What does Religion mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
θρησκεία religious worship. 2
δεισιδαιμονίας in a good sense. 1
θρησκείας religious worship. 1

Definitions Related to Religion

G2356


   1 religious worship.
      1a esp.
      external, that which consists of ceremonies.
         1a1 religious discipline, Religion.
         

G1175


   1 in a good sense.
      1a reverencing god or the gods, pious, religious.
   2 in a bad sense.
      2a superstitious.
   3 religious.
   

Frequency of Religion (original languages)

Frequency of Religion (English)

Dictionary

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Mixed Religion
A hindering impediment to matrimony, consisting in the marriage of a Catholic to a baptized non-Catholic. Such a marriage is valid if performed by proper authority, but it requires a dispensation, which is given only after the signing of promises by the non-Catholic party, pledging non-interference with the religion of the Catholic, rearing the children in the Catholic faith, and only one ceremony of marriage, before a priest.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Greece, Religion And Society of
Greece is the name applied to the land on the north central shore of the Mediterranean Sea. Its eastern boundary is marked by the Aegean Sea and its western by the Adriatic. The name “Greek” was given by the local inhabitants to a group of colonists who settled on the western coast of Italy. “Greek” is the Latin name still used of these people and their society; but in ancient times, as well as modern, the Greeks referred to their homeland as “Hellas.”
The beginnings of the Greek peoples is usually dated about 2000 B.C. when wandering groups spread over much of Greece. Numerous communities were formed in central and southern Greece as well as the Aegean Islands. These developed for the next 500 years and became known as the Mycenaean age, taking the name from the leading city of Mycenae. This city, along with Cnossos on the Island of Crete, was the most flourishing city in the Greek homeland. These, and other communities like them, were organized round a central palace which was the residence of the king and a place of security in times of war. The major population lived outside the palace and tended the crops and flocks. Within the palace grounds were workshops for pottery makers, bronze workers, goldsmiths, woodworkers, weavers, and other primitive industry. The palace was also the storehouse for grain and other food supplies which were distributed by the king in times of need. In addition to local and regional commerce, communities of this period traded with Anatolia (ancient Turkey), Syria, Mesopotamia, and Egypt.
After the breakup of the Mycenaean communities the oikos or “household” was the basic unit of society. The “household” was more than a family. In addition to mother, father, and natural children, slaves won in war or raids were a part of the household. Persons called “retainers” joined the household. These are people who had for various reasons lost their former position in a household and were alone and without security in society. The household gave them a place to work and survive.
The household was also the basic economic unity in society. It produced food from shepherding flocks, tending orchards, and producing grain. The women slaves worked in the fields as well as in the production of clothing by weaving and sewing. The men worked in leather and metals. Such households were self-sufficient. The more members in the household, the more secure it would be; and as more “retainers” joined, its military prowess was strengthened. Outside the households were a small group of people who might be called professionals. In this group were “seers” who gave oracles from the gods. There were bards who entertained with song and story. Heralds brought messages from the king. Practitioners of the healing arts were also known. Another group were the artisans: metal workers, carpenters, leather workers, and potters. The period from 750-550 B.C. was a time of colonization. There was not enough productive land, industry, or commerce to support the growing population, so many Greeks sought support elsewhere. As early as 711 B.C. a Greek is listed as the ruler of Ashdod on the Palestinian coast, and Assyrian records of 655 B.C. note that Greek mercenaries fought against them in the Egyptian army. During this era the Greeks established trade colonies on the shores of the Black Sea, the region of the Dardanelles, on the eastern shore of the Aegean Sea, the islands of Crete, Rhodes, Cyprus, Sidon and Tyre, Naucratis in the Nile delta, Italy, Sicily, and Spain. Although there were occasions when the Greeks comingled with the local population, in general, they kept their distance and began to think of themselves as different. This set the stage for the later idea of two kinds of people: Greeks and barbarians. Greeks living in these outlying colonies always desired to return to the homeland, at least for a visit. A favorite time for visiting was the athletic games celebrated at Olympia every four years.
Throughout the history of Greece there were important cities: Athens, Sparta, Corinth, Argos, Pylos, Delphi, Eretria, Thebes, Pella, Olynthus, and others. Athens is often considered the representative city of the Greek way of life. From earliest times there was human occupation at Athens, beginning on the most prominent hill (Acropolis) and its slopes. By Mycenaean times the village had taken on the cultural likeness of Mycenae and had a local king. As centuries went by the Athenian king was able to bring about unity among the adjoining settlements in the area called Attica. While this enhanced the power and prestige of Athens, it eventually weakened the king's power as he shared it with the rulers of the surrounding communities. The king and the nobles shared authority in Athens. An attempted revolution in the seventh century indicated that reform was needed. Although the revolution failed because the people did not accept it, the populace did accept the reforms led by Solon in 594 B.C. A primary reason for reform was the treatment of the poor who had been enslaved because of their debts. Some were even sold outside their homeland, and others fled their native land to avoid punishment.
When Solon began his reforms, the government of Athens was organized around: (1) nine Archons who shared administrative power and was similar to a cabinet of officers. These kept their position as well as their judicial powers with some modification. (2) The Areopagus functioned as a court of justice judging persons who had committed murder, mutilation, poisoning, or treason. Its members were former Archons. They met in the open air on Mars' Hill. Solon assigned to them the task of monitoring the education, religion, and customs of the people with the privilege of reviewing judicial decisions, serving as a Supreme Court. (3) The Senate was made up of four hundred men whose task was to take care of finances, impose fines, and prepare laws which are acted on by the assembly. (4) The Assembly was composed of all citizens meeting to act upon the matters presented by the Senate.
In addition to these basic groups, laws were established that ensured justice. To assure fair trials, Solon mandated that citizens over sixty years of age could form a court of arbitration for trials. Another group, made up of men over fifty years old, judged cases of involuntary manslaughter and homicide resulting from self-defense. Penalties imposed for violating laws were imprisonment, fines, confiscation of property and, in extreme areas, death. Amnesty was granted to anyone who had been made a slave due to the inability to pay debts, and mortgages on lands were canceled. Persons who had been sold abroad because of debts were brought back home. All of this created a high respect for the privilege of owning property.
Solon's reforms established a fair system of taxation and provided every citizen the right to submit a proposal to the assembly. Any citizen twenty years of age could speak before the assembly, but priority was given to those over fifty. Solon's reforms formed the basis for Athenian government for the next three centuries. The long tenure of his reforms attests to the validity of them as well as the Athenian's devotion to justice.
Greek society had customs, mores, and laws that controlled marriage and family life. Some Greek cities ruled that a citizen must marry by the time he was thirty-five years old, or else he would be fined 100 drachmas per year. Modern ways of courtship were unknown. Instead, marriages were arranged by parents of the bride and groom. January and February were the favorite months for weddings since this was the time when nature blossomed forth from its wintry slumber. Wedding festivities included a sacrifice to the gods, a ceremonial bath in holy water, the last meal of the bride in her parents' home, the bride dressed in her wedding gown awaiting the groom to take her away on a chariot. Such a marriage was not without love and affection. The beginning of a new family was a time of “tasting together of the sweets of mutual tenderness.” While children were a concern of marriage, abortion was permitted. It was the family's responsibility to care for orphans, especially young girls. The father's closest relative was responsible for arranging her marriage and providing her with a dowry.
Children were reared in the family, and laws forbade the primitive practices of selling or killing a son. The child stayed in the home until it was sixteen years old. There it was reared according to the discretion of the parents. In the next two years the child was trained in the gymnasium. The training consisted of two elements: (1) physical development of the body through gymnastics, wrestling, and dance, and (2) a study of the poets, legends, and proverbs of human wisdom so as to develop the mind for citizenship.
At eighteen a young man reached civil age. At that age he could claim his inheritance and was responsible for military service. He often continued in instruction in philosophy, music, and poetry, attended religious festivals, observed the assembly of the people, practiced physical exercise, and served in some military office such as a policeman or fortress guard. At age twenty he could vote in the assembly and speak if he so chose. At age thirty he was eligible to become a senator. At age sixty he was no longer required to serve in the military.
Foreigners were permitted to live in Athens but were required to pay twelve drachmas per year for the protection of the state. The foreigner had to be sponsored by a citizen who guaranteed his behavior. They could not acquire property. As time went by these rules were relaxed and foreigners were granted citizenship. While slaves in Athens were treated better than most cities, there were always limitations. If mistreated, the law guaranteed a slave a defender. If the slave were killed, the slayer could be punished. Not all women slaves worked at household chores. Some were placed in public houses for the profit of their masters. Athens practiced ostracism. Once each year the Senate asked: “Does the safety of the State demand a vote of ostracism?” If a person to be ostracized were named, the assembly would vote; and, if the vote required, the person would be banished from Athens for ten years.
Religious sanctuaries were important. The Acropolis of Athens became the sacred precinct for the gods and goddesses, especially Athena. On this hill was built the famous temple called the Parthenon. The Acropolis is a hill rising 300 feet above the level of the surrounding city. Its plateau top measures about 420 feet wide and 1050 feet long. This was the location of the original settlement at Athens. As the town grew, the residence moved to the slopes; and the Acropolis was reserved for the king's palace and temple. Gradually it was occupied only by sacred buildings. The most prominent was the temple dedicated to the patron goddess Athena, for whom the city was named. A beautiful new temple was built, completed in 438 B.C., and was called the Parthenon. The name of the temple means apartment of the virgin. The building is approximately 101 10:228 feet. The inner sanctuary contained a statue of Athena about 35 feet high made of gold plate over a wooden frame. The pediments of the temple were decorated with sculptures that told the story of Athena.
A major festival celebrating Athena's sacred position was celebrated every four years in Athens, and a minor festival every year. The festival included contests between athletes, singers, and other musical performers such as harpists and flutists. Winners of contests received containers of oil from the goddess's olive trees. The major four-year festival ended with a parade beginning in the potters' quarter of the city, proceeded through the Agora (city center) up the winding stairs to the top of the Acropolis. A new robe for the goddess was displayed as the parade made its way through the city. The parade was led by young girls from elite families, followed by attendants carrying the utensils for the animal sacrifices. The animals followed. Other people carried cakes for sacrifice, water, and olive branches. Officials, army officers, representatives from other cities, all joined in the parade. Infantry and charioteers completed the parade. Animal sacrifice completed the ceremony. Four cows and four sheep constituted the main sacrifice, but large numbers of cows were slaughtered in groups of one hundred. The meat from the animals was distributed to the attending crowds. Since meat was not a part of the normal diet of the populace, a festival like this provided a treat for the participants. The entire festival was to honor Athena as the patron deity of the city.
Other cities were important for their sanctuaries. Delphi was sacred to the god Apollo. That city was considered the “navel” of the earth. Tradition taught that Zeus, the god of all, sent out two eagles from each end of the universe to specify the center of the earth. They met at Delphi. The most important temple there was in honor of Apollo. Delphi and this temple became popular because the “priestesses” became famous for their ability to give advice in the form of “oracles” to civil and military leaders who asked. Delphi was also important for the Pythian Games celebrated every eight years in honor of Apollo's victory over the monster serpent Python. The festival of games began with a re-enactment of Apollo's slaying of Python, including large-scale sacrifices, dramatic presentations, musical and athletic contests. Epidaurus was the center of the cult of Asclepias, the god of healing. In Greek mythology Asclepias was the son of Apollo. He was credited with the ability to bring about miraculous cures and even bring people back from the dead. These powers were based on his knowledge of vegetation, therapeutic use of herbs, and the mysterious forces of the underworld. The snake was the symbol of his cult and played a part in the curative process. Wherever there was an Asclepian (Temple of Asclepias), snakes were brought from Epidaurus to be kept in a sacred underground chamber near the temple. Patients wishing to be healed by the god Asclepias came to his temple complex. The suppliant offered a sacrifice on the alter before the temple, prepared himself/herself by a purificatory bath in a pool provided near by, shared a meal in a special dining area, and spent the night in a special room near the temple. The deity might appear in a dream in which the patient experienced healing. They would awake the next morning healed. Inscriptions in the temples abound with testimonies of healings of various infirmities: abnormal pregnancies, paralyzed limbs, blindness, dumbness, stones in the urinary tract, baldness, and ohers. Persons healed often left behind a model of the part of the anatomy that had been cured along with an inscription of thanksgiving to Asclepias. Almost every major city had its Asclepian including Corinth, Athens, Pergammom, cities in Cyprus, Crete, and throughout the Greek world. A quadrennial festival was held at Epidaurus similar to the festival at Delphi.
Religious life also touched everyday life. A father made sacrifices for the sons born during the year. Individual households had shrines to their patron deity. This might be simply a sacred vase or cup into which some sacred oil had been placed. When a wedding or the procurement of a new slave added a new member to the household, special foods were placed on the hearth as a symbol of good fortune. Private banquets were held in honor of a patron deity. Ancient records preserve personal prayers addressed to deities and temple inscriptions declaring the individual's loyalty to the deity. Thus the religion of the sanctuaries were transferred to the home and individual.
The most extensive expression of the Greek way of life came late in the fourth century B.C. carried out by Alexander the Great (336-323 B.C.). From his father Philip II, Alexander inherited a unified Greek homeland with an increased economic order. Being aware of the threat of a Persian invasion from Asia Minor, Alexander set out from his Macedonian capitol in Pella on an eastward offensive. He swiftly fought his way across Asia Minor (modern Turkey) and encountered the Persians in the most important battle for the campaign at Issus (near modern Iskenderun). This battle in 333 B.C. determined the outcome of the remainder of the campaign. Alexander and his armies turned southward along the eastern end of the Mediterranean and conquered all the territory as far as, and including, Egypt. It was reported that he took an excursion into the hills of Judea and visited the Temple in Jerusalem. Returning from Egypt, he continued his campaign eastward through the Tigris-Euphrates valley and conquered lands as far east as India. Although he died before he could establish a unified government, his campaign changed the course of history for the ancient world. The Greek language became the world language for commerce, communication, and literature. His campaigns made it necessary for people of diverse backgrounds to communicate. Within a short time the Pentateuch of the Hebrew Scriptures was translated into the Greek language. Later the Septuagint was completed, and still later all of the New Testament documents were written in Greek. With Alexander's campaign, trade and commerce between East and West was enhanced. Alexander carried with him not only soldiers, commerce, and language, but also the totality of the Greek way of life. Engineers, craftsmen, historians, men of letters—all traveled with his army. Whatever lands he conquered were introduced to Greek dress, customs, literature, education, love of learning, physical exercise—everything that made Greek culture. The gods and goddesses of each land were accepted as geuine Greek deities known by another name. The Greek language and culture intensely affected the course of civilization in this part of the world for almost a thousand years—until the coming of Islam in the seventh century A.D. Even with the gradual advancement of the Romans eastward after 200 B.C., the Greek way of life merged with the Roman and produced an era often called Greco-Roman.
Oscar A. Brooks
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Religion
RELIGION . The word ‘religion,’ wherever it occurs in AV [1] , signifies not the inner spirit of the religious life, but its outward expression. It is thus used of one form of religion as distinguished from another; as in 2Ma 14:36 , where the same word is translated in the middle of the verse ‘Judaism,’ and in the end of it ‘the religion of the Jews.’ It is also used by St. James ( James 1:26-27 ) to contrast moral acts with ritual forms.
Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words - Religion
1: θρησκεία (Strong's #2356 — Noun Feminine — threseia — thrace-ki'-ah ) signifies "religion" in its external aspect (akin to threskos, see below), "religious worship," especially the ceremonial service of "religion;" it is used of the "religion" of the Jews, Acts 26:5 ; of the "worshiping" of angels, Colossians 2:18 , which they themselves repudiate (Revelation 22:8,9 ); "there was an officious parade of humility in selecting these lower beings as intercessors rather than appealing directly to the Throne of Grace" (Lightfoot); in James 1:26,27 the writer purposely uses the word to set in contrast that which is unreal and deceptive, and the "pure religion" which consists in visiting "the fatherless and widows in their affliction," and in keeping oneself "unspotted from the world." He is "not herein affirming. ... these offices to be the sum total, nor yet the great essentials, of true religion, but declares them to be the body, the threskeia, of which godliness, or the love of God, is the informing soul" (Trench).
2: δεισιδαιμονία (Strong's #1175 — Noun Feminine — deisidaimonia — dice-ee-dahee-mon-ee'-ah ) primarily denotes "fear of the gods" (from deido, "to fear," daimon, "a pagan deity," Eng., "demon"), regarded whether as a religious attitude, or, in its usual meaning, with a condemnatory or contemptuous significance, "superstition." That is how Festus regarded the Jews' "religion," Acts 25:19 , AV and RV marg., "superstition" (RV, "religion"). See RELIGIOUS , Note (1), and under SUPERSTITIOUS.
Notes: (1) Threskeia is external, theosebeia is the reverential worship of God (see GODLINESS), eusebeia is piety (see GODLINESS), eulabeia the devotedness arising from godly fear (see FEAR). (2) For "the Jews' religion," Galatians 1:13,14 , see JEWS , B.
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - Religion: Must be Personal
A little girl, whom we will call Ellen, was some time ago helping to nurse a sick gentleman, whom she loved very dearly. One day he said to her, 'Ellen, it is time for me to take my medicine, I think. Will you pour it out for me? You must measure just a table-spoonful, and then put it in that wine-glass close by.' Ellen quickly did so, and brought it to his bedside; but, instead of taking it in his own hand, he quietly said, 'Now, dear, will you drink it for me?' 'Me drink it! What do you mean? I am sure I would, in a minute, if it would cure you all the same; but you know it won't do you any good, unless you take it yourself.' 'Won't it, really? No, I suppose it will not. But, Ellen, if you can't take my medicine for me, I can't take your salvation for you. You must go to Jesus, and believe in him for yourself.' In this way he tried to teach her that each human being must seek salvation for himself and repent, and believe, and obey, for himself.'
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Religion
Is a Latin word, derived, according to Cicero, from rilegere, "to re-consider;" but according to Servius and most modern grammarians, from religare, "to bind fast." If the Ciceronian etymology be the true one, the word religion will denote the diligent study whatever pertains to the worship of God; but, according to the other derivation, it denotes that obligation which we feel on our minds from the relation in which we stand to some superior power. The word is sometimes used as synonymous with sect; but, in a practical sense, it is generally considered as the same with godliness, or a life devoted to the worship and fear of God. Dr. Doddridge thus defines it: "Religion consists in the resolution of the will for God, and in a constant care to avoid whatever we are persuaded he would disapprove, to despatch the work he has assigned us in life, and to promote his glory in the happiness of mankind."
See GODLINESS.) The foundation of all religion rests on the belief of the existence of God. As we have, however, already considered the evidences of the divine existence, they need not be enumerated again in this place; the reader will find them under the article EXISTENCE OF GOD. Religion has been divided into natural and revealed. By natural religion is meant that knowledge, veneration, and love of God, and the practice of those duties to him, our fellow-creatures, and ourselves, which are discoverable by the right exercise of our rational faculties, from considering the nature and perfections of God, and our relation to him and to one another.
By revealed religion is understood that discovery which he has made to us of his mind and will in the Holy Scriptures. As it respects natural religion, some doubt whether, properly speaking, there can be any such thing; since, through the fall, reason is so depraved, that man without revelation is under the greatest darkness and misery, as may be easily seen by considering the history of those nations who are destitute of it, and who are given up to barbarism, ignorance, cruelty, and evils of every kind. So far as this, however, may be observed, that the light of nature can give us no proper ideas of God, nor inform us what worship will be acceptable to him. It does not tell us how man became a fallen sinful creature, as he is, nor how he can be recovered. It affords us no intelligence as to the immortality of the soul, the resurrection of the body, and a future state of happiness and misery. The apostle, indeed, observes, that the Gentiles have the law written on their hearts, and are a law unto themselves; yet the greatest moralists among them were so blinded as to be guilty of, and actually to countenance the greatest vices. Such a system, therefore, it is supposed, can hardly be said to be religious which leaves man in such uncertainty, ignorance, and impiety. (
See REVELATION.)
On the other side it is observed, "that, though it is in the highest degree probable that the parents of mankind received all their theological knowledge by supernatural means, it is yet obvious that some parts of that knowledge must have been capable of a proof purely rational, otherwise not a single religious truth could have been conveyed through the succeeding generations of the human race but by the immediate inspiration of each individual. We, indeed, admit may propositions as certainly true, upon the sole authority of the Jewish and Christian Scriptures, and we receive these Scriptures with gratitude as the lively oracles of God; but it is self-evident that we could not do either the one or the other, were we not convinced by natural means that God exists; that he is a being of goodness, justice, and power; and that he inspired with divine wisdom the penmen of these sacred volumes.
Now, though it is very possible that no man, or body of men, left to themselves from infancy in a desert world, would ever have made a theological discovery, yet, whatever propositions relating to the being and attributes of the First Cause and duty of man, can be demonstrated by human reason, independent of written revelation, may be called natural theology, and are of the utmost importance, as being to us the first principles of all religion. Natural theology, in this sense of the word, is the foundation of the Christian revelation; for, without a previous knowledge of it, we could have no evidence that the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments are indeed the word of God." The religions which exist in the world have been generally divided into four, the Pagan, the Jewish, the Mahometan, and the Christian; to which articles the reader is referred. The various duties of the Christian religion also are stated in their different places.
See also, as connected with this article, the articles INSPIRATION, REVELATION, and THEOLOGY, and books there recommended.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Religion
A relationship of devotion or fear of God or gods. 1. The cognate terms translated “religious” and “religion” (Acts 17:22 ; Acts 25:19 ) can indicate positive reverence for the gods or else negative fear of the gods. The pejorative translations “superstitious” (KJV) and “superstition” (KJV, RSV) is unfortunate. Paul hardly alienated the Athenians at the outset of his speech. He rather pointed to their outward expressions of piety (Acts 17:22 ). Though a monotheist (believer in one God) would not use “fear of the gods” to describe Judaism, the expression is natural on pagan Roman lips (Acts 25:19 ). 2 . The cognate terms translated “religion” and “religious” in Acts 26:5 and James 1:26-27 point to the “fear of God” as evidenced in religious conduct, particularly ritual practice. In Acts 26:5 Paul referred to Judaism as “our” way of evidencing reverence for God. According to James 1:26-27 , one who thinks himself religiously observant but who cannot control the tongue will find religious observance worthless. James continued that the religious observance God cares about is not a cultic matter but an ethical matter, care of the helpless of society. 3. Several terms derived from sebomai (to fear) are translated religious or religion. The term in Acts 13:43 is rendered “religious” (KJV), “devout” (NRSV), and “God-fearing” (NAS). The term RSV translated “religion” in 1 Timothy 2:10 is literally “God-fearing,” here in the sense of obedient to God's commands (compare John 9:31 ). The NIV translation “who profess to worship God” highlights the connection between fear and reverence. The KJV and NAS translation “godliness” accentuates the linkage of fear with an obedient life. The term RSV translated as “religion” (1 Timothy 3:16 ; 2 Timothy 3:5 ) and “religious duty” in 1 Timothy 5:4 is generally translated “godliness” or “piety.” The emphasis is again on conduct. 4. The meaning of the term the NAS translated as “self-made religion” is uncertain ( Colossians 2:23 ). The Greek roots suggest freely chosen worship (KJV, “will worship”; NIV, “self-imposed worship”; RSV, “promoting rigor of devotion”). Similar constructions with thelo suggest the meaning, “alleged worship.” 5. KJV translated Ioudaismo (Judaism) as the “Jews' religion” ( Galatians 1:13-14 ). 6 . NIV frequently inserts the adjective religious into its paraphrase to clarify the nature of feasts (Amos 5:21 ; Amos 8:10 ; Colossians 2:16 ) or service (Hebrews 10:11 ) when there is no corresponding term in the Greek or Hebrew text.
Chris Church
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - Religion: Taken Upon Trust
It is a preposterous thing that men can venture their souls where they will not venture their money; for they will take their religion upon trust, but would not trust a synod about the goodness of half-a-crown.: William Penn.
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - Life: Explains Religion
ONE of our party greatly needed some elder-flower water for her face upon which the sun was working great mischief. It was in the Italian town of Varallo, and not a word of Italian did I know. I entered a chemist's shop and surveyed his drawers and bottles, but the result was nil. Bright thought, I would go down by the river, and walk until I could gather a bunch of elder-flowers, for the tree was then in bloom. Happily the search was successful: the flowers were exhibited to the druggist, the extract was procured. When you cannot tell in so many words what true religion is, exhibit it by your actions. Show by your life what grace can do. There is no language in the world so eloquent as a holy life. Men may doubt what you say, but they will believe what you do.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Religion (2)
RELIGION.—The Lat. word religio did not come into Christian usage until in the 4th cent. Lactantins (Instit. iv. 28) wrote, ‘Religion is the link which unites man to God.’ The reason was that the implications of the word were altogether external, and, in accordance with the Roman genius, almost administrative. But the Greeks were equally unable to supply a word which would correspond with the Christian faith and its fruits. θρησκεία, translation ‘religion’ in Acts 26:5 and James 1:26 f., was also spiritually threadbare, and suggested nothing more than the ceremonial side of public worship. With this history behind the word, religion has come to be a complex conception; but for the present purpose it may perhaps be defined as the soul’s response to the spiritual revelation by which it is illumined, kindled, and moved. With some the revelation does not pass beyond the mind, with others it calls for little more than an indulgence of feeling, with others, again, it brings out only a discipline of obedience. But in true religion all three elements are present. ‘It includes the whole energy of man as reasonable spirit’ (Fairbairn, Phil. [1] of Religion, p. 201). The key-words of religion then are: (1) revelation, (2) response.
1. Religion as revelation.—The quality of the response depends on the character of the revelation. Religion must always mean something different from what it was before the revelation of grace and truth which came by Jesus Christ. Of what that consisted will appear later. Meantime it might be noted that the factor of revelation has been minimized in the workings of thought during the last two centuries, in reaction, no doubt, from the emphasis on external authority, not only in the Catholic Church, but in older theology generally. On the one hand, in the 18th cent. there was, if one may say so, an artificial construction of ‘natural’ religion, in which Christ was put out of court. On the other hand, in the 19th cent. the rise of psychological and humanitarian interests has created a tendency to lose the revelation in the response. Thus Schleiermacher in his Reden über die Religion has nothing to say on religious authority, and in a chapter on the nature of religion practically identifies revelation with intuition and original feeling (p. 89). Ritschl, again, in his theory of value-judgments, throws the weight of authority on the soul’s response; while Sabatier, in his beautiful study of the genesis of religion, speaks of the spirit attaching itself to its principle, and seems also liable to the dangers of subjectivity (Outlines of Phil. [1] of Rel. p. 28). The alteration of standpoint is thus expressed by F. D. Maurice (Life, i. p. 340):
‘The difficulty in our day is to believe in a revelation as our fathers did.… Our mind’s bear a stronger witness than the minds of our forefathers did to the idea of a revelation: so strong a witness, that we think it must have originated in them. We cannot think it possible that God has actually manifested Himself to us, because the sense of a manifestation is so near to us that we think it is only our sense, and has no reality corresponding to it.’
But no good end is served by minimizing that side of religion that is ‘not ourselves.’ For although, as Oman so well shows (Vision and Authority, p. 81), ‘the supreme religious fact is the individual whose capacity of vision is the channel of authority,’ yet if truth is ultimately one, it must proceed by way of revelation from some objective source. ‘Faith,’ says Dorner (Syst. of Chr. Doctrine, i. p. 133), ‘does not wish to become a mere relation to itself, or to its representation and thought. That would be simply a monologue: faith desires a dialogue.’ See, further, art. Fact and Theory.
Now, revelation finds its way to the soul both mediately and immediately. And it is essential to give due consideration to both these channels of religious authority. Jesus Christ, who is the norm of religion as well as the focus of revelation, made use of both. It must not be overlooked that He took over without hesitation the general conception of God’s nature, kingdom, and law which He inherited from the teaching of home (Luke 2:51), synagogue (Luke 4:16), and Scriptures. The OT provided Him not only with illustrations of His own original thought (Matthew 12:39-42, Luke 4:25-27), but with canons of judgment and standards of authority (Matthew 5:18), and even with personal assurance in the time of moral temptation (Matthew 4:4; Matthew 4:7; Matthew 4:10) and of mortal weakness (Matthew 27:46, Luke 23:46). But this attitude of our Lord must not be misunderstood. In leaning on the Word of God in the Scriptures of His people, He was not compromising the Church on critical questions. Moreover, it cannot be affirmed that He gave any guarantee of an infallible book. On the contrary, He handled it with perfect freedom, treating it as a guide but not as a goal (Matthew 5:21 ff.). Its validity for Him, as for us, lay in its being the chosen testimony of those who gave the best response that was in them to the revelation they received, and so became witnesses of the truth.* [3]
So far our Lord behaved Himself as the ‘root and offspring of David.’ But He was also ‘the bright and morning star.’ And religion was His by a revelation that was immediate, as well as by that which was mediated. Into the secrets of His sublime self-consciousness as the beloved Son of God and one with the Father we cannot penetrate. But His words are before us, with all their august claim: ‘It was said by them of old, … but I say unto you’ (Matthew 5:21 f. etc.); ‘Ye search the Scriptures, … but ye will not come to me,’ etc. (John 5:39 f). The immediacy of revelation to Him is fully declared in Matthew 11:27 ‘All things are delivered unto me of my Father, and no one knoweth the Son save the Father; neither doth any know the Father, save the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son willeth to reveal him.’ None has ever challenged that solitary claim. Yet it is notable that our Lord did not shut up His followers to a revelation that is mediated even through His own blessed words.
‘Christ found men everywhere ready to receive Him as a Rabbi. On the authority of other people they would accept anything. But He insisted on basing what He taught on the authority of their own hearts and consciences. To this end He spoke in parables that they might not understand on any other conditions’ (Oman, Vision and Authority, p. 104).
And it is for us to remember that Christ has not left us His revelation, as it were, on deposit. The partial records of His life, first in the flesh and then in the spirit, which are ours through the NT, are certainly means whereby the Divine grace and truth are mediated to us, providing, indeed, our canon of spiritual judgment. But we are to trust also to the immediacy of Divine access to our minds, knowing that there is a Spirit to lead us into all the truth, enabling us to judge all things and approve those that are excellent (John 16:13, 1 Corinthians 2:15, Philippians 1:10).* [4] Thus Christianity is like an ever new commandment, being true in Him and in us (1 John 2:8). See, further, art. Revelation.
2. Religion as response.—The primary response to the revelation of God may be said to run on three lines, the sense of (a) dependence, (b) estrangement, (c) obligation.
(a) The soul’s response in a sense of dependence. The soul, when it comes to itself, finds itself solitary and orphaned. The issues of life run up into eternity, and the soul first proves it is awakened by crying out for the living God. The fact that man is a spiritual being soon asserts itself in the life that is not wholly preoccupied with things temporal. In the words of St. Augustine (Confess.), ‘Thou hast made us for Thyself, and our heart is restless until it find its rest in Thee.’ Thus begins a ‘commerce, a conscious and willed relation, into which the soul in distress enters with the mysterious power on which it feels that it and its destiny depend’ (Sabatier, Outlines, p. 27). This need of security and rest is perfectly met by Christ. He satisfies the soul’s sense of dependence by drawing it to Himself. In His Divine Personality men find their long-sought God. To the soul once awakened there is no resting-place except in the eternal Christ, ‘the same yesterday and to-day and for ever.’
‘Holding His hand, my steadied feet
May walk the air, the seas;
On life and death His smile falls sweet,
Lights up all mysteries.
Stranger nor exile can I be
In new worlds where He leadeth me.’
(b) A second primary response of the soul in religion is a sense of sin, or separation. Religion has found expression in sacrifices on account of the well-nigh universal instinct that something must be offered in order to avert the wrath or unkindness of the Deity, or at least to restore happy relations between the worshipper and the world that is beyond his control. Whether they were originally offered in fear of malevolent deities, or in commemoration of the ghosts of the departed, or to renew the covenant of a tribe with its proper deity, does not greatly matter. Suffice it that the sacrifice is intended to restore communion with God in such a way that in the place of guilt and fear there may come a sense of favour through prosperity and peace.
This strong sense of a separateness that may be bridged is more or less efficient in all human response to the Unseen, and is the basis on which the higher religions rest. The danger is that the interest may run out towards the material sacrifice and its attendant rites in such a way that the end is forgotten in the means. But here Christ meets the supreme need of reconciliation in the only worthy way conceivable. On the cross the soul’s reliance can be securely planted. It so suffices that all other sacrifices can only be put aside as mistaken, superfluous, and vain (Hebrews 13:15), unless they are the sacrifices of empty hands and a full heart.
(c) There is a third primary strand of religion in the sense of obligation, by which the soul is brought under a supreme law and purpose. There is a constraining influence in all religion, in addition to the feeling of dependence and the sense of estrangement. Religion really begins for us, says Lotze, ‘with a feeling of duty’ (Phil. [1] of Religion, p. 150). It involves a committal of the life, the framing of its career on lines that often lie athwart the obvious advantages of life. The Indian fakir or Buddhist monk is moved strongly by this sense of obligation, and observes conditions of consecration even to the crippling of his life. But here, again, the faith of Jesus Christ fulfils this need of the soul in a way that liberates and enlarges it. He made that absolute claim on the soul’s affection and the life’s service to which so many have thankfully responded. He knew human nature too well to ask for a partial surrender, and an obedience in outward things which is hard and toilsome. But His yoke is easy, because it brings the whole life, love, and strength under contribution to a reasonable service; so that ‘I ought’ is transmuted into ‘I must,’ and the struggling life of division becomes the soaring life of dedication. And as prayer is the expression of the sense of dependence, and sacrifice of the consciousness of estrangement, so the sacrament is the symbol of the sense of obligation.
3. True religion embodied in Jesus Christ.—It is evident from this brief analysis of religion on its responsive side, that Christ has the key to all its intimacies, because the meanings of religion are consummated in Himself. The religion which we believe to be universal and everlasting in its character is just the fuller knowledge and obedience of Christ. He is His own religion, and therefore He not only harmonizes the various feelings of religion, as we have just seen, by satisfying the desire for security, for reconciliation, and for authority, but He also brings into unity its various forms. There are three chief forms which religion has taken, corresponding to the emotional, intellectual, and volitional elements in human nature: (a) the ritual side of religion, presided over by the priests, (b) the speculative side, represented by the theologians and philosophers, and (c) the legal or customary side, typified by the office of the scribes. All these departments are resolved in the NT into the headship and hegemony of Christ. He did not incorporate His religion in a hierarchic order (as with the Buddhists), or in philosophical books (as with the Brahmans), or in codes and customs (as with the Confucians and Muhammadans). He is Himself the Way, the Truth, and the Life (John 14:6) for all humanity.
(a) Christ is the perfect expression of the Temple symbolism (Hebrews 9:11 f.). His name is the shrine (Matthew 18:20, cf. 2 Corinthians 5:17); His will is the altar (Matthew 25:40, cf. 2 Corinthians 8:5). In His self-surrender He is the sacrifice (Matthew 26:36 ff., cf. Hebrews 10:10); in His self-manifestation He is the priest (Matthew 11:27, John 14:6). ‘Having then a great high priest, who hath passed through the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold fast our confession … let us draw near with boldness unto the throne of grace’ (Hebrews 4:14; Hebrews 4:16). (b) Christ is also the final secret of revelation. The Spirit’s work was to be focussed on Himself (John 16:14 f.), for to know Him is to know the Father (John 14:9), and that is life eternal (John 17:3). This is a wisdom that the rulers of this world never knew (1 Corinthians 2:6 ff.), though prophets and kings have desired to look into it (Luke 10:24). For the mystery of God is Christ, in whom are hidden all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge (Colossians 2:3). (c) Christ is, moreover, ‘the end of the law unto righteousness to everyone that believeth’ (Romans 10:4). His spirit of love is a law of liberty to His disciples (John 13:17; John 15:14, cf. James 1:23). Keeping the commandments is consummated in following Him (Mark 10:21), i.e. walking in love (Ephesians 5:1 f.); for love is the fulfilling of law (Romans 13:10) and solves the complicated problems of social life (Romans 14:18).
The three provinces of religious manifestation correspond with the three primary sensibilities of the religious life. The religious philosopher seeks to rationalize the consciousness of dependence on some theistic basis. The priest comes into being through the urgent need of reconciliation. The scribe meets the desire for some authority amid the tangled questions of practical life. Thus Christianity, which is essentially a life hid with Christ in God, is always in danger of being drawn down to the level of those who would reduce religion to a ritual of worship, a system of thought, or a fashion of life. But the fact that Jesus Christ is His own religion is the one guarantee of religion arriving at perfection. For it may truly be said that religion is in its essence the consciousness of personal being under the eye of the eternal Personality. It is surely too vague to define it, with Max Müller, as a ‘perception of the infinite,’ or, with Schleiermacher, as the ‘immediate consciousness of the eternal in the temporal.’ Lotze gives the following propositions as the characteristic convictions of the religious mind: (1) Moral laws embody the will of God; (2) individual finite spirits are not products of nature, but are children of God; (3) reality is more and other than the mere course of nature, it is a Kingdom of God. In each of these propositions the note of personality is sounded, both subjectively and objectively. And Ritschl states one side of this truth strongly when he explains religion out of ‘the necessity which man feels of maintaining his personality and spiritual independence against the limitations of Nature.’ But surely the religious man is at equal pains to assure himself of an all-embracing Personality at the heart of things, to which his own soul can return and be at rest (Psalms 116:7). That being so, we can see that only through Christ, the God-man, can this twofold consciousness be securely maintained, and the balance kept true between the objective and subjective elements in religion.
In Christ is perfected both the revelation and the response. He is the focus of revelation and the norm of religion. In fact, ‘He reveals most because He awakens most’ (Matheson, Growth of Spirit of Christianity, p. 8). He enables us to see in God our Father, because He quickens in us a filial consciousness and behaviour. As for His revelation of Godhead, men have seen in Him that interwoven authority of love and law, of truth and grace, which gives fulness of meaning to the conceptions of a Father in heaven, free will and human immortality. As for the response which He has awakened in men, they have been won to His ideal through His fulfilment of filial and fraternal obligations in His sacrificial life. The authority and the obedience were alike pre-eminent in the Cross. Thence came the kindling spark which made the Person of Christ a vital religious fact for humanity. Man had thought of himself as being in some sense on a cross because of the presence of suffering, sin, and death; and, so far as he was religious, tried by ritual to propitiate the Almighty, by philosophy to vindicate His ways, by methods of conduct to reduce the mischief of evil. But in Christ crucified man has found God Himself on the cross; and with Him there, there can be no injustice in suffering, no victory for sin, no sting in death.
4. Characteristics of Christ’s religion.—Having set this corner-stone, it only remains to mention seven characteristics of the religion which is derived from Jesus Christ and lives upon Him still.
(1) Christ has made religion personal in its authority. He is the only and absolute Lord. His spirit has broken and broken again the bands of ecclesiastical systems which multiply the scruples of conscience. The authority which is not as that of the scribes has been in more or less effectual operation through all the history of Christendom. Unlearned men, the weak and foolish of this world, have more than held their own in the name of Jesus of Nazareth (Acts 4, cf. 1 Corinthians 1:26 ff.). His people have gone forth, indifferent to praise or blame, favour or persecution, and even suspending their judgment of one another on the ground that to their own Master they stand or fall, before whose judgment-seat all must appear (Romans 14:4; Romans 14:10 f.). Heroic exploits have been undertaken and meanest duties performed by those whose one desire is to be well-pleasing unto Him (Hebrews 13:21) whom not having seen they love (1 Peter 1:8). Christianity loses its secret when it forgets the glorious egotism of the Master, who not only made Himself a law to the disciples who accompanied His ministry (Matthew 23:10), but gave Himself back to them as more than ever theirs after death (Matthew 28:20, John 20, 21). Christian mysticism is not only in place, it is imperative for the believer. Though he may not rise to the full height of St. Paul’s ‘Not I, but Christ’ (Galatians 2:20), he must be in conscious touch with his Lord.
(2) Christ made religion human in its sympathy. It was stamped upon the remembrance of His disciples that He went about doing good. Jesus presented to a world much given to religiosity the problem of One who reserved His devotions for the solitude of night, and filled His days, including the Sabbaths, with helping the needy and the outcast. True, He went up to the national Feasts (John 2:13 etc.), but He was most Himself when He provided a miraculous meal of His own (Mark 6:35 ff. ||). True, He revered the Temple; but the occasions of His triumphs, and the moment of His transfiguration, were in secular places (Matthew 17:1 ff. ||). True, He was subject unto the Law; but He made its requirements a secondary consideration when the cause of humanity was at stake (Mark 2:23 ff; Mark 3:1 ff.). These incidents are typical of the attitude of Jesus towards religious duty. He denounced the advocates of ‘Corban,’ and those who ‘devoured widows’ houses and for a pretence made long prayers’; demanded ‘mercy instead of sacrifice, and reconciliation rather than ritual’ (Matthew 9:13; Matthew 5:23 f.); and declared that the service of the ‘little ones,’ the least of His brethren, was the true way of honouring the Father in heaven (Matthew 10:40; Matthew 25:40, John 13:14). Slowly the disciples were weaned from their contempt for the multitude, their disparagement of women and children (Mark 10:13 ff.), their vexation with men like Bartimaeus and Zacchaeus who interfered with their religious plans (Mark 10:48, Luke 19:7). At last they deserved the name of ‘League of Pity.’ Their first social experiment was to have all things in common (Acts 4:34). Their first economic problem was how to distribute alms most wisely to the widows (Acts 6:1). They invented a new virtue called ‘brotherly love,’ in which all shared who were of the faith, whatever their status or nationality. The revolution which Christ effected in humanizing the conception of religion may be clearly seen in a study of words. There were three Greek words for service: διακονία, which was used for service from man to man, chiefly reserved for slaves; λειτουργία, which was used for the service of a man to the commonwealth; and λατρεία, for the service rendered to the gods.
The Christian consciousness rejected the last word; but adopted and hallowed the other two, which stood for human, not Divine service. They appear in ‘deacon’ and ‘liturgy’ respectively: the third word is left embedded in idolatry.—See, further, below, § 5.
(3) Christ has made religion moral in its character, because He is pre-eminently the Saviour from sin. Religion under other auspices may mean almost anything but a moral conflict and victory. It may even, as in various Asiatic beliefs, spread its sanction over immorality. And even where there is a high ethical standard, as in Confucianism, goodness is rather a codified substitute for religion than the vital substance of it. Nowhere but in Christianity is love for God identified with a passion for real righteousness and inmost cleansing. Not that there is no teaching to this end in the OT. On the contrary, it is the main burden of the prophets. And John the Baptist stood in the true succession when he turned religion into the terms of a repentant and reconstructed life. But it too easily became a means to an end, so that personal righteousness became subsidiary to national rights. And goodness became so degenerate in the chair of the scribes that their ideal was not so much rectitude as correctitude.
But the religion of the Sermon on the Mount breathes out a holiness which consumes every lesser thing, and carries the moral imperative into the inmost recesses of the soul. It is a remarkable thing that Jesus brought so few charges of sin against the irreligious people. If one might venture on a reason, it is that sin itself, i.e. the enthronement of self against God, meant so much to Him that He let other things pass in order to strike at the Prince of this world (John 12:31; John 16:11). His life and spiritual presence have made men conscious of sin without the aid of any catalogue of transgressions. On the other hand, Christ’s conception of morality was always warm and positive, on the ground that ‘no virtue is safe that is not enthusiastic’ (Seeley, Ecce Homo, ch. i.). Every token of self-abandonment in humility, faith, and love drew forth His admiration, whether it was the quiet confidence of the centurion (Matthew 8:5 ff., Luke 17:2 ff.), the moral enthusiasm of the young ruler (Mark 10:17 ff. ||), the sacrificial giving of the poor widow (Mark 12:42 ff. ||), or the overflowing repentance of the woman who wept at His feet (Luke 7:36 ff.). Every human trait that escaped the imprisonment of self was in the eyes of Jesus the material of true religion. And it was a radiant goodness, unconscious and unlaboured, in the early Christians that chiefly arrested the attention of the world.
(4) Christ has made religion individual in its responsibility, because He is the Lord of all. Religion always tends to congeal into a system. There is, of course, a solidarity of mankind, of which religion must take note, of which indeed it is an expression. Sin is a common inheritance, and redemption, too, is a universal fact. It is on this truth that the gospel of Jesus rests. But starting from this truth the gospel lays a test and an obligation on individuals as such. There is no safeguard in being a son of Abraham or a disciple of Moses without giving personal credence, allegiance, and service, μόνον πίστευε is the keyword by which the individual escapes from ‘an evil and adulterous generation,’ and all that threatens the full exercise of personality. From the beginning Jesus kept the multitude at the distance of a strait gate and a narrow way, which can be traversed only by one at a time, by the giving of the will, and the crucifying of the self. And what is true of entrance to the Kingdom holds good of its final appointments. Punishment will be proportioned to knowledge and reward to fidelity. With all that He Himself brought, Jesus did not allow men to take anything for granted, but bade them ‘watch, as if on that alone hung the issue of the day.’
(5) Christ has made religion spiritual in its essence, because ‘the Lord is the Spirit’ (2 C
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Religion
RELIGIOUS. James 1:26-27, threeskos , threeskeia ; distinct from eulabees ("reverent"; from the Old Testament standpoint; "cautious fear toward God"), "devout" (Luke 2:25); theosebees , "godly"; eusebees , "pious." "If any man seem a diligent observer of the offices of religion (threeskos ) ... pure and undefiled religion (not the sum total or inner essentials of religion, but its outer manifestations) is to visit the fatherless," etc. The Old Testament cult or "religious service" (threeskeia ) was ceremony and ritual; the New Testament religious service consists in acts of mercy, love, and holiness. "Religion" refers to the external service, "godliness" being the soul. James as president of the Jerusalem council (Acts 15:13-21) had decided against ritualism; so he teaches, instead of Judaic ceremonialism, true religious service is (1) active, (2) passive (Micah 6:7-8; Matthew 23:23); compare Acts 26:5, "our religion"; Colossians 2:18, "worshipping," threeskeia .
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Religion
The uses of the word ‘religion’ in the apostolic writings may be classified under three heads.
1. In Galatians 1:13 f. Ἰουδαϊσμός is twice translated ‘the Jews’ religion.’ St. Paul reminds the Galatians that they had heard of his manner of life aforetime when he followed Judaism, and that they knew his proficiency in Judaism. In this context the literal rendering ‘Judaism’ is to be preferred, for the factious rather than the religious aspect of Judaism is prominent. The English Version ‘Jews’ religion ‘is an unfortunate’ translation, because ‘it implies a definite separation between the two religions which did not then exist, … and it puts this view into the mouth of Paul, who steadfastly persisted in identifying the faith of Christ with the national religion.… Here Ἰουδαϊσμός denotes Jewish partisanship, and accurately describes the bitter party spirit which prompted Saul to take the lead in the martyrdom of Stephen and the persecution of the Church, … He advanced beyond his fellows in sectarian prejudice and persecuting zeal’ (F. Rendall, in Expositor’s Greek Testament , ‘Galatians,’ London, 1903, p. 153 f.).
2. The Greek adjective δεισιδαίμων is rendered in Acts 17:22 ‘superstitious’ (Revised Version ) and ‘religious’ (Revised Version margin). The derivative noun δεισιδαιμονία is rendered in Acts 25:19 ‘religion’ (Revised Version ) and ‘superstition’ (Revised Version margin). The dominant meaning of the words in classical Greek is ‘due reverence of the gods,’ but in the 1st cent. a.d. they had a depreciatory sense and signified ‘excessive fear of the gods’ (cf. E. Hatch, Essays in Biblical Greek, Oxford, 1889, p. 45). It does not, however, follow that ‘religion’ is an impossible rendering in the address of Festus to the Jewish king, Agrippa, who paid outward deference to the Jewish religion. But although Felix is not likely to ‘have used the term offensively … he may well have chosen the word because it was a neutral word (verbum μέσον, Bengel) and did not commit him to anything definite’ (R. J. Knowling, in Expositor’s Greek Testament , ‘Acts,’ London, 1901, p. 497). ‘Superstitious’ is more probably, though not certainly, the correct translation in Acts 17:22. St. Paul was addressing Athenians, and they ‘would instinctively recall the literary associations of the word.… In point of fruit, the words ὡς δεισιδαιμονεστέρους give, in a form as little offensive as possible, St. Paul’s view of Athenian idolatry already noticed by the historian (v. 18), The ὡς brings out the fact that the word δεισιδαιμονεστέρους expresses the speaker’s own impression’ (F. H. Chase, The Credibility of the Book of the Acts of the Apostles, London, 1902, p. 213).
3. In Acts 26:5 and James 1:26 f. ‘religion’ is the rendering of θρησκεία which in Colossians 2:18 is translated ‘worshipping.’ The contemporary meaning of the word is religion in its external aspect-‘cultus religiosus, potissimum externus’ (Wilke-Grimm, Clavis Novi Test., 1868). It is appropriately used by St. Paul in his address to Agrippa (Acts 26:5). Calling to remembrance his life as a Pharisee, the Apostle claims to have been ‘a zealous and diligent performer … of the outward service of God’ (R. C. Trench, Synonyms of the NT11, London, 1890, p. 175). In James 1:6 f., when the word is rightly understood, there is no support for those who disparage inward and spiritual religion, nor for those who so exalt its outward aspects as practically to identify it with morality and works of benevolence. What St. James asserts of such works is that they are ‘the body, the θρησκεία, of which godliness, or the love of God, is the informing soul.… The apostle claims for the new dispensation a superiority over the old, in that its very θρησκεία consists in acts of mercy, of love, of holiness, in that it has light for its garment, its very robe being righteousness; herein how much nobler than that old, whose θρησκεία was at best merely ceremonial and formal, whatever inner truth it might embody’ (R. C. Trench, op. cit. p. 176, who says, ‘these observations are made by Coleridge, Aids to Reflection, 1825, p. 15’).
J. G. Tasker.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Babylon, History And Religion of
Babylon was a city-state in southern Mesopotamia during Old Testament times, which eventually became a large empire that absorbed the nation of Judah and destroyed Jerusalem.
History The city of Babylon was founded in unknown antiquity on the river Euphrates, about 50 miles south of modern Baghdad. The English names Babylon and Babel (Genesis 10:10 ; Genesis 11:9 ) are translated from the same Hebrew word (babel ). See Babel . Babylon may have been an important cultural center during the period of the early Sumerian city-states (before 2000 B.C.), but the corresponding archaeological levels of the site are below the present water table and remain unexplored.
Babylon emerged from anonymity shortly after 2000 B.C., a period roughly contemporary with the Hebrew patriarchs. At that time, an independent kingdom was established in the city under a dynasty of Semitic westerners, or Amorites. Hammurabi (1792-1750 B.C.), the sixth king of this First Dynasty of Babylon, built a sizable empire through treaties, vassalage, and conquest. From his time forward, Babylon was considered the political seat of southern Mesopotamia, the region called Babylonia.
The political and socio-economic history of Babylonia in Hammurabi's time is well known thanks to extensive collections of cuneiform tablets discovered at various cities in Mesopotamia, especially at Mari. The famous stele containing the Law Code of Hammurabi was inscribed about 1765 B.C. in Babylonia. It was found, however, in Susa, where it had been taken as booty by the Elamites about 1160 B.C. This standing stone, now in the Louvre, preserves some 282 laws governing various aspects of life and regulating justice to three recognized levels of society. Similarities between the Law Code and biblical Mosaic laws are a result of the common Semitic culture. Wide divergences between the two are indicative of a different religious outlook.
The Amorite dynasty of Babylon reached its apex under Hammurabi. Subsequent rulers, however, saw their realm diminished, and in 1595 B.C. the Hittites sacked Babylon. After their withdrawal, members of the Kassite tribe seized the throne. The Kassite Dynasty ruled for over four centuries, a period of relative peace but also stagnation. Little is known up to about 1350 B.C., when Babylonian kings corresponded with Egypt and struggled with the growing power of Assyria to the north. After a brief resurgence, the Kassite dynasty was ended by the Elamite invasion in 1160 B.C.
When the Elamites withdrew to their Iranian homeland, princes native to the Babylonian city of Isin founded the Fourth Dynasty of Babylon. After a brief period of glory in which Nebuchadnezzar I (about 1124-1103 B.C.) invaded Elam, Babylon entered a dark age for most of the next two centuries. Floods, famine, widespread settlement of nomadic Aramean tribes, and the arrival of Chaldeans in the south plagued Babylon during this time of confusion.
During the period of the Assyrian Empire, Babylon was dominated by this warlike neighbor to the north. A dynastic dispute in Babylon in 851 B.C. brought the intervention of the Assyrian king Shalmaneser III. Babylon kings remained independent, but nominally subject to Assyrian “protection.”
A series of coups in Babylon prompted the Assyrian Tiglath-pileser III to enter Babylon in 728 B.C. and proclaim himself king under the throne name Pulu (Pul of 2 Kings 15:19 ; 1 Chronicles 5:26 ). He died the next year. By 721 B.C., the Chaldean Marduk-apal-iddina, Merodach-baladan of the Old Testament, ruled Babylon. With Elamite support he resisted the advances of the Assyrian Sargon II in 720 B.C. Babylon gained momentary independence, but in 710 B.C. Sargon attacked again. Merodach-baladan was forced to flee to Elam. Sargon, like Tiglath-pileser before him, took the throne of Babylon. As soon as Sargon died in 705 B.C., Babylon and other nations, including Judah under King Hezekiah, rebelled from Assyrian domination. Merodach-baladan had returned from Elam to Babylon. It is probably in this context that he sent emissaries to Hezekiah (2 Kings 20:12-19 ; Isaiah 39:1 ). In 703 B.C., the new Assyrian king, Sennacherib, attacked Babylon. He defeated Merodach-baladan, who again fled. He ultimately died in exile. After considerable intrigue in Babylon, another Elamite-sponsored revolt broke out against Assyria. In 689 B.C., Sennacherib destroyed the sacred city of Babylon in retaliation. His murder, by his own sons (2 Kings 19:37 ) in 681 B.C., was interpreted by Babylonians as divine judgment for this unthinkable act.
Esarhaddon, Sennacherib's son, immediately began the rebuilding of Babylon to win the allegiance of the populace. At his death, the crown prince Ashurbanipal ruled over Assyria, while another son ascended the throne of Babylon. All was well until 651 B.C. when the Babylonian king rebelled against his brother. Ashurbanipal finally prevailed and was crowned king of a resentful Babylon.
Assyrian domination died with Ashurbanipal in 627 B.C. In 626 B.C., Babylon fell into the hands of a Chaldean chief, Nabopolassar, first king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. In 612, with the help of the Medes, the Babylonians sacked the Assyrian capital Nineveh. The remnants of the Assyrian army rallied at Haran in north Syria, which was abandoned at the approach of the Babylonians in 610 B.C. Egypt, however, challenged Babylon for the right to inherit Assyria's empire. Pharaoh Necho II, with the last of the Assyrians (2 Kings 23:29-30 ), failed in 609 to retake Haran. In 605 B.C., Babylonian forces under the crown prince Nebuchadnezzar routed the Egyptians at the decisive Battle of Carchemish (Jeremiah 46:2-12 ). The Babylonian advance, however, was delayed by Nabopolassar's death which obliged Nebuchadnezzar to return to Babylon and assume power.
In 604,603 B.C., Nebuchadnezzar II (605-562 B.C.), king of Babylon, campaigned along the Palestinian coast. At this time Jehoiakim, king of Judah, became an unwilling vassal of Babylon. A Babylonian defeat at the border of Egypt in 601 probably encouraged Jehoiakim to rebel. For two years Judah was harassed by Babylonian vassals (2 Kings 24:1-2 ). Then, in December of 598 B.C., Nebuchadnezzar marched on Jerusalem. Jehoiakim died that same month, and his son Jehoiachin surrendered the city to the Babylonians on March 16,597 B.C. Many Judeans, including the royal family, were deported to Babylon (2 Kings 24:6-12 ). Ultimately released from prison, Jehoiachin was treated as a king in exile (2 Kings 25:27-30 ; Jeremiah 52:31-34 ). Texts excavated in Babylon show that rations were allotted to him and five sons.
Nebuchadnezzar appointed Zedekiah over Judah. Against the protests of Jeremiah, but with promises of Egyptian aid, Zedekiah revolted against Babylon in 589 B.C. In the resultant Babylonian campaign, Judah was ravaged and Jerusalem besieged. An abortive campaign by the Pharaoh Hophra gave Jerusalem a short respite, but the attack was renewed (Jeremiah 37:4-10 ). The city fell in August of 587 B.C. Zedekiah was captured, Jerusalem burned, and the Temple destroyed (Jeremiah 52:12-14 ). Many more Judeans were taken to their Exile in Babylonia (2 Kings 25:1-21 ; Jeremiah 52:1-30 ).
Apart from his military conquests, Nebuchadnezzar is noteworthy for a massive rebuilding program in Babylon itself. The city spanned the Euphrates and was surrounded by an eleven-mile long outer wall which enclosed suburbs and Nebuchadnezzar's summer palace. The inner wall was wide enough to accommodate two chariots abreast. It could be entered through eight gates, the most famous of which was the northern Ishtar Gate, used in the annual New Year Festival and decorated with reliefs of dragons and bulls in enameled brick. The road to this gate was bordered by high walls decorated by lions in glazed brick behind which were defensive citadels. Inside the gate was the main palace built by Nebuchadnezzar with its huge throne room. A cellar with shafts in part of the palace may have served as the substructure to the famous “Hanging Gardens of Babylon,” described by classical authors as one of the wonders of the ancient world. Babylon contained many temples, the most important of which was Esagila, the temple of the city's patron god, Marduk. Rebuilt by Nebuchadnezzar, the temple was lavishly decorated with gold. Just north of Esagila lay the huge stepped tower of Babylon, a ziggurat called Etemenanki and its sacred enclosure. Its seven stories perhaps towered some 300 feet above the city. No doubt Babylon greatly impressed the Jews taken there in captivity and provided them with substantial economic opportunities.
Nebuchadnezzar was the greatest king of the Neo-Babylonian Period and the last truly great ruler of Babylon. His successors were insignificant by comparison. He was followed by his son Awel-marduk (561-560 B.C.), the Evil-Merodach of the Old Testament (2 Kings 25:27-30 ), Neriglissar (560-558 B.C.), and Labashi-Marduk (557 B.C.), murdered as a mere child. The last king of Babylon, Nabonidus (556-539 B.C.) was an enigmatic figure who seems to have favored the moon god, Sin, over the national god, Marduk. He moved his residence to Tema in the Syro-Arabian Desert for ten years, leaving his son Belshazzar (Daniel 5:1 ) as regent in Babylon. Nabonidus returned to a divided capital amid a threat from the united Medes and Persians. In 539 B.C., the Persian Cyrus II (the Great) entered Babylon without a fight. Thus ended Babylon's dominant role in Near Eastern politics.
Babylon remained an important economic center and provincial capital during the period of Persian rule. The Greek historian Herodotus, who visited the city in 460 B.C., could still remark that “it surpasses in splendor any city of the known world.” Alexander the Great, conqueror of the Persian Empire, embarked on a program of rebuilding in Babylon which was interrupted by his death in 323 B.C. After Alexander the city declined economically, but remained an important religious center until New Testament times. The site was deserted by A.D. 200.
In Judeo-Christian thought, Babylon the metropolis, like the Tower of Babel, became symbolic of man's decadence and God's judgment. “Babylon” in Revelation 14:8 ; Revelation 16:19 ; Revelation 17:5 ; Revelation 18:2 and probably in 1 Peter 5:13 refers to Rome, the city which personified this idea for early Christians.
Religion. Babylonian religion is the best known variant of a complex and highly polytheistic system of belief common throughout Mesopotamia. Of the thousands of recognized gods, only about twenty were important in actual practice. The most important are reviewed here.
Anu, Enlil, and Ea, were patron deities of the oldest Sumerian cities and were each given a share of the Universe as their dominion. Anu, god of the heavens and patron god of Uruk (biblical Erech; Genesis 10:10 ) did not play a very active role. Enlil of Nippur was god of the earth. The god of Eridu, Ea, was lord of the subterranean waters and the god of craftsmen.
After the political rise of Babylon, Marduk was also considered one of the rulers of the cosmos. The son of Ea and patron god of Babylon, Marduk began to attain the position of prominence in Babylonian religion in the time of Hammurabi. In subsequent periods, Marduk (Merodach in Jeremiah 50:2 ) was considered the leading god and was given the epithet Bel (equivalent to the Canaanite term Baal), meaning “lord” (Isaiah 46:1 ; Jeremiah 50:2 ; Jeremiah 51:44 ). Marduk's son Nabu (the Nebo in Isaiah 46:1 ), god of the nearby city of Borsippa, was considered the god of writing and scribes and became especially exalted in the Neo-Babylonian Period.
Astral deities—gods associated with heavenly bodies—included the sun-god Shamash, the moon-god Sin, and Ishtar, goddess of the morning and evening star (the Greek Aphrodite and Roman Venus). Sin was the patron god of Ur and Haran, both associated with Abraham's origins (Genesis 11:31 ). Ishtar, the Canaanite Astarte/Ashtaroth (Judges 10:6 ; 1 Samuel 7:3-4 ; 1 Kings 11:5 ), had a major temple in Babylon and was very popular as the “Queen of Heaven” (Jeremiah 7:18 ; Jeremiah 44:17-19 ).
Other gods were associated with a newer city or none at all. Adad, the Canaanite Hadad, was the god of storms and thus both beneficial and destructive. Ninurta, god of war and hunting, was patron for the Assyrian capital Calah.
A number of myths concerning Babylonian gods are known, the most important of which is the Enuma elish , or Creation Epic. This myth originated in Babylon, where one of its goals was to show how Marduk became the leading god. It tells of a cosmic struggle in which, while other gods were powerless, Marduk slew Tiamat (the sea goddess, representative of chaos). From the blood of another slain god, Ea created mankind. Finally, Marduk was exalted and installed in his temple, Esagila, in Babylon.
The Enuma elish was recited and reenacted as part of the twelve-day New Year Festival in Babylon. During the festival, statues of other gods arrived from their cities to “visit” Marduk in Esagila. Also, the king did penance before Marduk, and “took the hand of Bel” in a ceremonial processing out of the city through the Ishtar Gate.
The gods were thought of as residing in cosmic localities, but also as present in their image, or idol, and living in the temple as a king in his palace. The gilded wooden images were in human form, clothed in a variety of ritual garments, and given three meals a day. On occasion the images were carried in ceremonial processions or to visit one another in different sanctuaries. It is very difficult to know what meaning the images and temples of the various gods had for the average person, and even more difficult to ascertain what comfort or help he might expect through worship of them. It seems clear, however, that beyond the expectations of health and success in his earthly life, he was without eternal hope.
Dan Browning
Holman Bible Dictionary - Canaan, History And Religion of
The territory between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River reaching from the brook of Egypt to the area around Ugarit in Syria or to the Euphrates. This represents descriptions in Near Eastern documents and in the Old Testament. Apparently, Canaan meant different things at different times. Numbers 13:29 limits Canaanites to those who “dwell by the sea and by the coast of Jordan.” Compare Joshua 11:3 . Israel was aware of the larger “Promised Land” of Canaan (Genesis 15:18 ; Exodus 23:21 ; Numbers 13:21 ; Deuteronomy 1:7 ; 1 Kings 4:21 ; etc.) Israel's basic land reached only from “Dan to Beersheba” (2Samuel 24:2-8,2 Samuel 24:15 ; 2 Kings 4:25 ). At times Israel included land east of Jordan (2 Samuel 24:5-6 ). At times the land of Gilead was contrasted to the land of Canaan (Joshua 22:9 ). After the conquest, Israel knew “there remaineth yet very much land to be possessed” (Joshua 13:1 ). Canaan thus extended beyond the normal borders of Israel, yet did not include land east of the Jordan. At times land of Canaanites and land of Amorites are identical. Whatever the land was called, it exercised extraordinary influence as the land bridge between Mesopotamia and Egypt and between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea.
History The word Canaan is not a Semitic name, although its appearance about 2300 B.C. in the Ebla texts attests to its antiquity. Because of the final “n,” it has been conjectured to be a Hurrian form. Quite probably the name was derived from a merchant designation; certainly Canaanite was ultimately equated in the biblical text with “trader” or “merchant” (Zechariah 14:21 ). Isaiah 23:8 uses Canaanites as a common noun meaning “merchants” or traders as the aristocracy to Tyre in the prophet's day. Similar association may be found in passages such as Hosea 12:7-8 ; Ezekiel 17:4 ; Zephaniah 1:11 . Canaan's identity as merchants probably goes back to a time when Canaan was limited to the area of Phoenicia, the rather small and narrow country along the seacoast of Canaan. Phoenicia was particularly known for a special purple dye produced from crushed mollusks. This product was shipped throughout the Mediterranean world. The word Canaan may be related to the special colored dye.
The biblical genealogical references are not particularly helpful in clarifying our understanding of Canaan. According to Genesis 9:18 and Genesis 10:6 , Canaan was a son of Ham, one of the three sons of Noah. Genesis 10:15-20 clarifies the implications of this Hamitic descent in the sons of Canaan: Sidon, Heth, the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgasites, the Hivites, the Arkites, the Si-nites, the Arvadites, and Zemarites, and the Hamathites. All of these peoples are charactizerized by being generally within the Egyptian sphere of influence.
Settlement within the land of Canaan is attested from Paleolithic times. Further, a Semitic presence in the area is evidenced at least by 3000 B.C. Some of the best examples of cities indicating Semitic influences are Jericho, Megiddo, Byblos, and Ugarit.
The best attested period in Canaanite history is the Bronze Age (ca. 3200-1200 B.C.). During the Old Kingdom (ca. 2600-2200 B.C.), Egypt's power extended as far northward as Ugarit. From recoveries at several sites including Byblos and Ugarit, it is clear that Egypt controlled the area during the period of the Twelfth Dynasty. 1990-1790 B.C.). From this general time period come the Egyptian Execration Texts which list peoples and princes of the area who owe their allegiance to Egypt. Egyptian control over Canaan waned, being withdrawn about 1800.
Canaan had to contend with other aggressors besides Egypt. Approximately 2000 B.C., the Amorites invaded the area, having migrated via the Fertile Crescent from the southern Mesopotamian Valley. In addition, the Canaanites were beset by the Hyksos, who controlled Egypt from 1720 until 1570. Hurrians and Hittites also sought control of Canaan. The mingling of so many cultural influences still resulted in a rather unified culture.
When the Egyptians were able to expel the Hyksos in the sixteenth century, the Egyptians were able to extend their power over Canaan. Again, however, Egyptian power weakened. By 1400, a number of small, established nations in the area struggled with each other. From the fourteenth century the Amarna Letters are derived. These are approximately 350 letters written in cuneiform Akkadian. They represent correspondence between the Egyptian court at Tell el-Amarna and numerous Canaanite cities, including Jerusalem, Megiddo, and Shechem. These letters indicate the unrest characteristic of these Canaanite principalities socially and politically.
Prior to Israel's entrance into Canaan, the country seems to have been organized around major cities creating rather small principalities. There was apparently no attempt to organize centrally for defense, thus making possible the success the Israelites enjoyed in the thirteenth century and the parallel success of the Philistines in the twelfth century. The biblical evidence is scant for any type of concerted Canaanite aggression against the Israelites. Stories in the book of Joshua (Genesis 9:1-2 ; Genesis 10:1-5 ) indicate that in emergency situations the independent city-state kings formed defense coalitions, but no one had power to unite all Canaan against Israel. In the Book of Judges only one Judge, namely Deborah (Judges 4-5 ), is depicted as having fought against the Canaanites. Rather than struggling with each other after the conquest, the Canaanites and Israelites gradually melded together, a phenomenon essentially completed by the end of David's rule.
The most significant finds have been the cuneiform tablets discovered in the royal library and/or temple in Ugarit. These tablets date from ca. 1400 B.C., near the final fall of Ugarit in ca. 1200 B.C. Their portrayal of the deities and religious perspectives represent Canaanite thought between 2000,1500 B.C.
The Pantheon A pantheon of deities was worshiped at Ugarit. On the one hand, each deity had a clear duty assignment, while on the other hand considerable fluidity flowed in deity perception. The role(s) of any given deity might be assumed by another.
El was acknowledged as the titular head of the pantheon. As king of the gods, he was both the creator god and a fertility god. He had earlier been more strongly associated with fertility than was true in the fourteenth century, although he was still depicted in the form of a bull. El lived at some distance from Ugarit upon a mountain (Mt. Saphon) located to the north.
El was joined by Athirat, apparently his wife, who is represented in the Old Testament as Asherah, with both feminine (Asheroth) and masculine (Asherim) plurals. Athirat was acknowledged as the mother of the deities, having given birth to some seventy gods and goddesses. Thus, she was predominately a fertility goddess and designated “creatress of the gods.”
Baal was the chief god in the popular worship of the people. Baal means “master” or “lord” and could refer to any one of the numerous Baalim (Baals) who had authority in various locations. The Ugaritic Baal, however, referred to the ultimate Baal!
Whereas El was located at some distance from the people, Baal was easily accessible. Baal statues have been recovered. These depict Baal wearing a conical hat with horns that conveys the strength and fertility associated with bull imagery. In his right hand Baal holds a club that represents his military strength as well as thunder. In his left hand he grasps a stylized lightening bolt which symbolizes his role as a storm god. He is sometimes portrayed as seated on a throne, indicating his authority as king of gods.
Baal was joined in his task by Anat, represented in the Bible as Anath. She was portrayed as both sister and consort of Baal. In her role she was both goddess of love, the perpetual virgin, and the goddess of warfare, whose exploits in Baal's behalf were sometimes remarkably cruel.
As Baal gradually supplanted El, many of the prerogatives earlier associated with El were naturally transferred to Baal. The biblical text derives from the period when this symbolic struggle between the deities had in essence been accomplished. Thus in the Bible Baal is often depicted with Asherah (i.e., Athirat) rather than Anath (i.e., Anat), as in Judges 3:7 (NIV).
Two additional gods fulfilled important roles in the popular mythology. Mot was the god of death and sterility. (In the Hebrew language the word for death is also mot.) Mot was associated with death, whether that refers to the seasonal cycle of vegetation, the sabbatical understanding of a seventh year of agricultural rest, or in some fashion to the individual's death. Mot was clearly understood as a power capable of rendering impotent Baal's regenerative powers.
Yam was called both “Prince River” and “Judge River.” (Again, the Hebrew word for sea is Yam.) In the Ugaritic texts Yam was the chaotic god of the sea, capable of turning cosmos into chaos. The people of Ugarit, like their Mesopotamian counterparts (and unlike the Egyptians), apparently recognized both their dependency upon as well as the dangers associated with water. Cultically, the fear of chaos overcoming cosmos was represented in Baal's struggle with Yam.
This sampling of some of the more important members of the pantheon indicates that the Uga-ritic schema, and thus that of the Canaanites in general, offered abundant options for worship. The mode of worship was tied especially to procreative sympathetic magic. The sexual union of god and goddess assured the fertility of mankind, the animals, and the larger world of nature. Crucial for this mode of worship was the worshiper's possibility to assist the process via sympathetic magic. In the temple a male priest or devotee fulfilled the god role, and the female priestess or devotee fulfilled the goddess role. These two individuals became for the moment as god and goddess. In sympathetic magic, humans ordain when and how the god and goddess act. This mode of human arrogance undergirded the tower of Babel story in Genesis 11:1 . Practically all ancient worship structures operated from such a fertility-sympathetic magic orientation. The Israelites encountered this thought pattern when they entered Canaan. It took many centuries (note King Josiah's removal from the Jerusalem Temple about 621 B.C. of the vessels made for Baal and Asherah as well as the houses of the male cult prostitutes — 2 Kings 23:1 ) for Israel in daily practice of popular religion to resist Canaanite practices. The teachings of inspired leaders and the actual practice of religion often stood in stark contrast.
Canaanite Mythology The seven tablets upon which the Ugaritic mythological material was found is often mutilated, frequently making difficult an assured rendering of the material.
The mythology apparently centered around three primary exploits of Baal. Through these events he established himself as the god of supreme power within the pantheon, built the palace or temple which he merited by virtue of his victory over Yam, and in the third scenario struggled with, succumbed to, and ultimately escaped from the clutches of Mot.
El is portrayed as having been unashamedly afraid of Yam, this chaotic god of the sea. In fact, El was so frightened that he hid beneath his throne, fearful himself to encounter Yam but encouraging anyone to come forward who would confront this agent of chaos. Eventually, following some negotiations having to do with his role if successful against Yam, Baal stepped forward and proceeded to engage Yam. Baal was successful, bringing Yam under control by dividing him and thus making helpful an otherwise destructive, chaotic force. By this act Baal demonstrated himself worthy of exaltation.
The second mythological sequence emphasized that Baal was now worthy of his own palace or temple. Given the cyclic view of reality and the recurring danger posed by Yam, it is understandable that Baal did not want any windows in his palace. After all, the threat of chaotic flooding would surely occur again, for such recurrence is characteristic of mythological thought. Eventually Baal was convinced otherwise. Anat secured El's permission to build the palace, and the master craftsmen erected the structure. Baal opened the completed palace to all the pantheon for a type of sacred meal. During the meal, Baal opened one of the windows and bellowed out the window, surely understood as an indication of thunder's origin, given Baal's association as god of the storm.
All should be well, but Baal had one more enemy to confront, Mot. According to the mythology, the two met in battle. Baal was defeated, being consigned thereby to the nether world. When Baal was separated from Anat, sterility reigned on earth. The wadis dried up, and Anat anxiously searched for Baal. While she could not find Baal, one day she chanced upon Mot. She had with her a blade with which she cut Mot into many pieces, which pieces she then sifted, with the remains being scattered across the ground, probably an allusion to some type of grain festival. Regardless, this action by Anat enabled Baal to escape from his confinement. Rapidly thereafter, fertility returned! Thus the full cycle has been traversed, whether the intent be the annual cycle experienced in the world of nature, the seven-year sabbatical cycle, or perhaps the human birth-to-death cycle. What is transparent is the cyclic nature of the highly sensual, sympathetic magic worship. The Israelites were forced to contend with this mythology upon their entrance to Canaan. They faced a worship structure which had proved itself successful in the view of the Canaanites. Apparently, the Israelites had to offer in exchange a non-agrarian wilderness God who had no record of success in agriculture!
Old Testament Relationships The Israelites settling into Canaan were not impervious to their surroundings. In the Ancient Near East people assumed that as a people migrated from one area to another they would take over the gods and religion of the new area in which they settled. At the least, they would incorporate the new religion into their own old religious structure. After all, these gods and goddesses had demonstrated their capability in meeting the inhabitants' needs. For the Israelites the most natural thing would have been to embrace Baalism, although perhaps not to the exclusion of Yahwism.
Strong argument can be made that a type of Yahwism — Baalism synthesis gradually established itself, particularly in the Northern Kingdom. During the period of Joshua and the Judges, a cultural struggle was waged which had to do more with the conflict between wilderness (Israelite) and agrarian (Canaanite) cultural motifs than between Yahweh and Baal. As earlier indicated, in the Book of Judges only one Judge, Deborah, is depicted as fighting directly against the Canaanites. Another judge could be called Jerabaal (Judges 6:32 ), having a father with an altar to Baal (Judges 6:25 ). Without leadership Israel worshipped Baal-berith (“Baal of the covenant”) mixing Baalism with the covenant of Yahweh (Judges 8:33 ).
The early monarchical period demonstrates the same type of syncretistic behavior. Saul assuredly did not struggle to eliminate Baalism, and he even named a son Eshbaal (“man of Baal,” 1 Chronicles 8:33 ). Jonathan had a son, Merib-baal (1 Chronicles 8:34 ). In like manner David named a son Beeliada (“Baal knows,” 1 Chronicles 14:7 ). Solomon was even more of a syncretist. Solomon's crowning glory, the Temple, was designed and built by Canaanite architects. In such an atmosphere lines of demarcation were loosely drawn. Solomon's politically-motivated marriages brought many other gods and their worship into Jerusalem (2 Kings 11:1-8 ).
Following Solomon's death and the disruption of the United Monarchy, the identity crisis continued in both north and south, but not as much in the south as in the north. Judah was the base for worship of Yahweh and the site of the Jerusalem Temple. In addition, Judah was geographically isolated from the northern Canaanite area where Baalism was more regularly practiced.
In Israel, however, the initial king, Jeroboam I (922-901 B.C.), erected rival shrines to the Jerusalem Temple at Dan and Bethel. These shrines, in the shape of bulls, are viewed by most scholars as being associated in some fashion with Baalism (recall that both El and Baal could be represented in the form of a bull). Regardless, the adherence to Jeroboam's shrines was for the biblical writers the mark of apostasy for Israel's kings.
During the Omrid Dynasty, Ahab (869-850 B.C.) married Jezebel, a princess from Tyre, as a sign of the diplomatic relationship between Israel and Tyre. Jezebel brought the clearest infusion of Baalism into Israel. Amidst the building of a Baal temple in the capital city of Samaria and the persecution of Yahweh's prophets, the prophet Elijah emerged on the scene. In a classical story of cultural confrontation, Elijah encouraged a contest atop Mount Carmel (1 Kings 18-19 ). On the one hand, the contest was an attempt to determine which deity could give the life-giving rain. On the other hand, it had a much greater significance. It clarified that a person must worship either Yahweh or Baal. It was not possible to worship both, for Yahweh demanded exclusive allegiance.
The struggle Elijah initiated with this either-Yahweh-or-Baal imperative, King Jehu (842-815) carried forward politically. Religiously, in the Northern Kingdom, Hosea gave voice to the anti-Baalistic message.
In the South, two kings led the anti-Baalistic struggle. Hezekiah (715-687 B.C.) is remembered as a reforming king (2 Chronicles 29-31 ), Josiah (640-609 B.C.) was the reformer par excellence.
Judah also had its vocal prophetic spokesmen against Baalism. Isaiah about 740-700 addressed the issue. Jeremiah from 615 B.C. onwards issued the strongest denunciation of Baalism.
The Baalistic Canaanites influenced Israel in many ways: Temple construction, sacrificial rituals, the high places, a rejection of any sexual motif as a worship instrument (Deuteronomy 23:17-18 ), and a lessening of the purely mythical with a concomitant emphasis upon the historical happening as with Yahweh's splitting of the sea (Yam Suph) rather than a struggle with a mythological Yam(Exodus 14-15 ).
It is too easy for the biblical interpreter to focus on the numerous ways that Israel found the Canaanite religion to be offensive. In some cases, such as the use of sex in worship, the level of antipathy witnessed in the Old Testament may not always have characterized Israel's actual practice, as prophetic denouncements like Hosea's show. The marked hostility. Deuteronomy 20:16-18 ) which clamored for the wholesale destruction of the Canaanites came from inspired religious leaders who did not represent the majority of Israel's population. A priest could call a prophet to leave the king's place of worship (Amos 7:12-13 ). The prophet could command people not to go to traditional worship places (Amos 5:5 ).
In summary the Israelites did not settle into a cultural vacuum upon entering Canaan. They encountered a people with a proud history and a thriving religion. Historically speaking, that encounter could potentially have led to the elimination of Yahwism. It did not. Rather, a long historical process led to the eventual elimination of baalism and other elements of Canaanite religion. Israel's battle with Canaanite religion gave new dimensions and depth to Israel's faith. The biblical record affirms that Yahweh, the Lord of history, has used the reality of historical encounter as a means to bring biblical religion to its mature development as revealed in the full canon of Scripture. See Amorites ; Anath ; Asherah ; Baal ; El ; Elijah ; Israel ; Phoenicia ; Ugarit .
Frank E. Eakin, Jr.
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Religion
Due to the wide range of its usage, the English word "religion" (from Lat. religio ) is not easily defined. Most commonly, however, it refers to ways in which humans relate to the divine (a presence [1] or force [2] behind, beyond, or pervading sensible reality that conditions but is not conditioned by that reality). All such "ways" include a system of beliefs about the divine and how it is related to the world. Most also involve an attitude of awe toward the divine, and a pattern of actions (rituals and an ethical code). By extension, "religion" is often used to refer to systems of belief and related practices that play an analogous role in people's lives (e.g., Buddhism, Confucianism, and even humanism). The word is, thus, an abstract term adaptable to a great variety of referents.
Neither the Hebrew nor the Aramaic languages of the Old Testament have a word with a corresponding semantic field. For that reason, one does not find "religion" or "religious" in most English versions of these Scriptures. English translators of the New Testament do use these words at times to render various forms of three Greek terms: deisidaimonia [3], threskeia [4], and eusebeia [5]. Yet all three words also fail to fully capture the import of the more abstract English "religion."
Both Old and New Testaments speak pervasively about matters "religious." Every word in these writings is in one way or another focused on the Creator-creature relationship. Every line revolves around that thematic center of gravity: how the Creator relates to his creation, especially humanity, and how humanity does and/or ought to relate to the Creator. In fact, every line of Scripture seeks to evoke from the reader right ways of relating to the Creator. In that sense, "religion" is pervasively the theme of Scripture.
To be sure, the Bible speaks of all creatures, resounding to God: they do his bidding (angels, Psalm 103:20 ; Hebrews 1:14 ; storm winds, Psalm 104:4 ; 148:8 ) and they rejoice before him with songs of joy and praise (Job 38:7 ; Psalm 89:12 ; 96:11-13 ; 98:7-9 ; Isaiah 44:23 ; 49:13 ; 55:12 ; see especially Psalm 103:22 ; 145:10 ; 148 ). But the concern of the biblical texts is to promote among humankind right beliefs about God, right attitudes toward God, and right conduct before the face of God. Biblically, religion has to do with human responses to the Creator.
That religion has a place in human life springs from two fundamental realities: (1) humans have been created in the image of God (Genesis 1:26-27 ; 9:6 ; Psalm 8:5 ; 1 Corinthians 11:7 ; Colossians 3:10 ; James 3:9 ), and so are both addressable by God and capable of responses appropriate to persons (beliefs, attitudes, and conduct that is consciously chosen); and (2) the Creator has disclosed himself to humankind and continues to address them. The whole visible world proclaims that its Creator has been and still is at work. It reflects his power, wisdom, righteousness, glory, and goodness (Psalm 19:1-4 ; 29:3-9 ; 97:6 ; Isaiah 40:12-14,21-22,26 , 28 ; Acts 14:17 ; 17:24-29 ; Romans 1:19-20 ). What Psalm 104 makes its central theme is elsewhere many times assumed or hinted: that the secure order of creation, sustaining as it does a profusion of life, is the visible glory-robe of the invisible Creator (see esp. vv. 1-2). So the creation itself is theophanous—and not just here and there in special "holy" places. The visible creation is itself the primal temple of God not built by human hands, where his "power and glory" are ever on display ( Psalm 29:3-9 ; 63:2 ).
Nor are the effects of the Creator's actions in and on the creation discernible only in what is commonly referred to as "nature." God is equally engaged in the arena of human affairs. So, for example, he knows both the external Acts of all human beings and the secrets of every human heart. And he deals with persons accordingly. He even intersects the flow of human affairs at their fountainhead, as the teachers of Yahwistic wisdom summed it up for ancient Israel: "In his heart a man plans his course, but the Lord determines his steps" (Proverbs 16:9 ); "The king's heart is in the hand of the Lord; he directs it like a watercourse wherever he pleases" (Proverbs 21:1 ); "Many are the plans in a man's heart, but it is the Lord's purpose that prevails" (Proverbs 19:21 ; cf. Isaiah 10:6-7 ).
The arenas of such divine intersection extend from individual lives to the rise and fall of empires. God appoints nations their place and establishes their boundaries (Deuteronomy 32:8 ; Amos 9:7 ). He makes them great, and destroys them (Job 12:23 ). He summons international armies to be "the weapons of his wrath" against an arrogant empire (Isaiah 13:4-5 ; Jeremiah 50-51 Ezek 50-530:25 ). To serve his historical purposes, God calls Assyria "the rod of my anger , the club of my wrath" (Isaiah 10:5 ), Nebuchadnezzar "my servant" (Jeremiah 25:9 ), and Cyrus "my shepherd" to "accomplish all that I plan" (Isaiah 44:28 ).
Ancient peoples believed that the gods intersected human affairs, determining the outcome of battles and the fortunes of kingdoms. Hence, in the rise and fall of kingdoms and empires the peoples of ancient Israel's world assumed that they experienced the workings of the gods. In that environment, Yahweh's sovereign control over the fortunes of nations, kings, and peoples (especially their downfall) humbled human arrogance (Genesis 11:1-9 ; Psalm 9:20 ; Isaiah 31:3 ; Ezekiel 28:2 ), exposed the powerlessness of the gods that humans made to fill the void left by their "forgetting" the Creator (Psalm 96:5 ; 115:4-7 ; 135:15-18 ; Isaiah 44:9-20 ; 46:1-7 ), and testified to the sole rule of Yahweh (Exodus 9:16 ; 14:17-18 ; Psalm 106:8 ; Ezekiel 25:11,17 ; 26:6 ; 28:22-24 ; 29:6,9 , 21 ; 30:8,19 , 25-26 ; 32:15 ; 35:15 ). Paul pointed to this divine disclosure in history when he said to the Greek intelligentsia, "From one man he made every nation of men, that they should inhabit the whole earth; and he determined the times set for them and the exact places where they should live. God did this so that men would seek him and perhaps reach out for him and find him, though he is not far from each one of us. For in him we live and move and have our being" (Acts 17:26-28 ).
So, according to the Bible, humankind is addressed by God through every component, process, and event in so-called nature and through every event, big and small, that makes up human history. Human beings live and move and have their being within the arena of God's creation. And through God's pervasive engagement with his creation as he sustains and governs it, they are always and everywhere confronted with the display of his power and glory. Wherever humans turn and by whatever means they experience the creation, the Creator calls to them for recognition and response. From this perspective, all human life is inherently "religious."
In two other ways "religion" (humankind's ways of relating to the divine) encompasses the whole of human life. First, humans are created in God's image to be his stewards of the creationas vocation, not avocation (Genesis 1:26-27 ; 2:15 ; Psalm 8:6-8 ). In whatever ways they act on the creation they do so as faithful or unfaithful stewards of God's handiwork. Second, humans live and prosper in all they undertake only by God's gifts and blessings ( Genesis 1:28-29 ; 9:1-3 ; Deuteronomy 7:13 ; Psalm 34:8-10 ; 127 ; Hosea 2:8-9 ). Thus in everything humans have to do with God.
But a breach has brought alienation between the Creator and humankind. Humanity has claimed autonomy as the implication of human freedom to make moral choices (Genesis 3:5-6 ) and self-sufficiency as the implication of humankind's power to "rule" and "subdue" God's earthly creatures (Genesis 4:19-24 ; 11:3-4 ). As Job said of the "wicked": "They say to God, Leave us alone! We have no desire to know your ways. Who is the Almighty, that we should serve him? What would we gain by praying to him?'" (21:14-15). They lean on their own understanding (Proverbs 3:5 ), being wise in their own eyes (Proverbs 3:7 ; 26:5,12 ; Isaiah 5:21 ). In a very real sense, as Habakkuk (1:11) wrote of the Babylonians, they have become people whose own strength is their god.
Still, this alienation from the Creator has left a void at the centerand there are obviously powers in the world not subject to human control that impinge on human existence and radically relativize humanity's self-sufficiency. So people have conceived of many gods, composed mythologies expressing what is believed about them, and devised ways to worship and appeal to them. Religion has broken up into many religions. Yet these have all been responses to the inescapable manifestations of the Creator's glory in the creation and the pervasive experience of humanity's existence being conditioned by a power or powers other than its own (Romans 1:21-23 ).
This radical breach and its massive consequences have occasioned a second work of God, a work that rivals the first in its disclosure of the Creator's glory. Not willing to let the alienation stand or to yield his glory to other gods (Isaiah 42:8 ; 48:11 ), the Creator has undertaken to effect reconciliation. It is with this mission of God to his world that the Bible is centrally concerned. It bears witness to God's "mighty Acts" of redemption in the history of Israel, and to the culmination of those Acts in the earthly ministry and heavenly reign of Jesus Christ. By this invasion of the alienated world with its many gods (2 Kings 17:29-33 ; Jeremiah 2:28 ; 1 Corinthians 8:5 ), the Creator calls all peoples of the world to turn from the sham gods they have made and return to him. Only as people rightly relate to him, "the true God" (Jeremiah 10:10 ; cf. 1 John 5:20 ), can their religion be "true."
What, then, constitutes the religion that God accepts as pure and faultless?
First, it believes the testimony of the spirit of God contained in the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments that arose in conjunction with God's saving Acts in Israel's history and culminated in Jesus Christ.
Second, it is filled with reverent awe before the majesty of the One who discloses himself in creation, history, and redemption. It bows in humble repentance before the Holy One for the alienation that turned to other gods and corrupted the "heart" from which springs every belief, attitude, and action. It receives in faith the grace of God offered in Jesus Christ. And in gratitude it dedicates the whole of self to the service of the Creator-Redeemer.
Third, certain activities or life expressions fall within its sphere: worship, prayer, and praise, both private and communal, and proclamationtelling the story of what the one true God has done (Isaiah 43:10,12 ; 44:8 ; Matthew 28:18-20 ; Acts 1:8 ). But to Israel God gave directives for more than cultic worship. All of Israel's life was to be brought into accordance with the will of the Creator, whose concern about his whole creation remained undiminished. And because no listing of do's and don'ts could be adequate in themselves, an all-encompassing commandment had to be appended: "Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one. Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind and with all your strength [6] [7] love your neighbor as yourself" ( Mark 12:29-31 ; and parallels cf. Leviticus 19:18,34 ; Deuteronomy 6:4-5 ; John 13:34 ; Romans 13:9 ; Galatians 5:14 ; James 2:8 ).
In biblical perspective, no human activity is any less "religious" (how humans relate to God) than worship, prayer, and praise. For that reason the apostle Paul instructed the church at Corinth, "So whether you eat or drink or whatever you do, do it all for the glory of God" (1 Corinthians 10:31 ). And for that reason James wrote, "Religion that God our Father accepts as pure and faultless is this: to look after orphans and widows in their distress and to keep oneself from being polluted by the world" (1:27).
John H. Stek
See also God ; Providence of God ; Worship
Bibliography . R. A. Clouse, The Myth of Religious Neutrality: An Essay on the Hidden Role of Religious Belief in Theories ; R. Otto, The Idea of the Holy ; J. Wach, The Comparative Study of Religion .
Holman Bible Dictionary - Assyria, History And Religion of
Assyria (Assihrya) was a nation in northern Mesopotamia in Old Testament times that became a large empire during the period of the Israelite kings. Assyrian expansion into the region of Palestine (about 855-625 B.C.) had enormous impact on the Hebrew kingdoms of Israel and Judah.
History Assyria lay north of the region of Babylonia along the banks of the Tigris River (Genesis 2:14 ) in northern Mesopotamia. The name Assyria (in Hebrew, Ashshur ) is from Asshur, its first capital, founded about 2000 B.C. The foundation of other Assyrian cities, notably Calah and Nineveh, appears in Genesis 10:11-12 .
The history of Assyria is well documented in royal Assyrian annals, building inscriptions, king lists, correspondence, and other archaeological evidence. By 1900 B.C. these cities were vigorously trading as far away as Cappadocia in eastern Asia Minor. An expanded Assyria warred with the famous King Hammurabi of Babylon shortly before breaking up into smaller city states about 1700 B.C.
Beginning about 1300 B.C., a reunited Assyria made rapid territorial advances and soon became an international power. Expanding westward, Tiglath-pileser I (1115-1077 B.C.) became the first Assyrian monarch to march his army to the shores of the Mediterranean. With his murder, however, Assyria entered a 166-year period of decline.
Assyria awoke from its dark ages under Adad-nirari II (911-891 B.C.), who reestablished the nation as a power to be reckoned with in Mesopotamia. His grandson, Ashurnasirpal II (883-859 B.C.) moved Assyria toward the status of an empire. Ashurnasirpal II used a well-deserved reputation for cruelty to extort tribute and taxes from states within the reach of his army in predatory campaigns. He also rebuilt the city of Calah as the new military and administrative capital. Carved stone panels in Ashurnasirpal's palace there show violent scenes of the king's vicious campaigns against unsubmissive enemies.
Ashurnasirpal's son Shalmaneser III (858-824 B.C.) continued a policy of Assyrian expansion through his annual campaigns in all directions. These were no longer mere predatory raids. Rather they demonstrated a systematic economic exploitation of subject states. As always, failure to submit to Assyria brought vicious military action. The results, however, were not always a complete victory for Assyria. In such a context Assyria first encountered the Hebrew kingdoms of the Bible. In 853 B.C., at Qarqar in north Syria, Shalmaneser fought a coalition of twelve kings including Hadad-ezer (Ben-Hadad, 1Kings 20:26,1 Kings 20:34 ) of Aram-Damascus and Ahab of Israel. This confrontation is not mentioned in the Bible, but it may have taken place during a three-year period of peace between Israel and Aram-Damascus (1 Kings 22:1 ). In his official inscriptions Shalmaneser claims victory, but the battle was inconclusive. In 841 B.C., he finally defeated Hazael of Damascus and on Mt. Carmel received tribute from Tyre, Sidon, and King Jehu of Israel. A scene carved in relief on the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser, unearthed at Calah, shows Jehu groveling before Shalmaneser, the only known depiction of an Israelite king.
With the death of Shalmaneser, Assyria entered another period of decline during which she was occupied with the nearby kingdom of Urartu. For the next century only one Assyrian king seriously affected affairs in Palestine. Adad-nirari III (810-783 B.C.) entered Damascus, taking extensive tribute from Ben-hadad III. He is probably the “savior” of 2 Kings 13:5 , who allowed Israel to escape domination by Aram-Damascus. Nevertheless, Adad-nirari also collected tribute from Jehoash of Israel.
Assyrian preoccupation with Urartu ended with the reign of Tiglath-pileser III (744-727 B.C.). The true founder of the Assyrian Empire, he made changes in the administration of conquered territories. Nations close to the Assyrian homeland were incorporated as provinces. Others were left with native rule, but subject to an Assyrian overseer. Tiglath-pileser also instituted a policy of mass deportations to reduce local nationalistic feelings. He took conquered people into exile to live in lands vacated by other conquered exiles. Compare 2 Kings 17:24 .
As Tiglath-pileser, also called Pul, arrived on the coast of Phoenicia, Menahem of Israel (2 Kings 15:19 ) and Rezin of Aram-Damascus brought tribute and became vassals of Assyria. An anti-Assyrian alliance quickly formed. Israel and Aram-Damascus attacked Jerusalem about 735 B.C. in an attempt to replace King Ahaz of Judah with a man loyal to the anti-Assyrian alliance (2 Kings 16:2-6 ; Isaiah 7:1-6 ) and thus force Judah's participation. Against the protests of Isaiah (Isaiah 7:4 ,Isaiah 7:4,7:16-17 ; Isaiah 8:4-8 ), Ahaz appealed to Tiglath-pileser for assistance (2 Kings 16:7-9 ). Tiglath-pileser, in response, campaigned against Philistia (734 B.C.), reduced Israel to the area immediately around Samaria (2 Kings 15:29 ; 733 B.C.), and annexed Aram-Damascus (732 B.C.), deporting the population. Ahaz, for his part, became an Assyrian vassal ( 2 Kings 16:10 ; 2Chronicles 28:16,2 Chronicles 28:20-22 ).
Little is known of the reign of Tiglath-pileser's successor, Shalmaneser V (726-722 B.C.), except that he besieged Samaria for three years in response to Hoshea's failure to pay tribute (2 Kings 17:3-5 ). The city finally fell to Shalmaneser (2 Kings 17:6 ; 2 Kings 18:9-12 ), who apparently died in the same year. His successor, Sargon II (722-705 B.C.), took credit in Assyrian royal inscriptions for deporting 27,290 inhabitants of Samaria.
Sargon campaigned in the region to counter rebellions in Gaza in 720 B.C. and Ashdod in 712 (2 Kings 19:35-362 ). Hezekiah of Judah was tempted to join in the Ashdod rebellion, but Isaiah warned against such action (Isaiah 18:1 ). Meanwhile, unrest smoldered in other parts of the empire. A rebellious king of Babylon, Merodach-baladan, found support from Elam, Assyria's enemy to the east. Though forced to flee Babylon in 710 B.C., Merodach-baladan returned some years later to reclaim the throne. He sent emissaries to Hezekiah in Jerusalem (2 Kings 20:12-19 ; Isaiah 39:1 ), apparently as part of preparations for a concerted anti-Assyrian revolt.
News of Sargon's death in battle served as a signal to anti-Assyrian forces. Sennacherib (704-681 B.C.) ascended the throne in the midst of widespread revolt. Merodach-baladan of Babylon, supported by the Elamites, had inspired the rebellion of all southern Mesopotamia. A number of states in Phoenicia and Palestine were also in rebellion, led by Hezekiah of Judah. After subduing Babylon, Sennacherib turned his attentions westward. In 701 B.C., he reasserted control over the city-states of Phoenicia, sacked Joppa and Ashkelon, and invaded Judah where Hezekiah had made considerable military preparations (2 Kings 20:20 ; 2Chronicles 32:1-8,2 Chronicles 32:30 ; Isaiah 22:8-11 ). Sennacherib's own account of the invasion provides a remarkable supplement to the biblical version (2 Kings 18:13-19:36 ). He claims to have destroyed 46 walled cities (see 2 Kings 18:13 ) and to have taken 200,150 captives. Sennacherib's conquest of Lachish is shown in graphic detail in carved panels from his palace at Nineveh. During the siege of Lachish, an Assyrian army was sent against Jerusalem where Hezekiah was “made a prisoner like a bird in a cage.” Three of Sennacherib's dignitaries attempted to negotiate the surrender of Jerusalem (2 Kings 18:17-37 ), but Hezekiah continued to hold out with the encouragement of Isaiah (2Kings 19:1-7,2 Kings 19:20-35 ). In the end, the Assyrian army withdrew, and Hezekiah paid an enormous tribute (2 Kings 18:14-16 ). The Assyrian account claims a victory over the Egyptian army and mentions Hezekiah's tribute but is rather vague about the end of the campaign. The Bible mentions the approach of the Egyptian army (2 Kings 19:9 ) and tells of a miraculous defeat of the Assyrians by the angel of the Lord (1619112332_62 ). The fifth century B.C. Greek historian Herodotus relates that the Assyrians suffered defeat because a plague of field mice destroyed their equipment. It is not certain whether these accounts can be combined to infer an outbreak of the plague. Certainly, Sennacherib suffered a major setback, for Hezekiah was the only ruler of the revolt to keep his throne.
On a more peaceful front, Sennacherib conducted some major building projects in Assyria. The ancient city of Nineveh was rebuilt as the new royal residence and Assyrian capital. War continued, however, with Elam, which also influenced Babylon to rebel again. An enraged Sennacherib razed the sacred city in 689 B.C. His murder, at the hands of his own sons (2 Kings 19:37 ) in 681 B.C., was interpreted by Babylonians as divine judgment for destroying their city.
Esarhaddon (681-669 B.C.) emerged as the new king and immediately began the rebuilding of Babylon, an act which won the allegiance of the local populace. He warred with nomadic tribes to the north and quelled a rebellion in Phoenicia, while Manasseh of Judah remained a loyal vassal. His greatest military adventure, however, was an invasion of Egypt conducted in 671 B.C. The Pharaoh Taharqa fled south as Memphis fell to the Assyrians, but returned and fomented rebellion two years later. Esarhaddon died in 669 B.C. on his way back to subjugate Egypt.
After conducting a brief expedition against eastern tribes, Esarhaddon's son, Ashurbanipal (668-627 B.C.), set out to reconquer Egypt. Assisted by 22 subject kings, including Manasseh of Judah, he invaded in 667 B.C. He defeated Pharaoh Taharqa and took the ancient capital of Thebes. Some 1,300 miles from home, Ashurbanipal had no choice but to reinstall the local rulers his father had appointed in Egypt and hope for the best. Plans for revolt began immediately; but Assyrian officers got wind of the plot, captured the rebels, and sent them to Nineveh. Egypt rebelled again in 665 B.C. This time Ashurbanipal destroyed Thebes, also called No-Amon (Nahum 3:8 , NAS). Phoenician attempts at revolt were also crushed.
Ashurbanipal ruled at Assyria's zenith but also saw the beginning of her swift collapse. Ten years after the destruction of Thebes, Egypt rebelled yet again. Assyria could do nothing because of a war with Elam. In 651 B.C., Ashurbanipal's brother, the king of Babylon, organized a widespread revolt. After three years of continual battles Babylon was subdued, but remained filled with seeds of hatred for Assyria. Action against Arab tribes followed, and the war with Elam continued until a final Assyrian victory in 639 B.C. That same year the official annals of Ashurbanipal came to an abrupt end. With Ashurbanipal's death in 627 B.C., unrest escalated. By 626, Babylon had fallen into the hands of the Chaldean Nabopolassar. Outlying states, such as Judah under Josiah, were free to rebel without fear. War continued between Assyria and Babylon until, in 614 B.C., the old Assyrian capital Asshur was sacked by the Medes. Then, in 612 B.C., Calah was destroyed. The combined armies of the Babylonians and the Medes laid siege to Nineveh. After two months, the city fell. And all who look on you will shrink from you and say, Wasted is Nineveh; who will bemoan her? whence shall I seek comforters for her? There is no assuaging your hurt, your wound is grievous. All who hear the news of you clap their hands over you. For upon whom has not come your unceasing evil? (Nahum 3:7 ,Nahum 3:7,3:19 ). An Assyrian general claimed the throne and rallied what was left of the Assyrian army in Haran. An alliance with Egypt brought a few troops to Assyria's aid; but in 610 B.C. the Babylonians approached, and Haran was abandoned. Assyria was no more.
Religion Assyrian religion, like that of most Near Eastern nations, was polytheistic. Essentially the same as Babylonian religion, official Assyrian religion recognized thousands of gods; but only about twenty were important in actual practice. The important part of the pantheon can be divided into several broad categories: old gods, astral deities, and young gods.
1. The old gods, Anu, Enlil, and Ea, were patron deities of the oldest Sumerian cities and were each given a share of the universe as their dominion. After the rise of Babylon, Marduk was also considered one of the rulers of the cosmos. Anu, god of the heavens and patron god of Uruk (biblical Erech; Genesis 10:10 ), did not play a very active role. Enlil of Nippur was god of the earth. Ea, the god of Eridu, was lord of the subterranean waters and the god of craftsmen.
2. Astral deities—gods associated with heavenly bodies—included the sun-god Shamash, the moon-god Sin, and Ishtar, goddess of the morning and evening star (the Greek Aphrodite and Roman Venus). Sin was the patron god of Ur and Haran, both associated with Abraham's origins (Genesis 11:31 ). Ishtar, the Canaanite Astarte/Ashtaroth (Judges 10:6 ; 1 Samuel 7:3-4 ; 1 Kings 11:5 ), was very popular as the “Queen of Heaven” (Jeremiah 7:18 ; Jeremiah 44:17-19 ,Jeremiah 44:17-19,44:25 ) and served as the patron goddess of Nineveh.
Younger gods were usually associated with a newer city or none at all. Adad, the Canaanite Hadad, was the god of storms and thus both beneficial and destructive. Ninurta, the god of war and hunting, became a fitting patron for the Assyrian capital Calah. Most important, however, is the unique figure of Asshur. As patron god and namesake of the original Assyrian capital Asshur and the state itself, Asshur rose in importance to be lord of the universe and the supreme god. Since the god Asshur stood above all others, the Assyrian king was duty-bound to show his corresponding dominance on earth. Most Assyrian military campaigns were initiated “at the command of Asshur.” See Babylon, History and Religion of .
Although a number of myths concerning the various Babylonian/Assyrian gods are known, the religious function of but one can be determined. The enuma elish, or Epic of Creation, originated in Babylon where it was recited and reenacted at the New Year's Festival. In the Assyrian version Asshur, not the Babylonian Marduk, is shown to be superior to the other gods.
The various gods were thought of as residing in cosmic localities, but also as present in their image, or idol, and living in the temple as a king in his palace. The temples varied in size according to the god's importance. The gilded wooden images were in human form, clothed in a variety of ritual garments, and given three meals a day. On occasion, especially at the New Year's Festival, the images were carried in ceremonial processions or to visit one another in different sanctuaries. It is difficult to know what meaning the images and temples of the various gods had for the average person, and even more difficult to ascertain what comfort or help he might expect through worship of them. It seems clear, however, that beyond the expectations of health and success in his earthly life, he was without eternal hope.
Daniel C. Browning, Jr.
CARM Theological Dictionary - Religion
An organized system of belief that generally seeks to understand purpose, meaning, goals, and methods of spiritual things. These spiritual things can be God, people in relation to God, salvation, after life, purpose of life, order of the cosmos, etc.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Authority in Religion
AUTHORITY IN RELIGION
1. Various connotations of the word ‘authority.’—The familiar distinction between legislative, judicial, and executive authority is one that is not only convenient, but rational and necessary. These several kinds of authority differ in their respective sources and appropriate modes of expression, and may differ also in their respective repositories. Again, authority may be original or delegated. The latter, moreover, while on a different plane, is not one whit less real than the former. And, passing by other uses of the word, it will be found that the idea lying at the heart of them all is that of a right on the part of somebody to submission of some sort and in some degree on the part of somebody else. In other words, the use of the term ‘authority’ implies the existence of an ethical standard. We shall not, therefore, have reached the ultimate authority along any line until we have arrived at this ultimate standard of right, by which the reality of all other authorities is tested. To avoid confusion, then, in considering Christ’s teachings regarding authority in religion, we shall have at every step to take account of the particular kind of authority then being dealt with.
2. Christ’s conception of religion.—That Christ’s conception of religion must have conditioned and shaped His teachings upon authority in religion is too obvious to be questioned. Hence we must at least glance at His conception of religion; but as this subject is itself a large one, we can at most merely glance at it. Our Lord, of course, has nowhere given us a formal definition of religion, nor has He anywhere formally discussed its nature. At the same time, few, we presume, will affirm that Christ has left us wholly at sea upon such a point. By common consent, religion is a term of relation. For present purposes we may, without unwarrantable assumption, say that the terms of this relation are God and man. Further, without undue assumption, we may add that true religion and right relation between God and man are equivalent expressions. Our present question, then, resolves itself into this, What, according to Christ, are the essentials of right relation between God and man?
Now, for answering this question, three statements of our Lord seem to the writer to be of fundamental importance. (1) The first of these occurs in His high priestly prayer. ‘This,’ says He, ‘is eternal life, that they should know thee the only true God, and him whom thou didst send, even Jesus Christ’ (John 17:3). Here the last clause may be an epexegetical addition of the Evangelist himself. With this statement naturally associate themselves, among others, those in John 10:10; John 3:5, Matthew 11:27. Now, certainly no one will even for a moment suppose that our Lord here lends any countenance to anything that can properly be called intellectualism. And yet it would be violent exegesis indeed that eradicated from His words the idea that right relations to God invariably imply, and ground themselves on, right conceptions of God. On any other view, what would be the propriety of the pronoun ‘thee,’ which certainly singles out from all other possible individuals or entities Him in the knowledge of whom Christ declares that ‘eternal life’ consists? If right conceptions of God are not essential to right relation between God and man, where, again, would be the propriety of the words ‘the only true,’ and the emphasis evidently centred upon them? (cf. also Matthew 11:27).
(2) A second passage of fundamental significance for Christ’s conception of religion is Matthew 22:37 ff. || Mark 12:28 ff. ‘Thou shaft love the Lord thy God, etc. Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself, etc. On these two commandments hangeth the whole law and the prophets.’ But that, according to the teaching of Christ, there is an emotional element in religion, is so generally recognized that it would be superfluous to multiply references, especially in such an incidental treatment of the subject as the present.
(3) The third passage that may be regarded as fundamental for our Lord’s conception of religion is Matthew 7:21 ‘Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven; but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in heaven.’ This, like the last passage cited, is typical. It represents a group of statements that need not be reproduced here.
While, therefore, the first of these three great passages implicates man’s understanding in religion, and the second his emotions, this last implicates his will, as controlling his conduct and finding its legitimate expression through it.
What may be called, then, a qualitative analysis of Christ’s conception of religion reveals the fact, that it contains this trinity of elements bound together in the indissoluble unity of the rational soul. Were any of them totally lacking, there would be no real religion. On the other hand, the necessary interrelation and interaction between them are recognized by Christ in such declarations as, ‘If any man willeth to do his will, he shall know of the teaching whether it be of God, or whether I speak from myself’ (John 7:17); ‘How can ye believe which receive glory one of another, and the glory that cometh from the only God ye seek not’ (John 5:44); ‘While ye have the light, believe on the light, that ye may become sons of light’ (John 12:36). Such is the essential unity of the soul, that it cannot experience depravation in one of its functions without all of the others being more or less affected thereby.
While, however, we can with a measure both of ease and of certainty make what we have ventured to call a qualitative analysis of Christ’s conception of religion, it would not be so easy to arrive at a quantitative analysis of it, and say just how much knowledge, how much emotion, and how much volitional activity must be present in order to the existence in the soul of any real religion. Indeed, it is hard to conceive of Christ as elaborating any views upon such a subject. We may refrain, then, from pressing our investigation into what would only be a region of arid and empty speculation. It is enough, if it has been shown that Christ’s conception of religion recognizes the essential unity of the soul, and involves its right relation to God in all its several powers or functions. To this conception His teachings regarding authority in religion will be found to conform. See, further, art. Religion.
i. Christ’s teaching as to the ultimate standard of right, and the ultimate source of rights.—Obviously we need not expect to find Christ dealing with the ultimate standard of right under the forms of Western dialectics, or in the abstract terms of philosophy. At the same time, we need not despair of obtaining some insight into His mind even upon this question. For one thing, His mode of addressing His Father is significant. Especially is it so when we take into account the circumstances under which it was employed. ‘Holy Father,’ He says in His intercessory prayer; and again, ‘O righteous Father.’ Now, under the circumstances, this language is more, far more, than the ascription to His Father of the possession of the qualities expressed by the words ‘holy’ and ‘righteous.’ For we must not forget that Christ’s intercessory prayer was offered at the very crisis of His career. We cannot pretend to fathom the experiences of His soul in that hour. The prayer itself, however, as recorded in John 17, is tense with the emotions that wrought in our Lord’s soul as He poured it forth. He was, so to speak, getting His footing as the floods of great waters gathered around Him in their mysterious energy. And the bed-rock upon which He plants Himself is one lying out of sight so far as the visible providence of God is concerned. He assures Himself of its existence as a reality by turning away from what is taking place under the providence of God, and fixing His mind upon the nature of God. God’s nature is His voucher for the righteousness of the course of God’s providence towards Himself. In the time of stress that was upon Him, He fixes His eye upon God’s holiness and righteousness as His sole but sufficient guarantee for the existence of the qualities for which these words stand.
But, further, that Christ found the ultimate standard of right in God’s nature as expressed through God’s will, is clear also from such statements as these: ‘Now is my soul troubled; and what shall I say? Father, save me from this hour? but for this cause came I unto this hour. Father, glorify thy name’ (John 12:27 f.). Here, it will be seen, our Lord places Himself absolutely at the disposal of the Divine will. But this would have been sheer moral insanity, unless God’s nature contained the final norm of righteousness. And this language is by no means exceptional; for, as all know, the Gospel of John abounds with expressions of Christ making the will of God the standard to which everything is to be referred (e.g. John 4:34, John 5:30, John 6:38 f.). Nor is the case different when we turn to the Synoptics (cf. Matthew 5:48; Matthew 6:10; Matthew 11:25 f., Luke 22:42). All these passages and others leave no room to doubt that Christ taught that the nature of God, as finding expression through His will, is the ultimate standard of right.
And as, for Christ, God’s nature is the ultimate norm of right, so for Him God’s will is the fountain and source of all particular rights. Wherever there exists a right upon the part of anybody to submission of any kind or degree from anybody else, such right exists in virtue of God’s ordering, and is delimited by God’s will. These statements, it seems to us, are involved in the passages already cited. All authority, in other words, is simply author-ity writ short and differently pronounced. A free creature, like man, may be, in a limited sense, an original source of power, but never of rights. His rights are all derived from, and bear the stamp of, the author of his being. Not only the primary and all-comprehending dependence, but all subordinate dependences and interdependences ground themselves ultimately on the relation that subsists between the Creator, as Creator, and the creature, as creature.
ii. Legislative authority in religion.—1. Term defined.—What we have called legislative authority is concerned primarily with duty. Its prescriptions, while mediated, at least so far as the knowledge of them goes, through the understanding, terminate upon the conscience and the will. It is the right to require or to forbid. It is the right to establish relations and define the duties or the privileges attaching to them. It is the first and most fundamental form of authority, cleaving closest to the etymological and logical sense of the word, which as already noted is simply author-ity. Legislative authority is really or approximately a creative function. In the case of God, of course, it is really creative. Behind it lies only the Divine nature, which alone conditions and regulates its exercise. From it arise all the relations of the creature to the Creator, and to his fellow-creatures, with the duties and the privileges that inhere in them, or that, in the wisdom of God, are, from time to time and under the particular circumstances, attached to them.
Now, according to our Lord’s teaching, all legislative authority in religion vests exclusively in God. He represents God as in the most absolute sense ‘Lord of the conscience.’ To Him it belongs to say, ‘Thou shalt,’ and to Him also to say, ‘Thou shalt not.’ As He has determined the relations between Himself and His creatures (‘Father, Lord of heaven and earth,’ Matthew 11:25; cf. also Matthew 19:4), it is for Him to define the duties emerging from those relations.
2. If, now, we pass to Christ’s teaching as to how this legislative authority belonging exclusively to God comes to expression, we find—(1) That our Lord is wholly silent as to the manifestation of God’s legislative authority in what we call ‘the laws of nature,’ using this phrase so as to include not only the laws of matter, but of mind as well, and also so as to include what St. Paul calls ‘the law written in the heart.’ For instance, nowhere does He directly advert to ‘the ordinance of heaven’ (Jeremiah 31:35 f., Job 38:33) as an expression of the Divine will; nowhere does He refer His hearers to the constitution of their own nature, physical, mental, or moral, as embodying an expression of the Divine will regarding this or that. There is, it may be, the glimmer of such a reference in passages like John 10:17 ff., Matthew 10:29 f., but it is at most a glimmer, and need not detain us.
(2) But that the legislative authority of God is exercised mediately as well as immediately is also taught by Christ. (a) Thus the preceptive portions of the OT, though mediated by ‘Moses and the prophets,’ are really ‘the commandments of God.’ Moses and the prophets, quoad this matter, are, so to speak, merely the heralds of the ‘Great King,’ or, to borrow an OT account of the relation between the prophet and God, the former is the ‘mouth’ of the latter (Exodus 4:16; cf. Exodus 7:1). And so, while ‘Moses said, Honour thy father and thy mother’ (Mark 7:10), this is still for Christ ‘the commandment of God.’ Further, that ‘the law of Moses’ was for Him the law of God appears from the fact that, when He was Himself tempted, and had to choose between two courses, what was written in Deuteronomy prescribed for Him the path of duty (Matthew 4:4; Matthew 4:7; Matthew 4:10-11). In the parable of Dives and Lazarus, our Lord puts these very significant words into the mouth of Abraham, ‘They have Moses and the prophets; let them hear them’ (Luke 16:29). The law in Numbers 28:9-10 (or perhaps in 1 Chronicles 9:32), according to which ‘the priests in the temple profane’ (ironical thrust at His adversaries) ‘the Sabbath and are guiltless’ (Matthew 12:5), was for Christ determinative of duty and of privilege. Indeed, He virtually puts it upon the same plane for authority as the primary intuition and verdict of conscience, namely, that ‘it is lawful to do good—on the Sabbath day’ (Matthew 12:12). Further, Christ’s summaries of ‘the law and the prophets’ (Matthew 7:12; Matthew 22:37 ff.) bear impressive testimony to the fact that He regarded the whole preceptive portion of the OT as an expression of the will of God. ‘Whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, even so do ye also unto them,’ is, according to our Lord, but a just summary of ‘the law and the prophets’ in terms that may be appreciated by the moral sense of all men. He teaches that the whole OT, so far as it has to do with duty towards man, is but an unfolding, in relation to this or that set of circumstances, of the ‘Golden Rule,’ whose Divine origin and authority are self-evidencing (cf. Mark 12:28 ff.).
(b) Whether Christ represents the Apostles also as organs through whom God exercises His legislative authority is, perhaps, not quite so clear. Doubtless they were. But even passages such as Matthew 10:20; Matthew 16:18, John 20:23; John 16:13 may refer to a grant of judicial rather than of strictly legislative authority. The authority conferred in these passages is, indeed, large and significant, but none of them necessarily implies that the Apostles were to be organs through whom God would make substantive additions to the commands laid upon the human conscience. Nor has the writer been able to satisfy himself that Christ anywhere uses of them language either demanding, or even susceptible of such an interpretation. In other words, while he thinks it unquestionable that the Apostles were media through whom God exercised His legislative authority, he is of opinion that we have to go outside of the Gospels for the evidence of this fact.
(c) With Christ Himself, however, the case is different. No doubt much of the authority we find Him using in the Gospels is judicial and not legislative. At the same time, intermingled with His judicial expositions of the law of God, we hear Him lay His own commands upon the conscience. Not only does He declare what is the Law, and what its meaning (see above), but He enunciates many specific precepts that stand related to His comprehensive summaries very much as the statutes of the land stand related to its constitution.
‘Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon earth,’ etc. (Matthew 6:19 ff.); ‘Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, neither cast your pearls before the swine,’ etc. (Matthew 7:6); ‘Love your enemies, do good to them that hats you,’ etc. (Luke 6:27); ‘Repent ye, and believe in the gospel’ (Mark 1:15)—will serve as samples. Very significant for Christ’s claims to be a special organ of the legislative authority of the Godhead is such a statement as, ‘The Son of man is Lord of the Sabbath’ (Matthew 12:8), and equally so this other, ‘Ye call me Teacher and Lord: and ye say well; for so I am’ (John 13:13). In both these instances it is clear that Christ asserts for Himself an authority going beyond any that can with propriety be considered as merely judicial. The ‘Lord’ is a giver of law, not simply its interpreter. The same conclusion follows even more stringently, perhaps, when our Lord says, ‘I and the Father are one,’ thereby, as the Jews affirmed, and He Himself did not deny, ‘making himself (thyself) equal with God’ (John 10:30; cf. John 10:33, Matthew 11:27; Matthew 11:29 note the word ‘yoke’). And, finally, here we must not overlook Matthew 28:18 b ‘All authority is given to me in heaven and on earth,’ which certainly constitutes a claim comprehensive enough to include the authority to prescribe laws to the conscience. See preceding article.
(3) But to say that Christ teaches that all legislative authority in religion vests exclusively in God, is hardly to put the case either as fully or as strongly as it needs to be put. For not only does our Lord represent God as ‘Lord of the conscience,’ but with equal emphasis and great explicitness He teaches that ‘God alone is Lord of the conscience, and hath left it free from the doctrines and commandments of men which are in anything contrary to His word, or beside it in matters of’ religious truth and duty. (For the purposes of this article ‘His word’ here may be taken quite broadly for any form in which God has made His will known).
This explains His word at the baptism, when the Baptist ‘would have hindered him,’ and He said, ‘Suffer it now: for thus it becometh us to fulfil all righteousness’ (Matthew 3:15). So saying, He denies to the human reason the prerogative, by annulling or setting them aside, to pass judgment upon the propriety or the expediency of Divine prescriptions. Recognizing what is praiseworthy in the spirit of the Baptist, He at the same time sets the seal of His disapprobation upon all man-devised substitutions for, or modifications of, Divine ordinances. These are all either acts of open rebellion, or well meant but real usurpations of legislative functions pertaining exclusively to God. The same view finds yet more palpable and pungent expression in His rebuke to the Pharisees (Mark 7:6 ff.). And, as is well known, it was His resistance in word and deed to the traditions of the elders regarding the Sabbath—these being ‘beside’ God’s word—that earned for Him, with the Pharisees, the odium of being Himself a Sabbath-breaker (John 5, Matthew 12, Mark 3).
Indeed, at the beginning of His Galilaean ministry, our Lord is careful to disclaim, even for Himself, either purpose or authority to disannul any of God’s commandments. ‘Think not,’ said He, ‘that I am come to destroy the law or the prophets: I came not to destroy, but to fulfil’ (Matthew 5:17). See, further, article Commandment, below. Thus He, as it were, anticipated and forestalled the malice of His own, and the mistaken zeal of a later day. The former made it a charge against Him that He taught contrary to Moses and the prophets; and the latter, strangely enough, has supposed that it honours Him by affirming the same. And, lofty as were the claims that He made for Himself, Christ still impressed it upon His hearers that He not only did not assume to lay upon them anything contrary to God’s revealed will but that He taught, and could teach nothing that was ‘beside’ that will (John 5:30, cf. John 5:19; John 8:28 f.). And that nothing ‘contrary to or beside’ the Scriptures correctly interpreted was to be tolerated, is abundantly evident from the finality attached to them in all Christ’s appeals to the OT. For Him its declarations were an end of controversy (Matthew 22:29; Matthew 19:4; Matthew 12:3 ff., John 10:35).
iii. Judicial authority in religion.
1. Term defined.—As legislative authority has particularly to do with duty, so judicial authority has particularly to do with truth: the former prescribes what one is to do or to be; the latter, what he is to believe: the former creates and defines relation and obligations; the latter declares and interprets them: the former is mainly concerned with the conscience; the latter, with the understanding. It is worth noting further that legislative differs from judicial authority in that the former is original and the latter derivative. Legislative authority, along with other things, prescribes who is to interpret the laws it makes, and how much of finality shall attach to their interpretation by different persons. At the same time, we should not overlook the fact that the most limited judicial authority, so far as it goes, is no less real than the most absolute. Further, judicial authority, though derived, is just as real authority as is legislative authority. And, finally, when the judicial function vests in the same person as the legislative, then the maxim, ‘The interpretation of the law is the law,’ receives its highest exemplification; for then the law and the interpretation of the law are but different modal manifestations of one and the same personal will or author-ity. For, in this case, the same character that guarantees to the conscience the righteousness of the relation or obligation created by the will of the lawgiver, guarantees also to the understanding the truth of the finding of the judge. And this, be it observed, is precisely the function of judicial authority, namely, not to create a right, not to make an idea correspond with reality, but to certify to the understanding the existence or non-existence of a right, the truth or the falsity of an idea or a statement. The vital importance of this distinction will appear more and more as the discussion proceeds.
2. Repositories.—As to judicial authority, our Lord teaches that it is distributed among a number of repositories, somewhat as the same I kind of authority in a modern State is distributed among a number of courts from the lowest to the highest.
In the case of such courts, no one thinks of denying to the least and lowest of them the character of a true court. Its jurisdiction may be limited, its decisions liable to reversal, but so long as it keeps within its jurisdiction, so long as the appeal from its decisions is pending, its authority is not only as real but as absolute as that of the highest court. Further, even the lowest court possesses a genuine independence: its functions cannot be discharged for it, nor can they be wrested from it by any other court. Further still, it is for each court, at least in the first instance, to interpret and declare the law by which it was created, and its duties and prerogatives under the law. Nor does the fact that it may err in the exercise of this right either nullify or invalidate the right itself. We elaborate this analogy thus in detail, because we believe that it will prove helpful in enabling us to understand our Lord’s teachings concerning judicial authority in the sphere of religion.
Proceeding now to note His distribution itself, we find that He accords the fullest recognition (1) to what is commonly known as the right of private judgment. For Him each individual is clothed with a large, though not an absolute or final, judicial authority. Indeed, it is safe to say that no one has surpassed Christ in the honour, and even—if such words may be used of Him—in the deference with which in practice He treated the judicial rights of the darkest and humblest human souls. Despite the supreme claims that He made for Himself, He habitually permitted both Himself and His claims to be put upon proof at the bar of such souls. Not only did He consent, like any other man of His day, to plead at the bar of the ecclesiastical and civil authorities, but, while He always spake as one having authority, He never failed to submit His credentials along with His claims at the bar of the individual reason and conscience. But here we must particularize.
Christ taught, then, (a) That it is the inalienable prerogative of every man to verify for himself the truth of a proposition before assenting to it as true; and to verify for himself the rectitude of a command before yielding obedience to it as right (cf. John 15:24, Matthew 16:4; Matthew 11:4 ff; Matthew 9:6; Matthew 11:20).
(b) Further, as is involved in what has been already said, Christ teaches that the conclusions reached in the exercise of this prerogative are not to be, if, indeed, we should not say cannot be, dictated by any form of external compulsion. In many ways He emphasizes the position that the individual is to be left wholly untrammelled in the exercise of his judicial rights. What else, after all, is the meaning of His words to Pilate, ‘My kingdom is not of this world: if my kingdom were of this world, then would my servants fight, that I should not be delivered to the Jews: but now is my kingdom not from hence’ (John 18:36)? If men were to be left free to deal with His own claims, including, of course, His teachings, without constraint or compulsion of any kind, and to do this even when the decision reached affected not only His liberty but His very life, certainly He would have them no less untrammelled in dealing with every other question of truth or of duty with which they might find themselves confronted. Nor was it only the compulsion of physical force that Christ declined to countenance. He set the seal of His disapproval upon the more subtle and spiritual, but no less real compulsion of a tyrannical public or ecclesiastical opinion, whether formulated into a tradition or into a usage.
His ‘Do not your alms before men, to be seen of them’ (Matthew 6:1), was designed hardly more to eradicate pride from the souls of His disciples, than it was to hearten them to throw off the incubus of a perverted public and ecclesiastical sentiment which threatened to stifle Christian humility and Godwardness in their very birth. It was to disenthrall the souls of His disciples from all fear tending to paralyze the free action of the spirit in its quest for truth and in its witness to the truth, that He said, ‘Be not afraid of them that kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul: but rather fear him,’ etc. (Matthew 10:28); cf. Mark 10:29 f., Mark 7:9 ff., Matthew 12:1 ff., John 5:9.
(c) If what has been said be true, we are not surprised to find Christ teaching that every mind is equipped for the exercise of this high prerogative, that in a certain very true sense the mind has ‘the supreme norm of its ideas and acts, not outside of itself, but within itself, in its very constitution’ (Sabatier, Religions of Authority, p. xvi).
This also is involved in the passages already quoted. And what else can we make of such statements as these: ‘Ought not this woma
Webster's Dictionary - Religion
(1):
(n.) The outward act or form by which men indicate their recognition of the existence of a god or of gods having power over their destiny, to whom obedience, service, and honor are due; the feeling or expression of human love, fear, or awe of some superhuman and overruling power, whether by profession of belief, by observance of rites and ceremonies, or by the conduct of life; a system of faith and worship; a manifestation of piety; as, ethical religions; monotheistic religions; natural religion; revealed religion; the religion of the Jews; the religion of idol worshipers.
(2):
(n.) Strictness of fidelity in conforming to any practice, as if it were an enjoined rule of conduct.
(3):
(n.) Specifically, conformity in faith and life to the precepts inculcated in the Bible, respecting the conduct of life and duty toward God and man; the Christian faith and practice.
(4):
(n.) A monastic or religious order subject to a regulated mode of life; the religious state; as, to enter religion.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Evidences of Religion
Reasons or proofs for the truth of God's revelation. Internal evidences are: the reasonableness, beauty, and majesty of Divinely revealed truths; the beneficial influence they have on man's moral life. External evidences are: holy teachers, preeminently Christ, the Incarnate Word of God; prophecies and miracles attesting to the truth of their teachings.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Religion
See CHRISTIANITY .
Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words - Jew, Jews, Jewess, Jewish, Jewry, Jews' Religion
A — 1: Ἰουδαῖος (Strong's #2453 — Adjective — ioudaios — ee-oo-dah'-yos ) is used (a) adjectivally, with the lit. meaning, "Jewish," sometimes with the addition of aner, "a man," Acts 10:28 ; 22:3 ; in Acts 21:39 with anthropos, in some mss. (a man in the generic sense); the best mss. omit the phrase here; in Acts 13:6 , lit., "a Jewish false-prophet;" in John 3:22 , with the word chora, "land" or "country," signifying "Judean," lit., "Judean country;" used by metonymy for the people of the country; (b) as a noun, "a Jew, Jews," e.g., Matthew 2:2 ; Mark 7:3 . The name "Jew" is primarily tribal (from Judah). It is first found in 2 Kings 16:6 , as distinct from Israel, of the northern kingdom. After the Captivity it was chiefly used to distinguish the race from Gentiles, e.g., John 2:6 ; Acts 14:1 ; Galatians 2:15 , where it denotes Christians of Jewish race; it distinguishes Jews from Samaritans, in John 4:9 ; from proselytes, in Acts 2:10 . The word is most frequent in John's Gospel and the Acts; in the former "it especially denotes the typical representatives of Jewish thought contrasted with believers in Christ ... or with other Jews of less pronounced opinions, e.g., John 3:25 ; 5:10 ; 7:13 ; 9:22 " (Lukyn Williams, in Hastings' Bib. Dic.); such representatives were found, generally, in opposition to Christ; in the Acts they are chiefly those who opposed the Apostles and the Gospel. In Romans 2:28,29 the word is used of ideal Jews, i.e., Jews in spiritual reality, believers, whether Jews or Gentiles by natural birth. The feminine, "Jewess," is found in Acts 16:1 ; 24:24 .
It also denotes Judea, e.g., Matthew 2:1 ; Luke 1:5 ; John 4:3 , the word "country" being understood [1]. In Luke 23:5 ; John 7:1 , where the AV has "Jewry," the RV translates it as usual, "Judea."
A — 2: Ἰουδαϊκός (Strong's #2451 — Adjective — ioudaikos — ee-oo-dah-ee-kos' ) denotes "Jewish," Titus 1:14 .
B — 1: Ἰουδαϊσμός (Strong's #2454 — Noun Masculine — ioudaismos — ee-oo-dah-is-mos' ) "Judaism," denotes "the Jews' religion," Galatians 1:13,14 , and stands, not for their religious beliefs, but for their religious practices, not as instituted by God, but as developed and extended from these by the traditions of the Pharisees and scribes. In the Apocrypha it denotes comprehensively "the Government, laws, institutions and religion of the Jews."
C — 1: Ἰουδαΐζω (Strong's #2450 — Verb — ioudaizo — ee-oo-dah-id'-zo ) lit., "to Judaize," i.e., to conform to "Jewish" religious practices and manners, is translated "to live as do the Jews," in Galatians 2:14 .
D — 1: φυτεύω (Strong's #5452 — Verb — ioudaikos — foot-yoo'-o ) "in Jewish fashion," is translated "as do the Jews," in Galatians 2:14 .
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Religion
(Latin: religere, to recover, or religare, to bind)
In its widest sense the union of man with God. Objectively, it consists in doctrines and precepts by which man seeks to bring about this union. Religion is true when its doctrines and precepts are either dictated by right reason or revealed by God; if the former, it is called natural religion, if the latter, supernatural religion. Religion is false if, when claiming to be revealed, it is unable to show a divine guarantee, or when its dogmas and practises sin against right reason and conscience. Subjectively, religion is the attitude of the man who rules his thoughts, words, and actions according to right reason and revelation. In this latter sense religion is a special virtue allied to justice, because it prompts man to render to God what is due Him by strict right from His rational creatures. As such, religion is a strict obligation incumbent on every man. It is also the means by which man is to work out his final destiny.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Whose Rule, His Religion
(Latin: Whose rule, his religion) A phrase summing up the religious peace in Germany after the Reformation. It means that a ruler has the right to determine the religion of his territory. His subjects have the alternative of moving to a section where their religion is supreme. The principle trampled on all rights of conscience.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Religion, Mixed
A hindering impediment to matrimony, consisting in the marriage of a Catholic to a baptized non-Catholic. Such a marriage is valid if performed by proper authority, but it requires a dispensation, which is given only after the signing of promises by the non-Catholic party, pledging non-interference with the religion of the Catholic, rearing the children in the Catholic faith, and only one ceremony of marriage, before a priest.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Religion And Science
Much has been said and written about the so-called conflict between religion and science, as though the one were a contradiction or denial of the other. This conflict is for the most part imaginary. Religion and science lie in different provinces and each has its own legitimate field; the former deals mostly with the world of unseen realities which science cannot know, the latter mostly with the world of sense and matter about which religion has little to say. God is the source of both in so far as they are true, hence there can be no real contradiction between them. Conflict arises only when the scientist tries to turn theologian, or the theologian scientist. In other words, whatever conflict there is, it is not between religion and science, but between theologian and scientist when either or both overstep the limits of their respective fields in interpreting certain facts or in drawing certain conclusions from facts. "The scientist studies phenomena and their laws. The moment he abandons secondary causes to occupy himself with flrst and final causes he is false to his method and must become involved in an inextricable labyrinth; but so long as he is content to confine himself to matter and sequences of material phenomena there is little danger of unfriendly encounter between himself and the theologian who understands his business." (Spalding, Lectures and Discourses) Likewise the theologian as long as he remains within his territory of revealed doctrine is not likely to bring upon himself the attacks of scientists. It is when he engages in speculation on matters about which religion should have nothing to say that he occasions what is so wrongly called the conflict between religion and science. The remedy or prevention lies in ascertaining what religion really teaches and what science really proves and in distinguishing this knowledge carefully from the speculations of some theologians on the one hand or the opinions of some men of science on the other. The truly great in either field are witnesses to the fact that true science and true religion are not at war with one another.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Science, Religion And
Much has been said and written about the so-called conflict between religion and science, as though the one were a contradiction or denial of the other. This conflict is for the most part imaginary. Religion and science lie in different provinces and each has its own legitimate field; the former deals mostly with the world of unseen realities which science cannot know, the latter mostly with the world of sense and matter about which religion has little to say. God is the source of both in so far as they are true, hence there can be no real contradiction between them. Conflict arises only when the scientist tries to turn theologian, or the theologian scientist. In other words, whatever conflict there is, it is not between religion and science, but between theologian and scientist when either or both overstep the limits of their respective fields in interpreting certain facts or in drawing certain conclusions from facts. "The scientist studies phenomena and their laws. The moment he abandons secondary causes to occupy himself with flrst and final causes he is false to his method and must become involved in an inextricable labyrinth; but so long as he is content to confine himself to matter and sequences of material phenomena there is little danger of unfriendly encounter between himself and the theologian who understands his business." (Spalding, Lectures and Discourses) Likewise the theologian as long as he remains within his territory of revealed doctrine is not likely to bring upon himself the attacks of scientists. It is when he engages in speculation on matters about which religion should have nothing to say that he occasions what is so wrongly called the conflict between religion and science. The remedy or prevention lies in ascertaining what religion really teaches and what science really proves and in distinguishing this knowledge carefully from the speculations of some theologians on the one hand or the opinions of some men of science on the other. The truly great in either field are witnesses to the fact that true science and true religion are not at war with one another.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Religion, Comparative
Name of the science which compares one religion with another with a view to discovering common elements in all of them, and to tracing their development from primitive forms to their present tenets and practises. The effort of many students of this science to prove that Christianity is merely an evolution of the religions of primitive races and of paganism has proved futile chiefly through the studies of Catholic experts in ethnology, and the labors of Catholic missionaries among primitive peoples, notably the members of the Society of the Divine Word.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Religion, Evidences of
Reasons or proofs for the truth of God's revelation. Internal evidences are: the reasonableness, beauty, and majesty of Divinely revealed truths; the beneficial influence they have on man's moral life. External evidences are: holy teachers, preeminently Christ, the Incarnate Word of God; prophecies and miracles attesting to the truth of their teachings.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Religion, Virtue of
Religion is a moral virtue by which we render to God due honor and worship. We say that it is a moral virtue because acts of religion do not have, as their direct object, God, but rather the reverence which is due God. These acts of worship deal directly with the means which tend towards man's final and last end, namely, God's reverence and worship. We say moreover that religion is a virtue by which we render to God due worship, worship, i.e.,by which we acknowledge God as the supreme Being, the Creator, the uncreated, infinitely perfect Being. Finally, we render to God due worship, ie., in so far as man, a finite, created being, can render worship to the infinitely perfect and eternal Creator. That man must exercise this virtue of religion is the teaching of the First Commandment: "I am the Lord thy God. ...Thou shalt not have strange gods before me." (Exodus 20) The various acts of worship which man is capable of offering to God .are prayer, sacrifice, vows, oaths, and adoration. The sins against this virtue are blasphemy, idolatry, divination, tempting God, superstition, and simony.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Virtue of Religion
Religion is a moral virtue by which we render to God due honor and worship. We say that it is a moral virtue because acts of religion do not have, as their direct object, God, but rather the reverence which is due God. These acts of worship deal directly with the means which tend towards man's final and last end, namely, God's reverence and worship. We say moreover that religion is a virtue by which we render to God due worship, worship, i.e.,by which we acknowledge God as the supreme Being, the Creator, the uncreated, infinitely perfect Being. Finally, we render to God due worship, ie., in so far as man, a finite, created being, can render worship to the infinitely perfect and eternal Creator. That man must exercise this virtue of religion is the teaching of the First Commandment: "I am the Lord thy God. ...Thou shalt not have strange gods before me." (Exodus 20) The various acts of worship which man is capable of offering to God .are prayer, sacrifice, vows, oaths, and adoration. The sins against this virtue are blasphemy, idolatry, divination, tempting God, superstition, and simony.
King James Dictionary - Religion
RELIGION, n. relij'on. L. religio, from religo, to bind anew re and ligo, to bind. This word seems originally to have signified an oath or vow to the gods, or the obligation of such an oath or vow, which was held very sacred by the Romans.
1. Religion, in its most comprehensive sense, includes a belief in the being and perfections of God, in the revelation of his will to man, in man's obligation to obey his commands, in a state of reward and punishment, and in man's accountableness to God and also true godliness or piety of life, with the practice of all moral duties. It therefore comprehends theology, as a system of doctrines or principles, as well as practical piety for the practice of moral duties without a belief in a divine lawgiver, and without reference to his will or commands, is not religion. 2. Religion, as distinct from theology, is godliness or real piety in practice, consisting in the performance of all known duties to God and our fellow men, in obedience to divine command, or from love to God and his law. James 1 . 3. Religion, as distinct from virtue, or morality, consists in the performance of the duties we owe directly to God, from a principle of obedience to his will. Hence we often speak of religion and virtue, as different branches of one system, or the duties of the first and second tables of the law. Let us with caution indulge the supposition, that morality can be maintained without religion.
4. Any system of faith and worship. In this sense, religion comprehends the belief and worship of pagans and Mohammedans, as well as of christians any religion consisting in the belief of a superior power or powers governing the world, and in the worship of such power or powers. Thus we speak of the religion of the Turks, of the Hindoos, of the Indians, &c. as well as of the christian religion. We speak of false religion, as well as of true religion. 5. The rites of religion in the plural.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Shakespeare, Religion of
William Shakespeare (1564-1616), poet and dramatist, was born at Stratford-on-Avon, England; died there. Richard Davies, Anglican archdeacon, one of Shakespeare's earliest biographers, says "He dyed a Papyst." Davies could have had no conceivable motive for misrepresenting the matter, and as he lived in the neighboring county of Gloucestershire, he had the opportunity of knowing many of Shakespeare's contemporaries. Sir Sydney Lee, for years editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, disregards Archdeacon Davies's expression as only "a bit of late 18th-century gossip." However, it forms part of a series of documents registered as a gift to Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 1690. Clara Longworth de Chambrun in her book, Shakespeare, Actor-Poet, calls Davies "one of the best controversial writers and speakers in the Church of England in those days." She adds that when he "sets down the statement that Shakespeare died a Papist, we may be certain it was because he believed the information true, not because he wished to believe it was so." It is probable that Shakespeare's father was or had been a Catholic, and his mother undoubtedly belonged to a conspicuously Catholic family. The most definite declaration which has been brought forward as yet is Shakespeare's will, which opens with the name of God, into whose hands Shakespeare commends his soul, hoping and believing, through the merits of Jesus Christ, to partake of life everlasting.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Religion of Shakespeare
William Shakespeare (1564-1616), poet and dramatist, was born at Stratford-on-Avon, England; died there. Richard Davies, Anglican archdeacon, one of Shakespeare's earliest biographers, says "He dyed a Papyst." Davies could have had no conceivable motive for misrepresenting the matter, and as he lived in the neighboring county of Gloucestershire, he had the opportunity of knowing many of Shakespeare's contemporaries. Sir Sydney Lee, for years editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, disregards Archdeacon Davies's expression as only "a bit of late 18th-century gossip." However, it forms part of a series of documents registered as a gift to Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 1690. Clara Longworth de Chambrun in her book, Shakespeare, Actor-Poet, calls Davies "one of the best controversial writers and speakers in the Church of England in those days." She adds that when he "sets down the statement that Shakespeare died a Papist, we may be certain it was because he believed the information true, not because he wished to believe it was so." It is probable that Shakespeare's father was or had been a Catholic, and his mother undoubtedly belonged to a conspicuously Catholic family. The most definite declaration which has been brought forward as yet is Shakespeare's will, which opens with the name of God, into whose hands Shakespeare commends his soul, hoping and believing, through the merits of Jesus Christ, to partake of life everlasting.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Religion, Religious
This is applied in scripture to
1. The Jews' religion, in which Paul was very strict. Acts 26:5 .
2. Practical Christianity. James 1:26,27 .
3. The character of the proselytes as 'religious' or 'worshipping.' Acts 13:43 .

Sentence search

Brahminism - ) The Religion or system of doctrines of the Brahmans; the Religion of Brahma
Religionism - ) The practice of, or devotion to, Religion. ) Affectation or pretense of Religion
Religion - Religion, n. Religion, in its most comprehensive sense, includes a belief in the being and perfections of God, in the revelation of his will to man, in man's obligation to obey his commands, in a state of reward and punishment, and in man's accountableness to God and also true godliness or piety of life, with the practice of all moral duties. It therefore comprehends theology, as a system of doctrines or principles, as well as practical piety for the practice of moral duties without a belief in a divine lawgiver, and without reference to his will or commands, is not Religion. Religion, as distinct from theology, is godliness or real piety in practice, consisting in the performance of all known duties to God and our fellow men, in obedience to divine command, or from love to God and his law. Religion, as distinct from virtue, or morality, consists in the performance of the duties we owe directly to God, from a principle of obedience to his will. Hence we often speak of Religion and virtue, as different branches of one system, or the duties of the first and second tables of the law. Let us with caution indulge the supposition, that morality can be maintained without Religion. In this sense, Religion comprehends the belief and worship of pagans and Mohammedans, as well as of christians any Religion consisting in the belief of a superior power or powers governing the world, and in the worship of such power or powers. Thus we speak of the Religion of the Turks, of the Hindoos, of the Indians, &c. as well as of the christian Religion. We speak of false Religion, as well as of true Religion. The rites of Religion in the plural
Religion - Religion is true when its doctrines and precepts are either dictated by right reason or revealed by God; if the former, it is called natural Religion, if the latter, supernatural Religion. Religion is false if, when claiming to be revealed, it is unable to show a divine guarantee, or when its dogmas and practises sin against right reason and conscience. Subjectively, Religion is the attitude of the man who rules his thoughts, words, and actions according to right reason and revelation. In this latter sense Religion is a special virtue allied to justice, because it prompts man to render to God what is due Him by strict right from His rational creatures. As such, Religion is a strict obligation incumbent on every man
Whose Rule, His Religion - (Latin: Whose rule, his Religion) A phrase summing up the religious peace in Germany after the Reformation. It means that a ruler has the right to determine the Religion of his territory. His subjects have the alternative of moving to a section where their Religion is supreme
Religion - Religion . The word ‘religion,’ wherever it occurs in AV Christian - A believer in the Religion of Christ. A professor of his belief in the Religion of Christ. A real disciple of Christ one who believes in the truth of the Christian Religion, and studies to follow the example, and obey the precepts, of Christ a believer in Christ who is characterized by real piety. Pertaining to Christ, taught by him, or received from him as the Christian Religion Christian doctrines. Professing the Religion of Christ as a Christian friend. Belonging to the Religion of Christ relating to Christ, or to his doctrines, precepts and example as christian profession and practice
Formalist - One who places too much dependence on outward ceremonies of Religion, or who is more tenacious of the form of Religion than the power of it
Apologetics - (Greek: apologia, apology, defense) ...
The theological science which aims at explaining and justifying religious doctrine in order to show its reasonableness in answer to objections of those who deny the reasonableness of any Religion, especially of a revealed Religion, such as Christianity, and more particularly the reasonable grounds of the Catholic Religion. Since the name of apologetics has not the same significance in English as the Greek word from which it is derived, theologians today prefer to call the science fundamental theology, which explains the grounds of Religion, revelation, Christianity, and Catholicity
Morality - Morality is distinguished from Religion thus: "Religion is a studious conformity of our actions to the relations in which we stand to each other in civil society. Morality comprehends only a part of Religion; but Religion comprehends the whole of morality. Morality finds all her motives here below; Religion fetches all her motives from above. The highest principle in morals is a just regard to the rights of men; the first principle in Religion is the love of God
Magian - ) One of the Magi, or priests of the Zoroastrian Religion in Persia; an adherent of the Zoroastrian Religion
Proselytism - ) The act or practice of proselyting; the making of converts to a Religion or a religious sect, or to any opinion, system, or party. ) Conversion to a Religion, system, or party
Religion - " "If any man seem a diligent observer of the offices of Religion (threeskos ) . pure and undefiled Religion (not the sum total or inner essentials of Religion, but its outer manifestations) is to visit the fatherless," etc. "Religion" refers to the external service, "godliness" being the soul. James as president of the Jerusalem council (Acts 15:13-21) had decided against ritualism; so he teaches, instead of Judaic ceremonialism, true religious service is (1) active, (2) passive (Micah 6:7-8; Matthew 23:23); compare Acts 26:5, "our Religion"; Colossians 2:18, "worshipping," threeskeia
Christianity - ) Practical conformity of one's inward and outward life to the spirit of the Christian Religion...
(3):...
(n. ) The Religion of Christians; the system of doctrines and precepts taught by Christ
Pharisaism - ) Rigid observance of external forms of Religion, without genuine piety; hypocrisy in Religion; a censorious, self-righteous spirit in matters of morals or manners
Religion - 1: θρησκεία (Strong's #2356 — Noun Feminine — threseia — thrace-ki'-ah ) signifies "religion" in its external aspect (akin to threskos, see below), "religious worship," especially the ceremonial service of "religion;" it is used of the "religion" of the Jews, Acts 26:5 ; of the "worshiping" of angels, Colossians 2:18 , which they themselves repudiate (Revelation 22:8,9 ); "there was an officious parade of humility in selecting these lower beings as intercessors rather than appealing directly to the Throne of Grace" (Lightfoot); in James 1:26,27 the writer purposely uses the word to set in contrast that which is unreal and deceptive, and the "pure Religion" which consists in visiting "the fatherless and widows in their affliction," and in keeping oneself "unspotted from the world. these offices to be the sum total, nor yet the great essentials, of true Religion, but declares them to be the body, the threskeia, of which godliness, or the love of God, is the informing soul" (Trench). " That is how Festus regarded the Jews' "religion," Acts 25:19 , AV and RV marg. , "superstition" (RV, "religion"). (2) For "the Jews' Religion," Galatians 1:13,14 , see JEWS , B
Light Divine - See KNOWLEDGE, Religion
Misreligion - ) False Religion
Superstition - * For SUPERSTITION see Religion ...
Religionless - ) Destitute of Religion
Mazdeism - ) The Zoroastrian Religion
Thirty-Nine Articles - (See ARTICLES OF Religion
Sabian - ) An adherent of the Sabian Religion; a worshiper of the heavenly bodies. ) Relating to the Religion of Saba, or to the worship of the heavenly bodies
Scornful - In Scripture, holding Religion in contempt treating with disdain Religion and the dispensations of God
Correligionist - ) A co-religion/ist
Islam - (Arabic: Aslama, to surrender) ...
The Religion of Mohammed and of the Koran; ethically, the surrender of the will to God. Sometimes divided into Iman or Faith, and Din or Practical Religion
Religion - ) The outward act or form by which men indicate their recognition of the existence of a god or of gods having power over their destiny, to whom obedience, service, and honor are due; the feeling or expression of human love, fear, or awe of some superhuman and overruling power, whether by profession of belief, by observance of rites and ceremonies, or by the conduct of life; a system of faith and worship; a manifestation of piety; as, ethical Religions; monotheistic Religions; natural Religion; revealed Religion; the Religion of the Jews; the Religion of idol worshipers. ) A monastic or religious order subject to a regulated mode of life; the religious state; as, to enter Religion
Antichristian - ) Opposed to the Christian Religion
Hypocrisy - More generally, hypocrisy is simulation, or the assuming of a false appearance of virtue or Religion a deceitful show of a good character, in morals or Religion a counterfeiting of Religion
Convent - An assembly of persons devoted to Religion a body of monks or nuns. A house for persons devoted to Religion an abbey a monastery a nunnery
Euchite - ) One who resolves Religion into prayer
Proselyte - ) To convert to some Religion, opinion, or system; to bring over. ) A new convert especially a convert to some Religion or religious sect, or to some particular opinion, system, or party; thus, a Gentile converted to Judaism, or a pagan converted to Christianity, is a proselyte
Antichristianity - ) Opposition or contrariety to the Christian Religion
Seriousness - A term often used as synonymous with Religion
Dissidence - ) Disagreement; dissent; separation from the established Religion
co-Religionist - ) One of the same Religion with another
Separatical - ) Of or pertaining to separatism in Religion; schismatical
Brahminist - ) An adherent of the Religion of the Brahmans
Dereligionize - ) To make irreligious; to turn from Religion
Religionize - ) To bring under the influence of Religion
Mawmetry - ) The Religion of Mohammed; also, idolatry
Rite - A solemn act of Religion; an external ceremony. ; Durrell on the Mosaic Institution; Bishop Law's Theory of Religion, p. 6th ed; Godwyn's Moses and Aaron; Edwards's Survey of all Religions, vol
Precept - The precepts of Religion, says Saurin, are not essential as the doctrines; and Religion will as certainly sink, if the morality be subverted, as if the theology be undermined
Misbelieve - ) To believe erroneously, or in a false Religion
Christianism - ) The Christian Religion
Commentitious - ) Fictitious or imaginary; unreal; as, a commentitious system of Religion
Moderatism - ) Moderation in doctrines or opinion, especially in politics or Religion
Misbeliever - ) One who believes wrongly; one who holds a false Religion
Religionist - ) One earnestly devoted or attached to a Religion; a religious zealot
Romanism - ) The tenets of the Church of Rome; the Roman Catholic Religion
Religion And Science - Much has been said and written about the so-called conflict between Religion and science, as though the one were a contradiction or denial of the other. Religion and science lie in different provinces and each has its own legitimate field; the former deals mostly with the world of unseen realities which science cannot know, the latter mostly with the world of sense and matter about which Religion has little to say. In other words, whatever conflict there is, it is not between Religion and science, but between theologian and scientist when either or both overstep the limits of their respective fields in interpreting certain facts or in drawing certain conclusions from facts. It is when he engages in speculation on matters about which Religion should have nothing to say that he occasions what is so wrongly called the conflict between Religion and science. The remedy or prevention lies in ascertaining what Religion really teaches and what science really proves and in distinguishing this knowledge carefully from the speculations of some theologians on the one hand or the opinions of some men of science on the other. The truly great in either field are witnesses to the fact that true science and true Religion are not at war with one another
Science, Religion And - Much has been said and written about the so-called conflict between Religion and science, as though the one were a contradiction or denial of the other. Religion and science lie in different provinces and each has its own legitimate field; the former deals mostly with the world of unseen realities which science cannot know, the latter mostly with the world of sense and matter about which Religion has little to say. In other words, whatever conflict there is, it is not between Religion and science, but between theologian and scientist when either or both overstep the limits of their respective fields in interpreting certain facts or in drawing certain conclusions from facts. It is when he engages in speculation on matters about which Religion should have nothing to say that he occasions what is so wrongly called the conflict between Religion and science. The remedy or prevention lies in ascertaining what Religion really teaches and what science really proves and in distinguishing this knowledge carefully from the speculations of some theologians on the one hand or the opinions of some men of science on the other. The truly great in either field are witnesses to the fact that true science and true Religion are not at war with one another
Faithless - ) Not believing on God or Religion; specifically, not believing in the Christian Religion
Baalite - ) A worshiper of Baal; a devotee of any false Religion; an idolater
Scorner - ) One who scorns; a despiser; a contemner; specifically, a scoffer at Religion
Ormuzd - ) The good principle, or being, of the ancient Persian Religion
Olympianism - as a dominant cult or Religion
Judaization - ) The act of Judaizing; a conforming to the Jewish Religion or ritual
Zoroaster - An ancient Iranian prophet after whom a Religion called Zoroastrianism was named
Libertine - One who acts without restraint, and pays no regard to the precepts of Religion
Religionary - ) Relating to Religion; pious; as, Religionary professions. of Religioner...
Mohammedism - ) The Religion, or doctrines and precepts, of Mohammed, contained in the Koran; Islamism
Amaurites - But according to him, Religion had three epochas, which bore a similitude to the reign of the three persons in the Trinity. A time would come when the sacraments should cease, and then the Religion of the Holy Ghost would begin, when men would render a spiritual worship to the Supreme Being. This reign Amauri thought would succeed to the Christian Religion, as the Christian had succeeded to that of Moses
Drusilla - She was first espoused to Epiphanes, son of Antiochus king of Comagena, on condition of his embracing the Jewish Religion; but as he afterwards refused to be circumcised, Drusilla was given in marriage by her brother to Azizus king of Emessa. When Felix came as governor of Judea, he persuaded her to abandon her husband and her Religion, and become his wife. Paul bore testimony before them to the truth of the Christian Religion, Acts 24:24
Lilly, William Samuel - His writings include: "Ancient Religion and Modern Thought," 1884; "A Century of Revolution," 1889; "The Claims of Christianity," 1894; "First Principles in Politics," 1899; and "Studies in Religion and Literature," 1904
Catechise - Appropriately, to ask questions concerning the doctrines of the Christian Religion to interrogate pupils and give instruction in the principles of Religion
William Lilly - His writings include: "Ancient Religion and Modern Thought," 1884; "A Century of Revolution," 1889; "The Claims of Christianity," 1894; "First Principles in Politics," 1899; and "Studies in Religion and Literature," 1904
Christianly - ) In a manner becoming the principles of the Christian Religion
Fane - ) A temple; a place consecrated to Religion; a church
Physiolatry - ) The worship of the powers or agencies of nature; materialism in Religion; nature worship
Persism - ) Ancient Persian Religion, esp
Deist - ) One who believes in the existence of a God, but denies revealed Religion; a freethinker
Misworship - ) Wrong or false worship; mistaken practices in Religion
Priest - Luke 10:31 (c) This clergyman represents the fact that Religion has no remedy for the man who has fallen among thieves in his life, and has been robbed of his peace, his joy and his soul's welfare. The Levite represents Christian workers, so-called, who have plenty of Religion to give, but no CHRIST
Fanaticism - ) Excessive enthusiasm, unreasoning zeal, or wild and extravagant notions, on any subject, especially Religion; religious frenzy
Disbeliever - Specifically, one who does not believe the Christian Religion
Physicism - ) The tendency of the mind toward, or its preoccupation with, physical phenomena; materialism in philosophy and Religion
Popery - ) The Religion of the Roman Catholic Church, comprehending doctrines and practices; - generally used in an opprobrious sense
Zend-Avesta - ) The sacred writings of the ancient Persian Religion, attributed to Zoroaster, but chiefly of a later date
Esential - ) That which is essential; first or constituent principle; as, the essentials or Religion
Tenno - , King of Heaven; - a title of the emperor of Japan as the head of the Shinto Religion
Laodicean - ) Of or pertaining to Laodicea, a city in Phrygia Major; like the Christians of Laodicea; lukewarm in Religion
Religion, Virtue of - Religion is a moral virtue by which we render to God due honor and worship. We say that it is a moral virtue because acts of Religion do not have, as their direct object, God, but rather the reverence which is due God. We say moreover that Religion is a virtue by which we render to God due worship, worship, i. That man must exercise this virtue of Religion is the teaching of the First Commandment: "I am the Lord thy God
Virtue of Religion - Religion is a moral virtue by which we render to God due honor and worship. We say that it is a moral virtue because acts of Religion do not have, as their direct object, God, but rather the reverence which is due God. We say moreover that Religion is a virtue by which we render to God due worship, worship, i. That man must exercise this virtue of Religion is the teaching of the First Commandment: "I am the Lord thy God
Zealot - An ancient sect of the Jews, so called from their pretended zeal for God's law, and the honour of Religion
Formalism - in matters of Religion
Protestantism - ) The quality or state of being protestant, especially against the Roman Catholic Church; the principles or Religion of the Protestants
Druidism - ) The system of Religion, philosophy, and instruction, received and taught by the Druids; the rites and ceremonies of the Druids
Henotheism - ) Primitive Religion in which each of several divinities is regarded as independent, and is worshiped without reference to the rest
Dissident - ) One who disagrees or dissents; one who separates from the established Religion
Hierophant - ) The presiding priest who initiated candidates at the Eleusinian mysteries; hence, one who teaches the mysteries and duties of Religion
Liberalism - ) Liberal principles; the principles and methods of the liberals in politics or Religion; specifically, the principles of the Liberal party
Cabalism - ) A superstitious devotion to the mysteries of the Religion which one professes
Backsliding - The act of apostatizing from faith or practice a falling insensibly from Religion into sin or idolatry
Backslide - to abandon gradually the faith and practice of a Religion that has been professed
Sabianism - ) The doctrine of the Sabians; the Sabian Religion; that species of idolatry which consists in worshiping the sun, moon, and stars; heliolatry
Christian Evidences - Time-honored name for advanced courses in Christian doctrine, giving proofs from Scripture, tradition, history, and reason of the truth of the Christian Religion
Devotee - , one given wholly to Religion; one who is superstitiously given to religious duties and ceremonies; a bigot
Zendik - ) An atheist or unbeliever; - name given in the East to those charged with disbelief of any revealed Religion, or accused of magical heresies
Evidences, Christian - Time-honored name for advanced courses in Christian doctrine, giving proofs from Scripture, tradition, history, and reason of the truth of the Christian Religion
Feelings Religious - Are those sensations or emotions of the mind produced by the views we have of Religion. While some enthusiasts boast of, depend on, and talk much of their feelings, there are others who are led to discard the term, and almost to abandon the idea of religious feeling; but it is evident, that however many have been misguided and deceived by their feelings, yet there is no such thing as Religion without this. For instance; Religion consists in contrition, repentance, and devotion: now, what is contrition but a feeling of sorrow for sin? what is devotion but a feeling of love to God and his ways? Who can separate the idea of feeling from any of these acts? The fact is this; religious feelings, like every thing else, have run into the opposite evil of lukewarmness, and been content with a system without feeling its energy
Jew - It was in this kingdom that the Deuteronomic reform occurred, which was the first step in the creation of an organized Religion sharply differentiated from the other Religions of the world. This Religion, developed during the Exile, bore the name of the kingdom of Judah. For their Religion, see Israel (II
Clergy - Laity are those who are members of a Religion but not of the clergy
Godliness - strictly taken, signifies right worship, or devotion; but, in general, it imports the whole of practical Religion, 1 Timothy 4:8 ; 2 Peter 1:6
Jahvism - (1):...
The Religion or worship of Yahweh (Jehovah), or the system of doctrines, etc
Christian - Also, the name of the Religion which He founded, of its doctrines and precepts; of the life, habits of virtue, piety, spirit and character of His followers; of the Church which is rightly known by this name, as against sects which assume it (Christian Scientists, Christian Socialists); of the civilization which this Religion developed in the world as distinguished from the civilizations of paganism, Islamism, Judaism
Homilies - The two books of Homilies or Sermons referred to in theXXXVth Article of Religion. The list of subjects treated of in the Second Book is givenin the XXXVth Article of Religion
Christocentric - ) Making Christ the center, about whom all things are grouped, as in Religion or history; tending toward Christ, as the central object of thought or emotion
Backslider - An apostate one who falls from the faith and practice of Religion
Unprotestantize - ) To render other than Protestant; to cause to change from Protestantism to some other form of Religion; to deprive of some Protestant feature or characteristic
Chilul hashem - "profaning the Name [1]"); an act that brings discredit or reflects badly on the Torah, Torah scholars, the Jewish Religion, or the Jewish people...
Stupid Fellow - ...
The kesı̂yl is “insolent” in Religion and “stupid or dull” in wise living (living out a Religion he professes). However, in the Bible wisdom is the practical outworking of one’s Religion. Therefore, even in these contexts there is a clear connotation of insolence in Religion
Mozarab - ,naturalized, Arab) ...
A Christian in Spain who submitted to the Moorish government but retained the practise of his Religion
Familist - ) One of afanatical Antinomian sect originating in Holland, and existing in England about 1580, called the Family of Love, who held that Religion consists wholly in love
Religion - The cognate terms translated “religious” and “religion” (Acts 17:22 ; Acts 25:19 ) can indicate positive reverence for the gods or else negative fear of the gods. The cognate terms translated “religion” and “religious” in Acts 26:5 and James 1:26-27 point to the “fear of God” as evidenced in religious conduct, particularly ritual practice. Several terms derived from sebomai (to fear) are translated religious or Religion. The term RSV translated “religion” in 1 Timothy 2:10 is literally “God-fearing,” here in the sense of obedient to God's commands (compare John 9:31 ). The term RSV translated as “religion” (1 Timothy 3:16 ; 2 Timothy 3:5 ) and “religious duty” in 1 Timothy 5:4 is generally translated “godliness” or “piety. The meaning of the term the NAS translated as “self-made Religion” is uncertain ( Colossians 2:23 ). KJV translated Ioudaismo (Judaism) as the “Jews' Religion” ( Galatians 1:13-14 )
Pacification - in January 1562, permitting the free exercise of the reformed Religion near all the cities and towns of the realm. March 19, 1563, the same king granted a second Edict of Pacification, at Amboise, permitting the free exercise of the reformed Religion in the houses of gentlemen and lords high justiciaries (or those who had the power of life and death, ) to their families and dependents only; and allowing other Protestants to have their sermons in such towns as they had them in before the seventh of March; obliging them withal to quit the churches they had possesed themselves of during the troubles. This pacification was but of short continuance; for Charles perceiving a general insurrection of the Huguenots, revoked the said edicts in September, 1568, forbidding the exercise of the Protestant Religion, and commanding all the ministers to depart the kingdom in fifteen days. ...
Nevertheless, in August, 1572, he authorised the Bartholomew massacre, and at the same time issued a declaration, forbidding the exercise of the Protestant Religion. The Guisian faction, enraged at this general liberty, began the famous league for defense of the Catholic Religion, which became so formidable, that it obliged the king to assemble the states of the kingdom at Blois, in December, 1576, where it was enacted that there should be but one Religion in France, and that the Protestant ministers should be all banished. this edict was verified in the parliament of Chalons; but the troubles prevented the verification of it in the parliaments of the other provinces; so that the Protestants had not the free exercise of their Religion in any place but where they were masters, and had banished the Romish Religion. In April 1598, the king published a new Edict of Pacification at Nantz, granting the Protestants the free exercise of their Religion in all places where they had the same in 1596 and 1597, and one exercise in each bailiwick
Alike - ) In the same manner, form, or degree; in common; equally; as, we are all alike concerned in Religion
Teraphim - ) Images connected with the magical rites used by those Israelites who added corrupt practices to the patriarchal Religion
Monastical - ) Secluded from temporal concerns and devoted to Religion; recluse
Missionary - (1):...
(n) One who is sent on a mission; especially, one sent to propagate Religion
Shaster - The name of a book in high estimation among the idolaters of Hindostan, containing all the dogmas of the Religion of the Bramins, and all the ceremonies of their worship
Way - " The new Religion of Christ (Acts 9:2; Acts 19:9)
Evermore - ...
Religion prefers the pleasures which flow from the presence of God for evermore
Buddhism - ) The Religion based upon the doctrine originally taught by the Hindoo sage Gautama Siddartha, surnamed Buddha, "the awakened or enlightened," in the sixth century b. , and adopted as a Religion by the greater part of the inhabitants of Central and Eastern Asia and the Indian Islands
Evangelical - ) Belonging to, agreeable or consonant to, or contained in, the gospel, or the truth taught in the New Testament; as, evangelical Religion. The term is also applied to other Religion bodies not regarded as orthodox
Pundit - , a Brahman versed in the Sanskrit language, and in the science, laws, and Religion of the Hindoos; in Cashmere, any clerk or native official
Pious - ) Practiced under the pretext of Religion; prompted by mistaken piety; as, pious errors; pious frauds
Sectary - ) A sectarian; a member or adherent of a sect; a follower or disciple of some particular teacher in philosophy or Religion; one who separates from an established church; a dissenter
Mohammedan - ) Of or pertaining to Mohammed, or the Religion and institutions founded by Mohammed
Transforming - Effecting or able to effect a change of form or state as the transforming power of true Religion
Revivalist - ) A clergyman or layman who promotes revivals of Religion; an advocate for religious revivals; sometimes, specifically, a clergyman, without a particular charge, who goes about to promote revivals
Profane - A term used in opposition to holy; and in general is applied to all persons who have not the sacred character, and to things which do not belong to the service of Religion
Pharisaical - ) Addicted to external forms and ceremonies; making a show of Religion without the spirit of it; ceremonial; formal; hypocritical; self-righteous
Incredulity - ...
See Duncan Forbes's piece, entitled, Reflections on the Sources of Incredulity with regard to Religion, and Casaubon on Credulity and Incredulity
Abbey - ) A monastery or society of persons of either sex, secluded from the world and devoted to Religion and celibacy; also, the monastic building or buildings
Dedication - a religious ceremony, whereby any person or thing was set apart to the service of God, and the purposes of Religion
Morality - The relation of morality to Religion has always been a subject of keen discussion. The positivist and idealist schools teach that morality is independent of Religion, but the Church has always taught that apart from Religion, the observance of the moral law is impossible because morality has a necessary relation to man's last end, which is God, and secondly, the obligatory character of morality is based upon the Divine Will. It has been shown repeatedly in the histories of individuals and of nations that morality divorced from Religion has no binding force. The chief conditions necessary for the growth and development of morality in the individual and the community are a right education of the young in the home and the school, where Religion and virtue are impressed upon the child, a healthy public opinion, and sound legislation
Sacred - ) Relating to Religion, or to the services of Religion; not secular; religious; as, sacred history
Godliness - " In 1 Timothy 3:16 it denotes the substance of revealed Religion
Formalist - , one who rests in external religious forms, or observes strictly the outward forms of worship, without possessing the life and spirit of Religion
Ecclesiastic - ) A person in holy orders, or consecrated to the service of the church and the ministry of Religion; a clergyman; a priest
Rite - ) The act of performing divine or solemn service, as established by law, precept, or custom; a formal act of Religion or other solemn duty; a solemn observance; a ceremony; as, the rites of freemasonry
Unconverted - ) Not persuaded of the truth of the Christian Religion; heathenish
Religion - The uses of the word ‘religion’ in the apostolic writings may be classified under three heads. Ἰουδαϊσμός is twice translated ‘the Jews’ Religion. The English Version ‘Jews’ Religion ‘is an unfortunate’ translation, because ‘it implies a definite separation between the two Religions which did not then exist, … and it puts this view into the mouth of Paul, who steadfastly persisted in identifying the faith of Christ with the national Religion. The derivative noun δεισιδαιμονία is rendered in Acts 25:19 ‘religion’ (Revised Version ) and ‘superstition’ (Revised Version margin). It does not, however, follow that ‘religion’ is an impossible rendering in the address of Festus to the Jewish king, Agrippa, who paid outward deference to the Jewish Religion. ‘religion’ is the rendering of θρησκεία which in Colossians 2:18 is translated ‘worshipping. ’ The contemporary meaning of the word is Religion in its external aspect-‘cultus religiosus, potissimum externus’ (Wilke-Grimm, Clavis Novi Test. , when the word is rightly understood, there is no support for those who disparage inward and spiritual Religion, nor for those who so exalt its outward aspects as practically to identify it with morality and works of benevolence
Indifference - Terms often used as if they mean the same thing in regard to religious matters, though to be precise the former means carelessness as to practise on the part of those who believe, and the latter professes unconcern about belief as well as practise, denying that there is any duty to believe and practise the true Religion. Indifferentism may deny that man need be concerned about Religion at all of any kind, and then it is absolute, or it may hold that all Religions are equally good, or, again, that any form of Christianity is as true and good as another. To brush aside Religion as of no account, especially the Christian Religion, for which millions have willingly sacrificed possessions and life, and which has numbered among its adherents the wisest of mankind, is to act with a degree of unreasonableness which no one would be guilty of in other affairs of life
Indifferentism - Terms often used as if they mean the same thing in regard to religious matters, though to be precise the former means carelessness as to practise on the part of those who believe, and the latter professes unconcern about belief as well as practise, denying that there is any duty to believe and practise the true Religion. Indifferentism may deny that man need be concerned about Religion at all of any kind, and then it is absolute, or it may hold that all Religions are equally good, or, again, that any form of Christianity is as true and good as another. To brush aside Religion as of no account, especially the Christian Religion, for which millions have willingly sacrificed possessions and life, and which has numbered among its adherents the wisest of mankind, is to act with a degree of unreasonableness which no one would be guilty of in other affairs of life
Superstition And Superstitious - Paul found the Athenians "much addicted to devotion," such as it was: perhaps "religion" and "religiously inclined" may better express the sense of the original
Brethren And Clerks of the Common Life - Augustin, and were said to be eminently useful in promoting the cause of Religion and learning
Audacious - ) Contemning the restraints of law, Religion, or decorum; bold in wickedness; presumptuous; impudent; insolent
Confucianism - It can hardly be called a Religion, as it does not inculcate the worship of any god
Pali - ) A dialect descended from Sanskrit, and like that, a dead language, except when used as the sacred language of the Buddhist Religion in Farther India, etc
Alais, Peace of - Treaty, signed 1629 between the royal forces and the Huguenots of France by which the wars of Religion were ended
Experimental - ) Known by, or derived from, experience; as, experimental Religion
Converted - Turned or changed from one substance or state to another turned form one Religion or sect to another changed from a state of sin to a state of holiness applied to a particular use appropriated
Infidel - (Latin: in, not; fides, faith) ...
One who has not been baptized; in Christian countries, one who disbelieves in the Divine origin of Religion; applied especially to Mohammedans for their hatred of as well as lack of Christian faith
Symbol - , watchword, by which as the sentinelrecognizes a friend, so the Christian soldier is distinguished fromthe open enemies or false friends of the Religion of Christ
Religion, Religious - The Jews' Religion, in which Paul was very strict
Gentile - In matters of Religion, a Pagan, or worshipper of false gods. In this sense it continued among the Christian writers, till their manner of speech, together with their Religion, was publicly, and by authority, received in the empire, when gentiles, from gentes, came into use; and then both words had two significations; viz. , in treatises or laws concerning Religion, they signified Pagans, neither Jews nor Christians; and in civil affairs they are used for all such as were not Romans
Judaism - The principal sects among the Jews were the Pharisees, who placed Religion in external ceremony; the Sadducees, who were remarkable for their incredulity; and the Essenes, who were distinguished for their austere sanctity. At present, the Jews have two sects; the Caraites, who admit no rule of Religion but the law of Moses; and the Rabbinists, who add to the law the traditions of the Talmud
Shintoism - (Chinese: shin, god; tao, way) ...
The original national Religion of Japan, with millions of adherents. 552, Buddhism was united with Shintoism, and the fusion, known as Rio-bu-Shinto, was the national Religion until 1868, when a revolution separated the two
Sect - A body or number of persons united in tenets, chiefly in philosophy or Religion, but constituting a distinct party by holding sentiments different from those of other men. Most sects have originated in a particular perlon, who taught and propagated some peculiar notions in philosophy or Religion, and who is considered to have been its founder
Devotion - It belongs to the virtue of Religion, springs from meditation, and results in spiritual joy
Elizaphan - Numbers 3:30; his descendants took a lead in Religion under David and Hezekiah (1 Chronicles 15:8; 2 Chronicles 29:13)
Hobbism - , his political theory that the most perfect form of civil government is an absolute monarchy with despotic control over everything relating to law, morals, and Religion
R. yosef yitzchak schneersohn of lubavitch - Sixth leader of Chabad-Lubavitch; 1880-1950; lived in Lubavitch, Warsaw and New York; headed the movement�s active resistance against the Communist suppression of Religion in Russia and transferred the movement to the US during World War II
Parsee - ) One of the adherents of the Zoroastrian or ancient Persian Religion, descended from Persian refugees settled in India; a fire worshiper; a Gheber
Animism - (Latin: anima, soul) ...
The doctrine that an immaterial principle is the basis of life; in ethnology, a ghost-theory of the origin of Religion; the theory that all external bodies are animated by a soul like that of man
Religion (2) - RELIGION. 28) wrote, ‘Religion is the link which unites man to God. θρησκεία, translation ‘religion’ in Acts 26:5 and James 1:26 f. With this history behind the word, Religion has come to be a complex conception; but for the present purpose it may perhaps be defined as the soul’s response to the spiritual revelation by which it is illumined, kindled, and moved. But in true Religion all three elements are present. ]'>[1] of Religion, p. The key-words of Religion then are: (1) revelation, (2) response. Religion as revelation. Religion must always mean something different from what it was before the revelation of grace and truth which came by Jesus Christ. there was, if one may say so, an artificial construction of ‘natural’ Religion, in which Christ was put out of court. Thus Schleiermacher in his Reden über die Religion has nothing to say on religious authority, and in a chapter on the nature of Religion practically identifies revelation with intuition and original feeling (p. Ritschl, again, in his theory of value-judgments, throws the weight of authority on the soul’s response; while Sabatier, in his beautiful study of the genesis of Religion, speaks of the spirit attaching itself to its principle, and seems also liable to the dangers of subjectivity (Outlines of Phil. ’...
But no good end is served by minimizing that side of Religion that is ‘not ourselves. Jesus Christ, who is the norm of Religion as well as the focus of revelation, made use of both. *
(b) A second primary response of the soul in Religion is a sense of sin, or separation. Religion has found expression in sacrifices on account of the well-nigh universal instinct that something must be offered in order to avert the wrath or unkindness of the Deity, or at least to restore happy relations between the worshipper and the world that is beyond his control. ...
This strong sense of a separateness that may be bridged is more or less efficient in all human response to the Unseen, and is the basis on which the higher Religions rest. ...
(c) There is a third primary strand of Religion in the sense of obligation, by which the soul is brought under a supreme law and purpose. There is a constraining influence in all Religion, in addition to the feeling of dependence and the sense of estrangement. Religion really begins for us, says Lotze, ‘with a feeling of duty’ (Phil. ]'>[1]
of Religion, p. True Religion embodied in Jesus Christ. —It is evident from this brief analysis of Religion on its responsive side, that Christ has the key to all its intimacies, because the meanings of Religion are consummated in Himself. The Religion which we believe to be universal and everlasting in its character is just the fuller knowledge and obedience of Christ. He is His own Religion, and therefore He not only harmonizes the various feelings of Religion, as we have just seen, by satisfying the desire for security, for reconciliation, and for authority, but He also brings into unity its various forms. There are three chief forms which Religion has taken, corresponding to the emotional, intellectual, and volitional elements in human nature: (a) the ritual side of Religion, presided over by the priests, (b) the speculative side, represented by the theologians and philosophers, and (c) the legal or customary side, typified by the office of the scribes. He did not incorporate His Religion in a hierarchic order (as with the Buddhists), or in philosophical books (as with the Brahmans), or in codes and customs (as with the Confucians and Muhammadans). Thus Christianity, which is essentially a life hid with Christ in God, is always in danger of being drawn down to the level of those who would reduce Religion to a ritual of worship, a system of thought, or a fashion of life. But the fact that Jesus Christ is His own Religion is the one guarantee of Religion arriving at perfection. For it may truly be said that Religion is in its essence the consciousness of personal being under the eye of the eternal Personality. And Ritschl states one side of this truth strongly when he explains Religion out of ‘the necessity which man feels of maintaining his personality and spiritual independence against the limitations of Nature. That being so, we can see that only through Christ, the God-man, can this twofold consciousness be securely maintained, and the balance kept true between the objective and subjective elements in Religion. He is the focus of revelation and the norm of Religion. Characteristics of Christ’s Religion. —Having set this corner-stone, it only remains to mention seven characteristics of the Religion which is derived from Jesus Christ and lives upon Him still. ...
(1) Christ has made Religion personal in its authority. ...
(2) Christ made Religion human in its sympathy. The revolution which Christ effected in humanizing the conception of Religion may be clearly seen in a study of words. ...
(3) Christ has made Religion moral in its character, because He is pre-eminently the Saviour from sin. Religion under other auspices may mean almost anything but a moral conflict and victory. And even where there is a high ethical standard, as in Confucianism, goodness is rather a codified substitute for Religion than the vital substance of it. And John the Baptist stood in the true succession when he turned Religion into the terms of a repentant and reconstructed life. ...
But the Religion of the Sermon on the Mount breathes out a holiness which consumes every lesser thing, and carries the moral imperative into the inmost recesses of the soul. Every human trait that escaped the imprisonment of self was in the eyes of Jesus the material of true Religion. ...
(4) Christ has made Religion individual in its responsibility, because He is the Lord of all. Religion always tends to congeal into a system. There is, of course, a solidarity of mankind, of which Religion must take note, of which indeed it is an expression. ’...
(5) Christ has made Religion spiritual in its essence, because ‘the Lord is the Spirit’ (2 C
Pearl - —This jewel, specially esteemed and familiar in the East, is twice used by our Lord as an image of the preciousness of the Christian Religion: once in the saying, ‘Cast not your pearls before swine’ (Matthew 7:6), and again in the parable of the Pearl of Great Price (Matthew 13:46). In the case of coined money such as talents or pounds, the side of Religion emphasized is the active life of good works, and the lesson conveyed is that of duty. It stands not for any utilitarian aspect of Religion, but for the secret shared between the soul and God, which loses its beauty and its value if it is paraded before those who do not understand its sanctity. The main points of the two passages would seem to be the transcendent beauty and preciousness of personal Religion, and the need of reticent reverence to guard it
Pearl - —This jewel, specially esteemed and familiar in the East, is twice used by our Lord as an image of the preciousness of the Christian Religion: once in the saying, ‘Cast not your pearls before swine’ (Matthew 7:6), and again in the parable of the Pearl of Great Price (Matthew 13:46). In the case of coined money such as talents or pounds, the side of Religion emphasized is the active life of good works, and the lesson conveyed is that of duty. It stands not for any utilitarian aspect of Religion, but for the secret shared between the soul and God, which loses its beauty and its value if it is paraded before those who do not understand its sanctity. The main points of the two passages would seem to be the transcendent beauty and preciousness of personal Religion, and the need of reticent reverence to guard it
Deism - (Latin: Deus, God) ...
A form of natural Religion; a philosophico-religious system in which revelation is replaced by truths deduced by unaided reason; a belief in the existence of God together with a denial of Divine providence, revelation, and Christianity
Moabites - Their origin and race is that of the Ammonites; their language practically a Hebrew dialect; their Religion, polytheistic
Religion: Taken Upon Trust - It is a preposterous thing that men can venture their souls where they will not venture their money; for they will take their Religion upon trust, but would not trust a synod about the goodness of half-a-crown
Unessential - ) Something not constituting essence, or something which is not of absolute necessity; as, forms are among the unessentials of Religion
Wholesome - Sound contributing to the health of the mind favorable to morals, Religion or prosperity as wholesome advice wholesome doctrines wholesome truths
Gre'Cian - The term Grecian, or Hellenist, denotes a Jew by birth or Religion who spoke Greek
Pontiff - ) One of the sacred college, in ancient Rome, which had the supreme jurisdiction over all matters of Religion, at the head of which was the Pontifex Maximus
Wholesome - ) Contributing to the health of the mind; favorable to morals, Religion, or prosperity; conducive to good; salutary; sound; as, wholesome advice; wholesome doctrines; wholesome truths; wholesome laws
Gerard, Saint - Of a noble family, he adopted the career of arms, but later, entering Religion, became Abbot of Brogne, and established numerous Benedictine houses in Belgium
Naturism - , Tylor, Spencer, and Reville, was the primitive form of Religion and the basis and source of all existing forms. There are three phases of Naturism as a theory of Religion
Magic - Of the Religion of the Egyptians, Chaldæans, Persians, etc. Of the Religion of the Jews magic did not only not form a part, but the law forbade the consulting of magicians, under penalty of death
Professor - A term commonly used in the religious world, to denote any person who makes an open acknowledgment of the Religion of Christ, or who outwardly manifests his attachment to Christianity. 9; Mead's Almost Christian; Bellamy's True Religion delineated; Shepherd's Sincere Convert, and on the Parable of the Ten Virgins; Secker's Nonsuch Professor
Society of the Divine Word - Founded in 1875 at Steyl, near Tegelen, Holland, by Saint Arnold Janssen, for the propagation of the Catholic Religion among pagan nations. Its missionaries study carefully the racial and social traits, and customs of the peoples whom they seek to civilize and Christianize, and they have made notable contributions to the science of ethnology and comparative Religion
Naturism - , Tylor, Spencer, and Reville, was the primitive form of Religion and the basis and source of all existing forms. There are three phases of Naturism as a theory of Religion
Theology - The theological student will find the following books on the subject of utility; Gratius de Veritate Religionis Christianae; Stillingfleet's Origines Sacrae; Turretine's Institutio Theologiae Elencticae; Butler's analogy; Picteti Theologia Christiana; Stupferi Institutiones Theologiae; Witsius on the Covenants; Usher, Boston, Watson, Gill, and Ridgley's Divinity; Doddridge's Lectures; Brown's compendium of Natural and Revealed Religion; and Ryan's Effects of Religion on Mankind. ...
See also articles CHRISTIANITY, Religion, REVELATION, SCRIPTURES
Judaism - (jyoo' day ihssm) The Religion and way of life of the people of Judah, the Jews
Backslide - To draw back or apostatize in matters of Religion (Acts 21:21 ; 2 th 2:3 ; 1 Timothy 4:1 )
Low Church - The party in Anglicanism which emphasizes the personal rather than the sacramental or ceremonial side of Religion
Reformer - ) One of those who commenced the reformation of Religion in the sixteenth century, as Luther, Melanchthon, Zwingli, and Calvin
Fanatic - ) A person affected by excessive enthusiasm, particularly on religious subjects; one who indulges wild and extravagant notions of Religion
Jews - Today it is used of adherents of the Jewish Religion
Romanize - ) To convert to the Roman Catholic Religion
Impediment, Hindering - There are three kinds: a simple vow; mixed Religion; and legal relationship under certain conditions
Impediment, Impedient - There are three kinds: a simple vow; mixed Religion; and legal relationship under certain conditions
Heretic - A general name for all such persons under any Religion, but especially the Christian, as profess or teach opinions contrary to the established faith, or to what is made the standard of orthodoxy
Impedient Impediment - There are three kinds: a simple vow; mixed Religion; and legal relationship under certain conditions
Dissidents - The king of Poland engages by the pacta conventa to tolerate them in the free exercise of their Religion, but they have often had reason to complain of the violation of these promises
Crucifix - ) The cross or Religion of Christ
Freethinker - , in the sphere or Religion, one who forms opinions independently of the authority of revelation or of the church; an unbeliever; - a term assumed by deists and skeptics in the eighteenth century
Hindering Impediment - There are three kinds: a simple vow; mixed Religion; and legal relationship under certain conditions
Maximilian the Great - Maximilian gave much attention to the advancement of Religion among the people. He re-established the Catholic Church and made Catholicity the only Religion in Bavaria; he organized the Catholic League, 1609, founded five Jesuit colleges, a monastery for the Minims, one for the Carmelites, nine for the Franciscans, and fourteen for the Capuchins
Roman - ) Of or pertaining to the Roman Catholic Religion; professing that Religion
Pagan - This word was originally applied to the inhabitants of the country, who on the first propagation of the christian Religion adhered to the worship of false gods, or refused to receive christianity, after it had been received by the inhabitants of the cities. In like manner, heather signifies an inhabitant of the heath or woods, and caffer, in Arabic, signifies the inhabitant of a hut or cottage, and one that does not receive the Religion of Mohammed
Shamanism - ) The type of Religion which once prevalied among all the Ural-Altaic peoples (Tungusic, Mongol, and Turkish), and which still survives in various parts of Northern Asia
Quietism - ) The system of the Quietists, who maintained that Religion consists in the withdrawal of the mind from worldly interests and anxieties and its constant employment in the passive contemplation of God and his attributes
Detriment - ) That which injures or causes damage; mischief; harm; diminution; loss; damage; - used very generically; as, detriments to property, Religion, morals, etc
Tolstoian - , holds that possession of wealth and ownership of property are sinful, and in Religion rejects all teachings not coming from Christ himself
Nicolas - A proselyte of Antioch, that is, one converted from paganism to the Religion of the Jews
Lamaism - (Tibetan, lama, a superior; applied to monks generally, it strictly denotes a high-ranking ecclesiastic) ...
The official Religion of Tibet. The popular Religion embraces the degrading elements of Shiva worship, and of indigenous Bon shamanistic animism. Lamaism is also the Religion of the Mongols introduced from Tibet, c
Mithra - , MITHRAISM Persian god and the mystery Religion devoted to his worship. ...
The Religion of Mithra Since Mithraism belongs to the general category known as Mystery Religions, our knowledge of its specific doctrines and rituals is very limited. Only devotees of the Religion were allowed to witness its rituals or have access to its sacred doctrines. ...
Characteristics of Mithraism Mithraism was basically a Religion of the common people, although at least one Roman emperor (Commodius, 180-192 A. It was the only mystery Religion which excluded women from membership. By the time the Religion reached the Roman Empire, this act seems to have become mere symbolism. ...
A rival to Christianity Of all the mystery Religions, Mithraism became the strongest rival to Christianity. See Mystery Religions
Cethites - Little is known of their language and Religion
Foe - ) One who opposes on principle; an opponent; an adversary; an ill-wisher; as, a foe to Religion
Alike - ...
We are all alike concerned in Religion
Avesta - It is the main source of our knowledge about the Religion of the ancient Persians
Hethites - Little is known of their language and Religion
Araunah - In 1 Corinthians 16:24 , he is called 2 Chronicles 3:1 , and his readiness to give it freely for this purpose, suggest the probability that he was a convert to the true Religion
Dean - A dean and chapter are the bishop's council, to assist him in the affairs of Religion
Jainism - ) The heterodox Hindoo Religion, of which the most striking features are the exaltation of saints or holy mortals, called jins, above the ordinary Hindoo gods, and the denial of the divine origin and infallibility of the Vedas
Silvia of Rome, Saint - She gave her sons an excellent education, and after the death of her husband devoted herself to Religion
Sylvia of Rome, Saint - She gave her sons an excellent education, and after the death of her husband devoted herself to Religion
Rome, Silvia of, Saint - She gave her sons an excellent education, and after the death of her husband devoted herself to Religion
Scorner - A scoffer a derider in Scripture, one who scoffs at Religion, its ordinances and teachers, and who makes a mock of sin and the judgments and threatenings of God against sinners
Teacher - One who instructs others in Religion a preacher a minister of the gospel
Godly - Godliness is the substance of revealed Religion, 1 Timothy 3:16 4:8 2 Peter 1:6
Mysteries - There are three great and fundamental mysteries in the Catholic Religion: ...
1) the Trinity
2) the Incarnation
3) the Eucharist
to which Monsignor Kolbe adds that of the Mystical Body of Christ. The Christian Religion alone has mysteries in its teaching. Every other Religion proclaims only such things as man can originate and understand. Saint Augustine declared that he could not believe the Christian Religion was divine, if it taught only that which man could devise and comprehend. Any Religion that is from God, and tells us about the nature of God, must proclaim truths that are above human comprehension: "hardly do we guess aright at things that are upon earth
Way - (ὁδός)...
A striking peculiarity of the Book of the Acts is that in several passages the Christian Religion itself is called ‘the Way. We do not wonder that a word lending itself so easily to figurative use should be applied to Religion as frequently as is the case in Scripture, and that Christianity should be called pre-eminently ‘the Way. ’ It is an interesting parallel that in Taoism, the second indigenous Religion of China, Tao means ‘Way’; Tao-teh-king = ‘Book of the Way of Virtue. The phrase seems to suggest the active, practical aspects of Religion-God’s dealings with man, man’s conduct towards God and his fellows. Butler’s remark that Religion is a practical thing is quite in the spirit of the whole of Scripture, as seen in the Prophets, the Sermon on the Mount, the Parables, and the Epistles, ‘Every one … which heareth these words of mine, and doeth them … and doeth them not’ (Matthew 7:24; Matthew 7:26); ‘Inasmuch as ye did it … did it not’ (Matthew 25:40; Matthew 25:45)
Lukewarmness - In respect to Religion, hardly any thing can be more culpable than this spirit. The general signs of a lukewarm spirit are such as these: Neglect of private prayer; a preference of worldly to religious company; a lax attendance on public ordinances; omission or careless perusal of God's word; a zeal for some appendages of Religion, while languid about Religion itself; a backwardness to promote the cause of God in the world, and a rashness of spirit in censuring those who are desirous to be useful. To overcome such a state of mind, we should consider how offensive it is to God: how incongruous with the very idea and nature of true Religion; how injurious to peace and felicity of mind; how ungrateful to Jesus Christ, whose whole life was labour for us and our salvation; how grievous to the Holy Spirit; how dreadful an example to those who have no Religion; how unlike the saints of old, and even to our enemies in the worst of causes; how dangerous to our immortal souls, since it is indicative of our want of love to God, and exposes us to just condemnation, Amos 6:1
Mars Hill - Paul discussed Religion with the leading minds of Athens on Mars Hill
Feast of the Circumcision - January 1, commemorates the occasion when this rite of the Jewish Religion was received by Our Lord, eight days after His birth
New Year's Day - January 1, commemorates the occasion when this rite of the Jewish Religion was received by Our Lord, eight days after His birth
Free Thinker - An appellation given to those persons who deny revelation or the Christian Religion
Heretic - ) One who holds to a heresy; one who believes some doctrine contrary to the established faith or prevailing Religion
Grace, Pilgrimage of - Its purpose was the restoration of the Catholic Religion and the reestahlishment of the religious orders in their confiscated abbeys
Boyles Lectures - Boyle, by a codicil annexed to his will, in 1691, whose design, as expressed by the institutor, is to prove the truth of the Christian Religion against infidels, without descending to any controversies among Christians, and to answer new difficulties, scruples, &c. To the appointment we are indebted for many excellent defences of natural and revealed Religion
Apostasy - A forsaking or renouncing our Religion, either by an open declaration in words, or a virtual declaration of it by our actions. The primitive Christian church distinguished several kinds of apostacy; the first, of those who went entirely from Christianity to Judaism; the second, of those who complied so far with the Jews, as to communicate with them in many of their unlawful practices, without making a formal profession of their Religion; thirdly, of those who mingled Judaism and Christianity together; and, fourthly, of those who voluntarily relapsed into paganism
Sidon - In the same way Sidon, being a dominant religious centre, fittingly symbolized the corrupt Phoenician Religion that at times troubled Israel (Judges 10:6; 1 Kings 16:31-33). (For details of Sidon’s commerce, Religion and history see PHOENICIA
Heresy - A fundamental error in Religion, or an error of opinion respecting some fundamental doctrine of Religion
Abijah (Abijam) - ...
Abijah was not wholly loyal to Yahweh, for he tolerated false Religion in Judah (1 Kings 15:3). However, he was not as bad as his contemporary in Israel, Jeroboam, who had set up an official rival Religion in the northern kingdom
Duvernay, Ludger - He founded the Society of Saint John the Baptist for the purpose of preserving the Religion, institutions, and language of the French Canadians
Injustice - Perhaps its most common form so far as good name is concerned is misjudgment or misrepresentation of another's Religion because of culpable ignorance or prejudice
Religious - In a general sense, something that relates to Religion
Awakening - Specifically: A revival of Religion, or more general attention to religious matters than usual
Ludger Duvernay - He founded the Society of Saint John the Baptist for the purpose of preserving the Religion, institutions, and language of the French Canadians
Burgher - ) A member of that party, among the Scotch seceders, which asserted the lawfulness of the burgess oath (in which burgesses profess "the true Religion professed within the realm"), the opposite party being called antiburghers
Circumstantial - ) Something incidental to the main subject, but of less importance; opposed to an essential; - generally in the plural; as, the circumstantials of Religion
Orangeman - ) One of a secret society, organized in the north of Ireland in 1795, the professed objects of which are the defense of the regning sovereign of Great Britain, the support of the Protestant Religion, the maintenance of the laws of the kingdom, etc
Erastianism - The term is used to denote an undue subservience of the Church to the State; the supremacy of civilrulers in matters of Religion, as in Great Britain and Germany
Overthrow - To subvert to destroy as, to overthrow the constitution or state to overthrow Religion
Pastor - A minister of the gospel who has the charge of a church and congregation, whose duty is to watch over the people of his charge, and instruct them in the sacred doctrines of the christian Religion
Religion - " If the Ciceronian etymology be the true one, the word Religion will denote the diligent study whatever pertains to the worship of God; but, according to the other derivation, it denotes that obligation which we feel on our minds from the relation in which we stand to some superior power. Doddridge thus defines it: "Religion consists in the resolution of the will for God, and in a constant care to avoid whatever we are persuaded he would disapprove, to despatch the work he has assigned us in life, and to promote his glory in the happiness of mankind. ) The foundation of all Religion rests on the belief of the existence of God. Religion has been divided into natural and revealed. By natural Religion is meant that knowledge, veneration, and love of God, and the practice of those duties to him, our fellow-creatures, and ourselves, which are discoverable by the right exercise of our rational faculties, from considering the nature and perfections of God, and our relation to him and to one another. ...
By revealed Religion is understood that discovery which he has made to us of his mind and will in the Holy Scriptures. As it respects natural Religion, some doubt whether, properly speaking, there can be any such thing; since, through the fall, reason is so depraved, that man without revelation is under the greatest darkness and misery, as may be easily seen by considering the history of those nations who are destitute of it, and who are given up to barbarism, ignorance, cruelty, and evils of every kind. ...
Now, though it is very possible that no man, or body of men, left to themselves from infancy in a desert world, would ever have made a theological discovery, yet, whatever propositions relating to the being and attributes of the First Cause and duty of man, can be demonstrated by human reason, independent of written revelation, may be called natural theology, and are of the utmost importance, as being to us the first principles of all Religion. " The Religions which exist in the world have been generally divided into four, the Pagan, the Jewish, the Mahometan, and the Christian; to which articles the reader is referred. The various duties of the Christian Religion also are stated in their different places
Dogma - In the sense that a dogma is an idea, it follows that dogmatism is necessary for Religion, since a Religion without ideas is meaningless
Interims - (Latin: interim, meanwhile) ...
Three temporary settlements in matters of Religion, entered into by Emperor Charles V of Germany with the Protestants. The "Interim of Ratisbon," July 29, 1541, postponed the adjustment of the religious question, begun in a previous conference, ordered the suspension of judicial proceedings in matters of Religion, and enacted that the monasteries should remain intact and that ecclesiastics should retain their possessions
Mixed Marriage - The phrase is the equivalent of the kitchen Latin, mixta religio (mixed, or mixture of, Religion). Since differences of belief in religious matters very frequently occasion incompatibility in domestic relations, impediments to the proper religious observance of both partIes, and differences over the religious training of the children, the Church, to safeguard the Religion of the Catholic party, requires that the marriage take place before a priest only, that the one who is not Catholic will not interfere with the religious observances of the other nor with the training of the children as Catholics
Christianity - The Religion of Christ; the faith which He has inspired; the teachings and moral practises inculcated by this faith; the spirit of justice, charity, of obedience to law, purity of morals, and sanctity of domestic life which characterize the manners of those who adhere to this faith; and the consequent character of the civilization which is known as Christian and which influences even those who have never believed in Christ or who have lost that faith. The institutions of mercy, of every form of sociological relief, of education, and even of Religion, though they do not profess belief in Christ or inculcate Christian practises, still feel constrained to continue and imitate the benevolence, the enlightenment, and to some extent even the worship and ceremonial, to which all such institutions must trace their origin
James ii - , he tried to restore the Catholic Religion. He favored Catholics, placing them in high positions, allowing them freedom in the exercise of their Religion and forbidding the Anglican clergy to preach against Catholicism
Emmanuel - , in his book "The Gospeland Philosophy," speaking of the word Emmanuel, says, "'Godwith us' is the sum of the Christian Religion. That is a properdescription of the Religion from the beginning to the end
Marriage, Mixed - The phrase is the equivalent of the kitchen Latin, mixta religio (mixed, or mixture of, Religion). Since differences of belief in religious matters very frequently occasion incompatibility in domestic relations, impediments to the proper religious observance of both partIes, and differences over the religious training of the children, the Church, to safeguard the Religion of the Catholic party, requires that the marriage take place before a priest only, that the one who is not Catholic will not interfere with the religious observances of the other nor with the training of the children as Catholics
Prayer: Its Power to Soften Asperities - Both were professors of Religion, but of different communions. Their conversation was first upon topics relating to practical Religion, but after a time it diverged to the points of difference between the two denominations to which they belonged
Quadratus, Saint - 125addressed a discourse to the Emperor Hadrian containing an apology for the Christian Religion
Julius Garesche - Wherever stationed, he made himself a center of Catholic activities, being knighted by Pius IX for his services to Religion
Catharists - Their Religion resembled the doctrine of the Manichaeans and Gnostics (see those articles
Believers - An appellation given, toward the close of the first century, to those Christians who had been admitted into the church by baptism, and instructed in all the mysteries of Religion
Hypocrisy: of no Service - Sin needs quenching in the Saviour's blood, not concealing under the garb of Religion
Canon (3) - Canons are properly decisions of matters of Religion, or regulations of the policy and discipline of a church made by councils, either general, national, or provincial; such are the canons of the council of Nice, of Trent, &c
Hoffmanists - Those who espoused the sentiments of Daniel Hoffman, professor in the university of Helmstadt, who in the year 1598 taught that the light of reason, even as it appears in the writings of Plato and Aristotle, is adverse to Religion; and that the more the human understanding is cultivated by philosophical study, the more perfectly is the enemy supplied with weapons of defence
Thebes - Thebes (called No in KJV) was the center of worship for the god Amon, a chief deity in Egyptian Religion
Tiglath-Pileser - See Assyria, History and Religion of
Apostate - , one who has forsaken his Religion for another; a pervert; a renegade
Phrygians - They were orthodox in every thing, setting aside this, that they took Montanus for a prophet, and Priscilla and Maximilla for true prophetesses, to be consulted in every thing relating to Religion; as supposing the Holy Spirit had abandoned the church
Astray - In morals and Religion, it signifies wandering from the path of rectitude, from duty and happiness
Garesche, Julius Peter - Wherever stationed, he made himself a center of Catholic activities, being knighted by Pius IX for his services to Religion
Hypocrite - One who feigns to be what he is not one who has the form of godliness without the power, or who assumes an appearance of piety and virtue, when he is destitute of true Religion
Lecture Warburtonian - A lecture founded by bishop Warburton to prove the truth of revealed Religion in general, and the Christian in particular, from the completion of the prophecies in the Old and New Testament which relate to the Christian church, especially to the apostacy of papal Rome
Ulema - ) A college or corporation in Turkey composed of the hierarchy, namely, the imams, or ministers of Religion, the muftis, or doctors of law, and the cadis, or administrators of justice
Reformation - By way of eminence, the change of Religion from the corruptions of popery to its primitive purity, begun by Luther, A
Undefiled - 1: ἀμίαντος (Strong's #283 — Adjective — amiantos — am-ee'-an-tos ) "undefiled, free from contamination" (a, negative, miaino, "to defile"), is used (a) of Christ, Hebrews 7:26 ; (b) of pure Religion, James 1:27 ; (c) of the eternal inheritance of believers, 1 Peter 1:4 ; (d) of the marriage bed as requiring to be free from unlawful sexual intercourse, Hebrews 13:4
Presumption - As it relates to Religion in general, it is a bold and daring confidence in the goodness of God, without obedience to his will. As it respects professors of Religion, as one observes, they sin presumptuously, ...
1. when they take up a profession of Religion without principle; ...
2. when they do not take Religion as they find it in the Scriptures; ...
4. when they make their feelings the test of their Religion, without considering the difference between animal passions and the operations of the Spirit of God; ...
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Deists - A class of people whose distinguishing character it is, not to profess any particular form or system of Religion; but only to acknowledge the existence of a God, and to follow the light and law of Nature, rejecting revelation and opposing Christianity. He adds, that they laughed at all Religion, though they outwardly conformed to the Religion of those with whom they lived, or whom they wished to please, or feared to offend. The deists hold, that, considering the multiplicity of Religions, the numerous pretences to revelation, and the precarious arguments generally advanced in proof thereof, the best and surest way is to return to the simplicity of nature, and the belief of one God; which is the only truth agreed to by all nations. They complain, that the freedom of thinking and reasoning is oppressed under the yoke of Religion, and that the minds of men are tyrannized over, by the necessity imposed on them of believing inconceivable mysteries; and contend that nothing should be required to be assented to or believed but what their reason clearly conceives. They profess a regard for natural Religion, though they are far from being agreed in their notions concerning it. Those who believe the existence, perfections, and providence of God, the obligations of natural Religion, and a state of future retribution, on the evidence of the light of Nature, without a divine revelation; such as these, he says, are the only true deists: but their principles, he apprehends, should lead them to embrace Christianity; and therefore he concludes that there is now no consistent scheme of deism in the world. This, together with his book De Causis Errorum, and his treatise De Religione Laici, were afterwards published in London. Religione Gentilium was published at Amsterdam in 1663 in 4to. As he was one of the first that formed design into a system, and asserted the sufficiency, universality, and absolute perfection of natural Religion, with a view to discard all extraordinary revelation as useless and needless, we shall subjoin the five fundamental articles of this universal Religion. ...
"But, " as one observes, "the friends of Christianity have no reason to regret the free and unreserved discussion which their Religion has undergone. Objections have been stated and urged in their full force, and as fully answered; arguments and raillery have been repelled: and the controversy between Christians and deists has called forth a great number of excellent writers, who have illustrated both the doctrines and evidences of Christianity in a manner that will ever reflect honour on their names, and be of lasting service to the cause of genuine Religion, and the best interests of mankind. Leland's View of Deistical Writers; Sermons at Boyle's Lecture; Halyburton's Natural Religion insufficient; Leslie's Short Method with the Deists; Bishop Watson's Apology for the Bible; Fuller's Gospel of Christ its own Witness; Bishop Porteus's Charge to the Clergy, for 1794; and his summary of the Evidences of Christianity
Impediment - The cares of life are impediments to the progress of vital Religion
Domitian - In spite of his private vices he endeavored to reform morals and Religion
Domitianus, Titus Flavius - In spite of his private vices he endeavored to reform morals and Religion
Christendom - ) The profession of faith in Christ by baptism; hence, the Christian Religion, or the adoption of it
Devout - ) Devoted to Religion or to religious feelings and duties; absorbed in religious exercises; given to devotion; pious; reverent; religious
Austerity - A hermit is austere in his life; a casuist severe in his application of Religion or law; a judge rigorous in his sentences
Sibylline Books - In the 2century BC the Hellenistic Jews, for propaganda purposes, issued verses similar in form to the Sibylline prophecies; and later, certain Christians in the early centuries did the same, for the like purpose of disseminating the doctrines of their Religion
Titus Flavius Domitianus - In spite of his private vices he endeavored to reform morals and Religion
Mystery - In respect to the mysteries of Religion, divines have run into two extremes. But if it can be proved that mysteries make a part of a Religion coming from God, it can be no part of piety to discard them, as if we were wiser than he. ...
To defend Religion in this manner, is to expose it to contempt. south observes, that the mysteriousness of those parts of the Gospel called the credenda, or matters of our faith, is most subservient to the great and important ends of Religion, and that upon these accounts: ...
First, because Religion, in the prime institution of it, was designed to make impressions of awe and reverential fear upon men's minds
Nantes, Edict of - Term applied to an order issued, 1598, by Henry IV of France, which provided for the reestablishment of the Catholic Religion in that country, the restoration of church property and rights, and for the free exercise of their Religion by the Huguenots, eligibility to public office, state subsidies for their schools and churches, and representation in the Parliament of Paris
Edict of Nantes - Term applied to an order issued, 1598, by Henry IV of France, which provided for the reestablishment of the Catholic Religion in that country, the restoration of church property and rights, and for the free exercise of their Religion by the Huguenots, eligibility to public office, state subsidies for their schools and churches, and representation in the Parliament of Paris
Backsliding - a falling off, or defection in matters of Religion; an apostasy, Acts 21:21 ; 2 Thessalonians 2:3 ; 1 Timothy 4:1 . On the latter passage Chrysostom observes, "When a house has a strong foundation, suppose an arch fall, some of the beams break, or a wall decline, while the foundation is good, these breaches may be repaired; so in Religion, whilst a person maintains the true doctrines, and remains on the firm rock, though he fall, true repentance may restore him to the favour and image of God: but as in a house, when the foundation is bad, nothing can save the building from ruin; so when heretical doctrines are admitted for a foundation, nothing can save the professor from destruction
Preaching - The public and oral inculcation of the truths of Religion, especially of the gospel of Christ, Isaiah 61:1 Acts 8:4 2 Corinthians 5:20 Ephesians 3:8 . Public instruction in Religion was no doubt given in the earliest ages
Opposition - The profession of Religion was at that time fashionable among the Jews. Christ decried this parade of Religion as hypocritical. He told them that their profession was a sham and their Religion worthless. He insisted upon a Religion of the heart, and not the outward and formal rites and observances, on which they laid such stress because they brought them into favour with men
Mixed Religion - Such a marriage is valid if performed by proper authority, but it requires a dispensation, which is given only after the signing of promises by the non-Catholic party, pledging non-interference with the Religion of the Catholic, rearing the children in the Catholic faith, and only one ceremony of marriage, before a priest
Disciplina, Arcani - A modern term describing a practise of the ancient Church, by which knowledge of the more intimate mysteries of the Christian Religion, such as the Trinity and the doctrine of some of the Sacraments, were kept from the heathen and, at least in the earlier stages of their instruction, from catechumens
Discipline of the Secret - A modern term describing a practise of the ancient Church, by which knowledge of the more intimate mysteries of the Christian Religion, such as the Trinity and the doctrine of some of the Sacraments, were kept from the heathen and, at least in the earlier stages of their instruction, from catechumens
Joel Harris - Although his wife was a Catholic and he had long admired the Catholic Religion, he did not embrace it until a few weeks before his death
Dominique Parrenin - His varied knowledge and familiar use of Chinese earned him the good will of the Chinese emperors, which he utilized in the interest of Religion and science
Delude, Delusion - , "a wandering," whereby those who are led astray roam hither and thither, is always used in the NT, of mental straying, wrong opinion, error in morals or Religion
Nebuchadnezzar - See Babylon, History and Religion of
Manners - Shall we, in our applications to the great God, take that to be Religion, which the common reason of mankind will not allow to be manners? ...
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Rationalize - , especially in matters of Religion: to accord with the principles of rationalism
Hickey, Patrick Vincent - " He was noted for his zeal for Religion and generosity to the Church, and in 1888 received the Laetare Medal
Religion, Mixed - Such a marriage is valid if performed by proper authority, but it requires a dispensation, which is given only after the signing of promises by the non-Catholic party, pledging non-interference with the Religion of the Catholic, rearing the children in the Catholic faith, and only one ceremony of marriage, before a priest
Secret, Discipline of the - A modern term describing a practise of the ancient Church, by which knowledge of the more intimate mysteries of the Christian Religion, such as the Trinity and the doctrine of some of the Sacraments, were kept from the heathen and, at least in the earlier stages of their instruction, from catechumens
Harris, Joel Chandler - Although his wife was a Catholic and he had long admired the Catholic Religion, he did not embrace it until a few weeks before his death
Lover - One who likes or is pleased with any thing as a lover of books or of science a lover of wine a lover of Religion
Science - When science is said to be in conflict with Religion, it is well to recall what believing Christians have done for the various practical sciences of today
Heeney, Cornelius - On coming to the United States he engaged in business and, in association with John Jacob Astor, amassed a fortune, which he devoted to Religion and charity
Ashtoreth, Ashtaroth - Although a Baal was a male god and an Ashtoreth a female god, the two are often linked to represent the Religion commonly known as Baalism (Judges 2:13; 1 Samuel 12:10; 1 Kings 11:6)
Catechising - Children should not be suffered to grow up without instruction, under the pretence that the choice of Religion ought to be perfectly free, and not biased by the influence and authority of parents, or the power of education. ...
The propriety of this being granted, it may next be observed, that, in order to facilitate their knowledge, short summaries of Religion extracted from the Bible, in the way of question and answer, may be of considerable use. Hereby these principles are not only thrown into a just and easy method, but every part is naturally introduced by a proper question; and the rehearsal of the answer is made far easier to a child than it would be if the child were required to repeat the whole scheme of Religion
Forms - They say what they want is "spiritual Religion," andthis objection seems to be so final with them there is evidentlynothing more to be said. If it were real, it would do awaywith all social forms and all forms in business as well as inreligion. But they who make this objection do not adhere to it intheir own Religion. Even the Quakers who, above all others, lay the greateststress on "spiritual Religion," must have their form—of silence,speech, dress and of even the architecture of their meeting-place,and which form is peculiar to them
Henry iv, King - He was educated a Calvinist, and from 1569 he led the Protestants in French wars on account of Religion. His Religion remained a barrier between him and the main body of his subjects; however, after lengthy discussions between rival theologians, he became a Catholic, 1593, and two years later was fully reconciled with the Holy See. The reasons approved were lack of necessary dispensations (the ceremony had been performed by the Cardinal of Bourbon, before the dispensations necessary because of difference in Religion were granted) and want of consent of one of the parties (Margaret claimed that she had never consented to the contract and had been forced by her brother, Charles IX)
Affection - ) The affections, as they respect Religion, deserve in this a little attention. " Whatever extremes stoics or enthusiasts have run into, it is evident that the exercise of the affections is essential to the existence of true Religion. " ...
The affections are the springs of action: they belong to our nature, so that with the highest perceptions of truth and Religion, we should be inactive without them. They have considerable influence on men in the common concerns of life; how much more, then, should they operate in those important objects that relate to the Divine Being, the immortality of the soul, and the happiness or misery of a future state! The Religion of the most eminent saints has always consisted in the exercise of holy affections. In addition to all which the scriptures of truth teach us, that Religion is nothing, if it occupy not the affections. These things are often found in those who are only mere professors of Religion, Matthew 7:21-22
Magi - The Religion of the Magi fell into disgrace on the death of those ringleaders of that sect who had usurped the sovereignty after the death of Cambyses; and the slaughter that was made of the chief men among them sunk it so low, that Sabianism every where prevailed against it; Darius and most of his followers on that occasion going over to it. ...
But the affection which the people had for the Religion of their forefathers not being easily to be rooted out, the famous impostor Zoroaster, some ages after, undertook to revive and reform it. The chief reformation this pretended prophet made in the Magian Religion was in the first principle of it; for he introduced a god superior both to Ommasdes and Arimanius. The Magian Religion as reformed by Zoroaster, seems in many things to be built upon the plan of the Jewish. ...
From these and some other instances of analogy between the Jewish and the Magian Religion, Prideaux infers that Zoroaster had been first educated and brought up in the Jewish Religion. Zoroaster had the address to bring over Darius to his new-reformed Religion, notwithstanding the strongest opposition of the Sabians; and from that time it became the national Religion of all that country, and so continued for many ages after, till it was supplanted by that of Mahomet. Zoroaster composed a book containing the principles of the Magian Religion
Intransigeance - (Latin: in, not; transigere, to transact) ...
To refuse to act or deal with, to yield, or to compromise, a term used chiefly in political parlance of the Church when standing for a principle in which Religion is involved, or the rights and possessions of the Church
Knights of Saint Gregory - Membership in the Order is not now confined to any country, or to Catholics, but is a reward for any meritorious public service which benefits Religion and the Holy See
Order of Knights of Saint Gregory - Membership in the Order is not now confined to any country, or to Catholics, but is a reward for any meritorious public service which benefits Religion and the Holy See
Dowdall, George - Under Queen Mary he led the Catholic party, endeavored to repair the injuries to Religion, suffered during the preceding reigns, and having renounced the schism, was appointed by the pope to his original see
Maistre, Joseph Marie de, Count - He had an intense love of Religion, a firm belief in authority, and a detestation of the 18th-century rationalism, as is evidenced in his "Considerations sur la France," "Du pape," and "Les soirées de Saint Petersbourg
Joseph de Maistre, Count - He had an intense love of Religion, a firm belief in authority, and a detestation of the 18th-century rationalism, as is evidenced in his "Considerations sur la France," "Du pape," and "Les soirées de Saint Petersbourg
Terebinth - The tree had religious connections as a place under which pagan gods were worshiped (Hosea 4:13 ; Ezekiel 6:13 ) which were at times taken up in Israel's Religion (Genesis 35:4 ; Joshua 24:26 ; Judges 6:11 ; 1 Kings 13:14 )
Dedication - A religious ceremony, whereby any person or thing is solemnly consecrated, or set apart to the service of God and the purposes of Religion
Superstitious - Modern translations usually take the term in the sense of “very religious” (NAS, NIV) or “uncommonly scrupulous” concerning Religion (REB)
Amorrhites - While the origin of this race is disputed, its language, Religion, and institutions are Semitic
Animals, Worship of - A corruption of Religion wherein an animal which apparently had been a mere symbol or emblem of an attribute, virtue, or quality, is considered either as the bearer of a tribe's tutelary spirit, as among the American Indians, and as such is the object of various degrees of worship; or, as in ancient Egypt's decaying religious life, is identified with the god whose characteristic it represents, and shares with him in Divine honors
Faithless - Without belief in the revealed truths of Religion unbelieving
Disciple - A pupil or follower of a Religion, a person, or a movement
Heckerism - ) The teaching of Isaac Thomas Hecker (1819-88), which interprets Catholicism as promoting human aspirations after liberty and truth, and as the Religion best suited to the character and institutions of the American people
Sectarian - ) One of a sect; a member or adherent of a special school, denomination, or religious or philosophical party; one of a party in Religion which has separated itself from established church, or which holds tenets different from those of the prevailing denomination in a state
Worship of Animals - A corruption of Religion wherein an animal which apparently had been a mere symbol or emblem of an attribute, virtue, or quality, is considered either as the bearer of a tribe's tutelary spirit, as among the American Indians, and as such is the object of various degrees of worship; or, as in ancient Egypt's decaying religious life, is identified with the god whose characteristic it represents, and shares with him in Divine honors
George Dowdall - Under Queen Mary he led the Catholic party, endeavored to repair the injuries to Religion, suffered during the preceding reigns, and having renounced the schism, was appointed by the pope to his original see
Resemblance - These sensible things which Religion hath allowed, are resemblances formed according to things spiritual
Lukewarm - There is greater promise in men who are outside the pale of the Church than in those whose nominal allegiance to Religion has created a false confidence, dulled all sense of need, and checked all spiritual growth (Revelation 3:15). The following verses (Revelation 3:17-18, for the local references of which see article ‘Laodicea’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) ) suggest that this condition of tepid Religion in Laodicea had been fostered by an excess of material prosperity
Baal - Paton in Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics ; W. Smith, RS Reason - Many attempts have been made to prove reason inimical to revelation; but nothing can be more evident than that it is of considerable use in knowing, distinguishing, proving, and defending the mysteries of revelation; although it must not be considered as a perfect standard by which all the mysteries of Religion must be measured before they are received by faith. "...
Therefore reason has a great deal to do in Religion, viz. " ...
See Religion and REVELATION, and books there recommended; also Porteus's Sermons, ser. 533; An Essay on the Use and Abuse of Reason in Matters of Religion, by Witsius, and translated by Carter; Dr
Disparity of Worship - Unless by dispensation, such a marriage is null; and for the granting of the said dispensation the signing of certain promises is required, pledging non-interference with the Religion of the Catholic party and with the Catholic baptism and training of the children, and also that no ceremony will take place except that before a Catholic priest
Father, Our - A prayer taught by Christ (Luke 11:2-4; Matthew 6:9-15) and therefore the most revered and oft-used formula of the Christian Religion, frequent in Liturgy
Our Father - A prayer taught by Christ (Luke 11:2-4; Matthew 6:9-15) and therefore the most revered and oft-used formula of the Christian Religion, frequent in Liturgy
Care of the Soul - A term used for Religion, or that serious attention we ought to pay to our best interests
Elymas - As belief in Religion declined under the Roman empire, belief in eastern magic increased
Bigot - ) A person who regards his own faith and views in matters of Religion as unquestionably right, and any belief or opinion opposed to or differing from them as unreasonable or wicked
Lord's Prayer - A prayer taught by Christ (Luke 11:2-4; Matthew 6:9-15) and therefore the most revered and oft-used formula of the Christian Religion, frequent in Liturgy
Noster, Pater - A prayer taught by Christ (Luke 11:2-4; Matthew 6:9-15) and therefore the most revered and oft-used formula of the Christian Religion, frequent in Liturgy
Proselyte - A new convert to some Religion or religious sect
Pervert - ) One who has been perverted; one who has turned to error, especially in Religion; - opposed to convert
Astericus Anastasius, Saint - He entered the Benedictine Order and became co-operator with Saint Stephen in establishing the Catholic Religion in Hungary, being sent by the latter to beg papal approval for the organization of the Church there and to ask for he crown of that kingdom
Astrik-Anastaz, Saint - He entered the Benedictine Order and became co-operator with Saint Stephen in establishing the Catholic Religion in Hungary, being sent by the latter to beg papal approval for the organization of the Church there and to ask for he crown of that kingdom
Augsburg, Religious Peace of - Compact arrived at in 1555 by the Diet of Augsburg, in a vain effort to secure religious harmony, by recognizing the pretensions of the German princes to dictate a Religion to their subjects and by securing to the adherents of the Augsburg Confession all Catholic property which they had held from the beginning of the religious upheaval
Application - Application is also used for that part of a sermon in which the preacher brings home of applies the truth of Religion to the consciences of his hearers
Gentiles - Thus, in the Old Testament it designates the collection of nations of non-Israelitic stock (2 Esdras 5) and alien to the worship and customs of the true Religion
Sabina, Saint - Sabina at first escaped because of her position, but was so zealous in the practise of her Religion that she too was put to death; her relics were brought to the Aventine in 430, and there a basilica bears her name
Religious Peace of Augsburg - Compact arrived at in 1555 by the Diet of Augsburg, in a vain effort to secure religious harmony, by recognizing the pretensions of the German princes to dictate a Religion to their subjects and by securing to the adherents of the Augsburg Confession all Catholic property which they had held from the beginning of the religious upheaval
Disciple - The Apostles were chosen especially by Christ from the disciples and were the depositories of His most secret mysteries and the principal ministers of His Religion
Moriscos - They remained the implacable enemies of their conquerors with whom they differed in Religion, dress, language, etc
League, Holy - Discontent following the Peace of Beaulieu (1576) by which the Protestants gained important concessions from Henry III led to the formation of the Holy League, an alliance of nobles, clergy, and people under Henry of Guise in 1576 to defend the Catholic Religion in France, and to restore the ancient rights and liberties
Berhard Bolzano - Ordained, 1805, he was appointed to the chair of the philosophy of Religion in Prague University
Merici, Angela, Saint - She established a school at Desenzano for the instruction of young girls in Religion, and later founded a second school at Brescia
Attitude - : Position as indicating action, feeling, or mood; as, in times of trouble let a nation preserve a firm attitude; one's mental attitude in respect to Religion
Devout - Pious devoted to Religion religious
Holy League - Discontent following the Peace of Beaulieu (1576) by which the Protestants gained important concessions from Henry III led to the formation of the Holy League, an alliance of nobles, clergy, and people under Henry of Guise in 1576 to defend the Catholic Religion in France, and to restore the ancient rights and liberties
Algeria - The country Isaiah 99% Sunni Muslim, the official state Religion, with the remainder being Christian or Jewish
American Federation of Catholic Societies - It was influential in bringing about the correction of many errors concerning the Church in four general encyclopedias, in obtaining fair treatment for Catholics in the Philippines, and in developing interest among Catholics in public affairs in which Religion is concerned
Angela Merici, Saint - She established a school at Desenzano for the instruction of young girls in Religion, and later founded a second school at Brescia
Doctrine - In Religion, it is the set of true beliefs that define the parameters of that belief system
Sect - ) Those following a particular leader or authority, or attached to a certain opinion; a company or set having a common belief or allegiance distinct from others; in Religion, the believers in a particular creed, or upholders of a particular practice; especially, in modern times, a party dissenting from an established church; a denomination; in philosophy, the disciples of a particular master; a school; in society and the state, an order, rank, class, or party
Persia - See CYRUS and for the Religion of the ancient Persians, See MAGI
Spiritism - (Latin: spiro, breathe) ...
(1) The theory that the living can, and do communicate with the spirits of the departed, which claims to prove the preamble of all Religion, and to establish or disprove by its methods the essential truths of Cbristianity
Redound - The honor done to our Religion ultimately redounds to God the author of it
Theodat Sagard - He presented a memoir concerning the state of Religion to the Viceroy of New France
Jupiter - Antiochus Epiphanes (Daniel 8, 11), the Old Testament antichrist, to subvert the Jewish Religion, dedicated the temple of Jehovah at Jerusalem to the Greek Olympian Jupiter
Ceylon - The Faith spread rapidly until it was attacked by members of the Dutch Reformed Church, the established state Religion. Under the Dutch rulers the practise of the Catholic Religion was forbidden, penal laws were enforced, and the Catholics were severely persecuted. When the island came under British rule, freedom of worship was granted although the Church of England became the established Religion
Sri Lanka - The Faith spread rapidly until it was attacked by members of the Dutch Reformed Church, the established state Religion. Under the Dutch rulers the practise of the Catholic Religion was forbidden, penal laws were enforced, and the Catholics were severely persecuted. When the island came under British rule, freedom of worship was granted although the Church of England became the established Religion
Hymns - In theThird and Fourth Centuries the Christian Religion began to growlargely in the number of its followers, in wealth and position;magnificent churches were built under Constantine the Emperor, andthen it came to pass that choirs were instituted definitely by theCouncil of Laodicea, A. ) The connection of Religion with music is shown by the fact thatnearly every great revival of Religion has been accompanied by agreat outburst of song
Jehoshaphat - He was distinguished by his zeal for true Religion, and his firm trust in God. Jehoshaphat was beguiled by Ahab into an unsuccessful war with the Syrians, but soon resumed his labors in behalf of Religion and justice
Christianity - CHRISTIANITY is the name given to the Religion founded by Jesus of Nazareth, which is professed by more than one-fourth of the human race, including the foremost nations of the world. As an abstract name for a fully developed Religion, it was not, and could not be, in use from the beginning. Only gradually, as the Christian community reached self-consciousness, and more especially as need arose from without of distinguishing its adherents from those of other Religions, was a distinctive name adopted. But in a Dictionary of this kind it seems desirable to inquire into (1) the history of the name itself; (2) the proper connotation of the name and the best mode of ascertaining it; hence (3) the significance of the changes which have passed over Christianity in the process of its development; and (4) the essential character of the Religion named after Christ and portrayed in the Gospels. The essence of a great historical Religion—with a record extending over some two thousand years, taking different shapes in many diverse nationalities, itself developing and altering its hue and character, if not its substance, in successive generations—cannot easily be summed up in a sentence. Whilst, if an attempt be made to describe that element of permanent vitality and validity in the Religion which has remained the same through ages of growth, unaltered amidst the widest external and internal modifications and changes, the character of such a description obviously depends upon the viewpoint of the observer. ...
A Religion may be viewed from without or from within, and an estimate made accordingly either of its institutions and formularies and ceremonies, or of its dominant ideas and prevailing principles. The Protestant regards his Religion from an entirely different standpoint. He may be of the ‘evangelical’ type, in which case he will probably define Christianity as the Religion of those who have accepted the authority of an inspired and infallible Bible, and who trust for salvation to the merits of the death of Christ as their atoning Saviour. But the analogy between the growth of the Christian Religion and that of an animal or vegetable organism in physical nature, fails in certain important respects. On the other, the origin of the Religion of Christ cannot be compared with the deposit of a tiny and indeterminate and almost invisible germ. Before the period covered by the NT writings had passed, what may be called the formative and normative stage of the Religion was complete. By a candid and careful comparison of the Religion in its simplicity and purity with the various forms it has assumed in the course of centuries amongst various nations and races, an answer may be obtained to the question, What is Christianity? which is neither purely dogmatic on the one hand, nor purely empirical on the other. As the name ‘Christian’ was not given till those outside the pale of the Church found it necessary to differentiate the believer in Christ from the adherent of other Religions, so the need of a scientific definition of Christianity was never felt by faith, nor could one be formed, till the standpoint was occupied from which the young science of Comparative Religion has taken its rise. We have therefore to ask, What was precisely the nature of the Religion founded by Christ as recorded in the Gospels and Epistles? Has it remained in substance the same without fundamental change? If, as is obvious, it has markedly altered during a long period of growth and expansion, has its development been legitimate or illegitimate? That is, has the original type been steadfastly maintained, or has it been seriously perverted? Is a norm fairly ascertainable and a return to type from time to time possible?...
iii. ...
The question now arises, whether the normative period of the Religion ends with the death of Christ, May it be said that when His life is over, the work of the prophet of Nazareth is complete, His words have all been spoken, His Religion propounded—it remains that His followers obey His teaching? This position has often been taken, and is usually adopted by those who reject the supernatural element in Christianity. Lessing is the father of those who in modern times think it desirable to return from ‘the Christian Religion’ to ‘the Religion of Jesus. Without entering into controversy such as would arise over exact definitions, we may say broadly that Christ became in thought, as He had always been in practice, the centre of His own Religion. Personal relation to Christ continued to be—what it had been in the days of His flesh, but more consciously and completely—the all-important feature in the new Religion. Paul and the Apostles onwards, but not till then, the Christian Religion was fairly complete in its outline and ready for promulgation in the world. ...
But it is clear that the real significance of some features in the new Religion could be brought out only in the course of history. The first great crisis which tested the infant Church arose over the question whether Christianity was to be a reformed and spiritualized Judaism or a universal Religion, for the whole world and for all time. In the first flush of enthusiasm which belongs to the earliest stage of a Religions movement, the emotional—which means very largely the motive or dynamical—element is both pure and powerful. Faith passes into a formulated creed, the spirit of free, spontaneous worship shrinks within the limits of reverently ordered forms, the general sense of brotherhood narrows down into the ordered relationships of a constituted society, charismatic gifts are exchanged for the privileges which belong to certain defined ranks and orders of clergy; and, when the whole process is over, whilst the Religion may remain the same in appearance, and to a great extent in character, it is nevertheless seriously changed. At the same time, in the history of a Religion, such a process is critical in the extreme. One of the chief dangers arises from the influx of unworthy or half-hearted members, those with whom Religion is a tradition, not a living personal energy. ’ And especially when at such an epoch it is sought to define the essentials of a Religion, there is the utmost danger lest secondary elements should be confused with the primary, lest an orthodox creed should be substituted for a living faith, and outward conformity with human prescriptions take the place of personal allegiance to a Divine and living Lord. ...
Whatever be thought of the way in which this all-important change was effected in the first instance,—that is to say, the transition from Christianity viewed as a life to Christianity viewed as a system of dogmatic belief and ecclesiastical organization,—few will deny that before long the alteration was so great that it may be said the Religion itself was transformed. In their view a living Religion has hardened into a technical theology, vital union with Christ has passed into submission to the ordinances of a fast deteriorating Church, and the happy fellowship of believers in a common salvation and the enjoyment of a new life has almost disappeared under the heavy bondage of ceremonial observances and ecclesiastical absolutism. ...
The substitution of the worship of the Virgin Mary as an intercessor with her Divine Son for reverent intercourse with Christ Himself; the offering of the sacrifice of the Mass by an officiating priest for the benefit of the living and the dead, instead of a simple observance of communion with Christ and fellow-disciples at the Lord’s Table; the obtaining of absolution only after private confession to a priest Divinely appointed to dispense it, in place of free and direct forgiveness granted to the penitent believer in Christ,—changes like these made in a Religion are not slight and superficial. Luther, who had intended only to remove some obvious abuses which disfigured the creed and practice of the Church he loved, found himself cutting at the very roots of ecclesiastical authority and institutional Religion. But the whole Reformation movement showed that Christianity as a Religion possessed remarkable recuperative power; that the organism could throw off a considerable portion of what seemed its very substance, not only without injury to its life, but with marvellous increase to its vigour; and that the essence of the Religion did not lie where the Roman Catholic Church had sought to place it. ‘Evangelical revivals,’ great missionary enterprises, remarkable extensions of the old Religion in new lands and under new conditions, unexpected manifestations of new features and resuscitation of pristine energies, have during the last two or three centuries illustrated afresh the same power of recovery and spiritual reinforcement, and raised afresh the question as to what constitutes the essence of a Religion which is so full of vitality and so capable of developing from within unanticipated and apparently inexhaustible energies. The spectacle of two or three great historical Churches on the one hand preserving the kind of stability which is gained by outward conformity to one doctrinal creed and ecclesiastical system, and, on the other, an almost endless diversity of sects and denominations, with a tendency to fissiparous multiplication—cannot represent the τέλος, the ideal, the goal of the Christian Religion. Whilst many of these are enfeebled by age, the Religion itself is young with a perpetually renewed vigour, and not for centuries has it shown more certain signs of freshly budding energy. As they arise, the power and permanence of a Religion are tested by its ability to grapple with and to solve them, and by its success or failure is it judged. But the principles and capabilities of a Religion cannot be gauged by those of its representatives and exponents at a particular epoch. Again and again in the darkest hour light has shone forth, and at the lowest ebb a new flood-tide of energy has arisen, making it possible to distinguish the real Religion in its purity and power from its actual embodiment in decadent and unworthy representatives. It was not developed out of Judaism, the Jews were its bitterest opponents; it was not indebted to Greek philosophic thought or to Roman political science, though afterwards it made use of and powerfully influenced both; it had nothing in common with the current superstitions of Oriental Religions; it did not owe its origin to some cunningly devised religious syncretism, such as was not uncommon at the time when Christianity began to infuse life into the declining Roman Empire. In the earliest records this idea appears as the germ of a nascent Religion, a sketch in outline which remains to be filled up. ’...
If for ‘Christians’ we read ‘Christianity,’ where is the soul, or vital spark, of the Religion to be found? Nearly all are agreed that the centre of the Christian Religion is, in some sense, the Person of its Founder. The relation of Christ to the Religion called by His name is certainly not that of Moses to Judaism, or that of Confucius to Confucianism. But neither does He stand related to Christianity as do Buddha and Mohammed to the Religions named after them
Theophilanthropists - "If any one ask you, " say they, "what is the origin of your Religion and of your worship, you can answer him thus: Open the most ancient books which are known, seek there what was the Religion, what the worship of the first human beings of which history has preserved the remembrance. There you will see that their Religion was what we now call natural Religion, because it has for its principle even the Author of nature. ...
It is he that has engraven it in the heart of the first human beings, in ours, in that of all the inhabitants of the earth; this Religion, which consists in worshipping God and cherishing our kind, is what we express by one single word, that of Theophilanthrophy. Thus our Religion is that of our first parents; it is yours; it is ours; it is the universal Religion
Ceremony - Applied to religious services, it signifies the external rites and manner in which the ministers of Religion perform their sacred functions, and direct or lead the worship of the people. In all Religions adapted to the nature of man there must be some positive institutions for fixing the mind upon spiritual objects, and counteracting that influence of material things upon habits and pursuits which is, and must be, constantly exerted. Without such institutions, Religion might be preserved, indeed, by a few of superior understanding and of strong powers of reflection; but among mankind in general all trace of it would soon be lost. When the end for which they are appointed is kept in view, and the simple examples of the New Testament are observed, they are of vast importance to the production both of pious feelings and of virtuous conduct; but there has constantly been a propensity in the human race to mistake the means for the end, and to consider themselves as moral and religious, when they scrupulously observe what was intended to produce morality and Religion. ...
Under the system of polytheism which prevailed in the most enlightened nations previous to the publication of Christianity, this was carried so far, that the connection between Religion and morality was in a great degree dissolved, rites and ceremonies, sacrifices and oblations, were all that it was thought requisite to observe; when these were carefully performed, there was no hesitation in ascribing piety to the persons who did perform them, however deficient they might be in virtuous and pious dispositions. With this highly popular and revered class of men, Religion was either merely a matter of ceremony, or was employed, for base and interested purposes, to cast a veil of sanctity over their actions. " The Christian Religion not only expressly guards against an evil which had become so prevalent, but its whole spirit is at variance with it, its own ceremonial observances being few, and obviously emblematical of whatever is excellent and holy. But still the Gospel finds human nature as other Religions found it; and ecclesiastical history, even from the earliest periods, shows with what astonishing perverseness, and with what wonderful ingenuity, men departed from the simplicity of Christianity, and substituted in its room the most childish, and often the most pernicious, practices and observances. The effect was, that men regarded God as less concerned with the moral conduct of his creatures, than with the quantum of service they performed in his temples; and Religion and morals were so disjoined, that one became the substitute for the other, to the universal corruption of the Christian world
Education - They aimed at maintaining complete faculties for the study of Religion and science. ...
With the Reformation came the rupture between the two, the separation of morals and Religion from philosophy and science generally. This it maintains not only for teaching Religion, but for teaching the entire cycle of human science, and for restoring the union which should exist between both. Religion has little or no place in them. Religion, not speculation only, but practical also, is more and more recognized as an essential of any education that prepares men and women for life. On the necessity of the study of morals in education all agree, but that is impossible without Religion. This is why the Church insists on parents providing for the education of their children in Religion, and, as a rule, in Catholic schools
National Spiritualist Association - The Spiritualists believe in Infinite Intelligence, expressed in the physical and spiritual phenomena of Nature; Religion, the correct understanding of these phenomena and living in accordance with them; existence after death; communication with the dead; punishment for wrong-doing even after death until sufficient atonement has been made; Theism "in the broadest possible sense, as the foundation of their philosophy
Ormuzd - The modern Persian form of Ahura Mazda, the Good Spirit and Supreme God of the Avestic or Zoroastrian Religion of the ancient Iranians and modern Parsees
Benthamism - According to this test he found wanting the Established Churches, the New Testament, and Religion generally
Toleration - In matters of Religion, is either civil or ecclesiastical
Tammuz - According to the pagan Religion, Tammuz was betrayed by his lover, Ishtar, and as a result dies each autumn
Nebuzaradan - See Babylon, History and Religion of
Indebted - We are indebted to the christian Religion for many of the advantages, and much of the refinement of modern times
Henry Bowden - His writings include The Religion of Shakespeare, Dante, and Miniature Lives of the Saints
Barber, Chloe - Virgil Barber and his wife entered Religion, he becoming a Jesuit and she a Visitation nun, their profession taking place on the same day in Georgetown convent
Barber, Daniel - Virgil Barber and his wife entered Religion, he becoming a Jesuit and she a Visitation nun, their profession taking place on the same day in Georgetown convent
Barber Family - Virgil Barber and his wife entered Religion, he becoming a Jesuit and she a Visitation nun, their profession taking place on the same day in Georgetown convent
Barber, Virgil - Virgil Barber and his wife entered Religion, he becoming a Jesuit and she a Visitation nun, their profession taking place on the same day in Georgetown convent
Balmes, Jaime Luciano - Protestantism Compared with Catholicism in Their Relations with European Civilization (1844), a reply to Guizot's History of Civilization in Europe, is a philosophy of Christianity, with a critical analysis of the basic principles and influence of the two systems of Religion
Gibraltar - Today the Religion of the inhabitants is chiefly Catholic
Establishments - By a religious establishment is generally understood such an intimate connection between Religion and civil government as is supposed to secure the best interests and great end of both. Every one who is at all acquainted with the history of Greece and Rome, knows that Religion was altogether blended with the policy of the state. Among the Hindoos, the priests and sovereigns are of different tribes or casts, but the priests are superior in rank; and in China, the emperor is sovereign pontiff, and presides in all public acts of Religion. They who reason on the contrary side observe, that the patriarchs sustaining civil as well as religious offices, is no proof at all that Religion was incorporated with the civil government, in the sense above referred to; nor is there the least hint of it in the sacred Scriptures. In the three first and purest ages of Christianity, the church was a stranger to any alliance with temporal powers; and, so far from needing their aid, Religion never flourished so much as while they were combined to suppress it. Religion, if it have any power, operates on the conscience of men; and, resting solely on the belief of invisible realities, it can derive no weight or solemnity from human sanctions. Human establishments, it is said, have been, and are, productive of the greatest evils; for in this case it is requisite to give the preference to some particular system; and as the magistrate is no better judge of Religion than others, the chances are as great of his lending his sanction to the false as the true. Finally, though all Christians should pay respect to civil magistrates as such, and all magistrates ought to encourage the church, yet no civil magistrates have any power to establish any particular form of Religion, binding upon the consciences of the subject; nor are magistrates even represented in scripture as officers or rulers of the church. 100: 10; Bishop Law's Theory of Religion; Watts's Civil Power in things sacred, third volume of his works; Hall's Liberty of the Press, sec
Medici, Catherine de' - Catherine lacked Religion; she fluctuated between Catholics and Protestants; and her actuating principle was the furtherance of her own political power
Ladislaus, Saint - He enlarged his kingdom by the conquest of Croatia and Dalmatia and expelled the Huns, Poles, Tatars, and Russians, making Christianity the national Religion
Damasus i, Pope Saint - He successfully maintained the primacy of the Apostolic See, and welcomed the edict of Theodosius I, which made Catholism the Religion of the Roman state
Catherine de' Medici - Catherine lacked Religion; she fluctuated between Catholics and Protestants; and her actuating principle was the furtherance of her own political power
John Eudes, Saint - He was instructed in Religion and learning by the Jesuits at Caen, and ordained, December 20, 1625
Gnosimachi - In short, they contended for the practice of morality in all simplicity, and blamed those who aimed at improving and perfecting it by a deeper knowledge and insight into the doctrines and mysteries of Religion
Filial Piety - Justly has it been observed, that these great duties are prompted equally by nature and by gratitude independent of the injunctions of Religion; for where shall we find the person who hath received from any one benefits so great, or so many, as children from their parents? And it may be truly said that if persons are undutiful to their parents, they seldom prove good to any other relation
Belief - ) A persuasion of the truths of Religion; faith
Believer - ) One who was admitted to all the rights of divine worship and instructed in all the mysteries of the Christian Religion, in distinction from a catechumen, or one yet under instruction
Backwards - ) From a better to a worse state, as from honor to shame, from Religion to sin
Association - Specifically, as among the Congregationalists, a society, consisting of a number of ministers, generally the pastors of neighboring churches, united for promoting the interests of Religion and the harmony of the churches
Impotent - ‘When Religion is at the stake,’ says Fuller ( Holy State , ii
Protestant - ...
See article REFORMATION; Fell's Four Letters on genuine Protestantism; Chillingworth's Religion of the Protestants; Robertson's Hist
Verschorists - A sect that derived its denomination from Jacob Verschoor, a native of Flushing, who in the year 1680, out of a perverse and heterogeneous mixture of the tenets of Cocceius and Spinosa produced a new form of Religion, equally remarkable for its extravagance and impiety
Exterior - ) Outward or external deportment, form, or ceremony; visible act; as, the exteriors of Religion
Presbytery - ) The Presbyterian Religion of polity
Skepticism - ) A doubting of the truth of revelation, or a denial of the divine origin of the Christian Religion, or of the being, perfections, or truth of God
Adultery - ) Faithlessness in Religion
Gnosticism - It is an extinct force, so far as Religion is concerned today, but there are survivals of it in Swedenborgianism, New Thought, and in some of the sects of Occultism
Guam - Catholicism is the majority Religion of the island, which comprises the Vicariate Apostolic of Guam, erected March 1, 1911, and entrusted to the Order of Friars Minor Capuchins
Compass - ...
Isaiah 50:11 (b) This is a description of those who have a false Religion and false doctrines, and who think that these are a light to them for eternity
Recusant - ) A person who refuses to acknowledge the supremacy of the king in matters of Religion; as, a Roman Catholic recusant, who acknowledges the supremacy of the pope
Machiavelianism - The doctrine or principles of Machiavel, as laid down in his treatise entitled The Prince, and which consists in doing any thing to compass a design, without any regard to the peace or welfare of subjects, the dictates of honesty and honour, or the precepts of Religion
Eudes, John, Saint - He was instructed in Religion and learning by the Jesuits at Caen, and ordained, December 20, 1625
Abrahamites - Also the name of a sect in Bohemia, as late as 1782, who professed the Religion of Abraham before his circumcision, and admitted no scriptures but the decalogue and the Lord's prayer
Sisters Adorers of the Precious Blood - A cloistered contemplative order, founded at Saint Hyacinthe, Canada in 1861 by Aurelie Caouette, in Religion Mother Catherine-Gurelie of the Precious Blood, with the cooperation of Monsignor Joseph La Rocque
Religion, Comparative - Name of the science which compares one Religion with another with a view to discovering common elements in all of them, and to tracing their development from primitive forms to their present tenets and practises. The effort of many students of this science to prove that Christianity is merely an evolution of the Religions of primitive races and of paganism has proved futile chiefly through the studies of Catholic experts in ethnology, and the labors of Catholic missionaries among primitive peoples, notably the members of the Society of the Divine Word
Sisters of the Most Holy Sacrament - Originally a dependent branch of the Benedictine Sisters of Perpetual Adoration founded by Catherine de Bar (in Religion Mother Mechtilde of the Blessed Sacrament) in Paris, France in 1658, the congregation separated from the French province in 1892, later adopting the Rule of Saint Augustine
Uz - They appear to have had much knowledge of the true God and the principles of virtue and Religion
Mohammed - Commercial journeys to Syria and Palestine gained him an acquaintance with Jews and Christians and an imperfect knowledge of their Religion and traditions. He ruthlessly attacked and conquered Arabian, Jewish, and Christian tribes and finally united all the tribes of Arabia under one emblem and one Religion
Freedom of Worship - But such freedom of worship is not unlimited, and the most tolerant gov- ernments have from "time to time suppressed practises indulged in under the name of Religion. Religion and politics were unfortunately inextricably mixed
Belief - In theology, faith, or a firm persuasion of the truths of Religion. Religion the body of tenets held by the professors of faith
Action Francaise - The vain efforts of the Holy See culminated in the pope's expressed purpose, December 20, 1926, to condemn,the support of activities exalting politics above Religion and identifying the Church with a political movement opposed to established government. The Action Francaise had disclosed its true nature as a school or cabal rather than as a mere political party, with a following mainly Catholic, dominated by atheists, and propagating a philosophy exalting politics above Religion and urging a spirit of nationalistic hate and violence
Worship, Freedom of - But such freedom of worship is not unlimited, and the most tolerant gov- ernments have from "time to time suppressed practises indulged in under the name of Religion. Religion and politics were unfortunately inextricably mixed
Batanists - Their Religion was a compound of that of the Magi, the Jews, the Christians, and the Mahometans. At the command of their chief, they made no difficulty of stabbing any prince, even on his throne; and for that purpose conformed to the dress and Religion of the country that they might be less suspected. It is said, they once thought of embracing the Christian Religion; and some have thought the Druses a remnant of this singular race of barbarians
Modernism - In Religion, according to Pope Pius X, it is a complexion of every heresy; according to its principal French exponent, Loisy, a setting aside of every Catholic doctrine. In the middle of the 19th century, under Pope Pius IX, it asserted itself in political liberalism, the attempt to divorce society and government from Religion; under Pope Leo XIII it became a social movement; under Pope Pius X it became an aggression against true Religion. They claimed that the soul had its yearnings for something higher than it could perceive in nature; that these yearnings consciously understood, reveal the intimate presence of God; that this presence constitutes revelation; that experience of relations with God disposes the soul to act properly with Him; that leaders arise who interpret all this and become founders of Religion
Catholic And Protestant Countries Compared - The statement is often carelessly made that Catholic countries are inferior to Protestant, and that this difference indicates the superiority of Protestantism as a Religion. The true reason for this is, however, not the predominantly Protestant Religion, but the presence of opportunity and the play of economic forces. ...
MORALITY Every Religion tends to reduce immorality and crime; hence statistics of crime really prove only the absence of Religion. However, if such statistics be taken only as indicating the failure of Religion, a rough comparison can be made, and will be not unfavorable to the Catholic nations
Jeroboam - But the chief reason they condemn him is religious rather than political; for Jeroboam established his own Religion in the north in opposition to the Levitical system that was based on the Jerusalem temple (1 Kings 15:34; 1 Kings 16:19; 1 Kings 22:52; 2 Kings 10:31; 2 Kings 14:24; 2 Kings 23:15). This false Religion, set up by Jeroboam and followed by other kings, was the reason God destroyed the northern kingdom and sent the people into captivity (2 Kings 17:21-23). He therefore decided to set up his own independent Religion. His Religion attempted to combine the worship of Yahweh with Canaanite Religion (1 Kings 12:26-33). A bold announcement of judgment by a prophet from Judah showed plainly that God would not accept this new Religion (1 Kings 13:1-10)
Protestant - The Emperor Charles V called a diet at Spire, in 1529, to request aid from the German princes against the Turks, and to devise the most effectual means for allaying the religious disputes which then raged in consequence of Luther's opposition to the established Religion. In this diet it was decreed by Ferdinand, archduke of Austria, and other popish princes that in the countries which had embraced the new Religion it should be lawful to continue in it till the meeting of a council; but that no Roman Catholic should be allowed to turn Lutheran, and that the reformers should deliver nothing in their sermons contrary to the received doctrine of the church. Chillingworth, addressing himself to a writer in favour of the church of Rome, speaks of the Religion of the Protestants in the following excellent terms: "Know then, sir, that when I say the Religion of Protestants is in prudence to be preferred before yours, on the one side, I do not understand by your Religion the doctrine of Bellarmine, or Baronius, or any other private man among you, nor the doctrine of the Sorbonne, of the Jesuits, or of the Dominicans, or of any other particular company among you, but that wherein you all agree, or profess to agree, the doctrine of the council of Trent; so, accordingly, on the other side, by the Religion of Protestants, I...
do not understand the doctrine of Luther, or Calvin, or Melancthon, nor the confession of Augsburg, or Geneva, nor the catechism of Heidelberg, nor the articles of the church of England; no, nor the harmony of Protestant confessions; but that in which they all agree, and which they all subscribe with a greater harmony, as a perfect rule of faith and action; that is, the Bible. The Bible, I say, the Bible only, is the Religion of Protestants. Whatsoever else they believe beside it, and the plain, irrefragable, indubitable consequences of it, well may they hold it as a matter of opinion; but as a matter of faith and Religion, neither can they with coherence to their own grounds believe it themselves, nor require belief of it of others, without most high and most schismatical presumption
Quartering, Drawing And - Many of the Catholic martyrs of England and Ireland, since the practise of their Religion was declared high treason by law, suffered this cruel, barbarous death
Drawing And Quartering - Many of the Catholic martyrs of England and Ireland, since the practise of their Religion was declared high treason by law, suffered this cruel, barbarous death
Fanatic - A religious fanatic is apt to be the' most extreme because nothing so deeply affects the mind as Religion
Fanaticism - A religious fanatic is apt to be the' most extreme because nothing so deeply affects the mind as Religion
Abomination - The term was used respecting the Hebrews in Egypt, Genesis 43:32 Exodus 8:26 , either because they ate and sacrificed animals held sacred by the Egyptians, or because they did not observe those ceremonies in eating which made a part of the Religion of Egypt; and in Genesis 46:34 , because they were "wandering shepherds," a race of whom had grievously oppressed Egypt
Palestine - The history of Christianity in Palestine during the ftrst three centuries is practically that of Jerusalem; the new Religion spread rapidly and as early as 1229 Franciscan and Dominican missions were established here
Manzoni, Alessandro - His early poems belong to the classlcal school of Vincenzo Monti, but from 1810, when he returned to the Church on the conversion of his wife, he consecrated himself to Religion and patriotism, and became the leader of the Romanticists
Chastity, Virtue of - In Religion the matter of the vow is conterminous with that of the virtue in its highest degree, so that lightness of matter cannot excuse from mortal sin the least delight deliberately sought or admitted
Proselyte - 1: προσήλυτος (Strong's #4339 — Adjective — proselutos — pros-ah'-loo-tos ) akin to proserchomai, "to come to," primarily signifies "one who has arrived, a stranger;" in the NT it is used of converts to Judaism, or foreign converts to the Jewish Religion, Matthew 23:15 ; Acts 2:10 ; 6:5 ; 13:43
Horror - This passion is the original of superstition, as a wise and well- tempered awe is of Religion
Believe - of the truths of Religion; to have a persuasion approaching to certainty; to exercise belief or faith
Sin: May be Committed by Proxy - Such are those who are great sticklers themselves for outward observance in Religion, but at the same time compel their servants to sin on their account
Priest - ) One who officiates at the altar, or performs the rites of sacrifice; one who acts as a mediator between men and the divinity or the gods in any form of Religion; as, Buddhist priests
Hanging, Drawing And Quartering - Many of the Catholic martyrs of England and Ireland, since the practise of their Religion was declared high treason by law, suffered this cruel, barbarous death
Serug - 1:6, section 8) says Serug means "provocation," and that idolatry began in his time, but confined to pictures, and that the Religion of mankind up to his time was Scythic, after Serug and the building of the Babel tower it was Hellenic or Greek
Hofbauer, Clement Mary, Saint - He was the chief supporter of Religion in Austria, and contributed greatly to the extinction of Josephinism
Fatness - The privileges and pleasures of Religion abundant blessings
Love, Family of - He maintained that he had a commission from heaven to teach men that the essence of Religion consisted in the feelings of divine love; that all other theological tenets, whether they related to objects of faith or modes of worship, were of no sort of moment; and, consequently, that it was a matter of the most perfect indifference what opinions Christians entertained concerning the divine nature, provided their hearts burned with the pure and sacred flame of piety and love
Alessandro Manzoni - His early poems belong to the classlcal school of Vincenzo Monti, but from 1810, when he returned to the Church on the conversion of his wife, he consecrated himself to Religion and patriotism, and became the leader of the Romanticists
Virtue of Chastity - In Religion the matter of the vow is conterminous with that of the virtue in its highest degree, so that lightness of matter cannot excuse from mortal sin the least delight deliberately sought or admitted
Scruple - Scruples are enemies to spiritual progress because they lead to discouragement and despondency in the practice of Religion
Sikhism - Religion of a warlike sect of India, originating in the Punjab and centered in the holy city of Amritsar
Hatred - Hatred for things appears chiefly in what is known as odium theologicum, the hatred of a Religion or of those who profess it
Scoff - To scoff at Religion and sacred things is evidence of extreme weakness and folly, as well as of wickedness
Gospel - The word is greatly misunderstood and frequently misapplied, theidea seems to be that "Gospel Religion," "Gospel sermons" and"preaching the Gospel," mean certain doctrines such as individualelection, calling, justification, sanctification and the like. Such was the "good tidings"announced by the angelic choir, such is the purpose of the NewTestament Scriptures, and that Gospel Religion or Gospel preachingwhich brings these sublime facts to bear on the hearts and livesof men, as living realities and guiding motives, alone can beScriptural and truly Gospel
Magi - The subject of this article is twofold (1) the elucidation of that narrative, and of one or two other Biblical references to the Magi; (2) the brief delineation of the Religion connected with the Magi, in its relation to the religious history of Israel. There is reason to believe that the Magi, in the course of a generation or two, made a bid for spiritual power: they conformed to the Religion of the conquerors, profoundly altering its character as they did so, and thus gained the opportunity of re-asserting their own sacred functions among their fellow-countrymen, who were predisposed to accept their re-introduction of the old beliefs under the forms of the new. We have but little evidence to guide us in re-constructing this primitive Median Religion. The sacred caste itself appears to be mentioned in Jeremiah 39:3 ; Jeremiah 39:13 (see Rab-Mag); and a ritual observance, preserved still in Parsi worship, figures in Ezekiel 8:17 , from which we gather that sun-worship, accompanied with the holding of the barsom (‘bunch of fine tamarisk boughs,’ as the geographer Strabo defines it) to the face, was a characteristic of Magian ritual before it was grafted on to Persian Religion. ...
There are three special characteristics of Magianism proper which never obtained any real hold upon the Religion with which the Magi subsequently identified themselves. These are (1) astrology , (2) oneiromancy , or divination by dreams, aod (3) magic , which was traditionally associated with their name, but was expressly forbidden by the Religion of the Persians. But it may at least be asserted that the story has curiously subtle points of contact with what we can re-construct of the history of Magian Religion; and the invention of all this perhaps involves as many difficulties as can be recognized in the acceptance of the narrative as it stands. ...
How well the Religion of the Magi deserved the double honour thus assigned to it that of stimulating the growth of the greatest of truths within Israel, and that of offering the first homage of the Gentile world to the infant Redeemer may be seen best by giving in a few words a description of the faith in general. Unhappily, with the prophet’s death the old polytheism returned, under the guise of angel-worship, and the Magi were ere long enslaving the Religion to a dull and mechanical ritual. The small community, mostly concentrated round Bombay, which today maintains this ancient faith, may assuredly challenge any non-Christian Religion in the world to match either its creed or its works
Liberality of Sentiment - He is one who hath seriously and effectually investigated, both in his Bible and on his knees, in public assemblies and in private conversations, the important articles of Religion. "Now a generous believer of the Christian Religion is one who will never allow himself to try to propagate his sentiments by the commission of sin. Religion employs the capacities of mankind, just as the air employs their lungs and their organs of speech. Is it conceivable that capability, so different in every thing else, should be all alike in Religion? The advantages of mankind differ. Is it conceivable that he, whose young and tender heart is yet unpractised in trials of this kind, can have ascertained and tasted so many religious truths as the sufferer has? "We should believe the Christian Religion with liberality, in the second place, because every part of the Christian Religion inculcates generosity. In a word, the illiberal Christian always acts contrary to the spirit of his Religion; the liberal man alone thoroughly understands it. But the Christian Religion, ...
is that in danger? and what human efforts can render that true which is false, that odious which is lovely? Christianity is in no danger, and therefore it gives its professors life and breath, and all things, except a power of injuring others. "In fine, liberality in the profession of Religion is a wise and innocent policy
Deposing Power, Papal - The exercise of that papal right by which the sovereign pontiff authoritatively decides, from the spiritual standpoint, whether a ruler is so flagrantly in opposition to Religion and morality as to entitle his subjects to be released from their allegiance to him. Fidelity to the Catholic Faith was a condition for holding power in certain hereditary and elective governments as England and Spain, whilst the constitution of the Holy Roman Empire contained the solemn injunction on the chosen ruler to maintain and defend the Christian Religion of his subjects. It is exerted in matters temporal only in so far as they entrench upon Religion and in this way cease to be purely temporal. As Pius IX said to the deputation of the Academia of the Catholic Religion, July 21, 1871: ...
"Although certain Popes have at times exercised their deposing power in extreme cases, they did so according to the public law then in force and by the agreement of the Christian nations who reverenced in the Pope the Supreme Judge of Christ extended to passing judgment even civiliter on princes and individual states
Catholic Prisoners' Aid Society - Deals with necessitous Catholics on their discharge from prison or police court, and, if necessary, with dependents of prisoners while the latter are in prison; its essential object is reclamation by means of Religion. English prison regulations require prisoners on admission to state their Religion, and to attend the appropriate prison services; thus a Catholic prisoner attends Mass and is seen, more or less frequently according to the length of his term, by the prison Catholic chaplain, and also by the prison Catholic visitor who takes particulars of the prisoner's case, his prospects on release, and the circumstances of any dependents he may have. Concentrated efforts are made to bring all offenders back to the practise of their Religion by bringing in the moral influence of personal interest in their future welfare; the society's voluntary workers visit prisons, the prisoners' homes, interview prospective employers, and escort discharged offenders to their destinations, as well as assist in the administrative work
Forerunner - Bruce says that it ‘expresses the whole essential difference between the Christian and the Levitical Religion between the Religion that brings men nigh to God, and the Religion that kept or left men standing afar off’ ( Expositor , iii
Kin, Kindred, Kinship - Smith, RS Libertines (2) - A religious sect which arose in the year 1525, whose principal tenets were, that the Deity was the sole operating cause in the mind of man, and the immediate author of all human actions; that, consequently, the distinctions of good and evil, which had been established with regard to those actions, were false and groundless, and that men could not, properly speaking, commit sin; that Religion consisted in the union of the spirit, or rational soul, with the Supreme Being; that all those who had attained this happy union, by sublime contemplation and elevation of mind, were then allowed to indulge, without exception or restraint, their appetites or passions; that all their actions and pursuits were then perfectly innocent; and that, after the death of the body, they were to be united to the Deity. There were also among them several who were not only notorious for their dissolute and scandalous manner of living, but also for their atheistical impiety and contempt of all Religion. To this odious class belonged one Gruet, who denied the divinity of the Christian Religion, the immortality of the soul, the difference between moral good and evil, and rejected with disdain the doctrines that are held most sacred among Christians; for which impieties he was at last brought before the civil tribunal in the year 1550, and condemned to death
Society, Catholic Prisoners' Aid - Deals with necessitous Catholics on their discharge from prison or police court, and, if necessary, with dependents of prisoners while the latter are in prison; its essential object is reclamation by means of Religion. English prison regulations require prisoners on admission to state their Religion, and to attend the appropriate prison services; thus a Catholic prisoner attends Mass and is seen, more or less frequently according to the length of his term, by the prison Catholic chaplain, and also by the prison Catholic visitor who takes particulars of the prisoner's case, his prospects on release, and the circumstances of any dependents he may have. Concentrated efforts are made to bring all offenders back to the practise of their Religion by bringing in the moral influence of personal interest in their future welfare; the society's voluntary workers visit prisons, the prisoners' homes, interview prospective employers, and escort discharged offenders to their destinations, as well as assist in the administrative work
Pantheism - Insistence on the right of private judgment in matters of Religion naturally creates a self-conceit which leads one to feel above the lot of human nature and in some manner equal to the Being on Whose revelation one passes judgment
Octaves - As the memory of the feast is more or less kept up during its octave, it is plain that the purpose in arranging a feast with an octave is to honor the mystery of Religion or saint venerated on the feast itself
Queen's Daughters - Members call on the poor in their homes to relieve material needs and to encourage them to live according to the tenets of their Religion and to be solicitous about the religious upbringing of their children
Indians, Songish - Their Religion was animistic, with many curious beliefs
Jouin, Louis - His works include "Evidences of Religion" and a number of excellent text-books on philosophy and ethics
Forbearance - That it is one of the strongest evidences we can give of the reality of our Religion, John 13:35
Catechist - One whose charge is to instruct by questions, or to question the uninstructed concerning Religion
Nirvana - (Sanskrit: nis, out; vana, a blowing) ...
In the Buddhistic Religion, a state of absence of desire and pain; in its full import, it means eternal, unconscious repose
Louis Jouin - His works include "Evidences of Religion" and a number of excellent text-books on philosophy and ethics
Onion - It may consist of pleasures, business, sports, education, music, Religion or evil practices
Prophet - Some of the Prophets, an appellation given to young men who were educated in the schools or colleges under a proper master, who was commonly, if not always, an inspired prophet in the knowledge of Religion, and in sacred music, and thus were qualified to be public preachers, 1 Samuel 10:1-27 : 1 Samuel 11:1-15 : 2 Samuel 19:1-43 : 2 Kings 2:1-25 :...
Apparel - External habiliments or decorations appearance as, Religion appears in the natural apparel of simplicity
Ahitub - Ahitub thus illustrates the many people who exercised great influence in Israel's history and Religion but who play a small role in the Bible
Skeptic - ) A person who doubts the existence and perfections of God, or the truth of revelation; one who disbelieves the divine origin of the Christian Religion
Adult Baptism - For lawful and fruitful reception, he should know and believe the mysteries of the Catholic Religion necessary for salvation, be instructed in Christian morality, and have supernatural sorrow for sin
Seth - Seth was the chief of "the children of God," as the Scripture calls them, Genesis 6:2 that is, those who before the flood preserved true Religion and piety in the world, while the descendants of Cain gave themselves up to wickedness
Cyrene - There were many Jews in the province of Cyrene, a great part of whom embraced the Christian Religion, though others opposed it with much obstinacy, Acts 6:9 11:20 13:1
Songish Indians - Their Religion was animistic, with many curious beliefs
Enchantments - The pretended power and skill of enchanters was ascribed to infernal agency, and the art was essentially hostile to true Religion
Baptism, Adult - For lawful and fruitful reception, he should know and believe the mysteries of the Catholic Religion necessary for salvation, be instructed in Christian morality, and have supernatural sorrow for sin
Scottish Confession, the - Known as the "Scottish Confession" it was ratified by Parliament and imposed as the Religion of Scotland
Mohammedanism - The Religion founded by Mohammed after he had effected the conquest of Arabia and united its warring tribes into one nation and one Religion in 632
Stoics - Athens was famous for the freedom it gave people to lecture publicly on such matters as Religion, philosophy, politics and morals. The council consisted of philosophers from two main schools, the Epicureans and the Stoics, and both were keen to hear the travelling preacher Paul give an account of his new Religion (Acts 17:18-22; see AREOPAGUS)
Conference - "Religious conference, " says a divine, "is one way of teaching Religion. We all have leisure time, and it is well spent on when it is employed in set conferences on Religion
Armenians - The inhabitants of Armenia, whose Religion is the Christian, of the Eutychian sect; that is, they hold but one nature in Jesus Christ. They seem to place the chief part of their Religion in fastings and abstinences; and, among the clergy, the higher the degree, the lower they must live; insomuch that it is said the archbishops live on nothing but pulse
Shem - Shem communicated them to his children, and by this means the true Religion was preserved in the world. Some have thought Shem the same as Melchisedec, and that he himself had been at the school of Methuselah before the deluge: that he gave to Abraham the whole tradition, the ceremonies of the sacrifices of Religion, according to which this patriarch afterward offered his sacrifices
Areopagus - ...
Athens was a famous centre of learning where people publicly discussed philosophy, Religion and politics (Acts 17:21). When some of its members heard Paul preaching in the public places of the city, they invited him to give the Areopagus an account of his Religion
Reason - USE OF, IN Religion. Hume, in the spirit of this pamphlet, concludes his Essay on Miracles with calling those dangerous friends or disguised enemies to the Christian Religion who have undertaken to defend it by the principles of human reason: "Our most. holy Religion," he says, with a disingenuity very unbecoming his respectable talents, "is founded on faith, not on reason;" and, "mere reason is insufficient to convince us of its veracity. " The church of Rome, in order to subject the minds of her votaries to her authority, has reprobated the use of reason in matters of Religion. These controversies concerning the use of reason in matters of Religion are disputes, not about words, but about the essence of Christianity. ...
The first use of reason in matters of Religion is to examine the evidences of revelation. All this supposes the application of grammar, history, geography, chronology, and criticism in matters of Religion; that is, it supposes that the reason of man had been previously exercised in pursuing these different branches of knowledge, and that our success in attaining the true sense of Scripture depends upon the diligence with which we avail ourselves of the progress that has been made in them. When men of erudition, of philosophical acuteness, and of accomplished taste, direct their talents against our Religion, the cause is very much hurt by an unskilful defender. In all ages of the church there have been weak defenders of Christianity; and the only triumphs of the enemies of our Religion have arisen from their being able to expose the defects of those methods of defending the truth which some of its advocates had unwarily chosen. ...
The fourth use of reason consists in judging of the truths of Religion. These principles embrace the whole of the subject, and they mark out the steps by which reason is to proceed in judging of the truths of Religion. If these satisfy our understandings, we are certain that there can be no contradiction between the doctrines of this true Religion, and the dictates of right reason. There may be preconceived notions hastily taken up which that doctrine opposes; there may be pride of understanding that does not readily submit to the views which it communicates; or reason may need to be reminded, that we must expect to find in Religion many things which we are not able to comprehend
Media - Indeed, from this time inward, the manners, customs, Religion, and civilization of the Medes and Persians seem ever to have become more and more amalgamated. And in general it would seem, as we may gather from the ancient Zend writings, that the Medes, Persians, and Bactraians were originally the same people, having in common one language, the Zend, and one Religion, the worship of Ormuzd, the highest being, under the symbol of fire. The priests of this Religion, the Magi, were a Median race, to whom were intrusted the cultivation of the sciences, and the performance of the sacred rites. Among these, and as is supposed before the time of Cyrus, appeared Zerdusht, or Zoroaster, as a reformer, or rather as the restorer of the ancient but degenerated Religion of light, whose disciples have maintained themselves even to the present day in Persia and India, under the name of Guebres
Lamaism - the Religion of the people of Thibet. This Religion, which was early adopted in a large part of the globe, is said to have been of three thousand years' standing; and neither time, nor the influence of men, has had the power of shaking the authority of the grand lama. This theocracy, which extends as fully to temporal as to spiritual concerns, is professed all over Thibet and Mongalia; is almost universal in Greater and Less Bucharia, and several provinces of Tartary; has some followers in the kingdom of Cashmere, in India; and is the predominant Religion of China. ...
It has been observed that the Religion of Thibet is the counterpart of the Roman Catholic, since the inhabitants of that country use holy water, and a singing service. Captain Turner, speaking of the Religion of Thibet, says, "It seems to be the schismatical offspring of the Religion of the Hindoos, deriving its origin from one of the followers of that faith, a disciple of Bouddhu, who first broached the doctrine which now prevails over the wide extent of Tartary. Though it differs from the Hindoo in many of its outward forms, yet it still bears a very close affinity with the Religion of Brumha in many important particulars
Alien - ) Wholly different in nature; foreign; adverse; inconsistent (with); incongruous; - followed by from or sometimes by to; as, principles alien from our Religion
Brother - ; - used among judges, clergymen, monks, physicians, lawyers, professors of Religion, etc
Holiday - ” Since Christians regarded these holy days as times of special celebration and joy, many people came to connect special periods of celebration and leisure with “holy days” whether or not the celebration focused on Religion
John Cornay, Blessed - Here he suffered severe torture for promulgating the Christian Religion
Fear of the Lord the - A holy fear is enjoined also in the New Testament as a preventive of carelessness in Religion, and as an incentive to penitence (Matthew 10:28 ; 2 Corinthians 5:11 ; 7:1 ; Philippians 2:12 ; Ephesians 5:21 ; Hebrews 12:28,29 )
Standards - The Assyrian standards were emblematic of their Religion, and were therefore the more valuable as instruments for leading and guiding men in the army
Diana - Though Ephesus was otherwise an enlightened city, it was dark as to Religion, the excited people could shout for two hours "Great is Diana of the Ephesians
Doctor - didaskalia, "teaching, doctrine, instruction," is translated "doctors," with reference to the teachers of the Jewish Religion, Luke 2:46
Soothsaying - vi) draws a distinction between this verb and propheteuo, not only as to their meanings, but as to the fact of the single occurrence of manteuomai in the NT, contrasted with the frequency of propheteuo, exemplifying the avoidance by NT writers of words the employment of which "would tend to break down the distinction between heathenism and revealed Religion
Harmony of the Gospels - The term harmony is also used in reference to the agreement which the Gospel bears to natural Religion, the Old Testament, the history of other nations, and the works of God at large
Libertines - Humphrey conjectures that, having made their way to Jerusalem, they naturally were Stepben's bitterest opponents as having suffered so much for that Religion which Christianity was supplanting
Conversion (Sudden): Not All Genuine - When we see long-accustomed sinners making a sudden leap at Religion, we may not make too sure that they are converts; perhaps some gain allures them, or sudden excitement stirs them, and if so they will be back again at their old sins
Phylactery - Phylactery particularly denoted a slip of parchment, wherein was written some text of holy Scripture, particularly of the decalogue, which the more devout people among the Jews wore at the forehead, the breast, or the neck, as a mark of their Religion
Apron - No amount of self-righteous Religion, church attendance, giving of money, or religious acts is sufficient to hide the sins of the heart from the face of GOD
Lose - One may be a wonderful man of business or Religion, or a prize-winning athlete, and yet have nothing for GOD or eternity
Err - To miss the right way, in morals or Religion to deviate from the path or line of duty to stray by design or mistake
Goodness - The moral qualities which constitute christian excellence moral virtue Religion
Apologetics - In short, it deals with giving reasons for Christianity being the true Religion
Monk - ) A man who retires from the ordinary temporal concerns of the world, and devotes himself to Religion; one of a religious community of men inhabiting a monastery, and bound by vows to a life of chastity, obedience, and poverty
Cherish - To hold as dear to embrace with affection to foster, and encourage as, to cherish the principles of virtue to cherish Religion in the heart
Righteousness - With reference to personal character, righteousness is used both for uprightness between man and man, and for true Religion, Genesis 18:23 ; Leviticus 19:15 ; Isaiah 60:17 ; Romans 14:17 ; Ephesians 5:9
Apocrypha - This is the name given to certain books generally boundwith the Old and New Testament Scriptures which the Sixth Articleof Religion describes as "The other books (as Hierome saith) theChurch doth read for example of life and instruction of manners;but yet doth it not apply them to establish any doctrine
Rousseau, Jean Jacques - The influence of Rousseau has been enormous in philosophy, in politics, in Religion, and in literature. He was also the creator of a new false philosophy which he calls Instinctivism, and proclaimed the sacredness of sensual passion; he, the apostle of natural Religion, was the enemy of all positive Religion, and is responsible for some of the most dangerous social and political errors of the present time
Samaritans - These, finding that they were exposed to wild beasts, desired that an Israelitish priest might be sent among them, to instruct them in the ancient Religion and customs of the land they inhabited. But though they were united in Religion, they were not so in affection with the Jews; for they employed various calumnies and stratagems to hinder their rebuilding the temple of Jerusalem; and when they could not prevail, they erected a temple on Mount Gerizim, in opposition to that of Jerusalem
Superstition - It is generally defined to be, the observance of unnecessary and uncommanded rites and practices in Religion; reverence of objects not fit for worship; too great nicety, fears, or scrupulousness; or extravagant devotions; or Religion wrong directed or conducted
Galenus, Physician - An Arabic writer has preserved a fragment of Galen's lost work, de Republicâ Platonis , which reads: "We know that the people called Christians have founded a Religion in parables and miracles. In the practice of virtue they surpass philosophers; in probity, in continence, in the genuine performance of miracles (verâ miraculorum patratione—does he mean the Scripture miracles, on which their Religion was based?) they infinitely excel them" (Casiri, Biblioth
Proselyte - In the Jewish sense, a foreigner who adopted the Jewish Religion, a convert from heathenism to Judaism. The other class were called "proselytes of justice;" that is, complete, perfect proselytes, and were those who had abandoned their former Religion, and bound themselves to the observance of the Mosaic Law in its full extent
Persecution - -In Matthew 5:12 Jesus Christ warns His disciples of the troublous times which await them at the hands of the representatives of Judaism, and reminds them that their experience will be a repetition of the bitter experience of the nation’s religious teachers whom God had raised up from time to time, and whose writings indicate their growing insight into the nature of God and Religion. Patriotism and Religion were identical. They opposed the popular tendency to worship the gods, and imitate the Religion, of Canaan, as it indicated disloyalty to Jahweh. They ethicized theology and Religion, and in their capacity as religious teachers they became inevitably social reformers, for the whole basis and structure of society were religious. We can trace in Elijah’s attitude the germ of that exclusiveness which is inevitable when the terms ‘right’ and ‘wrong’ or ‘true’ and ‘false’ are introduced into Religion. Centuries must pass before the idea is fully understood that Religion is voluntary, and that ccercion is alien to its very nature. The Religion of Jahweh issues in social righteousness. The problem raised by the king’s seizure of Naboth’s estate was not social or economical, but religious, for it fell within the scope of the Religion of Jahweh. When the prophet condemned the king’s effort to legitimize the worship of the Tyrian Baal, or his unsocial conduct, he spoke in the name of God, and in the interest of Religion. The prophets thus came into collision with current theology, for they declared that Jahweh was not simply the God of Israel, but the God of righteousness, and they came up against popular Religion, for they identified Religion with the practice of social justice. Their patriotism was sincere and unmistakable, but they placed social righteousness above the mere continuity or safety of the realm or the mere practice of ceremonial Religion. Their theology played havoc with the current belief that Jahweh was simply the God of Israel, as well as with the prevalent view that Religion was ritual. If Jahweh was a moral governor, and if, further, the national life was totally at variance with the requirements of ethical Religion, the expected ‘day of Jahweh’ would be darkness and not light-disaster, not deliverance (Amos 5:18). The retort of the nation’s official leaders to this fearless exposition of the demands of true Religion was persecution. Pure Religion was the sole possession of the Jew. ...
The rest of the world was without God and without Religion, for the gods of the nations were idols, and their Religions were superstitions. According to Deutero-Isaiah it was the mission of Israel to convert the nations of the world and make the Religion of Judah the Religion of the nations. No God but Jahweh-no Religion but the Religion of Judah: a people that held that view dwelt alone in the ancient world with its easy-going polytheism and its indolent syncretism. Judah’s nationalism was rooted in her Religion. It was during the exile in Babylon that the Jew thoroughly mastered the prophetic doctrine of the uniqueness of Jahweh and of His Religion. Conscious of the nature of the possession which he had in his Religion, he cultivated national self-confidence and self-reliance, which ultimately degenerated into national pride and exclusiveness. to imitate the heroes of the Exile and remain loyal to her ancestral faith and Religion. The Emperor had no deep-rooted objection to the Religion of Judah-except its exclusiveness. He approached the problem as a ruler, and his policy was the unification of his Empire by exterminating national Religions. Mattathias of Modin raised the standard of revolt, and the rising, in its initial stages, was inspired by loyalty to the ancestral Religion. But it was the desecration of the Temple, and the attempt to force loyal Jews to sacrifice to heathen deities that roused the are of the nation, and moved the Maccabaean family to defend the national Religion. It is extremely probable that many Psalms date from this period, and the fierce nature of the struggle carried on by the Maccabees in defence of their ‘nation, Religion, and laws’ is reflected in those passionate hymns which still throb with the intense feeling which the conflict roused in the breasts of the Ḥasidim, or ‘loyalists,’ who supported Judas Maccabaeus in his campaign. Their Religion consisted in rigid observance of the ‘Law,’ and of the ‘traditions of the fathers. But their Religion was soulless formalism
Nations - ]'>[2] the word ‘Greeks’ is rightly substituted, though the sense is the same, for to the Jews of the time Greek culture and Religion stood for the culture and Religion of the non-Jewish world. ), based upon the Deuteronomic law newly found in the Temple, aimed at stamping out all syncretism in Religion and establishing the pure Religion of Jahweb. ...
The feeling of national exclusiveness and antipathy was intensified by the captivity in Babylon, when the prophetic and priestly instructors of the exiled Jews taught them that their calamities came upon them on account of their disloyalty to Jahweh and the ordinances of His Religion, and because they compromised with idolatrous practices and heathen nations. Some time after the Return, Ezra and Nehemiah had to contend with the laxity to which Jews who had remained in the home land and others had yielded; but they were uncompromising, and won the battle for nationalism in Religion. ...
Judaism was in even greater danger of being lost in the world-currents of speculation and Religion soon after the time of Alexander the Great. , both the Religion and the language of the Jew might, humanly speaking, have perished
Church, Gallican - They not only acted in concert, sparing no political or impious art to effect the destruction of the Christian Religion, but they were the instigators and conductors of those secondary agents, whom they had seduced, and pursued their plan with all the ardour and constancy which denotes the most finished conspirators. Not contented with this offer, the tithes and revenues of the clergy were taken away; in lieu of which, it was proposed to grant a certain stipend to the different ministers of Religion, to be payable by the nation. This, the Roman Catholics assert, was in direct opposition to their Religion. All the other pastors who adhered to their Religion were either sacrificed, or banished from their country, seeking through a thousand dangers a refuge among foreign nations. A perusal of the horrid massacres of the priests who refused to take the oaths, and the various forms of persecution employed by those who were attached to the Catholic Religion, must deeply wound the feelings of humanity. Let the religious part of any nation be banished, and a general spread of irreligion must necessarily follow: such were the effects in France. And as they had united their influence in banishing true Religion, and cherishing the monster which succeeded it, so have they been united in sustaining the calamitous effects which that monster has produced. " The Catholic Religion is now again established, but with a toleration of the Protestants, under some restriction
Bible - ) A book containing the sacred writings belonging to any Religion; as, the Koran is often called the Mohammedan Bible
Dead, Book of the - After Religion had become more spiritual an ethical element was introduced
Influence of the Church on Civil Law - Since Christianity is an ethical Religion it must influence the rules of human conduct
Law, Influence of the Church on Civil Law - Since Christianity is an ethical Religion it must influence the rules of human conduct
Charismata - They were especially common in the early Church, and were signal aids in the rapid propagation of the Christian Religion
Whore - ...
Revelation 17:1 (a) GOD spares no language in exposing the wickedness of the great false Religions of the world, and particularly that cruel, voracious one that has its seat and headquarters in Rome. This Religion has corrupted the nations of the world through the centuries
Easter - From this Pasch the pagan festival of "Easter" was quite distinct and was introduced into the apostate Western Religion, as part of the attempt to adapt pagan festivals to Christianity
Supremacy of the Pope - Barrow's Treatise on the Pope's Supremacy; Chillingworth's Religion of the Protestants; and Smith's Errors of the Church of Rome
Holiness - It does not consist in knowledge, talents, nor outward ceremonies of Religion, but hath its seat in the heart, and is the effect of a principle of grace implanted by the Holy Spirit, Ephesians 2:8 ; Ephesians 2:10
Lois - The Greek names mark Greek origin, though she was a Jewess in Religion and the father a Greek, i
Daughter - ...
Women as natives of a place, or as professing the Religion of a place; as, "the daughters of Zion" (Isaiah 3:16 ), "daughters of the Philistines" (2 Samuel 1:20 )
Demetrius - Apparently a convert from the worship of Demeter, the god worshiped in the mystery Religion at Eleusis near Athens
Sadducee - A group of religious leaders in the Jewish Religion from the second century B
Inconsistency: Glossed Over - the idlest jesting and absurdity, and then to pass off the whole entertainment respectably by singing the doxology, or pronouncing the benediction; the Religion being to the foolery, in the proportion of the bread to the sack in Falstaff's reckoning
Meditate - To dwell on any thing in thought to contemplate to study to turn or revolve any subject in the mind appropriately but not exclusively used of pious contemplation, or a consideration of the great truths of Religion
Agnosticism - Its chief use is to deny that human reason can arrive at a knowledge of God and some truths of Religion
Giordano Bruno - Imprisoned by the Roman Inquisition, he was tried, condemned, and burned at the stake for his violent denunciations of Religion and abuse of the Catholic Church
Talmud - And the Talmud contains the substance of the Jews' doctrine and traditions in Religion and morality
Money - Isaiah 55:1 (a) This type condemns every Religion that offers salvation by works
Establishment - ) That which is established; as: (a) A form of government, civil or ecclesiastical; especially, a system of Religion maintained by the civil power; as, the Episcopal establishment of England
Console - ...
I am much consoled by the reflection that the Religion of Christ has been attacked in vain by all the wits and philosophers, and its triumph has been complete
Establishment - The episcopal form of Religion, so called in England
Almaricians - His followers asserted that the power of the Father had continued only during the Mosaic dispensation, that of the Son twelve hundred years after his entrance upon earth; and that in the thirteenth century the age of the Holy Spirit commenced, in which the sacraments and all external worship were to be abolished; and that every one was to be saved by the internal operations of the Holy Spirit alone, without any external act of Religion
Preach - ) To give serious advice on morals or Religion; to discourse in the manner of a preacher
Ethelbert of Kent, Saint - He married Bertha, daughter of the Frankish king, Charibert, and afforded her every opportunity for the exercise of her Religion
Cyrene - At Cyrene resided many Jews, a great part of whom embraced the Christian Religion; but others opposed it with much obstinacy
Firmament - Teaching Religion, not astronomy of physics, it does not anticipate modern discoveries, but speaks of natural objects and occurrences in the common language of men everywhere
Sacrilege - Sacrilege is a sin opposed to the virtue of Religion, and as such is a grave sin in grave matter
Christian Festivals - Religion finds its highest human expression in special moments of celebration or worship
Hophni And Phinehas - Men in all ages are prone to rely on a form of Religion, while the heart and life are not right with God; and all who thus sin, like the sons of Eli, must perish likewise
Rites And Ceremonies - We learn from the Twentieth Articleof Religion that the power to decree Rites and Ceremonies rests withthe Church, and, as set forth in the Twenty-fourth Article, "everyparticular and national Church hath authority to ordain, changeand abolish ceremonies, ordained only by man's authority
Tithe - In the days of Hezekiah one of the first results of the reformation of Religion was the eagerness with which the people brought in their tithes (2 Chronicles 31:5,6 ). It cannot be affirmed that the Old Testament law of tithes is binding on the Christian Church, nevertheless the principle of this law remains, and is incorporated in the gospel (1 Corinthians 9:13,14 ); and if, as is the case, the motive that ought to prompt to liberality in the cause of Religion and of the service of God be greater now than in Old Testament times, then Christians outght to go beyond the ancient Hebrew in consecrating both themselves and their substance to God
Catechism - In this way they will know nothing but words: it will prove a laborious task, and not a pleasure; confirm them in a bad habit of dealing in sounds instead of ideas; and after all, perhaps create in them an aversion to Religion itself. Dr Watts advises that different catechisms should be composed for different ages and capacities; the questions and answers should be short, plain, and easy; scholastic terms, and logical distinctions should be avoided; the most practical points of Religion should be inserted and one or more well chosen texts of Scripture should be added to support almost every answer, and to prove the several parts of it
Hellenists - Some observe, that it is not to be understood as signifying those of the Religion of the Greeks, but those who spoke Greek. who were Greeks by birth and nation, and yet proselytes to the Jewish Religion
Formality: Habits of Worthless - ' ...
Persons who go to places of worship from mere habit and without entering into the devotions of the service, may here see that their Religion is only such as a horse may possess, and a horse's Religion will never save a man
Proselytes - Converts to a Religion; non-Jews who accepted the Jewish faith and completed the rituals to become Jews. Second, Judaism stressed a life-style of moral responsibility with its monotheism; and third, it was a Religion of ancient and stable tradition in contrast to the faddish cults of the time
Mysteries - The learned bishop Warburton supposed that the mysteries of the Pagan Religion were the invention of legislators and other great personages, whom fortune or their own merit had placed at the head of those civil societies which were formed in the earliest ages in different parts of the world. This propensity, no doubt, conspired with avarice and ambition to dispose them to a dark and mysterious system of Religion
Disputation - The propriety of it, however, will appear, if we consider that every article of Religion is denied by some, and cannot well be believed without examination, by any. Religion empowers us to investigate, debate, and controvert each article, in order to ascertain the evidence of its truth
Undivided Church - In the great work of the Reformation in theSixteenth Century, the Church of England did not seek to introduceinnovations, to erect a new church in the place of the old, or tochange the old Religion for a new Religion. What it aimed to do wasto retain its ancient heritage, but at the same time to free theold Church from certain grave abuses, to purify the old Religionfrom many harmful superstitions which had sprung up during theMiddle Ages
Anglican Communion, the - The following Table taken from theNew York World Almanac for 1901 gives some idea of...
THE Religion OF ENGLISH-SPEAKING PEOPLE.     Episcopalians 29,200,000    Methodists of all descriptions 18,650,000    Roman Catholics 15,500,000    Presbyterians of all descriptions 12,250,000    Baptists of all descriptions 9,230,000    Congregationalists 6,150,000    Free Thinkers 5,250,000    Lutherans, etc 2,800,000    Unitarians 2,600,000    Minor religious sects 5,500,000    Of no particular Religion 17,000,000                                        —————-    English-speaking population 124,130,000...
Anglo Catholic—The Historic or Catholic Church exists to-day inthree main branches or Communions, viz
Judaism - ...
The Religion of the ancestors of the Jews, before the time of Moses, consisted in the worship of the one living and true God, under whose immediate direction they were; in the hope of a Redeemer; in a firm reliance on his promises under all difficulties and dangers; and in a thankful acknowledgment for all his blessings and deliverances. As to the mode and circumstances of divine worship, they were much at liberty till the time of Moses; but that legislator, by the direction and appointment of God himself, prescribed an instituted form of Religion, and regulated ceremonies, feasts, days, priests, and sacrifices, with the utmost exactness. The rites and observances of their Religion under the law were numerous, and its sanctions severe. Ancient Judaism, compared with all Religions except the Christian, was distinguished for its superior purity and spirituality; and the whole Mosaic ritual was of a typical nature
Valentinianus (1) - One circumstance demonstrates his tolerance towards the followers of the ancient Religion. 3) ordering the punishment of their teachers and the confiscation of the houses where they instructed their pupils in Rome; for Manicheism seems at that time to have assumed the character of a philosophy rather than of a Religion. That this tolerant spirit of the emperor was helpful to true Religion appears from the fact that, under Valentinian heathenism began first to be called the peasant's Religion ("religio paganorum"), a name first so applied in a law of 368 ( ib
Religion - Due to the wide range of its usage, the English word "religion" (from Lat. By extension, "religion" is often used to refer to systems of belief and related practices that play an analogous role in people's lives (e. For that reason, one does not find "religion" or "religious" in most English versions of these Scriptures. Yet all three words also fail to fully capture the import of the more abstract English "religion. In that sense, "religion" is pervasively the theme of Scripture. Biblically, Religion has to do with human responses to the Creator. ...
That Religion has a place in human life springs from two fundamental realities: (1) humans have been created in the image of God (Genesis 1:26-27 ; 9:6 ; Psalm 8:5 ; 1 Corinthians 11:7 ; Colossians 3:10 ; James 3:9 ), and so are both addressable by God and capable of responses appropriate to persons (beliefs, attitudes, and conduct that is consciously chosen); and (2) the Creator has disclosed himself to humankind and continues to address them. "...
In two other ways "religion" (humankind's ways of relating to the divine) encompasses the whole of human life. Religion has broken up into many Religions. 1 John 5:20 ), can their Religion be "true. "...
What, then, constitutes the Religion that God accepts as pure and faultless?...
First, it believes the testimony of the spirit of God contained in the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments that arose in conjunction with God's saving Acts in Israel's history and culminated in Jesus Christ. And for that reason James wrote, "Religion that God our Father accepts as pure and faultless is this: to look after orphans and widows in their distress and to keep oneself from being polluted by the world" (1:27). Wach, The Comparative Study of Religion
Between - ) Belonging to, or participated in by, two, and involving reciprocal action or affecting their mutual relation; as, opposition between science and Religion
Proselyte - Perfect proselytes, who, submitting to circumcision, embraced the Jewish Religion in its full extent, and enjoyed all the rights and privileges of Jewish citizenship
Maccabees, Books of the - Its object is to encourage and admonish the Jews to be faithful to the Religion of their fathers
Cemetery - As the martyrs were buried in these places, the Christians chose them for building churches on, when Constantine established their Religion; and hence some derive the rule which still obtains in the church of Rome, never to consecrate an altar without putting under it the relics of some saint
Essenes - They maintained that Religion consisted wholly in contemplation and silence
Teraphim - The teraphim, translated "images" in the Authorized Version, carried away from Laban by Rachel were regarded by Laban as gods, and it would therefore appear that they were used by those who added corrupt practices to the patriarchal Religion
Nergal-Sharezer - See Babylon, History and Religion of
Unity of God - 5; Wilkins's Natural Religion, p
Probity - The man who obeys all the laws of society with an exact punctuality, is not, therefore, a man of probity: laws can only respect the external and definite parts of human conduct; but probity respects our more private actions, and such as it is impossible in all cases to define; and it appears to be in morals what charity is in Religion
Propagate - ) To spread from person to person; to extend the knowledge of; to originate and spread; to carry from place to place; to disseminate; as, to propagate a story or report; to propagate the Christian Religion
Fig (Leaves) - Man's Religion is quite like that. So it is with human Religions
Apostasy - (Greek: apostasis, a standing-off) ...
A total defection from the Christian Religion, after previous acceptance through faith and baptism
Gospel - GOS'PEL, To instruct in the gospel or to fill with sentiments of Religion
Forgiveness - No book of Religion except Christianity teaches that God completely forgives sins
Leucopetrians - The name of a fanatical sect which sprang up in the Greek and eastern churches towards the close of the twelfth century: they professed to believe in a double trinity, rejected wedlock, abstained from flesh, treated with the utmost contempt the sacraments of baptism and the Lord's supper, and all the various branches of external worship: placed the essence of Religion in internal prayer alone; and maintained, as it is said, that an evil being or genius dwelt in the breast of every mortal, and could be expelled from thence by no other method than by perpetual supplication to the Supreme Being
Aven - It appears, however, highly probable, by the behaviour of Pharaoh to Joseph and Jacob, and especially by Joseph's care to preserve the land to the priests, Genesis 47:22-26 , that the true Religion prevailed in Egypt in his time; and it is incredible that Joseph should have married the daughter of the priest of On, had that name among the Egyptians denoted only the material light; which, however, no doubt they, like all the rest of the world, idolized in after times, and to which we find a temple dedicated among the Canaanites, under this name, Joshua 7:2
Truth - ) Righteousness; true Religion
Moor - ) Any individual of the swarthy races of Africa or Asia which have adopted the Mohammedan Religion
Scripture, Liberty in - In the Old Testament the idea of liberty was almost entirely absent, Religion meant the "fear of the Lord" (Psalms 33), servant was the name of the good (Psalms 18; Hebrews 3)
Shuswaps - Their Religion was animism
Weave - To unite by intermixture or close connection as a form of Religion woven into the government
Liberty - But the gospel gives liberty in a degree, and with a completeness, unknown under the Law and unthought of in any other Religion. It does this because it is the Religion of reconciliation, of the Spirit, of sonship, of love. His Religion is to St
Benson, Robert Hugh - His writings include "The Light Invisible," "By What Authority?," "The Conventionalists," "Lord of the World," "Come Rack! Come Rope!," "The Coward," "Oddsfish," "Initiation," "The Queen's Tragedy," "The Upper Room," "The Mirror of Shalott," "The Dawn of All," "Confessions of a Convert," "An Average Man," "Paradoxes of Catholicism," "The Friendship of Christ," "Book of the Love of Jesus," "The City Set on a Hill," "The Religion of a Plain Man," "Alphabet of the Saints in Rhyme," and "A Mystery Play in Honor of the Nativity of Our Lord
Ireland, John - Archbishop Ireland was a potent factor in the development of the Church in the Northwest, and he exercised a strong influence at Washington in matters in which Religion was concerned, such as the Indian Missions, and the Church properties in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines
Denmark - 1530,and was declared the established Religion by Christian III (1534-1559)
Dark Ages - Name once commonly but erroneously applied to the Middle Ages, chiefly by writers and others who sought to create the impression that during those ages, from about 500 to 1500, the Ages of Faith, as they were also called, there was little or no progress in any field of life, government, social organization, craftsmanship, art, learning, or even in Religion
Bible in Public Schools - It is opposed by non-Christian parents as proselytism for the Christian Religion; by Jews, as only Christian versions are used; and by Catholics because the version used is in nearly every instance the Protestant version and the principle involved is that the Bible is the sole rule of faith
John Ireland - Archbishop Ireland was a potent factor in the development of the Church in the Northwest, and he exercised a strong influence at Washington in matters in which Religion was concerned, such as the Indian Missions, and the Church properties in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines
Jethro - One school of thought has discovered the origin of Israel's Yahwism in the ancient Midianite Religion represented by Jethro
Hypocrisy - It is to be feared that many a brave show of godliness is but an arras to conceal rank hypocrisy; and this accounts for some men's Religion being but occasional, since it is folded up or exposed to view as need may demand
Confession - Confession is desirable...
(1) in case of wrong done to a neighbor, Matthew 18:15;...
(2) to a Christian adviser, ordained or unordained, anyone who can apply God's written word suitably to one's need, and "pray for" and with one, James 5:16;...
(3) open confession of any wrong done to the church, which has caused scandal to Religion, in token of penitence
Rechabites - These regulations may have been intended as a protest against Canaanite Religion or settled life in general, but more likely they protected the Rechabites' life-style and trade secrets as itinerant metalworkers
Memento Rerum Conditor - Name once commonly but erroneously applied to the Middle Ages, chiefly by writers and others who sought to create the impression that during those ages, from about 500 to 1500, the Ages of Faith, as they were also called, there was little or no progress in any field of life, government, social organization, craftsmanship, art, learning, or even in Religion
Mary of the Gael - Her famous convent of Gill-Dara (church of the oak) at Druin Criadh became a center of Religion and learning which developed later into the cathedral city of Kildare
Wisdom - ...
See DEVOTION, Religion
Anderson, Henry James - Becoming a Catholic, he was first president of the Supreme Council of the Society of Saint Vincent de Paul in New York, founder of the New York Catholic Protectory, Knight Commander of the Order of Saint Gregory the Great, and president of the Catholic Union which he organized for the defense of papal rights and promotion of the Catholic Religion
Amsterdam - In 1660 all public exercise of the Catholic Religion was forbidden, and in 1708 all religious houses were closed
Instruct - The first duty of parents is to instruct their children in the principles of Religion and morality
Abomination - Its intensest use is reserved for hypocrisy, the last offence against Religion (Luke 16:15, Titus 1:16, Revelation 21:27)
Hell - Sin is hell begun, as Religion is heaven anticipated
Jehonadab - Jehonadab was thoroughly in sympathy with the measures adopted by Jehu for the vindication of the Religion of J″ Revival - ) Renewed interest in Religion, after indifference and decline; a period of religious awakening; special religious interest
Tract - ) A written discourse or dissertation, generally of short extent; a short treatise, especially on practical Religion
me'Shach - (Daniel 1:20 ) But notwithstanding their Chaldeans education, these three young Hebrews were strongly attached to the Religion of their fathers; and their refusal to join in the worship of the image on the plain of Dura gave a handle of accusation to the Chaldeans
Robert Benson - His writings include "The Light Invisible," "By What Authority?," "The Conventionalists," "Lord of the World," "Come Rack! Come Rope!," "The Coward," "Oddsfish," "Initiation," "The Queen's Tragedy," "The Upper Room," "The Mirror of Shalott," "The Dawn of All," "Confessions of a Convert," "An Average Man," "Paradoxes of Catholicism," "The Friendship of Christ," "Book of the Love of Jesus," "The City Set on a Hill," "The Religion of a Plain Man," "Alphabet of the Saints in Rhyme," and "A Mystery Play in Honor of the Nativity of Our Lord
Matthew - An apostle and evangelist, was son of Alpheus, a Galilean by birth, a Jew by Religion, and a publican by profession, Matthew 9:9 10:3 Luke 6:15
Michal - Her hatred of unfashionable zeal in Religion was stronger than her love of her husband and her God
Mission. Parochial - The word "Mission" is also applied to a specialeffort made in a parish to arouse and quicken its people; to leadthem to a deeper realization and appreciation of the privileges andblessings of Christ's Religion; to set forth clearly by a series ofaddresses and instructions how they can bring the Church's system tobear on their hearts and lives and to lead them to ask, "Can we notall do more than we are now doing and do all with a better spirit?"A Mission is conducted by a Priest specially invited for the purposeand is chosen for his aptness in carrying on such special work
Zabii - But we speak here of the Zabians as a sect, probably the first corrupters of the patriarchal Religion; and so called, as is believed, from tsabiim, the "hosts," that is, of heaven; namely, the sun, moon, and stars, to whom they rendered worship; first immediately, and afterward through the medium of images; this particularly distinguished them from the magi, whose idolatry wa confined to the solar orb, and its earthly representative, the fire. The denomination of Zabii given to these idolaters, appears to have been derived from the Hebrew צבא , a host; with reference to the צבא השמים , or, host of heaven, which, they worshipped; though others have derived it from the Arabic tsaba, "to apostatize," "to turn from one Religion to another;" or from צביים , or the Arabic Tsabin, "Chaldeans," or "inhabitants of the east. " Lactantius considers Ham, the son of Noah, as the first seceder from the true Religion after the flood; and supposes Egypt, which was peopled by his descendants, to have been the country in which Zabaism, or the worship of the stars, first prevailed. "That the Persians," says Hyde, "were formerly Sabians or Zabii, is rendered probable by Ibn Phacreddin Angjou, a Persian, who, in his book ‘Pharhangh Gjihanghiri,' treating of the Persians descended from Shem, says in the preface, ‘Their Religion, at that time, was Zabianism; but at length they became magi, and built fire temples. ' And the author of the book ‘Mu'gjizat Pharsi,' adopts the same opinion: ‘In ancient times, the Persians were of the Zabian Religion, worshipping the stars, until the time of Gushtasp, son of Lohrasp. ' For then Zoroaster reformed their Religion. They greatly respect the temple of Mecca and the pyramids of Egypt, fancying these last to be the sepulchres of Seth, and of Enoch and Sabi, his two sons, whom they look on as the first propagators of their Religion
Bigotry - ...
It is often manifested more in unimportant sentiments, or the circumstantials of Religion, than the essentials of it. How contradictory is it to sound reason, and how inimical to the peaceful Religion we profess to maintain as Christians!...
See PERSECUTION, and books under that article
Decline - ) A falling off; a tendency to a worse state; diminution or decay; deterioration; also, the period when a thing is tending toward extinction or a less perfect state; as, the decline of life; the decline of strength; the decline of virtue and Religion. ) To tend or draw towards a close, decay, or extinction; to tend to a less perfect state; to become diminished or impaired; to fail; to sink; to diminish; to lessen; as, the day declines; virtue declines; Religion declines; business declines
Genesis - It contains an account of the creation; the primeval state and fall of man; the history of Adam and his descendants, with the progress of Religion and the origin of the arts; the genealogies age, and death of the patriarchs until Noah; the general defection and corruption of mankind, the general deluge, and the preservation of Noah and his family in the ark; the history of Noah and his family subsequent to the time of the deluge; the repeopling and division of the earth among the sons of Noah; the building of Babel, the confusion of tongues, and the dispersion of mankind; the lives of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph. The book of Genesis lays the foundation for all the subsequent books of the Bible; and its value in the history of the earth, of man, and of Religion, is inestimable
Ceremony - Applied to religious services, it signifies the external rites and manner wherein the ministers of Religion perform their sacred functions. Christ alone is King in his church: he hath instituted such ordinances and forms of worship as he hath judged fit and necessary; and to add to them seems, at least, to carry in it an imputation on his wisdom and authority, and hath this unanswerable objection to it, that it opens the door to a thousand innovations (as the history of the church of Rome hath sufficiently shown, ) which are not only indifferent in themselves, but highly absurd, and extremely detrimental to Religion. ...
The great difficulty here lies in determining the length which it is prudent to go in the accommodation of religious ceremonies to human infirmity; and the grand point is to fix a medium in which a due regard may be shown to the senses and imagination, without violating the dictates of right reason, or tarnishing the purity of true Religion. But this observation is not just; the church of Rome has not so much accommodated itself to human weakness, as it has abused that weakness, by taking occasion from it to establish an endless variety of ridiculous ceremonies, destructive of true Religion, and only adapted to promote the riches and despotism of the clergy, and to keep the multitude still hood-winked in their ignorance and superstition
Idolatry - The first was a venerable antiquity, more ancient than the Jewish Religion; and idolaters might have said to the Israelites, Where was your Religion before Moses and Abraham? Go, and enquire in Chaldes, and there you will find that your fathers served other gods. It was wider spread than the Jewish Religion. It was the Religion of the greatest , the wisest, and the politest nations of the Chaldeans, Egyptians, and Phoenicians, the parents of civil government, and of arts and sciences. "All the more remarkable false Religions that have been or are in the world, recommend themselves by one or other of these four privileges and characters
Dispersion - As the Deuteronomic law had not at this date differentiated the Religion of Israel sharply from other Semitic Religions (cf. Here the Jewish Religion was maintained; prophets like Ezekiel and priests like Ezra sprang up, the old laws were studied and worked over, the Pentateuch elaborated, and from this centre Jews radiated to many parts of the East ( Nehemiah 1:1 ff. With few exceptions the Dispersion were loyal to the Religion of the home land. Far removed from the Temple, they developed in the synagogue a spiritual Religion without sacrifice, which, after the destruction of Jerusalem in a
Art, Christian - The beginnings of art inspired and guided by the Christian Religion are found in the Roman catacombs. ...
In architecture, churches are the living monuments of the influence of Religion. Basilicas in Rome, Asia Minor, or northern Africa; Byzantine edifices of Constantinople, Italy, or France; Romanesque churches in southern Europe; Norman in France and England; marvels of Gothic architecture which were the glory of the 13th century, as the cathedrals at Chartres, Rheims, York, or Cologne; Renaissance churches, like Saint Peter's in Rome, which adapted the classic styles to the uses of Christianity; even the over-elaborate Barocco edifices; all these still testify to the fact that the glorification of Religion was the chief preoccupation of artist and artisan almost to the 17th century. ...
The preponderating influence of Religion in art ended with the Reformation and the rise of Puritanism. Religion however still inspired important movements in art, as in the creation of what was called the "Jesuit style" in architecture, typified by the Gesu in Rome, a protest against Reformation coldness; or in the German return to primitive religious simplicity, inaugurated early in the 19th century by Overbeck and the Nazarenes, Schadow and the School of Dusseldorf
Christian Art - The beginnings of art inspired and guided by the Christian Religion are found in the Roman catacombs. ...
In architecture, churches are the living monuments of the influence of Religion. Basilicas in Rome, Asia Minor, or northern Africa; Byzantine edifices of Constantinople, Italy, or France; Romanesque churches in southern Europe; Norman in France and England; marvels of Gothic architecture which were the glory of the 13th century, as the cathedrals at Chartres, Rheims, York, or Cologne; Renaissance churches, like Saint Peter's in Rome, which adapted the classic styles to the uses of Christianity; even the over-elaborate Barocco edifices; all these still testify to the fact that the glorification of Religion was the chief preoccupation of artist and artisan almost to the 17th century. ...
The preponderating influence of Religion in art ended with the Reformation and the rise of Puritanism. Religion however still inspired important movements in art, as in the creation of what was called the "Jesuit style" in architecture, typified by the Gesu in Rome, a protest against Reformation coldness; or in the German return to primitive religious simplicity, inaugurated early in the 19th century by Overbeck and the Nazarenes, Schadow and the School of Dusseldorf
Ancestors - ...
Contemporary Concerns In the late part of the last and the early part of this century, anthropologists and students of comparative cultures and Religions frequently speculated on the origins of Religion. At that time a theory was proposed that Israel's Religion evolved from ancestor worship. A thorough study of Israel's Religion within the milieu of the Ancient Near East leads most scholars to the conclusion that the true Religion of Israel involved neither the worship of ancestors nor the practice of the cult of the dead nor did the true Religion evolve from such practices
Sculpture - The beginnings of art inspired and guided by the Christian Religion are found in the Roman catacombs. ...
In architecture, churches are the living monuments of the influence of Religion. Basilicas in Rome, Asia Minor, or northern Africa; Byzantine edifices of Constantinople, Italy, or France; Romanesque churches in southern Europe; Norman in France and England; marvels of Gothic architecture which were the glory of the 13th century, as the cathedrals at Chartres, Rheims, York, or Cologne; Renaissance churches, like Saint Peter's in Rome, which adapted the classic styles to the uses of Christianity; even the over-elaborate Barocco edifices; all these still testify to the fact that the glorification of Religion was the chief preoccupation of artist and artisan almost to the 17th century. ...
The preponderating influence of Religion in art ended with the Reformation and the rise of Puritanism. Religion however still inspired important movements in art, as in the creation of what was called the "Jesuit style" in architecture, typified by the Gesu in Rome, a protest against Reformation coldness; or in the German return to primitive religious simplicity, inaugurated early in the 19th century by Overbeck and the Nazarenes, Schadow and the School of Dusseldorf
Fesch, Joseph - When hostility to Religion somewhat abated, he reentered ecclesiastical life and helped to negotiate the Concordat of 1801
Lessius, Leonard - A brief apologetic work on the true Religion effected many conversions
Leonard Lessius - A brief apologetic work on the true Religion effected many conversions
Methodist Bodies - They formulated their Articles of Religion from the thirty-nine articles of the Church of England
Estonia - The czar granted religious freedom and introduced the Greek Orthodox Religion which competed with Lutheranism for the allegiance of the people, but the majority remained Lutheran
Miracle Plays - The origin of the medieval drama was in Religion
Cambridge Summer School of Catholic Studies, the - The character of the work accomplished by the Cambridge Summer School may be estimated from the following volumes already published: "The Religion of the Scriptures," 1921; "Catholic Faith in the Holy Eucharist," 1922; "The Papacy," 1923; "Saint Thomas Aquinas," 1924; "The Incarnation," 1925; "The Atonement," 1926; "The Church," 1927; and "The English Martyrs" (edited by Reverend Dom Bede Camm, O
Jacques Emery - He kept a cool head during the storms of the French Revolution and while ready for the good of Religion to go as far as the rights of the Church permitted he was staunch in his opposition to the Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Hubert Van Eyck - This polyptych "The Adoration of the Lamb," consisting of central panels with double shutters painted on both sides, has been called a pictorial epic of Religion
Mystery Plays - The origin of the medieval drama was in Religion
Oeconomists - A sect of philosophers in France, who have made a great noise in Europe, and are generally supposed to have been unfriendly to Religion
Life: Explains Religion - When you cannot tell in so many words what true Religion is, exhibit it by your actions
Faithful - Firm in adherence to the truth and to the duties of Religion
Hinduism - Bound up with its castes, and its intricate social customs, it is a national, not a world Religion
Eyck, Hubert Van - This polyptych "The Adoration of the Lamb," consisting of central panels with double shutters painted on both sides, has been called a pictorial epic of Religion
Esthonia - The czar granted religious freedom and introduced the Greek Orthodox Religion which competed with Lutheranism for the allegiance of the people, but the majority remained Lutheran
Evolution, Cultural - The theory of organic evolution extended to social life, Religion, law, morality, marriage, the family, ethics, etc
Schoolmaster - It is probable that elementary education was under the charge of the minister of Religion, as well as the instruction of those of riper years
Sahaptin - Their Religion was animistic and free from elaborate myth and ritual
Shamanism - Shamanism is not a Religion, because the Shaman does not implore the favor of the gods, like a religious priest, but compels them to do his will
Archdeacon - ...
Articles of Religion, XXXIX—Certain statements of doctrine setforth by the English Church in a time of great controversy todefine her position as differing from Rome on the one handand from Protestantism on the other. They are called Articles ofReligion as distinguished from the Articles of the Faith, whichare contained in the Creed and recited in the services of theChurch
Zeal - Religion is a dish to be served hot; when it once becomes lukewarm it is sickening
Pietists - Mosheim calls him, who formed private devotional societies at Frankfort, in order to cultivate vital and practical Religion; and published a book entitled "Pious Desires," which greatly promoted this object. This practice, which always more or less obtains where Religion flourishes, as, for instance, at the Reformation, raised the same sort of outcry as at the rise of Methodism; and those who entered not into the spirit of the design, were eager to catch at every instance of weakness or imprudence, to bring disgrace on that which, in fact, brought disgrace upon themselves, as lukewarm and formal Christians. Spener removed from Dresden to Berlin, where he propagated the same principles, which widely spread, and were well supported in many parts of Germany by the excellent Professor Francke and others, until the general decline of Religion which has unhappily prevailed in Germany for the last half century
Unbelief - Neander observes:—It was Christianity which first presented Religion under the form of objective truth, as a system of doctrines perfectly independent of all individual conceptions of man's imagination, and calculated to meet the moral and religious wants of man's nature, and in that nature every where to find some point on which it might attach itself. The Religions of antiquity, on the contrary, consist of many elements of various kinds, which, either by the skill of the first promulgator, or, in the length of years, by the impress of national peculiarities, were moulded together into one whole. There was no Religion generally adapted to human nature, only Religions fitted to each people. The old lawgivers were well aware how closely the maintenance of an individual state Religion depends on the maintenance of the individual character of the people, and their civil and domestic virtues. Therefore we find, especially in Rome, where politics were the ruling passion, a watchfulness after the most punctilious observance of traditional religious ceremonies, and jealous aversion to any innovations in Religion. This very feeling showed itself even in the polytheism of national Religions, under the idea of a highest God, or a father of the gods. But how miserable would be the case of mankind, if the higher bond, connecting human affairs with heaven, could only be united by means of lies; if lies were necessary in order to restrain the greater portion of mankind from evil! And what could their Religion in such a case effect? It could not impart holy dispositions to the inward heart of man; it could only restrain the open outbreaking of evil that existed in the heart, by the power of fear. The philosopher required in Religion a persuasion grounded on reasoning; the citizen, the statesman, followed the tradition of his ancestors without inquiry. Suppose now this theologia civilis, and this theologia philosophica to proceed together, without a man's wishing to set the opposition between the two in a very clear light to himself; that the citizen and the statesman, the philosopher and the man, could be united in the same individual with contradictory sentiments, (a division which in the same man is very unnatural,) and then he would perhaps say, "Philosophical reason conducts to a different result from that which is established by the state Religion; but the latter has in its favour the good fortune which the state has enjoyed in the exercise of Religion handed down from our ancestors. In the east, which is less subject to commotions, where tranquil habits of life were more common, and where a mystical spirit of contemplation, accompanying and spiritualizing the symbolical Religion of the people, was more prevalent than an intellectual cultivation opposed to it, and developing itself independently, it was possible that this kind of esoteric and exoteric Religion should proceed hand in hand without change for many centuries. Here this independently proceeding developement of the intellect must have been at open war with the Religion of the people; and as intellectual culture spread itself more widely, so also must a disbelief of the popular Religion have been more extensively diffused; and, in consequence of the intercourse between the people and the educated classes, this disbelief must also have found its way at last among the people themselves; more especially since, as this perception of the nothingness of the popular Religion spread itself more widely, there would naturally be many who would not, with the precaution of the men of old, hide their new illumination from the multitude, but would think themselves bound to procure for it new adherents, without any regard to the injury of which they might be laying the foundations, without inquiring of themselves, whether they had any thing to offer to the people in the room of that of which they robbed them; in the room of their then source of tranquillity under the storms of life; instead of that which taught them moderation under affliction; and, lastly, in the place of their then counterpoise against the power of wild desires and passions. Yet the history of all ages proves that man cannot for any length of time disown the desire for Religion implanted in his nature. From the nature of the case, however, it is clear that a fanatical zeal, where the heat of passion concealed from man the hollowness and falsehood of his faith, might be created for a Religion, to which man only betook himself as a refuge in his misery, and in his dread of the abyss of unbelief; a Religion which no longer served for the development of man's nature, and into which, nevertheless, he felt himself driven back from the want of any other; and that men must use every kind of power and art to uphold that which was in danger of falling from its own internal weakness, and to defend that which was unable to defend itself by its own power
Lama, Grand - Almost all nations of the east, except the Mahometans, believe the metempsychosis as the most important article of their faith; especially the inhabitants of Thibet and Ava, the Peguans, Siamese, the greatest part of the Chinese and Japanese, and the Monguls and Kalmucks, who changed the Religion of Schamanism for the worship of the grand lama. This Religion is said to have been of three thousand years standing; and neither time nor the influence of men, has had the power of shaking the authority of the grand lama. The supreme manager of temporal affairs is no more than the viceroy of the sovereign priest, who, conformable to the dictates of his Religion, dwells in divine tranquillity in a building that is both temple and palace. If some of his votaries in modern times have dispensed with the adoration of his person, still certain real modifications of the Shaka Religion is the only faith they follow. The state of sanctity which that Religion inculcates, consists in monastic continence, absence of thought, and the perfect repose of nonentity. It has been observed that the Religion of Thibet is the counterpart of the Roman Catholic, since the inhabitants of that country use holy water and a singing service; they also offer alms, prayers, and sacrifices for the dead
Authority in Religion - AUTHORITY IN Religion...
1. To avoid confusion, then, in considering Christ’s teachings regarding authority in Religion, we shall have at every step to take account of the particular kind of authority then being dealt with. Christ’s conception of Religion. —That Christ’s conception of Religion must have conditioned and shaped His teachings upon authority in Religion is too obvious to be questioned. Hence we must at least glance at His conception of Religion; but as this subject is itself a large one, we can at most merely glance at it. Our Lord, of course, has nowhere given us a formal definition of Religion, nor has He anywhere formally discussed its nature. By common consent, Religion is a term of relation. Further, without undue assumption, we may add that true Religion and right relation between God and man are equivalent expressions. ...
(2) A second passage of fundamental significance for Christ’s conception of Religion is Matthew 22:37 ff. ’ But that, according to the teaching of Christ, there is an emotional element in Religion, is so generally recognized that it would be superfluous to multiply references, especially in such an incidental treatment of the subject as the present. ...
(3) The third passage that may be regarded as fundamental for our Lord’s conception of Religion is Matthew 7:21 ‘Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven; but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in heaven. ...
While, therefore, the first of these three great passages implicates man’s understanding in Religion, and the second his emotions, this last implicates his will, as controlling his conduct and finding its legitimate expression through it. ...
What may be called, then, a qualitative analysis of Christ’s conception of Religion reveals the fact, that it contains this trinity of elements bound together in the indissoluble unity of the rational soul. Were any of them totally lacking, there would be no real Religion. ...
While, however, we can with a measure both of ease and of certainty make what we have ventured to call a qualitative analysis of Christ’s conception of Religion, it would not be so easy to arrive at a quantitative analysis of it, and say just how much knowledge, how much emotion, and how much volitional activity must be present in order to the existence in the soul of any real Religion. It is enough, if it has been shown that Christ’s conception of Religion recognizes the essential unity of the soul, and involves its right relation to God in all its several powers or functions. To this conception His teachings regarding authority in Religion will be found to conform. Religion. Legislative authority in Religion. ...
Now, according to our Lord’s teaching, all legislative authority in Religion vests exclusively in God. ...
(3) But to say that Christ teaches that all legislative authority in Religion vests exclusively in God, is hardly to put the case either as fully or as strongly as it needs to be put. Judicial authority in Religion. We elaborate this analogy thus in detail, because we believe that it will prove helpful in enabling us to understand our Lord’s teachings concerning judicial authority in the sphere of Religion. ...
(c) If what has been said be true, we are not surprised to find Christ teaching that every mind is equipped for the exercise of this high prerogative, that in a certain very true sense the mind has ‘the supreme norm of its ideas and acts, not outside of itself, but within itself, in its very constitution’ (Sabatier, Religions of Authority, p
Lay Brothers - They looked after the sacristy, buildings, farms, household cares, and visitors, thus affording the choir religious more time for the Office and study, while all classes of persons might be enabled to embrace Religion, taking the usual vows
Maccabees - Mattathias, an aged priest, then residing at Modin, a city to the west of Jerusalem, became now the courageous leader of the national party; and having fled to the mountains, rallied round him a large band of men prepared to fight and die for their country and for their Religion, which was now violently suppressed
Christian Socialism - Christian Religion, in that sense, has a social tendency, and is Christian socialism
Marie de Rabutin Chantal, Marquise de Sevigne - Having become an orphan at age six, she was educated by the Abbe de Coulanges, her uncle, who taught her Latin, Spanish and Italian, and gave her his own practical spirit and deep sense of Religion
Door - The meaning is that teachers of Religion must have a mission from Him
Chile - Catholicism was the official Religion of the country until 1925 when Church and State were separated
Judgment, Private - It is at the root of every prejudice regarding Religion
Dominican Republic - Catholicism is the state Religion though others are permitted
Declaration, Royal - " This last was never objected to by Catholics, being a simple promise to govern justly and maintain "the Protestant Reformed Religion established by Law
Calvinism - A system of Religion, introduced by John Calvin, the French reformer, in opposition to Catholic teaching, the distinctive doctrines of which, in addition to his Presbyterian idea of the church, are as follows: ...
Man, as a result of Adam's fall, has no freedom of will, but is an absolute slave of God;
God has predestined each one of us, some to hell, and some to heaven from eternity absolutely independently of our own efforts;
the elect cannot be lost
Chastity, Vow of - If the vow be a simple one, which may be anyone of four kinds (of virginity, of not marrying, of receiving Sacred Orders, or of entering Religion), it is a hindering impediment, rendering a marriage unlawful although valid, unless a dispensation be obtained
Advance - , to make progress, is translated "advanced" in Luke 2:52 , RV, of the Lord Jesus (AV, "increased"); in Galatians 1:14 "advanced," of Paul's former progress in the Jews' Religion (AV, "profited"); in Romans 13:12 , "is far spent," of the "advanced" state of the "night" of the world's spiritual darkness; in 2 Timothy 2:16 , "will proceed further," of profane babblings; in 2 Timothy 3:9 , "shall proceed no further," of the limit Divinely to be put to the doings of evil men; in 2 Timothy 3:13 , of the progress of evil men and impostors, "shall wax," lit
Bible: Power of Its Authority - The mother of a family was married to an infidel who made jest of Religion in the presence of his own children; yet she succeeded in bringing them all up in the fear of the Lord
Pergamum - Jesus declared he would judge those who denied him in this way, and reward those who refused to compromise with the State Religion (Revelation 2:14-17)
Naked - ), but Revised Version "he had dealt wantonly in Judah," mean "he had permitted Judah to break loose from all the restraints of Religion
Proselyte - ...
Many Gentiles in these cities, being attracted to the Jewish Religion by the morally upright lives of the Jews, attended the synagogue services and kept some of the Jewish sabbath and food laws
Christian - ) Pertaining to Christ or his Religion; as, Christian people
Idolatry - Opposed to the virtue of Religion it bestows reverence due to God alone directly on the image itself or on the creature represented
Hanukkah - ...
Hanukkah's ongoing significance lies in its commemoration of the victory of the few whose desire for freedom to practice their Religion impelled them to battle against great odds
Defender of the Faith - But the pope, on Henry's suppressing the houses of Religion, at the time of the reformation, not only deprived him of his title, but deposed him from his crown also; though, in the 35th year of his reign, his title, &c
Enius - ) Peculiar character; animating spirit, as of a nation, a Religion, a language
Job - The opinions of Job and his Mends are thus interesting as showing a phase of patriarchal Religion outside of the family of Abraham, and not controlled by the legislation of Moses
Arabia - Though Christianity in Arabia dates from Apostolic times, the Arabs, being of a lax and sensual nature, were indifferent in the practise of their Religion, fell easily into the heresies of Arianism, Nestorianism, and Monophysitism, and lost all traces of Christianity after the appearance of Islam
Dung - ...
Malachi 2:3 (a) GOD in this way expresses His utter abhorrence of the Religion of apostate Israel
Foul - Revelation 18:2 (a) In this way GOD reveals His utter hatred for the wicked practices and the evil beliefs which prevail in those great world systems of Religion which are described as Babylon. History reveals the burnings, the tortures, the imprisonments, and the lustful practices of these great Religions
Antinomies - (Greek: anti, against; nomos, law) ...
In his classic analysis of the historical significance of the Catholic Church, Charles Stanton Devas enumerates and explains away ten of its apparent contradictions or inconsistencies: The Church ...
appears in opposition to intellectual civilization and yet to foster it
appears in opposition to material civilization and yet to foster it
represents a Religion of sorrow
Heathen - In the Scriptures, the word seems to comprehend all nations except the Jews or Israelites, as they were all strangers to the true Religion, and all addicted to idolatry
Austria - Catholicism is the official Religion, endowed by the state, but freedom of worship for all is secured by the Treaty of Saint Germain, 1919
Doctor - Bousset, Religion des Judentums im neutest
Interdict - put all England under an interdict, forbidding the clergy to perform any part of divine service, except baptizing infants, taking confessions, and giving absolution to dying penitents; but this censure being liable to ill consequences, of promoting libertinism and a neglect of Religion, the succeeding popes have very seldom made use of it
Ignorance - ...
As it respects Religion, ignorance has been distinguished into three sorts: ...
1
Jews - Mingled, as they now are, with all the known nations of the earth, and yet incorporated with none; carrying with them in their very countenance, customs and manners, one uniform singularity, so as to be known by all, and yet connected with none; despised, hated, persecuted, attached to their own Religion, supporting it in spite of all opposition, and pertinacious still to preserve what the most learned of them do not understand; surely they are, as the Lord hath marked them, and as they are designated to be, living evidences of the truth of the gospel
Jethro - His being a priest in Midian, doth not explain what his Religion was
Allard, Paul - He was a member of the Academy of Rouen, the Academy of the Catholic Religion (Rome), and the Pontifical Academy of Archaeology
Schism - In its general meaning it signifies division or separation; and in particular, on account of Religion
Retreat - Under a competent director the retreatants follow certain spiritual exercises, like those of Saint Ignatius, which enable one to grasp more clearly the simple truths of Religion about God and man's relations with Him, sin and its penalties, the following of Christ, and a rule of life, in order to rise above the thought of doing evil and to aim at a higher standard of life
Sisters of Mercy - A congregation of women, founded in 1827 in Dublin, Ireland by Catherine McAuley, in Religion known as Sister Mary Catherine
Gentiles - Since the promulgation of the gospel, the true Religion has been extended to all nations; God, who had promised by his prophets to call the Gentiles to the faith, with a superabundance of grace, having fulfilled his promise; so that the Christian church is composed principally of Gentile converts, the Jews being too proud of their privileges to acknowledge Jesus Christ as their Messiah and Redeemer
Santo Domingo - Catholicism is the state Religion though others are permitted
Socialism, Christian - Christian Religion, in that sense, has a social tendency, and is Christian socialism
Royal Declaration - " This last was never objected to by Catholics, being a simple promise to govern justly and maintain "the Protestant Reformed Religion established by Law
Christian - But it proved to be a suitable name, for it showed that the Christian Religion was centred on Christ
Apostles' Creed - It is theoldest form of the Creed that has come down to us and contains abrief summary of the fundamental Truths of the Christian Religion
Retreat - The Retreat as nowconducted gives each one the opportunity to make special effort tosee more clearly those great principles of Religion which can onlybe seen by such effort and by such special spiritual exercises
Chivalry - While her bishops strove hard to check violence by means of the Truce of God and the Peace of God in the 11th century, they at the same time held before the knight a more exalted conception of his calling, assigning him nobler ends to fight for, and introducing Religion as the first article in his code of conduct. Even in the golden age of chivalry every knight did not fully live up to the standards of knighthood, and it softened and degenerated into gallantry when the knights began to withdraw themselves from the sustaining influence of Religion
Images - The making of an image implies a definite conception and the application of art to Religion. The earliest Semitic Religion (like that of Greece, Rome, etc
Bourignonists - The leading principles which pervade her productions are these:...
that man is perfectly free to resist or receive divine grace; that God is ever unchangeable in love toward all his creatures, and does not inflict any arbitrary punishment, but that the evils they suffer are the natural consequences of sin; that true Religion consists not in any outward forms of worship, nor systems of faith, but in immediate communion with the Deity, by internal feelings and impulses, and by a perfect acquiescence in his will. ...
This lady was educated in the Roman Catholic Religion; but she declaimed equally against the corruptions of the church of Rome and those of the Reformed churches: hence she was opposed and persecuted by both Catholics and Protestants, and after being driven about from place to place, she died at Franeker, in 1680. She maintained that there ought to be a general toleration of all Religions
Circumcision - At the present day it is an essential rite of the Mohammedan Religion, and though not enjoined in the Koran, prevails wherever this Religion is found
Sanhedrin - The general affairs of the nation were also brought before this assembly, particularly whatever was in any way connected with Religion or worship, Mark 14:55 15:1 Acts 4:7 5:41 6:12 . Jews in foreign cities appear to have been amenable to this court in matters of Religion, Acts 9:2
Superstition - may be described to be either the careful and anxious observation of numerous and unauthorized ceremonies in Religion, under the idea that they possess some virtue to propitiate God and obtain his favour, or, as among Pagans and others, the worship of imaginary deities, and the various means of averting evil by religious ceremonies, which a heart oppressed with fears, and a perverted fancy, may dictate to those ignorant of the true God, and the doctrines of salvation. Religion here becomes a source, not of life, but of death; the source, not of consolation and blessing, but of the most unspeakable anxiety which torments man day and night with the spectres of his own imagination. Religion here is no source of sanctification, but may unite in man's heart with every kind of untruth, and serve to promote it
Deists - Herbert, baron of Cherbury, in the seventeenth century, has been regarded as the first Deistical writer in this country, or at least, the first who reduced Deism to a system; affirming the sufficiency of reason and natural Religion, and rejecting divine revelation as unnecessary and superfluous. Such as admit the existence of God, his providence, and the obligations of natural Religion; but so far only as these things are discoverable by the light of nature, without any divine revelation. Some of the Deists have attempted to overthrow the Christian dispensation, by opposing to it what they call the absolute perfection of natural Religion
Diet - We shall only take notice, in this place of the more remarkable of those which have been held on the affairs of Religion. The Roman Catholics were, Julius Phlug, John Gropper, and John Eckius; the Protestants were, Philip Melancthon, Martin Bucer, and John Pistorius; but, after a whole month's consultation, they could agree upon no more than five or six articles; which the emperor consented the Protestants should retain, forbidding them to solicit any body to change the ancient Religion. In this assembly (wherein presided the archduke Ferdinand) the duke of Saxony, and the landgrave of Hesse, demanded the free exercise of the Lutheran Religion: upon which it was decreed, that the emperor should be desired to call a general, or national, council in Germany within a year, and that, in the mean time, every one should have liberty of conscience. The diet of Spire, in 1529, decreed, that in the countries which had embraced the new Religion, it should be lawful to continue in it till the next council; but that no Roman Catholic should be allowed to turn Lutheran
Learning - But, whatever was good in the Mahometan Religion, it is in no small measure indebted to Christianity for it, since Mahometanism is made up for the most part of Judaism and Christianity. "As Religion hath been the chief preserver of erudition, so erudition hath not been ungrateful to her patroness, but hath contributed largely to the support of Religion. " Nothing, however, is more common than to hear the ignorant decry all human learning as entirely useless in Religion; and what is still more remarkable, even some, who call themselves preachers, entertain the same sentiments
Emperor-Worship - One of the most interesting and important facts in the inner history of the Roman Empire prior to the adoption of Christianity as the State-religion was the rise of Emperor-worship. Hence Caesar-worship rapidly became organized and highly developed as the State-religion of the Empire; the Caesars so far conquered their reluctance to pose as gods that Domitian proudly designated himself as Dominus et Deus, ‘Lord and God’ (Suet. For details as to the organization of the new Religion, its priesthood, the pomp of its ritual, etc. -It is necessary to make a few remarks on the relation of the new Religion to the old paganism, because in sermons and other popular treatments of the subject the facts are often mis-stated. In no sense was the worship of Caesar either enforced or adopted as a substitute for other Religions. Contrary to what is often asserted, the old Religions were very far from having lost their power. The satirical strictures of Juvenal and Martial on Roman city-society are no proof that the old Roman Religion was powerless. The fact that several of the Emperors acted munificently towards the temples of the old gods shows two things-that the old Religion was still in force and far from negligible, and that the new Religion was not at all a rival to it (cf. Indeed, the very Augustus who was the first, and remained the ideal, Emperor-god, was also the restorer to the ancient Roman Religion of the dignity it had lost in the troublous times of the dying Republic. ...
But a further stage was reached, and first of all in Asia, at which the new Religion became conscious that it could maintain itself only by closely allying itself with other Religions, by associating Caesar with the local divinities. Hence, while during the 1st cent, the State-religion was simply the worship of Rome and Caesar, in the 2nd cent, a modification was necessary; and, as indicated, this consisted in associating Caesar with a local god who could call forth a genuine religious feeling. Thus it is entirely erroneous to say that the new Religion owed any of its strength to the decay of the old paganism; it was only in close alliance with the old that Caesarism as a Religion could continue in existence. ...
With Christianity as one Religion among others Rome would not have concerned herself. ...
We do not need to expound here the inner, inherent antagonism of the two Religions. (a) Both were universal Religions; we do not need to dwell on that. To any deep reflexion it must appear in reality the negation of Religion. ...
‘It was only a sham Religion, a matter of outward show and magnificent, ceremonial. The chapter proceeds to record how the commune maintained the Imperial Religion, the worship of ‘the first Beast. Glover, the Conflict of Religions in the Early Roman Empire, London, 1909; J. Iverach, article ‘Caesarism’ in Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics iii
Nativity of Christ - By their dispersions among so many nations, by their conversation with the learned men among the heathens and the translation of their inspired writings into a language almost universal, the principles of their Religion were spread all over the East; and it became the common belief that a Prince would arise at that time in Judea, who should change the face of the world, and extend his empire from one end of the earth to the other. The world, in the most early ages, was divided into small independent states, differing from each other in language, manners, laws, and Religion. What the wisdom of men could do for the encouragement of virtue in a corrupt world had been tried during several ages, and all human devices were found by experience to be of very small avail; so that no juncture could be more proper for publishing a Religion, which, independent of human laws and institutions, explains the principles of morals with admirable perspicuity, and enforces the practice of them by most persuasive arguments. While the Pharisees undermined Religion, on the one hand, by their vain traditions and wretched interpretations of the law, the Sadducees denied the immortality of the soul, and overturned the doctrine of future rewards and punishments; so that between them the knowledge and power of true Religion were entirely destroyed. Stately temples, expensive sacrifices, pompous ceremonies, magnificent festivals, with all the other circumstances of show and splendour, were the objects which false Religion presented to its votaries; but just notions of God, obedience to his moral laws, purity of heart, and sanctity of life, were not once mentioned as ingredients in religious service. 796, 963; Gill's Body of Divinity on Incarnation; Bishop Law's Theory of Religion; Dr. 176, 317; John Edwards's Survey of all the Dispensations and Methods of Religion chap
Christianity (History Sketch) - The Christian Religion was published by its great Author in Judea, a short time before the death of Herod the Great, and toward the conclusion of the long reign of Augustus. While other Religions had been accommodated to the peculiar countries in which they had taken their origin, and had indeed generally grown out of incidents connected with the history of those to whom they were addressed, Christianity was so framed as to be adapted to the whole human race; and although, for the wisest reasons, it was first announced to the Jews, who had peculiar advantages for forming an accurate judgment with regard to it, it was early declared that, in conformity to predictions which had long been known, and long interpreted, as referring to a new communication of the divine will, it was to be a light to lighten the Gentiles, and was to carry salvation to the ends of the earth. At all times Religion had been an object of prominent interest with the Romans: at the foundation of the city, Romulus had professed to be directed by Heaven; during the whole period of the republic, the most sacred attention had been paid to the rites and ceremonies sanctioned by the prevailing superstition, the prosperity of the state was invariably ascribed to the protection of the gods, and the most impressive solemnities, combined with the richest splendour and magnificence, cast around polytheism a mysterious sanctity, which even the philosophers affected to revere. These additions left all which had been previously honoured in unimpaired vigour and influence, and, in fact, only increased the appearance of profound regard for Religion, which the Romans so long assumed. But this part of the political constitution, lightly as it affected other Religions, at once struck at the root of Christianity, which, unlike the prevailing modifications of idolatry, prohibited the worship of all the deities before whose altars mankind had for ages bent, and required, as essential for obtaining the divine favour, that they who believed in it should pay undivided homage to the one God, whose existence it revealed. ) What was the effect of this depressing situation? Did it check the dissemination of the Gospel, or confine it to the men by whom it was preached? So far was this from being the case, that from the period of the death, and, as it must here be termed, the alleged resurrection of Jesus, it was embraced by immense numbers in all the countries to which it was conveyed; and even while they were contemplating the sacrifices and the trials to which, by attaching themselves to it, they would be exposed, they did not hesitate to relinquish the Religion in which they had been educated, and to exchange for misery and death all the comforts which the strongest feelings and propensities of our nature lead men to value and to pursue. Finally, imperial Rome bowed to the Religion it had persecuted, and the emperor Constantine became a Christian. The propagation of Christianity assumes a new aspect after it became the Religion of the empire, and was guarded by the protection and surrounded by the munificence of imperial power. The emperors, who had displayed their zeal and their attachment to the Religion of Jesus, by forcing their own subjects to profess it, conceived it to be their duty to communicate so great a blessing to all the nations which they could influence; and when they found it necessary to declare war against the savage tribes which pressed upon the frontiers, or forced themselves within the precincts of the empire, they carried on hostilities with the view of rendering these instrumental no less to the diffusion of their religious tenets, than to the vindication of their authority, and the security of their dominions. The vanquished invaders felt little reluctance to purchase the forbearance or the clemency of their conquerors, by submitting to receive their Religion; and this species of conversion, so little connected with the great objects which revelation was designed to accomplish, leaving, in fact, all the gross superstitious practices and all the immoral abominations which had previously existed, was boastfully held forth as a decisive proof of the triumph of the Gospel. Mankind, when scarcely emerged from barbarism, and attached to no particular country, but seeking wherever it can be found the food necessary for themselves and the flocks upon which they in a great measure depend, although they entertain those sentiments with regard to Religion which seem almost interwoven with our nature, feel little attachment to any one system of superstition, and are open to the reception of new doctrines, which an association with what they value may have led them to venerate. The Religion of the vanquished they contemplated with reverence; they connected it with the wealth, the refinement, and the power which they saw spread around them; and they easily exchanged the rude and careless worship of their native deities, for the polished and splendid devotional rites, which, with the most imposing solemnity, were celebrated by the Christians. Hence, they soon embraced the Religion by which it was believed that these rites were prescribed; and they communicated it to the nations with whom they still maintained an alliance. There is no doubt that motives very little connected with the conviction of the understanding led to the progress of Christianity now described; and, in fact, that progress was occasioned by causes so different from those which should have produced it, that, had circumstances been changed, and had the Religion of Jesus been continued to be persecuted by the most powerful states, multitudes who affected to revere it would, upon the same ground on which their veneration rested, have exerted themselves to deride its tenets, and to exterminate its professors. They reached to almost every country in Europe; to Arabia, China, Judea, and many other parts of Asia; and the obscure tribes, to whom no missionaries were despatched, gradually conformed to the Religion of those more powerful states upon which they depended, or to which they looked with respect or veneration
Inca - Their Religion, based upon the reverence of natural phenomena, had an elaborate ritual
Matrimonial Court - In the Romani "Curia" or Court, the Congregation of the Holy Office has exclusive jurisdiction concerning the, Pauline Privilege, the impediment of disparity of worship and that of mixed Religion; but it may refer cases to another Congregation, such as that of the Sacraments, or to the Tribunal of the Rota
Franz Haydn - Devoted to Religion, he recognized that his talents came from above and made use of the endowment for the glory of God
Francis Jaccard, Blessed - Shortly afterward he was brought to trial, accused of preaching the Christian Religion and of leading a band of Christians to usurp the property of their heathen brethren
Chaucer, Geoffrey - Closely associated with anti-Lollards, he was orthodox in Religion
Ransom - No woman, no man, no church, no Religion, no good works, no money, no prayers can avail for this purpose
Jaccard, Francis, Blessed - Shortly afterward he was brought to trial, accused of preaching the Christian Religion and of leading a band of Christians to usurp the property of their heathen brethren
Leaven - Every false Religion mixes false teachings in with the Scriptures and thereby poisons those who eat it
Swearing - Cursing and Swearing is an offence against God and Religion, and a sin of al others the most extravagant and unaccountable, as having no benefit or advantage attending it
Inactivity: the Evils of - All sorts of mischief happen to unoccupied professors of Religion; there is no evil from which they are secure; better would it be for them to accept the lowest occupation for the Lord Jesus, than remain the victims of inaction
Hylozoism - Animism, the earliest form of hylozoism, was the basis of primitive Religion, and on it the Ionian school of philosophers built their system
Magi - The same impression of dignity, truthfulness, and aspiration after the true Religion is conveyed by the narrative in Matthew 2:1-14
Honduras - Catholicity is the prevailing Religion, but freedom of worship is granted to all, and no denomination receives support from the state
Meat - The more abstruse doctrines of the gospel, or mysteries of Religion
Moralist - The reflecting mind will be reminded of those admirable characters which are occasionally met with, in which everything of good repute and comely aspect may be seen, but true Religion, that sweet ethereal perfume of grace, is wanting; if they had but love to God, what lovely beings they would be, the best of the saints would not excel them, and yet that fragrant grace they do not seek, and after every effort we may make for their conversion, they remain content without the one thing which is needful for their perfection
Guatemala - Catholicism is the prevailing Religion, but there is equality and religious freedom for all denominations
Albania - One prominent Catholic tribe, the Miridites, succeeded in practising their Religion and at the same time serving as the sultan's faithful bodyguard
Chaldees - The Chaldeans were the learned class, interesting themselves in science and Religion, which consisted, like that of the ancient Arabians and Syrians, in the worship of the heavenly bodies
Babylonians - Their Religion has been described as the worst possible form of nature worship, and their gods seem to have been countless
Covenant - ) An agreement made by the Scottish Parliament in 1638, and by the English Parliament in 1643, to preserve the reformed Religion in Scotland, and to extirpate popery and prelacy; - usually called the "Solemn League and Covenant
Embrace - To seize eagerly to lay hold on to receive or take with willingness that which is offered as, to embrace the christian Religion to embrace the opportunity of doing a favor
Bangorian Controversy - A heavy censure was passed against it, as tending to subvert all government and discipline in the church of Christ, to reduce his kingdom to a state of anarchy and confusion, and to impugn and impeach the royal supremacy in matters ecclesiastical, and the authority of the legislature to enforce obedience in matters of Religion, by severe sanction
Coner-Stone - First, as this stone lies at the foundation, and serves to give support and strength to the building, so Christ, or the doctrine is the most important feature of the Christina Religion-as a system of truths, and as a living power in the souls of men
Haydn, Franz Joseph - Devoted to Religion, he recognized that his talents came from above and made use of the endowment for the glory of God
Eating - The Jews would have considered themselves polluted by eating with people of another Religion, or with any who were ceremonially unclean or disreputable-as with Samaritans, John 4:9 , publicans, Matthew 9:11 , or Gentiles, Acts 10:28 Galatians 2:12
Tend - The laws of our Religion tend to the universal happiness of mankind
Tradition - The Jews pay great regard to tradition in matters of Religion, as do the Romanists
Whole - The whole of Religion is contained in the short precept, Love God with all your heart, and your neighbor as yourself
Pascentius, Steward of of Imperial Property - Augustine to confer with him at Carthage on the subject of Religion, a
Mithraism - (Sanskrit: mitra, friend) ...
A pagan Religion which consisted mainly of the cult of the ancient Indo-Iranian sun-god Mithra. After the Babylonian conquest it came in contact with Chaldean astrology and the national worship of Marduk, became the state Religion of Armenia, and later spread to Asia Minor where it adopted ideas from the Phrygian cult of Attis and Cybele. It allowed its members to profess other Religions, while Christianity is enduring, unique and sufficient for its adherents
Zephaniah - )...
Zephaniah saw that the improvements in the external forms of Religion, though commendable, were no substitute for true reform in heart and life. The violence, cheating and false Religion of Manasseh’s time were still widespread in Jerusalem (1:1-18)
Mufti - The chief of the ecclesiastical order, or primate of the Mussulman Religion. The authority of the Mufti is very great in the Ottoman empire; for even the sultan himself, if he will preserve any appearance of Religion, cannot, without first hearing his opinion, put any person to death, or so much as inflict any corporal punishment
Caiaphas - Like most of the priests at this period, Caiaphas was a Sadducee in Religion. His craft and subtle diplomacy as well as his supreme disregard for justice and Religion are revealed in the advice he gave to the assembled Sanhedrin after Jesus had won the people by the raising of Lazarus-‘It is expedient that one die for the people’ (John 11:50)
Philosophy - Nothing but divine interposition could have given a nation, cradled amidst the superstitions of Egypt and surrounded in maturity by the Canaanite idolaters, and in no way noted for learning and culture, a pure monotheistic Religion, bringing man into holy fellowship with the personal loving God and Father. ...
Moses' ritual trained them for the spiritual Religion which was its end. It is striking that the higher we trace the Religions of the old world the more pure and uncorrupted they are found
Russia - Queen Olga, who is venerated as Saint Helen, was unable to convert her son to Christianity, but his son Vladimir, at the end of the 10th century, established Christianity as the official state Religion in Russia. ...
The Soviet Government disestablished the Church and declared the free profession of all Religions. The Orthodox Church was the prevailing Religion of the country. Teaching of Religion in state and private schools was prohibited, but special religious classes could be organized for persons over 18. Later, in order to exercise ever more power over its citizens, the Soviet government began oppressing all forms of Religion, and many Catholics are now recognized as martyrs, being murdered by the NKVD, the secret police
Per'Sia - ...
Religion . --The Religion which the Persians brought with there into Persia proper seems to have been of a very simple character, differing from natural Religion in little except that it was deeply tainted with Dualism. The conquerors found in Babylon an oppressed race--like themselves, abhorrers of idols, and professors of a Religion in which to a great extent they could sympathize
Huguenots - The persecution which they have undergone has scarce its parallel in the history of Religion. passed the famous edict of Nantz, which secured to the Protestants the free exercise of their Religion. by whom they were driven into exile: "And thou, dreadful prince, whom I once honoured as my king, and whom I yet respect as a scourge in the hand of Almighty God, thou also shalt have a part in my good wishes! These provinces, which thou threatenest, but which the arm of the Lord protects; this country, which thou fillest with refugees, but fugitives animated with love; those walls, which contain a thousand martyrs of thy making, but whom Religion renders victorious, all these yet resound benedictions in thy favour
Druids - The priests, or ministers of Religion among the ancient Gauls, Britons, and Germans. They were versed in astrology, geometry, natural philosophy, politics, and geography; they were the interpreters of Religion, and the judges of all affairs indifferently. Indeed, their whole Religion originally consisted in acknowledging that the Supreme Being, who made his abode in these sacred groves, governed the universe; and, that every creature ought to obey his laws, and pay him divine homage
Micah, Book of - ...
These practices showed no knowledge of the character of God or the nature of true Religion. The people still followed the sacrifices and ceremonies of the Israelite Religion, but Micah warned that formal Religion was hateful to God if justice and love were absent (Micah 2:9)
Divination - Jevons, Comparative Religion, 1913. Carpenter, Comparative Religion, 1913; HDB v. Sayce, Religion of the Ancient Babylonians, 1887; G. Maspero, Dawm of Civilization2, 1896; Stephen Langdon, ‘Private Penance,’ in Transactions of the Third International Congress for the History of Religions, 1908, p. Religion and Mythology, 1899; L. Cook, The Religion of Ancient Palestine, 1908: T. 401; Gilbert Murray, Four Stages of Greek Religion, 1912. Cumont, The Oriental Religions in Roman Paganism, Eng. In such a world the Satan fashioned himself into an ἄγγελος φωτός (2 Corinthians 11:14), δαίμονες entered into men, and were cast out by men (Luke 11:19, Mark 9:38), converts to the Religion of Jesus who had believed and were baptized proposed to purchase the ability to confer the Holy Spirit (Acts 8:19), the power of the evil eye was exercised (Mark 7:22), and ἀρχαί and δυνἁμεις, ‘principalities’ and ‘powers’ (Romans 8:38), ‘mustered their unseen array. Jews hostile to the Religion of Jesus are thought of by the Christians as his servants who form his synagogue (Revelation 2:9; Revelation 3:9), and in places noted for wickedness he dwells in power as a king on his throne (Revelation 2:13). 401; Gilbert Murray, Four Stages of Greek Religion, 1912. ...
As Religion has become spiritualized, divination has more and more lost its hold on the minds of men. Reference to its various phases will be found in modern Commentaries and in works on Comparative Religion, and Anthropology, as those of E. Myers, on ‘Greek Oracles,’ in Essays, 1883, and to the series of articles in Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics vi
Goodness - ...
The goodness of Christ brought a new force into Jewish Religion, one that changed the nature of it. In Christ the middle wall was broken down, and into the old Religion was poured the new spirit. Henceforth Religion could not be separate from the moral life. Goodness became a synonym for true and undefiled Religion. For man, having once seen the perfect manhood of the Christ, and felt His power to overcome sin and death, had gained a vision of Religion that might perpetuate such a type, and the vision would not lightly fade
Wisdom - The paradigms of Israel's Religion—law, prophecy, and wisdomwere not exclusive to Israel but were shared by other ancient Near Eastern cultures. So it was not the form of Israel's Religion that made it distinctive, but its content. ...
Third, wisdom simplifies Religion by describing faith as born out of decisions that are either wise or foolish. Sometimes in the Old Testament this phrase is a general term for Religion (since the Old Testament has no specific word for Religion), and sometimes, as in the Book of Proverbs, the phrase carries a meaning very close to the New Testament concept of faith
Hebrews, Letter to the - This was particularly so among some of the Jewish Christians, who began to wonder if they had done right in giving up their Jewish Religion and becoming Christians. ...
These people had believed, from the teaching of Jesus and his followers, that the Jewish Religion no longer served God’s purposes. But, thirty years after Jesus’ death, the temple was still standing and the Jewish Religion was still functioning. It seemed to them that the Jewish Religion was as firm as ever, whereas Christianity was heading for disaster. ...
The writer wanted to show these discouraged Jewish Christians that Christ was the true fulfilment of the Jewish Religion
Innuit - Their Religion is a form of animism
League, German Catholic - The confederates promised to defend the Catholic Religion within the Empire, and prevent encroachments from the Protestants
Light - Light came also naturally to typify true Religion and the felicity it imparts (Psalm 119:105 ; Isaiah 8:20 ; Matthew 4:16 , etc
Bithiah - On conversion the -jah added to her name would mark her new Religion
Diptychs - This was done toexcite and lead the living to the same happy state by followingtheir good example; and also to celebrate the memory of them asstill living, according to the principles of our Religion, and notproperly dead, but only translated by death to a more Divine Life
Evidence - Ditton on the Resurrection; Bellamy on Religion, P
Servants - That it is a credit to our holy Religion
Retirement - Solitude is the hallowed ground which Religion in every age has adopted as its own
Demetrius - " Like many men he made regard for Religion his plea, while really having an eye to self; "not only this our craft is in danger to be set at nought, but also that the temple of the great goddess Diana should be despised and her magnificence destroyed, whom all Asia and the world worshippeth
Brick - No Religion of any kind that has its origin in the mind of a man or a woman will pass GOD's judgment. All false Religions are as "bricks
Cain - Cain's act of worship is a notable type of mere human Religion — presuming to approach God as if there had been no fall and no sin
Amaziah - In the matter of Religion he receives qualified praise from the author of Kings ( 2 Kings 14:3 f
Heresy - " In Acts 24:14, where Paul speaks of the Christian Religion as "the way which they call heresy," he undoubtedly means to imply that the Christian organization was not a separation from the Old Testament Church, but the true Church itself
Eskimo - Their Religion is a form of animism
Esquimaux - Their Religion is a form of animism
Emblem - The use of emblems is characteristic of the Catholic Religion, partly in the early days to express the mysteries of faith and the ideals of the Church so as not to submit them to the ridicule or suspicion of pagans, but chiefly to give expression to the poetic inspiration of Christian faith
Abner - Abner was destitute of all lofty ideas of morality or Religion ( 2 Samuel 3:8 ; 2 Samuel 3:16 ), but was the only capable person on the side of Saul’s family
Henoticon - a decree or edict of the Emperor Zeno, which was dated at Constantinople in the year 482, and by which he intended to unite all the parties in Religion under one faith
Crane - ...
The Prophet Jeremiah mentions this bird, thus intelligent of the seasons by an instinctive and invariable observation of their appointed times, as a circumstance of reproach to the chosen people of God, who, although taught by reason and Religion, "know not the judgment of the Lord
Cain - Cain's act of worship is a notable type of mere human Religion — presuming to approach God as if there had been no fall and no sin
Beg, Beggar, Beggarly - , poverty-stricken, powerless to enrich, metaphorically descriptive of the Religion of the Jews
Blasphemy Against the Holy Ghost - However these questions may be answered, certain it is that when one can ridicule Religion and its ordinances, when he can make sport with the work of the Holy Ghost in the human heart, when he can persist in a willful disbelief of the Gospel, and cast contempt upon Christianity and "the ministration of the Spirit," he is going to a fearful extremity of guilt, and provoking the final withdrawment of divine grace
German Catholic League - The confederates promised to defend the Catholic Religion within the Empire, and prevent encroachments from the Protestants
Saint Augustine, Florida, City of - Religion suffered irreparably when the English attempted to populate the country and develop its resources
Revolt - Their honest pride of their purer Religion had revolted the Babylonians
Incarnation, the - , took our nature upon Him; and also forthe Doctrine that "the Godhead and Manhood were joined together inone Person never to be divided" (II Article of Religion)
Oates, Titus - Oates' depositions, as contained in his "True and Exact Narrative of the Horrid Plot and Conspiracy of the Popish Party against the Life of His Sacred Majesty, the Government, and the Protestant Religion, etc. Oates declared, ...
"The General Design of the Pope, Society of Jesus, and their Confederates in this Plot, is, the Reformation, that is (in their sense), the Reduction of Great Britain and Ireland, and all His Majestie's Dominions by the Sword (all other wayes and means being judged by them ineffectual) to the Roman Religion and Obedience
Honour - In every situation of life, Religion only forms the true honour and happiness of man. This honour, thus formed by Religion, or the love of God, is more independent and more complete, than what can be acquired by any other means
Hypocrisy - the worldly hypocrite, who makes a profession of Religion, and pretends to be religious, merely from worldly considerations, Matthew 23:5 ...
2. The evangelical hypocrite, whose Religion is nothing more than a bare conviction of sin; who rejoices under the idea that Christ died for him, and yet has no desire to live a holy life, Matthew 13:20
Harlot - The Canaanite sanctuaries were practically gigantic brothels, legalized by the sanctions of Religion. The pure Religion of J″ England, Church of - Down to the 18th century it had been accepted with little question as the national Religion, but it became extremely unpopular during the reigns of George IV and William IV, as being the Religion of the reactionary ruling caste
Armenia - ...
The Religion of the Armenians is a corrupt Christianity of the sect of Eutyches; that is, they own but one nature in Jesus Christ. It is indeed a remarkable instance of the firmness of this people, that while the surrounding nations submitted to the Religion as well as the arms of the Turks, they have preserved the purity of their ancient faith, such as it is, to the present day
Titus Oates - Oates' depositions, as contained in his "True and Exact Narrative of the Horrid Plot and Conspiracy of the Popish Party against the Life of His Sacred Majesty, the Government, and the Protestant Religion, etc. Oates declared, ...
"The General Design of the Pope, Society of Jesus, and their Confederates in this Plot, is, the Reformation, that is (in their sense), the Reduction of Great Britain and Ireland, and all His Majestie's Dominions by the Sword (all other wayes and means being judged by them ineffectual) to the Roman Religion and Obedience
Ahaz - ...
In addition to damaging Judah’s political and economic standing, Ahaz corrupted Judah’s Religion. He worshipped the gods of the foreigners who had shown such strength in battle, and introduced their Religion into Judah. He built a copy of their altar of sacrifice to replace the existing altar of sacrifice in the Jerusalem temple (2 Kings 16:10-16; 2 Chronicles 28:22-24), and built shrines for the foreign Religions throughout the towns of Judah (2 Chronicles 28:25)
Painting, Religious - From the earliest ages of Christianity painting has served Religion, and Religion painting. Representations of dogmatic truth on the walls of the Catacombs show the close connection between Religion and painting, and for centuries prior to the Renaissance the chief province of art was the decoration of churches and monasteries for the instruction and edification of the faithful. In the 19th century, however, Religion inspired much of the work of Ingres, Delaroche, and Delacroix
Puritans - "During the reign of queen Elizabeth, in which the royal prerogative was carried to its utmost limits, there were found many daring spirits who questioned the right of the sovereign to prescribe and dictate to her subjects what principles of Religion they should profess, and what forms they ought to adhere to. The ornaments and habits worn by the clergy in the preceding reign, when the Romish Religion and rites were triumphant, Elizabeth was desirous of preserving in the Protestant service. ...
The queen made many attempts to repress every thing that appeared to her as an innovation in the Religion established by her almost unlimited authority she readily checked open and avowed opposition, but she could not extinguish the principles of the Puritans, 'by whom alone, ' according to Mr. Thither as into a wilderness they fled from the face of their persecutors, and, being protected in the free exercise of their Religion, continued to increase, till in about a century and a half they became an independent nation
Religious Painting - From the earliest ages of Christianity painting has served Religion, and Religion painting. Representations of dogmatic truth on the walls of the Catacombs show the close connection between Religion and painting, and for centuries prior to the Renaissance the chief province of art was the decoration of churches and monasteries for the instruction and edification of the faithful. In the 19th century, however, Religion inspired much of the work of Ingres, Delaroche, and Delacroix
Gain - This is the mystic’s conception of Religion—‘I and God are alone in the world. This is a common conception of the meaning of the Christian Religion. Winkworth); Jeremy Taylor, Holy Living; Goulburn, Thoughts on Personal Religion; H
Babblings - The implied contrast is between intellectualism in Religion, and genuine piety in heart and life (cf. In the fermenting vat of the Greek cities in the Apostolic as well as in the sub-Apostolic Age there were frothy, windy men who knew everything about Religion except ‘the practick part’ (cf. ’ To the same effect, Butler (Charge to the Clergy) advises them ‘not to trouble about objections raised by men of gaiety and speculation,’ but to endeavour to beget a practical sense of Religion ‘upon the hearts of the people’ (cf
Hosea - ...
Unfaithful Religion...
Hosea’s work was concerned with the north more than the south. Israel’s Religion had been corrupted through Baal worship, with the result that the nation was heading for judgment and would be taken captive to a foreign land. Corrupt Religion produces a corrupt nation, whether in its everyday life (4:1-5:7), its foreign policy (5:8-14), its loyalty to God (5:15-6:6) or its concern for justice (6:7-7:7)
Conversion - ) The act of changing one's views or course, as in passing from one side, party, or from of Religion to another; also, the state of being so changed
Martyr - A martyr chooses to die rather than deny his faith by word or deed; he suffers patiently, that is, after the example of Christ, he does not resist his persecutors; he suffers death at the hands of one who, though he may assign some other reason, really acts through hatred of the Christian Religion or of some Christian virtue
Methodist Episcopal Church - Church body organized in the United States, c1785 It was Arminian in theology, its doctrines set forth in the "Articles of Religion," Wesley's published sermons, and his "Notes on the New Testament
Birgitta, Saint - After her husband's death, Bridget devoted herself entirely to Religion and asceticism; the heavenly visions she had had from early childhood became more frequent
Godliness - Strictly taken, is right worship or devotion; but in general it imports the whole of practical Religion, 1 Timothy 4:8
Huguenots - The last-named secured for them the free exercise of their Religion by the Edict of Nantes, 1598
Bells - Sacramentals of the Church, blessed with religious rites, and used to remind men of Religion and of God, thereby increasing His grace in their souls
Lydia - She did know enough about Judaism to converse with Paul about the Religion
Holy Office, Congregation of the - It has exclusive jurisdiction over questions about the Pauline Privilege and the impediments of disparity of worship and mixed Religion
Alien - Estranged foreign not allied adverse to as, principles alien from our Religion
Instrument - The distribution of the Scriptures may be the instrument of a vastly extensive reformation in morals and Religion
Merchandise - 2 Peter 2:3 (a) This is a very real and true figure or picture of that which happens in many Religions. The devotees of many religious sects are absolutely bound to the rule and laws of their Religion
Mule - The animal represents any doctrine, or theory, or Religion which is man-made, and on which one often depends for salvation and deliverance
Honeycomb - If a person feels that he has enough of Religion, or of the knowledge of GOD, or of salvation, and needs no more, then the finest preaching and teaching will do him no good
Experience - This word, which plays so large a part in modern philosophy and Religion, occurs 4 times (including ‘experiment’) in EV Abel - In Cain is also exemplified the Religion of the natural man, who, disregarding his distance from God, thinks he can approach at any time and with any form of worship
Brother - Persons of the same profession call each other brother, as judges, clergymen, professors of Religion, members of societies united in a common cause, monks and the like
Apostasy - a deserting or abandoning of the true Religion
Abel - In Cain is also exemplified the Religion of the natural man, who, disregarding his distance from God, thinks he can approach at any time and with any form of worship
Revelation - Revelation is the basis of supernatural Religion, of knowledge of God and divine things which is above unaided reason, or which, though attainable by reason, becomes known in a way that is outside the course of nature
Felix - Meanwhile his wife Drusilla, who was a Jewess, desired to hear Paul explain the new Religion; and the apostle being summoned before them, discoursed with his usual boldness on justice, chastity, and the final judgment
Sweden, Bridget of, Saint - After her husband's death, Bridget devoted herself entirely to Religion and asceticism; the heavenly visions she had had from early childhood became more frequent
Scholasticism - Another one of its distinguishing featureg is the close relation between philosophy and Religion manifested in its literary products
Rhode Island - Fair-mindedness towards the Religion of the French allies brought tolerance in the wake of the Revolution, and in 1783 the obnoxious provisions of the law were repealed
Baptism, Holy - Holy Baptism isthe initiatory rite by which we are admitted into the fellowshipof Christ's Religion, admitted into His Church
Sabina, Poppaea - 6) has been urged to shew that she had embraced a foreign Religion
Christ in Modern Thought - It begins with Religion as actually experienced in personal life, and from that reaches, so far as it can, the thought of God and the nature of Christ; whereas the dogmatic method begins with the thought of God authoritatively given and passes on from that to Religion. In Religion he stood in line with the previous age. He shared the unhistorical views of the 18th cent, and its ‘rational’ Religion. What of personal Religion he knew, he knew intensely, as the class to which he belonged, the poorer citizen class, knows it; but, like that class also, with narrowness. On this general idea he constructs his conception of Christianity and Christ in his treatise, Religion within the Bounds of mere Reason (1793). ...
Opposition to Kant’s interpretation of Religion as mere ethics and of Christ as a Moral Example, impelled more genial minds like Hamann, Herder, Jacobi, and others to reactionary insistence on the immediacy of the religious consciousness and the speciality of the Christian revelation; but with neither critical nor philosophical depth. The immediate unity of God and man in the spirit in which Religion consists, came to Christ not by speculative philosophy or tradition as it does to us, but simply through His existence. Nature points to Him, and has in Him its final causes; history unfolds the aspects of His life; Religion experiences Him as personal freedom from personal evil. ...
The same idea is the essence of the Christian Religion. The whole course of history is the coming to consciousness of the Absolute as Spirit, an august process which culminates in Religion. Religion is the function of the human spirit through which the Absolute comes to full self-consciousness, and as such is the synthesis of finite and Infinite. Its highest form is the Christian Religion. ]'>[1] of Religion, English translation p. ...
It is unquestionable that the broad effect of such speculation was to evaporate the facts of Christianity, and to substitute a ‘somewhat else’ (ἔτερον εὐαγγέλιον) for the firm truths of a revealed Religion. By its insistence on the truth that the organon of Religion is not different in kind from that of philosophy, it has, so to speak, rehabilitated the validity of religious facts, the treatment of which with the contemptuous indifference characteristic of the previous age becomes hereafter an unphilosophical dogmatism. When Kant describes the essence of Religion as the recognition of all our duties as the commands of God, he says the same thing in balder language, in language less mystically attractive, than that of Schleiermacher when he asserts that the essence of the religious life is the sense of utter and all-round dependence on God. ’...
‘By religiosity—the inner power and spirit of Religion—I understand not an instinct groping towards the Divine, and not mere emotional devoutness; for God, if He be God, must be the very heart of life, of all thinking and all action, and not a mere object of devout passion or of belief. ’ Fundamentally this is Schleiermacher’s view, when he bases his thought on ‘experience’ (Reden uber die Religion). ...
Religion is the element of life whose influence penetrates all other parts of life. Religion is not a knowing; nor an action: it is a feeling. ‘Thus to see and find in all that lives and moves, in all becoming and change, in all action and suffering, thus to have and know life itself only in immediate feeling as this being, this is Religion
Jesuits - ...
JOY OF OUR Religion: as an Evidence of its Truth. What shall I render unto him for all his revelations and gifts to me? Were there no historical evidence of the truth of Christianity, were there no well-established miracles, still I should believe that the Religion propagated by the fishermen of Galilee is divine
Worship of God - (cultus Dei) Amounts to the same with what we otherwise call Religion. It preserves a sense of Religion in the mind, without which society could not well exist
Analogy of Faith - Is the proportion that the doctrines of the gospel bear to each other, or the close connection between the truths of revealed Religion, Romans 12:6 . " Of the analogy of Religion to the constitution and course of nature, we must refer our readers to bishop Butler's excellent treatise on that subject
Amorites - ...
Amorite culture laid at the root of Jerusalem's decadence, according to Ezekiel (Ezekiel 16:3 ,Amos 2:9-1034:45 ); and Amorite idolatry tainted the Religion of the Northern and Southern Kingdoms (1 Kings 21:26 ; 2 Kings 21:11 ). See also Canaan, History and Religion of ; Jebusites ; Babylon ; Syria ; Sihon
Jew, Jews, Jewess, Jewish, Jewry, Jews' Religion - ...
B — 1: Ἰουδαϊσμός (Strong's #2454 — Noun Masculine — ioudaismos — ee-oo-dah-is-mos' ) "Judaism," denotes "the Jews' Religion," Galatians 1:13,14 , and stands, not for their religious beliefs, but for their religious practices, not as instituted by God, but as developed and extended from these by the traditions of the Pharisees and scribes. In the Apocrypha it denotes comprehensively "the Government, laws, institutions and Religion of the Jews
Magi - This celebrated philosopher, called by the Persians Zerdusht, or Zaratush, began about the thirty-sixth year of the reign of Darius to restore and reform the magian system of Religion. He was not only excellently skilled in all the learning of the east that prevailed in his time, but likewise thoroughly versed in the Jewish Religion, and in all the sacred writings of the Old Testament that were then extant: whence some have inferred that he was a native Jew both by birth and profession; and that he had been servant to one of the prophets, probably Ezekiel or Daniel. But whatever may become of the authority of the whole or part of the Zendavesta, and with whatever fables the history of the reformer of the magian Religion may be mixed, the learned are generally agreed that such a reformation took place by his instrumentality. Jones, "reformed the old Religion by the addition of genii or angels, of new ceremonies in the veneration shown to fire, of a new work which he pretended to have received from heaven, and, above all, by establishing the actual adoration, of the supreme Being;" and he farther adds, "The reformed Religion of Persia continued in force till that country was conquered by the Musselmans; and, without studying the Zend, we have ample information concerning it in the modern Persian writings of several who profess it. ...
The old Religion of the Persians was corrupted by Sabianism, or the worship of the host of heaven, with its accompanying superstition. So great an improvement in the moral character and influence of the Religion of a whole nation as was effected by Zoroaster, a change which is not certainly paralleled in the ancient history of the Religion of mankind, can scarcely, therefore, be thought possible, except we suppose a divine interposition, either directly, or by the occurrence of some very impressive events. Now as there are so many authorities for fixing the time of Zoroaster or Zeratusht not many years subsequent to the death of the great Cyrus, the events connected with the conquest of Babylon may account for his success in that reformation of Religion of which he was the author. ...
The Persians, who had so vastly extended their empire by the conquest of the countries formerly held by the monarchs of Babylon, were thus prepared for such a reformation of their Religion as Zoroaster effected. This is sufficiently proved from the many points of similarity between his Religion and Judaism, though he should not be allowed to speak so much in the style of the Holy Scriptures as some passages in the Zendavesta would indicate. In this view the ancient Jews evidently considered the Jewish church as appointed not to preserve only but to extend true Religion
Persecution - is any pain or affliction which a person designedly inflicts upon another; and, in a more restrained sense, the sufferings of Christians on account of their Religion. Nor, when their brethren were fully discovered to have cast off the Religion of the synagogue, did the Jews find it easy to infuse into the breasts of the Roman magistrates that rancour and malice which they themselves experienced. Many things contributed toward it; as the laws of the empire, the emperor's zeal for his Religion, and aversion to Christianity, and the prejudices of the Pagans, supported by falsehoods and calumnies against the Christians. Some females, also, and particularly Biblias and Blandina, reflected honour both upon their sex and Religion by their constancy and courage. The most violent promoters of it were Hierocles the philosopher, who wrote against the Christian Religion, and Galerius, whom Diocletian had declared Caesar. Lactantius in particular has, with great force and beauty, delivered his opinion against persecution: "There is no need of compulsion and violence, because Religion cannot be forced; and men must be made willing, not by stripes, but by arguments. They are convinced that nothing is more excellent than Religion, and therefore think that it ought to be defended with force; but they are mistaken, both in the nature of Religion, and in proper methods to support it; for Religion is to be defended, not by murder, but by persuasion; not by cruelty, but by patience; not by wickedness, but by faith. If you attempt to defend Religion by blood, and torments, and evil, this is not to defend, but to violate and pollute it; for there is nothing that should be more free than the choice of Religion, in which, if consent be wanting, it becomes entirely void and ineffectual. ...
It was after Christianity had been established as the Religion of the empire, and after wealth and honour had been conferred on its ministers, that the monstrous evil of persecution acquired gigantic strength, and threw its blasting influence over the Religion of the Gospel
Christianity - But for 1800 years it has been the regular term for the Religion which claims Jesus Christ as its founder, and recognizes in His Person and work the sum and substance of its beliefs. It was inevitable that the Christian Religion in the course of its history should clothe itself in outward forms, but it is not to be identified with the forms it has assumed. We therefore hold that whatever Christianity is, it is not what certain modern writers describe as ‘the Religion of Jesus,’ but something very different; and that as it is not to be confounded with churchly dogmas and institutions, it is just as little to be identified with an ethical theism based on the beauty of Christ’s character and the pure precepts of His Sermon on the Mount. As a Religion appearing in history, Christianity had its historical relations and its historical roots . The modern study of Comparative Religion is enabling us to realize this as it has never been realized before; but the NT makes the general truth perfectly plain. In the pagan Religions we find many anticipations of Christianity, but in Judaism there is a definite and Divine preparation for it. But notwithstanding its historical connexions with the past, Christianity was a Religion absolutely new . It was this freedom of Jesus in dealing with the old Religion that astonished His hearers: ‘He taught them as having authority, and not as their scribes’ ( Matthew 7:28 f. His condemnation and crucifixion is the standing proof that He and His Religion did not grow out of Judaism by any process of natural evolution. 52); that Christianity was not a mere spiritualized Judaism, but a new and universal Religion recognizing no distinction between Jew and Greek, circumcision and uncircumcision, and seeing in Christ Himself the ‘all in all. ...
( b ) Christianity is the Religion not only of the revelation of God but of the redemption of man . ...
( c ) It follows from what has just been said that Christianity is the Religion of perfected character . Whatever may be the case with other faiths, Christianity permits of no divorce between Religion and morality. Unlike the Religions of the pagan world, Judaism was based upon a moral law of wonderful purity and breadth. ...
( d ) Christianity is the Religion of a regenerated society . What is it then that constitutes men Christians, and so translates the historical fact of the revelation of Jesus Christ into the Religion which has lived through the centuries and surrounds us to-day?...
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Formalism - As thought needs language and soul needs body, so the spirit of Religion can maintain, manifest and propagate itself, can relate itself to its environment, only as it is embodied in external form. Formalism in this proper sense of the word is to be distinguished from hypocrisy (the consciously fraudulent assumption of the externals of Religion), and other varieties of unreality in Religion. Paul’s controversy with the Judaizers, the issue was between a legal and a spiritual conception of Religion rather than between formalism and reality. As there are persons who make a convention of unconventionally, so in Religion repudiation of form may become only a different species of formalism
James, the Letter - The theme of the book is that practical Religion must manifest itself in works which are superior to those of the world. True Religion Is Developed by Trials and Testing (James 1:2-15 ). True Religion Is Initiated by Faith (James 1:16-2:26 ). True Religion Is Guided by Wisdom (James 3:1-18 ). True Religion Is Demonstrated by Works (James 4:1-5:12 ). True Religion Is Expressed in Prayer (1619112332_4 ). Prayer, including intercession, is a significant part of true Religion (James 5:13-16 )
Wisdom - ...
In pre-exilic Israel, however, ‘wisdom’ played a relatively small part in Religion. It was his to find the place of Religion in that situation and to make it the dominant element therein. The greatest sources of danger to true Religion were:” ( a ) an orthodoxy which held the ancient traditions inviolable and refused to see the facts of the present ( b ) the scepticism and discouragement arising out of the miseries of the time which seemed to deny the justice and goodness of God; and ( c ) the inroads of Greek civilization which seemed to threaten the whole fabric of Judaism. In a period when the licentious customs of the pagan world were finding eager acceptance in Judah, such a powerful and beautiful vindication of the character of unselfish love was urgently needed, and was calculated to play an important part in the preservation of true Religion. The author of the former is hospitable to Greek social life, but rigid in his adherence to the old Hebrew ideals of morals and Religion. It demonstrated irrefutably the vitality of the Hebrew Religion. Nationalistic, particularistic, transitory elements were discarded, and emphasis was laid upon the great fundamental concepts of Religion adapted to the needs of all men everywhere. ‘Wisdom’ thus became of the greatest importance in the preparation for Christianity, the universal Religion
Fetishism - (Latin: factitius, made by art) ...
 ...
A term first applied probably to the Religion of idols and amulets made by hand and supposed to possess magic power
Oblates, Orders of - (Latin: oblatus, past participle of offerre, to offer) ...
Communities of men or women, not professed monks or nuns, who have been offered to God, or have dedicated themselves to His service in holy Religion
Orders of Oblates - (Latin: oblatus, past participle of offerre, to offer) ...
Communities of men or women, not professed monks or nuns, who have been offered to God, or have dedicated themselves to His service in holy Religion
la Fontaine, Jean de - He had been elected a member of the French Academy, 1683, and had sincerely come back to the practise of his Religion, 1692
Malta Country - Ecclesiastical leadership has always been strong in Malta, and the place occupied by Religion in the lives of the people is demonstrated not only by the number of clergy and religious men and women, but also by the frequency of religious feasts and processions
Oath - As an appeal to the testimony of God, it is an act of Religion
Cecil, William, Baron Burghley - Pollen deems Cecil "a political genius of the first rank," but also declares him the most active and efficient, and therefore the most culpable, of all Elizabeth's cooperators in destroying the Religion of England
Censors of Books - Chiefly works on religious subjects or those which have a bearing on Religion are presented for censorship
Catholic Council For International Relations - " It endeavors to give Catholics in Great Britain a greater and more sympathetic knowledge of their fellow Catholics in other countries; to create a Catholic public opinion, informed by the tradition of the Church, which shall be a real power for international justice and peace; to enable Catholics to understand, appreciate, and when necessary, criticize from the standpoint of Religion, the international organizations and movements of the day
Catholic Survey - " It endeavors to give Catholics in Great Britain a greater and more sympathetic knowledge of their fellow Catholics in other countries; to create a Catholic public opinion, informed by the tradition of the Church, which shall be a real power for international justice and peace; to enable Catholics to understand, appreciate, and when necessary, criticize from the standpoint of Religion, the international organizations and movements of the day
Jean de la Fontaine - He had been elected a member of the French Academy, 1683, and had sincerely come back to the practise of his Religion, 1692
Jeanne Marie Bouvier de la Motte Guyon - According to her, "perfection consists in a perpetual act of contemplation and love, comprising in itself all the other acts of Religion
Hemerobaptists - These ambiguous Christians dwell in Persia and Arabia, and principally at Bassora; and their Religion consists in bodily washings, performed frequently and with great solemnity, and attended with certain ceremonies which the priests mingle with this superstitious service
Talapoins - the Talapons educate children, and at every new and full moon explain the precepts of their Religion in their temples: and, during the rainy season, they preach from six in the morning till noon, and from one in the afternoon till five in the evening
Mary Tudor - The old Religion regained its liberty but the fanaticism of many of the Reformers rendered stern measures necessary for the safety of the State
Gallio - They charged that Paul advocated an unlawful Religion (Acts 18:12-17 )
Nihil Obstat - Chiefly works on religious subjects or those which have a bearing on Religion are presented for censorship
North Carolina - He officiated in the home of Mrs Alexander Gaston, whose distinguished son, William Gaston, was to bring about the repeal, in 1835, of the article in the North Carolina Constitution of 1776 which kept from office "those who denied the truth of the Protestant Religion
Philadelphian Society - She embraced, it is said, the same views and the same kind of Religion as Madame Bourignon (...
See BOURIGNONISTS
Profession: the Vanity of Mere - Forget not that the pretence of Religion without the power of it is one of the most comfortless things in the world
Haiti - There was no hierarchy from 1804 until 1860 when a concordat was signed with Rome, guaranteeing the protection and support of the government for the Catholic Religion, which is the only source of order and progress in a country hampered by disorder, illiteracy, and instability
Ananias - He was a high priest of Israel, and is a type of one who gains great ascendancy in a religious organization, but is an enemy of grace, is opposed to JESUS as Lord, and seeks to turn men's hearts away from the Truth into a false Religion
Woman - ...
Matthew 13:33 (b) Here is a type of apostate Christendom, and false Religions. Every false Religion, in so-called Christendom, uses much of the Bible in their writings and utterances
Built - "...
Ezekiel 13:10 (a) This figure represents the building of false claims In a false Religion by false leaders
Conflict - In exercising the right of freemen, the man of Religion experiences no conflict between his duty and his inclination
Apron - Curtiss, Primitive Semitic Religion To-Day, London, 1902, p
Ecuador - Freedom of worship is granted to all and there is no official Religion
a'sa - He burnt the symbol of his grandmother Maachah's Religion and deposed her from the dignity of "king's mother,") and renewed the great altar which the idolatrous priests apparently had desecrated
Caraites - As to the practice of Religion, they differ from the rabbinists in the observance of the festivals, and keep the Sabbath with more strictness
Tudor, Mary - The old Religion regained its liberty but the fanaticism of many of the Reformers rendered stern measures necessary for the safety of the State
William Cecil, Baron Burghley - Pollen deems Cecil "a political genius of the first rank," but also declares him the most active and efficient, and therefore the most culpable, of all Elizabeth's cooperators in destroying the Religion of England
Widow - The humanity and justice of true Religion are shown in the Bible, as might be expected, by numerous indications that God and the friends of God sympathize with the sorrows, supply the wants, and defend the rights of the widow, Exodus 22:22-24 Deuteronomy 16:11 24:17,19 Psalm 68:5 Isaiah 1:17 10:2 Jeremiah 22:3 Matthew 23:14
Sacred - Relating to Religion or the worship of God used for religious purposes as sacred songs sacred music sacred history
Satan - Hence Satan is represented both as soliciting men to commit sin, and as the source, the efficient cause of impediments which are thrown in the way of the Christians Religion, or which are designed to diminish its efficacy in reforming the hearts and lives of men, and inspiring them with the hope of future bliss, Matthew 4:10 John 13:27 Romans 16:20 Ephesians 2:2
Hypocrisy - They thought that their show of Religion would impress people and please God, but it brought instead condemnation from Jesus (Matthew 6:2-5; Matthew 23:13-36; Luke 12:56)
Severus Sanctus - The others resolve to adopt a Religion which, according to his account, is at once profitable and easy
Idol - Use of idols in worship continued to be commonplace in Greek and Roman Religion. ...
One of the prominent distinguishing features of biblical Religion is its ideal of imageless worship
Subscription, Clerical - Subscription to articles of Religion is required of the clergy of every established church, and of some churches not established. But it has been a matter of dispute whether it answers any valuable purpose as to Religion, however necessary as a test to loyalty
Trance - Starbuck to be ‘the result of an over emphasis and irradiation of the relaxation and anaesthesia which begin in the higher centres, and work until consciousness is obliterated, and only the muscular centres are active, thus producing a cataleptic condition of the body’ (Psychology of Religion, p. Starbuck, The Psychology of Religion2, 1901; F. von Hügel, The Mystical Element of Religion, 2 vols
Countenance - ...
Let Religion enjoy the countenance of the laws. ...
If the profession of Religion were in countenance among men of distinction, it would have a happy effect on society
Pharisees - In respect to their tenets, although they esteemed the written books of the old Testament as the sources of the Jewish Religion, yet they also attributed great and equal authority to traditional precepts relating principally to external rites: as ablutions, fasting, long prayers, the distribution of alms, the avoiding of all intercourse with Gentiles and publicans, etc. In numerous cases Christ denounced the Pharisees for their pride and covetousness, their ostentation in prayers, alms, tithes, and facts, Matthew 6:2,5 Luke 18:9 , and their hypocrisy in employing the garb of Religion to cover the profligacy of their dispositions and conduct; as Matthew 23:1-39 Luke 16:14 John 7:48,49 8:9
Gentile - ...
God’s law prohibited Israelites from copying any Gentile customs that were likely to corrupt their Religion (Deuteronomy 18:9). Only by becoming converts to the Jewish Religion could they have hope of salvation (Matthew 23:15; Acts 2:10; see PROSELYTE)
Joining the Church - " And as they are more influenced by thespeech and methods of the various religious bodies which prevail intheir community than they are by the Church's teaching, they imaginethat something extraordinary is required; they feel as if they mustsomehow "have got" Religion; or they do not feel prepared to"experience Religion"; or else they don't know whether they will orwill not "join the Episcopal Church
Sad'Ducees - The growth of the Christian Religion. Again, while they were sunk in the lowest depths of depression, a new Religion, which they despised as a heresy and a superstition, was gradually making its way among the subjects of their detested conquerors, the Romans. To attempt to chock the progress of this new Religion among the Jews by an appeal to the temporary rewards and punishments of the Pentateuch would have been as idle as an endeavor to check an explosive power by ordinary mechanical restraints
Romans - Among those who witnessed the effect of the first effusion of the Holy Ghost are mentioned "strangers of Rome, Jews and proselytes," Acts 2:10 ; that is, persons of the Jewish Religion, who usually resided at Rome, but who had come to Jerusalem to be present at the feast of pentecost. Paul takes occasion to enlarge upon the nature of the Mosaic institution; to explain the fundamental principles and doctrines of Christianity; and to show that the whole human race, formerly divided into Jews and Gentiles, were now to be admitted into the Religion of Jesus, indiscriminately, and free from every other obligation. He then points out the superiority of the Christian over the Jewish Religion, and earnestly exhorts the Romans to abandon every species of wickedness, and to practice the duties of righteousness and holiness, which were now enjoined upon higher sanctions, and enforced by more powerful motives
Proselyte - In the language of the Jews, those were called by this name who came to dwell in their country, or who embraced their Religion, being not Jews by birth. The rabbins inform us that, before circumcision was administered to them, and before they were admitted into the Religion of the Hebrews, they were examined about the motives of their conversion; whether the change was voluntary, or whether it proceeded from interest, fear, ambition, &c. Jennings also observes that "there does not appear to be sufficient evidence in the Scripture history of the existence of such proselytes of the gate, as the rabbins mention; nor, indeed, of any who with propriety can be styled proselytes, except such as fully embraced the Jewish Religion
Sacrifice - By its generic element, sacrifice is an external act of the virtue of Religion (by which God is honored on account of His transcendent excellence) and belongs to the cult of latria. By its specific elements, sacrifice is marked off from other acts of the virtue of Religion. Revealed Religions, Judaism and Christianity, have public sacrifices only, which are at the same time cult sacrifices. Revealed Religion knows only one perfectly absolute sacrifice, that of the Cross, offered perpetually in the Mass; all others are referred to it as to their center either by a typical foreshadowing or by a mystical renewal
Reformation - As the right conceded in theory to each individual, to find his own Religion in the Bible, led in practise to religious anarchy, Luther placed his new Religion under the supreme authority of the state. In England the sensual despot, King Henry VIII, imposed a schism on the country; Edward VI introduced Protestantism; Mary Tudor, in hasty and harsh fashion, restored the Catholic Religion; and Queen Elizabeth, through executions and confiscations, definitively established Anglicanism
Back to Christ - Those who seek to go behind the creeds, back to the source of our Religion, proceed on the ground that the creeds do not represent, with any sufficient correctness or adequacy, either the conceptions that Jesus taught or the significance that His Person has for faith. The use which the creeds make of this idea is even more objectionable when considered from the standpoint of Religion. In no province is their importance so marked as in that of Religion. What are the contents of His consciousness, what are the facts in His history, which give to Him His meaning for faith, and which must be regarded as constituting His historical personality? We know Jesus from the Synoptic Gospels as the teacher of an ethical ideal supreme in its depth and height, and of a Religion of pure inwardness and spirituality. *
That the stream of Religion flows purer at its fountainhead than at its lower readies is a fact which the study of every historical Religion confirms. As a Religion advances through history, it loses something of its idealism and becomes more secular, takes up foreign elements, accumulates dogmas and ceremonies, parts with its simplicity and spontaneity, and becomes more and more a human construction. ...
The gospel of Jesus represents the crown of Religion; it is the highest and, in its innermost nature, the final stage of religious development. No other historical Religion can endure a moment’s comparison with it. And the Religions manufactured out of a few philosophical principles have still less claim to serious consideration, since they are wholly lacking in everything that gives a Religion vitality. It can be said with literal truth that, for any civilized community, the choice is not between Christianity and some other Religion, but between Christianity and no Religion at all. ...
While the Religion of Jesus is regarded as the one faith capable of meeting the need of this and of every age, it is not meant that it can he reproduced in every detail. At the same time, the unique significance of Jesus, not only in the history of Religion but also for the individual, is earnestly recognized. ’*
Fact And Theory - —Christianity is a Religion which comes to man from God. This would still be true apart from the fact of sin and the fact that Christianity is a Religion of redemption. The mere external facts apart from their meaning are, of course, meaningless, and therefore do not constitute Christianity; while the abandonment of the facts no less destroys the Christian Religion, reducing it to a mere natural Religion, or religious philosophy. The evidence for their trustworthiness is just the evidence for Christianity as a supernatural Religion, which, of course, takes us far beyond the limits of this article (cf. And this lies in the meaning of the great redemptive facts of the Christian Religion, or in the facts because of their meaning. This is the result of abandoning the principle of external authority in Religion. If we are to have any Christian Religion, we must have the great supernatural facts of Christianity and an authoritative interpretation of them. Whereas on this view revelation is only a product of the Religions life of man. This tendency reduces Christianity to a philosophy of Religion; the historical element being regarded as the ‘husk’ which contains the ‘kernel’ of eternal truths of reason. Hence all positive Religions were regarded as but outward expressions of the pure Religion of reason. blossen Vernunft) considered pure moral truth as the abiding kernel of all Religions. Thus historic Christianity is but one of the forms, albeit the highest, of bare natural Religion, in this case construed upon a pantheizing basis. According to the author, the fundamental error in Scripture is its identification of Jesus Christ with the Spirit of God, communion with whom is the essence of Religion. The Christian Religion is not a product of human ideas, but of a direct revelation of God to men, accompanying God’s direct interference in the downward course of the world caused by sin, which is a historic force. Thus, having abandoned all external authority, we lose the fact-basis as well as its Scripture interpretation, and are left with a philosophy of Religion. But these so-called eternal truths are either purely human, in which case they cannot be eternally valid truth; or else man’s thoughts about God must be held to be God’s thoughts about Himself, in which case even natural Religion vanishes in Pantheism. Thus in the essay already cited he says that the Christian Religion is historical, and that the eternal good which it offers is bound up with the person of Christ. ]'>[8]; also Les Religions d’Autorite’et la Religion de l’Esprit, 1900 Philo - Religion. He is a faithful, nay an enthusiastic, adherent of Judaism, both as a nation and as a Religion. His Religion has lost its national limitation: it has become a universal reasonable Religion. ...
But Philo’s Religion has borrowed new features from Hellenism, as, e. 6), but these are exceptions; with Philo such things are the rule: all Religion comes to perfection in the vision of God (Quis rer. -Philo was no prophet; he is interested not so much in Religion as in philosophy. The characteristic feature with Philo is the combination with Jewish Religion: as this rests on revelation, a certain character of authority alien to ancient philosophy is impressed upon Philo’s speculations. But his Religion inclines him towards asceticism: the ideal man is created sexless; sin arises when unity is split into male and female. They did not realize that he was neither the only nor the earliest representative of a Jewish Philosophy of Religion. Focke, ‘Die Entstehung der Weisheit Salomos,’ in Forschungen zur Religion und Literatur des Alten und Neuen Testaments, new ser. Nevertheless, Philo will always be a good witness to the amalgamation of OT Religion with Hellenistic thought. Bousset, Die Religion des Judentums2, Berlin, 1906, pp
Pietists - Pietism was set on foot by the pious and learned Spencer, who, by the private societies he formed at Francfort with a design to promote vital Religion, roused the lukewarm from their indifference, and excited a spirit of vigour and resolution in those who had been satisfied to lament in silence the progress of impiety. Many persons of good and upright intentions were highly pleased both with the proceedings and writings of Spencer; and, indeed, the greatest part of those who had the cause of virtue and practical Religion truly at heart, applauded the designs of this good man, though an apprehension of abuse retained numbers from encouraging them openly. Hence complaints arose against these institutions of pietism, as if, under a striking appearance of sanctity, they led the people into false notions of Religion, and fomented in those who were of a turbulent and violent character, the seeds and principles of mutiny and sedition. For this purpose they undertook to explain in their colleges certain books of holy Scripture, in order to render these genuine sources of religious knowledge better understood, and to promote a spirit of practical piety and vital Religion in the minds of their hearers. The novelty of this method drew attention, , and rendered it singulary pleasing to many; accordingly, these lectures were much frequented, and their effects were visible in the lives and conversations of several persons, whom they seemed to inspire with a deep sense of the importance of Religion and virtue. these apprehensions were justified by this important consideration, that the pious and well-meaning persons who composed these assemblies, had indiscreetly admitted into their community a parcel of extravagant and hot-headed fanatics, who foretold the approaching destruction of Babel (by which they meant the Lutheran church, ) terrified the populace with fictitious visions, assumed the authority of prophets honoured with a divine commission, obscured the sublime truths of Religion by a gloomy kind of jargon of their own invention, and revived doctrines that had long before been condemned by the church. Though few pretended to treat either with indignation or contempt, the intentions and purposes of these good men (which indeed, none could despise without affecting to appear the enemy of practical Religion and virtue, ) yet many eminent divines, and more especially the professors and pastors of Wittenberg, were of opinion, that, in the execution of this laudable purpose, several maxims were adopted, and certain measures employed, that were prejudicial to the truth, and also detrimental to the interests of the church. Hence arose those famous disputes concerning the use of philosophy; and the value of human learning, considered in connexion with the interest of Religion, the dignity and usefulness of systematic theology, the necessity of polemic divinity, the excellence of the mystic system, and also concerning the true method of instructing the people. Hence arose endless and intricate debates concerning the following questions: "Whether the religious knowledge acquired by a wicked man can be termed theology?" "Whether a vicious person can, in effect, attain a true knowledge of Religion?" "How far the office and ministry of an impious ecclesiastic can be pronounced salutary and efficacious?" "Whether a licentious and ungodly man cannot be susceptible of illumination?" and other questions of a like nature. Others were less extravagant, and tempered the singular notions they had derived from reading or meditation, with a certain mixture of the important truths and doctrines of Religion
Error - This is true especially with respect to all judgments of value, all questions of right and wrong, of duty and Religion. Erroneous thoughts of God and life, of duty and Religion, would all slowly disappear under the influence of this new devotion to Himself. His Religion was already fully organized. It could only react in antagonism towards one who offered a Religion of the spirit, a worship of the Father in spirit and in truth. The Pharisee did not know what to make of a renovating and inspiring call which bade him begin afresh, and completely revise his life and Religion in the light of a higher ideal. ‘While the Pharisaic spirit had changed Religion into a narrow and barren formalism, the gospel carefully distinguished the form from the essence in things religious
Chinese Rites - Father Matteo Ricci, SJ, founder of the Catholic missions of China, in his endeavor to be as tolerant as possible of Chinese customs which did not manifestly interfere with the purity of the Christian Religion, considered that these rites might be continued on the ground that they were not religious ceremonies
Knox, John - He violently opposed the policies and Religion of Mary, Queen of Scots, who had entered Scotland, 1561
Perfection - It is not necessary therefore to continue to offer His sacrifice, as is done in the offering of the Mass daily in the Catholic Religion
John Knox - He violently opposed the policies and Religion of Mary, Queen of Scots, who had entered Scotland, 1561
Magic - Magic was an inherent part of the ancient Egyptian Religion, and entered largely into their daily life
Elements - In the NT it is used of (a) the substance of the material world, 2 Peter 3:10,12 ; (b) the delusive speculations of gentile cults and of Jewish theories, treated as elementary principles, "the rudiments of the world," Colossians 2:8 , spoken of as "philosophy and vain deceit;" these were presented as superior to faith in Christ; at Colosse the worship of angels, mentioned in Colossians 2:18 , is explicable by the supposition, held by both Jews and Gentiles in that district, that the constellations were either themselves animated heavenly beings, or were governed by them; (c) the rudimentary principles of Religion, Jewish or Gentile, also described as "the rudiments of the world," Colossians 2:20 , and as "weak and beggarly rudiments," Galatians 4:3,9 , RV, constituting a yoke of bondage; (d) the "elementary" principles (the A
Holy Day - ) The advocates for holy days suppose that they have a tendency to impress the minds of the people with a greater sense of Religion; that if the acquisitions and victories of men be celebrated with the highest joy, how much more those events which relate to the salvation of man, such as the birth, death, and resurrection of Christ, &c
Samaritans - These strangers (Compare Luke 17:18 ) amalgamated with the Jews still remaining in the land, and gradually abandoned their old idolatry and adopted partly the Jewish Religion
Mary Stuart - In 1586 Mary was accused of complicity in Babington's conspiracy and executed, the main motive for such punishment being hatred of her Religion
Faith - ) That which is believed on any subject, whether in science, politics, or Religion; especially (Theol
Ishbosheth - ’ The change of Ish-baal , ‘man of Baal,’ into Ishbosheth , ‘man of the shameful thing,’ is ordinarily accounted for on the supposition ‘that the later Religion wished to avoid the now odious term Baal
Life: Spiritual - They possess all the externals of Religion, and every outward morality that you could desire; they behave with great propriety, they keep their places, and there is no outward difference between them and the true believer, except upon the vital point, the life which no power on earth can possibly confer
Battle - It is also indicative of his fight with the atheists of his day, who decried and denied his Religion and his GOD
Impulse - We must be careful how we are guided by impulses in Religion
Abomination - ]'>[2] , and opposed to the moral requirements and ritual of His Religion
Aquila - Paul, together with his wife Priscilla, to the Christian Religion
Rites, Chinese - Father Matteo Ricci, SJ, founder of the Catholic missions of China, in his endeavor to be as tolerant as possible of Chinese customs which did not manifestly interfere with the purity of the Christian Religion, considered that these rites might be continued on the ground that they were not religious ceremonies
Stuart, Mary - In 1586 Mary was accused of complicity in Babington's conspiracy and executed, the main motive for such punishment being hatred of her Religion
Worship - The worship of God is an eminent part of Religion
Baptism - All nations were to be evangelized; and they were to be made disciples, admitted into the fellowship of Christ's Religion, by baptism
Jew, Jewess - ...
The name is almost always regarded as a purely racial designation, marking off all who belonged to the ancient nation; but as the nation was distinguished from the heathen world by its religious views, the term came to signify one who was separated not only by race but by Religion from the rest of mankind. Their exclusive Religion and their contempt of the heathen kept them together as a community within the larger population where they found a home, and their capacity for commerce often enabled them to become extremely wealthy. The Jewish Religion was tolerated in the Roman Empire, being regarded as a religio licita; and, so long as Christianity grew up and flourished in the shelter of the synagogue, it too might be regarded as enjoying the same toleration. Probably, however, the popular hatred of the Jews, which was always smouldering and ready to burst forth at any moment among the excitable populace, was one of the first causes of Christian persecution, as it took some considerable time before Christianity was fully recognized as an independent Religion. Probably the expulsion of the Jews from Rome by Claudius (Acts 18:2) was the result of dissensions regarding the new Religion, which had sprung from Judaism and threatened to overwhelm it
Pharisees - They boasted that, from their accurate knowledge of Religion, they were the favourites of Heaven; and thus, trusting in themselves that they were righteous, despised others, Luke 11:52 ; Luke 18:9 ; Luke 18:11 . Hence they accounted causeless anger and impure desires as trifles of no moment, Matthew 5:21-22 ; Matthew 5:27-30 ; they compassed sea and land to make proselytes to the Jewish Religion from among the Gentiles, that they might rule over their consciences and wealth; and these proselytes, through the influence of their own scandalous examples and characters, they soon rendered more profligate and abandoned than ever they were before their conversion, Matthew 23:15 . John, John 2:6 , were destined: their fasting twice a week with great appearance of austerity, Luke 18:12 ; Matthew 6:16 ; thus converting that exercise into Religion which is only a help toward the performance of its hallowed duties: their punctilious payment of tithes, (temple-offerings,) even of the most trifling things, Luke 18:12 ; Matthew 23:23 . It is unquestionable, as Mosheim has well remarked, that the Religion of the Pharisees was, for the most part, founded in consummate hypocrisy; and that, at the bottom, they were generally the slaves of every vicious appetite, proud, arrogant, and avaricious, consulting only the gratification of their lusts, even at the very moment when they professed themselves to be engaged in the service of their Maker. These odious features in the character of the Pharisees caused them to be reprehended by our Saviour with the utmost severity, even more so than the Sadducees; who, although they had departed widely from the genuine principles of Religion, yet did not impose on mankind by a pretended sanctity, or devote themselves with insatiate greediness to the acquisition of honours and riches
Paul - But the most striking trait in his character is his enlarged view of the universal design and the spiritual nature of the Religion of Christ, and of its purifying and ennobling influence upon the heart and character of those who sincerely profess it. ...
Most of the other apostles and teachers appear to have clung to Judaism, to the rites, ceremonies, and dogmas of the Religion in which they had been educated, and to have regarded Christianity as intended to be engrafted upon the ancient stock, which was yet to remain as the trunk to support the new branches. Paul seems to have been among the first to rise above this narrow view, and to regard Christianity in its light, as a universal Religion. While others were for Judaizing all those who embraced the new Religion by imposing on them the yoke of Mosaic observances, it was Paul's endeavor to break down the middle wall of separation between Jews and Gentiles, and show them that they were all "one in Christ. These epistles, in which the principles of Christianity are developed for all periods, characters, and circumstances, are among the most important of the primitive documents of the Christian Religion, even apart from their inspired character; and although they seem to have been written without special premeditation, and have reference mostly to transient circumstances and temporary relations, yet they everywhere bear the stamp of the great and original mind of the apostle, as purified, elevated, and sustained by the influences of the Holy Spirit
Prophecy - They were preachers of morals and of spiritual Religion. The weight of prophecy as an evidence of the truth of the Religion of the Bible can hardly be overestimated
Fornication - ...
Israel's neighbors practiced a fertility Religion in which prostitution was part of the worship. He dealt with the problem particularly in writing the Corinthians who faced a society permeated with sexual Religion and the sexual sins of a seaport
Serve - , to the Religion of the Gentiles ("rudiments" being used in ver. 3 of the Religion of the Jews); (k) sin, Romans 6:6 , RV, "be in bondage" (AV, "serve"); (1) "divers lusts and pleasures," Titus 3:3 ; (m) negatively, to any man -- a proud and thoughtless denial by the Jews, John 8:33
Catholic Emancipation - To abolish the practise of the Catholic Religion in Great Britain a series of penal laws was enacted, beginning with the sanguinary measures of Elizabeth which were supplemented by less stringent but more effective acts until the time of George III. Catholic priests were ipso facto guilty of high treason; it was treason to become reconciled to the Church of Rome; children were denied education in the Catholic Religion and were disqualified from owning or acquiring property in any way if sent abroad to Catholic schools by their parents, who were fined for the offense; failure to attend the Established Church incurred a fine for recusancy, and a convicted recusant was outlawed; members of both houses of Parliament were obliged before taking their seats to denounce Transubstantiation, the Mass, and invocation of the saints as idolatrous. In 1791 another more extensive act was passed, imposing an oath to support the Protestant Succession, which when taken by Catholics freed them from persecution for the practise of their Religion, but full emancipation urged by Pitt and Fox was opposed by the bigotry of George III. An oath of allegiance was substituted for the Oath of Supremacy, Catholics could practise their Religion unmolested, sit in Parliament, vote for its members, hold any civilor military post, and own land; but the treaty was broken and a penal code enforced by the Protestant Parliament in Dublin
Emancipation, Catholic - To abolish the practise of the Catholic Religion in Great Britain a series of penal laws was enacted, beginning with the sanguinary measures of Elizabeth which were supplemented by less stringent but more effective acts until the time of George III. Catholic priests were ipso facto guilty of high treason; it was treason to become reconciled to the Church of Rome; children were denied education in the Catholic Religion and were disqualified from owning or acquiring property in any way if sent abroad to Catholic schools by their parents, who were fined for the offense; failure to attend the Established Church incurred a fine for recusancy, and a convicted recusant was outlawed; members of both houses of Parliament were obliged before taking their seats to denounce Transubstantiation, the Mass, and invocation of the saints as idolatrous. In 1791 another more extensive act was passed, imposing an oath to support the Protestant Succession, which when taken by Catholics freed them from persecution for the practise of their Religion, but full emancipation urged by Pitt and Fox was opposed by the bigotry of George III. An oath of allegiance was substituted for the Oath of Supremacy, Catholics could practise their Religion unmolested, sit in Parliament, vote for its members, hold any civilor military post, and own land; but the treaty was broken and a penal code enforced by the Protestant Parliament in Dublin
Chaldean Philosophy - Notwithstanding these causes of uncertainty, which perplex the researches of modern inquirers into the distinguishing doctrines and character of the Chaldean philosophy, it appears probable that the philosophers of Chaldea were the priests of the Babylonian nation, who instructed, the people in the principles of Religion, interpreted its laws, and conducted its ceremonies. Like the priests in most other nations, they employed Religion in subserviency to the ruling powers, and made use of imposture to serve the purposes of civil policy. These doctrines were the mysteries of the Chaldean Religion, imparted only to the initiated. Their popular Religion consisted in the worship of the sun, moon, planets, and stars, as divinities, after the general practice of the east, Job 31:27
Roman Catholic Relief Bill - To abolish the practise of the Catholic Religion in Great Britain a series of penal laws was enacted, beginning with the sanguinary measures of Elizabeth which were supplemented by less stringent but more effective acts until the time of George III. Catholic priests were ipso facto guilty of high treason; it was treason to become reconciled to the Church of Rome; children were denied education in the Catholic Religion and were disqualified from owning or acquiring property in any way if sent abroad to Catholic schools by their parents, who were fined for the offense; failure to attend the Established Church incurred a fine for recusancy, and a convicted recusant was outlawed; members of both houses of Parliament were obliged before taking their seats to denounce Transubstantiation, the Mass, and invocation of the saints as idolatrous. In 1791 another more extensive act was passed, imposing an oath to support the Protestant Succession, which when taken by Catholics freed them from persecution for the practise of their Religion, but full emancipation urged by Pitt and Fox was opposed by the bigotry of George III. An oath of allegiance was substituted for the Oath of Supremacy, Catholics could practise their Religion unmolested, sit in Parliament, vote for its members, hold any civilor military post, and own land; but the treaty was broken and a penal code enforced by the Protestant Parliament in Dublin
Christianity - the Religion of Christians. The lofty profession which Christianity makes as a Religion, and the promises it holds forth to mankind, entitle it to the most serious consideration of all. For it may in truth be said, that no other Religion presents itself under aspects so sublime, or such as are calculated to awaken desires and hopes so enlarged and magnificent. It represents all former dispensations of true Religion, all revelations of God's will, and all promises of grace from God to man, as emanating from the anticipated sacrifice and sacerdotal intercession of its Author, and as all preparatory to the introduction of his perfect Religion; and that as to the great political movements among the nations of antiquity, the rise and fall of empires were all either remotely or proximately connected with the designs of his advent among men. It professes to have completed the former revelations of God's will and purposes; to have accomplished ancient prophecies; fulfilled ancient types; and taken up the glory of the Mosaic Religion into its own "glory that excelleth;" and to contain within itself a perfect system of faith, morals, and acceptable worship. Such are the professions and promises of Christianity, a Religion which enters into no compromise with other systems; which represents itself as the only Religion now in the world having God for its author; and in his name, and by the hope of his mercy, and the terrors of his frown, it commands the obedience of faith to all people to whom it is published upon the solemn sanction, "He that believeth shall be saved, and he that believeth not shall be damned. Corresponding with these professions, which throw every other Religion that pretends to offer hope to man into utter insignificance, it is allowed that the evidence of its truth ought to be adequate to sustain the weight of so vast a fabric, and that men have a right to know that they are not deluded with a grand and impressive theory, but are receiving from this professed system of truth and salvation "the true sayings of God. ...
It is only necessary here to say, that the miracles to which Christianity appeals as proofs of its divine authority, are not only those which were wrought by Christ and his Apostles, but also those which took place among the patriarchs, under the law of Moses, and by the ministry of the Prophets; for the Religion of those ancient times was but Christianity in its antecedent revelations. A Pagan could draw, though not with lines so perfect, a beau ideal of virtue, which he never thought attainable; but the "full assurance of hope" is given by the Religion of Christ to all who are seeking the moral renovation of their nature; because "it is God that worketh in us to will and to do of his good pleasure. What then, we ask, does all this prove, but that the Scriptures are worthy of God, and propose the very ends which rendered a revelation necessary? Of the whole system of practical Religion which it contains we may say, as of that which is embodied in our Lord's sermon on the mount, in the words of one, who, in a course of sermons on that divine composition, has entered most deeply into its spirit, and presented a most instructive delineation of the character which it was intended to form: "Behold Christianity in its native form, as delivered by its great Author. Had Christianity done nothing more than brought into disuse, as it confessedly has done, the two former of these inhuman customs entirely, and the latter to a very great degree, it has justly merited the title of the benevolent Religion. ) For the illustration of this argument, we may observe, that the Christian Religion was introduced every where in opposition to the sword of the magistrate, the craft and interest of the priests, the pride of the philosophers, the passions and prejudices of the people, all closely combined in support of the national worship, and to crush the Christian faith, which aimed at the subversion of Heathenism and idolatry. ...
Moreover, this Religion was not propagated in the dark, by persons who tacitly endeavoured to deceive the credulous; nor delivered out by little and little, so that one doctrine might prepare the way for the reception of another; but it was fully and without disguise laid before men all at once, that they might judge of the whole under one view. Nor ought it to be forgotten that the Religion to which such numbers were proselyted, was an exclusive one. And now, without adding any more to this argument, we may ask, How could the Christian Religion have thus prevailed had it not been introduced by the power of God and of truth? And it has been supported in the world by the same power through a course of many ages, amidst the treachery of its friends, the opposition of its enemies, the dangers of prosperous periods, and the persecutions and violence of adverse circumstances; all which must have destroyed it, if it had not been founded in truth, and guarded by the protection of an almighty Providence
Church - The church visible "consists of all those throughout the world that profess the true Religion, together with their children. " A credible profession of the true Religion constitutes a person a member of this church. ...
The children of all who thus profess the true Religion are members of the visible church along with their parents
Hezekiah - The policies of Ahaz had left Judah economically weak, politically dominated by Assyria, and religiously corrupted through false Religions (see AHAZ). ...
Upon becoming king, Hezekiah set out on the bold task of strengthening the nation’s economy, overthrowing Assyrian domination, and reforming Judah’s Religion. He insisted, however, that before joining in the festival, people ceremonially cleanse themselves and remove all traces of false Religion from Jerusalem (2 Chronicles 30:13-22). ...
Having cleansed Jerusalem of false Religion, Hezekiah then cleansed the country areas (2 Chronicles 31:1)
Mani - Furthermore, this heresy boasted to have an answer to every question and to explain the deepest mysteries of the Christian Religion
Manichaeism - Furthermore, this heresy boasted to have an answer to every question and to explain the deepest mysteries of the Christian Religion
Manichaeus - Furthermore, this heresy boasted to have an answer to every question and to explain the deepest mysteries of the Christian Religion
Moore, Thomas - His prose works include: "History of Captain Rock and his Ancestors," dealing with English misrule of Ireland; "Life of Sheridan," 1825; "Life of Byron," 1830; "Life of Lord Edward Fitzgerald," 1831; and "Travels of an Irish Gentleman in Search of a Religion," 1834
Pharisees - There was much that was sound in their creed, yet their system of Religion was a form and nothing more
Baal - It was known to the Israelites as Baal-peor (Numbers 25:3 ; Deuteronomy 4:3 ), was worshipped till the time of Samuel (1 Samuel 7:4 ), and was afterwards the Religion of the ten tribes in the time of Ahab (1 Kings 16:31-33 ; 18:19,22 )
Nehemiah, Book of - ...
An account of the state of Religion among the Jews during this time (8-10)
Devotion - A religious and fervent exercise of some public act of Religion, or a temper and disposition of the mind rightly affected with such exercises
Doctrine - As the doctrines of the Bible are the first principles and the foundation of Religion, they should be carefully examined and well understood
Discipline - In ecclesiastical affairs, the execution of the laws by which the church is governed, and infliction of the penalties enjoined against offenders, who profess the Religion of Jesus Christ
Ointment - Those who walk with the Lord and live in His presence do have a heavenly fragrance about them that no Religion can give
Jehoshaphat - At first he strengthened himself against Israel, but soon afterward formed an alliance with Israel Jehoshaphat tried to put down the high places and groves in which the people of Judah burned incense, and sent the wisest Levites through the cities and towns to instruct the people in Religion
Arizona - After the Spanish missionaries had been driven out by Mexico in 1827, Religion suffered a severe setback until the appointment in 1853 of Right Reverend John B
Repentance - There may be, and there often is, a false repentance, which men of no Religion may possess, but which is as distinguishable from true repentance as darkness from light, when the principles of both are analyzed
Calf - Robertson, Early Religion of Israel, Edinburgh, 1892, pp
Conceit - By a little study and a great conceit of himself, he has lost his Religion
Conversion - A change from one Religion to another as the conversion of the Gentiles
Uncertainly - They are for some kinds of Religion, and also for some kinds of sin
Judging Rash - It argues a want of charity, the distinguishing feature of the Christian Religion
Illuminati (2) - They said further, that none of the doctors of the church knew any thing of Religion; that Paul and Peter were well-meaning men, but knew nothing of devotion; that the whole church lay in darkness and unbelief; that every one was at liberty to follow the suggestions of his conscience; that God regarded nothing but himself; and that within ten years their doctrine would be received all over the world; then there would be no more occasion for priests, monks, and such other religious distinctions
Thomas Moore - His prose works include: "History of Captain Rock and his Ancestors," dealing with English misrule of Ireland; "Life of Sheridan," 1825; "Life of Byron," 1830; "Life of Lord Edward Fitzgerald," 1831; and "Travels of an Irish Gentleman in Search of a Religion," 1834
Judah - One of the principal distinctions of this tribe is, that it preserved the true Religion, and the public exercise of the priesthood, with the legal ceremonies in the temple at Jerusalem; while the ten tribes gave themselves up to idolatry and the worship of the golden calves
Warm - Zealous ardent as, to be warm in the cause of our country or of Religion
Manichaeism - Furthermore, this heresy boasted to have an answer to every question and to explain the deepest mysteries of the Christian Religion
Jephthah - By vowing, and then offering, his daughter as a human sacrifice in return for God’s help towards victory, he was following the Religion of the false gods whom Israel worshipped (Judges 11:29-40; cf
Bread - For the use of leaven in bread and for its symbolism in Israelite Religion see LEAVEN; PASSOVER
Superstitious - Once more, δεισιδαιμονία is used of the Jewish Religion in Acts 25:19, and must there have been intended in a good sense. Paul would never have commenced a speech with a studied insult, but he was a man who said what he thought, and the word was most applicable to the popular Religion of the day
Evidence: Experimental - Now, let me tell you what Religion has done for me, and then tell me something better, or else you've cheated me out of the threepence which I paid to come in. Those who are young and foolish may believe you, but after what I have gone through I know there is a reality in Religion and it is no fancy
Confession of Faith - On the other hand, the advocates for them observe, that all the arts and sciences have been reduced to a system; and why should not the truths of Religion, which are of greater importance? ...
That a comendious view of the chief and most necessary points of the Christian Religion, which lie scattered up and down in the mind, as well also to hold forth to the world what are in general the sentiments of such a particular church or churches; they tend to discover the common friends of the same faith to one another, and to unite them; that the Scriptures seem to authorize and countenance them; such as the moral law, the Lord's prayer, the form of doctrine mentioned by Paul, Romans 6:17 ; and again, "the form of sound words, " in 2 Timothy 1:13 &c
Claudius - He put an end to the dispute which had for some time existed between the Jews of Alexandria and the other freemen of that city, and confirmed the Jews in the possession of their right of freedom, which they had enjoyed from the beginning, and every where maintained them in the free exercise of their Religion. ...
While the Apostle was thus detained, Felix, with his wife Drusilla, who was a Jewess, sent for him, and desired him to explain the Religion of Jesus Christ
Enoch - " This he did, not only by the exemplary tenor of his life, and by the attention which he paid to the outward duties of Religion, but by the soundness of his faith, and the purity of his heart and life: see Hebrews 11:5-6 . All the patriarchs are celebrated for their faith in this great truth, and for preserving this principle of Religion in the midst of a corrupt generation
Idolatry - Hebrew Religion is represented as beginning with Abraham, who forsook the idolatry, as well as the home, of his ancestors ( Genesis 12:1 , Joshua 24:2 ); but it was specially through the influence of Moses that Jehovah was recognized as Israel’s God. ...
(2) But, specially, certain ideas characteristic of Semitic Religion generally had a strong influence. (1) Common to all Canaanite Religions, apparently, was the worship of Baal as representing the male principle in nature. Two features of these Religions were prostitution [2] (cf. under Jezebel, it quite displaced Jehovism as the established Religion. ...
(2) The underlying principle of all such Religion was nature-worship. In Egypt which also exercised a sinister influence on the Hebrews Religion was largely of this type; but living animals, and not merely images of them, were there venerated. By this mixed race and Religion the Jews of the Return were seriously hindered, and there resulted the Samaritan schism which, in an attenuated form, still exists
Claim - His direct and indignant exposure is reserved for the attempt to give religious sanction to evaded duty (Mark 7:11), or where the name of Religion is made unlovely by the proud and harsh claims of those who profess it (Matthew 6:2; Matthew 23:4-7; Luke 7:37-38,43). ...
By the same use of current language and thought, Religion is a codification of things bound and free, prohibited and permitted (Matthew 16:19; Matthew 18:16). Rabbinical rules so far supersede the commandments of God that Christ can be condemned as an enemy to Religion (Matthew 23:13-39, Mark 3:10; Mark 7:5; Mark 7:9; Mark 10:5; Mark 11:17, Luke 13:14). In that jaded and disenchanted day the most popular and reasoned Religion could only unite gods and men in the creed of avoided care. The Jew despised the Gentile as ‘flesh and blood,’ humanity without Religion; the Gentile saw in the Jew the negation of all social instinct, the genius of unnatural hate, Religion without humanity
Amos - Despite the contradictory nature of those circumstances, the debauched moral condition of the land was the product of both corrupt Religion and perverted material prosperity. The dynamism of personal religious experience gave way to the superficiality of institutional Religion as demonstrated in the conflict between Amos and Amaziah, the priest of Bethel (Amos 7:10 ). God condemns empty Religion (Amos 3:1-15 ). Centers of empty Religion and ill-gotten prosperity will all fall (Amos 3:13-15 ). An overripe, rotten Religion is worthless (Amos 8:1-3 )
Layman - Organizations of laymen have always been a powerful arm of the clergy, and individual laymen in every country have been distinguished champions of Religion in political life, journalism, literature, education, and social and professional matters
Pharaoh - ...
An ancient pharaoh was an absolute monarch, supreme commander of the armies, chief justice of the royal court, and high priest of all Religion
Isaiah - Jewish tradition makes him a martyr for his Religion some time after 693
Isaias - Jewish tradition makes him a martyr for his Religion some time after 693
Happiness - Young's Centaur, 41 to 160; Wollaston's Religion of Nature, sec
Theatre - Only in course of time did the theatre become a place of amusement entirely, divorced from all connexion with Religion
Imagination - Unfortunately most people live more by imagination than by intellect; hence the misconceptions, misjudgments, prejudices, and even fears, or phobias, particularly in matters of Religion
Mosque - Most of the mosques have a kind of hospital, in which travellers of what Religion soever are entertained three days
Micah - They then continued their journey and established Micah’s idolatrous Religion in their new homeland (Judges 18:27; Judges 18:31)
Eunice - ]'>[2] ), and she was in all likelihood the mother of Eunice, Some have put forward the conjecture that, as both Lois and Eunice are Greek names, the women were Jewish proselytes, but this is improbable; nor is it likely that the father of Timothy was in any way attached to the Jewish Religion
Inheritance - The chief difference between the ordinary ancient and the ordinary modern conception of inheritance is this: We have more regard to the mere change in the ownership of certain property which takes place: the ancient civilized races looked rather to the position of the heir as executor and administrator of the deceased’s property, and as the person who, being clothed, so to speak, with the personality of the deceased, took upon himself all the obligations of the testator, as well as the continuance of his race and the perpetuation of his family Religion
Poverty - evidential of true Religion, Luke 17:13
Ambassador - The Sardinian, Neapolitan, Venetian, Bavarian, Portuguese, and Spanish ambassadors had their private chapels in London even when the Catholic Religion was proscribed in England
Eat - ...
Their word will eat out the vitals of Religion, corrupt and destroy it
Humble - ...
Without a humble imitation of the divine author of our blessed Religion, we can never hope to be a happy nation
Polytheism - Baal was the god of rain and exercised a powerful influence over the Religion of many pagan cultures and even into the Jewish community
Academics - A consideration of the principles of these two sects (see EPICUREANS) will lead us to form an idea of the deplorable state of the world at the time of Christ's birth; and the necessity there was of some divine teacher to convey to the mind true and certain principles of Religion and wisdom
Influences, Divine - ...
See William's Historic Defence of Experimental Religion; Williams's Answer to Belsham, let
Ercole Consalvi - Consalvi was one of the greatest papal statesmen, devoted to works of charity and Religion, unselfish and disinterested
Abaddon - He shows that the rise and progress of the Mohammedan Religion and empire exhibit a signal accomplishment of this prophecy
Ezekiel - Ezekiel was noted for his stern and inflexible energy of will and character and his devoted adherence to the rites and ceremonies of his national Religion
Sadducees - The Sadducees disregarded all the traditions and unwritten laws which the Pharisees prized so highly, and professed to consider the Scriptures as the only source and rule of the Jewish Religion
Philosophists - A name given to several persons in France who entered into a combination to overturn the Religion of Jesus, and eradicate from the human heart every religious sentiment. Full of this project, he swore before the year 1730 to dedicate his life to its accomplishment; and, for some time, he flattered himself that he should enjoy alone the glory of destroying the Christian Religion. king of Prussia, who wished to be thought a philosopher, and who, of course, deemed it expedient to talk and write against a Religion which he had never studied, and into the evidence of which he had probably never deigned to inquire. The books, however, that were issued from this club were calculated to impair and overturn Religion, morals, and government; and which indeed, spreading over all Europe, imperceptibly took possession of public opinion
Sacrament - It is a Latin word; and, agreeably to its derivation, it was applied by the early writers of the western church to any ceremony of our holy Religion, especially if it were figurative or mystical. It is conceived that the sacraments are not essentially distinct from any other rites or ceremonies; that, as they consist of a symbolical action, in which something external and material is employed to represent what is spiritual and invisible, they may by this address to the senses be of use in reviving the remembrance of past events, and in cherishing pious sentiments; but that their effect is purely moral, and that they contribute, by their moral effect, to the improvement of the individual in the same manner with reading the Scriptures, and many other exercises of Religion. This doctrine, like all other parts of the Socinian system, represents Religion in the simple view of being a lesson of righteousness, and loses sight of that character of the Gospel, which is meant to be implied in calling it a covenant of grace. According to this account of the sacraments, the express institution of God is essentially requisite to constitute their nature; and in this respect sacraments are distinguished from what may be called the ceremonies of Religion
Ugarit - An important city in Syria whose excavation has provided tablets giving the closest primary evidence available for reconstructing the Canaanite Religion Israel faced. ...
The most significant discoveries at Ugarit for the study of both history and Religion are the discoveries of the epigraphic materials. ...
The Religious Texts The poetic mythological texts and poetic legends have elicited the greatest interest because of the information they provide about Canaanite Religion. Fertility Religion consisted in part of various magical and ritual practices designed to bring Baal back to life. Religion. All in all, the texts from Ugarit give a rather full picture of the type of fertility Religion, characteristic of an agricultural people, which many Israelites adopted in most periods of Israelite history
Nationality - He was loth to discount the value of nationality by admitting a Syrophœnician woman, an alien both in race and in Religion, to an equal claim on His brief ministry with the elect people (Matthew 15:24; Matthew 15:26). ...
But with all this tenderness for the obligations of Jewish Religion as ties, He resented them as bonds. Thus nationality and Religion were virtually the same thing, where either meant anything, and where Rome had not obliterated them both by the triumph of material force and the deification by the reigning Emperor. It was to the sacred union of these two ideas of nationality and Religion that Jesus was sacrificed. But the sacrifice enabled Religion to pass into the higher stage of association with humanity (cf. What nationality had hitherto done for Religion, in providing the scope for its practice of social ethics, humanity was to do henceforth
Preaching - We have a very short account of this prophet and his doctrine; enough, however, to convince us that he taught the principal truths of natural and revealed Religion. When the ignorant notions of Pagans, the vices of their practice, and the idolatry of their pretended worship, were in some sad periods incorporated into the Jewish Religion by the princes of that nation, the prophets and all the seers protested against this apostasy; and they were persecuted for so doing. Some of them opened schools, or houses of instruction; and there to their disciples they taught the pure Religion of Moses. In a word, preaching flourished when pure Religion grew; and when the last decayed, the first was suppressed. ...
When the Jews were carried captive into Babylon, the prophets who were with them inculcated the principles of Religion, and endeavoured to possess their minds with an aversion to idolatry; and, to the success of preaching, we may attribute the re-conversion of the Jews to the belief and worship of one God; a conversion that remains to this day. They confined their attention to Religion, and left the schools to dispute, and politicians to intrigue. ...
But the glorious Reformation was the offspring of preaching, by which mankind were reformed; there was a standard, and the Religion of the times was put to the trial by it. " They also taught the people what little they knew of Christian liberty; and so led them into a belief that they might follow their own ideas in Religion, without the consent of a confessor, a diocesan, a pope, or a council. They went farther, and laid the stress of all Religion on justifying faith. ...
The preceding sketch will show how mighty an agent preaching has been in all ages, in raising, and maintaining, and reviving the spirit of Religion
Convert - ) To change or turn from one belief or course to another, as from one Religion to another or from one party or sect to another
Samaritans - They were instructed in a form of the Hebrew Religion (which they grafted on to their own worships) in order to appease the ‘God of the land’ ( 2 Kings 17:24 )
Massachusetts - The presence of a few Irish families in Boston was noted in 1732, and numbers of exiled Acadians were transported to Massachusetts in 1755, but it was not until the Revolution had forced the need of consideration for the Religion of America's French allies that tolerance was achieved
Christendom - Since the confusion caused by the Reformation the word Christian has come to express our common civilization, rather than a Religion which so many Europeans no longer profess
Abednego - " This was an illustrious instance of the courageous and hallowed spirit of martyrdom; and the interposition was no doubt designed to encourage, the Jews while in captivity, living among idolaters, to hold fast their Religion
lo-Ammi - " The three children symbolize successive generations:...
(1) Jezreel represents the dynasty of Jeroboam I, ending with Jehu's shedding the blood of the last of the line at Jezreel;...
(2) Lo-ruhamah, a daughter, represents the effeminate period which followed;...
(3) Loammi, a son, represents Jeroboam II's vigorous dynasty, which however brought no revival of Religion; still Israel was not God's people really, and so should be no longer so in name but cast away
Strangled - Religion of the Semites (W
Hattemists - The founders of these sects deduced from the doctrine of absolute decrees a system of fatal and uncontrollable necessity; they denied the difference between moral good and evil, and the corruption of human nature; from whence they farther concluded, that mankind were under no sort of obligation to correct their manners, to improve their minds, or to obey the divine laws; that the whole of Religion consisted not in acting, but in suffering; and that all the precepts of Jesus Christ are reducible to this one, that we bear with cheerfulness and patience the events that happen to us through the divine will, and make it our constant and only study to maintain a permanent tranquillity of mind
Euchites - The same denomination was used in the twelfth century to denote certain fanatics who infested the Greek and Eastern churches, and who were charged with believing a double trinity, rejecting wedlock, abstaining from flesh, treating with contempt the sacraments of baptism and the Lord's supper, and the various branches of external worship, and placing the essence of Religion solely in external prayer; and maintaining the efficacy of perpetual supplications to the Supreme Being for expelling an evil being or genius, which dwelt in the breast of every mortal
Menahem - In Religion "he departed not all his days from the sins of Jeroboam who made Israel to sin
Bourignonists - She believed also that man is perfectly free to resist or receive divine grace; that God is ever unchangeable love towards all his creatures, and does not inflict any arbitrary punishment; but that the evils they suffer are the natural consequence of sin; that Religion consists not in outward forms of worship nor systems of faith, but in an entire resignation to the will of God
Fathers, the - Gregory of Rome,—the Fathers respectively ofher monastic system, of her sacerdotal authority, of her scientificTheology and of her popular Religion
Golden Calf - ...
Ancient Near Eastern Background and Biblical References Living bulls were important in the Religion of some regions of ancient Egypt, and bull images appear in the art and religious texts of Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, Phoenicia, and Syria
Ignorance - In the OT, indeed, the knowledge of God is often spoken of as equivalent to true Religion (see Knowledge), and therefore ignorance is regarded as its opposite ( 1 Samuel 2:12 , Hosea 4:1 ; Hosea 6:6 )
Louis Xiv - He was much occupied with Religion, and was continually coming into conflict with the papacy
Diaspora - As a rule, they were allowed to practice their own Religion without interference
Religious Life: Not Mere Imitation - True grace, like a truly soldierly spirit, guides its possessor as emergencies arise, but that mimicry of Religion which only follows precedents is to be despised
Nature - ...
See Religion
Christian - ...
Then the Gentiles needed a new name to designate people who were Jews, neither by birth nor Religion
Robbers of Churches - The Revised Version substitutes the word ‘temples’ for ‘churches,’ but this is also a mis-translation, and there is strong evidence in favour of Ramsay’s view that the passage should be translated thus-‘guilty neither in act nor in language of disrespect to the established Religion of the city
Will (2) - Fairbairn, The Philosophy of the Christian Religion; Ritschl, Justification and Reconciliation; and Philosophical and Theological works in general
Chaldea - See Babylon, History and Religion of
Valentinians - And in this manner did they romance concerning God, nature, and the mysteries of the Christian Religion
Greece - The Greek Orthodox is the Religion of the state and all activities detrimental to it are forbidden, though freedom of worship is granted to all denominations
Argentina - Christianity was introduced by the Spanish explorers in the 16th century, and today Catholicism is the established Religion, required for the presidency, though freedom of worship is granted by the constitution to all others
Glycerius, a Deacon in Cappadocia - The scandal of such a band wandering about under pretence of Religion, singing hymns, and leaping and dancing in a disorderly fashion, was increased by the fact that a fair was going on, and the young women were exposed to the rude jests of the rabble
Alexander the Great - See Greece, Religion and Society of and Alexandria
Assyria - Their Religion and civilization were in many respects identical with that of Babylonia, their language belonged to the Semitic family, closely related to the Hebrew, and they had a cuneiform (Latin: cuneus, wedge) system of writing
Church - The collective body of Christians, who have made a public profession of the Christian Religion, and who are untied under the same pastor in distinction from those who belong to the same parish, or ecclesiastical society, but have made no profession of their faith
Jezebel - Jezebel’s evil influence in the land of Israel, especially in combating the Religion of Jahweh in the Interests of Baal-worship, was exercised not only during the twenty-two years of Ahab’s reign, but also during the thirteen years of the rule of her two sons, Ahaziah and Joram; moreover, this influence extended, though in a less degree, to the Southern Kingdom of Judah, where Athaliah, the daughter of Jezebel, seems to have followed in the footsteps of her mother ( 2 Kings 8:18 )
Philemon - The attractive power of such a Religion proved its divine origination, and speedily, in spite of persecutions, won the world
Latitudinarian - ...
As to the doctrinal part of Religion, they took the system of Episcopius for their model, and, like him, reduced the fundamental doctrines of Christianity to a few points; and by this manner of proceeding they endeavoured to show the contending parties, that they had no reason to oppose each other with such animosity and bitterness, since the subjects of their debates were matters of an indifferent nature with respect to salvation
Liberty - Liberty of conscience is freedom from restraint in our choice of, and judgment about matters of Religion
Love, Brotherly - By establishing each other in the truth; by conversation, exhortation, and stirring up one another to the several duties of Religion, both public and private, Judges 1:20-21
Ecclesiastical Property - Jesus Christ instituted the Church as a perfect, independent, and visible society whose end is the sanctification and salvation of men, to be accomplished by the exercises of Religion
England, John - A pioneer in intellectual activities as well as in Religion, he organized in 1823 a Book Society, designed to have branches in each congregation, founded the same year the "United States Catholic Miscellany," the first Catholic newspaper in the United States, and established a seminary and College called "The Philosophical and Classical Seminary of Charleston," of which he was president and chief teacher
Medes, Media - The Medes and Persians are considered to have been branches of the Aryan race and were one in origin, language, Religion, etc
Christian - a follower of the Religion of Christ
Dispensations - Accordingly, we read in the works of theological writers of the various dispensations of Religion; that of the patriarchs, that of Moses, and that of Christ, called the dispensation of grace, the perfection and ultimate object of every other
Almah - ...
The Jews, that they may obscure this plain text, and weaken this proof of the truth of the Christian Religion, pretend that the Hebrew word signifies a young woman, and not a virgin
Reformatories - The role of Religion in such work is everywhere admitted
Sarids - The church in Sardis was reproached by our Savior for its declension in vital Religion
Ethiopia - As this courtier is said to have gone up to Jerusalem "to worship," he was probably a Jew by Religion, if not by birth
Sisters of Saint Joseph - " A number of young women, eager for social service in Religion, offered themselves and were received by the bishop as the first members of the congregation
Faith - But a living or saving faith not only believes the great doctrines of Religion as true, but embraces them with the heart and affections; and is thus the source of sincere obedience to the divine will, exhibited in the life and conversation
Lord's Prayer, - "This prayer contains four great general sentiments, which constitute the very soul of Religion, --sentiments which are the germs of all holy deeds in all worlds
Wise, Wiser, Wisely - ...
B — 1: μάγος (Strong's #3097 — Noun Masculine — magos — mag'-os ) denotes "a Magian," one of a sacred caste, originally Median, who apparently conformed to the Persian Religion while retaining their old beliefs; it is used in the plural, Matthew 2:1,7,16 (twice), "wise men
Tradition - A term used in the Thirty-fourth Article of Religion todenote customs, rites, forms and ceremonies of the Church which havebeen transmitted by oral communications or long established usage,and which though not commanded in so many words in Holy Scripture,yet have always been used and kept in the Holy Catholic Church. , the witnessthat the Church bears by the writings of the Fathers and theenactments of her General Councils to the Truths of the ChristianReligion and the interpretation of Holy Scripture
Jew - ...
By the time that he wrote the Jews had definitely rejected the gospel offered to them by the apostles at home and abroad (1 Thessalonians 2:14-16); so they are no longer regarded as the covenant people, the kingdom of God having passed from them to the Gentiles (Acts 13:45-46) The destruction of Jerusalem and the temple formally effected the transference, forever since the Jew professes a Religion enjoining what God's providence makes it impossible for him to fulfil, namely, the observance of the great feasts and the sacrificial system in the temple at Jerusalem
Pagan - (Latin: paganus, villager, rustic) ...
an expression of early Christians for heathen and heathenism, since the old idolatrous beliefs and practises lingered in country places after Christianity became common in the cities
one who does not acknowledge the true God and practises idolatry
natural Religion tending to degenerate because unaided by true Religion, distorting the knowledge of God and gradually accepting belief in many false gods, resting morality on uncertain principles and therefore degrading it
condition of humanity with which the Church had to struggle for a thousand years, gradually substituting in the more enlightened world a Christian civilization for what had survived of the old pagan and later Greco-Roman civilizations of more than five thousand years. , hostile civilgovernments; strong racial traditions in favor of false Religions; prevalence of corrupt moral practises, such as polygamy; but as all these obstacles have often been overcome by devout and courageous Apostles, the greatest difficulty must be considered to be the lack of a sufficient number of missionaries
Paganism - (Latin: paganus, villager, rustic) ...
an expression of early Christians for heathen and heathenism, since the old idolatrous beliefs and practises lingered in country places after Christianity became common in the cities
one who does not acknowledge the true God and practises idolatry
natural Religion tending to degenerate because unaided by true Religion, distorting the knowledge of God and gradually accepting belief in many false gods, resting morality on uncertain principles and therefore degrading it
condition of humanity with which the Church had to struggle for a thousand years, gradually substituting in the more enlightened world a Christian civilization for what had survived of the old pagan and later Greco-Roman civilizations of more than five thousand years. , hostile civilgovernments; strong racial traditions in favor of false Religions; prevalence of corrupt moral practises, such as polygamy; but as all these obstacles have often been overcome by devout and courageous Apostles, the greatest difficulty must be considered to be the lack of a sufficient number of missionaries
Napoleon i - During his consulship the Concordat with the Holy See, 1801, was passed as a law with the Organic Articles, establishing Catholicity as the state Religion. On his request, Pius sent him a chaplajn, to whom he said, 1821, "I was born in the Catholic Religion
Laodicea - The "lukewarm" state, if the transitional stage to a warmer, is desirable (for a little Religion, if real, is better than none), but fatal when an abiding state, for it is mistaken for a safe state (Revelation 3:17). The danger is of disregarded principle; Religion enough to lull the conscience, not to save the soul; halting between two opinions (1 Kings 18:21; 2 Kings 17:41; Ezekiel 20:39; Matthew 6:24)
Cross - The ensign of the Christian Religion and hence figuratively, the Religion itself
Isaacus, Donatist Martyr - Neither can we doubt that the cause for which these men suffered was essentially one of Religion. Augustine compares such cases to that of Hagar, and elsewhere argues in favour of the duty of the state as the guardian of truth to repress heresy and insinuates that those guilty of this offence are punished not so much on account of Religion as of treason or disloyalty; but we must bear in mind that (1) the proceedings here related took place six years before St
Infidelity - Want of faith in God, or the disbelief of the truths of revelation, and the great principles of Religion. Hall justly observes, "We have nothing to fear; for, to an attentive observer of the signs of the times, it will appear one of the most extraordinary plaenomena of this eventful crisis, that, amidst the ravages of atheism and infidelity, real Religion is on the increase; for while infidelity is marking its progress by devastation and ruin, by the prostration of thrones and concussion of kingdoms, thus appalling the inhabitants of the world, and compelling them to take refuge in the church of God, the true sanctuary; the stream of divine knowledge, unobserved, is flowing in new channels; winding its course among humble valleys, refreshing thirsty deserts, and enriching, with far other and higher blessings than those of commerce, the most distant climes and nations; until, agreeably to the prediction of prophecy, the knowledge of the Lord shall fill and cover the whole earth
Kulturkampf - ...
(2) A second cause that led to the Kulturkampf was the strong feeling that the national unity was incomplete so long as the Germans were divided in Religion. Both the Protestant and the Liberal Party united in the opinion that a permanent political unity of Germany depended absolutely on unity of Religion, language and education. " A twofold attempt on the life of Emperor William demonstrated that by suppressing the Church and Religion, the basis of the social order had suffered
Fear - ...
This was the Religion of the devout Jew, and when the Gentile, dissatisfied alike with the old gods of Olympus and the cold abstractions of philosophy, came to the synagogues of the ‘dispersion’ in search of a higher faith and a purer morality, he was taught to ‘fear God. The Religion of law, in which God was a Sovereign to be obeyed and a Judge to be dreaded, was consummated by the Religion of love, in which God is a Father and Christ a Saviour-Brother, It is the distinctive message of Christianity that God wills men to serve Him without fear (ἀφόβως, Luke 1:74), with a love which casts out fear (1 John 4:18), with a boldness which seeks His immediate presence (Hebrews 10:19), with a freedom and familiarity which prompt the cry ‘Abba, Father’ (Romans 8:15)
Evolution - With regard to the human soul Catholic philosophers hold on purely natural grounds, independently of Religion and revelation, that the rational soul cannot be generated even by the human parents, but must be directly created. Such monistic philosophy is certainly opposed to Religion which requires an adequate distinction between Creator and creature. Many proponents of this philosophy pretend that their only opponent is revealed Religion, whereas in all honesty both unbiased reason and impartial science are implacable foes of monistic evolution
Phoeni'ce, Phoenic'ia - ( 2 Samuel 5:11 ; 1 Kings 5:9,17,18 ) The Religion of the Phoenicians, opposed to Monotheism, was a pantheistical personification of the forces of nature and in its most philosophical shadowing forth of the supreme powers it may be said to have represented the male and female principles of production. ...
The Phoenician Religion had in other respects an injurious effect on the people of Palestine, being in some points essentially demoralizing, For example, it mentioned the dreadful superstition of burning children as sacrifices to a Phoenician god. Again, parts of the Phoenician Religion, especially the worship of Astarte, fended to encourage dissoluteness in the relations of the sexes, and even to sanctify impurities of the most abominable description
Fear - ...
This was the Religion of the devout Jew, and when the Gentile, dissatisfied alike with the old gods of Olympus and the cold abstractions of philosophy, came to the synagogues of the ‘dispersion’ in search of a higher faith and a purer morality, he was taught to ‘fear God. The Religion of law, in which God was a Sovereign to be obeyed and a Judge to be dreaded, was consummated by the Religion of love, in which God is a Father and Christ a Saviour-Brother, It is the distinctive message of Christianity that God wills men to serve Him without fear (ἀφόβως, Luke 1:74), with a love which casts out fear (1 John 4:18), with a boldness which seeks His immediate presence (Hebrews 10:19), with a freedom and familiarity which prompt the cry ‘Abba, Father’ (Romans 8:15)
Revelation - All these aspects of revelation are usually summed up in the term ‘natural Religion,’ and do not touch the specific meaning of revelation which is associated with Christianity. ( b ) Historically , the Christian revelation comes to us commended by its witnesses in (1) miracle, (2) prophecy, and (3) spiritual adaptation to human nature, ( c ) Behind all these are the presuppositions of natural Religion as seen in nature, man, and history, ( d ) But ultimately the credibility of Christianity as a revelation rests on the Person of its Founder , and all evidences converge towards and centre in Him. The genuineness of Christianity does not necessarily disprove the genuineness of other Religions as ‘broken lights. The real criterion of all Religions claiming to he Divine is their power to save. It is not truth in itself, but truth as exemplified in human life and delivering from sin, that constitutes the final proof of a Religion. Christianity is primarily a Religion of facts rather than of truths, the doctrines only arising out of the facts. Christianity, therefore, like Judaism before it, is a book Religion (though it is also much more), as recording and conveying the Divine manifestation to man. As there is so little known about primitive man, so also there must be about primitive Religion. All analogy favours the idea that primitive revelation was such a manifestation of God when man was created as would he sufficient to maintain a true relation with Him, that at the Creation man had an immediate capacity, however immature, of entering into fellowship with God; and with this Religions endowment we may assume a measure of Divine revelation sufficient to enable man to worship in an elementary way, and to keep true to God. Without some such assumption, all idea of revelation vanishes, and Religion is resolved into merely human conceptions of God. The difficulties urged by some writers on the philosophy of Religion against primitive revelation arise out of the assumption that all revelations are mere natural processes. It is the Religion of redemption, including salvation from sin, equipment for holiness, and provision for life to be lived in fellowship with God and for His glory
Dispersion - ‘The Law and the Prophets and the Psalms’ went with them everywhere, but ‘in the Greek Diaspora … strict canonicity was accorded only to the Torah’ (Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics ii. As may be inferred from the fact already mentioned, that strict canonicity was accorded only to the Torah, they carried abroad with them an intensely legal conception of their Religion. The Septuagint itself was the outcome of the keen desire to make their Religion understood, as well as to guard and preserve it from influences hostile to it. The favourable reception which it met with brought to the front an aspect of their Religion yet scarcely apprehended, viz. that it was a Religion of hope for mankind. Himself a Jew of the Dispersion, educated in a strict Rabbinical school, he had the two-fold advantage of becoming proficient in Judaism, the Religion of his fathers (Galatians 1:13), and of growing up in his Cilician home under the penetrating influence of Greek civilization. 24), so anxious was he to proclaim what he believed to be the Religion of redemption for all mankind. The old dream of a theocracy was forgotten, and Messianism aroused no interest’ (Inge, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics i. 2286 (Guthe), Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics i
Dispersion - ‘The Law and the Prophets and the Psalms’ went with them everywhere, but ‘in the Greek Diaspora … strict canonicity was accorded only to the Torah’ (Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics ii. As may be inferred from the fact already mentioned, that strict canonicity was accorded only to the Torah, they carried abroad with them an intensely legal conception of their Religion. The Septuagint itself was the outcome of the keen desire to make their Religion understood, as well as to guard and preserve it from influences hostile to it. The favourable reception which it met with brought to the front an aspect of their Religion yet scarcely apprehended, viz. that it was a Religion of hope for mankind. Himself a Jew of the Dispersion, educated in a strict Rabbinical school, he had the two-fold advantage of becoming proficient in Judaism, the Religion of his fathers (Galatians 1:13), and of growing up in his Cilician home under the penetrating influence of Greek civilization. 24), so anxious was he to proclaim what he believed to be the Religion of redemption for all mankind. The old dream of a theocracy was forgotten, and Messianism aroused no interest’ (Inge, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics i. 2286 (Guthe), Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics i
Revelation (2) - ’ Does the word stand for any real disclosure of His secrets by the Eternal? Does God stoop to unveil His face to men? And if He does, what is the mode of such manifestations? What are the conditions under which we may believe that a revelation has been given? Is there any room in a rational scheme of the Universe for a revelation? It is pointed out, on the one hand, that every great Religion has been promulgated in the faith of its adherents that its message was a veritable message from heaven, and not merely a well-reasoned theory about life; while, on the other hand, it is a part of the claim of Christianity that the revelation of God in Christ is unique and final. ‘Comparative Religion’ has reached the dignity of a science, and it will not allow us to pass by the non-Christian Religions of the world with a mere phrase of patronizing criticism or approval; while the teaching of the Christian creeds will not allow us to regard our own Religion as only one among the many in which men have sought and have found their God. This is the first principle of all Religion worthy of the name. Sometimes he speaks of Divine revelation in terms which would be acceptable to every believer in a spiritual Religion; at other times he uses language which can be interpreted only if we remember that to him Jesus Christ was a supreme, a unique, a final revelation of the character of the Eternal God. —There is a sense in which all Religion must presuppose a revelation—that is, the unveiling of His purposes by the Supreme, and the response with which He meets the aspirations and the yearnings of human souls. No Religion, e. In other words, all Religion presupposes not only movements of the human spirit towards God, but also a movement of the Divine Spirit towards man. ’ Taking this view of miracles and of revelation, it has been sought to distinguish natural from revealed Religion by the circumstance that miraculous signs are not needed to guarantee the truth of the former, which commends itself at once to man’s reason, while they are necessary to confirm our belief in the doctrines of the latter, which are not discoverable by our unassisted faculties, and which may be surprising and even unwelcome to faith. ) It is impossible to distinguish sharply natural from revealed Religion, because, in fact, all Religions have presupposed a revelation, an unveiling of the Unseen Realities. ‘Natural Religion,’said Guizot (Méditations, ii. ’ In all Religion there must be a reciprocal communication between man and God; there must be not only man’s aspiration heavenward, but heaven’s benediction earthward. It is a lesson which is illustrated by the history of every Religion in which men have sought to find God; the measure of His grace is their capacity of receiving it, and not any Divine economy by which there is a jealous hiding of His face. If the doctrine of revelation which has been here set forth exhausted the content of the idea, then there would be no place left for that which is specially characteristic of the Christian Religion
Moab, Moabites - That they really were such, their language, Religion, and customs, so far as known to us, also testify. ...
The Religion of the Moabites was very similar to that of early Israel. No great ethical prophets, such as elevated the Religion of Israel, rescued the Religion of Moab from the level of its barbaric Semitic origin
Diana - In Homer she appears mainly as the goddess of death of the old Nature Religion. This of course was also good for trade, so that Religion and self-interest went hand in hand. -On Anatolian Religion, see W. Ramsay’s article ‘Religion of Greece and Asia Minor’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) , vol
Manasseh - His reign was a continuation of that of Ahaz, both in Religion and national polity. But their fidelity only aroused bitter hatred, and a period of cruel persecution against all the friends of the old Religion began. " The name "Manasseh" is supposed to have been introduced by some transcriber to avoid the scandal of naming the grandson of Moses the great lawgiver as the founder of an idolatrous Religion
Astrology - When Greek culture was absorbed by the Romans, astrology assumed the form of a Religion, and its practitioners began to design individual horoscopes. ...
Some two centuries before Christ was born, astrology gained a foothold in Jewish Religion, when identification of certain angels with stars and planets came into vogue. ...
Anthropologists and others have observed that when Religion declines in a culture it is replaced by superstition
Waldenses - But no sooner had he perused these sacred books with a proper degree of attention, than he perceived that the Religion which was now taught in the Roman church, differed totally from that which was originally inculcated by Christ and his apostles. However, their opposition was unsuccessful; for the purity and simplicity of that Religion which these good men taught, the spotless innocence that shone forth in their lives and actions, and the noble contempt of riches and honours which was conspicuous in the whole of their conduct and conversation, appeared so engaging to all such as had any sense of true piety, that the number of their followers daily increased. All they aimed at was, to reduce the form of ecclesiastical government, and the manners both of the clergy and people, to that amiable simplicity and primitive sanctity that characterized the apostolic ages, and which appear so strongly recommended in the precepts and injunctions of the Divine Author of our holy Religion
Toleration Act - The preamble states, "That forasmuch as some ease to scrupulous consciences, in the exercise of Religion, may be an effectual means to unite their Majesties' Protestant Subjects in interest and affection, " it enacts as follows: viz. That no person dissenting from the church of England in holy orders, or pretended holy orders, or pretending to holy orders, nor any preacher or teacher of any congregation of Dissenting Protestants, that shall make and subscribe the declaration aforsaid, and take the said oaths at the General or Quarter Sessions of the Peace, to be held for the county, town, parts, or division where such person lives, which court is hereby empowered to administer the same, and shall also declare his approbation of and subscribe the Articles of Religion mentioned in the statute made in the 13th of Q. that shall subscribe the aforesaid Articles of Religion, except before excepted, and also except part of the 27th article touching infant baptism, and shall take the said oaths, &c. That every justice of the peace may, at any time, require any person that goes to any meeting for exercise of Religion, to make and subscribe the declaration aforesaid, and also to take the said oaths or declaration of fidelity hereinafter mentioned: in case such person scruples the taking of an oath, and upon refusal, such justice of the peace is required to commit such person to prison, and to certify the name of such person to the next General or Quarter Sessions of the Peace, &c. Provided, That neither this act, nor any clause, article, or thing herein contained, shall extend, or be construed to extend, to give any ease, benefit, or advantage to any Papist or Popish Recusant whatsoever, or any person that shall deny in his preaching or writing the doctrine of the blessed Trinity, as it is declared in the above-said Articles of Religion
Hellenism - -The reign of Alexander the Great marks a period in Greek history, not only by reason of the expansion of Greek influence but also owing to the rise of a new spirit which affected language, literature, art, philosophy, science, civilization in general, and Religion. Gardner, article ‘Art (Greek and Roman)’ in Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics i. Philosophy becomes a substitute for Religion: it is moral education. ...
(g) Religion. ...
As early as Plato the old Greek Religion had changed from a more or less cheerful worship of Nature into a kind of gloomy mysticism. The individual rite ventured to give full assurance of life, but the faithful usually resorted to a variety of rites, and the priests could not object to this; their Religion was tolerated and must be tolerant: this is implied in the system of polytheism. Cumont, Les Religions orientales dans le paganisme romain2, Paris, 1909; R. Reitzenstein, Die hellenistischen Mysterienreligionen, Leipzig, 1910; L. R Farnell, article ‘Greek Religion’ in Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics vi. They came very near to a hellenizing of their Religion as well, until the ill-timed attempt of Antiochus Epiphanes in 168 b. He is, of course, a Jew, and he remains so; his heart belongs to his people and to its Religion, but his head is filled with Greek notions and speculations, and it is from the Greek philosophers that he derives what he sets forth as the teaching of the ideal law-giver, Moses. For the most part the Jew remained a Jew, faithful to his people and its Religion even amidst Hellenistic surroundings; and the hatred which the average Greek population felt for this strange element in their midst caused the Jews to cling together even more. Bousset, Die Religion des Judentums im neutest
Mahometanism - Exalted by the partiality of Cadijah, who conferred on him her hand and her extensive possessions, he seems early to have formed the scheme of announcing himself as the author of a new Religion, and, in virtue of this sacred office, of ascending to that supremacy of political influence which it was his singular fortune, soon after he unfolded his pretensions, to attain. The Christian Religion, in the corrupted form in which it existed in the regions contiguous to the country of the prophet, was not interwoven with the affections of its professors; they were split into factions, contending about the most frivolous distinctions and the most ridiculous tenets; and the sword of persecution was mutually wielded by them all, to spread misery where there should have been the ties of charity and love. Thus divided, they presented no steady resistance to the attempt made to wrest from them their Religion; and, indeed, as many of them had adopted that Religion, not from conviction, but from dread of the tyranny by which it had been imposed on them, they only did what they had previously done, when, shrinking from the ferocious zeal of the emissaries of the prophet, they submitted to his doctrine. When with these causes are combined the vigour of his administration, and the certainty of suffering or of death in the event of withstanding his doctrine, there is sufficient to account for the success of his Religion; and there is in that success nothing which can, with the shadow of reason, be employed, as, with strange perversion of argument, it has sometimes been, to invalidate the proof for the truth of Christianity deduced from its rapid diffusion. That proof does not rest upon the mere circumstance that the Religion of Jesus was widely and speedily propagated; there might, under particular circumstances, have been in this nothing wonderful; but on the facts that it was so propagated, when all the human means to which they who preached it could have recourse, would have retarded rather than promoted what actually took place; that it employed no force; that it held out no earthly advantages; that it accommodated itself to no previous religious prejudices; and that it opposed and reproved all, and did not gratify any, of the corruptions and lusts of human nature. An army thus constituted and thus impelled must, under any circumstances, have been formidable; against them the usual methods to defeat invasion and to prevent conquest would have failed; they could have been successfully encountered only by men who had imbibed a similar spirit, and who identified patience and courage in the field with the most sacred duty required by Religion. Persia, which had long persecuted Christianity, was added to their increasing territories; Syria submitted to their yoke; and, what filled with horror and with anguish the believers in the Gospel, Palestine, that holy land from which the light of divine truth had beamed upon the nations, which had been the scene of those awful or interesting events recorded in the inspired Scriptures, which had witnessed the life, the ministry, the death, the resurrection, and ascension of the Redeemer of mankind, bent under the iron sceptre of an infidel sovereign, nominally, indeed, revering the Founder of its Religion, but filled with bigoted and implacable hatred against the most attached and conscientious of his disciples. We cannot wonder that tenets thus enforced rapidly spread; they supplanted, in many extensive regions, the Religion of Jesus; and, incorporating themselves with civil governments, or rather founding all governments upon the Koran, they continue, at the distance of eleven hundred years, to be believed through a large proportion of the world. So necessary did he think them, that he is said to have declared, that the practice of Religion is founded upon cleanliness, which is one half of faith, and the key of prayer. The second of these he conceived to be a duty of so great moment, that he used to say it was the gate of Religion, and that the odour of the mouth of him who fasteth is more grateful to God than that of musk. " As to the negative precepts and institutions of this Religion, the Mohammedans are forbidden the use of wine, and are prohibited from gaming, usury, and the eating of blood and swine's flesh, and whatever dies of itself, or is strangled, or killed by a blow, or by another beast
On - It has been considered the Rome and the Athens of ancient Egypt, the centre of its Religion and learning
Order of the Most Holy Trinity - In France the Trinitarians suffered greatly during the English invasion of the 15th century and the wars of Religion of the 16th
Shoe - (For the original motive see RS Iran - It is thought that Christianity was preached in this region in the 1century; the spread of the Faith, mainly through missionaries from Syria, was usually encouraged or tolerated until the 3century, when the Sassanian dynasty revived Zoroastrianism as the state Religion of their large empire
Epistles - "Christianity was the first great missionary Religion
Septuagint - ...
In matters concerning God and Religion, the Septuagint was particularly helpful to preachers and writers of New Testament times
Feast - Feasts, and the ceremonies thereof, have made great part of the Religion of almost all nations and sects; hence the Greeks, the Romans, Mahometans, and Christians, have not been without them
Exorcism - Then follow the litanies, psalms, and prayer; after which the exorcist asks the devil his name, and adjures him by the mysteries of the Christian Religion not to afflict the person any more; then, laying his right hand on the daemoniac's head, he repeats the form of exorcism, which is this: "I exorcise thee, unclean spirit, in the name of Jesus Christ: tremble, O Satan, thou enemy of the faith, thou foe of mankind, who hast brought death into the world; who hast deprived men of life, and hast rebelled against justice, thou seducer of mankind, thou root of all evil, thou source of avarice, discord, and envy
Fornication - While the Scriptures give no sanction to those austerities which have been imposed on men under the idea of Religion, so on the other hand, they give no liberty for the indulgence of any propensity that would either militate against our own interest or that of others
Phoenicia - ...
Culture Phoenician Religion was akin to that of the Canaanites, featuring fertility rites of Baal
Elisabeth - see), as a faithful adherent of the OT type of Religion—strict and regular in observance of the Law (Luke 1:6)
Shewbread - Religion of the Semites (W
Indolence - —The spirit of Christ’s Religion is inimical to indolence in the sphere of business (Luke 16:11, Matthew 24:48; Matthew 23:26), but more especially indolent Christianity is salt without savour (Matthew 5:13)
Ethiopian Eunuch - ]'>[3] from the Gentile world; but the fact that he was returning front worship at Jerusalem, and was reading Isaiah 53:7-8 in the Septuagint version, which here differs somewhat from the Hebrew text, shows that he was acquainted with the Greek language and had been drawn to the Religion of the Jews, although he was not very deeply versed in the Scriptures (v
Bird - ...
Revelation 18:2 (b) As described under "Babylon," this passage represents the great religious and political combination which has spread over the whole earth - a mixture of Religion and politics in which evil spirits (birds) of every kind revel and dwell
Horse - ...
Zechariah 6:3 (b) The white horse - probably represents a man-made peace which will be forced upon the world by the antichrist under the guise of Religion and righteousness
Hope - A well founded scriptural hope,is, in our Religion, the source of ineffable happiness
Imposition of Hands - Religion, p
Adversary - Paul to denote those who oppose the Christian Religion, probably in all cases with the suggestion that the devil is working through them
Gamaliel - If the Jewish council had thought this, it would have been very absurd in Gamaliel to exhort them to wait to see whether "the counsel and work" was of God, that is, whether the Apostles related a fact when they preached the resurrection, and grounded the divine authority of their Religion upon that fact
Crete - Religion itself was one cause of the many excesses of this nation
Indulgence - The following paraphrase well presents the contrast between the asceticism which "practically treats the body as an enemy, and the Pauline view which treats it as a potential instrument of a righteous life:" ordinances, "which in fact have a specious look of wisdom (where there is no true wisdom), by the employment of self-chosen acts of Religion and humility (and) by treating the body with brutality instead of treating it with due respect, with a view to meeting and providing against over-indulgence of the flesh" (Parry, in the Camb
Sadducees - They disregarded the traditions and unwritten laws which the Pharisees prized so highly, and professed to take the Scriptures as the sole authoritative guide of Religion
Rationalism - The doubts and contradictions arising from private interpretation of Sacred Scripture led many to believe that nothing certain could be known from revelation and hence natural Religion sufficed, e
Christmas - When Christianity became the Religion of the Empire, the church either had to suppress the festivals or transform them
Stephen - His speech in his own defense, probably recorded only in part, shows historically that the opponents of Christianity were but the children and imitators of those who had always opposed true Religion
Capital - Figuratively, as the head is the highest part of a man, chief principal first in importance as a capital city or town the capital articles of Religion
Trinitarians - In France the Trinitarians suffered greatly during the English invasion of the 15th century and the wars of Religion of the 16th
God - True Religion has its foundation in the right knowledge of God, and consists in supremely loving and faithfully obeying him
Sacrifice - The thing offered to God, or immolated by an act of Religion
Wisdom - In Scripture theology, wisdom is true Religion godliness piety the knowledge and fear of God, and sincere and uniform obedience to his commands
Philadel'Phia, - ) (Revelation 3:7-13 ) Even Gibbon bears the following well-known testimony to the truth of the prophecy, "Because thou hast kept the word of my patience, I also will keep thee in the hour of temptation": "At a distance from the sea, forgotten by the (Greek) emperor encompassed, all sides by the Turks, her valiant citizens defended their Religion and freedom above fourscore years
Consecration - In the Religion of Old Testament Israel, these ‘set apart’ people or things were called ‘holy’, and the act of declaring, acknowledging or making them holy was called sanctification, consecration, or dedication (Exodus 13:2; Exodus 29:1; Exodus 29:27; Exodus 29:36)
Murder (2) - Smith, RS Holy Communion - It is also calledpreeminently the Divine Liturgy, as including and comprehendingall acts of worship and Religion, and as being the first and chiefof all rites and functions; and it is both a Sacrifice and aSacrament
Good Friday - The observance of Good Fridayis inwoven into the very texture of the Christian Religion, havingbeen kept from the very first age of Christianity with strictestfasting and humiliation
Thomas Edessenus - The latter, originally Magian by Religion, was converted to Christianity, learnt Syriac at Nisibis, and Greek at Edessa from Thomas a Jacobite, whom he afterwards took with him to Alexandria and there with his help translated the Scriptures ( or , the books) from Greek into Syriac (Gregory Bar-hebr
Canaan, History And Religion of - of the vessels made for Baal and Asherah as well as the houses of the male cult prostitutes — 2 Kings 23:1 ) for Israel in daily practice of popular Religion to resist Canaanite practices. The teachings of inspired leaders and the actual practice of Religion often stood in stark contrast. In the Ancient Near East people assumed that as a people migrated from one area to another they would take over the gods and Religion of the new area in which they settled. At the least, they would incorporate the new Religion into their own old religious structure. ...
It is too easy for the biblical interpreter to focus on the numerous ways that Israel found the Canaanite Religion to be offensive. They encountered a people with a proud history and a thriving Religion. Rather, a long historical process led to the eventual elimination of baalism and other elements of Canaanite Religion. Israel's battle with Canaanite Religion gave new dimensions and depth to Israel's faith. The biblical record affirms that Yahweh, the Lord of history, has used the reality of historical encounter as a means to bring biblical Religion to its mature development as revealed in the full canon of Scripture
Beersheba - ) It became seat of an idolatry akin to that of Bethel or Gilgal, so that it was a formula of superstition, "the manner (cultus, or Religion, as in Acts 9:2 the new Religion of Christ is designated "this way") of Beersheba liveth" (Amos 5:5; Amos 8:14)
Sadducees - In New Testament times the two main parties within the Jewish Religion were the Sadducees and the Pharisees. When conflict broke out between the two groups, the Greek ruler in Syria, Antiochus Epiphanes, used it as an excuse to invade Jerusalem and try to destroy the Jewish Religion
Jeremi'ah - "A reign of terror had commenced (in the preceding reign), during which not only the prophets but all who were distinguished for Religion and virtue were cruelly murdered. " "The nation tried to extirpate the Religion of Jehovah;" "Idolatry was openly established," "and such was the universal dishonesty that no man trusted another, and society was utterly disorganized
Mennonites - The Mennonites maintain that practical piety is the essence of Religion, and that the surest mark of the true church is the sanctity of its members. They plead for universal toleration in Religion, and debar none from their societies who lead pious lives, and own the Scriptures for the word of God
Samaritans - The new and mixed race indeed sent to Assyria for an Israelitish priest to teach them the law of Jehovah, and adopted in part the forms of the true Religion; but most of them were but half converted from their native heathenism, Matthew 10:5 Luke 17:16-18 . The Samaritans, like the Jews, expected a Messiah, John 4:25 and many of them became the followers of Jesus, and embraced the doctrines of his Religion
Jeremi'ah - "A reign of terror had commenced (in the preceding reign), during which not only the prophets but all who were distinguished for Religion and virtue were cruelly murdered. " "The nation tried to extirpate the Religion of Jehovah;" "Idolatry was openly established," "and such was the universal dishonesty that no man trusted another, and society was utterly disorganized
Greece - It made Greek the language of literature and Religion, of commerce and administration, throughout the Nearer East. Ever since the days of Plato the traditional Religion of Greece had been ‘a bankrupt concern’ (Gilbert Murray, Four Stages of Greek Religion, 1912, p. The Eleusinian Mysteries-the cult of Demeter and Cora-constitute ‘the one great attempt made by the Hellenic genius to construct for itself a Religion that should keep pace with the growth of thought and civilization in Greece’ (W. , Oxford, 1896-1909, The Higher Aspects of Greek Religion, London, 1912; articles ‘Graecia’ in Smith’s DGRG [3] , ‘Greece’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) , Encyclopaedia Biblica , ‘Griechenland’ in RGG Invitation - It emphasizes the bright and genial aspects of Religion, which shine with so clear a lustre in the teaching of Jesus. It has been a recurrent and baneful feature of theological learning that it has tended to envelop Religion in an atmosphere of gloom, by making so much of the horror and mischief of sin, and dwelling so exclusively on the need of repentance, atonement, and justification. Ethical writers have likewise been prone to dwell exclusively on the responsibilities of Religion, to the obscuration of its privileges. Religion is not a bargain between man and God; it is a boon, a largess bestowed by God on man. Religion has no room for the idea of spiritual compulsion. The spiritual appeal of Religion may also be refused; it lies with the soul whether it will respond to the call of God or reject it
Marriage - The law must, therefore, for these and many other weighty reasons, be cognizant of marriage; must prescribe various regulations respecting it; require publicity of the contract; and guard some of the great injunctions of Religion in the matter by penalties. The more direct connection of marriage with Religion in Christian states, by assigning its celebration to the ministers of Religion, appears to be a very beneficial custom, and one which the state has a right to enjoin. By acts of Religion, also, they are more solemnly impressed upon the parties. The offices of Religion would then come in by way of sanction and moral enforcement. Affection, too, is made a matter of diligent cultivation upon considerations, and by a standard, peculiar to our Religion
Woman - Bousset, Die Religion des Judentums2’, p. If such significant limitations as these are found in contemporary Judaism, notwithstanding the general humanity of its relationships and the intensity of the national Religion, it need not surprise us to find no effective assertion of the religious equality of woman emanating from Roman patriotism or Greek philosophy. The Roman matron had indeed held a high place in the ancient Roman home, though she passed into the absolute legal power of her husband by the older type of Religions marriage. Roman morality, in fact, broke down, here as elsewhere, because it had not found its reinforcement and transfiguration in Religion (cf. It was in the identification of morality and Religion that the strength of Judaism lay. But the relationship was redeemed by the quality of the humanity which was so typical a product of the OT Religion. Consequently, the family life of the Hebrew-Jewish people, in some measure, prepared for the applications of the principle of woman’s Religions equality made by apostolic Christianity (cf. , Robertson Smith, The Religion of the Semites2, London, 1894, pp. McCabe, The Religion of Woman, do. Bousset, Die Religion des Judentums im neutest
Demoniac - And the proof of this asseveration, he tells us, may very easily be found, if we consider that, on any other supposition, it is impossible to show that a Religion supported by miracles is really from God. Should it be said that, from the tendency of the miracle itself, and ...
a fortiori, from the tendency of the miracle and Religion when taken together, we may easily infer the character of the being from whom the whole scheme proceeds,— to this also Dr. " In one word, according to this author, we do not know whether the tendency of the miracle, or of the Religion, be good or not; and therefore we can form no accurate idea of the character really belonging to the being from whom the revelation proceeds. Nor does this, say they, detract from the very high character which Christ undoubtedly sustains in the inspired writings, or diminish the value of his miracles as the evidences of our Religion; since it must be allowed, that to cure a disease with a word or a touch is an effort of power far beyond the reach of any human being. " The advocates of possessions contend still farther, that the revelation which is made to us in sacred Scripture is addressed to our understandings; that it is not only in our power, but that it is our indispensable duty, to examine it, and to judge of it; that the tendency of any miracle, or system of doctrine, is a sufficient evidence of the character belonging to him who performs the miracle, or publishes the doctrine; that good actions are demonstrative of the quality of goodness; and, in short, that a Religion calculated to make us happy must have proceeded from a Being who has consulted and provided for our happiness, Nor is this a matter so abstruse and remote from human apprehension, that we can form no opinion about it. "For," say they, "if any thing connected with Christianity be plain, it seems to be that the tendency of the Religion is beneficent; and that it is no less pure in its character than blessed in its effects. And," they continue, "we think ourselves entitled to hold our Religion as true, and to regard it as in the highest degree beneficial, though we must allow, at the same time, that the magicians of Egypt performed many wonderful works by the agency of wicked, spirits; that the sorceress of Endor was in league with the powers of darkness, and that Christ was literally tempted ‘of the devil,' in the wilderness of Judea. Beside, as various instances are recorded in Scripture, and as several cases are given at considerable length, might we not expect, if possessions were really nothing more than ordinary diseases, that the truth would be somewhere told or hinted at? that, within the compass of the sacred canon, something would be said, or something insinuated, which would lead us to understand that the language, though inaccurate and improper, was used in accommodation to the popular belief? Might we not expect that Christ himself would have declared, in one unequivocal affirmation, or in some intelligible way, the exact truth of the case? Or, at all events, when the Holy Ghost had descended upon the Apostles on the day of pentecost, and when the full disclosure of the revelation appears to have been made, might it not reasonably have been looked for that the popular error would have been rectified, and the language reduced from its figurative character to a state of simple correctness? What conceivable motive could influence our Saviour, or his Apostles, to sanction the delusion of the multitude? And does it not strike at the root of the Christian Religion itself, to have it thought, for a single moment, that its "Author and Finisher," who came to enlighten and to reform the world, should have, on so many occasions, not only countenanced, but confirmed, an opinion which he must have known to be "the reverse of the truth?"...
Let us then, say they, beware how we relinquish the literal sense of holy writ, in search of allegorical or figurative interpretations
Magi - The Magi were a sacerdotal caste among the Medes, in connection with the Zoroastrian Religion. ...
The Magians probably lost some of the original purity of the simpler Median Religion by contact with the superstitions of Babylon: still there remained some elements of truth and opposition to idolatry, which formed common ground between them and Daniel (Daniel 5:11; Daniel 6:3; Daniel 6:16; Daniel 6:26; Ezra 1:1-4; Isaiah 44:28). The Zoroastrian Religion Darius restored, and destroyed the Mugtans; as the Behistun inscription states, "the rites which Gomates (Pseudo Smerdis) the Magian introduced I prohibited, I restored the chants and worship," etc
Piety - Sin variously tends to the injury of health; and often by intemperance the constitution is so impaired, that late Religion is unable to restore what early Religion would have prevented. Conceive of a youth entering a world like this, destitute of the presiding governing care of Religion, his passions high, his prudence weak, impatient, rash, confident, without experience; a thousand a venues of seduction opening around him, and a serene voice singing at the entrance of each; pleased with appearances, and embracing them for realities, joined by evil company, and ensnared by erroneous publications: these hazards exceed all the alarm I can give
Angel - He leads men to devise and design many kinds of Religion to keep sinners away from the Saviour. He leads women to invent Religions of an aesthetic character which presents beautiful phraseology, and sweet, lovely ideas, all of which is intended to keep the hearts and lives of the people away from JESUS CHRIST and His saving power. He therefore sets about to arrange a Religion of good works and self-righteousness as a substitute for the Person and work of the Lord JESUS. We should be on the watch for every Religion that exalts man's goodness, and detracts from the personal glory of CHRIST JESUS
Certainty (2) - White, Certainty in Religion; J. Harper, Religion and the Higher Life, pp. Coe, Religion of a Mature Mind, 109–132; A
Illuminati (3) - But "the real object, " we are assured by Professor Robison and Abbe Barruel, "was, by clandestine arts, to overturn every government and every Religion; to bring the sciences of civil life into contempt; and to reduce mankind to that imaginary state of nature, when they lived independent of each other on the spontaneous productions of the earth. Robison's Proofs of a Conspiracy against all the Religions and Governments of Europe. Weishaupt and his associates in this conspiracy may be expressed: as, That men of their principles should secretly conspire to overthrow all the Religions and governments at present in Europe, is by no means incredible; that they should even prevail on many well-meaning philanthropists, who are no enemies to rational Religion or good government, to join them, is also very credible. the same vanity which leads the doctor to take this traditional method, while secrecy is deemed necessary, of securing to himself the honour of having founded the society, would lead him, were the Illuminati actually victorious over all Religions and governments, to wish to have his memory recorded in a more durable manner by writing or printing. But if, in fact, the total annihilation of the arts and sciences, as well as of all Religion and government, be really the object of Weishaupt and his Illuminees, then we may agree with the celebrated Mandeville, that "human nature is the true Libyan desert, daily producing new monsters, " and that of these monsters the doctor and his associates are beyond a doubt the most extraordinary
Casuistry - They transferred their zeal for the most fanciful and frivolous distinctions in what respected the doctrines of Religion to its precepts; they anatomized the different virtues; nicely examined all the circumstances by which our estimate of them should be influenced; and they thus rendered the study of morality inextricable, confounded the natural notions of right and wrong, and so accustomed themselves and others to weigh their actions, that they could easily find some excuse for what was most culpable, while they continued under the impression that they were not deviating from what, as moral beings, was incumbent upon them. These I have selected out of many; and having turned over divers casuists, have pitched upon those decisions which I hold most conformable to enlightened reason and Religion; sometimes I follow them, and sometimes I leave them for a better guide. " He divides his work into four parts,—Cases of profit and traffic, Cases of life and liberty, Cases of piety and Religion, and Cases matrimonial; under each of these solving a number of questions, or rather giving a number of moral dissertations
Maccabees - two apocryphal books of Scripture, containing the history of Judas and his brothers, and their wars against the Syrian kings in defence of their Religion and liberties, so called from Judas, the son of Mattathias, surnamed Maccabaeus, as some authors say, from the word מכבי , formed of the initials of מיאּ?כמכה באלים יהוה , "Who is like unto thee, O Lord, among the gods?" Exodus 15:11 , which was the motto of his standard; whence those who fought under his standard were called Maccabees, and the name was generally applied to all who suffered in the cause of true Religion, under the Egyptian or Syrian kings. And therefore, as these books, which contain the history of Judas and his brothers, and their wars against the Syrian kings, in defence of their Religion and liberties, are called the first and second books of the Maccabees; so that book which gives us the history of those who, in the like cause, under Ptolemy Philopater, were exposed to his elephants at Alexandria, is called the third book of the Maccabees; and that which is written by Josephus, of the martyrdom of Eleazar, and the seven brothers and their mother, is called the fourth book of the Maccabees
Paradise - -Paradise, or the Garden of Eden, belongs to one important group of motifs which comparative Religion shows to be present in nearly all primitive Religions, the group of ideas associated with a Golden Age, a time of supernatural fertility and prosperity, lost in the past and to be restored in the future. This with other groups of fundamental motifs existed in primitive Hebrew Religion, possibly in a form derived from Babylonian Religion, but was taken up and used by the prophets as the form into which their visions of the coming Kingdom of God were cast
Heresy - when the eyes of the Christian world began to open, and the seeds of the Protestant Religion (under the opprobrious name of Lollardy) took root in this kingdom, the clergy, taking advantage from the king's dubious title to demand an increase of their own power, obtained an act of parliament, which sharpened the edge of persecution to its utmost keenness. " The same statute established a mixed jurisdiction of clergy and laity for the trial and conviction of heretics; Henry being equally intent on destroying the supremacy of the bishops of Rome, and establishing all their other corruptions of the Christian Religion. Under these restrictions, some think it necessary, for the support of the national Religion, that the officers of the church should have power to censure heretics; yet not to harass them with temporal penalties, much less to exterminate or destroy them. if any person, educated in the Christian Religion, or professing the same, shall, by writing, printing, teaching, or advised speaking, deny any one of the persons in the Holy Trinity to be God, or maintain that there are more Gods than one, he shall undergo the same penalties and incapacities which were inflicted on apostasy by the same statute
Christian - The Christians were often misnamed ‘Chrestians’ from an idea that the founder of their Religion was ‘one Chrestos. (1) It marked the distinct emergence of Christianity from Judaism , and the recognition of its right to a separate place among the Religions of the world. They understood, however dimly, that a new Religion had sprung up on the earth, and by giving its followers this new name, they helped to quicken in the mind of the Church itself the consciousness of a separate existence. (2) It marked the fact, not heretofore realized, that Christianity was a Religion for the Gentiles . Christianity appeared in Antioch as a universal Religion, making no distinction between Jew and Gentile. (4) The name marked the fact that Christianity was not the Religion of a book or a dogma, an idea or an institution, but a faith that centred in a Person
Hellenists - In one sense, these were convertible terms, both signifying Jews by nation and Religion; but in the sense just mentioned, there were many, in those days, who were Israelites, but not Hebrews. For, though Hebrew and Jew are convertible terms, when opposed to Gentiles, as denoting the seed of Abraham, and professors of the Mosaic Religion, see Jeremiah 34:9 ; yet, as opposed to the ‘Ελληνισται , they are not convertible terms, there being Hebrew Jews and Hellenistic Jews; for it is said, that when "they, who were scattered by the persecution that arose about Stephen, travelled into several countries, preaching the word to none but Jews only," yet they spoke, προς τους ‘Ελληνιστας , to the Hellenists or Grecians, Acts 11:19-20 . John's Gospel, as being come to Jerusalem at the passover to worship in the temple, John 12:20 , and likewise those mentioned in the Acts, as worshipping along with the Jews in the synagogues, Acts 14:1 ; Acts 18:4 ; they were doubtless Greeks by birth and nation, yet proselytes to the Jewish Religion. Those among them who belonged to the Pharisees gave themselves much trouble to obtain proselytes; and the loss of respect for the old popular Religion, and the unsatisfied religious wants of multitudes, farthered their views. " The Jewish proselyte-makers, "blind leaders of the blind,"...
who had themselves no conception of the real nature of Religion, could give to others no insight into it
Individuality - ...
Both in morals and in Religion it has always been a difficult matter to determine the due place of individual differences. Its natural Religion and utilitarian ethic had, as its very standard of excellence, that it excluded everything whereby one man was different from another. Even Kant, the highest product of Rationalism, with his view of Religion as an appeodage to a moral law, and his supreme test of a moral law by its fitness to be a law universal, only accentuated this limitation. Then unfortunately it too frequently appeared that what man took to be his nature was only self-pleasing, and what he thought was Religion was only satisfaction of the artistic sense. ...
This insistence on the importance of individuality by Romanticism, nevertheless, bore large fruit in both ethics and Religion. Indeed, all modern study at least of the historical Religions may be dated from Schleiermacher’s insistence on the marked individuality of all the great founders of Religion. —Goethe, Wilhelm Meister; Schleiermacher, Reden [1] and Monologen [2]; Hegel, Philosophie der Geschichte [3]; Carlyle, Heroes; Emerson, Essays: J
Christian (the Name) - Of these, the fontal reference in Acts 11:26 explains that the name by which the Religion of Jesus has been known for nineteen centuries was coined by the pagan slang of Antioch on the Orontes, a city which, like Alexandria, was noted for its nicknames. ’ Unconsciously, in giving the title—which there is no evidence to show was applied previously to Jews—these citizens of Antioch were emphasizing one deep truth of the new Religion, viz. ‘Truly,’ as Renan observes, ‘it is remarkable to think that, ten years after Jesus died, His Religion already possessed, in the capital of Syria, a name in the Greek and Latin languages. martyrs’ literature, which shows how Christianity was treated as a forbidden or illicit Religion, hostile to the national cult, and therefore exposing any of its adherents, without further question, to the punishment of death. Le Gallienne’s Religion of a Literary Man (ch. ), and Sir John Seeley’s Natural Religion (pt. ‘He who can pray the Lord’s Prayer sincerely must surely be a Christian,’ says Rothe; while Martineau’s definition, in reference to a church, runs thus: ‘imbued with Christ’s spirit, teaching His Religion, worshipping His God and Father, and accepting His law of self-sacrifice
Advent (2) - The state of Religion at the date of Christ’s Advent. Undoubtedly, among the Jewish people at that period Religion was a dominating interest, and was based on principles far higher than any that obtained in other nations. Scribes and Pharisees on the one hand, and Sadducees on the other, stood in mutual antagonism, striving for ascendency as leaders of national religious feeling,—the scribes and Pharisees combining to enforce the mass of stringent precepts which the former had elaborated to supplement the original written word; the Sadducees entirely rejecting those precepts, and contending that the Law as written was sufficient, and that the observance of the temple ordinances, its worship and sacrifices, was the central element in Religion. The controversies that arose over those points of difference, and over the doctrine of the resurrection, created a fierce party spirit, bitter and bigoted on the one side, haughty and contemptuous on the other, while the smaller sect of the Essenes, with their extremist views and rigid austerity, maintained an inflexible protest against both these classes of Religionists. By their insistence on conformity to the regulations they had added to the Law as a condition of Divine favour, the scribes and Pharisees, who were the most numerous and aggressive party, converted Religion itself into a matter of slavish obedience, in which the instigating motives were the hope of reward and the fear of punishment. The soul of Religion might be sadly crushed by legality and formalism, but it was not utterly dead. The coming of Jesus brought the birth of a new spirit in Religion, a spirit of fresh vitality and power; and the life of absolute devotion to righteousness which He began to live, and which He was ultimately to close in a death of sacrificing love, infused into Religion an inspiring energy destined on a scale of vast magnitude to regenerate and redeem
Individuality - ...
Both in morals and in Religion it has always been a difficult matter to determine the due place of individual differences. Its natural Religion and utilitarian ethic had, as its very standard of excellence, that it excluded everything whereby one man was different from another. Even Kant, the highest product of Rationalism, with his view of Religion as an appeodage to a moral law, and his supreme test of a moral law by its fitness to be a law universal, only accentuated this limitation. Then unfortunately it too frequently appeared that what man took to be his nature was only self-pleasing, and what he thought was Religion was only satisfaction of the artistic sense. ...
This insistence on the importance of individuality by Romanticism, nevertheless, bore large fruit in both ethics and Religion. Indeed, all modern study at least of the historical Religions may be dated from Schleiermacher’s insistence on the marked individuality of all the great founders of Religion. —Goethe, Wilhelm Meister; Schleiermacher, Reden [1] and Monologen [2]; Hegel, Philosophie der Geschichte [3]; Carlyle, Heroes; Emerson, Essays: J
Conversion: a Radical Change - But suppose this man can be so changed, that just as freely as he was wont to curse he now delights to pray, and just as heartily as he hated Religion he now finds pleasure in it, and just as earnestly as he sinned he now delights to be obedient to the Lord; ah! then, this is a wonder, a miracle which mat cannot accomplish, a marvel which only the grace of God can work, and which gives to God his highest glory
Quakers - They were subject to much suffering during the Revolution since they took no part in the war because of their Religion
Quakers, Fighting - They were subject to much suffering during the Revolution since they took no part in the war because of their Religion
Quakers, Free - They were subject to much suffering during the Revolution since they took no part in the war because of their Religion
Friends - They were subject to much suffering during the Revolution since they took no part in the war because of their Religion
Friends, Hicksite Society of - They were subject to much suffering during the Revolution since they took no part in the war because of their Religion
Friends of Truth - They were subject to much suffering during the Revolution since they took no part in the war because of their Religion
Children of Light - They were subject to much suffering during the Revolution since they took no part in the war because of their Religion
Friends, Orthodox Society of - They were subject to much suffering during the Revolution since they took no part in the war because of their Religion
Friends, Wilburite Orthodox Conservative - They were subject to much suffering during the Revolution since they took no part in the war because of their Religion
Children of Truth - They were subject to much suffering during the Revolution since they took no part in the war because of their Religion
Fighting Quakers - They were subject to much suffering during the Revolution since they took no part in the war because of their Religion
Free Quakers - They were subject to much suffering during the Revolution since they took no part in the war because of their Religion
Orthodox Society of Friends - They were subject to much suffering during the Revolution since they took no part in the war because of their Religion
Light, Children of - They were subject to much suffering during the Revolution since they took no part in the war because of their Religion
Swine - 2Ma 6:18 ; 2Ma 7:1 ) and thus renounce their Religion
New Jersey - In 1680 a Catholic, William Douglass, was refused his seat in the General Assembly, as an elected representative from Bergen County, because of his Religion
New Mexico - In 1680, Indian revolts against Spanish government and against the efforts of the missionaries to put down pagan practises culminated in a massacre during which 21 missionaries were killed, the churches destroyed, and all traces of Religion obliterated
French Revolution - Out of fear of incensing the people in the provinces, the leaders hesitated to abolish Religion or close the churches entirely
Neighbor - The one who proceeds to help the unfortunate in need, without inquiring into his race, Religion, etc
Pharisees - , "pious ones," were a society of men zealous for Religion, who acted under the guidance of the scribes, in opposition to the godless Hellenizing party; they scrupled to oppose the legitimate high priest even when he was on the Greek side
Self-Denial - Worldly emoluments, when to be obtained in an unlawful way, or when standing in opposition to Religion and usefulness, Matthew 4:20-22
Fear - There is an hypocritical fear, when men make a profession of Religion; but only serve him for some sinister end and selfish view, which Satan insinuated was Job's case
Cabbalists - Smith's Sermon on the Apostolic Ministry compared with the Pretensions of spurious Religion and false Philosophy
Hypocrisy: Present Age Suitable to - Into the triumphs of martyrs and confessors few are unwilling to enter; in a national respect to Religion, which is the result of their holiness, even ungodly men are willing to share
Lutheran - Lutheranism is the prevailing Religion of Germany and Scandinavian countries
Lutheranism - Lutheranism is the prevailing Religion of Germany and Scandinavian countries
Reformation - Religion became less a matter of mechanical routine, and more a matter of rational spiritual service
Trumpet - 247, 248), and the same author’s Die Religion des Judentums (1903, p
Now - ...
They now and then appear in offices of Religion
Unction - In matters of Religion, is used for the character conferred on sacred things by anointing them with oil
Kneeling - If this supposition is correct, the spread of kneeling as a posture of prayer has an interesting association with the change from a national to a universal Religion
Ather - Those who presume to teach and preach the tenets of Religion must themselves show the effects in their own lives, or else they will be rejected by men as imposters
Bertha, Wife of Ethelbert, King of Kent - " Ethelbert was still a heathen, and on his marriage it was made a condition that his wife should be allowed to enjoy the exercise of her own Religion, and should be attended by a bishop
Hicksite Society of Friends - They were subject to much suffering during the Revolution since they took no part in the war because of their Religion
Concern - Religion is the main concern of a rational being
Methodist - Of this number were the Jesuit Veron, who required the Protestants to prove the tenets of their church by plain passages of Scripture, without being allowed the liberty of illustrating those passages, reasoning upon them, or drawing any conclusions from them; Nihusius, an apostate from the Protestant Religion; the two Wallenburgs, and others, who confined themselves to the business of answering objections; and cardinal Richlieu, who confined the whole controversy to the single article of the divine institution and authority of the church
Language - Destitute of this we should make but small advancements in science, be lost to all social enjoyments, and Religion itself would feel the want of such a power
Isdigerdes ii, King of Persia - He attempted to force the Zoroastrian Religion on Christian Armenia
Interim - Julius Phlug, bishop of Naumberg; Michael Helding, titular bishop of Sidon; and John Agricola, preacher to the elector of Brandenburgh; who drew up a project, consisting of 26 articles, concerning the points of Religion in dispute between the Catholics and Protestants
Dionysius, Saint, Apostle of France - Then first were martyrdoms seen in Gaul, for the Religion of God was late in coming over the Alps" (Severi, Chronicon, ii
Chronicles - From the eleventh chapter to the end of the book, we have a history of the reign of David, with a detailed statement of his preparation for the building of the temple, of his regulations respecting the priests and Levites, and his appointment of musicians for the public service of Religion
Gentile - Since the Gospel, the true Religion is not confined to any one nation or country, as heretofore
Vain, in Vain, Vainly - , Titus 3:9 ; (e) Religion, with an unbridled tongue, James 1:26 ; (f) manner of life, 1 Peter 1:18
Rome - 325, when Christianity was established as the Religion of the empire
Society of Friends (Orthodox) - They were subject to much suffering during the Revolution since they took no part in the war because of their Religion
Truth, Children of - They were subject to much suffering during the Revolution since they took no part in the war because of their Religion
Truth, Friends of - They were subject to much suffering during the Revolution since they took no part in the war because of their Religion
Religious Society of Friends of Philadelphia - They were subject to much suffering during the Revolution since they took no part in the war because of their Religion
Wilburite Orthodox Conservative Friends - They were subject to much suffering during the Revolution since they took no part in the war because of their Religion
Cause - Hence the word cause is used to denote that which a person or thing favors that to which the efforts of an intelligent being are directed as, to promote Religion is to advance the cause of God
Society of Our Lady of Good Counsel - Although essentially a Catholic society, the question of Religion does not arise so far as applicants for help are concerned; assistance is freely given to all regardless of creed, social status, or character; it is only necessary that clients be poor and have right and justice on their side
Thought - We say, a man's thoughts are employed on government, on Religion, on trade or arts, or his thoughts are employed on his dress or his means of living
Chronicles - The Chronicles should be read in connection with the books of Samuel and the Kings; treating of the same periods, they illustrate each other, and form a continuous and instructive history, showing that Religion is the main source of national prosperity, and ungodliness of adversity, Proverbs 14:34
Revolution, French - Out of fear of incensing the people in the provinces, the leaders hesitated to abolish Religion or close the churches entirely
Games - The Jews had no public games, the great feasts of Religion supplying them with anniversary occasions of national gatherings
Weak, Weakened, Weaker, Weakness - , "strengthless" (see IMPOTENT), is translated "weak," (a) of physical "weakness," Matthew 26:41 ; Mark 14:38 ; 1 Corinthians 1:27 ; 4:10 ; 11:30 (a judgment upon spiritual laxity in a church); 2 Corinthians 10:10 ; 1 Peter 3:7 (comparative degree); (b) in the spiritual sense, said of the rudiments of Jewish Religion, in their inability to justify anyone, Galatians 4:9 ; of the Law, Hebrews 7:18 ; in Romans 5:6 , RV , "weak" (AV, "without strength"), of the inability of man to accomplish his salvation; (c) morally or ethically, 1 Corinthians 8:7,10 ; 9:22 ; (d) rhetorically, of God's actions according to the human estimate, 1 Corinthians 1:25 , "weakness," lit
Fertility Cult - A general term for Religions marked by rites which reenact a myth accounting for the orderly change of the seasons and the earth's fruitfulness. Under Ahab, Baalism had become the state Religion (1 Kings 16:31 ). ) Many of the mystery Religions which competed with Christianity in the early centuries of the church developed the myths of the older fertility cults. See Asherah ; Ashtoroth; Baal ; Canaan, History and Religion of ; Dagon ; Diana ; Gods, Pagan ; High Place ; Prostitution ; Tammuz ; Ugarit
Schism - From a rent, clift, fissure; in its general acceptation it signifies division or separation; but is chiefly used in speaking of separations happening from diversity of opinions among people of the same Religion and faith. The Romanists number thirty-four schisms in their church: they bestow the name English schism on the reformation of Religion in this kingdom
Heathen - For many ages before Christ, the nations at large were destitute of the true Religion, and gave themselves up to the grossest ignorance, the most absurd idolatry, and the greatest crimes. Bellamy's Religion Delineated, p
Samar'Itans - Such were the Samaritans of our Lord's day; a people distinct from the jews, though lying in the very midst of the Jews; a people preserving their identity, though seven centuries had rolled away since they had been brought from Assyria by Esar-haddon, and though they had abandoned their polytheism for a sort of ultra Mosaicism; a people who, though their limits had gradually contracted and the rallying-place of their Religion on Mount Gerizim had been destroyed one hundred and sixty years before by John Hyrcanus (B. 130), and though Samaria (the city) had been again and again destroyed, still preserved their nationality still worshipped from Shechem and their impoverished settlements toward their sacred hill, still retained their peculiar Religion, and could not coalesce with the Jews
Hair (2) - Smith, RS Lucian - a philosopher and wit, who appeared as one of the early opposers of the Christian Religion and its followers. He sought to bring forward all that is striking and remarkable in the external conduct and circumstances of Christians, which might serve for the object of his sarcastic raillery, without any deeper inquiry as to what the Religion of the Christians really was
Mystery - The mystery of godliness, or of true Religion, consisted in the several particulars here mentioned by the Apostle; particulars, indeed, which it would never have "entered into the heart of man to conceive," 1 Corinthians 2:9 , had not God accomplished them in fact, and published them by the preaching of his Gospel; but which, being thus manifested, are intelligible, as facts, to the meanest understanding. In like manner, the term mystery, Romans 11:25 ; 1 Corinthians 15:51 , denotes what was hidden or unknown, till revealed; and thus the Apostle speaks of a man's "understanding all mysteries," 1 Corinthians 13:2 ; that is, all the revealed truths of the Christian Religion which is elsewhere called the "mystery of faith," 1 Timothy 3:9
Church - , that of the law by Moses, and that of the gospel by Jesus Christ, yet the Religion of the Bible is one Religion: whether before or after the coming of Christ, true believers are all one in Christ Jesus
Rest - Religion gives part of its reward in hand, the present comfort of having done our duty, and for the rest, it offers us the best security that heaven can give. The truth of Religion rests on divine testimony
Church - The theory that in Christianity, as in some other Religions, there was a gradual deification of the founder, continues to be advocated, but it will not bear serious investigation. If the new Religion was to conquer the world, it must be both individualistic and social; it must provide for communion between each soul and God, and also for communion between its adherents. As soon as it was seen that Judaism, in spite of all its OT glories, would never become a universal Religion, missions to the heathen became a necessity. ...
(d) The dissolution of nationalities by Roman conquests prepared men’s minds for a Religion which was not national but universal; and it is not impossible, in spite of the horror which the writer of the Apocalypse exhibits towards the worship of the Emperor, that that worship, which was nominally universal, sometimes prepared people for a worship of the Power to which they owed existence, and not merely fitful security and peace. The prevalent Religions and philosophies had stimulated longings which they could not satisfy. It satisfied them because it possessed the characteristics of a universal Religion-incomparable sublimity of doctrine, inexhaustible adaptability, and an origin that was recognizable as Divine. The great pagan world had to be won by the actual contents of Christianity, which were seen to be better than those of any Religion that the world had thus far known. ...
When the proconsul Saturninus said to the Scillitan Martyrs, ‘we also are religious people, and our Religion is simple,’ one of the Christians, replied, ‘If you will grant me a quiet hearing, I will tell you the mystery of simplicity’ (Acts of the Scillitan Martyrs Pharisees (2) - Jesus refers little to it, and when it disappeared the Religion of the Jews went on without a break. He did not denounce all Pharisees, or the Pharisaic Judaism amid which He grew up; since it stood for the whole transmitted Religion of Israel,—for that salvation which was of the Jews. 8), to look past the present legal life to a future world of grace and glory, to make proselytes, to have baptisms and holy suppers in their brotherhood, to pray, to fast and give alms—these three were ‘the chief pillars of the Jewish Religion’ (Bousset, Relig. , of the Religionsgeschichtliche school, who incline again towards the position of Renan, Grätz, Geiger. ‘Jesus’ appearance was really not a fulfilment, but a contradiction of the Jewish Religion. Chamberlain says, ‘The fable that the Jews had especial qualifications for Religion has been finally destroyed’ (i. Religion and ethics were in perfect harmony. The great loss to Religion in such a process was in making it largely negative. The idea of Religion as a supreme impulse from the depths of man’s nature, as Jesus taught it, independent of both superstition and ethics, was peculiarly foreign to the Pharisaic Jew (cf. One sad result of this national legal Religion was that it had one standard for the Jew and another for the Gentile. He threw aside the endless civil, ceremonial, and ethical rules of the Pharisees, and went back to the spiritual Religion of the OT as fulfilled in Him and transformed in the gospel. He brought a new cup of blessing full of the wine of the Kingdom, a sweet blending of Religion and ethics as inseparable in thought as the inside and outside of the holy cup itself. In this expectation, the nature of the Messiah also took a more universal, and at the same time more personal character, corresponding somewhat to the growing sense of personal responsibility in Religion among the Jews
Preaching - We have a very short account of this prophet and his doctrine; enough, however, to convince us that he taught the principal truths of natural and revealed Religion. When the ignorant notions of Pagans, the vices of their practice, and the idolatry of their pretended worship, were in some sad periods incorporated into the Jewish Religion by the princes of that nation, the prophets and all the seers protested against this apostacy, and they were persecuted for so doing. Some of them opened schools, or houses of instruction, and there to their disciples they taught the pure Religion of Moses. In a word, preaching flourished when pure Religion grew; and when the last decayed, the first was suppressed. When the Jews were carried captive into Babylon, the prophets who were with them inculcated the principles of Religion, and endeavoured to possess their minds with an aversion to idolatry; and to the success of preaching we may attribute the re-conversion of the Jews to the belief and worship of one God; a conversion that remains to this day. ...
They confined their attention to Religion, and left the school to dispute, and politicians to intrigue. But the glorious reformation was the offspring of preaching, by which mankind were informed: there was a standard, and the Religion of the times was put to trial by it. Friar Martin had a fine genius! They also taught the people what little they knew of Christian liberty; and so led them into a belief that they might follow their own ideas in Religion, without the consent of a confessor, a diocesan, a pope, or a council. They went farther, and laid the stress of all Religion on justifying faith. " These men were not all accomplished scholars; but they all gave proof enough that they were honest, hearty, and disinterested in the cause of Religion
Ethics - The ancient world did not consider Religion to be morally inspiring, creative, or corrective; the reputed behavior of gods and goddesses repelled cultivated minds. ...
Immoral Religion and Prophetic Protest . The prophets opposed the popular Religion and even temple worship, resenting not only the use of images but the total divorce of such "worship" from morality. Wizardry, sorcery, witchcraft, necromancy, and soothsaying flourished under the patronage of such Religion, and eventually even the Jerusalem temple housed similar rights, together with sun-worship, astrology, and altars to foreign gods (1 Kings 12:28-32 ; 14:23-24 ; 2 Kings 17:7-18 ; 21:1-7 ; 1Col 6:17-208 ; Jeremiah 2:20-25 ; 3:1-13,23 ; 5:1 ; 6:15 ; Hosea 2:5-8 ; 4:12,18 ; 5:3-4 ; 8:4-6 ; 13:1-2 ; Amos 2:7-8 ; 6:4-6 ; Micah 5:10-15 ; 6:6-7 ). ...
Thus both "religious perversion" and Religion without ethical fruits are rejected by God. Such "knowledge of God, " the essence of Religion and life's highest good (9:23-24), included a knowledge of God's law, of the "homing instincts" within human nature, of God's "hand" in one's experience, what God can accomplish, and his true "name" or character. They did not add ethics to religious piety; for them Religion and morality matured together, under God's guidance, through experience. Turning to the Psalter, one finds nothing remotely resembling the indecencies, license, and infanticide of popular preexilic Religion
High Place, Sanctuary - The term ‘sanctuary’ is used by modern students of Semitic Religion in two senses, a wider and a narrower. ‘The history of the high places is the history of the old Religion of Israel’ (Moore). ]'>[10] , in harmony with the universal experience of history as to the permanence of sacred sites through all the changes of race and Religion. At these the most zealous champions of the Religion of J″ [10] were so completely lost sight of by the mass of the people, that this prophet could describe the Religion of his contemporaries as unadulterated heathenism, and their worship as idolatry
Gods And Goddesses, Pagan - ...
The most shocking endorsement of Israel's buying into Canaanite Religion was the construction of a temple for the worship of Baal at Samaria. ) Canaanite Religion was appropriated by the people of Judah from Geba to Beer-sheba (2 Kings 16:4-14 ). Manasseh added various aspects of Canaanite (a carved image of Asherah, 2 Kings 21:7 ) and other Religions to the city of Jerusalem. At the heart of this pagan Religion was the worship of the fertility or fecundity "forces/features" that characterized the animate aspects of the created world. Ahab agreed with her to make Baal worship the royal Religion of the northern kingdom (1 Kings 16:29-31 ). Albright, Archaeology and the Religion of Israel ; idem, From the Stone Age to Christianity ; idem, History, Archaeology and Christian Humanism ; idem, Yahweh and the Gods of Canaan ; W. , Encyclopedia of Religion ; J
Revelation, Idea of - The central question of Religion is that of revelation. " For its Religion is the Religion of the speaking God, and a concern to maintain the continuity of contemporary Christianity with the Religion of the biblical communities suggests a like understanding of God as the speaking God, and a like use of the texts that are held to record the divine speech. And they fill out a pattern of understanding of the God of biblical and Christian Religion as a God who speaks. It offers a highly specific context to the general biblical claim to offer an account of a revealed Religion
Neology - It was understood to be the system of those who allowed no other knowledge of Religion than the natural, which man could shape out by his own strength, and, consequently, excluded all supernatural revelation. But they deny therein a supernatural and miraculous working of God, and consider the object of Christianity to be that of introducing into the world such a Religion as reason can comprehend; and they distinguish the essential from the unessential, and what is local and temporary from that which is universal and permanent in Christianity. For if I receive a system, be it of Religion, of morals, or of politics, only so far as it approves itself to my reason, whatever be the authority that presents it to me, it is idle to say that I receive the system out of any respect to that authority. ...
The vain conceit that the doctrines of Religion were capable of philosophic demonstration, which obtained among the followers of Wolf, is considered by Mr. "...
With several happy exceptions, and the raising up of a few pious people in some places, and a partial revival of evangelical doctrines, which, however, often ran at length into mysticism and antinomianism, the evil, both doctrinally and morally, continued to increase to our own day; for if any ask what has been the moral effect of the appalling apostasy of the teachers of Religion, above described, upon the people of Germany, the answer may be given from one of these rationalizing divines themselves, whose statement is not therefore likely to be too highly coloured. It is from a pamphlet of Bretschneider, published in 1822, and the substance is, "Indifference to Religion among all classes; that formerly the Bible used to be in every house, but now the people either do not possess it, or, as formerly, read it; that few attend the churches, which are now too large, though fifty years ago they were too small; that few honour the Sabbath; that there are now few students of theology, compared with those in law and medicine; that if things go on, there will shortly not be persons to supply the various ecclesiastical offices; that preaching had fallen into contempt; and that distrust and suspicion of the doctrines of Christianity prevailed among all classes. Rose, that no small degree of disgust at the past follies of the rationalists prevails; that the cold and comfortless nature of their system has been perceived; that a party of truly Christian views has arisen; and that there is a disposition alike in the people, the better part of the divines, and the philosophers, to return, to that revealed Religion which alone can give them comfort and peace. Tittman of Dresden, on the neological interpreters: "What is the interpretation of the Scriptures, if it relies not on words, but things, not on the assistance of languages, but on the decrees of reason, that is, of modern philosophy? What is all Religion, what the knowledge of divine things, what are faith and hope placed in Christ, what is all Christianity, if human reason and philosophy is the only fountain of divine wisdom, and the supreme judge in the matter of Religion? What is the doctrine of Christ and the Apostles more than some philosophical system? But what, then, I pray you, is, to deny, to blaspheme Jesus the Lord, to render his divine mission doubtful, nay, vain and useless, to impugn his doctrine, to disfigure it shamefully, to attack it, to expose it to ridicule, and, if possible, to suppress it, to remove all Christianity out of Religion, and to bound Religion within the narrow limits of reason alone, to deride miracles, and hold them up to derision, to accuse them as vain, to bring them into disrepute, to torture sacred Scripture into seeming agreement with the fancies of human wisdom, to alloy it with human conjectures, to bring it into contempt, and to break down its divine authority, to undermine, to shake, to overthrow utterly the foundations of Christian faith? What else can be the event than this, as all history, a most weighty witness in this matter, informs us, namely, that when sacred Scripture, its grammatical interpretation and a sound knowledge of languages are, as it were, despised and banished, all Religion should be contemned, shaken, corrupted, troubled, undermined, utterly overturned, and should be entirely removed and reduced to natural Religion; or that it should end in a mystical theology, than which nothing was ever more pernicious to the Christian doctrine, and be converted into an empty μυχιλαγε , or even into a poetical system, hiding every thing in figures and fictions, to which latter system not a few of the sacred orators and theologians of our time seem chiefly inclined
Persia - Magianism, the worship of the elements, especially fire, the Scythic Religion, infected the Persian Religion when the Persians entered their new country. He praises Solomon and delivers his doctrines as those of Abraham, to whose pure creed he sought to bring back the Magian Religion. In Lucian's (De Longaevis) day his Religion was that of most Persians, Parthians, Bactrians, Aryans, Sacans, Medes, and Chowaresmians
Drunkenness - His Religion was not in its essence a system of ascetic negations; it was much more than one of the ‘creeds which deny and restrain. ’...
Christianity is a Religion of principles, not of rules, and in Romans 14:21 St. ’...
Since, however, it is notoriously impossible to make men sober merely by legislation, the main factors in the problem must always be moral and Religions. The words were probably written about the time of the first appearance of the Encratites (Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics v. 301), who made abstinence from flesh, wine, and marriage the chief part of their Religion, seeking salvation not by faith but by asceticism
Gnostics - This point he labours in the seventh book of his Stromata, where he shows that none but the Gnostic, or learned person, has any true Religion. He accuses them of introducing into Religion certain vain and ridiculous genealogies, 1: e. These last were peculiarly serviceable to them, on account of the allegories and allusions with which they abound, which are capable of different interpretations; though their doctrine concerning the creation of the world by one or more inferior beings of an evil or imperfect nature, led them to deny the divine authority of the books of the Old Testament, which contradicted this idle fiction, and filled them with an abhorrence of Moses and the Religion he taught; alleging, that he was actuated by the malignant author of this world, who consulted his own glory and authority, and not the real advantage of men
High Priest (2) - The Religion of the Jew was a matter quite distinct from the rites and ceremonies of the temple, though he might observe these with care. The very success of the high priests centuries before, in uniting the two offices of religious and secular ruler, had operated to foster the development of a Religion of a different sort. It was now a Religion of the scribes
Selfishness - —The self-sacrifice which Christ demands of all who would be His followers might lead one to imagine that Christianity was a Religion of asceticism; that the Gnostic dualism of good and evil, matter and spirit, was the logical outcome of the teaching of Jesus; that God required the renunciation of all earthly things, and even of life, for the sake of the sacrifice itself. But it is a total misconception of the Religion of Jesus to suppose that He makes asceticism an end. It is thus manifest that there is not the slightest ground for bringing against Christianity the charge of inculcating a higher form of selfishness; for selfishness implies an opposition between the self and the not-self—that the well-being of the former is sought at the cost of the latter, whereas in the Religion of Jesus there is no such opposition
Antioch - The Christians of Antioch, undaunted by the conspiracy against their Religion, or the presence of the emperor himself, conveyed the relics of their former bishop in triumph back to their ancient repository within the city. Even those of riper years and graver morals could not with safety breathe the atmosphere of a place where pleasure, assuming the character of Religion, roused the dormant passions, and subdued the firmness of virtuous resolution. It continued, indeed, outwardly prosperous; but superstition, secular ambition, the pride of life; pomp and formality in the service of God, in place of humility and sincere devotion; the growth of faction, and the decay of charity; showed that real Religion was fast disappearing, and that the foundations were laid of that great apostasy which, in two centuries from this time, overspread the whole Christian world, led to the entire extinction of the church in the east, and still holds dominion over the fairest portions of the west
Chronicles, Books of - He wanted to give them some background concerning their nation’s history, and especially concerning its Religion. Its Religion was a rebellion against the true worship of God that was centred on the temple in Jerusalem. the dynasty of David), the Chronicler wants to show what an important part the one and only God-given Religion played in the national life of God’s people
Kings, Books of - ...
False Religion in the north soon brought an announcement of divine punishment (13:1-14:20). The false Religion spread to the south (14:21-15:8), though there was a reformation under the king Asa (15:9-24). ...
When Omri’s son and successor Ahab married Jezebel of Phoenicia, the Baalism of Phoenicia threatened to become Israel’s national Religion
Mahometanism - The system of Religion formed and propagated by Mahomet, and still adhered to by his followers. ...
After he began by this advantageous match to live at his ease, it was, that he formed the scheme of establishing a new Religion, or, as he expressed it, of replanting the only true and ancient one professed by Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and all the prophets, by destroying the gross idolatry into which the generality of his countrymen had fallen, and weeding out the corruptions and superstitions which the latter Jews and Christians had, as he thought, introduced into their Religion, and reducing it to its original purity, which consisted chiefly in the worship of one God. These refugees were kindly received by the Najashi, or king of Ethiopia, who refused to deliver them up to those whom the Koreish sent to demand them, and, as the Arab writers unanimously attest, even professed the Mahometan Religion. As persecution generally advances rather than obstructs the spreading of a Religion, Islamism made so great a progress among the Arab tribes, that the Koreish, to suppress it effectually if possible, in the seventh year of Mahomet's mission, made a solemn league or covenant against the Hashemites, and the family of Abd'slmotalleb, engaging themselves to contract no marriages with any of them, and to have no communication with them; and to give it the greater sanction, reduced it into writing, and laid it up in the Caaba. However, Mahomet was not wanting to himself; but boldly continued to preach to the public assemblies at the pilgrimage, and gained several proselytes; and among them six of the inhabitants of Yathreb, of the Jewish tribe of Khazraj; who, on their return home, failed not to speak much in recommendation of their new Religion, and exhorted their fellow-citizens to embrace the same. This oath was called the women's oath; not that any omen were present at this time, but because a man was not thereby obliged to take up arms in defense of Mahomet or his Religion; it being the same oath that was afterwards exacted of the women, the form of which we have in the Koran, and is to this effect, viz. When they had solemnly engaged to all this, Mahomet sent one of his disciples named Masab Ebn Omair home with them, to instruct them more fully in the grounds and ceremonies of his new Religion. Hitherto Mahomet had propagated his Religion by fair means; so that the whole success of his enterprise, before his flight to Medina, must be attributed to persuasion only, and not to compulsion. ...
For before this second oath of fealty or inauguration at Al Akaba, he had no permission to use any force at all; and in several places of the Koran, which he pretended were revealed during his stay at Mecca, he declares his business was only to preach and admonish; that he had no authority to compel any person to embrace his Religion; and that, whether people believe or not, was none of his concern, but belonged solely unto God. His forces he maintained partly by the contributions of his followers for this purpose, which he called by the name of zacat, or alms, and the paying of which he very artfully made one main article of his Religion; and partly by ordering a fifth part of the plunder to be brought into the public treasury for that purpose, in which matter he likewise pretended to act by the divine direction. ...
In the seventh year of the Hegira, Mahomet began to think of propagating his Religion, beyond the bounds of Arabia, and sent messengers to the neighbouring princes, with letters to invite them to Mahometanism. Mahomet put off his answer till the next morning, and then told the messenger it had been revealed to him that night that Khosru was slain by his son Shiruyeh; adding, that he was well assured his new Religion and empire should rise to as great a height as that as Khosru; and therefore bid him advise his master to embrace Mahometanism. The Mahometans divide their Religion into two general parts, faith and practice, of which the first is divided into six distinct branches: Belief in God, in his angels, in his Scriptures, in his prophets, in the resurrection and final judgment, and in God's absolute Decrees
Advance - ) Improvement or progression, physically, mentally, morally, or socially; as, an advance in health, knowledge, or Religion; an advance in rank or office
Liberalism - The principles of the French Revolution form the basis of modern liberalism, which advocates absolute freedom of thought, Religion, conscience, speech, press, and politics, thus denying any authority derived from God
Oxford Catholic Worker's College - Students receive tuition from university tutors, attend university lectures, and are enabled to prepare for the university diploma in economics and political science; their studies also include moral philosophy, social ethics, and philosophy of Religion
Arabia Felix - They are now nominally Mohammedans, but then Religion sits but lightly on them
Stranger - (17:15) In regard to Religion, it was absolutely necessary that the stranger should not infringe any of the fundamental laws of the Israelitish state
Catholic Truth Society of Ireland - The aims of the society are: the spreading, among Catholics, of small devotional works, and; among Protestants, of information concerning the Catholic faith and practises; the aiding of the uneducated poor in obtaining a better knowledge of their Religion; and the promoting of the circulation of good and inexpensive Catholic literature. The society has published a great number of pamphlets and books containing prayers, daily meditations, histories of Religions, arguments against rationalists, lives of Catholic men of science, stories for young people, etc
Catholic Truth Societies - The aims of the society are: the spreading, among Catholics, of small devotional works, and; among Protestants, of information concerning the Catholic faith and practises; the aiding of the uneducated poor in obtaining a better knowledge of their Religion; and the promoting of the circulation of good and inexpensive Catholic literature. The society has published a great number of pamphlets and books containing prayers, daily meditations, histories of Religions, arguments against rationalists, lives of Catholic men of science, stories for young people, etc
Friendship - The genius and injunctions of the Christian Religion seem also to inculcate this virtue; for it not only commands universal benevolence to men, but promotes the strongest love and friendship between those whose minds are enlightened by divine grace, and who behold in each other the image of their Divine Master
Foreknowledge of God - "...
To deny this is, (says Saurin, ) to degrade the Almighty; for what, pray, is a God who created beings, and who could not foresee what would result from their existence? A God, who formed spirits united to bodies by certain laws, and who did not know how to combine these laws so as to foresee the effects they would produce? A God forced to suspend his judgment? A God who every day learns something new, and who doth not know to-day what will happen to-morrow? A God who cannot tell whether peace will be concluded or war continue to ravage the world; whether peace will be received in a certain kingdom, or whether it will be banished; whether the right heir will succeed to the crown, or whether the crown will be set on the head of an usurper? For according to the different determinations of the wills of men, of king, or people, the prince will make peace, or declare war; Religion will be banished or admitted; the tyrant or the lawful king will occupy the throne: for if God cannot foresee how the volitions of men will be determined, he cannot foresee any of these events
Natural - Discoverable by reason not revealed as natural Religion
Foundation - ...
The foundations of Psalm 11:3 are the foundations of life, security, community, justice, and Religion
Abomination - "Almost the entire Religion of the Roman camp consisted in worshipping the ensign, swearing by the ensign, and in preferring the ensign before all other gods
Confusion of Tongues - Law's Theory of Religion, p
Scoffer: Silenced - So soon as he discovered the minister, he commenced his horrid blasphemies; and when he perceived him reading at one of the tables, he proposed to his companions to go with him to the opposite side of the table and listen to some stories that he had to tell upon Religion and religious men which he said would annoy the old preacher
Water - ...
Water was also used in the cleansing rituals of the Israelite Religion
Divorce - Christ, the precepts of whose Religion were calculated for more general use and observation, revokes his permission as given to the Jews for their hardness of heart, and promulges a law which was thenceforward to confine divorces to the single cause of adultery in the wife, Matthew 19:9
Order - Nothing can be more beautiful in Religion and morals than order
Bull - In the Canaanite Religion, the chief of the assembly was called “father bull El
Drunk - ...
Revelation 17:6 (a) This no doubt refers to the wicked practices of the great false Religions of the world, particularly the Roman Catholic Church, which through the centuries has reveled in the blood of saints and martyrs. It should be noted that all nations suffer from the overruling and overriding power of their apostate Religion
Ammonius Saccas - He was a native of Alexandria; Porphyry asserts that he was born of Christian parents, and returned to the heathen Religion
Burden - (Matthew 11:28; Matthew 11:30), the ‘burden’ (φορτἰον) is that of the legal and Pharisaic ordinances of such a minute and exacting kind that they became intolerable and crushed out real heart-religion
Cellar - Christians are ‘the light of the world,’ the light by which the mass of mankind may see the things of Religion
Way - Every false Religion teaches one of the ways of Satan
Convert - To change or turn from one Religion to another, or from one party or sect to another as, to convert pagans to Christianity to convert royalists into republicans
Australian Catholic Truth Society - The aims of the society are: the spreading, among Catholics, of small devotional works, and; among Protestants, of information concerning the Catholic faith and practises; the aiding of the uneducated poor in obtaining a better knowledge of their Religion; and the promoting of the circulation of good and inexpensive Catholic literature. The society has published a great number of pamphlets and books containing prayers, daily meditations, histories of Religions, arguments against rationalists, lives of Catholic men of science, stories for young people, etc
Assemblies of the French Clergy - During the Crusades contributions were frequently exacted from ecclesiastical property and immense sums for the defense of the kingdom were subscribed by the association at various times, notably during the wars of Religion of the Reformation period, the siege of La Rochelle, and later wars, even for the expenses occasioned by the American Revolution
Family (Jewish) - Religion in the family
Abstinence - The like injunctions were renewed under queen Elizabeth; but at the same time it was declared that this was done not out of motives of Religion, as if there were any difference in meats, but in favor of the consumption of fish, and to mariners, as well as to spare the stock of sheep
Immutability of God - to what purpose, it may be urged, is homage addressed to a Being whose plan is unalterably fixed? This objection would have weight, if our religious addresses were designed to work any alteration in God, either by giving him information of what he did not know, or by exciting affections which he did not possess; or by inducing him to change measures which he had previously formed: but they are only crude and imperfect notions of Religion which can suggest such ideas
Chamber - ...
And it should seem, that this is the chief sense of the word, because it was the custom among Jews, to unfold the secrets of their Religion in this way
Travelling - " Instead of the Koran of modern times, let us conceive of Abraham, and other patriarchal emirs, collecting their numerous dependents and teaching them the true Religion, and we then see with what truth they are called the Lord's "prophets
Daniel, Book of - The precise time of Christ's coming is told; the rise and the fall of antichrist, and the duration of his power, are accurately determined; the victory of Christ over his enemies, and the universal prevalence of his Religion are clearly pointed out
Soul - ...
The immortality of the soul is a fundamental doctrine of revealed Religion
jo'el - Nay, the time will be a most joyful one; for God, by the outpouring of his Spirit, will extend the blessings of true Religion to heathen lands
Jehosh'Aphat - In his own kingdom Jehoshaphat ever showed himself a zealous follower of the commandments of God: he tried to put down the high places and groves in which the people of Judah burnt incense, and sent the wisest Levites through the cities and towns to instruct the people in true morality and Religion
Artaxerxes - ...
ASA...
Judah was badly corrupted by Canaanite Religions when Asa came to the throne (910 BC). He spent the early part of his reign trying to rid Judah of false Religion, while at the same time he strengthened the nation’s defences (2 Chronicles 14:1-8). His religious reforms included the removal of the queen mother (one of the chief supporters of the Canaanite Religions), the destruction of idols, and the banning of religious prostitutes (1 Kings 15:9-15; 2 Chronicles 15:8-15)
Infant Baptism - If, on the other hand, the Church is a DivineInstitution, founded on Christ and His Apostles, and is declaredin Holy Scripture to be the Mystical Body of Christ, in which weare united to Him, admitted into covenant with God and so broughtinto a new relationship with God, then Infant Baptism is not onlyone of the most reasonable, but one of the most urgent doctrines ofthe Christian Religion, because it is in Holy Baptism that all theseblessings are vouchsafed to us
Leontius, Priest And Martyr of Armenia - 450 700 magian priests, sent under escort to instruct the Armenians in the court Religion, arrived at Ankes in the centre of Armenia
Beast - The aim of Scripture is not natural science, but Religion. Where system is needful for this, it is given simple and effective for the purposes of Religion
Pentateuch - The Abbe Torne, in a sermon preached before the French king in Lent, 1764, makes the following remarks: "The legislator of the Jews was the author of the Pentateuch; an immortal work, wherein he paints the marvels of his reign with the majestic picture of the government and Religion which he established! Who before our modern infidels ever ventured to obscure this incontestable fact? Who ever sprang a doubt about this among the Hebrews?...
What greater reasons have there ever been to attribute to Mahomet his Alcoran, to Plato his Republic, or to Homer his sublime poems? Rather let us say, What work in any age ever appeared more truly to bear the name of its real author? It is not an ordinary book, which, like many others, may be easily hazarded under a fictitious name. In this book the Hebrews included all their science; it was their civil, political, and sacred code, their only treasure, their calendar, their annals, the only title of their sovereigns and pontiffs, the alone rule of polity and worship: by consequence it must be formed with their monarchy, and necessarily have the same epoch as their government and Religion, &c
Godliness - the ecclesiastical and the practical character of the type of Religion recommended by him (Holtzmann, loc, cit. , moreover, εὐσέβεια serves to denote, just as in the Pastorals, the Religion of the Church, in opposition to that of a heretical Gnosis (1:16; 2:1f
Clean, Unclean, Common - This depreciation arose out of the transcendence of Religion to the Eastern mind. ...
The distinction, ‘clean’ (καθαρός) and ‘unclean’ (ἀκάθαρτος), refers in the OT and primitive Religions to definite departments of life, such as food, sanitation, contact with the dead, and marriage (Leviticus 11-15). Smith, RS Gregorius, Saint., the Illuminator - the priests and supporters of the old Religion—and baptized the king and his court in the Euphrates. This national conversion occurred before Constantine had established the church in the Roman empire, and Armenia was thus the first kingdom to adopt Christianity as the Religion of the state
Act of Faith - After a sermon made up of encomiums of the Inquisition, and invectives against heretics, a priest ascends a desk near the scaffold, and, having taken the abjuration of the penitent recites the final sentence of those who are to be put to death, and delivers them to the secular arm, earnestly beseeching at the same time the secular power not to touch their blood, or put their lives in danger!!! The prisoners, being thus in the hands of the civil magistrate, are presently loaded with chains, and carried first to the secular gaol, and from thence, in an hour or two, brought before the civil judge; who, after asking in what Religion they intend to die, pronounces sentence on such as declare they die in the communion of the church of Rome, that they shall be first strangled, and then burnt to ashes; or such as die in any other faith, that they be burnt alive. There cannot be a more lamentable spectacle: the sufferers continually cry out, while they are able, "Pity, for the love of God!" Yet it is beheld, by all sexes and ages, with transports of joy and satisfaction...
O merciful God! is this the benign, humane Religion thou hast given to men? Surely not
Obedience - Whately, The Use and Abuse of Party Feeling in Matters of Religion, 1859, pp. Browne, The Essence of Religion, 1911, p
Devil - In modern times, devil-worship is seen systematized in Ceylon, Burmah, and many parts of the East Indies; and an order of devil-priests exists, though contrary to the Budhist Religion, against the temples of which it sets up rival altars. This is the foundation of their hope, and this chance for heaven they esteem to be a better one than that of trusting to their own merits, or the merits of the leader of any other Religion whatsoever. As the Turks allow the free exercise of Religion only to those who possess sacred books, that is, the Mohammedans, Christians, and Jews, the Isidians are obliged to keep the principles of their Religion very secret. They therefore call themselves Mohammedans, Christians, or Jews, according to the party of him who inquires what their Religion is
Universalism (2) - There are two ways in which Religions qualify as ‘universal. Or in addition they may simplify very greatly—in contrast with the legal or national character of developed systems of Religion in the ancient world. From the first, apparently, a proselyte might have the benefits of Buddhism without renouncing the practices of his former faith; and at this hour many of the population of China are said to practise concurrently the three Religions—Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism. On both sides, law is treated, not as customary, but as religious in value—good Religion to the Judaizers, bad Religion to St. No Religion, not even the Christian, has ever attained the destiny of universal sway to which all the higher prophetic Religions aspire. The simplifying of Religion, which was carried through in controversy by St. If God is our Father, Religion is sonship. If Religion consists in the belief of God’s Fatherhood and in love to man, there is no reason why a Jew should be preferred to a Gentile. Paul, who—in forms of his own, or, at any rate, in forms which owed to him their full and sharp development—vindicates the universal Religion which has succeeded to the Old Covenant through the atoning death for sin
Law - Hence we frequently read of the law of Moses as expressive of the whole Religion of the Jews, Hebrews 9:19 ; Hebrews 10:28 . Sometimes, in a more restricted sense, for the ritual or ceremonial observances of the Jewish Religion. If we examine the Jewish law, to discover the principle on which the whole system depends, the primary truth, to inculcate and illustrate which is its leading object, we find it to be that great basis of all Religion, both natural and revealed, the self-existence, essential unity, perfections, and providence of the supreme Jehovah, the Creator of heaven and earth. The Religion of names arose from an idolatrous polytheism; and the name given here directly opposes this error, and in the ignorance of that dark and corrupted period establishes that great truth, to which the most enlightened philosophy can add no new lustre, and on which all the most refined speculations on the divine nature ultimately rest, the self-existence, and, by consequence, the eternity and immutability, of the one great Jehovah. ...
But though the self-existence of the Deity was a fact too abstract to require its being frequently inculcated, his essential unity was a practical principle, the sure foundation on which to erect the structure of true Religion, and form a barrier against the encroachments of idolatry: for this commenced not so frequently in denying the existence, or even the supremacy, of the one true God, as in associating with him for objects of adoration inferior intermediate beings, who were supposed to be more directly employed in the administration of human affairs. ...
Such was the theology of the Jewish Religion, at a period when the whole world was deeply infected with idolatry; when all knowledge of the one true God, all reverence for his sacred name, all reliance on his providence, all obedience to his laws, were nearly banished from the earth; when the severest chastisements had been tried in vain; when no hope of reformation appeared from the refinements of civilization or the researches of philosophy; for the most civilized and enlightened nations adopted with the greatest eagerness, and disseminated with the greatest activity, the absurdities, impieties, and pollutions of idolatry. At this time, and in this nation, was the Mosaic law promulgated, teaching the great principles of true Religion, the self- existence, the unity, the perfections, and the providence of the one great Jehovah; reprobating all false gods, all image worship, all the absurdities and profanations of idolatry. At this time, and in this nation, was a system of government framed, which had for its basis the reception of, and steady adherence to, this system of true Religion; and establishing many regulations which would be in the highest degree irrational, and could never hope to be received, except from a general and thorough reliance on the superintendence of Divine Providence, controlling the course of nature, and directing every event, so as to proportion the prosperity of the Hebrew people, according to their obedience to that law which they had received as divine. ...
It is an obvious, but it is not therefore a less important remark, that to the Jewish Religion we owe that admirable summary of moral duty, contained in the ten commandments. By commanding to keep holy the Sabbath, as the memorial of the creation, it establishes the necessity of public worship, and of a stated and outward profession of the truths of Religion, as well as of the cultivation of suitable feelings; and it enforces this by a motive which is equally applicable to all mankind, and which should have taught the Jew that he ought to consider all nations as equally creatures of that Jehovah whom he himself adored; equally subject to his government, and, if sincerely obedient, entitled to all the privileges his favour could bestow. And, to close the horrid catalogue, we see false Religions leading their deluded votaries to heap the altars of their idols with human victims; the master butchers his slave, the conqueror his captive; nay, dreadful to relate, the parent sacrifices his children, and, while they shriek amidst the tortures of the flames, or in the agonies of death, he drowns their cries by the clangour of cymbals and the yells of fanaticism. ...
But the Jewish Religion promoted the interests of moral virtue, not merely by the positive injunctions of the decalogue; it also inculcated clearly and authoritatively the two great principles on which all piety and virtue depend, and which our blessed Lord recognised as the commandments on which hang the law and the prophets,—the principles of love to God and love to our neighbour
Hebrews - ...
The Religion of the Hebrews may be considered in different points of view, with respect to the different conditions of their nation. Such was the Religion of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Judah, Joseph, etc. , who maintained the worship of God and the tradition of the true Religion. After the time of Moses, the Religion of the Hebrews became more fixed, and ceremonies, days, feasts, priest, and sacrifices were determined with great exactness
Josiah - And Josiah inherited from his father and from his grandfather a name of shame, an undermined throne, a divided and a distracted kingdom, a national Religion and a public worship debased, and, indeed, bestialised; and, over all, a fearful looking for of judgment. ...
Josiah was only twenty years of age when he set about a national reformation of Religion as radical and as complete as anything that Martin Luther or John Calvin or John Knox themselves ever undertook. This royal youth of but about twenty years old, and the son and heir of Manasseh and Amon, having the intellectual boldness and the spiritual originality to take all his statesmanship, and all his churchman ship, and all his international politics, and all his righteous wars, as well as all his personal and household Religion, all out of his own tender heart. For it was in the progress of that reformation and revival of Religion which his own tender heart had alone dictated to him that the long-lost law of Moses was recovered. Your Religion is not worth one straw, as true Religion, unless it is every day breaking and making more tender your hard heart
Image, Nebuchadnezzar's - Here Religion is a political tool to unite various peoples into one empire
Micah - The style of Micah is nervous, concise, and elegant, often elevated, and poetical, but sometimes obscure from sudden transitions of subject; and the contrast of the neglected duties of justice, mercy, humility, and piety, with the punctilious observance of the ceremonial sacrifices, affords a beautiful example of the harmony which subsists between the Mosaic and Christian dispensations, and shows that the law partook of that spiritual nature which more immediately characterizes the Religion of Jesus
Empty - The vain (kenos) man in James 2:20 is one who is "empty" of Divinely imparted wisdom; in James 1:26 the vain (mataios) Religion is one that produces nothing profitable
Elder - ...
Elders in the presbyterian discipline, are officers, who, in conjunction with the ministers and deacons, compose the kirk sessions, who formerly used to inspect and regulate matters of Religion and discipline; but whose principal business now is to take care of the poor's funds
Ebionites - It is more probable the Jews gave this appellation to the Christians in general out of contempt; because, in the first times, there were few but poor people that embraced the Christian Religion
Cush (2) - Massive architectural remains, and a Religion of nature worship from the highest to the lowest (fetish) kind, are found in all the Mizraite and Cushite settlements; and the language is partly Turanian, partly Semitic
Sacrament - ...
The word was adopted by the writers of the Latin church, to denote those ordinances of Religion by which Christians came under an obligation of obedience to God, and which obligation, they supposed, was equally sacred with that of an oath
Humiliation of Christ - Religion, p
Sanhedrin - With the re-establishment of the Jewish nation after the Jews’ return from captivity in Babylon, there were significant developments in the Jewish Religion
Medes, Media - Media was of great importance in the history of Religion, since it was there, probably in the early years of the 7th cent
Vows - —Robertson Smith, RS Nippur - ...
Nippur was most important, however, for its Religion
Leviathan - Robertson Smith held that it is a personification of the water-spout ( RS Olive (Tree) - The Lord did not curse an olive tree, for the Religion of Israel had GOD's approval
God, City of - In a desperate attempt to crush the new Religion, paganism employed libel and calumny besides the sword, the most persistent accusation being that the Christians were guilty of the evils which befell the Roman Empire
Fire (Kindle) - ...
Isaiah 50:11 (a) This is a type of man's wits and wisdom, wherein he seeks to build up a Religion and a line of "thinking" that is contrary to the will and the word of GOD
Exercise - Practice performance as the exercise of Religion
Flourish - To grow in grace and in good works to abound in the consolations of Religion
Philosophy - In Athens, the Epicurean, and Stoic philosophers made a jest of Paul's discourse; and in many places of his epistles, he opposes the false wisdom of he age, that is, the pagan philosophy, to the wisdom of Jesus Christ, and the true Religion, which to the philosophers and sophists seemed to be mere folly, because it was built neither on the eloquence nor the subtlety of those who preached it, but on the power of God, and on the operations of the Holy Ghost in the hearts and minds of believers; and because it did not amuse and flatter man, but probed him a guilty rebel against God, in perishing need of a Savior
Resurrection of the Dead - When our Saviour appeared in Judea, the doctrine of the resurrection of the dead was received as a principal article of Religion by the whole Jewish nation except the Sadducees
Theology, Pastoral - As minister of the sacraments, besides the requisite dogmatic and moral theology, he should possess other knowledge such as "pastoral medicine," which treats of the relations of bodily conditions to Religion and morality
Omniscience - ...
When we come to the testimony of Scripture, we find Christ growing in knowledge (Luke 2:52), and afterwards limiting Himself to be a teacher not even in matters of civil justice (Luke 12:14), but only in the highest region of Religion
Hittites - ...
The Religion of the Hittites seems to have had some features in common with Semitic Religion (cf
Stranger - He is not, however, compelled, though allowed, to follow his protector’s Religion ( Deuteronomy 14:29 , 1 Kings 11:7 ). ]'>[1] and to other parts of the OT which belong to the same stage of history and Religion, we find the ‘sojourner’ almost on an equal footing with the native Israelite, he is fast becoming, and is almost become, the proselyte of NT and Rabbinical times
Symbol - The prevalence of figurative language in the Bible is due partly to the antiquity and Oriental origin of the book and to the fact that its subject, Religion, deals with the most difficult problems of life and the deepest emotions of the soul. It might Indicate man’s thought of God, but it left untouched the constituent element of true Religion, God’s thought of man
Revelation - " Halyburton against the Deists; Leland's View of Deistical Writers; Brown's compendium of Natural and Revealed Religion; Stillingfleet's Origines Sacrae, is, perhaps, one of the ablest defences of revealed Religion ever written
Council - The council of Paris in 1210, in which Aristotle's metaphysics were condemned to the flames, lest the refinements of that philosopher should have a bad tendency on men's minds, by applying those subjects to Religion. Murray's History of Religion
Reverence - But it is to be noted that the term θρπσκεία, which in Acts 26:5 emphasizes the ritual side of Religion, does not occur in the Gospels (cf. In Religion this state of the soul is fundamental, and its expression in ritual acts is natural. Sime, Elements of Religion2 [1] , 15, Epic of God (1902), 53; E
Jachin And Boaz - These, though viewed in more primitive times as the abode of the Deity (see Pillar), had, as civilization and Religion advanced, come to be regarded as mere symbols of His presence. Smith’s RS Hope - ...
This absence of the word is the more remarkable, when we remember not only that Judaism, the Religion in which our Lord and His disciples were reared, was essentially a Religion of hope, but also that the result of the teaching of Jesus was vastly to enlarge and deepen that hope, by imparting to it the riches of the Christian faith
Damascus, Damascenes - Yet in a sense the Religion of Europe came by the way of Damascus, which was the scene of the conversion of the greatest of all missionaries. Josephus indicates the extent of Jewish proselytism in the city when he states that the Damascenes ‘distrusted their own wives, who were almost all addicted to the Jewish Religion’ (Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) II
Blasphemy - Paul, who reasoned against idolatry, never used opprobrious language about the Religion of Greece or Rome. Dictionary of the Bible , and Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics , with the literature there cited, see the relevant Commentaries, esp
Baal - In the times of the kings it became the Religion of the court and people of the ten tribes, Joshua 15:9-10; 1 Kings 18:19; 1 Kings 18:22, and appears never to have been wholly abolished among them. The Religion of the ancient British islands resembled this ancient worship of Baal
Assyr'ia, as'Shur, - Her Religion was a gross and complex polytheism, comprising the worship of thirteen principal and numerous minor divinities, at the head of all of whom stood the chief god, Asshur, who seems to be the deified patriarch of the nation. Their government was rude and inartificial, their Religion coarse and sensual, and their conduct of war cruel
Hope - ...
This absence of the word is the more remarkable, when we remember not only that Judaism, the Religion in which our Lord and His disciples were reared, was essentially a Religion of hope, but also that the result of the teaching of Jesus was vastly to enlarge and deepen that hope, by imparting to it the riches of the Christian faith
Grave Gravity - ‘By this the apostle seems to advert to that in which religious persons are too often deficient, who by an austere and ascetic demeanour not a little prejudice the cause of Religion’ (S. Caird, The Evolution of Religion, Glasgow, 1893, Lectures vii. Kidd, Morality and Religion, do
Book of Life - ...
As regards the origin of the conception, if we take the heavenly book in the wider sense of a record of men’s actions or a prophetic world history, it is obviously one of those conceptions for which it is not easy to establish a relation of dependence between one Religion and another, since it is likely to arise independently in various places. ’ in Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics ) has pointed to the Bab. ; A, Jeremias, article ‘Book of Life’ in Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics ; W
Acts, Book of - Christianity was not an illegal Religion according to Roman law. On the contrary it was the legitimate continuation of the Religion established by Abraham and developed through Moses, David and the Israelite nation (Acts 2:31-33; Acts 19:31; Acts 15:15-18; Acts 26:22-23; Acts 28:23). He was the Messiah of whom the Jewish Religion spoke and for whom it had prepared the way (Acts 2:36; Acts 3:18; Acts 9:22; Acts 17:3; Acts 18:5; Acts 18:28)
Phylacteries - In order to emphasize their profession of Religion, these people ‘made broad’ (πλατύνουσι, Matthew 23:5) these mementoes of their Judaism, whether by enlarging the whole, the boxes and the straps, or, as the Sinaitic and Curetonian Syriac suggest, the straps only. It was the vain extension of the outward sign of an unreal Religion that our Lord rebuked; it marked the externality and hollowness of contemporary Pharisaism. Thus in Matthew 22:34 || it may be considered as certain that the group of Pharisees with whom our Lord held His controversy wore their broadened phylacteries, and that the passage He quoted, the Shema’, the foundation of Hebrew Religion, would be found in the phylacteries they carried on their heads and arms
Covenant - Used at first in connexion with single transactions and partial aspects of the religious intercourse between God and man, it later becomes the formula designating the entire structure and content of the Religion of Israel in its most comprehensive sense. Its covenant character marks off the Religion of Israel as a Religion of real, conscious, spiritual fellowship between God and His people, in distinction from the Religions of paganism, in which either the Deity and the creature are pantheistically fused, or the God-head after a deistic fashion is so far removed from the creature as to render true communion impossible, and where the relation between a national god and his worshippers is not a matter of choice but of necessity on both sides. Besides the emphasis thrown on the ethical-historical character of Israel’s Religion, two other important principles attach themselves to the term, partly developing out of the principle just stated. On the one hand, the covenant idea begins to express the continuity of God’s dealings with His people; as it is a bond freely established, so it is the fruit of design and the fountain of further history, it has a prospective reference and makes Israel’s Religion a growing thing; in a word, the covenant idea gathers around itself the thoughts we have in mind when speaking of a history of redemption and revelation. To the prophet’s mind Religion and the covenant have become so identified that the covenant idea becomes the stable, permanent element in the historical development; if in its old form the covenant disappears, then in a new form it must reappear. Notwithstanding the so-called ‘intensive universalism’ and the recognition of Religion as a natural bond between God and man, antedating all positive forms of intercourse, our Lord was a thoroughgoing supernaturalist, who viewed both the past relationship of God to Israel and the future relationship to be established in the Kingdom not as the outcome of the natural Religion of man, but as the product of a special, historic, supernatural approach of God to man, such as the OT calls ‘covenant
Miracle - When a Religion, or any religious truth, is to be revealed from heaven, they appear to be absolutely necessary to enforce its reception among men; and this is the only case in which we can suppose them necessary, or believe for a moment that they ever have been or will be performed. "The history of almost every Religion abounds with relations of prodigies and wonders, and of the intercourse of men with the gods; but we know of no religious system, those of the Jews and Christians excepted, which appealed to miracles as the sole evidence of its truth and divinity. The pretended miracles mentioned by Pagan historians and poets, are not said to have been publicly wrought to enforce the truth of a new Religion, contrary to the reigning idolatry. Why, it has been sometimes asked, are not miracles wrought in all ages and countries? If the Religion of Christ was to be of perpetual duration, every generation of men ought to have complete evidence of its truth and divinity. The very resolution of the apostles to propagate the belief of false miracles in support of such a Religion as that which is taught in the New Testament, is as great a miracle as human imagination can easily conceive. They could not, if they foresaw that they should fail, look for any thing but that contempt, disgrace, and persecution, which were then the inevitable consequences of an unsuccessful endeavour to overthrow the established Religion. ' The very system of Religion, therefore, which they invented and resolved to impose upon mankind, was so contrived, that the worldly prosperity of its first preachers, and even their exemption from persecution, was incompatible with its success. Had these clear predictions of the Author of that Religion, under whom the apostles acted only as ministers not been verified, all mankind must have instantly perceived that their pretence to inspiration was false, and that Christianity was a scandalous and impudent imposture. If the testimony of the first preachers of Christianity were true, the miracles recorded in the Gospel were certainly performed, and the doctrines of our Religion are derived from heaven
Polytheism - How, then, comes it to pass that this particular instinct, which, if real, is surely of as much importance as any other, should have uniformly led those who had no other guide, to pursue improper objects, to fall into the grossest errors, and the most pernicious practices? For these and other reasons, which might easily be assigned, they suppose that the first religious principles must have been derived from a source different as well from internal sense as from the deductions of reason; from a source which the majority of mankind had early forgotten: and which, when it was banished from their minds, left nothing behind it to prevent the very first principle of Religion from being perverted by various accidents or causes; or, in some extraordinary concurrence of circumstances, from being, perhaps, entirely obliterated. ...
This source of Religion every consistent theist must believe to be revelation. The vulgar Pagans were sunk in the grossest ignorance, from which statesmen, priests, and poets, exerted their utmost influence to keep them from emerging; for it was a maxim, which, however absurd, was universally received, "that there were many things true in Religion which it was not convenient for the vulgar to know; and some things, which, though false, it was expedient that they should believe. 177, 179; Kaims's Sketches of the History of Man; Bishop Law's Theory of Religion, p
Pharisees - They preached a Religion for the people and conducted a missionary propaganda (Matthew 23:15). No doubt this circumstance was of considerable importance in enabling pious Jews to distinguish between a Church and a nation (see Bousset, Religion des Judentums, p. Pharisees developed the Messianic hope, distinguished the Church from the State, taught a Religion that was independent of priests and Temple, developed doctrines of immortality, resurrection, and judgment to come, that with only little modification passed into Christian theology. Bousset, Die Religion des Judentums in neutest
Reformation - In general, an act of reforming or correcting an error or abuse in Religion, discipline, or the like. In 1526, a diet was assembled at Spire, when the emperor's ambassadors were desired to use their utmost endeavours to suppress all disputes about Religion, and to insist upon the rigorous execution of the sentence which had been pronounced against Luther at Worms. In 1529, a new diet was formed, and the power which had been granted to princes of managing ecclesiastical affairs till the meeting of a general council, was now revoked, and every change declared unlawful that should be introduced into the doctrine, discipline, or worship of the established Religion, before the determination of the approaching council was known. ...
Meanwhile Charles was convinced that it was not a time to extirpate heresy by violence; and at last terms of pacification were agreed upon at Nuremberg, and ratified solemnly in the diet at Ratisbon: and affairs so ordered by Divine Providence, that the Protestant obtained terms which amounted almost to a toleration of their