What does Rufus mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
ῥούφου name of a certain Christian. 1
ῥοῦφον name of a certain Christian. 1

Definitions Related to Rufus

G4504


   1 name of a certain Christian.
   Additional Information: Rufus = “red”.
   

Frequency of Rufus (original languages)

Frequency of Rufus (English)

Dictionary

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Rufus
RUFUS . 1 . The brother of Alexander and son of Simon of Cyrene ( Mark 15:21 only). 2 . A Christian at Rome greeted by St. Paul ( Romans 16:13 ) as ‘the chosen in the Lord,’ together with ‘his mother and mine.’ It has been conjectured that these two are the same person, that Simon’s widow (?) had emigrated to Rome with her two sons, where they became people of eminence in the Church, and that this is the reason why the brothers are mentioned by St. Mark, who probably wrote in Rome.
A. J. Maclean.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Rufus
Red, the son of Simon the Cyrenian (Mark 15:21 ), whom the Roman soldiers compelled to carry the cross on which our Lord was crucified. Probably it is the same person who is again mentioned in Romans 16:13 as a disciple at Rome, whose mother also was a Christian held in esteem by the apostle. Mark mentions him along with his brother Alexander as persons well known to his readers ( Mark 15:21 ).
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Rufus
RUFUS.—See Alexander and Rufus.
RULE
1. (a) ἀρχή.—Luke 20:20 παραδοῦναι αὐτὸν τῇ ἀρχῇ καὶ τῇ ἐξουσίᾳ τοῦ ἡγεμόνος, ‘to deliver him up to the rule and to the authority of the governor’ (Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 )—ἀρχή = principatus, ἐξουσία = magistratus or munus (Stephanus, Thesaurus, ed. Hase-Dindorf). Here ἀρχή ‘relates to Pilate’s position and authority [1], ἐξουσία to the executive power connected therewith’ (Cremer, Lex. 115, 237). Pilate’s remitting our Lord to ‘Herod’s jurisdiction’ (Luke 23:7 ἐξουσίας) was intended as an act of civility to a reigning prince (‘Jesus of Nazareth’ being under Herod’s tetrarchate), and perhaps also in order to gain time.
ἀρχή and ἐξουσία are also used together of earthly rulers, Luke 12:11, Titus 3:1; of the ranks of the angelic hosts, Ephesians 3:10, Colossians 1:16; Colossians 2:10; of the powers of evil, Ephesians 6:12, Colossians 2:15; apparently incl. of both heavenly and earthly powers, 1 Corinthians 15:24, Ephesians 1:21.
(b) ἄρχειν.—Mark 10:42 ‘Ye know that they which are accounted to rule over the Gentiles (οἱ δοκοῦντες ἄρχειν: in || Matthew 20:25 οἱ ἄρχοντες) lord it over them, and their great ones exercise authority over them’ (Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ). Lk. reports that words of similar import were spoken at the parting meal, 22:25. οἱ δοκοῦντες ἄρχειν may mean ‘they who are supposed to rule,’ with the implication that they are not rulers in the true sense of the word.* [2].]
Swete (St. Mark, 239) renders ‘they who are regarded as rulers,’ and says that our Lord ‘did not admit that the power of such a ruler as Tiberius was a substantial dignity: it rested on a reputation that might be suddenly wrecked, as indeed the later history of the Empire clearly proved.’ Cf. Harnack (What is Christianity? 106) and Gould (Com. on Mk. 202) for a somewhat similar view.
In Galatians 2:2; Galatians 2:6; Galatians 2:9 οἱ δοκοῦντες, Lightfoot thinks (Com. on Gal. 107), is ‘depreciatory,—not indeed of the Twelve themselves, but of the extravagant and exclusive claims set up for them by the Judaizers.’ The Gr. commentators, however, do not find ‘any shade of blame or irony in the expression’ (see Ellicott, Gal. 24b). Cf. also Ramsay (Com. on Gal. 289, 300), who renders, ‘the acknowledged leaders,’ and shows that the interpretation, ‘the so-called leaders,’ is opposed to the spirit of the narrative.
The two passages referred to by Winer (Gram. NT8 [3] p. 766) are important: Sus 5 χριτῶν οἵ ἰδόχουν χυβερνᾷν τὸν λαότ, ‘judges who were accounted or recognized as governing the people’; Josephus Ant. xix. vi. 3 οἱ δοκοῦντες αὐτῶν ἐξέχειν, ‘they who are recognized as outstanding men among them.’ In these passages the phrase appears to be used, without any disparagement being implied, in speaking of recognized authorities, or persons of admitted eminence.* [4]
In the words κατακυριεύουσιν and κατεξουσιάζουσιν,—the latter found only here and in || Mt.—an unfavourable judgment is passed upon the manner in which ‘the recognized rulers’ exercise their authority. ‘Civium non servitus sed tutela tradita est.’ ‘Our Lord spoke at a time when free government all over the world lay crushed beneath the military despotism of Rome’ (EBr [5] xi. 11). There was present to His mind the fundamental law of His Kingdom, ‘My kingdom is not of this world’ (John 18:36).
But our Lord’s words do not exhibit that ‘moral hatred of all the visible power of the world regarded as a vast selfish manifestation and embodiment of evil,’ which finds expression in the following passage from one of the letters of Gregory vii. (he is writing to Herman of Metz, one of his partisans): ‘Who can be ignorant that kings and nobles took their beginning from those who, not knowing God, by their pride, robberies, perfidy, and murders, in short, by almost every kind of crime, no doubt at the suggestion of the prince of this world, the devil, have in blind ambition and intolerable presumption had a mind to tyrannize over other men who are undoubtedly their equals?’ Milman asks, ‘Are we reading a journalist of Paris in 1791?’ (Latin Christianity, iii. 191; cf. Mozley’s Sermon on ‘The Roman Council,’ Univ. Serm, p. 1).
Our Lord, it is true, speaks of the exercise of domination and coercion that is characteristic of the rulers of the Gentiles as an example to be avoided by His disciples as members of a Kingdom not of this world: ‘so shall it not be among you.’ With them, greatness is to come through ministering love (cf. art. Minister, 3). At the same time, in His great saying, Mark 12:17,—a saying which reveals that the whole domain of duty lay open before Him,—our Lord teaches that a kingdom of this world, even the principality of a Tiberius, has its own sphere of right, and that when it keeps within it, and exercises its administrative functions,—of which the levying of tribute is a representative instance,—it is to be obeyed without demur. This saying was probably present to the mind of St. Paul when he wrote, under Nero (but in the earlier and better part of his reign), his weighty exposition of the ethics of citizenship (Romans 13:1-7).
2. ποιμαίνειν.—Matthew 2:6 ‘And thou Bethlehem, in the land of Juda, art not the least among the princes of Juda: for out of thee shall come a Governor, that shall rule (Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ‘be shepherd of’) my people Israel’ (ὅστις ποιμανεῖ τὸν λαόν μου τὸν Ἰσραήλ). Here three things demand our attention.
(i.) Micah 5:2 (1 Heb.) and its context.—Like his older contemporary Isaiah (Isaiah 9, 11), Micah looks forward to the end of the Assyrian invasion as the time when the Messianic hope shall be fulfilled.
‘The daughter of Zion must pass through the pangs of labour before her true king is born; she must come forth from the city and dwell in the open field; there, and not within her proud ramparts, Jehovah will grant her deliverance from her enemies. For a time the land shall be given up to the foe, but only for a time. Once more, as in the days of David, guerilla bands gather together to avenge the wrongs of their nation (Micah 5:1). A new David comes forth from little Bethlehem, and the rest of his brethren return to the children of Israel—that is, the kindred Hebrew nations again accept the sway of the new king, who stands and feeds his flock in the strength of Jehovah, in the majesty of the name of Jehovah his God. Then Assyria shall no longer insult Jehovah’s land with impunity’ (W. R. Smith, The Prophets of Israel 1, 291).
This being the meaning of the prophecy, it is evident that it was never literally fulfilled. But when we look at the deeper side of the Messianic hope which it sets forth—the heart-felt longing for a true Kingdom of God, ‘the perception that that Kingdom can never be realized without a personal centre, a representative of God with man and man with God,’ who shall attain to true greatness through humility—we see that the purpose which was in the mind of God, when He moved the prophet to write, was fulfilled in the highest sense when He sent His Son into the world, and when Jesus Christ entered, by being born and that in a low condition, on that life of humiliation that led to His exaltation to the place of power, and will finally lead to ‘all things being put under His feet.’
(ii.) The quotation in Mt.—It is not in verbal agreement with the LXX Septuagint or with the Heb. text. The most important differences from the latter are the following:—
(α) Instead of צָעִיר לִחְיוֹת, lit. ‘little for being’ (‘a town too small to be reckoned as a canton in Judah,’ W. R. Smith, l.c.), Mt. has οὐδαμῶς ἐλαχίστη εἶ, ‘art in no wise least’ (Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ). Turpie (OT in the New, 190) translates the Heb. ‘And art thou, Bethlehem, little for being (=so little as not to be) among the thousands of Juda?’—following Grotius (Opera, ii., Amst. 1679), who received the suggestion from Pesh., where the clause is rendered interrogatively. Others conjecture that a לֹא has dropped out of the Heb. text (cf. W. C. Allen in ExpT [6] xii. [7] 283; Com. on Mt. p. 13). These suggested emendations are unnecessary. Micah says that the ideal king is to come out of Bethlehem, a town held in little estimation; and Mt., in view of the dignity bestowed on the town by the birth of Christ, says, ‘Thou art by no means the least.’ They agree in spirit.
(β) The words of Micah, ‘he that is to be ruler in Israel,’ are expanded by Mt. into ‘a ruler who shall be shepherd of my people Israel.’ He thus introduces into his quotation the words of the promise to David, ‘And thou shalt be shepherd of (תִּרְעֶה) my people Israel’ (2 Samuel 5:2 || 1 Chronicles 11:2). But in Micah 5:4 (3 Heb.) the words, ‘And he shall stand and be shepherd of’ (וְרָעָה), are a reminiscence of the promise to David. The Evangelist simply gives the promise at full length.
To most Biblical scholars these differences will not seem of much account. The quotations in the NT are an important subject of study, but it is not now considered necessary, in the interests of revelation, to make out a verbal correspondence between these quotations and their OT equivalents. See art. Quotations.
(iii.) The nature of Christ’s rule as set forth by ποιμαίνειν.—רָעָה is first applied to God by Jacob, Genesis 48:15, (‘who shepherded me’), Genesis 49:24 (prob. ‘the shepherd of the stone of Israel,’ and = ‘the God of Bethel’ [8] 1 [3] Addenda xvii]). His people are ‘the sheep of his pasture’ (Psalms 95:7; Psalms 100:3); He led them and fed them in the wilderness as a shepherd (Psalms 77:20; Psalms 78:52; Psalms 80:1, Hosea 13:5 [8]7 ἐποίμαινόν σε ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ, Isaiah 63:11, Jeremiah 2:2 ‘thou wentest after me’—the shepherd leading); He will bring them back from the Dispersion (Ezekiel 34:12, cf. Psalms 147:2); His care for His flock comprehends the most considerate tending of individuals (Psalms 23:1-3 a, Isaiah 40:11, Psalms 119:176 seeking the lost sheep). To David, as His vicegerent, He commits the care of His flock (2 Samuel 5:2, Psalms 78:71), and He will yet set up one shepherd over them, who shall be pre-eminent in those qualities which David in a large measure manifested as a ruler (Micah 5:4, Ezekiel 34:23; Ezekiel 37:24, Psalms 2:9 [11]). To Mt. this shepherd is Jesus Christ, and it is fitting that in this early chapter he should employ this title respecting Him whose life on earth, as set forth in the succeeding chapters of his Gospel, was to illustrate so abundantly His shepherd-rule in its tenderness and strength. Christ is the compassionate Shepherd (Matthew 9:36; Matthew 15:24); His flock fear no evil, because He is with them (Luke 12:32); He goes after that which is lost till He finds it (Matthew 12:11, Luke 15:4-6); He is the noble (καλός) Shepherd, who gives His life for His sheep (John 10:2; John 10:11; John 10:16), who provides for their being fed and tended after His departure to heaven (John 21:15-17; cf. Acts 20:28, Ephesians 4:11, 1 Peter 5:2), and who still carries on in glory His own work as ‘the great shepherd of the sheep’ (Hebrews 13:20) and the ἀρχιποίμην (1 Peter 5:4—a title combining the two words of our present study);—moreover, their being under His shepherd-rule will be the blessedness and joy of His people to all eternity (Revelation 7:17).
It is well known that τοιμαινειν is a favourite figure with Greek writers to denote the kingly office. Plato is very fond of the comparison; see Rep. 343 A with the note in Adam’s ed. (Camb. 1902). In a passage in the Nicom. Ethics (viii. 11), Aristotle refers to Homer’s well-known words, εὖ γὰρ ποιεῖ τοὺς βασιλευομένους, εἱτερ ἀγαθὸς ὦν ἑτιμελεῖται αὐτῶν, ἵν εὖ πραττωσιν, ὦστερ νομεὺς τροβατων · ὁθεν καὶ Ὅμηρος τον Ἀγαμέμνονα τοιμένα λαῶν εἶπεν. ‘It seems to me desirable,’ Dr. Adam observes, ‘whenever possible, to quote classical Greek parallels to the figures of the NT, as well as parallels from the Hebrew: the use of figures already familiar to the Greeks cannot but have made the NT writings more acceptable to Greek readers.’
James Donald.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Rufus
Son of Simon the Cyrenian who bore Christ's cross. Mark (Mark 15:21) wrote at Rome (Clemens Alex.). Now if "Rufus (whom Paul salutes as at Rome) chosen in the Lord" (Romans 16:13) be the same Rufus as Mark mentions in writing a Gospel for the Romans, the undesigned coincidence will account for what otherwise would be gratuitous information to his readers, that Simon was "father of Rufus," which the other evangelists omit, and which Mark himself seemingly turns to no advantage.
Rufus according to Paul was a disciple of note at Rome; how natural then to designate Simon, who was unknown, to the Romans by his fatherhood to one whom they well knew, Rufus! Mark gives the Romans whom he addresses a reference for the truth of the narrative of Christ's crucifixion and resurrection to one who was accessible to them all, and who could attest the facts on the authority of his own father, the reluctant bearer of the Lord's cross (Luke 23:26). The "compelling" of him to bear the cross issued in his voluntarily taking up his own cross to follow Jesus; then through Simon followed his wife's conversion, and that of Rufus whose mother by nature she was, as she was Paul's mother by kindnesses bestowed for Christ's sake. "Salute Rufus ... and his mother and mine."
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Rufus
1. Son ofSimon, the Cyrenian, who was compelled to bear the Lord's cross. Mark 15:21 .
2. A believer in Rome to whom Paul sent a salutation. Romans 16:13 . Possibly the same as No. 1
Hitchcock's Bible Names - Rufus
Red
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Alexander And Rufus
ALEXANDER AND RUFUS.—The Synoptists all record that the Saviour’s cross was borne by one Simon of Cyrene. St. Mark (Mark 15:21) alone adds that he was ‘the father of Alexander and Rufus.’ From this we gather that, when the Second Gospel was written, the sons of him who bore the cross were followers of the Crucified, and men of prominence and note in the Church. This information as to the two sons of Simon being Alexander and Rufus, is also found in the Gospel of Nicodemus (Mark 4). The name Alexander appears in Acts 4:6; Acts 19:33, 1 Timothy 1:20, 2 Timothy 4:14, but there is not the slightest ground for identifying any one of these with the Alexander of Mark 15:21.
In the case of Rufus, however, it has generally been considered that he is probably the same as the Rufus who, with his mother, is saluted by St. Paul in Romans 16:13 (Ῥοῦφον τὸν ἐκλεκτὸν ἐν Κυρίῳ). And if this is so, it tells us that not only the sons of Simon of Cyrene, but his wife also, were members of the Church. Lightfoot supports this view, and Swete considers that it has ‘some probability.’ In St. Paul’s Epistle to the Philippians, written from Rome, occurs a salutation sent to the Church at Philippi from Caesar’s household (Philippians 4:22). Lightfoot has compared the list of names of those to whom St. Paul sends greeting in his letter to the Romans (ch. Romans 16) with the names in the lists of the household which occur in the inscriptions, and on the name Rufus he writes (Philippians7 [1] , p. 176)—
‘Rufus is a very ordinary name, and would not have claimed notice here but for its occurrence in one of the Gospels. There seems no reason to doubt the tradition that St. Mark wrote especially for the Romana; and if so, it is worth remarking that he alone of the Evangelists describes Simon of Cyrene as the “father of Alexander and Rufus” (15:21). A person of this name, therefore, seems to have held a prominent place among the Roman Christians: and thus there is at least fair ground for identifying the Rufus of St. Paul with the Rufus of St. Mark. The inscriptions exhibit several members of the household bearing the names Rufus and Alexander, but this fact is of no value where both names are so common.’
In connexion with Bishop Lightfoot’s note, it is worthy of notice that in Polycarp’s Epistle to the Philippians (Philippians 9) we find Ignatius, Zozimus, and Rufus adduced as examples, with St. Paul and the rest of the Apostles, of men who had obeyed the word of righteousness and exercised all patience, ‘and are gone to the place that was due to them from the Lord with whom also they suffered; for they loved not this present world, but Him who died and was raised again by God for us.’
In the Acts of Andrew and of Peter, Rufus and Alexander appear as the companions of Peter, Andrew, and Matthias, but no further information is given.
J. B. Bristow.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Rufus
RUFUS.—See Alexander and Rufus.
RULE
1. (a) ἀρχή.—Luke 20:20 παραδοῦναι αὐτὸν τῇ ἀρχῇ καὶ τῇ ἐξουσίᾳ τοῦ ἡγεμόνος, ‘to deliver him up to the rule and to the authority of the governor’ (Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 )—ἀρχή = principatus, ἐξουσία = magistratus or munus (Stephanus, Thesaurus, ed. Hase-Dindorf). Here ἀρχή ‘relates to Pilate’s position and authority [1], ἐξουσία to the executive power connected therewith’ (Cremer, Lex. 115, 237). Pilate’s remitting our Lord to ‘Herod’s jurisdiction’ (Luke 23:7 ἐξουσίας) was intended as an act of civility to a reigning prince (‘Jesus of Nazareth’ being under Herod’s tetrarchate), and perhaps also in order to gain time.
ἀρχή and ἐξουσία are also used together of earthly rulers, Luke 12:11, Titus 3:1; of the ranks of the angelic hosts, Ephesians 3:10, Colossians 1:16; Colossians 2:10; of the powers of evil, Ephesians 6:12, Colossians 2:15; apparently incl. of both heavenly and earthly powers, 1 Corinthians 15:24, Ephesians 1:21.
(b) ἄρχειν.—Mark 10:42 ‘Ye know that they which are accounted to rule over the Gentiles (οἱ δοκοῦντες ἄρχειν: in || Matthew 20:25 οἱ ἄρχοντες) lord it over them, and their great ones exercise authority over them’ (Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ). Lk. reports that words of similar import were spoken at the parting meal, 22:25. οἱ δοκοῦντες ἄρχειν may mean ‘they who are supposed to rule,’ with the implication that they are not rulers in the true sense of the word.* [2].]
Swete (St. Mark, 239) renders ‘they who are regarded as rulers,’ and says that our Lord ‘did not admit that the power of such a ruler as Tiberius was a substantial dignity: it rested on a reputation that might be suddenly wrecked, as indeed the later history of the Empire clearly proved.’ Cf. Harnack (What is Christianity? 106) and Gould (Com. on Mk. 202) for a somewhat similar view.
In Galatians 2:2; Galatians 2:6; Galatians 2:9 οἱ δοκοῦντες, Lightfoot thinks (Com. on Gal. 107), is ‘depreciatory,—not indeed of the Twelve themselves, but of the extravagant and exclusive claims set up for them by the Judaizers.’ The Gr. commentators, however, do not find ‘any shade of blame or irony in the expression’ (see Ellicott, Gal. 24b). Cf. also Ramsay (Com. on Gal. 289, 300), who renders, ‘the acknowledged leaders,’ and shows that the interpretation, ‘the so-called leaders,’ is opposed to the spirit of the narrative.
The two passages referred to by Winer (Gram. NT8 [3] p. 766) are important: Sus 5 χριτῶν οἵ ἰδόχουν χυβερνᾷν τὸν λαότ, ‘judges who were accounted or recognized as governing the people’; Josephus Ant. xix. vi. 3 οἱ δοκοῦντες αὐτῶν ἐξέχειν, ‘they who are recognized as outstanding men among them.’ In these passages the phrase appears to be used, without any disparagement being implied, in speaking of recognized authorities, or persons of admitted eminence.* [4]
In the words κατακυριεύουσιν and κατεξουσιάζουσιν,—the latter found only here and in || Mt.—an unfavourable judgment is passed upon the manner in which ‘the recognized rulers’ exercise their authority. ‘Civium non servitus sed tutela tradita est.’ ‘Our Lord spoke at a time when free government all over the world lay crushed beneath the military despotism of Rome’ (EBr [5] xi. 11). There was present to His mind the fundamental law of His Kingdom, ‘My kingdom is not of this world’ (John 18:36).
But our Lord’s words do not exhibit that ‘moral hatred of all the visible power of the world regarded as a vast selfish manifestation and embodiment of evil,’ which finds expression in the following passage from one of the letters of Gregory vii. (he is writing to Herman of Metz, one of his partisans): ‘Who can be ignorant that kings and nobles took their beginning from those who, not knowing God, by their pride, robberies, perfidy, and murders, in short, by almost every kind of crime, no doubt at the suggestion of the prince of this world, the devil, have in blind ambition and intolerable presumption had a mind to tyrannize over other men who are undoubtedly their equals?’ Milman asks, ‘Are we reading a journalist of Paris in 1791?’ (Latin Christianity, iii. 191; cf. Mozley’s Sermon on ‘The Roman Council,’ Univ. Serm, p. 1).
Our Lord, it is true, speaks of the exercise of domination and coercion that is characteristic of the rulers of the Gentiles as an example to be avoided by His disciples as members of a Kingdom not of this world: ‘so shall it not be among you.’ With them, greatness is to come through ministering love (cf. art. Minister, 3). At the same time, in His great saying, Mark 12:17,—a saying which reveals that the whole domain of duty lay open before Him,—our Lord teaches that a kingdom of this world, even the principality of a Tiberius, has its own sphere of right, and that when it keeps within it, and exercises its administrative functions,—of which the levying of tribute is a representative instance,—it is to be obeyed without demur. This saying was probably present to the mind of St. Paul when he wrote, under Nero (but in the earlier and better part of his reign), his weighty exposition of the ethics of citizenship (Romans 13:1-7).
2. ποιμαίνειν.—Matthew 2:6 ‘And thou Bethlehem, in the land of Juda, art not the least among the princes of Juda: for out of thee shall come a Governor, that shall rule (Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ‘be shepherd of’) my people Israel’ (ὅστις ποιμανεῖ τὸν λαόν μου τὸν Ἰσραήλ). Here three things demand our attention.
(i.) Micah 5:2 (1 Heb.) and its context.—Like his older contemporary Isaiah (Isaiah 9, 11), Micah looks forward to the end of the Assyrian invasion as the time when the Messianic hope shall be fulfilled.
‘The daughter of Zion must pass through the pangs of labour before her true king is born; she must come forth from the city and dwell in the open field; there, and not within her proud ramparts, Jehovah will grant her deliverance from her enemies. For a time the land shall be given up to the foe, but only for a time. Once more, as in the days of David, guerilla bands gather together to avenge the wrongs of their nation (Micah 5:1). A new David comes forth from little Bethlehem, and the rest of his brethren return to the children of Israel—that is, the kindred Hebrew nations again accept the sway of the new king, who stands and feeds his flock in the strength of Jehovah, in the majesty of the name of Jehovah his God. Then Assyria shall no longer insult Jehovah’s land with impunity’ (W. R. Smith, The Prophets of Israel 1, 291).
This being the meaning of the prophecy, it is evident that it was never literally fulfilled. But when we look at the deeper side of the Messianic hope which it sets forth—the heart-felt longing for a true Kingdom of God, ‘the perception that that Kingdom can never be realized without a personal centre, a representative of God with man and man with God,’ who shall attain to true greatness through humility—we see that the purpose which was in the mind of God, when He moved the prophet to write, was fulfilled in the highest sense when He sent His Son into the world, and when Jesus Christ entered, by being born and that in a low condition, on that life of humiliation that led to His exaltation to the place of power, and will finally lead to ‘all things being put under His feet.’
(ii.) The quotation in Mt.—It is not in verbal agreement with the LXX Septuagint or with the Heb. text. The most important differences from the latter are the following:—
(α) Instead of צָעִיר לִחְיוֹת, lit. ‘little for being’ (‘a town too small to be reckoned as a canton in Judah,’ W. R. Smith, l.c.), Mt. has οὐδαμῶς ἐλαχίστη εἶ, ‘art in no wise least’ (Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ). Turpie (OT in the New, 190) translates the Heb. ‘And art thou, Bethlehem, little for being (=so little as not to be) among the thousands of Juda?’—following Grotius (Opera, ii., Amst. 1679), who received the suggestion from Pesh., where the clause is rendered interrogatively. Others conjecture that a לֹא has dropped out of the Heb. text (cf. W. C. Allen in ExpT [6] xii. [7] 283; Com. on Mt. p. 13). These suggested emendations are unnecessary. Micah says that the ideal king is to come out of Bethlehem, a town held in little estimation; and Mt., in view of the dignity bestowed on the town by the birth of Christ, says, ‘Thou art by no means the least.’ They agree in spirit.
(β) The words of Micah, ‘he that is to be ruler in Israel,’ are expanded by Mt. into ‘a ruler who shall be shepherd of my people Israel.’ He thus introduces into his quotation the words of the promise to David, ‘And thou shalt be shepherd of (תִּרְעֶה) my people Israel’ (2 Samuel 5:2 || 1 Chronicles 11:2). But in Micah 5:4 (3 Heb.) the words, ‘And he shall stand and be shepherd of’ (וְרָעָה), are a reminiscence of the promise to David. The Evangelist simply gives the promise at full length.
To most Biblical scholars these differences will not seem of much account. The quotations in the NT are an important subject of study, but it is not now considered necessary, in the interests of revelation, to make out a verbal correspondence between these quotations and their OT equivalents. See art. Quotations.
(iii.) The nature of Christ’s rule as set forth by ποιμαίνειν.—רָעָה is first applied to God by Jacob, Genesis 48:15, (‘who shepherded me’), Genesis 49:24 (prob. ‘the shepherd of the stone of Israel,’ and = ‘the God of Bethel’ [6] 1 [3] Addenda xvii]). His people are ‘the sheep of his pasture’ (Psalms 95:7; Psalms 100:3); He led them and fed them in the wilderness as a shepherd (Psalms 77:20; Psalms 78:52; Psalms 80:1, Hosea 13:5 [10] ἐποίμαινόν σε ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ, Isaiah 63:11, Jeremiah 2:2 ‘thou wentest after me’—the shepherd leading); He will bring them back from the Dispersion (Ezekiel 34:12, cf. Psalms 147:2); His care for His flock comprehends the most considerate tending of individuals (Psalms 23:1-3 a, Isaiah 40:11, Psalms 119:176 seeking the lost sheep). To David, as His vicegerent, He commits the care of His flock (2 Samuel 5:2, Psalms 78:71), and He will yet set up one shepherd over them, who shall be pre-eminent in those qualities which David in a large measure manifested as a ruler (Micah 5:4, Ezekiel 34:23; Ezekiel 37:24, Psalms 2:9 [11]). To Mt. this shepherd is Jesus Christ, and it is fitting that in this early chapter he should employ this title respecting Him whose life on earth, as set forth in the succeeding chapters of his Gospel, was to illustrate so abundantly His shepherd-rule in its tenderness and strength. Christ is the compassionate Shepherd (Matthew 9:36; Matthew 15:24); His flock fear no evil, because He is with them (Luke 12:32); He goes after that which is lost till He finds it (Matthew 12:11, Luke 15:4-6); He is the noble (καλός) Shepherd, who gives His life for His sheep (John 10:2; John 10:11; John 10:16), who provides for their being fed and tended after His departure to heaven (John 21:15-17; cf. Acts 20:28, Ephesians 4:11, 1 Peter 5:2), and who still carries on in glory His own work as ‘the great shepherd of the sheep’ (Hebrews 13:20) and the ἀρχιποίμην (1 Peter 5:4—a title combining the two words of our present study);—moreover, their being under His shepherd-rule will be the blessedness and joy of His people to all eternity (Revelation 7:17).
It is well known that τοιμαινειν is a favourite figure with Greek writers to denote the kingly office. Plato is very fond of the comparison; see Rep. 343 A with the note in Adam’s ed. (Camb. 1902). In a passage in the Nicom. Ethics (viii. 11), Aristotle refers to Homer’s well-known words, εὖ γὰρ ποιεῖ τοὺς βασιλευομένους, εἱτερ ἀγαθὸς ὦν ἑτιμελεῖται αὐτῶν, ἵν εὖ πραττωσιν, ὦστερ νομεὺς τροβατων · ὁθεν καὶ Ὅμηρος τον Ἀγαμέμνονα τοιμένα λαῶν εἶπεν. ‘It seems to me desirable,’ Dr. Adam observes, ‘whenever possible, to quote classical Greek parallels to the figures of the NT, as well as parallels from the Hebrew: the use of figures already familiar to the Greeks cannot but have made the NT writings more acceptable to Greek readers.’
James Donald.

Sentence search

Rufus - Now if "Rufus (whom Paul salutes as at Rome) chosen in the Lord" (Romans 16:13) be the same Rufus as Mark mentions in writing a Gospel for the Romans, the undesigned coincidence will account for what otherwise would be gratuitous information to his readers, that Simon was "father of Rufus," which the other evangelists omit, and which Mark himself seemingly turns to no advantage. ...
Rufus according to Paul was a disciple of note at Rome; how natural then to designate Simon, who was unknown, to the Romans by his fatherhood to one whom they well knew, Rufus! Mark gives the Romans whom he addresses a reference for the truth of the narrative of Christ's crucifixion and resurrection to one who was accessible to them all, and who could attest the facts on the authority of his own father, the reluctant bearer of the Lord's cross (Luke 23:26). The "compelling" of him to bear the cross issued in his voluntarily taking up his own cross to follow Jesus; then through Simon followed his wife's conversion, and that of Rufus whose mother by nature she was, as she was Paul's mother by kindnesses bestowed for Christ's sake. "Salute Rufus
Alexander And Rufus - ALEXANDER AND Rufus. Mark (Mark 15:21) alone adds that he was ‘the father of Alexander and Rufus. This information as to the two sons of Simon being Alexander and Rufus, is also found in the Gospel of Nicodemus (Mark 4). ...
In the case of Rufus, however, it has generally been considered that he is probably the same as the Rufus who, with his mother, is saluted by St. Romans 16) with the names in the lists of the household which occur in the inscriptions, and on the name Rufus he writes (Philippians7 [1] , p. 176)—...
‘Rufus is a very ordinary name, and would not have claimed notice here but for its occurrence in one of the Gospels. Mark wrote especially for the Romana; and if so, it is worth remarking that he alone of the Evangelists describes Simon of Cyrene as the “father of Alexander and Rufus” (15:21). A person of this name, therefore, seems to have held a prominent place among the Roman Christians: and thus there is at least fair ground for identifying the Rufus of St. Paul with the Rufus of St. The inscriptions exhibit several members of the household bearing the names Rufus and Alexander, but this fact is of no value where both names are so common. ’...
In connexion with Bishop Lightfoot’s note, it is worthy of notice that in Polycarp’s Epistle to the Philippians (Philippians 9) we find Ignatius, Zozimus, and Rufus adduced as examples, with St. ’...
In the Acts of Andrew and of Peter, Rufus and Alexander appear as the companions of Peter, Andrew, and Matthias, but no further information is given
ru'Fus - ) Again, in (Romans 16:13 ) the apostle Paul salutes a Rufus whom he designates as "elect in the Lord. " This Rufus was probably identical with the one to whom Mark refers
Brown Thrush - A common American singing bird (Harporhynchus Rufus), allied to the mocking bird; - also called brown thrasher
Brocket - Rufus, and C
Simon of Cyrene - A resident of Cyrene in Libya, the father of Alexander and Rufus; he was forced to carry the Cross of Our Saviour for part of the journey to Calvary (Matthew 27; Mark 15)
Sewellel - ) A peculiar gregarious burrowing rodent (Haplodon Rufus), native of the coast region of the Northwestern United States
Woodchat - ) A European shrike (Enneoctonus Rufus)
Rufus - Rufus
Alexander - Son of Simon of Cyrene; like his brother Rufus, evidently a well-known man ( Mark 15:21 only)
Cyrene - From hence came Simon the Cyrenian, father of Alexander and Rufus, on whom the Roman soldiers laid a part of our Savior's cross, Matthew 27:32 Luke 23:26
Mother - There are also 'mothers' in the church, who have the Lord's interests at heart in the welfare of the saints, as Paul called the mother of Rufus his own mother also
Lanfranc - Lanfranc probably advised the king to name William Rufus his successor, and he subsequently made constant efforts to check the evil deeds of the latter
Red - , in the Latin Rufus, Eng
Bath Abbey - In 1088 William Rufus granted the abbey and lands to John of Villula, Bishop of Wells, who later restored the lands to the abbey
Mark (2) - Mark introduces several Latin terms; he even substitutes Roman money for Greek, 12:42, which Luke does not, and notices that Simon of Cyrene was the father of Alexander and Rufus, 15:21, who probably were Christians in Rome
Cat - In the United States the name wild cat is commonly applied to the bay lynx (Lynx Rufus) See Wild cat, and Tiger cat
Nicholas Breakspear - He went abroad as a wandering scholar, and became an Augustine Canon at Saint Rufus, near Avignon
Claudia - Claudia probably learned Christianity from Pomponia, and took from her the surname of the Pomponian clan, Rufina; so we find Rufus, a Christian in Romans 16:13
Adrian iv, Pope - He went abroad as a wandering scholar, and became an Augustine Canon at Saint Rufus, near Avignon
Bonifacius i, Pope - Boniface refused to entertain their request until sent through the hands and with the consent of the papal legate, Rufus, archbp. To check this tendency to independence, and to defeat the rival claims of Constantinople, Boniface forthwith addressed letters to Rufus, to the bishops of Thessaly, and to the bishops of the entire province. Rufus was exhorted to exercise the authority of the Roman see with all his might; and the bishops were commanded to obey him, though allowed the privilege of addressing complaints concerning him to Rome
Simon - He was "the father of Alexander and Rufus," Mark 15:21 ; and from the cordial salutation of Paul, Romans 16:13 , it would seem that the family afterwards resided at Rome, and that their labor of love was not forgotten by God
Julianus Eclanensis, Bishop of Eclana - ...
About the same time Julian addressed a letter to Rufus, bp. Rufus was vicarius of the Roman see in Illyricum (Innocent's ep. to Rufus, June 17, 412, in Mansi, viii. 884), Julian and his brethren perhaps thought Rufus might be persuaded to favour them ( ib. The letter of Julian to Rufus, with another to the clergy of Rome which he denied to be his (August. Garnier assigns the letter to Rufus and the two to Zosimus to A
Alexander - The son of Simon of Cyrene, who bore the cross to Calvary (2 Timothy 4:14-15), and the brother of Rufus. Romans 16:13 and article Rufus), to which the Gospel of Mark was addressed, as St
Simon - The Cyrenian who bore our Lord’s cross ( Matthew 27:32 , Mark 15:21 , Luke 23:26 ); See Alexander and Rufus
Names in New Testament - , ...
Barabbas, son of the learned man
Barnabas, son of consolation
Barsabas, son of Sabas
Bartimeus, son of Timai
Bartholomew, son of Tolmai
There is only one word derived from a color, ...
Rufus, red
Names derived from kindred are ...
Thomas and Didymus, twin
Trophimus, foster-child
New Testament, Names in - , ...
Barabbas, son of the learned man
Barnabas, son of consolation
Barsabas, son of Sabas
Bartimeus, son of Timai
Bartholomew, son of Tolmai
There is only one word derived from a color, ...
Rufus, red
Names derived from kindred are ...
Thomas and Didymus, twin
Trophimus, foster-child
Simon - Simon the Cyrenian, father of Alexander and Rufus: he was made to carry the Lord's cross
si'Mon - (John 19:17 ) Mark describes him as the father of Alexander and Rufus, perhaps because this was the Rufus known to the Roman Christians, (Romans 16:13 ) for whom he more especially wrote
Apollinaris, Saint And Mart - At Ravenna he baptized in the river Bidens, and raised the daughter of the patrician Rufus to life; imprisoned by the heathen near the capitol, he was there fed by angels
Simon - He was the "father of Alexander and Rufus" (Matthew 27:32 )
Nicetius, Archbaptist of Treves - For his architectural undertakings he summoned workmen from Italy (Rufus, Ep
Victorius of Aquitaine - As the year in which he composed his cycle, the consulship of Constantinus and Rufus, which corresponds with a
Cyrene - ...
Simon of Cyrene (the father of Alexander and Rufus Romans, the Epistle to the - (See Rufus. The names in the salutations (Romans 16) are generally Greek; and the Latin names, Aquila, Priscilla, Junia, Rufus, were Jews
Rufus - RUFUS. —See Alexander and Rufus
Rufus - RUFUS. —See Alexander and Rufus
Alexander - He and his brother Rufus are spoken of as well known in the Christian church
Cosmopolitanism - Traces of a cosmopolitan atmosphere may be detected in Mark 15:21 (‘Simon, father of Alexander and Rufus’), in the Greek names of two of the disciples (Andrew and Philip), and the trilingual ‘title’ on the cross (John 19:20)
Coelestinus, Commonly Called Celestine, b.p. of Rome - Peter, to a general oversight ("necessitatem de omnibus tractandi"), and directing his "beloved brethren" to refer all causes to his deputy, Rufus of Thessalonica, and not to consecrate bishops, nor hold councils, without the sanction of that bishop. of Antioch, Juvenal of Jerusalem, Flavian of Philippi, and Rufus of Thessalonica ( Ep
Pilate - 6), Subinus, Coponius, Ambivius, Rufus, Valerius Gratus, and Pontius Pilate successively were governors (Josephus, Patience - 1, ‘I exhort you all therefore to obey the word of righteousness and to practise all patience, which you saw before your eyes not only in the blessed Ignatius and Zosimus and Rufus, but also in others of you and in Paul himself and the rest of the Apostles
Phoebe - Lydia at Philippi, Acts 16:15; Acts 16:40), and that she ‘mothered’ him as did the mother of Rufus (Romans 16:13)
Patience - 1, ‘I exhort you all therefore to obey the word of righteousness and to practise all patience, which you saw before your eyes not only in the blessed Ignatius and Zosimus and Rufus, but also in others of you and in Paul himself and the rest of the Apostles
Friend, Friendship - An unnamed woman in the Roman church is mother literally to a Christian named Rufus and figuratively to Paul (Romans 16:13 )
Titus (Emperor) - The great Stoic philosopher, Musonius Rufus, whose fragmentary writings (ed
Joannes, Bishop of Antioch - The support of the Eastern prelates, of whom the patriarch of Antioch was chief, being of great importance, Celestine wrote to John, Juvenal of Jerusalem, Rufus of Thessalonica, and Flavian of Philippi, informing them of the decree passed against Nestorius (Baluz. of Milan, Aquileia, and Ravenna, and Rufus of Thessalonica, laying before them in earnest terms the heretical character of Cyril's doctrines (Theod
Judaea - 6–9), Marcus Ambivius (circa (about) 9–12), Annius Rufus (circa (about) 12–15), Valerius Gratus (15–25), Pontius Pilate (26–36)
Name - ]'>[16] as Ῥοῦφυς is just the Greek form of Rufus, Judaea - 6–9), Marcus Ambivius (circa (about) 9–12), Annius Rufus (circa (about) 12–15), Valerius Gratus (15–25), Pontius Pilate (26–36)
Mark, the Gospel According to - ...
He names Bartimaeus (Mark 7:31-37,), states that "Jesus would not suffer any to carry any vessel through the temple" (Mark 11:16), that Simon of Cyrene was father of Alexander and Rufus (Mark 15:21)
Simeon - Of Cyrene; attending the Passover "from the country, father of Alexander and Rufus" (known to Roman Christians, Romans 16:13, for whom Mark wrote); impressed to bear after Christ the cross to Golgotha, when the Lord Himself had sunk under it (John 19:17; Mark 15:21; Luke 23:26)
Seventy (2) - ) as follows:—James (brother of the Lord), Timothy, Titus, Barnabas, Ananias, Stephen, Philip, Prochorus, Nicanor, Simon, Nicolas, Parmenas, Cleopas, Silas, Silvanus, Crescens, Epenetus, Andronicus, Amplias, Urbanus, Stachys, Apelles, Aristobulus, Narcissus, Herodion, Rufus, Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermes, Hermas, Patrobas, Rhodion, Jason, Agabus, Linus, Gaius, Philologus, Olympas, Sosipater, Lucius, Tertius, Erastus, Phygellus, Hermogenes, Dermas, Quartus, Apollos, Cephas, Sosthenes, Epaphroditus, Caesar, Marcus, Joseph Barsabbas, Artemas, Clemens, Onesiphorus, Tychicus, Carpus, Euodius, Philemon, Zenas, Aquila, Priscas, Junias, Marcus (2), Aristarchus, Pudens, Trophimus, Lucas the Eunuch, Lazarus
Martinus, Saint, Bishop of Tours - The trial of Priscillian, which had been delayed until Martin's departure, was now eagerly pressed on, at the instance of two bishops, Magnus and Rufus
Nero - Vindex was defeated by Verginius Rufus, governor of Southern Germany, but Galba became Emperor
Ignatius - It is true that in another passage Polycarp commends the patience of ‘the blessed Ignatius, and Zosimus, and Rufus,’ and compares it with that of St. On this hypothesis, then, Polycarp would not know the fate of Ignatius, Zosimus, and Rufus till after the dispatch of his letter to the Philippians
Political Conditions - 9–12), Annius Rufus (? 12–15), Valerius Gratus (15–26), and Pontius Pilate (26–36)
Priscillianus And Priscillianism, Priscillian - By Idacius and Ithacius, ably supported by two bishops of a like stamp, Magnus and Rufus, powerful at court, Maximus was unremittingly urged to take severe measures
Physician - Rufus of Ephesus, who also practised medicine in the reign of Trajan, was educated at Alexandria
Innocentius, Bishop of Rome - When Rufus, some years after, succeeded Anysius as bp
Josephus - Next, after recounting the two Jewish tumults referred to, he relates two events which evidently had already been conjoined in the Roman tradition (Cluvius Rufus?), for only the second belongs to his subject (as giving an example of the ill-fortune that beset the Jews): the first deals with the outrage in the Temple of Isis in Rome, where the priests lent themselves to a trick by which a Roman lady of repute was beguiled sub praetextu religionis to yield herself to a lover (xviii
Polycarp - He exhorts the Philippians to show that enduring patience which they have seen ‘in the blessed Ignatius and Zosimus and Rufus’ (ix
Jews - After Coponius, Ambivius, Annius Rufus, Valerius Gratus, and Pontius Pilate, were successively procurators; and this was the species of government to which Judea and Samaria were subject during the ministry of our Saviour