What does Psalms mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
ψαλμοῖς a striking 3
ψαλμῶν a striking 2
זַמְּרוּ־ to sing 2
הֻיְּד֖וֹת songs of praise. 1
בִּ֝זְמִר֗וֹת song 1

Definitions Related to Psalms

G5568


   1 a striking, twanging.
      1a of a striking the chords of a musical instrument.
      1b of a pious song, a psalm.
      Additional Information: For synonyms see entries 5215, humnos; and 5603, ode.
      See entry 5876 for comparison of synonyms.
      

H2167


   1 to sing, sing praise, make music.
      1a (Piel).
         1a1 to make music, sing.
         1a2 to play a musical instrument.
         

H1960


   1 songs of praise.
   

H2158


   1 song, psalm.
   

Frequency of Psalms (original languages)

Frequency of Psalms (English)

Dictionary

People's Dictionary of the Bible - Psalms the Book of
Psalms, the Book of. The "praise" or hymn-book of Jew and Christian for thousands of years. The following description of the book is given in Rice's Our Sixty-six Sacred Books: The book of Psalms in the Hebrew Bible was the first of the third division called Kʾthubim, or "Writings." The Psalms, Proverbs, and Job were regarded as pre-eminently poetical books, and the Massoretes distinguished them by a peculiar accentuation. The Psalms were called "Sepher Tʾhellim," or "Book of Praises." The Greeks called it "Psalmos," from which the English "Psalms" is derived. The Psalms counted one book in the A. V., in the Hebrew Bible are divided into five collections, rather inaptly termed "books" in the Revised English Version. The end of each of the first four "books" is indicated by a doxology. The books are: 1. Psalms 1:1-6; Psalms 2:1-12; Psalms 3:1-8; Psalms 4:1-8; Psalms 5:1-12; Psalms 6:1-10; Psalms 7:1-17; Psalms 8:1-9; Psalms 9:1-20; Psalms 10:1-18; Psalms 11:1-7; Psalms 12:1-8; Psalms 13:1-6; Psalms 14:1-7; Psalms 15:1-5; Psalms 16:1-11; Psalms 17:1-15; Psalms 18:1-50; Psalms 19:1-14; Psalms 20:1-9; Psalms 21:1-13; Psalms 22:1-31; Psalms 23:1-6; Psalms 24:1-10; Psalms 25:1-22; Psalms 26:1-12; Psalms 27:1-14; Psalms 28:1-9; Psalms 29:1-11; Psalms 30:1-12; Psalms 31:1-24; Psalms 32:1-11; Psalms 33:1-22; Psalms 34:1-22; Psalms 35:1-28; Psalms 36:1-12; Psalms 37:1-40; Psalms 38:1-22; Psalms 39:1-13; Psalms 40:1-17; Psalms 41:1-13; Psalms 2:1-12. Psalms 42:1-11; Psalms 43:1-5; Psalms 44:1-26; Psalms 45:1-17; Psalms 46:1-11; Psalms 47:1-9; Psalms 48:1-14; Psalms 49:1-20; Psalms 50:1-23; Psalms 51:1-19; Psalms 52:1-9; Psalms 53:1-6; Psalms 54:1-7; Psalms 55:1-23; Psalms 56:1-13; Psalms 57:1-11; Psalms 58:1-11; Psalms 59:1-17; Psalms 60:1-12; Psalms 61:1-8; Psalms 62:1-12; Psalms 63:1-11; Psalms 64:1-10; Psalms 65:1-13; Psalms 66:1-20; Psalms 67:1-7; Psalms 68:1-35; Psalms 69:1-36; Psalms 70:1-5; Psalms 71:1-24; Psalms 72:1-20; Psalms 3:1-8. Psalms 73:1-28; Psalms 74:1-23; Psalms 75:1-10; Psalms 76:1-12; Psalms 77:1-20; Psalms 78:1-72; Psalms 79:1-13; Psalms 80:1-19; Psalms 81:1-16; Psalms 82:1-8; Psalms 83:1-18; Psalms 84:1-12; Psalms 85:1-13; Psalms 86:1-17; Psalms 87:1-7; Psalms 88:1-18; Psalms 89:1-52; Psalms 4:1-8. Psalms 90:1-17; Psalms 91:1-16; Psalms 92:1-15; Psalms 93:1-5; Psalms 94:1-23; Psalms 95:1-11; Psalms 96:1-13; Psalms 97:1-12; Psalms 98:1-9; Psalms 99:1-9; Psalms 100:1-5; Psalms 101:1-8; Psalms 102:1-28; Psalms 103:1-22; Psalms 104:1-35; Psalms 105:1-45; Psalms 106:1-48; Psalms 5:1-12. Psalms 107:1-43; Psalms 108:1-13; Psalms 109:1-31; Psalms 110:1-7; Psalms 111:1-10; Psalms 112:1-10; Psalms 113:1-9; Psalms 114:1-8; Psalms 115:1-18; Psalms 116:1-19; Psalms 117:1-2; Psalms 118:1-29; Psalms 119:1-176; Psalms 120:1-7; Psalms 121:1-8; Psalms 122:1-9; Psalms 123:1-4; Psalms 124:1-8; Psalms 125:1-5; Psalms 126:1-6; Psalms 127:1-5; Psalms 128:1-6; Psalms 129:1-8; Psalms 130:1-8; Psalms 131:1-3; Psalms 132:1-18; Psalms 133:1-3; Psalms 134:1-3; Psalms 135:1-21; Psalms 136:1-26; Psalms 137:1-9; Psalms 138:1-8; Psalms 139:1-24; Psalms 140:1-13; Psalms 141:1-10; Psalms 142:1-7; Psalms 143:1-12; Psalms 144:1-15; Psalms 145:1-21; Psalms 146:1-10; Psalms 147:1-20; Psalms 148:1-14; Psalms 149:1-9; Psalms 150:1-6. The topics of the Psalms have been compared to an oratorio in five parts: 1. Decline of Prayer of Manasseh 1:2. Revival; 3. Plaintive complaint; 4. Response to the complaint; 5. Final thanksgiving and triumph. This fivefold division of the Psalms is very ancient, but when or by whom it was made is uncertain. Some ascribe it to Nehemiah or his time; it certainly is two or three centuries older than the Christian era. The division appears in the Septuagint. Why it was made is not clear. Some conjecture that it was in accord with the supposed chronological order of the Psalms, or was an arrangement according to authors, topics, or for liturgical use. The collection could not have been completed before the time of Ezra. About fifty Psalms are quoted in the New Testament. The titles or inscriptions of the Psalms are not by the original authors, but belong to an early age. They are attached to 101 Psalms. The 49 not having titles, the Talmud calls "Orphan Psalms." According to these titles, 73 Psalms are ascribed to David, 12 to Asaph, one of David's singers, 12 to the sons of Korah, a priestly family of singers of David's time, 2 (72d and 127th) to Solomon, 1 (90th) to Moses, and 1 (89th) to Ethan. The other 49 are anonymous. But the Septuagint assigns 85 Psalms to David, the 127th to Jeremiah, the 146th to Haggai, and the 147th to Zechariah. The New Testament also cites Psalms 2:1-12; Psalms 95:1-11 as if David were the author. It is worthy of note that the great Hallel songs, Psalms 115:1-18; Psalms 116:1-19; Psalms 117:1-2; Psalms 118:1-29, and the famous alphabetic hymn, the 119th, are among the anonymous songs. The most ancient classification, aside from the division into five collections, is found in the titles. The meaning of these is obscure. Some are termed Shir, a solo for the voice; Mizmor, song of praise accompanied with an instrument; Maschil, ode or didactic song; Michtam, a catch-word poem (Delitzsch); Shiggaion, an excited ode; Tephillah, a prayer-song; Shir jedidoth, a song of loves; Shir hammaʾaloth, a song of ascent or pilgrim songs; Kinah, dirge or elegy. Modern groups are based upon the contents, as seven (some say eight) penitential (6th, 25th, 32d [1], 51st, 102d, 130th, 143d), seven imprecatory psalms (35th, 52d, 58th, 59th, 69th, 109th, 137th), pilgrim songs, psalms of thanksgiving, of adoration, of faith and hope. Messianic psalms, and historic psalms. Some psalms have parallelisms or longer stanzas, each beginning with an initial letter corresponding to the twenty-two letters of the Hebrew alphabet. There are seven of these alphabetic psalms and five other alphabetic poems in the Old Testament. Some psalms are choral, as 24th, 115th, 135th; some gradational, as 121st, 124th. Of the psalms ascribed to David, several have Aramaic forms, but according to the latest linguistic researches these forms may betray an earlier rather than a later author. The psalms have suggested many of the noblest Christian hymns.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Imprecatory Psalms
(Psalms 11,34, 51,58, 68,108, 136) Those marked by strong expressions and denunciations of the foes of Israel and God. Since these psalms no less than other portions of Holy Writ are Divine utterances, their interpretation must not make God the author of breaches of that love which we are bound to have even with regard to enemies. Not all may be explained in the same way. Many of them express national sentiments which while not intrinsically bad are not on the same spiritual plane as the injunctions of the Sermon on the Mount. They are utterances of a warlike people. Again these so-called imprecations at times refer to the fulfillment of prophecies which God had made concerning the fate of Israel's enemies because of their evil ways and defiance of God. Thus Saint Peter (Acts 1) interprets Psalms 67,108. Hatred being excluded, a desire for just vengeance and reparation to be executed by the Almighty is not in itself unlawful. At times the poetic form includes dialogue so that not all statements should be regarded as expressive of the mind of God. Thus Psalms 108:6-19, may be explained as imprecations uttered by enemies of the psalmist. Finally the implications which individual passages are capable of in our translated idiom, of another time and manner of speech, cannot always be urged as the absolute and native meaning of the Oriental (ancient) words in their poetic setting.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Imprecation, Imprecatory Psalms
Act of invoking a curse. In the Imprecatory Psalms the author calls for God to bring misfortune and disaster upon the enemies (Psalm 5:1 ; Psalm 11:1 ; Psalm 17:1 ; Psalm 35:1 ; Psalm 55:1 ; Psalm 59:1 ; Psalm 69:1 ; Psalm 109:1 ; Psalm 137:1 ; Psalm 140:1 ). These Psalms are an embarrassment to many Christians who see them in tension with Jesus' teaching on love of enemies (Matthew 5:43-48 ). It is important to recall the theological principles that underlie such Psalms. These include: (1) the principle that vengeance belongs to God (Deuteronomy 32:35 ; Psalm 94:1 ) that excludes personal retaliation and necessitates appeal to God to punish the wicked (compare Romans 12:19 ); (2) the principle that God's righteousness demands judgment on the wicked (Psalm 5:6 ; Psalm 11:5-6 ); (3) the principle that God's covenant love for the people of God necessitates intervention on their part (Psalm 5:7 ; Psalm 59:10 ,Psalms 59:10,59:16-17 ); and (4) the principle of prayer that believers trust God with all their thoughts and desires. See Blessing and Cursing .
Holman Bible Dictionary - Psalms, Book of
A collection of songs of praise that are theological statements and poetically represent human dialogue with God. The Psalms is the most complete collection of Hebrew poetry and worship material in the Hebrew Bible. The Psalms give clues for understanding Israelite worship on both a corporate and individual level. The psalms typify different responses to God's actions and word.
The Psalms as a collection is found in the third division of the Hebrew canon known as the Writings (Hebrew, ketubim ). In its present canonical form, the Psalter has five divisions in the current Hebrew text. These divisions have been compared with the division of the Pentateuch into five books. Each book concludes with a doxology or closing formula. The books follow this division: (1) Psalm 1-41 ; (Psalm 2:1 ) 42–71 ; (3) 73–89; (4) 90–106; and (5) 107–150. Psalm 150:1 closes off both book five and concludes the collection of psalms; just as Psalm 1:1 serves as an introduction to the psalter. Other divisions or collections appear in the Psalms. The Elohistic Psalter ( Psalm 42-83 ) regularly uses the Hebrew elohim for the divine name (compare Psalm 14:1 ; Psalm 53:1 ). The Songs of Ascent or pilgrimage psalms (Psalm 120-134 ) make a collection. Two different guild collections are included in the Psalms of the sons of Korah (Psalm 42-49 ) and the Psalms of Asaph (Psalm 73-83 ). Psalms has been understood as both the “hymnal” and prayerbook of the postexilic congregation of Israel with its final compilation and its inclusion within the canon.
An important key for reading and interpreting different psalms is to understand the nature of Hebrew poetry. Psalms are poetic in contrast to being narrative. See Poetry .
As the twentieth century began, Hermann Gunkel brought a new approach to the Psalms, seeking to discover the type or form of literary material in each Psalm and the worship situation behind each. Gunkel categorized several main types of psalms and understood that not all psalms fit neatly into one category. They might be a combination of types and thus belong to a category of mixed psalms. Following Gunkel, scholars have proposed several systems to categorize the Psalms. Most include the different types: (1) the hymn; (2) songs of thanksgiving; (3) the community laments; (4) the individual laments; (5) the individual songs of thanksgiving; (6) the royal psalms; and (7) wisdom psalms.
Clear-cut categorization is not possible for every psalm, nor does every psalm fit a particular category. Also, every cultic or original life situation is not discernible. The issue for the reader and interpreter of the psalms is to appreciate the artistry of a poet which created and crafted timeless poetic expressions which fit into many contexts of worship or an individual's life situation in different cultures and traditions.
A reader of the Psalms will find that different psalms can be grouped by similarities of form, content, and pattern. Yet, variations do occur, and each psalm is unique in both message and content. The following is descriptive of the various psalm types.
A lament is expressed both by the community (for example, 44; 74; 79) and by the individual (22; 38; 39; 41; 54). Both types of laments are prayers or cries to God on the occasion of distressful situations. Of the two forms, differences are related to the types of trouble and the experiences of salvation. For the community the trouble may be an enemy; with an individual it may be an illness. The basic pattern includes an invocation of God, a description of the petitioner's complaint(s), a recalling of past salvation experiences (usually community laments), petitions, a divine response (or oracle), and a concluding vow of praise.
The thanksgiving or psalms of narrative praise are also spoken by the community (see 106; 124; 129) and the individual (see 9; 18; 30). These psalms are related to the laments as they are responses to liberation occurring after distress. They are expressions of joy and are fuller forms of the lament's vow of praise.
The hymn (see 8; 19; 29) is closest in form to a song of praise as sung in modern forms of worship. These psalms are uniquely liturgical and could be sung antiphonally, some have repeating refrains (see Psalm 8:1 ). The hymn normally includes a call to praise. Then the psalm describes the reasons for praising God. The structure is not as clear-cut as other types of psalms. Creation psalms (usually reflecting a mixed form) include Psalm 8:1 ; Psalm 19:1 ; Psalm 104:1 ; and Psalm 139:1 . These psalms are concerned with praising God and describe Him as Creator. Emphasis may be placed on God as Creator of heaven and earth, as Creator of humanity, or as the Creator of different elements of creation. The psalms affirm God who is Creator as the Lord of history.
Some psalms reflect more specific liturgical events. The liturgical psalms may include antiphonal responses or dialogue. There may be exhortations to listeners to prostrate themselves or to walk in a procession. These psalms include instructions for sacrifice, worship, processionals, or may invoke blessings on the worshipers. These are usually regarded as psalms of mixed type as they share similarities with the hymns. This designation includes those psalms which may have been sung by pilgrims on their way to the sanctuary (see the songs of ascents, 120–134). Songs of Zion (such as 46) call for God's protection of the city of God. Some psalms are considered royal psalms (see 2; 18; 20). These psalms are concerned with the earthly king of Israel. Again, these are usually understood as mixed psalms. They were used to celebrate the king's enthronement. They may have included an oracle for the king. In some cases (such as Psalm 72:1 ), prayers were made to intercede on behalf of the king. Another mixed type are the enthronement psalms which celebrate Yahweh's kingship (see Psalm 96-99 ). They are closely related to the hymns and to the creation psalms. However, the main difference is a celebration of Yahweh as king over all creation.
A final type of psalm (see Psalm 1:1 ) is the wisdom psalm . They have poetic form and style but are distinguished because of content and a tendency toward the proverbial. These psalms contemplate questions of theodicy (73), or celebrate God's Word (the Torah, Psalm 119:1 ), or deal with two different ways of living—that of the godly person or the evil person (Psalm 1:1 ). The psalms are not neatly or easily categorized, as the mixed psalms indicate. However, such identification helps the reader to know that type of psalm is being read, with a possible original context or a fitting present context in worship.
Outline The Book of Psalms is divided into five sections just as the Pentateuch has five books. Each section of the Book of Psalms concludes with a doxology. See Psalm 41:13 ; Psalm 72:18-19 ; Psalm 89:52 ; Psalm 106:48 ; Psalm 150:1 . Psalm 1:1 introduces the book by dividing people into two categories and describing the fate of each. Psalm 150:1 closes Psalms with a symphony of praise. Otherwise, a way to describe a theological structure for the book as a whole has not been found. What devoted students of God's Word have discovered is the limited number of types of prayer represented in the Psalms. A look at the major types helps us understand how many different functions prayer and praise can serve as we communicate with and worship God.
1. Psalms of lamentation or complaint cry out for help in a situation of distress or frustration. Psalmists protest their innocence or confess their sins. They vow to praise God and give thanks for deliverance. Such psalms show prayer as an honest communication with God in life's worst situations. The following psalms are laments: 3,4, 6,7, 12,13, 17,22, 25,26, 28,35, 38,39, 40,41, 42–43,44, 51,54, 55,56, 57,59,60,61, 63,64, 69,70, 71,74, 77,79, 80,83, 85,86, 88,90, 94,102, 109,123, 126,130, 134,137, 140,141, 142,143, 144.
2. Psalms of thanksgiving describe a situation of distress and how God delivered the psalmist. The psalmist promises to fulfill vows made to God during the distress and invites the congregation to join in thanksgiving and praise to God. These psalms show us our need to acknowledge God's work in our times of trouble and to witness to others of what God has done for us. Thanksgiving psalms are 9–10,18, 30,31, 32,34, 66,92, 107,116, 118,120, 124,129, 138,139.
3. Hymns lift the congregation's praise to God, describing God's greatness and majesty. In the hymn, worshipers invite one another to praise God and to provide reasons for such praise. These psalms are hymns: 8,19, 29,33, 65,100, 103,104, 105,111; 113,114, 117,135, 136,145, 146,147, 148,149, 150.
4. Wisdom psalms probe life's mysteries to teach the congregation about itself and God. These include Psalm 1:1 , Psalm 14:1 , Psalm 36:1 , Psalm 37:1 , Psalm 49:1 , Psalm 53:1 , Psalm 73:1 , Psalm 78:1 , Psalm 112:1 , Psalm 119:1 , Psalm 127:1 , Psalm 128:1 , Psalm 133:1 .
5. Kingship psalms detail the role of the human king in God's rule over His people. They also point ahead to the Messiah, who would inaugurate God's kingdom. From them we learn to pray for and respect the role of government officials as well as praise God's Messiah. These include Psalm 2:1 , Psalm 18:1 , Psalm 20:1 , Psalm 21:1 , Psalm 28:1 , Psalm 45:1 , Psalm 61:1 , Psalm 63:1 , Psalm 72:1 , Psalm 89:1 , Psalm 101:1 , Psalm 110:1 , Psalm 132:1 .
6. Entrance ceremonies provide questions and answers to teach the expectations God has of His worshipers. Psalm 15:1 and Psalm 24:1 are entrance ceremonies.
7. Enthronement psalms praise Yahweh as the King enthroned over His universe. They include Psalm 47:1 , Psalm 93:1 , Psalm 96:1 , Psalm 97:1 , Psalm 98:1 , Psalm 99:1 .
8. Songs of Zion praise God indirectly by describing the Holy City where He has chosen to live among His people and be worshiped. They show God lives among His people to protect and direct their lives. These are Psalm 46:1 , Psalm 48:1 , Psalm 76:1 , Psalm 84:1 , Psalm 87:1 , Psalm 122:1 , Psalm 132:1 .
9. Psalms of confidence express trust in God's care for and leadership of His people. These appear in Psalm 4:1 , Psalm 11:1 , Psalm 16:1 , Psalm 23:1 , Psalm 27:1 , Psalm 62:1 , Psalm 125:1 , Psalm 131:1 .
10. Prophetic psalms announce God's will to His worshiping people. These are 50,52, 58,81, 82,91, 95.
11. Liturgical psalms describe activities and responses of God's worshiping congregation. These appear in Psalm 67:1 , Psalm 68:1 , Psalm 75:1 , Psalm 106:1 , Psalm 108:1 , Psalm 115:1 , Psalm 121:1 .
David M. Fleming
Holman Bible Dictionary - Psalms of Solomon
See Pseudepigrapha .
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Psalms
The psalms are the production of various authors. "Only a portion of the Book of Psalms claims David as its author. Other inspired poets in successive generations added now one now another contribution to the sacred collection, and thus in the wisdom of Providence it more completely reflects every phase of human emotion and circumstances than it otherwise could." But it is specially to David and his contemporaries that we owe this precious book. In the "titles" of the psalms, the genuineness of which there is no sufficient reason to doubt, 73 are ascribed to David. Peter and John (Acts 4:25 ) ascribe to him also the second psalm, which is one of the 48 that are anonymous. About two-thirds of the whole collection have been ascribed to David. Psalm 39,62 , and 77 are addressed to Jeduthun, to be sung after his manner or in his choir. Psalm 50,73-83 are addressed to Asaph, as the master of his choir, to be sung in the worship of God. The "sons of Korah," who formed a leading part of the Kohathite singers ( 2 Chronicles 20:19 ), were intrusted with the arranging and singing of Psalm 424449848587,44-49,84,85,87 , and 88.
In Luke 24:44 the word "psalms" means the Hagiographa, i.e., the holy writings, one of the sections into which the Jews divided the Old Testament. (See BIBLE .)
None of the psalms can be proved to have been of a later date than the time of Ezra and Nehemiah, hence the whole collection extends over a period of about 1,000 years. There are in the New Testament 116 direct quotations from the Psalter.
The Psalter is divided, after the analogy of the Pentateuch, into five books, each closing with a doxology or benediction:
The first book comprises the first 41 psalms, all of which are ascribed to David except 1,2,10, and 33, which, though anonymous, may also be ascribed to him.
Book second consists of the next 31 psalms Psalm 18 of which are ascribed to David and 1 to Solomon (the 72nd). The rest are anonymous.
The third book contains 17 psalms (73-89), of which the 86th is ascribed to David, the 88th to Heman the Ezrahite, and the 89th to Ethan the Ezrahite.
The fourth book also contains 17 psalms (90-106), of which the 90th is ascribed to Moses, and the 101st and 103to David.
The fifth book contains the remaining psalms, 44 in number. Of these, 15 are ascribed to David, and the 127th to Solomon. Psalm 136 is generally called "the great hallel." But the Talmud includes also Psalm 120135-135 . Psalm 113118-118 , inclusive, constitute the "hallel" recited at the three great feasts, at the new moon, and on the eight days of the feast of dedication.
"It is presumed that these several collections were made at times of high religious life: the first, probably, near the close of David's life; the second in the days of Solomon; the third by the singers of Jehoshaphat (2 Chronicles 20:19 ); the fourth by the men of Hezekiah (29,30,31); and the fifth in the days of Ezra."
The Mosaic ritual makes no provision for the service of song in the worship of God. David first taught the Church to sing the praises of the Lord. He first introduced into the ritual of the tabernacle music and song.
Divers names are given to the psalms.
Some bear the Hebrew designation Shir (Gr. ode, a song). Thirteen have this title. It means the flow of speech, as it were, in a straight line or in a regular strain. This title includes secular as well as sacred song.
Fifty-eight psalms bear the designation (Heb.) Mitsmor (Gr. psalmos, a psalm), a lyric ode, or a song set to music; a sacred song accompanied with a musical instrument.
Psalm 145 , and many others, have the designation (Heb.) Tehillah (Gr. hymnos, a hymn), meaning a song of praise; a song the prominent thought of which is the praise of God.
Six psalms (16,56-60) have the title (Heb.) Michtam (q.v.).
Psalm 7 and Habakkuk 3 bear the title (Heb.) Shiggaion (q.v.).
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Psalms, Theology of
The Book of Psalms is a sizable collection of musical poems and prayers of diverse authorship and form. Psalms are independent literary units that have grown out of, and speak to, a wide range of individual and communal human experience. They differ from prophetic oracles, moral imperatives, or propositional statements of doctrine that presuppose a revelatory flow from God to humans. Psalms, on the other hand, serve to articulate the hope and despair, the faith and fear, the praise and invective of those who express themselves to God in the vicissitudes of life.
Although the canonical psalms are poetic and musical compositions authored by humans as vehicles of expression to and about God, they are nevertheless regarded by believers as inspired by God for use in the community of faith in worship and meditation. This realization highlights the validity and importance of such expression in the life of individual believers as well as the spiritual community of which they are a part. The biblical Psalter has been called the hymnbook of the second temple, but the faithful in every subsequent period of history have found something in its hymns and prayers that resonates with their experience of life lived in relation to God.
The continuing appeal of the canonical psalms bears witness to a feature of their composition that contributes to their ongoing usefulness in public and private worship. Ever since the groundbreaking work by Hermann Gunkel and Sigmund Mowinckel on the literary analysis of the Psalter, most biblical scholars have recognized that psalms may be grouped into definite literary types based both on their distinctive structure and content and on the religious settings in which they would have been employed in ancient Israel. It seems clear that psalms were composed mainly for use on typical, cultic occasions, not as reflections of particular, historical ones. Thus the psalmists crafted their poems in such a way as to ensure their continuing relevance for people in covenant with God.
The understanding that the canonical psalms were composed as generalized expressions suitable for cultic use runs counter to the impression given by certain psalm titles that associate the accompanying psalms with events in the life of King David (3; 7; 18; 34; 51-52; 54; 56-57; 59-60; 63; 142). Most biblical scholars concede that psalm titles in general, and these links with the Davidic narratives in 1,2Samuel in particular, are not to be attributed to the original authors but probably to postexilic Jewish editors and interpreters. Evidence for the secondary nature of these titles may be deduced from the fact that some of the psalms assigned to David presuppose later historical realities such as the existence of a temple (e.g., 5:7; 27:4; 65:4; 68:29; 138:2) or the Babylonian exile (e.g., 51:18-19; 69:33-36). As a matter of fact, the expression ledawid is ambiguous and does not necessarily have anything to do with authorship. It could legitimately be translated "to/for/of/by/in regard to/belonging to David" and be intended to associate a given psalm with this son of Jesse, any Davidic king, or a Davidic collection of psalms. Furthermore, an analysis of the original Hebrew and subsequent daughter versions of Psalms reveals that the titles were subject to variation and expansion during the course of their transmission in postexilic times and beyond, in contrast to the poems themselves whose text remained relatively constant. Clearly, those in antiquity whose task it was to preserve holy writ did not regard these titles to have the same stature as the psalmists' own words. The preceding evidence does nothing to undermine David's reputation as a psalmist nor does it disprove that he composed some of the psalms contained in the canonical Psalter. There is no compelling reason not to take seriously biblical portrayals of him as an accomplished musician and poet ( 1 Samuel 16:14-23 ; 2 Samuel 1:17-27 ; 3:33-34 ; 23:1-7 ; 2 Chronicles 29:30 ; Amos 6:5 ). This evidence does, however, highlight the fact that psalm titles cannot be relied upon to elucidate the original context and meaning of biblical psalms.
Psalm Types and the Theology of Psalms . There is evidence that the division of the Psalter into five books (1-41; 42-72; 73-89; 90-106; 107-150) represents a final stage in the process of compiling the Book of Psalms, and that earlier collections were gathered together to produce the Psalter as it now exists. These collections would have included psalms associated in the Hebrew Bible with the likes of David (3-9; 11-32; 34-41; 51-65; 68-70; 86; 101; 103; 108-110; 122; 124; 131; 133; 138-145), Solomon (72; 127), the Korahites (42; 44-49; 84-85; 87-88), and Asaph (50; 73-83); psalms of the so-called Elohistic Psalter (42-83) in which the generic term for Israel's deity, elohim [1], translated "God, " came to be substituted for his personal name, "Yahweh, " which Jews were increasingly disinclined to pronounce; the Hallelujah Psalms (105-106; 111-118; 135-136; 146-150) which usually begin and/or end with that expression of praise; and the Songs of Ascent (120-134), ostensibly sung by pilgrims on their way to celebrate the great festivals at the temple in Jerusalem.
But more relevant to the task of working out the theology of the Psalter than these observations is an understanding of the functionality of biblical psalms. The inspired authors composed them to help connect Israelites with their God in worship. Various aspects of worship called for different types of psalms, each of which is represented throughout the Psalter.
Complaint Psalms . There are more complaint psalms in the biblical Psalter than there are of any other type. Exhibiting either the singular or plural number, they provide the individual or the community with the vehicle to speak to God in situations of distress. They are characterized by some or all of the following components arranged in varying sequences.
Complaint psalms usually begin with an invocation of Israel's God. In the Hebrew Bible he is normally (except in the Elohistic Psalter) addressed by the name, "Yahweh, " which is rendered Lord in the English versions. The pronunciation of Yahweh's name implies that complainants are in covenant relationship with the God who has revealed himself to Israel. Attention is thus focused on the only one who can remedy their situation.
The invocation is followed by the complaint in which worshipers, often with great pathos and highly figurative language, communicate honestly the reasons for their distress. Typically, the individual speaks of being falsely accused (4:2; 5:6,8-9; 7:1-5,8, 14-16; 17:1-5,8-12; 22:6-8; 26:1-12; 27:12; 35:11-12,19-26; 38:11-12,19-20; 52:1-4; 59:12-13; 69:4; 71:10-11; 109:2-4; 120:2-3; 140:9-11), of being threatened or attacked by foes of various sorts including sorcerers who employ curses and black magic (10:2-11; 28:3; 55:2-5,9-15,20-21; 58:1-5; 59:1-7; 69:9-12,19-21; 109:2-20,28-29; 140:1-5), of having committed sin (25:7; 38:18; 39:8; 51:1-9; 69:5; 130:3; 143:2), or of suffering due to some sort of illness or incapacity (6:2; 22:14-15,17-18; 38:3-10,17; 71:9; 88:3-9,15-18; 102:3-11). In communal laments the causes of distress include the threat of attack by foreigners (83:2-8,12), the experience of military defeat, invasion, and humiliation (44:9-16; 60:1-3,9-11; 74:3-11; 79:1-4; 80:4-6,8-16), and natural disasters such as drought, famine, or plague (126:4-6).
Supplicants also normally express trust in Yahweh, based on such realities as his steadfastness and dependability, his presence with worshipers, and his concern for justice and the vindication of the righteous (7:10-11; 13:5; 28:7-8; 31:14; 52:8; 56:3-4; 130:4-6; Psalm 24:7-10). Some biblical scholars isolate a whole other psalm type, called the song of trust/confidence, to categorize a group of psalms in which this sort of expression is expanded to become the main theme (11; 16; 23; 27:1-6; 62; 91; 125; 131).
It is this trust that leads complainants to petition Yahweh for deliverance from their difficulty. The use of the imperative mood, which contributes to the sense of urgency, is usually the formal indicator of this component of the psalm (3:7; 22:19-21; 35:17,22-24; 69:14-18; 143:7-9).
A feature at times associated with the petition is imprecation—the invocation of curses or the call for divine judgment upon enemies. Vivid examples may be found in 12:3-4; 35:1-8; 58:6-10; 59:10-13; 69:22-28; 83:9-17; 109:6-20; 137:7-9; 140:9-11. This feature serves two purposes. The first is cathartic in that it allows complainants to verbalize honestly to God the anger they feel toward those who have proven themselves to be foes. The second is judicial in the sense that supplicants, rather than acting vindictively, ask God to see to it that covenantal judgment is executed on perpetrators of wickedness. What is called for is just retribution, often envisioned as judgment in kind in which enemies will experience the harm that they had intended to inflict on complainants (5:10; 7:15-16; 10:2; 28:4; 35:7-8; 26; 79:12; 109:2-20,29).
Another common feature associated with either the complaint or the petition is the additional argument. It serves to justify the appropriateness of Yahweh's intervention on behalf of petitioners and to provide motivation for him to act in response to prayer. In this connection, supplicants may protest their innocence with regard to false charges (7:3-5; 35:11; 44:17-21; 59:3-4), confess their sin (25:7,11, 18; 38:18; 51:3-5; 79:9), provide extravagant descriptions of their distress in order to move Yahweh to pity (6:6-7; 22:12-18; 31:9-12; 38:3-10; 88:15-18; 102:3-11; 109:22-25) or appeal to Yahweh's honor and reputation (6:5; 58:11; 59:13; 74:10,18, 22-23; 88:10-12; 109:21; 143:11-12).
In complaint psalms petitioners typically express the assurance that Yahweh will do what they have asked (6:8-10; 7:10; 13:5-6; 22:24; 28:6-8; 54:7; 56:13; 71:20-21; 109:31; 140:7,1293). This is somewhat parallel to the articulation of trust discussed earlier. Scholars have struggled to account for the often dramatic shift in mood from despair to optimism that is evident in these psalms. Various hypotheses are put forward. One is that such expressions were uttered after deliverance had been experienced but that they were joined to the original complaint when these psalms were compiled in their present form. If that were the case, however, one might expect a thanksgiving psalm rather than a complaint. Another conjecture is that petitioners may have received a favorable oracle, presumably mediated by a priest or other cult official, in response to their supplication. Unfortunately, no example of such an oracle exists in the canonical psalms. A third proposition is that complaint psalms were formulated in such a way as to bring supplicants to the point of assurance. This was accomplished by causing worshipers to focus on and invoke the powerful name of the God with whom they were in relationship and who could be relied upon to deliver honest petitioners.
Finally, in conjunction with this assurance concerning Yahweh's favorable response to suppliant requests, there is normally a proclamation of praise or a vow that praise will be forthcoming once deliverance has been experienced (7:17; 13:5-6; 22:22-31; 28:6-7; 35:9-10,18, 28; 43:4; 51:13-15; 54:6; 56:12; 69:30-31; 79:13; 109:30; 140:13). Praise is surely the appropriate expression of trusting petitioners who have left their complaints with the Lord.
The complaint psalms teach several significant things to worshipers who suffer affliction. First, servants of God should focus on him rather than despair over their difficulties. Second, God acceptsindeed encourageshonest and forthright expressions of distress from his servants. He does not require sugar-coating or euphemisms. Third, God expects that his servants will trust him to help, a faith to which they are expected to testify in their declarations of confidence and praise even as they articulate their complaints and petitions. Fourth, God does take pity on those who trust him and intervenes on their behalf. He thereby demonstrates his covenantal faithfulness, establishes his justice, and maintains his honor and reputation. Fifth, God is a formidable opponent to those who cause his servants to experience anguish since he vindicates pious complainants and exacts just retribution on their foes. Furthermore, petitioners whose distress is due to personal sin would be advised to confess it and to ask for forgiveness since God's judgments on members of the covenant community can be grievous as well.
Thanksgiving Psalms . Thanksgiving psalms were composed to celebrate Yahweh's answering of complaints and his deliverance of petitioners. The canonical Psalter contains both individual and communal psalms of this type. They exhibit some or all of the following structural components.
Typically, thanksgiving psalms begin with an expression of praise or thanksgiving to Yahweh and a short reference to what it is that he has accomplished (18:1-3; 30:1-3; 65:1-2; 107:1-3; 116:1-2; 118:1-4; 138:1-2).
A more detailed statementthough often couched in metaphorical imageryas to the circumstances that preceded Yahweh's saving action is usually to be found in the erstwhile supplicants' recollection of their previous distress (18:4-5; 30:6-7; 32:3-4; 65:3a; 107:4-5,10-12,17-18,23-27; 116:3; 118:10-13; 124:1-5). The situations that are recounted are of the sort described in the complaint psalms discussed above. Worshipers will then normally recall the petitions they uttered while in trouble and their ensuing deliverance by Yahweh (18:6-19,31-45; 30:8-12a; 32:5; 40:1-2; 65:3b-5; 107:6-7,13-14,19-20,28-30; 116:4-11; 118:5-18; 124:6b-8; 138:3).
What usually follows is an utterance of praise and thanksgiving to Yahweh and/or a call for others to join in worship of him (18:46-50; 30:12b; 32:11; 40:3-5,9-10; 107:8-9,15-16,21-22,31-32; 116:12-19; 118:19-29; 124:6a; 138:4-6). This expression may be associated with the fulfillment of a vow made in anticipation of his intervention (40:9-10; 116:14,18; cf. 22:22-25).
Thanksgiving psalms serve to emphasize the fact that it is only right for worshipers to give thanks to God (7:17; 54:6; 92:1; 111:5-9; 107:1; 118:1,29; 136:1). Indeed, thanksgiving is expected of the faithful (30:4; 97:12). They enter God's presence with it on their lips (95:2; 100:4; 118:19). They proclaim it in the presence of others to give public witness to his goodness and thereby honor him (9:1; 26:7; 50:23; 57:9; 75:1; 108:3; 109:30; 111:1).
Hymns . The hymnic psalms focus on the praise of Yahweh for his majesty and his sovereignty and beneficence in the realms of creation, history, and human affairs. What distinguishes hymns from thanksgiving psalms is that they make no particular reference to a worshiper's earlier distress or to recent divine intervention. They tend, therefore, to be broader in scope or perspective than thanksgiving psalms.
The formal structure of hymns normally includes three elements. The introduction typically contains a summons to sing Yahweh's praise or an expression of praise to him. The body provides the motivation for praise in the recitation of Yahweh's attributes and actions. The conclusion frequently recapitulates sentiments expressed in the introduction that means a renewed outpouring of praise.
Various themes are addressed in the hymns. Yahweh is glorified as the creator who governs and sustains nature (8; 19:1-6; 29:3-9; 33:6-9; 104:2-30; 135:6-7; 136:4-9; 146:6; 147:4-5,8-9,15-18; 148:1-10), the omnipotent one in contrast to impotent pagan deities (135:5,15-18; 136:2), the controller of the destinies of people and nations (33:10-19; 100:3; 114:1-2; 136:3; 147:6; 149:2-9), the lawgiver (19:7-11), and the one who manifests his goodness through his enduring covenantal love, faithfulness and benefactions toward his people (100:5; 106:1; 113:7-9; 136:1 passim ; 145:4-20; 146:5-9; 147:2-3,13-14,19-20; 148:14).
Other psalm groupings that may be included in the hymnic type are the redemptive history, Zion, processional, and enthronement songs. Generally speaking, they exhibit the formal structure of the hymns but are marked by the distinctives in content these designations suggest.
Redemptive history psalms (78; 105; 106; 135:8-12; 136:10-22) focus on Yahweh's dealings with the Israelites, whether in Acts of deliverance and providential care or in judgment because of their covenantal unfaithfulness. Traditions associated with the patriarchs, the exodus, the wilderness wanderings, the conquest, the period of the judges, the career of David, and the construction of the temple are recalled. These psalms were composed to drive home the lessons of Israel's historylessons that were to be passed on from generation to generationand to inspire the people to trust and worship their sovereign God.
The songs of Zion (46; 48; 76; 84; 87; 122) celebrate the holy city, Jerusalem. From the time of David and Solomon onward the city is associated with Yahweh's name and habitation among his people because of the sanctuary's location there (Deuteronomy 12:1-28 ; 2 Samuel 6:12-17 ; 1 Kings 8:1-30 ). The reality of Yahweh's majestic presence, the beauty and impressiveness of the city and its temple, and the prospect of participation in the festal gatherings inspire the poets to produce hymns that exude anticipation and joy. Because of Yahweh's choice of this city as his earthly dwelling, Zion songs speak confidently of its inviolability. But Psalm 46,48 , and 76 in particular seem to point the worshiper in the direction of an eschatological realization of this ideal when the everlasting kingdom that the prophets envision will finally be established.
Psalms like 15,24, which seem to have been composed as liturgies for entrance into the sacred precincts, have Zion's sanctuary as their focus. They are called processional songs. In question-and-answer antiphons they spell out the qualifications for admission into Yahweh's courts. As in the oracles of the prophets, the emphasis in these psalms is on integrity and moral purity as defined by the Sinai covenant rather than merely on ritual purity and sacrifices. 1618180990_8 describes another kind of procession into the templethis one involving Yahweh himself whose presence is presumably symbolized by the ark of the covenant. Psalm 68:24-27,132:8-9,13-16 may provide glimpses of this sort of temple ritual.
The enthronement psalms (47; 93; 96-99) celebrate the kingship of Yahweh. They frequently exhibit the formula yhwh malak, "Yahweh is king" or some similar sentiment. The psalmists emphasize Yahweh's all-encompassing rule by extolling his work as creator (93:1b; 96:5b), his evident glory and majesty (47:1-2; 93:1-4; 96:1-3,6-9; 97:1-6; 99:1-3), his sovereignty and victorious exploits among the nations (47:3-9; 98:1-3), his omnipotence in comparison to the impotence of pagan deities (96:4-5; 97:7-9), and his establishment of universal justice and righteousness (96:10-13; 98:4-9; 99:4). Thus worshipers are encouraged to look back on Yahweh's great accomplishments in history and ahead to the emergence of his everlasting kingdom in all its fullness.
Royal Psalms . Another group of psalms deals with the theme of kingshipin this case the kingship of Israel's monarchs. The so-called royal psalms (2; 18; 20-21; 45; 72; 89; 101; 110; 132; 144) do not, technically speaking, constitute a distinctive psalm type since they can be associated with one of the three main categories already discussed (complaint, thanksgiving and hymn). They do, however, merit special consideration because of their contribution to our understanding of Israel's worship and the theological significance of the king.
Five of the preceding psalms (2; 21; 72; 101; 110) seem to have been created for use during the king's coronation and/or to mark the anniversary of his accession. The time of transition from the reign of one king to that of his successor was often a dangerous time politically when rivals vied for the throne and subject peoples attempted revolt. But the Israelite king, the heir to the Davidic covenant, was adopted by Yahweh as his son when he ascended the throne (Psalm 2:7 ; cf. 2 Samuel 7:14 ; Psalm 89:26-27 ). Yahweh, who both installed him as king and sustained him in the face of such opposition, granted him the right to rule not only his compatriots but also the nations (2:4-12; 72:1-2,8-11; 110:1-3,5-6). The king was expected, indeed he undertook, to rule with justice and integrity (72:1-7,12-14; 101).
Another entitlement affirmed in the royal psalms is the king's role as a priest of the Melchizedekian order (110:4). This connection with the Canaanite priest-king of Salem = Jerusalem in Abram's day (Genesis 14:17-24 ; Psalm 76:2 ) highlights the sacral nature and privileges of Israelite kingship, privileges that were seldom exercised by Israel's monarchs. It also points to the link between the throne and the sanctuary that was forged for the Judean monarchy by David when he established Jerusalem as the political and religious capital (2 Samuel 5:6-10 ; 6:12-17 ; Psalm 132 ). The psalmists looked for the king's reign to be an enduring one marked by righteousness, peace, prosperity, and blessing of every sort (21:1-7; 72:5-7,15-17).
One of the royal psalms, Psalm 45 , was apparently intended for the celebration of a royal wedding. The poet has woven the themes touched on in the preceding paragraphs into a song of praise for the king (vv. 2-9,16-17). He even calls the king God (v. 6), though his subordination to the God is made clear (v. 7). There is also a description of the beautiful bride, arrayed in rich finery, being led with her attendants in the wedding procession into the palace (vv. 10-15).
Several other royal psalms were likely composed to be recited either before or after the king went into battle. In Psalm 20,89 , and 144Yahweh is entreated to grant victory of the king's foes. Yahweh's unrivaled sovereignty and power (89:5-18) and his promise of an enduring Davidic dynasty (89:3-4,28-37) are recalled. The insufficiency of human resources and the need for Yahweh's intervention and enablement are also acknowledged (20; 89:46-51; 144:1-11). In Psalm 18 Yahweh is thanked for having responded to the kind of request contained in the preceding prayers. His dramatic intervention on behalf of the upright supplicant is recounted (vv. 6-24,31-45).
Royal psalms give evidence of the Israelite king's special relationship with Yahweh, Israel's ultimate King. The human king, Yahweh's adopted son, serves as vice-regent over the covenant people and, ideally, the nations.
Wisdom Psalms . A final category of psalms to be considered here is that of wisdom (1; 34; 37; 49; 73; 112; 119; 127-128; 133). Psalms of this type exhibit stylistic forms and techniques commonly employed in wisdom literature. There are proverbial sayings (127; 133), acrostics (34; 37; 112; 119), "better than" comparisons (37:16; 119:72,103, 127), rhetorical questions (119:9), "beatitudes" (1:1; 112:1; 119:1-2; Hebrews 1:10-12), personalized reflections on life (37:25-26; 35-36), comparisons with the realm of nature (1:3-4; 37:1-2,20; 128:3).
These psalms champion the cause of life lived in accordance with the tenets of wisdom through their descriptions of exemplary conduct and its benefits and their delineation of the contrasts between those who embrace, and those who spurn, the path of righteousness. The celebration in wisdom psalms of Torah, which embodies Yahweh's expectations of his covenant partners, highlights the clear connection between wisdom and God's law (1:1-2; 37:30-31; 112:1; 119). Wisdom is essentially living in compliance with that law.
Wisdom psalms also lead the worshiper to consider some of the themes and problems commonly taken up in wisdom literature. In view of the fact that the faithful servant of Yahweh is often promised rich blessing, considerable attention is paid to the dilemma which that servant faces when confronted with the prospect of the prosperity of the wicked and the suffering and hardships of the righteous (37; 49; 73). Although it may initially seem as though there is no advantage to living uprightly (73:13-14), the psalmists assert that Yahweh's ultimate vindication and blessing of the righteous (37; 49:15; 112:1-3,6-9) and his judgment and destruction of the unrighteous (1:5; 34:16,21; 37; 49:13-14,16-20; 73:16-20,27; 112:10) will prove that the way of wisdomcovenantal faithfulnessis the one to follow. Armed with this knowledge, the worshiper is encouraged to trust Yahweh and wait patiently for him to act (37:3-7,34).
The Psalms and Christology . Exerpts from, or allusions to, the canonical Psalter in the New Testament are often associated, either explicitly or implicitly, with the person, life, and mission of Jesus. This fact raises hermeneutical queries with regard to both the intentions of the original Hebrew poets and the uses to which the New Testament puts the passages in question. This is certainly not the place for an exhaustive examin ation of that issue. But suffice it to say that those in the New Testament who quote or otherwise employ the psalms in this fashion often overlay the psalmists' intentions with additional significance in view of the Christ event. This is readily observable when one compares the same passages in their original and secondary contexts.
For example, Psalm 41 , either a lament/liturgy for someone enduring sickness, the slander of enemies and the perfidy of a close friend or a thanksgiving song sung after the experience of deliverance, is cited in connection with Judas's betrayal of Jesus (John 13:18 ). It is clear that the psalmist does not regard his subject to be the divine Son of God because he depicts the speaker readily acknowledging personal sin (v. 4). The same can be said of Psalm 69 , a lament calling on Yahweh to rescue the supplicant from enemies, which is used in narratives concerning Jesus' cleansing of the temple (John 2:13-17 ), his experience of unjustified hatred by others (John 15:24-25 ), his being offered wine mixed with gall and wine vinegar/sour wine to drink at his crucifixion (Matthew 27:34,48 ), as well as in Peter's recollection of Judas's sorry end (Acts 1:15-20 ). In this psalm, too, there is a confession of personal folly and wrongdoing (v. 5). Psalm 22 , a lament for someone suffering great distress because of serious illness and the taunts of those who regard sickness as a sign of divine disapproval, is employed in the description of various aspects of Jesus' passion (Matthew 27:39-46 ; John 19:23-24 ). Psalm 2 , a royal psalm celebrating Yahweh's adoption and installation of the Israelite king as his vice-regent in the face of incipient rebellion by Israel's subject peoples, is excerpted by the fledgling Christian community to characterize the opposition experienced by both Jesus and that community (Acts 4:23-30 ) and by Paul to demonstrate that Jesus' resurrection was accomplished by God in fulfillment of his word (Acts 13:32-33 ). Psalm 16 , a song of confidence/trust in which the psalmist rejoices because of his assurance that Yahweh will not allow him to succumb to the ordeal in which he finds himself, becomes another testimony to Jesus' resurrection (Acts 2:22-32 ). Psalm 118 , a thanksgiving psalm in which gratitude is expressed to Yahweh for his intervention on behalf of the supplicant resulting in victory over enemies, is also applied to God's raising Jesus from the dead (Acts 4:8-11 ). Psalm 45 , a psalm composed for the occasion of a royal wedding in which the Israelite king is greatly revered, is employed to celebrate the divine Son of God's eternal kingship (Hebrews 1:8-9 ). From Psalm 102 , a lament for one experiencing illness and the derision of adversaries, 128:1 quotes a hymnic fragment extolling the eternality of the creator to describe Jesus. Psalm 110 , a royal psalm that depicts the Israelite king as Yahweh's victorious vice-regent and enduring priest, is transformed into an affirmation of Jesus' messiahship (Matthew 22:41-45 ), post-resurrection exaltation (Acts 2:32-36 ), and superior priesthood (Hebrews 4:14-5:10 ; 7:11-28 ).
Several observations may be made concerning these links between the psalms and Jesus. First, they reinforce the idea that Jesus in his incarnation identified with, and in some ways epitomized, the individual worshiper and the community of faith. The New Testament gives ample evidence that Jesus experienced the pain and joy, the despair and hope of the human condition which is so vividly depicted in the canonical Psalter. Second, such links are not surprising given the psalmists' vision of the establishment of Yahweh's universal and everlasting kingdom of righteousness, justice, and peace and its temporal, historical embodiment in the rule of the Israelite king. The often exalted and hyperbolic language of the psalms in which these themes are expressed coupled with the inability of Israelite kings to live up to this ideal fueled anticipation about an anointed one who would fulfill
Chabad Knowledge Base - Psalms
the Book of Psalms, alternatively, several Psalms
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Gradual Psalms
(Latin: gradus, step)
Psalms 119-133 which were sung by the caravans of devout Israelites on their way to Jerusalem to celebrate the great feasts in the Temple. Other commentators say they were hymns sung in the liturgical service of the Temple as the Levites ascended in procession the steps, particularly in celebrating the Feast of Tabernacles.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alphabetic Psalms
So called because their successive verses, or successive parallel series, begin with the successive letters of the alphabet. Psalms 18, "Blessed are the undefiled," comprises 22 stanzas of 8 verses each, beginning with the same letter of the Hebrew alphabet in order. Another example of alphabetic arrangement in Hebrew poetry is found in the Lamentations of Jeremias in the Office of Tenebrae during Holy Week. This feature is not discernible in the Vulgate or our English version save that the Hebrew letter name precedes each verse in the work of the prophet.
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Psalms
The book of Psalms is called by the Jews Sepher Tihillim, which more particularly signifies, the book of psalms, or hymns of praise. But there are two other names given by the Hebrews to the psalms, Zemer and Sher. The former is taken from, a root in Hebrew signifying to prune; and the latter from a word signifying power. And hence some have thought, that as the chief scope and tendency of the psalms is to lead to Christ, the former implies his humiliation, and the latter his glory. And it is remarkable, (but whether it may be considered as confirming this opinion I do not presume to say) that when the Lord Jesus was expounding to the two disciples, in his way to Emmaus, on the morning of his resurrection, the things concerning himself, he made use of those very arguments as proofs in his humiliation, and glory of his divine mission. "Ought not Christ (said he) to have suffered these things, and to enter into his glory." (Luke 24:26)
The Psalms have been generally divided into five heads, but it doth not appear that the Holy Ghost hath given any authority for this division. Taken as one grand whole, they form a complete epitome of the gospel; and from those which plainly point to Christ, and can refer to no other, we may venture to conclude that those which do not in our apprehension, the obscurity ariseth from our dulness, and not from any want of allusion to him. As to Jesus give all the prophets witness, and as the Psalms many of them are prophetical, evidently they are included. It is best in the perusal of every one of them to be on the look-out for Jesus, for precious are the things contained in the Psalms concerning him.
On those fifteen psalms entitled A song of degrees, from Psalms 120:1-7 to Psalms 134:1-3 included, I can offer no one observation to form the least conjecture what the title means. As the Holy Ghost hath not thought proper to explain the cause for which they are so called, it should seem to be the safest plan to avoid all unprofitable enquiries, than attempt to be wise above what is written. The Psalms themselves are full of Jesus, and therefore in the discovery and enjoyment of him it will be our highest wisdom to direct our researches, praying that as often as the Holy Ghost opens any part of this precious volume to our meditation, he that hath the key of David may open our heart to the right apprehension of them, to make us wise unto salvation, through the faith that is in Christ Jesus.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Psalms, Book of
This book has been called the heart of the Bible. It expresses sentiments produced by the Spirit of Christ, whether of prayer, sorrow, confession, or praise, in the hearts of God's people, in which the ways of God are developed, and become known, with their blessed issue, to the faithful. The book is distinctly prophetic in character, the period covered by the language of the Psalms extending from the rejection of Christ (Psalm 2 ; Acts 4:25-28 ) to the Hallelujahs consequent on the establishment of the kingdom. The writers do not merely relate what others did and felt, but expressed what was passing through their own souls. And yet their language is not simply what they felt, but that of the Spirit of Christ that spoke in them, as taking part in the afflictions, the griefs, and the joys of God's people in every phase of their experience. This accounts for Christ being found throughout the Psalms: some refer exclusively to Him, as Psalm 22 ; in others (though the language is that of the remnant of His people), Christ takes His place with them, making their sufferings His sufferings, and their sorrows His sorrows. In no part of scripture is the inner life of the Lord Jesus disclosed as in the Psalms. The Psalms may be called 'the manual of the earthly choir.' They commence with "Blessed is the man ," and end with "Praise ye Jehovah." Man is blessed on earth, and Jehovah is praised from earth.
1 Chronicles 16 and 2 Samuel 22 are examples of the immediate occasions on which psalms were composed, and in the headings of the psalms other instances are mentioned; yet these things in no way hinder the Spirit of God from leading the psalmist to utter things that would be fully accomplished in Christ alone. David said, "The Spirit of Jehovah spake by me, and his word was in my tongue." 2 Samuel 23:1,2 . Great pains have been taken sometimes to arrange the psalms in a supposed chronological order, but the effect of this is to spoil the whole, for God has Himself ordered their arrangement, and in many places the beauty of the order can be seen.
It must not be forgotten that the O.T. prophets did not grasp what "the Spirit of Christ which was in them did signify." 1 Peter 1:11 . David's experience could not have caused him to indite Psalm 22 . But being a prophet, it was clearly the Spirit of Christ that was in him that furnished words which would be uttered by Christ on the cross. We have in it a plain instance of a prophetic psalm, and doubtless the spirit of prophecy runs through all.
If this is the main characteristic of the Psalms, they have an aspect entirely different from that in which the book is regarded by many, namely, as a book of Christian experience. The piety that the Psalms breathe is always edifying, and the deep confidence in God expressed in them under trial and sorrow has cheered the heart of God's saints at all times. These holy experiences are to be preserved and cherished; but who has not felt the difficulty of calling on God to destroy his enemies? What Christian can take up as his own language such a sentence as "Happy shall he be that taketh and dasheth thy little ones against the stones." Psalm 137:9 . And how can such a sentence be spiritualised? But such appeals are intelligible in regard to a future day, when, apostasy being universal and opposition to God open and avowed, the destruction of His enemies is the only way of deliverance for His people.
Unless the difference of the spirit of the Psalms from that of Christianity be observed, the full light of redemption and of the place of the Christian in Christ is not seen, and the reader is apt to be detained in a legal state. His progress is hindered, and he does not understand the Psalms, nor enter into the gracious sympathies of Christ in their true application. When the attitude of the Jews at the time the Lord was here is remembered, and their bitter opposition to their Messiah, which exists to this day, light is thrown upon their feelings when, under tribulation, their eyes will be opened to see that it was indeed their Messiah that they crucified. Great too will be their persecution from without, from which God will deliver a remnant and bring them into blessing. Into all their sorrows Christ enters, and He suffers in sympathy with them. All these things, and the experiences through which they will pass, are found in the Psalms. But these experiences are not properly those of the Christian.
As the Psalms form a part of holy scripture, their true place and bearing must be seen before they can be rightly interpreted. The writers were not Christians, and could not express christian experience; though their piety, their confidence in God , and the spirit of praise may often be the language of a Christian, and even put a Christian to shame. Christ must be looked for everywhere, either in what He personally passed through, or in His sympathy with His people Israel, which can only end in His bringing them into full blessing on earth, when He will be hailed as "Wonderful, Counsellor, Mighty God, Father of Eternity, Prince of Peace."
The Book of Psalms is in the Hebrew divided into five books, each of which has its own prophetic characteristics. The more these are grasped, the clearer it becomes that God has watched over the order of the psalms. Each book ends with an ascription of praise or doxology.
BOOK 1 extends to the end of Psalm 41 , and is occupied with the state of the Jewish remnant of the future (Judah), before they are driven out of Jerusalem: cf. Matthew 24:16 . Christ is largely identified with this. The book recalls much of the personal history of the Lord, when He was here, though the bearing of it is future. The light of resurrection dawns for the faithful in this book, Christ having gone through death into fulness of joy at God's right hand: compare Revelation 6:11 .
In Psalm 2 (and Psalm 1 and Psalm 2 may be said to be introductory to the whole) we have Christ rejected by Jew and Gentile, yet set as King in Zion, and declared to be the Son of God, having the earth for His possession, and judging His enemies, the nations. In a wider sense Psalm 1 to 8 are introductory; from Psalm 3 to Psalm 7 giving the principles that follow on the rejection of Christ in Psalm 1 and Psalm 2 , and Psalm 8 giving His exaltation as Son of man , ending with "O Jehovah our Lord, how excellent is thy name in all the earth." Psalm 16 brings in the personal excellence of Christ and His association with the 'excellent in the earth.'
In some places the appropriateness of the sequence of the psalms, as already remarked, is very apparent, as for instance Psalm 22,23,24 . Psalm 22 pictures the sufferings of Christ in the accomplishing of redemption. In Psalm 23 in consequence of redemption being accomplished, the Lord becomes the Shepherd and takes care of the sheep. In Psalm 24 is celebrated the entry of the King of glory through the everlasting gates. In Psalm 40 there comes forth from God One divinely perfect — the true ark of the covenant — who was competent to bring into effect the will of God in all its extent; and at the same time able (by the offering of Himself) to take away the whole system of sacrifices, in which God had found no pleasure.
BOOK 2 embraces Psalm 42 to the end of Psalm 72 . The remnant are here viewed as outside Jerusalem, and the city given up to wickedness; but Israel has to be brought back. In Book 1 the name of Jehovah is used all through, but now God is addressed as such: the faithful are cast more entirely on what God is in His own nature and character, when they can no longer approach where Jehovah has put His name: Antichrist prevails there. In Psalm 45 Messiah is introduced, and the remnant celebrate with gladness what God is for His people. Though resurrection may be dimly seen by the faithful in the circumstances of this book, yet what is before them is the restoration of Zion ( Psalm 45 — Psalm 48 and Psalm 69:35 ). God shines out of Zion (Psalm 50:2 ). Psalm 69 , Psalm 70 , and Psalm 71 speak of the humiliation of the remnant, and Christ with them: some of the verses clearly point to Christ personally, as in the reference to the gall and the vinegar. Psalm 69:21 . At the close of this book the Psalmist in the doxology arrives at, "Let the whole earth be filled with his glory. Amen and Amen." To which he adds, "The prayers of David, the son of Jesse, are ended."
Psalm 68 shows that God's strength and excellency for Israel was of old in the heavens. The heavens are the seat both of blessing ( Psalm 68:9,18 ) and of rule (Psalm 68:4,32-35 ). Hence Christ is seen as ascended up on high.
BOOK 3 contains Psalm 73 to the end of Psalm 89 . It widens out to the restoration of Israel as a nation, whose general interests are in view. The sanctuary is prominent. The thought is not so much limited, as the previous books, to the Jewish remnant, though faithful ones are spoken of. In this book we have but one psalm with David's name as writer. They are mostly 'for, or of ' Asaph and the sons of Korah — Levites. In Psalm 88 is the bitter cry of a soul expressive of being subject under a broken law to the wrath of God; and in Psalm 89 praise is rendered for Jehovah's unchangeable covenant with David, extending to the Holy One of Israel as their King. It celebrates the sure mercies of David, though David's house had utterly failed and was cast down.
BOOK 4 embraces Psalm 90 to the end of Psalm 106 . It begins with a psalm of Moses. In this section the eternity of Elohim, Israel's Adonai, is seen to have been at all times their dwelling place, as declared in the first verse. It is the answer to the end of Psalm 89 : comp. also Psalm 102:23-28 with Psalm 89:44,45 . In Ps. 91Messiah takes His place with Israel; and in Psalm 94 to Psalm 100 Jehovah comes into the world to establish the kingdom in glory and divine order. It is the introduction of the First-begotten into the earth, announced by the cry of the remnant.
BOOK 5 contains Psalm 107 to the end of Psalm 150 . This book gives the general results of the government of God. The restoration of Israel amid dangers and difficulties is alluded to; the exaltation of Messiah to God's right hand till His enemies are made His footstool; God's ways with Israel; their whole condition, and the principles on which they stand with God, His law being written in their hearts; ending with full and continued praise after the destruction of their enemies, in which they have part with God. For Songs of Degrees, see DEGREES.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Psalms
This word occurs in the O.T. only in connection with the Psalms of David and those in the Book of Psalms. David is called "the sweet psalmist of Israel." 2 Samuel 23:1 . There can be no doubt that in connection with the 'singers,' and the praising God with instruments, the Psalms were used. We read "sing psalms unto him," "Make a joyful noise unto him with psalms," etc. In N.T. days, for a time at least, the Psalms of David may have been sung by believers, but there were also hymns and spiritual songs, and it is to be remarked that in the singing at the institution of the Lord's supper a hymn (ὑμνέω) is spoken of, not a psalm (ψαλμός). See PASSOVER. The latter Greek word (besides the occurrences which refer to the Book of Psalms) is found in 1 Corinthians 14:26 ; Ephesians 5:19 ; Colossians 3:16 .
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Psalms
(See DAVID; POETRY.) The Hebrew designation tehillim , "praises" or hymns," occurring only in the title of Psalm 145 and about 30 times in the body of the Psalms, applies only to some not to all the psalms. The glorification of God is the design of them all, even the penitentiary and precatory psalms; but tehilliym applies strictly to praise songs alone, tephillowt to the prayer songs; Psalm 17; Psalm 72 end, closing the second book of Psalms, Psalm 86; 90; 102 title. No one Hebrew title comprehends all.
The Greek Septuagint has given the title "Psalms" (from psalloo "to play an instrument") applied to the whole collection. The Hebrew mizmor designates 65 psalms; in the Syriac version it comprises the whole (from zaamar "to decorate"), psalms of artificial, adorned structure (Hengstenberg). "A rhythmical composition" (Lowth). "Psalms," the designation most applicable to the whole book, means songs accompanied by an instrument, especially the harp (1 Chronicles 16:4-9; 2 Chronicles 5:12-13). Shir , "a joyful thanksgiving song," is prefixed only to some. The various kinds are specified in Ephesians 5:19; "psalms (accompanied by an instrument), hymns (indirect praise of God), ... spiritual songs (joyous lyric pieces; contrast Amos 8:10)."
TITLES. Their genuineness is confirmed by their antiquity (which is proved by their being unintelligible to the Septuagint translators of the Hebrew into Greek), and by their presence in the greatest number of manuscripts, and in fragments of Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion. Their obscurity and occasional want of connection with the psalm's contents (as title Psalm 34) are incompatible with their origination from forgers. The orientals, moreover, usually prefix titles to poems (Habakkuk 3:1; Isaiah 38:9); so David (2 Samuel 23:1). The enigmatical titles, found only in the psalms of David and of David's singers, accord with Eastern taste. They are too "poetical, spirited, and profound for any later collector" (Hengstenberg). So David's "bow song" (2 Samuel 1:18), his enigmatical designation for "the song on him expert with the bow" (Isaiah 52:13-152).
The historical hints in some titles give a clue to the dates. If the titles were added by later hands, how is it that they are wanting in those psalms where conjecture could most easily have had place, namely, the non-Davidic psalms of the fourth and fifth books, whereas they appear in the most regular and complete form in David's psalms, next in those of his singers? Now these are just the ones where conjecture is given no room for exercise; for the titles do not apparently illustrate these psalms, but are a memorial of the events which most deeply impressed David's own mind. In the last two books the historical occasions do not occur in the titles, because cycles of psalms mainly compose these books, and among such cycles psalms of an individual reference hardly have place.
DIVISIONS. Davidic basis of the whole. The Psalms form one "book"; so the Lord refers to them (Luke 20:42), so His apostles (Acts 1:20). The fathers, Ambrose (on Psalm 40) and Jerome to Cyprian (2:695), describe the Psalms as five books in one volume. Based on and corresponding to the historical Pentateuch, they form a poetical "Pentateuch" (Epiphanius, de Mens., c. 5), extending from Moses to the times of Malachi "the Hebrew history set to music an oratorio in five parts, with Messiah for its subject" (Wordsworth). The Psalms, like the Pentateuch, being used in divine worship, are the people's answer to God's address to them in the law, i.e. the expression of their pious feelings called forth by the word of God. The close of each of the five books is marked by a doxology. The "blessed be the Lord God of Israel" is taken up by Zacharias, as fulfilled in Christ (Leviticus 1:68-71; Psalms 106:48). Book I includes Psalm 1-41; Book II, Psalm 42-72; Book III, Psalm 73-89; Book IV, Psalm 90-106; Book V, Psalm 107-150.
Book I is according to the titles Davidic; accordingly there is no trace of any author hut David. The objection from the "temple" (Psalms 5:7) being mentioned is groundless, for in 1 Samuel 1:9; 1 Samuel 3:3, it is similarly used for the tabernacle long before Solomon's temple was built. The argument for a post-Babylonian date from the phrase "bring back the captivity" (Psalms 14:7) is invalid; it is a Hebraism for reversing one's misfortunes (Job 42:10). Nor does the acrosticism in Psalm 25 prove a late date, for acrosticism appears in psalms acknowledged to be David's (Psalm 9). In Books II and III David's singers have borrowed from David (excepting "a song of the beloved" Psalm 45, and Psalm 46, "upon Alamoth") everything peculiar in his superscriptions; see Psalm 42; 43; 44; 84; 86. "Selah" is restricted to David and his singers; but "hallelujah" is never found in his or their psalms.
So also "to the chief musician," (committing the psalm to the music conductor to prepare for musical performance in the public service: 1 Chronicles 15:21 Hebrew and margin, compare 1 Chronicles 15:22,) is limited to David's and their psalms. The writer of 2 Samuel 22 evidently turned into prose David's poetical superscription (Psalm 18); so the writer of 1 Samuel 19:11; 1 Samuel 21:13-14; 1 Samuel 23:19, had before him the titles of Psalm 34; 54; 59. Hezekiah's "writing" (miktab ) alludes probably to David's miktam (a "secret," or "song of deep import"), Psalm 56; 57 titles, for it was he who restored David's psalms to their liturgical use in the temple (Matthew 22:41-46). This imitation of David's title, and still more the correspondence of his prayer to David's psalms (Psalms 102:24; Psalms 27:13; Psalms 49:1; Psalms 6:5; Psalms 30:9), is a presumption for the authenticity of David's and his singers' psalms and their titles.
Habakkuk similarly leans upon David's superscriptions, as also upon his psalms. Habakkuk 3:1, "Shiggaion," compare title Psalms 7:1, "Son of David"; Habakkuk 3:19, "to the chief musician on my stringed instruments" is derived from the titles Psalm 4; 6. So the "Selah" (Psalms 6:9; Psalms 6:13) which occurs only in the psalms of David and his singers. The absence of the authors' names from most of the psalms in the fourth and fifth books implies that none of them have an individual and personal character, as the Davidic psalms have. In all such the psalmist represents the community. The later groups of psalms rest on the Davidic, and echo the poetry of David. Even in the psalms of David's singers, the authors, except Asaph (Psalm 1; 74) who was immediately associated with David, do not give their individual names.
PRINCIPLE OF SELECTION. Not all Israel's lyric poetry but only.
(1) such as is directly religious is included in the psalter, therefore not David's dirge over Saul and Jonathan (2 Samuel 1:17-27). Also
(2) only the psalms applicable to the whole church and therefore suited to the public services of the sanctuary. The individual psalmist represents the religious community whose mouthpiece he is. 2 Samuel 23:1; David sings in his typical and representative character; no other psalmist in the book has personal references. Hence Hezekiah's prayer (Isaiah 38) and Jonah's thanksgiving are excluded as too personal.
(3) Only such as were composed trader the Holy Spirit's inspiration. The very musicians who founded the sacred music were inspired (1 Chronicles 25:1, "prophesy with harps"), much more the psalmists themselves. Asaph, the writer of some psalms, was a "seer" (2 Chronicles 29:30).
David spoke "in the Spirit." Christ testifies (2 Chronicles 29:30), He classes" the Psalms," the chief book of the chetubim or hagiographa, with "the law and the prophets" (Luke 24:44). The Messianic prophetic element in David leans on Nathan's prophecy (2 Samuel 7). Subsequent prophets develop David's Messianic predictions. The Psalms draw out of the typical ceremonial of the law its tuner spirit, adapting it to the various requirements of the individual and the congregation. By their help the Israelite could enter into the living spirit of the law, and realizing his need of the promised Saviour look for Him of whom the Psalms testify. They are a treasury from which we can draw the inner experiences of Old Testament saints and express our corresponding feelings, under like circumstances, in their divinely sanctioned language of praise and prayer.
CLASSIFICATION.
(1) Psalms of joy and gratitude, shir , lethodah "for confession" or ascription of praise (Psalm 100), tehillah (Psalm 145).
(2) Psalms under sorrow, giving birth to prayer: tephillah , "prayer song" (Psalm 90), lehazkir "to put God in remembrance" of His people's needs (Psalm 38; 70), leanot "concerning the affliction" (Psalm 88), altaseheeth "destroy not" (Psalm 57; 58; 59).
(3) Didactic and calmly meditative: Psalm 1; 15; 31; 49. The title Maschil is absent from some didactic psalms and present in others, because its design is to mark as didactic only those in which the "instruction" is covert and so might be overlooked. Thirteen are so designated, mostly of David's time. The later, composed in times of national peril, breathe a spirit of too intense feeling to admit of the calm didactic style. Moreover Solomon's proverbs subsequently to David took the place of the didactic psalms. But some maschil psalms still were composed, and these more lyric in tone and less sententious and maxim-like in style than Proverbs.
ORDER. The Holy Spirit doubtless directed the compiler in arranging as well as the writers in composing the psalms. The first psalm begins, as the Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 5:3), and the second closes, with "blessed." Thus this pair, announcing the blessedness of the godly and the doom of the ungodly in the coming judgment, fitly prefaces the Psalms as John the Baptist's announcement of the final judgment preludes the gospel (Matthew 3). "A spiritual epitome of all history (Wordsworth); the godly "meditate in the law of the Lord," the ungodly "meditate a vain thing" (Psalms 1:2; Psalms 2:1). The five dosing the psalter begin and end with "hallelujah." The principle of arrangement is not: wholly chronological, though David's book of psalms is first of the five, and the post captivity book of psalms last; for Moses' psalm (Psalm 90), the oldest of all, begins the fourth book, and some of David's psalms are in the fifth. Also the 15 songs of degrees, i.e. ascents of the pilgrims to the three national feasts at Jerusalem, though written at different times, form one group.
Spiritual affinity and the relation to one another and to the whole modify the chronological arrangement. The arrangement in some instances is so significant as to indicate, it to be the work of the Spirit, not of the collector merely. Thus, Psalm 22 portrays Messiah's death scene, Psalm 23. His rest in paradise, Psalm 24. His ascension (Acts 2:25-27; Acts 2:37). "At the time the Psalms were written" they were not of such use to those among whom they were written as they are to us, for they were written to prophesy the New Testament among those who lived under the Old Testament" (Augustine on Psalm 101; 1 Peter 1:10-12.) The one great theme ultimately meant is Christ, the antitypical David, in respect to His inner life as the Godman, and in His past, present, and future relations to the church and the world (Luke 24:25; Luke 24:27; Luke 24:45-46). The Psalter rightly holds the middle place of the Bible, being the heart of both Old Testament and New Testament.
Other scriptures of the Old Testament have corresponding scriptures in the New Testament The Pentateuch and Old Testament histories answer to the Gospels and Acts; Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the prophets to the epistles; the Song of Solomon and Daniel to Revelation. The Psalms alone have no counterpart in the New Testament, except the songs of the Virgin, Zacharias and Simeon (Luke 1; 2), because the psalter belongs to both Testaments alike, being "the hymnbook of the universal church" (Wordsworth). There is scarcely a place in the Psalms where the voices of Christ and the church are not to be found (Augustine on Psalm 59). Christ's sufferings and conflict, ending in His reign, appear most in Books I, II; Israel's prostration in Book III; the fruits of His victory, the Lord s reign, and Israel's restoration after her past pilgrim state, in Book IV; the songs of degrees, i.e. the church's pilgrim ascents below, "coming up from the wilderness, leaning upon her Beloved," and her everlasting hallelujahs, in Book V.
AUTHORS: David composed 80 of the Psalms, Asaph wrote four, singers of his school (See below) penned eight, the sons of Korah of David's and Solomon's times seven, Solomon two. To Jehoshaphat's time belong Psalm 47; Psalm 48; Psalm 83. (See JEHOSHAPHAT.) The occasion of Psalm 47 was his bloodless victory over Moab, Ammon, Edom, and the Arabians, who combined to drive Judah out of their "inheritance" (Psalms 47:4; 2 Chronicles 20:11). The title ascribes the psalm to "the sons of Korah," just as in 2 Chronicles 20:19 the Korahites are in front of the Jews' army "to praise the Lord God of Israel with a loud voice on high"; so Psalms 47:5 answers to 2 Chronicles 20:26. Psalm 47 was perhaps sung in the valley of Bernehah (blessing); Psalm 48 in the temple service on their return (compare Psalms 47:9). As Jehoshaphat was "in the fore front" of the returning people (2 Chronicles 20:27), so "Jehovah with the sound of a trumpet went up" to His earthly temple (Psalms 47:5).
So "the fear of God was on all the kingdoms" (Psalms 47:8-9; compare 2 Chronicles 20:28-29). The breaking of Jehoshaphat's Tarshish ships is alluded to Psalms 48:7, his ungodly alliance being as great a danger from within as the hostile invasion from without; both alike the grace of God averted. (See JAHAZIEL; BERACHAH.) To the time of the overthrow of Sennacherib's host under Hezekiah belong Psalm 46; Psalm 75; Psalm 76; Psalm 87. (See HEZEKIAH.) To the time of the carrying away of Israel's ten tribes belong Psalm 77; Psalm 80; Psalm 81. Judah intercedes with God for her captive sister; "of Asaph" in the title may mean only that one of his school wrote under his name as the master of the school. The remaining 46, except Moses' Psalm 90, were written just before, during, and after the Babylonian captivity. As the psalms took their rise in the religious awakening under David, so the long times of growing declension subsequently were barren of additions to the psalter. The only times of such additions were those of religious revivals, namely, under Jehoshaphat, Hezekiah, and Josiah (to whose reign probably belong Psalm 77; Psalm 92; Psalm 100; this series has the common theme, Jehovah's manifestation for His people's comfort and their foes' confusion).
The captivity taught the people a bitter but wholesome lesson; then accordingly psalmody revived. After the last new song sung to the Lord at the completion of the city walls under Nehemiah, no new psalm was composed under inspiration. The written word thenceforth took the place of the inspired speakers of prophecy and song. David gave the tone to all the succeeding psalms, so that, in a sense, he is their author. Recognition of God's retributive righteousness as a preservative against despair (in undesigned coincidence with the history, 1 Samuel 30:6), and the sudden interposition of divine consolation amidst sorrowful complaints, are characteristic of his psalms. They are more elevated, and abound in rare forms, from whence arises their greater difficulty. He first introduced the alphabetical arrangement; also the grouping of verses with reference to numbers, and the significancy of the recurrence of the names of God; also the combining of psalms in pairs, and in larger cycles. The divine promise to his line in 2 Samuel 7 forms the basis of many of his Messianic prophecies, as Psalm 138-145; compare with Psalms 140:1; 2 Samuel 22:49.
Wordsworth suggests Psalm 41 and Psalm 71, at the close of Books I and II respectively, were written at the time of Adonijah's, Joab's, and Abiathar's conspiracy when David was old and languishing, yet "in the strength of the Lord God" enabled to rise afresh in the person of Solomon his son, whose throne in Messiah is to be everlasting, as Psalm 72 sets forth. Of Asaph's psalms, four are composed by David's chief musician: Psalm 50; Psalm 73; Psalm 78 (warning Ephraim not to rebel against God's transfer of their prerogative to Zion and Judah), Psalm 82; a didactic and prophetic character marks them all. Eight others (Psalm 74-77; Psalm 79-81; Psalm 83), marked by his name, belong to singers in later times, who regarded him as their founder, just as the sons (followers) of Korah regarded Korah. The Hebrew le- before a name in the title designates the author. Psalms 74:8 answers to Jeremiah 52:13; Jeremiah 52:17; the psalmist was probably one of the few Jews left by the Chaldaeans "in the land." So also Psalms 79:1 alludes to the temple's "defilement" by the Chaldees (Jeremiah 10:25 quotes Psalms 79:6).
The psalms of the sons of Korah are fourteen, of which seven belong to David's and Solomon's times, and seven to later times. Psalm 42; Psalm 43; Psalm 84; Psalm 86 (according to Hengstenberg, as occurring in the midst of Korahitic psalms though superscribed with David's name), refer to Absaiom's rebellion; Psalm 44 on the invasion of the Edomites (2 Samuel 8:13; 1 Chronicles 18:12; 1 Kings 11:15-16); Psalm 49 of general import; Psalm 45 on King Messiah's marriage to Israel and the church, in Solomon's time; Psalm 47; Psalm 48; Psalm 83, in Jehoshaphat's time; Psalm 46; Psalm 87, refer to Sennacherib's host overthrown before Jerusalem, in Hezekiah's reign; Psalm 85; Psalm 88; Psalm 89, before the Babylonian captivity.
Neither Heman nor the sons of Heman are named in the superscriptions, but the sons of Korah; perhaps because Heman, though musical and head of the Korahitic singers, was not also poetically gifted as was Asaph; Psalm 88, is gloom throughout, yet the title calls it (shir ) a "song" of joy; this can only refer to Psalm 89 which follows being paired with it; it was when the "anointed" of David's throne (Josiah) had his "crown profaned on the ground," being not able to" stand in the battle" (Psalms 89:43), and his son Jehoahaz after a three months' reign was carried to Egypt by Pharaoh Necho (2 Chronicles 35:20-25; 2 Chronicles 36:1-4; Psalms 89:45); the title, "to the chief musician," shows the temple was standing, Josiah had just before caused a religious revival.
NUMBERS IN ARRANGEMENT. The decalogue has its form determined by number; also the genealogy in Matthew; so the Lord's prayer, and especially the structure of the Apocalypse. So Isaiah 1 represents Israel's revolt in seven, divided into three and four, the four for the sinfulness, and the three for the revolt. And Isaiah 52:13-53;Isaiah 52:12; the introduction three verses (1618180990_87) with the concluding two verses (Isaiah 53:11-12) making up five, the half; the main part comprises ten (Isaiah 53:1-10), divided into seven for Messiah's humiliation (three of which represent Messiah's sufferings, four their cause, His being our substitute) and three for His glorification (Hengstenberg). Similarly, the form of the several psalms is regulated by numbers, especially seven divided into four and three. The correctness of our division into verses is hence confirmed. The criticism too which would dismember the psalms is proved at least in their case, and in that of whatever Scriptures are arranged by numbers, to be false.
NAMES or GOD. A similar proof of the correctness of the text appears in the fact that the ELOHIM psalms are peculiar to the first three books, those of David, Asaph, and the sons of Korah. So strange had "ΕLΟΗΙΜ " become in later times that only the Jehovah psalms of David were inserted in the later books, excepting David's Psalm 108 introductory to Psalm 109 and Psalm 110. The three form a trilogy: Psalm 108 anticipating triumph over the foe, Psalm 109 the foe's condemnation, Psalm 110 Messiah's divine kingly and priestly glory. In the fifth book Εlohim occurs only seven times, i.e. six times in Psalm 108 and once in David's Psalm 144. It is an undesigned coincidence and proof of genuineness that in independent sacred history David uses Elohim as a favorite term (2 Samuel 7; 1 Chronicles 28:20; 1 Chronicles 29:1). In Book I "Jehovah" occurs 272 times, Elohim 15 times; in Book II, Elohim 164 times, Jehovah 30 times; in Book III, Jehovah 44 times, Elohim 43 times; in Book IV, Jehovah 103 times, Elohim, not once; in Book V, Jehovah 236 times, Elohim 7 times.
Hengstenberg suggests the reason of David's predilection for "Elohim." The pagan regarded Jehovah as designating the local God of Israel, but not God absolutely, possessing the whole fullness of the Godhead. So David felt it unnecessary to express "Jehovah," because He was unquestionably Israel's God; it was only contested whether He was Elohim. David boldly, in the face of mighty nations, asserts the nullity of their gods and the sole Godhead of Jehovah; compare Psalms 18:31, "who is Elohim but Jehovah?" Jehovah is understood before Elohim in Elohim psalms, as the doxology at the end of the second book recognizes, "blessed be Jehovah Elohim" (Psalms 72:18). Latterly when the falsely called Elohim of surrounding nations began to be honoured in Israel the term gave place to Jehovah for expressing the true God. Psalm 18 is "a great hallelujah, with which David retires from tide theater of life."
I. The first book (Psalm 1-4) the Davidic-Jehovah psalms.
II. The second book (Psalm 42-72) the Elohim psalms; namely, of David's singers, the sons of Korah (Psalm 42-49), Asaph's (Psalm 1.), then David's Elohim psalms (Psalm 51-71), Solomon's Elohim psalm (Psalm 72).
III. Psalm 73-89, the Jehovah psalms of David's singers; of Asaph (Psalm 73; Psalm 83), of the sons of Korah (Psalm 84-89). Thus in the arrangement the Jehovah psalms (Jehovah being the fundamental name) enclose the Elohim psalms; so the first book doxology begins with Jehovah; the second has, let Jehovah Elohim be praised; the third, let Jehovah be praised.
IV. (Psalm 90-106.) The psalms of David in the last two books are inserted as component parts into the later cycles. The subscription, Psalms 72:20, "the prayers of David, the son of Jesse, are ended," distinguishes the detached from the serial psalms of David; so Job 31:40 is not contradicted by his again speaking in Job 40; Job 42. Moses' Psalm 90 is put after David's and his singers' psalms, because David was so preeminent as the sweet psalmist of Israel. Psalm 91-100 are connected. Then follows David's trilogy, Psalm 101-103, and the trilogy of the captivity (Psalm 104-106).
V. Psalm 107-150 are (excepting David's psalms incorporated) after the return from the captivity. The dodecad Psalm 108-119, is composed of a trilogy of David introducing nine psalms sung at laying the foundation of the second temple. Psalm 119 is the sermon (composed by Ezra) after the Hallel, to urge Israel to regard God's word as her national safeguard. Psalm 120-134, the pilgrim songs ("songs of degrees"), namely, four psalms of David, one of Solomon, and ten nameless ones, are appropriate to the time of the interruption of the temple building. (See EZRA.) Psalm 135-146 (including David's psalms incorporated with the rest) celebrate its happy completion.
Psalm 147-150 were sung at the consecration of the city walls under Nehemiah. J. F. Thrupp (Smith's Bible Dictionary) maintains that as Psalm 73-83 do not all proceed from Asaph, but from members of the choir which he founded, so the psalms in Books III, IV, V, inscribed with the name of David, were written by his royal representatives for the time being (Hezekiah, Josiah, Zerubbabel, etc.), who prefer honouring the name of their ancestor to obtruding their own names. But why then should one of the psalms in question be inscribed with" Solomon" rather than David? The psalms accord with David's circumstances; their containing phrases of David's former psalms is not inconsistent with his authorship, as the sacred authors often repeat their own inspired words. The Chaldaisms of Psalm 139 are due to David's adapting uncommon phrases to a lofty theme.
In 2 Maccabees the collection of David's psalms is attributed to Nehemiah. Jerome, Ep. ad Sophronium, and the Synopsis in Athanasius, ascribe the collection to Ezra, "the priest and ready scribe in the law of Moses" (Ezra 7:6; Nehemiah 8:9). (On SHIGGAION, etc., see the words as they occur.) Finally, if we would "taste the honey of God" we must "have the palate of faith." "Attune thy heart to the psalm. If the psalm prays, pray thou; if it mourns, mourn thou; if it hopes, hope thou; if it fears, fear thou. Everything, in the psalter, is the looking glass of the soul" (Augustine on Psalm 96 and Psalm 30). The heart, the lips, and the life must be in accord with the psalm, to derive the full blessing. "Vita sic canta, ut nunquam sileas. " (Augustine on Psalm 146).
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Psalms, the Book of
(See PSALMS.)
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alleluiatic Psalms
Late Jewish ritualistic designation of four groups of Psalms 104-106,110-116,134-135 (Great Hallel), 145-150, Vulgate enumeration, denoting liturgical use in connection with the Passover (Paschal) Supper. Title derived from the opening word of several of these psalms, "Halleluiah" or Hallelu (Praise ye).
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Psalms
The book of Psalms is a collection of hymns, or sacred songs, in praise of God, and consists of poems of various kinds. They are the productions of different persons, but are generally called the Psalms of David, because a great part of them was composed by him, and David himself is distinguished by the name of the Psalmist. We cannot now ascertain all the Psalms written by David, but their number probably exceeds seventy; and much less are we able to discover the authors of the other Psalms, or the occasions upon which they were composed. A few of them were written after the return from the Babylonian captivity. The titles prefixed to them are of very questionable authority; and in many cases they are not intended to denote the writer but refer only to the person who was appointed to set them to music. David first introduced the practice of singing sacred hymns in the public service of God; and it was restored by Ezra. The authority of the Psalms is established not only by their rank among the sacred writings, and by the unvaried testimony of ages, but likewise by many intrinsic proofs of inspiration. Not only do they breathe through every part a divine spirit of eloquence, but they contain numberless illustrious prophecies that were remarkably accomplished, and are frequently appealed to by the evangelical writers. The sacred character of the whole book is established by the testimony of our Saviour and his Apostles, who, in various parts of the New Testament, appropriate the predictions of the Psalms as obviously apposite to the circumstances of their lives, and as intentionally composed to describe them. The veneration for the Psalms has in all ages of the church been considerable. The fathers assure us, that in the earlier times the whole book of Psalms was generally learned by heart; and that the ministers of every gradation were expected to be able to repeat them from memory. These invaluable Scriptures are daily repeated without weariness, though their beauties are often overlooked in familiar and habitual perusal. As hymns immediately addressed to the Deity, they reduce righteousness to practice; and while we acquire the sentiments, we perform the offices of piety; while we supplicate for blessings, we celebrate the memorial of former mercies; and while in the exercise of devotion, faith is enlivened by the display of prophecy. Josephus asserts, and most of the ancient writers maintain, that the Psalms were composed in metre. They have undoubtedly a peculiar conformation of sentences, and a measured distribution of parts. Many of them are elegiac, and most of David's are of the lyric kind. There is no sufficient reason however to believe, as some writers have imagined, that they were written in rhyme, or in any of the Grecian measures. Some of them are acrostic; and though the regulations of the Hebrew measure are now lost, there can be no doubt, from their harmonious modulation, that they were written with some kind of metrical order; and they must have been composed in accommodation to the measure to which they were set. ( See POETRY OF THE HEBREWS. ) The Hebrew copies and the Septuagint version of this book contain the same number of Psalms; only the Septuagint translators have, for some reason which does not appear, thrown the ninth and tenth into one, as also the one hundred and fourteenth and one hundred and fifteenth, and have divided the one hundred and sixteenth and one hundred and forty-seventh each into two.
It is very justly observed by Dr. Allix, that, "although the sense of near fifty Psalms be fixed and settled by divine authors, yet Christ and his Apostles did not undertake to quote all the Psalms they could, but only to give a key to their hearers, by which they might apply to the same subjects the Psalms of the same composure and expression." With regard to the Jews, Bishop Chandler very pertinently remarks, that "they must have understood David, their prince, to have been a figure of Messiah. They would not otherwise have made his Psalms part of their daily worship; nor would David have delivered them to the church to be so employed, were it not to instruct and support them in the knowledge and belief of this fundamental article. Were the Messiah not concerned in the Psalms, it would have been absurd to celebrate twice a day, in their public devotions, the events of one man's life, who was deceased so long ago, as to have no relation now to the Jews and the circumstances of their affairs; or to transcribe whole passages from them into their prayers for the coming of the Messiah." Upon the same principle it is easily seen that the objections, which may seem to lie against the use of Jewish services in Christian congregations, may cease at once. Thus it may be said, Are we concerned with the affairs of David and of Israel? Have we any thing to do with the ark and the temple? They are no more. Are we to go up to Jerusalem, and to worship on Sion? They are desolated, and trodden under foot by the Turks. Are we to sacrifice young bullocks according to the law? The law is abolished, never to be observed again. Do we pray for victory over Moab, Edom, and Philistia; or for deliverance from Babylon? There are no such nations, no such places in the world. What then do we mean, when, taking such expressions into our mouths, we utter them in our own persons, as parts of our devotions, before God? Assuredly we must mean a spiritual Jerusalem and Sion; a spiritual ark and temple; a spiritual law; spiritual sacrifices; and spiritual victories over spiritual enemies; all described under the old names, which are still retained, though "old things are passed away, and all things are become new," 2 Corinthians 5:17 . By substituting Messiah for David, the Gospel for the law, the church Christian for that of Israel, and the enemies of the one for those of the other, the Psalms are made our own. Nay, they are with more fulness and propriety applied now to the substance, than they were of old to the "shadow of good things then to come," Hebrews 10:1 . For let it not pass unobserved, that when, upon the first publication of the Gospel, the Apostles had occasion to utter their transports of joy, on their being counted worthy to suffer for the name of their Lord and Master, which was then opposed by Jew and Gentile, they brake forth into an application of the second Psalm to the transactions then before their eyes, Acts 4:25 . The Psalms, thus applied, have advantages which no fresh compositions, however finely executed, can possibly have; since, beside their incomparable fitness to express our sentiments, they are at the same time memorials of, and appeals to, former mercies and deliverances; they are acknowledgments of prophecies accomplished; they point out the connection between the old and new dispensations, thereby teaching us to admire and adore the wisdom of God displayed in both, and furnishing while we read or sing them, an inexhaustible variety of the noblest matter that can engage the contemplations of man.
Very few of the Psalms, comparatively, appear to be simply prophetical, and to belong only to Messiah, without the intervention of any other person. Most of them, it is apprehended, have a double sense, which stands upon this ground and foundation, that the ancient patriarchs, prophets, priests, and kings, were typical characters, in their several offices, and in the more remarkable passages of their lives, their extraordinary depressions and miraculous exaltations foreshowing him who was to arise as the head of the holy family, the great prophet, the true priest, the everlasting king. The Israelitish polity, and the law of Moses, were purposely framed after the example and shadow of things spiritual and heavenly; and the events which happened to the ancient people of God were designed to shadow out parallel occurrences, which should afterward take place in the accomplishment of man's redemption, and the rise and progress of the Christian church, ( See PROPHECY. ) For this reason, the Psalms composed for the use of Israel, and by them accordingly used at the time, do admit of an application to us, who are now "the Israel of God," Galatians 6:16 , and to our Redeemer, who is the King of this Israel. It would be an arduous and adventurous undertaking to attempt to lay down the rules observed in the conduct of the mystic allegory, so diverse are the modes in which the Holy Spirit has thought proper to communicate his counsels to different persons on different occasions; inspiring and directing the minds of the prophets according to his good pleasure; at one time vouchsafing more full and free discoveries of future events; while, at another, he is more obscure and sparing in his intimations. From hence, of course, arises a great variety in the Scripture usage of this kind of allegory as to the manner in which the spiritual sense is couched under the other. Sometimes it can hardly break forth and show itself at intervals through the literal, which meets the eye as the ruling sense, and seems to have taken entire possession of the words and phrases. On the contrary, it is much oftener the capital figure in the piece, and stands confessed at once by such splendour of language, that the letter, in its turn, is thrown into shade, and almost totally disappears. Sometimes it shines with a constant equable light, and sometimes it darts upon us on a sudden, like a flash of lightning from the clouds. But a composition is never more truly elegant and beautiful, than when the two senses, alike conspicuous, run parallel together through the whole poem, mutually corresponding with and illustrating each other.
Thus the establishment of David upon his throne, notwithstanding the opposition made to it by his enemies, is the subject of the second Psalm. David sustains in it a twofold character, literal and allegorical. If we read over the Psalm first with an eye to the literal David, the meaning is obvious, and put out of all dispute by the sacred history. There is indeed an uncommon glow in the expression, and sublimity in the figures; and the diction is now and then exaggerated, as it were, on purpose to intimate and lead us to the contemplation of higher and more important matters concealed within. In compliance with this admonition, if we take another survey of the Psalm, as relative to the person and concerns of the spiritual David, a nobler series of events instantly rises to view, and the meaning becomes more evident, as well as exalted. The colouring, which may perhaps seem too bold and glaring for the king of Israel, will no longer appear so, when laid upon his great antitype. After we have thus attentively considered the subject apart, let us look at them together, and we shall behold the full beauty and majesty of this most charming poem. We shall perceive the two senses very distinct from each other, yet conspiring in perfect harmony, and bearing a wonderful resemblance in every feature and lineament, while the analogy between them is so exactly preserved, that either may pass for the original, from whence the other was copied. New light is continually cast upon the phraseology, fresh weight and dignity are added to the sentiment, till gradually ascending from things below to things above, from human affairs to those which are divine, they bear the great important theme upward with them, and at length place it in the height and brightness of heaven. What has been observed with regard to this Psalm, may also be applied to the seventy-second; the subject of which is of the same kind, and treated in the same manner. Its title might be, "The Inauguration of Solomon." The scheme of the allegory is alike in both; but a diversity of matter occasions an alteration in the diction. For whereas one is employed in celebrating the magnificent triumphs of victory, it is the design of the other to draw a pleasing picture of peace, and of that felicity which is her inseparable attendent. The style is therefore of a more even and temperate sort, and more richly ornamented. It abounds not with those sudden changes of the person speaking which dazzle and astonish; but the imagery is borrowed from the delightful scenes with which creation cheers the sight, and the pencil of the divine artist is dipped in the softer colours of nature. And here we may take notice how peculiarly adapted to the genius of this kind of allegory the parabolical style is, on account of that great variety of natural images to be found in it. For as these images are capable of being employed in the illustration of things divine and human, between which there is a certain analogy maintained, so they easily afford that ambiguity which is necessary in this species of composition, where the language is applicable to each sense, and obscure in neither; it comprehends both parts of the allegory, and may be clearly and distinctly referred to one or the other.
On this book Bishop Horsley remarks:—These Psalms go, in general, under the name of the Psalms of David. King David gave a regular and noble form to the musical part of the Jewish service. He was himself a great composer, both in poetry and music, and a munificent patron, no doubt, of arts in which he himself so much delighted and excelled. The Psalms, however, appear to be compositions of various authors, in various ages; some much more ancient than the times of King David, some of a much later age. Of many, David himself was undoubtedly the author; and that those of his composition were prophetic, we have David's own authority, which may be allowed to overpower a host of modern expositors. For thus King David, at the close of his life, describes himself and his sacred songs: "David, the son of Jesse, said, and the man who was raised up on high, the anointed of the God of Jacob, and the sweet psalmist of Israel, said, The Spirit of Jehovah spake by me, and his word was in my tongue." It was the word, therefore, of Jehovah's Spirit which was uttered by David's tongue. But it should seem, the Spirit of Jehovah would not be wanting to enable a mere man to make complaint of his own enemies, to describe his own sufferings just as he felt them, and his own escapes just as they happened. But the Spirit of Jehovah described by David's utterance what was known to that Spirit only, and that Spirit only could describe. So that, if David be allowed to have had any knowledge of the true subject of his own compositions, it was nothing in his own life, but something put into his mind by the Holy Spirit of God; and the misapplication of the Psalms to the literal David has done more mischief than the misapplication of any other parts of the Scriptures among those who profess the belief of the Christian religion.
The Psalms are all poems of the lyric kind, that is, adapted to music, but with great variety in the style of composition. Some are simply odes. An ode is a dignified sort of song, narrative of the facts, either of public history or private life, in a highly adorned and figured style. But the figure in the Psalms is that which is peculiar to the Hebrew language, in which the figure gives its meaning with as much perspicuity as the plainest speech.
Some are of the sort called elegiac, which are pathetic compositions upon mournful subjects. Some are ethic, delivering grave maxims of life, or the precepts of religion, in solemn, but for the most part simple, strains. Some are enigmatic, delivering the doctrines of religion in enigmata, contrived to strike the imagination forcibly, and yet easy to be understood. In all these the author delivers the whole matter in his own person. But a very great, I believe the far greater, part are a sort of dramatic ode, consisting of dialogues between persons sustaining certain characters. In these dialogue Psalms the persons are frequently the Psalmist himself, or the chorus of priests and Levites, or the leader of the Levitical band, opening the ode with a proem declarative of the subject, and very often closing the whole with a solemn admonition drawn from what the other persons say. The other persons are Jehovah, sometimes as one, sometimes as another, of the three Persons; Christ in his incarnate state, sometimes before, sometimes after, his resurrection; the human soul of Christ as distinguished from the divine essence. Christ, in his incarnate state, is personated sometimes as a priest, sometimes as a king, sometimes as a conqueror; and in those Psalms in which he is introduced as a conqueror, the resemblance is very remarkable between this conqueror in the book of Psalms and the warrior on the white horse in the book of Revelation, who goes forth with a crown on his head, and a bow in his hand, conquering and to conquer. And the conquest in the Psalms is followed, like the conquest in the Revelation, by the marriage of the conqueror. These are circumstances of similitude which, to any one versed in the prophetic style, prove beyond a doubt that the mystical conqueror is the same personage in both.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Degrees, Psalms of
Is the title prefixed to fifteen psalms, from Psalm 120 to Psalm 134 inclusive. Of this title commentators have proposed a variety of explanations. The most probable are the following: First, pilgrim songs, sung by the Israelites while going up to Jerusalem to worship; compare Psalm 122:4 ; but to this explanation the contents of only a few of these psalms are appropriate, as for instance, of Psalm 122:1-9 . Secondly, others suppose the title to refer to a species of rhythm in these psalms; by which the sense ascends, as it were, by degrees, one member or clause frequently repeating the words with which the preceding member closes. Thus in Psalm 121:1-8 ,
1. I will lift up mine eyes unto the hills, From whence cometh my help.
2. My help cometh from the Lord, Who made heaven and earth.
3. He will not suffer thy foot to be moved; Thy keeper will not slumber.
4. Lo, not slumber nor sleep will the keeper of Israel.
But this solution does not well apply to all these psalms.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Psalms
PSALMS
1. Title and place in Canon . The Book of Psalms is a collection of sacred poems, in large part liturgical in character and intended to be sung. The book belongs to the Kethubim or ‘Writings,’ i.e. the third and last group of the Jewish Scriptures. The order of the Writings was much less fixed than the order of the Law and the Prophets, the other two groups of Scriptures; but the Psalms in all cases come near the beginning of this group, and in the modern Hebrew printed Bibles, which follow the great majority of German MSS, they stand first. In placing the Psalms, together with the rest of the Writings, before the (‘Latter’) Prophets, the EV [1] has followed the Greek version; but in the internal arrangement of the Writings, the English and Greek versions differ from one another.
The title of this collection of poems is derived from the Greek version, in which the book is entitled in some MSS Psalmoi , in others Psalterion (in NT ‘Psalms,’ and ‘Book of Psalms,’ Psalms 111:1-10 ; Luke 24:44 , Acts 1:20 ). psalmos in classical Greek signified the twanging of strings, and especially the musical sound produced by plucking the strings of a stringed instrument; as used here it means poems played to the music of (stringed) instruments. The Greek word thus corresponds closely to the Heb. mizmôr , of which it is the tr. [2] in the titles of individual Psalms ( e.g. Psalms 95:1-119 ). The Jewish title for the whole book was ‘Book of Praises’: this referred directly to the subject-matter of the poems, and less directly than the Greek title to their musical character. Both titles take into account the majority of the poems rather than the whole; not all the Psalms were sung to musical accompaniment, and not all of them consist of praise.
The Psalter contains, according to the division of the Hebrew text followed by EV [1] , 150 poems; the Greek version contains 151, but the last of these is described as ‘outside the number.’ This number does not exactly correspond with the number of different poems. On the one hand, there are one or two clear cases, and there may be others less clear, of a single Psalm having been wrongly divided into two; thus Psalms 9:1-20 ; Psalms 10:1-18 are shown by the continuance of the acrostic scheme through the latter Psalm (cf. Acrostic, and see Expositor , Sept. 1906, pp. 233 253) to have once formed, as they still do in the Greek version, a single poem. So Psalms 42:1-11 ; Psalms 43:1-5 are shown by the recurrence of the same refrain ( Psalms 75:1-104 ; Psalms 42:1-11 ; Psalms 74:1-2327 ) to be one poem. But the Greek version is scarcely true to the original in making two distinct Psalms out of each of the Psalms numbered 116 and 147 respectively in the Hebrew text and EV [1] . Probably in a larger number of cases, owing to an opposite fortune, two poems originally distinct have been joined together under a single number. A clear instance of this kind is Psalms 108:1-13 , which consists of two Psalms or fragments of Psalms (viz. Psalms 57:7-11 ; Psalms 60:5-12 ). Among the more generally suspected instances of the same kind are Psalms 19:1-14 (= vv. Psalms 19:1-6 + Psalms 19:7-14 ) 24 (= Psalms 24:1-6 + Psalms 24:7-10 ) 27 (= Psalms 27:1-6 + Psalms 27:7-14 ) and 36 (= Psalms 36:1-4 + Psalms 36:5-12 ). A very much larger number of such instances are inferred by Dr.Briggs in his Commentary ( ICC [5] ).
The Psalter does not contain quite the whole of what survives of Jewish literature of this type. A few psalms not included in the Psalter are found in other books: see, e.g. , 1 Samuel 2:1-10 , Isaiah 12:1-6 ; Isaiah 38:10-20 , Habakkuk 3:1-19 . And we have another important, though much smaller, collection of psalms in the ‘Psalms of Solomon’ written about b.c. 63. These, with such NT psalms as Luke 1:46-55 ; Luke 1:68-79 , are important as showing that the period of psalm composition extended beyond the close of the OT.
2. Origin and history
(1) Reception into the Canon . The history of the Psalms and the Psalter is obscure; and many conclusions with regard to it rest, and for lack of other independent evidence must rest, on previous conclusions as to the origin and literary history of other Hebrew and Jewish literature. Conclusive external evidence for the existence of the Psalter in its present extent does not carry us very far back beyond the close of the Jewish Canon (see Canon of OT); but the mode of allusion to the Psalms in the NT renders it very unlikely that the book was still open to additions in the 1st cent. a.d.; and the fact that none of the ‘Psalms of Solomon’ (see § 1 , end) gained admission, and that this collection by its title perhaps presupposes the canonical ‘Psalms of David,’ renders it probable that the Psalter was complete, and not open to further additions, some time before b.c. 63. Other evidence (cf. Hastings’ DB [6] iv. 147), such as that derived from the substantial agreement of the Greek version with the Hebrew text, does not carry the proof for the existence of the Psalter in its present extent much further. The net result is that, if not impossible, it is unsafe, to place the completion of the Psalter much below b.c. 100.
(2) Previous history . Behind that date lies a long history; for the Psalter represents the conclusion of a complex literary growth or development. We may note, first, two things that prove this general fact, that the Psalter is neither a simple edition of the poems of a single man or a single age, nor the first collection of its kind. (1) At the close of Psalms 72:1-20 stand the words: ‘The prayers of David the son of Jesse are ended.’ This is intelligible if the remark once closed an independent collection, and was taken over with the collection by the compiler of a larger work. But apart from some such hypothesis as this it is not intelligible; for the remark is not true of the Psalter as we have it; the prayers of David are not ended, other Psalms actually entitled ‘prayers’ and described as ‘of David’ are Psalms 86:1-17 ; Psalms 142:1-7 ; and several subsequent Psalms assigned to David are, without being so entitled, actually prayers. (2) The same Psalm is repeated in different parts of the Psalter with slight textual or editorial variations: thus Psalms 14:1-7 = Psalms 53:1-6 ; Psalms 40:13-17 = Psalms 70:1-5 ; Psalms 108:1-13 = Psalms 57:7-11 + Psalms 60:5-12 . The Psalter, then, was composed by drawing on, and in some cases incorporating, earlier collections of Psalms.
Our next questions are: How many collections earlier than the Psalter can be traced? How far can the methods of the editor who drew on or combined these earlier collections be discerned? The first clue to the first question may be found in the titles referring to persons and their distribution; the more significant features of this distribution may be shown thus
1.Psalms 1:1-6 ; Psalms 2:1-12 are without title.
2.Psalms 3:1-8 ; Psalms 4:1-8 ; Psalms 5:1-12 ; Psalms 6:1-10 ; Psalms 7:1-17 ; Psalms 8:1-9 ; Psalms 9:1-20 ; Psalms 10:1-18 ; Psalms 11:1-7 ; Psalms 12:1-8 ; Psalms 13:1-6 ; Psalms 14:1-7 ; Psalms 15:1-5 ; Psalms 16:1-11 ; Psalms 17:1-15 ; Psalms 18:1-50 ; Psalms 19:1-14 ; Psalms 20:1-9 ; Psalms 21:1-13 ; Psalms 22:1-31 ; Psalms 23:1-6 ; Psalms 24:1-10 ; Psalms 25:1-22 ; Psalms 26:1-12 ; Psalms 27:1-14 ; Psalms 28:1-9 ; Psalms 29:1-11 ; Psalms 30:1-12 ; Psalms 31:1-24 ; Psalms 32:1-11 ; Psalms 33:1-22 ; Psalms 34:1-22 ; Psalms 35:1-28 ; Psalms 36:1-12 ; Psalms 37:1-40 ; Psalms 38:1-22 ; Psalms 39:1-13 ; Psalms 40:1-17 ; Psalms 41:1-13 are all entitled ‘of David,’ except Psalms 10:1-18 , which is a continuation of Psalms 9:1-20 (see above), and Psalms 33:1-22 .
3.Psalms 42:11 ; Psalms 43:1-5 ; Psalms 44:1-26 ; Psalms 45:1-17 ; Psalms 46:1-11 ; Psalms 47:1-9 ; Psalms 48:1-14 ; Psalms 49:1-20 are all entitled ‘of the sons of Korah,’ except Psalms 43:1-5 , which is a continuation of Psalms 42:1-11 (see above).
4.Psalms 50:1-23 Psalms 50:1-23 is entitled ‘of Asaph.’
5.Psalms 51:1-19 ; Psalms 52:1-9 ; Psalms 53:1-6 ; Psalms 54:1-7 ; Psalms 55:1-23 ; Psalms 56:1-13 ; Psalms 57:1-11 ; Psalms 58:1-11 ; Psalms 59:1-17 ; Psalms 60:1-12 ; Psalms 61:1-8 ; Psalms 62:1-12 ; Psalms 63:1-11 ; Psalms 64:1-10 ; Psalms 65:1-13 ; Psalms 66:1-20 ; Psalms 67:1-7 ; Psalms 68:1-35 ; Psalms 69:1-36 ; Psalms 70:1-5 ; Psalms 71:1-24 ; Psalms 72:1-20 are all entitled ‘of David,’ except Psalms 66:1-20 ; Psalms 67:1-7 ; Psalms 71:1-24 ; Psalms 72:1-20 .
6. Psalms 73:1-28 ; 1618180990_1 ; 1618180990_59 ; Psalms 76:1-12 ; Psalms 77:1-20 ; Psalms 78:1-72 ; Psalms 79:1-13 ; Psalms 80:1-19 ; Psalms 81:1-16 ; Psalms 82:1-8 ; Psalms 83:1-18 are all entitled ‘of Asaph.’
7. Of Psalms 84:1-12 ; Psalms 85:1-13 ; Psalms 86:1-17 ; Psalms 87:1-7 ; Psalms 88:1-18 ; Psalms 89:1-52 , four ( Psalms 84:1-12 ; Psalms 85:1-13 ; Psalms 87:1-7 ; Psalms 88:1-18 ) are entitled ‘of the sons of Korah,’ one ( Psalms 86:1-17 ) ‘of David,’ and one ( Psalms 69:1-36 ) ‘of Ethan.’
8. Psalms 120:1-7 ; Psalms 121:1-8 ; Psalms 122:1-9 ; Psalms 123:1-4 ; Psalms 124:1-8 ; Psalms 125:1-5 ; Psalms 126:1-6 ; Psalms 127:1-5 ; Psalms 128:1-6 ; Psalms 129:1-8 ; Psalms 130:1-8 ; Psalms 131:1-3 ; Psalms 132:1-18 ; Psalms 133:1-3 ; Psalms 134:1-3 are all entitled ‘Songs (so rather than ‘A song’ RV [7] ) of Ascent.’
The remaining 46 Psalms (90 119, 135 150) are either without title, or the titles are not the same in any considerable number of consecutive Psalms (but note 108 110 and 138 145 entitled ‘of David’).
Now, if it stood by itself, the statement at the close of Psalms 72:1-20 could be explained by a single process the incorporation of a previous collection consisting of Psalms 1:1-6 ; Psalms 2:1-12 ; Psalms 3:1-8 ; Psalms 4:1-8 ; Psalms 5:1-12 ; Psalms 6:1-10 ; Psalms 7:1-17 ; Psalms 8:1-9 ; Psalms 9:1-20 ; Psalms 10:1-18 ; Psalms 11:1-7 ; Psalms 12:1-8 ; Psalms 13:1-6 ; Psalms 14:1-7 ; Psalms 15:1-5 ; Psalms 16:1-11 ; Psalms 17:1-15 ; Psalms 18:1-50 ; Psalms 19:1-14 ; Psalms 20:1-9 ; Psalms 21:1-13 ; Psalms 22:1-31 ; Psalms 23:1-6 ; Psalms 24:1-10 ; Psalms 25:1-22 ; Psalms 26:1-12 ; Psalms 27:1-14 ; Psalms 28:1-9 ; Psalms 29:1-11 ; Psalms 30:1-12 ; Psalms 31:1-24 ; Psalms 32:1-11 ; Psalms 33:1-22 ; Psalms 34:1-22 ; Psalms 35:1-28 ; Psalms 36:1-12 ; Psalms 37:1-40 ; Psalms 38:1-22 ; Psalms 39:1-13 ; Psalms 40:1-17 ; Psalms 41:1-13 ; Psalms 42:1-11 ; Psalms 43:1-5 ; Psalms 44:1-26 ; Psalms 45:1-17 ; Psalms 46:1-11 ; Psalms 47:1-9 ; Psalms 48:1-14 ; Psalms 49:1-20 ; Psalms 50:1-23 ; Psalms 51:1-19 ; Psalms 52:1-9 ; Psalms 53:1-6 ; Psalms 54:1-7 ; Psalms 55:1-23 ; Psalms 56:1-13 ; Psalms 57:1-11 ; Psalms 58:1-11 ; Psalms 59:1-17 ; Psalms 60:1-12 ; Psalms 61:1-8 ; Psalms 62:1-12 ; Psalms 63:1-11 ; Psalms 64:1-10 ; Psalms 65:1-13 ; Psalms 66:1-20 ; Psalms 67:1-7 ; Psalms 68:1-35 ; Psalms 69:1-36 ; Psalms 70:1-5 ; Psalms 71:1-24 ; Psalms 72:1-20 by an editor who added these to Psalms 73:1-28 ; Psalms 74:1-23 ; Psalms 75:1-10 ; Psalms 76:1-12 ; Psalms 77:1-20 ; Psalms 78:1-72 ; Psalms 79:1-13 ; Psalms 80:1-19 ; Psalms 81:1-16 ; Psalms 82:1-8 ; Psalms 83:1-18 ; Psalms 84:1-12 ; Psalms 85:1-13 ; Psalms 86:1-17 ; Psalms 87:1-7 ; Psalms 88:1-18 ; Psalms 89:1-52 ; Psalms 90:1-17 ; Psalms 91:1-16 ; Psalms 92:1-15 ; Psalms 93:1-5 ; Psalms 94:1-23 ; 1618180990_78 ; Psalms 96:1-13 ; Psalms 97:1-12 ; Psalms 98:1-9 ; Psalms 99:1-9 ; Psalms 100:1-5 ; Psalms 101:1-8 ; Psalms 102:1-28 ; Psalms 103:1-22 ; Psalms 104:1-35 ; Psalms 105:1-45 ; Psalms 106:1-48 ; Psalms 107:1-43 ; Psalms 108:1-13 ; Psalms 109:1-31 ; Psalms 110:1-7 ; Luke 20:42 ; Psalms 112:1-10 ; Psalms 113:1-9 ; Psalms 114:1-8 ; Psalms 115:1-18 ; Psalms 116:1-19 ; Psalms 117:1-2 ; Psalms 118:1-29 ; Psalms 119:1-176 ; Psalms 120:1-7 ; Psalms 121:1-8 ; Psalms 122:1-9 ; Psalms 123:1-4 ; Psalms 124:1-8 ; Psalms 125:1-5 ; Psalms 126:1-6 ; Psalms 127:1-5 ; Psalms 128:1-6 ; Psalms 129:1-8 ; Psalms 130:1-8 ; Psalms 131:1-3 ; Psalms 132:1-18 ; Psalms 133:1-3 ; Psalms 134:1-3 ; Psalms 135:1-21 ; Psalms 136:1-26 ; Psalms 137:1-9 ; Psalms 138:1-8 ; Psalms 139:1-24 ; Psalms 140:1-13 ; Psalms 141:1-10 ; Psalms 142:1-7 ; Psalms 143:1-12 ; Psalms 144:1-15 ; Psalms 145:1-21 ; Psalms 146:1-10 ; Psalms 147:1-20 ; Psalms 148:1-14 ; Psalms 149:1-9 ; Psalms 150:1-6 derived from other sources. But within Psalms 1:1-6 ; Psalms 2:1-12 ;
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Psalms of Solomon
PSALMS OF SOLOMON . See Apocalyptic Literature, 3.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Psalms, the Book of
The Hebrew name for this book is TEHILLIM, praises, though many of the psalms are rather elegiac. Most of the psalms have the superscription mizmor, a poem song. This word is rendered in the Septuagint by psalmos, that is, a song sung to music, a lyric poem. The Greek psalterion means a stringed instrument; hence by a metaphor the book of Psalms is called Psalter. For the poetical characteristics of the Psalms, see POETRY.
Classification. Some writers have classified the psalms according to their poetic character, into odes, elegies, etc. A preferable method is to divide them according to their contents. In this way they have been divided into six classes.
1. Hymns in praise of Jehovah; tehillim in the proper sense. These are directed to Jehovah as the God of all nature and the Creator of the universe, Psalm 8:1-9 104:1-35 ; as the protector and patron of Israel, Psalm 20:1-9 29:1-11 33:1-22 , or of individuals, with thanksgiving for deliverance from evils, Psalm 18:1-50 30:1-12 46:1-47:9 ; or they refer to the more special attributes of Jehovah, Psalm 90:1-17 139:1-24 . These psalms express thoughts of the highest sublimity in respect to God, providence, redemption, etc.
2. Temple hymns; sung at the consecration of the temple, the entrance of the ark, etc., or intended for the temple service, Psalm 24:1-10 132:1-18 . So also "pilgrim songs," sung by those who came up to worship in the temple, etc.; as for example, the "songs of degrees," Psalm 120:1-7 , etc. See DEGREES, PSALMS OF.
3. Religious and moral songs of a general character; containing the poetical expression of emotions and feelings, and therefore subjective: as for example, confidence in God, Psalm 23:1-6 62:1-12 125:1-5 ; devotedness to God, Psalm 16:1-11 ; longing for the worship of the temple, Psalm 42:1-43:5 ; prayers for the forgiveness of sin, etc. To this class belong the seven penitential psalms, as they are termed, Psalm 6:1-10 25:1-22 32:1-11 35:1-28 38:1-22 51:1-19 130:1-8 . Also didactic song; the poetical expression of some truth, maxim, etc., Psalm 1:1-6 15:1-5 32:1-11 34:1-22 50:1-23 128:1-6 , etc. This is a numerous class.
4. Elegiac psalms, that is, lamentations, psalms of complaint, generally united with prayer for help.
5. Messianic psalms, as Psalm 3:1-8 22:1-31 45:1-17 69:1-36 72:1-20 110:1-7 , etc.
6. Historical psalms, in which the ancient history manner, Psalm 78:1-72 105:1-45 106:1-48 114:1-8 .
But it is impossible to form any perfect arrangement, because some psalms belong in part to two or more different classes. Besides the proper Messianic psalms, predictions of the Messiah are widely scattered through this book, and the attention of the devout reader is continually attracted by passages foretelling His character and His works. Not a few of these are alluded to in the New Testament; and it is unquestionable that the language and structure of many others not quoted were intended to bear witness to the Son of God. David himself was an eminent type of the Savior, and many events of his life shadowed forth his son and Lord. The mention of these in the inspired writings is not undesigned; the recorded trials and victories of David find in their reference to the Messiah their highest claim to a place in the sacred writings. Lord Bacon has remarked that many prophetic passages in the Old Testament are "of the nature of their Author, to whom a thousand years are as one day; and therefore they are not fulfilled punctually at once, but have springing and germinant accomplishment through many ages, though the height or fullness of them may refer to some one age."
InscriptionsWith the exception of twenty-five psalms, hence called orphan psalms, all the rest have inscriptions of various kinds. They refer to the author, the occasion, different kinds of song, the melody or rhythm, the instrumental accompaniment, the choir who shall perform, etc. These are mostly very obscure, because the music and musical instruments of the Hebrews are almost unknown to us. They are of very high antiquity, if not as old as the psalms themselves; and in the Hebrew are not detached from the psalms, as in modern translations. They appear with numerous variations in the ancient Greek and Syriac versions. Many words in these inscriptions remain untranslated, and can only be conjecturally interpreted. See HIGGAION, MASCHIL, etc.
Authors and age of the Psalms. To David are assigned seventythree psalms in the Hebrew, and in the Septuagint eleven more. Psalm 90:1-17 is ascribed to Moses. As to the authorship of the other psalms, much diversity of opinion has prevailed among biblical critics.
The whole collection of the Psalms appears to have first existed in five books, after the example, perhaps, of the Pentateuch. Each book closes with a doxology.
One psalm occurs twice, Psalm 14:1-7 ; compare Psalm 53:1-6 . Some occur as parts of other psalms; as for example, Psalm 70:1-5 forms also a part of Psalm 40:1-17 . So also some psalms are repeated from other books of Scripture; thus Psalm 18:1-31 2 Samuel 22:1-51 . The final arrangement of the whole is generally referred to Ezra, 450 B. C.
These invaluable sacred songs exhibit the sublimest conceptions of God, as the creator, preserver, and governor of the universe; to say nothing of the prophetical character of many of them, and their relation to the Messiah and the great plan of man's redemption. They present us with the most perfect models of child-like resignation and devotedness, of unwavering faith and confidence in God. They are an inspired epitome of the Bible, for purposes of devotion; and are peculiarly dear to the people of God, as expressing every phase of religious experience. Luther, in his prefaces to the Psalter, has the following beautiful language; "Where canst thou find nobler words of joy, than in the psalms of praise and thanksgiving? There thou mayest look into the hearts of all good men, as into beautiful and pleasant gardens, yea, as into heaven itself. How do grateful and fine and charming blossoms spring up there from every kind of pleasing and rejoicing thoughts towards God and his goodness! Again, where canst thou find more deep or mournful words of sorrow, than in the psalms of lamentation and woe? There thou mayest look again into the hearts of all good men, as upon death, yea, as if into hell. How dark and gloomy is it there, from anxious and troubled views of the wrath of God! I hold, however, that no better or finer book of models, or legends of saints and martyrs, has existed, or can exist on earth, than the Psalter. For we find here, not alone what one or two saints have done, but what the Head of all saints has done, and what all holy men still do; in what attitude they stand towards God and towards their friends and enemies; and how they conduct themselves in all dangers and sufferings. And besides this, all sorts of divine doctrines and precepts are contained in it. Hence it is that the Psalter is The Book of all good men; and every one, whatever his circumstances may be, finds in it psalms and words suited to his circumstances, and which are to him just as if they had been put there on his very account, and in such a way that; he himself could not have made or found or wished for better."
In Luke 24:44 , the word "psalms" denotes one of the three divisions of the Hebrew Bible, the Hagiographa or devotional writings. See BIBLE. With regard to alphabetical psalms and psalms of degrees, see DEGREES, PSALMS OF, and LETTERS.
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Psalms, Book of,
The present Hebrew name of the book is Tehill'im , "Praises;" but in the actual superscriptions of the psalms the word Tehillah is applied only to one, ( Psalm 145:1 ) ... which is indeed emphatically a praise-hymn. The LXX. entitled them psalmoi or "psalms," i.e., lyrical pieces to be sung to a musical instrument. The Christian Church obviously received the Psalter from the Jews not only as a constituent portion of the sacred volume of Holy Scripture, but also as the liturgical hymn-book which the Jewish Church had regularly used in the temple. Division of the Psalms . --The book contains 150 psalms, and may be divided into five great divisions or books, which must have been originally formed at different periods. Book I. is, by the superscriptions, entirely Davidic nor do we find in it a trace of any but David's authorship. We may well believe that the compilation of the book was also David's work. Book II. appears by the date of its latest psalm, ( Psalm 46:1 ) ... to have been compiled in the reign of King Hezekiah. It would naturally comprise, 1st, several or most of the Levitical psalms anterior to that date; and 2d, the remainder of the psalms of David previously uncompiled. To these latter the collector after properly appending the single psalm of Solomon has affixed the notice that "the prayers of David the son of Jesse are ended." (Psalm 72:20 ) Book III., the interest of which centers in the times of Hezekiah stretches out, by its last two psalms, to the reign of Manasseh: it was probably compiled in the reign of Josiah. It contains seventeen psalms, from Psal 73-89 eleven by Asaph, four by the sons of Horah, one (86) by David, and one by Ethan. Book IV. contains the remainder of the psalms up to the date of the captivity, There are seventeen, from Psal 90-106 --one by Moses, two by David, and the rest anonymous. Book V., the psalms of the return, contains forty-four, from Psal 107-180 --fifteen by David, one by Solomon and the rest anonymous. There is nothing to distinguish these two books from each other in respect of outward decoration or arrangement and they may have been compiled together in the days of Nehemiah. Connection of the Psalms with Israelitish history . --The psalm of Moses Psal 90, which is in point of actual date the earliest, faithfully reflects the long, weary wanderings, the multiplied provocations and the consequent punishments of the wilderness. It is, however, with David that Israelitish psalmody may be said virtually to commence. Previous mastery over his harp had probably already prepared the way for his future strains, when the anointing oil of Samuel descended upon him, and he began to drink in special measure, from that day forward, of the Spirit of the Lord. It was then that, victorious at home over the mysterious melancholy of Saul and in the held over the vaunting champion of the Philistine hosts, he sang how from even babes and sucklings God had ordained strength because of his enemies. Psal 8. His next psalms are of a different character; his persecutions at the hands of Saul had commenced. When David's reign has begun, it is still with the most exciting incidents of his history, private or public, that his psalms are mainly associated. There are none to which the period of his reign at Hebron can lay exclusive claim. But after the conquest of Jerusalem his psalmody opened afresh with the solemn removal of the ark to Mount Zion; and in Psal 24-29 which belong together, we have the earliest definite instance of David's systematic composition or arrangement of psalms for public use. Even of those psalms which cannot be referred to any definite occasion, several reflect the general historical circumstances of the times. Thus Psal 9 is a thanksgiving for the deliverance of the land of Israel from its former heathen oppressors. Psal 10 is a prayer for the deliverance of the Church from the highhanded oppression exercised from within. The succeeding psalms dwell on the same theme, the virtual internal heathenism by which the Church of God was weighed clown. So that there remain very few e.g. Psal 15-17,19,32 (with its choral appendage, 23), 37 of which some historical account may not be given. A season of repose near the close of his reign induced David to compose his grand personal thanksgiving for the deliverances of his whole life, Psal 18 the date of which is approximately determined by the place at which it ia inserted in the history. ( 2 Samuel 22:1 ) ... It was probably at this period that he finally arranged for the sanctuary service that collection of his psalms which now constitutes the first book of the Psalter. The course of David's reign was not, however, as yet complete. The solemn assembly convened by him for the dedication of the materials of the future temple, 1 Chronicles 28,29 , would naturally call forth a renewal of his best efforts to glorify the God of Israel in psalms; and to this occasion we doubtless owe the great festal hymns, Psal 65-68, containing a large review of the past history, present position and prospective glories of God's chosen people. The supplications of Psal 69, suit best with the renewed distress occasioned by the sedition of Adonijah. Psal 71 to which Psal 70 a fragment of a former psalm, is introductory, forms David's parting strain. Yet that the psalmody of Israel may not seem finally to terminate with hint, the glories of the future are forthwith anticipated by his son in Psal 72. The great prophetical ode, Psal 45, connects itself most readily with the splendors of Jehoshaphat's reign. Psal 42-44,74 are best assigned to the reign of Ahaz. The reign of Hezekiah is naturally rich in psalmody, Psal 46,73,75,76 connect themselves with the resistance to the supremacy of the Assyrians and the divine destruction of their host. We are now brought to a series of psalms of peculiar interest, springing out of the political and religious history of the,separated ten tribes. In date of actual composition they commence before the times of Hezekiah. The earliest is probably Psal 80 A supplication for the Israelitish people at the time of the Syrian oppression. All these psalms --80-83-- are referred by their superscriptions to the Levite singers, and thus beer witness to the efforts of the Levites to reconcile the two branches of the chosen nation. The captivity of Manasseh himself proved to be but temporary; but the sentence which his sins had provoked upon Judah and Jerusalem still remained to be executed, and precluded the hope that God's salvation could be revealed till after such an outpouring of his judgments as the nation had never yet known. Labor and sorrow must be the lot of the present generation; through these mercy might occasionally gleam, but the glory which was eventually to be manifested must be for posterity alone. The psalms of Book IV. --bear generally the impress of this feeling. We pass to Book V. Psal 107 is the opening psalm of the return, sung probably at the first feast of tabernacles. Ezra 3 A directly historical character belongs to Psal 120-134, styled in our Authorized Version "Songs of Degrees." Internal evidence refers these to the period when the Jews under Nehemiah were, in the very face of the enemy, repairing the walls of Jerusalem and the title may well signify "songs of goings up upon the walls," the psalms being from their brevity, well adapted to be sung by the workmen and guards while engaged in their respective duties. Psal 139 is a psalm of the new birth of Israel from the womb of the Babylonish captivity, to a life of righteousness; Psal 140-143 may be a picture of the trials to which the unrestored exiles were still exposed in the realms of the Gentiles. Henceforward, as we approach the close of the Psalter, its strains rise in cheerfulness; and it fittingly terminates with Psal 147-150 which were probably sung on the occasion of the thanksgiving procession of Nehe 12, after the rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem had been completed. Moral characteristics of the Psalms . --Foremost among these meets us, undoubtedly, the universal recourse to communion with God. Connected with this is the faith by which the psalmist everywhere lives in God rather than in himself. It is of the essence of such faith that his view of the perfections of God should be true and vivid. The Psalter describes God as he is: it glows with testimonies to his power and providence, his love and faithfulness, his holiness and righteousness. The Psalms not only set forth the perfections of God; they proclaim also the duty of worshipping him by the acknowledgment and adoration of his perfections. They encourage all outward rites and means of worship. Among these they recognize the ordinance of sacrifice as in expression of the worshipper's consecration of himself to God's service. But not the less do they repudiate the outward rite when separated from that which it was designed to express. Similar depth is observable in the view taken by the psalmists of human sin. In regard to the law, the psalmist, while warmly acknowledging its excellence, feels yet that it cannot so effectually guide his own unassisted exertions as to preserve him from error Psal 19. The Psalms bear repeated testimony to the duty of instructing other in the ways of holiness. Psal 32,34,51 This brings us to notice, lastly, the faith of the psalmists in righteous recompense to all men according to their deeds. Psal 37, etc. Prophetical character of the Psalms . --The moral struggle between godliness and ungodliness, so vividly depicted in the Psalms, culminates in Holy Scripture, in the life of the Incarnate Son of God upon earth. It only remains to show that the Psalms themselves definitely anticipated this culmination. Now there are in the Psalter at least three psalms of which the interest evidently centers in a person distinct from the speaker, and which, since they cannot without violence to the language be interpreted of any but the Messiah, may be termed directly and exclusively Messianic. We refer to Psal 2,45,110, to which may perhaps be added, Psal 72. It would be strange if these few psalms stood, in their prophetical significance absolutely alone among the rest. And hence the impossibility of viewing the psalms generally, notwithstanding the drapery in which they are outwardly clothed, as simply the past devotions of the historical David or the historical Israel. The national hymns of Israel are indeed also prospective; but in general they anticipate rather the struggles and the triumphs of the Christian Church than those of Christ himself.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Psalms
‘Psalms’ in the Apostolic Church included OT Psalms and similar hymns of praise to God, as sung to musical accompaniment. In 1 Corinthians 14:15 St. Paul contemplates impromptu utterances under the influence of the Spirit, and appeals for the use of the reason in praise no less than in prayer. In 1 Corinthians 14:26 he assumes that members of the congregation will bring their assembly psalms which they have composed or learnt and wish to sing with or before others. The Psalms of Solomon, which may be dated c._ 50 b.c., prove the use of sacred poetry among the Jews at this period. Forceful hymns, full of noble indignation against Roman oppression and Jewish secularity, in their praise of patience and resignation they express the feeling that Israel deserves chastening. Like the Benedictus they look for a Messiah of the house of David. But they fall short of the canticles of the NT in spiritual insight. The tone is self-righteous and sometimes fierce.
The use of psalms in private is referred to in James 5:13 : ‘He that is merry let him sing psalms’ (cf. Ephesians 5:19).
A. E. Burn.
The American Church Dictionary and Cycopedia - Penitential Psalms
Being the 6th, 32d, 38th, 51st, 102d, 130thand 143d Psalms of David, all of which are read during the serviceson ASH WEDNESDAY (which see). There are no prayers more fitted forpenitent sinners than the Seven Penitential Psalms, if we enterinto the feelings of compunction, love, devotedness andconfidence with which the Royal Psalmist was penetrated. The purportof each psalm may be briefly stated as follows:
Psalm 6 exhibits a sinner in earnest and hearty prayer after havingsinned, with assured hope and confidence in the mercy of God.
Psalm 32 shows how a sinner is brought to understand his sins, toconfess and bewail them and obtain remission.
Psalm 38, in which the penitent earnestly prays to God to pardonhis sins and mitigate his punishment.
Psalm 51 shows the great sorrow of a sinner for his sins.
Psalm 102 shows how a sinner in affliction of mind prays to Godand derives comfort from His help and goodness.
Psalm 130 shows how a sinner in tribulation cries to God fordeliverance; while
Psalm 143 may be used in any spiritual or temporal tribulation.
The American Church Dictionary and Cycopedia - Proper Psalms
Certain great days of the Church are so importantin the truths they set forth, the Church hath thought good to orderthat all Holy Scriptures that can possibly be used in illustrationthereof shall be read on those days. Thus in addition to the ProperLessons there are also Proper Psalms, and the days for which theyare appointed with the number of the Psalms to be read are to befound in the Table prefixed to the Psalter in the Prayer-book.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Psalms (2)
PSALMS.—In discussing the relation of Christ to the Psalms, two questions must be kept apart: (1) His use of the Psalter, (2) His presence in the Psalter. Even if we did not know, by direct quotation and indirect allusion, that the Psalter was a favourite book of Christ’s, we could have safely inferred as much from His general attitude to the OT. The Psalter, as, on the whole, the simplest and purest expression of the devotional life of Israel, must have commended itself peculiarly to Christ.
1. The influence of the Psalter upon the mind of Jesus was probably larger and more profound than His recorded allusions to it, numerous and subtle as they are, would lead us to suppose. There were indeed elements in it which He could not have appropriated—cries for vengeance upon foes (Psalms 41:11 (10), cf. Psalms 68:24 (23)), or of an almost cruel delight at their defeat (Psalms 18:43 (42)), or sorrowful laments at the prospect of a death in which fellowship with God was believed to be interrupted (Psalms 6:6 (5) Psalms 39:13 (14) Psalms 88:11-13 (10–12)). But there were other elements which were well fitted to express, as they may have helped to nourish. His piety. Especially must He have been attracted by those psalms which breathe the spirit of quiet confidence in God: ‘Thou art my God; my times are in thy hand’ (Psalms 31:15 f. (Psalms 31:14 f.)); ‘In thy presence is fulness of joy’ (Psalms 16:11); ‘As for me, I am continually with thee: thou hast holden my right hand. Thou wilt guide me with thy counsel, and afterward receive me to glory’ (Psalms 73:23 f.). The joy which comes from fellowship with God and from the contemplation of His acts in history (95–100), the humble and childlike spirit which lifts meek eyes to the God who looks down in pity from the heavens (123, 130)—these and other such tempers and aspirations cannot have been without their influence upon the spirit of Jesus. Most welcome of all would be those fine interpretations of the character of God scattered throughout the Psalter—as of one who is not only Lord of all space and time (90, 139), but who is also ‘good and ready to forgive and rich in love to all that call upon him’ (Psalms 86:5, Psalms 103:8), who opens His hand and satisfies the desire of every living thing (Psalms 145:16), who is father of the fatherless and judge of the widow (Psalms 68:6 (5)), who rises up at the oppression of the poor and the sighing of the needy (Psalms 12:6 (5)).
2. But in estimating the influence of the Psalter upon Jesus, we are not left to conjecture. On many occasions—notably at the beginning and the end of His public career—He uses it directly, and expresses, sometimes the truths of His gospel, sometimes the aspirations of His soul, sometimes His premonitions of the fate of Jerusalem, almost in its very words. The Sermon on the Mount has at least half a dozen references, direct or indirect, to the Psalter; not only words of a more general kind, such as ‘Depart from me, ye workers of iniquity’ (Matthew 7:23 || Luke 13:27, cf. Psalms 6:9 (8)), or the allusion to Jerusalem as the ‘city of the great king’ (Matthew 5:35, cf. Psalms 48:3 (2)), but even such an assurance as that the heavenly Father feeds the birds (Matthew 6:26, cf. Psalms 147:9); and some of the Beatitudes themselves are but echoes of the Psalter, e.g. ‘the meek shall inherit the earth’ (Matthew 5:5, cf. Psalms 37:11 (the land)), ‘the merciful shall obtain mercy’ (Matthew 5:7, cf. Psalms 18:26 (25)). Occasionally a psalm is explicitly cited by Him, e.g. Psalms 82:6 in John 10:34, and even prefaced by the words, ‘Have ye never read?’ (cf. Matthew 21:16; Matthew 21:42), which assume a familiar knowledge of the book, or at least of these particular psalms (8, 118), on the part of His audience. But even where there is no such citation, the language is often saturated with reminiscences of the Psalter. There can be little doubt, e.g., that ‘my soul is exceeding sorrowful’ (Matthew 26:38 || Mark 14:34) is an echo of Ps 42:6, 12, (Psalms 42:5; Psalms 42:11)), or that ‘he that eateth with me shall betray me’ (Mark 14:18) is an echo of Psalms 41:10, (9) (cf. John 13:18, where the treachery is expressly said to be in fulfilment of the utterance in the psalm), or that ‘they shall dash to the ground thy children within thee’ (Luke 19:44) is a reminiscence of Psalms 137:9. In the words of a psalm (Psalms 31:6, (Psalms 31:5)) Jesus commended His spirit into His Father’s hands (Luke 23:46).
3. These references are not quite exhaustive, but they are characteristic; and they are very significant of Christ’s general attitude to the Psalter. He makes its words of faith His own in the moment of His sorrow, He repeats its promises to those who are prepared to be His disciples (Luke 10:19, cf. Psalms 91:13; Matthew 5:5, cf. Psalms 37:11); but, with the single exception—if it be an exception—of Psalms 110, to be afterwards discussed, He does not seem directly to countenance, by His own example, that Messianic interpretation of the Psalter upon which the Church has, from her earliest days, uniformly insisted. True, it is recorded that He said that ‘all things must needs be fulfilled which are written in the law of Moses, and the prophets, and the psalms, concerning me’ (Luke 24:44). But within the teaching of Christ Himself there is no certain illustration of specific passages which He applied Messianically to Himself. And this omission would be very singular, if He had generally countenanced Messianic interpretation in the narrower sense in which that word has been commonly understood. He believed in His Messiahship, but He did not rest it upon the basis of individual passages. He claimed to fulfil the Law and the Prophets; but, judging by His general practice, this appears to imply the large fulfilment of their spirit and tendency, rather than any minute and literal fulfilment of particular words. His method of dealing with the Psalms, when controversy is involved, is well illustrated by His citation of Psalms 82:6 in John 10:34. The Jews are incensed at what they regard as His blasphemy in calling Himself the Son of God. He appeals to the psalm, to show that men exalted to high office had been in the OT called ‘gods’; and argues that, if the title was appropriate for them, how much more for Him who had a unique commission and equipment from the Father.
4. It is instructive to turn from Christ’s use of the Psalter to that of the writers and speakers in the NT; and, in this connexion, it is important to remember that most of their citations from the Psalter are made from the LXX Septuagint . Occasionally this seriously affects the argument. The author of the Ep. to the Hebrews, e.g. (Hebrews 1:10-12), finds, in the great words of Psalms 102:26-28 (Psalms 102:25; Psalms 102:27)—‘Thou, Lord, in the beginning, didst lay the foundation of the earth, and the heavens are the works of thy hands’—an allusion to Christ. In the LXX Septuagint it is ‘the Lord’ who is said to he everlasting, and to the author of the Epistle the Lord is Christ. But in the Hebrew psalm the address is to Jehovah, a title which no Hebrew could possibly have applied to the Messiah. Here is a case—and there are others—where the argument holds only on the basis of the Greek translation; it would be irrelevant and inapplicable on the basis of the original Hebrew (cf. Ephesians 4:8, Psalms 68:19, (Psalms 68:18).
Again, with regard to the psalms customarily called Messianic, it has to be remembered that the songs of the Psalter have, generally speaking, a historical background. They spring, not perhaps always, but undoubtedly often, out of a definite historical situation; that situation, or some aspect of it, is their theme. In many psalms this is obvious (cf. Psalms 44, 83, 137); and the question may fairly be raised whether this is not also the case in the Messianic psalms. Doubtless time might prove that the meaning of a psalm was larger than the original intention of its composer: this is true more or less of all great literature. But to understand truly its deeper meaning, we must start from its original intention, and from the situation in view of which it was composed. While to some of the psalms whose subject is a king a Messianic interpretation has been assigned (cf. 2), in others the actual contents and implications of the psalm render that interpretation impossible. The ‘anointed,’ e.g. (Heb. ‘his Messiah,’ LXX Septuagint ‘Christ’), in Psalms 20:7 (6) is almost necessarily some historical king, and the psalm appears to have been composed on the eve of a battle. If, then, in some of the psalms which deal with a ‘Messiah’ or ‘Christ,’ the reference is to a historic king of Israel or Judah, the presumption at least is raised that all the Messianic psalms may be similarly interpreted.
The tendency to find in the Psalter predictive references to Jesus must have set in very early. In Matthew 13:35, e.g., the parabolic method of teaching adopted by Jesus is said to be in fulfilment of the prophecy (attributed in one MS to Isaiah), ‘I will open my mouth in parables, I will utter things hidden from the foundation of the world.’ In point of fact these words simply form the introduction to one of the longer historical psalms (Psalms 78:2), and in them the Psalmist simply declares his intention to draw instruction from the ancient history of Israel. There is here no conceivable allusion to the parabolic teaching of Jesus. This interpretation would hardly even have been possible but for the LXX Septuagint , which happens to render the Hebrew בְּמָשָׁל by ἐν ταραβολαῖς—another good illustration of the control that the LXX Septuagint exercised over Messianic interpretation. This tendency to ‘messianize,’ wherever possible, naturally is operative also outside of the NT. There is no warrant in its pages, e.g., for referring the latter part of Psalms 24 to Christ; but the Fathers applied it to His ascension, and the Te Deum addresses Christ as the King of Glory. Sometimes psalms which are commonly regarded as Messianic contain sentiments which are un-Christian, and which therefore render the Messianic interpretation, in any sense worth defending, untenable. Some exegetes have even held that Psalms 18 is Messianic, in spite of such a verse as Psalms 18:43 (Psalms 18:42). Psalms 2, whose claims are much more generally allowed, contains sentiments (cf. Psalms 2:9) which could not legitimately be reconciled with the spirit of Him who was the Prince of peace.
5. We shall now examine the psalms which are most commonly regarded as Messianic—for convenience’ sake in the order in which they occur in the Psalter.
Psalms 2. A study of the NT allusions to this psalm is peculiarly instructive, as, though there is a general agreement that it is Messianic, there is considerable variety in its interpretation. One passage, indeed, does not seem even to regard the psalm as Messianic, at least in the narrower sense: in Revelation 2:27 the promise of Psalms 2:9 that the king would ‘break’ (LXX Septuagint and NT read ποιμανεῖ(ς), ‘shepherd,’ ‘rule,’ pointing תִּרְעֵם instead of תְּר֙עֵם) the nations with a rod of iron, as the vessels of the potter are broken, is applied, in the message addressed to Thyatira, to the Christian who overcomes and keeps the works of Christ to the end.
This application of the passage shows that, even in very early times, the Messianic interpretation of such psalms was felt to be not the only possible one. It is just possible, however, that the words of the psalm were chosen simply because they were an apposite description of triumph. This becomes the more probable when we remember that elsewhere in this same book—Revelation 12:5; Revelation 19:15—the passage is applied Messianically.
The first two verses of the psalm—‘Why do the heathen rage?’ etc.—are applied in Acts 4:25 f. to the combination of Herod, Pilate, the Romans, and the Jews, against ‘thy holy servant Jesus,’ who is clearly therefore regarded as the king celebrated in the psalm. The verse which the NT most frequently lays under contribution is Acts 4:7 ‘Thou art my son; this day have I begotten thee.’ This verse, or the first part of it, underlies Nathanael’s confession (John 1:49), Peter’s confession (Matthew 16:16), the high priest’s question (Matthew 26:63), and the voice which is said to have been heard on the occasion of the Baptism (Matthew 3:17 = Mark 1:11 = Luke 3:22) and the Transfiguration (Matthew 17:5 = Mark 9:7 = Luke 9:35). According to the Codex Bezae in Matthew 3:17, the words heard on the occasion of the baptism were, ‘Thou art my son, this day have I begotten thee.’ This attests the belief in some quarters that the Divine sonship of Jesus, which the psalm is supposed to foreshadow, dated from the day of His baptism. But in Acts 13:33 St. Paul regards the Psalmist’s utterance as fulfilled not in the baptism, but in the resurrection of Jesus; and this view appears to underlie the Apostle’s statement in Romans 1:4 that it was by the resurrection that Jesus was declared to be the Son of God with power. The verse is further applied in Hebrews 1:5 (cf. Hebrews 5:5) as a proof of the superiority of Jesus to the angels. In the Hebrew OT, however, the term literally translated ‘sons of God’ is applied to supernatural beings whether they be regarded as gods or angels; cf. Job 1:6; Job 2:1, where the LXX Septuagint renders by οἱ ἄγγελοι τοῦ θεοῦ. As, however, there are passages in which even the LXX Septuagint speaks of these beings as ‘sons of God’ (Psalms 29:1; Psalms 89:6), we must assume, if the writer has not forgotten them, that he is laying particular stress on the latter half of the verse, ‘this day have I begotten thee.’ According to the Epistle, however, Jesus took part in the Creation, and was pre-existent before all eternity (Hebrews 1:2; Hebrews 1:10); consequently we must suppose that the ‘begetting to-day’ refers to His eternal generation. See art. Begetting.
Here, then, are three different interpretations of the verse within the NT: the Divine sonship of the Messiah is variously connected with His baptism, His resurrection, or His eternal generation. These interesting fluctuations of opinion are possible only because the historical interpretation of the psalm is ignored. The phrase ‘son of God’ did not necessarily imply Divinity in the technical sense, for we find it applied even to the people (Exodus 4:22), and we have already seen how Jesus argues (John 10:34) from the acknowledged application of the term to human beings. In truth, the psalm seems to be addressed to some actual king of Judah, and to express the assurance of his victory and dominion, possibly on the occasion of his coronation. The day on which he was begotten as a son of God is the day on which he was installed in his regal dignity as the representative of Jehovah, the King and Father of His people. It is, we must admit, by no means impossible, especially when we consider the soaring language of the psalm, that its subject is not any reigning king, but some king yet to be; this would be the case if the psalm belongs, as it may, to the post-exilic period, when the monarchy was no more. But in neither case can it be strictly regarded as referring to Jesus, partly because the establishment of the king upon the holy hill of Zion would have no relevance in His case; partly because the conception of His function as dashing His enemies in pieces is un-Christian. Besides, as we have seen, the NT itself is not agreed as to the precise incident which the psalm is supposed to prefigure. But its solemn and emphatic predication of the Divine sonship of the king, possibly also its outlook upon a world-wide dominion, made it natural, and almost inevitable, under the conditions of early Christian interpretation, that it should he regarded as, in some sense, a prediction of Jesus.
Psalms 8. It is interesting to compare the use made of this psalm by Jesus with that made elsewhere in the NT. Psalms 5:3 (2) ‘Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings,’ etc., is quoted by Him against the chief priests (Matthew 21:16), who murmur when they hear the children cry ‘Hosanna.’ The NT follows the LXX Septuagint , which reads ‘praise’ instead of the Hebrew ‘strength,’ ‘bulwark’; but the essential meaning of the psalm is finely brought out by the citation—the power, on the one hand, or the insight, on the other, of the children (cf. for a very similar thought, Matthew 11:25). In Hebrews 2:6-8, however (cf. 1 Corinthians 15:27 f.), ‘Thou madest him a little (or ‘for a little while’) lower than the angels,’—vv. Psalms 8:5-6 of the psalm are interpreted as referring to Jesus, because the supremacy which, in the psalm, is asserted of the ‘son of man’ is not, as a matter of fact, true of the human race, but it is true of Jesus. This is a noble application of the passage, full of poetic and spiritual insight; but it does not justify us in supposing that the psalm was, in its original intention, Messianic. The Psalmist is undoubtedly thinking of the human race, he marvels at the love of the great God towards His apparently insignificant creature in making him lord of all. ‘Thou hast put all things under his feet.’ To the Psalmist this supremacy is a fact: he is content with man as he finds him, and he is not thinking of One in whom this lordship would be more perfectly realized.
Psalms 16. In Acts 2:25-28 (cf. Acts 13:35-37) St. Peter quotes four verses of the psalm (Psalms 16:8-11) in confirmation of the resurrection of Christ. The crucial verse is Acts 2:27 ‘Thou wilt not leave my soul unto Hades, neither wilt thou give thy holy one to see corruption.’ It is not quite certain whether the psalm is individual or collective. If it be collective, this verse implies no more than an assured faith in the future of Israel; if, however, it be individual, the speaker is probably expressing his own faith in immortality, though a more meagre meaning has been put upon the words, as if he were simply expressing his confidence in his recovery from a severe illness, or perhaps in his immunity from the sudden death which overtakes the wicked. In any case ‘thy holy one’—an unfortunate translation—is undoubtedly the speaker himself. He is Jehovah’s hâsîd, that is, a bond of love subsists between him and his God; and, in virtue of this bond, he is sure that Sheol cannot be his ultimate fate,—he will overleap it, and be received into glory (Psalms 73:24). The last word of Psalms 16:10 שׁחַח, which means ‘pit,’ was, however, unfortunately rendered by LXX Septuagint διαφθορά, ‘corruption’; and part of St. Peter’s argument, as of St. Paul’s in Acts 13:35-37, depends upon the mistranslation. The argument is that, as the Psalmist himself ‘saw corruption’ (Acts 13:36), he was really speaking, not of himself, but, prophetically, of Jesus, who saw no corruption. The psalm is therefore regarded as a prophecy of the resurrection of Christ, though it is, in reality, only a devout believer’s confession of faith in his own immortality. But it is only fair to notice that, while the form of the argument in Acts is Jewish, and rests, in part, upon a mistranslation, in substance the argument is sound. What the psalm essentially asserts is, that where a bond of love subsists between God and a man, death has no power to destroy the man—a fortiori in the case of the Man. ‘It was not possible that He should be conquered by him’ (Acts 2:24)—such a one as Jesus by such an antagonist as death.
Psalms 22. Nothing is more natural than that the early Christians should have interpreted this psalm Messianically, or that that interpretation should have persisted throughout the whole history of the Christian Church. It is not only that echoes of it are heard in the Passion story of the Gospels,—in the parting of His garments and the casting of the lot for His raiment (Matthew 27:35 = Mark 15:24 = Luke 23:34, Psalms 22:19 (18)), the shaking of the heads of the passers-by (Matthew 27:39 = Mark 15:29 = Luke 23:35, Psalms 22:8 (7)), the mocking cry, ‘He trusted in God, let him deliver him’ (Matthew 27:43, Psalms 22:9 (8)),—but Jesus Himself upon the cross used at least the opening words of the psalm (Matthew 27:46 = Mark 15:34), and the parting of His garments is expressly said in John 19:24 to have taken place that the scripture might be fulfilled. It must be admitted that there is often a very startling similarity between the details of the psalm and the narrative of the Gospels. Still, many of those details are not strictly applicable to the crucifixion. Alike in the sufferings, in the triumphant issue from them, and in the contemplated conversion of the world which is to be produced by that triumph (John 19:28 (27)), this psalm very powerfully recalls the Suffering Servant of Deutero-Isaiah; and the theme of both is doubtless the same, that is, the people, or at least the pious kernel of Israel. More important, however, than the similarity of detail just alluded to, striking as that is, is the large and profound insight of the psalm. It is all aglow with the consciousness that suffering means, in the end, not defeat, but victory, and that the Suffering Servant, so far from being crushed, will one day win the whole world to Himself. These truths, of course, find their highest and truest exemplification in Jesus.
Psalms 34:21 (20). According to John 19:36 the legs of Jesus were not broken, in order that the scripture might be fulfilled, ‘A bone of him shall not be broken.’ In the psalm the verse is intended to express the general care which Jehovah exercises over the righteous, and therefore it could hardly be regarded as an apt citation in connexion with the crucifixion of Jesus; but more probably it is intended to be, primarily, a reminiscence of Exodus 12:46, Numbers 9:12, which prescribe that the bones of the Paschal lamb shall not be broken. In that case the quotation would convey to a Jewish ear the subtle reminder that Jesus was the true Paschal lamb.
Psalms 40. In Hebrews 10:5-7 part of this psalm (Hebrews 10:7-9 (6–8)) is quoted, and interpreted as a prayer of Christ on coming into the world; and here, again, a large part of the argument turns upon the faulty text of the LXX Septuagint . The author is arguing that the continual sacrifices of the OT dispensation have been for ever abolished by the one sacrifice of Christ. In the body which God prepared for Him, He perfectly fulfilled the Divine will by the sacrifice of Himself. But the words ‘a body didst thou prepare for me,’ which the author adopts from the LXX Septuagint , do not represent the Heb. of Psalms 40:7 (6), which reads, ‘ears hast thou digged for me.’ Fortunately the origin of the mistake is not far to seek. The word for ‘ears’ is ΩΤΙΑ, and for ‘body’ ΣΩΜΑ. The Σ at the end of ΗθΕΑΗΣΑΣ was apparently duplicated, and then the following ΩΤΙΑ<
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Psalms of Solomon
These Psalms are eighteen in number, and were probably written in the 1st cent. b.c. It is doubted whether they are even indirectly cited in the NT; but both the language and the thought in them are of importance for a complete study of the Apostolic Age.
1. MSS_ and VSS_.-It is generally admitted and is practically certain that these Psalms were originally written in Hebrew; but not even a fragment of any Hebrew MS_ of them, nor any Hebrew quotation from them, exists. The MSS_ in which the Psalms have survived are (1) Greek, and (2) Syriac. The Syriac is a secondary version, made from the Greek; but the Greek is probably a direct version from the lost Hebrew original.
Eight Greek MSS_ are now known. Of these the earliest (H) was written in the 10th or 11th cent., the latest in 1419, the rest in the 11th to the 14th centuries. The first edition of the Greek text was published in 1626 by John Louis de la Cerda; it was printed from a faulty copy of a MS_ which is now in Vienna (V) and which is derived from H. Later editions of the Psalms, down to and including that of Ryle and James in 1891, also rested entirely on H, or MSS_ derived from it. A more accurate text became possible when use could be made of other MSS_, especially R (reproduced in vol. iii. of Swete’s Old Testament in Greek) and J, which, though written later, were independent of H and in many respects superior to it. A critical text based on the eight known MSS_ was published in 1895 by Oscar von Gebhardt.
The Syriac Version first became known in 1909, when Rendel Harris published the Syriac text from a nearly complete MS_ which came into his possession ‘from the neighbourhood of the Tigris.’ This MS_ is probably no older than the 16th or 17th century. Subsequently a fragment of another MS_ of the Syriac text was found in the Cambridge University Library, and yet another and much earlier (incomplete) MS_ in the British Museum.
The Syriac MS_ edited by Rendel Harris is defective both at the beginning and at the end, and title and colophon are consequently missing; the separate psalms are numbered, but are without titles. The same is true of the more ancient British Museum MS_ described by Burkitt (see Literature). A general title to the whole collection occurs only in the Greek MSS_ L, H which represent a late stage in the textual history. On the other hand, in most of the Greek MSS_, including R and J, nearly every individual psalm is entitled ‘of Solomon,’ τῷ Ζαλωμών, with which we may compare the τῷ Δαυείδ in the LXX_ version of the canonical Psalter. (For details, von Gebhardt’s textual apparatus and his remarks on p. 47 f. should be consulted; see also E. A. Abbott, Light on the Gospel from an Ancient Pcet, 1912, pp. 1-7.)
But for the connexion of Solomon’s name with these Psalms we can pass behind the MSS_. They originally stood in the Codex Alexandrinus (5th cent. a.d.) of the Bible; and, though the part which contained them has perished, the entry in the table of contents or catalogue at the beginning of the Codex survives and reads: ‘Psalms of Solomon 18.’ This entry constitutes the earliest direct external evidence not merely of the association of Solomon’s name with the Psalms, but of the existence of the Psalms themselves.
Rather earlier indirect external evidence of the existence of the Psalms has sometimes been sought elsewhere; but it is at least doubtful whether the fifty-ninth canon of the Council of Laodicea (c._ a.d. 360), when it directs that ‘private psalms (ἰδιωτικοὺς ψαλμούς) are not to be read in the church,’ and a similarly vague reference in Ambrose, refer to the Psalms of Solomon; and it is now certain that the Odes of Solomon mentioned in the Pistis Sophia (c._ a.d. 250) and by Lactantius (4th cent.) are not these Psalms, but a different set of pcems, which actually precede the 18 Psalms in Harris’s Syriac MS_.
The inclusion of these Psalms originally in the Codex Alexandrinus, and perhaps, too, in the Codex Sinaiticus, the association of them in most of the eight Greek MSS_ in which they now survive with other Solomonic works, canonical and apocryphal-the Psalms commonly standing between Wisdom and Ecclesiasticus-indicate the position which they occupied in the early history of the Church; but the paucity of references to them and quotations from them shows at the same time that they proved neither very attractive nor very influential: they probably owed their preservation to the fact that they bore the name of Solomon.
2. Contents.-The chief contents of the Psalms may be briefly indicated as follows:
Psalms 1.-Suddenly, in the midst of prosperity, threatened with war and assault, Sion, confident in her righteousness, had appealed to God; but closer examination had convinced her that secret sins, surpassing those of the heathen, had been committed, and the sanctuary of God polluted.
Psalms 2.-Foreigners have shattered the walls of Jerusalem with a battering-ram, and treated God’s altar profanely. This and the captivity of many Jews that followed seem to the writer to be the punishment meted out by God for the previous profanation of the sacrifices by some of the Jews, ‘the sons of Jerusalem,’ themselves. Nevertheless, the foreign executant of God’s anger had outgone his commission: he too is punished; he is slain in Egypt, and his body exposed to dishonour.
Psalms 3.-The character, conduct, and faith of the righteous and unrighteous are contrasted.
Psalms 4.-The ‘men-pleasers’ are described as hypocrites-outwardly, even extravagantly respectable and severe in their condemnation of sinners; but actually consumed with lust, in their gratification of which they destroy the peace of family after family. May God reward them with dishonour in life and death, with penury and lonely old age.
Psalms 5.-The goodness of God towards animals and men alike is without stint: man’s is a grudging goodness.
Psalms 6.-Happy is the man who prays.
Psalms 7.-Let God, if needs be, chasten Israel, but not by giving them up to the nations.
Psalms 8.-A more elaborate treatment of the theme of the first Psalm: the wickedness of a party of the Jews had consisted in immorality and the profanation of the sacred precincts and the sacrifices by disregard of the laws of ritual cleanness. In vv. 15-24 a specific account is given of the progress of the invader and of his reception.
Psalms 9.-Righteousness in God and man: man’s free-will, and God’s goodness to the penitent. Through God’s goodness Israel hopes not to be rejected for ever.
Psalms 10.-Happy is the man whom God chastiseth: Israel shall praise Him for His goodness.
Psalms 11.-The return of the Diaspora to Jerusalem.
Psalms 12.-May God curse the slanderers, and preserve the quiet and peace-loving.
Psalms 13.-God has preserved the righteous at a time when the ‘sinners’ perished miserably. If God chastens the righteous, it is as a father his first-born. The life of the righteous and the destruction of the sinners are for ever.
Psalms 14.-Eternal life and joy await the pious; but Sheol, darkness, and destruction are the lot of sinners, whose delight is in ‘fleeting corruption.’
Psalms 15.-Similar to 13 and 14.
Psalms 16.-But for God’s mercy and strength, even the righteous would slip down to the fate of the wicked. A prayer for preservation from sin, from beautiful but beguiling women, and for strength to bear affliction with cheerfulness.
Psalms 17.-Sinners who had set up a non-Davidic monarchy have been removed: a man of alien race has laid waste the land of Judah and carried men captive to the West. The psalm closes (vv. 23-51) with a long description of the Messianic king, for whose advent the author prays.
Psalms 18.-‘Again of the anointed of the Lord.’
3. Date.-Two things in particular stand out clearly in these Psalms: (1) the Jewish nation is divided sharply into two sects or parties, the ‘righteous,’ to whom the writer belongs, and the ‘sinners,’ or the party of his opponents; (2) the nation has suffered severely from the invasion of unnamed foreigners. More than one period in Jewish history would satisfy these conditions, and certainly the period of the Maccabaean revolt (167 b.c. and following years); and in the profanation of the altar to which Psalms 2 refers it is tempting at first to see an allusion to Antiochus Epiphanes’ act in setting up on the altar the ‘abomination of desolation’ (1 Maccabees 1:54). To this period, then, some scholars have assigned the Psalms. But the whole of the more specific allusions taken together, and most of them even taken separately, are far better satisfied by the circumstances of the middle of the 1st cent. b.c.-a period of bitter feud between the Pharisees and the Sadducees, and of the invasion of Judah by the Romans under Pompey. It is to this period, therefore, that most recent scholars refer the Psalms. The (alien) nations (2:2, 6, 20, 24, 7:3, 6, 8:16) who attack Jerusalem, and by whom the Jewish captives are led away, and against whom the writer prays for deliverance, are the Romans. Their commander, ‘who is from the end of the earth, who smiteth mightily’ (8:16), who is met by the Jewish princes and at first invited by them to Jerusalem, but ultimately has to capture the fortresses and the walls of Jerusalem by force (8:18-21), by bringing battering-rams to play upon them (2:1), who allows his soldiers profanely to trample upon the altar (2:2), who carries his captives to the West (17:14), and whose end was a dishonoured death ‘on the mountains of Egypt’ (2:30, 31) is Pompey. For he, as a Roman, came from the West, and thither he led back to grace his triumph in Rome the Jewish prince Aristobulus; he availed himself of the quarrels between the Jewish princes Hyrcanus and Aristobulus and their supporters to secure the Roman power in Judah; he was at first approached and welcomed by both these princes, but in the end he was resolutely resisted by Aristobulus in Jerusalem, so that he was compelled to bring up battering-rams from Tyre where-with to break down the fortified wall of Jerusalem; he shocked Jewish feeling by intruding into the Holy of Holies, and fifteen years after he had captured Jerusalem and profaned the Temple, he was slain beside Mons Cassius near Pelusium, his body being at first left unburied on the Egyptian shore, and then hastily and unceremoniously burned
A considerable similarity of tone and temper and the possibility of satisfying all the specific allusions, more or less completely, by what is known independently of the condition of the Jews between about 80 and 40 b.c. and of the circumstances of Pompey’s treatment of them, and of his death, favour the commonly accepted view that these Psalms (possibly with the exception of Psalms 18) were written in Palestine (and probably indeed in Jerusalem) within a single generation, and not improbably by a single writer; absolute proof, however, of single authorship is not forthcoming, and some of the more colourless of the Psalms might then belong to another age. The second Psalm, which refers to the death of the foreign invader, must have been written after, but probably soon after, Pompey’s death in 48 b.c.; the rest of the Psalms (except 18) were probably written rather earlier, most of them soon after Pompey’s capture of Jerusalem in 63 b.c., but one or two (4 and 12) perhaps earlier still, before the Jews in general had suffered at Pompey’s hands and the party of the ‘sinners’ had received that severer treatment which Pompey measured out to Aristobulus and his party.
4. Main ideas
(1) Pharisees and Sadducees.-The chief interest of these Psalms is that they reveal the temper and ideals of those two parties which in the period of the formation of the NT played so conspicuous a part in Jewish life: the author is a Pharisee, and the opponents whom he denounces are Sadducees. The Psalms indeed run back two or three generations before the separation of the Christian Church from the Jewish religion, but we can trace in them much that was still characteristic of the two parties later
The Sadducees are to the writer ‘the unrighteous’ (ἄδικοι), ‘sinners’ (ἁμαρτωλοί), ‘transgressors’ (παράνομοι), ‘the profane’ (βέβηλοι), the ‘men-pleasers’ (ἀνθρωπάρεσκοι). The use of these terms and the charges brought against the Sadducees of insolence, self-reliance, disregard of God, and gross sensual sins may largely represent the generalizations, exaggerations, or inventions of a political or religious opponent. But in charging them with profanation of the sanctuary and its sacrifices he implies that somewhat intimate association of the priesthood with the Sadducees which is conspicuous later. So again in charging them with setting up a non-Davidic monarchy (17:7, 8), i.e. with recognizing the royal dignity which the Hasmonaeans had claimed since Aristobulus I. (104 b.c.), he implies a readiness in that party to acquiesce in an existing polity, even though it was inconsistent with the Messianic promises, which seems natural enough in the ancestors of the Sadducees of the 1st cent. a.d.
Over against these ‘sinners’ the writer sees in his own party, i.e. the Pharisees, ‘the righteous’ (δίκαιοι), ‘the pious’ (ὅσιοι, representing the Hebrew ḥasîdim), ‘those that fear the Lord’ ([1] φοβούμενοι τὸν κύριον), ‘the guileless’ (ἄκακοι); occasionally too this party appears as ‘the poor’ (πτωχοί, πένητες). They were devoted to the Law (14:1), troubled about sins done in ignorance yet convinced that the punishment of the righteous for sins done in ignorance was something very unlike that which awaited the ‘sinners’ (13:4, 5). As a matter of fact, though ‘righteous’ and ‘sinners’ alike must have suffered greatly from the necessary results of Pompey’s attack on and capture of Jerusalem, it was the party of the Sadducees, the adherents of Aristobulus, who with his children were taken captive, that suffered most. But in their view of a future life these Pharisees of the 1st cent. b.c. already found further ground for differentiating the lot of the sinners and the righteous. ‘They that fear the Lord shall rise to life eternal, and their life shall be in the light of the Lord, and shall come to an end no more’ (3:12). When the wicked depart into ‘Sheol and darkness and destruction,’ the righteous will obtain mercy and ‘the pious of the Lord shall inherit life in gladness’ (14:6, 7; cf. also 13:9-11, 14:2, 3, 13:5, 16:1-5). On the other hand, the end of the wicked, if not actual annihilation, is but the miserable life of Sheol indefinitely prolonged: whereas the righteous ‘rise to life eternal,’ the sinner ‘falls and rises no more’ and his destruction is for ever (3:11-12; cf. 9:9, 12:6, 13:10, 14:6, 15:11). With this hope the righteous pray that they may, and the writer claims that they already do, accept with patience the present passing chastisement of God.
(2) Free-will.-In their view of man’s free-will the author of the Psalms and his party are at one with the Pharisees of the 1st cent. a.d. as described by Josephus (Ant. II. viii. 14): i.e. like the Sadducees they assert man’s freedom, but at the same time they differ from the Sadducees by asserting and indeed emphasizing the Divine knowledge and control of human action: ‘Man and his portion lie before Thee in the balance: he cannot add to, so as to enlarge, what has been prescribed by Thee’ (5:6). ‘Our works are subject to our own choice and power to do right or wrong in the work of our hands.’
(3) The Messianic hope.-Lastly, we may note the very important light cast by Psalms 17, 18 on the Messianic hope as cherished in this circle. The Messiah is to be, unlike the actual king whom the sinners had presumptuously set up (17:7, 8), a descendant of David (v. 23). He will enjoy the old title of the Hebrew kings-the anointed of Jahweh (or the Lord); for the phrase ‘Christ (the) Lord’ (cf. Luke 2:11) which occurs in the MSS_ at 17:36 is probably, even if it be the original Greek reading, nothing but a mistranslation (as in Lamentations 4:20) of the ordinary Hebrew genitival phrase ‘the anointed of the Lord.’ This Messiah is also called ‘the king of Israel’ (17:42) and ‘the son of David’ (v. 23). He will appear at a time determined by God (18:6), being raised up, or brought forward again (though the idea of a pre-existing Messiah detected by some in this phrase is very doubtful) by God Himself. He will purge Jerusalem alike from heathen enemies who profane it, and from native unrighteous rulers. He will then restore the true kingdom to Israel-a kingdom righteous, holy, glorious, worldwide-and rule as the vicegerent of God, who Himself remains over and above this human ruler, the king of Israel, ‘for ever and ever’ (17:21).
Literature.-(1) Greek Text.-O. von Gebhardt, Die Psalmen Salomo’s (TU_ xiii. 2 [2]); H. B. Swete, The Old Testament in Greek, 1894-96, iii. 765-787 (text of MS_ R with the variants of H and three MSS_ dependent on H).
(2) Syriac Text.-J. Rendel Harris, The Odes and Psalms of Solomon, 1909 (21911, where the variants of a Cambridge University MS_ discovered by Barnes [3] and containing part of Psalms 16 are given); F. C. Burkitt, in JThSt_ xiii. [4] 372-385 (a description of a British Museum MS_ containing in immediate continuation of the Odes of Solomon and with continuous enumeration Pss.-Sol. 1:1-3:5 and 10:4-18:5).
(3) Commentaries, etc.-H. E. Ryle and M. R. James, Psalms of the Pharisees, 1891 (the Greek text here printed is antiquated; but on account of the fullness and excellence of the introduction and commentary this work remains of the first importance); J. Wellhausen, Die Pharisäer und die Sadducäer, 1874 (contains a German translation); J. Viteau, Les Psaumes de Salomon, 1911 (text, translation, and full introduction and commentary); G. B. Gray, ‘The Psalms of Solomon’ (brief introduction and notes to an English translation arranged in parallel lines in Charles’s Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament, 1913, ii. 625-652). For a full bibliography, see Viteau, op. cit. pp. 240-251.
G. Buchanan Gray.

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Psalms the Book of - Psalms, the Book of. The following description of the book is given in Rice's Our Sixty-six Sacred Books: The book of Psalms in the Hebrew Bible was the first of the third division called Kʾthubim, or "Writings. " The Psalms, Proverbs, and Job were regarded as pre-eminently poetical books, and the Massoretes distinguished them by a peculiar accentuation. The Psalms were called "Sepher Tʾhellim," or "Book of Praises. " The Greeks called it "Psalmos," from which the English "Psalms" is derived. The Psalms counted one book in the A. Psalms 1:1-6; Psalms 2:1-12; Psalms 3:1-8; Psalms 4:1-8; Psalms 5:1-12; Psalms 6:1-10; Psalms 7:1-17; Psalms 8:1-9; Psalms 9:1-20; Psalms 10:1-18; Psalms 11:1-7; Psalms 12:1-8; Psalms 13:1-6; Psalms 14:1-7; Psalms 15:1-5; Psalms 16:1-11; Psalms 17:1-15; Psalms 18:1-50; Psalms 19:1-14; Psalms 20:1-9; Psalms 21:1-13; Psalms 22:1-31; Psalms 23:1-6; Psalms 24:1-10; Psalms 25:1-22; Psalms 26:1-12; Psalms 27:1-14; Psalms 28:1-9; Psalms 29:1-11; Psalms 30:1-12; Psalms 31:1-24; Psalms 32:1-11; Psalms 33:1-22; Psalms 34:1-22; Psalms 35:1-28; Psalms 36:1-12; Psalms 37:1-40; Psalms 38:1-22; Psalms 39:1-13; Psalms 40:1-17; Psalms 41:1-13; Psalms 2:1-12. Psalms 42:1-11; Psalms 43:1-5; Psalms 44:1-26; Psalms 45:1-17; Psalms 46:1-11; Psalms 47:1-9; Psalms 48:1-14; Psalms 49:1-20; Psalms 50:1-23; Psalms 51:1-19; Psalms 52:1-9; Psalms 53:1-6; Psalms 54:1-7; Psalms 55:1-23; Psalms 56:1-13; Psalms 57:1-11; Psalms 58:1-11; Psalms 59:1-17; Psalms 60:1-12; Psalms 61:1-8; Psalms 62:1-12; Psalms 63:1-11; Psalms 64:1-10; Psalms 65:1-13; Psalms 66:1-20; Psalms 67:1-7; Psalms 68:1-35; Psalms 69:1-36; Psalms 70:1-5; Psalms 71:1-24; Psalms 72:1-20; Psalms 3:1-8. Psalms 73:1-28; Psalms 74:1-23; Psalms 75:1-10; Psalms 76:1-12; Psalms 77:1-20; Psalms 78:1-72; Psalms 79:1-13; Psalms 80:1-19; Psalms 81:1-16; Psalms 82:1-8; Psalms 83:1-18; Psalms 84:1-12; Psalms 85:1-13; Psalms 86:1-17; Psalms 87:1-7; Psalms 88:1-18; Psalms 89:1-52; Psalms 4:1-8. Psalms 90:1-17; Psalms 91:1-16; Psalms 92:1-15; Psalms 93:1-5; Psalms 94:1-23; Psalms 95:1-11; Psalms 96:1-13; Psalms 97:1-12; Psalms 98:1-9; Psalms 99:1-9; Psalms 100:1-5; Psalms 101:1-8; Psalms 102:1-28; Psalms 103:1-22; Psalms 104:1-35; Psalms 105:1-45; Psalms 106:1-48; Psalms 5:1-12. Psalms 107:1-43; Psalms 108:1-13; Psalms 109:1-31; Psalms 110:1-7; Psalms 111:1-10; Psalms 112:1-10; Psalms 113:1-9; Psalms 114:1-8; Psalms 115:1-18; Psalms 116:1-19; Psalms 117:1-2; Psalms 118:1-29; Psalms 119:1-176; Psalms 120:1-7; Psalms 121:1-8; Psalms 122:1-9; Psalms 123:1-4; Psalms 124:1-8; Psalms 125:1-5; Psalms 126:1-6; Psalms 127:1-5; Psalms 128:1-6; Psalms 129:1-8; Psalms 130:1-8; Psalms 131:1-3; Psalms 132:1-18; Psalms 133:1-3; Psalms 134:1-3; Psalms 135:1-21; Psalms 136:1-26; Psalms 137:1-9; Psalms 138:1-8; Psalms 139:1-24; Psalms 140:1-13; Psalms 141:1-10; Psalms 142:1-7; Psalms 143:1-12; Psalms 144:1-15; Psalms 145:1-21; Psalms 146:1-10; Psalms 147:1-20; Psalms 148:1-14; Psalms 149:1-9; Psalms 150:1-6. The topics of the Psalms have been compared to an oratorio in five parts: 1. This fivefold division of the Psalms is very ancient, but when or by whom it was made is uncertain. Some conjecture that it was in accord with the supposed chronological order of the Psalms, or was an arrangement according to authors, topics, or for liturgical use. About fifty Psalms are quoted in the New Testament. The titles or inscriptions of the Psalms are not by the original authors, but belong to an early age. They are attached to 101 Psalms. The 49 not having titles, the Talmud calls "Orphan Psalms. " According to these titles, 73 Psalms are ascribed to David, 12 to Asaph, one of David's singers, 12 to the sons of Korah, a priestly family of singers of David's time, 2 (72d and 127th) to Solomon, 1 (90th) to Moses, and 1 (89th) to Ethan. But the Septuagint assigns 85 Psalms to David, the 127th to Jeremiah, the 146th to Haggai, and the 147th to Zechariah. The New Testament also cites Psalms 2:1-12; Psalms 95:1-11 as if David were the author. It is worthy of note that the great Hallel songs, Psalms 115:1-18; Psalms 116:1-19; Psalms 117:1-2; Psalms 118:1-29, and the famous alphabetic hymn, the 119th, are among the anonymous songs. Modern groups are based upon the contents, as seven (some say eight) penitential (6th, 25th, 32d [1], 51st, 102d, 130th, 143d), seven imprecatory Psalms (35th, 52d, 58th, 59th, 69th, 109th, 137th), pilgrim songs, Psalms of thanksgiving, of adoration, of faith and hope. Messianic Psalms, and historic Psalms. Some Psalms have parallelisms or longer stanzas, each beginning with an initial letter corresponding to the twenty-two letters of the Hebrew alphabet. There are seven of these alphabetic Psalms and five other alphabetic poems in the Old Testament. Some Psalms are choral, as 24th, 115th, 135th; some gradational, as 121st, 124th. Of the Psalms ascribed to David, several have Aramaic forms, but according to the latest linguistic researches these forms may betray an earlier rather than a later author. The Psalms have suggested many of the noblest Christian hymns
Hallel - The name given in Rabbinical writings to the Psalms 113:1-9 ; Psalms 114:1-8 ; Psalms 115:1-18 ; Psalms 116:1-19 ; Psalms 117:1-2 ; Psalms 118:1-29 called the ‘Egyptian Hallel’ in distinction from the ‘Great Hallel’ ( Psalms 120:1-7 ; Psalms 121:1-8 ; Psalms 122:1-9 ; Psalms 123:1-4 ; Psalms 124:1-8 ; Psalms 125:1-5 ; Psalms 126:1-6 ; Psalms 127:1-5 ; Psalms 128:1-6 ; Psalms 129:1-8 ; Psalms 130:1-8 ; Psalms 131:1-3 ; Psalms 132:1-18 ; Psalms 133:1-3 ; Psalms 134:1-3 ; Psalms 135:1-21 ; Psalms 136:1-26 ), and from Psalms 146:1-10 ; Psalms 147:1-20 ; Psalms 148:1-14 , which are also Psalms of Hallel character. The Hallel proper ( Psalms 113:1-9 ; Psalms 114:1-8 ; Psalms 115:1-18 ; Psalms 116:1-19 ; Psalms 117:1-2 ; Psalms 118:1-29 ) was always regarded as forming one whole. The word Hallel means ‘Praise,’ and the name was given on account of the oft-recurring word Hallelujah (‘Praise ye the Lord’) in these Psalms
Psalms - Psalms...
1. The Book of Psalms is a collection of sacred poems, in large part liturgical in character and intended to be sung. The order of the Writings was much less fixed than the order of the Law and the Prophets, the other two groups of Scriptures; but the Psalms in all cases come near the beginning of this group, and in the modern Hebrew printed Bibles, which follow the great majority of German MSS, they stand first. In placing the Psalms, together with the rest of the Writings, before the (‘Latter’) Prophets, the EV
The title of this collection of poems is derived from the Greek version, in which the book is entitled in some MSS Psalmoi , in others Psalterion (in NT ‘Psalms,’ and ‘Book of Psalms,’ Psalms 44:1-2644 ; Luke 24:44 , Acts 1:20 ). ]'>[2] in the titles of individual Psalms ( e. Psalms 79:1-1358 ). Both titles take into account the majority of the poems rather than the whole; not all the Psalms were sung to musical accompaniment, and not all of them consist of praise. On the one hand, there are one or two clear cases, and there may be others less clear, of a single Psalm having been wrongly divided into two; thus Psalms 9:1-20 ; Psalms 10:1-18 are shown by the continuance of the acrostic scheme through the latter Psalm (cf. So Psalms 42:1-11 ; Psalms 43:1-5 are shown by the recurrence of the same refrain ( Psalms 42:5 ; Psalms 42:11 ; Psalms 10:1-185 ) to be one poem. But the Greek version is scarcely true to the original in making two distinct Psalms out of each of the Psalms numbered 116 and 147 respectively in the Hebrew text and EV
The remaining 46 Psalms (90 119, 135 150) are either without title, or the titles are not the same in any considerable number of consecutive Psalms (but note 108 110 and 138 145 entitled ‘of David’). ...
Now, if it stood by itself, the statement at the close of
Psalms 72:1-20 could be explained by a single process the incorporation of a previous collection consisting of Psalms 1:1-6 ; Psalms 2:1-12 ; Psalms 3:1-8 ; Psalms 4:1-8 ; Psalms 5:1-12 ; Psalms 6:1-10 ; Psalms 7:1-17 ; Psalms 8:1-9 ; Psalms 9:1-20 ; Psalms 10:1-18 ; Psalms 11:1-7 ; Psalms 12:1-8 ; Psalms 13:1-6 ; Psalms 14:1-7 ; Psalms 15:1-5 ; Psalms 16:1-11 ; Psalms 17:1-15 ; Psalms 18:1-50 ; Psalms 19:1-14 ; Psalms 20:1-9 ; Psalms 21:1-13 ; Psalms 22:1-31 ; Psalms 23:1-6 ; Psalms 24:1-10 ; Psalms 25:1-22 ; Psalms 26:1-12 ; Psalms 27:1-14 ; Psalms 28:1-9 ; Psalms 29:1-11 ; Psalms 30:1-12 ; Psalms 31:1-24 ; Psalms 32:1-11 ; Psalms 33:1-22 ; Psalms 34:1-22 ; Psalms 35:1-28 ; Psalms 36:1-12 ; Psalms 37:1-40 ; Psalms 38:1-22 ; Psalms 39:1-13 ; Psalms 40:1-17 ; Psalms 41:1-13 ; Psalms 42:1-11 ; Psalms 43:1-5 ; Psalms 44:1-26 ; Psalms 45:1-17 ; Psalms 46:1-11 ; Psalms 47:1-9 ; Psalms 48:1-14 ; Psalms 49:1-20 ; Psalms 50:1-23 ; Psalms 51:1-19 ; Psalms 52:1-9 ; Psalms 53:1-6 ; Psalms 54:1-7 ; 1618180990_67 ; Psalms 56:1-13 ; Psalms 57:1-11 ; Psalms 58:1-11 ; Psalms 59:1-17 ; Psalms 60:1-12 ; Psalms 61:1-8 ; Psalms 62:1-12 ; Psalms 63:1-11 ; Psalms 64:1-10 ; Psalms 65:1-13 ; Psalms 66:1-20 ; Psalms 67:1-7 ; Psalms 68:1-35 ; Psalms 69:1-36 ; Psalms 70:1-5 ; Psalms 71:1-24 ; Psalms 72:1-20 by an editor who added these to Psalms 73:1-28 ; Psalms 74:1-23 ; Psalms 75:1-10 ; Psalms 76:1-12 ; Psalms 77:1-20 ; Psalms 78:1-72 ; Psalms 79:1-13 ; Psalms 80:1-19 ; Psalms 81:1-16 ; Psalms 82:1-8 ; Psalms 83:1-18 ; Psalms 84:1-12 ; Psalms 85:1-13 ; Psalms 86:1-17 ; Psalms 87:1-7 ; Psalms 88:1-18 ; Psalms 89:1-52 ; Psalms 90:1-17 ; 1618180990_8 ; Psalms 92:1-15 ; Psalms 93:1-5 ; Psalms 94:1-23 ; Psalms 95:1-11 ; Psalms 96:1-13 ; Psalms 97:1-12 ; Psalms 98:1-9 ; Psalms 99:1-9 ; Psalms 100:1-5 ; Psalms 101:1-8 ; Psalms 102:1-28 ; Psalms 103:1-22 ; Psalms 104:1-35 ; Psalms 105:1-45 ; Psalms 106:1-48 ; Psalms 107:1-43 ; Psalms 108:1-13 ; Psalms 109:1-31 ; Psalms 110:1-7 ; Psalms 111:1-10 ; Psalms 112:1-10 ; Psalms 113:1-9 ; Psalms 114:1-8 ; Psalms 115:1-18 ; Psalms 116:1-19 ; Psalms 117:1-2 ; Psalms 118:1-29 ; Psalms 119:1-176 ; Psalms 120:1-7 ; Psalms 121:1-8 ; Psalms 122:1-9 ; Psalms 123:1-4 ; Psalms 124:1-8 ; Psalms 125:1-5 ; Psalms 126:1-6 ; Psalms 127:1-5 ; Psalms 128:1-6 ; Psalms 129:1-8 ; Psalms 130:1-8 ; Psalms 131:1-3 ; Psalms 132:1-18 ; Psalms 133:1-3 ; Psalms 134:1-3 ; Psalms 135:1-21 ; Psalms 136:1-26 ; Psalms 137:1-9 ; Psalms 138:1-8 ; Psalms 139:1-24 ; Psalms 140:1-13 ; Psalms 141:1-10 ; Psalms 142:1-7 ; Psalms 143:1-12 ; Psalms 144:1-15 ; Psalms 145:1-21 ; Psalms 146:1-10 ; Psalms 147:1-20 ; Psalms 148:1-14 ; Psalms 149:1-9 ; Psalms 150:1-6 derived from other sources. But within Psalms 1:1-6 ; Psalms 2:1-12 ;
Hallelujah - It was used mainly to open or close hymns of praise in public worship (Psalms 106:1; Psalms 106:48; Psalms 112:1; Psalms 113:1; Psalms 115:18; Psalms 146:1; Psalms 146:10; Psalms 147:1; Psalms 147:20; Psalms 150; Revelation 19:1; Revelation 19:3-4; Revelation 19:6; see also PRAISE)
Hallelujah - ’ With one exception ( Psalms 135:3 ) it occurs only at the beginning or the end of Psalms, or both: at the beginning only in Psalms 111:1-10 ; Psalms 112:1-10 ; at the beginning and end in Psalms 106:1-48 ; Psalms 113:1-9 ; Psalms 135:1-21 ; Psalms 146:1-10 ; Psalms 147:1-20 ; Psalms 148:1-14 ; Psalms 149:1-9 ; Psalms 150:1-6 ; at the end only in Psalms 104:1-35 ; Psalms 105:1-45 ; Psalms 115:1-18 ; Psalms 116:1-19 ; Psalms 117:1-2 . (transliterated) form of the expression occurs only at the beginning of Psalms as a heading , and this would seem to be the more natural usage. ...
As a liturgical heading the term served to mark off certain well-defined groups of Psalms which were probably intended in the first instance for synagogue use, and may once have existed as an independent collection. With the exception of Psalms 135:1-21 , these groups (in the Heb. ]'>[1] a larger number of Psalms is so distinguished, and the consequent grouping is more coherent, viz. together with 135 136, has a well-defined place in the daily morning service, forming an integral part of the great ‘Benediction of Song’ (in certain parts of the early Church, also, it was customary to recite the ‘Hallelujah’ Psalms daily). ...
The ‘Hallel’ (Psalms 113:1-9 ; Psalms 114:1-8 ; Psalms 115:1-18 ; Psalms 116:1-19 ; Psalms 117:1-2 ; Psalms 118:1-29 ), which forms a liturgical unit in the synagogue liturgy, is the most complete example of ‘Hallelujah’ Psalms in collected form. ]'>[1] , notice all the individual Psalms of this group are headed ‘ Alleluia ’). ...
All the Psalms referred to exhibit unmistakable marks of late composition, which would accord with their distinctively synagogal character
Hosanna - It is a Hebrew phrase, known in earlier times and taken from Psalms 118:25, which was recited as a part of the Great Hallel, Psalms 113:1-9; Psalms 114:1-8; Psalms 115:1-18; Psalms 116:1-19; Psalms 117:1-2; Psalms 118:1-29, at the feast of tabernacles, and which was therefore familiar to the Jews
Psalmody - ) The act, practice, or art of singing Psalms or sacred songs; also, Psalms collectively, or a collection of Psalms
Asaph - Psalms 50:1-23 ; Psalms 73:1-28 ; Psalms 74:1-23 ; Psalms 75:1-10 ; Psalms 76:1-12 ; Psalms 77:1-20 ; Psalms 78:1-72 ; Psalms 79:1-13 ; Psalms 80:1-19 ; Psalms 81:1-16 ; Psalms 82:1-8 ; Psalms 83:1-18 have the superscription le-Asaph , which means in all probability that they once belonged to the hymn-book of the Asaphite choir (see Psalms)
Psalter - ) The Book of Psalms; - often applied to a book containing the Psalms separately printed. ) A rosary, consisting of a hundred and fifty beads, corresponding to the number of the Psalms. ) Specifically, the Book of Psalms as printed in the Book of Common Prayer; among the Roman Catholics, the part of the Breviary which contains the Psalms arranged for each day of the week
Psalms - the Book of Psalms, alternatively, several Psalms ...
Tehillim - the Book of Psalms, alternatively, several Psalms ...
Way - This usage was common also among believers in Old Testament times (Psalms 16:11; Psalms 18:21; Psalms 18:30; Psalms 18:32; Psalms 27:11). ...
Since the way of God led to true life and true enjoyment, that ‘way’ may have meant God’s will and God’s commandments (Job 21:14; Psalms 37:23-24; Psalms 119:27; Psalms 119:37; Jeremiah 5:4; Matthew 22:16; Romans 11:33; Revelation 15:3). In that sense the way of the righteous was often contrasted with the way of the wicked (Psalms 1:1; Psalms 1:6; Psalms 37:5; Proverbs 4:18-19; Proverbs 14:12; Jeremiah 7:3; Romans 3:16; 1 Corinthians 12:31; James 5:20)
Gittith - A word found in the titles of Psalms 8:1-9; Psalms 81:1-16; Psalms 84:1-12
Aijeleth Hash-Shahar - AIJELETH HASH-SHAHAR , Psalms 22:1-31 (title). See Psalms
Shoshannim - The beauty of the innocent, pure, lily like "virgins" (Psalms 45:9; Psalms 45:14) is spiritual; for the other Psalms of the authors of Psalm 45, namely, "the sons of Korah," are all spiritual. In Psalm 80 SHOSHANNIM EDUTH is the "testimony" (Psalms 78:5; Psalms 81:5) which points out the lovely ("lily like") salvation of the Lord. Hence, thrice is repeated "we shall be saved," Psalms 80:3; Psalms 80:6; Psalms 80:19, and Psalms 80:2, "save us
Ham, Land of - A poetical designation of Egypt used in the Psalms in reference to the sojourn there of the Children of Israel ( Psalms 105:23 ; Psalms 105:27 ; Psalms 106:22 ). ]'>[1] ‘tents’) of Ham’ ( Psalms 78:51 ) stands for the dwellings of the Egyptians
Alamoth - ALAMOTH , Psalms 46:1-11 (title), 1 Chronicles 15:20 . See Psalms
Mizar - ") (Psalms 42:6). David in exile beyond Jordan, in the region of high hills as the Hermons, sighs for the Lord's hill, compared with whose spiritual elevation those physically great hills dwindle into littleness (Psalms 68:15; Psalms 68:18; Psalms 114:4-6; Isaiah 2:2)
Praise - Praise is an expression of homage, adoration and thanksgiving to God either in prayer or in song, and may be accompanied by various expressions of joy (Exodus 15:1-2; Exodus 15:20-21; Psalms 35:18; Psalms 138:1-283; Psalms 71:8; Psalms 150; Isaiah 12:2-6; Luke 2:13-14; Acts 2:47; Acts 3:8; Colossians 3:16; Revelation 5:9-14; see DANCING; MUSIC; SINGING). Their praise is part of their worship of God, and it will reach its fullest expression in the age to come (Psalms 7:17; Psalms 66:1-4; Psalms 104:1; 1618180990_7; Luke 24:53; Revelation 19:4-5). They offer this praise both individually and collectively (Ezra 3:10-11; Psalms 34:1-3; Psalms 35:18; Psalms 117; Psalms 135:1-2; Psalms 150:6; Joel 2:26; Acts 16:25; Hebrews 13:15; 1 Peter 2:9)
Higgaion - A term occurring three times, Psalms 9:16; Psalms 19:14 (translated "meditation"), and Psalms 92:3 (translated "solemn sound")
Psalms - only in connection with the Psalms of David and those in the Book of Psalms. There can be no doubt that in connection with the 'singers,' and the praising God with instruments, the Psalms were used. We read "sing Psalms unto him," "Make a joyful noise unto him with Psalms," etc. days, for a time at least, the Psalms of David may have been sung by believers, but there were also hymns and spiritual songs, and it is to be remarked that in the singing at the institution of the Lord's supper a hymn (ὑμνέω) is spoken of, not a psalm (ψαλμός). The latter Greek word (besides the occurrences which refer to the Book of Psalms) is found in 1 Corinthians 14:26 ; Ephesians 5:19 ; Colossians 3:16
Maschil - a title, or inscription, at the head of several Psalms of David and others, in the book of Psalms. Thus Psalms 32 is inscribed, "A Psalm of David, Maschil;" and Psalms 42, "To the chief musician, Maschil, for the sons of Korah. Some of the rabbins believe that, in repeating the Psalms which have this inscription, it was usual to add an interpretation or explication to them. Others, on the contrary, think it shows the clearness and perspicuity of such Psalms, and that they needed no particular explication
Higgaion - " Found Psalms 9:16; Psalms 19:14; Psalms 92:3 margin "upon the harp with musing" (Lamentations 3:61)
Name of God - God himself, Psalms 20:1 . His word, Psalms 5:11 . His works, Psalms 8:1 . A glorious name, Psalms 72:17 . Holy and reverend, Psalms 111:9
Hallelujah - (hal lih lyoo jah) Exclamation of praise that recurs frequently in the Book of Psalms meaning, “Praise Yahweh!” In particular, Psalm 146-150 sometimes are designated the Hallelujah Psalms. In the Psalms God is praised for His power, His wisdom, His blessings, and the liberation of His people
Lip - Psalms 45:2 ), once (anthropomorphically of J″ [1] ) as the source from which the breath issues ( Isaiah 11:4 ); once the protrusion of the lips occurs as a gesture of mocking contempt ( Psalms 22:7 ). But in the great majority of cases the lips are referred to as organs of speech ( Job 27:4 , Psalms 119:171 , Proverbs 15:7 ; Proverbs 24:2 ). Hence, according to the kind of words they utter and the quality of the heart from which the words come, they are described figuratively as uncircumcised ( Exodus 6:12 ; Exodus 6:30 ), flattering ( Psalms 12:2 ; Psalms 12:8 ), feigned ( Psalms 17:1 ), lying ( Psalms 31:18 ), joyful ( Psalms 63:5 ), perverse ( Proverbs 4:24 ), righteous ( Proverbs 16:13 ), false ( Proverbs 17:4 ), burning ( Proverbs 26:23 ), unclean ( Isaiah 6:5 ). By an intensification or extension of this figurative use, swords are said to be in the lips ( Psalms 59:7 ), adders’ poison to be under them ( Psalms 140:3 ), or in them a burning fire ( Proverbs 16:27 ). ]'>[2] : Matthew 15:8 and Mark 7:6 = Isaiah 29:18 ; Romans 3:13 = Psalms 140:3 [3]; 1 Corinthians 14:21 = Isaiah 28:11 ; Hebrews 13:15 = Hosea 14:2 ; 1 Peter 3:10 = Psalms 34:18 [4]
Halleluiah - It is found at the end of Psalms 105,106, inclusively; also in the beginning of Psalms 106, in the beginning of 111 to 113 inclusively; at the end of 115,117, inclusively; in the beginning of Psalms 85 and in the beginning and at the end of Psalms 147,150, inclusively
Hallelujah - It is found at the end of Psalms 105,106, inclusively; also in the beginning of Psalms 106, in the beginning of 111 to 113 inclusively; at the end of 115,117, inclusively; in the beginning of Psalms 85 and in the beginning and at the end of Psalms 147,150, inclusively
Maschil - "Instruction" is the special design of such Psalms, as the Hebrew cognate verb (Psalms 32:8) 'aschilka , "I will instruct thee" implies. This title draws attention to the instruction in Psalms where this design is not at first sight apparent. " Compare the sense of maschil Psalms 47:7, "sing ye praises with understanding," i. Also Psalms 53:2, "God looked down . The "instruction" aimed at is to bring reckless man to spiritual understanding, the true wisdom (Psalms 111:10; Daniel 12:10)
Darling - Psalms 22:20 ‘Deliver my darling from the power of the dog’; Psalms 35:17 ‘rescue my soul from their destructions, my darling from the lions. In the Psalms it is used poetically of the psalmist’s own life, as his unique and priceless possession
Washpot - Only Psalms 60:8 = Psalms 108:9 , as a figure of contempt
Nocturns - (Latin: nocturnus, by night) ...
(1) originally night Office, hence the term ...
(2) division of Matins consisting of three Psalms or groups of Psalms with three lessons ...
Psalms, Book of - The Psalms is the most complete collection of Hebrew poetry and worship material in the Hebrew Bible. The Psalms give clues for understanding Israelite worship on both a corporate and individual level. The Psalms typify different responses to God's actions and word. ...
The Psalms as a collection is found in the third division of the Hebrew canon known as the Writings (Hebrew, ketubim ). Psalm 150:1 closes off both book five and concludes the collection of Psalms; just as Psalm 1:1 serves as an introduction to the psalter. Other divisions or collections appear in the Psalms. The Songs of Ascent or pilgrimage Psalms (Psalm 120-134 ) make a collection. Two different guild collections are included in the Psalms of the sons of Korah (Psalm 42-49 ) and the Psalms of Asaph (Psalm 73-83 ). Psalms has been understood as both the “hymnal” and prayerbook of the postexilic congregation of Israel with its final compilation and its inclusion within the canon. ...
An important key for reading and interpreting different Psalms is to understand the nature of Hebrew poetry. Psalms are poetic in contrast to being narrative. ...
As the twentieth century began, Hermann Gunkel brought a new approach to the Psalms, seeking to discover the type or form of literary material in each Psalm and the worship situation behind each. Gunkel categorized several main types of Psalms and understood that not all Psalms fit neatly into one category. They might be a combination of types and thus belong to a category of mixed Psalms. Following Gunkel, scholars have proposed several systems to categorize the Psalms. Most include the different types: (1) the hymn; (2) songs of thanksgiving; (3) the community laments; (4) the individual laments; (5) the individual songs of thanksgiving; (6) the royal Psalms; and (7) wisdom Psalms. The issue for the reader and interpreter of the Psalms is to appreciate the artistry of a poet which created and crafted timeless poetic expressions which fit into many contexts of worship or an individual's life situation in different cultures and traditions. ...
A reader of the Psalms will find that different Psalms can be grouped by similarities of form, content, and pattern. ...
The thanksgiving or Psalms of narrative praise are also spoken by the community (see 106; 124; 129) and the individual (see 9; 18; 30). These Psalms are related to the laments as they are responses to liberation occurring after distress. These Psalms are uniquely liturgical and could be sung antiphonally, some have repeating refrains (see Psalm 8:1 ). The structure is not as clear-cut as other types of Psalms. Creation Psalms (usually reflecting a mixed form) include Psalm 8:1 ; Psalm 19:1 ; Psalm 104:1 ; and Psalm 139:1 . These Psalms are concerned with praising God and describe Him as Creator. The Psalms affirm God who is Creator as the Lord of history. ...
Some Psalms reflect more specific liturgical events. The liturgical Psalms may include antiphonal responses or dialogue. These Psalms include instructions for sacrifice, worship, processionals, or may invoke blessings on the worshipers. These are usually regarded as Psalms of mixed type as they share similarities with the hymns. This designation includes those Psalms which may have been sung by pilgrims on their way to the sanctuary (see the songs of ascents, 120–134). Some Psalms are considered royal Psalms (see 2; 18; 20). These Psalms are concerned with the earthly king of Israel. Again, these are usually understood as mixed Psalms. Another mixed type are the enthronement Psalms which celebrate Yahweh's kingship (see Psalm 96-99 ). They are closely related to the hymns and to the creation Psalms. These Psalms contemplate questions of theodicy (73), or celebrate God's Word (the Torah, Psalm 119:1 ), or deal with two different ways of living—that of the godly person or the evil person (Psalm 1:1 ). The Psalms are not neatly or easily categorized, as the mixed Psalms indicate. ...
Outline The Book of Psalms is divided into five sections just as the Pentateuch has five books. Each section of the Book of Psalms concludes with a doxology. Psalm 150:1 closes Psalms with a symphony of praise. What devoted students of God's Word have discovered is the limited number of types of prayer represented in the Psalms. Psalms of lamentation or complaint cry out for help in a situation of distress or frustration. Such Psalms show prayer as an honest communication with God in life's worst situations. The following Psalms are laments: 3,4, 6,7, 12,13, 17,22, 25,26, 28,35, 38,39, 40,41, 42–43,44, 51,54, 55,56, 57,59,60,61, 63,64, 69,70, 71,74, 77,79, 80,83, 85,86, 88,90, 94,102, 109,123, 126,130, 134,137, 140,141, 142,143, 144. Psalms of thanksgiving describe a situation of distress and how God delivered the psalmist. These Psalms show us our need to acknowledge God's work in our times of trouble and to witness to others of what God has done for us. Thanksgiving Psalms are 9–10,18, 30,31, 32,34, 66,92, 107,116, 118,120, 124,129, 138,139. These Psalms are hymns: 8,19, 29,33, 65,100, 103,104, 105,111; 113,114, 117,135, 136,145, 146,147, 148,149, 150. Wisdom Psalms probe life's mysteries to teach the congregation about itself and God. Kingship Psalms detail the role of the human king in God's rule over His people. Enthronement Psalms praise Yahweh as the King enthroned over His universe. Psalms of confidence express trust in God's care for and leadership of His people. Prophetic Psalms announce God's will to His worshiping people. Liturgical Psalms describe activities and responses of God's worshiping congregation
Trust in God - Psalms 84:11 . His relationship, Psalms 103:13 . Psalms 37:25 . Their safety, Psalms 125:1-5 ...
2. Their courage, Psalms 27:1 . Their end, Psalms 37:37
Lovingkindness - ), its poetic personification ( Psalms 42:8 ; Psalms 57:3 ; Psalms 89:14 ), and the appeal to God to be true to Himself, to save and to redeem ‘for His lovingkindness’ sake’ ( Psalms 6:4 ; Psalms 44:26 ; Psalms 115:1 ). For the combination of ‘lovingkindness’ with ‘faithfulness’ see Psalms 89:1-52 , where each word occurs seven times, and cf
Degrees, Songs of - for the going up (Jerusalem and its temple being regarded as on a moral elevation above other places, as it was in fact on the most elevated tableland of the country, requiring a going up from all sides) to the three great feasts (Exodus 34:24; 1 Kings 12:27-28); Psalms 122:1; Psalms 122:4, which is the oldest, being composed by David to supply the northern Israelites with a pilgrim song in their journeys to Zion, where Asaph had warned them to repair now that the ark was transferred from Shiloh there (Psalms 78:67-69). Solomon wrote Psalm 127, round which as a center a third poet, on the return from Babylon, grouped, with David's four Psalms, ten others, seven on one side and seven on the other. Psalms 121:1-2, "from whence cometh my help; my help cometh," etc. They all have a general, not an individual, character, referring to the literal and the spiritual Israel, whom God's providence always and in all places guards (Psalm 121; Psalm 124; Psalms 125:5; Psalms 128:6; Psalms 130:8; Psalms 131:3). The posture of affairs contemplated in most of these Psalms is that after the Babylonian captivity, when the building of the temple was interrupted by the Samaritans. The sanctuary in Psalms 134:2 is the altar erected at the return, 536 B
Contemn - Psalms 15 . Psalms 10 . Psalms 107
Joy of God - He rejoices in his own works, Psalms 104:31 . In the subjects of his grace, Psalms 147:11 . Psalms 149:4
Acrostic - In Psalms 111:1-10 ; Psalms 112:1-10 this interval is one line; in Psalms 25:1-22 ; Psalms 34:1-22 ; Psalms 145:1-21 , Proverbs 31:10-31 , Sir 51:13-30 , and in the fragment, which does not clearly extend beyond the thirteenth letter, contained in Nahum 1:1-15 , the interval Isaiah 2 lines; in Lamentations 4:1-22 it Isaiah 2 longer lines, in chs. 1 and 2 it Isaiah 3 longer lines; in Psalms 9:1-20 ; Psalms 10:1-18 (a single continuous poem), and in Psalms 37:1-40 , it Isaiah 4 lines. In Lamentations 3:1-66 , where the interval between each successive letter of the alphabet Isaiah 3 long lines, each of each set of three lines begins with the same letter; and similarly in Psalms 119:1-176 , where the interval Isaiah 16 lines, each alternate line within each set of 16 begins with the same letter. ]'>[1] , in Proverbs 31:1-31 , probably also in Psalms 34:1-22 (where the sense seems to require the transposition of Psalms 34:16 and Psalms 34:15 ) and in Psalms 9:1-20 , the sixteenth and seventeenth letters of the Hebrew alphabet occupy respectively the seventeenth and sixteenth places in the acrostic scheme. In some cases an entire strophe has dropped out of the text; thus the sixth strophe (of 2 lines) has fallen out between Psalms 34:6-7 , and the fourteenth between Psalms 145:13-14 , though in the latter case it still stood in the Hebrew MS from which the Greek version was made. Occasionally lines have been inserted, as, apparently, in more than one place in Psalms 37:1-40 , and in Nahum 1:2 . But such corruption of the text is really serious only in Psalms 9:1-20 f. ]'>[2] of Psalms 119:1-176 . ]'>[2] does not give the initials in the other poems; but they will be found, in the case of the Psalms, in (for example) Kirkpatrick’s Psalms (Cambridge Bible), Cheyne’s Book of Psalms , Driver’s Parallel Psalter . Common though it is in other literatures and with such mediæval Jewish poets as Ibn Ezra, no decisive instance of the type of acrostic in which the initial letters compose a name, has been found in the OT, though some have detected the name Simeon (or Simon) thus given in Psalms 110:1-7 , Psalms 25:1-22 ; Psalms 34:1-22 contain each an additional strophe at the close of the alphabetic strophes; in each case the first word of the verse is a part of the Hebrew verb pâdâh , ‘to redeem,’ and it has been suggested that the author or a copyist has thus left us a clue to his name Pedahel ; but interesting as this suggestion is, it is for several reasons doubtful
Names of God - The following are found in Holy Scripture: ...
Almighty, Genesis 17:1
Benign, II Esdras 9:17
Blessed, Genesis 14:20
Creator, 2Machabees 1:24
Everlasting, Isaiah 40:28
Father, Matthew 6:9
First and Last, Isaiah 44:6
God of Peace, Romans 15:33
God of Vengeance, Psalms 93:1
Great, Psalms 76:14
Helper, Isaiah 50:9
Hidden, Isaiah 45:15
Holy, Apocalypse 4:8
Hope, Romans 15:13
I am who am, Exodus 3:14
Immortal, 1 Timothy 1:17
Invisible, Colossians 1:15
Jealous, Exodus 20:5
Judge, Psalms 7:12
Just, Isaiah 45:21
Life Eternal, 1 John 5:20
Living God, Daniel 6:26
Lord of Hosts, Isaiah 5:7
Lord, Psalms 117:27
Merciful, Exodus 34:6
Most High, Luke 1:32
Most Strong, Genesis 46:3
Protector, Psalms 30:3
Redeemer, Psalms 18:15
Salvation, Apocalypse 19:1
Saviour, Psalms 24:5
Spirit, John 4:24
Strength, Apocalypse 7:12
True, Jeremiah 10:10
In his celebrated treatise, The Names of God (New York, 1912), Lessius has many others, not taken from Scripture but principally from the liturgy, with brief explanations
God, Names of - The following are found in Holy Scripture: ...
Almighty, Genesis 17:1
Benign, II Esdras 9:17
Blessed, Genesis 14:20
Creator, 2Machabees 1:24
Everlasting, Isaiah 40:28
Father, Matthew 6:9
First and Last, Isaiah 44:6
God of Peace, Romans 15:33
God of Vengeance, Psalms 93:1
Great, Psalms 76:14
Helper, Isaiah 50:9
Hidden, Isaiah 45:15
Holy, Apocalypse 4:8
Hope, Romans 15:13
I am who am, Exodus 3:14
Immortal, 1 Timothy 1:17
Invisible, Colossians 1:15
Jealous, Exodus 20:5
Judge, Psalms 7:12
Just, Isaiah 45:21
Life Eternal, 1 John 5:20
Living God, Daniel 6:26
Lord of Hosts, Isaiah 5:7
Lord, Psalms 117:27
Merciful, Exodus 34:6
Most High, Luke 1:32
Most Strong, Genesis 46:3
Protector, Psalms 30:3
Redeemer, Psalms 18:15
Salvation, Apocalypse 19:1
Saviour, Psalms 24:5
Spirit, John 4:24
Strength, Apocalypse 7:12
True, Jeremiah 10:10
In his celebrated treatise, The Names of God (New York, 1912), Lessius has many others, not taken from Scripture but principally from the liturgy, with brief explanations
Reins - The "kidneys"; the supposed seat of the desires and affections (Psalms 7:9; Psalms 26:2; Jeremiah 11:20; Jeremiah 17:10; Job 19:27)
Wisdom of God - This appears in all the works of his hands, Psalms 104:24 ; in the dispensations of his providence, Psalms 97:1-2 ; in the work of redemption, Ephesians 3:10 ; in the government and preservation of his church in all ages, Psalms 107:7 . This doctrine should teach us admiration, Revelation 15:3-4 ; trust and confidence, Psalms 9:10 ; prayer, Proverbs 3:5-6 ; submission, Hebrews 12:1-29 ; praise, Psalms 103:1-4
Maschil - We meet with this work out the head of several of the Psalms. But wherefore some Psalms should be thus prefixed with a title, and others not, is not so very plain, since the whole book may be justly said to be Psalms of instruction
Pavilion - Psalms 27:5, sok ; Psalms 18:11; Psalms 31:20, a spiritual pavilion, namely, Jehovah's favor and protection; explained in the parallel, "the secret of Thy presence"; none have access to an eastern king's pavilion in the "inner court" save those he admits (Esther 4:11). Thus to be "kept secretly" in Jehovah's pavilion is to be in His most intimate confidence, and so perfectly secure, to be of His "hidden ones" (Psalms 83:3; 1 Kings 20:16; 2 Samuel 22:12)
Ezrahite - A name given to Heman in the title of Psalms 88:1-18 , and to Ethan (wh. see) in Psalms 89:1-52
Baca - We meet with this word but once in Scripture, and that is in the book of Psalms, (Psalms 84:6) The meaning of it seems to be weeping; though some consider it as referring to the mulberry tree
Dedication, Feast of the - ) It was an occasion for feasting and jollity: the people assembled at the synagogues, carrying branches of palms and other trees; the services were jubilant, no fast or mourning could begin during the period, and the Hallel ( Psalms 113:1-9 ; Psalms 114:1-8 ; Psalms 115:1-18 ; Psalms 116:1-19 ; Psalms 117:1-2 ; Psalms 118:1-29 ) was chanted
Psalms - ‘Psalms’ in the Apostolic Church included OT Psalms and similar hymns of praise to God, as sung to musical accompaniment. In 1 Corinthians 14:26 he assumes that members of the congregation will bring their assembly Psalms which they have composed or learnt and wish to sing with or before others. The Psalms of Solomon, which may be dated c. ...
The use of Psalms in private is referred to in James 5:13 : ‘He that is merry let him sing Psalms’ (cf
Ordinances of the Gospel - Psalms 5:1 ; Psalms 5:7 . Singing of Psalms, Colossians 3:16 . Solemn thanksgiving, Psalms 50:14
Psalms, the Book of - (See Psalms
Psaltery - In Psalms 33:2 omit "and," translated "sing with the psaltery an instrument of ten strings. 3) mentions that ordinarily it had 12 strings; nebel means literally, a leather bottle, the psaltery was named so from its shape (Psalms 92:3; Psalms 144:9)
Goodness of God - He is the chief good; the sum and substance of all felicity, Psalms 144:12 ; Psalms 144:15 ; Psalms 73:25 ; Psalms 4:6-7 . The goodness of God is communicative and diffusive, Psalms 119:68 ; Psalms 33:5 . His general goodness is seen in all his creatures; yea in the inanimate creation, the sun, the earth, and all his works; and in the government, support, and protection of the world at large, Psalms 36:6 ; Psalms 145:1-21
Meekness - Psalms 10:2 ; Psalms 10:8-10 ). And, just as the Psalmists and Prophets had sympathized with the Lord’s hidden ones and promised them deliverance ( Psalms 9:12 ; Psalms 9:18 ; Psalms 10:12-18 ; Psalms 37:11 [1] Psalms 72:2 ; Psalms 72:4 , Isaiah 11:4 ), so Jesus was their champion
Degrees - Psalms of Degrees is a name given, to fifteen Psalms, from the 120, to the 134, inclusive. Some call them Psalms of elevation, because they were sung with an exalted voice, or because at every psalm the voice was raised; but the translation of Psalms of degrees has more generally obtained. Some think that they were called Psalms of degrees, because they were sung upon the fifteen steps of the temple; but they are not agreed where these steps were. Others are of opinion, that these Psalms were sung during the time of service, while the flesh, &c, were consuming on the altar, and while the fume and smoke ascended toward heaven; and that the title Psalms of Ascent seems to favour this supposition. The point is involved in entire obscurity; and, after all, the title of these Psalms may be only a musical direction to the temple choir
Jonath Elem Rechokim, Upon - Instead of impatient self justification David in meek silence committed his cause to God (Psalms 38:13; compare as to his being like a "dove" far from home Psalms 55:6-7). David hath slain his ten thousands? answers to Psalms 56:3. Saul's "wresting his words" into treason is alluded to, Psalms 56:5; his vain attempt by iniquitous persecution to escape his foretold doom, Psalms 56:7
Psalms - ) The Hebrew designation tehillim , "praises" or hymns," occurring only in the title of Psalm 145 and about 30 times in the body of the Psalms, applies only to some not to all the Psalms. The glorification of God is the design of them all, even the penitentiary and precatory Psalms; but tehilliym applies strictly to praise songs alone, tephillowt to the prayer songs; Psalm 17; Psalm 72 end, closing the second book of Psalms, Psalm 86; 90; 102 title. ...
The Greek Septuagint has given the title "Psalms" (from psalloo "to play an instrument") applied to the whole collection. The Hebrew mizmor designates 65 Psalms; in the Syriac version it comprises the whole (from zaamar "to decorate"), Psalms of artificial, adorned structure (Hengstenberg). "Psalms," the designation most applicable to the whole book, means songs accompanied by an instrument, especially the harp (1 Chronicles 16:4-9; 2 Chronicles 5:12-13). The various kinds are specified in Ephesians 5:19; "psalms (accompanied by an instrument), hymns (indirect praise of God), . The enigmatical titles, found only in the Psalms of David and of David's singers, accord with Eastern taste. If the titles were added by later hands, how is it that they are wanting in those Psalms where conjecture could most easily have had place, namely, the non-Davidic Psalms of the fourth and fifth books, whereas they appear in the most regular and complete form in David's Psalms, next in those of his singers? Now these are just the ones where conjecture is given no room for exercise; for the titles do not apparently illustrate these Psalms, but are a memorial of the events which most deeply impressed David's own mind. In the last two books the historical occasions do not occur in the titles, because cycles of Psalms mainly compose these books, and among such cycles Psalms of an individual reference hardly have place. The Psalms form one "book"; so the Lord refers to them (Luke 20:42), so His apostles (Acts 1:20). The fathers, Ambrose (on Psalm 40) and Jerome to Cyprian (2:695), describe the Psalms as five books in one volume. The Psalms, like the Pentateuch, being used in divine worship, are the people's answer to God's address to them in the law, i. The "blessed be the Lord God of Israel" is taken up by Zacharias, as fulfilled in Christ (Leviticus 1:68-71; Psalms 106:48). The objection from the "temple" (Psalms 5:7) being mentioned is groundless, for in 1 Samuel 1:9; 1 Samuel 3:3, it is similarly used for the tabernacle long before Solomon's temple was built. The argument for a post-Babylonian date from the phrase "bring back the captivity" (Psalms 14:7) is invalid; it is a Hebraism for reversing one's misfortunes (Job 42:10). Nor does the acrosticism in Psalm 25 prove a late date, for acrosticism appears in Psalms acknowledged to be David's (Psalm 9). "Selah" is restricted to David and his singers; but "hallelujah" is never found in his or their Psalms. ...
So also "to the chief musician," (committing the psalm to the music conductor to prepare for musical performance in the public service: 1 Chronicles 15:21 Hebrew and margin, compare 1 Chronicles 15:22,) is limited to David's and their Psalms. Hezekiah's "writing" (miktab ) alludes probably to David's miktam (a "secret," or "song of deep import"), Psalm 56; 57 titles, for it was he who restored David's Psalms to their liturgical use in the temple (2 Chronicles 29:30). This imitation of David's title, and still more the correspondence of his prayer to David's Psalms (Psalms 102:24; Psalms 27:13; Psalms 49:1; Psalms 6:5; Psalms 30:9), is a presumption for the authenticity of David's and his singers' Psalms and their titles. ...
Habakkuk similarly leans upon David's superscriptions, as also upon his Psalms. So the "Selah" (Psalms 6:9; Psalms 6:13) which occurs only in the Psalms of David and his singers. The absence of the authors' names from most of the Psalms in the fourth and fifth books implies that none of them have an individual and personal character, as the Davidic Psalms have. The later groups of Psalms rest on the Davidic, and echo the poetry of David. Even in the Psalms of David's singers, the authors, except Asaph (Psalm 1; 74) who was immediately associated with David, do not give their individual names. Also...
(2) only the Psalms applicable to the whole church and therefore suited to the public services of the sanctuary. Asaph, the writer of some Psalms, was a "seer" (2 Chronicles 29:30). " Christ testifies (Matthew 22:41-46), He classes" the Psalms," the chief book of the chetubim or hagiographa, with "the law and the prophets" (Luke 24:44). The Psalms draw out of the typical ceremonial of the law its tuner spirit, adapting it to the various requirements of the individual and the congregation. By their help the Israelite could enter into the living spirit of the law, and realizing his need of the promised Saviour look for Him of whom the Psalms testify. ...
(1) Psalms of joy and gratitude, shir , lethodah "for confession" or ascription of praise (Psalm 100), tehillah (Psalm 145). ...
(2) Psalms under sorrow, giving birth to prayer: tephillah , "prayer song" (Psalm 90), lehazkir "to put God in remembrance" of His people's needs (Psalm 38; 70), leanot "concerning the affliction" (Psalm 88), altaseheeth "destroy not" (Psalm 57; 58; 59). The title Maschil is absent from some didactic Psalms and present in others, because its design is to mark as didactic only those in which the "instruction" is covert and so might be overlooked. Moreover Solomon's proverbs subsequently to David took the place of the didactic Psalms. But some maschil Psalms still were composed, and these more lyric in tone and less sententious and maxim-like in style than Proverbs. The Holy Spirit doubtless directed the compiler in arranging as well as the writers in composing the Psalms. " Thus this pair, announcing the blessedness of the godly and the doom of the ungodly in the coming judgment, fitly prefaces the Psalms as John the Baptist's announcement of the final judgment preludes the gospel (Matthew 3). "A spiritual epitome of all history (Wordsworth); the godly "meditate in the law of the Lord," the ungodly "meditate a vain thing" (Psalms 1:2; Psalms 2:1). " The principle of arrangement is not: wholly chronological, though David's book of Psalms is first of the five, and the post captivity book of Psalms last; for Moses' psalm (Psalm 90), the oldest of all, begins the fourth book, and some of David's Psalms are in the fifth. "At the time the Psalms were written" they were not of such use to those among whom they were written as they are to us, for they were written to prophesy the New Testament among those who lived under the Old Testament" (Augustine on Psalm 101; 1 Peter 1:10-12. The Psalms alone have no counterpart in the New Testament, except the songs of the Virgin, Zacharias and Simeon (Luke 1; 2), because the psalter belongs to both Testaments alike, being "the hymnbook of the universal church" (Wordsworth). There is scarcely a place in the Psalms where the voices of Christ and the church are not to be found (Augustine on Psalm 59). ...
AUTHORS: David composed 80 of the Psalms, Asaph wrote four, singers of his school (See below) penned eight, the sons of Korah of David's and Solomon's times seven, Solomon two. ) The occasion of Psalm 47 was his bloodless victory over Moab, Ammon, Edom, and the Arabians, who combined to drive Judah out of their "inheritance" (Psalms 47:4; 2 Chronicles 20:11). The title ascribes the psalm to "the sons of Korah," just as in 2 Chronicles 20:19 the Korahites are in front of the Jews' army "to praise the Lord God of Israel with a loud voice on high"; so Psalms 47:5 answers to 2 Chronicles 20:26. Psalm 47 was perhaps sung in the valley of Bernehah (blessing); Psalm 48 in the temple service on their return (compare Psalms 47:9). As Jehoshaphat was "in the fore front" of the returning people (2 Chronicles 20:27), so "Jehovah with the sound of a trumpet went up" to His earthly temple (Psalms 47:5). ...
So "the fear of God was on all the kingdoms" (Psalms 47:8-9; compare 2 Chronicles 20:28-29). The breaking of Jehoshaphat's Tarshish ships is alluded to Psalms 48:7, his ungodly alliance being as great a danger from within as the hostile invasion from without; both alike the grace of God averted. As the Psalms took their rise in the religious awakening under David, so the long times of growing declension subsequently were barren of additions to the psalter. David gave the tone to all the succeeding Psalms, so that, in a sense, he is their author. Recognition of God's retributive righteousness as a preservative against despair (in undesigned coincidence with the history, 1 Samuel 30:6), and the sudden interposition of divine consolation amidst sorrowful complaints, are characteristic of his Psalms. He first introduced the alphabetical arrangement; also the grouping of verses with reference to numbers, and the significancy of the recurrence of the names of God; also the combining of Psalms in pairs, and in larger cycles. The divine promise to his line in 2 Samuel 7 forms the basis of many of his Messianic prophecies, as Psalm 138-145; compare with Psalms 140:1; 2 Samuel 22:49. Of Asaph's Psalms, four are composed by David's chief musician: Psalm 50; Psalm 73; Psalm 78 (warning Ephraim not to rebel against God's transfer of their prerogative to Zion and Judah), Psalm 82; a didactic and prophetic character marks them all. Psalms 74:8 answers to Jeremiah 52:13; Jeremiah 52:17; the psalmist was probably one of the few Jews left by the Chaldaeans "in the land. " So also Psalms 79:1 alludes to the temple's "defilement" by the Chaldees (Jeremiah 10:25 quotes Psalms 79:6). ...
The Psalms of the sons of Korah are fourteen, of which seven belong to David's and Solomon's times, and seven to later times. Psalm 42; Psalm 43; Psalm 84; Psalm 86 (according to Hengstenberg, as occurring in the midst of Korahitic Psalms though superscribed with David's name), refer to Absaiom's rebellion; Psalm 44 on the invasion of the Edomites (2 Samuel 8:13; 1 Chronicles 18:12; 1 Kings 11:15-16); Psalm 49 of general import; Psalm 45 on King Messiah's marriage to Israel and the church, in Solomon's time; Psalm 47; Psalm 48; Psalm 83, in Jehoshaphat's time; Psalm 46; Psalm 87, refer to Sennacherib's host overthrown before Jerusalem, in Hezekiah's reign; Psalm 85; Psalm 88; Psalm 89, before the Babylonian captivity. ...
Neither Heman nor the sons of Heman are named in the superscriptions, but the sons of Korah; perhaps because Heman, though musical and head of the Korahitic singers, was not also poetically gifted as was Asaph; Psalm 88, is gloom throughout, yet the title calls it (shir ) a "song" of joy; this can only refer to Psalm 89 which follows being paired with it; it was when the "anointed" of David's throne (Josiah) had his "crown profaned on the ground," being not able to" stand in the battle" (Psalms 89:43), and his son Jehoahaz after a three months' reign was carried to Egypt by Pharaoh Necho (2 Samuel 1:22; 2 Chronicles 36:1-4; Psalms 89:45); the title, "to the chief musician," shows the temple was standing, Josiah had just before caused a religious revival. Similarly, the form of the several Psalms is regulated by numbers, especially seven divided into four and three. The criticism too which would dismember the Psalms is proved at least in their case, and in that of whatever Scriptures are arranged by numbers, to be false. A similar proof of the correctness of the text appears in the fact that the ELOHIM Psalms are peculiar to the first three books, those of David, Asaph, and the sons of Korah. So strange had "ΕLΟΗΙΜ " become in later times that only the Jehovah Psalms of David were inserted in the later books, excepting David's Psalm 108 introductory to Psalm 109 and Psalm 110. David boldly, in the face of mighty nations, asserts the nullity of their gods and the sole Godhead of Jehovah; compare Psalms 18:31, "who is Elohim but Jehovah?" Jehovah is understood before Elohim in Elohim Psalms, as the doxology at the end of the second book recognizes, "blessed be Jehovah Elohim" (Psalms 72:18). The first book (Psalm 1-4) the Davidic-Jehovah Psalms. The second book (Psalm 42-72) the Elohim Psalms; namely, of David's singers, the sons of Korah (Psalm 42-49), Asaph's (Psalm 1. ), then David's Elohim Psalms (Psalm 51-71), Solomon's Elohim psalm (Psalm 72). Psalm 73-89, the Jehovah Psalms of David's singers; of Asaph (Psalm 73; Psalm 83), of the sons of Korah (Psalm 84-89). Thus in the arrangement the Jehovah Psalms (Jehovah being the fundamental name) enclose the Elohim Psalms; so the first book doxology begins with Jehovah; the second has, let Jehovah Elohim be praised; the third, let Jehovah be praised. ) The Psalms of David in the last two books are inserted as component parts into the later cycles. The subscription, Psalms 72:20, "the prayers of David, the son of Jesse, are ended," distinguishes the detached from the serial Psalms of David; so Job 31:40 is not contradicted by his again speaking in Job 40; Job 42. Moses' Psalm 90 is put after David's and his singers' Psalms, because David was so preeminent as the sweet psalmist of Israel. Psalm 107-150 are (excepting David's Psalms incorporated) after the return from the captivity. The dodecad Psalm 108-119, is composed of a trilogy of David introducing nine Psalms sung at laying the foundation of the second temple. Psalm 120-134, the pilgrim songs ("songs of degrees"), namely, four Psalms of David, one of Solomon, and ten nameless ones, are appropriate to the time of the interruption of the temple building. ) Psalm 135-146 (including David's Psalms incorporated with the rest) celebrate its happy completion. Thrupp (Smith's Bible Dictionary) maintains that as Psalm 73-83 do not all proceed from Asaph, but from members of the choir which he founded, so the Psalms in Books III, IV, V, inscribed with the name of David, were written by his royal representatives for the time being (Hezekiah, Josiah, Zerubbabel, etc. But why then should one of the Psalms in question be inscribed with" Solomon" rather than David? The Psalms accord with David's circumstances; their containing phrases of David's former Psalms is not inconsistent with his authorship, as the sacred authors often repeat their own inspired words. ...
In 2 Maccabees the collection of David's Psalms is attributed to Nehemiah
Hallelujah - ‘Hallelujah,’ ‘Praise ye Jahweh,’ is used as a doxology in some OT Psalms, e. Psalms 104:35; Psalms 105:45. ) quotes its use with certain Psalms, after the Jewish manner, said or sung by the whole congregation
Rock - Just as a high rocky cliff can be a refuge or fortress, so God is a refuge and fortress to his believing people (Genesis 49:24; Psalms 18:2; Psalms 28:1; Psalms 62:2; Psalms 78:35; Isaiah 32:1-2)
Bones - BONES is used widely in OT as a synonym for the body, living or dead, or the person ( Psalms 42:10 ; Psalms 51:8 ). As the solid framework of the body, the bones are the seat of health and strength, so that breaking, rottenness, dryness of the bones are frequent figures for sickness or moral disorder ( Proverbs 14:30 ; Proverbs 17:22 , Psalms 6:2 ; Psalms 22:14 )
Leviathan - " In Hebrew the word livya-than is found only in Job 3:8; Job 41:1; Psalms 74:14; Psalms 104:26; Isaiah 27:1. In the margin of Job 3:8 and text of Job 41:1 the crocodile is no doubt the animal meant, and also in Psalms 74:14. In Psalms 104:26 the name represents some animal of the whale tribe in the Mediterranean; but it is uncertain what animal is intended in Isaiah 27:1
Higgaion - See Psalms (Titles)
Gittith - See Psalms (titles)
Footstool - A figurative expression in Scripture to denote the humiliation of the enemies of Christ (Psalms 109), and therefore emblematic of His Kingdom. ...
Un expression figurative in scriptura que denota le humiliation del inimicos de Christo (Psalms 109), ergo symbolic de Su regno
Mary, Psalter of - A work composed by Saint Bonaventure applying the sentiments of the Psalms and other canticles of Sacred Scripture to the Blessed Virgin. Also, the Rosary, because of the 150 Hail Marys, corresponding to the number of the Psalms of David
Ascents, Song of - A title given to each of the Psalms in Psalm 120-134 . The title's original meaning cannot be clearly established, though most interpreters see reference to a procession in which worshipers marched to Jerusalem and sang the Psalms as they marched
Alleluiatic Psalms - Late Jewish ritualistic designation of four groups of Psalms 104-106,110-116,134-135 (Great Hallel), 145-150, Vulgate enumeration, denoting liturgical use in connection with the Passover (Paschal) Supper. Title derived from the opening word of several of these Psalms, "Halleluiah" or Hallelu (Praise ye)
Ascents, Song of - A title given to each of the Psalms in Psalm 120-134 . The title's original meaning cannot be clearly established, though most interpreters see reference to a procession in which worshipers marched to Jerusalem and sang the Psalms as they marched
Laud - , as in Psalms 117:1 ; Psalms 145:4 , though not quite consistently. In Psalms 147:12 the difference between the verbs is ignored
Gittith - This word is found in Scripture only at the head, or title page, of several Psalms; namely, Psalms 8:1-9; Psalms 81:1-16 and Psalms 84:1-12. The Psalms which bear this name in the title, are not less blessed for our ignorance on this point; though if it be, as it is possible it may have, a reference to the Lord Jesus Christ, it would be gratifying to know it
Sun - The sun is a symbol of permanency and endurance (Psalms 72:5; Psalms 72:17; Psalms 89:36), but it is not eternal. It is something God has created, and therefore it must not become an object of worship (Deuteronomy 4:19; Psalms 136:7-9; Ezekiel 8:16-18; Romans 1:18-23)
Nehiloth - See Psalms, p
Shiggaion - See Psalms, p
Michtam - See Psalms, p
Lament - See Grief and Mourning ; Lamentations; Psalms
Psalm - " It is used (a) of the OT book of "Psalms," Luke 20:42 ; 24:44 ; Acts 1:20 ; (b) of a particlular "psalm," Acts 13:33 (cp. 35); (c) of "psalms" in general, 1 Corinthians 14:26 ; Ephesians 5:19 ; Colossians 3:16 . ...
Note: For psallo, rendered "let him sing Psalms" in James 5:13 , see MELODY , SING
Hay - It was cut as it was used, and not stacked (Psalms 37:2; Psalms 72:6; Psalms 129:7)
Arrow - Psalms 38 . Psalms 11 . Psalms 64
Hymn - Paul requires Christians to edify one another with "psalms and hymns and spiritual songs. They probably chanted a part of the Psalms which the Jews used to sing after the Passover, which they called the Halal; that is, the Hallelujah Psalms
Prevent - ]'>[1] is to ‘be before,’ ‘anticipate,’ ‘forestall,’ as Psalms 119:147 ‘I prevented the dawning of the morning and cried’ (Amer. Sometimes it is to forestall for one’s good, as Psalms 59:10 ‘The God of my mercy shall prevent me’; and sometimes for one’s hurt, as Psalms 18:5 ‘The snares of death prevented me’; but the mod
Hallelujah - Praise ye Jehovah, frequently rendered "Praise ye the LORD," stands at the beginning of ten of the Psalms (106,111-113,135,146-150), hence called "hallelujah Psalms
Baca, Valley of - An allegorical place-name, found only in Psalms 84:6 , where the RV Muth-Labben - See Psalms, p
Neginah, Neginoth - See Psalms, p
Sheminith - Psalms, p
Shushan-Eduth - See Psalms, p
Mahalath Leannoth - See Psalms, p
Psalmograph - ) A writer of Psalms; a psalmographer
Psalms of Solomon - Psalms OF SOLOMON
Leek - הציר , in Numbers 11:5 , translated "leek;" in 1 Kings 18:5 ; 2 Kings 19:26 ; Job 40:15 ; Psalms 37:2 ; Psalms 90:5 ; Psalms 103:15 ; Psalms 104:14 ; Psalms 129:6 ; Psalms 147:8 ; Isaiah 35:7 ; Isaiah 37:27 ; Isaiah 40:6 , it is rendered "grass;" in Job 8:12 , "herb;" in Proverbs 27:25 ; Isaiah 15:6 , "hay;" and in Isaiah 34:13 , "a court
Meditation - It ought to be deliberate, close, and perpetual, Psalms 119:97 . Psalms 1:2 . The subjects which ought more especially to engage the Christian mind are the works of creation, Psalms 19:1-14 : the perfections of God. Deuteronomy 32:4 ; the excellencies, offices, characters, and works of Christ, Hebrews 12:2-3 ; the offices and operations of the Holy Spirit, John 15:16 : the various dispensations of Providence, Psalms 97:1-2 ; the precepts, declarations, promises, &c. To perform this duty aright, we should be much in prayer, Luke 18:1 ; avoid a worldly spirit, 1 John 2:15 ; beware of sloth, Hebrews 6:11 ; take heed of sensual pleasures, James 4:4 ; watch against the devices of Satan, 1 Peter 5:8 ; be often in retirement, Psalms 4:4 ; embrace the most favourable opportunities, the calmness of the morning, Psalms 5:1 ; Psalms 5:3 ; the solemnity of the evening, Genesis 24:63 ; Sabbathdays, Psalms 118:24 ; sacramental occasions, &c. The advantages resulting from this are, improvement of the faculties of the soul, Proverbs 16:22 ; the affections are raised to God, Psalms 39:1 ; Psalms 39:4 ; an enjoyment of divine peace and felicity, Philippians 4:6-7 ; holiness of life is promoted, Psalms 119:59-60 ; and we thereby experience a foretaste of eternal glory, Psalms 73:25-26
Alike - Psalms 13 . Psalms 33
Dirge - See Music; Psalms
Psalmistry - ) The use of Psalms in devotion; psalmody
Jonath Elem Rehokim - See Psalms, p
Psalms - The book of Psalms is called by the Jews Sepher Tihillim, which more particularly signifies, the book of Psalms, or hymns of praise. But there are two other names given by the Hebrews to the Psalms, Zemer and Sher. And hence some have thought, that as the chief scope and tendency of the Psalms is to lead to Christ, the former implies his humiliation, and the latter his glory. " (Luke 24:26)...
The Psalms have been generally divided into five heads, but it doth not appear that the Holy Ghost hath given any authority for this division. As to Jesus give all the prophets witness, and as the Psalms many of them are prophetical, evidently they are included. It is best in the perusal of every one of them to be on the look-out for Jesus, for precious are the things contained in the Psalms concerning him. ...
On those fifteen Psalms entitled A song of degrees, from Psalms 120:1-7 to Psalms 134:1-3 included, I can offer no one observation to form the least conjecture what the title means. The Psalms themselves are full of Jesus, and therefore in the discovery and enjoyment of him it will be our highest wisdom to direct our researches, praying that as often as the Holy Ghost opens any part of this precious volume to our meditation, he that hath the key of David may open our heart to the right apprehension of them, to make us wise unto salvation, through the faith that is in Christ Jesus
Psalms, the Book of - The Hebrew name for this book is TEHILLIM, praises, though many of the Psalms are rather elegiac. Most of the Psalms have the superscription mizmor, a poem song. The Greek psalterion means a stringed instrument; hence by a metaphor the book of Psalms is called Psalter. For the poetical characteristics of the Psalms, see POETRY. Some writers have classified the Psalms according to their poetic character, into odes, elegies, etc. These Psalms express thoughts of the highest sublimity in respect to God, providence, redemption, etc. See DEGREES, Psalms OF. To this class belong the seven penitential Psalms, as they are termed, Psalm 6:1-10 25:1-22 32:1-11 35:1-28 38:1-22 51:1-19 130:1-8 . Elegiac Psalms, that is, lamentations, Psalms of complaint, generally united with prayer for help. Messianic Psalms, as Psalm 3:1-8 22:1-31 45:1-17 69:1-36 72:1-20 110:1-7 , etc. Historical Psalms, in which the ancient history manner, Psalm 78:1-72 105:1-45 106:1-48 114:1-8 . ...
But it is impossible to form any perfect arrangement, because some Psalms belong in part to two or more different classes. Besides the proper Messianic Psalms, predictions of the Messiah are widely scattered through this book, and the attention of the devout reader is continually attracted by passages foretelling His character and His works. " ...
InscriptionsWith the exception of twenty-five Psalms, hence called orphan Psalms, all the rest have inscriptions of various kinds. They are of very high antiquity, if not as old as the Psalms themselves; and in the Hebrew are not detached from the Psalms, as in modern translations. ...
Authors and age of the Psalms. To David are assigned seventythree Psalms in the Hebrew, and in the Septuagint eleven more. As to the authorship of the other Psalms, much diversity of opinion has prevailed among biblical critics. ...
The whole collection of the Psalms appears to have first existed in five books, after the example, perhaps, of the Pentateuch. Some occur as parts of other Psalms; as for example, Psalm 70:1-5 forms also a part of Psalm 40:1-17 . So also some Psalms are repeated from other books of Scripture; thus Psalm 18:1-31 2 Samuel 22:1-51 . Luther, in his prefaces to the Psalter, has the following beautiful language; "Where canst thou find nobler words of joy, than in the Psalms of praise and thanksgiving? There thou mayest look into the hearts of all good men, as into beautiful and pleasant gardens, yea, as into heaven itself. How do grateful and fine and charming blossoms spring up there from every kind of pleasing and rejoicing thoughts towards God and his goodness! Again, where canst thou find more deep or mournful words of sorrow, than in the Psalms of lamentation and woe? There thou mayest look again into the hearts of all good men, as upon death, yea, as if into hell. Hence it is that the Psalter is The Book of all good men; and every one, whatever his circumstances may be, finds in it Psalms and words suited to his circumstances, and which are to him just as if they had been put there on his very account, and in such a way that; he himself could not have made or found or wished for better. " ...
In Luke 24:44 , the word "psalms" denotes one of the three divisions of the Hebrew Bible, the Hagiographa or devotional writings. With regard to alphabetical Psalms and Psalms of degrees, see DEGREES, Psalms OF, and LETTERS
Meditation - The meditation of a righteous person contemplates God or His great spiritual truths (Psalm 63:6 ; Psalm 77:12 ; Psalm 119:15 , Psalm 119:23 ,Psalms 119:23,119:27 ,Psalms 119:27,119:48 ,Psalms 119:48,119:78,97,148 ; Psalm 143:5 ). ...
Most references to meditation occur in the Old Testament, especially in the Psalms. The constant recollection of God's past deeds by the hearing of Scripture and repetition of thought produce confidence in God (Psalm 104:34 ; Psalm 119:15 ,Psalms 119:15,119:23 ,Psalms 119:23,119:48 ,Psalms 119:48,119:78 ,Psalms 119:78,119:97,99,148 ; Psalm 63:6-8 ; Psalm 143:5 )
Messiah - As in ancient times not only the king, but also the priest and the prophet, was consecrated to his calling by being anointed, the word "Messiah" often occurs in the Old Testament in its literal sense, signifying one who has been anointed, 1 Samuel 24:6; Lamentations 4:1-22 :' 20; Ezekiel 28:14; Psalms 105:15; hut generally it has a more specific application, signifying the One who was anointed, the supreme Deliverer who was promised from the beginning, Genesis 3:15, and about whom a long series of prophecies runs through the whole history of Israel from Abram, Genesis 12:3; Genesis 22:18; Jacob, Genesis 49:10; Balaam, Numbers 24:17; Moses, Deuteronomy 18:15; Deuteronomy 18:18; and Nathan, 2 Samuel 7:16; through the psalmists and prophets, Psalms 2:1-12; Psalms 16:1-11; Psalms 22:1-31; Psalms 40:1-17; Psalms 45:1-17; Psalms 110:1-7; Isaiah 7:10-16; Isaiah 9:1-7; Isaiah 11:1-16; Isaiah 13:1-22; Isaiah 53:1-12; Isaiah 61:1-11; Jeremiah 23:5-6; Micah 5:2; Malachi 3:1-4, to his immediate precursor, John the Baptist. They expected a triumphant worldly king, according to Psalms 2:1-12; Jeremiah 23:5-6; Zechariah 9:9, and that his triumph was to be accomplished by sufferings and death they did not understand
Foundation - Righteousness and judgment are the foundation of God’s throne ( Psalms 89:14 ; Psalms 97:2 RV Rod - , Moses'; Numbers 17, Aaron's; Psalms 2:9, Christ's. He will either rule with the pastoral rod, or break with the rod (scepter) of iron (Revelation 2:27; Revelation 19:15; Micah 6:9; Micah 7:14; Psalms 110:2; Isaiah 9:4; Isaiah 11:4)
Frog - tsephardça‘ , Exodus 8:2-14 , Psalms 78:45 ; Psalms 105:30 one of the plagues of Egypt
Jeduthun - Jeduthun ( Jedithun ) occurs in the headings of Psalms 39:1-13 ; Psalms 62:1-12 ; Psalms 77:1-20 , and appears to refer to an instrument or to a tune
Neginoth - A title to many of the Psalms
Sheminith - We find this word before two of the Psalms, (Psalms 6:1-10; Psa 12:1-8)! and it is used 1 Chronicles 15:21. But this is by no means satisfactory; it is too trifling to suppose that the blessed and precious truths of the Psalms were composed for the purpose of mere musical instruments. Those Psalms beyond all doubt have an eye to Christ, and express sweet leading features of his office-character as Messiah. If therefore we suppose (and which I venture to think may be done without violence) that the blessed things contained in them refer to Christ, may we not suppose also that the Psalm itself is therefore dedicated to him? If the reader wishes to see yet farther the foundation of such probable conclusions, I refer him to Parkhurst's Lexicon, page 696, or Fenwick on Titles of the Psalms, page 18
Tabernacles Feast of - In later times, the priests went every morning during the festival, and drew water from the fountain of Siloam, and poured it out to the southwest of the altar, the Levites, in the meanwhile, playing on instruments of music, and singing the Psalms 113:1-9; Psalms 114:1-8; Psalms 115:1-18; Psalms 116:1-19; Psalms 117:1-2; Psalms 118:1-29
Psalmographist - ) A writer of Psalms, or sacred songs and hymns
Gnash - Psalms 112 ...
1. Psalms 35 ...
Asp - Word occurring ten times in the Douay Version of the Bible, standing for four Hebrew names: ...
Péthén (Deuteronomy 32), the cobra;
Akhshubh, (Psalms 13; Romans 3), a highly poisonous viper, also mentioned once in the Hebrew Bible;
Shahal, (Psalms 90), a snake;
cphoni (Isaiah 59), called "the hisser
Poetry - This applies especially to the Psalms, the wisdom books and the prophetical books, though poems and songs are scattered throughout the prose narratives of other book (see SINGING). ...
If the first part of a verse contains the main thought, the following part (or parts) may add weight to this thought by repeating it in a slightly different form (Psalms 27:1; Psalms 104:7; Isaiah 2:7; Isaiah 5:20-22). In some cases the two parts of a verse may be arranged to contrast with each other by stating two opposite truths (Psalms 37:9; Proverbs 19:4; Proverbs 19:12). Alternatively, the second part may add to the first for the purpose of giving an application or leading to a climax (Psalms 56:4; Psalms 68:18; Jeremiah 31:20). Psalms 25; Psalms 34; Lamentations Chapters 1, 2 and 4). Psalms 119 has twenty-two sections of eight verses each; Lamentations Chapter 3 has twenty-two sections of three verses each
Psalmography - ) The act or practice of writing Psalms, or sacred songs
Hallel - —A technical Hebrew liturgical term, applied in Rabbinical literature to certain Psalms and psalm-pieces of praise, which characteristically have as their keynote the expression Hallelujah (‘Praise ye Jah’). It is more particularly applied to one group of Psalms (113–118) regarded as a liturgical unit (so always in the Synagogue-liturgy). ...
Psalms 113-118 form ‘the Hallel’ κατʼ ἐξοχήν, as distinguished from the ‘Hallel of Egypt’* [1] (Psalms 113-114) and the ‘great Hallel’ (הלל הנרול) which is usually understood to mean Psalms 136. In the Talmud and Midrash, however, the Psalms included in the ‘great Hallel’ are variously given, viz. : (1) Psalms 136, (2) Psalms 135:4-21, and (3) Psalms 120-136. 5) the Hallel (Psalms 113-118) is designated ‘Hallelujah. ...
Psalms 118:24 (‘This is the day which the Lord hath made; we will rejoice and be glad in it’) points to some day of public thanksgiving; Psalms 118:4-24 suggest the Syrian war, and recovery of and entrance into the Temple. Thus Psalms 118:25-29 seems to be an old song of praise for the Feast of Tabernacles. ]'>[6] A curious indication of its liturgical use may perhaps be seen in the fact that the Midrash on the Psalms counts only five Psalms in the Hallel, Psalms 115 not being regarded. ]'>[7] treat the latter psalm as part of Psalms 114. : Psalms 115:1-11; Psalms 116:1-11[10] Certain parts are also recited with a responsive refrain:...
(a) The first four verses of Psalms 118 are said by the Reader, the people responding after each: ‘O give thanks unto the Lord; for He is good: for His mercy endureth for ever. The first part (Psalms 113-114) immediately follows the Haggâdâ proper (the narrative of redemption) and precedes the drinking of the second cup of wine. The second part (Psalms 115-118, followed by 136 and the ‘Blessing of Song’) follows after the mixing of the fourth cup, when the banquet and grace after meat have been completed. The contenta of the first part were, however, a subject in dispute between the schools of Shammai and Hillel, the former concluding it at Psalms 113, the latter at Psalms 114. —It is usually assumed that the hymn referred to in Matthew 26:30 | Mark 14:26 (‘when they had sung a hymn’ [12]) was the second part of the Hallel (Psalms 115-118)* Maschil - A Hebrew word occurring in the headings of several of the Psalms, Psalm 32 , Psalm 42 , Psalm 44 , Psalm 45 , Psalm 52 — Psalm 55 , Psalm 74 , Psalm 78 , Psalm 88 , Psalm 89 and Psalm 142 . The word signifies 'instruction,' and these Psalms convey instruction to the remnant, which they will understand. Christians are exhorted to be "teaching and admonishing one another in Psalms, and hymns, and spiritual songs, singing with grace in your hearts to the Lord
Joy - ]'>[2] uniformly ‘glorying,’ except in Psalms 68:1-63 f. , as in Psalms 1:1 ; Psalms 127:5 ) and of the NT ( Matthew 5:3 ff. , Psalms 104:31 ), and ‘rejoices over’ His people ‘for good’ ( Deuteronomy 30:9 , Zephaniah 3:17 etc. ]'>[3] ,’ ( Psalms 97:12 ; Psalms 149:2 etc. ), in the fact that they have such a God and know Him ( Psalms 4:6 f. , Psalms 16:11 f. ) this is the supreme happiness of life, it is ‘life’ in the full sense ( Psalms 36:9 ; Psalms 63:1-7 etc. ) particularly in His ‘mercy’ and ‘faithfulness’ and ‘salvation’ ( Psalms 21:1-7 ; Psalms 51:7-17 ; Psalms 85:1-13 ; Psalms 89:1-8 , Isaiah 25:9 , Habakkuk 3:17 ff. , Psalms 119:1-176 ); they ‘rejoice before J″ [3] ’s ‘judgments’ on wrong-doers ( 1 Samuel 2:1-10 , Psalms 48:4 ff; 1618180990_43 etc. ), and in His ‘promises,’ which bring hope and light into the darkest days ( Psalms 27:1-6 , Jeremiah 15:16 , Zechariah 2:10 ; Zechariah 9:9 etc. Psalms 17:14 f. , Psalms 126:5 ), and with spiritual fellowship and friendship ( Romans 12:15 , 2 Corinthians 7:7-16 , Philippians 2:1 ff
Degrees, Song of - The KJV phrase used in the titles of 15 Psalms (Psalm 120-134 ). It is conjectured that these Psalms were sung on such occassions (Isaiah 30:29 ; Psalm 132:7 ). Others have suggested that “ascents” is a reference to the rising melody of the Psalms, the step-like poetic form of some of the Psalms, or to the steps upon which the Levites performed music in the Temple
Care of God - That God does manifest this care is evident from the blessings we enjoy, the ordinances he has instituted, the promises he has given, and the provision he has made, Psalms 84:11 . Psalms 145:1-21 :...
4. Psalms 142:4-5 . Psalms 41:3
Mouth - gârôn ( Psalms 149:6 ) lit. ]'>[2] ( Psalms 32:8 RV [3] ‘trappings,’ Psalms 103:5 RVm Omnipresence of God - This may be argued from his infinity, Psalms 139:1-24 : his power, which is every where, Hebrews 1:3 ; his providence, Acts 17:27-28 , which supplies all. From the consideration of this attribute we should learn to fear and reverence God, Psalms 89:7 . Psalms 46:1 . To be active and diligent in holy services, Psalms 119:168
Shiggaion - Hengstenberg refers it to the subject of the Psalms, "the aberrations of the wicked" (Habakkuk 3:1). In consonance with this the Hebrew root of Shiggaion occurs in Saul's address to David (1 Samuel 26:21), "behold I have played the fool and erred exceedingly" (compare Psalms 119:21; Psalms 119:118). These David rebuts (Psalms 7:3-5)
Jeduthun - a Levite of Merari's family, and one of the four great masters of music belonging to the temple, 1 Chronicles 16:38 ; 1 Chronicles 16:41-42 ; 1 Chronicles 15:17 ; Psalms 89, title. Some of the Psalms are said to have been composed by him; such as the eighty-ninth, thirty-ninth, sixty-second, seventy-seventh; all of which go under his name. Some believe, that David, having composed these Psalms, gave them to Jeduthun and his company to sing; and that this is the reason of their going by this name. But there are some Psalms which have the name of Jeduthun, that seem to have been composed either during the captivity, or after it; and consequently the name of Jeduthun prefixed to them, can signify nothing else, but that some of his descendants, and of Jeduthun's class, composed them long after the death of the famous Jeduthun, one of their ancestors
Shir hamaalot - �Song of Ascents�); Psalms 120-134, which begin with that phrase...
Mizar - The Psalmist speaks feelingly of this, Psalms 42:6
Oil - Exodus 30:24; 2 Samuel 14:2; Psalms 23:5; Psalms 92:10; Psalms 104:15; Proverbs 21:17; Luke 7:46. The use of oil is significant of gladness, Psalms 141:5; Isaiah 61:3, and the omission of it betokened sorrow. Psalms 45:7; Zechariah 4:14; Isaiah 61:1; 1 John 2:20
Jaazaniah - His very name, meaning" Jehovah hears," gave the lie to the unbelief which virtually said "Jehovah seeth not" (Ezekiel 9:9; Psalms 10:11; Psalms 10:14; Psalms 50:21; Psalms 94:7; Psalms 94:9)
Rest - ]'>[1] ( Psalms 132:8 ; Psalms 132:14 ), the Temple being built by ‘a man of rest’ ( 1 Chronicles 22:9 ; a contrast is implied with the desert wanderings in Numbers 10:33-36 ). The individual desires rest, as did the nation ( Psalms 55:8 ); it is not to be found in ignoble ease ( Genesis 49:15 Issachar), but in the ways of God ( Psalms 37:7 , Jeremiah 6:10 ); it is the gift of Christ ( Matthew 11:28 ). Sinners fail to find it ( Isaiah 28:12 ; Isaiah 57:20 ), as Israel failed ( Psalms 95:11 ). This heavenly rest includes not only freedom from labour, as in OT ( Job 3:13 ; Job 3:17 Throne - of the high priest ( 1 Samuel 1:9 ; 1 Samuel 4:13 ; 1 Samuel 4:18 ), of a judge ( Psalms 94:20 ), of a military officer ( Jeremiah 1:15 ); but most frequently of a king ( e. ), and thus of God Himself ( Psalms 9:7 ; Psalms 11:4 ; Psalms 45:6 , Isaiah 6:1 ). Psalms 45:6 ; Psalms 93:2 )
Shield - (Genesis 15:1; Psalms 5:12; Psa 84:11) And most blessedly, with an eye to Christ, do the sacred writers speak in this language. (Psalms 18:1-2) And where Christ is indeed the shield, what weapon formed against his people can prosper? (Isaiah 54:16-17)...
Wickedness - Psalms 5 . Psalms 58
Sheol - They saw that all people eventually die and go to sheol, whether they be rich or poor, good or bad (Job 3:13-19; Psalms 88:1-5; Isaiah 38:18; Ezekiel 31:17; Ezekiel 32:18-32; cf. In fact, the writers often used ‘sheol’ simply as another word for ‘death’ (Genesis 42:38; Psalms 18:5; Psalms 86:13; Psalms 116:3; cf. ...
People saw death as an enemy (Psalms 6:5; Psalms 56:13; Ecclesiastes 8:8; cf. The mysterious, silent, shadowy existence that lay beyond it was not something they looked forward to (Job 10:21-22; Job 17:13-16; Psalms 94:17; Psalms 115:17; Isaiah 14:9-11; Ezekiel 26:19-20). The hope of the Old Testament believers was that God would not desert them in sheol, but would bring them into a new and joyful experience of life in the presence of God (Job 19:26; Psalms 16:10-11; Psalms 49:15; Psalms 73:24; cf. For the wicked, however, sheol would bring nothing but terror (Deuteronomy 32:22; Job 31:11-12; Psalms 55:15; Isaiah 14:19-20; Ezekiel 32:18-32)
Deus in Adjutorium Meum Intende - First words of Psalms 69; the usual beginning of each hour of Divine Office
Laudate Dominum - Opening words of Psalms 116, commonly chanted after the Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament
o God, Come to my Assistance - First words of Psalms 69; the usual beginning of each hour of Divine Office
Hatchet - HATCHET ( Psalms 74:6 RV Bloodguiltiness - Psalms 51 ...
Leviathan - The same Hebrew term livyathan, is found in Psalms 73:14,103:26. In Psalms 103:26; Job 3:8,40:20, it surely means the whale, especially in Psalms 103:25-26, where the home of leviathan is "the sea great and wide
Mizraim - The descent of the Egyptians from Ham is recognized in Psalms 104:23; Psalms 104:27; Psalms 78:51, where Egypt is called "the land of Ham
Health - ’ ( b ) In Psalms 42:11 ; Psalms 43:5 ; Psalms 67:2 , and frequently in Pr
Rahab (2) - Psalms 87:4-5; Psalms 89:10, "Thou hast broken Rahab in pieces, as one that is slain. (compare Psalms 74:13-14)
Aijeleth Shahar - , Psalms 22:19, ejulathi , "my strength," alludes to aijeleth , "the hind," weak in itself but having Jehovah for its strength. The morning dawn represents joy bursting forth after affliction; Messiah is alluded to, His deep sorrow (Psalms 22:1-21) passes to triumphant joy (Psalms 22:21-31)
Hymn - Paul requires Christians to edify one another with "psalms, and hymns, and spiritual songs. He recited the hymns or Psalms which the Jews were used to sing after the passover; which they called the Halal; that is, the Hallelujah Psalms
Michtam - In the titles of some of David's Psalms: Psalm 16; Psalm 56-60. Not "golden" as margin, but a "secret," conducting us into the depths of the divine life, "the secret of Jehovah" which is "with them that fear Him" (Psalms 25:14); from Hebrew "katham " to conceal, Arabic katama
Tarrying - Psalms 40 ...
This word is in respectable use
Horn - A similar combination of words is found in Psalms 18:2, but the conception is more probably due to Psalms 132:17, 1 Samuel 2:10. In the OT the word ‘horn’ is figuratively used in poetical and allegorical language: (a) for abstract notions of strength (Numbers 23:22, Psalms 89:17-24), and hence of dignity (Psalms 112:9) or pride (Psalms 75:4 ff. , on Psalms 18:2): possibly combative strength, in which both ideas are included, would be a better definition
Horn - A similar combination of words is found in Psalms 18:2, but the conception is more probably due to Psalms 132:17, 1 Samuel 2:10. In the OT the word ‘horn’ is figuratively used in poetical and allegorical language: (a) for abstract notions of strength (Numbers 23:22, Psalms 89:17-24), and hence of dignity (Psalms 112:9) or pride (Psalms 75:4 ff. , on Psalms 18:2): possibly combative strength, in which both ideas are included, would be a better definition
Matins - The nocturns comprised Psalms, prayers, lengthy Scriptural lessons, and other readings. The Psalms and books of Scripture were recited according to a fixed order. In the normal festive Office of the present Roman Breviary, Matins has three nocturns, each consisting of three Psalms, three lessons, and three responses. The first nocturn is introduced by Psalms 94 and a hymn; the third nocturn concludes with the Te Deum instead of the ninth response
Muth-Labben - Labben is an anagram for Nabal ("the fool" or wicked); "concerning the dying (muth ) of the fool," as Psalms 9:12; Psalms 9:16-17, "Thou hast destroyed the wicked, Thou hast put out their name forever and ever. Saul slain by the Philistines by whom he had sought to slay David, and receiving the last thrust from one of the Amalekites whom he ought to have destroyed, and Nabal ("fool") dying after his selfish surfeit when churlishly he had refused aught to David's men who had guarded him and his, are instances of the death of such world-wise "fools" (1 Samuel 25:26; 1 Samuel 25:38; 2 Samuel 3:33; Psalms 14:1). ) The Septuagint and Vulgate versions read concerning the mysteries of the Son," namely, the divine Son's death, the earnest of His final victory over the last "enemy" (Psalms 9:6)
Degrees, Psalms of - Is the title prefixed to fifteen Psalms, from Psalm 120 to Psalm 134 inclusive. The most probable are the following: First, pilgrim songs, sung by the Israelites while going up to Jerusalem to worship; compare Psalm 122:4 ; but to this explanation the contents of only a few of these Psalms are appropriate, as for instance, of Psalm 122:1-9 . Secondly, others suppose the title to refer to a species of rhythm in these Psalms; by which the sense ascends, as it were, by degrees, one member or clause frequently repeating the words with which the preceding member closes. ...
But this solution does not well apply to all these Psalms
Nehiloth - Nehiloth (nç'hi-loth), Psalms 5:1-12, title, meaning "perforated," as flutes, "wind instruments," R
Sparrow - SPARROW ( tsippôr , Psalms 84:3 ; Psalms 102:7 )
Seba - Psalms 72:10; Isaiah 43:3; Isaiah 45:14. Psalms 72:10, the trading people of the other side of the Red Sea
Dragon - (Greek: drakon, serpent) ...
In the Old Testament, especially in the Psalms, a designation for some very large sea animal (Psalms 103) or a serpent (Psalms 90)
Psalter - Any collection of Psalms used in worship
Psalms (2) - PSALMS. —In discussing the relation of Christ to the Psalms, two questions must be kept apart: (1) His use of the Psalter, (2) His presence in the Psalter. There were indeed elements in it which He could not have appropriated—cries for vengeance upon foes (Psalms 41:11 (10), cf. Psalms 68:24 (23)), or of an almost cruel delight at their defeat (Psalms 18:43 (42)), or sorrowful laments at the prospect of a death in which fellowship with God was believed to be interrupted (Psalms 6:6 (5) Psalms 39:13 (14) Psalms 88:11-13 (10–12)). Especially must He have been attracted by those Psalms which breathe the spirit of quiet confidence in God: ‘Thou art my God; my times are in thy hand’ (Psalms 31:15 f. (Psalms 31:14 f. )); ‘In thy presence is fulness of joy’ (Psalms 16:11); ‘As for me, I am continually with thee: thou hast holden my right hand. Thou wilt guide me with thy counsel, and afterward receive me to glory’ (Psalms 73:23 f. Most welcome of all would be those fine interpretations of the character of God scattered throughout the Psalter—as of one who is not only Lord of all space and time (90, 139), but who is also ‘good and ready to forgive and rich in love to all that call upon him’ (Psalms 86:5, Psalms 103:8), who opens His hand and satisfies the desire of every living thing (Psalms 145:16), who is father of the fatherless and judge of the widow (Psalms 68:6 (5)), who rises up at the oppression of the poor and the sighing of the needy (Acts 13:35-37,2 (5)). Psalms 6:9 (8)), or the allusion to Jerusalem as the ‘city of the great king’ (Matthew 5:35, cf. Psalms 48:3 (2)), but even such an assurance as that the heavenly Father feeds the birds (Matthew 6:26, cf. Psalms 147:9); and some of the Beatitudes themselves are but echoes of the Psalter, e. Psalms 37:11 (the land)), ‘the merciful shall obtain mercy’ (Matthew 5:7, cf. Psalms 18:26 (25)). Psalms 82:6 in John 10:34, and even prefaced by the words, ‘Have ye never read?’ (cf. Matthew 21:16; Matthew 21:42), which assume a familiar knowledge of the book, or at least of these particular Psalms (8, 118), on the part of His audience. , that ‘my soul is exceeding sorrowful’ (Matthew 26:38 || Mark 14:34) is an echo of Ps 42:6, 12, (Psalms 42:5; Psalms 42:11)), or that ‘he that eateth with me shall betray me’ (Mark 14:18) is an echo of Psalms 41:10, (9) (cf. John 13:18, where the treachery is expressly said to be in fulfilment of the utterance in the psalm), or that ‘they shall dash to the ground thy children within thee’ (Luke 19:44) is a reminiscence of Psalms 137:9. In the words of a psalm (Psalms 31:6, (Psalms 31:5)) Jesus commended His spirit into His Father’s hands (Luke 23:46). Psalms 91:13; Matthew 5:5, cf. Psalms 37:11); but, with the single exception—if it be an exception—of Psalms 110, to be afterwards discussed, He does not seem directly to countenance, by His own example, that Messianic interpretation of the Psalter upon which the Church has, from her earliest days, uniformly insisted. True, it is recorded that He said that ‘all things must needs be fulfilled which are written in the law of Moses, and the prophets, and the Psalms, concerning me’ (Luke 24:44). His method of dealing with the Psalms, when controversy is involved, is well illustrated by His citation of Psalms 82:6 in John 10:34. (Hebrews 1:10-12), finds, in the great words of Psalms 102:26-28 (Psalms 102:25; Psalms 102:27)—‘Thou, Lord, in the beginning, didst lay the foundation of the earth, and the heavens are the works of thy hands’—an allusion to Christ. Ephesians 4:8, Psalms 16:8-111 (Psalms 68:18). ...
Again, with regard to the Psalms customarily called Messianic, it has to be remembered that the songs of the Psalter have, generally speaking, a historical background. In many Psalms this is obvious (cf. Psalms 44, 83, 137); and the question may fairly be raised whether this is not also the case in the Messianic Psalms. While to some of the Psalms whose subject is a king a Messianic interpretation has been assigned (cf. ‘his Messiah,’ LXX Septuagint ‘Christ’), in Psalms 20:7 (6) is almost necessarily some historical king, and the psalm appears to have been composed on the eve of a battle. If, then, in some of the Psalms which deal with a ‘Messiah’ or ‘Christ,’ the reference is to a historic king of Israel or Judah, the presumption at least is raised that all the Messianic Psalms may be similarly interpreted. ’ In point of fact these words simply form the introduction to one of the longer historical Psalms (Psalms 78:2), and in them the Psalmist simply declares his intention to draw instruction from the ancient history of Israel. , for referring the latter part of Psalms 24 to Christ; but the Fathers applied it to His ascension, and the Te Deum addresses Christ as the King of Glory. Sometimes Psalms which are commonly regarded as Messianic contain sentiments which are un-Christian, and which therefore render the Messianic interpretation, in any sense worth defending, untenable. Some exegetes have even held that Psalms 18 is Messianic, in spite of such a verse as Psalms 18:43 (Psalms 18:42). Psalms 2, whose claims are much more generally allowed, contains sentiments (cf. Psalms 2:9) which could not legitimately be reconciled with the spirit of Him who was the Prince of peace. We shall now examine the Psalms which are most commonly regarded as Messianic—for convenience’ sake in the order in which they occur in the Psalter. ...
Psalms 2. One passage, indeed, does not seem even to regard the psalm as Messianic, at least in the narrower sense: in Revelation 2:27 the promise of Psalms 2:9 that the king would ‘break’ (LXX Septuagint and NT read ποιμανεῖ(ς), ‘shepherd,’ ‘rule,’ pointing תִּרְעֵם instead of תְּר֙עֵם) the nations with a rod of iron, as the vessels of the potter are broken, is applied, in the message addressed to Thyatira, to the Christian who overcomes and keeps the works of Christ to the end. ...
This application of the passage shows that, even in very early times, the Messianic interpretation of such Psalms was felt to be not the only possible one. As, however, there are passages in which even the LXX Septuagint speaks of these beings as ‘sons of God’ (Psalms 29:1; Psalms 89:6), we must assume, if the writer has not forgotten them, that he is laying particular stress on the latter half of the verse, ‘this day have I begotten thee. ...
Psalms 8. Psalms 5:3 (2) ‘Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings,’ etc. Psalms 8:5-6 of the psalm are interpreted as referring to Jesus, because the supremacy which, in the psalm, is asserted of the ‘son of man’ is not, as a matter of fact, true of the human race, but it is true of Jesus. ...
Psalms 16. He is Jehovah’s hâsîd, that is, a bond of love subsists between him and his God; and, in virtue of this bond, he is sure that Sheol cannot be his ultimate fate,—he will overleap it, and be received into glory (Psalms 73:24). The last word of Psalms 16:10 שׁחַח, which means ‘pit,’ was, however, unfortunately rendered by LXX Septuagint διαφθορά, ‘corruption’; and part of St. ...
Psalms 22. It is not only that echoes of it are heard in the Passion story of the Gospels,—in the parting of His garments and the casting of the lot for His raiment (Matthew 27:35 = Mark 15:24 = Luke 23:34, Psalms 22:19 (18)), the shaking of the heads of the passers-by (Matthew 27:39 = Mark 15:29 = Luke 23:35, Psalms 22:8 (7)), the mocking cry, ‘He trusted in God, let him deliver him’ (Matthew 27:43, Psalms 22:9 (8)),—but Jesus Himself upon the cross used at least the opening words of the psalm (Matthew 27:46 = Mark 15:34), and the parting of His garments is expressly said in John 19:24 to have taken place that the scripture might be fulfilled. ...
Psalms 34:21 (20). ...
Psalms 40. of Psalms 40:7 (6), which reads, ‘ears hast thou digged for me
Neginah - " NEGINOTH (plural), the general name for all stringed instruments (1 Samuel 18:6; 1 Samuel 18:10; 1 Samuel 19:9; 1 Samuel 16:16-18; 1 Samuel 16:23; Psalms 33:2; Psalms 92:3; Psalms 68:25; Psalms 150:4), played with the hand or a plectrum or quill; from nigeen , "performed music. ...
But Delitzsch: "Neginah denotes not a particular stringed instrument, but the music on such instruments (often a taunting song in Hebrew, Psalms 69:12; Job 30:9); Neginoth is the music formed by numerous notes running into one another, not various instruments
Thanksgiving - Thanksgiving is part of praise, prayer and worship (Psalms 95:1-7; Psalms 116:17; Colossians 4:2; Revelation 7:12; Revelation 11:17). They can do this by making sure that thanksgiving accompanies all their requests to God (Psalms 30:12; Psalms 92:1-4; Psalms 103:1-5; Philippians 4:6; Colossians 4:2; 1 Timothy 2:1)
Horn - Since wild animals used their horns to defend themselves or attack their enemies, Israelites often spoke of the horn as a symbol of power (Deuteronomy 33:17; 1 Kings 22:11; Psalms 18:2; Psalms 22:21; Psalms 75:5; Psalms 75:10; Psalms 92:10; Zechariah 1:21; Luke 1:69; Revelation 5:6)
Whale - Jonah on the whale or sea monster in which he was miraculously preserved, type of Him over whose head for our sakes went all the waves and billows of God's wrath: Psalms 42:7; Psalms 69:2; Galatians 3:13)
Afar - Psalms 38 . Why standest thou afar off, O Lord? Psalms 10 ...
4
Adder - " (Psalms 91:13) Hence also, as sin is of the devil, the infusion of it into our nature, at the fall, is called in Scripture, adder's poison. (Psalms 140:3
Burden - Is often used figuratively, to denote afflictions, failings, sins, Psalms 38:4; Psalms 55:22; Galatians 6:2; services under the law, Matthew 23:4; official responsibilities, Exodus 18:22; Deuteronomy 1:12; and especially prophetic massages, not always of a threatening character
Rejoicing - Psalms 118 . Psalms 119
Michtam - This word occurs in the titles of six Psalms (16,56-60), all of which are ascribed to David. " From the position which it occupies in the title we may infer that michtam is a term applied to these Psalms to denote their musical character, but beyond this everything is obscure
Aleph - alphabet, and so used to introduce the first part of Psalms 119:1-176
Abject - In Psalms 35:15 ‘abject’ occurs as a noun, as in Herbert’s Temple ‘Servants and abjects flout me
Psalms - The Psalms are the production of various authors. "Only a portion of the Book of Psalms claims David as its author. In the "titles" of the Psalms, the genuineness of which there is no sufficient reason to doubt, 73 are ascribed to David. ...
In Luke 24:44 the word "psalms" means the Hagiographa, i. ) ...
None of the Psalms can be proved to have been of a later date than the time of Ezra and Nehemiah, hence the whole collection extends over a period of about 1,000 years. ...
The Psalter is divided, after the analogy of the Pentateuch, into five books, each closing with a doxology or benediction: ...
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The first book comprises the first 41 Psalms, all of which are ascribed to David except 1,2,10, and 33, which, though anonymous, may also be ascribed to him. ...
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Book second consists of the next 31 Psalms Psalm 18 of which are ascribed to David and 1 to Solomon (the 72nd). ...
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The third book contains 17 Psalms (73-89), of which the 86th is ascribed to David, the 88th to Heman the Ezrahite, and the 89th to Ethan the Ezrahite. ...
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The fourth book also contains 17 Psalms (90-106), of which the 90th is ascribed to Moses, and the 101st and 103to David. ...
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The fifth book contains the remaining Psalms, 44 in number. ...
Divers names are given to the Psalms. ...
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Fifty-eight Psalms bear the designation (Heb. ...
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Six Psalms (16,56-60) have the title (Heb
Imprecation, Imprecatory Psalms - In the Imprecatory Psalms the author calls for God to bring misfortune and disaster upon the enemies (Psalm 5:1 ; Psalm 11:1 ; Psalm 17:1 ; Psalm 35:1 ; Psalm 55:1 ; Psalm 59:1 ; Psalm 69:1 ; Psalm 109:1 ; Psalm 137:1 ; Psalm 140:1 ). These Psalms are an embarrassment to many Christians who see them in tension with Jesus' teaching on love of enemies (Matthew 5:43-48 ). It is important to recall the theological principles that underlie such Psalms. These include: (1) the principle that vengeance belongs to God (Deuteronomy 32:35 ; Psalm 94:1 ) that excludes personal retaliation and necessitates appeal to God to punish the wicked (compare Romans 12:19 ); (2) the principle that God's righteousness demands judgment on the wicked (Psalm 5:6 ; Psalm 11:5-6 ); (3) the principle that God's covenant love for the people of God necessitates intervention on their part (Psalm 5:7 ; Psalm 59:10 ,Psalms 59:10,59:16-17 ); and (4) the principle of prayer that believers trust God with all their thoughts and desires
Rod - (Psalms 74:2; Jeremiah 10:16) Sometimes the expression is made use of to denote the exercise of the Lord's power. " (Psalms 2:9) And by the exercise of it for his people, he shall make them willing in the day of his power. (Psalms 110:3) And the Psalmist comforts himself in the Lord's exercise of it over him when he saith "thy rod and thy staff they comfort me. " (Psalms 23:4) I refer to the Scripture for the general account of the rod "of Moses and Aaron's rod that budded," and the like
Angel - Angels are created (Psalms 148:2; Psa 148:5; Colossians 1:16), non-human, spirit beings (Hebrews 1:14). They are immortal (Luke 20:36), innumerable (Hebrews 12:22), invisible (Numbers 22:22-31), sexless (Matthew 22:30), and do the will of God (Psalms 103:20). They guide (Genesis 24:7; Gen 24:40), protect (Psalms 34:7), and comfort (Acts 27:2; Act 27:24). ...
There are good angels (Genesis 28:12; Psalms 91:11) and bad angels (2 Peter 2:4; Jude 1:1:6)
Lamentations of Jeremiah - The first four chapters are acrostics, like Psalms 25:1-22; Psalms 34:1-22; Psalms 37:1-40; Psalms 119:1-176, etc
Hagiographa - , the Law, the Prophets, and the Psalms
Uprising - Psalms 139
Shoshannim - This is used as a title to several of the Psalms. But whoever reads Psalms 45:1-17, where it is used, and with the additional title, A song of loves, will, I conceive, be inclined to think with me that somewhat higher is intended by it
Blasphemy - Blasphemy arises out of pride (Psalms 73:9; Psa 73:11), hatred (Psalms 74:18), injustice (Isaiah 52:5), etc
Proper Psalms - Thus in addition to the ProperLessons there are also Proper Psalms, and the days for which theyare appointed with the number of the Psalms to be read are to befound in the Table prefixed to the Psalter in the Prayer-book
Psalms, Book of, - The present Hebrew name of the book is Tehill'im , "Praises;" but in the actual superscriptions of the Psalms the word Tehillah is applied only to one, ( Psalm 145:1 ) . entitled them psalmoi or "psalms," i. Division of the Psalms . --The book contains 150 Psalms, and may be divided into five great divisions or books, which must have been originally formed at different periods. It would naturally comprise, 1st, several or most of the Levitical Psalms anterior to that date; and 2d, the remainder of the Psalms of David previously uncompiled. , the interest of which centers in the times of Hezekiah stretches out, by its last two Psalms, to the reign of Manasseh: it was probably compiled in the reign of Josiah. It contains seventeen Psalms, from Psal 73-89 eleven by Asaph, four by the sons of Horah, one (86) by David, and one by Ethan. contains the remainder of the Psalms up to the date of the captivity, There are seventeen, from Psal 90-106 --one by Moses, two by David, and the rest anonymous. , the Psalms of the return, contains forty-four, from Psal 107-180 --fifteen by David, one by Solomon and the rest anonymous. Connection of the Psalms with Israelitish history . His next Psalms are of a different character; his persecutions at the hands of Saul had commenced. When David's reign has begun, it is still with the most exciting incidents of his history, private or public, that his Psalms are mainly associated. But after the conquest of Jerusalem his psalmody opened afresh with the solemn removal of the ark to Mount Zion; and in Psal 24-29 which belong together, we have the earliest definite instance of David's systematic composition or arrangement of Psalms for public use. Even of those Psalms which cannot be referred to any definite occasion, several reflect the general historical circumstances of the times. The succeeding Psalms dwell on the same theme, the virtual internal heathenism by which the Church of God was weighed clown. It was probably at this period that he finally arranged for the sanctuary service that collection of his Psalms which now constitutes the first book of the Psalter. The solemn assembly convened by him for the dedication of the materials of the future temple, 1 Chronicles 28,29 , would naturally call forth a renewal of his best efforts to glorify the God of Israel in Psalms; and to this occasion we doubtless owe the great festal hymns, Psal 65-68, containing a large review of the past history, present position and prospective glories of God's chosen people. We are now brought to a series of Psalms of peculiar interest, springing out of the political and religious history of the,separated ten tribes. All these Psalms --80-83-- are referred by their superscriptions to the Levite singers, and thus beer witness to the efforts of the Levites to reconcile the two branches of the chosen nation. The Psalms of Book IV. " Internal evidence refers these to the period when the Jews under Nehemiah were, in the very face of the enemy, repairing the walls of Jerusalem and the title may well signify "songs of goings up upon the walls," the Psalms being from their brevity, well adapted to be sung by the workmen and guards while engaged in their respective duties. Moral characteristics of the Psalms . The Psalms not only set forth the perfections of God; they proclaim also the duty of worshipping him by the acknowledgment and adoration of his perfections. The Psalms bear repeated testimony to the duty of instructing other in the ways of holiness. Prophetical character of the Psalms . --The moral struggle between godliness and ungodliness, so vividly depicted in the Psalms, culminates in Holy Scripture, in the life of the Incarnate Son of God upon earth. It only remains to show that the Psalms themselves definitely anticipated this culmination. Now there are in the Psalter at least three Psalms of which the interest evidently centers in a person distinct from the speaker, and which, since they cannot without violence to the language be interpreted of any but the Messiah, may be termed directly and exclusively Messianic. It would be strange if these few Psalms stood, in their prophetical significance absolutely alone among the rest. And hence the impossibility of viewing the Psalms generally, notwithstanding the drapery in which they are outwardly clothed, as simply the past devotions of the historical David or the historical Israel
Apace - ]'>[1] means ‘at a quick pace,’ as Psalms 68:12 ‘kings of armies did flee apace
Osoph - (5th century BCE) A Levite singer who lived through the Destruction of the Temple; authored many chapters of the Book of Psalms
Asaph - (5th century BCE) A Levite singer who lived through the Destruction of the Temple; authored many chapters of the Book of Psalms
Peace - Social peace is mutual agreement one with another, whereby we forbear injuring one another, Psalms 34:14 . Psalms 132:1-18 :...
2. It is a blessing of great importance, Psalms 119:165
Sabaoth, Lord of - "of hosts", namely, of the heavenly powers (1 Kings 22:19; Psalms 103:21; Psalms 148:2; Romans 9:29; James 5:4, reminding the rich who think the poor have no advocate that the Lord of the whole hosts in heaven is their patron). Implying the boundless resources at His command for His people's good (Psalms 59:5)
Pit - )...
(2) Shachath , "sunk and lightly covered [1]" to entrap animals (Psalms 9:16; Psalms 35:7); typifying "hopeless doom" (Job 33:18; Job 33:24; Job 33:28; Job 33:30). ...
(3) Βor , "a pit or cistern once full of water, now empty", with miry clay beneath (Psalms 40:2; Zechariah 9:11); used as dungeon wherein the captive has no water or food; so Jeremiah (Jeremiah 38:6; Jeremiah 38:9), Isaiah 51:14; hence symbolizing "the dishonored grave of the once haughty transgressor", with the idea of condign [2] punishment in the unseen world, shadowed forth by the ignominious state of the body (Ezekiel 31:14; Ezekiel 31:16; Ezekiel 32:18; Ezekiel 32:24)
Alleluia - The Greek form (Revelation 19:1,3,4,6 ) of the Hebrew Hallelujah = Praise ye Jehovah, which begins or ends several of the Psalms (106,111,112,113, etc
Mahalath - See Psalms, p
Moreover - Psalms 19 ...
Altogether - Psalms 39
Antiphon - ) A verse said before and after the Psalms
Wonderfully - Psalms 139
Malice - ]'>[1] version: Psalms 94:23 ; Psalms 119:150 Psalms 119:150 ; Psalms 10:17 (adj. ) Psalms 59:5 (adj. ) and Psalms 55:3 (adv
Whirlwind - ]'>[1] ‘storm’ in Job 21:13 , Psalms 83:15 , Isaiah 29:6 etc. ]'>[1] ‘tempest,’ and ‘stormy wind,’ Psalms 55:8 ; Psalms 83:15 ; Psalms 107:25 , Ezekiel 13:13 etc
Sanctuary - Heaven, being God’s dwelling place, could be called God’s sanctuary (Psalms 102:19; Psalms 150:1). Usually, however, the sanctuary referred to God’s earthly dwelling place, the tabernacle, and later the temple (Exodus 25:8; 1 Chronicles 28:10; Psalms 68:24-26; see TABERNACLE; TEMPLE). The inner shrine, or Most Holy Place, was in particular known as the sanctuary; for there, over the ark of the covenant, God symbolically dwelt (Leviticus 4:6; Psalms 96:6; Hebrews 13:11)
Greatness of God - the works he hath made, Psalms 19:1 . by the awful and benign providences he displays, Psalms 97:1-2 . the great effects he produces by his word, Genesis 1:1-31 : the constant energy he manifests in the existence and support of all his creatures, Psalms 145:3 . The considerations of his greatness should excite veneration, Psalms 89:7
Unicorn - The rhinoceros does not "skip" as the young unicorn is represented to do (Psalms 29:6). The unicorn's characteristics are:...
(1) great strength, Numbers 23:22; Job 39:11;...
(2) two horns, Deuteronomy 33:17;...
(3) fierceness, Psalms 22:21;...
(4) untameableness, Job 39:9-11, where the unicorn, probably the wild bison, buffalo, ox, or urus (now only found in Lithuania, but then spread over northern temperate climes, Bashan, etc. , and in the Hercynian forest, described by Caesar as almost the size of an elephant, fierce, sparing neither man nor beast) stands in contrast to the tame ox used in plowing, Job 39:11-12;...
(5) playfulness of its young, Psalms 29:6;...
(6) association with "bullocks and bulls" for sacrifice, Isaiah 34:6-7;...
(7) lifting up the horn, Psalms 92:10, as bovine animals lower the head and toss up the horn
Lawgiver - ]'>[1] of the OT ( Genesis 49:10 , Numbers 21:18 , Deuteronomy 33:21 , Psalms 60:7 ; Psalms 108:8 , Isaiah 33:22 ). ’ (2) ‘Ruler’s staff’; so in Genesis 49:10 , where the word is parallel to ‘sceptre,’ and in Psalms 60:7 ; Psalms 108:8 , where the RV Asaph - David established the tradition of delivering Psalms to Asaph for the Temple singers to sing (1 Chronicles 16:7 ). Psalm 50:1 , Psalm 73-83 are titled “Psalms of Asaph” or similar titles. This may refer to authorship, the singers who used the Psalms in worship, or to a special collection of Psalms
Clothe - Psalms 132 . Psalms 35 . Psalms 93 . Psalms 104
Massah - ) There Israel tempted Jehovah, saying, Is Jehovah among us or not? (Exodus 17:7; Psalms 95:8-9; Hebrews 3:8
Asunder - Psalms 129
Nature - The beauty and the order of the world are recognized as evidences of Divine wisdom and power ( Psalms 8:1 ; Psalms 19:1 ; Psalms 33:6-7 ; Psalms 90:2 ; Psalms 104:1-35 ; Psalms 136:6 ff. , Psalms 147:1-20 , Proverbs 8:22-30 , Job 38:1-41 ; Job 39:1-30 ); but the sum of created things is not hypostatized and personified apart from God, as in much current modern thinking. God is Creator, Preserver, and Ruler: He makes all ( Isaiah 44:24 , Amos 4:13 ), and is in all ( Psalms 139:1-24 )
Footman - Swift running was much valued in a warrior (Psalms 19:5; Joel 2:7; Job 16:14). A characteristic of David, for which he praises God (1 Samuel 17:22; 1 Samuel 17:48; 1 Samuel 17:51; 1 Samuel 20:6; 2 Samuel 22:30; Psalms 18:29; compare 1 Chronicles 12:8 to end)
Melody - , "to sing with a harp, sing Psalms," denotes, in the NT, "to sing a hymn, sing praise;" in Ephesians 5:19 , "making melody" (for the preceding word ado, see SING). Elsewhere it is rendered "sing," Romans 15:9 ; 1 Corinthians 14:15 ; in James 5:13 , RV, "let him sing praise" (AV, "let him sing Psalms")
Antiphonal - This mode ofrendering the music of the Church is of very ancient origin; itprevailed in the ancient Jewish worship as the antiphonal structureof the Psalms indicates. " It seems to be also a practical following out of theadmonition, "teaching and admonishing one another in Psalms andhymns and spiritual songs
Lauds - Originally the conclusion of the night vigil in the early Christian assembly was called matutinae laude, (morning praises) because it was sung at dawn and comprised the praise Psalms 148,149, 150. Traditionally, Lauds consisted of antiphonal Psalms, a canticle of the Old Testament together with Little Chapter, Hymn, Benedictus and Oration. In the revision of the Breviary by Pius X, the traditional structure of Lauds was retained but a new arrangement of Psalms was made and the number of Old Testament canticles, from which one is chosen, was extended
Sceptre - 2 Kings 25:19, "principal scribe of the host which mustered the people"; 2 Chronicles 26:11; Psalms 2:9, "thou shalt break them with a rod of iron. Psalms 125:3, "the sceptre of the wicked (world power; "Persia" at this time) shall not rest (permanently) upon the lot of the righteous," namely, on the Holy Land: a psalm written after the return from Babylon. Contrast Christ's "right sceptre" (Psalms 45:6; Isaiah 11:3-4)
Dragon - reads "jackals," and also in Psalms 44:19 and Jeremiah 9:11, in which passages solitude and desolation are illustrated. In some passages it denotes monsters of the deep or huge land- reptiles, as in Psalms 91:13; R. The figurative use of this term, as in Psalms 74:13; Ezekiel 29:3; Revelation 12:3; Revelation 20:2, is quite obvious
Righteously - Psalms 67
Decree - ]'>[5] ‘statute,’ which is used in various places of God’s sovereign appointments in nature and providence ( Job 28:26 , Psalms 148:6 , Proverbs 8:29 , Jeremiah 5:22 , Zephaniah 2:2 ). Psalms 104:5 ; Psalms 104:9 ; Psalms 119:88-91 , Jeremiah 10:12 ff. The same word is used in Psalms 2:7 of God’s ‘decree’ regarding His king; in Daniel 4:17 ; Daniel 4:24 (Aram
Zion - , in Psalms 38:1-22 times. It was in the later books no longer confined to the southwestern hill, but denoted sometimes Jerusalem in general, Psalms 149:2; Psalms 87:2; Isaiah 33:14; Joel 2:1, etc. ; sometimes God's chosen people, Psalms 51:18; Psalms 87:5, etc
Cup - in Psalms, for the happy fortune or experience of one’s earthly lot, mankind being thought of as receiving this lot from the hand of God, as the guest receives the wine-cup from the hand of his host ( Psalms 16:5 ; Psalms 23:5 ; Psalms 73:10 etc. But also, conversely, for the bitter lot of the wicked, Psalms 11:6 (cf ( c ) below), and in particular for the sufferings of Jesus Christ, Matthew 20:22-23 , Mark 10:38-39 ; Mark 14:36 , Luke 22:42 , John 18:11 . ‘of deliverances’), Psalms 116:13 . Psalms 116:14 a, Psalms 116:17 ff. ]'>[2] ‘cup of reeling’), Psalms 75:8 , Revelation 14:10 ; Revelation 16:19 ; Revelation 18:6 , for all which see the commentaries
Bosses - the rebel's haughtily uplifted neck, Psalms 75:5); upon (rather with) the thick bosses of his (the rebel's, not God's) bucklers. What suicidal folly! for "the shields of the earth belong unto God" (Psalms 47:9)
Hen (2) - As "the eagle stirring up her nest, fluttering over her young, spreading abroad her wings, taking, bearing them on her wings," represents the Old Testament aspect of Jehovah in relation to Israel under the law (Deuteronomy 32:11), so the "hen," Christ the lowly loving Son of God gathering God's children under His overshadowing wing, in the gospel (Ruth 2:12; Psalms 17:8; Psalms 91:4)
Vanity - The term is likewise applied to this world, as unsatisfactory, Ecclesiastes 1:2 ; to lying, Psalms 4:2 ; to idols, Deuteronomy 32:21 ; to whatever disappoints our hopes, Psalms 60:11
River - The name of river is sometimes given to the sea, Habakkuk 3:8 ; Psalms 78:16 . It is also used as a symbol for plenty, Job 29:6 ; Psalms 36:8
Psalms of Solomon - These Psalms are eighteen in number, and were probably written in the 1st cent. -It is generally admitted and is practically certain that these Psalms were originally written in Hebrew; but not even a fragment of any Hebrew MS_ of them, nor any Hebrew quotation from them, exists. The MSS_ in which the Psalms have survived are (1) Greek, and (2) Syriac. Later editions of the Psalms, down to and including that of Ryle and James in 1891, also rested entirely on H, or MSS_ derived from it. ...
The Syriac MS_ edited by Rendel Harris is defective both at the beginning and at the end, and title and colophon are consequently missing; the separate Psalms are numbered, but are without titles. )...
But for the connexion of Solomon’s name with these Psalms we can pass behind the MSS_. ) of the Bible; and, though the part which contained them has perished, the entry in the table of contents or catalogue at the beginning of the Codex survives and reads: ‘Psalms of Solomon 18. ’ This entry constitutes the earliest direct external evidence not merely of the association of Solomon’s name with the Psalms, but of the existence of the Psalms themselves. ...
Rather earlier indirect external evidence of the existence of the Psalms has sometimes been sought elsewhere; but it is at least doubtful whether the fifty-ninth canon of the Council of Laodicea (c. 360), when it directs that ‘private Psalms (ἰδιωτικοὺς ψαλμούς) are not to be read in the church,’ and a similarly vague reference in Ambrose, refer to the Psalms of Solomon; and it is now certain that the Odes of Solomon mentioned in the Pistis Sophia (c. ) are not these Psalms, but a different set of pcems, which actually precede the 18 Psalms in Harris’s Syriac MS_. ...
The inclusion of these Psalms originally in the Codex Alexandrinus, and perhaps, too, in the Codex Sinaiticus, the association of them in most of the eight Greek MSS_ in which they now survive with other Solomonic works, canonical and apocryphal-the Psalms commonly standing between Wisdom and Ecclesiasticus-indicate the position which they occupied in the early history of the Church; but the paucity of references to them and quotations from them shows at the same time that they proved neither very attractive nor very influential: they probably owed their preservation to the fact that they bore the name of Solomon. -The chief contents of the Psalms may be briefly indicated as follows:...
Psalms 1. ...
Psalms 2. ...
Psalms 3. ...
Psalms 4. ...
Psalms 5. ...
Psalms 6. ...
Psalms 7. ...
Psalms 8. ...
Psalms 9. ...
Psalms 10. ...
Psalms 11. ...
Psalms 12. ...
Psalms 13. ...
Psalms 14. ’...
Psalms 15. ...
Psalms 16. ...
Psalms 17. ...
Psalms 18. -Two things in particular stand out clearly in these Psalms: (1) the Jewish nation is divided sharply into two sects or parties, the ‘righteous,’ to whom the writer belongs, and the ‘sinners,’ or the party of his opponents; (2) the nation has suffered severely from the invasion of unnamed foreigners. and following years); and in the profanation of the altar to which Psalms 2 refers it is tempting at first to see an allusion to Antiochus Epiphanes’ act in setting up on the altar the ‘abomination of desolation’ (1 Maccabees 1:54). To this period, then, some scholars have assigned the Psalms. It is to this period, therefore, that most recent scholars refer the Psalms. and of the circumstances of Pompey’s treatment of them, and of his death, favour the commonly accepted view that these Psalms (possibly with the exception of Psalms 18) were written in Palestine (and probably indeed in Jerusalem) within a single generation, and not improbably by a single writer; absolute proof, however, of single authorship is not forthcoming, and some of the more colourless of the Psalms might then belong to another age. ; the rest of the Psalms (except 18) were probably written rather earlier, most of them soon after Pompey’s capture of Jerusalem in 63 b. -The chief interest of these Psalms is that they reveal the temper and ideals of those two parties which in the period of the formation of the NT played so conspicuous a part in Jewish life: the author is a Pharisee, and the opponents whom he denounces are Sadducees. The Psalms indeed run back two or three generations before the separation of the Christian Church from the Jewish religion, but we can trace in them much that was still characteristic of the two parties later...
The Sadducees are to the writer ‘the unrighteous’ (ἄδικοι), ‘sinners’ (ἁμαρτωλοί), ‘transgressors’ (παράνομοι), ‘the profane’ (βέβηλοι), the ‘men-pleasers’ (ἀνθρωπάρεσκοι). -In their view of man’s free-will the author of the Psalms and his party are at one with the Pharisees of the 1st cent. -Lastly, we may note the very important light cast by Psalms 17, 18 on the Messianic hope as cherished in this circle. Rendel Harris, The Odes and Psalms of Solomon, 1909 (21911, where the variants of a Cambridge University MS_ discovered by Barnes [3] and containing part of Psalms 16 are given); F. James, Psalms of the Pharisees, 1891 (the Greek text here printed is antiquated; but on account of the fullness and excellence of the introduction and commentary this work remains of the first importance); J. Gray, ‘The Psalms of Solomon’ (brief introduction and notes to an English translation arranged in parallel lines in Charles’s Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament, 1913, ii
Hasten - Psalms 55 ...
Selah - ) A word of doubtful meaning, occuring frequently in the Psalms; by some, supposed to signify silence or a pause in the musical performance of the song
Flood - (2) The Nile in Psalms 78:44 , Amos 8:8 to Amos 9:5 , Jeremiah 46:7-8 . (3) The Jordan in Psalms 66:6 (‘they went through the flood on foot’). ]'>[1] as now, of a torrent, as Psalms 69:2 ‘I am come into deep waters, where the floods overflow me’ (Heb
Delight - Psalms 1 . Psalms 119 . Psalms 40:8
Hart, Hind - Its habits when pursued are referred to in Psalms 42:1 and Lamentations 1:6 . The hind is mentioned in Genesis 49:21 , Job 39:1 , Psalms 29:9 etc. Its care of its young ( Jeremiah 14:5 ), the secrecy of its hiding-place when calving ( Job 39:1 ), and its timidity at such times ( Psalms 29:9 ) are all noticed
Jeduthun - Three of the Psalms (39; 62; 77) include his name in their titles. The exact nature of Jeduthun's relationship to these Psalms is uncertain. See Priests and Levites; Music; Psalms
Holy One of Israel - ’ From henceforth he thought of God most often as a pure, unique, spiritual Being removed from all the imperfections of earth an idea found also in some of the Psalms ( e. Psalms 71:22 ; Psalms 78:41 ; Psalms 89:18 )
Gossip - This is one reason why the Bible constantly urges people to control their tongues (Psalms 141:3; Proverbs 16:23; Proverbs 17:27-28; James 1:19; James 3:7-10). In spreading rumours, people may have the deliberate intention to slander others (Psalms 31:13; Psalms 50:20; Proverbs 10:18; Romans 3:8) or they may just be foolish chatterers (Proverbs 26:20; Ecclesiastes 5:3; Matthew 12:36), but either way they will probably cause trouble (Proverbs 26:18-20). ...
God links gossip with some of the most hateful sins (Romans 1:29-30), and constantly warns his people against it (Psalms 101:5; Proverbs 10:19; 2 Corinthians 12:20; James 4:11; 1 Peter 2:1)
Altaschith - It was probably the name of some song to the melody of which these Psalms were to be chanted
Mibzar - Compare "the strong city" (mibzar ), Psalms 108:10l 9:9; Jeremiah 49:16
Pesukei dzimra - "verses of praise"); the bracket of passages of praise, mainly from Psalms, which appear early in the morning services, opening with Baruch SheAmar and closing with Yishtabach
Chitat - a daily study regimen instituted by Rabbi Yosef Yitzchok Schneersohn of Lubavitch which includes a portion of Chumash (Torah), Tehillim (Psalms) and Tanya (the fundamental book of Chassidut)...
Communion (2) - embrace opportunities of retirement, Psalms 104:34 . and be found in the use of all the means of grace, Psalms 27:4 . fortitude in danger, Psalms 27:1 . gratitude for mercies received, Psalms 103:1 . happiness in death, Psalms 23:4
Kidneys - ]'>[1] ( Psalms 139:13 ), and are, metaphorically, wounded by J″ Bull - אבירי , a word implying strength, translated "bulls," Psalms 22:12 ; Psalms 50:13 ; Psalms 68:30 ; Isaiah 34:7 ; Jeremiah 46:15 . ...
Bulls, in a figurative and allegorical sense, are taken for powerful, fierce, and insolent enemies, Psalms 22:12 ; Psalms 68:30
Singing - From ancient times to the present, singing has been used as a form of relaxation or amusement (2 Samuel 19:35; Amos 6:4-5), an expression of joy (Proverbs 29:6; Isaiah 16:10; Revelation 15:3-4), a form of celebration (Judges 5:1-2; 1 Samuel 21:11), and a means of praising God (Exodus 15:1; Psalms 30:4; Psalms 66:4; Psalms 95:1-3; Acts 16:25; Revelation 5:9; Revelation 15:3). The Psalms that these singers sang were sometimes divided into parts that individuals or sections of the choir sang in turn (Ezra 3:11; Psalms 118; see Psalms, BOOK OF)
Shechinah - ...
The continued presence of the Shekinah down to Nebuchadnezzar's destruction of the temple seems implied in Joshua 3; 4; 6; Psalms 68:1, compare Numbers 10:35; Psalms 132:8; Psalms 80:1; Revelation 4:7-881; Psalms 99:7; Leviticus 16:2. Angels or cherubim generally accompany the Shekinah (1618180990_4; Psalms 68:17; Zechariah 14:5)
Fear - People naturally fears those people, influences, objects and events that they see as threatening, as being able to control, overpower or destroy them (Numbers 14:9; Psalms 2:11; Luke 21:26; Hebrews 2:15; Hebrews 10:27). In this latter sense people are to fear those who have authority over them (Leviticus 19:3; Proverbs 24:21; Romans 13:3; Romans 13:7; Ephesians 6:5), and particularly to fear God (Psalms 34:11; Isaiah 8:13-15; Acts 9:31; 1 Peter 2:17). ...
Such an attitude guarantees God’s help in living a life that pleases him and benefits the believer personally (Psalms 147:11; Proverbs 1:7; Proverbs 8:13; Proverbs 9:10; Proverbs 10:27; Proverbs 14:26; Philippians 2:12-13). It also gives confidence not to fear the dangers and uncertainties of life (Psalms 46:2; Psalms 112:1; Psalms 112:7; Luke 12:4-5; 1 Peter 3:14-15)
Peace - shâlôm (Eastern salaam ), the fundamental sense of which always more or less distinctly implied is welfare (as in Genesis 43:27 , Psalms 73:3 etc. The word has the following specific religious uses: (1) it is the common formula of courteous well-wishing, employed both at meeting and at parting (see Gen 43:23 , 1 Samuel 1:17 , Psalms 122:7 f. Psalms 72:3 ; Psalms 72:7 , Isaiah 2:4 ; Isaiah 9:5-7 ; Isaiah 11:5-9 , Haggai 2:9 , Zechariah 9:10 ); and (3) it signified a sound and settled understanding between J″ [2] and His people ( Numbers 6:26 , Psalms 29:11 ; Psalms 85:8 ff; Psalms 122:6 , Jeremiah 16:5 etc. In this last and richest use the word approximates to its subjective NT signification, implying tranquillity of heart, as in Psalms 4:8 ; Psalms 119:155 , Isaiah 48:18 ; Isaiah 48:22
Eternity - Its use is mainly poetical: of God (Isaiah 57:15), His law (Psalms 19:9), His attributes (Psalms 111:3; Psalms 111:10). a king’s life (Psalms 21:6, Proverbs 29:14), the lip of truth (Proverbs 12:19). It is also used, like עַר, of God or His attributes as existing from the remote past (Psalms 93:2; Psalms 119:52, Isaiah 63:16; Isaiah 63:19) to the remote future (Psalms 138:8, Jeremiah 31:3, 1 Kings 10:9), specially in the phrase מֵהָעוֹלָם וְעַר הָעוֹלִם ‘from everlasting to everlasting’ (Psalms 90:2; Psalms 103:17, Nehemiah 9:5 etc. of a slave (Deuteronomy 15:7, 1 Samuel 27:12), of careless dwellers (Psalms 73:12), and in the familiar phrase, ‘May the king live for ever’ (1 Kings 1:31, Nehemiah 2:3). God’s covenant (Genesis 9:16), or His promises (Isaiah 40:8), or His relations to His people (Psalms 45:17; Psalms 85:8, etc. Particularly is this true of the Messianic hope (Isaiah 9:6, Psalms 110:4; Psalms 45:3). ), and אֹרְךְ יָמִים ‘length of days,’ Deuteronomy 30:20, Job 12:12, Psalms 21:4, and in the well-known passage Psalms 23:6 ‘I shall dwell in the house of the Lord ever. to future ages (Exodus 3:15, Psalms 10:6; Psalms 33:11; Psalms 49:11). God’s covenant (Genesis 9:16), or His promises (Isaiah 40:8), or His relations to His people (Psalms 45:17; Psalms 85:8, etc
Righteousness - Note also the description of a righteous man in Psalms 1:1-6 (cf. Psalms 1:1 f. with Psalms 1:5 b and Psalms 1:6 a). The avenging deed of Phinehas was ‘counted to him for righteousness’ ( Psalms 106:31 ). So we find the word in the plural: ‘The Lord is righteous: he loveth righteous deeds’ ( Psalms 11:7 RVm Way - Used in the sense "religious system," course of life (Psalms 139:24)
Mindful - ...
What is man, that thou art mindful of him? Psalms 7 ...
Footstool - Psalms 110
Sext - (Latin: sextus, six) ...
In the Divine Office, the office of the sixth hour (midday), comprising an invariable hymn, three variable Psalms, little chapter, response, and oration proper to the day
Hagiographa - The hagiographa in their Hebrew order include: Psalms, Proverbs, and Job; the “five scrolls” (Megilloth ) read at major festivals, namely, Song of Solomon, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and Esther; Daniel; and Ezra-Nehemiah and Chronicles. Luke 24:44 uses “psalms” as a designation for these writings
Beatitudes, the - ...
Several of the Psalms contain beatitudes, and such are called Asherite Psalms, from the Hebrew word ashrey, 'happiness, blessing
Bones - When one has a "broken and contrite heart," "the bones which God has broken rejoice" (Psalms 51:8; Psalms 51:17)
Mahol - Apparently, then, Mahol is a proper name, but it is also found in Psalms 149:3 ; Psalms 150:4 (EV Superscription - Superscription is also used for the titles of some Psalms giving information concerning the writer and the context of the psalm. See Cross, Crucifixion; Psalms; Trial of Jesus
Hallel - (Hebrew: praise) ...
A Jewish ritualistic term to designate Psalms 113-118 (Vulgate 112-117) inclusively, known as the "Hallel of Egypt. Some of the later rabbis disturbed the ancient liturgical ordinance by assigning other Psalms, but they do not agree, and their opinions were not adopted
Fatness - Psalms 73 . Psalms 65
Lavabo - (Latin: I will wash) ...
Ceremony of washing the hands of the celebrant after the Offertory of Mass, named from the first word of the portIon of Psalms 25 which is recited
Dathan - ) He and Abiram , sons of Reuben, conspired with Korah against Moses and Aaron (Numbers 16:1-26; Numbers 16:9-11; Deuteronomy 11:6; Psalms 106:17)
al-Taschith - It was probably the beginning of some song or poem to the tune of which those Psalms were to be chanted
Imprecatory Psalms - (Psalms 11,34, 51,58, 68,108, 136) Those marked by strong expressions and denunciations of the foes of Israel and God. Since these Psalms no less than other portions of Holy Writ are Divine utterances, their interpretation must not make God the author of breaches of that love which we are bound to have even with regard to enemies. Thus Saint Peter (Acts 1) interprets Psalms 67,108. Thus Psalms 108:6-19, may be explained as imprecations uttered by enemies of the psalmist
Beth - alphabet, and as such used in Psalms 119:1-176 as the heading of the second part, each verse of which begins with this letter
Bowels - Hence Psalms 40:8 ‘Thy law is in the midst of my bowels,’ i
Reins - Psalms 73
Horn in the Bible - A symbol of strength because of its use as a weapon by horned beasts (Deuteronomy 33; Psalms 74; 131). It is frequently mentioned to signify power and glory: "in my name shall his horn be exalted" (Psalms 88); "his horn shall be exalted in glory" (Psalms 111); "my horn is exalted in my God" (1 Kings 2), "the horn of Moab is cut off, and his arm is broken, saith the Lord" (Jeremiah 48)
Sabeans - (Psalms 72:10; 1 Kings 10:1-2) In the writings of Isaiah they are spoken of as men of stature. It is a blessed thought however, what is said, Psalms 72:1-20 throughout, concerning the ultimate extension and prosperity of the Redeemer's kingdom "when the kings of Sheba and of Seba shall offer gifts; yea, when all kings shall fall down before him, all nations shall serve him. " (Psalms 72:10-11) Oh, what wonders will by and by break out in the earth, when from the rising of the sun even unto the going down of the same Jesus's name shall be great among the Gentiles, and in every place incense shall be offered unto his name and a pure offering! (Malachi 1:11)...
Interesting Facts About the Bible - ...
Psalms 117:1-2. ...
Psalms 118:8. ...
The word Jehovah occurs 6853 times in the Bible; the word and 35,543 times in the Old Testament, and 6853 times in the New Testament The shortest chapter in the Bible is Psalms 117:1-2
Cleave - Psalms 102 . Psalms 137 . Psalms 74
Degrees, Songs of - This is the title given to fifteen Psalms, Psalm 120 - 134. ' These Psalms have been grouped together: four are by David, one by Solomon, and the rest are without a name. The return from captivity under Ezra and Nehemiah is also called 'a going up,' and these Psalms may have been used on that occasion
Worship - They worship as those who appreciate God’s infinite worth (Genesis 24:26-27; Exodus 4:31; Exodus 12:27; Psalms 95:6; Matthew 2:2; Matthew 28:9; Revelation 4:10; Revelation 5:14; Revelation 11:16). It is something joyful, for it is the enjoyment of God himself (Psalms 89:15-16; Psalms 98:4-6; Luke 1:46-47; 1 Peter 1:8). ...
In Old Testament times the Israelites expressed their worship in ceremonial forms such as sacrifices and festivals (1 Samuel 1:3; Psalms 132:7). The rituals themselves were of no use if people did not worship God in their hearts and lives (Psalms 15:1; Psalms 50:7-15; Isaiah 29:13; Micah 6:6-8). ...
True and false worship...
Any giving of honour to God is, in a sense, worship (Psalms 22:27-29; Acts 8:27; Acts 16:14), but the higher forms of worship arise out of an exercise of the soul that words cannot express. They bring him homage, adoration and praise because of who he is and what he has done (Psalms 103:1-5; Psalms 104:1-4; Psalms 104:31-35; Revelation 4:8-11; Revelation 5:9-14). God’s deeds, whether in creation, history or redemption, are a cause for unceasing worship and praise from men and women everywhere (Psalms 33:1-19; Psalms 99:1-5; Romans 11:33-36; Genesis 49:8; Judges 1:24-25). ...
There is a sense in which all creation worships God (Psalms 96:1; Psalms 97:1; Psalms 148:3-4). In particular, the spirit beings who live in God’s heavenly presence worship him unceasingly, as if that were the purpose for which they were created (Psalms 148:1-2; Isaiah 6:2-3; Hebrews 1:6; Revelation 4:8-11)
Bow - , especially in the Psalms
Sanctification - An internal work, not consisting in external profession or bare morality, Psalms 51:6 . Patient submission, Psalms 39:9 . Increasing hatred to sin, Psalms 119:133 . Delight in his word and ordinances, Psalms 27:4 . Prayer, Psalms 109:4 . Holy confidence, Psalms 27:1 . Praise, Psalms 103:1
Heart - ...
‘Heart’ may refer to a person’s whole inner life – what the person really is (1 Samuel 16:7; Psalms 22:26; Proverbs 4:23; Matthew 22:37; 1 Thessalonians 2:4); or it may refer to attributes of human personality such as a person’s understanding (1 Kings 3:9; Proverbs 2:10; 1 Corinthians 2:9; Ephesians 1:18), desires (Deuteronomy 24:15; Proverbs 6:25; Matthew 6:21; Romans 1:24), feelings (Judges 19:6; Proverbs 14:10; Proverbs 15:30; John 14:27; James 3:14), determination (Exodus 8:15; 1 Kings 8:58; Romans 6:17; Colossians 3:22), or character (1 Samuel 13:14; Jeremiah 5:23; Romans 2:29; 2 Thessalonians 3:5; 1 Peter 3:4). ...
Sometimes ‘heart’ is used as another word for a person’s spirit (Psalms 51:10; Psalms 51:17; Ezekiel 36:26), soul (Deuteronomy 4:29; Proverbs 2:10; Acts 4:32) or mind (1 Samuel 2:35; Ephesians 1:18; Hebrews 8:10; cf. Only God can bring about this cleansing or re-creation (Psalms 51:10; Ezekiel 36:26; Acts 8:21-22; Ephesians 3:16; Hebrews 10:22). ...
Since the heart determines actions, a person must be careful to have right attitudes of heart at all times (Leviticus 19:17; Psalms 4:4; 1 Timothy 1:5; James 3:14). God sees the inner condition and judges the person accordingly (1 Samuel 16:7; Psalms 44:21; Matthew 5:8; Revelation 2:23; see also CONSCIENCE)
Gebal - Some identify the Gebal of Psalms 83:7 with northern Edom, called el-Jebal, but others regard it as Geba No
Scorning - Psalms 123
Accuser - The psalmist prayed for judgment against his accusers (Psalm 109:4 ,Psalms 109:4,109:20 ,Psalms 109:20,109:29 NAS, NIV, NRSV)
Forsake - If his children forsake my law, and walk not in my judgments - Psalms 89 . Psalms 37
Acrostic - The acrostic Psalms 9 (Hebrew 9-10) is only appreciable in the original Hebrew. , Psalms 110,111, 118; Proverbs 31
Alleluia - (Hebrew: All Hail to Him who is) Liturgical expression found in the Book of Tobias, Psalms, and New Testament
Face - It may be the expression of favour, particularly of God to man ( Numbers 6:25 , Psalms 31:16 ), or conversely of man turning his face to God ( Jeremiah 2:27 ; Jeremiah 32:33 ); or of disfavour, as in the phrase ‘to set the face against’ ( Psalms 34:16 , Jeremiah 21:10 , and often in Ezk. In Psalms 51:9 the phrase is used differently, meaning to forget or ignore, cf. Psalms 90:8 ]'>[1]. So ‘to look upon the face’ is to accept ( Psalms 84:9 ), ‘to turn away the face’ is to reject ( Psalms 132:10 , 1 Kings 2:16 RVm [3], Exodus 33:11 , Psalms 42:2 ; the ‘shew-bread’ is ‘the bread of the face or presence’), or with a more spiritual reference to the inward reality of communion which lies behind ( Psalms 17:15 ); so ‘seeking the face’ of God ( Psalms 24:6 ; Psalms 27:8 )
Greek Versions of ot - In the case of the Psalms, no less than three additional Greek versions were included, of which very little is known; they are called simply Quinta, Sexta , and Septima . palimpsest at Milan, containing about 11 Psalms) omits the Hebrew column, but makes up the total of six by a column containing various isolated readings. It contains Psalms 22:15-18 ; Psalms 22:20-28 , and has been edited by Dr. ), sometimes known as U, containing the greater part of Psalms 10:1-18 ; Psalms 11:1-7 ; Psalms 12:1-8 ; Psalms 13:1-6 ; Psalms 14:1-7 ; Psalms 15:1-5 ; Psalms 16:1-11 ; Psalms 17:1-15 ; Psalms 18:1-50 ; Psalms 19:1-14 ; Psalms 20:1-9 ; Psalms 21:1-13 ; Psalms 22:1-31 ; Psalms 23:1-6 ; Psalms 24:1-10 ; Psalms 25:1-22 ; Psalms 26:1-12 ; Psalms 27:1-14 ; Psalms 28:1-9 ; Psalms 29:1-11 ; Psalms 30:1-12 ; Psalms 31:1-24 ; Psalms 32:1-11 ; Psalms 33:1-22 ; Psalms 34:1-22 Forgiveness - Forgiveness is possible only because of the grace of God – the mercy that he exercises towards people even though they do not deserve it (Numbers 14:19; Psalms 78:38; Romans 5:20; Titus 3:4-7). ...
God wants to forgive (Nehemiah 9:17; Micah 7:18) but he requires repentance and faith in those who seek his forgiveness (Psalms 32:5; Psalms 51:17; Luke 7:36-50; Acts 3:19; Acts 10:43; Acts 20:21; 1 John 1:9). Sinners are dependent entirely upon God’s mercy (Psalms 51:1-4; Colossians 2:13). Psalms 130:3). Without such attitudes, they benefited nothing from their sacrifices (Psalms 50:9; Psalms 50:13-14; Psalms 51:16-17; Isaiah 1:11; Isaiah 1:16-20). And once God has forgiven sins, they are removed for ever (Psalms 103:12; Isaiah 43:25; Colossians 2:13-14; Hebrews 8:12; Hebrews 10:17-18)
Philistia - In Psalms 60:8; Psalms 87:4; Psalms 108:9, the only places where the word "Philistia" occurs, is the same Hebrew word elsewhere translated "Palestine. In Psalms 83:7 A
Quail - Psalms 105:40 connects the quail with the manna , and therefore refers to Exodus 16:13, the first sending of quails, the psalm moreover referring to God's acts of grace. Psalms 78:27; Psalms 78:31, refers to the second sending of quails (Numbers 11) in chastisement (Psalms 106:14-15)
Festum Simplex - The Office is said in a very simple form, with the Psalms of the three nocturnes recited in one nocturne only
Feast, Simple - The Office is said in a very simple form, with the Psalms of the three nocturnes recited in one nocturne only
Hallel - �praise�) A portion of Psalms (113-118) recited in the prayer service on the festivals and on Rosh Chodesh
Canticle - The term is applied to thedetached Psalms and Hymns used in the services of the Church, suchas the Venite, Benedictus, Magnificat, etc
Psalmist - ) A writer or composer of sacred songs; - a title particularly applied to David and the other authors of the Scriptural Psalms
Versify - ) To turn into verse; to render into metrical form; as, to versify the Psalms
Simple Feast - The Office is said in a very simple form, with the Psalms of the three nocturnes recited in one nocturne only
Mahalath - In the title of Psalm 53:1 ; 88:1 , is conjectured to refer to the tune or the instrument used in chanting these Psalms; or a Gengstenberg and Alexander suggest, the spiritual malady which they lament
Maschil - Is a term found as a title of thirteen Psalms, and imports one that instructs or makes to understand
Psalmody - The service of the ancient Christian church usually began with reading or with the singing of Psalms. We are not to understand this as if their psalmody was performed in one course of many Psalms together, without intermission, but rather, with some respite, and a mixture of other parts of divine service, to make the whole more agreeable and delightful. As to the persons concerned in singing the Psalms publicly in the church, they may be considered in four different respects, according to the different ways of psalmody; for sometimes the Psalms were sung by one person alone; and sometimes the whole assembly joined together, men, women, and children: this was the most ancient and general practice. At other times the Psalms were sung alternately; the congregation dividing themselves into two parts and singing verse for verse. ...
It was no objection against the psalmody of the church, that she sometimes made use of Psalms and hymns of human composition, beside those of the inspired writers. ...
The use of musical instruments in singing of Psalms, seems to be as ancient as psalmody itself. ...
Clement Marot, groom of the bed chamber to Francis I, king of France, was the first who engaged in translating the Psalms into metre. In imitation of this version, Sternhold, one of the grooms of the privy chamber to our King Edward VI, undertook a translation of the Psalms into metre. This translation was at first discountenanced by many of the clergy, who looked upon it as done in opposition to the practice of chanting the Psalms in the cathedrals. Bishop Jewel says, that "the singing of Psalms, begun in one church in London, did quickly spread itself, not only through the city, but in the neighbouring places; sometimes at Paul's Cross six thousand people singing together. Benjamin Keach published a tract entitled, "The Breach Repaired in God's Worship: or, Psalms, Hymns, &c, proved to be a Holy Ordinance of Jesus Christ. The Presbyterians, it seems, were not quite so unmusical; for the Directory of the Westminster divines distinctly stated, that "it is the duty of Christians to praise God publicly by singing of Psalms together in the congregation. " And beside the old Scotch Psalms, Dr. These Psalms, however, like those of the English and Scotch establishment, were drawled out in notes of equal length, without accent or variety. Watts's Psalms, gave also great offence to some people, because it marked the accent of the measure. Better versions of the Psalms, and many excellent collections of hymns, are now in use, and may be considered as highly important gifts bestowed upon the modern church of God
Hermonites - ]'>[1] in Psalms 42:6 AV Agar - The sons of Agar are mentioned in Bar 3:23 ; they are called Hagarenes in Psalms 83:6 , and Hagrites in 1 Chronicles 5:19-20 ; 1 Chronicles 27:31
Selah - This Hebrew musical term, which occurs 73 times in the Psalms, and elsewhere only in Habakkuk 3:3; Habakkuk 3:9; Habakkuk 3:13, is supposed to be connected with the use of the temple music
Prayer - Psalms 119:1-17 ). Psalms 72:12 ). Psalms 17:1 ). Psalms 105:40 ). Psalms 62:8 ); or ‘a meditation’ ( e. Psalms 6:7-104 RVm [6], Daniel 6:10 , Acts 3:1 ; Acts 10:9 ; Acts 10:30 ; cf. Genesis 18:22 , 1 Samuel 1:26 , Nehemiah 9:5 , Mark 11:25 , Luke 18:11 ; Luke 18:13 [7]); ( b ) kneeling ( Psalms 95:6 , Isa 45:23 , 1 Kings 8:54 , Ezra 9:6 , Daniel 6:10 , Luke 22:41 , Acts 7:60 ; Acts 9:40 ; Acts 20:35 ; Acts 21:5 , Ephesians 3:14 ); ( c ) prostrate, face to ground ( Exodus 34:6 , Nehemiah 8:6 , 1Es 8:91 , Jdt 9:1 , 2Ma 13:12 , Nehemiah 9:5-387 ); face between knees ( 1 Kings 18:42 , cf. ? Psalms 35:13 b); ( d ) sitting (? 2 Samuel 7:18 ); ( e ) hands uplifted ( Psalms 28:2 ; Psalms 63:4 ; Psalms 134:2 , Lamentations 2:19 ; Lamentations 3:41 , 2Ma 3:20 , 1 Timothy 2:3 ) or extended [8] ( Jdt 13:4-5 , 1 Kings 8:22 , Isaiah 1:16 , Ezra 9:5 , Psalms 77:2 [15]), on behalf of child ( 2 Samuel 12:18 ), prayer of asseveration ( 1 Samuel 24:12-15 ; 1 Samuel 25:22 Olive - Emblem of the godly (Psalms 52:5; Psalms 52:8), in spirit constantly dwelling "in the house of God"; in contrast to slave-like formalists now sojourning outwardly in it for a time, but not abiding ever (John 8:34-35; Psalms 15:1; Psalms 23:6; Psalms 27:4-5; Psalms 36:8); the wicked and antichrist shall be "rooted out of (God's) dwelling place," literally, 5 ('ohel ). The saint's children are "like olive plants round about his table" (Psalms 128:3)
Pity - Pity was regarded by OT writers as holding an essential place in the relations of God and His people (see Psalms 78:38 ; Psalms 86:15 ; Psalms 103:13 ; Psalms 111:4 ; Psalms 112:4 ; Psalms 145:8 , Isaiah 63:8 ; cf. 1 Kings 8:50 , 2 Chronicles 30:9 , Psalms 106:46 , Ezra 9:9 , Nehemiah 1:11 , Jeremiah 42:12 )
Curiously - Psalms 139
Baca - (Psalms 84:6). ") The Hebrew form in Psalms 84:6 means "mulberry trees. As the valley of Baca represents a valley of drought spiritually and dejection, where the only water is that of "tears," so the pilgrim's "making it a well" (by having "his strength in Jehovah") symbolizes ever flowing comfort and salvation (John 4:14; Isaiah 12:3; compare Psalms 23:4)
Adder - "Adder" occurs also, Psalms 58:4; Psalms 91:13, as the translation of another word, perhaps embodying the idea of twisting or twining. Psalms 140:3, which is compound, including the two ideas of coiling and lying in wait
Nest - Used literally of birds’ nests ( Deuteronomy 22:6 ; Deuteronomy 32:11 , Job 39:27 , Psalms 84:3 ; Psalms 104:17 , Proverbs 27:8 , Isaiah 16:2 ); metaphorically for a lofty fortress ( Numbers 24:21 , Jeremiah 49:16 , Obadiah 1:4 , Habakkuk 2:9 ); Job refers to his lost home as a nest ( Job 29:18 ); in Genesis 6:14 the ‘ rooms ’ of the ark are (see mg
Malice - One destructive fruit of sinful human nature is malice – the desire to harm someone or the feeling of pleasure at someone’s misfortune (Psalms 41:5; Ezekiel 25:6; Titus 3:3; 1 Peter 2:1). Malice is often the cause of false accusations (Exodus 23:1; Psalms 35:11; Matthew 22:18; see HATRED)
Contrite - Psalms 51:17 . Prayer for deliverance from it, Psalms 51:10
Mantle - The passage is a quotation from Psalms 102:26 (27); cf. Psalms 104:6
Holy Spirit, the - He is called the Spirit of God (Genesis 1:2), Holy Spirit (Psalms 51:1), the Helper (John 14:16; Joh 14:26), and Eternal Spirit (Hebrews 9:14). He knows all things (1 Corinthians 2:10-11), is all powerful (Luke 1:35), and is everywhere (Psalms 139:7-13)
Bay-Tree - BAY-TREE ( ’ezrâch , Psalms 37:35 ) is probably a mistranslation for ‘a tree in its native soil’ (RV Kapitel - "chapter"); used for Psalms and other Scriptures...
Karet: (lit
Omnipotence - It is the quality of having all power (Psalms 115:3)
Purge - ]'>[1] is simply to ‘cleanse or purify,’ as Psalms 51:7 ‘Purge me with hyssop and I shall be clean’; Mark 7:19 ‘purging all meats,’ i
Psalms, Theology of - The Book of Psalms is a sizable collection of musical poems and prayers of diverse authorship and form. Psalms are independent literary units that have grown out of, and speak to, a wide range of individual and communal human experience. Psalms, on the other hand, serve to articulate the hope and despair, the faith and fear, the praise and invective of those who express themselves to God in the vicissitudes of life. ...
Although the canonical Psalms are poetic and musical compositions authored by humans as vehicles of expression to and about God, they are nevertheless regarded by believers as inspired by God for use in the community of faith in worship and meditation. ...
The continuing appeal of the canonical Psalms bears witness to a feature of their composition that contributes to their ongoing usefulness in public and private worship. Ever since the groundbreaking work by Hermann Gunkel and Sigmund Mowinckel on the literary analysis of the Psalter, most biblical scholars have recognized that Psalms may be grouped into definite literary types based both on their distinctive structure and content and on the religious settings in which they would have been employed in ancient Israel. It seems clear that Psalms were composed mainly for use on typical, cultic occasions, not as reflections of particular, historical ones. ...
The understanding that the canonical Psalms were composed as generalized expressions suitable for cultic use runs counter to the impression given by certain psalm titles that associate the accompanying Psalms with events in the life of King David (3; 7; 18; 34; 51-52; 54; 56-57; 59-60; 63; 142). Evidence for the secondary nature of these titles may be deduced from the fact that some of the Psalms assigned to David presuppose later historical realities such as the existence of a temple (e. It could legitimately be translated "to/for/of/by/in regard to/belonging to David" and be intended to associate a given psalm with this son of Jesse, any Davidic king, or a Davidic collection of Psalms. Furthermore, an analysis of the original Hebrew and subsequent daughter versions of Psalms reveals that the titles were subject to variation and expansion during the course of their transmission in postexilic times and beyond, in contrast to the poems themselves whose text remained relatively constant. The preceding evidence does nothing to undermine David's reputation as a psalmist nor does it disprove that he composed some of the Psalms contained in the canonical Psalter. This evidence does, however, highlight the fact that psalm titles cannot be relied upon to elucidate the original context and meaning of biblical Psalms. ...
Psalm Types and the Theology of Psalms . There is evidence that the division of the Psalter into five books (1-41; 42-72; 73-89; 90-106; 107-150) represents a final stage in the process of compiling the Book of Psalms, and that earlier collections were gathered together to produce the Psalter as it now exists. These collections would have included Psalms associated in the Hebrew Bible with the likes of David (3-9; 11-32; 34-41; 51-65; 68-70; 86; 101; 103; 108-110; 122; 124; 131; 133; 138-145), Solomon (72; 127), the Korahites (42; 44-49; 84-85; 87-88), and Asaph (50; 73-83); Psalms of the so-called Elohistic Psalter (42-83) in which the generic term for Israel's deity, elohim [1], translated "God, " came to be substituted for his personal name, "Yahweh, " which Jews were increasingly disinclined to pronounce; the Hallelujah Psalms (105-106; 111-118; 135-136; 146-150) which usually begin and/or end with that expression of praise; and the Songs of Ascent (120-134), ostensibly sung by pilgrims on their way to celebrate the great festivals at the temple in Jerusalem. ...
But more relevant to the task of working out the theology of the Psalter than these observations is an understanding of the functionality of biblical Psalms. Various aspects of worship called for different types of Psalms, each of which is represented throughout the Psalter. ...
Complaint Psalms . There are more complaint Psalms in the biblical Psalter than there are of any other type. ...
Complaint Psalms usually begin with an invocation of Israel's God. Some biblical scholars isolate a whole other psalm type, called the song of trust/confidence, to categorize a group of Psalms in which this sort of expression is expanded to become the main theme (11; 16; 23; 27:1-6; 62; 91; 125; 131). ...
In complaint Psalms petitioners typically express the assurance that Yahweh will do what they have asked (6:8-10; 7:10; 13:5-6; 22:24; 28:6-8; 54:7; 56:13; 71:20-21; 109:31; 140:12). Scholars have struggled to account for the often dramatic shift in mood from despair to optimism that is evident in these Psalms. One is that such expressions were uttered after deliverance had been experienced but that they were joined to the original complaint when these Psalms were compiled in their present form. Unfortunately, no example of such an oracle exists in the canonical Psalms. A third proposition is that complaint Psalms were formulated in such a way as to bring supplicants to the point of assurance. ...
The complaint Psalms teach several significant things to worshipers who suffer affliction. ...
Thanksgiving Psalms . Thanksgiving Psalms were composed to celebrate Yahweh's answering of complaints and his deliverance of petitioners. The canonical Psalter contains both individual and communal Psalms of this type. ...
Typically, thanksgiving Psalms begin with an expression of praise or thanksgiving to Yahweh and a short reference to what it is that he has accomplished (18:1-3; 30:1-3; 65:1-2; 107:1-3; 116:1-2; 118:1-4; 138:1-2). The situations that are recounted are of the sort described in the complaint Psalms discussed above. ...
Thanksgiving Psalms serve to emphasize the fact that it is only right for worshipers to give thanks to God (7:17; 54:6; 92:1; 106:1; 107:1; 118:1,29; 136:1). The hymnic Psalms focus on the praise of Yahweh for his majesty and his sovereignty and beneficence in the realms of creation, history, and human affairs. What distinguishes hymns from thanksgiving Psalms is that they make no particular reference to a worshiper's earlier distress or to recent divine intervention. They tend, therefore, to be broader in scope or perspective than thanksgiving Psalms. ...
Redemptive history Psalms (78; 105; 106; 135:8-12; 136:10-22) focus on Yahweh's dealings with the Israelites, whether in Acts of deliverance and providential care or in judgment because of their covenantal unfaithfulness. These Psalms were composed to drive home the lessons of Israel's historylessons that were to be passed on from generation to generationand to inspire the people to trust and worship their sovereign God. ...
Psalms like 15,24, which seem to have been composed as liturgies for entrance into the sacred precincts, have Zion's sanctuary as their focus. As in the oracles of the prophets, the emphasis in these Psalms is on integrity and moral purity as defined by the Sinai covenant rather than merely on ritual purity and sacrifices. ...
The enthronement Psalms (47; 93; 96-99) celebrate the kingship of Yahweh. ...
Royal Psalms . Another group of Psalms deals with the theme of kingshipin this case the kingship of Israel's monarchs. The so-called royal Psalms (2; 18; 20-21; 45; 72; 89; 101; 110; 132; 144) do not, technically speaking, constitute a distinctive psalm type since they can be associated with one of the three main categories already discussed (complaint, thanksgiving and hymn). ...
Five of the preceding Psalms (2; 21; 72; 101; 110) seem to have been created for use during the king's coronation and/or to mark the anniversary of his accession. ...
Another entitlement affirmed in the royal Psalms is the king's role as a priest of the Melchizedekian order (110:4). ...
One of the royal Psalms, Psalm 45 , was apparently intended for the celebration of a royal wedding. ...
Several other royal Psalms were likely composed to be recited either before or after the king went into battle. ...
Royal Psalms give evidence of the Israelite king's special relationship with Yahweh, Israel's ultimate King. ...
Wisdom Psalms . A final category of Psalms to be considered here is that of wisdom (1; 34; 37; 49; 73; 112; 119; 127-128; 133). Psalms of this type exhibit stylistic forms and techniques commonly employed in wisdom literature. ...
These Psalms champion the cause of life lived in accordance with the tenets of wisdom through their descriptions of exemplary conduct and its benefits and their delineation of the contrasts between those who embrace, and those who spurn, the path of righteousness. The celebration in wisdom Psalms of Torah, which embodies Yahweh's expectations of his covenant partners, highlights the clear connection between wisdom and God's law (1:1-2; 37:30-31; 112:1; 119). ...
Wisdom Psalms also lead the worshiper to consider some of the themes and problems commonly taken up in wisdom literature. ...
The Psalms and Christology . But suffice it to say that those in the New Testament who quote or otherwise employ the Psalms in this fashion often overlay the psalmists' intentions with additional significance in view of the Christ event. ...
Several observations may be made concerning these links between the Psalms and Jesus. The often exalted and hyperbolic language of the Psalms in which these themes are expressed coupled with the inability of Israelite kings to live up to this ideal fueled anticipation about an anointed one who would fulfill
Sheep - Shepherds go before them and call them by name to follow (John 10:4; Psalms 77:20; Psalms 80:1). The image is frequent in Scripture: Jehovah the Shepherd, His people the flock (Psalms 23:1; Isaiah 40:11; Genesis 4:2; Ezekiel 34). Sinners are the straying sheep whom the Good Shepherd came to save (Psalms 119:176; Isaiah 53:6; Jeremiah 50:6; Luke 15:4-6; John 10:8; John 10:11)
Earthquake - Of the former only one is mentioned in the OT, that which occurred in the reign of Uzziah (Amos 1:1 , Zechariah 14:5 ); among the latter must be included such references as Exodus 19:18 , 1 Kings 19:11 , Numbers 16:31 , Psalms 18:7 ; Psalms 68:8 ; Psalms 77:18 ; Psalms 104:4 , Isaiah 29:6 etc
Waterspouts - Only Psalms 42:7 ‘Deep calleth unto deep at the noise of thy waterspouts’ (RVm Mesech - Mesech (mç'sek), Psalms 120:5, or Meshech (mç'shek), Ezekiel 32:26, a son of Japheth, whose descendants are supposed to have settled in Armenia
Book of Life - A book kept by God with the list of names of people who will escape God's wrath (Psalms 69:28; Revelation 21:27)
Infinity - He is without beginning and without end (Psalms 90:2)
Port - ]'>[1] version of Psalms 9:14 ‘Within the ports of the daughter of Sion
Thankful - Psalms 100 ...
Ascension of Christ - Psalms 47:5 . Psalms 110:1 . Psalms 68:18 . He was parted from his disciples while he was solemnly blessing them; and multitudes of angels attended him with shouts of praise, Psalms 68:17 ; Psalms 47:5-6
Keep, Oversee - ” Thus, nâtsach is found in the Book of Psalms a total of 55 times in the titles of various Psalms (Ps. Of the 55 Psalms involved, 39 are connected with the name of David, 9 with Korah, and 5 with Asaph, leaving only two anonymous Psalms. The Hebrew preposition meaning “to” or “for” which is used with this participle could mean assignment to the person named, or perhaps more reasonably, an indication of a collection of Psalms known by the person’s name
Minish - ]'>[1] in Exodus 5:19 , Psalms 107:39 , and RV Maschil - Instructing, occurs in the title of thirteen Psalms (32,42,44, etc
Fence - Psalms 62:3 is the only occurrence of the subst
Every - Psalms 39 ...
Organ - Pandean pipe or syrinx (still a pastoral instrument in Syria) as distinguished from the HARP, stringed instruments (Genesis 4:21; Job 21:12; Job 30:31; Psalms 150:4)
Versifier - Watts was a versifier of the Psalms
Moon - ) Instead of being regarded as a person and worshipped, as it was by the surrounding nations, in Scripture it is God's creature "made for signs, seasons, days, and years" (Psalms 104:19). The brightness of the moon in the East, guiding the traveler by night when the heat of day is past, gives it a prominence which it has not with us (Psalms 8:3). In Psalms 89:37 however the moon is not the "faithful witness," but God is witness to His own oath; translated "and the witness in heaven is faithful," so Psalms 89:35. The cold night dews (Genesis 31:40) and moonlight hurt the eyes and health of those sleeping under it; so Psalms 121:6, "the moon shall not smite thee by night"; moon blindness is common in the East. So far from being an object of worship, it unconsciously worships its Maker (Psalms 148:3; Psalms 8:3)
Musician - We meet with an address, or dedication, at the opening of very many of the Psalms: "To the chief Musician. (See Habakkuk 3:19) I find an author of no small authority observe, that the word which (1 Samuel 15:29) is rendered strength, and is a well known title of Christ, is not dissimilar to the word in the Psalms rendered chief musician. And what end, but the end of Christ's triumphs by virtue of his sacrifice? And as Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to every one that believeth," may not those numberless sweet Psalms which so plainly refer to him, be supposed to be addressed to him as the end? So we find the title of Psalms 6:1-10 and Psalms 12:1-8 to be addressed to the chief musician upon Sheminith. And every one cannot but know that these Psalms are both of them spoken prophetically of the person of Christ, the God-man-Mediator; and therefore, as such, surely it is doing no violence to the word Sheminith, joined with Lamenetz, to suppose that it forms an address to Christ, as the strength of Israel in his Sheminith or abundant riches, suited to his high character as the chief end of salvation to his people. But as I have elsewhere said, in similar observations in my "Poor Man's Commentary on the Psalms," so I beg to add here, I do not decide on the enquiry
Animals - Another animal that the Israelites loathed was the dog, for most dogs in those days were savage, disease-ridden animals that roamed the streets and fed on filth (2 Samuel 16:9; 2 Kings 9:33-36; Psalms 22:16; Psalms 59:6; Matthew 7:6; Luke 16:21; 2 Peter 2:22). ...
Many different animals lived in the forest and semi-desert regions of Palestine: lions (1 Samuel 17:34; Psalms 7:2; Isaiah 31:4; Jeremiah 5:6; Nahum 2:11-12), bears (1 Samuel 17:34; 2 Kings 2:24; Amos 5:19), foxes (Judges 15:4; Matthew 8:20), wolves (Jeremiah 5:6; John 10:12), hyenas (Isaiah 13:22), jackals (Isaiah 34:13; Isaiah 43:20), wild asses (Job 39:5-8; Jeremiah 14:6), wild oxen (Job 39:9; Psalms 22:21), wild boars (Psalms 80:13), and deadly snakes (Numbers 21:6; Isaiah 30:6; see SNAKE). Hunters used bows and arrows, slingstones, and traps of various kinds such as nets and pits (Genesis 21:20; Genesis 27:3; 1 Samuel 17:40; Psalms 57:6; Psalms 124:7; Ezekiel 19:8)
Creation - God spoke and, by the power of his creative word, it happened (Genesis 1:1-3; Job 33:4; Psalms 33:6; Psalms 33:9; Genesis 2:4-78; John 1:1-3; Hebrews 1:1-2). Even spirit beings, though they may have existed before the physical universe, are creatures whom God has made (Genesis 1:1-2; Job 38:4-11; Psalms 33:6-9; Psalms 90:2; Isaiah 40:26-28; Isaiah 42:5; John 1:1-3; Romans 11:36; Colossians 1:16; Hebrews 11:3; Revelation 4:11). He is over all things and in all things (Psalms 147:8-9; Acts 17:24; Acts 17:28; Ephesians 4:6; Colossians 1:17; Hebrews 1:3; see also PROVIDENCE). He created it, not as an act of necessity, but as an act of free grace; not because he had to, but because he chose to (Psalms 102:254; Acts 17:25; Romans 11:36; Ephesians 1:11; Colossians 1:16; Revelation 4:11). It shows something of God’s love, power and wisdom (Psalms 19:1-4; Jeremiah 10:12; Romans 1:20). It is concerned above all with people, and says little about how the physical universe operates (Psalms 8:3-9). ...
God is pleased when men and women want to learn more about the wonders of his creation, but he has appointed that they do so by the hard work of study and investigation (Genesis 3:19; Psalms 111:2). ...
From science we may learn how the stars move, how the weather changes, or how plants grow, but from the Bible we learn that God is the one who makes these things happen (Psalms 65:9-10; Psalms 78:20; Psalms 78:26; Psalms 104:1-30; Psalms 147:8; Matthew 5:45; Matthew 6:30)
Levite - The respective leaders were Heman, Asaph and Ethan (Jeduthan), all of whom are mentioned as writers of Psalms (1 Chronicles 6:1; 1 Chronicles 6:31-48; 1 Chronicles 15:16-22; 2 Chronicles 5:12; Psalms 73; Psalms 74; Psalms 75; Psalms 76; Psalms 77; Psalms 78; Psalms 79; Psalms 80; Psalms 81; Psalms 82; Psalms 83; Psalms 88; Psalms 89)
Degrees, Song of - Song of steps, a title given to each of these fifteen Psalms, 120-134 inclusive. The probable origin of this name is the circumstance that these Psalms came to be sung by the people on the ascents or goings up to Jerusalem to attend the three great festivals (Deuteronomy 16:16 )
Office, Divine - As contained in approved Breviaries, the group of Psalms, hymns, prayers, readings from the Old and New Testaments, patristic homilies, and lives of saints, arranged and formulated by the Church, whereby daily public or liturgical prayer is offered to God. From the earliest days it was the Book of Psalms that furnished the groundwork of this public prayer. In the West Saint Benedict (6th century) rearranged systematic distribution of the Psalms over the canonical hours and in other ways regulated the structure and content of the Office. , hymns (12th century), Gradual Psalms, Suffrages, Offices of the B. ...
The third period, from the 16th century to our own day, is characterized by the simplification of the Office and a rearrangement of the Psalms to restore the traditional ideal of the recitation of the entire Psalter within the compass of a week. Each complete daily Office requires 33 Psalms which are divided among the canonical hours; the longer Psalms are divided into two or more parts. As contained in the Breviary, the Office is divided into: rubrics or directions for the recitation of the Office; the Ordinary, or the normal framework of the Office; the Psalter, or the Psalms assigned to each hour of each day; the Proper of the Season, or the prayers and current scriptural reading and patristic homilies; the Proper of the Saints, or the prayers and historical lessons for the Office of the saints; the Common of the Saints, or certain variable parts of the Office which may be used for many saints according to their classification; a Supplement, containing the Office of B. , the Office of the Dead, Penitential Psalms, litanies, etc
Divine Office - As contained in approved Breviaries, the group of Psalms, hymns, prayers, readings from the Old and New Testaments, patristic homilies, and lives of saints, arranged and formulated by the Church, whereby daily public or liturgical prayer is offered to God. From the earliest days it was the Book of Psalms that furnished the groundwork of this public prayer. In the West Saint Benedict (6th century) rearranged systematic distribution of the Psalms over the canonical hours and in other ways regulated the structure and content of the Office. , hymns (12th century), Gradual Psalms, Suffrages, Offices of the B. ...
The third period, from the 16th century to our own day, is characterized by the simplification of the Office and a rearrangement of the Psalms to restore the traditional ideal of the recitation of the entire Psalter within the compass of a week. Each complete daily Office requires 33 Psalms which are divided among the canonical hours; the longer Psalms are divided into two or more parts. As contained in the Breviary, the Office is divided into: rubrics or directions for the recitation of the Office; the Ordinary, or the normal framework of the Office; the Psalter, or the Psalms assigned to each hour of each day; the Proper of the Season, or the prayers and current scriptural reading and patristic homilies; the Proper of the Saints, or the prayers and historical lessons for the Office of the saints; the Common of the Saints, or certain variable parts of the Office which may be used for many saints according to their classification; a Supplement, containing the Office of B. , the Office of the Dead, Penitential Psalms, litanies, etc
Hymn - ...
Specifically hymns came in course of time to be distinguished from Psalms (i. of Psalms* [1] ) and canticles (‘poetical extracts from Holy Scripture which are incorporated among the Psalms in the Divine office’† [5] was as follows: 1st day of the week, Psalms 24; Psalms 2 nd, Psalms 48; Psalms 3 rd, Psalms 82; Psalms 4 th, Psalms 94; Psalms 5 th, Psalms 81; Psalms 6 th, Psalms 93; Sabbath, Psalms 92. Special Psalms were also used for special occasions. The internal evidence of the Psalms suggests that some at least were specially intended for synagogue use: esp. the ‘Hallelujah’ Psalms (105, 106, 107, 111, 112, 114, 116, 117, 118, 135, 136, 146–150). Psalms 146-150 form a well-defined group in the synagogue-liturgy, and are used in the daily morning service (cf. Compare with this the custom in certain parts of the early Church of reciting the “Hallelujah’ Psalms daily. ]'>[8] However this may be, it is practically certain that a part, at least, of the sacred poetry of the OT, such as the Red Sea Song (Exodus 15), the special Psalms for the days of the week, the Hallel, and possibly, also, the ‘Psalms of Degrees,’ would be known in Palestine in their Hebrew form in the time of Christ from their liturgical use in public worship, esp. Psalms 118:25 f. It is noteworthy that there seem to be traces in the Midrash on the Psalms of the Messianic interpretation of Psalms 118:25
Grass - Hence grass is in the OT a frequent symbol of the shortness of human life ( Psalms 90:5-7 ; Psalms 103:15 , Isaiah 40:6 ; cf. Even more brief is the existence of ‘the grass upon the [6] housetops, which withereth afore it groweth up’ ( Psalms 129:6 )
Hermon - The Psalmist connects Tabor and Hermon together, upon more than one occasion, Psalms 89:12 ; Psalms 133:3 ; from which it may be inferred that they lay contiguous to each other. He adds that they were sufficiently instructed by experience what the holy Psalmist means by the dew of Hermon; their tents being as wet with it as if it had rained all night, Psalms 133:3
Psalter, the - The name given to the Book of Psalms as set forthin the Prayer-book for use in Public Worship. The Psalms wereoriginally set forth to be sung, not said, and this is the onlyproper way of rendering them in the Church's service. This is a mistake, and in many parishes this mistakehas been corrected; the Psalter for the day being sung just as thedetached Psalms, such as the Venite, Jubilate, etc
Coal - In Psalms 120:4 "coals of juniper" rather burning brands of broom, retamim . Psalms 140:10; Psalms 18:12-13; compare the same image of the tongue, James 3:6. In Habakkuk 3:5 (resheph ) "burning coals" poetically and figuratively express "burning diseases," as the parallel "pestilence" shows; also compare Deuteronomy 32:24; Psalms 91:6
Abigail - God did "plead His cause" against Nabal: compare the undesigned coincidence of phrase between the history and the independent psalm, a proof of genuineness: Psalms 35:1; Psalms 7:16; Psalms 17:4; Psalms 14:1 with 1 Samuel 25:25; 1 Samuel 25:36-38 with Luke 12:19-21; 1 Samuel 25:29; the image of a "sling, slinging out the souls of the enemy" with 1 Samuel 17:49
Saviour - Salvation from all kinds of danger and evil, bodily, spiritual, temporal, and eternal (Matthew 1:21; Ephesians 5:23; Philippians 3:20-21), including also the idea restorer and preserver, giver of positive life and blessedness, as well as saviour from evil (Isaiah 26:1; 2 Samuel 8:6; Isaiah 60:18; Isaiah 61:10; Psalms 118:25), deliverer, as the judges were saviours (margin Judges 3:9; Judges 3:15; Nehemiah 9:27; Jeroboam II, 2 Kings 13:5; Obadiah 1:21). ...
Man cannot save himself temporally or spiritually; Jehovah alone can save (Job 40:14; Psalms 33:16; Psalms 44:3; Psalms 44:7; Hosea 13:4; Hosea 13:10)
Horeb - In the Psalms the two are used indifferently. , "Horeb," 1 Kings 8:9; 1 Kings 19:8; 2 Chronicles 5:10; Psalms 106:19; Malachi 4:4; "Sinai," Judges 6:5; Psalms 68:8; Psalms 68:17
Hyperbole - Thus, things which are lofty are said to reach up to heaven, Deuteronomy 1:28 ; Deuteronomy 9:1 ; Psalms 107:26 . " So we read of "angels' food," Psalms 6:6 ; Psalms 119:136 ; Psalms 78:25 ; the "face of an angel," Acts 6:15 ; and the "tongue of an angel," 1 Corinthians 13:1
Birds - The law of Moses did not allow Israelites to use any of these birds as food (Leviticus 11:13-19; Job 9:26; Job 28:7; Job 39:26; Psalms 79:2; Isaiah 34:15; Jeremiah 49:16; Ezekiel 39:4; Matthew 24:28). It did not prohibit the eating of quails (Exodus 16:13; Numbers 11:31-32; Psalms 105:40). Since these were allowable as food, people often caught them in traps, and then cooked and sold them (Leviticus 5:7; Psalms 84:3; Psalms 91:3; Proverbs 26:2; Ecclesiastes 9:12; Amos 3:5; Matthew 10:29)
Meditation - Psalms 19 ...
Gradual - It ordinarily accentuates something in the Epistle, and is taken, except in rare cases, from Scripture, mostly from the Psalms
Leanness - Psalms 106
Den - words represented by ‘den’ signify respectively ‘hollow place’ ( Isaiah 32:14 ), ‘thicket’ ( Psalms 10:9 ), ‘place of ambush’ ( Job 37:8 ), ‘dwelling’ ( Job 38:40 ), ‘light hole’ or ‘eyeball’ ( Isaiah 11:8 ); but the last passage, may be corrupt
Obedience - From the relation we stand in to God as creatures, Psalms 95:6 . From the law he hath revealed to us in his word, Psalms 119:3 . Psalms 145:1-21 :...
4. Sincere, Psalms 51:6 . Psalms 18:44 . Affords peace to the subject of it, Psalms 25:12-13
Inwards, Inward Parts - Situated within the ‘inward parts’ is the capacity for wisdom ( Job 38:36 , see nevertheless EVm), truth ( Psalms 51:6 ), ethical knowledge, and moral renovation ( Jeremiah 31:33 , where ‘inward parts’ is almost synonymous with ‘heart,’ cf. Here, too, lie hidden the springs of active wickedness ( Psalms 5:9 ), and deceitful language ( Psalms 62:4 AVm Miserere - (Latin: have mercy) ...
First word and usual name of Psalms 50, fourth Penitential, recited in the third nocturn of the Divine Office, Wednesday, except on common vigils when it is recited at Lauds, in the Office of the Dead and in the last days of Holy Week
Hedge - (2) gâdçr or gedçrah probably a stone wall ( Psalms 89:40 etc
Club - ’ The stout shepherd’s club, with its thick end probably studded with nails, with which he defended his flock against wild beasts, is rendered by ‘rod’ in Psalms 23:4 and elsewhere
Affliction - Psalms 34
Kedar - The people of Kedar lived in tents, kept flocks of sheep and goats, and dealt shrewdly in various trading activities (Psalms 120:5; Isaiah 60:7; Jeremiah 49:28-29; Ezekiel 27:21; see ARABIA)
Mulberry Tree - בכא , 2 Samuel 5:23-24 ; 1 Chronicles 14:14-15 ; Psalms 84:7 . Of this valley Celsius remarks, that it was "rugged and embarrassed with bushes and stones, which could not be passed through without labour and tears;" referring to Psalms 84:7 ; and the "rough valley," Deuteronomy 21:4 ; and he quotes from a manuscript of Abu'l Fideli a description of the tree which grew there, and mentions it as bearing a fruit of an acrid taste
Bit, Bridle - ]'>[2] ‘bit’); in Psalms 32:9 for ‘bit and bridle’ we should probably render ‘bridle and halter,’ and so in the other passages where the two Hebrew words respectively occur, e. ...
In Psalms 39:1 ‘bridle’ should certainly be ‘muzzle’ (cf
River - " (Psalms 46:4) God the Father is thus described, Jeremiah 2:13; Psalms 65:9; God the Son is thus described, Song of Song of Solomon 4:15; Zechariah 13:1; and God the Holy Ghost, John 7:38 and John 4:14
Scripture, Liberty in - In the Old Testament the idea of liberty was almost entirely absent, religion meant the "fear of the Lord" (Psalms 33), servant was the name of the good (Psalms 18; Hebrews 3)
Oil - Its three principal uses among the Hebrew were:...
(1) To anoint the body so as to mollify the skin, heal injuries, and strengthen muscles (Psalms 104:15; Psalms 109:18; Psalms 141:5; Isaiah 1:6; Luke 10:34; 2 Chronicles 28:15; Mark 6:13; James 5:14) (See ANOINT. ...
Messiah is the Antitype "anointed with the oil of gladness above His fellows" (Hebrews 1:9; Psalms 45:7); not only above us, the adopted members of God's family, but above the angels, partakers with Him, though infinitely His inferiors, in the holiness and joys of heaven. His anointing with "the oil of exulting joy" took place not at His baptism when He began His ministry for us, but at His triumphant completion of His work, at His ascension (Ephesians 4:8; Psalms 68:18), when He obtained the Holy Spirit without measure (John 3:34), to impart to us in measure. Guests were anointed with oil at feasts; so He anoints us, Psalms 23:5. The oil indicated" gladness"; its absence sorrow and humiliation (Isaiah 61:3; Joel 2:19; Psalms 45:7)
Hand - ’...
In prayer the hands were stretched up (Exodus 17:11 , 1 Kings 8:22 , Psalms 28:2 etc. Washing the hands was a declaration of innocence ( Deuteronomy 21:6 , Psalms 26:6 , Matthew 27:24 etc. Clean hands were a symbol of a righteous life ( Job 22:30 , Psalms 18:20 ; Psalms 24:4 etc. ...
In court the accuser stands on the right hand (Psalms 109:6 , Zechariah 3:1 ). The protector, therefore, stands on the right hand ( Psalms 109:31 etc. The seat of the Redeemer’s glory is at the right hand of God ( Psalms 110:1 , Luke 22:69 , Romans 8:34 etc
Blessing - Consistently the Bible refers to the gifts that God gives, whether material or spiritual, as blessings (Genesis 9:1; Leviticus 25:21; Numbers 6:22-26; Psalms 115:12-15; Proverbs 10:22; Ephesians 1:3; Hebrews 6:7). A blessing could therefore become an expression of praise, and in this sense grateful people can bless God (Psalms 28:6; Psalms 31:21; Psalms 41:13; Daniel 2:19-20; Mark 11:9-10; Luke 1:68; Romans 1:25; Ephesians 1:3). It is usually used to denote the contented state of the person who lives uprightly according to God’s principles and who, as a result, enjoys God’s favour (Psalms 1:1; Psalms 32:1; Psalms 41:1; Proverbs 3:13; Matthew 11:6; Matthew 16:17; Luke 1:45; Luke 12:37; Romans 4:6-9; James 1:12; Revelation 16:15)
Blessedness - In the OT these issues sometimes lie rather in material prosperity life, long life, wealth, children, outward peace but it is recognized that the conditions of these are spiritual ( Psalms 1:1-6 ), and in not a few instances the inward and spiritual is itself represented as the content of true happiness ( e. Psalms 32:1-11 [5], Proverbs 4:7 [6]). Psalms 2:12 ; Psalms 33:12 ), is made supreme and in itself all-sufficing
Goodness - It is a character that combines love, mercy, patience, faithfulness, justice, holiness and wrath in perfect balance (Exodus 33:19; Exodus 34:5-7; Psalms 86:5; Romans 11:22). The goodness that the Bible teaches is the goodness that exists perfectly in God (Psalms 100:5). ...
All that God does is good (Psalms 119:68; Psalms 136:1; Acts 14:17; 1 Timothy 4:4). ...
Likewise, although the law of God is good (Psalms 119:39; Romans 7:12; Romans 7:16), obedience to the law will never produce a satisfactory standard of goodness (Romans 7:18-19)
Michtam - Suggestions include a musical notation or a title for Psalms connected with expiation of sin
Sovereignty - The right of God to do as He wishes (Psalms 50:1; Isaiah 40:15; 1 Timothy 6:15) with His creation
Hagiographa - It comprises Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Canticles, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles
Hagarenes - The same people are mentioned in Psalms 83:6
Owl - (Psalms 102:7)...
Ancient of Days - The picture is no doubt suggested by the contrast between the Eternal God ( Psalms 55:19 ) and the new-fangled deities which were from time to time introduced ( Judges 5:8 , Deuteronomy 32:17 ), rather than, as Hippolytus (quoted by Behrmann, Das Buch Daniel , p. In the troublous times which are represented by the Book of Daniel, it was at once a comfort and a warning to remember that above the fleeting phases of life there sat One who remained eternally the same ( Psalms 90:1-3 ; Psalms 102:24-27 )
Alleluia - ) Never found in the palms of David and his singers, Asaph, Heman, and Jeduthun: but in later Psalms, namely, those of the captivity and the return, the Fifth Book. So "Selah" is restricted to his and their Psalms. ...
The Hebrew form may imply the special interest of the Jews in the destruction of antichrist (Psalms 149:8-9)
Hosanna - ...
The Hebrew form of the word occurs only once in the Old Testament, in Psalms 118. His entrance is followed by a shout of ‘Hosanna! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord’, accompanied by the waving of palm branches, as the people welcome their victorious king (Psalms 118:25-27). ...
In the New Testament the word is used in a setting similar to that of Psalms 118
Oil - ...
People used oils in the preparation of food (Exodus 29:2; Leviticus 2:4; 1 Kings 17:12-14), as fuels for lamps (Exodus 27:20; Zechariah 4:2-3; Zechariah 4:12; Matthew 25:3-4), as medicines and ointments (Isaiah 1:6; Luke 10:34), as cosmetics (2 Samuel 14:2; Esther 2:12; Psalms 104:15; Song of Song of Solomon 1:12; Song of Solomon 5:5) and for rubbing on the body to bring soothing and refreshment (Ruth 3:3; 2 Samuel 12:20; Amos 6:6; Luke 7:37-38; John 12:3). This was particularly so when a host welcomed a special guest (Psalms 23:5). As a result oil, like wine, became a symbol of rejoicing (Psalms 45:7; Psalms 104:15; Isaiah 61:3; Joel 1:10). ...
Oil was used to anoint priests, kings and at times prophets, to symbolize their setting apart for God’s service and their appointment to office (Exodus 28:41; Exodus 40:9-11; Psalms 89:20-21; 1 Kings 1:39; 1 Kings 19:16; Zechariah 4:11-14). Psalms 133:2)
God - (Psalms 8:5; Psalms 97:7 (Hebrew); Psalms 82:1; Psalms 82:6-7. ...
The personal acts attributed to the Son (John 1:3; Psalms 33:6; Proverbs 8:22-32; Proverbs 30:4; Malachi 3:1, the Lord the Sender being distinct from the Lord the Sent who "suddenly comes") and to the Holy Spirit respectively (Genesis 1:2; Psalms 104:30) prove the distinctness of the Persons
Cassia - qetsi‘ôth , Psalms 45:8
Greedy - Psalms 17 2
Allelula - The word ἀλληλούι>α occurs in the LXX, answering to the Hebrew word halal in the Psalms translated 'praise ye the Lord
Endor - A place in Issachar, possessed by Manasseh, Joshua 17:11, where Sisera and Jabin were slain, Psalms 83:9-10, and where Saul consulted the witch
Cassia - The Hebrew refers, in Psalms 45:8, to another kind of spice, remarkable for its fragrance, but not yet identified
Neck - Psalms 18:40, "Thou hast given . made them turn their backs in flight before me (Keil); so Exodus 23:27, or enabled me to put my foot on their necks, subjecting them utterly to me; as Joshua 10:24; Joshua 11:8; Joshua 11:12; Psalms 110:5
Ichabod - She felt God's presence is a nation's only true "glory" (Jeremiah 2:11; Psalms 78:61; Psalms 106:20; Hosea 9:12)
Nehiloth - Title of Psalm 5, Gesenius explains, "upon the flutes," from chalil a "perforated instrument", chaalal ("to bore"); a direction "to the chief musician" that it was to be sung to wind instruments in the temple service; compare Psalms 87:7, "players on instruments," i. She is the church, possessing the Lord as her "inheritance" (Psalms 16:5), or possessed by Him as "His inheritance" (Deuteronomy 32:9)
Jah - Condensing in one emphatic syllable all that is implied in Jahveh (or Υahweh ), the true pronunciation of Jehovah (Psalms 68:4); first in Exodus 15:2 (Hebrew). Psalms 89:8, "O Jehovah , God of hosts, who, as Thou, is a strong Jah (or Υah )?" the emphatic concentration of the name "Jehovah
Swallow - deror , from darar , "free, spontaneous motion" (Psalms 84:3). Balaam could not curse Israel whom God had blessed (Deuteronomy 23:5), nor Shimei David, nay God requited David good instead (2 Samuel 16:5-12; Psalms 109:28)
Selah - Seventy-one times in the Psalms, three times in Habakkuk. Hence, in Psalms 9:16 it follows eeiggaion , "meditation
Hell - Psalms 16 . Psalms 18 4
God - God is God from all eternity (Psalms 90:2). ), and is everywhere all the time (Psalms 119:7-12)
Heaven - Mârôm, used for heaven in Psalms 18:16; Isaiah 24:18; Jeremiah 25:30. Properly speaking, it means a mountain, as in Psalms 102:19; Ezekiel 17:23
Hosts - He is God of the countless multitudes of angelic beings who live in constant readiness to carry out his commands (1 Kings 22:19; Psalms 148:2; see ANGELS). Psalms 24:10; Isaiah 1:24; Jeremiah 2:19; Zechariah 1:17; Malachi 1:6; Malachi 1:14; James 5:4)
Doeg - Doeg told substantially the fact; it was Saul who put on it the "lying" construction of treason on the part of the priests (compare Psalms 52:3-4 with 1 Samuel 22:13). He was but the accomplice and ready tool; Saul, the "mighty man" (Psalms 52:1) who "trusted in the abundance of his riches" (Psalms 52:7) as means of destroying David, was the real" boaster in mischief," for this was the very appeal that Saul made, and that induced Doeg to inform (1 Samuel 22:7): "Hear now, ye Benjamites, will the son of Jesse (as I can) give every one of you fields and vineyards?" (compare 1 Samuel 8:14. )...
On Doeg's information, and by Doeg's own sacrilegious hand, at Saul's command, when the king's "footmen" declined in reverential awe to kill Jehovah's priests, eighty-five of them fell, and Saul "boasted" (Psalms 52:1) of it as a sample of the fate of all who should help David
Line - Psalms 19:4 their line is gone out through all the earth’ has been variously interpreted. Perowne ( Psalms, in toc. Psalms 78:55 , Amos 7:17 , Zechariah 2:1 ). ‘The lines are fallen unto me in pleasant places’ ( Psalms 16:6 ) alludes to the marking out of plots of land with a measuring cord
Age, Aged, Old Age - The aged man is zâqen , perhaps ‘grey-bearded’ ( Genesis 48:10 , 2 Samuel 19:32 , Job 12:20 ; Job 32:9 , Psalms 71:18 , Jeremiah 6:11 ); ‘old age’ is also sêbhâh , i. Genesis 42:38 , Psalms 71:18 ). Psalms 90:10 is the only passage in which a definite period is fixed for human life. ...
The wisdom of the old was proverbial (Job 12:12 ; Job 32:7 ), though there were exceptions ( Job 32:9 , Psalms 119:100 )
Conversations - Accordingly, there was an open space near the gate, which was fitted up with seats for the accommodation of the people, Genesis 19:1 ; Psalms 69:12 . Those who were at leisure occupied a position on these seats, and either amused themselves with witnessing those who came in and went out, and with any trifling occurrences that might offer themselves to their notice, or attended to the judicial trials, which were commonly investigated at public places of this kind, namely, the gate of the city, Genesis 19:1 ; Genesis 34:20 ; Psalms 26:4-5 ; Psalms 69:12 ; Psalms 127:5 ; Ruth 4:11 ; Isaiah 14:31 ; or held intercourse by conversation
Ascension Day - Proper Psalms, Proper Lessons and Proper Preface in theCommunion service place it on the same footing as Christmas Day,Easter and Whitsun Day. The public services are most solemn; the Proper Lessons, andProper Psalms, the Collect, Epistle and Gospel, together with thePenitential Office to be especially used on this day, all mark itas a day of "weeping, fasting and praying. " The Psalms appointedare the seven Penitential Psalms, viz. (See PENITENTIALPSALMS
Chastisement - 2 Samuel 7:14-15; Psalms 89:26-33). God’s purpose in disciplining his children is to correct their faults, teach them obedience, and make them more into the sorts of people that he, in his superior wisdom, wants them to be (Psalms 94:12; 1 Corinthians 11:32). Sometimes these trials may be punishments for specific sins, but at other times they may not have any direct relation to wrongdoing (Psalms 38:1-4; Psalms 118:18; John 9:1-3; 2 Corinthians 1:3-7; 2 Corinthians 12:7-10)
Refuse - ’ Thus Psalms 118:22 ‘The stone which the builders refused
Snail - shabbĕlul , Psalms 58:8 ‘Let them he as a snail which melteth and passeth away
Selah - A word frequently found in the Book of Psalms, and also in Habakkuk 3:9,13 , about seventy-four times in all in Scripture
Gittith - " It is the only stringed instrument named in the titles of the Psalms
Laughter - (1) It is opposed to weeping, as Ecclesiastes 3:4 ; Ecclesiastes 7:3 , Job 8:21 , Psalms 126:2 , Luke 6:21
Marrow - (Psalms 63:5) And the prophet Isaiah represents the salvation of the Lord Jesus Christ as "a feast of fat things, and full of marrow
Zeeb - Named with Oreb (Judges 7:25; Judges 8:3; Psalms 83:11)
Contrite - Psalms 51
Cankerworm - The same original word is rendered "caterpillar" in Psalms 105:34; Jeremiah 51:14; Jeremiah 51:27
Loftily - Psalms 73
English Versions - A tradition, originating with Bale, attributed an English version of the Psalms to Aldhelm, bishop of Sherborne ( d. He is said to have undertaken a version of the Psalms, of which no portion survives, unless the prose portion ( Psalms 1:1-6 ; Psalms 2:1-12 ; Psalms 3:1-8 ; Psalms 4:1-8 ; Psalms 5:1-12 ; Psalms 6:1-10 ; Psalms 7:1-17 ; Psalms 8:1-9 ; Psalms 9:1-20 ; Psalms 10:1-18 ; Psalms 11:1-7 ; Psalms 12:1-8 ; Psalms 13:1-6 ; Psalms 14:1-7 ; Psalms 15:1-5 ; Psalms 16:1-11 ; Psalms 17:1-15 ; Psalms 18:1-50 ; Psalms 19:1-14 ; Psalms 20:1-9 ; Psalms 21:1-13 ; Psalms 22:1-31 ; Psalms 23:1-6 ; Psalms 24:1-10 ; Psalms 25:1-22 ; Psalms 26:1-12 ; Psalms 27:1-14 ; Psalms 28:1-9 ; Psalms 29:1-11 ; Psalms 30:1-12 ; Psalms 31:1-24 ; Psalms 32:1-11 ; Psalms 33:1-22 ; Psalms 34:1-22 ; Psalms 35:1-28 ; Psalms 36:1-12 ; Psalms 37:1-40 ; Psalms 38:1-22 ; Psalms 39:1-13 ; Psalms 40:1-17 ; Psalms 41:1-13 ; Psalms 42:1-11 ; Psalms 43:1-5 ; Psalms 44:1-26 ; Psalms 45:1-17 ; Psalms 46:1-11 ; Psalms 47:1-9 ; Psalms 48:1-14 ; Psalms 49:1-20 ; Psalms 50:1-23 ) of the above-mentioned Paris MS is a relic of it; but we still have the translation of the Decalogue, the summary of the Mosaic law, and the letter of the Council of Jerusalem ( Acts 15:23-29 ), which he prefixed to his code of laws. , which saw the practical extinction of the general use of the French language in England, and the rise of a real native literature, saw also a great revival of vernacular Biblical literature, beginning apparently with the Book of Psalms
Cup - Figuratively, one's portion (Psalms 11:6; Psalms 16:5; Psalms 23:5). Figurative also is the cup of affliction (Psalms 75:8; Isaiah 51:17; Isaiah 51:22). The cup of salvation (Psalms 116:13)
Hymn - HYMN (in NT; for OT, see Music, Poetry, Psalms). We lack, however, any collection of hymns comparable to the Psalms of the OT. Doubtless the Psalms were largely used, as at the Passover feast when the Lord’s Supper was instituted ( Matthew 26:30 ); but in addition new songs would be written to express the Intense emotions of the disciples, and even their spontaneous utterances in the gatherings of early Christians would almost inevitably take a rhythmical form, modelled more or less closely upon the Psalms. These passages specify ‘psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs
Vanity - Psalms 4:3; Psalms 39:6 and the famous Ecclesiastes 1:2 (‘vanity of vanities’), and concludes that in these cases, as in 2 Peter 2:10, the word approximates to the Pauline use in Romans 8:20 (‘the creation was subjected to vanity’) and denotes what is simply passing and transient. On the other hand, in Psalms 26:4; Psalms 119:37; Psalms 144:8 and Ephesians 4:17 he is of opinion that the word expresses moral instability, being used ‘of men without principle on whom no reliance can be placed
Leviathan - On the assumption that Psalms 74:2-17 refers to the Exodus, we should again find the crocodile in Psalms 74:14 . But it is at least equally probable that the allusion is to the creation of the world ( Psalms 74:16-17 ), and to the mythological sea-monsters then vanquished. The species of sea-monster pointed to in Psalms 104:26 is left indefinite. ]'>[1] and some recent expositors interpret Psalms 104:26 ); the Jordan empties itself into his mouth; his flesh will be for food to the godly in the days of the Messiah; part of his skin will be made into a tent for them, whilst the rest is spread on the walls of Jerusalem, and its brightness is visible to the ends of the earth (En 60
Handmaid - 378), and then was naturally applied to relation to God (the above-mentioned vow, also Psalms 86:16; Psalms 116:16). The use of the word in the Gospels illustrates the Oriental habit of describing man as the slave of God, of which there are so many examples in the OT (Psalms 19:11; Psalms 19:13, Nehemiah 1:6; Nehemiah 1:11 etc. ), in the so-called Babylonian Penitential Psalms, in ancient Semitic names—Obadiah found both in the Bible and on an ancient seal, Abdeel (Jeremiah 36:26), Abdiel (1 Chronicles 5:15), Abednego (Daniel 1:7), Abd Ninip (Tell el-Amarna Letters, No
Songs - Of Moses (Exodus 15 ; Numbers 21:17 ; Deuteronomy 32 ; Revelation 15:3 ), Deborah (Judges 5 ), Hannah (1 Samuel 2 ), David (2 Samuel 22 , and Psalms), Mary (Luke 1:46-55 ), Zacharias (Luke 1:68-79 ), the angels (Luke 2:13 ), Simeon (Luke 2:29 ), the redeemed (Revelation 5:9 ; 19 ), Solomon (see SOLOMON , SONGS OF)
Cassia - Used in scenting garments (Psalms 45:8)
Wool - Snow is compared to it (Psalms 147:16)
Extol - Psalms 68
Forget - Psalms 103
Bull - ...
The abriym express "strong bulls" (Psalms 22:12; Psalms 50:13; Psalms 68:30)
Gnashing of Teeth - —A phrase describing a gesture which expresses mainly fury or baffled rage: Job 16:9, Psalms 35:16; Psalms 37:12, Acts 7:54; cf. Psalms 112:10 ‘The wicked shall gnash with his teeth, and melt away’; but these OT parallels* Generation - , of limitless duration; past, Isaiah 51:8 ; future, Psalms 10:6 ; past and future, Psalms 102:24 ; ( b ) of all men living at any given time ( Genesis 6:9 ); ( c ) of a class of men with some special characteristic, Proverbs 30:11-14 of four generations of bad men; ( d ) in Isaiah 38:12 and Psalms 49:19 dôr is sometimes taken as ‘dwelling-place
Horn - (See Psalms 132:17) And Zacharias celebrates Christ to the same amount in his song, when saying, "the Lord hath raised up an horn for salvation for us, in the house of his servant David. " (Luke 1:69) But when it is said, that the Lord "will cut off the horns of the wicked, and the horns of the righteous shall be exalted," (Psalms 75:10) here it appears, that the expression is in allusion to somewhat of a man's own, and not simply with an eye to Christ. (Psalms 118:27)...
Fool - The term fool is to be understood sometimes according to its plain, literal meaning, as denoting a person void of understanding; but it is often used figuratively, Psalms 38:5 ; Psalms 69:5 . "The fool," that is, the impious sinner, "hath said in his heart, There is no God," Psalms 14:1
Lion - On the other hand its fierceness and cruelty rendered it an appropriate metaphor for a fierce and malignant enemy, Psalms 7:2; Psalms 22:21; Psalms 57:4; 2 Timothy 4:17, and hence for the archfiend himself, 1 Peter 5:8
Hatred - People whose lives are under the power of sin hate what is good, hate those who are righteous, and hate God (1 Kings 22:8; Psalms 69:4; Micah 3:2; John 3:20; John 15:18; John 15:23-25; John 17:14). But they must hate wickedness, just as God hates it (Psalms 97:10; Psalms 119:104; Proverbs 6:16-19; Isaiah 61:8; Hebrews 1:9; Judges 1:23; Revelation 2:6)
Heart - Judicial hardness generally opposes the interest of truth and godliness; but a good man considers this as a cause nearest his heart; and although he have to lament his lukewarmness, yet he constantly desires to promote it, Psalms 72:19 . It includes frequent observation of the frame of the heart, Psalms 77:6 . Earnest supplication for heart purifying and rectifying grace, Psalms 19:1-14 ...
4. It includes the realizing of God's presence with us, and setting him before us, Psalms 16:8 . Psalms 45:1 . The improvement of our graces, Psalms 63:5 ; Psalms 6:1-10 :...
6. The time of Sion's troubles, Psalms 46:1-11 ...
4. Dependence on divine grace, Psalms 86:1-17
Hill - , Psalms 3:4; Psalms 24:3, is mount Zion
Dragon - Where the leviathan is also mentioned also Psalms 74 . Psalms 91
Majesty - Psalms 93 ...
The voice of Jehovah is full of majesty. Psalms 29 ...
It is applied to the dignity, pomp and splendor of earthly princes
Ecclesiastes - It is the seventh book after the Psalms in the Hebrew Scriptures (but the second after the Psalms in the A
Caterpillar - The Septuagint in Chronicles, and Aquila in Psalms, render it βρουχος : so the Vulgate in Chronicles and Isaiah, and Jerom in Psalms, bruchus, the chafer, which is a great devourer of leaves
Face - It may be observed that, as to seek any one's face is to seek his favor, or admission to his presence, Psalms 27:8; Proverbs 7:15, so to see his face is to see him in person. Psalms 17:15; and this is specially said to be the privilege of the holy angels that they see God's face
Power - This power was demonstrated through his creation of the universe (Psalms 33:6-9; Isaiah 40:21-23; Jeremiah 10:12-13), his activity in nature (Psalms 29:3-10; Psalms 66:5-7), his control of history (Exodus 9:16; Psalms 33:10; Isaiah 40:15-17) and his saving acts on behalf of his people (Exodus 15:4-12; Exodus 32:11; Psalms 106:8; Psalms 111:6; Isaiah 40:10-11)
Gold - It seems to have a purchasing power over the other two—on the one hand in securing the conditions that tend to prolong life (Psalms 17:14; Psalms 73:7; Psalms 73:12), and on the other by influencing opinion in favour of its possessors (Matthew 19:25, James 2:2). As the highest quotation of earthly values, it supplies a standard for estimating what surpasses it (Job 28:17, Psalms 119:72; Psalms 119:127, Proverbs 3:14; Proverbs 8:10; Proverbs 16:16; 1 Peter 1:7; 1Pe_1:18). It is only when, as the most beautiful and precious material available, it is used to give visible form to the Divine glory that gold becomes a thing of worthlessness (Psalms 115:4, Isaiah 31:7; Isaiah 46:6)
Hell - , death; Numbers 16:30), but afterward is represented as having in it two distinct regions, one for the righteous, Psalms 16:11; Psalms 17:15, the other for the wicked. Psalms 9:17; Psalms 49:14. Sheôl is represented as in the depths of the earth, Job 11:8; Proverbs 9:18; Isaiah 38:10, all-devouring, Proverbs 1:12, destitute of God's presence, Psalms 88:10-12, a state of forgetfulness, Psalms 6:5, insatiable, Isaiah 5:14, remorseless, Mark 9:43-48 and a place of silence, Ecclesiastes 9:10
Gold - It seems to have a purchasing power over the other two—on the one hand in securing the conditions that tend to prolong life (Psalms 17:14; Psalms 73:7; Psalms 73:12), and on the other by influencing opinion in favour of its possessors (Matthew 19:25, James 2:2). As the highest quotation of earthly values, it supplies a standard for estimating what surpasses it (Job 28:17, Psalms 119:72; Psalms 119:127, Proverbs 3:14; Proverbs 8:10; Proverbs 16:16; 1 Peter 1:7; 1Pe_1:18). It is only when, as the most beautiful and precious material available, it is used to give visible form to the Divine glory that gold becomes a thing of worthlessness (Psalms 115:4, Isaiah 31:7; Isaiah 46:6)
Hope - ), oftener appears as ‘trust’ and sometimes as ‘confidence’ ‘hope’ in Job 6:20 , Psalms 16:9 , Proverbs 14:32 , Ecclesiastes 9:4 , Jeremiah 17:7 . ]'>[4] in Job 8:14 ; Job 31:24 ; also Job 4:6 , Psalms 49:13 ; Psalms 78:7 ; Psalms 85:8 , Proverbs 3:26 , Ecclesiastes 7:25 ). ’ (4) A synonym hardly distinguishable from (5) and (6), and rendered ‘hope’ or ‘wait upon,’ occurs 8 times ( Psalms 104:27 ; Psalms 146:5 etc. in Job 6:11 ; Colossians 3:1-47 , Psalms 33:18-22 ; Psalms 42:5 , Lamentations 3:24 ). (6) The term oftenest recurring, denoting practical , even strenuous, anticipation (rendered ‘expectation’ in Psalms 9:18 ; Psalms 62:5 ), has a root-meaning not far removed from that of the Heb. verb for ‘believe’; Genesis 49:18 , Revelation 7:14-17 , Job 14:7 , Psalms 25:5 ; Psalms 25:21 , Ezekiel 37:11 , Hosea 2:16 afford good examples. , Psalms 72:1-20 ; Psalms 96:1-13 ; Psalms 97:1-12 ; Psalms 98:1-9 , etc. , Psalms 16:8-11 ; Psalms 17:15 ) the latter conceived as necessary to the former, since otherwise those who had suffered most for God’s Kingdom would miss it (cf. Psalms 24:3-6 , Matthew 5:8 , Revelation 22:14 f
Name - To know a person’s name (in this sense) was to know the person (Exodus 33:12; Psalms 9:10; Psalms 79:6). ...
According to this common biblical usage, to make known a person’s name meant to make known the person’s character and activity (Psalms 22:22; Psalms 99:3; John 17:6; Acts 9:15). Anyone who did something for the sake of a person’s name acted as the person’s representative and therefore was concerned with upholding the person’s good character (Psalms 109:21; Acts 9:16). To call upon a person’s name had the same significance as actually calling upon the person (1 Kings 18:24; Psalms 99:6; Acts 2:21). Therefore, those who called upon the name of the Lord could be assured that the Lord himself would save them (Psalms 54:1; Acts 4:12; Romans 10:13)
Testimony - ...
But we meet with the word testimonies in the book of the Psalms, in a sense so peculiarly sweet and blessed, that I could not prevail upon myself to pass it by, without calling the reader's attention to it. ...
If the reader will turn to Psalms 119:1-176 he will find the word testimonies, together with nine other words there evidently placed for the same meaning, which mutually serve to throw a light upon each other. And what is very remarkable, one or other of these ten words is in every verse of that Psalm, except one, (as far as my memory helpeth me) namely, Psalms 119:122. If, for example, we consider the common and general acceptation of the word law, surely the Psalmist David could never be supposed to say, that the law of Moses as a covenant of works was his delight and joy, as he saith the law was in this Psalm, (Psalms 119:72; Psa 119:97, etc. Jesus might well say, and Jesus alone could say it, "I delight to do thy will O my God, yea thy law is within my heart"—or as the margin renders it, "in the midst of my bowels," (Psalms 40:8) —meaning that it was wrapt up, yea forming his very nature, from the entire holiness of that nature. " (Psalms 119:111)...
Similar observations might be offered on each of the other words in this Psalm, but these are enough in point. I only desire to add, what may be considered as a key to the whole, that one verse in the middle of the Psalm determines at once to whom the whole refers, and who is the speaker; and the evangelist's application of the words to the person of the Lord Jesus Christ very fully confirms it: "My zeal hath consumed me, because mine enemies have forgotten thy words," (Psalms 119:139; Psa 69:9; John 2:17)...
Musician, Chief - menatstseah), the precentor of the Levitical choir or orchestra in the temple, mentioned in the titles of fifty-five Psalms, and in Habakkuk 3:19 , Revised Version
Jacques Clement - A forerunner of Palestrina and Lassus, his works are chiefly sacred, including masses, motets, and Psalms
Bibles, Rhymed - Among English rhymed versions, mostly of the Psalms, are those of Thomas Brampton (1414), Sir Philip Sydney (1580), and Lord Bacon (1600)
Baytree - Psalms 37:35; Εzrach
Spiritual Songs - Spiritual songs (Ephesians 5:19, Colossians 3:16) cannot be distinguished as such from hymns and Psalms (which see )
Gradual Psalms - (Latin: gradus, step) ...
Psalms 119-133 which were sung by the caravans of devout Israelites on their way to Jerusalem to celebrate the great feasts in the Temple
Amiable - But in Psalms 84:1 , there is an exception, "How amiable are the tabernacles, O Lord
Ice - God demanded of Job, "Out of whose womb came the ice? and the hoary frost of heaven, who hath gendered it?" It is answered in the Psalms: it is God who "casteth forth his ice like morsels: who can stand before his cold?" Job 6:16 ; Job 38:29 ; Psalm 147:17
Clothing - Psalms 35
Comforter - Psalms 69
Fearfully - Psalms 139
Fortress - Psalms 18
Altaschith - The general thought is that reference is made to some air to which these Psalms were sung
Leek - The same word is elsewhere rendered "grass," 1 Kings 18:5; 2 Kings 19:26; Job 40:15; Psalms 37:2;" herb," Job 8:12 : "hay," Proverbs 27:25, William Byrd - "Psalms, Sonnets and Songs," several masses, "Graduals," and "Sacred Songs," have survived
Hallelujah - This word occurs at the beginning and at the end of many Psalms
Rhymed Bibles - Among English rhymed versions, mostly of the Psalms, are those of Thomas Brampton (1414), Sir Philip Sydney (1580), and Lord Bacon (1600)
Glory - It is only necessary to mention the constantly recurring phrase ‘ glory to God’ ( Joshua 7:16 , Psalms 29:1 etc. the cedars; ‘of his house’ ( Psalms 49:16 ), i. ‘My glory ’ ( Genesis 49:6 , Psalms 16:9 ; Psalms 30:12 ; Psalms 57:8 etc. also Psalms 8:5 . With reference to God may be named Psalms 19:1 , His wisdom and strength; and Psalms 63:2 , the worthiness of His moral government. For God’s glory manifested in history and in the control of the nations, see Numbers 14:22 , Ezekiel 39:21 ; in nature, Psalms 29:3 ; Psalms 29:6 ; Psalms 104:31
Judgment - ...
God the judge...
As creator of the human race and ruler of the universe, God is the supreme judge (Genesis 18:25; Psalms 67:4; Psalms 94:2; Psalms 96:13; John 8:50; Hebrews 12:23). His judgment is always just because it is according to his own perfect standards, but it is also mixed with mercy (Psalms 9:8; Psalms 36:5-6; Psalms 89:14; Romans 2:12-16; 2 Timothy 4:8; James 2:13; Revelation 16:5; see MERCY). They longed for the day when God would act in true judgment, righting the wrongs, declaring them to be right, and sentencing their opponents to punishment (Psalms 7:6-8; Psalms 9:8; Psalms 9:12; Psalms 10:2; Psalms 10:12; Psalms 10:17-18; Psalms 82:1-4; see JUSTICE)
Unicorn - It was of great size and strength ( Numbers 23:22 ; Numbers 24:8 , Psalms 22:21 ), very wild and ferocious ( Job 39:9-12 ), and specially dangerous when hunted, because of its powerful double horns ( Psalms 92:10 , Deuteronomy 33:17 )
Alleluia - This word occurs at the beginning, or at the end, of many Psalms. At the funeral of Fabiola, "several Psalms were sung with loud alleluias," says Jerom, in Epitaphio Paulae
Rameses (ra'Amses) - Rameses was also apparently known as Zoan (Psalms 78:12; Psalms 78:43), which from 1085 to 660 BC was the capital of Egypt (Isaiah 19:11; Isaiah 19:13; Isaiah 30:4; Ezekiel 30:14)
Hymn - From the spiritual contents of such songs it is difficult to distinguish the three kinds of Divine praise indicated by the different terms, Psalms, hymns, and canticles. Saint Augustine, commenting on Psalms 148, defines hymn as "a song with praise of God," but praise of God must be understood to include the praise of His saints
Oreb And Zeeb - Two princes of Midian in the invasion of Israel, mentioned as inferior to the kings Zebah and Zalmunna ( Judges 7:25 ; Judges 8:3 , Psalms 83:11 ; cf. That their death, so briefly narrated in Judges, was accompanied by great slaughter may be inferred from the incidental references by the writers of Psalms 83:1-18 and Isaiah 10
Zoan - Zoan is not mentioned in Genesis, but elsewhere ( Psalms 78:13 ; Psalms 78:43 , Isaiah 19:11 ; Isaiah 19:13 , 30, Ezekiel 30:14 ) it appears as almost or quite the capital of Egypt, perhaps as being the royal city nearest to the frontier
Honey - ) Bees deposit it in the crevices of rocks (Psalms 81:16), and in hollow trees. The word of God (Psalms 19:10)
Beast - (4) zîz , ‘wild beasts,’ Psalms 50:11 ; Psalms 80:13
Fuel - Among other sources of supply were shrubs and undergrowth of all kinds, including the broom ( Psalms 120:4 RVm [3] ) and the buck-thorn ( Psalms 58:9 ); also chaff and other refuse of the threshing-floor ( Matthew 3:12 ); and withered herbage, the ‘grass’ of Matthew 6:30
Incense - ‘smoke,’ and so used in Isaiah 1:13 , Psalms 66:15 ; Psalms 141:2 ; used for a definite substance, Leviticus 10:1 , Ezekiel 8:11 etc
Psalmody - The art or act of singing Psalms. At other times, the Psalms were sung alternately, the congregation dividing themselves into two parts, and singing verse about, in their turns
Sanctuary - The apostle to the Hebrews describes the sanctuary how it was appointed, (Hebrews 9:1-5) No doubt the sanctuary was a type of JEHOVAH'S throne in heaven; hence (Psalms 102:19) the Lord is represented as "looking down from the height of his sanctuary, from heaven did the Lord behold the earth?" The church of Christ is represented as the Lord's sanctuary under the type of the holy land. The psalmist celebrates this in one of the loftiest strains of sacred poetry: "When" (Psalms 114:1-8) "Israel came out of Egypt, the house of Jacob from a people of strange language, Judah was his sanctuary, and Israel his dominion
Sackcloth - " (Psalms 30:11) I refer the reader to the word of God for accounts of this apparel. (Genesis 37:34; Psalms 35:13; Isaiah 20:2) There is a prophecy in the book of the Revelations which some think yet remains to be fulfilled, where it is said that the Lord's "two witnesses shall prophecy a thousand, two hundred, and three-score days, clothed in sackcloth?" (Revelation 11:3) Others suppose the event hath been already accomplished
Pelican - קאת , Leviticus 11:18 ; Deuteronomy 14:17 ; Psalms 102:7 ; Isaiah 34:11 ; Zephaniah 2:14 ; a very remarkable aquatic bird, of the size of a large goose. David compares his groaning to it, Psalms 102:7
Thirst - Psalms 104 3. Psalms 42 ...
THIRST,v
Enemy - The enemies of Christians become the enemies of God, and the enemies of God become the enemies of Christians (Exodus 23:22; Psalms 37:20; Psalms 55:2-3; Matthew 10:22; Matthew 10:36)
Partridge - " Jeremiah 17:11, "the partridge sitteth on eggs and hatcheth them not" ("sitteth on eggs which it has not laid," Henderson), typifying the profitlessness of unlawful gain (Psalms 39:6; Psalms 49:16-17; Psalms 55:23) in the end
Desert - It is rendered "desert" in Psalms 102:6, R. Without the article it occurs in a few passages of poetry, in the following of which it is rendered "desert: " Psalms 78:40; Psalms 106:14; Isaiah 43:19-20
Earthquake - The effects of God's power, wrath, and vengeance are compared to earthquakes, Psalms 18:7 ; Psalms 46:2 ; Psalms 114:4
Selah - It occurs ( a ) in the OT, ( b ) in the Psalms of Solomon, and ( c ) in the Jewish (Synagogue) Liturgy. In the Psalms of Solomon ‘Selah’ occurs twice (17:31 and 18:10), and in the oldest parts of the Jewish Liturgy (apart from the canonical Psalms, which are incorporated in it) 5 times (3 in the ‘Eighteen Blessings’ and 2 in the morning Benedictions preceding the Shema ‘). the use of the ‘Gloria’ at the end of Psalms or [4] at the end of sections of the Psalm in Christian worship)
Way - ( b ) Figuratively, of a course of conduct or character ( Job 17:9 , Psalms 91:11 ), either in a good sense as approved by God ( Deuteronomy 31:29 , Psalms 50:23 , Isaiah 30:21 ), or in a bad sense of man’s own choosing ( Psalms 139:24 , Isaiah 65:2 , Jeremiah 18:11 ). ( c ) Of the way of Jehovah, His creative power ( Job 26:14 ), His moral rule and commandments ( Job 21:14 , Psalms 18:30 , Proverbs 8:32 )
Praise - ” The Hebrew title of the book of Psalms (“Praises”) comes from the same root as “hallelujah” and Psalm 113-118 have been specially designated the “Hallel” (“praise”) Psalms. Biblical songs of praise range from personal, more or less spontaneous outbursts of thanksgiving for some redemptive act of God (Exodus 15:1 : Judges 5:1 ; 1 Samuel 2:1 ; Luke 1:46-55 ,Luke 1:46-55,1:67-79 ) to formal Psalms and hymns adapted for corporate worship in the Temple (2 Chronicles 29:30 ) and church (Colossians 3:16 ). See Music; Psalms; Worship
Hide - Psalms 32 ...
4. Psalms 27 ...
To hide the face from, to overlook to pardon. Psalms 51 ...
To hide the face, to withdraw spiritual presence, support and consolation. Psalms 30 ...
To hide one's self, to put one's self in a condition to be safe to secure protection
Light - In like manner darkness is usually associated with things that are bad (Job 30:26; Psalms 112:4; John 3:19-20; see DARKNESS). Because God is separate from all creation, and especially from all things sinful, light is symbolic of God’s holiness (Psalms 104:2; Daniel 2:22; 1 Timothy 6:16; 1 John 1:5). Psalms 27:1). God’s Word is also a light, as it guides them along the path of life (Psalms 119:105; Proverbs 6:23; see LAMP)
Hashmannim - Hebrew for "princes shall come out of Egypt" (Psalms 68:31); rich nobles, whence the Maccabees took their name Asmonaeans
Manifold - ...
O Lord, how manifold are thy works! Psalms 104 ...
I know your manifold transgressions
Mischief - Psalms 52 ...
3
Psalm - ) To extol in Psalms; to sing; as, psalming his praises
Astray - Psalms 129
Gloria Patri - This prayer is always appended to the Psalms in the Mass and in the Office, except in the last three days of Holy Week, and in Masses for the dead
Glory be to the Father - This prayer is always appended to the Psalms in the Mass and in the Office, except in the last three days of Holy Week, and in Masses for the dead
Steel - So in Job 20:24; Psalms 18:34, translated "brass" or "copper
Earing - Psalms 129:3, and is translated plowed
Sheol - (Hebrew: a cave) ...
In the Old Testament times it was the place where the souls of the dead abide: the land of oblivion (Psalms 87); called Hades in the Greek New Testament (Luke 16), and later used as a synonym for Gehenna, the hell of torments, the Latin infernus
Parvaim - It was possibly from this place that the ‘gold of Sheba’ ( Psalms 72:15 ; cf
Treasury - Psalms 135
Gestures - Bowing the head or body marks reverence, homage, or worship ( Genesis 18:2 , Exo 20:5 , 1 Chronicles 21:21 , Psalms 95:6 , Isaiah 60:14 ). The same is true of kneeling ( 1 Kings 19:18 , 2 Kings 1:13 , Psalms 95:6 , Mark 1:40 ). A shake of the head may express scorn or derision ( 2 Kings 19:21 , Psalms 109:25 , Mark 15:29 etc. A grimace of the lip is a sign of contempt ( Psalms 22:7 ). ) and clapping the hands ( Psalms 47:1 , Isaiah 55:12 etc
Poor - He guarantees his blessing upon those who help them and his judgment upon those who take unfair advantage of them (Psalms 41:1; Proverbs 17:5; Proverbs 19:17; Proverbs 21:13; Proverbs 29:14; Isaiah 10:1-2; Amos 2:7-8). Often they had no way of gaining justice and cried out helplessly to God to defend them (Psalms 69:33; Psalms 82:3-4; cf. Psalms 109:31; Psalms 140:12; Isaiah 11:4; Isaiah 32:7). Such people, in any era, are the true citizens of God’s kingdom (Psalms 86:1-2; Matthew 5:3)
Wisdom Literature - A number of Psalms also belong to this class of literature (e. Psalms 10; Psalms 14; Psalms 19; Psalms 37; Psalms 49; Psalms 73; Psalms 112)
Work - It was often used of action or behaviour in general (Psalms 9:16; Amos 8:7; Ephesians 2:8-9; 2 Timothy 1:9; see GOOD WORKS). Psalms 104:19-24). This includes the right to honest profits and fair wages (Psalms 111:6-9; Proverbs 14:23; Proverbs 31:16-24; Ecclesiastes 5:18-19; Ecclesiastes 11:1; Ecclesiastes 11:4; Ecclesiastes 11:6; Luke 10:7; Luke 19:13-17; Colossians 4:1). ...
The works of God...
The Bible speaks of the works of God as evidence of his power, love, faithfulness, righteousness, majesty and almost all other aspects of the divine character (Psalms 111:2-8). Always God’s works are a cause for people everywhere to worship and praise him (Psalms 92:5; Psalms 103:22). ...
Frequently the Bible refers to God’s works in relation to creation (Genesis 2:2; Psalms 8:3; Psalms 19:1; Psalms 104:24; Hebrews 1:10) and the control of history (Psalms 46:8-9; Psalms 66:3; Psalms 107:24; Psalms 111:6; Isaiah 26:11-13; Isaiah 28:21; Revelation 15:2-4). But no matter in what context it speaks of the works of God, those works are usually concerned with two main themes, judgment and salvation (Psalms 77:11-15; Leviticus 19:13; Isaiah 28:21; Acts 13:41; Philippians 1:6; see GOD)
God - The central truth of that revelation is that there is only one God (Deuteronomy 6:4; Isaiah 44:6; Psalms 50:1-402; Mark 12:29; 1 Thessalonians 1:9; 1 Timothy 2:5), though he exists in the form of a trinity (see TRINITY). He is eternal (Psalms 90:2; Isaiah 48:12; John 5:26; Romans 1:23; Romans 16:26; 1 Timothy 1:17; Revelation 1:8; Revelation 4:8; see ETERNITY). He does not need to give reasons for his decisions or explanations of his actions (Psalms 115:3; Isaiah 40:13-14; Daniel 4:35; Acts 4:28; Romans 9:20-24), though in his grace he may sometimes do so (Genesis 18:17-19; Ephesians 1:9). His wisdom is infinite and therefore beyond human understanding (Psalms 147:5; Isaiah 40:28; Daniel 2:20; Romans 11:33; Romans 16:27; see WISDOM). Nothing in the works of creation or in the activities of humans or angels can add anything to him or take anything from him (Psalms 50:10-13; Acts 17:24-25; Romans 11:36). But, again in his grace, he may choose people to have the honour of serving him (Psalms 105:26-27; Acts 9:15). ...
Majestic and sovereign...
As the creator and ruler of all things, God is pictured as enthroned in majesty in the heavens (Psalms 47:7; Psalms 93:1-2; Psalms 95:3-5; Hebrews 1:3; see GLORY). ...
God is the possessor of absolute authority and nothing can exist independently of it (Psalms 2:1-6; Isaiah 2:10-12; Isaiah 2:20-22; Isaiah 40:23; see AUTHORITY). He maintains the whole creation (Psalms 147:8-9; Matthew 5:45; Colossians 1:17), he controls all life (Deuteronomy 7:15; Deuteronomy 28:60; Job 1:21; Psalms 104:29-30; Matthew 10:29) and he directs all events, small and great, towards the goals that he has determined (Genesis 45:5-8; Psalms 135:6 : Proverbs 16:33; Isaiah 10:5-7; Isaiah 44:24-28; Isaiah 46:9-11; Amos 3:6; Amos 4:6-11; John 11:49-53; Acts 2:23; Acts 17:26; Romans 8:28; Ephesians 1:11; see PREDESTINATION; PROVIDENCE). This is a cause for both fear and joy: fear, because it means that no sin can escape him; joy, because it means that no one who trusts in his mercy can ever be separated from him (Psalms 139:1-12; Proverbs 15:3; Isaiah 40:27-28; Isaiah 57:15; Jeremiah 23:24; Hebrews 4:13). It may speak of God as if he has human features, functions and emotions, but such expressions should not be understood literally (Hebrews 3:4; Numbers 12:8; Deuteronomy 29:20; Deuteronomy 33:27; Psalms 2:4; John 10:29; Hebrews 4:13). Everything in creation changes, but the Creator never changes (Psalms 33:11; Malachi 3:6; John 1:14; 1 Peter 1:24). The Bible usually speaks of this moral holiness of God as his righteousness (Psalms 11:7; Psalms 36:6; Isaiah 5:16; Hebrews 1:9; 1 John 3:7; see RIGHTEOUSNESS). He cannot ignore sin but must deal with it (Psalms 9:8; Isaiah 11:4-5; Jeremiah 30:23-24; Romans 1:18; Romans 2:8; see WRATH; JUDGMENT). ...
But God is also a God of love, grace, mercy and longsuffering, and he wants to forgive repentant sinners (Psalms 86:5; Psalms 145:8-9; Romans 2:4; Titus 3:4; 2 Peter 3:9; 1 John 4:16; see LOVE; PATIENCE). The God who is the sinners’ judge is also the sinners’ saviour (Psalms 34:18; 1618180990_9; 1 Timothy 2:3; 2 Timothy 4:18; Titus 3:4-7; see SALVATION)
Invitatory - It is the antiphon to Psalms 94, which is divided into five parts
Orator - incantation (Psalms 58:5), lachash
Balance - The emblem of justice (Job 31:6; Psalms 62:9; Proverbs 11:1) the test of truth and honesty
Roll - Volume means so (Jeremiah 36:2; Psalms 40:7; compare Deuteronomy 31:26; Ezekiel 2:9-10, where the writing "within and without" was contrary to the usage of writing only on one side, implying the fullness of the prophecy of woe
Baal - Psalms 106Baal Zebub, the god of flies, &c
Painfulness - In Psalms 73:18 ‘When I thought to know this, it was too painful for me’ as well as in 2Es 7:12 , 2Ma 2:26 ‘painful’ means ‘laborious’: and so ‘painfulness’ in 2 Corinthians 11:27 means ‘Iahoriousness
Wondrous - Psalms 26
Haggai - In his prophetic work he was associated with Zechariah ( Ezra 5:1 ; Ezra 6:14 ); and the names of the two are prefixed to certain Psalms in one or more of the Versions (to Psalms 137:1-9 in LXX [2] alone, to Psalms 111:1-10 (112) in Vulg. ]'>[2] alone, to Psalms 125:1-5 ; Psalms 126:1-6 in Pesh. alone, to Psalms 146:1-10 ; Psalms 147:1-20 ; Psalms 148:1-14 in LXX Psalms - The book of Psalms is a collection of hymns, or sacred songs, in praise of God, and consists of poems of various kinds. They are the productions of different persons, but are generally called the Psalms of David, because a great part of them was composed by him, and David himself is distinguished by the name of the Psalmist. We cannot now ascertain all the Psalms written by David, but their number probably exceeds seventy; and much less are we able to discover the authors of the other Psalms, or the occasions upon which they were composed. The authority of the Psalms is established not only by their rank among the sacred writings, and by the unvaried testimony of ages, but likewise by many intrinsic proofs of inspiration. The sacred character of the whole book is established by the testimony of our Saviour and his Apostles, who, in various parts of the New Testament, appropriate the predictions of the Psalms as obviously apposite to the circumstances of their lives, and as intentionally composed to describe them. The veneration for the Psalms has in all ages of the church been considerable. The fathers assure us, that in the earlier times the whole book of Psalms was generally learned by heart; and that the ministers of every gradation were expected to be able to repeat them from memory. Josephus asserts, and most of the ancient writers maintain, that the Psalms were composed in metre. ) The Hebrew copies and the Septuagint version of this book contain the same number of Psalms; only the Septuagint translators have, for some reason which does not appear, thrown the ninth and tenth into one, as also the one hundred and fourteenth and one hundred and fifteenth, and have divided the one hundred and sixteenth and one hundred and forty-seventh each into two. Allix, that, "although the sense of near fifty Psalms be fixed and settled by divine authors, yet Christ and his Apostles did not undertake to quote all the Psalms they could, but only to give a key to their hearers, by which they might apply to the same subjects the Psalms of the same composure and expression. They would not otherwise have made his Psalms part of their daily worship; nor would David have delivered them to the church to be so employed, were it not to instruct and support them in the knowledge and belief of this fundamental article. Were the Messiah not concerned in the Psalms, it would have been absurd to celebrate twice a day, in their public devotions, the events of one man's life, who was deceased so long ago, as to have no relation now to the Jews and the circumstances of their affairs; or to transcribe whole passages from them into their prayers for the coming of the Messiah. By substituting Messiah for David, the Gospel for the law, the church Christian for that of Israel, and the enemies of the one for those of the other, the Psalms are made our own. The Psalms, thus applied, have advantages which no fresh compositions, however finely executed, can possibly have; since, beside their incomparable fitness to express our sentiments, they are at the same time memorials of, and appeals to, former mercies and deliverances; they are acknowledgments of prophecies accomplished; they point out the connection between the old and new dispensations, thereby teaching us to admire and adore the wisdom of God displayed in both, and furnishing while we read or sing them, an inexhaustible variety of the noblest matter that can engage the contemplations of man. ...
Very few of the Psalms, comparatively, appear to be simply prophetical, and to belong only to Messiah, without the intervention of any other person. ) For this reason, the Psalms composed for the use of Israel, and by them accordingly used at the time, do admit of an application to us, who are now "the Israel of God," Galatians 6:16 , and to our Redeemer, who is the King of this Israel. ...
On this book Bishop Horsley remarks:—These Psalms go, in general, under the name of the Psalms of David. The Psalms, however, appear to be compositions of various authors, in various ages; some much more ancient than the times of King David, some of a much later age. So that, if David be allowed to have had any knowledge of the true subject of his own compositions, it was nothing in his own life, but something put into his mind by the Holy Spirit of God; and the misapplication of the Psalms to the literal David has done more mischief than the misapplication of any other parts of the Scriptures among those who profess the belief of the Christian religion. ...
The Psalms are all poems of the lyric kind, that is, adapted to music, but with great variety in the style of composition. But the figure in the Psalms is that which is peculiar to the Hebrew language, in which the figure gives its meaning with as much perspicuity as the plainest speech. In these dialogue Psalms the persons are frequently the Psalmist himself, or the chorus of priests and Levites, or the leader of the Levitical band, opening the ode with a proem declarative of the subject, and very often closing the whole with a solemn admonition drawn from what the other persons say. Christ, in his incarnate state, is personated sometimes as a priest, sometimes as a king, sometimes as a conqueror; and in those Psalms in which he is introduced as a conqueror, the resemblance is very remarkable between this conqueror in the book of Psalms and the warrior on the white horse in the book of Revelation, who goes forth with a crown on his head, and a bow in his hand, conquering and to conquer. And the conquest in the Psalms is followed, like the conquest in the Revelation, by the marriage of the conqueror
Mahalath - " The addition Leannoth, from 'anah "to afflict" (compare Psalms 14:15), in Psalm 88 expresses "concerning the sickness of affliction," i. Psalm 88 is the most gloomy throughout of all the Psalms, therefore the title (shir ) praise song must refer to Psalm 89, which forms the latter part of one whole, of which Psalm 88 is the first part. David and the sons of Korah after him delight in such poetical enigmas in titles of Psalms
Cord, Rope - It is difficult for the English reader to recognize the same original in the Psalmist’s bow ‘string’ ( Psalms 11:2 ) and the ‘green withs ’ (RVm
The everyday use of cords for binding evil-doers suggested the metaphor of the wicked man ‘holden with the cords of his sin’ (Proverbs 5:22 ), while from the hunter’s snares comes the figure of Psalms 140:5 ; also ‘the cords of death’ of Psalms 116:3 RV Ahithophel - David's counselor, to whose treachery he touchingly alludes Psalms 41:9; Psalms 55:12-14; Psalms 55:20-21
Kibroth Hattaavah - wind was the extraordinary agent brought in "by the power of God" (Psalms 78:26). The impossibility, to ordinary view, of such a meat supply for 600,000 men for a month long even to satiety ("He rained flesh upon them as dust, and feathered fowls like as the sand of the sea": Psalms 78:27), staggered Moses' faith: "shall the flocks and the herds be slain for them to suffice them? or shall all the fish of the sea be gathered together for them?" (the proximity to the Red "Sea" suggested the "fish," ver. We too often "limit the Holy One of Israel" (Psalms 78:41-20-31). God punishes murmurers by "giving them their request, but sending leanness into their soul" (Psalms 106:15). The first supply of quails was on the 15th day of the second month after the Exodus (Exodus 16; Psalms 105:40), just before the manna
Maschil - (mahss' keel) KJV form of Maskil, a term used in the titles of thirteen Psalms (Psalm 32:1 ; Psalm 42:1 ; Psalm 44:1 ; Psalm 45:1 ; Psalm 52-55 ; Psalm 74:1 ; Psalm 78:1 ; Psalm 88:1 ; Psalm 89:1 ; Psalm 142:1 ). Others suggest that maskil might be a musical notation or an indication that these Psalms were performed at festivals (for example, Psalm 78:1 )
Crocodile - (1) livyâthân , Psalms 74:14 , Isaiah 27:1 , Job 41:1 f. (2) hayyath qâneh , ‘the wild beast of the reeds,’ Psalms 68:30 RV Gall - —...
In LXX Septuagint χολή represents (1) רא̇שׁ (Deuteronomy 32:32, Psalms 69:21); and (2) לַעֵנָה wormwood (Proverbs 5:4, Lamentations 3:15). ...
It thus appears that χολή was used of any bitter drug, and there is therefore no discrepancy between Matthew 27:34 οἶνον [1] μετὰ χολῆς μεμιγμένον, and Mark 15:23 ἐσμυρνισμένον οἶνον
Achsah - Typically hereby we are taught as children to ask humbly and expect confidently great blessings (Luke 11:13; 1 John 3:22), both the upper or heavenly and the nether or earthly, from our Father (Psalms 81:10; Psalms 84:11; Isaiah 33:16; John 4:13-14; John 7:37-39; John 15:7; Ephesians 3:20)
Consume - Psalms 78 . Psalms 37
Create - Psalms 102 . Psalms 51
Guide - Psalms 25 ...
2. Psalms 48 ...
3
Asaph - Several of the Psalms, as the fiftieth, the seventy-third to the eighty-third, have the name of Asaph prefixed; but it is not certain whether the words or the music were composed by him. The Psalms which bear the name of Asaph are doctrinal or preceptive: their style, though less sweet than that of David, is more vehement, and little inferior to the grandeur of Isaiah
Unicorn - This animal was distinguished for his ferocity, Isaiah 34:7, strength, Numbers 23:22; Numbers 24:8, agility, Psalms 29:6, wildness, Job 39:9, as well as for being horned, and destroying with his horns. Deuteronomy 33:17; Psalms 22:21
Path - Psalms 17 ...
7. Psalms 25 ...
P`ATH, To make a path by treading to beat a path, as in snow
Penitential Psalms - Being the 6th, 32d, 38th, 51st, 102d, 130thand 143d Psalms of David, all of which are read during the serviceson ASH WEDNESDAY (which see). There are no prayers more fitted forpenitent sinners than the Seven Penitential Psalms, if we enterinto the feelings of compunction, love, devotedness andconfidence with which the Royal Psalmist was penetrated
Nest - They observed the home-like motive of rest and safety in the selection and construction of birds’ nests (Job 29:18, Psalms 84:3; Psalms 104:17, Jeremiah 48:28; Jeremiah 49:16)
Name - (1 Timothy 6:1; John 17:6; John 17:26; Psalms 22:22). Also His gracious and glorious attributes revealed in creation and providence (Psalms 8:1; Psalms 20:1; Psalms 20:7)
Head - Psalms 140:7 ), ‘swearing by the head’ ( Matthew 5:36 ), and the metaphorical use, common to all languages, as equivalent to ‘chief. To lift up the head is to grant success ( Psalms 27:6 ; Psalms 110:7 , Genesis 41:13 , where there is an obvious ironical parallel in Genesis 41:19 ). ‘Head’ is also used, like ‘face,’ as a synonym for ‘self’ ( Psalms 7:16 ; and probably Proverbs 25:22 , Romans 12:20 )
Water - )...
The refreshing and life-giving benefits of water made it a popular biblical symbol to picture the spiritual refreshment and eternal life that God gives to those who trust in him (Psalms 1:3; Psalms 23:1-3; Isaiah 44:3; Matthew 7:24-279; Jeremiah 17:13; John 4:14; John 7:37-39; Revelation 21:6; Revelation 22:1-2). Water could, however, be a means of judgment (Genesis 6:17; Exodus 14:23; Exodus 14:26-27; Psalms 32:6; 1618180990_25; 2 Peter 2:5). ...
In figurative speech, water was a picture of cleansing from sin (Psalms 51:1-2; Ezekiel 36:25-26; John 13:5-10; Acts 22:16; Ephesians 5:26; Hebrews 10:22; see also BAPTISM)
Cover - Psalms 65 . If I say, surely the darkness shall cover me-- Psalms 139 . Psalms 71 . Psalms 32
Vine - Genesis 40:9-11; Psalms 78:47. To dwell under the vine and fig tree is an emblem of domestic happiness and peace, 1 Kings 4:25; Psalms 128:3; Micah 4:4; the rebellious people of Israel are compared to "wild grapes," "an empty vine," "the degenerate plant of a strange vine," etc. Psalms 80:1-19; Psalms 13:1-6, jackals and foxes
Vesture - ]'>[1] this word occurs as the rendering both of words denoting dress or raiment generally, as Genesis 41:42 , Psalms 22:18 , and of special words for the plaid-like upper garment of antiquity, as Deuteronomy 22:12 (see Fringes), Revelation 19:18 ; Revelation 19:16 (RV Magor Missabib - The phrase is frequent in Jeremiah, as Jeremiah 6:25; Jeremiah 20:10; Jeremiah 46:5; Jeremiah 49:29; Lamentations 2:22; elsewhere only Psalms 31:13
Destitute - Psalms 102
Forgetfulness - Psalms 88:12 ‘Shall thy wonders be known in the dark? and thy righteousness in the land of forgetfulness?’ The meaning is general, as Coverdale ‘the londe where all thinges are forgotten,’ but probably more passive than active, that the person is forgotten rather than that he forgets
Giblites - Of Gebal on the sea coast, at the foot Of the northern slopes of Lebanon (margin 1 Kings 5:18; Psalms 83:7; Ezekiel 27:9)
Gittith - Others take it from garb, "a winepress," being used on occasions of joy like the vintage; all three Psalms having a joyous character
Anagogical Sense - The rest which the Israelites found in Chanaan is anagogically typical of eternal rest in heaven (Psalms 94; Hebrews 4)
Ascribe - Psalms 68
Snail - The shablul in Psalms 58:8 is a "snail" or 'slug" (limax ), which delights in the damp night; but in the hot sunshine, as it crawls over a dry surface and moistens the way with its secretion, its moisture melts away
Hermon - (Psalms 133:3) The falling of the dew of Hermon upon the hill of Zion was very natural, for Zion joined to it
Jed'Uthun - ( 1 Chronicles 15:17,19 ) with 1 Chronicles 16:41,42 ; 25:1,3,6 ; 2 Chronicles 35:15 His office was generally to preside over the music of the temple service, Jeduthun's name stands at the head of the 39th, 62d and 77th Psalms, indicating probably that they were to be sung by his choir
Salem - Jewish commentators affirm that Salem is Jerusalem, on the ground that Jerusalem is so called in Psalms 76:2
Sense, Anagogical - The rest which the Israelites found in Chanaan is anagogically typical of eternal rest in heaven (Psalms 94; Hebrews 4)
Provoke - It is used in Psalms 95:8 of the conduct of the children of Israel towards God in the wilderness
Selah - A musical term which occurs seventy-three times in the Psalms, and is found also in Habakkuk 3:3,9,13
Sebastianus, Martyr at Rome - in Psalms 118 , No
David - Psalms 2, 110 are founded on this notable promise, and the author of Psalms 89 in a far later time, when David’s throne had been overturned by the heathen, reminds Jehovah of His ancient promise, and pleads earnestly for the speedy passing of His wrath. ’ Most important for the student of the Gospel history is Psalms 17 of the Psalms of Solomon, a collection of patriotic hymns belonging to the period immediately following Pompey’s capture of Jerusalem (63–48 b. Psalms 17 is a notable Messianic prophecy, prayer and prediction being freely inter-mingled after the fashion of the OT prophets and poets. The Messianic King is to be David’s son (Psalms 17:4). Jehovah Himself is Israel’s King for ever and ever (Psalms 17:1); but the Son of David is His chosen to overthrow the heathen, and institute a righteous reign in Israel (17:30, 42f. Having drawn from them a statement of their belief that the Christ would be the son of David, He at once quoted David’s words in Psalms 110:1 to show that the Messiah would also be David’s Lord (Matthew 22:41 ||)
David - Psalms 2, 110 are founded on this notable promise, and the author of Psalms 89 in a far later time, when David’s throne had been overturned by the heathen, reminds Jehovah of His ancient promise, and pleads earnestly for the speedy passing of His wrath. ’ Most important for the student of the Gospel history is Psalms 17 of the Psalms of Solomon, a collection of patriotic hymns belonging to the period immediately following Pompey’s capture of Jerusalem (63–48 b. Psalms 17 is a notable Messianic prophecy, prayer and prediction being freely inter-mingled after the fashion of the OT prophets and poets. The Messianic King is to be David’s son (Psalms 17:4). Jehovah Himself is Israel’s King for ever and ever (Psalms 17:1); but the Son of David is His chosen to overthrow the heathen, and institute a righteous reign in Israel (17:30, 42f. Having drawn from them a statement of their belief that the Christ would be the son of David, He at once quoted David’s words in Psalms 110:1 to show that the Messiah would also be David’s Lord (Matthew 22:41 ||)
Poetry - In later alphabetical Psalms there is more regularity than in David's, and less simplicity; as Psalm 111; 112, have every half verse marked by a letter, and Psalm 119 has a letter appropriated to every eight verses. ) The kinds distinguished are:...
(1) the synonymous parallelism, in which the second repeats the first with or without increase of force (Psalms 22:27; Isaiah 15:1), sometimes with double parallelism (Isaiah 1:15);...
(2) the antithetic, in which the idea of the second clause is the converse of that in the first (Proverbs 10:1);...
(3) the synthetic or competing, where there is a correspondence between different sentences, noun answering to noun, verb to verb, member to member, the sentiment in each being enforced by accessory ideas (Isaiah 55:6-7). Nor is the drama; though dramatic elements occur in Job, the Song of Solomon, and some Psalms, as Psalm 32, where occur transitions, without introduction, from speaking of God to speaking to God; Psalms 132:8-10; Psalms 132:14, where the psalmist's prayer and God's answer beautifully correspond. Israel's song at the Red Sea (Exodus 15), the priests' benediction (Numbers 5:22-26), Moses' chant at the moving and resting of the ark Numbers 9:35-36), Deborah's song (Judges 5), and Hannah's song (1 Samuel 2) laid the foundation for the full outburst of psalmody in David's days; and are in part appropriated in some of the Psalms. David, combining creative poetical genius with a special gift of the Spirit, produced the Psalms which form the chief part of the psalter, and on which the subsequent writers of Psalms mainly lean. Persecution in part fitted him for his work; as was well said, "where would have been David's Psalms if he had not been persecuted?"...
SACRED SINGERS. Stringed instruments predominated in the sacred music, psalteries and harps; cymbals were only for occasions of special joy (Psalms 150:5). The poetical books are Job, Psalms. The Psalms draw forth front beneath the legal types their hidden essence and spirit, adapting them to the various spiritual exigencies of individual and congregational life. Nature's testimony to the unseen, God's glory and goodness, is also embodied in the inspired poetry of the Psalms. enabling him to enter into the spirit of the services of the sanctuary, and so to feel his need of Messiah, whose coming the Psalms announce
Bands - ...
(II) Christ's "bands" (Psalms 2:3), an "easy yoke" to the regenerate, seem galling chains to the natural man, and he strives to "break them asunder. "...
(VI) "There are no bands in their death" (Psalms 73:4); i. , the prosperous wicked, thought the psalmist in a desponding fit of unbelief for a time, have no pains enchaining them in their dying hour; passion and impatience here lost sight of the real death-bringing pains hanging over the wicked (Job 21:17; Psalms 11:6)
Music, Musicians, Musical Instruments - He had several companies of singers, and players on instruments, which are often mentioned in the Psalms. Such an exhortation as "Praise him with the psaltery and harp," is beautifully in place in the Psalms; but in the N. "...
In the headings of fifty-five of the Psalms the words occur, "To the chief musician;" the word is natsach, and simply means 'to the chief or the leader,' and may therefore apply as much to the singers as to the musicians
Olive Tree - The church is compared to an olive tree upon many occasions, (Jeremiah 11:16; Psalms 52:8) —and the young converts in Zion to olive branches. (Psalms 128:3) And Paul in a beautiful figure, represents the state of conversion from nature to grace by the change from the olive tree which is wild, by nature, to that of a true olive tree, which is planted by grace. " And it is remarkable, that when the Psalmist saith, (Psalms 116:7) "Return unto thy rest, O my soul!" the original is, Return unto thy Noah, thy Christ; for he is the rest wherewith the Lord causeth the weary to rest
Darkness - It enables them to carry out their wrongdoing more easily (Nehemiah 6:10; Psalms 91:5-6; Isaiah 29:15; Jeremiah 49:9; Luke 22:53; John 3:19-20; Romans 13:12-13; 1 Thessalonians 5:2; 1 Thessalonians 5:7). Believers need not fear this darkness, for God has become their light (Psalms 23:4; Psalms 27:1; Micah 7:8; Ephesians 5:14)
Anger - The Bible therefore repeatedly pictures the evils of such behaviour and warns God’s people to avoid it (Genesis 49:6-7; Psalms 37:8; Galatians 5:19-20; Ephesians 4:31-32; Colossians 3:8). But because human nature is affected by sin, people find it difficult to be angry and at the same time not go beyond the limits that God allows (Psalms 4:4; Psalms 106:32-33; Ephesians 4:26)
Truth - The Bible often uses ‘true’ with the meaning of reliable, faithful or trustworthy (Genesis 24:49; Genesis 47:29; Psalms 57:10; Revelation 22:6). ...
God is truth...
All these meanings are in some way applied to God (Psalms 19:9; Jeremiah 10:9-10; Jeremiah 42:5Micah 6:20Romans 3:4; 1 Thessalonians 1:9; Revelation 16:7). This is in keeping with the Old Testament usage of ‘truth’ as applying to the revealed Word of God (Psalms 25:5; Psalms 86:11; Psalms 119:142; see REVELATION). ...
Christian character...
Truth in all its aspects should characterize the lives of those who have come under the rule of him who is the truth (Exodus 18:21; Psalms 26:3; John 3:21; 2 Corinthians 13:8; Ephesians 4:15; Ephesians 4:25; Ephesians 6:14; Titus 1:2; Hebrews 6:18; 3 John 1:4)
Hand - The hand of God is His eternal purpose and executive power (John 10:28-29; Acts 4:30); His providential bounty (Psalms 104:28); His firm hold preserving His saints (Acts 4:28; Deuteronomy 33:8). His "heavy hand," affliction (Psalms 38:2). "The right hand," being more proficient than the left hand, is the place of honour (Psalms 110:1; Matthew 25:33), "the left" is the place of dishonour (Matthew 26:64). The accuser in a trial stood "at the right hand" of the accused, so Satan at Joshua's right hand (Zechariah 3:1; Psalms 109:6); but the Advocate Messiah also is at the believer's "right hand," to defend his cause effectively (Psalms 16:8; Psalms 109:31); therefore Paul could say (Romans 8:31; Romans 8:33-34), "If God be for us, who can be against us? Who shall lay anything to the charge of God's elect? It is God that justifieth
Passover - ...
Singing also became part of the celebration, the participants singing a collection of Psalms known as the Hallel (Psalms 113; Psalms 114; Psalms 115; Psalms 116; Psalms 117; Psalms 118). They usually sang the first two Psalms before eating the lamb, the other Psalms after (Mark 14:26)
Ravin - ‘ravening’ ( Psalms 22:13 , Matthew 7:15 ) as well as the form ‘ravenous’ ( Isaiah 35:9 ; Isaiah 46:11 , Ezekiel 39:4 )
en-Dor - A town of Manasseh in the territory of Issachar ( Joshua 17:11 ); the home of a woman with a familiar spirit consulted by Saul on the eve of the battle of Gilboa ( 1 Samuel 28:1-25 ); and, according to a psalmist ( Psalms 83:10 ), the scene of the rout of Jabin and Sisera
Haste - Psalms 116 ...
3
Anthem - It was used to denote both Psalms and hymns, when performed in this manner; but, at present, anthem is used in a more confined sense, being applied to certain passages taken out of the scriptures, and adapted to a particular solemnity
Mercy - (Psalms 130:4) And when Zecharias prophesied, under the influence of God the Holy Ghost, at the coming of Christ, he said it was to perform the mercy promised
Loria - ) A doxology (beginning Gloria Patri, Glory be to the Father), sung or said at the end of the Psalms in the service of the Roman Catholic and other churches
Degrees, Songs of, - a title given to fifteen Psalms, from 120 to 134 inclusive
Juniper - rothem , the Spanish broom, Genista monosperma , white blossoming (1 Kings 19:4-6; Job 30:4; Psalms 120:4)
Hunting - ), the club ( Job 41:29 ), nets ( Job 19:6 , Psalms 9:16 , Isaiah 51:20 etc. ), pits, in which there might be a net, dug and concealed to entrap the larger animals ( Psalms 9:15 , Ezekiel 19:8 etc. ), the sling ( 1 Samuel 17:40 ), the snare of the fowler ( Psalms 64:5 ; Psalms 91:3 ; Psalms 124:7 )
Joy - Joy is a characteristic of God, and he wants it to be a characteristic that is evident throughout all creation, particularly among his people (Ecclesiastes 2:1-110; Psalms 16:11; Deuteronomy 12:5-7; Luke 2:10; Luke 2:14; John 15:11; Philippians 4:4). ...
Expressions of gladness and joy were a feature of public worship in ancient Israel (Psalms 104:31; Psalms 81:1-3; Psalms 100:1-2; Psalms 150:3-6)
Eternity - The writers used the word in relation to things that were very old or that would last for a very long time (Psalms 24:7; Psalms 125:1; Habakkuk 3:6; Romans 16:25). When they referred to immeasurable time, the writers may have used such expressions as ‘to all ages’ or ‘from age to age’, which have been translated as ‘from everlasting to everlasting’ and ‘for ever and ever’ (Nehemiah 9:5; Psalms 21:4; Romans 1:25; Ephesians 3:21; Judges 1:25). ...
The writers used similar expressions when they spoke of God as the eternal one (1 Chronicles 16:36; Psalms 90:2; Psalms 106:48). His characteristics and qualities are immeasurable in every aspect of his being (Deuteronomy 33:27; Psalms 103:17; Psalms 145:13; Isaiah 54:8; Romans 1:20; 1 Timothy 1:17; see GOD)
Trees - ...
Among the other trees mentioned in the Bible are algum (2 Chronicles 2:8; 2 Chronicles 9:10), cypress (2 Chronicles 2:8), plane (Isaiah 60:13), myrtle (Isaiah 41:19; Nehemiah 8:15), balsam (2 Samuel 5:23), oak (Judges 6:11; 2 Samuel 18:9), willow (Job 40:22; Psalms 137:2), sycamine (Luke 17:6), broom (1 Kings 19:4), lotus (Job 40:22) and palm (Exodus 15:27; Psalms 92:12)
Free - Psalms 88:5 ‘free among the dead,’ a difficult passage: the probable meaning of the Heb. ’ Psalms 51:12 ‘uphold me with thy free spirit’ (RVm Alms - , Job 31:17; Psalms 41:1; Psalms 112:9
Refuge - Psalms 104 . Psalms 9
Renew - Psalms 103 . Psalms 104
Vain - Psalms 39 . ...
Why do the people imagine a vain thing? Psalms 2
Dancing - In time, it became a regular part of Israel’s public worship (Psalms 149:3; Psalms 150:4)
Providence - He directs all affairs, small and great, according to his purposes and brings them to their appointed goal (Psalms 147:8-9; Ecclesiastes 3:11; Isaiah 10:5-7; Matthew 10:29; Ephesians 1:11; Philippians 2:13; 1 Timothy 6:15). ...
God’s providence is evident everywhere – in the physical creation (Psalms 29:3-6; Psalms 78:13-16; Psalms 104:27-28; Matthew 6:26; Matthew 6:28; Acts 14:17), in the events of world history (Proverbs 21:1; Amos 9:7; Luke 1:52; Acts 17:26; Romans 9:17) and in the lives of individuals (Genesis 30:1-2; Job 1:21; Proverbs 16:33; Matthew 6:25; Matthew 6:30; Matthew 10:30; Luke 1:53)
Dog - Their dismal howlings at night are alluded to in Psalms 59:6; Psalms 59:14-15; "they return at evening, they make a noise like a dog, and go round about the city"; perhaps in allusion to Saul's agents thirsting for David's blood coming to Michal's house at evening, and to the retribution on Saul in kind, when he who had made David a wanderer himself wandered about seeking vainly for help against the Philistines, and went at last by night to the witch of Endor. "Beware of the (Greek) dogs," those impure persons of whom I told you often" (Philippians 3:2; Philippians 3:18-19); "the abominable" (Revelation 21:8; compare Revelation 22:15; Matthew 7:6); pagan in spirit (Titus 1:15-16); dogs in filthiness, snarling, and ferocity against the Lord and His people (Psalms 22:16; Psalms 22:20); backsliding into former carnality, as the dog "is turned to his own vomit again" (2 Peter 2:22)
Serpent - Poisonous: Psalms 58:4; Psalms 140:3, "they have sharpened their tongues" to give a deadly wound, "like a serpent" (Psalms 64:3). be utterly and with perpetual shame laid low), of which their present eating dust in taking food off the ground is the pledge (Isaiah 65:25; Micah 7:17; Isaiah 49:23; Psalms 72:9)
Rock - ...
The name of rock is also given to God, by way of metaphor, because God is the strength, the refuge, and defence of Israel, as those places were to the people who resided among them, Psalms 18:2 ; Psalms 18:31 ; Psalms 31:2-3 ; Deuteronomy 32:15 ; Deuteronomy 32:18 ; Deuteronomy 32:30-31 ; Psalms 61:2 , &c
Head - By contrast people were honoured by the anointing or crowning of the head (Psalms 23:5; Proverbs 4:9; Mark 14:3; Hebrews 2:9). Lifting up the head symbolized victory (Psalms 3:3; Psalms 27:6; Psalms 110:7); hanging the head symbolized shame or grief (Lamentations 2:10; Luke 18:13)
Jesus Psalter, the - " It included 150 invocations of the Name of Jesus, interspersed with verses in imitation of the Psalms
Heaviness - ]'>[2] of Psalms 30:5 ‘hevynesse maye well endure for a night, but joye commeth in the mornynge,’ whence the Prayer Bk
Naught - Psalms 44
Be - , as Psalms 107:30 ‘Then are they glad because they be quiet
Boar - It is still noted for its destructiveness ( Psalms 80:18 )
Jeduthun - Jeduthun's name stands at the head of the 39th, 62d, and 77th Psalms
Apple of the Eye - A figure of God’s care of His people ( Deuteronomy 32:10 , Psalms 17:8 , Zechariah 2:8 ), and of the preciousness of the Divine law ( Proverbs 7:2 )
Beryl - Its Hebrew name is a word also for the same reason given to the sea, Psalms 48:7
Rejoice - Psalms 9
Prayer - "...
The name Enos embodies the Sethites' sense of human frailty urging them to prayer, in contrast to the Cainites' self sufficient "pride of countenance" which keeps sinners from seeking God (Psalms 10:4). On this revealed divine character of grace and power believers fasten their prayers (Psalms 119:49; Proverbs 18:10). He that hears player (Psalms 65:2) three manifested Himself. Toward it the prayer of the nation, and of individuals, however distant, was directed (1 Kings 8:30; 1 Kings 8:35; 1 Kings 8:38; 1 Kings 8:46-49; Daniel 6:10; Psalms 5:7; Ephesians 4:14-215; Psalms 138:2). Prayer apparently accompanied all offerings, as did the incense its symbol (Psalms 141:2; Revelation 8:3-4; Luke 1:10; Deuteronomy 26:12-15, where a form of prayer is prescribed). The regular times of prayer were the third (morning sacrifice), sixth, and ninth hours (evening sacrifice); Psalms 55:17; Daniel 6:10; Daniel 9:21; Acts 3:1; Acts 10:3; Acts 2:15. "Seven times a day" (Psalms 119:164), i. continually, seven being the number for perfection; compare Psalms 119:147-148, by night. Kneeling, in humiliation: 1 Kings 8:54; 2 Chronicles 6:13; Ezra 9:5; Psalms 95:6; Daniel 6:10. The hands were lifted up, or spread out (Exodus 9:33; Psalms 28:2; Psalms 134:2). The Psalms give inspired forms of prayer for public and private use. Hezekiah prayed in the spirit of the Psalms. God's acceptance of prayer is taken for granted (Job 33:26; Job 22:27), provided it be prayer of the righteous (Proverbs 15:8; Proverbs 15:29; John 9:31), "in an acceptable time" (Psalms 69:13; Isaiah 49:8; Isaiah 61:2), in the present day of grace (2 Corinthians 6:2). No secret iniquity must be cherished (Psalms 66:18; Proverbs 15:29; Proverbs 28:9; James 4:3; Isaiah 1:15). ...
(3) Prayer "set in order" ("direct," 'atak ), as the wood upon the altar, the shewbread on the table (Psalms 5:1-3; Genesis 22:9). ...
(4) "Pouring out the heart before God"; emptying it of all its contents (1 Samuel 1:8; 1 Samuel 1:15; Lamentations 2:19; Psalms 142:2; 1 Peter 5:7; Psalms 62:1; Psalms 62:8, "waiteth," literally, is silent unto God
King - As the sovereign ruler of the universe, God is the all-powerful and glorious king who reigns for ever and rules over all (Psalms 10:16; Psalms 24:8; Psalms 24:10; Psalms 95:3; Psalms 103:19; Jeremiah 51:57 : Daniel 4:17; 1 Timothy 1:17; Revelation 15:3). In particular he is king to his people, who live under his absolute lordship (Psalms 98:6; Malachi 1:14). 2 Samuel 23:3-7; Psalms 101). ...
The ideal king...
With the increasing disorder that characterized Israelite life during the period of the monarchy, people looked back to the time of David as the nearest Israel had ever been to having an ideal king (Psalms 89:20-21; Acts 13:22). The coronation ceremony was the occasion when God formally adopted the king and anointed him for the task of ruling his people (2 Samuel 7:14-16; Psalms 2:7; Acts 4:26-27; Psalms 45:7; Psalms 89:3-4; Psalms 89:26-29). ...
Through the resurrection and exaltation of Jesus, God showed that Jesus Christ was indeed his chosen king, and the early preachers enthusiastically proclaimed his kingship and his kingdom (Acts 2:36; Psalms 20:6; Acts 5:31; Acts 8:12; Philippians 2:9-11; Acts 19:8; Acts 28:23; Acts 28:31; Acts 17:7)
Solomon - " (Zechariah 6:13)...
But when we have looked at Solomon, king of Israel, as in those and the like instances, as becoming a lively type of the ever-blessed Jesus, and see in our Lord Jesus Christ a greater than Solomon in every one, I would request the reader to detach from the person and character of David's son all that belongs not to him in those Scriptures, and particularly in the book of the Psalms, which are as if directed to him and spoken of him, but certainly with him have nothing to do. I mean such as Psalms 20:1-9; Psalms 21:1-13 and Psalms 72:1-20. But oh, what a degradation of the subject is it thus to suppose! Oh, what indignity is thereby offered to the Lord Jesus Christ! I have said so much on this point in my Poor Man's Commentary on the Book of the Psalms, that I think it unnecessary in this place to enlarge; but I could not suffer the subject even in this little work, while speaking of Solomon, to pass by without remarking the great perversion of the Scripture to suppose that there is in those things the least reference to Solomon, king of Israel
Providence - Psalms 74:12 ff. ); poets delight to extol Him ‘whose tender mercies are over all his works’ ( Psalms 145:9 ; cf. Psalms 29:3 ff. , Psalms 104:1-35 ; Psalms 136:1-26 ); prophets point to the proofs of God’s guidance in the past in order that the people may gain wisdom for the present and courage for the future ( Deuteronomy 32:7 ff
Lift - Psalms 25 . Psalms 121 . Psalms 28 . Psalms 75 . ...
Psalms 74
Mount Tabor - Here Debbora assembled 10,000 Israelites under Barac to attack and destroy Sisara and his army (Judges 4); poetically treated by the prophets, Jeremiah 46; Osee, 5; and Psalms 88
Mount Thabor - Here Debbora assembled 10,000 Israelites under Barac to attack and destroy Sisara and his army (Judges 4); poetically treated by the prophets, Jeremiah 46; Osee, 5; and Psalms 88
Disquiet - ...
O my soul, why art thou disquieted within me? Psalms 42
Korahites - There are eleven Psalms Psalm 84 ; 85 ; 87 ; 88 ) dedicated to the sons of Korah
se'Lah - This word, which is found only in the poetical books of the Old Testament, occurs seventy-one times in the Psalms and three times in Habakkuk
Doorkeeper - A place of dignity in the East; therefore translate as margin Psalms 84:10, "I had rather lie at the threshold (as the lame man at the temple gate, Acts 3:2; or as the poor in the synagogue, James 2:3) in the house of my God than to dwell in the tents of wickedness;" for that is an abiding house, however low my position in it; these are but shifting tents, though one have a dwelling in them
Angry - Psalms 7
Iniquity - Psalms 51 ...
Shiggaion - We meet with this word (Habakkuk 3:1) and in the title of Psalms 7:1-17
Ain - alphabet, and so used to introduce the sixteenth part of Psalms 119:1-176
Tabor, Mount - Here Debbora assembled 10,000 Israelites under Barac to attack and destroy Sisara and his army (Judges 4); poetically treated by the prophets, Jeremiah 46; Osee, 5; and Psalms 88
Thabor, Mount - Here Debbora assembled 10,000 Israelites under Barac to attack and destroy Sisara and his army (Judges 4); poetically treated by the prophets, Jeremiah 46; Osee, 5; and Psalms 88
Higga'Ion - (meditation ), a word which occurs three times in the book of Psalms -- ( Psalm 9:16 ; 19:14 ; 92:3 ) (margin)
Temple - All around the main structure there were attached to the north and south sides and at the west end certain buildings called side chambers, Psalms 120:1-725 three stories in height, which were much more extensive than the temple itself. The court of Israel, 10 cubits by 135, was 15 steps higher up, and upon them the 15 Songs of Degrees—1618180990_2; Psalms 121:1-8; Psalms 122:1-9; Psalms 123:1-4; Psalms 124:1-8; Psalms 125:1-5; Psalms 126:1-6; Psalms 127:1-5; Psalms 128:1-6; Psalms 129:1-8; Psalms 130:1-8; Psalms 131:1-3; Psalms 132:1-18; Psalms 133:1-3; Psalms 134:1-3, inclusive—were sung
Massah And Meribah - There are references to the first passage in Deuteronomy 6:16 ; Deuteronomy 9:22 , Psalms 95:8 ; and to the second in Deuteronomy 32:51 , Psalms 106:32 ; in Psalms 81:7 the two are apparently confused
Rod - Psalms 45:6; Psalms 110:2). Quotations in the Apocalypse [2] from Psalms 2:9, which represents the theocratic king as ruling (ποιμανεῖς, Septuagint ) the nations with a rod of iron, are applied to the mediatorial reign of Christ, in which His servants also share
Bird - small birds like sparrows which twitter: Genesis 7:14 , Leviticus 14:6 , Psalms 84:3 etc. ), their nesting ( Psalms 104:12 ; Psalms 104:17 ); indeed, every phase of bird life is touched upon
Fly - Psalms 78:45; Psalms 105:31. But the "flies," whether gnats, mosquitoes, or dog flies, literally "devour" (Psalms 78:45), conveying the well-known ophthalmia from one to another, and by the larvae entering beneath the skin and intestines, and generating deadly disease
Anger - (once ‘angered’ is used transitively, Psalms 106:32 ), and adjs. ) and God ( Exodus 4:14 ; Exodus 32:22 , Psalms 6:1 ; Psalms 7:6 etc
Glory - Psalms 73 ...
7. Psalms 19 ...
9. Psalms 105; 1 Chronicles 16
Fear - Job speaks of the terrors of God, as set in array against him, Job 6:4 ; the Psalmist, that he had suffered the terrors of the Lord with a troubled mind, Psalms 88:15 . Fear is put for the whole worship of God: "I will teach you the fear of the Lord,"...
Psalms 34:11 ; I will teach you the true way of worshipping and serving God. It is likewise put for the law and word of God: "The fear of the Lord is clean, enduring for ever," Psalms 19:9
Purity - But the OT recognizes that moral purity is essential to acceptable worship of the Holy God ( Psalms 24:4 ); the question of Eliphaz expresses the conviction of those who know how absolute is the Divine holiness: ‘Shall a man be pure before his Maker?’ ( Job 4:17 RVm [1] ); only to the man who ‘purifies himself’ can such a God reveal His glory ( Psalms 18:26 , the verb is reflexive). to the Hebrews reminds Christians who were familiar with the OT ceremonial of purification that the voluntary sacrifice of the Son of God is the means of purification under the new and better Covenant; ‘the blood of Christ’ removes the inward defilement which unfits sinful men for the service of the living God ( Psalms 9:13 f
Remember - Psalms 63 . Psalms 74 . Psalms 20
Psalms, Book of - The book is distinctly prophetic in character, the period covered by the language of the Psalms extending from the rejection of Christ (Psalm 2 ; Acts 4:25-28 ) to the Hallelujahs consequent on the establishment of the kingdom. This accounts for Christ being found throughout the Psalms: some refer exclusively to Him, as Psalm 22 ; in others (though the language is that of the remnant of His people), Christ takes His place with them, making their sufferings His sufferings, and their sorrows His sorrows. In no part of scripture is the inner life of the Lord Jesus disclosed as in the Psalms. The Psalms may be called 'the manual of the earthly choir. ...
1 Chronicles 16 and 2 Samuel 22 are examples of the immediate occasions on which Psalms were composed, and in the headings of the Psalms other instances are mentioned; yet these things in no way hinder the Spirit of God from leading the psalmist to utter things that would be fully accomplished in Christ alone. Great pains have been taken sometimes to arrange the Psalms in a supposed chronological order, but the effect of this is to spoil the whole, for God has Himself ordered their arrangement, and in many places the beauty of the order can be seen. ...
If this is the main characteristic of the Psalms, they have an aspect entirely different from that in which the book is regarded by many, namely, as a book of Christian experience. The piety that the Psalms breathe is always edifying, and the deep confidence in God expressed in them under trial and sorrow has cheered the heart of God's saints at all times. ...
Unless the difference of the spirit of the Psalms from that of Christianity be observed, the full light of redemption and of the place of the Christian in Christ is not seen, and the reader is apt to be detained in a legal state. His progress is hindered, and he does not understand the Psalms, nor enter into the gracious sympathies of Christ in their true application. All these things, and the experiences through which they will pass, are found in the Psalms. ...
As the Psalms form a part of holy scripture, their true place and bearing must be seen before they can be rightly interpreted. "...
The Book of Psalms is in the Hebrew divided into five books, each of which has its own prophetic characteristics. The more these are grasped, the clearer it becomes that God has watched over the order of the Psalms. '...
In some places the appropriateness of the sequence of the Psalms, as already remarked, is very apparent, as for instance Psalm 22,23,24
Unperfect - Though we meet with this word but once in the whole Bible, namely, Psalms 139:16, yet, as in the two translations we have of the Psalms, the word in the one is rendered imperfect, which in the other is rendered unperfect, and as the difference is very striking when properly considered, I think it an object of no small moment in a work of this kind, to guard the reader against an error into which he may be apt to fall for want of due attention in this particular. ...
Let the reader remember, that Christ, under the Spirit of prophecy, is speaking in this Psalm of his substance, his body, and which in another Scripture, he is introduced as saying to his Father "A body hast thou prepared me," (Hebrews 10:5) compared with (Psalms 40:6) Now in this Psalm also Christ is speaking to the Father, and saith: "Thine eyes did see my substance, yet being unperfect: and in this book all my members were written, which in continuance were fashioned, (or as the margin of the Bible renders it what days, they should be fashioned,) when as yet there was none of them. And in this one, complete whole of perfection in JEHOVAH'S esteem, hath Christ and his members been beheld from all eternity! Hence, therefore, to read the passage as it now stands in our reading Psalms, imperfect, is an error, and of the greatest kind. )...
It may not be generally known perhaps by the readers of this Poor Man's Concordance, that the reading Psalms as they are called, and which are used in our churches, are taken from Cranmer's Bible, first published in Henry the Eighth's time, 1539. Whereas the Psalms in our Bibles are from the translation in James the First's days, 1605
Hell - It is used of both the righteous (Psalms 16:10; Psa 30:3; Isaiah 38:10) and the wicked (Numbers 16:33; Job 24:19; Psalms 9:17)
Heman - A son (or clan) of Zerah of the tribe of Judah ( 1 Chronicles 2:6 ), probably also alluded to in the title of Psalms 88:1-18 as Heman the Ezrahite, Ezrah being another form of Zechariah 3 Zechariah 3 Zechariah 3 . This view finds some support in the fact that the title of Psalms 88:1-18 makes Heman both an Ezrahite (Judahite) and a Korahite (Levite)
Horn - ‘Horn’ in Psalms 18:2 = 2 Samuel 22:3 stands for offensive weapons, as ‘shield’ for defensive (Perowne). For one to ‘lift his horn’ is to be arrogant ( Psalms 75:4-5 )
Moon - From early times people recognized the importance of the moon, as well as the sun, in helping to produce a variety of weather and a cycle of regular seasons (Genesis 1:14-18; Psalms 104:19). Like other holy days, it was announced by the blowing of trumpets (Numbers 10:10; Numbers 28:11; 1 Samuel 20:5; Ezra 3:5; Psalms 81:3; Ezekiel 46:1)
Conversation - ]'>[2] gives it twice ( Psalms 37:14 ; Psalms 50:23 ), representing Heb
Knee, Kneel - from terror ( Job 4:4 , Daniel 5:8 ), or fasting ( Psalms 109:24 ). In many passages of Scripture kneeling is spoken of as the attitude assumed in prayer ( 1 Kings 8:54 , Psalms 95:8 , Daniel 6:10 , Acts 20:36 etc
Frog - צפרדע ; Arabic, akurrak; Greek, βατραχος ; Exodus 8:2-14 ; Psalms 78:45 ; Psalms 105:30 ; Revelation 16:13
Gall - ראש , something excessively bitter, and supposed to be poisonous, Deuteronomy 29:18 ; Deuteronomy 32:32 ; Psalms 69:21 ; Jeremiah 8:14 ; Jeremiah 9:15 ; Jeremiah 23:15 ; Lamentations 3:19 ; Hosea 10:4 ; Amos 6:12 . " In Psalms 69:21 , which is justly considered as a prophecy of our Saviour's sufferings, it is said, "They gave me ראש to eat; which the LXX have rendered χολην , gall
Ahithophel - Perhaps there may be a reference in Psalms 41:9; Psalms 55:12-14, to Ahithophel, and possibly through him to a yet worse traitor, Judas
Dragon - ]'>[2] ‘jackals,’ Isaiah 13:22 ; Isaiah 34:13 ; Isaiah 35:7 , Job 30:29 , Psalms 44:19 , Jeremiah 10:22 ; Jeremiah 49:33 . The same term, tannîn , is also applied metaphorically to Pharaoh ( Psalms 74:13 , Isaiah 51:9 ; and thus perhaps refers to the crocodile), and to Nebuchadnezzar ( Jeremiah 51:34 )
Temptation - Exodus 17:2 ; Exodus 17:7 , Numbers 14:22 , Psalms 78:18 ; Psalms 78:41 ; Psalms 78:56 ). In Psalms 95:8 RV Angels - They were created before humans, they belong to a higher order than humans, and their number is countless (Psalms 103:20; Psalms 148:2; Isaiah 6:2-3; Daniel 7:10; Luke 12:8-9; Luke 15:10; Colossians 1:16; Hebrews 12:22; Revelation 4:8; Revelation 5:11-12; Revelation 7:11). Again these expressions may apply to good angels and bad angels (Job 1:6; Job 2:1; Job 5:1; Job 15:15; Job 38:7; Psalms 89:5; Psalms 89:7; Revelation 9:1; Revelation 12:3-4; Revelation 12:9). ...
To the godly, an angel may be a guide (Genesis 24:7; Genesis 24:40; Exodus 14:19; Acts 8:26; Acts 27:23), a protector (Psalms 34:7; Psalms 91:11; Daniel 6:22; Daniel 10:13; 2 Thessalonians 1:7-8; Matthew 18:10), a deliverer (Isaiah 63:9; Daniel 3:28; Matthew 26:53; Acts 5:19), an interpreter of visions (Daniel 8:16; Zechariah 1:8-14; Revelation 1:1; Revelation 22:6) and, in fact, a sympathetic helper in all circumstances (Mark 1:13; Luke 22:43; Hebrews 1:13-14). They usually feature as guardians of God’s throne and protectors of his interests (Genesis 3:24; Exodus 25:17-22; Psalms 80:1; Ezekiel 1:4-14; Ezekiel 10; cf
Asp - פָתָן (pethen) in the Septuagint (pethen is translated ‘asp’ in Deuteronomy 32:33, Job 20:14; Job 20:18, and Isaiah 11:8, but ‘adder’ in Psalms 58:4; Psalms 91:13). Here it is introduced in a quotation from Psalms 140:3 (Psalms 139:4), where the Heb
Healing - Sickness and suffering are characteristics of a world that has been spoiled by sin (Genesis 3:16-19), and healing is part of God’s gracious work in caring for his wayward creatures (Exodus 15:26; 2 Kings 1:3-4; Psalms 103:3). However, in those cases where the suffering is a direct result of personal sin, God’s healing is a sign also of his forgiveness (Psalms 32:1-5; Psalms 41:3-5; Psalms 41:11-12; John 5:13-14; James 5:15-16; see SUFFERING)
Fool in Scripture -
The atheist: "The fool hath said in his heart, There is no God" (Psalms 13:52)
Cattle - Ecclesiastes 2:7 ), ‘flocks’ ( Psalms 78:46 ), and ‘herds’ ( Genesis 47:18 )
New Moon - The trumpets were blown, in token of gladness, at the sacrifices peculiar to the clay (Numbers 10:10; Psalms 81:3); but there was no "holy convocation" as on the sabbath
Cush (1) - David in this Psalms 7:4 alludes to Saul's gratuitous enmity and his own sparing "him that without cause is mine enemy," namely, in the cave at Engedi, when Saul was in his power (1 Samuel 24)
Jehovah Nissi - ) The rod of God in Moses' hand, when held up as a banner, brought victory; so it was the pledge of what the altar represented, that Jehovah is the ensurer of victory to His people when rallying round Him (Psalms 60:4; Isaiah 11:10; Proverbs 18:10)
Caterpillar - Υeleq is also translated "caterpillar" (Psalms 105:34), in other places "cankerworm
Compassion of God - the promise of his mercy, Psalms 78:38
Desolate - Psalms 143
Jaar - It occurs once as a proper name, namely in Psalms 132:6 , where, speaking of the ark, the Psalmist says that it was heard of at Ephrathah and found at Jaar
Wednesday, Ash - The first day of Lent, when, in the primitive church, notorious sinners were put to open penance thus: They appeared at the church door barefooted, and clothed in sackcloth, where, being examined, their discipline was proportioned according to their offences; after which, being brought into the church, the bishop singing the seven penitential Psalms, they prostrated themselves, and with tears begged absolution; the whole congregation having ashes on their heads, to signify, that they were both mortal and deserved to be burnt to ashes for their sins
Sihon - The victory is commemorated in two of the Psalms
Frail - Psalms 39
Baal-Peor - The Psalmist mournfully speaks of it, (Psalms 106:18) "they joined themselves unto Baal-peor, and ate the offerings of the dead
Ethan - He was called likewise Idithun, and appears under this name in the titles to several Psalms
Scripture, Fool in -
The atheist: "The fool hath said in his heart, There is no God" (Psalms 13:52)
Thou - Psalms 23 ...
Thou is used only in the solemn style, unless in very familiar language, and by the Quakers
Thousand - Psalms 91 ...
Thousand is sometimes used plurally without the plural termination, as in the passage above, ten thousand but it often takes the plural termination
White - Psalms 51
Womb - Psalms 110
Cry - frequent in the Psalms (e. Psalms 5:2; Psalms 18:6; Psalms 18:41 etc. ]'>[6] Though frequent in the Psalms (LXX Septuagint and Heb. in the Psalms, e. Psalms 39:13 :...
‘Hear my prayer, O Lord,...
And give ear unto my cry (שועתי);...
Hold not thy peace at my tears. ’...
Also Psalms 61:2, and cf. Psalms 80:5-6
Day Hours - Under the title "The Day Hours of the Church" the Benedictine Nuns of Stanbrook Abbey, England, have published the Latin text, with an English translation, of the Psalms, hymns, antiphons, and prayers that make up these hours, together with the proper prayers for each feast and saint's day of the church year
Swallow - dĕrôr ( Psalms 84:3 , Proverbs 26:2 )
Taber - Psalms 68:26 , its only other occurrence)
Hatred - Yet he is said to hate the wicked, Psalms 5:5 ; and indignation and wrath, tribulation and anguish, will be upon every soul of man that does evil
Apple of the Eye - The promise is in Zechariah 2:8, "He that toucheth you toucheth the apple of His eye"; the prayer is Psalms 17:8 "Keep me as the apple of the eye"; the fulfillment Deuteronomy 32:10, "He kept him as the apple of His eye
Queen - malkah "queen regnant" (1 Kings 10:1; Daniel 5:10; Esther 1:9); sheegal "the queen consort" (Psalms 45:9; Daniel 5:2-3); gebirah "powerful mistress," "the queen mother
Mahalath - In Psalms perhaps a choreographic instruction; the second element in the composite term mahalath-leannoth (maw h lawth-l uhn nuhth) perhaps refers to an antiphonal performance by two groups answering and responding to each other (Psalm 88:1 )
Neginah, Neginoth - (neh gee' nuh, nehg' ih nahth) Neginoth, the plural form of Neginah, is used as a technical term in the superscriptions of several Psalms (Psalm 4:1 , Psalm 6:1 , Psalm 54-55 , Psalm 61:1 , Psalm 67:1 , Psalm 76:1 ) and as the subscription of Habakkuk 3:19
Apart - ...
Psalms 4
Inquisition - Psalms 9 2
Alphabetic Psalms - Psalms 18, "Blessed are the undefiled," comprises 22 stanzas of 8 verses each, beginning with the same letter of the Hebrew alphabet in order
Compassion - Psalms 78
Gush - Psalms 78 ...
2
Imagine - How long will ye imagine mischief against a man? Psalms 62 ...
IMAG'INE, To conceive to have a notion or idea
Shawm - Prayerbook version of Psalms, instead of the Bible version, "cornet
Wings - Under 'the shadow of God's wings' is referred to in the Psalms; and the Lord said He would often have gathered Israel as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, but they would not
Testimony - The whole Scripture, or word of God, which declares what is to be believed, practised, and expected by us, is called God's "testimony," and sometimes in the plural "testimonies," Psalms 19:7
Bramble - אחד , a prickly shrub, Judges 9:14-15 ; Psalms 58:9
Captivity - Psalms 98
Partaker - Psalms 1 ...
Doeg - Doeg is mentioned in the title of Psalms 52:1-9
Salvation - Psalms 27
Shape - Psalms 51
Hallelujah - " It occurs as a short doxology in the Psalms, usually at the beginning, e
Messiah - ...
Old Testament expectations...
The most common Old Testament usage of the title ‘anointed’ was in relation to the Israelite king, who was frequently called ‘the Lord’s anointed’ (1 Samuel 24:10; Psalms 18:50; Psalms 20:6). The Messiah, David’s greatest son, was in a special sense God’s son (Psalms 2:6-7; Mark 10:47; Mark 12:35; Mark 14:61). Psalms 2; Psalms 45; Psalms 72; Psalms 110). They constantly looked for the one who would be the great ‘David’ of the future, the great descendant of David the son of Jesse (Psalms 89:3-4; Isaiah 9:2-7; Isaiah 11:1-10; Jeremiah 23:5; Ezekiel 34:23-24; Micah 5:2). ...
One of David’s best known Psalms, Psalms 110, was interpreted by Jews of Jesus’ time as applying to the Messiah, though they consistently refused to acknowledge the messiahship of Jesus. Jesus agreed that they were correct in applying this psalm to the Messiah, but he went a step further by applying it to himself (Psalms 110:1; Matthew 22:41-45). ...
Since the king of Psalms 110 was also a priest, Jesus was not only the messianic king but also the messianic priest (Psalms 110:4; Hebrews 5:6; Hebrews 7; see PRIEST, sub-heading ‘The high priesthood of Jesus’). He did this by an announcement that combined a statement from a messianic psalm with a statement from one of the servant songs of Isaiah (Matthew 17:5; Psalms 2:7; Isaiah 42:1; cf
Og - The conquest of this powerful giant king lingered long in the imagination of the Israelites as one of the chief exploits of the conquest ( Psalms 135:11 ; Psalms 136:20 )
Belial (Beliar) - As ‘destruction,’ it is found in Psalms 17:5 (cf. 2 Samuel 22:5 ) Psalms 41:8 and Nahum 1:11 ; Nahum 1:15 (note in Nahum 1:15 independent use, ‘man’ understood; RV Gall - Opium water would suit well for stupefying criminals in the agony of execution (Psalms 69:21; Matthew 27:34; Acts 8:23). Matthew designated the drink according to the prophetic aspect, Psalms 69:21; Mark according to its outward appearance
Firmament - Raqi'ah , "the expanse stretched out as a curtain" over the earth (Isaiah 40:22; Psalms 104:2), resting on the mountains as its pillars (the language is phenomenal, as indeed necessarily is that of even men of science often): Job 26:11. It was the reservoir of rain and snow, which poured through its opened "windows" or "doors" (Genesis 7:11; Isaiah 24:18; Psalms 78:23)
Gentleness - ...
In 2 Samuel 22:36 = Psalms 18:35 (‘Thy gentleness hath made me great’) RV Jonadab - Evil communication is fatal; the friendship of the wicked is hollow, for it is based on selfishness (Psalms 12:2; Psalms 141:4-5), and when regard for self comes in collision with regard for a friend, the latter will be set aside for the former; see 1 Kings 22:30; 1 Kings 22:32
Leviathan - Psalms 104:26; Psalms 74:13-14; "Thou breakest the heads of leviathan in pieces, and gavest him to be meat to the people inhabiting the wilderness. necromancers who rouse and control wild beasts at will (compare Psalms 58:5)
Bottle - Hung in the smoke to dry, the skin bottles become parched and shriveled; whence the psalmist (Psalms 119:83) says, "I am become like a bottle in the smoke. ...
(2) Bottles of glass or "potters'" earthenware, easily "dashed in pieces": a frequent image of sinners, God's creatures (Romans 9:21-23; 2 Timothy 2:20-21) dashed in pieces by God their Maker at His righteous pleasure when they do not answer His end, namely His glory (Jeremiah 13:12-14; Jeremiah 19:1-10; Psalms 2:9; Revelation 2:27). "Put Thou my tears (as a precious treasure in Thy sight) into thy bottle" (the repository of precious objects, sealed up anciently), so as to reserve them for a manifold recompence of joy hereafter (Psalms 136:5; Isaiah 61:7)...
Horse - Trust in horses is put in antithesis to trust in the Lord ( Isaiah 30:16 , Psalms 20:7 ; Psalms 33:17 ). The equipment of horses is mentioned in the Bible the bit and bridle ( Psalms 32:9 , Proverbs 26:3 ), bells of the horses ( Zechariah 14:20 ), and ‘precious clothes for chariots’ ( Ezekiel 27:20 )
Joy - God himself, Psalms 43:4 . The promises, Psalms 119:162 . The administration of the Gospel, and Gospel ordinances, Psalms 89:15
Gentile - The Psalmist says, that the Lord would give the Gentiles to the Messiah for his inheritance; that Egypt and Babylon shall know him; that Ethiopia shall hasten to bring him presents; that the kings of Tarshish, and of the isles, the kings of Arabia and Sheba, shall be tributary to him, Psalms 2:8 ; Psalms 67:4 ; Psalms 72:9-10
Preparation - ’ Illustrations of the latter meaning are found in Psalms 89:14 (15) ‘Righteousness and judgement are the foundation of thy throne’ (RV_), also in Zechariah 5:11, Ezr (LXX_ 2 Es) ezr Ezra 2:68. The verb ‘to prepare’ (ἑτοιμάζειν) in the sense of ‘firmly fix’ or ‘establish’ is found in Psalms 24:2, ‘and established it upon the floods,’ also Psalms 99:4, Proverbs 3:19; Proverbs 3 :2 Samuel 5:12
Cherub - Usually also the cherubim stand in a special nearness to God; they are engaged in the loftiest adoration and service, moving in instant accordance with his will, Psalms 18:10; Ezekiel 1:26; Ezekiel 10:20; Revelation 4:1-11; they are seen in the temple inseparably associated with the mercy-seat, "the cherubim of glory," Hebrews 9:5—made of the same mass of pure gold, bending reverently over the place of God's presence, Psalms 99:1, where he met his people, Numbers 7:89, accepting the blood of atonement, Leviticus 16:14-16; they shone forth as their Saviour. Psalms 80:1; Isaiah 37:16
Dance - Just as impassioned language became "poetry," and song broke forth from the lips, so among Oriental peoples the limbs partook of the excitement, Psalms 35:10, and joy was exhibited in dancing. Similar were the dances that celebrated David's victory over Goliath, 1 Samuel 18:6; see also Psalms 68:25; the "timbrels" being musical instruments invariably accompanied with dancing. It may be observed that a Hebrew word, mahhol, rendered "dance" in our version, Psalms 150:4, and elsewhere, is supposed by some to mean a musical instrument
Anointing - He now had the right, and the responsibility, to perform the duties that his position required (Exodus 28:41; Numbers 3:2-3; 1 Kings 1:39; 1 Kings 19:16; 2 Kings 9:3; Psalms 18:50; Psalms 28:8; Psalms 105:15)
Preparation - ’ Illustrations of the latter meaning are found in Psalms 89:14 (15) ‘Righteousness and judgement are the foundation of thy throne’ (RV_), also in Zechariah 5:11, Ezr (LXX_ 2 Es) ezr Ezra 2:68. The verb ‘to prepare’ (ἑτοιμάζειν) in the sense of ‘firmly fix’ or ‘establish’ is found in Psalms 24:2, ‘and established it upon the floods,’ also Psalms 99:4, Proverbs 3:19; Proverbs 3 :2 Samuel 5:12
Fear - 184); hence it is on the revelation of the Divine nature as ‘holy and to be feared’ ( Psalms 111:9 ) that this fundamental principle of religion rests: those who know His name have learnt that to fear Him is true wisdom ( Psalms 111:10 ) and true blessedness ( Psalms 112:1 ). Transgression may so completely deceive him that he has ‘no terror of God’ ( Psalms 36:1 ); the climax of human wickedness is the loss of any dread of God’s judgments, though the Gr
Kindness - The Psalms developed this theme with thanksgiving for divine kindness and praise for its endurance (Psalm 86:5 ; Psalm 89:2 ,Psalms 89:2,89:28 ; Psalm 100:5 ; Psalm 103:8 ,Psalms 103:8,103:11 ,Psalms 103:11,103:17 ; Psalm 106:1 ; Psalm 107:1 ; etc
Ham - The original (?) use of the name as = Egypt appears in Psalms 78:51 ; Psalms 105:23 ; Psalms 105:27 ; Psalms 106:22
Water - see) was employed in ancient days ( Psalms 1:3 ; Psalms 65:10 , Ezekiel 17:7 etc. The sudden spates of the rainy season are the symbol of danger ( Psalms 18:16 ; Psalms 32:6 , Isaiah 28:17 etc. ), and their swift passing symbolizes life’s transiency ( Job 11:18 , Psalms 58:7 )
Pardon - Of the nature of pardon it may be observed, that the Scripture represents it by various phrases: a lifting up, or taking away, Psalms 32:1 ; a covering of it, Psalms 85:2 ; a non-imputation of it, Psalms 32:2 . It is an act of free grace, Psalms 51:1 . Psalms 103:2-3
Word - God’s word had such life and power that people often thought of it almost as if it was a person – the living agent or messenger of God (Psalms 33:6; Psalms 107:20; Psalms 147:15; Psalms 147:18). Similarly, because he has spoken through the Scriptures, the Scriptures are the Word (Psalms 119:105; Matthew 15:6; John 10:35)
Glory - When used of people or things in relation to everyday life, it may indicate nothing more than honour, fame, power, wealth or splendour (Genesis 45:13; 2 Kings 14:10; Isaiah 8:7; Isaiah 17:4; Daniel 2:37; Matthew 4:8; Matthew 6:29; John 5:44; Psalms 29:7-989). ...
The glory of the unseen God...
Revelations of God’s majesty and power, such as through clouds, fire and lightning, were revelations of his glory (Exodus 16:10; Exodus 24:16-17; Leviticus 9:23-24; Psalms 29:3-4; 1618180990_2; Habakkuk 3:3-4). God’s glory is an expression of his character – his goodness, love, justice, power and holiness (Exodus 33:18-19; Exodus 34:6-7; Psalms 29:3; Isaiah 6:3; John 12:41; Romans 3:23). Therefore, the Bible speaks of the revelation of God through nature and through history as the revelation of his glory (Psalms 19:1; Psalms 96:3; see REVELATION). They are to glorify him by their words and by their actions (1 Samuel 6:5; Psalms 96:8; Jeremiah 13:16; Matthew 5:16; Acts 12:23; Romans 4:20; Romans 11:36; 1 Corinthians 10:31; 2 Corinthians 8:19; Ephesians 3:21; Revelation 5:13; Revelation 14:7)
Judas Iscariot - Matthias infers that the inclusion of the traitor in the number of the apostles and his obtaining a share in their ministry was a mysterious dispensation by which was fulfilled the prediction of Psalms 41:9, so recently quoted by our Lord Himself (John 13:18), together with its necessary consequences as foreshadowed in two other Psalms (Psalms 69:25; Psalms 109:8): that is, if John 13:20 be an original part of St. In Psalms 41:9 the actual wording bears little likeness to the Septuagint , being a more literal rendering of the Hebrew, while its original reference is to some treacherous friend (e. In Psalms 69:25 the text is more exact, but the original figure employed (ἡ ἔπαυλις αὐτῶν, not αὐτοῦ) suggests a nomad encampment of tents rendered desolate because of the cruel persecutions which their occupants had practised, while Psalms 109:8 has in view one particular official, like Doeg or Ahithophel, who has been false to his trust, and therefore it is, to our modern notions, more appropriately and with less strain transferred to the case of Judas
Ethics - Man’s goodness is the same in kind as the goodness of God, so that both may be characterized by the same terms; as appears from a comparison of Psalms 111:1-10 ; Psalms 112:1-10 . It was not till Hebrew national life was destroyed that individual experiences excited questions as to the equity of Providence (Job, Psalms 37:1-40 ; Psalms 73:1-28 ) and in regard to personal immortality. The Tenth Commandment, penetrating as it does to the inward life, should be taken as a reminder that all commandments are to be read in the spirit and not in the letter alone ( Leviticus 19:17-18 , Deuteronomy 6:5-6 , Psalms 139:1-24 , Romans 7:14 ). Human obligations details of which are sometimes massed together as in Exodus 20:1-26 ; Exodus 21:1-36 ; Exodus 22:1-31 ; Exodus 23:1-33 , Psalms 15:1-5 ; Psalms 24:1-10 include both moral and ceremonial requirements. , Job 32:1-22 , Psalms 41:1 , Hebrews 6:4-8 ff. , Exodus 13:8 ; Exodus 13:14 , Deuteronomy 4:9 ; Deuteronomy 6:7 ; Deuteronomy 6:20-25 ; Deuteronomy 11:19 ; Deuteronomy 31:12-13 ; Deuteronomy 32:46 , Psalms 78:5-6 ). The claims of animals are not omitted ( Exodus 23:11 , Leviticus 25:7 , Deuteronomy 22:4 ; Colossians 3:12-172 ; Deuteronomy 25:4 , Psalms 104:11-12 ; Psalms 148:10 , Proverbs 12:10 , Jonah 4:11 ). God’s rule over man is parallel with His rule over the universe, and men should feel that God embraces all interests in His thought, for He is so great that He can attend equally to the stars and to human sorrows ( Psalms 19:1-14 ; Psalms 33:1-22 ; Psalms 147:3-6 ). Even the people’s disregard of the Law did not extinguish His forgiving love ( Psalms 25:6 ff; Psalms 103:8 ff. Sin is a ravenous beast, crouching ready to spring ( Genesis 4:7 ); a cause of wide-spreading misery ( Genesis 3:15-19 ; Genesis 9:25 ; Genesis 20:9 , Exodus 20:5 ); is universal ( Genesis 6:5 ; Gen 8:21 , 1 Kings 8:46 , Psalms 130:3 ; Psalms 143:2 ); is folly (Prov. passim ); a missing of the mark, violence, transgression, rebellion, pollution ( Psalms 51:1-19 ). This is a prolongation of ideas present to the best minds prior to the Advent ( 1 Samuel 16:7 , Psalms 7:9 ; Psalms 24:3-4 ; Psalms 51:17 ; Psalms 139:2-3 ; Psalms 139:23 , Jeremiah 17:10 ; Jeremiah 31:33 )
Hosanna - See Psalms; Triumphant Entry
Double Feast - ,it is doubled for each psalm, except for the Little Hours when it is repeated after the three Psalms for each
Duplex - ,it is doubled for each psalm, except for the Little Hours when it is repeated after the three Psalms for each
Messias - " The word is applied to the future Saviour in the Old Testament (Psalms 2), in telling of the conspiracy of the enemies of Jehovah and "his Christ
Awl - So Messiah, volunteering to become God's servant by taking man's nature; "Mine ears hast Thou opened" (Psalms 40:6); Isaiah 1:5, "the Lord God hath opened Mine ear," i
Discontent - Let such remember, that discontent is a reflection on God's government; that it cannot alter the state of things, or make them better; that it is the source of the greatest misery; that it is an absolute violation of God's law, Hebrews 13:1-25 and that God has often punished it with the most signal judgments, Numbers 11:1-35 ; Psalms 107:1-43 : ...
See CONTENTMENT
Dumb - Psalms 34
Fowl - as ‘fowls’ in Genesis 15:11 ), Psalms 8:8 ‘the fowl of the air’ (same Heb
Indite - ]'>[1] and in Psalms 45:1 ‘My heart is inditing a good matter
Juniper - The root is still burned to furnish charcoal ( Psalms 120:4 )
Lice - LICE ( kinnîm , Exodus 8:16-18 , Psalms 105:31 ; cf
Achish - Sower - ) Psalms 126:6; Hebrew "he goeth, going and weeping, bearing the draught of seed (i
Zebah - One of Midian's two kings (Judges 8:5-21; Psalms 83:11)
Zoan - The psalmist praised God for Exodus miracles near there (Psalm 78:12 ,Psalms 78:12,78:43 )
Being - Psalms 49 ...
BE'ING,n
Comely - Psalms 33
Enlighten - Psalms 97 ...
2
Frost - Psalms 147
Gebal - of the Dead Sea, whose inhabitants made a league with Edomites, Moabites, and the Bedouin of the Arabah against Israel, on some unknown occasion ( Psalms 83:7 ), possibly the Gentile attack described in 1Ma 5:1-68
Adonai - (Psalms 110:1) The Lord said unto my Lord
Cymbals - There are two kinds of cymbals, both of which we find mentioned in Psalms 150:5
Evening - Evening, Psalms 55:17, Even-tide, Genesis 24:63
Sceptre - The sceptre is put for the rod of correction, and for the sovereign authority that punishes and humbles, Psalms 2:9 ; Proverbs 22:15
Crystal - This word is translated "crystal" in Ezekiel 1:22 ; and "frost," Genesis 31:40 ; Job 37:10 ; Jeremiah 36:30 ; and "ice," Job 6:16 ; Job 38:29 ; Psalms 147:17 ; κρυσταλλος , Revelation 4:6 ; Revelation 22:1
Harp - , Genesis 4; 2Paralipomenon, 9; Psalms 70; Apocalypse 5; and was used by the minstrels of the Middle Ages
Reel - ...
Psalms 107
Tarry - Psalms 101 ...
TAR'RY, To wait for
Terrible - Psalms 99 ...
He hath done for thee these great and terrible things, which thine eyes have seen
Salvation - A negative sense is very clear in such passages as Psalms 28:9; Psalms 69:35, where the positive results of the saving act are named as something additional. Psalms 98:2-3; John 5:19-29 Exodus 1:17, Jeremiah 48:6, Ezekiel 3:18, Psalms 6:5; Psalms 41:3, Job 2:6. The evil from which salvation takes place varies; in most cases it is the oppression of Israel by its enemies; sometimes, though not frequently, it appears in the acute form of individual or national death (Psalms 68:19-20). ‘Salvation’ becomes synonymous with other positive terms like ‘righteousness,’ ‘blessing,’ ‘light’ (Isaiah 45:8; Isaiah 46:13; Isaiah 49:6; Isaiah 61:10; Isaiah 62:1, Psalms 24:5; Psalms 106:4). , Isaiah 45:17; Isaiah 45:22; Isaiah 49:8; Isaiah 51:6; Isaiah 51:8; Isaiah 52:7; Isaiah 56:1, Jeremiah 23:6; Jeremiah 33:16, Micah 7:7, Habakkuk 3:8; Habakkuk 3:18, Psalms 14:7; Psalms 35:4; Psalms 74:12; Psalms 85:8; Genesis 45:7; Psalms 109:27; Psalms 118:15; Psalms 118:21. ) The religious importance of the conception in the OT springs not so much from the nature of the evil removed, or from the nature of the blessedness bestowed, as rather from the fact that salvation, of whatever nature, is a work of Jehovah for His people, a Divine prerogative; hence the frequently recurring statements that salvation belongs to Jehovah, is of Jehovah, that Jehovah is salvation, the Saviour of Israel (1 Samuel 14:39, 2 Samuel 22:3, 2 Chronicles 20:17, Isaiah 12:2-3; Isaiah 33:22, Psalms 3:8; Psalms 62:2; Psalms 118:14; Psalms 118:21). In a few passages the conception is directly transferred from the national-political to the purely religious sphere, sin being named as the evil from which Israel or the individual is saved (Ezekiel 36:29, Psalms 51:14)
Harp - ...
They used it, not as the Greeks, for expressing sorrow, but on occasions of joy and praise (Genesis 31:27; 2 Chronicles 20:28; Psalms 33:2); therefore, it was hung on the willows in the Babylonian captivity (Psalms 137:2; Job 30:31)
People - " (Psalms 110:1-7) And elsewhere the Lord saith, "Thou art an holy people to the Lord thy God; the Lord, thy God hath chosen thee to be a special people unto himself, above all people that are upon the face of the earth. " (Psalms 66:8)...
Singing - "Be filled with the Spirit, speaking to yourselves in Psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody [1] in your heart to the Lord. "In Psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing with grace in your hearts to the Lord
Deliver - Psalms 71:4 . Psalms 27
Trouble - Psalms 13 ...
4. Psalms 25 ...
2
Jerahmeel - Hammelech's son sent by king Jehoiakim to apprehend Baruch and Jeremiah, "but the Lord hid them" (Jeremiah 36:26; Psalms 31:20; Psalms 83:3; Isaiah 26:20)
Foreknowledge - From their viewpoint, God’s knowledge of the entire history of the universe is foreknowledge (Psalms 139:4-6; Psalms 139:16; Isaiah 46:9-10; Acts 2:23)
Praise - Praise, mostly of God, is a frequent theme in the Psalms, the Hebrew title of which is "Praises. One genre of the Psalms, the hymns, is characterized by an initial summons, such as "Praise the Lord, " which is followed by a declaration of praise, introduced by the word "for, " which lists the grounds for offering praise, often God's majesty and mercy. A basic understanding in the hymns, if not in all the Psalms, is captured in the theme "The Lord reigns. A significant number of Psalms are identified in their headings as "A Psalm, " a technical term meaning "a song of praise. ...
Unquestionably the Book of the Psalms is centerpiece for any discussion about praise. In it the believer's vocation to praise is wonderfully modeled, so that even laments (one-third of all the Psalms) contain elements of praise. As a book of praises, the Psalms build to a remarkable crescendo of praise (Psalm 145-150 ), in which all creatures are summoned to incessant praise of God, as are the stars and planets in the heavens, and even the angels. Lewis, Reflections on the Psalms ; P. , Interpreting the Psalms ; H. Westermann, The Praise of God in the Psalms
Selah - We find it scattered up and down in the book of the Psalms no less than seventy times; sometimes several times in one Psalm, and in many of the Psalms not at all. If the word Selah means the end, perhaps it may be found not to mean the end of the Psalm where it stands, but to a higher end, even pointing to him who is "the end of the law for righteousness to every one that believeth," and to whom the law of Moses, and the prophets, and the Psalms, all refer as the end. I am persuaded the word Selah is important; and I am inclined to thin, like some other words preserved to us in the Psalms that it refers to Christ
Sandal - I will take possession of it, treading on its pride as it had trodden Israel as an invader (Psalms 60:8; Psalms 60:12; 2 Samuel 8:14; Joshua 10:24). Hengstenberg so explains Psalms 60:8, "Moab is My washing tub; to Edom will I cast My shoe," namely, to "bear" as My slave. "Your feet shod with the preparation (Psalms 10:17) of the gospel of peace," i
Hind - אילה , Genesis 49:21 ; 2 Samuel 22:34 ; Job 39:1 ; Psalms 18:33 ; Psalms 29:9 ; Proverbs 5:19 ; Song of Solomon 2:7 ; Song of Solomon 3:5 ; Jeremiah 14:5 ; Habakkuk 3:19 ; the male or female of the stag. "The Lord maketh my feet like hinds' feet, and causeth me to stand on the high places," Psalms 18:33 ; Habakkuk 3:19 . In our version of Psalms 29:9 , we read, "The voice of the Lord maketh the hinds to calve, and discovereth the forests
David - in His Services - David not only said, 'It is the Lord,' but his heart broke forth in a psalm such that there is nothing nobler in his whole book of Psalms. David did many other services, both intended and executed, both in the field, and on the throne, and in the house of God; but by far and away David's greatest service was his Psalms. But the Psalms of David shine to this day with a greater splendour than on the day they were first sung. And long after the foundations of this whole earth shall have been ploughed up and removed out of their place, David's Psalms will be sounding out for ever beside the song of Moses and the Lamb. But how poor was his boast, and how short-lived will be his best work beside David's immortal Psalms! What a service has David done, not knowing that he was doing it; and not to his own nation only, but to the whole Israel of God. When I think of that service, all the other services that David has done by his Psalms shine out in a far diviner glory. I bless David's name for the blessing my own soul gets out of his Psalms every day I live. But when I trace that blessing up to its true source, I find that true and grace-gushing source in Jesus of Nazareth, whom I see growing in grace every day as He goes about in Galilee with David's Psalms never out of His hands. Think of the sweet start, the overpowering surprise, the solemnity, the rejoicing with trembling, the resignation, the triumph with which the growing Saviour was led of the Spirit from Psalm to Psalm till He had searched out all David's Psalms in which David had prophesied and sung concerning his Messiah Son. And, having once begun to read and to think in that way you will go on till you come to the cross, where you will see and hear your dying Redeemer with one of David's Psalms on His lips when He can no longer hold it in His hands. And He said unto them, These are the words which I spake unto you while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the Psalms, concerning Me. And they said one to another, did not our heart burn within us while He talked with us by the way, and while He opened to us the Scriptures?...
O two disciples, on your way that same day to Emmaus, how I envy you your travelling Companion that day! My heart burns to think of your Divine Companion opening up to you David's Messianic Psalms that memorable day. And when I think also of the multitudes that no man can number to whom David's Psalms have been their constant song in the house of their pilgrimage; in the tabernacle as they fell for the first time hot from David's heart and harp; in the temple of Solomon his son with all the companies of singers and all their instruments of music; in the synagogues of the captivity; in the wilderness as the captives returned to the New Jerusalem; in the New Jerusalem every Sabbath-day and every feast-day; in the upper room, both before and after supper; in Paul's prison at Philippi; in the catacombs; in Christian churches past number; in religious houses all over Christendom at all hours of the day and the night; in deserts, in mountains, in dens and caves of the earth; in our churches; in our Sabbath-schools; in our families morning and evening; in our sickrooms; on our death-beds; and in the night-watches when the disciples of Christ watch and pray lest they enter into temptation. Had Paul sung David's Psalms, and sent, now the twenty-third Psalm to the Philippians, and now the thirty-second and the hundred and thirtieth to the Romans, and now the forty-fifth and the seventy-second to the Colossians, and so on, I would not have wondered. But it baffles me to silence to see such Psalms as David's before the day of Christ. To David in the sixty-second, and in its sister Psalms, there is only I AM and David himself, in all heaven and earth. And, 'Thee, Thee only,' is the sum and the substance, the marrow and the fatness, the beauty and the sweetness of all David's communion Psalms. Then, again, it is told of Luther in his 'Table Talk,' that being asked one day which were his favourite Psalms-Why, to be sure, he answered, Paul's four Psalms,-'Blessed is the man whose transgressions are forgiven, whose sin is covered,' 'Have mercy upon me, O God,' 'Out of the depths,' and 'Enter not into judgment with Thy servant. ' Do you not see, he demanded, that all these Psalms tell us that forgiveness comes without the law and without works? Forgiveness and peace come to him that believeth. Let him who is feeble in faith, and in repentance, and in holiness, and in communion with God, be much in the Psalms. Let the Psalms dwell richly in the feeblest among us, and the feeblest among us will yet be a man of more spiritual strength than David. Fill the house of your pilgrimage with the sound of Psalms
Michal - ) Meanwhile, Michal loved David; and Saul on hearing of it from his attendants made it a trap for David (Psalms 59:14-157), saying, "thou shalt be my son in law in a second way," and requiring, instead of the dowry paid to the father according to Eastern usage, 100 Philistines' foreskins. Like "dogs" prowling about for prey "at evening," so they besieged David's house, awaiting his coming forth in the morning (Psalms 59:6; 1618180990_99; agreeing naturally with 1 Samuel 19:11). ...
The title of Psalms 59:9, "because of his (the enemy's) strength"; see Psalms 59:12 on Saul's "pride" roused to jealousy of David's fame, and Saul's "lying" accusation of treason against David. Saul's "wandering up and down" for help, when he sought the Endor witch, was the retribution in kind for his wandering up and down persecuting David (Psalms 59:14-15). Probably a band of damsels playing on timbrels accompanied David while dancing in procession, as in Psalms 68:25, "among the damsels playing with timbrels"; the words "them were" of KJV should be omitted, as not in the Hebrew. Therefore he is content to be held still more vile than Michal held him, and to be base in his own sight (Psalms 131:1), in order that thereby he may be honored by Jehovah (Matthew 23:12)
Order - Ephesians 4:31 ; our conversation, Colossians 4:6 ; our business, Proverbs 22:29 ; our time, Psalms 90:12 . In respect to the church, order should be observed as to the admission of members, 2 Corinthians 6:15 ; as to the administration of its ordinances, 1 Corinthians 14:33 ; 1 Corinthians 14:40 ; as to the attendance on its worship, Psalms 27:4 ; as to our behaviour therein, Revelation 15:1-8 . Psalms 104:25
Ascension of Christ - He was parted from his disciples while he was solemnly blessing them; and multitudes of angels attended him with shouts of praise, Psalms 68:17 ; Psalms 47:5-6 . To receive gifts for men, both ordinary and extraordinary, Psalm...
Psalms 68:18 ;...
5
Atonement - They are cut off from God and there is no way they can bring themselves back to God (Psalms 14:3; Isaiah 59:2; Romans 1:18; Romans 3:20; Romans 3:23; Romans 6:23; see SIN). Whether in Old or New Testament times, forgiveness is solely by God’s grace and sinners receive it by faith (Psalms 32:5; Psalms 51:17; Micah 7:18; Ephesians 2:8)
Soul - A reference to someone’s nephesh may simply be a reference to the person (Psalms 6:3-4; Psalms 35:9; Isaiah 1:14) or the person’s life (Genesis 35:18; 1 Kings 17:22; Psalms 33:19). The body returns to dust (Genesis 3:19; Ecclesiastes 3:20), but the person lives on in a place, or state, of the dead, which the Hebrew calls sheol and the Greek calls hades (Psalms 6:5; Psalms 88:3-5; Luke 16:22-23; see HADES; SHEOL). Certainly, they live on as a conscious personal beings, but that personal being is not complete, for it has no body (Psalms 49:14; Ezekiel 26:20)
Raven - Its glossy plumage is referred to in Song of Solomon 5:11 ; it often dwells in the wilderness ( Isaiah 34:11 ), and yet God cares for and watches over it ( Job 38:41 , Psalms 147:8 , Luke 12:24 )
King david - Compiled the Book of Psalms
David, king - Compiled the Book of Psalms
Enhakkore - ) It burst out at Samson's, cry, when athirst after slaying a thousand Philistines with a donkey's jawbone (Judges 15:19; Psalms 34:6)
Daughter - Hengstenberg takes "daughter of Zion" or Zion, "daughter of Jerusalem" or Jerasalem (compare Psalms 9:14)
Seleucians - He also maintained that the world was not made by God, but was co-eternal with him; and that the soul was only an animated fire created by the angels; that Christ does not sit at the right hand of the Father in a human body, but that he lodged his body in the sun, according to Psalms 19:4 ; and that the pleasures of beatitude consisted in corporeal delight
Brimstone - An image of every visitation of God's vengeance on the ungodly, especially of the final one (Deuteronomy 29:23; Job 18:15; Psalms 11:6; Isaiah 34:9; Ezekiel 38:22; Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:10; Revelation 21:8)
Asaph - He is also called a seer, 2 Chronicles 29:30 ; and his name is prefixed to twelve Psalms, ( Psalm 50:1-23 73:1-83:18 ) but whether they were written by him, or for him or his family to sing, is unknown
Ziph - ]'>[1] only] 1 Samuel 26:1 , Psalms 54:1-7 title
Folk - In the metrical version of Psalms 100:3 , ‘flock’ should be ‘folk,’ corresponding to ‘people’ in the prose version
Glorify - Psalms 86:9 God is glorified, when such his excellency, above all things, is with due admiration acknowledged
Alter - Psalms 89
Amen - Psalms 104
Zeal - " (Psalms 69:9) And when we behold in confirmation of it, such a miracle as scourging from the temple the multitude of those who performed it—a miracle, properly considered, almost as great as any Christ performed on earth; such a view of Jesus may, but nothing else can, give a lively idea of zeal! (John 2:13-17)...
Salmon - Salmon means shady, dark (Psalms 68:14)
Everlasting - Psalms 90 ...
1
Dust - To lick the dust, Psalms 72:9, signifies abject submission
Seleucians - They interpreted Psalms 18:6 as meaning that Christ left His body in the sun
Limit - Psalms 78 ...
3
Discover - ’ So Psalms 29:9 , ‘The voice of the Lord … discovereth the forests,’ and other passages
Rescue - Psalms 35
Seleucians - They interpreted Psalms 18:6 as meaning that Christ left His body in the sun
Anthem - " Antiphon hascome to mean a verse of Scripture which is sung wholly or in partbefore and after the Psalms or Canticles, and designed to strikethe key-note of the teaching of the day
Salvation Save Saviour - , Deuteronomy 20:4, Judges 3:31, 1 Samuel 10:27, Psalms 28:9, Hosea 1:7; it denotes spiritual deliverance in Ezekiel 36:29; Ezekiel 37:23. , Exodus 14:13, 1 Samuel 14:45, Psalms 3:8, Jonah 2:9, for the cognate sense of welfare or prosperity in Job 30:15, and for a combination of external and spiritual deliverance in, e. , Isaiah 12:2-3; Isaiah 45:17; Isaiah 49:8; Isaiah 51:8; Isaiah 51:8; Isaiah 52:7; Matthew 13:41-43; Isaiah 56:1, Psalms 67:2; Psalms 98:2, though possibly some of these are instances of spiritual deliverance simply. , Judges 15:18, 1 Corinthians 4:19-20,; 1 Samuel 11:13, Psalms 37:39, and for a combination of external and spiritual deliverance in Isaiah 45:17; Isaiah 46:13, Psalms 40:10; Psalms 40:16; Psalms 51:14, though possibly in some of these instances for spiritual deliverance simply. , Habakkuk 3:13, Psalms 12:5; Psalms 18:2; Psalms 18:35; Psalms 18:46, for the cognate sense of preserved security in Job 5:4; Job 5:11, and for a combination of external and spiritual deliverance in, e. , Micah 7:7, Habakkuk 3:18, Psalms 24:5; Psalms 25:5; Psalms 51:12, though possibly Psalms 51:12 may refer to spiritual deliverance simply. The noun מוֹשׁעִה (môshâ‛âh) occurs in Psalms 68:20 only; it there denotes, at any rate chiefly, external deliverance
Biblical Commission - ...
While David need not be considered the sole author of the entire Psalter, a large number of the Psalms attributed to him, especially those which in other parts of ScrIpture are expressly cited as his; the antiquity of the titles prefixed to the Psalms must be upheld and their testimony is not to be set aside without solid reason; some of the Psalms may have been divided or joined into one or slightly modified for liturgical or other purposes; there is no probability in the opinion that not a few Psalms were composed after the time of Esdras and Nehemias or even as late as the Machabean times; many of the Psalms are to be recognized as foretelling the coming of the Messias and describing His kingdom
Anoint - A mark of respect to a guest so common that to omit it implied defective hospitality (Luke 7:46; Psalms 23:5); Heb. Metaphorically, "anointed with oil" means successful, joyous (Psalms 92:10; Ecclesiastes 9:8). "Anointing with the oiler gladness" (Psalms 45:7; Hebrews 1:9) expresses spiritual joy, such as Messiah felt and shall feel in seeing the blessed fruit of His sufferings (Isaiah 61:3). Isaiah 61:1; Messiah, twice so designated in the Old Testament (Psalms 2:2; Daniel 9:25-26), at once Prophet, Priest, and King, the Center of all prophecy, the Antitype of all priesthood, and the Source and End of all kingship (Luke 4:18; Acts 4:27; Acts 10:38). , the Assyrian oppression shall be taken away from Judah, because of the consecration that is upon the elect nation, its prophets, priests, kings, and holy place (Psalms 105:15); the Antitype to all which is Messiah, "the Anointed" (Daniel 9:24)
Generation - This meaning has survived in OT chiefly in poetry, and in the phrases דּר וָרר Ps 45:18; Psalms 61:7, לִדר דּר Exodus 3:15, דּר רּרִים Isaiah 51:9, Psalms 72:5, and such like, to indicate time stretching away into the past (Isaiah 51:9), or (more generally) into the future (Psalms 33:11; Psalms 49:12). It may refer both to past and future (Psalms 145:13), and is thus parallel to עולָם (see Eternity)
Generation - This meaning has survived in OT chiefly in poetry, and in the phrases דּר וָרר Ps 45:18; Psalms 61:7, לִדר דּר Exodus 3:15, דּר רּרִים Isaiah 51:9, Psalms 72:5, and such like, to indicate time stretching away into the past (Isaiah 51:9), or (more generally) into the future (Psalms 33:11; Psalms 49:12). It may refer both to past and future (Psalms 145:13), and is thus parallel to עולָם (see Eternity)
Magnificat - Psalms 111:9 ἄγιον καὶ φοβερὸν τὸ ἑνομα αὐτοῦ. ...
Luke 1:50 καὶ τὸ ἕλεος αὐτοῦ εἰς γενεὰς καὶ γενεὰς τοῖς φοβουμένοις αὐτόν,...
(4) Psalms 103:17 τὸ δὲ ἕλεος τοῦ κυρίου ἀπὸ τοῦ αἰῶνος καὶ ἵως τοῦ αἰῶνος ἐπὶ τοὺς φοβουμέκους αὐτόν...
Luke 1:51 ἑτοίησιν κράτος ἐν βραχίονε αὐτοῦ, διεσκόρπεσεν ὑπερηφάνους διανοίᾳ καρδιας αὐτῶν ̇...
(5) Psalms 89:11 σὺ ἐταπείεωσας ὠς τραυματίαν ὑπερήφανον, καὶ ἐν τῷ βραχίονς τῆς δυνάμεώς σουδιεσκόρπισας τοὺς ἑχθρούς σου. ...
(7) 1 Samuel 2:7 κύριος πτωχίζει καὶ πλουτίζει, ταπεινεῖ καὶ ἀνυψεῖ Psalms 107:9 ψυχὴν πεινῶσαν ἑνέπλησεν ἁγαθῶν. ...
Psalms 50:7-8 ἀντελάβετο Ἰσραὴλ παιδὸς αὐτοῦ, μνησθῆναι ἐλέους...
(8) Isaiah 41:8 σὺ δέ, Ἰσραήλ, παῖς μου, οὖ ἀντελαβόμην. Psalms 98:3 ἐμνήσθη τοῦ ἐλέους αὐτοῦ τῷ Ἰακώβ. ...
In regard to these parallels Spitta argues with some force that there are nearer parallels in the Psalms; e. Psalms 33:3-4 ἐν τῷ κυρίῳ ἐπαινεθήσεται ἡ ψυχή μου … μεγαλύνατε τὸν κύριον σὺν ἐμοί; Psalms 34:9 ζ μου ἀγαλλιάσεται ἐπὶ τῷ κυρίῳ, τερφθήσεται ἐπὶ τῷ σωτηρίῳ αὐτοῦ; LXX Psalm 34:27 =Psa 39:17 = Psalms 69:5 ἀγαλλιάσαιντο καὶ εὐφρανθείησαν ἐπὶ σοι πάντες οἱ ζητοῦντές σε κύριε, καὶ εἰπάτωσαν διὰ παντός, Μεγαλυνθήτω ὁ κύριος, οἱ ἁγαπῶντες τὸ σωτήριόν σου. ’]'>[3]2 This is true; but at the same time we cannot doubt that a Jewish woman would turn to Hannah’s song as, so to speak, a model, even though the phrases of the Psalms which she used often in devotion would come more readily to her lips while working out her idea. (1) ἰδοὺ γάρ is found not only in Luke 1:44; Luke 2:10; Luke 6:23; Luke 17:21, Acts 9:11, but also in 2 Corinthians 7:11;* [Note: Luke 1:54; Psalms 53:6, Isaiah 32:7; Isaiah 38:17; Isaiah 44:22; Isaiah 62:11; Nest - ...
So the bride in the clefts of Christ, the smitten Rock (Song of Solomon 2:14; Psalms 27:5; Isaiah 33:16). (See BIRD on Psalms 84:3
Snake - Because of their poisonous bites and cunning habits, they were often spoken of as a picture of wicked people and wicked deeds (Genesis 49:17; Deuteronomy 32:33; Psalms 58:4; Psalms 140:3; Jeremiah 46:22; Matthew 3:7; Matthew 12:34; 2 Corinthians 11:3)
Melchizedek - Melchizedek, or Melchisedec (mel-kĭz'-e-dĕk), the Greek form in the New Testament (king of righteousness), is mentioned in Genesis 14:18-20 as king of Salem and priest of the Most High God, meeting Abram in the valley of Shaveh, bringing out bread and wine to him, blessing him, and receiving tithes from him; in Psalms 110:4, where Messiah is described as a priest "after the order of Melchizedek;" and finally, in Hebrews 5:6-7, where the typical relations between Melchizedek and Christ are defined, both being priests without belonging to the Levitical tribe, superior to Abram, of unknown beginning and end, and kings of righteousness and peace. The short but impressive account of Melchizedek in Genesis, and the striking though mystical applications made in the Psalms and the Epistle to the Hebrews, have given rise to various interpretations
Bashan - It was noted for mountains ( Psalms 68:15 ), lions ( Deuteronomy 33:22 ), oak trees ( Isaiah 2:13 , Ezekiel 27:6 , Zechariah 11:2 ), and especially cattle, both rams ( Deuteronomy 32:14 ) and bullocks ( Ezekiel 39:18 ); the bulls and kine of Bashan are typical of cruelty and oppression ( Psalms 22:12 , Amos 4:1 )
Covetousness - Every occurrence of the word or the thing in the OT is connected with a prohibition or a curse ( Psalms 10:3 ; Psalms 119:36 , Proverbs 21:26 ; Proverbs 28:16 , Isaiah 57:17 , Habakkuk 2:9 )
Infinity - His understanding is infinite, Psalms 147:5 . His goodness, Psalms 16:2
Fool - Thus in the Psalms, "The fool hath said in his heart, There is no God. " (Psalms 14:1) But the sense is, that the wicked and ungodly have by their action said this
City - (See Psalms 46:4; Psa 48:1; Psa 48:8; Psa 87:3; Song of Song of Solomon 3:2-3 and also Hebrews 12:22; Revelation 3:12; Rev 21:2-10; Rev 22:19) The city of God in his church upon earth, and in heaven, is one and the same. (Psalms 137:6) Reader, what saith your heart to those characters? (See that Scripture, Revelation 22:14-15)...
Anger - When anger, hatred, wrath, and fury, are ascribed to God, they denote no tumultuous passion, but merely his holy and just displeasure with sin and sinners and the evidence of it in his terrible threatenings, or righteous judgments, Psalms 6:1 ; Psalms 7:11
Rod - The empire of the Messiah is sometimes represented by a rod of iron, to show its power and its might, Psalms 2:9 ; Revelation 2:27 ; Revelation 12:5 ; Revelation 19:15 . "Rod is sometimes put to signify a tribe or a people; "Remember thy congregation which thou hast purchased of old, the rod of thine inheritance which thou hast redeemed,"...
Psalms 74:2
Brimstone - נפרית , Genesis 19:24 ; Deuteronomy 29:23 ; Job 18:15 ; Psalms 11:6 ; Isaiah 30:33 ; Isaiah 34:9 ; Ezekiel 38:22 . This may be a general expression, to designate any great destruction: as that in Psalms 11:6 , "Upon the wicked he shall rain fire and brimstone
Triumph - ...
How long shall the wicked triumph? Psalms 94 ...
1. Psalms 25 ...
Sorrow on all the pack of you ...
That triumph thus upon my misery
Wish - Psalms 73 . Psalms 40
Cherubim - The lid of the ark, known as the mercy seat, was the symbolic throne of God, and the cherubim were symbolic guardians of that throne (Exodus 25:18-22; 1 Samuel 4:4; 2 Samuel 6:2; 2 Kings 19:15; Psalms 80:1; Hebrews 9:5). Psalms 18:10)
Sophronius, Ecclesiastical Writer - He had, while still young, composed a book on the glories of Bethlehem, and, just before the catalogue was written, a book on the destruction of the Serapeum, and had translated into Greek Jerome's letter to Eustochium on virginity, his Life of Hilarion, and his Latin version of the Psalms and Prophets. Sophronius had, in dispute with a Jew, quoted from the Psalms, but the Jew said that the passages read differently in Hebrew
Remnant - ...
The prophetic language in the Psalms is not that of the mass of Israel, but of the remnant, in whom the Spirit of Christ speaks; and it is in the Psalms that the remnant is first seen as distinguished from the ungodly nation
Edom - Edom also joined the Chaldaeans against the Jews (Psalms 137:7). The scattering of Israel among the pagan (Psalms 44:11) was but partial, enough to gratify Edom's desire to falsify the prophecy, "the elder shall serve the younger. ...
Israel pleads faithfulness to the covenant, which suits David's time; also they had no "armies" in Babylon (Psalms 44:9), which precludes the time of the captivity there. Translated in the title, "when David had beaten down Aram of the two floods," "when Joab returned," which he did not do all he had fully conquered the Syrians; Psalms 60:4, "Thou hast given a banner," etc. , alludes to this victory and to that over Edom (in 2 Samuel 8:13 "Edom" should be read for "the Syrians," Aram) in the Valley of Salt, the token that the expedition (Psalms 60:9-12) for occupying Edom in revenge for invading Israel would succeed. Edom was also linked with Ammon and Moab in the desperate effort made to root out Israel from his divinely given inheritance (their main guilt, 2 Chronicles 20:11; Psalms 83:12) under Jehoshaphat, as recorded in 2 Chronicles 20. Psalms 83:3-5; Psalms 83:12 probably was written by Jahaziel, of the sons of Asaph, upon whom'" came the Spirit of the Lord in the midst of the congregation. "...
Psalm 47 (compare Psalms 47:4-5; Psalms 47:8-9) was sung on the battle field of Berachah ("blessing") after the victory. Psalm 48 was sung "in the midst of God's temple" (Psalms 48:9); Psalms 48:7 alludes to Jehoshaphat's chastisement in the breaking of his Tarshish ships for his ungodly alliance. Psalms," by Fausset
Humility - Psalms 25:9 ...
4. It preserves the soul in great tranquility and contentment, Psalms 69:32 ; Psalms 33:1-22 ...
5. Psalms 147:6
Tongue - As, in the OT, the tongue is said to concoct deceit (Psalms 50:19), and iniquity is said to be in it (Job 6:30) or under it (Psalms 10:7), so, in the NT, it is said to defile the whole body, to be a restless evil, full of deadly poison (James 3:6; James 3:8). Psalms 34:13). On confession itself great emphasis was naturally placed (Romans 14:11; see also article Mouth); it is felt that the truth of the inner life will instinctively utter itself in the testimony of the spoken word: ‘As the fountain gushes out its water, so my heart gushes out the praise of the Lord and my lips utter praise to Him, and my tongue His Psalms’ (Odes of Solomon, xl
Heredity - In the OT, which is the basis of the doctrine of the NT, there is no dogmatic purpose, and therefore no attempt to account for the fact that ‘all flesh’ has ‘corrupted his way upon the earth’ ( Genesis 6:12 ), and that ‘there is none that doeth good’ ( Psalms 14:1 ). This principle involves corporate guilt; which, though sometimes reduced to a pardonable weakness inseparable from flesh ( Psalms 78:39 ; Psalms 103:14 , Job 10:9 ), and therefore suggestive of heredity, yet, as involving Divine wrath and punishment, cannot be regarded as a palliation of transgression ( Exodus 34:7 , Psalms 7:11 , Romans 1:18 )
Abyss - tehôm, and primarily denotes the water-deeps which at first covered the earth (Genesis 1:2, Psalms 103:6) and were conceived of as shut up afterwards in subterranean storehouses (Psalms 32:7). In Psalms 71:20 ‘the abyss’ is applied to the depths of the earth, and is here evidently a figurative equivalent for Sheol, though it is nowhere used in the Septuagint to render the Heb, word. Paul uses it simply as the abode of the dead, Sheol or Hades-a sense equivalent to that of Psalms 71:20
Armor - It was carried in a sheath, 1 Samuel 17:51; 2 Samuel 20:8; 1 Chronicles 21:27, slung by a girdle, 1 Samuel 25:13, and resting upon the thigh, Psalms 45:3; Judges 3:16, or upon the hips, 2 Samuel 20:8. Genesis 27:3; Isaiah 22:6; Isaiah 49:2; Psalms 127:5. From an allusion in Job 6:4 they would seem to have been sometimes poisoned; and Psalms 120:4 may point to a practice of using arrows with some burning material attached to them. Psalms 5:12
Arms - It was carried in a sheath, 1 Samuel 17:51; 2 Samuel 20:8; 1 Chronicles 21:27, slung by a girdle, 1 Samuel 25:13, and resting upon the thigh, Psalms 45:3; Judges 3:16, or upon the hips, 2 Samuel 20:8. Genesis 27:3; Isaiah 22:6; Isaiah 49:2; Psalms 127:5. From an allusion in Job 6:4 they would seem to have been sometimes poisoned; and Psalms 120:4 may point to a practice of using arrows with some burning material attached to them. Psalms 5:12
Tongue - As, in the OT, the tongue is said to concoct deceit (Psalms 50:19), and iniquity is said to be in it (Job 6:30) or under it (Psalms 10:7), so, in the NT, it is said to defile the whole body, to be a restless evil, full of deadly poison (James 3:6; James 3:8). Psalms 34:13). On confession itself great emphasis was naturally placed (Romans 14:11; see also article Mouth); it is felt that the truth of the inner life will instinctively utter itself in the testimony of the spoken word: ‘As the fountain gushes out its water, so my heart gushes out the praise of the Lord and my lips utter praise to Him, and my tongue His Psalms’ (Odes of Solomon, xl
Abyss - tehôm, and primarily denotes the water-deeps which at first covered the earth (Genesis 1:2, Psalms 103:6) and were conceived of as shut up afterwards in subterranean storehouses (Psalms 32:7). In Psalms 71:20 ‘the abyss’ is applied to the depths of the earth, and is here evidently a figurative equivalent for Sheol, though it is nowhere used in the Septuagint to render the Heb, word. Paul uses it simply as the abode of the dead, Sheol or Hades-a sense equivalent to that of Psalms 71:20
Passover And Feast of Unleavened Bread - The lambs were then dressed, and the fat offered, while the Levites chanted the Hallel ( Psalms 113:1-9 ; Psalms 114:1-8 ; Psalms 115:1-18 ; Psalms 116:1-19 ; Psalms 117:1-2 ; Psalms 118:1-29 ). This was succeeded by the singing of Psalms 113:1-9 ; Psalms 114:1-8 . Grace was said over the third cup, and with the fourth came the singing of Psalms 115:1-18 ; Psalms 116:1-19 ; Psalms 117:1-2 ; Psalms 118:1-29
Knowledge of God (1) - A spiritual saving knowledge consists in veneration for the Divine Being, Psalms 89:7 , love to him as an object of beauty and goodness, Zechariah 9:17 . humble confidence in his mercy and promise, Psalms 9:10 . the suitability of his offices, Hebrews 9:1-28 : the perfection of his work, Psalms 68:18 . influential, Psalms 9:10 . satisfying, Psalms 36:7 . a humble frame of mind, Psalms 25:9 . frequent meditation, Psalms 104:34
Hallel - ” The singing of Psalms of praise was a special duty of the Levites (2 Chronicles 7:6 ; Ezra 3:11 )
John of Montecorvino - At the same time he familiarized himself with the Chinese language and translated the New Testament and the Psalms into that tongue
Montecorvino, John of - At the same time he familiarized himself with the Chinese language and translated the New Testament and the Psalms into that tongue
Calamity - Its 24 biblical appearances occur in every period of biblical Hebrew (12 in wisdom literature and only 1 in poetical literature, the Psalms)
Ashes - one's perpetual portion (Psalms 102:9)
Self-Knowledge - This knowledge is commanded in the Scriptures, Psalms 4:4
Chant - ) A short and simple melody, divided into two parts by double bars, to which unmetrical Psalms, etc
Shoshan'Nim - "To the chief musician upon Shoshannim" is a musical direction to the leader of the temple choir which occurs in ( Psalm 45:1 ; 69:1 ) and most probably indicates the melody "after" or "in the manner of" (Authorized Version upon") which the Psalms were to be sung
Isles - " Genesis 10:5, "the isles of the Gentiles" (Psalms 72:10; Isaiah 41:5; Zephaniah 2:11)
Fellow - Thus (1) Psalms 45:7 ‘God, thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows’; (2) Matthew 26:71 ‘This fellow was also with Jesus of Nazareth’ (RV Pity - Psalms 103:13
Gifts - "To bring presents" is to own submission (Psalms 68:29)
Ark - Psalms 132
Acquaintance - Psalms 88
Intend - Psalms 21 ...
3
Suretiship - The hand was given in token of undertaking the office or becoming responsible for a debt (Job 17:13; Proverbs 6:1; Psalms 119:122; Isaiah 38:14): "undertake (harbeeni ) for me," Hebrew "be surety for me
Benefit - Psalms 103 ...
2
Commune - Psalms 4
Excel - Psalms 103 ...
We say, to excel in mathematics to excel in painting to excel in heroic achievements
Going - Psalms 68 ...
Going out, ...
Goings out, In scripture, utmost extremity or limit the point where an extended body terminates
Jeshurun - ’ In Balaam’s elegy,’ Let me die the death of the righteous’ seems to refer to the Israel of the preceding clause, and in Psalms 83:1 the thought which underlies Jeshurun appears, if we adopt the tempting reading: ‘Truly God is good to the upright
Prayer - ...
Some personal requirements of prayer are a pure heart (Psalms 66:18), belief in Christ (John 14:13), and that the prayer be according to God's will (1 John 5:13)
Potsherd - Psalms 22:15, "my strength is dried up like a potsherd" or earthen vessel exposed to heat; the drying up of the vital juices caused Christ's excessive thirst (John 19:28)
Bowels - The Psalmist says, "Thy law is within my heart," literally, in the midst of my bowels,—it is by me strongly and affectionately regarded, Psalms 40:8
Bay-Tree - It is mentioned only in Psalms 37:35-36 : "I have seen the ungodly in great power, and flourishing like a green bay-tree
Sparrow - That the sparrow is not intended in Psalms 102:7 , is evident from several circumstances; for that is intimated to be a bird of night, one that is both solitary and mournful; none of which characteristics is applicable to the sparrow, which rests by night, is gregarious and cheerful
Bath-Sheba - She is afterwards mentioned in the history of Adonijah, 1 Kings 2:13, in the title of Psalms 51:1-19, and among the ancestors of Christ
Pant - Psalms 42 ...
P`ANT, n
Reprove - I will not reprove thee for thy sacrifices - Psalms 50
Saint - Psalms 16
Keilah - Psalms 31:6; Psalms 31:8; Psalms 31:21 alludes, with the undesignedness which characterizes genuineness, to this: "I have hated them that regard lying vanities (idols as Baal), but I trust in Jehovah
Humiliation of Christ - and the most ignominious ridicule, Psalms 22:6 ;. John 11:35 , was burdened with the hidings of his Father's face, and the fears and impressions of his wrath, Psalms 22:1 . Psalms 40:6-8
ox, Oxen, Herd, Cattle - ); a general term for ‘oxen,’ Deuteronomy 7:13 ; Deuteronomy 28:4 ; Deuteronomy 28:18 ; Deuteronomy 28:51 , Psalms 8:7 , Proverbs 14:4 , Isaiah 30:24 . ) ‘bulls’ in Psalms 22:12 ; Psalms 50:13 , Isaiah 34:7 ; but ‘strong ones’ or ‘horses’ elsewhere
Trumpets, Feast of - " Psalms 81:3 (which modern Jews use for the feast of trumpets) does not refer to "the new moon"; translated as Hengstenberg "blow the horn in the month at the full moon" (keseh , KJV less well "at the time appointed"); Psalms 81:5-7; Psalms 81:10 show the Passover is referred to
Adder - Psalms 140:3 quoted in Romans 3:13, "the poison of asps. "...
(2) Ρethen, Psalms 58:4; Psalms 91:13, "adder" (compare margin), but elsewhere translated "asp"; from a Hebrew root "to expand the neck
Fox - In Hebrew including also the jackal which preys on unburied carcasses; "they shall be a portion for jackals" (Psalms 63:9-10), fulfilled on "the seekers after David's soul" (2 Samuel 18:7-17). " The bride after awaking from her past unwatchfulness is the more jealous of subtle (fox-like) sins (Psalms 139:23). In spiritual winter evil weeds as well as good plants are frozen up; in the spring of revivals these start up unperceived, crafty false teachers spiritual pride, uncharitableness (Psalms 19:12; Matthew 13:26; Hebrews 12:15)
Poetry - There are no lyrics in the world comparable with the Psalms of David, no gnomic poetry equal to the Proverbs, and no didactic poem so perfect in form, so profound and majestic in thought or so exalted and spiritual in conception as the book of Job. There are five so-called poetical books in the Old Testament: Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Solomon
Salem - (2) The allusion to Jerusalem by the name Salem in Psalms 76:2 . see), and the reference to Melchizedek in Psalms 110:4
Olive - It was a symbol of peace (Genesis 8:10-12), fruitfulness (Psalms 128:3-4), freshness (Psalms 52:8), pleasantness (Jeremiah 11:16), beauty (Hosea 14:5-7), God’s Spirit (Zechariah 4:1-6), God’s family (Romans 11:17-24) and God’s witnesses (Zechariah 4:11-14; Revelation 11:3-4)
Seven - ...
The expression ‘seven times’ seems to have been used as a figure of speech to indicate fulness or finality (Genesis 4:15; Genesis 4:24, Leviticus 26:18; Leviticus 26:21; 1 Kings 18:43-44; 2 Kings 5:10; Psalms 12:6; Psalms 119:164; Isaiah 30:26; Daniel 3:19; Matthew 18:21-22; cf
Lightning - ), and He alone can control it ( Job 38:33 , Psalms 18:14 ). With lightnings as with arrows, God scatters His enemies ( Psalms 144:5 etc
Gebal - (See SEIR, MOUNT) "a line", namely, of mountain boundary (Psalms 83:7). So "the inhabitants of Phoenician, Tyre" are numbered with the invaders (Psalms 83:7)
Amen - It is an indication of solemn assent, chiefly in prayer, to the words of another, on the part either of an individual ( Numbers 5:22 ) or of an assembly ( Deuteronomy 27:15 ); sometimes reduplicated ( Psalms 41:13 ), sometimes accompanied by a rubrical direction ( Psalms 106:48 )
Incomprehensibility of God - To be humble and modest, Psalms 8:1 ; Psalms 8:4
Salvation, Saviour - As illustrations of this OT meaning of salvation may be taken the words of Moses at the Red Sea, ‘Stand still, and see the salvation of Jehovah’ ( Exodus 14:13 ) ‘He is become my salvation’ ( Exodus 15:2 ); or the avowal of the psalmist, ‘This poor man cried, and Jehovah heard him, and saved him out of all his troubles’ ( Psalms 34:6 ). Victory in battle is ‘salvation’ ( Exodus 14:14 , 1 Samuel 14:45 , Psalms 20:1-9 etc. , of David, 2 Samuel 22:1-51 , Psalms 18:1-50 ). It is the righteous or penitent alone who are entitled to look to God for His saving help; no others can claim Him as the rock of their salvation ( Psalms 18:1-3 ; cf. Psalms 4:1 )
Face - Thus it has its own health (Psalms 42:11), it produces gladness in others (Psalms 21:6, Acts 2:28), and pronounces rebuke (Psalms 80:16), it falls (Genesis 4:6), is lifted up (Psalms 4:6), emits light (Psalms 44:3)
World - In general it may be said that the normal expression for such conception of the Universe as the Hebrews had reached is ‘the heavens and the earth’ ( Genesis 1:1 , Psalms 89:11 , 1 Chronicles 16:31 ), and that ‘world’ is an equivalent expression for ‘ earth. , ‘the earth is the Lord’s, and the fulness thereof; the world, and they that dwell therein’ ( Psalms 24:1 ; cf. Psalms 50:12 ; Psalms 90:2 , Isaiah 34:1 ). Psalms 8:1-9 ; Psalms 19:1-14 , Job 38:1-41 ; Job 39:1-30 ). The ‘world’ is to be judged in righteousness ( Psalms 9:8 ; Psalms 96:13 ; Psalms 98:9 ), and punished for its evil ( Isaiah 13:11 ). ‘ æon ’ below) rendered ‘world’ at Psalms 17:14 (‘men of the world, whose portion is in this life,’ cf. ]'>[1] ); also by the same word at Psalms 49:1 (see the whole Psalm). ]'>[2] at Psalms 73:12 , Ecclesiastes 3:11 , but RV Holy One - As a substantive expression it occurs only in Acts 2:27; Acts 13:35—in both cases a quotation from Psalms 16:10—used first by St. Yet, while חָסִיד is used of God only in Jeremiah 3:12 (LXX Septuagint ἐλεήμων) and Psalms 145:17 (LXX Septuagint ὄσιος), where it is joined with a reference to His works (‘holy in all thy works’), קָדו̇שׁ is used very frequently to describe God Himself. It is so found in the Books of Job, Psalms, Isaiah, Hosea, and Habakkuk, קָדו̇שׁ ‘the Holy One,’ LXX Septuagint ὁ ἄγιος. Besides the simple title ‘the Holy One,’ God is 24 times called by Isaiah ‘the Holy One of Israel’; elsewhere only in Psalms 71:22; Psalms 78:41; Psalms 89:18, Jeremiah 50:29; Jeremiah 51:5, [2] קִדו̇שׁ יִשְׂדָאִל. ; Westcott on Hebrews 7:26; Lightfoot on 1 Th 11:10; Jennings and Lowe, Psalms; Jewish Encyc
Faith - This dependence may concern aspects of physical life such as God’s provision of food, health, protection from harm and victory over enemies (Psalms 22:4-5; Psalms 37:3-4; Psalms 46:1-3; Matthew 6:30-33; Hebrews 11:33-35), but above all it concerns aspects of spiritual life such as God’s provision of salvation and eternal life (Psalms 18:2; Psalms 40:4; Psalms 71:5; Psalms 73:26; Proverbs 3:5; Jeremiah 17:7; John 3:16; Romans 1:16; Romans 5:1)
Estate - according to your former position in life, The heading of Psalms 37:1-40 is ‘David persuadeth to patience and confidence in God, by the different estate of the godly and the wicked
Willow - WILLOW ( ‘ăr âbîm , Leviticus 23:40 , Job 40:22 , Psalms 137:2 , Isaiah 15:7 ; Isaiah 44:4 Wit - ]'>[1] ‘knowledge’; it occurs only in Psalms 107:27 ‘at their wit’s end
Zalmon - Possibly the same mountain is meant in Psalms 68:14 , where a snowstorm is apparently referred to as contributing to the scattering of ‘kings’ opposed to the people of Jehovah
Immutability - God is "From everlasting to everlasting," (Psalms 90:2)
Kedar - Representing the Arabs in general, with flocks, and goat's or camel's hair tents, black as their own complexion (Song of Solomon 1:5; Psalms 120:5)
Axe - Κasshil occurs only once, Psalms 74:6, a large axe
Reverend - The Dissenters, also, in England have the title of reverend; though some of them suppose the term implies too much to be given to a mere creature, and that of God only it may be said with propriety, "Holy and reverend is his name, " Psalms 111:4
Ludolph of Saxony - He is the author of an excellent "Commentary of the Psalms" and a "Life of Christ
Discretion - Psalms 112
Dominion - Psalms 114
Fearfulness - Thus Matthew 8:26 ‘Why are ye fearful, O ye of little faith?’; Psalms 55:5 ‘Fearfulness and trembling are come upon me
Gall - ]'>[2] version of Psalms 69:21 , where cholç is tr
Meditate - Psalms 1 ...
2
Watchfulness - God's time for our deliverance from troubles, Psalms 130:1-8 :...
4
Admonish - Admonish one another in Psalms and hymns
God - Psalms 97 ...
Gods here is a bad translation
Pious - ” Psalms contains 25 of the 32 appearances of this word
Kishon - Kishon (hî'shon), bending, curved, or in one place, Psalms 83:9, Kison (kî'son), the present Nahr Mukâtta, a river which drains the plain of Esdraelon, passes through the plain of Acre, and falls into the Mediterranean
Kiss - Psalms 2:12 , seems to be an allusion to this
Hagarenes - But there seems also to have been a particular tribe who bore this name more exclusively, as the Hagarenes are sometimes mentioned in Scripture distinct from the Ishmaelites, Psalms 83:6 ; 1 Chronicles 5:19
Lack - Psalms 34
Saxony, Ludolph of - He is the author of an excellent "Commentary of the Psalms" and a "Life of Christ
Seek - Psalms 104
Commentary - Ainsworth on the Pentateuch, Psalms, and Song of Solomon. contain commentaries on the Pentateuch, Joshua, homilies on Samuel, sermons on Job, commentaries on Psalms, Isaiah, Evangelists, Acts, Paul's epistles, and the other Catholic epistles; an praelectiones on Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, and the Minor Prophets. ...
On the Psalms: ...
1. ...
On Select Psalms: ...
1. Hildersham's 152 Lectures on Psalms 51:1-19 :...
2. on Psalms 51:1-19 :...
3. Greenham on Psalms 119:1-176 :...
4. Manton on Psalms 119:1-176 :...
5. Owen on Psalms 130:1-8 :...
6. Luther on the 15 Psalms of Degrees. Horton on Psalms 4:1-8 ; 42: 51, 62: ...
On