What does Sackcloth mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
שַׂקִּ֔ים mesh 4
שָֽׂק mesh 3
בַּשָּׂ֔ק mesh 3
שָׂ֑ק mesh 3
שַׂ֖ק mesh 3
שַׂקִּ֑ים mesh 2
שַׂ֣ק mesh 2
σάκκῳ a sack. 2
שַׂקִּ֨ים mesh 2
בַּשַּׂקִּ֑ים mesh 2
וְשַׂ֖ק mesh 1
שַׂקִּ֑י mesh 1
וּבְשַׂקִּ֔ים mesh 1
שַׂקִּ֗ים mesh 1
שַׂ֔ק mesh 1
בַשַּׂקִּ֔ים mesh 1
שָׂק֙ mesh 1
שַׂקִּ֖ים mesh 1
וְשַׂ֤ק mesh 1
σάκκος a sack. 1
הַשַּׂק֙ mesh 1
הַשַּׂ֛ק mesh 1
וַחֲג֖וֹרָה to gird 1
שַׂקּ֛וֹ mesh 1
בַּשַּׂקִּ֖ים mesh 1
σάκκους a sack. 1
וְשַׂ֥ק mesh 1
שָׂ֔ק mesh 1
שַׂ֥ק mesh 1
הַשַּׂ֜ק mesh 1
שָׂ֗ק mesh 1

Definitions Related to Sackcloth

H8242


   1 mesh, Sackcloth, sack, sacking.
      1a sack (for grain).
      1b Sackcloth.
         1b1 worn in mourning or humiliation.
         1b2 same material spread out to lie on.
         

G4526


   1 a sack.
      1a a receptacle for holding or carrying various things, as money, food, etc.
      1b a course cloth, a dark course stuff made especially from the hair of animals.
      1c a garment of the like material, and clinging to the person like a sack, which was wont to be worn (or drawn over the tunic instead of the cloak or mantle) by mourners, penitents, suppliants and also by those who like the Hebrew prophets, lead an austere life.
      

Frequency of Sackcloth (original languages)

Frequency of Sackcloth (English)

Dictionary

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Sackcloth
SACKCLOTH . The sackcloth of OT was a coarse dark cloth made on the loom from the hair of goats and camels. In the extant literature it is almost always associated with mourning for the dead ( Genesis 37:34 , 2 Samuel 3:31 and oft.): and especially with the public expression of humiliation and penitence in view of some national misfortune, present or impending ( 1 Kings 21:27 , Nehemiah 9:1 , Jonah 3:5 etc.). For other tokens of grief and penitence, associated with the donning of sackcloth, such as ashes or dust on the head, and the rending of garments (this being a later substitute for their entire removal), see Mourning Customs. In such cases the person or persons concerned are generally said to ‘gird’ themselves with sackcloth, or to have sackcloth about their loins, from which it is evident that the sackcloth was worn in the form of a loincloth or waistcloth, tied in the ancient manner in a knot in front (cf. Isaiah 20:2 ‘loose the sackcloth,’ lit. ‘untie the knot’). It was worn by women as well as by men ( Isaiah 32:11 , Jdt 9:1 ). The putting of it upon cattle, however, as mentioned in Jonah 3:8 and Jdt 4:10 , and even upon an altar ( Jdt 4:11 ), is, from the nature of the passages cited, rather a literary than a historical extravagance.
In this custom most modern scholars recognize an illustration of conservatism in religious practice. The waistcloth is known to have been the oldest article of dress among the Semites (see Dress, § 2 ), and as such it appears to have been retained in mourning customs and in humiliation before God, and perhaps in the exercise of the cultus, long after it had ceased to be the only garment of the people. The ihram or waistcloth still worn by the Moslem pilgrims during their devotions at the sacred shrine at Mecca, has often been cited as a modern parallel.
A. R. S. Kennedy.
Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words - Sackcloth
1: σάκκος (Strong's #4526 — Noun Masculine — sakkos — sak'-kos ) "a warm material woven from goat's or camel's hair," and hence of a dark color, Revelation 6:12 ; Jerome renders it saccus cilicinus (being made from the hair of the black goat of Cilicia; the Romans called it cilicium); cp. Isaiah 50:3 ; it was also used for saddle-cloths, Joshua 9:4 ; also for making sacks, e.g., Genesis 42:25 , and for garments worn as expressing mourning or penitence, Matthew 11:21 ; Luke 10:13 , or for purposes of prophetic testimony, Revelation 11:3 .
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Sackcloth
Cloth made of black goats' hair, coarse, rough, and thick, used for sacks, and also worn by mourners (Genesis 37:34 ; 42:25 ; 2 Samuel 3:31 ; Esther 4:1,2 ; Psalm 30:11 , etc.), and as a sign of repentance (Matthew 11:21 ). It was put upon animals by the people of Nineveh (Jonah 3:8 ).
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Sackcloth
People put on sackcloth as a sign of mourning, whether for those who had just died (Genesis 37:34; 2 Samuel 3:31), for some personal distress (Job 16:15), or for a national disaster (Esther 4:1; Lamentations 2:10). They also put on sackcloth as a sign of sorrow for personal sins (1 Kings 21:27-29; Nehemiah 9:1-2) or urgency in prayer (Daniel 9:3). The sackcloth was worn either over the top of, or instead of, their normal clothing (2 Kings 6:30; Job 16:15; Jonah 3:6; see DRESS).
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Sackcloth,
cloth used in making sacks or bags, a coarse fabric, of a dark color, made of goat's hair, (Isaiah 50:3 ; Revelation 6:12 ) end resembling the eilicium of the Romans. It, was used also for making the rough garments used by mourners, which were in extreme cases worn next the skin. ( 1 Kings 21:27 ; 2 Kings 6:30 ; Job 16:15 ; Isaiah 32:11 )
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Sackcloth
SACKCLOTH.—A coarse, dark-coloured cloth, made of goat’s or camel’s hair (Gr. σάκκος, Heb. שַׂק), used in ordinary life for sacking, sieves, strainers, and the like, but in the Gospels twice named in connexion with prevalent mourning customs (Matthew 11:21, Luke 10:13), coupled with ‘ashes’ (wh. see) as an expression of penitential grief. The mourner wore the sackcloth garment, sometimes next the skin; and because of the garment’s coarseness it became a constant reminder of his grief, its irritation being a sort of penance; sometimes it was worn as an outer garment as a visible expression of mourning. Closely related to this use of sackcloth was the use of it by ascetics and prophets (cf. later use by pilgrims). So John the Baptist wore a garment of camel’s hair (Matthew 3:4, Mark 1:6) as the expression of a certain austerity of life, and as a rebuke to the love of ease and luxury which characterized the age.
E. B. Pollard.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Sackcloth
A garment of coarse material fashioned from goat or camel hair worn as a sign of mourning or anguish, also marked by fasting and sitting on an ash heap (Isaiah 58:5 ). Jonah 3:8 notes even animals mourned in sackcloth. The shape of the garment could have been either a loose-fitting sack placed over the shoulders or a loin cloth. The word sack is a transliteration of the Hebrew word rather than a translation.
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Sackcloth
We read much of the sackcloth with which the prophets and mourners in Zion clad themselves upon occasions of sorrow. Rending the garment, and putting on sackcloth, are terms every where to be met with in the Old Testament. And at any time when a reverse of circumstances took place, they rent the sackcloth from their loins: hence David is represented as saying, "Thou hast turned for me my mourning into dancing; thou hast put off my sackcloth, and girded me with gladness." (Psalms 30:11) I refer the reader to the word of God for accounts of this apparel. (Genesis 37:34; Psalms 35:13; Isaiah 20:2) There is a prophecy in the book of the Revelations which some think yet remains to be fulfilled, where it is said that the Lord's "two witnesses shall prophecy a thousand, two hundred, and three-score days, clothed in sackcloth?" (Revelation 11:3) Others suppose the event hath been already accomplished.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Sackcloth
A rough cloth made of hair, of which sacks and coarse clothing was made. When put on as a symbol of sorrow or repentance it was worn next the skin, and not taken off at night: it was often associated with ashes. 1 Kings 21:27 ; 2 Kings 6:30 ; Job 16:15 ; Joel 1:13 ; Revelation 6:12 ; etc.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Sackcloth
Of coarse, dark goat's hair. Used for sacks, also for close fitting raiment in mourning; secured by a girdle (Genesis 42:25; 1 Kings 21:27; 2 Samuel 3:31).
Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Sackcloth
2 Samuel 3:31 (b) This is a type of sorrow, grief and mourning. Those who wore this cloth publicly announced that they had broken hearts and sorrowing spirits. (See also1Ki 20:31; 2 Kings 6:30; Job 16:15; Psalm 35:13; Psalm 69:11; Psalm 32:11; Jeremiah 4:8; Daniel 9:3; Joel 1:13; Revelation 11:3).
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Sackcloth
a sort of mourning worn at the death of a friend or relation. In great calamities, in penitence, in trouble also, they wore sackcloth about their bodies: "Gird yourselves with sackcloth, and mourn for Abner," 2 Samuel 3:31 . "Let us gird ourselves with sackcloth; and let us go and implore the clemency of the king of Israel," 1 Kings 20:31 . Ahab rent his clothes, put on a shirt of haircloth next to his skin, fasted, and lay upon sackcloth, 1 Kings 21:27 . When Mordecai was informed of the destruction threatened to his nation, he put on sackcloth, and covered his head with ashes, Esther 4. On the contrary, in time of joy, or on hearing good news, those who were clad in sackcloth tore it from their bodies, and cast it from them, Psalms 30:11 . The prophets were often clothed in sackcloth, and generally in coarse clothing. The Lord bids Isaiah to put off the sackcloth from about his body, and to go naked, that is, without his upper garment, Isaiah 20:2 . Zechariah says that false prophets shall no longer prophesy in sackcloth, to deceive the simple, Zechariah 13:4 .
Webster's Dictionary - Sackcloth
(n.) Linen or cotton cloth such as sacks are made of; coarse cloth; anciently, a cloth or garment worn in mourning, distress, mortification, or penitence.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Sackcloth
Sackcloth. A coarse black cloth commonly made of hair, Revelation 6:12, such as that of goats or camels. It was used for straining liquids, for sacks, and for mourning garments. Sometimes it was worn under the ordinary clothes, bound upon the loins, or instead of any other kind of dress; occasionally it was spread on the ground to be lain upon. Genesis 37:34; 1 Kings 21:27; 2 Kings 6:30; Isaiah 58:5; Joel 1:8; Jonah 3:5-6; Jonah 3:8. Deep sorrow was hence denoted by sackcloth and ashes. Matthew 11:21. Such garments were sometimes the dress of prophets and ascetics. Isaiah 20:2; Zechariah 13:4.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Sackcloth
Garment of rough texture, like hair cloth, worn next to the skin to do penance, or as a sign of contriteness and humiliation.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Sack, Sackcloth
Sack is a pure Hebrew word, and has spread into many modern languages. Sackcloth is a very coarse stuff, often of hair, Revelation 6:12 . In great calamities, in penitence, in trouble, the Jews, etc., wore sackcloth about their bodies, Genesis 37:34 ; 2 Samuel 3:31 ; 1 Kings 20:32 ; Matthew 11:21 . The prophets were often clothed in sackcloth, and generally in coarse clothing, Matthew 11:21 . The Lord bid Isaiah put off the sackcloth from about his body, and go naked, Isaiah 20:2 . Zechariah says, Zechariah 13:4 , that false prophets should no longer prophesy in sackcloth, (English translation, a rough garment,) to deceive the simple.
In time of joy, or on hearing good news, those who were clad in sackcloth cast it from them, and resumed their usual clothing, Psalm 30:11 .
King James Dictionary - Sackcloth
SACK'CLOTH, n. sack and cloth. Cloth of which sacks are made coarse cloth. This word is chiefly used in Scripture to denote a cloth or garment worn in mourning, distress or mortification.
Gird you with sackcloth and mourn before Abner. 2 Samuel 3 .
Esther 4 . Job 46 .
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Sackcloth
SACKCLOTH.—A coarse, dark-coloured cloth, made of goat’s or camel’s hair (Gr. σάκκος, Heb. שַׂק), used in ordinary life for sacking, sieves, strainers, and the like, but in the Gospels twice named in connexion with prevalent mourning customs (Matthew 11:21, Luke 10:13), coupled with ‘ashes’ (wh. see) as an expression of penitential grief. The mourner wore the sackcloth garment, sometimes next the skin; and because of the garment’s coarseness it became a constant reminder of his grief, its irritation being a sort of penance; sometimes it was worn as an outer garment as a visible expression of mourning. Closely related to this use of sackcloth was the use of it by ascetics and prophets (cf. later use by pilgrims). So John the Baptist wore a garment of camel’s hair (Matthew 3:4, Mark 1:6) as the expression of a certain austerity of life, and as a rebuke to the love of ease and luxury which characterized the age.
E. B. Pollard.

Sentence search

Sackcloth - In great calamities, in penitence, in trouble also, they wore Sackcloth about their bodies: "Gird yourselves with Sackcloth, and mourn for Abner," 2 Samuel 3:31 . "Let us gird ourselves with Sackcloth; and let us go and implore the clemency of the king of Israel," 1 Kings 20:31 . Ahab rent his clothes, put on a shirt of haircloth next to his skin, fasted, and lay upon Sackcloth, 1 Kings 21:27 . When Mordecai was informed of the destruction threatened to his nation, he put on Sackcloth, and covered his head with ashes, Esther 4. On the contrary, in time of joy, or on hearing good news, those who were clad in Sackcloth tore it from their bodies, and cast it from them, Psalms 30:11 . The prophets were often clothed in Sackcloth, and generally in coarse clothing. The Lord bids Isaiah to put off the Sackcloth from about his body, and to go naked, that is, without his upper garment, Isaiah 20:2 . Zechariah says that false prophets shall no longer prophesy in Sackcloth, to deceive the simple, Zechariah 13:4
Sack, Sackcloth - Sackcloth is a very coarse stuff, often of hair, Revelation 6:12 . , wore Sackcloth about their bodies, Genesis 37:34 ; 2 Samuel 3:31 ; 1 Kings 20:32 ; Matthew 11:21 . The prophets were often clothed in Sackcloth, and generally in coarse clothing, Matthew 11:21 . The Lord bid Isaiah put off the Sackcloth from about his body, and go naked, Isaiah 20:2 . Zechariah says, Zechariah 13:4 , that false prophets should no longer prophesy in Sackcloth, (English translation, a rough garment,) to deceive the simple. ...
In time of joy, or on hearing good news, those who were clad in Sackcloth cast it from them, and resumed their usual clothing, Psalm 30:11
Sackcloth - We read much of the Sackcloth with which the prophets and mourners in Zion clad themselves upon occasions of sorrow. Rending the garment, and putting on Sackcloth, are terms every where to be met with in the Old Testament. And at any time when a reverse of circumstances took place, they rent the Sackcloth from their loins: hence David is represented as saying, "Thou hast turned for me my mourning into dancing; thou hast put off my Sackcloth, and girded me with gladness. (Genesis 37:34; Psalms 35:13; Isaiah 20:2) There is a prophecy in the book of the Revelations which some think yet remains to be fulfilled, where it is said that the Lord's "two witnesses shall prophecy a thousand, two hundred, and three-score days, clothed in Sackcloth?" (Revelation 11:3) Others suppose the event hath been already accomplished
Sackclothed - ) Clothed in Sackcloth
Sackcloth - People put on Sackcloth as a sign of mourning, whether for those who had just died (Genesis 37:34; 2 Samuel 3:31), for some personal distress (Job 16:15), or for a national disaster (Esther 4:1; Lamentations 2:10). They also put on Sackcloth as a sign of sorrow for personal sins (1 Kings 21:27-29; Nehemiah 9:1-2) or urgency in prayer (Daniel 9:3). The Sackcloth was worn either over the top of, or instead of, their normal clothing (2 Kings 6:30; Job 16:15; Jonah 3:6; see DRESS)
Sackcloth - Sackcloth . The Sackcloth of OT was a coarse dark cloth made on the loom from the hair of goats and camels. For other tokens of grief and penitence, associated with the donning of Sackcloth, such as ashes or dust on the head, and the rending of garments (this being a later substitute for their entire removal), see Mourning Customs. In such cases the person or persons concerned are generally said to ‘gird’ themselves with Sackcloth, or to have Sackcloth about their loins, from which it is evident that the Sackcloth was worn in the form of a loincloth or waistcloth, tied in the ancient manner in a knot in front (cf. Isaiah 20:2 ‘loose the Sackcloth,’ lit
Sacophori - A denomination in the fourth century, so called, because they always went clothed in Sackcloth, and affected a great deal of austerity and penance
Sackcloth - SACKCLOTH. The mourner wore the Sackcloth garment, sometimes next the skin; and because of the garment’s coarseness it became a constant reminder of his grief, its irritation being a sort of penance; sometimes it was worn as an outer garment as a visible expression of mourning. Closely related to this use of Sackcloth was the use of it by ascetics and prophets (cf
Sackcloth - SACKCLOTH. The mourner wore the Sackcloth garment, sometimes next the skin; and because of the garment’s coarseness it became a constant reminder of his grief, its irritation being a sort of penance; sometimes it was worn as an outer garment as a visible expression of mourning. Closely related to this use of Sackcloth was the use of it by ascetics and prophets (cf
Ambary Hemp - A valuable East Indian fiber plant (Hibiscus cannabinus), or its fiber, which is used throughout India for making ropes, cordage, and a coarse canvas and Sackcloth; - called also brown Indian hemp
Sackcloth - Sackcloth. Deep sorrow was hence denoted by Sackcloth and ashes
Sackcloth - ...
Gird you with Sackcloth and mourn before Abner
Sanbenito - ) Anciently, a Sackcloth coat worn by penitents on being reconciled to the church
Clothing - As for me--my clothing was Sackcloth
Ashes (2) - Sometimes ashes is associated with σάκκος, Sackcloth; the penitent or mourner sitting upon the ash-heap, his face begrimed with the dust. To this custom Christ referred when He said of Tyre and Sidon, ‘They would have repented long ago, sitting in Sackcloth and ashes’ (Luke 10:13; cf
Ashes - To repent in Sackcloth and ashes, or to lie down among ashes, was an external sign of self-affliction for sin, or of grief under misfortune
Sackcloth - Jonah 3:8 notes even animals mourned in Sackcloth
Wednesday, Ash - The first day of Lent, when, in the primitive church, notorious sinners were put to open penance thus: They appeared at the church door barefooted, and clothed in Sackcloth, where, being examined, their discipline was proportioned according to their offences; after which, being brought into the church, the bishop singing the seven penitential psalms, they prostrated themselves, and with tears begged absolution; the whole congregation having ashes on their heads, to signify, that they were both mortal and deserved to be burnt to ashes for their sins
Hairshirt - A garment of coarse cloth made in Cilicia from goat's hair and worn in the form of a shirt or girdle by way of penance and mortification; probably the same as the scriptural Sackcloth, or haircloth in Judith 9
Baldness - However, Isaiah told of God calling the people to acknowledge their sin with baldness and the wearing of Sackcloth (Isaiah 15:2-39 ). A shorn head is frequently mentioned in conjunction with shaving the beard and wearing Sackcloth to signify loss of loved ones or loss of hope (Isaiah 3:24 ; 1618448804_37 ; Jeremiah 48:37 )
Ashes - Dirt, Sackcloth, fasting, the tearing of clothing, and ashes visibly demonstrated the person's emotions
Ashes - To repent in Sackcloth and ashes, or, as an external sign of self-affliction for sin, or of suffering under some misfortune, to sit in ashes, are expressions common in Scripture. He arose from his throne, laid aside his robe, covered himself with Sackcloth, and sat in ashes
Ashes - Ashes, mostly from burnt wood, were used as a sign of sorrow or mourning, either put on the head, 2 Samuel 13:19 , or on the body with Sackcloth, Esther 4:1 ; Jeremiah 6:26 ; Lamentations 3:16 ; Matthew 11:21 ; Luke 10:13 ; or strewn on a couch on which to lie, Esther 4:3 ; Isaiah 58:5 ; Jonah 3:6
Rizpah - Rizpah spread Sackcloth on the rock, a sign that the land repented, and watched the dead till the anger of Jehovah relented and the rain came
Ashes - A — 1: σποδός (Strong's #4700 — Noun Masculine — spodos — spod-os' ) "ashes," is found three times, twice in association with Sackcloth, Matthew 11:21 ; Luke 10:13 , as tokens of grief (cp
Fasts - After the feast of tabernacles, when the second temple was completed," the children of Israel were assembled with fasting, and with Sackcloth and earth upon them," to hear the law read and to confess their sins. Those who ousted frequently dressed in Sackcloth or rent their clothes, put ashes on their head and went barefoot
Gird - To bind by surrounding with any flexible substance, as with a twig, a cord, bandage or cloth as, to gird the loins with Sackcloth
Theodosius of Syria - He speedily gathered a colony of ascetics, whom he taught industrial arts, as weaving Sackcloth and haircloth, making mats, fans, and baskets, and cultivating, setting an example of laborious diligence, and carefully superintending every department
Grief And Mourning - “And Jacob rent his clothes, and put Sackcloth upon his loins, and mourned for his son many days;b3he refused to be comforted; and he said, For I will go down into the grave unto my son mourning. On others they wore Sackcloth, “And David said;b3Rend your clothes, and gird you with Sackcloth, and mourn” (2 Samuel 3:31 )
Rizpah - Her famous act was (2 Samuel 21:8-11) her watching against bird and beast of prey the hung up corpses of her two sons and five kinsmen on the sacred hill of Gibeah, with which Saul had been so closely connected (1 Samuel 11:4), from the beginning of barley harvest, the sacred Passover season, until the fall of the early rain in October, without tent to screen her from the scorching sun all day and the saturating dews at night, and with only her black widow's Sackcloth to rest upon, keeping her from the rocky ground
Mourning - They would beat their breasts, cover their heads, fast, put dust and ashes on their heads, neglect their hair, wear dull-coloured garments, rend their clothes, wear Sackcloth, etc
Penitents - Of these, it is said, there are more than a hundred, the most considerable of which are as follow: the White Penitents, of which there are several different sorts at Rome, the most ancient of which was instituted in 1264: the brethren of this fraternity every year give portions to a certain number of young girls, in order to their being married: their habit is a kind of white Sackcloth, and on the shoulder is a circle, in the middle of which is a red and white cross. On the day of execution they walk in procession before them, singing the seven penitential psalms, and the litanies; and after they are dead, they take them down from the gibbet, and bury them: their habit is black Sackcloth
Hair - , "hairy Sackcloth. Sackcloth
Dead - Long after the time of Moses, that rebellious nation again received a command of similar import: "Strip you, and make you bare, and gird Sackcloth upon your loins," Isaiah 32:11 . " In Judea, the mourner was clothed in Sackcloth of hair and by consequence, in sable robes; and penitents, by assuming it, seemed to confess that their guilt exposed them to death. Some of the eastern nations, in modern times, bury in linen; but Chardin informs us, that others still retain the use of Sackcloth for that purpose. To sit in Sackcloth and ashes, was a frequent expression of mourning in the oriental regions; and persons overwhelmed with grief, and unable to sustain the weight of their calamities, often threw themselves upon the earth, and rolled in the dust; and the more dirty the ground was, the better it served to defile them, and to express their sorrow and dejection. In this way Tamar signified her distress, after being dishonoured by Amnon, "She put ashes on her head;" and when Mordecai understood that the doom of his nation was sealed, he "rent his clothes, and put on Sackcloth with ashes. they would have repented long ago, in Sackcloth and ashes," Matthew 11:21 . Thus the prophet represents the elders of Israel, after the destruction of Jerusalem, and the captivity of those whom the sword had spared: "The elders of the daughter of Zion sit upon the ground, and keep silence; they have cast up dust upon their heads; they have girded themselves with Sackcloth; the virgins of Jerusalem hang down their heads to the ground," Lamentations 2:10
Girdle - Girdles of Sackcloth were worn in token of sorrow (Isaiah 3:24 ; 22:12 )
Heart (Broken): Its Prevalence With God - The young man being sorely troubled in his conscience, said to those about him, 'I am dying, take me from my bed, and let me lie in Sackcloth and ashes, in token of my sorrow for my ingratitude to my father
Weaving - Flax and wool made ‘soft clothing’ for the royal and the rich (Matthew 11:8, Luke 16:19), the rest were wrought into the coarser garments of the more austere, like John the Baptist (Matthew 3:4), into the Sackcloth of the mourner (Matthew 11:21, Luke 10:13), or into tents or sails
Bag - The same Hebrew word is translated as Sackcloth worn during times of mourning or humiliation. See Sackcloth
Mourning - ; dressing in Sackcloth, Genesis 37:34; 2 Samuel 3:31; 2 Samuel 21:10, etc
Fasts - (Joel 2:1-15 ) (See (1 Samuel 7:6 ; 2 Chronicles 20:3 ; Jeremiah 36:6-10 ) ) Three days after the feast of tabernacles, when the second temple was completed, "the children of Israel assembled with fasting, and with Sackclothes and earth upon them," to hear the law read and to confess their sins. (Daniel 10:3 ) Those who fasted frequently dressed in Sackcloth or rent their clothes, put ashes on their head and went barefoot
Fasting - The Heathens sometimes fasted: the king of Nineveh, terrified by Jonah's preaching, ordered that not only men, but also beasts, should continue without eating or drinking; should be covered with Sackcloth, and each after their manner should cry to the Lord, Jonah 3:5-6 . On these days they wore Sackcloth next the skin, and rent their clothes; they sprinkled ashes on their heads, and neither washed their hands, nor anointed their heads with oil
Mourn - ); (2) by loud lamentation (Ruth 1:9 ; 1 Samuel 6:19 ; 2 Samuel 3:31 ); (3) by the disfigurement of the person, as rending the clothes (Genesis 37:29,34 ; Matthew 26:65 ), wearing Sackcloth (Genesis 37:34 ; Psalm 35:13 ), sprinkling dust or ashes on the person (2 Samuel 13:19 ; Jeremiah 6:26 ; Job 2:12 ), shaving the head and plucking out the hair of the head or beard (Leviticus 10:6 ; Job 1:20 ), neglect of the person or the removal of ornaments (Exodus 33:4 ; Deuteronomy 21:12,13 ; 2 Samuel 14:2 ; 19:24 ; Matthew 6:16,17 ), fasting (2 Samuel 1:12 ), covering the upper lip (Leviticus 13:45 ; Micah 3:7 ), cutting the flesh (Jeremiah 16:6,7 ), and sitting in silence (Judges 20:26 ; 2 Samuel 12:16 ; 13:31 ; Job 1:20 )
Rock - ...
Third, tsûr can mean “rocky ground” or perhaps a large flat “rock”: “And Rizpah the daughter of Aiah took Sackcloth, and spread it for her upon the rock …” ( Jonah - " The king called for a fast, put on Sackcloth, and ordered all to do the same, and even to clothe the beasts with Sackcloth, and he commanded all to turn away from their evil ways
Mourning - They also went up to the roof, or upon the platform of their houses, to bewail their misfortune: "They shall gird themselves with Sackcloth; on the tops of their houses, and in their streets, every one shall howl, weeping abundantly," Isaiah 15:3 Jeremiah 48:38 . Anciently in times of mourning, they clothed themselves in Sackcloth, or haircloth, that is, in clothes of coarse brown or black stuff, 2 Samuel 3:31 1 Kings 21:27 Esther 4:1 Psalm 35:13 69:11
Repentance - Fasting, the wearing of Sackcloth (the traditional attire for mourning), the scattering of ashes (Isaiah 58:5 ; Nehemiah 9:1 ; Daniel 9:3 ), and the recitation of prayers and psalms in a penitential liturgy characterized this collective experience of worship. See Confession ; Conversion ; Faith ; Kingdom of God ; Sackcloth
Mourning - Jabesh Gileadites for Saul fasted seven days (1 Samuel 31:13); David for Abner with fasting, rent clothes, and Sackcloth, and with an elegy (2 Samuel 3:81-89)
Cord - ” In 1 Kings 20:31, we read that the Syrians who fled into Aphek proposed to put Sackcloth on their heads as a sign of repentance for attacking Israel, and to put “ropes” about their necks as a sign of submission to Israel’s authority
Fast, Fasting - ...
As an expression of lamentation and/or penitence, fasting nearly always is associated with weeping (Judges 20:26 ; Esther 4:3 ; Psalm 69:10 ; Joel 2:12 ), confession (1 Samuel 7:6 ; Daniel 9:3 ), and the wearing of Sackcloth (1 Kings 21:27 ; Nehemiah 9:1 ; Esther 4:3 ; Psalm 69:10 ; Daniel 9:3 ). David goes so far as to say that he commiserated with his enemies when they were sick, fasting and dressing himself in Sackcloth (Psalm 35:13 )
Fast, Fasting - When Nineveh was threatened with destruction the king humbled himself, proclaimed a fast, and put on Sackcloth: every one was to cry mightily to God, and put away his evil
Camel - " The "sackcloth" so often alluded to (2 Kings 1:8 ; Isaiah 15:3 ; Zechariah 13:4 , etc
Habits - Their stuffs were fabricated of various materials; but wool was generally used in their finer fabrics; and the hair of goats, camels, and even of horses, was manufactured for coarser purposes, especially for Sackcloth, which they wore in time of mourning and distress. Sackcloth of black goat's hair was manufactured for mournings; the colour and the coarseness of which being reckoned more suitable to the circumstances of the wearer, than the finer and more valuable texture which the hair of white goats supplied. This is the reason why a clouded sky is represented, in the bold figurative language of Scripture, as covered with Sackcloth and blackness, the colour and dress of persons in affliction
Cuttings in the Flesh - The reference is to the practice, not confined to the Hebrews or even to their Semitic kinsfolk, of making incisions in the face, hands ( Jeremiah 48:37 ), and other parts of the body to the effusion of blood, as part of the rites of mourning for the dead (see Marks, § 4), and by a natural transition, to which the wearing of Sackcloth forms a parallel, in times of national calamity
Hezekiah, King of Judah - Hezekiah rent his clothes, covered himself with Sackcloth, and went into the house of the Lord
Mourning - (b) Dressing in Sackcloth
Lay - ...
When Ahab heard these words, he rent his clothes, and put Sackcloth upon his head, and fasted and lay in Sackcloth
Hezekiah - Hezekiah, dressed in Sackcloth and ashes, went to the Temple to pray
Burial - The procession carried out the mourning ritual, which could include (1) baldness and cutting of beard, (2) rending garments and wearing Sackcloth, (3) loud and agonized weeping, and (4) putting dust on the head and sitting in ashes (2 Samuel 1:11-12 ; 2 Samuel 13:31 ; 2 Samuel 14:2 ; Isaiah 3:24 , Isaiah 22:12 ; Jeremiah 7:29 ; Ezekiel 7:18 ; Joel 1:8 )
Hilarion (1), a Hermit of Palestine - The boy hermit was clad in a Sackcloth shirt, which he never changed till it was worn out, a cloak of skins which Anthony had given him, and a blanket such as peasants wore
Mourning - Among them are weeping and wailing of an intentionally demonstrative and unrestrained kind, the rending of garments, the wearing of Sackcloth, the sprinkling of dust and ashes on the head, the striking of breast and head, fasting, ejaculations of woe, the recital of elegies for the departed
Dress - Sackcloth, woven of hair, was the mourner's garment. So the king of Nineveh (Jonah 3:6) laid aside his ample addereth for Sackcloth
Dress - The Hebrews were early acquainted with the art of weaving hair into cloth (Exodus 26:7 ; 35:6 ), which formed the Sackcloth of mourners
Palm (of Hand) - 58:5: “… is it to bow down his head as a bulrush, and to spread Sackcloth and ashes under him?”...
Gate - In Esther's time "none might enter into the king's gate clothed with Sackcloth" (Esther 4:2)
Sun - Though there is no actual mention of an eclipse in the Bible, part of the language used in describing the terrors of the day of the Lord both in OT and NT is derived from such an event: ‘the sun shall be turned into darkness’ ( Joel 2:31 ), ‘the sun became black as Sackcloth of hair’ ( Revelation 6:12 )
Fasting - No work was done during a fast (Leviticus 16:29 ; Leviticus 16:31 ; Leviticus 23:32 , Numbers 29:7 ), and Sackcloth and ashes were sometimes used ( Daniel 9:3 , Jonah 3:6-7 )
Angel - Then David and the elders of Israel, who were clothed in Sackcloth, fell upon their faces” ( Garments - ...
The garments of mourning among the Hebrews were Sackcloth and haircloth, and their color dark brown or black, Isaiah 50:3 Revelation 6:12
Ancestor-Worship - It is held that the cutting and wounding ( Jeremiah 16:6 ; Jeremiah 41:5 ), the covering of the head ( Ezekiel 24:17 , Jeremiah 14:3 ), the rending of the garments ( 2 Samuel 1:11 ; 2 Samuel 3:31 ), the wearing of Sackcloth ( 2 Samuel 21:10 , Isaiah 15:3 ), are to be explained as a personal dedication to the spirit of the dead
Jehoram - The tale of a mother who had slain her child for food, and complained of another mother having hidden hers contrary to agreement, roused Jehoram to rend his clothes; then appeared the hair Sackcloth of mourning penitence "within" (mibaait ), a bore sign without the real repentance of heart, as his threat of murdering Elisha proves, Romans 12:31. Jehoram thought that by his Sackcloth he had done his part; when God's help did not yet come, Jehoram vented his impatience on the prophet, as if Elisha's zeal for Jehovah against Baal was the cause of the calamity
Mourning Customs - Hired mourners are alluded to ( Jeremiah 9:17-18 , Amos 5:16 ); and such manifestations as the beating of the breast ( Isaiah 32:12 ), tearing of the garments ( 2 Samuel 3:31 ), fasting ( 1 Samuel 31:13 , 2 Samuel 3:35 ), the putting of ashes on the head, and the wearing of Sackcloth ( 2 Samuel 12:20 )
Colours - A great earthquake makes the sun black as Sackcloth of hair (Revelation 6:12; cf
Macrina, the Younger - He found the aged invalid, parched with fever, stretched on planks on the ground, the wood barely covered with a bit of Sackcloth
Daniel - Daniel put on Sackcloth, and fasted, and prayed, and went back upon all his own and all his people's sins in a way that confounds us to our face. And after the answer is all fulfilled, still read it and the still deeper chapters that follow it, till you learn new fastings, and new Sackcloth, and new ashes, and new repentance, away out to your saintliest old age
Patience - David says, 'They rewarded me evil for good; but as for me, when they were sick, my clothing was Sackcloth
Zephyrinus - ), quoting from an unnamed writer of the time, tells a story of Natalius, a confessor for the faith, having been persuaded by Theodotus and his colleague Asclepiodotus to be made bishop of their sect, of his having subsequently thrown himself in Sackcloth and ashes with many tears at the feet of Zephyrinus, and been thereupon received into communion
Number - "...
The three and a half during which the two witnesses prophesy in Sackcloth is the sacred seven halved, for the antichristian world powers' time is broken at best, and is followed immediately by judgment on them
Jonath - ...
Till the people of Nineveh believed God, and proclaimed a fast, and put on Sackcloth, and turned every one from his evil way, and from the violence that was in their hands. He wrote his book in Sackcloth and ashes
Joseph - When the bloody garment was brought in, Jacob in his affection for him,—that same affection which, on a subsequent occasion, when it was told him that after all Joseph was alive, made him as slow to believe the good tidings as he was now quick to apprehend the sad; in this his affection for him, I say, Jacob at once concluded the worst, and "he rent his clothes and put Sackcloth upon his loins, and mourned for his son many days, and all his daughters rose up to comfort him; but he refused to be comforted, and he said, For I will go down into the grave unto my son mourning
Joab - David, deeply grieved, prayed that the guilt and its penalty might ever rest on Joab and his house, and constrained Joab to appear at the funeral with rent clothes and in Sackcloth
Suffering - ‘The sun became black as Sackcloth’ (Revelation 6:12); see also Revelation 8:12; Revelation 9:2; Revelation 16:8 and Acts 2:20, Joes’s prophecy quoted by St
Ugarit - El wept piteously at the news, gashing his back, chest, and arms, while Anath, having found Baal's corpse, put on Sackcloth and bewailed the death of the lord of life
Prophets - Upon some important occasions, when it was necessary to rouse the fears of a disobedient people, and to recall them to repentance, the prophets, as objects of universal attention, appear to have walked about publicly in Sackcloth, and with every external mark of humiliation and sorrow
Clean, Unclean - "Unclean" objects required purification by water (wood, cloth, hide, Sackcloth) or fire (metals), or were destroyed (clay pots, ovens), depending on the material (Leviticus 11:32-35 ; Numbers 31:21-23 )
the Wedding Guest Who Sat Down in the Lowest Room - Put on the Sackcloth of humility immediately and always
Impotence - Local relations: (a) ‘in,’ ‘at,’ or ‘on,’ of simple locality (Matthew 2:1 ‘in Bethlehem,’ Matthew 24:40 ‘in the field,’ John 4:20 ‘in this mountain’); (b) that with which one is covered or clothed (Mark 12:38 ‘walk in long robes,’ Matthew 7:15 ‘in sheep’s clothing,’ Matthew 11:21 ‘repented in Sackcloth and ashes,’ John 20:12 ‘two angels in white’); (c) direct cohesion (John 15:4 ‘except it abide in the vine’); (d) position in a writing or book (Matthew 21:42 ‘in the scriptures,’ Mark 1:2 ‘in Isaiah,’ Luke 20:42 ‘in the book of Psalms’)
John the Baptist - 'Art thou He that should come, or do we look for another? Why dost thou eat and drink with Scribes and Pharisees, and leave me lying here in this prison-house of Herod and his harlots? Why dost thou eat and drink and make wine out of water for weddings? Rather, surely, should all God's true servants put on Sackcloth and ashes and mourn apart, every family apart, and their wives apart
Confession - ...
‘This confession is a disciplinary act of great humiliation and prostration of the man; it regulates the dress, the food; it enjoins Sackcloth and ashes; it defiles the body with dust, and subdues the spirit with anguish; it bids a man alter his life, and sorrow for past sin; it restricts meat and drink to the greatest simplicity possible; it nourishes prayer by fasting; it inculcates groans and tears and invocations of the Lord God day and night, and teaches the penitent to cast himself at the feet of the presbyters, and to fall on his knees before the beloved of God, and to beg of all the brethren to intercede on his behalf’ (de Pœn
Man (2) - Had Tyre and Sidon seen the things which they had seen, they would have repented long ago in Sackcloth and ashes (Matthew 11:21)
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Isaiah - Isaiah's garment of Sackcloth was a silent preaching by action, he embodied the repentance he taught
Eli - Thou hast taken off my Sackcloth and hast girded me with gladness
Religious Experience - Sackcloth and ashes are the appropriate clothing for the penitent (Matthew 11:21)
Animals - ...
On this Sir Thomas Browne notes: ‘a coarse garment, a cilicious or Sackcloth garment, suitable to the austerity of his life—the severity of his doctrine, repentance—and the place thereof, the wilderness—his food and diet, locusts and wild honey
God - Traces of ‘Animism,’ or belief in the activity of the spirits of one’s dead relations, and its consequence ‘Ancestor-worship,’ have been found in the mourning customs of Israel, such as cutting the hair, wounding the flesh, wearing Sackcloth, funeral feasts, reverence for tombs, and the levirate marriage, and in the name elohim ( i
Gregorius Nyssenus, Bishop of Nyssa - He dwells with tender recollection on the home he had lost—his fireside, his table, his pantry, his bed, his bench, his Sackcloth—and contrasts it with the stifling hole in which he was forced to dwell, of which the only furniture was straitness, darkness, and cold
Millenarians - "When these great events shall come to pass," says Bishop Newton, "of which we collect from the prophecies this to be the proper order,—the Protestant witnesses shall be greatly exalted, and the twelve hundred and sixty years of their prophesying in Sackcloth, and of the tyranny of the beast, shall end together; the conversion and restoration of the Jews succeed; then follows the ruin of the Ottoman empire; and then the total destruction of Rome and of antichrist
Hieronymus, Eusebius (Jerome) Saint - "I sat alone; I was filled with bitterness: my limbs were uncomely and rough with Sackcloth, and my squalid skin became as black as an Ethiopian's