sea
Eneglaim - Ezekiel 47:10 , a town on the Dead Sea, west of the Jordan's mouth
Isles - " Shore land at opposed to Sea, dry land as opposed to rivers. So the word is applied to all lands reached from Palestine by Sea. Jeremiah 25:22, "the isles which are beyond the Sea
Leviathan - This is really a Hebrew word (livyathan ), and is generally believed to refer to any great Sea or land monster, it is now postulated that the description is likely to be of a dinosaur. In Psalm 104:26 the reference may be to any Sea monster, for it is in connection with the 'great and wide Sea,' that is, the Mediterranean
Mallows - Almost certainly the Sea orache ( Atriplex halimus ), a perennial shrub with leaves somewhat like the olive, common in saltish marshes, especially near the Dead Sea, where it is associated with the retem (see Juniper)
Chinnereth, Sea of - Sea of Chinnereth or Chinneroth. A fortified city of Naphtali (Joshua 19:35); probably the same as Tiberius, from which the lake or Sea was named in a similar way (Numbers 34:11; John 6:1)
Zereth-Shahar - ” The city located “on the hill of the [1] valley” was allotted to Reuben (Joshua 13:19 ). The site is perhaps modern Zarat near Machaerus on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea
Derelict - ) A thing voluntary abandoned or willfully cast away by its proper owner, especially a ship abandoned at Sea. ) A tract of land left dry by the Sea, and fit for cultivation or use
Jazer - ...
Sea of. But scholars are not agreed what the Sea of Jazer refers to
Ulf - ) A portion of an ocean or Sea extending into the land; a partially land-locked Sea; as, the Gulf of Mexico
Gennesaret - "The land of Gennesaret," Matthew 14:34 Mark 6:53 , was a tract of land some three of four; miles long on the western border of the Sea of Galilee. See Sea 4
Leviathan - (lih vi' uh thuhn) name of an ancient Sea creature subdued by God meaning “coiled one. ...
The Sea creature is used interchangably with other mysterious creations of the divine. Again, Isaiah 27:1 refers to leviathan as “the dragon that is in the Sea. ” The psalmist in Psalm 74:14 presents leviathan among the supernatural enemies of God dwelling in the Sea with many heads. Job 3:8 ; Job 41:1-9 present the Sea creature as too formidable a foe for a person to consider arousing. depicts the mythical Baal defeating the Sea creature called Lotan (another linguistic form for Leviathan). A cylinder Seal found at Tel Asmar dated about 2350 B. ...
Leviathan was seen in ancient legend as a Sea monster engaged in primordial warfare with the gods
Catanadromous - ) Ascending and descending fresh streams from and to the Sea, as the salmon; anadromous
Meaw - ) The Sea mew
Sea Apple - The fruit of a West Indian palm (Manicaria Plukenetii), often found floating in the Sea
Seaside - ) The land bordering on, or adjacent to, the Sea; the Seashore
Delph - ) The drain on the land side of a Sea embankment
Ulva - ) A genus of thin papery bright green Seaweeds including the kinds called Sea lettuce
Whistlefish - ) A gossat, or rockling; - called also whistler, three-bearded rockling, Sea loach, and sorghe
Tomnoddy - ) A Sea bird, the puffin
Ossifrage - ) The young of the Sea eagle or bald eagle
Choppy - ) Rough, with short, tumultuous waves; as, a choppy Sea
Annet - ) One of several species of Sea birds of the genus Sula, allied to the pelicans
Petalosticha - ) An order of Echini, including the irregular Sea urchins, as the spatangoids
Flotson - ) Goods lost by shipwreck, and floating on the Sea; - in distinction from jetsam or jetson
Ear-Shell - ) A flattened marine univalve shell of the genus Haliotis; - called also Sea-ear
Livyatan - a giant Sea creature whose flesh will be served to the righteous in the Messianic age...
Yarage - ) The power of moving, or being managed, at Sea; - said with reference to a ship
Oscillometer - ) An instrument for measuring the angle through which a ship rolls or pitches at Sea
Salina - ) A salt marsh, or salt pond, inclosed from the Sea
Essenes - Many scholars associate the Dead Sea Scrolls discovered in 1947 with an Essene community. See Dead Sea Scrolls ; Qumran
Tiberias - The town of Tiberias was on the western shore of Lake Galilee (also called the Sea of Galilee and the Sea of Tiberias) (John 6:1; John 6:23)
Bar - Used to denote the means by which a door is bolted (Nehemiah 3:3 ); a rock in the Sea (Jonah 2:6 ); the shore of the Sea (Job 38:10 ); strong fortifications and powerful impediments, etc
Chinnereth - A city ( Deuteronomy 3:17 , Joshua 11:2 [1] Joshua 19:35 ) which gave its name to the Sea of Chinnereth ( Numbers 34:11 , Joshua 12:3 ; Joshua 13:27 ), the OT designation of the Sea of Galilee
Cormorant - pygmœus , occur in Palestine both on the Sea coasts and on inland waters, e. the Dead Sea
Urchin - ) A Sea urchin. See Sea urchin
City of Palm Trees - Some identify the region with Zoar on the south side of the Dead Sea or with Tamar about twenty miles south of the Dead Sea
Roar, Roaring - , "echo"), is used of the "roaring" of the Sea in Luke 21:25 , in the best mss. , "for the roaring (of the Sea and the billows)," RV; some mss. have the present participle of echeo, "to sound," AV, "(the Sea and the waves) roaring
Siddim, Vale of - Valley of the broad plains, "which is the salt Sea" (Genesis 14:3,8,10 ), between Engedi and the cities of the plain, at the south end of the Dead Sea. Some, however, contend that the "cities of the plain" were somewhere at the north of the Dead Sea
Pitch - Genesis 6:14 Exodus 2:3 , translated "slime" in Genesis 11:3 14:10 , is properly bitumen or asphaltum, anciently found on and near the Dead Sea, which was hence called the lake Asphaltities. It is still thrown up by earthquakes from the bottom of the Dead Sea, and floats to the shore sometimes in large masses. See Sea 3
Scolopendra - ) A Sea fish
en-Eglaim - Somewhere near the Dead Sea
Herkin - ) See Sea gherkin
Coccolith - ) One of a kind of minute, calcareous bodies, probably vegetable, often abundant in deep-sea mud
Henfish - ) A marine fish; the Sea bream
Flotage - ) That which floats on the Sea or in rivers
Libya - A province in Egypt: (see Acts 2:10) so called from Libin, the heart of the Sea
Salmone - A Sea-sport in the island of Crete
Sea Girdles - A kind of kelp (Laminaria digitata) with palmately cleft fronds; - called also Sea wand, Seaware, and tangle
Escambio - ) A license formerly required for the making over a bill of exchange to another over Sea
Embogue - ) To disembogue; to discharge, as a river, its waters into the Sea or another river
Undersetters - Corner pieces or blocks as parts of the foundation of the molten Sea
Hard-Tack - ) A name given by soldiers and sailors to a kind of hard biscuit or Sea bread
Seacoast - ) The shore or border of the land adjacent to the Sea or ocean
Murre - ) Any one of several species of Sea birds of the genus Uria, or Catarractes; a guillemot
Patmos - An island in the Ægean Sea, where the beloved apostle John was banished
Coast, - border, with no more reference to lands bordering on the Sea than to any other bordering lands
Sea - They distinguished the different Seas with which they were acquainted with different names, as the Red Sea, the Salt Sea, the Great Sea, the Dead Sea, and the like; and the entrance is sometimes called the tongue of the Sea. (Isaiah 11:15)...
It is worthy remark, however, that Jerusalem, which the Lord chose for his people had no Sea or navigable river near it
Galilee Sea of - Galilee, Sea of. It was also called the "Sea of Tiberias," from the city of that name, John 6:1, and "Sea of Chinneroth" in the Old Testament. Most of our Lord's public life was spent in the environs of this Sea. The Sea of Galilee is of an oval shape, about 12 miles long and 6 broad. It is 60 miles northeast of Jerusalem and 27 east of the Mediterranean Sea
Tarshish - Le Clerc understands Thassus, an island and city in the AEgean Sea. Sanctius believes the Sea in general to be called Tarshish, and that the ships of Tarshish were those that are employed in voyages at Sea, in opposition to the small vessels that are used only in most navigable rivers. The LXX translate Tarshish sometimes by "the Sea;" and the Scripture gives the names of ships of Tarshish to those that were fitted out at Ezion-Geber, on the Red Sea, and which sailed upon the ocean, as well as to those that were fitted out at Joppa, and in the ports of the Mediterranean. Therefore, when we see ships fitted out upon the Red Sea, or at Ezion-Geber, in order to go to Tarshish, we must conclude one of these two things, either that there were two countries called Tarshish, one upon the ocean, and another upon the Mediterranean, or that ships of Tarshish in general signifies nothing else but ships able to bear a long voyage; large merchant ships, in opposition to the small craft intended for a home trade in navigable rivers
Girgashites - Sprung from the fifth Sea of Canaan (Genesis 10:16)
Nibshan - One of the six cities of Judah in the midbar , "wilderness," the low district adjoining the Dead Sea
Arrowworm - ) A peculiar transparent worm of the genus Sagitta, living at the surface of the Sea
Pluteus - ) The free-swimming larva of Sea urchins and ophiurans, having several long stiff processes inclosing calcareous rods
Secacah - One of Judah's six cities in the midbar or wilderness bordering on the Dead Sea (Joshua 15:61)
Fasciole - ) A band of minute tubercles, bearing modified spines, on the shells of spatangoid Sea urchins
Estacade - ) A dike of piles in the Sea, a river, etc
Upblow - ) To blow up; as, the wind upblows from the Sea
Malabar - ) A region in the western part of the Peninsula of India, between the mountains and the Sea
Gomorrah - See DEAD Sea
Arabah - ) The article in Hebrew marks it as some definite spot, namely, the deep sunken gorge extending from mount Hermon to the Elanitic gulf of the Red Sea; the most extraordinary depression on the earth. The Jordan rushes for 150 miles through its northern part (el Ghor) by lakes Huleh and Gennesareth, to the deep abyss of the Dead Sea. of the Dead Sea. In Joshua 11:16; Joshua 12:8, the Arabah takes its place among the natural divisions of the country, and in Deuteronomy 3:17 in connection with the Sea of Chinnereth (Gennesareth) and the Dead Sea. of the Dead Sea is the bound between the Ghor on the N. The supposition that the Jordan once flowed through the Arabah into the Red Sea is not likely; for the Red Sea and the Mediterranean are nearly on one level. The depression of the surface of the Sea of Galilee is 652 feet, that of the Dead Sea 1316 feet, below the surface of the Mediterranean, and so of the Red Sea. The northern part of the Arabah drains into the Dead Sea, the land rising from the N
Sand - 1: ἄμμος (Strong's #285 — Noun Feminine — ammos — am'-mos ) "sand" or "sandy ground," describes (a) an insecure foundation, Matthew 7:26 ; (b) numberlessness, vastness, Romans 9:27 ; Hebrews 11:12 ; Revelation 20:8 ; (c) symbolically in Revelation 13:1 , RV, the position taken up by the Dragon (not, as in the AV, by John), in view of the rising of the Beast out of the Sea (emblematic of the restless condition of nations; see Sea)
Mauzzim - Furst suggests Melkart the Hercules of Tyre, "the fortress" or "stronghold (ma'oz ) of the Sea. " New Tyre was on a rock surrounded by the Sea (Isaiah 23:4)
Whale - Genesis 1:21, translated "sea monsters. Jonah on the whale or Sea monster in which he was miraculously preserved, type of Him over whose head for our sakes went all the waves and billows of God's wrath: Psalms 42:7; Psalms 69:2; Galatians 3:13)
Auricula - ) One of the five arched processes of the shell around the jaws of a Sea urchin. ) A genus of air-breathing mollusks mostly found near the Sea, where the water is brackish...
Sea Trout - (1):...
A California sciaenoid fish (Cynoscion nobilis); - called also white Sea bass. ...
(4):...
Any one of several species of true trouts which descend rivers and enter the Sea after spawning, as the European bull trout and salmon trout, and the eastern American spotted trout
Receipt of Custom - The publicans had houses or booths built for them at the foot of bridges, at the mouth of rivers, by the Sea shore, and the parts of the lake of Gennesareth, or Sea of Tiberias, to collect the taxes on passengers and merchandise
Chorazin - A town in Galilee, near to Capernaum and Bethsaida, on the northwest shore of the Sea of Galilee. No traces of its name remain; but Robinson with strong probability locates it at the modern Tell-hum, on the northern shore of the Sea of Galilee, three miles northeast of Capernaum
Zooecium - of Sea Moss
Diblathaim - Two cakes, a city of Moab, on the east of the Dead Sea (Numbers 33:46 ; Jeremiah 48:22 )
Fluvio-Marine - ) Formed by the joint action of a river and the Sea, as deposits at the mouths of rivers
Hausen - ) A large sturgeon (Acipenser huso) from the region of the Black Sea
Turban-Shell - ) A Sea urchin when deprived of its spines; - popularly so called from a fancied resemblance to a turban
o-Out - ) A sluice in embankments against the Sea, for letting out the land waters, when the tide is out
Water Gang - A passage for water, such as was usually made in a Sea wall, to drain water out of marshes
Kraken - ) A fabulous Scandinavian Sea monster, often represented as resembling an island, but sometimes as resembling an immense octopus
Lake - See Revelation 19:20 21:8 , recalls the fire and Sea in which Sodom was consumed and swallowed up
Galilee, Sea of - GALILEE, Sea OF...
1. The Sea of Galilee is an expansion of the Jordan, 13 miles long, about 8 miles in maximum breadth; its surface is 680 feet below that of the Mediterranean; its maximum depth is about 150 feet. Like the Dead Sea, it is set deep among hills, which rise on the east side to a height of about 2000 feet. The original name of the Sea seems to have been Chinnereth or Chinneroth , which a hazardous etymology connects with the Heb. ’ The name is supposed to be given to the Sea on account of its fancied resemblance to such an instrument. ), or ‘the Sea’ ( John 6:16 ), we find Lake of Gennesaret (only in Luke 5:1 ), Sea of Tiberias ( John 21:1 , and also as an explanatory or alternative name in John 6:1 ), but most frequently Sea of Galilee , which seems to have been the normal name. The modern name is Bahr Tubarîya , which is often rendered in English as ‘Lake of Tiberias,’ by which name the Sea is now frequently described (as in Baedeker’s Syria and Palestine ). The Sea in the time of Christ was surrounded by a number of important cities, each of them the centre of a cultured population
Dragon - The tannin are any great monsters, whether of land or Sea, trans. Genesis 1:21 "great Sea monsters. " So (Lamentations 4:3) "even Sea monsters (tannin ) draw out the breast," alluding to the mammalia which sometimes visit the Mediterranean, or the halichore cow whale of the Red Sea. Large whales do not often frequent the Mediterranean, which was the Sea that the Israelites knew; they apply "sea" to the Nile and Euphrates, and so apply "tannin " to the crocodile, their horror in Egypt, as also to the large serpents which they saw in the desert. "The dragon in the Sea," which Jehovah shall punish in the day of Israel's deliverance, is Antichrist, the antitype to Babylon on the Euphrates' waters (Isaiah 27:1)
Gadarenes - As the Sea of Galilee had various names, so had the inhabitants according as they were associated with different districts in the vicinity. The Gadarenes abode on the east of the Sea of Galilee, where the Lord cured the two demoniacs, though Mark and Luke mention but one. Travellers have found a place in the locality which has a steep decline into the Sea and which exactly answers to the details of the gospel narrative
Red Sea - The passage of the Red Sea with the destruction of Pharaoh’s army was one of the great miracles of Jewish history which the people loved to recall. Of several great benefits bestowed by God on His people Israel one was that they all passed through the Sea; while a second was that they were all baptized in the Sea as followers of Moses. Paul here conceives the passage through the Red Sea to have been an initiatory rite like baptism (see G
Tubinares - ) A tribe of Sea birds comprising the petrels, shearwaters, albatrosses, hagdons, and allied birds having tubular horny nostrils
Sea Mud - A rich slimy deposit in salt marshes and along the Seashore, sometimes used as a manure; - called also Sea ooze
Sea Room - Room or space at Sea for a vessel to maneuver, drive, or scud, without peril of running ashore or aground
Actinozoa - The Sea anemone, or actinia, is a familiar example
Sea Fowl - Any bird which habitually frequents the Sea, as an auk, gannet, gull, tern, or petrel; also, all such birds, collectively
Oceanus - ) The god of the great outer Sea, or the river which was believed to flow around the whole earth
Ossifrage - ...
The ospray or Sea-eagle
Casiphia - The home of many of the exiled Jews, was probably in the vicinity of the Caspian Sea, Ezra 8:17
Dalma'Tia, - a mountainous district on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea
Dead Sea - DEAD Sea . It has no Scripture warrant; Hebrew writers speak of it as the ‘Salt Sea’ (Genesis 14:8 , Numbers 34:3 , Joshua 15:5 etc. ), the ‘sea of the Arabah’ ( Deuteronomy 3:17 ; Deuteronomy 4:49 ), the ‘east or eastern Sea’ ( Ezekiel 47:18 , Joel 2:20 ). In Arabic it is known as Bahr Lut , ‘the Sea of Lot,’ a name which, however, is more probably due to the direct influence of the history as related in the Koran than to a survival of local tradition. Somewhere near the Sea were Sodom and Gomorrah , but whether north or south of it is not settled; the one certain fact about their sites is that the popular belief that they are covered by the waters of the Lake is quite inadmissible. ...
The Dead Sea owes its origin to a fault or fracture produced in the surface of the region by the earth-movements whereby the land was here raised above the Sea-level
Mallows - The word so rendered (malluah, from melah, "salt") most probably denotes the Atriplex halimus of Linnaeus, a species of Sea purslane found on the shores of the Dead Sea, as also of the Mediterranean, and in salt marshes
Ashdothpisgah - This is once translated 'springs of Pisgah,' pointing it out as a place from whence water issued, being the sides of the mountain called Pisgah, or it may apply to the range of mountains on the east of the Dead Sea, of which Pisgah was a part. It lies due east of the north end of the Dead Sea, and is now called Ayun Musa
Zin, Wilderness of - A district far south of Judah, lying between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Akaba, in which Kadesh was situated, and in which a great part of the wanderings of the Israelites occurred. It must not be confounded with the Wilderness of Sin (which lies along the south-east coast of the Red Sea)
Jeruel Wilderness - ...
Part of the flat country stretching from the Dead Sea to Tekoa, a waste table land in front of the valley; where Jahaziel told Jehoshaphat he should encounter Ammon, Moab, etc. of the Dead Sea into Judah (2 Chronicles 20:16; 2 Chronicles 20:24); containing "the watchtower" built there for observing from afar such inroads
Sea - The Hebrews give the name of Sea to any large collection of water, Job 14:11 ; as to the lakes of Tiberias and Asphaltites, and also to the rivers Nile and Euphrates, Isaiah 11:15 18:2 21:1 Jeremiah 51:36,42 . The principal Seas mentioned in Scripture are the following: ...
1. The GREAT Sea, the Mediterranean, called also the Hinder or Western Sea. Indeed, the Hebrew word for Sea, meaning the Mediterranean, is often put for the west. The Great Sea Isaiah 2,200 miles long, and in the widest part 1,200 miles in width. That of Akaba is connected with the Dead Sea by the great sand valley El Arabah described under the article Zechariah 10:11 , both the Red Sea and the Nile appear to be mentioned. The Genesis 14:3 ; The Sea of the Plain, Deuteronomy 4:40 ; The Eastern Sea, Zechariah 14:8 ; by the Greeks and Romans, lake Asphaltites; and by the modern Arabs, The Sea of Lot. The general aspect of the region is dreary, sterile, and desolate; but at a few points there are brooks or fountains of fresh water, which in their way to the Sea pass through spots of luxuriant verdure, the abode of birds in great numbers. ...
The waters of the Dead Sea are clear and limpid, but exceedingly salt and bitter. Salt also is deposited by evaporation on the shore, or on garments wet in the Sea. In the bed of the Sea it is found in crystals and near the shore in incrustation deposited on the bottom. Compare Ezekiel 47:8-10 , where the healing of this deadly Sea, and its abounding in fish, as well as the new fertility and beauty of the dreary wilderness between it and Jerusalemby means of the healing power of the Kidron flowing from beside that altar of Godforcibly illustrate the healing and renovating power of gospel grace. The boat of Lieutenant Lynch met with a gale on entering it from the Jordan; and "it seemed at if the bows, so dense was the water, were encountering the sledgehammers of the Titans, instead of the opposing waves of an angry Sea. ...
An uncommon love of exaggeration is observable in all the older narratives, and in some of modern date, respecting the nature and properties of the Dead Sea. Chateaubriand speaks of a "dismal sound proceeding from this lake of death, like the stifled clamors of the people ingulfed in its water," and says that its shores produce a fruit beautiful to the sight, but containing nothing but ashes; and that the heavy metals float on the surface of the Sea. These legends are corrected by more reliable accounts, which show that the birds fly over or float upon the Sea uninjured; that no vapor is exhaled from its surface, except that caused by the rapid evaporation or its waters under the hot sun; and that the low level and excessive heat of the valley of the Jordan and the Dead Sea account for the diseases prevailing there, without imagining any more fearful cause. The "apostle of Sodom" above referred to by Chateaubriand, and described by Josephus and others answer, with some exaggerations, to fruits now growing around the Dead Sea. ...
In 1848, Lieutenant Lynch of the United States' navy passed down the Jordan from the Sea of Tiberias, with two metallic boats, and spent three weeks in a survey of the Sea of Sodom. On its southwest border lies a mountain or ridge composed chiefly of rock salt, and called Usdum or Sodom, between which and the Sea stands a round pillar of salt forty feet high, reminding one of Lot's wife. ...
At present the Dead Sea has no perceptible outlet, and the waters poured into it by the Jordan are probably evaporated by the intense heat of the unclouded sun, or in part absorbed in the earth. It is thought by some that the northern and principal part of the Sea was the product of some convulsion of nature, long before that which destroyed Sodom and formed the south bay; that the Jordan at first flowed into the Red Sea through the remarkable crevasse which extends from its sources to the Gulf of Akabah; and that at some period beyond the reach of history, its bed and valley sunk down to their present level and formed the Dead Sea. Lieutenant Lynch in sounding discovered a ravine in the bed of the Sea, corresponding to the channel of the Jordan in its valley north of the Sea. The Sea OF TIBERIAS or of Galilee; the lake of Gennesareth, or of Cimmereth, Numbers 34:11 , is so called from the adjacent country, or from some of the principal cities on its shores. A strong current marks the passage of the Jordan through the middle of the lake, on its way to the Dead Sea. The appearance of the Sea from the hills on the western shore is far less grand and more beautiful than that of the Dead Sea. But the Sea remains, hallowed by many scenes described in the gospels. ...
...
"How pleasant to me thy deep blue wave,...
O Sea of Galilee,...
For the glorious One who came to save...
Hath often stood by thee. Sea or WATERS OF MEROM. ...
The BRAZEN or MOLTEN Sea, made by Solomon for the temple, was...
a circular vessel at least fifteen feet in diameter, which stood in...
the court of the temple, and contained three thousand baths,...
according to 2 Corinthians 4:5 , or two thousand baths according to 1Ki...
7:26
Reliction - ) A leaving dry; a recession of the Sea or other water, leaving dry land; land left uncovered by such recession
Karkaa - A floor; bottom, a place between Adar and Azmon, about midway between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea (Joshua 15:3 )
Balearic - , in the Mediterranean Sea, off the coast of Valencia
Adriatic - ) Of or pertaining to a Sea so named, the northwestern part of which is known as the Gulf of Venice
Fiord - ) A narrow inlet of the Sea, penetrating between high banks or rocks, as on the coasts of Norway and Alaska
Flipper - ) A broad flat limb used for swimming, as those of Seals, Sea turtles, whales, etc
Foxfish - ) The fox shark; - called also Sea fox
Chios - Island in the Aegean Sea, passed by Paul in his voyage from Troas to Caesarea, Acts 20:15 : now named Scio
Dovekie - Also applied to the little auk or Sea dove
Zostera - Zostera marina is commonly known as Sea wrack, and eelgrass
Dalmatia - A mountainous district on the east of the Adriatic Sea; visited by Titus
pi-Hahiroth - The name, however, sufficiently explains the situation of the children of Israel; who were hemmed in at this place, between the Sea in front, and a narrow mountain pass behind; which no doubt encouraged Pharaoh to make his attack upon them in so disadvantageous a position; thinking that they must inevitably fall an easy prey into his hands, or be cut to pieces: when their deliverance, and his own destruction, were unexpectedly wrought by the parting of the waters of the Sea. The place where this miracle is supposed to have happened, is still called Bahral- Kolsum, or the Sea of Destruction; and just opposite to the situation which answers to the opening called Pi-hahiroth, is a bay, where the north cape is called Ras Musa, or the Cape of Moses. That part of the western or Heroopolitan branch of the Red Sea where, from these coincidences, the passage most probably took place, is described by Bruce as about three leagues over, with fourteen fathoms of water in the channel, nine at the sides, and good anchorage every where. See RED Sea
Hazar-Gaddah - Village of fortune, a city on the south border of Judah (Joshua 15:27 ), midway between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea
Pihahiroth - Place on the west of the Red Sea where the children of Israel encamped
Samothracia - Here the apostle Paul arrived after his departing from Troas, (Acts 16:11) It was an island in the Ægean Sea
Elasipoda - ) An order of holothurians mostly found in the deep Sea
Foreside - , a stretch of country fronting the Sea
Sea Pass - A document carried by neutral merchant vessels in time of war, to show their nationality; a Sea letter or passport
Turcoman - ) A member of a tribe of Turanians inhabiting a region east of the Caspian Sea
Micraster - ) A genus of Sea urchins, similar to Spatangus, abounding in the chalk formation; - from the starlike disposal of the ambulacral furrows
Ligan - ) Goods sunk in the Sea, with a buoy attached in order that they may be found again
Laver - Solomon's Temple employed a large laver, the molten Sea (1 Kings 7:23-26 ; 2 Chronicles 4:2-5 ), and ten smaller lavers (1 Kings 7:38-39 ; 2 Chronicles 4:6 ). The priests washed in the molten Sea. See Sea, Molten ; Temple
Jabbok - A stream rising about 25 miles east of the north end of the Dead Sea, and flowing east, then northward and westward, and finally into the Jordan about midway between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea
Arabia - On the north it is bounded by part of Syria, on the east by the Persian Gulf and the Euphrates, on the south by the Arabian Sea and the straits of Babelmandel, and on the west by the Red Sea, Egypt, and Palestine
Suph - , "some ancient versions have the Red Sea," as in the A. , the "Red Sea
Gebal -
A tract in the land of Edom south of the Dead Sea (Psalm 83:7 ); now called Djebal. ...
...
A Phoenician city, not far from the Sea coast, to the north of Beyrout (Ezekiel 27:9 ); called by the Greeks Byblos
Bay - Denotes the estuary of the Dead Sea at the mouth of the Jordan (Joshua 15:5 ; 18:19 ), also the southern extremity of the same Sea (15:2)
Samos - ) (especially by the Sea shore. The Greeks conquered the Persians in the Sea fight of Mycale, B
Arfish - ) A European marine fish (Belone vulgaris); - called also gar, gerrick, greenback, greenbone, gorebill, hornfish, longnose, mackerel guide, Sea needle, and Sea pike
Voyage - ) Formerly, a passage either by Sea or land; a journey, in general; but not chiefly limited to a passing by Sea or water from one place, port, or country, to another; especially, a passing or journey by water to a distant place or country
Trawl - ) A large bag net attached to a beam with iron frames at its ends, and dragged at the bottom of the Sea, - used in fishing, and in gathering forms of marine life from the Sea bottom
Chaos - In ancient Semitic legends, a terrible chaos-monster was called Rahab (the proud one), or Leviathan (the twisting dragon-creature), or Yam (the roaring Sea). He quieted the Sea, shattering Rahab, making the heavens fair, and piercing the fleeing serpent (Job 26:12-13 ). His victory over Leviathan is well-known (Job 41:1-8 ; Isaiah 27:1 ); Leviathan and the Sea are at His command (Psalm 104:26 ). In creation He curbed the unruly Sea and locked it into its boundaries (Job 38:1-11 ). He stretched out the heavens and trampled the back of Yam, the Sea (Job 9:8 ). Through His power God divided the Sea and crushed Leviathan (Psalm 74:13-14 ). He calmed the swelling Sea and smashed Rahab like a carcass (Psalm 89:9-10 ). By slaying the monster Rahab, God allowed the people to pass through the barrier-sea (Isaiah 51:9-10 ). In the Gospels Christ confidently demonstrated mastery over the Sea (Mark 4:35-41 , Mark 6:45-52 ; John 6:16-21 ). In Revelation, when the ancient serpent, personified as the satanic dragon, rises out of the Sea challenging His kingdom, Christ utterly defeats the adversary forever. Finally, the triumphal note is sounded in Revelation 21:1 , “there was no more Sea
Salt, the City of - One of the cities of Judah (Joshua 15:62 ), probably in the Valley of Salt, at the southern end of the Dead Sea
Adamah - Red earth, a fortified city of Naphtali, probably the modern Damieh, on the west side of the Sea of Tiberias (Joshua 19:33,36 )
Marsh - Ezekiel 47:11 refers to the salt marshes surrounding the Dead Sea
Pierre-Perdu - ) Blocks of stone or concrete heaped loosely in the water to make a foundation (as for a Sea wall), a mole, etc
Pygargus - ...
(3):...
The Sea eagle
Cross-Staff - ) An instrument formerly used at Sea for taking the altitudes of celestial bodies
Forestaff - ) An instrument formerly used at Sea for taking the altitudes of heavenly bodies, now superseded by the sextant; - called also cross-staff
Waldheimia - A few still exist in the deep Sea
Pomeranian - ) Of or pertaining to Pomerania, a province of Prussia on the Baltic Sea
Overland - ) Being, or accomplished, over the land, instead of by Sea; as, an overland journey
Vulturine - ) Of or pertaining to a vulture; resembling a vulture in qualities or looks; as, the vulturine Sea eagle (Gypohierax Angolensis); vulturine rapacity
Abijam - Abijam (a-bî'jam), father of the Sea, i
Saltness - The quality of being impregnated with salt as the saltness of Sea water or of provisions
Jordan River - It rises from the foot of Mount Hermon and flows into the Dead Sea. The Jordan Valley proper is a strip approximately 70 miles long between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea. Its headwaters lie more than a thousand feet above Sea level, and its mouth nearly thirteen hundred feet below Sea level. (2) Between Lake Huleh and the Sea of Galilee. On leaving Lake Huleh, the Jordan flows for about ten miles to the Sea of Galilee. In this short stretch, it descends to 696 feet below Sea level. (3) From the Sea of Galilee to the Dead Sea. After leaving the Sea of Galilee the river passes through an especially fertile region. The first part of Jesus' ministry was centered in and around the Sea of Galilee
Arabah - It is in this plain that the Jordan runs, and in which is the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, also called 'the Sea of the Plain. ' About 7 miles south of the Dead Sea the plain is crossed by some hills: all north of this is now called el-Ghor, but the plain south of it retains the name of the Wady-el-Arabah. ...
It might naturally be thought that the Jordan had at some time, after running into the Dead Sea, continued to run south until it poured itself into the Gulf of Akaba. But this is not probable, for the Dead Sea is nearly 1,300 feet below the Sea, and the southern part is from end to end higher than the Ghor, The width of the Arabah is in some parts about 15 miles, but further south not more than 3 or 4
Orometer - ) An aneroid barometer having a second scale that gives the approximate elevation above Sea level of the place where the observation is made
Middin - Measures, one of the six cities "in the wilderness," on the west of the Dead Sea, mentioned along with En-gedi (Joshua 15:61 )
Coston Lights - Signals made by burning lights of different colors and used by vessels at Sea, and in the life-saving service; - named after their inventor
Briny - ) Of or pertaining to brine, or to the Sea; partaking of the nature of brine; salt; as, a briny taste; the briny flood
Axstone - It is used by some savages, particularly the natives of the South Sea Islands, for making axes or hatchets
Cottage - ...
The Sea coast shall be dwellings and cottages for shepherds
Totipalmate - ) Having all four toes united by a web; - said of certain Sea birds, as the pelican and the gannet
Uillemot - ) One of several northern Sea birds, allied to the auks
Lasha - It was probably on the east of the Dead Sea
Kakaralli - ) A kind of wood common in Demerara, durable in salt water, because not subject to the depredations of the Sea worm and barnacle
Landfall - ) Sighting or making land when at Sea
Chios - An island in the Ægean Sea opposite the Ionian peninsula in Asia Minor. Paul passed it on his last voyage in the Ægean Sea ( Acts 20:15 )
Brook of the Arabah - It has sometimes been located at the Brook of Zered which joins the Dead Sea at its southeastern corner from the east. More likely, it is either the wadi el-Qelt, flowing from Jericho to the west, or the wadi el-Kefren from the northern end of the Dead Sea flowing to the east
Thresher - Called also fox shark, Sea ape, Sea fox, slasher, swingle-tail, and thrasher shark
Island - 'i, "dry land," as opposed to water) occurs in its usual signification (Isaiah 42:4,10,12,15 , Compare Jeremiah 47:4 ), but more frequently simply denotes a maritime region or Sea-coast (Isaiah 20:6 , RSV," coastland;" 23:2,6; Jeremiah 2:10 ; Ezekiel 27:6,7 ). ) The shores of the Mediterranean are called the "islands of the Sea" ( Isaiah 11:11 ), or the "isles of the Gentiles" (Genesis 10:5 ), and sometimes simply "isles" (Psalm 72:10 ); Ezekiel 26:15,18 ; 27:3,35 ; Daniel 11:18 )
Red Sea, Passage of - The account of the march of the Israelites through the Red Sea is given in Exodus 14:22-31 . The difficulty of arriving at any definite conclusion on the matter is much increased by the consideration that the head of the Gulf of Suez, which was the branch of the Sea that was crossed, must have extended at the time of the Exodus probably 50 miles farther north than it does at present. Some have argued that the crossing took place opposite the Wady Tawarik, where the Sea is at present some 7 miles broad
Whale - , means a large fish, or a Sea monster. , but in the margin reads, "Greek, Sea monster. The whale is, however, occasionally found in the Mediterranean Sea
Waterfowl - , or on or near the Sea; an aquatic fowl; - used also collectively
Freebooter - ) One who plunders or pillages without the authority of national warfare; a member of a predatory band; a pillager; a buccaneer; a Sea robber
Dead Sea Apple - (Dead Sea Apple) A fruit said to grow on or near the site of the biblical Sodom; it turns to smoke and ashes when plucked
Lasha - Fissure, a place apparently east of the Dead Sea (Genesis 10:19 )
Zair - Little, a place probably east of the Dead Sea, where Joram discomfited the host of Edom who had revolted from him (2 Kings 8:21 )
Swan - Mentioned in the list of unclean birds (Leviticus 11:18 ; Deuteronomy 14:16 ), is sometimes met with in the Jordan and the Sea of Galilee
Song at the sea - The song that Moses and the Israelites sang after the parting of the Sea; recorded in Exodus 15 and recited during the Shacharit prayer service ...
Shabbat shirah - "Sabbath of Song"); the Shabbat on which one reads Parshat Beshalach, which includes the Shirah, the Song of the Sea (Shmot 15:1-19)...
Clypeastroid - ) Like or related to the genus Clupeaster; - applied to a group of flattened Sea urchins, with a rosette of pores on the upper side
Anthozoa - ) The class of the Coelenterata which includes the corals and Sea anemones
Paleechinoidea - ) An extinct order of Sea urchins found in the Paleozoic rocks
Photogrammetry - ) A method of surveying or map making by photography, used also in determining the height and motions of clouds, Sea waves, and the like
Apple, Dead Sea - (Dead Sea Apple) A fruit said to grow on or near the site of the biblical Sodom; it turns to smoke and ashes when plucked
Acalephae - Sometimes called Sea nettles
Saltness - ) The quality or state of being salt, or state of being salt, or impregnated with salt; salt taste; as, the saltness of Sea water
Overrake - ) To rake over, or sweep across, from end to end, as waves that break over a vessel anchored with head to the Sea
Enshemish - A place toward the salt Sea
Melita - MALTA, MELITA...
An island in the Mediterranean Sea, rendered memorable in Scripture from Paul's landing there, (Acts 28:1, etc
Murrelet - ) One of several species of Sea birds of the genera Synthliboramphus and Brachyramphus, inhabiting the North Pacific
Monoceros - ) A one-horned creature; a unicorn; a Sea monster with one horn
Trumpetweed - ) The Sea trumpet
Gomorrah - One of the cities in the fruitful vale of Siddim, near the southern part of the ancient Dead Sea, miraculously blasted by God
Patara - A Sea-port of Lycia
Engedi - of the Dead Sea (Ezekiel 47:10), in the wilderness of Judah (Joshua 15:62). About the middle of the western side of the Sea. above the plain and Dead Sea, and 1500 ft. )...
When full it crosses the plain direct to the Sea; but most of the year it is absorbed in the dry soil. of the Dead Sea along the western shore to Ain Jidy, and then westward wherever hope of plunder presents itself
Galilee, Sea of - The nearby hills of Galilee reach an altitude of 1,500 feet above Sea level. Fed chiefly by the Jordan River, which originates in the foothills of the Lebanon Mountains, the Sea of Galilee is thirteen miles long north and south and eight miles wide at its greatest east-west distance. ...
In the Old Testament this Sea is called Chinnereth. Once John called it the “sea of Tiberias” (Matthew 6:1 ). ...
In the first century the Sea of Galilee was of major commercial significance
Molten Sea - The bronze for the molten Sea was supplied by the spoils from David's campaigns (1 Chronicles 18:8 ). The Sea rested on the backs of twelve oxen. Some have suggested that the molten Sea was also symbolic of the great Sea present when God began to create the heavens and the earth thus making the Sea symbolic of God's creative activity (Genesis 1:2 )
Molten Sea - The bronze for the molten Sea was supplied by the spoils from David's campaigns (1 Chronicles 18:8 ). The Sea rested on the backs of twelve oxen. Some have suggested that the molten Sea was also symbolic of the great Sea present when God began to create the heavens and the earth thus making the Sea symbolic of God's creative activity (Genesis 1:2 )
Seaweed - ) Popularly, any plant or plants growing in the Sea
Kinah - It was probably not far from the Dead Sea, in the Wady Fikreh
Sin, Wilderness of - The district lying between the Red Sea and Sinai, in some part of which the Israelites encamped
Bithynia - A rich Roman province of Asia Minor, on the Black Sea; named only twice in scripture
Beryl - 1: βήρυλλος (Strong's #969 — Noun — berullos — bay'-rool-los ) "beryl," is a precious stone of a Sea-green color, Revelation 21:20 (cp
Laucus - ) A genus of nudibranchiate mollusks, found in the warmer latitudes, swimming in the open Sea
Flag - In Exodus 2:3,5 , Isaiah 19:6 , it is the rendering of the Hebrew Suph_, a word which occurs frequently in connection with _yam ; As Yam suph , To denote the "Red Sea" (q. ) or the Sea of weeds (as this word is rendered, Jonah 2:5 )
Bozrah - It lies in the mountain district of Petra, 20 miles to the south-east of the Dead Sea. , on the high level down on the east of the Dead Sea
Blubber - ) The fat of whales and other large Sea animals from which oil is obtained. ) A large Sea nettle or medusa
Vine of Sodom - Josephus speaks of some fruits that grew near the Dead Sea, which "have a colour as if fit to be eaten, but if plucked they dissolve into smoke and ashes. Some judge the vine alluded to in scripture to be the poisonous colocynth, which grows near the Dead Sea
Rainbow - Similar bows at Sea are called marine rainbows or Sea bows
Sephar - Numbering, (Genesis 10:30 ), supposed by some to be the ancient Himyaritic capital, "Shaphar," Zaphar, on the Indian Ocean, between the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea
Bay Salt - Salt which has been obtained from Sea water, by evaporation in shallow pits or basins, by the heat of the sun; the large crystalline salt of commerce
to'Phel - (mortar ), (1:1) has been identified with Tufileh on a wady of the same name running north of Bozra toward the southeast corner of the Dead Sea
Sephen - sephen of the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea
Depredation - ) The act of depredating, or the state of being depredated; the act of despoiling or making inroads; as, the Sea often makes depredation on the land
Sea Leopard - Any one of several species of spotted Seals, especially Ogmorhinus leptonyx, and Leptonychotes Weddelli, of the Antarctic Ocean. The North Pacific Sea leopard is the harbor Seal
Sea Coal - Coal brought by Sea; - a name by which mineral coal was formerly designated in the south of England, in distinction from charcoal, which was brought by land
Metrosideros - ) A myrtaceous genus of trees or shrubs, found in Australia and the South Sea Islands, and having very hard wood
Littoral - ) Of or pertaining to a shore, as of the Sea. ) Inhabiting the Seashore, esp
e'Mims - (terrors ), a tribe or family of gigantic stature which originally inhabited the region along the eastern side of the Dead Sea
Az yashir - sang�); the song that Moses and the Israelites sang after the parting of the Sea; recorded in Exodus 15 and recited during the Shacharit prayer service ...
Japho - Beauty, a Sea-port in Dan (Joshua 19:46 ); called Joppa (q
Lasha - of the Dead Sea. Lasha means "fissure," appropriate to the chasm Zerka Main, through which the Callirhoe waters find an outlet to the Sea. of the Dead Sea
Jabbok - A pouring out, or a wrestling, one of the streams on the east of Jordan, into which it falls about midway between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, or about 45 miles below the Sea of Galilee
Ahlab - Fatness, a town of Asher lying within the unconquered Phoenician border (Judges 1:31 ), north-west of the Sea of Galilee; commonly identified with Giscala, now el-Jish
Chank - ) The East Indian name for the large spiral shell of several species of Sea conch much used in making bangles, esp
Armlet - ) A small arm; as, an armlet of the Sea
Eglaim - ) On the extreme boundary of Moab (Isaiah 15:8), over against Engedi, near where Jordan enters the Dead Sea
Tamar (1) - of Hebron toward Elam (Elath on the Red Sea), according to the Onomasticon
Bothnic - ) Of or pertaining to Bothnia, a country of northern Europe, or to a gulf of the same name which forms the northern part of the Baltic Sea
Eryngium - Eryngium maritimum, or Sea holly, has been highly esteemed as an aphrodisiac, the roots being formerly candied
Osprey - It is thought to be the Sea eagle, or the black eagle of Egypt
Mat'Tanah - ( Numbers 21:18,19 ) It was probably situated to the southeast of the Dead Sea
Jaazer - of Heshbon; a castle and a large walled pool, the "sea" of Jeremiah 48:32; but Septuagint reads "the cities of Jaazer". ...
The plants of the Sibmah vine are said in Isaiah 16:8 to have come even unto Jaazer, 15 miles from Heshbon, near Sibmah, "they wandered through the wilderness in wild luxuriance," namely, that encompassing Moab, "they are gone over the Sea," namely, the Sea of Jaazer, but others the Dead Sea (Psalms 80:8-11). The vine spread itself round the margin of the Sea, and reached beyond to the other side; a sad contrast to the coming desolation, when "the pagan lords" should "break down the principal plants"! "Therefore I will weep with the weeping of Jaazer," i
Bank - Any steep acclivity, whether rising from a river, a lake, or the Sea, or forming the side of a ravine, or the steep side of a hillock on a plain. When we speak of the earth in general adjoining a lake or the Sea, we use the word shore but a particular steep acclivity on the side of a lake, river or the Sea, is called a bank. A bench,or a bench of rowers, in a galley so called from their Seat. An elevation, or rising ground, in the Sea called also flats, shoals, shelves or shallows. These may rise to the surface of the water or near to it but the word bank signifies also elevated ground at the bottom of the Sea, when many fathoms below the surface, as the banks of Newfoundland
Coast, Coasting - ...
B — 1: παράλιος (Strong's #3882 — Adjective — paralios — par-al'-ee-os ) "by the Sea" (para, "by," hals, "salt"), hence denotes "a Sea coast," Luke 6:17 . " (2) The phrase "upon the Sea coasts," Matthew 4:13 , AV, translates parathalassios (para, "by," thalassa, "the Sea"), RV, "by the Sea
Wilderness - This word is used of the wilderness of Beersheba (Genesis 21:14 ), on the southern border of Palestine; the wilderness of the Red Sea (Exodus 13:18 ); of Shur (15:22), a portion of the Sinaitic peninsula; of Sin (17:1), Sinai (Leviticus 7:38 ), Moab (Deuteronomy 2:8 ), Judah (Judges 1:16 ), Ziph, Maon, En-gedi (1 Samuel 23:14,24 ; 24:1 ), Jeruel and Tekoa (2 Chronicles 20:16,20 ), Kadesh (Psalm 29:8 ). "The wilderness of the Sea" (Isaiah 21:1 ). 9), perhaps because it became the place of discipline to God's people, as the wilderness of the Red Sea had been (Compare Ezekiel 20:35 ). Jerusalem is the "valley of vision," rich in spiritual husbandry; whereas Babylon, the rival centre of influence, is spiritually barren and as restless as the Sea (comp 57:20). ...
...
'Arabah, the name given to the valley from the Dead Sea to the eastern branch of the Red Sea. " The "wilderness of Judea" (Matthew 3:1 ) is a wild, barren region, lying between the Dead Sea and the Hebron Mountains
Red Sea - RED Sea . In this region it is probable that the passage of the Sea described in Exodus 14:1-31 took place, though it has been located by some at the present Suez, and by others still farther south. ...
This primitive extension of the gulf to the north, the region of weeds, probably accounts for its name, Yam Suph , ‘ Sea of weeds ’ ( Exodus 10:19 ; Exodus 15:4 ), which was later applied also to the eastern extension, the Bay of Akabah ( Numbers 21:4 ), to the entire body of water now known as the Red Sea, stretching from the Ras Mohammed southward to the straits, and perhaps even to the Persian Gulf ( Exodus 23:31 ). Those who locate the mountain of the Law farther north in the region north of Akahah, trace the wanderings directly eastward from the Sea ( Judges 11:16 ). long, lies in the southern end of the long trench which extends from the Red Sea proper northward to the Lehanons, the upper portion of which is occupied by the Jordan and the Dead Sea. At the harbour of Ezion-geber (near to, or perhaps the same as, Elath), at its northern end, Solomon built his navy, with the help of Phœnician Seamen ( 1 Kings 9:26 ), and sent out expeditions to India
Red Sea - This Sea is renowned in O. ...
The Red Sea, situated on the east of Egypt and the west of South Arabia, is somewhat in the form of the letter Y. It is to this branch that theSuez Canal has been attached, opening a passage to the MediterraneanSea. ...
THE PASSAGE OF THE RED Sea. They encamped by the Sea shore and Pharaoh naturally thought they were entangled in the land. Moses stretched out his hand over the Sea, and God caused a strong east wind to blow all that night, and the waters were divided, and the Israelites went over on dry land. It was, however, too late to retreat, Moses stretched forth his hand over the Sea, and it returned in its strength, and they were overwhelmed. Their dead bodies were cast up on the Sea shore. For the typical teaching of the passage of the Red Sea, see JORDAN
Tiberias, Sea of - (See GALILEE, Sea or, the local designation. , we read "the disciples went by ship over the Sea toward Capernaum (the same side as Tiberias), and the Sea arose by reason of a great wind that blew"; then Jesus walked on the Sea to them, and "immediately the ship was at the land where they went. "...
The day following, when the people on the other side of the Sea (the eastern side) saw that there was none other boat there save the one whereinto His disciples were entered, . But the ship was now in the midst of the Sea, tossed with waves, for the wind was contrary. The undesigned harmony of details, incidentally and separately noticed by the two evangelists, confirms their truthfulness, and therefore the miracle of Jesus' walking on the Sea. The Gospels - according to Matthew, Mark, and Luke - never use the designation "sea of Tiberias" (still bahr Τubariyeh ), but the local name," Sea" or "lake of Galilee," which shows they must have written before that became the universal designation, as it had in the time of John's writing
Gomorrah - Traces of the catastrophe recorded in Genesis 19 are visible in the whole region about the Dead, or as Scripture calls it, the Salt Sea. (See SALT Sea. Volcanic agency and earthquake, accompanying the fire shower, may have produced the deep depression of the Sea, and so arrested the Jordan's original onward course through the Arabah into the gulf of Akabah. The southern division or bay of the Sea most probably was formed at a late date. ...
Scripture does not say the cities were immersed in the Sea, but that they were destroyed by fire from heaven (Deuteronomy 29:23; Jeremiah 49:18; Jeremiah 50:40; Zephaniah 2:9; 2 Peter 2:6; Judges 1:4-7, "an example unto those that after should live ungodly"; Amos 4:11). Grove argues for the northern site that Abram and Lot near Bethel could not have seen the southern valleys (Genesis 13:10) but could see the northern, and that what they saw was "the Ciccar of the Jordan," whereas Jordan flowed into the northern end of the Dead Sea but not into the southern. of the Dead Sea, and knowing the whole valley N. of that Sea. Tristram objects to the southern site for Sodom and Gomorrah that Chedorlaomer marching from mount Seir to Hazezon Tamar (Engedi) afterward meets the king of Sodom in the vale of Siddim, which therefore in the order ought to be rather at the northern end of the Dead Sea. of Dead Sea. He thinks that the southern bed of the Sea was formerly deeper than now, and that it was raised by deposits brought from the Arabah
Jordan - But besides these, there is a third and longer stream, which rises beyond the northern limit of Palestine, near Hasbeia on the west side of mount Hermon, flows twenty-four miles to the south, and unites with the other streams before they enter the "waters of Merom," now lake Huleh, the Jordan flows about nine miles south-ward to the Sea of Tiberias, through which its clear and smooth course may be traced twelve miles to the lower end. Hence it pursues its sinuous way to the south, till its pure waters are lost in the bitter Sea of Sodom. ...
Between these two Seas, that of Tiberias and the Dead Sea, lies the great valley or plain of the Jordan, 2 Kings 25:4 2 Chronicles 4:17 . Lieutenant Lynch of the United States navy, who traversed the Jordan in 1848, ascertained that, although the distance from the Sea of Galilee to the Dead Sea is but sixty miles in a straight line, it is two hundred miles by the course of the river, which has innumerable curves. Its volume of water differs exceedingly at different Seasons and from year to year. The Sea of Tiberias lies 312 (according to Lynch, 653) feet below the level of the Mediterranean, and the Dead Sea 1,316 feet; hence the fall of the Jordan between the two Seas Isaiah 1,000 feet. The waters of the Jordan are cool and soft, and like the Sea of Galilee, it abounds in fish. See Sea 4. Yet the swift and swollen current was arrested in its course, opposite to Jericho; and while the waters below the city rolled on to the4 Sea, those above it were miraculously stayed, and left in the river bed a wide passage for the hosts of Israel. ...
At the present day, the Jordan is lost in the Dead Sea; but many have supposed that in very ancient times, before the destruction of the cities in the vale of Sodom, the Jordan passed through the Dead Sea and the vale of Siddim, and continued its course southward to the Elanitic Gulf of the Red Sea. The southern end of the Dead Sea is found to be connected with the Elanitic gulf, or gulf of Akaba, by the great valley, called El-Arabah, forming a prolongation of El-Ghor, the valley of the Jordan. See Sea 3
Blancmange - , made from isinglass, Sea moss, cornstarch, or other gelatinous or starchy substance, with mild, usually sweetened and flavored, and shaped in a mold
Admah - One of the four cities in the plain of Siddim, destroyed by fire from heaven and covered by the Dead Sea, Genesis 14:2 ; 19:24,25 ; Hosea 11:8
Dalmatia - of the Adriatic Sea, forming part of Illyricum
Behn - ) The Statice limonium, or Sea lavender
Birsha - ” King of Gomorrah who joined coalition of Dead Sea area kings against eastern group of invading kings (Genesis 14:2 )
Dimon - of the Dead Sea in Moab (Isaiah 15:9)
Hukkok - of the upper end of the Sea of Galilee
Mitylene - Capital city of Lesbos, an island in the AEgean Sea
Monster, Sea - The Hebrew word is tannin, and is used for any huge creature whether of Sea or land
Sea-Island - ) Of or pertaining to certain islands along the coast of South Carolina and Georgia; as, Sea-island cotton, a superior cotton of long fiber produced on those islands
Tube-Nosed - ) Having the nostrils prolonged in the form of horny tubes along the sides of the beak; - said of certain Sea birds
Photophore - , one of the luminous spots on certain marine (mostly deep-sea) fishes
Nimrim, Waters of - Perhaps connected with the springs near Nimrah, or near the brook Zered toward the south end of the Dead Sea
Emims - A race of giants living east of the Dead Sea; related to the Anakim
Laminarian - ) Pertaining to Seaweeds of the genus Laminaria, or to that zone of the Sea (from two to ten fathoms in depth) where the Seaweeds of this genus grow
Loch - ) A lake; a bay or arm of the Sea
Kenning - ) The limit of vision at Sea, being a distance of about twenty miles
Golan - It lay east or northeast of the Sea of Galilee, but its site is now lost
Sea Bream - Oweni), and the black Sea bream (Cantharus lineatus); - called also old wife
Serranoid - ) Any fish of the family Serranidae, which includes the striped bass, the black Sea bass, and many other food fishes
Abijam - Father of the Sea; i. , "seaman" the name always used in Kings of the king of Judah, the son of Rehoboam, elsewhere called Abijah (1Kings 15:1,7,8)
Wharfing - ) A mode of facing Sea walls and embankments with planks driven as piles and secured by ties
Dalmatia - District in Illyricum, on the east of the Adriatic Sea, visited by Titus, and perhaps by Paul, in going 'round about unto Illyricum
Zered or Zared - A brook, or the valley through which it flows into the south-east part of the Dead Sea, probably by Kir Moab, now Kerak, Numbers 21:12 Deuteronomy 2:13,14
Wideness - Large extent in all directions as the wideness of the Sea or ocean
Tiberias, Sea of - Called also the Sea of Galilee (q. In the Old Testament it is called the Sea of Chinnereth or Chinneroth
Ishtob - ” A manuscript from the Dead Sea Scrolls has Ishtob as one word and thus as a proper name; but modern Bible students still generally follow the standard manuscript rather than the older Dead Sea Scroll
Zareth-Shahar - It is identified with the ruins of Zara, near the mouth of the Wady Zerka Main, on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea, some 3 miles south of the Callirrhoe. "A few broken basaltic columns and pieces of wall about 200 yards back from the shore, and a ruined fort rather nearer the Sea, about the middle of the coast line of the plain, are all that are left" (Tristram's Land of Moab)
Shimron - Others have suggested Marun er-Ras ten miles northwest of modern Safed above the Sea of Chinnereth, that is the Sea of Galilee
Echinus - ) A genus of echinoderms, including the common edible Sea urchin of Europe. The name probably alludes to the shape of the shell of the Sea urchin
Zebulun - The tribe named for him settled in the area between the Sea of Galilee and Mount Carmel (Joshua 19:10-16 ). Their menu included the delicacies fished from the Sea of Galilee
Jab'Bok - ( Joshua 12:2,5 ) and falls into the Jordan on the east about midway between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea
Adama - one of the five cities which were destroyed by fire from heaven, and buried under the waters of the Dead Sea, Genesis 14:2 ; Deuteronomy 29:23 . It was the most easterly of all those which were swallowed up; and there is some probability that it was not entirely sunk under the waters; or that the inhabitants of the country built a new city of the same name upon the eastern shore of the Dead Sea; for Isaiah, according to the Septuagint, says, "God will destroy the Moabites, the city of Ar, and the remnant of Adama
Bozrah - It is associated with Terman, and with the Red Sea, Jeremiah 49:20-22 Amos 1:12 . Its site is found in the modern El-Busaireh, midway between Kir Moab and Mount Hor, south by east of the Dead Sea
Dragon - Answers, in the English Bible, the Hebrew word signifying a Sea-monster, huge serpent, etc. Thus in Deuteronomy 32:33 Jeremiah 51:34 Revelation 12:1-17 , it evidently implies a huge serpent; in Isaiah 27:1 51:9 Ezekiel 29:3 , it may mean the crocodile, or any large Sea-monster; while in Job 30:29 Lamentations 4:3 Micah 1:8 , it seems to refer to some wild animal of the desert, most probably the jackal
Ziz - Projecting; a flower, a cleft or pass, probably that near En-gedi, which leads up from the Dead Sea (2 Chronicles 20:16 ) in the direction of Tekoa; now Tell Hasasah
Palola - ) An annelid (Palola viridis) which, at certain Seasons of the year, swarms at the surface of the Sea about some of the Pacific Islands, where it is collected for food
Petrel - ) Any one of numerous species of longwinged Sea birds belonging to the family Procellaridae
Phalarope - Called also Sea goose
Coast - A term in scripture signifying any 'border,' inland as well as near the Sea, it also may imply large districts
Zareth-Shahar - A Sara at wady Zerka Main, a mile from the Dead Sea, may now represent it
Dugong - It inhabits the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, East Indies, and Australia
Seamark - ) Any elevated object on land which serves as a guide to mariners; a beacon; a landmark visible from the Sea, as a hill, a tree, a steeple, or the like
Akrabbim - The name given to an ascent on the south side of the Dead Sea, a very barren region
Arnon - Its spring head is in the mountains of Gilead, or of the Moabites and it discharges itself into the Dead Sea
Langrel - ) A kind of shot formerly used at Sea for tearing sails and rigging
Raging - Furious impetuous vehemently driven or agitated as the raging Sea or tempest
Rak'Kath - ( Joshua 19:35 ) It was on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee, not far from the warm baths of Tiberias
Sea, the Salt, - the usual and perhaps the most ancient name for the remarkable lake which to the western world is now generally known as the Dead Sea. -- (1) The Salt Sea, (Genesis 14:3 ) (2) Sea of the Arabah (Authorized Version "sea of the plain," which is found in (4:49) ); (3) The East Sea (Joel 2:20 ) (4) The Sea, (Ezekiel 47:8 ) (5) Sodomitish Sea, 2Esdras; (6) Sea of Salt and Sea of Sodom, in the Talmud; (7) The Asphaltic Lake, in Josephus; (8) The name "Dead Sea" appears to have been first used in Greek by Pausanias and Galen, and in Latin (mare mortuum ) by Justin xxxvi. (9) The Arabic name is Bahr Lut , the "Sea of Lot. --The so-called Dead Sea is the final receptacle of the river Jordan, the lowest and largest of the three lakes which interrupt the rush of its downward course. of matter in solution --an immense quantity when we recollect that Seawater, weighing 10 1/4 lbs. "The Dead Sea," says a recent traveller, "did not strike me with that sense of desolation and dreariness which I suppose it ought. There is however, one passage in which the "Salt Sea" is mentioned in a manner different from any of those already quoted viz. [1] The belief which prompted the idea of some modern writers that the Dead Sea was formed by the catastrophe which overthrew the "cities of the plain" is a mere assumption. (It is supposed that only the southern bay of the Dead Sea was formed by the submergence of the cities of the plain, and is still probable. If Hugh Miller's theory of the flood in correct --and it is the most reasonable theory yet propounded --then the Dead Sea was formed by the depression of that part of the valley through which the Jordan once flowed to the Red Sea. But this great depression caused all the waters of the Jordan to remain without outlet, and the size of the Dead Sea must be such that the evaporation from its surface just balances the amount of water which flows in through the river. This accounts in part for the amount of matter held in solution by the Dead Sea waters; for the evaporation is of pure water only, while the inflow contains more or less of salts and other matter in solution. ) The destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah may have been by volcanic action, but it may be safely asserted that no traces of it have yet been discovered, and that, whatever it was, it can have had no connection with that far vaster and far more ancient event which opened the great valley of the Jordan and the Dead Sea, and at some subsequent time cut it off from communication with the Red Sea by forcing up between them the tract of the Wady Arabah
Amraphel - With three other petty kings, he made war upon the tribes around the Dead Sea, and the cities of the plain, Genesis 14:1
Kedemoth - It lay not far north-east of Dibon-gad, east of the Dead Sea
Alush - It was probably situated on the shore of the Red Sea
Alga - ) A kind of Seaweed; pl. the class of cellular cryptogamic plants which includes the black, red, and green Seaweeds, as kelp, dulse, Sea lettuce, also marine and fresh water confervae, etc
Sec'Acah, - (thicket ), one of the six cities of Judah which were situated in the Midbar ("wilderness"), that is, the tract bordering on the Dead Sea
Channel -
The bed of the Sea or of a river (Psalm 18:15 ; Isaiah 8:7 )
Pyrosome - The pyrosomes form large hollow cylinders, sometimes two or three feet long, which swim at the surface of the Sea and are very phosphorescent
Pennatula - ) Any one of numerous species of Pennatula, Pteroides, and allied genera of Alcyonaria, having a featherlike form; a Sea-pen
Samos - An island in the AEgean Sea, a few miles south-west of Ephesus, only incidently mentioned in the return of Paul's third missionary journey
Casluhim - Their original Seat was probably somewhere in Lower Egypt, along the Sea-coast to the south border of Palestine
Tophel - Identified by some with et TufiIeh, a very fertile region, south-east of the Dead Sea, 30 56' N, 35 37' E
Dehavites - Perhaps the same as the Dahi spoken of by Herodotus, from the east of the Caspian Sea
Laborsome - ) Likely or inclined to roll or pitch, as a ship in a heavy Sea; having a tendency to labor
Gomorrah - Its remains probably lie buried beneath the Dead Sea
Drown - 1: βυθίζω (Strong's #1036 — Verb — buthizo — boo-thid'-zo ) "to plunge into the deep, to sink" (buthos, "bottom, the deep, the Sea"), akin to bathos, "depth," and abussos, "bottomless," and Eng. ...
3: καταποντίζω (Strong's #2670 — Verb — katapontizo — kat-ap-on-tid'-zo ) "to throw into the Sea" (kata, "down," pontos, "the open Sea"), in the Passive Voice, "to be sunk in, to be drowned," is translated "were drowned," in Matthew 18:6 , AV (RV, "should be sunk"); elsewhere in Matthew 14:30 , "(beginning) to sink
Ezion Geber - ) A town on the eastern arm of the Red Sea. The station of Solomon's navy "beside Eloth, on the shore of the Red Sea, in the land of Edom. A salt marsh marks where the Sea anciently reached
Salt, Valley of - of the Salt Sea; the boundary between Judah and Edom. Grove objects to this identification with the plain intervening between the Dead Sea and the heights which cross the valley seven miles to the S. ...
(4) Amaziah brought 10,000 prisoners to Sela (Petra), Edom's stronghold, and cast them down; he would scarcely bring so many prisoners from near the Dead Sea, 50 miles through a hostile and difficult country; more likely the valley of Salt was nearer Petra
Ship - Solomon had a 'navy of ships' at Ezion Geber, the eastern branch of the Red Sea; but Hiram sent his shipmen 'that had knowledge of the Sea' with the servants of Solomon. The ships so often mentioned on the Sea of Galilee in the Gospels were what are now called fishing boats, and were used as such
Galilee, Sea of - These places being near accounts for the Sea being called the LAKE OF GENNESARET and the Sea OF TIBERIAS and of CHINNERETH. ...
The Lord crossed the Sea several times, and taught from a ship near the shore, and once He walked upon its waters
Corsair - ) A pirate; one who cruises about without authorization from any government, to seize booty on Sea or land
Hamon-Gog - Multitude of Gog, the name of the valley in which the slaughtered forces of Gog are to be buried (Ezekiel 39:11,15 ), "the valley of the passengers on the east of the Sea
Zebulun - Progenitor of the Tribe of Zebulon, famed for their success in Sea commerce, and their financial support of the scholarly Tribe of Issachar
Samothracia - A small island in the north-east of the AEgean Sea off which Paul's ship anchored for a night on his first visit to Europe
Wind - The Hebrews, like us, acknowledge four principal winds, Ezekiel 42:16-18 : the east wind, the north wind, the south wind, and the west wind, or that from the Mediterranean Sea
Lyrie - ) A European fish (Peristethus cataphractum), having the body covered with bony plates, and having three spines projecting in front of the nose; - called also noble, pluck, pogge, Sea poacher, and armed bullhead
bo'Han, Stone of, - a stone erected in honor of Bohan on the boundary between Judah and Benjamin, in the valley of Achor, along the eastern side of the present Wady Dahr , running into the Dead Sea
Bela - of the Dead Sea, on the route to Egypt, not far from where Sodom and Gomorrah stood, according to Holland, arguing from the smoke of the burning cities having been seen by Abraham from the neighborhood of Hebron, and also because if Sodom had been N. of the Dead Sea Lot would not have had time to escape to gear on the S. of the Sea. of the Dead Sea, between Jericho and the Sea, as the plain was seen by Lot from the neighborhood of Bethel. of the Dead Sea. side of Lisan, "the tongue" of land jutting out into the Dead Sea at the S
Weather - Climatic conditions in Palestine, including geographical factors and Seasonal changes. The rains fill the Seasonal brooks and streams, which provide the majority of water for the coming year. The elevation of the land, dropping from 3,900 feet in upper Galilee to 1,296 feet below Sea level at the Dead Sea, provides natural barriers which influence the weather. The Jordan Valley, particularly in the area of the Dead Sea, remains mild in the winter, making it the traditional site of the winter palaces of kings and rulers. The Mediterranean Sea becomes windy and cold, making travel dangerous. The land and Seasonal rivers begin to dry, and the vegetation turns brown. Near noon each day, the air turns to the west, bringing with it slightly cooler air from the Sea. Temperatures along the Dead Sea and Arabah remain above 90 degrees Farenheit for weeks on end
Black Bass - ...
(2):...
The Sea bass
Nimrim, Waters of - The stream of the leopards, a stream in Moab (Isaiah 15:6 ; Jeremiah 48:34 ); probably the modern Wady en-Nemeirah, a rich, verdant spot at the south-eastern end of the Dead Sea
Rhodes - (rhohdess) Island off the southwest coast of Asia Minor in the Mediterranean Sea associated with the Dodanim (Genesis 10:4 ; Ezekiel 27:15 )
Onycha - (ahn' ih chaw) A spice probably derived from the closing flaps or the shell of a Red Sea mollusk which was used in the incense reserved for the worship of Yahweh (Exodus 30:34 )
Gad, River of - Identified with Wady Mojib, the same as the ARNON that runs into the Dead Sea about midway north and south
Dehavites - A people beyond the Euphrates, who furnished colonists for Samaria, 2 Kings 17:24 ; Ezra 4:9 ; supposed to be the Dahae, on the east of the Caspian Sea, and under the Persian government
Huk'Kok - ( Joshua 19:34 ) It has been recovered in Yakuk , a village in the mountains of Naphtali west of the upper end of the Sea of Galilee
Dalmanu'Tha - a town on the west side of the Sea of Galilee, near Magdala
Rahab - The name Rahab appears in English versions of the Bible as belonging to a woman who features in the book of Joshua, and to a mythical Sea monster that features in the poetical books. ...
A mythical Sea monster...
Rahab the mythical Sea monster was considered by people of the Middle East to symbolize the forces of chaos over which God had victory in creating an orderly world (Job 9:13; Job 26:12; Job 38:8-11). Poets at times wrote about God’s overthrow of Egypt in the Red Sea as if it were the overthrow of the Sea monster Rahab (Psalms 89:9-10; Isaiah 51:9-10)
Elim - Trees, (Exodus 15:27 ; Numbers 33:9 ), the name of the second station where the Israelites encamped after crossing the Red Sea. " It has been identified with the Wady Ghurundel, the most noted of the four wadies which descend from the range of et-Tih towards the Sea
Shur - The wilderness of Shur was entered in the Israelites after they had crossed the Red Sea. (Numbers 33:8 ) Shur may have been a territory town east of the ancient head of the Red Sea; and from its being spoken of as a limit, it was probably the last Arabian town before entering Egypt
East Wind - Israel's passage through the Red Sea after the passover was just the time of year when the "strong E. wind" from the Red Sea blows, exactly as the sacred narrative records (Exodus 14:21)
Beth-Jeshimoth - of the Arabah towards the Dead Sea. end of the Dead Sea bear the name of Suwaimeh , which may be a modification of Jeshimoth ; and this situation suits the Biblical narrative
Encampment by the Sea - ENCAMPMENT BY THE Sea . If the position of Elim be in the Wady Gharandel , then the camp by the Sea is on the shore of the Gulf of Suez, somewhere south of the point where the Wady Tayibeh opens to the coast. The curious return of the line of march to the Seashore is a phenomenon that has always arrested the attention of travellers to Mt
Whale - The Hebrew term can refer to a primeval Sea monster or dragon ( Isaiah 27:1 ; 51:9 among others), to a serpent ( Exodus 7:9 ; Psalm 91:13 ), or possibly a crocodile (Ezekiel 29:3 ; Ezekiel 32:2 ). Matthew used the Greek ketos , indicating a great Sea monster rather than indicating a particular species
Islands, Isles - We read of 'the isles which are beyond the Sea,' 'the isles afar off,' and 'isles of the Gentiles. It is thought that in some places in the prophets the Sea-coasts or maritime countries are intended
Jeshimon - of the Dead Sea and east of the river (so apparently in Numbers), or to the eastern part of the hill-country of Judah on the western shore of the Dead Sea ( Song of Solomon 1:1-17 Samam
Whale - The word tannin, Genesis 1:21 ; Job 7:12 ; Ezekiel 32:2 ; and κῆτος Matthew 12:40 ; refer to any Sea monsters, without defining any particular one. 'dragon,' 'sea monster,' and 'serpent
Migdol - (Exodus 14:2) Here it was Israel was commanded to encamp before the Sea, where the Lord meant to display such a miracle in opening a way through it for Israel's safety, and the Egyptians, overthrow. And as this was at the very mouth of the Sea, namely, Pihahiroth, which signifies the opening of the Foramen, and where Baalzephon, the dunghill god of Egypt, was supposed to watch to catch runaway servants, the Lord here made the triumph more conspicuous in sight of his enemies
Secacah - shore of the Dead Sea
Sponge - It is found attached to rocks at the bottom of the Sea
Harpoon - A barbed (KJV) spear or javelin used in hunting large fish or whales, mentioned as an inadequate weapon for catching the Sea monster Leviathan (Job 41:7 ) and thus showing God's sovereignty over human inadequacy
Lakum - It may be modern khirbet el-Mansurah near the southern end of the Sea of Galilee
Pteropoda - ) A class of Mollusca in which the anterior lobes of the foot are developed in the form of broad, thin, winglike organs, with which they swim at near the surface of the Sea
Sea Turtle - They inhabit all warm Seas. ...
(2):...
The Sea pigeon, or guillemot
Echinoidea - ) The class Echinodermata which includes the Sea urchins
Umbellularia - ) A genus of deep-sea alcyonaria consisting of a cluster of large flowerlike polyps situated at the summit of a long, slender stem which stands upright in the mud, supported by a bulbous base
Runter - See Sea robin, and Grunt, n
Hagdon - ) One of several species of Sea birds of the genus Puffinus; esp
Inlet - A bay or recess in the shore of a Sea or lake
Dophkah - It was in the desert of Sin, on the eastern shore of the western arm of the Red Sea, somewhere in the Wady Feiran
Hukkok - of the Sea of Galilee
Salt, City of, - Robinson expresses his belief that it lay somewhere near the plain at the south end of the Salt Sea
Aplysia - ) A genus of marine mollusks of the order Tectibranchiata; the Sea hare
Auk - ) A name given to various species of arctic Sea birds of the family Alcidae
Besor - It is probably the modern Wady Ghuzzeh , which empties itself into the Sea S
Nahashon the son of amminadab - According to the Midrash, was the first one to leap into the Red Sea, causing it to split
Headland - ) A cape; a promontory; a point of land projecting into the Sea or other expanse of water
Proteroglypha - It includes the cobras, the asps, and the Sea snakes
Tomopteris - ) A genus of transparent marine annelids which swim actively at the surface of the Sea
Uano - ) A substance found in great abundance on some coasts or islands frequented by Sea fowls, and composed chiefly of their excrement
Jetson - ) Goods which sink when cast into the Sea, and remain under water; - distinguished from flotsam, goods which float, and ligan, goods which are sunk attached to a buoy
Baal-Hazor - above the Sea, an hour’s ride N
Sea of Glass - In the literature of the Apostolic Age the conception of the Sea of Glass occurs only in Revelation 4:6; Revelation 15:2. In the former passage, the Sea of Glass like crystal (θάλασσα ὑαλίνη ὁμοία κρυστάλλῳ) forms a part of the surroundings of the throne in heaven. In the latter passage the position of the Sea is not mentioned, but is no doubt understood to be the same, and the Sea itself is further described as ‘mingled with fire’ (μεμιγμένην πυρί). ...
(a) We have, first, the conception, at once mythological and cosmological, of the upper Sea, the waters in the heavens, separated by the firmament (στερέωμα) from the waters below (Genesis 1:6-7). 7 a hanging Sea divides the first heaven from the second in the later recension; in the earliest farm of the document the hanging Sea is in the first heaven. -(a) We find the cosmological significance of the heavenly Sea. The Zodiac, the abode of the gods, rises above and upon the heavenly Sea. Later the Sea itself and the solid firmament conceived of as supporting it seem to unite in the symbol, and we have the throne resting upon a crystalline sapphire foundation or pavement. The Sea stretched out calm and glassy before the throne may in part symbolize the victory of the divinity over the element of chaos. Hence the Sea of glass mingled with fire may contain a trace of this conception. The martyrs also standing upon the fiery Sea suggest the symbolism of purification and triumph (cf. Before the approach to the holy place stood the brazen Sea, whose form and decoration suggest remoter links with Babylonian cosmology. 70) suggests that the aegean Sea, fired by the rays of the setting sun, has yielded the form of the splendid imagery of this vision. Before the throne the Sea, the emblem of chaos and destruction, lies calm and motionless, petrified and clear, the symbol of the throne’s victory over the opposing forces of darkness and disorder. As the final tribulation draws to a close, that Sea mingled with fire symbolizes the source of the throne’s judgment on the earth below
Halak - It is identified with jebel Halak, about 40 miles southwest of the Dead Sea in Edom
Salt, City of - It may be inferred to have occupied some position on the western shore of the Dead Sea, between En-gedi and Khashm Usdum (the salt mountain)
Nibsan - Location of the site is uncertain, though its position in the list suggests a locale on the shore of the Dead Sea
Sea of Jazer - Some commentators use manuscript and Isaiah 16:8 evidence to eliminate “sea of” from the text (NRSV, REB)
Sea Cock - (1):...
In a steamship, a cock or valve close to the vessel's side, for closing a pipe which communicates with the Sea
Quay - ) A mole, bank, or wharf, formed toward the Sea, or at the side of a harbor, river, or other navigable water, for convenience in loading and unloading vessels
Cenchrea - Eastern Sea-port of Corinth, from which it was distant 9 miles
ja'Irus -
A ruler of a synagogue, probably in some town near the western shore of the Sea of Galilee
Sodom - See ABRAHAM , See LOT , and See DEAD Sea
Landlocked - ) Confined to a fresh-water lake by reason of waterfalls or dams; - said of fishes that would naturally seek the Sea, after spawning; as, the landlocked salmon
Turtle - ) Any one of the numerous species of Testudinata, especially a Sea turtle, or chelonian
Assos - A Greek city of Mysia in "Asia,"19 miles southeast of Troas, and on the Mediterranean Sea
Jokshan - ) Jokshan is identified by some with the Cassanitae on the Red Sea ( Decapolis - (Greek: ten cities) ...
A district in Palestine east and south of the Sea of Galilee which took its name from the confederation of ten cities of which it was composed; those of interest are Damascus, Gadara, and Pella
Sail - Isaiah 33:23 (b) It indicates that Zion had failed to take advantage of GOD's provisions to make progress over the Sea of life and the ocean of time
Nahaliel - tributary of the Arnon, or the Wâdy Zerka Ma‘in , farther north, which runs into the Dead Sea
Ravelling - ) A salmon one or two years old, before it has gone to Sea
Reciprocation - ) Alternate recurrence or action; as, the reciprocation of the Sea in the flow and ebb of tides
Ravelling - ) A salmon one or two years old, before it has gone to Sea
Cilicia - a country in the south-east of Asia Minor, and lying on the northern coast, at the east end of the Mediterranean Sea: the capital city thereof was Tarsus, the native city of St
Lithophagous - ) Eating or destroying stone; - applied to various animals which make burrows in stone, as many bivalve mollusks, certain sponges, annelids, and Sea urchins
o'Both - ( Numbers 21:10 ; 33:43 ) Its exact site is unknown but it was probably south of the Dead Sea, on the boundary between Moab and Edom
Gir'Gashites - (dwelling on a clayey soil ) , The, one of the nations who were in possession of Canaan east of the Sea of Galilee before the entrance thither of the children of Israel
Whale - 1: κῆτος (Strong's #2785 — Noun Neuter — ketos — kay'-tos ) denotes "a huge fish, a Sea monster," Matthew 12:40
Sodom - Just opposite the site of Zoar, on the south-west coast of the Dead Sea, is a range of low hills, forming a mass of mineral salt called Jebel Usdum, "the hill of Sodom. " It has been concluded, from this and from other considerations, that the cities of the plain stood at the southern end of the Dead Sea. Others, however, with much greater probability, contend that they stood at the northern end of the Sea
Bethsaida - ” The home of Andrew, Peter, and Philip (John 1:44 ; John 12:21 ), located on the northeast side of the Sea of Galilee. Some scholars do propose two sites named Bethsaida: The one northeast of the Sea of Galilee, as already discussed; and another, west of the Sea of Galilee, close to Capernaum
Capernaum - It stood on the Sea coast, that is, on the coast of the Sea of Galilee, in the borders of Zebulun and Naphtalim, Matthew 4:15 , and consequently toward the upper part of it. As it was a convenient port from Galilee to any place on the other side of the Sea, this might be our Lord's inducement to make it the place of his most constant residence
ar'Abah - It indicates more particularly the deep-sunken valley or trench which forms the most striking among the many striking natural features of Palestine, and which extends with great uniformity of formation from the slopes of Hermon to the Elanitic Gulf (Gulf of Akabah ) of the Red Sea; the most remarkable depression known to exist on the surface of the globe. Through the northern portion of this extraordinary fissure the Jordan rushes through the lakes of Huleh and Gennesaret down its tortuous course to the deep chasm of the Dead Sea. The southern boundary of the (Ghor is the wall of cliffs which crosses the valley about 10 miles south of the Dead Sea
Gomorrah - These cities probably stood close together, and were near the northern extremity of what is now the Dead Sea. (See DEAD Sea)
Chinnereth - The Sea of Chinnereth (Numbers 34:11 ; Joshua 13:27 ), or of Chinneroth (Joshua 12 :: 3 ), was the "lake of Gennesaret" or "sea of Tiberias" (Deuteronomy 3:17 ; Joshua 11:2 )
Adria - It was often however understood in a wider sense, as by Paul's almost contemporary geographer, Ptolemy, namely, the Mare Superum, including the Ionian Sea, between Sicily on the W. Malta marks the division between the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian (Mare Inferum) Sea; the Corinthian isthmus divides the AEgean from the Adriatic
Gulf - A recess in the ocean from the general line of the shore into the land, or a tract of water extending from the ocean or a Sea into the land, between two points or promontories a large bay as the gulf of Mexico the gulf of Venice the gulf of Finland. We apply bay to a large or small recess of the Sea, as the bay of Biscay, the bay of Fundy but gulf is applied only to a large extent of water
Trout - ) Any one of several species of marine fishes more or less resembling a trout in appearance or habits, but not belonging to the same family, especially the California rock trouts, the common squeteague, and the southern, or spotted, squeteague; - called also salt-water trout, Sea trout, shad trout, and gray trout. All the species breed in fresh water, but after spawning many of them descend to the Sea if they have an opportunity
Jabbok - Now the Zerka, a perennial stream, flowing into the Jordan midway between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, about thirty miles from each, after a westerly course of some sixty miles
Carib - ) A native of the Caribbee islands or the coasts of the Caribbean Sea; esp
Sea Cocoa - It was found floating in the Indian Ocean before the tree was known, and called Sea cocoanut, and double cocoanut
Polygonaceous - ) Of or pertaining to a natural order of apetalous plants (Polygonaceae), of which the knotweeds (species of Polygonum) are the type, and which includes also the docks (Rumex), the buckwheat, rhubarb, Sea grape (Coccoloba), and several other genera
Actinia - From a resemblance to flowers in form and color, they are often called animal flowers and Sea anemones
Sea Pie - , cooked together in alternate layers, - a common food of sailors; as, a three-decker Sea pie
Abalone - The shell is lined with mother-of-pearl, and used for ornamental purposes; the Sea-ear
Dalmanutha - The exact situation of this place is uncertain; it lay, however, on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee, north of Tiberias
ca'Naan, the Land of - lowland ), a name denoting the country west of the Jordan and the Dead Sea, and between those waters and the Mediterranean; given by God to Abraham's posterity, the children of Israel
di'Mon - (river bed ), The waters of, some streams on the east of the Dead Sea, in the land of Moab, against which Isaiah uttered denunciation
Aphrodite - ) A large marine annelid, covered with long, lustrous, golden, hairlike setae; the Sea mouse
Adbeel - of the Dead Sea
Moabites - An ancient people of Palestine, inhabiting a district east of the Jordan and the Dead Sea, in constant conflict with the Israelites
Jemuel - (jih myoo' ehl) Personal name meaning, “day of God” or “sea of God
Rakkon - It is now Tell er-Rakkeit, 6 miles north of Joppa, on the Sea-shore, near the mouth of the river 'Aujeh, i
Kartan - It was probably near the north-western shore of the Sea of Tiberias, identical with the ruined village el-Katanah
Chopping - ) Shifting or changing suddenly, as the wind; also, having tumbling waves dashing against each other; as, a chopping Sea
Plimsoll's Mark - A mark conspicuously painted on the port side of all British Sea-going merchant vessels, to indicate the limit of submergence allowed by law; - so called from Samuel Plimsoll, by whose efforts the act of Parliament to prevent overloading was procured
Sea Horse - (1):...
A fabulous creature, half horse and half fish, represented in classic mythology as driven by Sea dogs or ridden by the Nereids
Partenope - ) One of the Sirens, who threw herself into the Sea, in despair at not being able to beguile Ulysses by her songs
Salt, City of - A city near Engedi and the Dead Sea, in the wilderness
Atmo - ) The standard atmospheric pressure used in certain physical measurements calculations; conventionally, that pressure under which the barometer stands at 760 millimeters, at a temperature of 0� Centigrade, at the level of the Sea, and in the latitude of Paris
Elim - The second encampment of the Israelites after passing the Red Sea: it had twelve fountains of water and seventy palm trees
Urnet - The name is sometimes applied to the American Sea robins
Lobefish - Called also porcupine fish, and Sea hedgehog
Laucous - ) Of a Sea-green color; of a dull green passing into grayish blue
Chinnereth - A fenced city of Naphtali, on the lake, or Sea, of the same name; afterward called Gennesar, or Gennesaret, and about three miles northwest of Tiberias, according to Fuerst
Zuph - From the Hebrew Sûph, signifying a kind of Seaweed, and the Hebrew name for the Red Sea
Pau - It may be Wadi Fai west of the southern end of the Dead Sea
Pihahiroth - It was the third and last encampment of the Hebrews, before crossing the Red Sea, Exodus 14:2,9 Numbers 33:7
Etham - It lay near the head of the west gulf of the Red Sea, and the wilderness east of it was often called by the same name
Ziz, the Cliff of - The pass near Engedi, by which the Moabites and Ammonites ascended from the shore of the Dead Sea, having followed the southern and western coast to this point, 2 Chronicles 20:16
Red Sea - After they set out from Rameses, in the land of Goshen, in the neighbourhood of Cairo, their first encampment was at Succoth, signifying "booths," or an "enclosure for cattle," after a stage of about thirty miles; their second, at Etham, or Adsjerud, on the edge of the wilderness, about sixty miles farther; "for the Lord led them not by the way of the land of the Philistines, although that was near; for God said, Lest peradventure the people repent when they see war, and they return to Egypt: but God led the people about by the way of the wilderness of the Red Sea," or by a circuitous route to the land of promise, in order to train them and instruct them, in the solitudes of Arabia Petraea, Exodus 13:17-20 ; Deuteronomy 32:10 . Instead of proceeding from Etham, round the head of the Red Sea, and coasting along its eastern shore, the Lord made them turn southward along its western shore, and, after a stage of about twenty or thirty miles, to encamp in the valley of Bedea, where there was an opening in the great chain of mountains that line the western coast, called Pi-hahiroth, the mouth of the ridge between Migdol westward, and the Sea eastward, "over against Baal-zephon," on the eastern coast; to tempt Pharaoh, whose heart he finally hardened, to pursue them when they were "entangled in the land," and shut in by the wilderness on their rear and flanks, and by the Sea in their front. So Pharaoh pursued the Israelites by the direct way of Migdol, with six hundred chariots, his horsemen, and his army, and overtook them encamping by the Sea, beside Pi-hahiroth, over against Baal-zephon. He opened for them a passage across the Red Sea, where it was about twelve miles wide, and brought them through in safety; while he drowned the Egyptians, who blindly followed them to their own destruction, Psalms 77:18 , &c. The day before the passage, by the divine command, the Israelites encamped beside Pi-hahiroth "between Migdol and the Sea, over against Baal-zephon,"...
Exodus 14:2 ; Numbers 33:7 . Pi-hahiroth signifies "the mouth of the ridge," or chain of mountains, which line the western coast of the Red Sea, called Attaka, "deliverance," in which was a gap, which formed the extremity of the valley of Bedea, ending at the Sea eastward, and running westward to some distance, toward Cairo; Migdol, signifying "a tower," probably lay in that direction; and Baal-zephon, signifying "the northern Baal," was probably a temple on the opposite promontory, built on the eastern coast of the Red Sea. The depth and breadth of the gulf, from Suez downward, is thus described by Niebuhr: "I have not found in this Sea, from Suez southward, any bank or isthmus under water. And surely the depth of the Sea was no impediment, when the Lord divided it by "a strong east wind," which blew across the Sea all that night, and made the bottom of the Sea dry land; "and the children of Israel went into the midst of the Sea upon the dry ground, and the waters were a wall unto them, on their right hand and on their left," Exodus 14:21-22 . ...
In the queries of Michaelis, sent to Niebuhr, when in Egypt, it was proposed to him to inquire upon the spot, whether there were not some ridges of rocks where the water was shallow, so that an army at particular times may pass over; secondly, whether the Etesian winds, which blow strongly all summer from the north-west could not blow so violently against the Sea as to keep it back on a heap, so that the Israelites might have passed without a miracle. If we believe in God, that he made the Sea, we must believe he could divide it when he sees proper reason; and of that he must be the only judge. It is no greater miracle to divide the Red Sea than to divide the river Jordan. If the Etesian wind, blowing from the north-west in summer, could keep up the Sea as a wall on the right, or to the south, of fifty feet high, still the difficulty would remain of building the wall on the left hand, or to the north. Yet Diodorus Siculus says the Troglodytes, the indigenous inhabitants of that very spot, had a tradition from father to son, from their very earliest ages, that ‘once this division of the Sea did happen there; and that, after leaving its bottom some time dry, the Sea again came back, and covered it with great fury. ' The words of this author are of the most remarkable kind: we cannot think this Heathen is writing in favour of revelation: he knew not Moses, nor says a word about Pharaoh and his host; but records the miracle of the division of the Sea in words nearly as strong as those of Moses, from the mouths of unbiassed, undesigning Pagans. And the second query, about the Etesian or northerly wind, is refuted by the express mention of a strong easterly wind blowing across, and scooping out a dry passage; not that it was necessary for Omnipotence to employ it there as an instrument, any more than at Jordan; but it seems to be introduced in the sacred history by way of anticipation, to exclude the natural agency that might in after times be employed for solving the miracle; and it is remarkable that the monsoon in the Red Sea blows the summer half of the year from the north, the winter half from the south, neither of which therefore, even if the wind could be supposed to operate so violently upon the waters, could produce the miracle in question. "For," says he, "the miracle would be less if they crossed the Sea there than near Bedea. Instead of crossing the Sea at or near Ethan, their second station, the Israelites turned southward, along the western shore; and their third station at Pi-hahiroth, or Bedea, was at a full day's journey below Ethan, as Bryant has satisfactorily proved from Scripture, Exodus 14:2 . And it was this unexpected change in the direction of their march, and the apparently disadvantageous situation in which they were then placed, entangled in the land, and shut in by the wilderness, with a deep Sea in front, the mountains of Attaka on the sides, and the enemy in their rear, that tempted the Egyptians to pursue them through the valley of Bedea, by the direct route from Cairo, who overtook them encamping by the Sea, beside Pi-hahiroth, opposite to Baal-zephon, Exodus 14:2-9 . But the Israelites went out of Egypt with "a high hand," though led by Moses, yet under the visible guidance and protection of "the Lord God of the Hebrews," who "went before them by day in a pillar of a cloud, and by night in a pillar of fire;"...
and who, for their encouragement, to enter the passage of the Sea miraculously prepared for them, removed the cloud which went before the camp of Israel hitherto, and placed it behind them. if, after having seen so many prodigies in Egypt, he had entered into a Sea of more than three leagues wide: all the Egyptians, too, must have been bereft of understanding, in wishing to pursue the Israelites into such a Sea. ...
Doubtless they knew their own country well enough to distinguish the bottom of a large Sea, which bounds Egypt on that side, from a desert. The cloud which separated them from the Israelites increased the darkness of the night; and they probably did not enter into the Sea till about midnight, by which time the van of the Israelites might have reached the eastern shore. Meanwhile the bed of the Sea, now beaten by the feet of the immense multitude of men and cattle that had gone before, might not have been easily distinguishable from the desert. The Egyptians did not find out their mistake till the "morning appeared," or till day-break, when the rear of the Israelites had gained the shore, and the Egyptians had reached the middle of the Sea, and their whole host had entered into it: then, indeed, they attempted to fly back, but in vain; for "their chariot wheels were broken off, so that they drave them heavily, and their host was troubled" by the Lord, who looked or frowned upon them through the cloudy pillar of fire, and overwhelmed all their host in the midst of the Sea; when the Sea suddenly returned to his strength at the signal of Moses stretching forth his hand over it, Exodus 14:24-28 . ...
The particulars of this transaction demonstrate, that neither the host of the Israelites, nor the host of Pharaoh, could possibly have passed at the head of the gulf near Suez; where the Sea was only half a league broad, according to Niebuhr's own supposition, and consequently too narrow to contain the whole host of Pharaoh at once; whose six hundred chariots alone, exclusive of his cavalry and infantry, must have occupied more ground. 130, has preserved the following curious Egyptian traditions:— "The Memphites relate, that Moses, being well acquainted with the country, watched the influx of the tide, and made the multitude pass through the dry bed of the Sea. But the Heliopolitans relate, that the king, with a great army, accompanied by the sacred animals, pursued after the Jews, who had carried off with them the substance of the Egyptians; and that Moses, having been directed by a divine voice to strike the Sea with his rod, when he heard it, touched the water with his rod; and so the fluid divided, and the host passed over through a dry way. But when the Egyptians entered along with them, and pursued them, it is said, that fire flashed against them in front, and the Sea, returning back, overwhelmed the passage. ...
The Red Sea derived its name from Edom, signifying "red," a title of Esau, to whom the bordering country of Edom, or Idumaea, belonged, Genesis 25:30 ; Genesis 36:31-40 . It was also called Yam Suph, "the weedy Sea," in several passages, Numbers 33:10 ; Psalms 106:9 , &c, which are improperly rendered "the Red Sea. My opinion then is, that it is from the large trees, or plants, of white coral, perfectly in imitation of plants on land, that the Sea has taken the name ‘weedy. The tides in this Sea are but moderate
Gal'Ilee, Sea of - (Matthew 4:18 ) It was also called the "Sea of Tiberias," from the celebrated city of that name. " (Luke 5:1 ) It was called in the Old Testament "the Sea of Chinnereth" or "Cinneroth," (Numbers 34:11 ; Joshua 12:3 ) from a town of that name which stood on or near its shore. Most of our Lord's public life was spent in the environs of this Sea. The Sea of Galilee is of an oval long and six broad. It Isaiah 60 miles northeast of Jerusalem and 27 east of the Mediterranean Sea
Catachresis - ) A figure by which one word is wrongly put for another, or by which a word is wrested from its true signification; as, "To take arms against a Sea of troubles"
Anadromous - ) Ascending rivers from the Sea, at certain Seasons, for breeding, as the salmon, shad, etc
Samos - An island in the AEgean Sea, which Paul passed on his voyage from Assos to Miletus (Acts 20:15 ), on his third missionary journey
Beth-Arabah - One of the six cities of Judah, situated in the Arabah or sunken valley of the Jordan and the Dead Sea; between Bethhoglah and the high land on the W
Kartan - It was located near the Sea of Galilee
Tophel - (toh' fehl) Place near the site of Moses' farewell speech o Israel (Deuteronomy 1:1 ), identified with et-Tafileh about fifteen miles southeast of the Dead Sea between Kerak and Petra
Zared, Zered - Identified with the Wady el Hessi, which runs into the Salt Sea at its extreme south, and bears other names in its long course
Fulmar - ) One of several species of Sea birds, of the family procellariidae, allied to the albatrosses and petrels
Assos - (ass' ssahss) Seaport city on the Gulf of Adramyttium, an offshoot of the east coast of the Aegean Sea
Slime - ' It is found on the shores of the Salt Sea and elsewhere in SLIME-PITS
Sarepta - Identified with Sarafend, 33 27' N, 35 18' E : it is near the Sea, about midway between Tyre and Sidon
Jairus - A ruler of a synagogue in some town near the western shore of the Sea of Galilee
Ziz - made their way up from the shores of the Dead Sea to the Wilderness of Jeruel
Matweed - ) A name of several maritime grasses, as the Sea sand-reed (Ammophila arundinacea) which is used in Holland to bind the sand of the Seacoast dikes (see Beach grass, under Beach); also, the Lygeum Spartum, a Mediterranean grass of similar habit
Tishbah - The birthplace of Elijah, 1 Kings 17:1, who is therefore called the Tishbite, probably identical with el-Istib, or Listib, 22 miles in an air-line south of the Sea of Galilee, and ten miles east of the Jordan
Seleucia - a city of Syria, situated upon the Mediterranean, near the place where the Orontes discharges itself into the Sea
Leatherback - ) A large Sea turtle (Sphargis coriacea), having no bony shell on its back
Illyricum - A country of Europe, lying east of the Adriatic Sea, north of Epirus, and west of Macedonian
Beth-Arbel - One place of this name lay twenty-five miles southeast of the Sea of Galilee. Here were some large and almost inaccessible fortified caverns, in the sides of precipices, Hosea 10:14
Dragon - Some great Sea monster (Jeremiah 51:34 ). plural tanninim) the Authorized Version renders "whales," and the Revised Version "sea monsters
Seir - ...
...
The name of a mountainous region occupied by the Edomites, extending along the eastern side of the Arabah from the south-eastern extremity of the Dead Sea to near the Akabah, or the eastern branch of the Red Sea
Convoy - , on their way from place to place, by Sea or land; an escort, for protection or guidance. ) To accompany for protection, either by Sea or land; to attend for protection; to escort; as, a frigate convoys a merchantman
Sin, Wilderness of - Which Israel reached after leaving the encampment by the Red Sea (Numbers 33:11). The journey from Elim, or even from the Red Sea, could be performed in a day
Arabia - Arabia Proper, being the same as the ancient Arabia Felix, embraces the peninsula which extends southward to the Arabian Sea and northward to the desert. Western Arabia, the same as the ancient Arabia Petraea, embraces Sinai and the desert of Petra, extending from Egypt and the Red Sea to about Petra
Miletum, Miletus - An ancient city in Caria in Asia Minor, on or near the Sea coast. Miletus was at one time a place of commerce, its ships going long voyages; but there are now but few relies of the place, about ten miles from the Sea shore
Lip - 1: χεῖλος (Strong's #5491 — Noun Neuter — cheilos — khi'-los ) is used (a) of the organ of speech, Matthew 15:8 ; Mark 7:6 , where "honoring with the lips," besides meaning empty words, may have reference to a Jewish custom of putting to the mouth the tassel of the tallith (the woollen scarf wound round the head and neck during prayer), as a sign of acceptance of the Law from the heart; Romans 3:13 ; 1 Corinthians 14:21 (from Isaiah 28:11,12 , speaking of the Assyrian foe as God's message to disobedient Israel); Hebrews 13:15 ; 1 Peter 3:10 ; (b) metaphorically, of "the brink or edge of things," as of the Sea shore, Hebrews 11:12 , lit. , "the shore (of the Sea)
Wind - , moist winds from the western Sea, warm winds from the S. During the dry Season, from May till October, the prevailing winds are from the N. winds are frequent; blowing from the deserts, their dry heat causes the furniture to crack, and makes life a burden ( Hosea 13:15 ). ...
Of the greatest value for all living things is the perpetual interchange of land and Sea breezes. At sunrise a gentle air stirs from the Sea, crosses the plain, and creeps up the mountains. At sunset the cooling air begins to slip down Seaward again, while the upper strata move landward from the Sea
Salt - ...
The Israelites obtained their salt mainly from the region around the Dead Sea, which was itself so rich in salt that it was sometimes called the Salt Sea (Genesis 14:3; Joshua 3:16; Joshua 15:5; Joshua 18:19). Somewhere to the south-west of the Dead Sea, in the dry region of Israel known as the Negeb, was a place called the Valley of Salt (2 Samuel 8:13; 2 Kings 14:7). (For further details of the Dead Sea and the Negeb see PALESTINE
Ar - Its site, still called Rabbah, is found upon a hill some fifteen miles east of the Dead Sea, and south of the Arnon, midway between it and Kir Moab
Cuckow - Modern versions read “sea gull
Maaleh-Acrabbim - It is identified with the pass of Sufah, entering Palestine from the great Wady el-Fikreh, south of the Dead Sea
Parthians - Parthia lay on the east of Media and south of Hyrcania, which separated it from the Caspian Sea
Deep - Used to denote (1) the grave or the abyss (Romans 10:7 ; Luke 8:31 ); (2) the deepest part of the Sea (Psalm 69:15 ); (3) the chaos mentioned in Genesis 1:2 ; (4) the bottomless pit, hell (Revelation 9:1,2 ; 11:7 ; 20:13 )
Tophel - of the Dead Sea
Dalmatia - coast of the Adriatic Sea
Jeruel - Doubtless in some part of the wilderness west of the Dead Sea, but it is not definitely identified
Zemarites - Bochart conjectures Samyra, a city of Phoenicia, on the Sea coast, on the river Eleutherus; its ruins still are called Samra
Albatross - They are the largest of Sea birds, capable of long-continued flight, and are often seen at great distances from the land
Seaman - ) One whose occupation is to assist in the management of ships at Sea; a mariner; a sailor; - applied both to officers and common mariners, but especially to the latter
Chosen - His chosen captains are drowned in the Sea
Jeruel - shore of the Dead Sea below En-gedi
Oleander - Called also rosebay, rose laurel, and South-sea rose
Yaupon - Called also South-Sea tea
Kishon - This river was but small: it arose in the valley of Jezreel, and passed on to the south of mount Tabor, emptying itself the Mediterranean Sea
Mount Engedi - The same as Hazzazon Tamar, (2 Chronicles 20:2) near the Dead Sea; a place remarkable for rich vines
Ar - The chief city of Moab, on the east of the Salt Sea; called also Aroer, Deuteronomy 2:36; sometimes used for the whole land of Moab, Deuteronomy 2:29; burned by Sihon
Baal-Zephon - They encamped "over against" and "before" Baal-zephon before crossing the Red Sea
Jesh'Imon - " Perhaps the dreary, barren waste of hills lying immediately on the west of the Dead Sea
ha'Mon-Gog - (the multitude of God ), The valley of, the name to be bestowed on the ravine or glen, previously known as "the ravine of the passengers on the east of the Sea," after the burial there of "God and all his multitude
Jeruel - Founded by God, a "desert" on the ascent from the valley of the Dead Sea towards Jerusalem
Ull - ) One of many species of long-winged Sea birds of the genus Larus and allied genera
Mount of the Valley - The "valley" here was probably the Ghor or valley of the Jordan, and hence the "mount" would be the hilly region in the north end of the Dead Sea
Avim - A people dwelling in Hazerim, or "the villages" or "encampments" on the south-west corner of the Sea-coast (Deuteronomy 2:23 )
Kenath - It has been identified with Kunawat, on the slopes of Jebel Hauran (Mount Bashan), 60 miles east from the south end of the Sea of Galilee
Bull Trout - Cambricus, which ascend rivers; - called also Sea trout
Myra - The magnificent ruins of the city stand upon a hill not far from the Sea
Tiras - (ti rass) Division of the descendants of Japheth who are all Seagoing peoples (Genesis 10:2 ; 1 Chronicles 1:5 ). Traditionally, they have been related to Turscha, part of the Sea peoples Rameses III (1198-1166 B
Chios - Mentioned in Acts 20:15 , an island in the Aegean Sea, about 5 miles distant from the mainland, having a roadstead, in the shelter of which Paul and his companions anchored for a night when on his third missionary return journey
Hemdan - of the Dead Sea, and toward el Busaireh or Bozrah, toward Petra
Haven - ) A bay, recess, or inlet of the Sea, or the mouth of a river, which affords anchorage and shelter for shipping; a harbor; a port
Diverse - Four great beasts came up from the Sea, diverse one from another
Parian - ) Of or pertaining to Paros, an island in the Aegean Sea noted for its excellent statuary marble; as, Parian marble
Piracy - ) Robbery on the high Seas; the taking of property from others on the open Sea by open violence; without lawful authority, and with intent to steal; - a crime answering to robbery on land
Baalzephon - The Israelites encamped in its vicinity before crossing the Red Sea
Sea of Glass - In Revelation 15:2 the saints are seen standing upon 'a Sea of glass mingled with fire': they had come out of the tribulation
Ezion-Geber - A port on the Red Sea (on the Gulf of Akabah) used by Solomon for his commerce ( 1 Kings 9:26 )
Varuna - He is regarded as regent of the west, and lord of punishment, and is represented as riding on a Sea monster, holding in his hand a snaky cord or noose with which to bind offenders, under water
Killifish - They live equally well in fresh and brackish water, or even in the Sea
Water Glass - ...
(2):...
An instrument consisting of an open box or tube with a glass bottom, used for examining objects in the water, as upon the Sea bottom in shallow places
Chios - It lies in the Aegean Sea five miles off the coast of Asia Minor
Gebal - It is the northern part of the range of mountains skirting the eastern side of the great valley El-Arabah, which runs from the Dead Sea to the Elanitic gulf of the Red Sea, Psalm 83:7 . A Seaport and district of Phoenicia north of Beyroot, called Byblos by the Greeks, now Jebail; population, 2,000. It was an important place, Ezekiel 27:9 , and the Seat of the worship of Thammuz
Quails - Hasselquist states that it is plentiful near the shores of the Dead Sea and the Jordan, and in the deserts of Arabia; and Diodorus affirms that it is caught in immense numbers about Rhinocolura, at the southwest corner of Palestine. Burckhardt also found great quantities of them in the regions south of the Dead Sea
Elath, Eloth - Seaport town at the extreme north of the Gulf of Akaba branch of the Red Sea. Elath is now called Aqaba and is in Jordan, it is the only Sea-port of that country
Jeshimon - coasts of the Dead Sea, between the Jordan mouth (near which was Beth-jeshimoth) and Engedi: consisting of chalky crumbling limestone rocks and a fiat covered with nitrous crust, into which the feet sink as in ashes; without vegetation except the hubeibeh, or alkali plant. of Jericho, near the Dead Sea
Zebulun - Moses acquaints us with no particulars of his life; but Jacob, in his last blessing, said of Zebulun, "Zebulun shall dwell at the haven of the Sea; and he shall be for a haven of ships; and his border shall be unto Zidon," Genesis 49:13 . His portion extended along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, one end of it bordering on this Sea, and the other on the Sea of Tiberias, Joshua 19:10 , &c. For they shall suck of the abundance of the Seas, and of treasures hid in the sand,"...
Deuteronomy 33:18 ; meaning, that these two tribes being at the greatest distance north, should come together to the temple at Jerusalem, to the holy mountain, and should bring with them such of the other tribes as dwelt in their way; and that being situated on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, they should apply themselves to trade and navigation, and to the melting of metals and glass, denoted by those words, "treasures hid in the sand
Joppa - Hebrew Joshua 19:46 , on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, thirty miles south of Caesarea, and about thirty-five north-west of Jerusalem. Here, too, Peter raised Dorcas from the dead; and in the house of Simon the tanner, by the Seaside, was taught by a heavenly vision that salvation was for Gentiles as well as Jews, Acts 9:1-11:30 . It was the Seat of a Christian church for some centuries after Constantine. ...
The present town of Jaffa, or Yafa, is situated on a promontory jutting out into the Sea, rising to the height of about one hundred and fifty feet, crowned with a fortress, and offering on all sides picturesque and varied prospects. Towards the west is extended the open Sea; towards the south are spread the fertile plains of Philistia, reaching as far as Gaza; towards the north, as far as Carmel, the flowery meads of Sharon present themselves; and to the east, the hills of Ephraim and Judah raise their towering heads. The town is walled round on the south and east, towards the land, and partially so on the north and west, towards the Sea. From the Sea, the town looks like a heap of buildings, crowded as closely as possible into a given space; and from the steepness of its site, they appear in some places to stand one on the other
Michmethah - of and facing Shechem (Joshua 17:7); but Joshua 16:6 says Ephraim's border went out toward the Sea to Michmethah on the N
Hazazon-Tamar - of the Dead Sea
me-Jarkon - ]'>[1] reading, ‘and from the Sea, Jarkon and the boundary near Joppa,’ sufficiently attests the name Jarkon , a place in the territory of Dan; but the site is not yet recovered
Merom - Lake Huleh is eleven miles north of the Sea of Galilee
Magadan - (mag' aw dan) A site on the Sea of Galilee (Matthew 15:39 )
Salt, Valley of - It is supposed to be in the northern part of the Arabah valley, south of the Dead Sea
Zimran - ” Son of Abraham and Keturah and ancestor of an Arabian tribe (Genesis 25:2 ; 1 Chronicles 1:32 ), possibly identified with Zabram, located somewhere west of Mecca on the Red Sea, and with Zimri (Jeremiah 25:25 )
Zophim - It was a high place at “the top of Pisgah,” near the northeastern end of the Dead Sea
Migdol - Place near to which the Israelites crossed the Red Sea
Lobigerina - ) A genus of small Foraminifera, which live abundantly at or near the surface of the Sea
Peor - It probably lay a few miles northeast of the Dead Sea, but is not now recognized
la'Sha - Jerome and other writers identify it with Callirrhoe, a spot famous for hot springs, near the eastern shore of the Dead Sea
Macae'Rus, - a castle of the Herods on the southern border of their Perean dominions, nine miles east of the northern end of the Dead Sea
Jeshimon - The waste, probably some high waste land to the south of the Dead Sea (Numbers 21:20 ; 23:28 ; 1 Samuel 23:19,24 ); or rather not a proper name at all, but simply "the waste" or "wilderness," the district on which the plateau of Ziph (q
Bozrah - of the Dead Sea, half way between Petra and the Dead Sea. of the Dead Sea (Jeremiah 48:21-24), enumerated among the cities of Moab
Launch - 1: ἀνάγω (Strong's #321 — Verb — anago — an-ag'-o ) "to bring up" (ana, "up," ago, "to lead"), is used in the Middle Voice as a nautical term signifying "to put to Sea;" it is translated "launch forth" in Luke 8:22 ; "set sail" in Acts 13:13 , RV (AV, "loosed"); similarly in Acts 16:11 ; in Acts 18:21 , for AV, "sailed;" similarly in Acts 20:3,13 ; in Acts 21:1 , RV, "set sail," (AV, "launched"), and in Acts 21:2 , for AV, "set forth;" in Acts 27:2,4 the RV has the verb "to put to Sea," for AV "to launch;" in Acts 27:12 for AV, "depart;" in Acts 27:21 , RV, "set sail" (AV, "loosed"); in Acts 28:10,11 , "sailed" and "set sail" (AV, "departed"). 1), is used as a nautical term with ploion, "a ship," understood, denoting "to put out to Sea," translated in Luke 5:3 , "put out," RV (AV, "thrust out"); in Luke 5:4 , for AV, "launch
Catadromous - ) Living in fresh water, and going to the Sea to spawn; - opposed to anadromous, and said of the eel
Ultramarine - ) Situated or being beyond the Sea
Indians, Penelakut - Formerly they depended on the Sea for subsistence, now they live by farming, hunting and fishing
Tob, the Land of - A district on the east of Jodan, about 13 miles south-east of the Sea of Galilee, to which Jephthah fled from his brethren (Judges 11:3,5 )
Zebulun, Lot of - In Galilee, to the north of Issachar and south of Asher and Naphtali (Joshua 19:10-16 ), and between the Sea of Galilee and the Mediterranean
Nahaliel - This is identified with the ravine of the Zerka M'ain, the ancient Callirhoe, the hot springs on the east of the Jordan, not far from the Dead Sea
Dale, the King's - ), near the Dead Sea, where the king of Sodom met Abraham (Genesis 14:17 )
Creek - ) A small inlet or bay, narrower and extending further into the land than a cove; a recess in the shore of the Sea, or of a river
Sodomite - Originally a citizen of the town of Sodom, one of the cities of the plain near the Dead Sea (Genesis 13:12 )
Fother - ) To stop (a leak in a ship at Sea) by drawing under its bottom a thrummed sail, so that the pressure of the water may force it into the crack
Estuary - ) A passage, as the mouth of a river or lake, where the tide meets the current; an arm of the Sea; a frith
Ossypium - herbaceum is the name given to the common cotton plant, while the long-stapled Sea-island cotton is produced by G
Whiten - ) To grow white; to turn or become white or whiter; as, the hair whitens with age; the Sea whitens with foam; the trees in spring whiten with blossoms
Repass - ) To pass again; to pass or travel over in the opposite direction; to pass a second time; as, to repass a bridge or a river; to repass the Sea
ja'Pheth - the coast lands of the Mediterranean Sea in Europe and Asia Minor-- whence they spread northward over the whole continent of Europe and a considerable portion of Asia
Treasure-Trove - In England such treasure belongs to the crown; whereas similar treasure found in the Sea, or upon the surface of the land, belongs to the finder if no owner appears
Beth-Boron - The name of two places, the "Upper" and "Nether" Beth-horon, Joshua 16:3; Joshua 16:5, about three miles apart, on the opposite sides of a ravine or steep pass—the Thermopylæ of Palestine—on the road from Jerusalem to the Sea-coast
Chios - An island of the Ægean Sea, five miles from the coast of Ionia, in Asia Minor
Ziz - The pass was the ascent through which invaders from the south and east, after doubling the south end of the Dead Sea, entered the hill-country of Judæa
Dalmatia - A province of Europe on the east of the Adriatic Sea, and forming part of Illyricum
Nim'Rah - It was ten miles north of the Dead Sea and three miles east of the Jordan, in the hill of Nimrim
pi-Hahi'Roth, - a place before or at which the Israelites encamped, at the close of the third march from Rameses (the last place before they crossed the Red Sea), when they went out of Egypt
Elealeh - It is 3064 feet above the Sea
Calm - 1: γαλήνη (Strong's #1055 — Noun Feminine — galene — gal-ay'-nay ) primarily signifies "calmness, cheerfulness" (from a root gal---, from which gelao, "to smile," is also derived; hence the "calm" of the Sea, the smiling ocean being a favorite metaphor of the poets), Matthew 8:26 ; Mark 4:39 ; Luke 8:24
Bass - ) Species of Serranus, the Sea bass and rock bass. See Sea bass
Zoar - The southern division of the Dead Sea (apparently of comparatively recent formation), abounding with salt, and throwing up bitumen, and its shores producing sulphur and nitre, answers to the valley of Siddim, "full of slime pits,"; Jeremiah 49:18; Jeremiah 50:40; Zephaniah 2:9; 2 Peter 2:6). of the Dead Sea...
Genesis 19:30)
Pontus - The Sea, the northeastern province of Asia Minor, bounded north by the Euxine Sea, west by Galatia and Paphlagonia, south by Cappadocia and part of Armenia, and east by Colchis
Zebulun - Jacob, when he foretold what should befall his sons in the last days, said, "Zebulun shall dwell at the haven of the Sea, and he shall be for an haven of ships, and his border shall be unto Zidon," Genesis 49:13 ; Zebulun is thus representative of Israel having intercourse with the Gentiles for profit. Moses blessed the tribes thus, "Rejoice, Zebulun, in thy going out"; and then, classing him with Issachar, said, "They shall call the people unto the mountain; there they shall offer sacrifice's of righteousness: for they shall suck of the abundance of the Seas, and of treasures hid in the sand. ; and though it did not extend either to the Mediterranean or the Sea of Galilee, they may have pushed forward to both Seas. Jacob spoke of their reaching unto Zidon, and the Evangelist says, "Capernaum, which is upon the Sea coast [1], in the borders of Zabulon and Nephthalim
Zebulun - Jacob, when he foretold what should befall his sons in the last days, said, "Zebulun shall dwell at the haven of the Sea, and he shall be for an haven of ships, and his border shall be unto Zidon," Genesis 49:13 ; Zebulun is thus representative of Israel having intercourse with the Gentiles for profit. Moses blessed the tribes thus, "Rejoice, Zebulun, in thy going out"; and then, classing him with Issachar, said, "They shall call the people unto the mountain; there they shall offer sacrifice's of righteousness: for they shall suck of the abundance of the Seas, and of treasures hid in the sand. ; and though it did not extend either to the Mediterranean or the Sea of Galilee, they may have pushed forward to both Seas. Jacob spoke of their reaching unto Zidon, and the Evangelist says, "Capernaum, which is upon the Sea coast [1], in the borders of Zabulon and Nephthalim
Catfish - ) A name given in the United States to various species of siluroid fishes; as, the yellow cat (Amiurus natalis); the bind cat (Gronias nigrilabrus); the mud cat (Pilodictic oilwaris), the stone cat (Noturus flavus); the Sea cat (Arius felis), etc
Cephaloptera - ) One of the generic names of the gigantic ray (Manta birostris), known as devilfish and Sea devil
Pontus - A Roman province in the north of Asia Minor, along the coast of the Euxine Sea (Pontus), from which circumstance the name was derived
Coos - (Written Cos in the RSV), a small island, one of the Sporades in the Aegean Sea, in the north-west of Rhodes, off the coast of Caria
Halak, the Mount - of the Dead Sea; the southern limit of the Ghor, the northern limit of the Arabah
Kedemoth - of the Dead Sea, assigned to Reuben (Joshua 13:18), then to the Merarite Levites (Joshua 21:37)
Samothracia - An island in the AEgean Sea, off the coast of Thracia, about 32 miles distant
Zered - Zared, luxuriance; willow bush, a brook or valley communicating with the Dead Sea near its southern extremity (Numbers 21:12 ; Deuteronomy 2:14 )
Beach - ) The shore of the Sea, or of a lake, which is washed by the waves; especially, a sandy or pebbly shore; the strand
Diodon - Called also porcupine fishes, and Sea hedgehogs
Discolor - ) To alter the natural hue or color of; to change to a different color; to stain; to tinge; as, a drop of wine will discolor water; silver is discolored by Sea water
Bellow - To roar, as the Sea in a tempest, or as the wind when violent to make a loud, hollow, continued sound
Emim - A people, described as "great, and many, and tall, as the Anakims," who dwelt on the east of the Dead Sea
Midden - ) An accumulation of refuse about a dwelling place; especially, an accumulation of shells or of cinders, bones, and other refuse on the supposed site of the dwelling places of prehistoric tribes, - as on the shores of the Baltic Sea and in many other places
Salvage - ) The act of saving a vessel, goods, or life, from perils of the Sea
Adria - In the apostle's time it is supposed to have denoted the whole breadth of the Mediterranean Sea, from Crete to Sicily
Pediment - NRSV term for the stone base upon which Ahab set the bronze Sea after removing it from the twelve bronze oxen (2 Kings 16:17 )
Pisgah - A mountain ridge, the northern part of the Abarim range, east of the Dead Sea; Nebo was one of its summits, Deuteronomy 32:49 34:1
Beth-ar'Abah - (house of the desert ), one of the six cities of Judah which were situated down in the Arabah, the sunk valley of the Jordan and Dead Sea, ( Joshua 15:61 ) on the north border of the tribe
Nebo, Mount - A mountain of the Abarim range, east of the Jordan and the Dead Sea, from which Moses surveyed the Promised Land (Deuteronomy 32), and where he died (Deuteronomy 34)
Mount Nebo - A mountain of the Abarim range, east of the Jordan and the Dead Sea, from which Moses surveyed the Promised Land (Deuteronomy 32), and where he died (Deuteronomy 34)
Akrabbim - It is to be found probably in the mountains near the Dead Sea, on its southwest side
Beth-Arabah - House of the desert, one of the six cities of Judah, situated in the sunk valley of the Jordan and Dead Sea (Joshua 18:22 )
Sorek - , a torrent-bed, now the Wady Surar, "valley of the fertile spot," which drains the western Judean hills, and flowing by Makkedah and Jabneel, falls into the Sea some eight miles south of Joppa
Lily Work - The brim of the molten Sea was perhaps also inspired by the shape of the lotus blossom (1 Kings 7:26 )
Chorazin - They were all near the Sea of Galilee
ar - It is identified with Rabba,, 31 19' N, 35 38' E , about 10 miles from the Dead Sea
ar'Gob - In later times it was called Trachonitis, and it is now apparently identified with the Leiah, a very remarkable district south of Damascus and east of the Sea of Galilee
Migdol - Moses writes, that when the Israelites came out of Egypt, the Lord commanded them to encamp over against Pihahiroth, between Migdol and the Sea, over against Baal-Zephon, Exodus 14:2
Adramyt'Tium - named form Adramys , brother of Croesus king of Lydia, a Seaport in the province of Asia [1], situated on a bay of the Aegean Sea, about 70 miles north of Smyrna, in the district anciently called Aeolis, and also Mysia
Chrysoprasus - Revelation 21:20 , a precious stone, which Pliny classes among the beryls; the best of which, he says, are of a Sea-green colour; after these he mentions the chrysoberyls, which are a little paler, inclining to golden colour; and next, a sort still paler, and by some reckoned a distinct species, and called chrysoprasus
Achzib - It is found near the Sea coast, ten or twelve miles north of Ptolemais, and was visited by Buckingham in 1816
Ospray - ...
The Sea-eagle, a fowl of the genus Falco or hawk, of the size of a peacock
Deep And Depths - The deep, or the great deep, signifies in Scripture, hell, the place of punishment, the bottomless pit, Luke 8:31 , compare Revelation 9:1 11:7 ; the grave, Romans 10:7 ; the deepest parts of the Sea, Psalm 69:15 107:26 ; chaos in the beginning of the world, Genesis 1:2
Ked'Emoth - (beginnings ), one of the towns in the district east of the Dead Sea allotted to the tribe of Reuben, ( Joshua 13:18 ) given by the Merarite Levites
Nim'Rim - on the southeastern shoulder of the Dead Sea
ar'Gob - In later times it was called Trachonitis, and it is now apparently identified with the Leiah, a very remarkable district south of Damascus and east of the Sea of Galilee
Tarshish - A Sanscrit or Aryan word, meaning "the Sea coast. Some think there was a Tarshish in the East, on the Indian coast, seeing that "ships of Tarshish" sailed from Eziongeber, on the Red Sea (1 Kings 9:26 ; 22:48 ; 2 Chronicles 9:21 ). "Ships of Tarshish" is an expression sometimes denoting simply ships intended for a long voyage (Isaiah 23:1,14 ), ships of a large size (sea-going ships), whatever might be the port to which they sailed
Sid'Dim - 3 "which is near," or "which is at, or by, the Salt Sea," then we might agree with Dr. But the original of the passage seems to imply that the Salt Sea covers the actual space formerly occupied by the vale of Siddim. [1]
Jordan - At Banias it Isaiah 1,080 feet above Sea-level. Flowing from the southern extremity of Lake Huleh, here almost on a level with the Sea, it flows for 2 miles "through a waste of islets and papyrus," and then for 9 miles through a narrow gorge in a foaming torrent onward to the Sea of Galilee (q. ...
"In the whole valley of the Jordan from the Lake Huleh to the Sea of Galilee there is not a single settled inhabitant. ...
From the Sea of Galilee, at the level of 682 feet below the Mediterranean, the river flows through a long, low plain called "the region of Jordan" (Matthew 3:5 ), and by the modern Arabs the Ghor, or "sunken plain. Through it the Jordan flows in a rapid, rugged, tortuous course down to the Dead Sea. The whole distance from the southern extremity of the Sea of Galilee to the Dead Sea is in a straight line about 65 miles, but following the windings of the river about 200 miles, during which it falls 618 feet. ...
There are two considerable affluents which enter the river between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, both from the east
Fertile Crescent - refers to the crescent-shaped arc of alluvial land in the Near East stretching from the tip of the Persian Gulf to the southeastern corner of the Mediterranean Sea. On the west lies the Mediterranean Sea, and the concave southern limit is determined by the vast Syro-Arabian Desert
Marah - ) A fountain in the desert of Shur, between the Red Sea and Sinai; Israel reached Marah three days after crossing to the Arabian side (Exodus 15:23; Numbers 33:8). Now Ain Huwarah, 47 miles from Ayun Muss, near the place of crossing the Red Sea
Arnon - Rising in the Arabian mountains (the branch Sell es Saideh in the mountains of Gilead near Kalaat el Katrane), it flows through the wilderness and falls into the Dead Sea. The sides are of red and brown sandstone where it meets the Dead Sea; it is 10 feet; deep at that point
Fertile Crescent - refers to the crescent-shaped arc of alluvial land in the Near East stretching from the tip of the Persian Gulf to the southeastern corner of the Mediterranean Sea. On the west lies the Mediterranean Sea, and the concave southern limit is determined by the vast Syro-Arabian Desert
Dor - Its early history shows connections with Egypt under Rameses II and with the Sea Peoples, who are closely related to the Philistines. Apparently the Tjeker, one of the Sea Peoples, destroyed the city shortly after 1300 B. The Hebrew expression here, “Naphoth Dor ,” or heights of Dor is unexpected, since Dor lies on the Seacoast
Jabneel - On the northern boundary of Judah, near the Sea (Joshua 15:11); Josephus ( Sea
Wind - The north wind is cold; the west, from the Sea, moist; the south, warm; and the east, from the desert, dry. See, further, Sea Of Galilee, p
Golan - Jordan, from the Sea of Galilee to its source at Dan and Caesarea Philippi, was its western boundary. The western side, the supporting wall of the plateau, along the Sea of Galilee, is steep and rugged
Pihahiroth - ...
Israel encamped "before Pihahiroth between Migdol and the Sea" (Exodus 14:2). of the Red Sea, and opposite Ayun Musa
Ephesus - Being near the Sea it was a place of great commerce, and as the capital of the province it had constant intercourse with the surrounding towns. The ruins are extensive: the Sea has retired, leaving a pestilential morass of mud and rushes
Triton - Called also trumpet shell, and Sea trumpet. ) A fabled Sea demigod, the son of Neptune and Amphitrite, and the trumpeter of Neptune
Tangle - ) An instrument consisting essentially of an iron bar to which are attached swabs, or bundles of frayed rope, or other similar substances, - used to capture starfishes, Sea urchins, and other similar creatures living at the bottom of the Sea. ) Any large blackish Seaweed, especially the Laminaria saccharina
Joppa - Town and Sea-port in the tribe of Dan. Timber was cut in Lebanon and brought in 'floats' by Sea to Joppa, for the temple at Jerusalem
Canal - ) A long and relatively narrow arm of the Sea, approximately uniform in width; - used chiefly in proper names; as, Portland Canal; Lynn Canal
Dalmatia - (dal may' tih uh) Place name referring to the southern part of Illyricum north of Greece and across the Adriatic Sea from Italy
Sheshai - They may have entered Palestine with the Sea Peoples to whom the Philistines are related
Onycha - , the claw or nail of the strombus or wing-shell, a univalve common in the Red Sea
Cos - Paul passed the night on this island on his way by Sea from Miletus to Rhodes (Acts 21:1)
Neapolis - It was the Sea-port of the inland town of Philippi, which was distant about 10 miles
Pitch - (Genesis 6:14 ), asphalt or bitumen in its soft state, called "slime" (Genesis 11:3 ; 14:10 ; Exodus 2:3 ), found in pits near the Dead Sea (q
Scyth'Ian - The name often included all the nomadic tribes, who dwelt mostly on the north of the Black and the Caspian Sea, stretching thence indefinitely into inner Asia, and were regarded by the ancients as standing extremely low In point of intelligence and civilization
Emersion - ) The act of emerging, or of rising out of anything; as, emersion from the Sea; emersion from obscurity or difficulties
Baal-Zephon - ” Place in Egypt near which Israel camped before miracle of crossing the Sea (Exodus 14:2 ,Exodus 14:2,14:9 )
Lasha - The traditional location is at Kallirhoe east of the Dead Sea; others identify it with Nuhashe or Laash in northern Syria near Hamath
Magdala - ” City on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee and center of a prosperous fishing operation
Sinim - Traditionally translated as China and treated variously by early translators as Persia or the south, the term received clarification from an Isaiah manuscript among the Dead Sea Scrolls, which reads, “Syenites,” a reference to modern Aswan (compare NIV, REB, NRSV)
Sorek - It runs from near Jerusalem toward the Mediterranean Sea
Suphah - KJV created, “Yam-Suph,” or “Red Sea
Zered - ” A stream which empties into the southern end of the Dead Sea
Salt, Valley of - Geographical passageway south and east of the Dead Sea, often identified with wadi el-Milch south of Beersheba, but this location is not accepted by modern commentators
Brook of Egypt - It is usually identified with the Wadi el-Arish, which flows from the middle of the Sinai Peninsula to the Mediterranean Sea
Sea Snake - Any one of many species of venomous aquatic snakes of the family Hydrophidae, having a flattened tail and living entirely in the Sea, especially in the warmer parts of the Indian and Pacific Oceans
Calenture - to a form of furious delirium accompanied by fever, among sailors, which sometimes led the affected person to imagine the Sea to be a green field, and to throw himself into it
Dereliction - ) A retiring of the Sea, occasioning a change of high-water mark, whereby land is gained
Asket - Sea gaskets are common lines; harbor gaskets are plaited and decorated lines or bands
Japheth - , the coast lands of the Mediterranean Sea in Europe and Asia Minor—whence they spread northward over the whole continent of Europe and a considerable portion of Asia
Commotion - Agitation as the commotion of the Sea
Virgularian - These corals are allied to the Sea-pens, but have a long rodlike rhachis inclosing a slender, round or square, calcareous axis
Arabim - The water source indicated may be the wadi el-Chesa at the southern end of the Dead Sea in Moab
Gergesenes - (See Matthew 8:28) It is more than probable, that this was the same nation as is called in the Old Testament Girgashites; one of the cities of Canaan beyond the Sea of Tiberias
ze'Red - (osier brook ), (2:13,14) or Za'red, ( Numbers 21:12 ) a brook or valley running into the Dead Sea near its southeast corner, which Dr
Chi'os - (snowy ), an island of the Aegean Sea, 12 miles from Smyrna
Askelon - a city in the land of the Philistines, situated between Azoth and Gaza, upon the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, about 520 furlongs from Jerusalem
Acrabatene - This was also the name of another district of Judea on the frontier of Idumea, toward the northern extremity of the Dead Sea
Patmos - a small rocky island in the AEgean Sea, about eighteen miles in circumference; which, on account of its dreary and desolate character, was used by the Roman emperors as a place of confinement for criminals
Zeboim - Eusebius and Jerome mention a town by this name in their day, on the western shore of the Dead Sea
Gozan - The Kizzil-ozan, or Golden River, is in the northwest part of Persia, and flows northeast, with large curves, into the Caspian Sea
Chinnereth - Or CINNEROTH, a town on the west shore of the Sea of Galilee, Numbers 34:11 Deuteronomy 3:17 Joshua 11:2 19:35 1 Kings 15:20
Ten - With twice ten sail I cross'd the Phrygian Sea
Turtle - The name given to the large Sea-tortoise
Brimstone - Brimstone, or sulphur, is found in considerable quantities on the shores of the Dead Sea
Palestine - On the west is the Mediterranean Sea. It therefore includes western Palestine—between the Jordan River and the Sea, and eastern Palestine—between the Jordan and the Arabian steppe. Salt marshes—the Serbonian bog—located at the southern end of the Philistine plain have been known as breeding grounds of disease. Most of the region is approximately 500 feet above Sea level—but with mountains like Tabor reaching a height of 1,929 feet. ”...
Some of the most important cities of Galilee were on the shore of the Sea of Galilee. In the east, Galilee drops off abruptly to the Jordan, while farther south, near the Sea of Galilee, the slopes become much more gradual and gentle...
3. The fault is part of a system that extends north to form the valley between the Lebanon and the Anti-Lebanon chains, also extending south to form the Dead Sea, the dry Arabah Valley, the Gulf of Aqabah, and, eventually, the chain of lakes on the African continent. From its sources to Hula the Jordan drops somewhat less than 1,000 feet over a distance of twelve miles, entering Lake Hula at 230 feet above Sea level (not 7 feet, as reported by some older publications). Over the eleven miles from Hula to the Sea of Galilee, the Jordan drops 926 feet, flowing in part through a narrow canyon. From Galilee to the Dead Sea there is an additional drop of 600 feet. ...
The Sea of Galilee is a significant part of the upper Rift Valley and is formed by a widening of it. It has several names—the Lake of Gennesaret, the Sea of Tiberias, Lake Chinnereth—but it is best known as the Sea of Galilee. ”...
As the Jordan flows south out of the Sea of Galilee, it enters a gorge called the Ghor, or “depression. Although the distance from the lower end of the Sea of Galilee to the upper end of the Dead Sea is only 65 miles, the winding Jordan twists 200 miles to cover that distance. ...
Seven miles south of Jericho, the Jordan flows into the Dead Sea, one of the world's most unique bodies of water. The surface of the water Isaiah 1,296 feet below Sea level, the lowest point on the surface of the earth. Forty-seven miles long and eight miles wide, the Dead Sea has no outlet. 5 million tons of water enter the Sea each day. Fish cannot live in Dead Sea water. ...
Thirty miles down the eastern side, a peninsula, the Lisan, or the “Tongue,” juts into the Sea. North of it the Sea is deep, reaching a maximum depth of 1,319 feet—2,650 feet below Sea level. South of the peninsula the Sea is very shallow, with a maximum depth of thirteen feet. The plateau averages 1,500 feet above Sea level. Originally, its northern border was the Arnon River, but the Moabites pushed north, giving their name to the plains east of the spot where the Jordan enters the Dead Sea (Ammon attempted to establish herself between Gilead and Moab using Rabbath-Ammon as her stronghold. Fifty miles south of the Dead Sea lies the ancient fortress of Petra, “rose-red half as old as time. Its elevation of 2,500 feet above Sea level causes the difference. Jericho is only seventeen miles further east, but it Isaiah 3,400 feet lower (900 feet below Sea level), consequently having a tropical climate and very low humidity. Similarly, much of the area around the Sea of Galilee experiences temperate conditions, while the Dead Sea region is known for its strings of 100 plus summer days. ...
Palestine is a land of two Seasons, a dry Season and a rainy Season, with intervening transitional periods. The dry Season lasts from mid-May to mid-October
Lake of Genesareth - The Sea of Galilee is closely connected with the life of Our Lord: He came and went from one side to another with His disciples, to spread His teaching and perform miracles; commanded the winds and Sea, and there came a great calm (Matthew 8); walked on its surface (Matthew 14); and explained the parables (Matthew 13)
Cormorant - It is a "plunging" bird, and is common on the coasts and the island Seas of Palestine. Some think the Hebrew word should be rendered "gannet" (Sula bassana, "the solan goose"); others that it is the "tern" or "sea swallow," which also frequents the coasts of Palestine as well as the Sea of Galilee and the Jordan valley during several months of the year
Sela - =Se'lah, rock, the capital of Edom, situated in the great valley extending from the Dead Sea to the Red Sea (2 Kings 14:7 )
Machaerus - The Black Fortress, was built by Herod the Great in the gorge of Callirhoe, one of the wadies 9 miles east of the Dead Sea, as a frontier rampart against Arab marauders. This castle stood "starkly bold and clear" 3,860 feet above the Dead Sea, and 2,546 above the Mediterranean
Ezion-Geber - The giant's backbone (so called from the head of a mountain which runs out into the Sea), an ancient city and harbour at the north-east end of the Elanitic branch of the Red Sea, the Gulf of Akabah, near Elath or Eloth (Numbers 33:35 ; Deuteronomy 2:8 )
Red - It is applied to the Red Sea, Acts 7:36 ; Hebrews 11:29 . , to the color of the corals which cover the Red Sea bed or line its shores, or to the tinge of the mountains which border it, or to the light of the sky upon its waters
en-Gedi - The Shulammite compares her beloved to henna flowers in En-gedi ( Song of Solomon 1:14 ); and in Ezekiel’s idealistic vision of the healing of the Dead Sea waters, a picture is drawn of fishers here spreading their nets ( Ezekiel 47:10 ). above the level of the Dead Sea, about the middle of its W
Onycha - The operculum or "cover" of the strombus or "wing shell", which abounds in the Red Sea, is employed in compounding perfume, and was the medicine named blatta Βyzantina or unguis odoratus in the middle ages. 2:11) mention a "shell", onyx , "both a perfume and a medicine"; "odorous because the shell fish feed on the nard, and collected when the heat dries up the marshes; the best kind is from the Red Sea, whitish and shining; the Babylonian is darker and smaller; both have a sweet odor when burnt, like castoreum
Galilee, Sea of - The Sea of Galilee is closely connected with the life of Our Lord: He came and went from one side to another with His disciples, to spread His teaching and perform miracles; commanded the winds and Sea, and there came a great calm (Matthew 8); walked on its surface (Matthew 14); and explained the parables (Matthew 13)
Salem - of the Dead Sea; so Salem is Jerusalem, and "the king's dale" the valley of the Kedron. of the Dead Sea is what necessitates its upholders to seek Salem far north of Jerusalem (Genesis 14:17-18)
Main - ) The great Sea, as distinguished from an arm, bay, etc. ; the high Sea; the ocean
Genesareth, Lake of - The Sea of Galilee is closely connected with the life of Our Lord: He came and went from one side to another with His disciples, to spread His teaching and perform miracles; commanded the winds and Sea, and there came a great calm (Matthew 8); walked on its surface (Matthew 14); and explained the parables (Matthew 13)
Jab'ne-el -
One of the points on the northern boundary of Judah, not quite at the Sea, though near it. The modern village of Yebna , more accurately Ibna , stands about two miles from the Sea, on a slight eminence just south of the Nahr Rubin
Castor - Castor and Pollux were Sea-gods, and invoked by sailors; and even the light balls or meteors which are sometimes seen on ships, were called Castor and Pollux. An inscription in Gruter proves that Seamen implored Castor and Pollux in dangers at Sea
Sea of Galilee - The Sea of Galilee is closely connected with the life of Our Lord: He came and went from one side to another with His disciples, to spread His teaching and perform miracles; commanded the winds and Sea, and there came a great calm (Matthew 8); walked on its surface (Matthew 14); and explained the parables (Matthew 13)
Hermon - It is a part of the great Anti-Lebanon Range; at the point where an eastern and lower arm branches off, a little south of the latitude of Damascus, and runs in a southerly direction terminating east of the head of the Sea of Galilee. Mount Hermon is believed to be what is now known as Jebel esh-Sheikh, whose highest summit, surpassing every other in Syria, rises into the region of perpetual snow or ice, ten thousand feet above the Sea
Channel - An arm of the Sea a straight or narrow Sea, between two continents, or between a continent and an isle as the British or Irish channel
Sea, the Salt - Now the "Dead Sea". "The Sea of the plain" (Arabah): Deuteronomy 3:17; Deuteronomy 4:49; Joshua 3:16. "The East Sea" (Ezekiel 47:8; Ezekiel 47:10-11; Joel 2:20). "The former Sea," in opposition to "the hinder Sea," i. (or, according to Lynch, 1,316; it varies greatly at different Seasons) below the Mediterranean level. The area was filled by a chain of large lakes reaching to the Sea. The depression continuing, the heat and the consequent evaporation increased, until there remained only the present three lakes, Merom, Galilee, and the Dead Sea which depends on evaporation alone for maintaining its level. The southern part of the Sea, abounding in salt, bitumen, sulphur, and nitre, was probably formed at a recent date, and answers to the description of the valley of Siddim, "full of slime pits" (Genesis 14:10), and to the destruction of Sodom; etc. , were immersed in the Sea, but that they were overthrown by fire from heaven (Deuteronomy 29:23; Jeremiah 49:18; Jeremiah 50:40; Zephaniah 2:9; 2 Peter 2:6). ...
Ancient testimony, the recent formation of the Sea, its bituminous, saline, volcanic aspect, the traditional names (Usdum ), and the traditional site of Zoar (called by Josephus Zoar of Arabia), the hill of salt traditionally made Lot's wife, all favor the southern site for Sodom, etc. ...
Before the close of the eocene period the Sea flowed the whole length of the Ghor and Arabah connecting them with the Red Sea; it is in fact a pool left by the retreating ocean. of the Dead Sea and the Red Sea is higher than the Ghor or Jordan valley; the valley suddenly rises 100 ft. of the Dead Sea, and continues rising until it reaches 1,800 ft. above the Dead Sea, or 500 above the ocean, at a point 35 miles N. end, and the fringe of dead driftwood, justify the name "Dead Sea
Amalekites - A powerful people, who dwelt in Arabia Petraea, between the Dead Sea and the Red Sea, perhaps in moving troops. The Israelites had scarcely passed the Red Sea, when the Amelikites attacked them in the desert of Rephidim, and slew those who, through fatigue or weakness, lagged behind; and for this unprovoked assault on the people of God, the doom of extermination was passed upon them, Exodus 17:8-16
Tiberias - 16 22) on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee (called the ‘Sea of Tiberias’ in John 6:1 ; John 21:1 , and in modern Arabic), and named in honour of the Roman Emperor. ...
For the ‘ Sea of Tiberias ,’ see Galilee [2]
Leviathan - The term elsewhere is used for any large monster of the "sea" or water. " The king of Egypt is symbolized by the "dragons" and "leviathan" (compare Ezekiel 32:2; Ezekiel 29:3); he and his host at their overthrow in the Red Sea became a spoil to Israel (compare "bread for us," Numbers 14:9) "in the wilderness. In Isaiah 27:1, "leviathan the piercing serpent, even leviathan that crooked (wriggling) serpent," "the dragon in the Sea," literally refers to the crocodile in the Sea or Nile, or else to the great rock snakes
Glass - ...
John also described the Sea as being like glass (Revelation 4:6 ; Revelation 15:2 ). It has often been stated that the Israelites had a fear of the Sea which always seemed to be in a state of chaos and tumult. The Sea that John saw around the throne of God was not in a constant uproar; this Sea was as smooth as glass
Paphos - Paphos was given to the worship of Aphrodite or Venus, who was fabled to have here risen from the Sea
Coast - Coast, now confined to the shore of the Sea, was formerly used of the border between two countries, or the neighbourhood of any place
Zipporah - Joined her husband and the Israelites shortly after the Splitting of the Sea
Pearl - The pearl oyster is found in the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea
Patara - Here he found a larger vessel, which was about to sail across the open Sea to the coast of Phoenicia
Ashkenaz - They are mentioned in connection with Minni and Ararat, and hence their original Seat must have been in Armenia (Jeremiah 51:27 ), probably near the Black Sea, which, from their founder, was first called Axenus, and afterwards the Euxine
Pamphylia - Paul and his company, loosing from Paphos, sailed north-west and came to Perga, the capital of Pamphylia (Acts 13:13,14 ), a province about the middle of the southern Sea-board of Asia Minor
Jeshimon - It was in the south, on the west of the Dead Sea
Halak - It has by some been identified with the modern Jebel el-Madura, on the south frontier of Judah, between the south end of the Dead Sea and the Wady Gaian
Mitylene - The chief city of the island of Lesbos, on its east coast, in the AEgean Sea
Sihor - , in a north-easterly direction from Egypt, and enters the Sea about 50 miles south-west of Gaza
Kir-Haraseth - Built fortress, a city and fortress of Moab, the modern Kerak, a small town on the brow of a steep hill about 6 miles from Rabbath-Moab and 10 miles from the Dead Sea; called also Kir-haresh, Kir-hareseth, Kir-heres (Isaiah 16:7,11 ; Jeremiah 48:31,36 )
Dehavites - of the Caspian (Strabo, 11:8, section 2, and 9, section 3), and near the Sea of Azof; also as Dacians, upon the Danube
Negeb - Much of southern Palestine between the Dead Sea and the Sinai desert was dry semi-barren country to which the Hebrews gave the name negeb (meaning ‘dry’)
Bromine - In combination it is found in minute quantities in Sea water, and in many saline springs
Maonites - These Maonites are perhaps the Meunites attacked by Hezekiah (1 Chronicles 4:41 ) and Uzziah (2 Chronicles 26:7 ), a band of marauding Arabs from south of the Dead Sea in the vicinity of Ma'an
Zair - Some place it south of the Dead Sea near Edom
en-Eglaim - A locality on the Dead Sea, mentioned along with En-gedi ( Ezekiel 47:10 ). It has not been identified, but is not improbably ‘Ain Feshkah (Robinson, BRP Etham - end of the Wady Tumilat , and probably northward of the ‘Red Sea,’ whether that means the Bitter Lakes or the Gulf of Suez
Promontory - ) A high point of land or rock projecting into the Sea beyond the line of coast; a headland; a high cape
Pintail - Called also gray duck, piketail, piket-tail, spike-tail, split-tail, springtail, Sea pheasant, and gray widgeon
Fluctuation - ) A motion like that of waves; a moving in this and that direction; as, the fluctuations of the Sea
Piper - ) A Sea urchin (Goniocidaris hystrix) having very long spines, native of both the American and European coasts
Agistment - ) A charge or rate against lands; as, an agistment of Sea banks, i
Prisage - ) The share of merchandise taken as lawful prize at Sea which belongs to the king or admiral
Trend - ) To have a particular direction; to run; to stretch; to tend; as, the shore of the Sea trends to the southwest
Abarim - The mountain range is in Moab, east of the Dead Sea, west of Heshbon and southeast of Jericho
Akrabbim - ” The “ascent of Akrabbim” lies southwest of the Dead Sea forming the southern border of Canaan (Numbers 34:4 ; Joshua 15:3 ; Judges 1:36 )
Pelagian - ) Of or pertaining to the Sea; marine; pelagic; as, pelagian shells
Zoophyte - ) Any one of numerous species of invertebrate animals which more or less resemble plants in appearance, or mode of growth, as the corals, gorgonians, Sea anemones, hydroids, bryozoans, sponges, etc
Joppa - The Sea-port in Palestine in the Mediterranean
Mosasauria - They are, essentially, fossil Sea serpents with paddles
Genesareth - (Hebrew: kinnor, a harp) ...
Fertile district of Palestine, on the northwest shore of the Sea of Galilee (Mark 6), often called the Lake of Genesareth; the scene of the public ministry of Our Lord
Thessalonica - a celebrated city in Macedonia, and capital, of that kingdom, standing upon the Thesmaic Sea
Pamphylia - a province of Asia Minor which gives name to that part of the Mediterranean Sea which washes its coast, Acts 27:5
Landscape - ) A picture representing a scene by land or Sea, actual or fancied, the chief subject being the general aspect of nature, as fields, hills, forests, water
Akrabbim - A range of hills on the south border of Judah towards the southern extremity of the Dead Sea; which seems to have been infested with scorpions and serpents
Apples of Sodom - Found on the shores of the Dead Sea; like a cluster of oranges, yellow to the eye, and soft to the touch; but on pressure they explode with a puff, leaving only shreds of the rind and fibres
Pithom - This is probably the Pathumos mentioned by Herodotus, which he places near Pi-beseth and the Pelusiac arm of the Nile, not far from the canal made by the kings Necho and Darius to join the Red Sea with the Nile
Ships, Blessing of - It consists of prayers to be offered by the priest, supplicating God to bless the vessel and protect those who sail in it, as He protected the ark of Noe, and also Peter, when the latter was sinking in the Sea; the ship is then sprinkled with holy water
Onycha - The best onycha is found in the Red Sea, and is white and large
Baal-Zephon - Exodus 14:2 , Numbers 33:7 ; the name of a place near the spot where the Israelites crossed the Red Sea, apparently a shrine of ‘Baal of the north
pi-Hahiroth - It was ‘between Migdol and the Sea, before Baal-zephon’ ( Exodus 14:9 )
Trough - The trough of the Sea, the hollow between waves
e'Tham - (bounded by the Sea ), one of the early resting-places of the Israelites when they quitted Egypt; described as "in the edge of the wilderness
Jotbathah - of the head of the Elanitic gulf of the Red Sea, abounding in water, tamarisks, and palms
Purple - The purple dye so famous among the orientals of ancient days was produced from a species of shellfish peculiar to the Mediterranean Sea
Idumea - The region was southeast of the Dead Sea
Crystal - “Crystal” is the modern translation of several Hebrew and Greek words used to describe something valuable (Job 28:18 ), a clear sky (Ezekiel 1:22 ), a calm Sea or river (Revelation 4:6 ; Revelation 22:1 ), or the radiance of the new Jerusalem (Revelation 21:11 )
Abarim - Mountains east of the Dead Sea and the lower Jordan, "over against Jericho," within the territory of Moab and the tribe of Reuben
Berea - A city of Macedonia to which Paul with Silas and Timotheus went when persecuted at Thessalonica (Acts 17:10,13 ), and from which also he was compelled to withdraw, when he fled to the Sea-coast and thence sailed to Athens (14,15)
Herod Philip ii. - He rebuilt the city of Caesarea Philippi, calling it by his own name to distinguish it from the Caesarea on the Sea-coast which was the Seat of the Roman government
Beth-Jeshimoth - from opposite Jericho, on the Dead Sea
Ashdoth Pisgah - of the Dead Sea are hereby defined; "the springs" is one of the leading physical divisions of the country, namely, those at the base of the Moabite mountains (Joshua 10:40; Joshua 12:8)
India - Solomon imported through the Red Sea from Ophir Indian articles, of which some have Indian names; algumiym "sandal wood," kophim "apes," thucim "peacocks," pitdah "topaz," Sanskrit pita
Sea of Glass - According to the interpretation of some, "this calm, glass-like Sea, which is never in storm, but only interfused with flame, represents the counsels of God, those purposes of righteousness and love which are often fathomless but never obscure, always the same, though sometimes glowing with holy anger
Emim - of the Dead Sea, in which the Moabites succeeded them (Genesis 14:5; Deuteronomy 2:10)
Baal-Zephon - Baal of the north, an Egyptian town on the shores of the Gulf of Suez (Exodus 14:2 ; Numbers 33:7 ), over against which the children of Israel encamped before they crossed the Red Sea
Arming - , of the Sea bottom
Mustard - Thomson has seen it there as tall as the horse and his rider, and the ground near the Sea of Galilee is often "gilded over with its yellow flowers
Gear - The two interpretations most often given are “lowered the sail” (KJV, TEV) and “let out the (sea) anchor” (NAS, NIV, NRSV, REB)
Bath - It was used to measure the molten Sea in the Temple (1Kings 7:26,1 Kings 7:38 ) as well as oil and wine (2 Chronicles 2:10 ; Ezra 7:22 ; Isaiah 5:10 ; Ezekiel 45:14 )
Miscarry - ...
Have you not heart of Frederick, the great soldier, who miscarried at Sea? ...
My ships have all miscarried
Palolo Worm - A little before the last quarter of the moon in October and November, they swarm in vast numbers at the surface of the Sea for breeding, and are gathered and highly esteemed as food by the natives
Atharim - The site may be Tamar a few miles south of the Dead Sea
Anastasius the Fuller, Saint - Under Diocletian he was arrested and thrown into the Sea because he painted a conspicuous cross on his door
Bithynia - A large district in the north of Asia Minor, bordering on the Black Sea
Eider - ) Any species of Sea duck of the genus Somateria, esp
Furrow - ) To cut a furrow in; to make furrows in; to plow; as, to furrow the ground or Sea
Boiler - , a coral reef on which the Sea breaks heavily
Barber - ) A storm accompanied by driving ice spicules formed from Sea water, esp
Exceeding - The Genoese were exceeding powerful by Sea
Ospray - The Sea eagle or fish hawk, Ρandion haliaetus , the Septuagint
Tunny - ) Any one of several species of large oceanic fishes belonging to the Mackerel family, especially the common or great tunny (Orcynus / Albacora thynnus) native of the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean
Proteus - ) A Sea god in the service of Neptune who assumed different shapes at will
Cos - A small island in the Ægean Sea off the coast of Caria, the birthplace of Hippocrates, with a chief town of the same name, in which was a famous temple of Æsculapius
Tubal - Fifth son of Japheth, whose descendants probably peopled a country lying south of the Caucasus, between the Black Sea and the Araxes, whose inhabitants were the Tibareni of the Greeks
Halcyon - ) Pertaining to, or resembling, the halcyon, which was anciently said to lay her eggs in nests on or near the Sea during the calm weather about the winter solstice
Kir-Haraseth - A strong fortress in Moab, situated near the southeastern shore of the Dead Sea
Sin - The wilderness extends 25 miles along the east shore of the Red Sea, from Wâdy Taiyibeh to Wâdy Feiran; it is now called the plain of el-Markha
Hauran - Ezekiel 47:16 , was originally a small district south of Damascus, and east of the Sea of Tiberias, but was afterwards extended to the south and east, and under the Romans was called Auranitis
Tekoa - ...
The wilderness of Tekoa, mentioned in 2 Chronicles 20:20 , inclines toward the Dead Sea
Dophkah - This station and the next one, Alush , which lie between the ‘encampment by the Sea’ and Rephidim, have not been identified, and they are not alluded to in Exodus
Unicorn - The Sea unicorn is a fish of the whale kind, called narwal, remarkable for a horn growing out at his nose
Gerasa - Gerasa was a town in Decapolis, south-east of the Sea of Galilee
Bethsaida - of and close to the Sea of Tiberias, in the land of Gennesareth (Mark 6:45-53; John 6:16-17; John 1:44; John 12:21). of the lake, they entered into a boat to cross to Bethsaida (Mark 6:45), while John says" they went over the Sea toward Capernaum. " Being driven out of their course, Jesus came to them walking on the Sea; they landed in Gennesaret and went to Capernaum; so that Bethsaida must have been near Capernaum
Judah Territory of - It extended across the whole of Western Palestine, from the Dead Sea on the east to the Mediterranean on the west. The wilderness, sloping from the central hills to the Dead Sea, at which it terminates in precipitous cliffs. An exception must be made of the fringe of the Dead Sea, where were six cities
Sodom - Tradition says the spot was Caphar Berucha, from which the Dead Sea is visible through a ravine. Lot at first pitched only towards Sodom, not until afterward did he go further south to Sodom itself (Genesis 13:12; Genesis 14:12; and Genesis 14:3 says expressly the vale of Siddim is the Salt Sea). of the Dead Sea site for Sodom, etc
Zebulun - " Jacob's blessing (Genesis 49:13) was, "Zebulun shall dwell at the haven of the Sea, and he shall be for an haven of ships, and his border shall be unto Sidon. " Zebulun reached from the Sea of Gennesareth to Mount Carmel, and so nearly to the Mediterranean. Zebulun had no Seacoast, yet reached close to the Mediterranean, and actually coasted the Sea of Gennesareth; the rich plain now the Buttauf was in its territory. Zebulun possessed the fisheries of lake Tiberias or the Sea of Gennesareth. Typically there is a reference to the conversion of the Gentiles; Isaiah 60:5-6; Isaiah 60:16; Isaiah 66:11-12, "the abundance of the Sea shall be converted," etc. "The way of the Sea," the great road from Damascus to the Mediterranean, traversed a good part of Zebulun (Isaiah 9:1-2; Matthew 4:12; Matthew 4:16). The "treasures hid in the sand" are the riches of the Sea in general; possibly too referring to the then precious glass manufactured from the sand of these coasts (Tacitus, Annals v
Mount - The mountains of Western and Middle Palestine do not extend to the Sea, but gently slope into plains, and toward the Jordan fall down into the Ghor. East of the Jordan the Anti-Lebanon, stretching south, terminates in the hilly district called Jebel Heish, which reaches down to the Sea of Gennesareth
Cappadocia - Once Cappadocia reached to the Euxine Sea; but Rome made two provinces of the ancient Cappadocia, Pontus on the N. along the Sea, and Cappadocia on the S
Badger - " The revisers have correctly substituted "seal skins. " The Arabs of the Sinaitic peninsula apply the name Tucash to the Seals and dugongs which are common in the Red Sea, and the skins of which are largely used as leather and for sandals. The dugong, very plentiful in the shallow waters on the shores of the Red Sea, is a marine animal from 12 to 30 feet long, something between a whale and a Seal, never leaving the water, but very easily caught. It grazes on Seaweed, and is known by naturalists as Halicore tabernaculi
Gebal - Seaport known to Greeks as Byblos whose help for Tyre Ezekiel described (Ezekiel 27:9 ). It is the northern part of Arabia near Petra in the mountainous country south of the Dead Sea. The Genesis Apocryphon from the Dead Sea Scrolls also mentions it
Michmash - ” City in Benjamin about seven miles northeast of Jerusalem, four and a half miles northeast of Gibeah, rising 1980 feet above Sea level overlooking a pass going from the Jordan River to Ephraim. It is four and a half miles southeast of Bethel, which rises 2,890 feet above Sea level. It served as Jonathan Maccabeus' residence and Seat of government (1 Maccabees 9:73 )
Hor - above the Sea-level. A very wide view over the Arabian desert, down to the Red Sea and up to the Ghôr, is commanded from the summit
River of Egypt - ...
(2) Νahal Μitsaim (Numbers 34:5; Joshua 15:3-4; Joshua 15:47; 1 Kings 8:65; 2 Kings 24:7); "the torrent of Egypt": see above nahal , "a stream flowing rapidly in the rainy Season, then drying up", inapplicable to the sluggish Nile ever flowing. The Rhinocorura or Rhinocolora (so Septuagint of Isaiah 27:12) on the Sea coast, a wady and torrent running into the Sea two or three days' journey from the nearest branch of the Nile
Bluff - ) A high, steep bank, as by a river or the Sea, or beside a ravine or plain; a cliff with a broad face. ) Abrupt; roughly frank; unceremonious; blunt; brusque; as, a bluff answer; a bluff manner of talking; a bluff Sea captain
Gennesaret, Sea of - (See CINNEROTH; GALILEE, Sea OF). It is also called "the Sea of Tiberias
Anthony, Saint - Born Coma, Egypt 251; died Mount Colzin, near the Red Sea, c356 At the age of twenty, he divided his inheritance among the poor and retired to a cell in the mountains. He again retired to the desert lying between the Nile and the Red Sea and lived for 45 years on the mountain where stands the monastery named for him, Der Mar Antonios. Invoked against pestilence, epilepsy, erysipelas, and skin-diseases
Pamphylia - Then they "went down (sea being lower than land) to Attalia," the chief Seaport of Pamphylia. The minute accuracy of the geographical order, confirming genuineness, is observable, when, in coasting westward, he is said to "sail over the Sea of Cilicia, and Pamphylia
me'Rom - (high place ) , The waters of, a lake formed by the river Jordan, about ten miles north of the Sea of Galilee. ( Joshua 11:5,7 ) It is a remarkable fact that though by common consent "the waters of Merom" are identified with the lake thorough which the Jordan runs between Banias and the Sea of Galilee --the Bahr el-Huleh of the modern Arabs-- Yet that identity cannot be proved by any ancient record
Amalek - He was probably the father of the Amalekites, an ancient and powerful people, Genesis 14:7; Numbers 24:20, who inhabited the regions on the south of Palestine, between Idumea and Egypt, and also to the eastward of the Dead Sea and Mount Seir. The Hebrews had scarcely passed the Red Sea, when the Amalekites attacked them; they were defeated by Joshua
Capernaum - It lay on the northwest shore of the Sea of Galilee, about five miles from the Jordan and on the frequented route from Damascus to the Mediterranean. Robinson, however, finds them at Khan Minyeh, on the northern border of the fine plain of Gennesareth, where ruins of some extent still remain, and a copious fountain not far from the Sea
Patmos - An island of the Aeagean Sea, to which the apostle and evangelist John was banished by Domitian, A. In this cave, over-looking the Sea and its islands towards his beloved Ephesus, tradition says that John saw and recorded his prophetic visions
Ebal - above the Sea. The mountain commands an extensive view over almost the whole of Galilee, which includes points from Hermon to Jerusalem and from the Sea to the Hauran
Rahab - In the last of these passages, Egypt is further symbolized as a ferocious Sea-monster; but it is doubtful whether the word Rahab itself is ever used to denote a Sea-monster
Fish - Fish were plentiful in the Mediterranean Sea and in the Sea of Galilee, but there were none in the Dead Sea, as the water was too salty (Nehemiah 13:16; Matthew 4:18; Luke 5:1-7). This was a net that they threw into the Sea and dragged towards either the shore or the boat from which they were fishing (Habakkuk 1:15; Matthew 13:47-48; Luke 5:4-7; John 21:6-8)
la Chine - The name was given by early explorers who thought the Saint Lawrence flowed into the China Sea
Folkestone Abbey - Removed from the Sea coast to the site of the present church of Folkestone, 1137, it continued to the time of the dissolution, 1535
Folkestone Priory - Removed from the Sea coast to the site of the present church of Folkestone, 1137, it continued to the time of the dissolution, 1535
Akrabbim - Scorpions, probably the general name given to the ridge containing the pass between the south of the Dead Sea and Zin, es-Sufah, by which there is an ascent to the level of the land of Palestine
Coronal - ) Of or pertaining to the shell of a Sea urchin
Booming - ) The act of producing a hollow or roaring sound; a violent rushing with heavy roar; as, the booming of the Sea; a deep, hollow sound; as, the booming of bitterns
Brimstone - It lies on the shore of the Dead Sea and can burst into flame when earthquakes release hot gases from the earth's interior
Marah - The first ‘station’ of the Israelites after crossing the Sea ( Exodus 15:23 , Numbers 33:8-9 )
Nimrim, the Waters of - end of the Dead Sea
Ziz - It has been identified as an ascent near En-gedi from the plain of the Dead Sea to the tableland of Judah
Nobah - end of the Sea of Tiberias