What does Philo mean in the Bible?

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Holman Bible Dictionary - Philo Judaeus
(fi' loh jyoo day' uhss) Early Jewish interpreter of Scripture known for use of allegory. Also known as Philo of Alexandria, he lived about the same time as Jesus (about 20 B.C. to A.D. 50). A member of a wealthy Jewish family in Alexandria, Egypt, He was well educated in Greek schools and used the Greek Old Testament, the Septuagint, as his Bible.
Philo's writings—particularly his commentaries on the Scriptures—influenced the early church. A literal interpretation was all right for the average scholar, but for the enlightened ones such as himself, he advocated an allegorical interpretation. See Bible, Hermeneutics .
James Taulman
Webster's Dictionary - Philo
A combining form from Gr. fi`los loving, fond of, attached to; as, philosophy, philotechnic.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Philo
Philo of Alexandria, the Jew, a contemporary of the apostles, was so highly esteemed by early Christian theologians as to be counted among the Christian authors (Jerome, de Vir. Ill. 11), and his significance for the Apostolic Age is no less clearly recognized by modern scholars.
1. Life.-About the life of Philo we have only very scanty information; apart from occasional remarks in his own writings (in particular in Flaccum and de Virtut. et Leg. ad Gaium) one has to refer to Josephus, Ant. XVIII. viii. 1 [1], and, for the background, to the papyri dealing with persecutions of the Jews in Alexandria._ The Rabbinical literature does not mention this Hellenistic leader of Alexandria.
Philo belonged to one of the noblest and wealthiest Jewish families of Alexandria. His brother Alexander was alabarch (or arabarch, i.e. in control of the custom-houses on the Arabian, frontier), and he presented the magnificent brazen doors for the inner court of the Temple in Jerusalem (Jos. BJ_ v. v. 3 [2]). His nephew Tiberius Alexander took service with the Romans, and, renouncing his Judaism, became a high official; he was governor of Judaea before a.d. 48, and afterwards governor of Egypt. In 69-70, at the siege of Jerusalem, he was chief commander in Titus’ headquarters (Jos. Ant. XX. v. 2 [3]; BJ_ II. xv. 1 [4], xviii. 7 [5]; IV. x. 6 [6]; V. i. 6 [7], xii. 2 [8]; VI. iv. 3 [9]). Philo had had the usual training of a Greek boy of good family: he had studied grammar, mathematics, music, and rhetoric; he had acquired a good knowledge of Greek literature and obtained a fairly profound philosophical education. His style is near to Attic classicism; he imitates Plato so much that people said: ἢ Πλάτων φιλωνίζει, ἢ Φίλων πλατωνίζει (Jerome, de Vir. Ill. 11): the one must have copied the other. But, in accordance with the prevailing literary taste, he uses any kind of style that may be appropriate to his purpose. He had also heard Jewish interpreters of the Torah, probably in the synagogue; and it seems as if, like other serious young men, e.g. Josephus and Seneca, he had entered into temporary retreat and held intercourse with ascetic circles in order to gain perfection in theosophy (de Spec. Leg. iii. 1 [10]). Incidentally he mentions a pilgrimage to Jerusalem (de Providentia [11]). In his later life he came into publicity much against his own desire. In consequence of the anti-Semitic riots at Alexandria under Flaccus, Philo, as the leader of a Jewish embassy, went to Rome to see the Emperor Caligula. His mission, according to his own report, was not successful. His opponent was the same Alexandrian littérateur, Apion, against whom Josephus wrote his two books.
From Eus. HE_ II. xviii. 8 one might infer that Philo remained at Rome until the time of Claudius (Jerome thinks rather of a second voyage), and that under the new régime Philo was honoured by the Senate, while his works, (in particular in Flaccum and de Legatione ad Gaium) found a place in the public library. That Philo, while at Rome, met the apostle Peter (ib. xvii. 1) is a legend of the same kind as the legends of an exchange of letters between St. Paul and Seneca, or of relations between St. Luke or Mary Magdalene and Galen the famous physician. The papyri report, in the time of Claudius, a hearing of the Alexandrian anti-Semites against King Agrippa, but do not mention Philo.
Philo’s significance does not rest so much upon his personality as upon his numerous writings. He represents a mode of thought evidently widespread at the time.
2. Works.-Philo is (1) an interpreter of Holy Scripture, (2) an apologist for Judaism. The earlier editions of his works contain a large number of individual treatises of which Eusebius (HE_ ii. 18) and Jerome (de Vir. Ill. 11)_ give a long list. But it has been shown by Schürer, Massebieau, and Cohn that they fall into two or three groups. The first and largest deals with the Pentateuch under three heads: a short interpretation, a long allegorical commentary, and an exposition in systematic order (the second and third of these may be called, with O. Holtzmann, a kind of Midrash and Mishna). The second consists of philosophical tractates in dialogue form, probably belonging to the earliest period of Philo’s literary activity.
The text of Philo’s works has come down to us in an extremely unsatisfactory condition, some tractates being specially unfortunate. As some treatises are known only from one MS_, others may still await discovery; about some we know nothing but the title; of others we have only fragments; some are preserved only in Armenian or in Latin. It is entirely due to the Christian Church that Philo’s works have been preserved. Cohn thinks he can prove that all our MSS_ go back to the famous library of Pamphilus at Caesarea, or rather to the work of the two presbyters Acacius and Euzoїus, who about a.d. 350 copied the papyrus rolls of this library into parchment books. This shows the importance of the indirect transmission by quotations in the works of early Church Fathers, as, e.g., Eusebius and Ambrosius, and by Catenae and Florilegia.
3. Religion.-‘Philo the Jew’-that is his main characteristic. He is a faithful, nay an enthusiastic, adherent of Judaism, both as a nation and as a religion. He is an apologist of Judaism, trying to convert the heathen or at least to destroy their prejudices. He is a Jew in his strict monotheism, his faith in God’s providence, and his high moral standard. As a Jew he is devoted to the Law and the Lawgiver. Most of his writings are given up to the glorification of the Law. Notwithstanding his allegorical interpretation, he firmly believes the biblical stories to be historically true; and he protests against the inference that the Law loses its claim to be observed in the letter once it is understood spiritually. Philo’s position does not differ much in this respect from that of the Palestinian Rabbis. He knows and uses their Halâkhâ as well as their Haggâdâ. One may prove from his writings a close affinity between the Hellenistic and Palestinian parts of Judaism.
On the other hand, Philo is a typical Jew of the Diaspora. He feels as a Greek. To him Greek is his mother tongue; his Bible is the Greek translation of the Pentateuch. We do not know whether he knew Hebrew, or, if so, how much. His Judaism is weakened and enlarged; it has lost its strictness and national narrowness. In the former respect it is notable how little attention Philo pays to the Temple at Jerusalem (he never mentions the temple at Leontopolis in Egypt); he is concerned with the cultus only in so far as it is prescribed in the Law; the true sacrifice is prayer. Still more surprising is his neglect of the national hope. The Messiah is mentioned only occasionally (de Praemiis et Paenis, xvi. 95 [8]2; cf. de Exsecr. viii. 164 [13]). His religion has lost its national limitation: it has become a universal reasonable religion.
But Philo’s religion has borrowed new features from Hellenism, as, e.g., the notion of mystery (i.e. a hidden wisdom to be revealed only to the initiated [13]2), and the mystical ecstatic visions. True, there are examples of this in Palestinian Judaism (e.g., the Merkaba, God’s chariot in Ezekiel; for visions of Paradise cf. 2 Corinthians 12:2; 2 Corinthians 12:4 and Baba Hagiga, xiv. 6), but these are exceptions; with Philo such things are the rule: all religion comes to perfection in the vision of God (Quis rer. div. her. sit, ed. Mangey, i. 508).
In de Vita Contemplativa Philo describes his own ideal; and it is of no consequence whether the ascetic circles there described really existed in Egypt or whether he is drawing an ideal picture. It is unnecessary and incorrect to thing that Christian monks are in view, as the Fathers did, who praised Philo as the oldest authority for Christian monasticism; modern critics do the same even when they deny Philo’s authorship of the treatise. From the existence of Essenes in Eastern Palestine known to Philo himself (Quod omnis probus liber and Apologia pro Judaeis [15]) we may infer how many possibilities there were in Judaism at this period.
4. Philosophy.-Philo was no prophet; he is interested not so much in religion as in philosophy. Philo the Jew has a place among the Greek philosophers. To be sure, he is not an original thinker. He belongs to the eclectics, deriving his notions from all the different schools and combining them. Sometimes, indeed, he does not go direct to the primitive sources but to selections._ The way, however, in which he combines Platonic, Pythagorean, Stoic, Aristotelian, and Sceptic elements is very significant-significant also for contemporary philosophy. Some elements Philo Probably found already combined by Posidonius of Apamea, the leader of later Stoicism. In whose philosophy the religious element is very prominent. The characteristic feature with Philo is the combination with Jewish religion: as this rests on revelation, a certain character of authority alien to ancient philosophy is impressed upon Philo’s speculations.
From Plato, whom he mentions next to Moses and with nearly equal reverence, Philo borrows the doctrine of the Ideas, combining them, however, with the Stoic doctrine of the Logos and the logoi, and clothing it in the form of the biblical doctrines of Wisdom and of angels (it is still disputed whether in this late Jewish theory, as well as in the Stoic theory, there is a reminiscence of polytheism, ancient gods being turned into divine attributes, or only a poetical mode of personification._ Platonic is the dualistic view of the world: spirit being strictly opposed to matter. With Philo, besides the one transcendental God, who rules over all without mixing in it, there stands a second Divine Being, the Logos, sometimes viewed as God’s plan of the world, but more frequently as a personal creative being: he calls it a second God, God’s firstborn son, or archangel, begotten, produced, created by God. This Logos is the maker of the world (Demiurge) and at the same time its preserver: He forms the cosmos by dividing, and sustains it by keeping it together. He is the mediator between God and man: revealing God to man, and protecting man against God through priestly intercession-a true paraclete. He guards and governs man, being the norm of his ethical behaviour. In this way the Logos is pre-eminent in all departments of philosophy and human life. From the Logos come the individual logoi, or Ideas or Angels. Entering the material world and forming it, they produce: the visible cosmos. Matter is not created: it is eternal in the shape of an unformed substance (chaos). Creation means form-giving (cosmos).
From the Pythagoreans comes the symbolism of numbers, which finds ample support in the Pentateuch. God has ordered everything according to measure, number, and weight, as already in Wisdom of Solomon 11:20. The monas (one) is the divine number, the dyas (two) the number of creature and of sin; the trias (three) is the number of the body; tetras (four) and dekas (ten) mean perfection, possible and real (10=1+2+3+4); five signifies senses, sensuality; there is no end of speculation on seven.
From the Sceptics Philo borrows the criticism of sense perception; their doubts at the same time are helpful for refuting Stoic fatalism, which is incompatible with the Jewish faith in God.
In ethics Philo accepts the doctrine of the four main virtues as proposed by Plato, and the Stoic principle of life according to nature; he discovers both in the Mosaic Law, which represents to him the true reasonable morality. But his religion inclines him towards asceticism: the ideal man is created sexless; sin arises when unity is split into male and female.
Complicated as this system may seem owing to its eclectic character, it appears to its author as a unity. And it is this unity which Philo finds represented in his Bible, i.e. in the Pentateuch, compared with which the books of the prophets, Psalms, and other books are of but secondary importance.
5. Philo as interpreter.-The most important point to note in Philo is his method of reading the above system into the Law of Moses or the Pentateuch by means of allegorical interpretation. He did not invent this allegorical method: he borrowed it from the earlier Stoics; but he makes the most ingenious use of it. The Rabbis of Palestine were no less skilful in finding their own thoughts in the biblical text by means of their interpretations. But Philo’s allegory is of a different type. They try to extract from every word all that is possible; he has a complete philosophical system ready for combination with whatever words he is explaining. With the Rabbis one never knows what fresh and surprising combination will spring from their unlimited imagination. With Philo one can tell beforehand what result he will reach, if only one is familiar enough with his writings. It is, in fact, one and the same system all through; it is his philosophy, his doctrine of the Logos, that he finds everywhere; but the method of combination varies, and thus there is scope for ingenuity. Philo pays attention to every point in the text, even the smallest feature, and by skilful combination he always discovers fresh light. Long before Astruc he remarked the interchange of the two Divine names in the Law-‘God’ (θεὸς = Elohim) and ‘Lord’ (κύριος = Jahweh); he explains them as indicating the two main powers in God-goodness and might, the former creating and saving, the latter judging and punishing. He sees that there are two accounts of creation in Genesis 1:2 : he understands the first of the ideal man. The use of the plural in Genesis 1:26 proves that there is a Logos beside God; he is the likeness of God; and it is after this likeness that man is formed. It is the Logos along with the two main powers of God which together appear to Abraham as three angels. The Logos is represented by Melchizedek; the manna and the water from the rock both represent the Logos. The two powers of God are represented by the two cherubim. Paradise, ark, tabernacle are representations of the world. Man himself is microcosmus. It is by his identifications in connexion with the manifold significance of the Logos that Philo’s interpretation gains further variety by application to physical cosmology, to anthropological psychology, and to human ethics. This variety is not, however, thereby reduced to a system. By this method the Law is spiritualized, on the presupposition that nothing could be contained in it which would not be in harmony with the supreme thought of God. It would be unfair, according to Philo, to understand the laws regarding food literally, whereas, in the case of other laws, he tries to prove that even the literal meaning witnesses to practical wisdom, while the allegorical interpretation, brings out the true philosophy. Philo does not approve of the polygamy of the patriarchs-he would prefer celibacy!-so he declares the wives to represent something spiritual: Hagar general culture (ἐγκύκλιος παιδεία), Sarah true philosophy: the wise man must have intercourse with both. Etymology of names is of course indispensable for this method of interpretation: the beginnings of the Onomastica sacra may be found with Philo, who almost always gives ‘seeing God’ as the meaning of the name when he speaks of Israel, or ‘confession’ when he mentions Judah.
It is owing to this method of interpretation that Philo had such an astonishing vogue in later centuries: almost all Christian writers of the early and mediaeval Church followed in his footsteps, in particular the interpreters of the Alexandrian School, from the author of the so-called Epistle of Barnabas down to Cyril. There is but one difference: Christianity, while maintaining the underlying allegory, nevertheless insists upon the historicity of the facts; for it rests upon historical revelation. So Origen systematizes the various ways of applied interpretation, by means of the anthropological trichotomy: historical, moral, and mystical interpretation are combined in the Scripture as body, soul, and spirit are combined in man. Historical feeling, a prerogative of the Semitic race as compared with the Greeks, is still more predominant with the Antiochene School of interpretation: here typological interpretation is favoured. The result is another combination: the theory of the four-fold meaning of Holy Scripture. It was through Augustine that this theory entered the Western Church.
6. Philo’s significance for the Apostolic Age.-The Fathers esteemed Philo as a witness in favour of early Christian monasticism; besides, they used his doctrine of the Logos and his method of interpretation for their Christological constructions. His influence is undeniable, from the apologists of the 2nd cent. onwards. It is open to question, however, how far his influence extended in earlier Christianity, e.g. on St. Paul and St. John, and in particular on the author of Hebrews. Former generations of critics, e.g. Gfrörer and the Tübingen School, made the mistake of taking Philo as the one exponent of Hellenistic thought. They did not realize that he was neither the only nor the earliest representative of a Jewish Philosophy of religion. They did not know, nor could they, that non-Jewish Hellenism had produced something similar, and that it also influenced early Christianity independently. As for St. Paul, it is not Philo but at best his forerunner, the Book of Wisdom, that accounts for certain Hellenistic thoughts; but even this has not been proved (see, against, E. Grafe, ‘Das Verhältnis der paulinischen Schriften zur Sapientia Salomonis,’ in Theologische Abhandlungen, C. von Weizsäcker zu seinem 70ten Geburtstage gewidmet, Freiburg i. B., 1892, pp. 251-286; F. Focke, ‘Die Entstehung der Weisheit Salomos,’ in Forschungen zur Religion und Literatur des Alten und Neuen Testaments, new ser., v. [16] 113-126). Apollos, a certain Jew born at Alexandria, an eloquent man, mighty in the Scriptures (Acts 18:24), was not necessarily a pupil of Philo; there were other interpreters of the Scriptures at Alexandria besides him, as Philo himself mentions occasionally._ Hebrews after all shows more traces of Palestinian than of Alexandrian interpretation. In recent discussion the Corpus Hermeticum (or the writings collected under the name of Hermes Trismegistos) and Posidonius of A pamea are often referred to where scholars in former times would have referred to Philo. The prologue of the Fourth Gospel (John 1:1-18), treated for a long time by many scholars almost as a Philonean piece, is often interpreted now without any reference to Philo, by recurring immediately to the popular philosophy of the time. Thus Philo’s importance is becoming less and less prominent, even with those scholars who are prepared to find foreign influence active in primitive Christianity. Nevertheless, Philo will always be a good witness to the amalgamation of OT religion with Hellenistic thought. He is not a source of but a parallel to the same mixture in early Christianity; and it is certain that he prepared the soil for its seed.
Literature.-(1) Editions of Philo’s works: T. Mangey, 2 vols., London, 1742; L. Cohn and P. Wendland, Berlin, 1896 (in course of issue, 6 vols.; 2 or 3 more to follow); C. E. Richter, 8 vols., Leipzig, 1823-30; Tauchnitz ed., 8 vols., do., 1851-53; J. R. Harris, Fragments of Philo Judaeus, Cambridge, 1886; P. Wendland, Neuentdeckte Fragmente Philos, Berlin, 1891; F. C. Conybeare, Philo about the Contemplative Life, Oxford, 1895; Germ. tr._ by L. Cohn and others, 2 vols., Breslau, 1909-10; Eng. tr._ by C. D. Yonge, 4 vols., London, 1854-55.
(2) G. L. Grossmann, Quaestiones Philoneae, Leipzig, 1829; A. Gfrörer, Philo und die alexandrinische Theosophie2, Stuttgart, 1831-35 (= Kritische Geschichte des Urchristentums, i.); C. Siegfried, Philo von Alexandria als Ausleger des Alten Testaments, Jena, 1875; H. Windisch, Die Frömmigkeit Philos und ihre Bedeutung für das Christentum, Leipzig, 1909; J. Réville, Le Logos d’après Philon d’Alexandrie, Paris, 1877, La doctrine du Logos dans le quatrième Evangile et dans les aeuvres de Philon, do., 1881; M. Heinze, Die Lehre vom Logos, Leipzig, 1872; A. Aall, Der Logos, do., 1896-99; T. Simon, Der Logos, do., 1902; H. J. Flipse, de Vocis quCE est Λόγος significatione atque usu, Leiden, 1902; L. Cohn ‘Die Lehre vom Logos bei Philo,’ in Festschrift Cohen (Judaica, Berlin, 1912, pp. 303-331); E. Bréhier, Les idées philosophiques et religieuses de Philon d’Alexandrie, Paris, 1907; M. Freudenthal, Die Erkenntnislehre Philos von Alexandria, Berlin, 1891; L. Massebieau, Le classement des aeuvres de Philon, Paris, 1889; L. Cohn, ‘Einteilung und Chronologie der Schriften Philos’ (Philologus, Suppl. vii.), Leipzig, 1899; H. von Arnim, Quellenstudien zu Philo von Alexandria, Berlin, 1888; B. Ritter, Philo und die Halacha, Leipzig, 1879; P. Krüger, Philo und Josephus als Apologeten des Judentums, do., 1906; P. Heinisch, ‘Der Einfluss Philos auf die älteste christliche Exegese,’ Alttestamentliche Abhandlungen, Münster, 1908; E. Schürer, GJV_ iii.4 [13]7 633-716; W. Bousset, Die Religion des Judentums2, Berlin, 1906, pp. 503-524.
E. von Dobschütz.

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Philadelphia - (Revelation 3:7) The name is taken from the Greek, and is compounded of Philo, to love; and Adelphos, a brother
Philo - Philo of Alexandria, the Jew, a contemporary of the apostles, was so highly esteemed by early Christian theologians as to be counted among the Christian authors (Jerome, de Vir. -About the life of Philo we have only very scanty information; apart from occasional remarks in his own writings (in particular in Flaccum and de Virtut. ...
Philo belonged to one of the noblest and wealthiest Jewish families of Alexandria. Philo had had the usual training of a Greek boy of good family: he had studied grammar, mathematics, music, and rhetoric; he had acquired a good knowledge of Greek literature and obtained a fairly profound Philosophical education. In consequence of the anti-Semitic riots at Alexandria under Flaccus, Philo, as the leader of a Jewish embassy, went to Rome to see the Emperor Caligula. 8 one might infer that Philo remained at Rome until the time of Claudius (Jerome thinks rather of a second voyage), and that under the new régime Philo was honoured by the Senate, while his works, (in particular in Flaccum and de Legatione ad Gaium) found a place in the public library. That Philo, while at Rome, met the apostle Peter (ib. The papyri report, in the time of Claudius, a hearing of the Alexandrian anti-Semites against King Agrippa, but do not mention Philo. ...
Philo’s significance does not rest so much upon his personality as upon his numerous writings. -Philo is (1) an interpreter of Holy Scripture, (2) an apologist for Judaism. The second consists of Philosophical tractates in dialogue form, probably belonging to the earliest period of Philo’s literary activity. ...
The text of Philo’s works has come down to us in an extremely unsatisfactory condition, some tractates being specially unfortunate. It is entirely due to the Christian Church that Philo’s works have been preserved. -‘Philo the Jew’-that is his main characteristic. Philo’s position does not differ much in this respect from that of the Palestinian Rabbis. ...
On the other hand, Philo is a typical Jew of the Diaspora. In the former respect it is notable how little attention Philo pays to the Temple at Jerusalem (he never mentions the temple at Leontopolis in Egypt); he is concerned with the cultus only in so far as it is prescribed in the Law; the true sacrifice is prayer. ...
But Philo’s religion has borrowed new features from Hellenism, as, e. a hidden wisdom to be revealed only to the initiated [14]), and the mystical ecstatic visions. 6), but these are exceptions; with Philo such things are the rule: all religion comes to perfection in the vision of God (Quis rer. ...
In de Vita Contemplativa Philo describes his own ideal; and it is of no consequence whether the ascetic circles there described really existed in Egypt or whether he is drawing an ideal picture. It is unnecessary and incorrect to thing that Christian monks are in view, as the Fathers did, who praised Philo as the oldest authority for Christian monasticism; modern critics do the same even when they deny Philo’s authorship of the treatise. From the existence of Essenes in Eastern Palestine known to Philo himself (Quod omnis probus liber and Apologia pro Judaeis
From Plato, whom he mentions next to Moses and with nearly equal reverence, Philo borrows the doctrine of the Ideas, combining them, however, with the Stoic doctrine of the Logos and the logoi, and clothing it in the form of the biblical doctrines of Wisdom and of angels (it is still disputed whether in this late Jewish theory, as well as in the Stoic theory, there is a reminiscence of polytheism, ancient gods being turned into divine attributes, or only a poetical mode of personification. With Philo, besides the one transcendental God, who rules over all without mixing in it, there stands a second Divine Being, the Logos, sometimes viewed as God’s plan of the world, but more frequently as a personal creative being: he calls it a second God, God’s firstborn son, or archangel, begotten, produced, created by God. In this way the Logos is pre-eminent in all departments of Philosophy and human life. ...
From the Sceptics Philo borrows the criticism of sense perception; their doubts at the same time are helpful for refuting Stoic fatalism, which is incompatible with the Jewish faith in God. ...
In ethics Philo accepts the doctrine of the four main virtues as proposed by Plato, and the Stoic principle of life according to nature; he discovers both in the Mosaic Law, which represents to him the true reasonable morality. And it is this unity which Philo finds represented in his Bible, i. Philo as interpreter. -The most important point to note in Philo is his method of reading the above system into the Law of Moses or the Pentateuch by means of allegorical interpretation. But Philo’s allegory is of a different type. They try to extract from every word all that is possible; he has a complete Philosophical system ready for combination with whatever words he is explaining. With Philo one can tell beforehand what result he will reach, if only one is familiar enough with his writings. It is, in fact, one and the same system all through; it is his Philosophy, his doctrine of the Logos, that he finds everywhere; but the method of combination varies, and thus there is scope for ingenuity. Philo pays attention to every point in the text, even the smallest feature, and by skilful combination he always discovers fresh light. It is by his identifications in connexion with the manifold significance of the Logos that Philo’s interpretation gains further variety by application to physical cosmology, to anthropological psychology, and to human ethics. It would be unfair, according to Philo, to understand the laws regarding food literally, whereas, in the case of other laws, he tries to prove that even the literal meaning witnesses to practical wisdom, while the allegorical interpretation, brings out the true Philosophy. Philo does not approve of the polygamy of the patriarchs-he would prefer celibacy!-so he declares the wives to represent something spiritual: Hagar general culture (ἐγκύκλιος παιδεία), Sarah true Philosophy: the wise man must have intercourse with both. Etymology of names is of course indispensable for this method of interpretation: the beginnings of the Onomastica sacra may be found with Philo, who almost always gives ‘seeing God’ as the meaning of the name when he speaks of Israel, or ‘confession’ when he mentions Judah. ...
It is owing to this method of interpretation that Philo had such an astonishing vogue in later centuries: almost all Christian writers of the early and mediaeval Church followed in his footsteps, in particular the interpreters of the Alexandrian School, from the author of the so-called Epistle of Barnabas down to Cyril. Philo’s significance for the Apostolic Age. -The Fathers esteemed Philo as a witness in favour of early Christian monasticism; besides, they used his doctrine of the Logos and his method of interpretation for their Christological constructions. Gfrörer and the Tübingen School, made the mistake of taking Philo as the one exponent of Hellenistic thought. They did not realize that he was neither the only nor the earliest representative of a Jewish Philosophy of religion. Paul, it is not Philo but at best his forerunner, the Book of Wisdom, that accounts for certain Hellenistic thoughts; but even this has not been proved (see, against, E. Apollos, a certain Jew born at Alexandria, an eloquent man, mighty in the Scriptures (
Acts 18:24), was not necessarily a pupil of Philo; there were other interpreters of the Scriptures at Alexandria besides him, as Philo himself mentions occasionally. In recent discussion the Corpus Hermeticum (or the writings collected under the name of Hermes Trismegistos) and Posidonius of A pamea are often referred to where scholars in former times would have referred to Philo. The prologue of the Fourth Gospel (John 1:1-18), treated for a long time by many scholars almost as a Philonean piece, is often interpreted now without any reference to Philo, by recurring immediately to the popular Philosophy of the time. Thus Philo’s importance is becoming less and less prominent, even with those scholars who are prepared to find foreign influence active in primitive Christianity. Nevertheless, Philo will always be a good witness to the amalgamation of OT religion with Hellenistic thought. -(1) Editions of Philo’s works: T. Harris, Fragments of Philo Judaeus, Cambridge, 1886; P. Wendland, Neuentdeckte Fragmente Philos, Berlin, 1891; F. Conybeare, Philo about the Contemplative Life, Oxford, 1895; Germ. Grossmann, Quaestiones Philoneae, Leipzig, 1829; A. Gfrörer, Philo und die alexandrinische Theosophie2, Stuttgart, 1831-35 (= Kritische Geschichte des Urchristentums, i. Siegfried, Philo von Alexandria als Ausleger des Alten Testaments, Jena, 1875; H. Windisch, Die Frömmigkeit Philos und ihre Bedeutung für das Christentum, Leipzig, 1909; J. Réville, Le Logos d’après Philon d’Alexandrie, Paris, 1877, La doctrine du Logos dans le quatrième Evangile et dans les aeuvres de Philon, do. Cohn ‘Die Lehre vom Logos bei Philo,’ in Festschrift Cohen (Judaica, Berlin, 1912, pp. Bréhier, Les idées Philosophiques et religieuses de Philon d’Alexandrie, Paris, 1907; M. Freudenthal, Die Erkenntnislehre Philos von Alexandria, Berlin, 1891; L. Massebieau, Le classement des aeuvres de Philon, Paris, 1889; L. Cohn, ‘Einteilung und Chronologie der Schriften Philos’ (Philologus, Suppl. von Arnim, Quellenstudien zu Philo von Alexandria, Berlin, 1888; B. Ritter, Philo und die Halacha, Leipzig, 1879; P. Krüger, Philo und Josephus als Apologeten des Judentums, do. Heinisch, ‘Der Einfluss Philos auf die älteste christliche Exegese,’ Alttestamentliche Abhandlungen, Münster, 1908; E
Therapeutae - They are described in a work attributed to Philo, the genuineness and credibility of which are now much discredited
Wisdom Literature - The "wisdom" (Hokhmah) of these writings consists in detached sage utterances on concrete issues of life, without the effort at Philosophical system that appeared in the later Hellenistic reflective writing beginning with Philo Judaeus
Philo Judaeus - Also known as Philo of Alexandria, he lived about the same time as Jesus (about 20 B. ...
Philo's writings—particularly his commentaries on the Scriptures—influenced the early church
Essenes - The chief sources of their history are: Philo (Quod omnia probus liber, II); Pliny the Elder (Historia Naturalis, V); and Flavius Josephus (Jewish War, II, V; Antiquities, XIII, XV, XVII, XVIII). Philo and Josephus estimate the number of the Essenes at 4,000
Bible Commentaries - Among the Jewish are Philo, the Targums, Mishna and Talmuds, Midrashim, and Karaites
Libertines - 18:3, section 5; Philo Legat
Quaternion - Philo, in Flaccum, 13; Polyb
Love - When our Lord says, "Lovest thou me?" he uses the Greek word Agapas ; And when Simon answers, he uses the Greek word Philo , I. Philo) in its room
Lice - ) Mosquitoes, troublesome in Egypt toward October, soon after the plague of frogs, not only giving pain, but entering the body through the nostrils and ears; so Septuagint, Philo, and Origen
Alexandrians - Of the five quarters (μοῖραι) of the city, named after the first five letters of the alphabet, two were called ‘Jewish’ (Ἰουδαϊκαὶ λέγονται [4]), and none of them were without their house of prayer (Philo, Leg. He ordered 38 archons to be scourged in the theatre, and turned the Jewish quarters into scenes of daily carnage (Philo, in Flac. 90) one could still see standing in Alexandria ‘the pillar containing the privileges which the great Caesar (Julius) bestowed upon the Jews’ (τὴν στήλην … τὰ δικαιώματα περιέχουσαν ἃ Καῖσαρ ὁ μέγας τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις ἔδωκεν Wisdom - Jerom observes justly that it smells strong of the Grecian eloquence: that it is composed with art and method, after the manner of the Greek Philosophers, very different from that noble simplicity so full of life and energy to be found in the Hebrew books. It has been ascribed by many of the ancients to Philo
Essenes - From the account given of the doctrines and institutions of this sect by Philo and Josephus, we learn that they believed in the immortality of the soul; that they were absolute predestinarians; that they observed the seventh day with peculiar strictness; that they held the Scriptures in the highest reverence, but considered them as mystic writings, and expounded them allegorically; that they sent gifts to the temple, but offered no sacrifices; that they admitted no one into their society till after a probation of three years; that they lived in a state of perfect equality, except that they paid respect to the aged, and to their priests; that they considered all secular employment as unlawful, except that of agriculture; that they had all things in common, and were industrious, quiet, and free from every species of vice; that they held celibacy and solitude in high esteem; that they allowed no change of raiment till necessity required it; that they abstained from wine; that they were not permitted to eat but with their own sect; and that a certain portion of food was allotted to each person, of which they partook together, after solemn ablutions. But it is evident, from the accounts of Josephus and Philo, that the Essenes were not Christians, but Jews. According to the portraiture of them, given by Philo, the Alexandrian, in his separate treatise concerning the "True Freedom of the Virtuous," we should take the Essenes for men of an entirely practical religious turn, far removed from all theosophy and all idle speculation; and we should ascribe to them an inward religious habit of mind, free from all mixture of superstition and reliance on outward things. But the account of Philo does not at all accord with that of Josephus; and the more historical Josephus deserves in general more credit than Philo, who was too apt to indulge in Philosophizing and idealism. Beside, Josephus had more opportunity of knowing this sect thoroughly, than Philo; for Philo lived in Egypt, and the Essenes did not extend beyond Palestine. Josephus, also, shows himself completely unprejudiced in this description; while Philo, on the contrary, wished to represent the Essenes to the more cultivated Greeks as models of practical wisdom, and, therefore, he allowed himself to represent much, not as it really was, but as it suited his purpose. And, indeed, Philo himself makes it probable, when he says, that they employed themselves with a φιλοσφια δια συμβολων , a Philosophy which was supported by an allegorical interpretation of Scripture, for this kind of allegorizing interpretation was usually the accompaniment of a certain speculative system. According to Philo, they rejected the sacrifice of victims, because they considered, that to consecrate and offer up themselves wholly to God, was the only true sacrifice, the only sacrifice worthy of God
Jerubbaal - Philo of Bybhs, in his revision of Sanehoniatho, calls him Hierombal, priest of Jeue, or Jahve, or Jehovah
Love - John 21:15, "Simon, lovest (agapas , esteemest) thou Me?" Αgapas sounds too cold to Peter, now burning with love; so he replies, "Thou knowest that I LOVE (philo ) Thee
Rabbinism - Philo was of this contingent
Cainan - Nor had even the Septuagint originally, according to Berosus, Polyhistor, Josephus, Philo, Theophilus of Antioch, Origen, Eusebius, Jerome
Hymn - The Psalms are called, in general, "hymns," by Philo; Josephus calls them "songs and hymns
Logos - ...
(2) Some have held that John’s Logos doctrine was derived entirely from the Judœo-Alexandrian Philosophy , and specifically from the teaching of Philo. To this Logos Philosophy Plato’s doctrine of ideas had contributed, and afterwards the Stoic view of the Logos as the rational principle of the universe. In his efforts to blend Judaism with Hellenism, Philo adopted the term as one familiar alike to Jews and to Greeks, and sought to show by means of allegorical interpretations that the true Philosophy of God and the world was revealed in the OT. John, it is supposed, simply appropriated this teaching, and by means of an idealizing treatment of Christ’s life constructed in his Gospel a Philosophical treatise on the doctrine of Philo. To Philo the Logos was the principle of Reason; to St. Philo’s Logos is not really personal; St. Philo does not identify the Logos with the Messiah; to St. Philo sees in the flesh a principle opposed to the Godhead; St. With Philo the antithesis between God and the world is a metaphysical one; with St. John cannot, then, have derived his doctrine of the Logos from Philo. But he undoubtedly used the term because Philo had made it familiar to Græco-Jewish thought as a means of expressing the idea of a mediation between God and the universe, and also because he himself had received certain formal influences from the Philonic Philosophy (see, e. More and more it becomes impossible for the careful student of this book to treat it as a Philosophical romance in which a purely idealizing treatment is given to the figure of Jesus; more and more the substantial historical truth of the presentation becomes evident. If an injustice is done him when his doctrine of the Logos is supposed to be nothing more than the fruitage of his study of Philo, another injustice is committed when it is assumed that he is setting forth here either a metaphysic of the Divine nature or a Philosophy of the Incarnation
Allegory - ...
Background Allegory arose from the Cynic and Stoic Philosophies of the Hellenistic period (fourth to second centuries B. In the Greek world allegory was used primarily to interpret the Homeric myths and to preserve some moral and Philosophical truths from them. Philo, who died about A. Philo sought to preserve Old Testament traditions against Greek perspectives in science and Philosophy. ...
New Testament New Testament writers have more in common with the approaches of Palestinian Jewish interpreters of the Old Testament than with Hellenistic interpreters like Philo
Barbarian - Even the Romans called themselves Barbarians till Greek literature came to be naturalized in Rome; and both Philo and Josephus regard the Jews and their tongue as barbarous. (3) In the statement (Romans 1:14), ‘I am a debtor both to Greeks and to barbarian,’ St Paul uses the common conventional division of mankind; and, like Philo and Josephus, classes the Jews among the Barbarians
Logos - It had come to him through Philo after its final elaboration in Greek Philosophy. From the obscure fragments of this Philosopher that have come down to us we gather that he was chiefly interested in accounting for the aesthetic order of the visible universe. Their work was of profound significance for the after history of Logos speculation, but belongs itself to a different Philosophical movement. The Stoic Philosophy not only furnished the general conception of the Logos to later thinkers, but also emphasized the distinction which became of prime importance in the later development. Philo appropriates the main Stoic conception, but combines it with other elements borrowed eclectically from previous systems of thought. Philo’s grand innovation, however, is to press the Logos theory into the service of a theology derived from the OT. The actual hypostatizing of the Word in the doctrine of the Memra was subsequent to the time of Philo, but it was the outcome of a mode of thinking already prevalent in Jewish theology. It was natural for Philo, with his Hellenic and Philosophical culture, to advance a step further and identify the Word of the OT with the Stoic λόγος. ...
The Logos of Philo requires to be understood in the light of this double descent from Greek and OT thought. To Philo, on the other hand, the idea of reason is combined with that of the outgoing of Divine power. This difference between Philo and the Greek thinkers is connected with another and still more vital one. Philo could not content himself with this notion of an absolute Logos. To this clashing of the primary Greek conception with the demands of Hebrew monotheism, we may largely attribute one of the most perplexing peculiarities of the Philonic doctrine. There can be little doubt that Philo, who never ceased to be an orthodox Jew, had no intention of maintaining the existence of two Divine agents; and the passages in which he appears to detach and personify the Logos must be explained mainly in a figurative sense. The Fourth Gospel sets out from a conception of the Logos which to all appearance is closely similar to that of Philo. In the Prologue the main features of the Philonic doctrine are reproduced one by one;—the eternal existence of the Word, its Divine character (ἦν θεός), its relation to God as towards Him, and yet distinct (πρὸς τὸν θεόν), its creative activity, its function in the illumination and deliverance of men. We can thus infer that the conception of Philo had already naturalized itself in Christian thought, but there is reason to believe that the author of the Gospel was acquainted more or less directly with the Philonic writings and consciously derived from them. ]'>[1] ...
To what extent does the Logos idea of Philo change its character as it assimilates itself to the theology of the Gospel? Before an answer can be offered to this question, it is necessary to consider a preliminary difficulty with which Johannine criticism has been largely occupied since the appearance of Harnack’s famous pamphlet. ]'>[2] Is the Prologue to be regarded as an integral portion of the Gospel, or is it, as Harnack contends, a mere preface written to conciliate the interest of a Philosophical public? The idea of Christ as the Divine Logos is nowhere resumed in the body of the Gospel. John therefore accepts the Philonic conception in order to assimilate it to his account of a historical Person, through whom the Word declared itself under the conditions of human life. We have seen that Philo, partly in imaginative fashion, partly because of the composite origin of his thought, attributes a semi-independence to the Logos. This prepared the way for a complete personification; but Philo himself thinks only of a Divine principle, the creative reason of God. (2) The creative activity of the Logos, which in Philo is central and all-determining, falls into the background. The Gospel, in point of fact, knows nothing of the absolute transcendence of God, which Philo’s whole theory is designed to mitigate. (3) In the Gospel, much more emphatically than in Philo, the term λόγος denotes Word as well as Reason. The Greek Philosophical meaning is, indeed, discarded, or retained only as a faintly colouring element. ...
Thus, in accepting the Philonic idea, St. John does not commit himself to the precise interpretation that Philo placed on it; on the contrary, whether consciously or not, he departs from the characteristic lines of Philo’s thinking. The Jesus who had appeared in history was identified with the Logos of Philosophy, and this identification involved an entirely new reading of His Person and life. In so far as the Fourth Evangelist has subordinated his conception of Christ to a Philosophical speculation, we cannot but feel that he defeats his own purpose. With the help of the categories which it henceforth borrowed from Greek Philosophy, it was enabled in many ways to convey its message more clearly and adequately. It is evident that, while the Evangelist ostensibly sets out from a Philosophical theory, he derives in reality from a religious experience. It represents the attempt to interpret, in terms of an inadequate Philosophy, a truth which has been grasped by faith. Philosophie (1872); Drummond, Philo Judœus; J. et dans les œuvres de Philon (1881); Grill, Untersuchungen über die Entstchung des vierten Evang
Synagogue, the Great - The absence of any historical mention of such a body, not only in the Old Testament and the Apocrypha, but in Josephus, Philo, etc
Nisroch - Philo Bybl
Second Death - Philo uses the term to refer to all miseries arising from sin causing physical death followed by hopelessness in the afterlife (Rewards and Punishments 2
Galilaean - Philo, Leg
Magi - Philo describes the magi as "men who gave themselves to the study of nature and contemplation of the divine perfections, worthy of being the counsellors of kings
Proseuche - The word is found in 3 Maccabees 7:20; Philo, in Flacc
Immanence - In Philosophy it expresses the identity of the originating and causal principle, involved in the genesis of the universe, with the universe itself in its progressive history. A correct theistic Philosophy gives a place to each of these principles in its exposition of the relations of God to the universe. ...
In the later Platonic Philosophy of the School of Alexandria the principle of the λόγος, especially in the hands of Philo the Jew, also suggests the idea of immanence. Philo perhaps borrowed the term from the Wisdom literature, where it was used in the sense of σοφια or ratio, and applied to denote what Plato had called ἱδέαι. ...
In modern Philosophy the dictum of Malebranche, that we know things truly only when we see them in relation to God, and the monadology of Leibnitz, according to which a vital principle is supposed to lie at the heart of all things, both involve the idea of immanence. The absolute idealism of the Hegelian type of Philosophy and the Hindu theosophy both make so much of the immanence of the Deity that His transcendence is quite obscured. In the Philosophy of our own time there is a tendency towards a fuller recognition of the immanence of God, and this tendency is affecting theology in a wholesome way. The result is a sound theistic Philosophy, as the basis for a more vital theology. John borrowed many of his ideas, especially that of the λόγος, from the Platonic Philosophy, as represented by Philo of Alexandria, who combined some OT ideas with the Philosophy of Plato. John and that of Philo which entirely exclude the supposition that St. The fact that he makes no allusion to Philo or to Alexandria, but rather assumes that he gathered his ideas from the teaching of Jesus, fully justifies thus view. Care is needed here not to give too much of the colour of the Alexandrian Philosophy to the teaching of the Fourth Gospel upon this point. —Plato, Phaedrus; Philo, de Opif
Wisdom, the, of Solomon, - --The theological teaching of the book offers, in many respects, the nearest approach to the language and doctrines of Greek Philosophy that is found in any Jewish writing up to the time of Philo. --From internal evidence it seems most reasonable to believe that the work was composed in Greek at Alexandria some time before the time of Philo-about 120-80 B
Scripture - Philo also accepted plenary inspiration, finding his freedom from the bondage of the letter in allegorical interpretations. ...
Unlike the Jerusalem Rabbis, in this respect followed by most of the NT writers, who quote the various OT authors by name, Philo quotes Scripture as the immediate word of God, and in so doing is followed by the author of Hebrews. God) saith’ ( Hebrews 1:7 ), ‘the Holy Ghost saith’ ( Hebrews 3:7 ), or, more indefinitely, ‘it is said’ ( Hebrews 3:15 ), which is quite in the manner of Philo
Aristeas - 200; Herriot (on Philo) dates it 170–150; Wellhausen (Isr. Cohn doubts whether it was known to Philo; Graetz placed it in the reign of Tiberius, and Willrich (Judaica, 1900, pp. ’ Philo seems to follow a somewhat different tradition, and mentions that in his days the Jews of Alexandria kept an annual festival in honour of the spot where the light of this translation first shone forth, thanking God for an old but ever new benefit. He is sure that God heard the prayer of the translators ‘that the greater part of mankind, or even the whole of it, may profit by their work, when men shall use Philosophical and excellent ordinances for regulating their lives
Libya - Philo bears testimony to their diffusion in his time ‘from the Katabathmos of Libya (ἀπὸ τοῦ πρὸς Λιβύην καταβαθμοῦ) to the borders of Ethiopia’ (in Flaccum, 6)
Pre-Existence of Souls - , Philo, a believer in the same doctrine, was conspicuously) by Platonist study; ( b ) the reference of Josephus to Essene doctrines; ( c ) the Talmud
Therapeutae - Some have imagined them to have been Judaizing Gentiles; but Philo supposes them to be Jews, by speaking of them as a branch of the sect of Essenes, and expressly classes them among the followers of Moses. But this is impossible; for Philo, who wrote before Christianity appeared in Egypt, speaks of this as an established sect. From comparing Philo's account of this sect with the state of Philosophy in the country where it flourished, it seems likely that the Therapeutae were a body of Jewish fanatics, who suffered themselves to be drawn aside from the simplicity of their ancient religion by the example of the Egyptians and Pythagoreans
Allegory - They aimed especially at showing that the Jews’ sacred books, when properly interpreted, contained all the wisdom of Greek Philosophy. This interest flourished chiefly in Alexandria, and found its foremost representative in Philo (q. They were less ready than Philo to abandon the primary meaning of Scripture, but they freely employed allegorical devices, particularly in the Haggadic midrâshîm
Genealogies - This genealogical matter is found in Hebrew and in Greek, and appears in both Philo and Josephus. 137) there was combined the doctrine of aeons of the Jewish Philosopher Philo-the incipient Gnosticism of the Colossian heresy. This so-called Gnosticism may be traced through Philo, the Book of Wisdom, and Sirach, ‘back to the Persian speculations with which the Jews became familiar during the Captivity’ (Dods, Introd. Without raising the question of authorship, one may feel, on general considerations, that, in the interests of the Church, the question was a vital one-should Christianity be allowed to degenerate into a blend of Mosaism and Gentile Philosophy or theosophy? Even in religious controversy, rank growths are not to be eradicated with a pair of tweezers
Apochrypha - None of the writers of the New Testament mention them; neither Philo nor Josephus speak of them
Apocrypha - Josephus and Philo, of the first century, exclude them from the canon
Proseuchae - That the Jews had houses, or places for prayer, called προσευχαι , appears from a variety of passages in Philo; and, particularly in his oration against Flaccus, he complains that their προσευχαι were pulled down, and there was no place left in which they might worship God and pray for Caesar
Synagogue - בֵּית חַכְּנֶסֶת, ‘the house of the congregation’ (Mishna throughout); so Philo, ed. Often προσευχή is used for οἶκος προσευχῆς, ‘house of prayer’ (Septuagint to Isaiah 56:7; Isaiah 60:7; Philo, ed. Vita, 54; Acts 16:13), for προσευκτήριον (Philo, ed. The ancients ascribed it to Moses (Philo, ed. on Exodus 9:29; Philo, ed. As Philo (ed. The large Jewish population had many synagogues in the different quarters of the city (Philo, ed. In Rome there were quite a number of synagogues at the time of Augustus (Philo, ed. Philo, ed. But what Philo tells of the Therapeutes, that ‘they prayed each morning and evening for the light of heaven’ (ed
John - These two sentences out of John contain far more Philosophy; far more grace, and truth, and beauty, and love; than all the rest that has ever been written by pen of man, or spoken by tongue of man or angel. Philo also has whole volumes about the Logos. But the Logos in Philo, in Newman's words, is but a "notion": a noble notion, indeed, but still a cold, a bare, and an inoperative notion. I have heard of him by the hearing of the ear, said Philo. We pray sometimes, or we pretend to pray; but do we ever set ourselves to prepare our hearts for the mercy-seat by strenuous meditation on who and what we are; on who and what He is to whom we pretend to pray; and on what it is we are to say, and do, and ask, and receive? We may never have heard of Philo, but we all belong to his barren school
Alexan'Dria, - Philo estimated the number of the Alexandrine Jews in his time at a little less than 1,000,000 and adds that two of the five districts of Alexandria were called "Jewish districts," and that many Jews lived scattered in the remaining three
Quail - The Septuagint, Symmachus, and most of commentators, both ancient and modern, understand it in the same manner; and with them agree Philo, Josephus, Apollinaris, and the rabbins; but Ludolphus has endeavoured to prove that a species of locust is spoken of by Moses
Principles - (ἀρχή, Hebrews 5:12; Hebrews 6:1)...
In Greek Philosophy ἀρχή is an element or first principle-that by which anything begins to be. ’ Perhaps in Hebrews 5:13-14 we have a case of one Alexandrian echoing another, for Philo says (de Agric
Logos - ...
Among the Greek Philosophers, especially the Stoics, logos came to mean the rational principle that gave order to the cosmos. Philo of Alexandria used this concept in his efforts to interpret Jewish religion for those versed in Greek Philosophy. In Philo's writings, logos was the mediating agency by which God created the world and by which revelation comes to God's people. ...
John was probably dependent upon the developments in the use of logos that are evident in Jewish wisdom speculation and in Philo's writings, but John's distinctive contribution was the adoption of this concept to illuminate the identity and role of Jesus more fully. The Gospel of John declares that the logos of whom the Philosophers and sages spoke had come in human form in Jesus of Nazareth. See Christ, Christology ; Creation ; Philo Judaeus ; Prophets; Wisdom
Essenes - ); (2) Philo (Quod omnis probus liber, 12, 13); (3) Philonic fragment in Eusebius (Prœp. , Synesius); Essaioi (Philo, Hegesippus, Porphyry, Joshua 6 times); and in varying forms in Epiphanius-Ossaioi, Ossenoi, Iessaioi, For a discussion of various etymologies see Lightfoot (Colossians, 1875, p. ; Philo in Euseb. 2, 5, 6; Philo in Euseb, Prœp. We have stated Pliny’s view above; Philo knew of them in many towns and villages of Judaea ; Josephus knew them all through Palestine. They may be called ‘the Gnostics of Judaism,’ Their fondness for speculation on cosmogony, their allegorizing of the GT, of which Philo speaks, their dualistic views, which involve a depreciation of matter, their magic and their esoteric books-all connect them with Gnosticism
Tribute - )...
Collected both before and after the Babylonian captivity (2 Kings 12:4; 2 Chronicles 24:9) from all Jews wherever sojourning (Josephus 18:9, section 1; Philo Groaning - Philo’s Logos, identified with the archangel, etc. Drummond, Philo Judœus, 1888, ii
Essenes (2) - 9) and Philo (Quod omnis probus liber, chs. ...
Josephus introduces the Essenes as one of the three ‘sects of Philosophy’ which were influential amongst the Jews, the others being the Sadducees and the Pharisees; but from the descriptions given of their practices and organization, they seem to have corresponded more closely to a monastic order than to a sect or a religious party. 5) and Philo at 4000; and while there is no evidence of their existence as an order outside Palestine, within its area they were widely distributed, being found in a great many of the villages and small towns, as well as in Jerusalem, where there was a ‘Gate of the Essenes
Most High - At the same time there is the possibility that the title Elyon came originally from the Phœnicians: Philo of Byblus (quoted by Driver, Genesis , p
Murder - In the Scripture view an outrage or sacrilege (Philo, Spec
Bithynia - ...
The presence of Jews in Bithynia is indicated by Philo (Leg
Mercy-Seat - ’ Wherever the word is used by Philo (de Vit
Euphrates - ...
Thus, interpreting the wind of the apostolic period by its legacy to subsequent ages, Rupertus understands the waters of Euphrates in the Apocalypse as the foolish reasonings of men dried up by the judgment of God in order that the saints of Him who is the ‘East’ may destroy ‘the deceits of the magi, the vain inventions of Philosophers and the fictions of the poets’ (Com. Philo has yet another interpretation (de Somn
Hagar - Philo thinks that Hagar embraced Abraham's religion, which is very probable
Hebrews - In the period immediately before Christ, an artificial interest in the past and a revival of ancient learning, coupled with the exaggerated reverence for Abraham ‘the Hebrew,’ led to a revival in the use of this term, and to the language of the race being designated thereby, although Philo calls the language of the OT, Chaldee (de Vita Mosis, ii. Eusebius at a later date does not adhere to the specialized use of the term as found in the Acts, but designates Philo (HE Nimrod - ...
Philo Judæus, the father of allegorical interpretation, has a beautiful tract entitled The Confusion of Languages. But Jacob Behmen, Philo's Teutonic son, far outstrips his Hebrew father in the depth, pungency, directness, and boldness of his interpretations and his applications. Babel, to Philo, is the soul of man; the confounded, confused, and scattered-abroad soul of man; and in his confused and scattered treatise we stumble on not a few things that are both wise and deep and beautiful. To Behmen, Babel is all that it is to Philo, with this characteristic addition, that Behmen's books are full of contemporaneous examples and illustrations of the Babel-like confusion that had come already to the Reformed Church of his day. Babel, 'philosophically taken,' was to Philo the sum total of the passions of the soul let loose on the individual; evangelically taken, to Behmen, Babel was all those passions let loose also on the body of Christ
Septuagint - ...
This legend is related in a pseudonymous letter purporting to be written by Aristeas (an Alexandrian, and one of Ptolemy’s ambassadors to Jerusalem) to his brother Philocrates. Other forms of the tradition are given by the Alexandrian writers Aristobulus and Philo, and by Josephus. The importance of the LXX Septuagint version to the student of Hebrew literature and Philology can scarcely be overestimated (see Swete, Introduction, Pt. An army of apologists was raised up, of whom Josephus and Philo are, for us, the chief, because so much of their work is extant; but they must have been well-nigh equalled in weight and influence by such writers as the historians Alexander Cornelius (‘Polyhistor’), Demetrius, Eupolemus, Artapanus, and Aristeas, the poets Philo, Theodotus, and Ezekiel, the Philosopher Aristobulus, and Cleodemus or Malchas, small fragments of whose writings are preserved in Clem
Urim And Thummim - Philo says that the high priest's breast-plate was made strong in order that he might wear as an image the two virtues which his office needed
Cappadocia - Philo (Leg
Admonition - Ranœ, 1009), but are more common in later Greek (Philo, Josepbus)
Pilate - He is represented, both by Philo and Josephus, as a man of an impetuous and obstinate temper, and, as a judge, one who used to sell justice, and, for money, to pronounce any sentence that was desired. Philo, in particular, describes him as a man that exercised an excessive cruelty during the whole time of his government; who disturbed the repose of Judea; and was the occasion of the troubles and revolt that followed
Alexandria - The most celebrated Philosophers from the East, as well as from Greece and Rome, resorted thither for instruction; and eminent men, in every department of knowledge, were found within its walls. Philo, who himself lived there in the time of Christ, affirms that, of five parts of the city, the Jews inhabit two
Septuagint - Aristobulus, who was a tutor to Ptolemy Physcon; Philo, who lived in our Saviour's time, and was contemporary with the apostles; and Josephus, speak of this translation as made by seventy-two interpreters, by the care of Demetrius Phalereus, in the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus
Mirror - 514) in his well-known simile of the cave compares our sense-impressions to shadow-shapes that come and go, giving but hints of the real world beyond; and the figure of the mirror is found in such Platonists as the writer of Wisdom (Wisdom of Solomon 7:26) and Philo (de Decal
Noah - But the antiquity of these precepts is doubted, since no mention of them is made in the Scripture, or in the writings of Josephus, or in Philo; and none of the ancient fathers knew any thing of them
Phoenicia - The fragmentary writings of Philo of Byblos-of the time of Hadrian-contain an interesting attempt to trace the mythology of Greece to that of Phcenicia, which was itself largely Babylonian
Transmigration - ; Drummond, Philo Judaeus, i. 336; Siegfried, Philo v
Ten Commandments - This view is adopted without hesitation by Philo, and it is not contradicted by our Lord’s division of the Law into the love of God and the love of one’s neighbour. This last is borne out by Romans 13:9 and by Philo, and may possibly have been original. Philo takes it in both senses
Alexandria - Philadelphus left his mark on Palestine in the cities of Philadelphia (= Rabbath-ammon, Deuteronomy 3:11 ), Ptolemais ( Acts 21:7 = Acco, Judges 1:31 ), Philoteria, etc. Philopator the dynasty began to decline, and his oppressions of the Jews (largely mythical) are narrated in 3 Maccabees. Among its Jewish population there had arisen a new school which sought to amalgamate Hebrew tradition and Greek Philosophy, and to make the OT yield up Platonic and Stoic doctrines. This attempted fusion of Hebraism and Hellenism was begun by Aristobulus, and reached its climax in Philo, a contemporary of Jesus Christ. The next step was to re-write their own Scriptures in terms of Greek Philosophy, and the most simple way of doing this was by an elaborate system of allegory. Philo carried the allegorizing of the OT to such an extent that he was able to deduce all the spurious Philosophy he required from the most matter-of-fact narratives of the patriarchs and their wives. It was based on a logical figment, and Philo’s voluminous works, gifted and learned though he was, merely reveal that there was no hope either for Greek Philosophy or for Hebrew religious development along these lines. Apollos of Alexandria ( Acts 18:24-28 ) needed to be ‘more accurately instructed’ in Christian doctrine, though we have no direct evidence that he was a disciple of Philo. The Alexandrian school of theology was made lustrous by the names of Pantænus, Clement, and especially Origen, who, while continuing the allegorical tradition, strove to show that Christian doctrine enshrined and realized the dreams and yearnings of Greek Philosophy
Censer - But it is also certain that θυμιατήριον became the usual Hellenistic name for the altar of incense, and Philo (Quis rer
Shadow - This use of the term ‘shadow’ in contrast with ‘image’ is more than an illustration taken from article It may well be that, but it seems rather an explanation of Christian truth by means of the categories of Platonic and Philonic Philosophy. This theory was taken up by the Alexandrian Philosophy, and the OT is explained by Philo in terms of this Hellenistic speculation. The writer of Hebrews, who shows many signs of Alexandrian influence, uses throughout his Epistle this Philonic form of thought to show the superiority of Christianity over Judaism
Cilicia - Jews of Cilicia are mentioned by Philo in his Leg
Gregorius Baeticus, Saint, Bishop of Eliberi - 695), couples him with Lucifer of Cagliari, saying that the latter with Gregorius a Spanish, and Philo a Libyan, bishop, "nunquam se Arianae miscuit pravitati
Alexander - It is probable, though not quite certain, that this indicates that Alexander belonged to the high-priestly class; and it is impossible to identify him with Alexander the ‘alabarch’ of Alexandria and brother of Philo
Praedestinatus, an Author - We are thus told of a number of personages whom no one else mentions—Diodorus of Crete who refuted the Secundians, Philo the Alogi, Theodotus of Pergamus the Colorbasians, Crato, a Syrian bishop, who refuted the Theodotians, Tranquillus the Noetians, Euphranon of Rhodes the Severians, and a host of others of whom we should expect to hear elsewhere if they were not imaginary personages
Scripture (2) - In Josephus, and even more plainly in the LXX Septuagint , the influence of the Greek usage may be traced; but in a writer like Philo, Jewish habits of thought appear to be absolutely determinative. The more usual of the two in this application, in Philo and Josephus, is γράμμα, or more exactly γράμματα; for, although it is sometimes so employed in the singular (but apparently only late, e. The complete phrase ἱερὰ γράμματα, found also both in Josephus and in Philo, occurs in 2 Timothy 3:15 as the current title of the sacred books, freighted with all its implications as such. 1311; Philo, de Praem
Altar - In the NT, as in the Septuagint , the usual term for ‘altar’ is θυσιαστήριον-a word otherwise confined to Philo, Josephus, and ecclesiastical writers-while βωμός, as contrasted with a Jewish place of sacrifice, is a heathen altar. (1) Reasoning somewhat in the manner of Philo, he notes the emergence of a mysterious priest from a tribe which has given none of its sons to minister at the altar, and on this circumstance bases an ingenious argument for the imperfection of the Levitical priesthood, and so of the whole Mosaic system (Hebrews 7:13)
Altar - In the NT, as in the Septuagint , the usual term for ‘altar’ is θυσιαστήριον-a word otherwise confined to Philo, Josephus, and ecclesiastical writers-while βωμός, as contrasted with a Jewish place of sacrifice, is a heathen altar. (1) Reasoning somewhat in the manner of Philo, he notes the emergence of a mysterious priest from a tribe which has given none of its sons to minister at the altar, and on this circumstance bases an ingenious argument for the imperfection of the Levitical priesthood, and so of the whole Mosaic system (Hebrews 7:13)
Hagar - (Ἄγαρ)...
After the manner of the later Jewish interpreters of OT history, of whom Philo is the best representative, St
Greece - When they wrote books, they wrote them in Greek: Philo and Josephus are examples
Fable - ...
We have specimens of these ‘feigned words’ in the numerous legends of the Talmud, the farfetched subtleties of Rabbinical teaching, and in the allegorizing of Philo
Dispersion - Philo estimated the number of Jews in Egypt in the reign of Caligula (a
Pavement - Philo, ad Gaium, 31, and the practice of Gessius Florus in Josephus BJ ii
Proselytes - In New Testament converts to Judaism, "comers to a new and God-loving polity" (Philo). ...
However, there is no mention of baptism of proselytes in the Bible, the Apocrypha, Philo, Josephus, or the older targums
Ten Commandments - ...
The division recognized by the old Jewish writers, Josephus and Philo, which places five commandments in each table
Veil - = (1) מָסָךְ, the curtain before the door of the Holy Place and before the gate of the fore-court in the Tabernacle; and (2) פָרכָח, the curtain between the Holy Place and the Holy of Holies (similarly Philo, Vita Moysis, iii
Shepherd - Philo, ed
Caiaphas (2) - the remark of Philo quoted by Westcott: ‘the true priest is a prophet’; see also the remarks of Dale, The Atonement, p
Septuagint - Its completion was commemorated by a yearly feast at Alexandria (Philo, Vit. ...
A letter of Aristeas to his brother Philocrates (Hody, Bibl
Herodians - a sect among the Jews at the time of Jesus Christ, mentioned Matthew 22:16 ; Mark 3:6 ; Mark 8:15 ; Mark 12:13 ; but passed over in silence both by Josephus and Philo
Foot - This was formerly done by the help of machines, one of which is thus described by Philo: It is a wheel which a man turns by the motion of his feet, by ascending successively the several steps that are within it
Apocrypha - No part of the apocrypha is quoted, or even alluded to, by him or by any of his Apostles; and both Philo and Josephus, who flourished in the first century of the Christian aera, are totally silent concerning them. They are not mentioned in the catalogue of inspired writings made by Melito, bishop of Sardis, who flourished in the second century, nor in those of Origen in the third century, of Athanasius, Hilary, Cyril of Jerusalem, Epiphanius, Gregory Nazianzen, Amphilochius, Jerom, Rufinus, and others of the fourth century; nor in the catalogue of canonical books recognised by the council of Laodicea, held in the same century, whose canons were received by the catholic church; so that as Bishop Burnet well observes, we have the concurring sense of the whole church of God in this matter
Pentecost, Feast of - It always retained its agricultural character in Biblical ages, but some later Rabbinical writers treated it also as a commemoration of the delivery of the Law on Sinai an event which was supposed to have taken place 50 days after the Exodus (Exodus 19:1 ), though this idea is not found in Philo or Josephus; and the fact that the reading of the Law in the Sabbatical year took place at the Feast of Tabernacles and not at Pentecost, points to the late origin of this tradition
Veil - = (1) מָסָךְ, the curtain before the door of the Holy Place and before the gate of the fore-court in the Tabernacle; and (2) פָרכָח, the curtain between the Holy Place and the Holy of Holies (similarly Philo, Vita Moysis, iii
Septuagint - Much uncertainty, however, has prevailed concerning the real history of this ancient version; and while some have strenuously advocated its miraculous and Divine origin, other eminent Philologists have laboured to prove that it must have been executed by several persons and at different times. Philo, the Jew, who also notices the Septuagint version, was ignorant of most of the circumstances narrated by Aristeas; but he relates others which appear not less extraordinary. The pseudo Aristeas, Josephus, Philo, and many other writers whom it were tedious to enumerate, relate that this version was made during the reign of Ptolemy II, or Philadelphus; Joseph Ben Gorion, however, among the rabbins, Theodoret, and many other Christian writers, refer its date to the time of Ptolemy Lagus. Thus, they express the creation of the world, not by the proper Greek word κτισις , but by γενεσις , a term employed by the Philosophers of Alexandria to express the origin of the universe. Next to the Pentateuch, for ability and fidelity of execution, ranks the translation of the book of Proverbs, the author of which was well skilled in the two languages: Michaelis is of opinion that, of all the books of the Septuagint, the style of the Proverbs is the best, the translator having clothed the most ingenious thoughts in as neat and elegant language as was ever used by a Pythagorean sage, to express his Philosophical maxims. Philo, the Jew, a native of Egypt, has evidently followed it in his allegorical expositions of the Mosaic law; and though Dr
Anger - The Jewish Philosopher Philo championed the Stoic idea that a perfect being by definition could not become angry
Amalekites - Philo interprets "a people that licks up
Cerinthus, Opponent of Saint John - He received his education in the Judaeo-Philonic school of Alexandria. Trained as he was in the Philosophy of Philo, the Gnosis of Cerinthus did not of necessity compel him to start from opposition —in the sense of malignity—of evil to good, matter to spirit. Neander and Ewald have pointed out that these are legitimate deductions from the teaching of Philo. ("Philosophumena"); Theod
Incarnation (2) - —The idea of union with God: (1) in the ethnic faiths; (2) in Greek Philosophy—(a) the Stoics, (b) Philo; (3) in the religion of Israel. ...
(2) The idea of union with God is, further, the presupposition and the ruling category of Philosophic thought. Philosophy is simply the verification and application of this ideal. Philosophy, accordingly, however great its quarrel may be with any existing religion, is itself fundamentally religious. From Xenophanes, with his assertion that nothing is save Being, and Heraclitus, with his counter assertion that all is flux, the problem of the higher synthesis is handed on to thinkers who, Philosophizing imperially, seek to exhibit the ultimate unity of the universe as ‘the Good,’ or ‘Thought of Thought. Philos. Belief in a purpose which links all the discords of the world into one plan, conquers all things evil, and makes them subservient to good, requires some surer basis than the meditations of a Philosopher, however true or noble these may be. ...
(b) The other system, which expresses the demand of the age for union with God, and which helps us to understand the attitude of the Greek mind toward Christianity, when it came forth with its great message of reconciliation accomplished, was that which originated with Philo, and which at a later stage, as elaborated by Plotinus, presented itself as a rival to Christianity. Philo’s idea of God is Jewish only in name. Philo rises not only above the anthropomorphism of the OT, but even above the intellectualism of Greek Philosophy. Philo’s dualism is thus wider and deeper than that of the Greek thinkers. This bridge, if we may so describe it, Philo built of elements borrowed both from Judaism and from Greek Philosophy. At the same time Philo, as a student of Greek Philosophy, found in Stoicism the conception of the Logos or immanent reason of the universe. From this twofold attitude of mind, Jewish and Greek, Philo reached the conception of a principle which is Divine and yet distinct from God, which serves as mediator between the transcendent God and the material world. is not adequately described by saying that a great many individuals were adherents of the Stoic Philosophy, or of the Alexandrian theology; rather must we imagine an intellectual atmosphere full of the speculations which find a shorthand expression in the term Logos. That the Logos doctrine, whether in its Stoic or Philonic aspect, failed to solve the problem which awakened self-consciousness was stating so fully, and failed to regenerate either the individual or society, is the obvious fact. Comparison between the two lines of development, that of Greek Philosophy and that of the religion of Israel, shows that the ruling idea of both was union with God, and, through this, the unifying of all the elements of the life of man and of nature
Cherubim - Philo allegorizes them as representing two supreme attributes of God His goodness and authority; he also mentions other views (for Jewish ideas, cf
Tabernacle - The writer of Hebrews delights, like Philo, in the typical and allegorical interpretation of the OT Scriptures, which seem to him pregnant with hidden spiritual meanings. His Philosophical presupposition, or view of the world, is the Platonic and Philonic one, that heaven is the place of realities, while earth is the place of shadows; and his central doctrine is that Christ, having, as a ‘minister of the true tabernacle (ἡ σκηνὴ ἡ ἀληθινή), which the Lord pitched, not man’ (Hebrews 8:2), entered within the veil, has won for every Christian the right of personal access to God
Baal (1) - Philo says his title among the Phoenicians was Beelsamen (shamain), "owner of the heavens
Nature, Natural - Whitaker, Philo in Ten Volumes ; C
Amos - Philo, Josephus, the Talmud, Justin Martyr, the catalogues of Melito, Jerome, and the council of Laodicea, confirm the canonicity of Amos
Pontus - ...
Philo (Leg
Word - As to the source from which the term Logos was drawn by the Apostle, some have held it to be taken from the Jewish Scriptures; others, from the Chaldee paraphrases; others, from Philo and the Hellenizing Jews. Certainly, there is not the least evidence in his writings, or in his traditional history, that he ever acquainted himself with Philo or with Plato; and none therefore, that he borrowed the term from them, or used it in any sense approaching to or suggested by these refinements:—in the writings of St. Paul there are allusions to poets and Philosophers; in those of St. It will then appear to be a theological, not a Philosophic appellation, and one which, previously even to the time of the Apostle, had been stamped with the authority of inspiration. A cogent reason can be given why this Apostle adopts it; and we are not without a probable reason why, in the New Testament, the title "Son of God" should have been preferred, which is a frequent title of the Logos in the writings also of Philo
Inspiration - ...
(c) As representative of contemporary Jewish thought it is enough to cite Philo and Josephus. Vying with Philo in reverential esteem for the OT, he bases this esteem on the belief that the authors of the various books wrote under the influence of the Divine Spirit (Ant. It was probably through Philo that this view gained currency in the Church. Philo’s account of Inspiration is quite explicit. 511) Philo explains that ‘so long as we are masters of ourselves we are not possessed; but when our own mind ceases to shine, inspiration and madness lay hold on us. ’ A theory identical with or similar to this of Philo’s has been largely held in the Church
Sabbath - Philo (De Orac. ...
Philo calls it "the imaging forth of the first beginning
Alexandria - The artificial atmosphere of literary criticism, which was the breath of life to grammarians, Philologists, and dialecticians, chilled rather than fostered original genius. ...
In the Roman period ‘numerous and respectable labours of erudition, particularly Philological and physical, proceeded from the circle of the savants “of the Museum,” as they entitled themselves, like the Parisians “of the Institute”; but … it was here very clearly apparent that the main matter was not pensions and rewards, but the contact … of great political and great scientific work’ (Mommsen, Provinces2, ii. Both races were sensitive to impressions: while the Jews felt the subtle influence of a rich civilization and a lofty Philosophy, the Greeks were attracted by a strange note of assurance regarding God. The literary exponent of this spiritual rapprochement is Philo (q. Drummond, Philo-Judaeus, 2 vols
Greek Language - In the hands of a skilled writer, the Greek language is able to communicate the nuances of Philosophy and the deep emotional feelings of a Sophoclean tragedy. Similarly Plato, Aristotle, and other writers from the Golden Age of Greece have influenced modern Philosophy, logic, ethics, and even science. These texts include the papyri, pieces of broken pottery called “ostraca,” inscriptions on monuments, as well as a number of formal works by such authors as Josephus, Epictetus, Philo, and Plutarch
Jewish Parties in the New Testament - ...
Essenes We know of the Essenes through the writings of Josephus and Philo, a Jewish Philosopher in Alexandria, Egypt
Caligula - ...
One aspect of Caligula’s activity had a serious effect on the Jews, and thus drew forth two of the most interesting historical tractates of the Roman Empire, Philo’s Legatio ad Gaium and contra Flaccum. -The ancient authorities are Suetonius, Gaius; Philo, contra Flaccum and Legatio ad Gaium; Dio Cassius; etc
Greek Language - Hence it has, by some Philologers, been termed Hebraic Greek, and (from the Jews having acquired the Greek language, rather by practice than by grammar, among the Greeks, in whose countries they resided in large communities) Hellenistic Greek. The dispute, however interesting to the Philological antiquarian, is after all a mere "strife of words;" and as the appellation of Hellenistic or Hebraic Greek is sufficiently correct for the purpose of characterizing the language of the New Testament, it is now generally adopted. To the universality of the Greek language, Cicero, Seneca, and Juvenal bear ample testimony: and the circumstances of the Jews having long had political, civil, and commercial relations with the Greeks, and being dispersed through various parts of the Roman empire, as well as their having cultivated the Philosophy of the Greeks, of which we have evidence in the New Testament, all sufficiently account for their being acquainted with the Greek language. And if the eminent Jewish writers, Philo and Josephus, had motives for preferring to write in Greek, there is no reason, at least there is no general presumption, why the first publishers of the Gospel might not use the Greek language
Omnipresence - He does not speak of God in terms of Philosophy. Hebrew Philosophy, in the person of its supposed founder, might exclaim: ‘Behold, heaven and the heaven of heavens cannot contain thee’ (1 Kings 8:27); but no such thought ever came from the lips of Jesus. The Lord Jesus left it for Philosophers to lash their weary imaginations so as to trace the ubiquity of God in the infinite recesses of space, and to prove that everywhere there are indications of the same law and order as in the world around us, and that the indications of the presence of a supreme Mind are as apparent in the sidereal heavens as here. (b) The Alexandrian Jews, of whose beliefs Philo was the chief exponent, treated the matter more Philosophically, and they pushed the doctrine of God’s ‘separateness’ from all that is material, earthly, and human, to such an extent as to deny that God has any qualities at all. Philo maintained, as some moderns have done, that to assign any quality or attribute to God is to limit Him: which is inadmissible, since God is the absolutely unlimited, eternal, unchangeable, simple substance. ‘Of God,’ said Philo, ‘we can only know that He is, not what He is’ (Drummond, Philo Judœus, ii. We shall not meet with much that will satisfy our intellectual, Philosophical nature, but with much that will appeal deeply to our religious nature. —In addition to the references given in the course of the article, various points of view are presented in Charnock, Existence and Attributes of God; Fairbairn, Philos
Light - The soul is to human life what the eye is to the body (so Philo, de Opif. En 48:4) and the Logos (as in Philo) had already been hailed as Light. Unlike Philo, the author refuses to trace back this lack of susceptibility towards God to any source in the material constitution of mankind (cf
Angels (2) - As to the spiritual nature of angels, Philo speaks of them as ἀσώματοι καὶ εὐδαίμονες ψυχαί (‘incorporeal and happy souls’); and again, as ‘bodiless souls, not mixtures of rational and irrational natures as ours are, but having the irrational nature cut out, wholly intelligent throughout, pure-thoughts (λογισμοί, elsewhere λόγοι) like a monad (Drummond’s Philo, 145–147; cf. Philo’s Confusion of Tongues, p. It is true that Judges 1:6 and Enoch 15:3–7 both speak of the angels as having first ‘left their habitation’ in heaven; but the fact that they were deemed capable of sexual intercourse implies a much coarser conception of the angelic nature than is taught in the words of our Lord, of Philo, and of the Talmud
Magi - However, Philo uses it in a good sense: "men who gave themselves to the study of nature and contemplation of the divine perfection, worthy of being counselors of kings
Rock - Philo had already identified the rock of Deuteronomy 8:15 with the Wisdom of God, and the rock of Deuteronomy 32:13 with His Wisdom and Word; hence, it was easy for St
Word - Scholars have frequently claimed that John used logos in a Philosophical sense to refer to the world's controlling rational principle (Stoicism) or to the created intermediary between God and His world (Philo). John opposed Greek Philosophy by arguing that salvation comes not by mankind's escape from this world but by God entering and redeeming creation
Melchizedek - The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs is a Palestinian book; but Philo is a witness for the prevalence of a similar interest in the ancient story in Egypt. The thought in Hebrews is clearly an advance, parallel in part to that between the Philonic and the Johannine Logos, but confronting the reader with a religion instead of a Philosophy, and with a supreme personal Helper instead of with a dubious process of reasoning
Cainites - ) may be right in thinking that the Cainites whom we know from Irenaeus were the successors of the people who were attacked by Philo in his de Posteritate Caini
Fasting (2) - 3; Philo, Vit
Philippi - Blass (Philology of the Gospels, 1898, p. It is true that Philo and Josephus employ the two terms as synonymous (Schürer, HJP_ II. Philo (in Flaccum, 14) mentions the instinctive desire of Jews residing in a foreign city to pray ἐν καθαρωτάτῳ, in the purest place they could find
Essenes - Another, Philo ( Quod omnis probus liber , 12f
Libertines - Philo tells us (Leg. ’ Blass, in his Philology of the Gospels, 69f. Blass, Philology of the Gospels, London, 1898, p
Theophilus - In this case it is interesting to note the parallel between Acts 1:1, τὸν μὲν πρῶτον λόγον ἐποιησάμην περὶ πάντων, ὦ Θεόφιλε, and Philo, ed
Restore, Renew - Philo used it to describe the renewal of the world after the flood (On the Life of Moses 2
Alexander - A kinsman of Annas the high priest (Acts 4:6); supposed the same as Alexander the alabarch (governor of the Jews) at Alexandria, brother of Philo-Judaeus, an ancient friend of the emperor Claudius
Creation - ...
† It is asserted that long before any question of geology arose there were some among the Jews, as Josephus and Philo, and some among the Christians, as Whiston, Des Cartes, and De Luc, who believed that the 'days' of Genesis 1 were long periods
Fulness - The full crew of a ship or ‘strength’ of a regiment is a pleroma; the soul becomes a ‘pleroma of virtues by means of those three excellent things, nature, learning, and practice’ (Philo, de Prœmiis et Pœnis, 11)
Fulness - The full crew of a ship or ‘strength’ of a regiment is a pleroma; the soul becomes a ‘pleroma of virtues by means of those three excellent things, nature, learning, and practice’ (Philo, de Prœmiis et Pœnis, 11)
Wisdom of Solomon - , Philo and Josephus. There can be little doubt that it is quoted in the Pauline Epistles; yet this would not necessarily imply that it was earlier than Philo, to whose language and even style it occasionally shows some resemblance. ...
Internal evidence then, at least to some extent, would be in favour of making Wisdom older than the OT books which contain these parallels; nor is it easy to charge the writer-on the supposition that the work is pseudonymous-with any actual anachronism; thus, whereas Philo gives as the list of his own accomplishments (‘the handmaids of Wisdom,’ ed
Father, Fatherhood - It is significant to compare with this usage that of Philo, whose commonest titles of God are abstract (e. τὸ ὄν, τὸ ὄντως ὄν, τὸ πρὸς ἀληθινὸν ὄν, ὁ ὤν—Drummond, Philo Judaeus, ii. ...
We conclude, therefore, both from the words and the life of Jesus, that He called God our Father, not because God created us,—a view common in Philo,—or because He rules over us, or because of the covenant which He made with Abraham, but simply and only because He loves us. These imperfections He saw clearly, but not because of a critical analysis of the Law such as a Philosophical student of history might make
Wisdom - We find here not so much a Philosophy as the rudiments of a Philosophy on the practical side. 29) differentiates the Hebrew Wisdom from the Greek or any other secular Philosophy by its standpoint or approach to the problems of the world’s life; the former started with God, while the latter reached Him, if at all, only at the end of a long process. The Wisdom of the Hebrews, since it came down from God upon life, was a process of recognition, while secular Philosophy was one of discovery. 8) is of capital importance, for there in germ is the speculation of Philo, and the subsequent identification of Wisdom with the Logos of the Fourth Gospel. From this there sprang up what has been called ‘a Graecised Judaism,’ an anticipation of the later Gnostic systems, which endeavoured to construct a theology from an allegorical interpretation of the OT, the loftier forms of Philosophy, and also from the ideas and mythologies of various Eastern religions. whose leading idea is that the Divinely ordained preparation for the gospel ran in two parallel lines, that of the Jewish Law and Prophets, and that of Greek Philosophy (cf. Thus, in Corinth, Hellenism and Judaism met and mingled, and there sprang from the combination the pseudo-philosophy which is the morbid growth of an intellectual age among a people that has passed its meridian. It was not easy for Hellenic thought to fit itself to the new faith whose centre was a Cross, and one can sympathize with, or at least understand, men of an intellectual type who honestly thought they were doing a service to the good cause in presenting Christianity as a σοφία, and proclaiming its message in terms of the Philosophy of the day. Paul’s answer was two-fold: (a) the gospel was not a Philosophy to be discussed, but a message of God to be believed (cf. ...
The Apostle’s experience in Athens (Acts 17:16-34) had not encouraged him to meet Philosophers on their own ground, and, when he came to Corinth, it was with the deliberate purpose of not commending his message by the devices of rhetorical display, or the arguments of Philosophy-‘I came not with any striking rhetorical or Philosophical display, for I determined not to know anything among you save Jesus Christ, and him crucified’ (1 Corinthians 2:1-2). Paul perceived that by the abstractions of Greek Philosophy the gospel would be emptied (κενοῦν) of its significance and power, and his answer to this was: ‘We preach Christ’-not a system, but a Person-and Christ as crucified. But, since the Corinthians were no Philosophers (1 Corinthians 1:26), ‘we speak wisdom among them that are perfect’ (2:6), i. his Philosophy is intelligible only to the initiated and to the spiritually mature. ’ ‘There were people,’ he says, ‘who thought he [5] might profitably have imitated admired Philosophers and popular orators; that he should have had a wider range of subjects and used more enticing words. Those foolish Corinthians have many successors among ourselves, who fancy that the pulpit would gain greatly in power if ministers would only discourse more about science and Philosophy, nature and history, political and social reform, and the various so-called questions of the day. ’ Philo was a contemporary of St. Paul, but Philonism did not save the world; it was the simple, unaffected word of the Cross from a preacher such as St. Paul that won the Roman Empire, and brought-what Greek Philosophy had failed to bring-a real knowledge of god to bond and free. If a system is to be judged by its fruits, if a method of preaching is to be so judged, one may well endorse the words, ‘I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ: for it is the power of God’ (Romans 1:16) If Humanism and Christianity be placed on their trial as instruments for the regeneration of the mass of mankind, Christianity has no need to blush for its record, while Philosophy, as regards the mass of mankind, has been a light only to itself and an ornament. ‘Philo’ in HDB v
Baptism - No notice of such a custom occurs in Philo, Josephus, or the Targum of Onkelos; the commonness of such ceremonial purifications makes it a probable one. Probably it was at first merely the customary purificatory washing before the sacrifice offered in admitting the proselyte, whence Philo and Josephus would omit mentioning it as being usual at all sacrifices
World, the - ...
The order of the world was explained variously by the leading schools of Philosophy. The merging of Hebrew and Greek thought later found its fullest expression in the works of Philo of Alexandria, who used the word more than any other writer in antiquity
Canon of the Old Testament - So Philo, our Lord's contemporary, refers to "the laws,
Head, Headship - Philo of Alexandria indicated that this regularly worn covering was a symbol of modesty (Special Laws 3. Paul was not dealing in Philosophical speculation in his headship analogies
Pilate - Pilate again almost drove them to rebel...
(1) by hanging up in his residence, Herod's palace at Jerusalem, gilt shields with names of idols inscribed, which were finally removed by Tiberius' order (Philo, ad Caium
Resurrection - An immense number of currents of religious and Philosophic thought were meeting and influencing one another, and it is easier to distinguish the main currents than to estimate the extent to which they intermingled and modified one another. The main currents may be broadly distinguished as follows:...
(a) Neo-Platonism, in its earliest form, representing a fusion of Platonic Philosophy with Oriental mysticism, and emphasizing the superiority of the intellectual principle in man, the νοῦς, over the body. Possibly it would be more accurate to call this current, in which Philo has a place, Neo-Pythagoreanism. -The principal literary sources for Alexandrian Judaism are Philo, the Book of Wisdom , 2 Enoch, and 4 Maccabees. ...
Philo holds the Neo-Pythagorean view of the evil nature of matter. Philo’s mysticism is purely individualistic, like that of Plotinus, and looks to the perfection of the disembodied soul, after death, with God. Bréhier, ‘Of the whole Jewish eschatology, this idea alone retains its vitality in Philo’s system, the future of the Law which is destined to attain universal sway’ (Les idées Philosophiques et religieuses de Philon d’Alexandrie, Paris, 1908, p
Magi - 41; Philo, de Special. 732, 733; Philo, Quod omn. Finally, it may be noted that these Median magi are credited with skill in Philosophy (Strabo, pp. 1), natural science (Philo, Quod omn
Hellenism - -The reign of Alexander the Great marks a period in Greek history, not only by reason of the expansion of Greek influence but also owing to the rise of a new spirit which affected language, literature, art, Philosophy, science, civilization in general, and religion. 627-639, Philology of the Greek Bible, Eng. ...
(d) Philosophy. -The Philosophers of Hellenism are mostly eclectics; the general tendency is towards the practical questions of life. Philosophy becomes a substitute for religion: it is moral education. Zeller, Die Philosophie der Griechen4, Leipzig, 1909, vol. Moreover, the Orient had produced a priestly wisdom which was easily transformed into a Greek gnosis: Hellenism identified the objects of this speculation with its Philosophical notions, hellenizing even their strange names into psychological terms. They made a real study of Greek Philosophy, and themselves contributed to the development of Philosophical thought. While the unknown author of the Book of Wisdom under the name of Solomon sets forth the Jewish wisdom as it was influenced by Greek ideas, Philo, the famous Jewish Philosopher, finds in Greek Philosophy the real meaning of the Jewish Scriptures. He is, of course, a Jew, and he remains so; his heart belongs to his people and to its religion, but his head is filled with Greek notions and speculations, and it is from the Greek Philosophers that he derives what he sets forth as the teaching of the ideal law-giver, Moses. They had thus the guarantee of an old revelation transmitted in a most venerable book, and yet it sounded quite modern when interpreted by men like Philo. ...
Comparatively few Jews were led by contact with Hellenism to apostasy, like Philo’s nephew Tiberius Alexander. article Philo. The facts are that Hellenism, as we have seen, was in itself a mixture, which, in addition to the Greek element, included much that was Oriental; the Rabbinical education also comprehended a good many Greek notions; and the reasoning of the Jewish teachers was often very similar to the Stoic Philosophy, as
Colossians, Epistle to the - The stress of this new ‘philosophy’ lay not so much upon the Law as upon theosophical tenets and ascetic practices, which were supposed to constitute a higher Christianity (Colossians 2:2-3; Colossians 2:6),...
For the present this teaching had not made much headway in the Church at Colossae. In opposition to the ‘philosophy’ which was being preached, he prays that the Colossians may be filled with ‘all spiritual wisdom and understanding’ (Colossians 1:9). 84, 85, 100) an almost certain echo of Colossians 1:15, especially as the parallel phrase in Philo is not πρωτότοκος but πρωτόγονος. ...
(3) It claimed to be a ‘philosophy’ (Colossians 2:8), which St. Philo could speak of a ‘Jewish Philosophy. ), the term ‘philosophy’ might easily have been used of esoteric lore about angels, or even, though this usage is a later one, of an ascetic ethical cult, features which both appear at Colossae. This was the natural outcome of a ‘philosophy’ in which the spirits that ruled material things were the objects of fear and reverence. The some-what similar Therapeutae, in Egypt, are only known from Philo, de Vit. Paul is now opposing a speculative ‘philosophy,’ and, as has been shown in dealing with the contents of the letter, he is forced to draw out the speculative implications of his own positi
Winter - The type of thought illustrated in the school of religio-philosophical thinkers contemporary with and later than the prophets, rivalled and ultimately displaced by the scribes. In Philo the terms ‘Wisdom’ and ‘Logos’ are practically equivalent, the Stoic term naturally tending among Greek readers to displace the Hebrew. Fathers, as in Philo, ‘Wisdom’ and ‘Logos’ are interchangeable and equivalent. For the history of Wisdom as the Hebrew Philosophy, and as a hypostasis equivalent to the Stoic Logos, the reader is referred to the artt. ), written to oppose a ‘philosophy and vain deceit’ (Ephesians 4:14 ‘wiles of error’) by means of the Divine gift of ‘a spirit of wisdom and understanding in the mystery of the Divine will
Dispersion - The accounts of Philo and Josephus, of which the substantial accuracy is attested by inscriptions (Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) v. They recognized in their Philosophical and ethical ideas a manifestation of the Divine Wisdom. Illustrations of this tendency are found in the Prophetic and Wisdom literature, in the modification of OT anthropomorphism by the Septuagint , in the serious attempt or Philo to find the Philosophy of Plato and the Stoics in the narratives of Genesis by the method of allegorical interpretation (Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) v
Dispersion - The accounts of Philo and Josephus, of which the substantial accuracy is attested by inscriptions (Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) v. They recognized in their Philosophical and ethical ideas a manifestation of the Divine Wisdom. Illustrations of this tendency are found in the Prophetic and Wisdom literature, in the modification of OT anthropomorphism by the Septuagint , in the serious attempt or Philo to find the Philosophy of Plato and the Stoics in the narratives of Genesis by the method of allegorical interpretation (Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) v
Moses - ]'>[1] and Philo derive it from the Copt, mo ‘water,’ and ushe ‘saved’; this is implied in their spelling Mouses , also found in LXX Theophilus (2) - Whether he was of Greek extraction or a Roman, possibly of equestrian rank, it is impossible to say; but one may cheerfully set aside the theories which identify him with Philo or Seneca. , and to the critical editors on Luke 1:1-4, see the monographs on that passage already referred to, and add Blass, Philology of Gospels, pp
Esther, Book of - , Sirach, or Philo (cf
Home (2) - (3), as a use of ἵδιος, illustrates a tendency to abbreviation and attenuation of phrasing in such connexions as this, ἵδιος, with the force of the possessive pronoun (= ἑαυτοῦ, ἑαυτῶν), appears in NT as in the LXX Septuagint, the OT, Apocrypha, and in such writers as Philo and Josephus (Deissmann, Bible Studies, English translation, p
Learning - Culture was widespread, and at least two Jews belong to general literature: Philo the Philosopher of Alexandria, who endeavoured to reconcile Hellenism and Judaism; and Josephus the historian, who was brought up in Jerusalem. Amongst the Israelites Moses and Solomon are credited (Acts 7:22, 1 Kings 4:29-34) with all the knowledge the world then possessed; and to the latter are attributed not only poetry and Philosophy, but also an exhaustive knowledge of Natural History
Fulness of the Time - With its chief seat at Alexandria, its leading representatives, such as Aristobulus and Philo, endeavoured to show that the Mosaic law, correctly understood, contained all that the best Greek Philosophers had taught
Only Begotten - John took over from the Hellenistic Philosophy the title ‘Logos’ for Christ, in order to remove from the minds of Christians the fear that there was beyond Christ a higher mediator between God and man, so he might have taken over from the highly important Orphic cult the title ‘Monogenes,’ in order to show Christians that they knew Him who is in reality the θεὸς μονογενής. But in the first place this is not quite correct, and again in itself it is much more likely that John [5] knew the Philosophy of Philo than that he was acquainted with the Orphic system
Josephus - His hellenizing tendency manifests itself strikingly in his reproduction of biblical history; unlike Philo, he gives the biblical names in a Greek form, writing Adamos, Abelos, Abramos, Isakos, Iakobos, Esauos, Iosepos, etc. 2-14 [14]), which he seeks to divest of all political significance, and to represent as the exact counterparts of the Philosophic schools of Greece (Pharisees = Stoics; Sadducees = Epicureans; and Essenes = Pythagoreans): an affinity which he tries to establish by introducing quite irrelevant considerations, such as their attitude to the problems of free-will and fate-thus misleading even modern investigators-while, as a matter of fact, the unphilosophical and non-Hellenic character of the sects reveals itself at every point. Thus Josephus, in spite of his Hellenic guise, is in all things a genuine Jew, a Palestinian Rabbi: witness, for instance-as compared with the tractates of Philo-his version of the story of Moses, where he not only gives us the name of Pharaoh’s daughter (Thermuthis), but also relates how Moses as a child was presented to Pharaoh, and how, when the king put his diadem on the child’s head, the latter threw it upon the ground; and again, how, when Moses had grown to manhood, and was in command of an Egyptian army in a war against Ethiopia, he broke a way into that all but inaccessible country by making use of ibises to destroy the serpents which obstructed the march, and further, how he captured the impregnable city of Saba (or Meroë; Philae, an island in the Nile?) by gaining the love of Tharbis, the daughter of the Ethiopian king (Ant. How little the horizon of Josephus extended beyond Palestine is shown also by the brevity with which he treats of the persecutions of the Jews in Alexandria, and of the famous embassy of Philo to the court of Gaius Caligula (xviii
Faith - by Plutarch as a religious Philosopher) to the province of faith, since they are beyond the reach of sense-perception and logical demonstration. Philo Judæus, the Philosopher of Judaism, thus employs the term; quoting Genesis 15:6 , he takes Abraham for the embodiment of faith so understood, viewing it as the crown of human character, ‘the queen of the virtues’; for faith is, with Philo, a steady intuition of Divine things, transcending sense and logic; it is, in fact, the highest knowledge, the consummation of reason
Begetting - John gave a new meaning to the expression ‘Logos,’ which represented a well-known Philosophical conception long current in the East and among the later Platonists and Stoics, while the speculations of Philo and the Alexandrian School had brought it into still greater prominence. According to the Fourth Gospel, Christ as Logos is the Revealer of the Father, not as Philo and others imagined, as being an ‘emanation,’ an outflow from the Inaccessible Deity, a shadowy existence to be described only by analogies and metaphors, or by mere negations, but as being the Son of God, who shared the Divine nature and glory, One who came at the Father’s bidding to do the Father’s will
Pre-Existence of Christ - -According to Philo (Sac. But if there is any intentional reference, it can only be by way of refuting the Philonic view (see Bousset, Religion des Judenthums, p. The ‘heavenly’ man, who with Philo is the ‘first,’ is with St
Old Testament Quotations in the New Testament - The approaches employed in the use of the Old Testament are reflective of first century Judaism as represented in the Dead Sea Scrolls, Philo of Alexandra, and later rabbinic Judaism
Elements - Finally, a man’s knowledge of the στοιχεῖα is not approved as his beginning of religious education, but condemned as his ‘philosophy and vain deceit’ (Colossians 2:8). Clear evidence of this belief is found in Philo (de Mundi Op
Slave, Slavery (2) - Amongst the Essenes, the holding of slaves was unknown and not allowed (Philo, ed
Drunkenness - Many of the Fathers, following the example of Philo-who wrote a book περὶ μέθης on Genesis 9:21 -dealt with the subject at length
Canon of the Old Testament - ...
( d ) Philo . Philo of Alexandria (d
Logia - The same connotation of sacred utterances attaches to the use of the word as applied to the Hebrew Scriptures, as by Philo and Josephus. In particular the Ten Words (English ‘Ten Commandments’) are called by Philo τὰ δἑκα λόλια (ed. It is less common than λόγοι, and certainly much less applicable to the discourses of the Fourth Gospel, where, even if traditional logia are embodied, dialogue, the favourite form for Philosophic and religious exposition, predominates, and the traditionary interest is subordinated to that of expounding the Evangelist’s Christology
Plagues of Egypt - Philo, the Jew, has a fine observation on the plagues of Egypt: "Some, perhaps, may require, Why did God punish the country by such minute and contemptible animals as frogs, lice, flies, rather than by bears, lions, leopards, or other kinds of savage beasts which prey on human flesh? Or, if not by these, why not by the Egyptian asp, whose bite is instant death? But let him learn, if he be ignorant, first, that God chose rather to correct than to destroy the inhabitants; for, if he desired to annihilate them utterly, he had no need to have made use of animals as his auxiliaries, but of the divinely inflicted evils of famine and pestilence. This rendering of the passage is more conformable to the context, the Chaldee paraphrase, and to Philo, than the received translation, "For now I will stretch out my hand, that I may smite thee and thy people with pestilence;" for surely Pharaoh and his people were not smitten with pestilence; and "they were preserved" or kept from immediate destruction, according to the Septuagint, διετηρηθης , "to manifest the divine power," by the number and variety of their plagues
Joseph (2) - Perhaps he had pity for the memory of Him he had condemned, or perhaps the rich man’s gold, since Pilate, according to Philo (Op
Hope - Philo Judæus, who represents Philosophic Judaism at the farthest remove from popular Messianic enthusiasm, nevertheless makes hope (followed by repentance and righteousness ) the leader in his triad of the elementary religious virtues (cf
Scripture - ἱερὰ γράμματα, ‘sacred writings’ (a direct translation of the Hebrew phrase בִּתָבֵי חַקֹּדָשׁ), which we find also in Philo and Josephus
Image - Again it is noteworthy that Philo (de Plant
Feasting - ...
Although Philosophers might be able to discuss this topic on a high moral plane (cf. The motto of this kind of life was ‘Let us eat and drink, for to-morrow we die’-perhaps the Philosophic creed of a few, but certainly the practice of many. Philo had interpreted in this fashion before him (de Migr
Feasts - ’ He quotes Philo (de Monarchia, ii
Education - see), which, from the Jewish point of view, was essentially a meeting-place for religious instruction, and, indeed, is expressly so named by Philo
John, Gospel of (ii. Contents) - It was accepted as ‘a spiritual Gospel,’ and by spiritual was meant, not devotional, ethical, and Philosophical, but allegorical as opposed to barely historical. Philo compares the literal meaning to the body, and the spiritual to the soul. Réville thinks that ‘the author has wished to prove to his contemporaries who had remained in the liberal and Philosophical Judaism of the Diaspora, that, in Jesus Christ, the revelation of the Logos, admitted by them in the OT, has its full and definitive fulfilment. Whatever was his attitude towards Philo (and the question is not an easy one to answer), it was not one of conscious antagonism. But for what Christians? It has often been maintained or assumed that his object is to teach a Philosophy of religion—that he is, in fact, the author of the formula ‘Jesus Christ, the promised Messiah of the Jews, is the Incarnate Logos of God. There is no systematic Philosophy in the Gospel—not even in the Prologue. ...
The Gospel is not a Philosophical treatise. , as we see from the caution imposed upon Clement of Alexandria by conservative prejudice, and on the other side by the diatribes of the obscurantist Tertullian against Philosophy? At that period Gnosticism had gained a footing within the Church, and orthodoxy had become alive to the dangers which threatened the Christian religion from this side. the great Gnostics were outside the Church, and the chief danger was that the party of ψιλὴ πίστις, ignorant and superstitious, with materialistic notions of religion and hopes of a coming reign of the saints, might make the position of the Christian Philosopher impossible, and drive him into the arms of the Gnostics. ‘The Jews’ demanded miracles, ‘the Greeks’ a Philosophy; this Gospel, like St. There can be no doubt, in the opinion of the present writer, that the Philonic method of playing with numbers had a strong fascination for our Evangelist. With regard to higher numbers, the extreme precision of the Evangelist must excite suspicion of an allegorical motive; and when we find that 38, 46, and 153 can be plausibly explained on Philonic principles, the suspicion becomes almost a certainty. It is said that 200 (Peter is 200 cubits from the land) signifies, in the Philonian lore, repentance. We find this conviction in Philo, and very strongly in Clement of Alexandria, who, as a Christian, is important evidence. Yet, in spite of himself, he half substitutes the Alexandrian and Philonic allegory for the Synoptic parable. Harnack, whose antipathy to the Logos theology apparently influences his judgment, suggests that the Prologue was merely prefixed to the narrative in order to predispose the Greeks in favour of the views which the author was about to propound, views which do not really at all correspond with the Logos Philosophy as they understood it
Synagogue (2) - Philo speaks of ‘thousands of houses of instruction’ opened on the Sabbath day (Mangey, ii. Not only does the NT make teaching the chief function, but Philo in one place (Mangey, ii
Metaphor - This idea, like that in Acts 17:28, ‘in him we live, and move, and have our being,’ may have come from contemporary Philosophy. Speculations of theology and Philosophy, glimpses of Deity and hints of various modes of causation, large conceptions of Providence and Creation, strange and indistinct forms of Law and Sin and Death half persons and half powers, quasi-magical notions attached to particular material media, are all blended with the impassioned emotion with which the writer contemplates the love which prompted the Father to send forth his Son, and the love which moved the Son to forsake his high estate and give himself for men’ (J. Paul merely drew on contemporary Philosophy and speculation when searching for metaphorical expressions wherein to convey the spiritual truths he so earnestly desired to emphasize?...
A crucial passage is Romans 8:38 : ‘For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor things present, nor things to come, nor powers, nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature, shall be able to separate us …’ ‘St. Philo also (Quod deterius potiori, p. ’ The difficulty here is the exact significance of στοιχεῖα, ‘elements’: it meant in classical Greek (1) a letter or syllable (Plato): in the Bible only in Hebrews 5:12; (2) a shadow of a sundial (in Aristophanes): non-Biblical; (3) element (or ground staff)-Plato, Philo, Josephus, Wisdom of Solomon 7:17; then specially the stars and planets; then, as every element has its deity, (4) di
Isaac - Philo Byblius preserves from Sanchouiatho the Phoenician tradition, "Cronus, whom the Phoenicians call Israel, being king, having an only son by a nymph, Anobret, called Jahoud (Hebrew: Yahid), even now the Phoenician name for only begotten, when perils from wars were impending, having clothed his son in royal apparel, offered him upon an altar which he built" (Eusebius, Praep
Marks Stigmata - § 59, στίζονται δὲ πάντες οἱ μὲν ἐς καρποὺς οἱ δὲ ἐς αὐχένας; Philo, de Monarch. Ptolemy Philopator commanded the Jews of Alexandria to be branded with an ivy-leaf, the symbol of Dionysius
Death (2) - ...
In this Johannine doctrine Greek-philosophical ideas, transmitted through Philo, have blended with the original teaching of Jesus as recorded in the Synoptics
Proselyte - 158a]'>[1]), that its meaning was from the first that of ‘proselyte’-the meaning of ‘stranger’ being secondary, and arising from the proselyte’s having his home ‘in a strange land’ (like the Israelites themselves in Egypt: hence they are called προσήλυτοι, Exodus 22:21; Exodus 23:9, Leviticus 19:34, Deuteronomy 10:19): The statement of Philo (de Monarch
Hell - Philo, de Exsecr. The absence of such allegorizing methods as those of Philo is also noteworthy
Hell - Philo, de Exsecr. The absence of such allegorizing methods as those of Philo is also noteworthy
Romans, the Epistle to the - ...
The Jews at Rome were so numerous that Augustus assigned them a separate quarter beyond the Tiber, and permitted them freely to exercise their religion (Philo, Leg
Simeon - His followers report his saying "I am the word of God, the paraclete , omnipotent," in fact the incarnation of the word (the Logos, Philo and John 1:1)
Cabbala - Among the profound doctors who, beside the study of tradition, cultivated with great industry the cabbalistic Philosophy, the most celebrated persons are the rabbis Akibba, who lived soon after the destruction of Jerusalem, and Simeon Ben Jochai, who flourished in the second century. That this system of the cabbalistic Philosophy, which we may consider as the acroamatic, esoretic, or concealed doctrine of the Jews, by way of contradistinction from the exoretic or popular doctrine, was not of Hebrew origin, we may conclude with a very great degree of probability, from the total dissimilarity of its abstruse and mysterious doctrines to the simple principles of religion taught in the Mosaic law; and that it was borrowed from the Egyptian schools, will sufficiently appear from a comparison of its tenets with those of the oriental and Alexandrian Philosophy. Philo, Josephus, and other learned Jews, in order to flatter their own vanity, and that of their countrymen, industriously propagated this opinion; and the more learned fathers of the Christian church, who entertained a high opinion of the Platonic Philosophy, hastily adopted it, from an imagination that if they could trace back the most valuable doctrines of Paganism to a Hebrew origin, this could not fail to recommend the Jewish and Christian religions to the attention of the Gentile Philosophers. These innovations chiefly consisted in certain dogmas concerning God and divine things, at this time received in the Egyptian schools; particularly at Alexandria, where the Platonic and Pythagorean doctrines on these subjects had been blended with the oriental Philosophy. In preceding periods, the cabbalistic doctrines underwent various corruptions, particularly from the prevalence of the Aristotelian Philosophy. The similarity, or rather the coincidence, of the cabbalistic, Alexandrian, and oriental Philosophy, will be sufficiently evinced by briefly stating the common tenets in which these different systems agreed. From this brief view it appears, that the cabbalistic system, which is the offspring of the other two, is a fanatical kind of Philosophy, originating in defect of judgment and eccentricity of imagination, and tending to produce a wild and pernicious enthusiasm
Mystery - Its strong monotheistic tendency, added to these other traits, gave it an obvious resemblance to the gospel as preached to the Gentile world, and made it a much more formidable rival than the various religionized forms of Greek and Oriental Philosophy, in bidding for the adherence of popular faith in the Empire, after the dissolution of the national religions. Paul it is fundamental (1 Corinthians 2:1-16, Ephesians 1:9; Ephesians 3:3-11, Colossians 1:27, Romans 16:25-27), usually involving the contrast of Philosophy versus revelation, the ‘wisdom of this world’ versus the spirit of prophecy. Philo, de Vict
Sacrifice - The pathetic failure of the whole sacrificial system touches all the writer’s thought; it was morally ineffective because it belonged to the lower, sensible world (Hebrews 9:11, Hebrews 11:3), ‘the visible order’ of Philo and the Alexandrian thinkers. , Hebrews 9:1; Hebrews 9:24, Hebrews 10:1)-the realm which Philo, in the spirit of Plato’s doctrine of archetypal ideas, calls ‘the intelligible world
Sanhedrin - Philo, ed Mangey, ii. 14; Philo, ed
Sirach - the service of the State and Philosophy. This is inferred by Philo from the Greek word μετέθηκεν used in Genesis 5:24 for the Hebrew לקח, ‘took’ (de Abrahamo, 3), for ‘metathesis’ signifies change, in this case change of mind. If the verse were genuine, we should have to conclude that the author had studied the OT in the Septuagint version, and that the interpretation found in Philo was some 200 years earlier than Philo’s time
Timothy, Epistles to - But, as Philo and others use the word ‘genealogy’ of the primitive history of the Pentateuch, it is now generally allowed that the reference is not to Gnostic speculations but to the legendary history of the Jewish patriarchs
Liberty - In pre-Christian lines of Philosophical and religious teaching (as e. Here, too, it is of interest to recall that it was a Stoic doctrine of liberty that true freedom consists in obeying God, or, as Philo of Alexandria (see Tract, Quod sit liber quisquis virtuti studet) puts it, the following of God. In the Philosophical sense
Mind/Reason - Philo, Virt
Games - The same fondness for the imagery of the athletic ground has been remarked in Philo (Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) v
John, Theology of - There can be little question that the Memra of the Targums, based on the usage of such passages as Psalms 33:6 ; Psalms 147:15 , and Isaiah 55:11 , formed the foundation of the idea, and it is tolerably certain that the connotation attaching to the word had been modified by Philo’s use of it. John uses the word either as the Psalmist did, or as the paraphrast or the Alexandrian Philosopher employed it. Philo and St. Philo employed an expression which suited his Philosophy because of its meaning ‘reason,’ and it was employed by him mainly in a metaphysical sense. Even in the Prologue the conception of the Word is not abstract and Philosophical, but when the introduction to the Gospel is finished, the idea never appears again; the narrative of the only Son, revealing for the first time the Father in all His fulness, proceeds as if no account of the Logos had been given
Tabernacle - The VEIL was 10 cubits from the back, according to Philo and Josephus
Chronology - The Septuagint and Luke 3:36-37 have a second Cainan, who is omitted in the Hebrew Bible; Philo and Josephus also know nothing of him
Mockery - the story of the mockery of Carabas in Philo, adv
Brotherhood (2) - Hillel and other Rabbis gave this law the broadest interpretation, and Philo declares that man must love the whole world as well as God (see Kohler, Jewish Encyc
Creation - The systems became gradually more complicated, as the writers receded farther from the age of primitive tradition; and they increased in absurdity in proportion to the degree of Philosophy which was applied to the subject. His writings were translated by Philo Byblius; and portions of this version are preserved by Eusebius. This train of reasoning would lead us to conclude that Ovid, and indeed the whole Heathen world, derived their notions respecting the creation, and the early history of mankind, from the sacred Scriptures: and it shows how deficient their own resources were, when the pride of Philosophy was forced to borrow from those whom it affected to despise. "...
In these passages we have evidently a Philosophical comment on the account of creation given by Moses, or as transmitted from the same source of primitive tradition. We also see in these passages the rudiments of the Platonic Philosophy, the eternal ideas in the divine mind, &c; and were any question to arise respecting the original author of these notions, we should have little hesitation in giving it against the Greeks. They were the greatest plagiaries both in literature and Philosophy, and they have scarcely an article of literary property which they can call their own, except their poetry. This is the most inartificial plan that has been devised to account for the existence of evil, and has the least pretensions to a Philosophical basis
Praise - ’ The author of the Odes of Solomon (Ode 6) compares a soul at praise to a harp, as both Philo (i
Gnosticism - And besides, these speculators only did what learned theologians have constantly since endeavoured to do—namely, combine the doctrines which they learned from revelation with the results of what they regarded as the best Philosophy of their own day, so as to obtain what seemed to them the most satisfactory account and explanation of the facts of the universe. Every union of Philosophy and religion is the marriage of a mortal with an immortal: the religion lives; the Philosophy grows old and dies. When the Philosophic element of a theological system becomes antiquated, its explanations which contented one age become unsatisfactory to the next, and there ensues what is spoken of as a conflict between religion and science; whereas, in reality, it is a conflict between the science of one generation and that of a succeeding one. appear to us peculiarly unreasonable, it is because the Philosophy incorporated with them is completely alien to modern thought. That Philosophy gave unlimited licence to the framing of hypotheses, and provided that the results were in tolerable accordance with the facts, no other proof was required that the causes which these hypotheses assumed were really in operation. The Timaeus of Plato is a favourable specimen of the Philosophic writings which moulded the Gnostic speculations; and the interval between that and a modern treatise on physics is fully as wide as between Gnosticism and modern scientific theology. So it has happened that modern thought has less sympathy with heretical theories deeply coloured by the Philosophy of their own time than with the plain common sense of a church writer such as Irenaeus, which led him to proceed by the positive historical method, and reject what was merely fanciful and speculative. The Gnostics generally held that the Saviour effected redemption by making a revelation of knowledge, yet they but feebly attempted to connect historically their teaching with his; what was derived from Him was buried under elements taken freely from heathen mythologies and Philosophies, or springing from the mere fancy of the speculator, so that, if Gnosticism had triumphed, all that is distinctively Christian would have disappeared. In opposition to them, church writers were led to emphasize the principle that that alone is to be accounted true knowledge of things divine which can be shewn by historical tradition, written or oral, to have been derived from the teaching of Christ and His apostles, a principle the Philosophic justice of which must be admitted if Christ be owned as having filled the part in the enlightenment of the world which orthodox and Gnostics alike attributed to Him. " If we fix our attention on the predominance of the speculative over the practical in Gnosticism, which, as Baur truly remarks, led men to regard Christianity less as a means of salvation than as furnishing the principles of a Philosophy of the universe, we must allow that since their time very many orthodox writings have been open to the same criticism. We come very close to a definition if we make the criterion of Gnosticism to be the establishment of a dualism between spirit and matter; and, springing out of this, the doctrine that the world was created by some power different from the supreme God, yet we might not be able to establish that this characteristic belongs to every sect which we count as Gnostic; and if we are asked why we do not count such sects as the Manicheans among the Gnostics, the best answer is that usage confines the word to those sects which arose in the ferment of thought when Christianity first came into contact with heathen Philosophy, excluding those which clearly began later. —Some general principles of Philosophic classification may be easily agreed on but when they come to be applied it is found that there are some sects to which it is not obvious where to assign a place and that some sects are separated whose affinities are closer than those of others which are classed together. Thus Neander's division classifies sects as not unfriendly to Judaism or as hostile to it; the former class taking its origin in those Alexandrian schools where the authority of such teachers as Philo had weight the latter among Christian converts from Oriental Philosophy whose early education had given them no prejudices in favour of Judaism. Gieseler divides into Alexandrian Gnostics whose teaching was mainly influenced by the Platonic Philosophy and Syrian strongly affected by Parsism. What Lipsius counts as the second stage dates from the migration of Gnostic systems to Alexandria, where the myths of Syriac Gnosis came to be united to principles of Grecian Philosophy. Thus, in the system of Valentinus, the Pythagorean Platonic Philosophy predominates, the Stoic in that of the Basilidians as presented by Hippolytus. —Philo (de Op
Originality - We do not refer here to the endeavours of such men as Hatch and Harnack to prove the influence of Greek Philosophy on the development of Christian doctrine, but to the much more revolutionary tendency of such writers as Bruno Bauer and Ernest Havet, who have sought to account not only for the development of Christian doctrine, but for the origin of Christianity itself, upon such lines. Philo and Seneca were its real founders. Philo made of this Logos a priestly mediator who brings the extremes of the Divine and the human into relation to one another. The central figure of the new religion is a composite character constructed out of the aspirations and ideals of Greek Philosophy and various traits borrowed from the occupants of the imperial throne, in whom the Roman world recognized the mediators between heaven and earth. But the Christian spirit Is essentially that of Graeco-Roman Philosophy and religion. This purified Judaism purified itself more and more as it spread among the Gentiles, and became permeated by the spirit of Greek Philosophy
Virgin Birth - It appears that Judaism never understood Isaiah 7:14 as messianic or describing a virgin birth and that Philo, a first-century Jewish scholar, never imagined a literal divine betting in his allegorical understanding of the birth of several Old Testament characters (cf
Sabbath - ...
A passing notice may be taken of the emphasis which Philo, in his characteristic way, puts upon the Sabbath as a positive season to be devoted to ‘philosophizing,’ to contemplation of the works of God, to moral and spiritual examination and renewal (de Decalogo, 20). Again, the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, in a vein not unlike Philo’s, handles the Sabbath with an extension of the idea to the hereafter
Law - Even Israel's frequent apostasies magnify the divine power and wisdom which by such seemingly inadequate instruments effected His purpose of preserving true religion and morality, when all the Philosophic and celebrated nations sank deeper and deeper into idolatry and profligacy. ...
Had Egypt with its learning and wisdom, Greece with its Philosophy and refinement, or Rome with its political sagacity, been the medium of revelation, its origination would be attributed to man's intellect. Philo and Josephus ( James, Epistle of - The verse is quoted in 1Ma 2:52 , ten times by Philo, and in the Talmudic treatise Mechilta
Love - It is not found in classical Greek, nor even with Philo and Josephus
Golden Rule - ...
The Golden Rule is not, as some Philosophers have held, a mere law of nature. In non-Christian authors the negative form of the rule is found in Philo (Eusebius, Praep. In the language of Philosophy, Kant forcefully expresses what is implied in the simpler words of Jesus
Dionysius, Pseudo-Areopagita - Their style and subject-matter all betoken a Philosophic leisure, not the active life of a missionary in a barbarous country; and a residence in the East is implied in the very titles of those to whom they are addressed. In this letter we seem to see before us a disciple of Philo
Sabbath - ...
A passing notice may be taken of the emphasis which Philo, in his characteristic way, puts upon the Sabbath as a positive season to be devoted to ‘philosophizing,’ to contemplation of the works of God, to moral and spiritual examination and renewal (de Decalogo, 20). Again, the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, in a vein not unlike Philo’s, handles the Sabbath with an extension of the idea to the hereafter
Incarnation - The doctrine was carried further by Philo, with assistance from Greek thought, and prepared the way for St
Hating, Hatred - ...
Westcott on Hebrews 7:3 quotes a striking passage from Philo which throws light on Luke 14:26; he describes the Levites as being in some sense ‘exiles who to do God’s pleasure had left parents and children and brethren and all their mortal kindred, and continues—ὀ γοῦν ἀρχηγετης τοῦ θιασου τούτου λέγων εἰσάγεται τῶ τατρὶ καὶ τῆ μητρί, Οὐχ ἑώρακα ὐμᾶς καὶ τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς οὐ γενώσκω καὶ τοῖς υἰοῖς ἁτογινώσκω ὑπὲρ τοῦ δίχα μεθολκῆς θεραπεύειν τὸ ὄν
Soul - Some, following Plato and Philo, believed in its eternal pre-existence (cf
Baptism - This custom was very common in Rabbinical times, though Josephus and Philo do not mention it, and some have therefore concluded that it did not exist in the 1st cent
Magi - or MAGIANS, a title which the ancient Persians gave to their wise men, or Philosophers. ...
The ancient magi, according to Aristotle and Laertius, were the sole authors and conservators of the Persian Philosophy; and the Philosophy principally cultivated among them was theology and politics; they being always esteemed as the interpreters of all law, both divine and human; on which account they were wonderfully revered by the people. Plato, Apuleius, Laertius, and others, agree that the Philosophy of the magi related principally to the worship of the gods; they were the persons who were to offer prayers, supplications, and sacrifices, as if the gods would be heard by them alone. Philo Judaeus describes the magi to be diligent inquirers into nature, out of the love they bear to truth; and who, setting themselves apart from other things, contemplate the divine virtues the more clearly, and initiate others in the same mysteries. This celebrated Philosopher, called by the Persians Zerdusht, or Zaratush, began about the thirty-sixth year of the reign of Darius to restore and reform the magian system of religion. The term magi was also anciently used generally throughout the east, to distinguish Philosophers, and especially astronomers. They were Philosophers among whom the best parts of the reformed magian system, which was extensively diffused, were probably preserved
Scripture - , and Philo, to designate single books of the Old Testament; and later by Chrysostom—350-407 a
Pilate - Pilate is represented in the worst possible light by a passage in Philo, which is put into the mouth of Agrippa (Legatio ad Gaium, 38)
Presence (2) - On the other hand, Greek modes of thought, already affected by Oriental dualism, represented fully in Philo, but also anticipated in Palestinian theology (cf. ’ The doctrine of Transubstantiation became the keystone of the ecclesiastical edifice, and was maintained as a theory, by means of the prevalent Philosophy of Realism, whose greatest exponent was Thomas Aquinas
Soul - Some, following Plato and Philo, believed in its eternal pre-existence (cf
Colossians, Theology of - This teaching spoke of days of fasting to prepare for a journey to the heavens to see God and have a vision of him and his angelic host in worship (Philo, Som. That is why Paul calls it a Philosophy that comes from human tradition and the world, a Philosophy that is really deceitful (2:8). It is important to observe that Paul's complaint about Philosophy is not an attack on the syllogisms of atheism, but on a movement that had God and divine things in view, but in a way that distorted what Christ provided
Truth (2) - ) and so-called ‘philosophers’ or religious theorists, in Judaism and paganism, who refused to accept the Christian estimate of Jesus, and probably preferred Gnostic presentations of communion with God. ...
The roots of this unique conception may partly be found in Philo, but ultimately they run back to Platonism and the later Stoicism (cf. They represent the reality of the Divine revelation in Christ, with the twofold antithesis, running through the entire Gospel, between this final revelation and the inadequate OT religion on the one hand, and contemporary Philosophic or theosophic speculations about truth on the other
Sarah - Had Paul, or even Philo; had Behmen, or Bunyan but taken up this text, and said, 'Which things are an allegory,' we would have had doctrine, and depth, and beauty, and assurance, and comfort to our heart's content
Jacob - It is part of Moses' subtlety, as Philo calls it, to tell us how much more Rebekah loved Jacob than she loved Esau, whom Isaac loved; and then, to go on to give us two examples, and two examples only, of that love
Esau - Philo calls Esau a 'wooden' man; and the number of wooden men and women who sit at our dinner tables eating venison and drinking wine, and who are then driven all the noisy night after to our city assemblies, for outnumber those people who are made of any finer or more spiritual material
Dead Sea Scrolls - Most scholars identify this community as a group of Essenes, a monastic sect of Jews described by the ancient writers Josephus, Philo, and Pliny the Elder
Saviour (2) - 222, where Philo Galatians, Epistle to the - ‘Paul’) and others have denied the genuineness of these four also, chiefly on the ground that they are said to quote late Jewish apocalypses, to assume the existence of written Gospels, and to quote Philo and Seneca, and because the external attestation is said to begin as late as a
Gospel - 157) that this passage was a stock subject of discussion in the Jewish schools and in Philo
Sibylline Oracles - Postgate (AJPh Old Testament - Philo is an instance of the latter class
Pharaoh - A Pharaoh, says Philo, whose whole soul from his cradle had been filled full of the arrogance of his ancestors. We have seen Philosophers putting nature in the place of God till their scholars went against both God and nature too
Balaam - Beholding Balaam's insincerity, and being angry at it, says Philo, God said, By all means go
Hellenistic And Biblical Greek - The Philosopher Epicurus,† [8] as also Philo of Byzantium, the engineer (if he was a contemporary of Archimedes),§ Life - ...
The conception arises from the blending in the Fourth Gospel of Hebrew and early Christian with Greek-philosophical influences. The Fourth Evangelist, carrying out more fully the suggestion of Philo, combines the Hebrew and Greek ideas. But the essential thought of the Gospel is independent of the form, borrowed from an alien Philosophy, in which it is expressed
Asceticism (2) - Philo says that they were indifferent to money, pleasure, and worldly position
Lust - ...
It might thus appear that those who make selfishness (φιλαυτία) the root of sinful desires are nearest the truth, Philo does so and Plato. Since the time of Plato desire has been regarded by Philosophers as aiming at a good (true or false)
Immortality - In Alexandrian Judaism, as represented by Philo, we have the blending of the Platonic doctrine of immortality, based on the distinction between the higher and the lower elements in man, with the Pharisaic assertion of the value of the individual to God and its grasp of the eternal character of the soul’s communion with God. The future existence of individuals is not a question of psychological or Philosophical interest, but is determined by the view of the future Kingdom of God
Teaching of Jesus - Philo describes Jews as ‘taught …, even long before the sacred laws and also the unwritten usages, to recognize as one God the Father and Creator of the world’ (Legatio ad Gaium, 16). ’...
Such seems the Philosophy of Christ’s parabolic teaching, when we regard the trend of this fundamental section and the general effect of His teaching in the Gospels
John, Theology of - Hellenism (especially Stoic Philosophy) saw the Logos as an eternal principle of order in the uNIVerse. Philo, in some respects, even allegorizes God's Word in the Old Testament to wed his Jewish faith with pagan ideas
Slave, Slavery - Philo says: ‘There is not a slave amongst them, but all are free’ (Quod omnis probus liber, 12)
Gnosticism - γνῶσις, ‘knowledge’) is the name of a syncretistic religion and Philosophy which flourished more or less for four centuries alongside Christianity, by which it was considerably influenced, under which it sheltered, by which at last it was overcome. Philos. 4), Hippolytus (Philosophoumena), Clement of Alexandria (Stromateis, Excerpta ex Theodoto), Tertullian (adv. In the ancient world we meet two kinds of dualism, one in Greek Philosophy, the other in Eastern religion. the realm of reality in the Greek sense; the kingdom of evil and darkness is the Kenoma (‘emptiness’), the phenomenal world of Greek Philosophy. errorists within the Church who gradually diverged from normal Christianity, under an impulse to make a Philosophy of their religion. All the faiths and Philosophies of the world met, and became fluid, so to say. Alike in Philosophy and religion, attempts were made to establish by syncretism a universal system out of the confusion. Probably we should regard its primary impulse as Philosophical rather than religious. , and from which sprang the system of Simon Magus (with his predecessor Dositheus, and his successor Menander), who is distinguished by the Fathers as the parent of Gnosticism; (3) Alexandrian, represented mainly by Philo, who produced an amalgam of Judaism with Greek Philosophy. ...
A third and very important element manifest in the fully developed Gnostic systems is Greek Philosophy. Genetically, then, Gnosticism may be defined as largely a syncretistic system rising from Perso-Babylonian religion, modified to some extent, difficult to estimate, by Judaism, and in some particulars borrowing from, and as a whole clarified ay contact with, Greek Philosophy
Man - In His own person, He gave to man an example, a motive, and an approach to God which have made His teaching a religion as well as a Philosophy. the parallel phenomenon in Philo) being the most notable example of it
Pentecost - ) and had added such particulars as that at Sinai all nations had heard God’s voice in their own language and that voice could be heard as well by those farthest away as by those nearest the mount (see Midrash on Psalms 68:11, and Philo, de Decalogo)
Papias, Bishop of Hierapolis - Philo quotes as a λόγιον the narrative in Gen_4:15 "The Lord set a mark upon Cain," etc
Pentecost - ) and had added such particulars as that at Sinai all nations had heard God’s voice in their own language and that voice could be heard as well by those farthest away as by those nearest the mount (see Midrash on Psalms 68:11, and Philo, de Decalogo)
Ignatius - Later he thanks the Smyrnaeans effusively for the welcome they gave him and his two companions Philo and Rheus Agathopus (Smyrn
Education - ’ Philo speaks of Jewish youth ‘being taught, so to speak, from their very swaddling clothes by parents and teachers and inspectors, even before they receive instruction in the holy laws and unwritten customs of their religion, to believe in God the one Father and Creator of the world’ (Legat. Down to the Roman period at least, this educational exclusiveness was maintained, and only the sons of those who were full citizens were the subjects of education, although there were cases in which daughters rose to distinction in letters, and even examples of slaves, like the Philosopher Epictetus, who burst the restraints of their position and showed themselves capable of rising to eminence in learning and virtue. This was really the university stage of his career, for he then attended the class of the rhetors and sophists who lectured in such institutions as the Lyceum and the Academy, and devoted himself to the study of rhetoric and Philosophy (cf. In addition to these subjects, Philosophy was also taught, its technical terms being mastered and its various schools discriminated. The gymnasion, where the youths of Greece exercised themselves naked, was enclosed by walls and fitted up with dressing-rooms, bath-rooms, and requisites for running, leaping, wrestling, boxing, and other athletic exercises, and there were seats round about the course for spectators, and porticoes where Philosophers gathered. Of the various Philosophic schools then exercising an influence upon thought in the Greek world two are expressly mentioned in the Acts (17:18)-the Stoics and the Epicureans. A century later Marcus Aurelius endowed the four great Philosophical schools of Athens-the Academic, the Peripatetic, the Epicurean, and the Stoic. ), shows how the representatives of the Stoic, the Peripatetic, the Pythagorean, and the Academic (Platonic) Schools in turn failed to satisfy his yearning after truth, and satisfaction came to him when he found Christianity to be the only Philosophy sure and suited to the needs of man. Christianity, brought into contact with the society in which this Philosophical habit of mind had established itself, modified, stimulated, and elevated it, and in turn was modified by the habit of mind of those who accepted it
Apocrypha - —There is no attempt at metaphysical analysis or Philosophical argumentation. This Jewish Philosophy is not elucidated by reasoning, or based on logical grounds. Thus we have nothing like a Philosophical or ethical treatise. Even Philo’s much more explicit personification of the Logos does not mean that he held the Logos to be an actual person in our sense of the term. It is not a Philosophy for solving the riddle of the universe; it is a guide to conduct. —Although, as an Alexandrian work in touch with Greek Philosophy, the Bk. of Wisdom carries the doctrine of Hokhmah a stage forward in the direction of Philo, it is essentially Jewish, and its idea of wisdom is fundamentally the same as that of Proverbs and Sirach, but with additions, some of which may be attributed to Hellenic influences
Fall - It is now generally recognized by scholars that the story of the Fall in Genesis is to be regarded neither as literal history, as Irenaeus, Tertullian, and Augustine taught, nor as allegory, as Clement and Origen, following Philo, held; but as a myth, common to the Semitic group of religions, in which an attempt is made to explain the origin of the evils from which mankind suffers. This mystical realism is a style of thought, a rhetorical mode; it is not a Philosophy; the realism is only figurative
Trinity - The discovery of the existence of this doctrine in the early ages, among the nations whose records have been the best preserved, has been of great service to the cause of Christianity, and completely refutes the assertion of infidels and skeptics, that the sublime and mysterious doctrine of the Trinity owes its origin to the Philosophers of Greece. In the Septuagint translation of the Bible, a work supposed by the Jews to have been undertaken by men immediately inspired from above, the former term is universally rendered Λογος , and it is so rendered and so understood by Philo and all the more ancient rabbins
Old Testament (ii. Christ as Student And Interpreter of). - A than with any other existing text of the Greek OT—a tendency that has also been discovered in the writings of Josephus and of Philo, while Swete also points out that there is an ‘occasional tendency in NT quotations to support Theodotion against the LXX Septuagint ’ (Introd
Pharisees (2) - Art, Philosophy, science, history, culture were avoided as secular and profane. ’ It was not related at all to Philo and his λόγος doctrine (cf
Egypt - [In the reign of Philo-metor ( c -->