What does Redeem, Redemption mean in the Bible?


Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words - Redeem, Redemption
A — 1: ἐξαγοράζω (Strong's #1805 — Verb — exagorazo — ex-ag-or-ad'-zo ) a strengthened form of agorazo, "to buy" (see BUY , No. 1), denotes "to buy out" (ex for ek), especially of purchasing a slave with a view to his freedom. It is used metaphorically (a) in Galatians 3:13 ; 4:5 , of the deliverance by Christ of Christian Jews from the Law and its curse; what is said of lutron (RANSOM, No. 1) is true of this verb and of agorazo, as to the Death of Christ, that Scripture does not say to whom the price was paid; the various suggestions made are purely speculative; (b) in the Middle Voice, "to buy up for oneself," Ephesians 5:16 ; and Colossians 4:5 , of "buying up the opportunity" (RV marg.; text, "redeeming the time," where "time" is kairos, "a season," a time in which something is seasonable), i.e., making the most of every opportunity, turning each to the best advantage since none can be recalled if missed.
Note: In Revelation 5:9 ; 14:3,4 , AV, agorazo, "to purchase" (RV) is translated "redeemed." See PURCHASE.
A — 2: λυτρόω (Strong's #3084 — Verb — lutroo — loo-tro'-o ) "to release on receipt of ransom" (akin to lutron, "a ransom"), is used in the Middle Voice, signifying "to release by paying a ransom price, to redeem" (a) in the natural sense of delivering, Luke 24:21 , of setting Israel free from the Roman yoke; (b) in a spiritual sense, Titus 2:14 , of the work of Christ in "redeeming" men "from all iniquity" (anomia, "lawlessness," the bondage of self-will which rejects the will of God); 1 Peter 1:18 (Passive Voice), "ye were redeemed," from a vain manner of life, i.e., from bondage to tradition. In both instances the Death of Christ is stated as the means of "redemption."
Note: While both No. 1 and No. 2 are translated "to redeem," exagorazo does not signify the actual "redemption," but the price paid with a view to it, lutroo signifies the actual "deliverance," the setting at liberty.
B — 1: λύτρωσις (Strong's #3085 — Noun Feminine — lutrosis — loo'-tro-sis ) "a redemption" (akin to A, No. 2), is used (a) in the general sense of "deliverance," of the nation of Israel, Luke 1:68 RV, "wrought redemption;" Luke 2:38 ; (b) of "the redemptive work" of Christ, Hebrews 9:12 , bringing deliverance through His death, from the guilt and power of sin. In the Sept., Leviticus 25:29,48 ; Numbers 18:16 ; Judges 1:15 ; Psalm 49:8 ; 111:9 ; 130:7 ; Isaiah 63:4 .
B — 2: ἀπολύτρωσις (Strong's #629 — Noun Feminine — apolutrosis — ap-ol-oo'-tro-sis ) a strengthened form of No. 1, lit., "a releasing, for (i.e., on payment of) a ransom." It is used of (a) "deliverance" from physical torture, Hebrews 11:35 , see DELIVER , B, No. 1; (b) the deliverance of the people of God at the coming of Christ with His glorified saints, "in a cloud with power and great glory," Luke 21:28 , a "redemption" to be accomplished at the "outshining of His Parousia," 2 Thessalonians 2:8 , i.e., at His second advent; (c) forgiveness and justification, "redemption" as the result of expiation, deliverance from the guilt of sins, Romans 3:24 , "through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus;" Ephesians 1:7 , defined as "the forgiveness of our trespasses," RV; so Colossians 1:14 , "the forgiveness of our sins," indicating both the liberation from the guilt and doom of sin and the introduction into a life of liberty, "newness of life" (Romans 6:4 ); Hebrews 9:15 , "for the redemption of the transgressions that were under the first covenant," RV, here "redemption of" is equivalent to "redemption from," the genitive case being used of the object from which the "redemption" is effected, not from the consequence of the transgressions, but from the trangressions themselves; (d) the deliverance of the believer from the presence and power of sin, and of his body from bondage to corruption, at the coming (the Parousia in its inception) of the Lord Jesus, Romans 8:23 ; 1 Corinthians 1:30 ; Ephesians 1:14 ; 4:30 . See also PROPITIATION.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Redeem, Redemption, Redeemer
To pay the required price to secure the release of a convicted criminal, the process therein involved, and the person making the payment. In early use the idea and the words related to legal and commercial activities. They provided biblical writers with one of the most basic and dynamic images for describing God's saving activity toward mankind.
Old Testament Three Hebrew words express the legal and commercial use of the redemptive concept. Padah was used only in relation to the redemption of persons or other living beings. For example, if a person owned an ox which was known to be dangerous but did not keep the ox secured and the ox gored the son or daughter of a neighbor, both the ox and the owner would be stoned to death. If, however, the father of the slain person offered to accept an amount of money, the owner could pay the redemption price and live ( Exodus 21:29-30 ; compare Exodus 21:32 ). Numbers 18:15-17 shows how religious practice adopted such language.
The Hebrew ga' al indicated a redemption price in family members involving the responsibility of a next-of-kin. See Jeremiah 32:6-15 ). Such commercial practices easily passed over into religious concepts. God would redeem Israel from her iniquities.
The third Hebrew word kipper or “cover” came to extensive use in strictly religious concepts and practices. It is the word from which “Kippur” is derived in “Yom Kippur,” Day of Atonement, or Day of Covering, perhaps the most sacred of the holy days in Judaism. The verbal form in the Old Testament is always used in a religious sense such as the covering of sin or the making of atonement for sin. See Amos 5:12 ) or ransom (Exodus 21:30 ). In Psalm 49:7-8 it is used in the sense of ransom in association with padah (redeem).
The doctrine of redemption in the Old Testament is not derived from abstract philosophical thought but from Hebrew concrete thinking. Religious redemption language grows out of the custom of buying back something which formerly belonged to the purchaser but for some reason had passed into the ownership of another. The original owner could regain ownership by paying a redemption price for it. In the Old Testament the terms and ideas are frequently used symbolically to emphasize dramatically the redemptive or saving activity of God. The basic Old Testament reference is the Exodus. At the sea God redeemed His people from slavery in Egypt (for example, Exodus 6:6 ; Exodus 15:13 ; Deuteronomy 7:8 ; Psalm 77:15 ).
God similarly redeemed Israel from the Babylonian captivity by giving Egypt, Ethiopia, and Seba to King Cyrus (Isaiah 43:3 ; compare Isaiah 48:20 ; Isaiah 51:11 ; Isaiah 62:12 ). Job knew that he had a living Redeemer (Job 19:25 ). Psalmists prayed for redemption from distress (Psalm 26:11 ; Psalm 49:15 ) and testified to God's redeeming work (Psalm 31:5 ; Psalm 71:23 ; Psalm 107:2 ). The Old Testament witness is that God is “my strength and my redeemer” (Psalm 19:14 ).
New Testament The New Testament centers redemption in Jesus Christ. He purchased the church with His own blood (Acts 20:28 ), gave His flesh for the life of the world (John 6:51 ), as the Good Shepherd laid down His life for His sheep (John 10:11 ) and demonstrated the greatest love by laying down His life for His friends (John 15:13 ). The purpose of Jesus in the world was to make a deliberate sacrifice of Himself for human sin. He did something sinful people could not do for themselves. He brought hope to sinners, providing redemption from sin and fellowship with the Eternal Father. As the Suffering Servant, His was a costly sacrifice, the shameful and agonizing death of a Roman cross. New Testament redemption thus speaks of substitutionary sacrifice demonstrating divine love and righteousness. It points to a new relationship to God, the dynamic of a new life, God's leniency in the past, and the call for humility for the future.
In other ways and language the centrality of redemption through the death of Jesus Christ is expressed throughout the New Testament from the Lamb of God who lifts up and carries away the sin of the world (John 1:29 ) to the redeeming Lamb praised by a multitude because He was slain and by His blood redeemed unto God's people of every kindred, tongue, and nation (Revelation 5:8-14 ). See Christ; Jesus; Atonement ; Reconciliation.
Ray Summers
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Redeem, Redemption
Finding its context in the social, legal, and religious customs of the ancient world, the metaphor of redemption includes the ideas of loosing from a bond, setting free from captivity or slavery, buying back something lost or sold, exchanging something in one's possession for something possessed by another, and ransoming.
The Old Testament . In the Old Testament, redemption involves deliverance from bondage based on the payment of a price by a redeemer. The Hebrew root words used most often for the concept of redemption are pada [1], gaal [2] and kapar [3].
The verb pada [ Exodus 13:13 ; 34:20 ; Numbers 18:15-16 ). Human firstborn were also redeemed, either by the substitution of an animal or by the payment of a fixed sum (Numbers 18:16 ). The Levites are also said to be a ransom for the firstborn of Israel (Numbers 3:44-45 ). Money was sometimes paid to deliver a person from death (Exodus 21:30 ; Numbers 3:46-51 ; 18:16 ; cf. Psalm 49:7-9 ).
The verb gaal [ Leviticus 25:24-25 ; Ruth 4:1-6 ; Jeremiah 32:6-9 ).
The meaning of the third verb, kapar [ Exodus 21:30 ; 30:11-16 ).
As one who delivers his people, Yahweh is called Israel's "Redeemer, " especially in Isaiah where "redemption" is a key metaphor (41:14; 43:1; 44:6; 47:4). The paradigm of Yahweh's redemptive activity in the Old Testament is the historical deliverance of Israel from Egyptian bondage, but the metaphor of redemption was also utilized by the prophets in relation to the Babylonian captivity.
Although most often found in relation to the redemption of God's people, the concept of redemption was also applied to individuals in distress (Genesis 48:16 ; 2 Samuel 4:9 ; Job 19:25 ; Psalm 26:11 ; 49:15 ; 69:18 ; 103:4 ). The redemptive activity of God is most often described in terms of physical deliverance, but these redemptive Acts are not devoid of spiritual significance. There is only one explicit Old Testament reference to redemption from sin (Psalm 130:8 ), the emphasis falling in the majority of references on God's deliverance from the results of sin.
The New Testament . By the first century a.d. the concept of redemption had become eschatological. Redemption of Israel from Egypt was but the foreshadowing in history of the great act of deliverance by which history would be brought to an end. In rabbinic expectation the Messiah would be the Redeemer of Israel, and the great Day of the Lord would be the day of redemption. It is possibly due to the nationalistic expectation that became attached to the concept of the coming Messiah-Redeemer that Jesus is never called "redeemer" (lytrotes [4]) in the New Testament.
Fundamental to the message of the New Testament is the announcement that Jesus of Nazareth is the fulfillment of Israel's messianic hope and that, in him, the long-awaited redemption has arrived. Deliverance of humankind from its state of alienation from God has been accomplished through the death and resurrection of Christ (Romans 4:25 ; 2 Corinthians 5:18-19 ). In the New Testament, redemption requires the payment of a price, but the plight that requires such a ransom is moral not material. Humankind is held in the captivity of sin from which only the atoning death of Jesus Christ can liberate.
Although the concept of redemption is central to the New Testament, the occurrence of redemption terminology is relatively limited. When reflecting on the work of Jesus Christ, New Testament writers more frequently utilize different images (e.g., atonement, sacrifice, justification). The concept of redemption is nevertheless conveyed in the New Testament by the agorazo and lyo word groups. These terms have in mind the context of a marketplace transaction with reference to the purchase of goods or the releasing of slaves. In using these words, New Testament writers sought to represent Jesus' saving activity in terms that convey deliverance from bondage. Most of these words infer deliverance from captivity by means of a ransom price paid. The noun "ransom" (lytron [ Matthew 20:28 ; Mark 10:45 ; 1 Timothy 2:6 ). Redemption language is merged with substitutionary language in these verses and applied to Jesus' death. Pauline usage of the noun "redemption" (apolytrosis [ Romans 3:24 ; 8:23 ; 1 Corinthians 1:30 ; Ephesians 1:14 ; 4:30 ), although substitutionary meaning is evident in Ephesians 1:7 , where Christ's blood is depicted as the means of redemption.
Jesus conceived his mission to be that of the Son of Man, who came to offer himself in obedience to God's redemptive plan. He applied to himself the things said in the Old Testament of the Servant of the Lord concerning his rejection, humiliation, death, and resurrection (1 Peter 2:22-259 ; 9:31 ; 10:33-34 ). Likewise, New Testament writers apply to him the Servant texts and terminology from the Old Testament (e.g., Matthew 8:17 ; 12:18 ; Acts 4:27,30 ; 8:32-33 ; Romans 15:21 ; 1618169487_57 ). An important text with regard to Jesus' understanding of his redemptive work is Mark 10:45 , in which Jesus declares that his mission not only includes self-sacrificial service, but also involves giving his life as a "ransom" for many. Thus, Christ's death is portrayed as the payment price for the deliverance of those held captive by Satan (the ransom metaphor must be understood in the light of Jesus' offering of himself in obedience to the Father, however, and not interpreted as a payment to Satan). As the means of redemption, the death of Jesus provides a deliverance that involves not only forgiveness of sin (Ephesians 1:7 ; Colossians 1:14 ), but also newness of life (Romans 6:4 ). Even though Christ's redemptive work is perfect (Hebrews 9:25-28 ), the redemption of the believer will not be complete until the return of Christ (Luke 21:28 ; Romans 8:23 ; Ephesians 4:30 ).
The central theme of redemption in Scripture is that God has taken the initiative to act compassionately on behalf of those who are powerless to help themselves. The New Testament makes clear that divine redemption includes God's identification with humanity in its plight, and the securing of liberation of humankind through the obedience, suffering, death, and resurrection of the incarnate Son.
R. David Rightmire
See also Death of Christ ; Revelation, Idea of ; Salvation
Bibliography . C. Brown, et al., NIDNTT, 3:177-223; F. Bchsel, TDNT, 4:328-56; I. H. Marshall, Reconciliation and Hope, pp. 153-69; L. Morris, The Apostolic Preaching of the Cross ; J. Murray, Redemption: Accomplished and Applied ; H. E. W. Turner, The Patristic Doctrine of Redemption ; V. Taylor, The Atonement in New Testament Preaching ; W. Pannenberg, Basic Questions in Theology, 1:15-80; B. B. Warfield, The Person and Work of Christ .

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Bought - See Redeem, Redemption
Purchase - See Redeem, Redemption ...
Ransom - See Redeem, Redemption ...
Ransom - See Atonement ; Expiation, Propitiation ; Redeem, Redemption, Redeemer
Lamb of God - See Atonement ; Christ, Christology ; Passover ; Redeem, Redemption, Redeemer ; Sacrifice and Offering ; Servant of the Lord...
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Kinsman - See Avenger ; Cities of Refuge ; Redeem, Redemption, Redeemer
Kinsman-Redeemer - Bramer...
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Reconciliation - Woodruff...
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Seal - Mullen...
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Salvation - See Atonement ; Conversion ; Election ; Eschatology ; Forgiveness ; Future Hope ; Grace ; Justification ; New Birth ; Predestination ; Reconciliation, Redeem, Redemption, Redeemer; Repentance ; Sanctification ; Security of the Believer
Freedom - ...
Moisé Silva...
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