What does Pharisees mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
φαρισαῖοι A sect that seems to have started after the Jewish exile. 50
φαρισαίων A sect that seems to have started after the Jewish exile. 28
φαρισαίους A sect that seems to have started after the Jewish exile. 5
φαρισαίοις A sect that seems to have started after the Jewish exile. 2

Definitions Related to Pharisees

G5330


   1 A sect that seems to have started after the Jewish exile.
   In addition to OT books the Pharisees recognised in oral tradition a standard of belief and life.
   They sought for distinction and praise by outward observance of external rites and by outward forms of piety, and such as ceremonial washings, fastings, prayers, and alms giving; and, comparatively negligent of genuine piety, they prided themselves on their fancied good works.
   They held strenuously to a belief in the existence of good and evil angels, and to the expectation of a Messiah; and they cherished the hope that the dead, after a preliminary experience either of reward or of penalty in Hades, would be recalled to life by him, and be requited each according to his individual deeds.
   In opposition to the usurped dominion of the Herods and the rule of the Romans, they stoutly upheld the theocracy and their country’s cause, and possessed great influence with the common people.
   According to Josephus they numbered more than 6000.
   They were bitter enemies of Jesus and his cause; and were in turn severely rebuked by him for their avarice, ambition, hollow reliance on outward works, and affection of piety in order to gain popularity.
   

Frequency of Pharisees (original languages)

Frequency of Pharisees (English)

Dictionary

People's Dictionary of the Bible - Pharisees
Pharisees (far'i-sees), a religious sect among the Jews at the time of Christ. Matthew 15:1-8. Their name is from the Hebrew word perûshim, "separated." The chief sects among the Jews during Christ's ministry were the Pharisees, the Sadducees, and the Essenes. Christ denounced the Pharisees in the strongest language; see Matthew 15:1-8; Matthew 23:13-25; Mark 7:5-6; Luke 11:42-44. To understand the Pharisees is an aid toward understanding the spirit of pure Christianity. The principle of the Pharisees, common to them with all orthodox modern Jews, is that by the side of the written law there was an oral law to complete and to explain the written law, given to Moses on Mount Sinai and transmitted by him by word of mouth. They were particular to avoid anything which the law declared unclean, but they forgot to acquire that cleanness which is the most important of all, and which consists in the purity of the heart. Matthew 15:11. It would be a great mistake to suppose that the Pharisees were wealthy and luxurious, or that they had degenerated into the vices which were imputed to some of the Roman popes and cardinals during the 200 years preceding the Reformation. Josephus compared the Pharisees to the sect of the Stoics. He says that they lived frugally, in no respect given to luxury. We are not to suppose that there were not many individuals among them who were upright and pure, for there were such men as Nicodemus, Gamaliel, Joseph of Arimathæa, and Paul. See Sadducees.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Pharisees
Separatists (Heb. persahin, from parash, "to separate"). They were probably the successors of the Assideans (i.e., the "pious"), a party that originated in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes in revolt against his heathenizing policy. The first mention of them is in a description by Josephus of the three sects or schools into which the Jews were divided (B.C. 145). The other two sects were the Essenes and the Sadducees. In the time of our Lord they were the popular party (John 7:48 ). They were extremely accurate and minute in all matters appertaining to the law of Moses (Matthew 9:14 ; 23:15 ; Luke 11:39 ; 18:12 ). Paul, when brought before the council of Jerusalem, professed himself a Pharisee (Acts 23:6-8 ; 26:4,5 ). There was much that was sound in their creed, yet their system of religion was a form and nothing more. Theirs was a very lax morality (Matthew 5:20 ; 15:4,8 ; 23:3,14,23,25 ; John 8:7 ). On the first notice of them in the New Testament (Matthew 3:7 ), they are ranked by our Lord with the Sadducees as a "generation of vipers." They were noted for their self-righteousness and their pride (Matthew 9:11 ; Luke 7:39 ; 18:11,12 ). They were frequently rebuked by our Lord (Matthew 12:39 ; 16:1-4 ).
From the very beginning of his ministry the Pharisees showed themselves bitter and persistent enemies of our Lord. They could not bear his doctrines, and they sought by every means to destroy his influence among the people.
Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words - Pharisees
1: Φαρισαῖος (Strong's #5330 — Noun Masculine — pharisaios — far-is-ah'-yos ) from an Aramaic word peras (found in Daniel 5:28 ), signifying "to separate," owing to a different manner of life from that of the general public. The "Pharisees" and Sadducees appear as distinct parties in the latter half of the 2nd cent. B.C., though they represent tendencies traceable much earlier in Jewish history, tendencies which became pronounced after the return from Babylon (537 B.C.). The immediate progenitors of the two parties were, respectively, the Hasideans and the Hellenizers; the latter, the antecedents of the Sadducees, aimed at removing Judaism from its narrowness and sharing in the advantages of Greek life and culture. The Hasidaeans, a transcription of the Hebrew chasidim, i.e., "pious ones," were a society of men zealous for religion, who acted under the guidance of the scribes, in opposition to the godless Hellenizing party; they scrupled to oppose the legitimate high priest even when he was on the Greek side. Thus the Hellenizers were a political sect, while the Hasidaens, whose fundamental principle was complete separation from non-Jewish elements, were the strictly legal party among the Jews, and were ultimately the more popular and influential party. In their zeal for the Law they almost deified it and their attitude became merely external, formal, and mechanical. They laid stress, not upon the righteousness of an action, but upon its formal correctness. Consequently their opposition to Christ was inevitable; His manner of life and teaching was essentially a condemnation of theirs; hence His denunciation of them, e.g., Matthew 6:2,5,16 ; 15:7 and chapter 23.
While the Jews continued to be divided into these two parties, the spread of the testimony of the Gospel must have produced what in the public eye seemed to be a new sect, and in the extensive development which took place at Antioch, Acts 11:19-26 , the name "Christians" seems to have become a popular term applied to the disciples as a sect, the primary cause, however, being their witness to Christ (see CALL , A, No. 11). The opposition of both "Pharisees" and Sadducees (still mutually antagonistic, Acts 23:6-10 ) against the new "sect" continued unabated during apostolic times.
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Pharisees
The Pharisees were one of the two main parties within Judaism in New Testament times, the other being the Sadducees. The origins of the two parties go back to the second century BC, when Greek influence in Jewish affairs created divisions among the Jewish people.
Most of the Pharisees came from the working classes and tried to preserve traditional Jewish practices from the corruption of foreign ideas and political ambition. The Sadducees came mainly from the wealthy upper classes. Their chief concern was not with following tradition, but with using the religious and social structures of Jewish society to gain controlling power for themselves. (For fuller details concerning the origins of the two parties see SADDUCEES.)
Lawkeeping
Once the Sadducees had gained priestly power, they furthered their own interests by emphasizing the need to keep the temple rituals. The Pharisees, by contrast, emphasized the responsibility to keep the law in all aspects of life, not just in temple rituals. In this the Pharisees supported the traditions that the teachers of the law (the scribes) had developed and taught. The scribes had expanded the law of Moses into a system that consisted of countless laws dealing with such matters as sabbath-keeping (Matthew 12:1-2; Mark 3:1-6; Luke 13:10-14), ritual cleanliness (Matthew 23:25; Mark 7:1-9), fasting (Luke 18:11-12), tithing (Matthew 23:23) and the taking of oaths (Matthew 23:16-22; see also SCRIBES).
Being members of such a strict party, many of the Pharisees regarded themselves alone as being the true people of God, and kept apart from those who did not follow their beliefs and practices. The name ‘Pharisees’ meant ‘the separated ones’ (Acts 15:5; Acts 26:5; cf. Galatians 2:12).
The Pharisees criticized Jesus for not keeping their laws (Matthew 12:10-14; Matthew 15:1-2; John 9:16), but Jesus condemned the Pharisees for not keeping God’s law. They were more concerned with maintaining their traditions than with producing the kind of character and behaviour that God’s law aimed at (Matthew 5:20; Matthew 15:1-10; Matthew 23:23-26). They were concerned with outward show more than with correct attitudes of heart. They wanted to impress people more than please God (Matthew 23:2; John 11:47-53; Matthew 23:27-28).
Jesus’ criticism of the Pharisees caused them to hate him. They even cooperated with the Sadducees (the priests) to get rid of him (Matthew 23:5; John 18:3). Although the Sadducees had the chief positions in the Sanhedrin (the Jewish Council that condemned Jesus), many Pharisees were Sanhedrin members. At least one of the Pharisees, Nicodemus, became a believer in Jesus (John 3:1; John 7:45-52; John 19:38-40; see SANHEDRIN).
Other beliefs and practices
While lawkeeping was the Pharisees’ main concern, other distinctive beliefs added to the tension in their relationship with the Sadducees. The Pharisees, for example, believed in the continued existence of the soul after death, the resurrection of the body and the existence of angelic beings, whereas the Sadducees did not (Matthew 22:23; Acts 23:8).
The Pharisees’ belief in the resurrection was probably one reason for their favourable attitude to Christians in the early days of the church. They did not object to multitudes of people believing in the resurrection of Jesus. Although the Sadducees angrily opposed the Christians, the Pharisees seem to have regarded the Christians as sincerely religious Jews with orthodox beliefs and practices (Acts 2:46-47; Acts 4:1-2; Acts 5:12; Acts 5:17; Acts 5:25-28).
Another belief of the Pharisees, also in contrast to the beliefs of the Sadducees, was that all events were under the control of God, and no person had independent right to interfere with what God had decreed. They therefore thought it wise not to oppose the Christians, lest they oppose a movement that had God’s approval (Acts 5:34-39).
This attitude of tolerance towards Christians changed suddenly when the Pharisees understood Stephen to have spoken against the law of Moses. They turned violently against the Christians, and in fact it was a Pharisee, Saul of Tarsus, who led the persecution (Acts 6:13-14; Acts 7:57-58; Acts 8:3; Acts 23:6).
After the destruction of Jerusalem by Rome in AD 70, the Sadducees and the smaller Jewish parties died out. This left the Pharisees in full control of the Jewish religion. A separate Pharisee party was no longer necessary, for Judaism as a whole now followed the Pharisee tradition.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Pharisees
The largest and most influential religious-political party during New Testament times. See Jewish Parties.
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Pharisees
A famous sect of the Jews who distinguished themselves by their zeal for the traditions of the idlers, which they derived from the same fountain with the written word itself; pretending that both were delivered to Moses from Mount Sinai, and were therefore both of equal authority. From their rigorous observance of these traditions, they looked upon themselves as more holy than other men, and therefore separated themselves from those whom they thought sinners or profane, so as not to eat or drink with them; and hence, from the Hebrew word pharia, which signifies "to separate, " they had the name of Pharisees, or Sepharatists. This sect was one of the most ancient and most considerable among the Jews, but its original is not very well known; however, it was in great repute in the time of our Saviour, and most probably had its original at the same time with the traditions. The extraordinary pretences of the Pharisees to righteousness, drew after them the common people, who held them in the highest esteem and veneration. Our Saviour frequently, however, charges them with hypocrisy, and making the law of God of no effect through their traditions, Matthew 9:12 . Matthew 15:1-39 . Matthew 23:13 ; Matthew 23:33 . Luke 11:39 ; Luke 11:52 . Several of these traditions are particularly mentioned in the Gospel; but they had a vast number more, which may be seen in the Talmud, the whole subject whereof is to dictate and explain those traditions which this sect imposed to be believed and observed.
The Pharisees, contrary to the opinion of the Sadducees, held a resurrection from the dead, and the existence of angels and spirits, Acts 23:8 . But, according to Josephus, this resurrection of theirs was no more than a Pythagorean resurrection, that is, of the soul only, by its transmigration into another body, and being born anew with it. From the resurrection they excluded all who were notoriously wicked, being of opinion that the souls of such persons were transmitted into a state of everlasting woe. As to lesser crimes, they held they were punished in the bodies which the souls of those who committed them were next sent into. Josephus, however, either mistook the faith of his countrymen, or, which is more probable, wilfully misrepresented it, to render their opinions more respected by the Roman philosophers, whom he appears to have, on every occasion, been desirous to please. The Pharisees had many Pagan notions respecting the soul; but Bishop Bull, in his Harmonia Apostolica, has clearly proved that they held a resurrection of the body, and that they supposed a certain bone to remain uncorrupted, to furnish the matter of which the resurrection body was to be formed. they did not, however, believe that all mankind were to be raised from the dead. A resurrection was the privilege of the children of Abraham alone, who were all to rise on Mount Zion; their incorruptible bones, wherever they might be buried, being carried to that mountain below the surface of the earth.
The state of future felicity in which the Pharisees believed was very gross: they imagined that men in the next world, as well as in the present, were to eat and drink, and enjoy the pleasures of love, each being re-united to his former wife. Hence the Sadducees, who believed in no resurrection, and supposed our Saviour to teach it as a Pharisee, very shrewdly urged the difficulty of disposing of the woman who had in this world been the wife of seven husbands. Had the resurrection of Christianity been the Pharisaical resurrection, this difficulty would have been insurmountable; and accordingly we find the people, and even some of the Pharisees themselves, struck with the manner in which our Saviour removed it. This sect seems to have had some confused notions, probably derived from the Chaldeans and Persians, respecting the pre-existence of souls; and hence it was that Christ's disciples asked him concerning the blind man, John 9:2 . "Who did sin, this man, or his parents, that he was born blind?" and when the disciples told Christ that some said he was Elias, Jeremias, or one of the prophets, Matthew 16:14 . the meaning can only be, that they thought he was come into the world with the soul of Elias, Jeremias, or some other of the old prophets transmigrated into him. With the Essenes they held absolute predestination, and with the Sadducees free will; but how they reconciled these seemingly incompatible doctrines is no where sufficiently explained. The sect of the Pharisees was not extinguished by the ruin of the Jewish commonwealth. The greatest part of the modern Jews are still of this sect, being as much devoted to traditions, or the oral law, as their ancestors were.
Hitchcock's Bible Names - Pharisees
Set apart
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Pharisees
Jewish group mentioned, either collectively or as individuals, ninety-eight times in the New Testament, all but ten times in the Gospels.
The root meaning of the word "Pharisee" is uncertain. It is probably related to the Hebrew root prs [ John 7:49 )? From Gentiles or Jews who embraced the Hellenistic culture? From certain political groups? All these groups of people the Pharisees would have been determined to avoid in their resolution to separate themselves from any type of impurity proscribed by the levitical law—or, more specifically, their strict interpretation of it.
Josephus's references to the Pharisees are selective, probably because he was adapting them to a cultured Gentile audience. His information comes in two forms: direct descriptions and the role the Pharisees play in the history that he depicts.
Josephus says the Pharisees maintained a simple lifestyle (Ant 18.1.3 [1]), were affectionate and harmonious in their dealings with others (War 2.8.14 [2]), especially respectful to their elders ( Ant 18.13 [1]), and quite influential throughout the land of Israel (Ant 13.10.5 [4]; 17.2.4 [5]; 18.1.3 [6])although at the time of Herod they numbered only about six thousand (Ant 17.2.4 [7]). Josephus mentions their belief in both fate (divine sovereignty) and the human will (War 2.8.14 [8], Ant 18.1.3 [9]) and in immortality of both good and evil persons (War 2.8.14 [10]; Ant 17.1.3 [11]). Some Pharisees refused to take oaths (Ant 17.2.4 [7]). Of particular importance are Josephus's statements that the Pharisees adhered to "the laws of which the Deity approves" (Ant 17.2.4 [11]) and that they "are considered the most accurate interpreters of the laws" (War 2.8.14 [14]). Pharisees "follow the guidance of that which their doctrine has selected and transmitted as good, attaching the chief importance to the observance of those commandments which it has seen fit to dictate to them" ( Ant 18.1.3 [1]) and they "passed on to the people certain regulations handed down by former generations and not recorded in the Laws of Moses" (Ant 17.2.4 [11]; 13.10.6 [17]). Although the phrase "Oral Law" is not used, it appears Josephus understood that the Pharisees affirmed a body of traditional interpretations, applications, and expansions of the Old Testament law communicated orally.
The Pharisees first appear in Josephus's account of intertestamental history as he describes the reign of John Hyrcanus (134-104). He assumes they had been in existence for some time. This raises the much discussed question of their origin. Some see the Pharisees' roots in the biblical Ezra (Ezra 7:10 ; shows his concern for exact keeping of the Law, especially ceremonial purity ), others in the Hasidim (the Holy/Pure/Righteous) who supported the Maccabean revolt as long as its motives were religious but withdrew when it became primarily political (1 Maccabees 2:42 ; 7:13 ; cf. 2 Maccabees 14:6 ). Recent studies suggest the Pharisees were part of a general revolutionary spirit of the pre-Maccabean times and that they emerged as a scholarly class dedicated to the teaching of both the written and oral Law and stressing the internal side of Judaism. In any case, they were certainly one of the groups that sought to adapt Judaism for the postexilic situation.
John Hyrcanus was at first "a disciple" of the Pharisees but became their enemy (Ant 13.10.5 [10]4). The Pharisees were opponents of the Hasmonean rulers from then on. The hostility was especially great during the reign of Alexander Jannaeus (103-76), and they seem to have taken a leading part in opposition to him; it is usually assumed that Pharisees composed either all or a large part of the eight hundred Jews he later crucified (Ant 13.14.2 [10]4). The one exception to Pharisaic opposition to the Hasmoneans was Salome Alexandria (76-67), under whom they virtually dominated the government.
Josephus's information about the Pharisees under the Romans is spotty. Under Herod (37 b.c.-4 b.c.) the Pharisees were influential, but carefully controlled by the king. Some individual Pharisees did oppose Herod on occasion. Josephus gives almost no information about the Pharisees from the death of Herod until the outset of the revolt against Rome (about a.d. 66). At first they attempted to persuade the Jews against militant actions (War 2.17.3 [20]). Later Pharisees appear as part of the leadership of the people during the revolt, some individuals playing a leading role in it.
The New Testament depicts the Pharisees as opponents of Jesus or the early Christians. On the other hand, they warn Jesus that his life is in danger from Herod (Luke 13:31 ), invite him for meals (Luke 7:36-50 ; 14:1 ), are attracted to or believe in Jesus (John 3:1 ; 7:45-53 ; 9:13-38 ), and protect early Christians (Acts 5:34 ; 23:6-9 ). Paul asserts he was a Pharisee before his conversion (Philippians 3:5 ).
The clearest New Testament statement of Pharisaic distinctives is Acts 23:8 : "The Sadducees say that there is no resurrection, and that there are neither angels, nor spirits, but the Pharisees acknowledge them all." This would give the impression that doctrine was the basic concern of the group. However, Mark 7:3-4 says that "The Pharisees do not eat unless they give their hands a ceremonial washing holding to the tradition of the elders. When they come from the marketplace they do not eat unless they wash. And they observe many other traditions, such as the washing of cups, pitchers and kettles." Thus, we are also told of the Pharisees' concern for washing (ceremonial cleansing) and observance of "the traditions of the elders, " a description of the Oral Law. Matthew 23 calls attention to their (1) positions of religious authority in the community, (2) concern for outward recognition and honor, (3) enthusiasm for making converts, and (4) emphasis on observing the legalistic minutia of the law. In verse 23Jesus condemns them, not for what they did, but for neglecting "the more important matters of the lawjustice, mercy and faithfulness."
There is general recognition that Josephus's description of the Pharisees as a "sect" (hairesis [21]) should not be understood in the modern sense. Instead, it seems to denote something like a "religious party, " "community, " or "denomination" within mainstream Judaism. Pharisaic zeal for the Law is obvious, but what is meant by Law? The sanctity of the written Law was never questioned, but intertestamental Jewish groups differed on how it was to be interpreted and applied. The Pharisees developed their own body of interpretations, expansions, and applications of the Law that they came to regard as of divine origin (Mishnah, Aboth, 1:1). This was to assist in understanding and keeping the Law, often added regulations ("fences" or "hedges") were designed to prevent even coming close to breaking the Law. Most of these traditions, the Oral Law, dealt with matters of levitical purity. Some contained other additions that had come into prominence in the intertestamental situation. These included belief in immortality, angels and demons, spirits, and divine sovereignty. Expansions of such doctrines led to others. For example, belief in immortality resulted in expanded messianic and eschatological views. Their social and political views were based on their premise that all of life must be lived under the control of God's Law. The Pharisees opposed Hasmoneans who, contrary to the Law, sought to combine the monarchy and priesthood. Likewise, they rejected Roman authority when it appeared to conflict with the Law of God.
Some modern scholars have objected to the assumption that intertestamental Judaism, including Pharisaism, believed in a "wage price-theory of righteousness, " that eternal life is granted on the basis of faithfulness in keeping the Law. Rather, they insist, Israel's religion was a "covenantal nominism" in which Law-keeping was a response to God's grace offered in his covenant with Israel. These studies provide a helpful corrective to traditional views of intertestamental Judaism, including Pharisaism, as merely a blatant legalism. Yet the New Testament assumes that Jesus and his disciples were at times in conflict with just such legalism (e.g., Mark 10:17 ; Luke 15:29 ; [22] ); John 6:28 ; and Paul's constant fight against earning salvation by works of the law (note: Romans 9:30-32 , ; Israel "pursued it [23] not by faith but as if it were by works" ). Of particular relevance here are the contrasting prayers of the Pharisee and the Publican, the results of which the latter "went home justified" (Luke 18:9-14 ). Intertestamental Judaism was far from a monolithic whole; many, if not most, of the common people, who were influenced by the Pharisees, seem to have held a legalistic view of their religion. Jesus and the early Christians strongly opposed views that externalized religion and/or sought God's favor on the basis of human effort.
J. Julius Scott, Jr.
See also Jesus Christ ; Legalism ; Paul the Apostle
Bibliography . J. W. Bowker, Jesus and the Pharisees ; L. Findelstein, The Pharisees: The Sociological Background of Their Faith ; L. L. Grabbe, Judaism from Cyrus to Hadrian ; J. Neusner, Formative Judaism: Torah, Pharisees and Rabbis ; idem, The Rabbinic Traditions about the Pharisees before 70 ; E. Rivkin, A Hidden Revolution: The Pharisees Search for the Kingdom Within ; E. P. Sanders, Judaism: Practice and Belief, 63 BCE-66 CE ; idem, Paul and Palestinian Judaism ; Emil Schürer, The History of Their Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ ; Moisés Silva, WTJ 42 (1979-80): 395-405; M. Simon, The Jewish Sects at the Time of Jesus .
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Pharisees
This name was given to a religious school among the Jews; it is supposed to have been derived from the Hebrew word parash, signifying 'to separate'; it was given to them by others, their chosen name being chasidim, 'pious ones.' Josephus speaks of them as early as the reign of Jonathan (B.C. 161-144). They prided themselves on their superior sanctity of life, devotion to God, and their study of the law. The Pharisee in the parable thanked God that he was 'not as other men.' Luke 18:11 . Paul, when before Agrippa, spoke of them as 'the most straitest sect.' The Pharisees included all classes of men, rich and poor: they were numerous, and at times had great influence. In the council before which Paul was arraigned they were well represented. Acts 23:6-9 . They were the great advocates of tradition, and were punctilious in paying tithes. In many respects the ritualists of modern days resemble them.
The Lord severely rebuked all their pretensions, and laid bare their wickedness as well as their hypocrisy. It may have been that because of the great laxity of the Jews generally, some at first devoutly sought for greater sanctity. Others, not sincere, may have joined themselves to the sect, and it thus degenerated from its original design, until its moral state became such as was exposed and denounced by the Lord. The very name has become a synonym for bigotry and formalism. Probably such men as Gamaliel, Nicodemus, and Saul were men of a different stamp, though all needed the regenerating power of grace to give them what they professed to seek.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Pharisees
From perishin Aramaic, perashim , "separated." To which Paul alludes, Romans 1:1; Galatians 1:15, "separated unto the gospel of God"; once "separated" unto legal self righteousness. In contrast to "mingling" with Grecian and other heathen customs, which Antiochus Epiphanes partially effected, breaking down the barrier of God's law which separated Israel from pagandom, however refined. The Pharisees were successors of the Assideans or Chasidim, i.e. godly men "voluntarily devoted unto the law." On the return from Babylon the Jews became more exclusive than ever. In Antiochus' time this narrowness became intensified in opposition to the rationalistic compromises of many. The Sadducees succeeded to the latter, the Pharisees to the former (1 Maccabees 1:13-15; 1 Maccabees 1:41-49; 1 Maccabees 1:62-63; 1 Maccabees 2:42; 1 Maccabees 7:13-17; 2 Maccabees 14:6-38). They "resolved fully not to eat any unclean thing, choosing rather to die that they might not be defiled: and profame the holy covenant." in opposition to the Hellenizing faction.
So the beginning of the Pharisees was patriotism and faithfulness to the covenant. Jesus, the meek and loving One, so wholly free from harsh judgments, denounces with unusual severity their hypocrisy as a class. (Matthew 15:7-8; Luke 10:27-29; Matthew 23:13-33), their ostentatious phylacteries and hems, their real love of preeminence; their pretended long prayers, while covetously defrauding the widow. They by their "traditions" made God's word of none effect; opposed bitterly the Lord Jesus, compassed His death, provoking Him to some "hasty words" (apostomatizein ) which they might catch at and accuse Him; and hired Judas to betray Him; "strained out gnats, while swallowing camels" (image from filtrating wine); painfully punctilious about legal trifles and casuistries, while reckless of truth, righteousness, and the fear of God; cleansing the exterior man while full of iniquity within, like "whited sepulchres" (Mark 7:6-13; Luke 11:42-44; Luke 11:53-54; Luke 16:14-15); lading men with grievous burdens, while themselves not touching them with one of their fingers. (See CORBAN.)
Paul's remembrance of his former bondage as a rigid Pharisee produced that reaction in his mind, upon his embracing the gospel, that led to his uncompromising maintenance, under the Spirit of God, of Christian liberty and justification by faith only, in opposition to the yoke of ceremonialism and the righteousness which is of the law (Galatians 4; 5). The Mishna or "second law," the first portion of the Talmud, is a digest of Jewish traditions and ritual, put in writing by rabbi Jehudah the Holy in the second century. The Gemara is a "supplement," or commentary on it; it is twofold, that of Jerusalem not later than the first half of the fourth century, and that of Babylon A.D. 500. The Mishna has six divisions (on seeds, feasts, women's marriage, etc., decreases and compacts, holy things, clean and unclean), and an introduction on blessings. Hillel and Shammai were leaders of two schools of the Pharisees, differing on slight points; the Mishna refers to both (living before Christ) and to Hillel's grandson, Paul's' teacher, Gamaliel.
An undesigned coincidence confirming genuineness is the fact that throughout the Gospels hostility to Christianity shows itself mainly from the Pharisees; but throughout Acts from the Sadducees. Doubtless because after Christ's resurrection the resurrection of the dead was a leading doctrine of Christians, which it was not before (Mark 9:10; Acts 1:22; Acts 2:32; Acts 4:10; Acts 5:31; Acts 10:40). The Pharisees therefore regarded Christians in this as their allies against the Sadducees, and so the less opposed Christianity (John 11:57; John 18:3; Acts 4:1; Acts 5:17; Acts 23:6-9). The Mishna lays down the fundamental principle of the Pharisees. "Moses received the oral law from Sinai, and delivered it to Joshua, and Joshua to the elders, and these to the prophets, and these to the men of the great synagogue" (Ρirke Αboth ("The Sayings of the [1] Fathers"), 1). The absence of directions for prayer, and of mention of a future life, in the Pentateuch probably gave a pretext for the figment of a traditional oral law.
The great synagogue said, "make a fence for the law," i.e. carry the prohibitions beyond the written law to protect men from temptations to sin; so Exodus 23:19 was by oral law made further to mean that no flesh was to be mixed with milk for food. The oral law defined the time before which in the evening a Jew must repeat the Shema, i.e. "Hear O Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord, and thou shalt love the Lord," etc. (Deuteronomy 6:4-9.) So it defines the kind of wick and oil to be used for lighting the lamps which every Jew must burn on the Sabbath eve. An egg laid on a festival may be eaten according to the school of Shammai, but not according to that of Hillel; for Jehovah says in Exodus 16:5, "on the sixth day they shall prepare that which, they bring in," therefore one must not prepare for the Sabbath on a feast day nor for a feast day on the Sabbath. An egg laid on a feast following the Sabbath was "prepared" the day before, and so involves a breach of the Sabbath (!); and though all feasts do not immediately follow the Sabbath yet "as a fence to the law" an egg laid on any feast must not be eaten.
Contrast Micah 6:8. A member of the society of Pharisees was called chaber ; those not members were called "the people of the land"; compare John 7:49, "this people who knoweth not the law are cursed"; also the Pharisee standing and praying with himself, self righteous and despising the publican (Luke 18:9-14). Isaiah (Isaiah 65:5) foretells their characteristic formalism, pride of sanctimony, and hypocritical exclusiveness (Judges 1:18). Their scrupulous tithing (Matthew 23:23; Luke 18:12) was based on the Mishna, "he who undertakes to be trustworthy (a pharisaic phrase) tithes whatever he eats, sells, buys, and does not eat and drink with the people of the land." The produce (tithes) reserved for the Levites and priests was "holy," and for anyone. else to eat it was deadly sin. So the Pharisee took all pains to know that his purchases had been duly tithed, and therefore shrank from "eating with" (Matthew 9:11) those whose food might not be so. The treatise Cholin in the Mishna lays down a regulation as to "clean and unclean" (Leviticus 20:25; Leviticus 22:4-7; Numbers 19:20) which severs the Jews socially from other peoples; "anything slaughtered by a pagan is unfit to be eaten, like the carcass of an animal that died of itself, and pollutes him who carries it."
An orthodox Jew still may not eat meat of any animal unless killed by a Jewish butcher; the latter searches for a blemish, and attaches to the approved a leaden seal stamped kashar , "lawful." (Disraeli, Genius. of Judaism.) The Mishna abounds in precepts illustrating Colossians 2:21, "touch not, taste not, handle not" (contrast Matthew 15:11). Also it (6:480) has a separate treatise on washing of hands (Υadayim ). Translated Mark 7:8, "except they wash their hands with the fist" (pugmee ); the Mishna ordaining to pour water over the dosed hands raised so that it should flow down to the elbows, and then over the arms so as to flow over the fingers. Jesus, to confute the notion of its having moral value, did not wash before eating (Luke 11:37-40). Josephus (Ant. 18:1, section 3, 13:10, section 5) says the Pharisees lived frugally, like the Stoics, and hence had so much weight with the multitude that if they said aught against the king or the high-priest it was immediately believed, whereas the Sadducees could gain only the rich.
The defect in the Pharisees which Christ stigmatized by the parable of the two debtors was not immorality but want of love, from unconsciousness of forgiveness or of the need of it. Christ recognizes Simon's superiority to the woman in the relative amounts of sin needing forgiveness, but shows both were on a level in inability to cancel their sin as a debt. Had he realized this, he would not have thought Jesus no prophet for suffering her to touch Him with her kisses of adoring love for His forgiveness of her, realized by her (Luke 7:36-50; Luke 15:2). Tradition set aside moral duties, as a child's to his parents by" Corban"; a debtor's to his creditors by the Mishna treatise, Avodah Zarah (1:1) which forbade payment to a pagan three days before any pagan festival; a man's duty of humanity to his fellow man by the Avodah Zarah (2:1) which forbids a Hebrew midwife assisting a pagan mother in childbirth (contrast Leviticus 19:18; Matthew 23:5).
Juvenal (14:102-104) alleges a Jew would not show the road or a spring to a traveler of a different creed. Josephus (B.J. 2:8, section 14; 3:8, section 5; Ant. 18:1, section 3) says: "the Pharisees say that the soul of good men only passes over into another body, while the soul of bad men is chastised by eternal punishment." Compare Matthew 6:25-348; John 9:2, "who did sin, this man or his parents, that he was born blind?" compare John 9:34, "thou wast altogether born in sins." The rabbis believed in the pre-existence of souls. The Jews' question merely took for granted that some sin had caused the blindness, without defining whose sin, "this man" or (as that is out of the question) "his parents."
Paul: regarded the Pharisees as holding our view of the resurrection of the dead (Acts 23:6-8). The phrase "the world to come" (Mark 10:30; Luke 18:30; compare Isaiah 65:17-22; Isaiah 26:19) often occurs in the Mishna (Avoth, 2:7; 4:16): this world may be likened to a courtyard in comparison of the world to come, therefore prepare thyself in the antechamber that thou mayest enter into the dining room"; "those born are doomed to die, the dead to live, and the quick to be judged," etc. (3:16) But the actions to be so judged were in reference to the ceremonial points as much as the moral duties. The Essenes apparently recognized Providence as overruling everything (1618833376_92; Matthew 10:29-30). The Sadducees, the wealthy aristocrats, originally in political and practical dealings with the Syrians relied more on worldly prudence, the Pharisees more insisted on considerations of legal righteousness, leaving events to God.
The Pharisees were notorious for proselytizing zeal (Matthew 23:15), and seem to have been the first who regularly organized missions for conversions (compare Josephus, Ant. 20:2, section 3): The synagogues in the various cities of the world, as well as of Judaea, were thus by the proselytizing spirit of the Pharisees imbued with a thirst for inquiry, and were prepared for the gospel ministered by the apostles, and especially Paul, a Hebrew in race, a Pharisee by training, a Greek in language, and a Roman citizen in birth and privilege. In many respects their doctrine was right, so that Christ desires conformity to their precepts as from "Moses' seat," but not to their practice (Matthew 23:2-3). But while pressing the letter of the law they ignored the spirit (Matthew 5:21-22; Matthew 5:27; Matthew 5:38; Matthew 5:31-32). Among even the Pharisees some accepted the truth, Nicodemus and Joseph of Arimathea, and John 12:42 and Acts 15:5.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Pharisees
a sect of the Jews. The earliest mention of them is by Josephus, who tells us that they were a sect of considerable weight when John Hyrcanus was high priest, B.C. 108. They were the most numerous, distinguished, and popular sect among the Jews; the time when they first appeared is not known, but it is supposed to have been not long after the institution of the Sadducees, if, indeed, the two sects did not gradually spring up together. They derived their name from the Hebrew word pharash, which signifies "separated," or "set apart;" because they separated themselves from the rest of the Jews to superior strictness in religious observances. They boasted that, from their accurate knowledge of religion, they were the favourites of Heaven; and thus, trusting in themselves that they were righteous, despised others, Luke 11:52 ; Luke 18:9 ; Luke 18:11 . Among the tenets inculcated by this sect, we may enumerate the following: namely, they ascribed all things to fate or providence; yet not so absolutely as to take away the free will of man; for fate does not cooperate in every action, Acts 5:38-39 . They also believed in the existence of angels and spirits, and in the resurrection of the dead; Acts 23:8 .
Lastly: the Pharisees contended that God stood engaged to bless the Jews, to make them all partakers of the terrestrial kingdom of the Messiah, to justify them, and make them eternally happy. The cause of their justification they derived from the merits of Abraham, from their knowledge of God, from their practising the right of circumcision, and from the sacrifices they offered. And as they conceived works to be meritorious, they had invented a great number of supererogatory ones, to which they attached greater merit than to the observance of the law itself. To this notion St. Paul has some allusions in those parts of his Epistle to the Romans, in which he combats the erroneous suppositions of the Jews, Romans 1-11.
The Pharisees were the strictest of the three principal sects that divided the Jewish nation, Acts 26:5 , and affected a singular probity of manners according to their system; which, however, was, for the most part, both lax and corrupt. Thus many things which Moses had tolerated in civil life, in order to avoid a greater evil, the Pharisees determined to be morally right: for instance, the law of divorce from a wife for any cause, Matthew 5:31 , &c; Matthew 19:3-12 . ( See DIVORCE. ) Farther: they interpreted certain of the Mosaic laws most literally, and distorted their meaning so as to favour their own selfish system. Thus, the law of loving their neighbour, they expounded solely of the love of their friends, that is, of the whole Jewish race; all other persons being considered by them as natural enemies, whom they were in no respect bound to assist, Matthew 5:43 ; Luke 10:31-33 . They also trifled with oaths. Dr. Lightfoot has cited a striking illustration of this from Maimonides. An oath, in which the name of God was not distinctly specified, they taught was not binding, Matthew 5:33 ; maintaining that a man might even swear with his lips, and at the same time annul it in his heart! And yet so rigorously did they understand the command of observing the Sabbath day, that they accounted it unlawful to pluck ears of corn, and heal the sick, &c, Matthew 12; Luke 6:6 , &c; 14. Many moral rules they accounted inferior to the ceremonial laws, to the total neglect of mercy and fidelity, Matthew 5:19 ; Matthew 15:4 ; Matthew 23:23 . Hence they accounted causeless anger and impure desires as trifles of no moment, Matthew 5:21-22 ; Matthew 5:27-30 ; they compassed sea and land to make proselytes to the Jewish religion from among the Gentiles, that they might rule over their consciences and wealth; and these proselytes, through the influence of their own scandalous examples and characters, they soon rendered more profligate and abandoned than ever they were before their conversion, Matthew 23:15 . Esteeming temporal happiness and riches as the highest good, they scrupled not to accumulate wealth by every means, legal or illegal, Matthew 5:1-12 ; Matthew 23:5 ; Luke 16:14 ; James 2:1-8 ; vain and ambitious of popular applause, they offered up long prayers in public places, but not without self-complacency in their own holiness, Matthew 6:2-5 ; Luke 18:11 ; under a sanctimonious appearance of respect for the memories of the prophets whom their ancestors had slain, they repaired and beautified their sepulchres, Matthew 23:29 ; and such was their idea of their own sanctity, that they thought themselves defiled if they but touched or conversed with sinners, that is, with publicans or tax-gatherers, and persons of loose and irregular lives, Luke 7:39 ; Luke 15:1 .
But, above all their other tenets, the Pharisees were conspicuous for their reverential observance of the traditions or decrees of the elders: these traditions, they pretended, had been handed down from Moses through every generation, but were not committed to writing; and they were not merely considered as of equal authority with the divine law, but even preferable to it. "The words of the scribes," said they, "are lovely above the words of the law; for the words of the law are weighty and light, but the words of the scribes are all weighty." Among the traditions thus sanctimoniously observed by the Pharisees, we may briefly notice the following: the washing of hands up to the wrist before and after meat, Matthew 15:2 ; Mark 7:3 ; which they accounted not merely a religious duty, but considered its omission as a crime equal to fornication, and punishable by excommunication: the purification of the cups, vessels, and couches used at their meals by ablutions or washings, Mark 7:4 ; for which purpose the six large water pots mentioned by St. John, John 2:6 , were destined: their fasting twice a week with great appearance of austerity, Luke 18:12 ; Matthew 6:16 ; thus converting that exercise into religion which is only a help toward the performance of its hallowed duties: their punctilious payment of tithes, (temple-offerings,) even of the most trifling things, Luke 18:12 ; Matthew 23:23 . And their wearing broader phylacteries and larger fringes to their garments than the rest of the Jews, Matthew 23:5 . See PHYLACTERIES .
With all their pretensions to piety, the Pharisees entertained the most sovereign contempt for the people; whom, being ignorant of the law, they pronounced to be accursed, John 7:49 . Yet such was the esteem and veneration in which they were held by the populace, that they may almost be said to have given what direction they pleased to public affairs; and hence the great men dreaded their power and authority. It is unquestionable, as Mosheim has well remarked, that the religion of the Pharisees was, for the most part, founded in consummate hypocrisy; and that, at the bottom, they were generally the slaves of every vicious appetite, proud, arrogant, and avaricious, consulting only the gratification of their lusts, even at the very moment when they professed themselves to be engaged in the service of their Maker. These odious features in the character of the Pharisees caused them to be reprehended by our Saviour with the utmost severity, even more so than the Sadducees; who, although they had departed widely from the genuine principles of religion, yet did not impose on mankind by a pretended sanctity, or devote themselves with insatiate greediness to the acquisition of honours and riches. A few, and a few only, of the sect of the Pharisees, in those times, might be of better character,—men who, though self-righteous and deluded and bigoted, were not like the rest, hypocritical. Of this number was Saul of Tarsus; but as a body, their attachment to traditions, their passionate expectation of deliverance from the Roman yoke by the Messiah, and the splendour of his civil reign, their pride, and above all their vices, sufficiently account for that unconquerable unbelief which had possessed their minds as to the claims of Christ, and their resistance to the evidence of his miracles. The sect of the Pharisees was not extinguished by the ruin of the Jewish commonwealth. The greater part of the Jews are still Pharisees, being as much devoted to traditions, or the oral law, as their ancestors were.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Pharisees
A numerous and dominant sect of the Jews, agreeing on some main points of doctrine and practice, but divided into different parties or schools on minor points; as for instance, the schools or followers of Hillel and Shammai, who were celebrated rabbins or teachers. The name is commonly derived from the Hebrew purash, to separate, as though they were distinguished form the rest of the nation by their superior wisdom and sanctity. They first appeared as a sect after the return of the Jews from captivity. In respect to their tenets, although they esteemed the written books of the old Testament as the sources of the Jewish religion, yet they also attributed great and equal authority to traditional precepts relating principally to external rites: as ablutions, fasting, long prayers, the distribution of alms, the avoiding of all intercourse with Gentiles and publicans, etc. See Matthew 6:5 9:11 23:5 Mark 7:4 Luke 18:12 . In superstitious and self-righteous formalism they strongly resembled the Romish church.
They were rigid interpreters of the letter of the Mosaic law, but not infrequently violated the spirit of it by their traditional and philosophical interpretations. See Matthew 5:31,43 12:2 19:3 23:23 . Their professed sanctity and close adherence to all the external forms of piety gave them great favor and influence with the common people, and especially among the female part of the community. They believed with the Stoics, that all things and events were controlled by fate yet not so absolutely as entirely to destroy the liberty of the human will. They considered the soul as immortal, and held the doctrine of a future resurrection of the body, Acts 23:8 . It is also supposed by some that they admitted the doctrine of metempsychosis or the transmigration of souls; but no allusion is made to this in the New Testament, nor does Josephus assert it. In numerous cases Christ denounced the Pharisees for their pride and covetousness, their ostentation in prayers, alms, tithes, and facts, Matthew 6:2,5 Luke 18:9 , and their hypocrisy in employing the garb of religion to cover the profligacy of their dispositions and conduct; as Matthew 23:1-39 Luke 16:14 John 7:48,49 8:9 . By his faithful reproofs he early incurred their hatred, Matthew 12:14 ; they eagerly sought to destroy him, and his blood was upon them and their children. On the other hand, there appear to have been among them individuals of probity, and even of genuine piety; as in the case of Joseph of Arimathea, Nicodemus, the aged Simeon, etc., Matthew 27:57 Luke 2:25 John 3:1 . Saul of Tarsus was a Pharisee of the strictest sect, Acts 26:5 Galatians 1:14 . The essential features of their character are still common in Christian lands, and are no less odious to Christ than of old.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Pharisees
PHARISEES. A study of the four centuries before Christ supplies a striking illustration of the law that the deepest movements of history advance without the men, who in God’s plan are their agents, being clearly aware of what is going on. The answer to the question How came the Pharisees into the place of power and prestige they held in the time of our Lord? involves a clear understanding of the task of Israel after the Exile. It was to found and develop a new type of community. The Hebrew monarchy had been thrown into perpetual bankruptcy. But monarchy was the only form that the political principle could assume in the East. What should be put in its place? In solving this problem the Jews created a community which, while it was half-State, was also half-Church. The working capital of the Jews was the monotheism of the prophets, the self-revelation of God in His character of holy and creative Unity, and, inseparable from this, the belief in the perfectibility and indestructibility of the Chosen Nation (the Messianic idea). Prophecy ceased. Into the place of the prophet came the schoolmaster and the drill-master. They popularized monotheism, making it a national instinct. Necessarily, the popularization of monotheism drew along with it a growing sense of superiority to the heathen and idolatrous nations amongst whom their lot was cast. And by the same necessity the Jews were taught to separate themselves from their heathen neighbours ( Ezra 10:11 ). They must not intermarry, lest the nation he dragged down to the heathen level. This was the state of things in the 3rd cent. b.c. (see Essenes), when Hellenism began to threaten Judaism with annihilation. The deepest forces of Judaism sounded the rally. The more zealous Jews drew apart, calling themselves the ‘Holy Men’ ( Chasîdîm ), Puritans, or those self-dedicated to the realization of Ezra’s ideal. Then came the great war. The tendencies of Judaism precipitated themselves. The Jewish Puritans became a distinct class called the ‘Pharisees,’ or men who separated themselves from the heathen, and no less from the heathenizing tendencies and forces in their own nation. They abstained even from table-fellowship with the heathen as being an abominable thing ( Galatians 2:12 ff.). As years went on it became more and more clear that the heart of the nation was with them. And so it comes to pass that in our Lord’s time, to use His own words, ‘the scribes and Pharisees sit in Moses’ seat’ ( Matthew 23:2 ). They, not the priests, are the source of authority.
The history of Pharisaism enables us to understand its spirit and ruling ideas, to do justice to its greatness, while emphasizing its limitations and defects. Into it went the deepest elements among the forces which built the Jewish church and nation. The Pharisees are seen at their best when contrasted with the Zealots (see Cananæan) on the one side and the Herodians (wh. see) on the other. Unlike the latter, they were deeply in earnest with their ancestral religion. Again and again at critical times they showed the vigour and temper of fearless Puritanism. Unlike the former, they held back from the appeal to force, believing that the God of the nation was in control of history, that in His own good time He would grant the nation its desire; that, meanwhile, the duty of a true Israelite was whole-hearted devotion to the Torah, joined to patient waiting on the Divine will. This nobler side of Pharisaism could find itself in Psalms 119:1-176 . The Pharisees were in a sense Churchmen rather than statesmen. And they emphasized spiritual methods. Their interests lay in the synagogue, in the schooling of children, in missionary extension amongst the heathen. They deserved the power and prestige which we find them holding in our Lord’s time. The Master Himself seems to say this when He distinguishes between their rightful authority and the spirit which they often showed in their actions ( Matthew 23:1-4 ). Hence we are not surprised when we learn that, after the conflicts with Rome (a.d. 66 135), Pharisaism became practically synonymous with Judaism. One great war (the Maccabæan) had defined Pharisaism. Another war, even more terrible, gave it the final victory. The two wars together created the Judaism known to Europeans and Americans. And this, allowing for the inevitable changes which a long and varied experience brings to pass in the most tenacious race, is in substance the Pharisaism of the 2nd century.
A wide historical study discovers moral dignity and greatness in Pharisaism. The Pharisees, as contrasted with the Sadducees (wh. see), represented the democratic tendency. As contrasted with the priesthood, they stood both for the democratic and for the spiritualizing tendency. The priesthood was a close corporation. No man who was unable to trace his descent from a priestly family could exercise any function in the Temple. But the Pharisees and the Scribes opened a great career to all the talents. Furthermore, the priesthood exhausted itself in the ritual of the Temple. But the Pharisees found their main function in teaching and preaching. So Pharisaism cleared the ground for Christianity. And when the reader goes through his NT with this point in mind, and when he notes the striking freedom of the NT from ritualistic and sacerdotal ideas, he should give credit to Pharisaism as one of the historical forces which made these supreme qualities possible.
We have not yet exhausted the claims of the Pharisees on our interest and gratitude. It was they who, for the most part, prepared the ground for Christianity by taking the Messianic idea and working it into the very texture of common consciousness. Pharisaism was inseparable from the popularization of monotheism, and the universal acceptance by the nation of its Divine election and calling. We need only consider our Lord’s task to see how much preparatory work the Pharisees did. Contrast the Saviour with Gautama (Buddha), and the greatness of His work is clearly seen. Buddha teaches men the way of peace by thinking away the political and social order of things. But our Lord took the glorified nationalism of His nation as the trunk-stock of His thought, and upon it grafted the Kingdom of God. Now, it was the Pharisees who made idealized nationalism, based upon the monotheism of the prophets, the pith and marrow of Judaism. It was they who wrote the great Apocalypses (Daniel and Enoch). It was they who made the belief in immortality and resurrection part of the common consciousness. It was they who trained the national will and purpose up to the level where the Saviour could use it.
But along with this great work went some lamentable defects and limitations. Though they stood for the spiritualizing tendencies which looked towards the existence of a Church, the Pharisees never reached the Church idea. They made an inextricable confusion between the question of the soul and the question of descent from Abraham. They developed the spirit of proud and arrogant orthodoxy, until the monotheism of the prophets became in their hands wholly incompetent to found a society where Jew and Gentile should be one (Galatians 3:28 , Colossians 3:11 ). They developed Sabbatarianism until reverence for the Sabbath became a superstition, as our Lord’s repeated clash with them goes to show. And in spite of many noble individual exceptions, the deepest tendency of Pharisaism was towards an over-valuation of external things, Levitical correctness and precision ( Matthew 23:23 ), that made their spirit strongly antagonistic to the genius of Prophetism. For Prophetism, whether of the Old or of the New Dispensation, threw the whole emphasis on character. And so, when John the Baptist, the first prophet for many centuries, came on the field, he put himself in mortal opposition to the Pharisees, no less than to the Sadducees ( Matthew 3:7 f., John 1:19 ff.). And our Lord, embodying the moral essence of Prophetism, found His most dangerous opponents, until the end of His ministry, not in the Sadducees or the Essenes or the Zealots, but in the Pharisees.
See also artt. Sadducees and Scribes.
Henry S. Nash.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Pharisees (2)
PHARISEES
I. Origin and Development
1. Outline of history.—The Pharisees present the most characteristic manifestation of Palestinian Judaism in the time of Christ, and His work cannot be understood without a knowledge of them; for ‘later Judaism is through and through Pharisaism and nothing but Pharisaism’ (Bousset, Jesu Predigt, 1892, p. 32). The Pharisees were an outgrowth of the long conflict between the Jews and surrounding heathenism, from the Babylonian Captivity onward. That captivity impressed the following things upon Judaism: intense monotheism, the Synagogue service, the OT Scriptures and Scribal interpretations of them, the Sabbath strictly observed as a sign of God’s covenant, and a Puritan hatred of heathenism, which put the stamp of separation for ever upon Pharisaic piety. The Reformers under Ezra and Nehemiah were forerunners of the Pharisees, as the priestly court party under Zerubbabel foreshadowed the Sadducees. In these international relations—Jews in Palestine and in the Dispersion—Judaism grew gradually into a Church, and as such had an inner circle of the pious in contrast with mere adherents—‘children of the world.’ This transition cannot be fully traced, but appears well marked under the Maccabees (b.c. 167–63). The Macedonian policy of Alexander made the East Greek; the Romans made the West Latin; Persia and Carthage were overthrown; then Rome absorbed the Hellenistic East; and a world-system for the first time appeared when Jesus was born under the first Emperor. The denationalizing process prepared by Greece and introduced by Rome affected even the Jews, and helped to produce the Synagogue church system. But Pharisaic Judaism reacted strongly against it at first, and under the Maccabees battled for religious independence. When, however, the Maccabaean princes fought further for civil liberty, the Pharisaic party withdrew and formed a theocratic group, democratic in a measure, which soon gained the leadership of the majority of the nation. These Hăsîdîm, or Puritans of the century before Christ, became the Pharisees of NT times. They received the name ‘Pharisees’ or separated, when they withdrew from the Saddrcee court party of the Maccabaean rulers under John Hyrcanus (b.c. 135–105). They were the men of ἀμιξία. (2 Maccabees 14:38) from everything heathen and impure. Their aim was in daily life to be as ceremonially pure as the priests were in the Temple.
2. Differences between Pharisees and Sadducees.—The chief differences were the following: (1) the Pharisees ‘delivered to the people a great many observances by tradition which are not written in the law of Moses’ (Josephus Ant. xiii. x. 6). These the Sadducees for the most part rejected. (2) The Pharisees had an elaborate doctrine of immortality, resurrection, angels, demons, heaven, hell, intermediate state, and Messianic Kingdom, about all of which the Sadducees were agnostic. (3) The Pharisees taught both predestination and free-will,—much as St. Paul did,—while the Sadducees held the Greek doctrine of absolute free-will. (4) The Pharisees had a high theory of the theocracy, which led them to oppose foreign interference from the time of the Syrian kings to the Roman emperors, and reject also the Maccabaean rule as inconsistent with the high priesthood. The Psalms of Solomon are full of sharp utterances against the Sadducee rulers (e.g. 4:1; 3:8; 9:4). It was this theocratic spirit which developed national Judaism into a Church, with a world-consciousness equal to that of Rome and a spiritual unity not inferior to that of Greece. (5) The Pharisees were also missionary, and made many converts (Ant. xx. ii.–iv.; BJ ii. xix. 2; Matthew 23:15). Hillel said: ‘Love men and lead them to the Law’ (Aboth i. 2); and the international Synagogue, inspired from Jerusalem, compassed sea and land in making proselytes. The Sadducees had no such interest. This Pharisaic propaganda, however, when it met the successful missions of the Christians, ceased making converts, condemned the translation of the LXX Septuagint , and buried itself in the Talmud. (6) The Pharisees differed from the Sadducees by the wide distance between the Synagogue, the centre of the one party, and the Temple, the stronghold of the other. The Temple was waning in influence. Jesus refers little to it, and when it disappeared the religion of the Jews went on without a break. The Pharisees even prescribed rules for the priestly Sadducees in the Temple (Ant. xiii. x. 5), and had their prayers introduced alongside the sacrifices. In fact, the Temple services were regarded as meritorious because done in obedience to the legal teachings of the Pharisees (cf. Kohler, art. ‘Pharisees’ in JE [1] ). Some Pharisees seem in theory to have even abandoned the Temple worship (cf. Enoch 89:58, 73, 90:28, Ps-Sol 10:8; 17:18). (7) The Pharisees formed a fraternity with peculiar vows, which separated them from the heathen, the common people, and the Sadducees. The great majority of Jews were Pharisees in belief, but only about 6000 or 7000 were members of the brotherhood. Edersheim compares them with the Jesuits in the Roman Church (Sketches of Jew. Soc. Life, ch. xiv.). They married, however, and their fellowship included the families of members. On entering the order, they took two vows in the presence of three witnesses, one to tithe everything eaten, bought, or sold; the other not to be guest of the ‘am-hâ’âreẓ, and to observe all ceremonial purification. They were the true Israel, ‘the saints’; their opponents wore ‘the ungodly,’ ‘the profane’ (cf. Luke 18:9, Ps-Sol 14:1; 17:16). (8) The Pharisees were the religious power in Palestine in the time of Christ. They represented the authority of the Scriptures in home, school, synagogue, courts of law, and daily life. John almost identifies them with ‘the Jews’ (John 1:19; John 2:18). Though an outgrowth of the school of the Scribes, they eclipsed their teachers. They were in business, and their goods were legal tender everywhere. They were united, zealous, dogmatic, patriotic, stood for the people against rulers and hierarchs, preached the keeping of the Law and the coming world of blessedness as reward of obedience, and were everywhere active in moulding Jewish life according to their principles. In opposition to Sadducees and common men, the Pharisees developed a new conception of piety; it was something that could be learned, and they were its teachers. The wise men were the good, and took the place of both prophet and priest. Hillel said: ‘The uneducated fears no sin; but ‘he who acquires knowledge has attained eternal life’ (Aboth ii. 6, 8). All this made the Pharisees more and more proud, formal, and uncharitable. They despised the common people (John 7:49); they had reached the climax of their power in the time of Jesus; and, half-feared, half-hated, they were declining in spiritual influence.
3. Pharisaic environment of Jesus.—Pharisaic Judaism in the time of Christ included the best, as well as the worst, of the people. The Jewish saints in the NT, the parents of the Baptist and of our Lord, Simeon, Anna, and others, Hillel too, and Gamaliel and Jochanan ben Sakkai, were noble types of Pharisaic Jews. Galilee especially was the home of the more earnest Pharisaic piety, with its severe living and strong Messianic hope. Here the Zealots appeared, and the outbreaks against Rome had their seat; and here Jesus grew up and began His ministry in an atmosphere of Pharisaic devotion. He did not denounce all Pharisees, or the Pharisaic Judaism amid which He grew up; since it stood for the whole transmitted religion of Israel,—for that salvation which was of the Jews. He stood nearer the Synagogue than the Temple, and in some respects presented His teaching in the line of the Pharisees. The Rabbis taught their disciples to honour the Scriptures, to seek first after heaven and its righteousness (Ant. xvi. ii. 4, v. 4, vi. 8), to look past the present legal life to a future world of grace and glory, to make proselytes, to have baptisms and holy suppers in their brotherhood, to pray, to fast and give alms—these three were ‘the chief pillars of the Jewish religion’ (Bousset, Relig. Judenthums, p. 159). All these things Jesus favoured also, and they passed, with many others, from the Synagogue into the Church. But Jesus was not a Pharisee. He rebuked them for their anti-scriptural traditions, as He did the Sadducees for ignorance of the word of God (Mark 7:9). Neither was He a heretic; the Pharisees did not put Him out of the synagogue, though He was called a Samaritan and possessed of a devil. He preached from the common ground of the Scriptures; and, just because the Pharisees held in theory so much that was true, He castigated the more their formalism and insincerity. But, while opposing Pharisaic superstition, He did not favour the agnosticism and rationalism of the Sadducees. From the heart of Divine revelation, illuminated by the Holy Spirit and in the full consciousness of Himself as Son of God, in and through and above all the Scriptures, He proclaimed the everlasting truth of the gospel, setting aside everything in Pharisaic teaching and life that was inconsistent with it.
II. Theology of the Pharisees and the Teaching of Jesus.—Two views formerly held respecting the relation of Jesus and His teachings to the Pharisaic Judaism of His time may now be regarded as obsolete. One was that both He and the Jews drew so directly from the OT that their ideas of the Messiah and His work were essentially the same, the chief question at issue being whether or not Jesus was the looked-for Messiah (cf. Schöttgen, Hor. Heb. 1742; Bertholdt, Christ. Jud. 1811; Gfrörer, Jahr. d. Heils, 1838). The other was the theory that the gospel preached by Jesus was only a reformed Judaism (Grätz, Gesch. d. Juden, 1867, iii. 217; Kohler, l.c.). But ‘such a reconstruction of history belongs wholly to the past’ (Lucius, Der Essenismus, 1881, p. 8);* [2] and we can set forth the relation of Jesus to Pharisaic Judaism better by way of contrast than of comparison (cf. Bousset, Jesu Predigt, p. 7; Chamberlain, Grundlagen d. 19 Jahr. 1900, i. 221). ‘Jesus’ appearance was really not a fulfilment, but a contradiction of the Jewish religion.’ If there was anything the Pharisees lacked, it was religious originality. Chamberlain says, ‘The fable that the Jews had especial qualifications for religion has been finally destroyed’ (i. 29). Jesus did stand upon the soil of OT piety, and was in vital relation to current Judaism; but His unique Divine consciousness as Son of God led Him to speak with absolute authority respecting both. Whatever might have been said to men of old time must yield to His ‘I say unto you’: and no word of prophet or scribe or Pharisee had any authority for Him (John 7:17). When He spoke, God spoke, and all must hearken and obey (7:16).
The theology of the Pharisees was crude and unscientific,—‘a terrible mass of conflicting statements and debasing superstitions’ (Edersheim, Life and Times, i. 106), everywhere limited by national conditions. It was less reasonable than certain views of the Sadducees, and lacked the mystic freedom from sacerdotalism of the Essenes. It had no appreciation of that natural theology so dear to the Greeks, or of the immanence of God as Father which Jesus saw in every flower of the field. Art, philosophy, science, history, culture were avoided as secular and profane. The Pharisees ‘killed nature by legal prescriptions’ (Wellhausen, Phar.u. Sadd. p. 19). In their confused teachings drawn from the OT by traditional exegesis, three great groups of thought may be distinguished; they refer to God, His revelation in the Law, and the hope of a promised Messiah. The thirteen articles of the Jewish Confession of faith still show the same division (cf. Landau, Die alten Gebete d. H. 1843, p. 120) as appeared in Rabbinical preaching in the time of Christ. Honour God, keep His Law as far as possible, and through all failures hope for the mercy of God in the Messianic age—that is the prevalent course of thought in Pharisaic Judaism. NT writers follow it also. St. Paul teaches a just God, His holy Law, and peace through faith in the Messiah. St. Peter, when the Law convicted men of murder, preached to them repentance toward God and faith in the slain Messiah, Jesus (Acts 2:37-38; Acts 3:19 f.). St. John sums up the contrast between Jew and Christian in the Law of God given by Moses, and grace and truth coming in the Messiah (Acts 1:17). And when the Jews attacked early Christianity, their opposition lay along these lines (Acts 6:11). Stephen was stoned for blaspheming God, Moses, and the customs of the Pharisees, and doing so in the name of Jesus Christ. In like manner Jesus was accused of blasphemy against God, violating His Law, and claiming to fulfil the Messianic hope.
1. Doctrine of God.
(1) Pharisaic view of Divine transcendence.—The Pharisees had an abstract, transcendental view of God, which gave rise to the legalism that marks their teachings, and added colour to their Messianic hope (cf. Baldensperger, Selbstbewusstsein Jesu, p. 45). Opposition to heathenism, coupled with Rabbinical study of the OT, produced this conception. God was Creator in the beginning, and will be final Judge at the end; but meantime He is a far-off ruler of the Universe. His name, the mysterious τετραγράμματον, was no longer spoken; and all anthropomorphic and humanlike features in God were set aside. The God who tabernacled in Israel was succeeded by ‘the God of heaven’ (1 Maccabees 3:60, Enoch 13:4; 106:11, 2 Esdras 8:20, Ps-Sol 2:34, To 7:17). ‘God’ and ‘heaven’ became interchangeable terms; and in place of words about the personal care of Jehovah, we meet cosmological and meteorological discussions of the stars and rain and snow, with suggestions of sun-worship (Enoch 72:35, Ps-Sol 2:13–14; 4:21). It was a deistic view of God that became prominent. Two important views grew out of this theology: one was the doctrine of middle beings between God and man—good and evil spirits, angels, especially the Memra or mediating Word of God, and the Holy Spirit; the other was a personal conception of God, which appeared in belief in individual immortality and personal resurrection as involved in responsibility to God and hope of entrance into the Messianic Kingdom. A further outgrowth of this theology was the teaching that keeping carefully the Law of God would hasten the coming of the Messianic Kingdom. Thus Divine transcendence, mediation, individual piety, legalism, and the Messianic hope were closely related elements in the Pharisaic teachings.
(2) Jesus’ doctrine of God as Father.—The theology of Jesus set out from the Fatherhood of God. It had been foreshadowed in the OT (Deuteronomy 32:6, Psalms 68:5) and later Jewish literature (Wisdom of Solomon 2:16), but was first taught in its unique importance and fulness by Jesus. It was peculiar to Him because He was related as none other to the Father. None but God could know Him, as He alone knew the Father (Matthew 11:27). To Him alone could God appear as Father without wrath against sin in Him. This doctrine of God as Father is what was fundamentally new in the message of Jesus (cf. Bousset, Jesu Predigt, p. 4; Hausrath, NT Times, ii. 146). Through it God appeared everywhere in His love, caring for flowers and sparrows, just and unjust; beholding sin and Satan in the world, but still declaring it the happy home of God’s children. He here ‘broke through, at the most decisive point, the transcendental ascetic spirit of Judaism’ (Bousset, Relig. Jnd. p. 65; Baldensperger, 225; Wendt, Teaching of Jesus, i. ch. 2). This new doctrine of God led to a new doctrine of man’s relation to Him. If God is Father, then men who come to Him enter into all the liberty of children, but at the same time are lovingly bound to be holy and perfect like God. The confused view of the Pharisees, that the Jew was partly in national relations to God and partly member of a holy congregation, disappears. His blurred hope of partly keeping the Law, partly being resigned to Divine chastisement, and partly redeemed in a world to come—all resting on merit—is supplanted by a joyful gospel of present peace. Instead of the other-worldliness of Pharisaic piety,—an attempt to imitate the transcendent God,—Jesus taught a present joy in a present Father for all men, ‘amhâ’ârez as well as scribe and Pharisee. Here love to God and love to man first met in reality. As the Father in heaven forgives, so men are to forgive; the latter is the proof of the former. Religion and ethics were in perfect harmony. Jesus did teach a certain separation from the world, a selling all to follow Him, a bearing the cross; but it was not separation on ceremonial or external grounds; it was a question of values, a putting the Kingdom of God first that all other things might be added thereto. So sunny and natural was His relation to the world and common life, that He was at once denounced as a gluttonous man and a wine-bibber, a friend of publicans and sinners. Next to the fundamental doctrine that God is our Father, came this second dominating teaching of man’s social relation to the world about him. Here is the great point of departure from Judaism and the Ghetto, already erected by the Pharisees in Jerusalem, towards Christianity and the gospel of humanity.
2. The Law
(1) Written and oral.—This was central for Judaism in the days of Jesus. It was regarded in both written and oral form as coming from God through Moses (Aboth i. 1). It took the place of the God of heaven. Every word was inspired, and he who ‘gains the Law gains the life of the world to come’ (Hillel). Obedience to God’s Law under the awful Categorical Imperative of Sinai, as applied by scribes and Pharisees, was the dominant principle, the yoke upon the neck of the Jews, when Christ appeared (Acts 15:10, Galatians 5:1). The Oral Law of tradition arose because prophecy ceased; cases arose not provided for in the OT, and Rabbinical exegesis of the Scriptures sought the cover of ancient names.
(2) Law as civil code.—Here especially the OT exegesis and tradition were necessary in using the Bible as the source of civil law, when Israel changed from a small pastoral people to become a world-wide commercial race. The chequered history of centuries under heathen rule broke up many customs, as those of tithes, offerings, Sabbath, Temple service, contact with Gentiles, etc. Hence from Hillel onwards the Pharisees elaborated a civil code by means of tradition and exegesis from the Scriptures. The great loss to religion in such a process was in making it largely negative. The Rabbis counted 248 classes of things to be done, and 365 of things forbidden.
(3) Ceremonial law.—This the Pharisees made to touch every detail of human life. They regarded nature and spirit as so related that impurity could pass from one to the other. A bad man’s body was impure, and to touch it would bring uncleanness to another man’s soul. Adam’s sin extended evil to unclean beasts, and foods, and the dishes holding them. There was no end to this defilement and the consequent necessary purification by various kinds of water or by breaking ceremonially the unclean vessels. Twelve treatises of the Mishna deal with this subject. It is said: ‘He who lightly esteems hand-washing will perish from the earth’ (Sota, 4). Jesus felt the utter superficiality of all this washing of the body while the inner life was unclean. Delitzsch says (Jesus und Hillel, 1879, p. 23) there is no historical point of departure in the time and land of Jesus for His method of contrasting the moral with the ceremonial. He here ‘turned His back upon the highway of Rabbinical traditions, and opened a path which until then had never occurred to any human heart.’
(4) Rule of faith and practice.—The Pharisees bound spiritual and moral living also under law. But law cannot produce affection, or win the heart, or find place for the Holy Spirit, or be a vessel of grace. The idea of religion as a supreme impulse from the depths of man’s nature, as Jesus taught it, independent of both superstition and ethics, was peculiarly foreign to the Pharisaic Jew (cf. Chamberlain, ii. 29). He said: ‘To do right and wrong is in the work of our hands, and in Thy righteousness Thou chastisest the children of men. He who works righteousness obtains life from the Lord’ (Ps-Sol 9:7–9). Do the best you can, and submit to God’s punishment for your defects, was the substance of such legalism. One sad result of this national legal religion was that it had one standard for the Jew and another for the Gentile. Adultery with a Gentile was trivial compared with such offence against a Jew. Pharisaic ethics taught to hate Gentiles as enemies; their morality had no unifying principle of application to man as man—while Jesus taught love even to enemies and Gentiles.
(5) Jesus and the Law.—Even the best legal maxims of the Pharisees fall far short of the teachings of Jesus. Hillel’s golden rule was negative, while that of Jesus was positive, showing all the difference between justice and love. The greater principle of love to God and one’s neighbour, which the scribe (Mark 12:32), and Jesus, and St. Paul, and Akiba all regard as fundamental (Galatians 5:14; Bacher, Die Agada d. Tannaiten, 1884, i. 7, 285), became a new thing in the application of Jesus. He made love to man a test of love to God; He united organically the two OT texts, Deuteronomy 6:5 and Leviticus 19:13; He put love to man on the same level with love to God; He widened the conception of neighbour from haber to ‘am-hâʾâreẓ, from ‘am-hâʾâreẓ to Samaritan (Luke 10:36), and to all men—thus moving in direct opposition to that separation which underlay all Pharisaic holiness. Jesus dropped the whole Law as a way of salvation,—a way the Pharisees themselves could not keep (Romans 7:8), as appeared in their numerous evasions of it, such as ‘blending of courts,’ and their ostentatious putting of appearance in place of reality. He threw aside the endless civil, ceremonial, and ethical rules of the Pharisees, and went back to the spiritual religion of the OT as fulfilled in Him and transformed in the gospel. The Law was, at its best, but a παιδαγωγός to the gospel. Salvation by way of the Pharisees was impossible, hence Jesus declared they were either blind or hypocrites in claiming to please God in that way. The best Jews admitted this (Ps-Sol 9:9–15; 13:9, 14:1–6). Jesus led men to God as Father through a new birth by the Holy Ghost, into a family of loving children, by way of repentance, faith, and union with Himself (Mark 1:14-15, John 3:5 f.). This gospel of the loving father and the prodigal son, of the penitent publican and the proud Pharisee, was as a honeymoon compared with the funereal legalism of the Pharisees (Mark 2:19). Gamaliel said: ‘Get thyself a teacher that thou mayest be free from doubt’ (Aboth i. 16); but Jesus showed Nicodemus that all Pharisaic learning could not give the new life of the Spirit of God and the Son of God. He brought a new cup of blessing full of the wine of the Kingdom, a sweet blending of religion and ethics as inseparable in thought as the inside and outside of the holy cup itself. Here was ‘the appearance of a new kind of humanity,’ springing from contact with Jesus, ‘for through Him for the first time humanity received a moral culture’ (Chamberlain, i. 204, 207). It was because the gospel was utterly incompatible with Pharisaic Judaism that Jesus gathered disciples, taught them, gave them His Spirit (John 20:22), and sent them out to evangelize the world (Matthew 28:19-20).
3. Religious hopes of the Pharisees.
(1) Their views of the Messiah and His Kingdom.—The void between God and man was partly filled from Daniel onwards by Apocalypses of the Messianic Kingdom. This hope roused the godly in Israel to greater obedience, that the coming of the Son of David might be hastened. Law and Messiah were two centres of Jewish thought when Christ appeared. The burden of the one led to greater expectation of the appearance of the other. In this expectation, the nature of the Messiah also took a more universal, and at the same time more personal character, corresponding somewhat to the growing sense of personal responsibility in religion among the Jews. The Messiah, as Son of Man, appeared sharing the majesty, glory, and heavenly nature of Jehovah (Enoch 47:3 and often). ‘The identification of Divine hypostases with the Messiah had already taken place in pre-Christian Judaism.’ It was not related at all to Philo and his λόγος doctrine (cf. Baldensperger, p. 88). But there was also the human Messiah, the Son of David; and two confused accounts arose among the Pharisaic theologians respecting these two views of the Messiah and His Kingdom (cf. Stanton, The Jewish and Christian Messiah, 1886, p. 135 f.). The one was more earthly, national, material; the other more spiritual and universal. The material was usually regarded as leading up to the spiritual, and the millennium appeared as a transition from one to the other. A full account of the ordinary expectation is given in Ps-Sol 17:23–50. The Pharisees had no idea that the Messiah would be a Saviour of all men. Even the Baptist thought He would come only to separate by judgment the evil and the good in Israel, and establish the latter in the Kingdom of God. That He would bring a new revelation, and by temptation and suffering attain victory, as Jesus did, was utterly foreign to them. Especially foreign was the conception of a suffering and dying Messiah, as Dalman has shown (Der leid. u. sterb. Mess. 1888, pp. iii, 22 f.). Even the Apostles did not know it (Mark 8:31; Mark 9:12-31; Mark 10:33). The usual explanation of two Messiahs did not arise till two centuries after Christ (Dalman, l.c.).
(2) Messianic teachings of Jesus.—The teachings of Jesus differed from those of the Pharisees on salvation, first, by showing it was not by law; and, second, by presenting the Messiah as a sin-bearer. By repentance and faith in Him men would be saved. From the time of His baptism He looked toward the cross; for He was to give men rest by becoming a ransom for their sin (Matthew 11:28; Matthew 20:28). He did not infer He must die from the fate of the prophets—a prophet need not be crucified,—or borrow the idea from the scribes—they never had it, and they thought that to kill Him would end His Messianic claims,—nor did His disciples invent it; they fought against it, and nearly forsook Him when He taught it. Out of His Messianic consciousness Jesus went forth to die as the great Shepherd for His sheep (Mark 8:31-38; Mark Mar_9:9 f., Mark 10:32). Messiah and sufferer were inseparable thoughts; and as soon as He was confessed as Messiah and Son of God, He declared He must suffer, be rejected, be killed, and rise again (Mark 8:29 f., Matthew 16:16). His preaching of the Kingdom, also, was very different from that of the Pharisees. He proclaimed it as present, not in the future; a certainty, a reality, not a hope; both within men, and yet to be fully realized in the future. Much that the Jews expected He grouped under a new doctrine, that of the second advent of the Messiah. He appropriated to Himself the lofty Messianic conception of the Pharisees; He was ‘Son of God’ (Enoch 105:2 f., John 19:7); ‘Son of Man’ (Daniel 7:13 f., Matthew 17:12); ‘son of woman’ (Enoch 62); and Κύριος (Ps-Sol 17:23). He adopted their view that He was pre-existent with God (cf. Baldensperger, p. 87); and on the ground of such consciousness forgave sins, wrought miracles, and answered prayers. It is little wonder that such words on the lips of Jesus amazed the Pharisees; in fact, nearly all He said contradicted their teachings. He had no dread of God, His law, sin, or death; and invited all men to share His rest and peace. He set aside the Law, and turned Jewish eschatology into soteriology. He and the Kingdom were one; to have Him was to share everlasting life. Jewish teachers, leading away from Him, He called thieves and robbers, and the Pharisaic conception of the Messianic Kingdom was earthly and devilish (Matthew 4:8, Luke 4:5 f.). The new heavens bent already above Him; the new earth was beneath His feet; and here He gathered citizens of the Kingdom, men of the Beatitudes. In all this lies the greatest possible contrast to Pharisaic teachings; and the gospel of Jesus can by no po
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Pharisees
The Pharisees (ôÌÀøåÌùÑÄéí, Φαρισαῖοι) were a religious sect among the Jews, probably originating in Maccabaean times.
1. The name.-Perûshîm has generally been interpreted to mean ‘separatists.’ In a recent work, however, Cesterley suggests another view. He points out that the Pharisees were the popular party; that one of their precepts was, ‘Separate not thyself from the congregation,’ and that they reproached the Sadducees as the separatists. He finds it more probable that the name means ‘expounders.’ In support he quotes Josephus, who says of the Pharisees that ‘they are those who seem to explain the laws with accuracy’ (BJ_ II. viii. 14), and asserts that in Rabbinical literature the root p-r-sh is constantly found used in the sense of ‘explain,’ ‘expound,’ or ‘interpret,’ in reference to Scripture which is explained in the interests of the Oral Law (Cesterley, Books of the Apocrypha, p. 131 f.). The view is certainly interesting and worth consideration. But it seems to the present writer that all the arguments by which it is supported admit of an easy answer, and that the balance of probability inclines towards the familiar view that ‘Pharisee’ means ‘separatist.’
2. General position of Pharisees in the 1st cent. a.d.-In this article we confine ourselves to the period from the times of Christ to the close of the 1st century. For the previous history of Pharisaism and the development and character of its tenets and practices, the reader must consult HDB_ and DCG_. At the opening of our period we find the Pharisees noted for piety, learning, and strict observance of the Law. They were held in high esteem among the people (Jos. Ant. XIII. x. 5, 6, XVII. ii. 4). Almost up to this point, indeed, they might be regarded as a people’s party, the champions of popular rights against the aristocratic Sadducees. They were the party of progress. Against the Sadducees they represented a living faith, and their theology was simply orthodox Jewish doctrine. They preached a religion for the people and conducted a missionary propaganda (Matthew 23:15). At this time they had little direct political power, though they held some seats in the Sanhedrin (Acts 5:34; Acts 23:6). But such was their influence with the people that the ruling Sadducees were largely amenable to their advice (Jos. Ant. XVIII. i. 4). Passionately devoted to the Law as they were, they interpreted and applied it in a more tolerant, generous sense than the Sadducees (Ant. XIII. x. 6, XX. ix. 1). No doubt it was among the Pharisees that the best type of Jewish character and piety was found. But in the Gospels it is clear that the Pharisees, the popular party, were drawing themselves apart into a new aristocracy, and that the party of progress had become rigidly conservative. Every one of their own interpretations of the Law was stereotyped. Their traditions were regarded with greater veneration than the original Law. In the accumulated mass of precepts all sense of proportion was lost. All true spirituality was in danger of suffocation under the complex of ritual and ceremonial.
3. Pharisees and foreign domination.-Pharisaism attained its fullest development while there was a mere semblance of national independence, and nearly all civil power had passed from the Jews. No doubt this circumstance was of considerable importance in enabling pious Jews to distinguish between a Church and a nation (see Bousset, Religion des Judentums, p. 62 f.). How the Pharisees regarded the rule of Herod and the Romans it is difficult to judge. On their attitude to Herod two different views will be found in HDB_ iii. 827 and Bousset (op. cit. p. 62 f.) respectively. The statement in the former that they abhorred Herod is too dogmatic (see Jos. Ant. XV. i. 1). Probably we should say that, while they were not enamoured of the rule of Herod, they submitted to it as a necessary evil. As to their attitude to Rome, matters are even less clear. We know that they discussed whether tribute should be paid (Matthew 22:17 ff.). Further, the party of the Zealots who agitated for the overthrow of Roman power were an off-shoot from the Pharisees. Though Josephus is desirous of representing them as a distinct party, he is compelled to admit this (Ant. XVIII. i. 1, 6; BJ_ II. viii. 1). We may take it that certain of the Pharisees favoured political action, others deprecated it. The former were the Zealots, who were responsible for stirring up the great revolt which ended in the destruction of Jerusalem, and involved the disappearance of the last shreds of Jewish national independence.
4. Effects of the Fall of Jerusalem.-This catastrophe, so calamitous in itself, came to the Pharisees, as to Jewish Christians, really as an emancipation. If the Church was henceforth free from serious Jewish persecution, and the distraction of Judaizing propaganda, the Pharisees were free of their conflict with the Sadducees, who disappeared with Temple and priesthood. The Jews ceased to be politically a nation, but in reality they had ceased to be that long before. Judaism as a Church, a religious system, was not seriously affected by the loss of the Temple. For long the priests as a class had been declining in favour. For long the real centre of religious life had been not the Temple but the Synagogue. Many influences had conspired to produce this result, but we cannot discuss them here (see Bousset, op. cit. p. 97 ff.). It was the great service of Pharisaism to Judaism that it had so developed Jewish piety that the loss of the Temple was more of a relief than a disaster. The Pharisees set themselves more diligently than ever to the development of the Law. In two particulars the fall of the city seemed to harden Pharisaic tendencies.
(a) Their attitude to the common people.-We noted how even in the time of Christ the Pharisee looked down upon the ’am haarets. Piety to the Pharisee was associated with culture. The people who knew not the Law were accursed (John 7:49). This tendency towards an exclusiveness of culture increased, and the breach widened between the Pharisee and the ’am haarets. The dealings of the Pharisee with the ’am haarets were as strictly limited and carefully regulated as his dealings with the Gentiles. Bousset (op. cit. p. 167) quotes a dictum of a certain Rabbi Eleazar, which forbids all transactions with the ’am haarets, makes the murder of an ’am haarets under certain circumstances permissible, and declares that the hatred of the ’am haarets is greater than that of the Gentiles against Israel.
(b) Their attitude to the Gentiles.-As we have noted above, at one time a missionary propaganda was carried on among Gentiles. Manifestly this was in opposition to the Pharisaic tendency towards exclusiveness, and it was the latter that conquered. The increasing restiveness under the Roman domination which culminated in the great war was a decisive factor in this struggle of principles. Probably a short time before the fall of the city eighteen points of difference between the schools of Hillel and Shammai, all dealing with relations with Gentiles, were decided in favour of the Shammaists, the more rigid school. One of the decisions forbade the learning of Greek (Mishna, Shabb. xiii. 6; see H. Graetz, Geschichte der Juden, Berlin, 1856, Eng. tr._, ii. [1] 131 ff.). We may take it that this ended all missionary enterprise, and that after the fall of the city the exclusive tendency reigned supreme.
5. Pharisaism and Christianity.-In saying what was the attitude of Pharisees to Christianity, we are in danger of arguing from isolated and therefore perhaps exceptional cases. In the Gospels we find that while Jesus carries on a sharp polemic against the class, He has friendly relations with individuals (e.g. Simon the Pharisee), and that, on the other hand, certain of the Pharisees (e.g. Nicodemus and Joseph of Arimathea) were friendly towards Him. Arguing from the known tendency of the Pharisees to be moderate in judgment, and from the definite illustrations of it which we have (Acts 5:34 ff; Acts 23:9), we may hold that as far as the persecutions in Jerusalem are concerned, the main responsibility at least does not lie on the Pharisees. On the other hand, in the case of Stephen we know that Saul the Pharisee ‘was consenting unto his death’ (Acts 8:1). Saul also on his own confession was specially strong in urging persecution (Acts 26:9-11; cf. Acts 8:3). And outside Palestine it cannot be doubted that the Pharisee scribes were instigators of popular tumults against Christians.
When we remember that the Pharisees with all their faults were the leaders of Jewish piety, and the orthodox theologians, it is clear that it is difficult to overestimate the part they played in preparing the way for Christianity. St. Paul was a Pharisee of the Pharisees, and what would Christianity have been but for him? It was the Pharisees who settled the OT canon, and the Christian Church accepted it. Pharisees developed the Messianic hope, distinguished the Church from the State, taught a religion that was independent of priests and Temple, developed doctrines of immortality, resurrection, and judgment to come, that with only little modification passed into Christian theology. The best of the Pharisees understood the inwardness of the Law as Jesus taught it, and some of His most characteristic sayings are to be found in almost identical form in the sayings of the Rabbis. The missionary propaganda did incalculable service in preparing for that of the Church. The Pharisaism of the best period, when it was a progressive, democratic, missionary movement, became the inheritance of Christianity.
Pharisaism, or something very like it in its degenerate form, was imported into the Church by Jewish Christians (see Ebionism). St. Paul is meritorious not more as the Apostle of the Gentiles than by the fact that he, a former Pharisee, saw so clearly the danger of this incipient neo-Pharisaism with its exclusiveness and ‘desire to be under the law,’ and combated it so successfully. While the statement in the JE_ (ix. 665) that in the Gospels the word ‘Pharisee’ has been substituted for an original ‘Sadducee’ in the denunciations of Jesus is to be mentioned only as a curiosity, according to the evidence we possess, it has to be said that the Church paid back with interest the persecutions and calumnies she suffered from the Jews. How soon this anti-Judaism began, and to what extent if any it is present in the NT writings, are problems that require investigation.
Literature.-The only authorities are the Gospels, Acts, and Josephus (passages referred to above). From a mass of Rabbinical writings, a few details may be gathered which add little to our knowledge. Works on the Pharisees and Sadducees are numerous. We need refer the reader only to E. Schürer, HJP_ II. ii. [2] 1 f.; W. O. E. Cesterley, The Books of the Apocrypha, their Origin, Teaching, and Contents, London, 1914; W. Bousset, Die Religion des Judentums in neutest. Zeitalter, Berlin, 1903; also to articles in HDB_, DCG_, EBi_, JE_, EBr_11.
W. D. Niven.

Sentence search

Pharisaical - ) Of or pertaining to the Pharisees; resembling the Pharisees
Sadducees - * For SADDUCEES see under Pharisees ...
Pharisean - ) Following the practice of Pharisees; Pharisaic
Pharisees - The Pharisees were one of the two main parties within Judaism in New Testament times, the other being the Sadducees. ...
Most of the Pharisees came from the working classes and tried to preserve traditional Jewish practices from the corruption of foreign ideas and political ambition. The Pharisees, by contrast, emphasized the responsibility to keep the law in all aspects of life, not just in temple rituals. In this the Pharisees supported the traditions that the teachers of the law (the scribes) had developed and taught. ...
Being members of such a strict party, many of the Pharisees regarded themselves alone as being the true people of God, and kept apart from those who did not follow their beliefs and practices. The name ‘Pharisees’ meant ‘the separated ones’ (Acts 15:5; Acts 26:5; cf. ...
The Pharisees criticized Jesus for not keeping their laws (Matthew 12:10-14; Matthew 15:1-2; John 9:16), but Jesus condemned the Pharisees for not keeping God’s law. ...
Jesus’ criticism of the Pharisees caused them to hate him. Although the Sadducees had the chief positions in the Sanhedrin (the Jewish Council that condemned Jesus), many Pharisees were Sanhedrin members. At least one of the Pharisees, Nicodemus, became a believer in Jesus (John 3:1; John 7:45-52; John 19:38-40; see SANHEDRIN). ...
Other beliefs and practices...
While lawkeeping was the Pharisees’ main concern, other distinctive beliefs added to the tension in their relationship with the Sadducees. The Pharisees, for example, believed in the continued existence of the soul after death, the resurrection of the body and the existence of angelic beings, whereas the Sadducees did not (Matthew 22:23; Acts 23:8). ...
The Pharisees’ belief in the resurrection was probably one reason for their favourable attitude to Christians in the early days of the church. Although the Sadducees angrily opposed the Christians, the Pharisees seem to have regarded the Christians as sincerely religious Jews with orthodox beliefs and practices (Acts 2:46-47; Acts 4:1-2; Acts 5:12; Acts 5:17; Acts 5:25-28). ...
Another belief of the Pharisees, also in contrast to the beliefs of the Sadducees, was that all events were under the control of God, and no person had independent right to interfere with what God had decreed. ...
This attitude of tolerance towards Christians changed suddenly when the Pharisees understood Stephen to have spoken against the law of Moses. This left the Pharisees in full control of the Jewish religion
Pharisees - Pharisees (far'i-sees), a religious sect among the Jews at the time of Christ. " The chief sects among the Jews during Christ's ministry were the Pharisees, the Sadducees, and the Essenes. Christ denounced the Pharisees in the strongest language; see Matthew 15:1-8; Matthew 23:13-25; Mark 7:5-6; Luke 11:42-44. To understand the Pharisees is an aid toward understanding the spirit of pure Christianity. The principle of the Pharisees, common to them with all orthodox modern Jews, is that by the side of the written law there was an oral law to complete and to explain the written law, given to Moses on Mount Sinai and transmitted by him by word of mouth. It would be a great mistake to suppose that the Pharisees were wealthy and luxurious, or that they had degenerated into the vices which were imputed to some of the Roman popes and cardinals during the 200 years preceding the Reformation. Josephus compared the Pharisees to the sect of the Stoics
Zealot - ), Pharisees
Doctor of the Law - Doctors of the law were mostly of the sect of the Pharisees, but are distinguished from that sect in Luke 5:17 , where it appears that the novelty of our Savior's teaching drew together a great company both of Pharisees and doctors of the law
Pharisee - The Pharisees were a Jewish sect from the second century B. The Pharisees believed in life after death, the resurrection, the existence of angels and demons, and that the way to God was through keeping the law. "According to Josephus, the Pharisees were the group most influential with the people, were noted for their accurate and therefore authoritative interpretations of Jewish law, and had their own traditions and way of life to which they were faithful
Pharisees - It is probably related to the Hebrew root prs [ John 7:49 )? From Gentiles or Jews who embraced the Hellenistic culture? From certain political groups? All these groups of people the Pharisees would have been determined to avoid in their resolution to separate themselves from any type of impurity proscribed by the levitical law—or, more specifically, their strict interpretation of it. ...
Josephus's references to the Pharisees are selective, probably because he was adapting them to a cultured Gentile audience. His information comes in two forms: direct descriptions and the role the Pharisees play in the history that he depicts. ...
Josephus says the Pharisees maintained a simple lifestyle (Ant 18. Some Pharisees refused to take oaths (Ant 17. Of particular importance are Josephus's statements that the Pharisees adhered to "the laws of which the Deity approves" (Ant 17. Pharisees "follow the guidance of that which their doctrine has selected and transmitted as good, attaching the chief importance to the observance of those commandments which it has seen fit to dictate to them" ( Ant 18. Although the phrase "Oral Law" is not used, it appears Josephus understood that the Pharisees affirmed a body of traditional interpretations, applications, and expansions of the Old Testament law communicated orally. ...
The Pharisees first appear in Josephus's account of intertestamental history as he describes the reign of John Hyrcanus (134-104). Some see the Pharisees' roots in the biblical Ezra (Ezra 7:10 ; shows his concern for exact keeping of the Law, especially ceremonial purity ), others in the Hasidim (the Holy/Pure/Righteous) who supported the Maccabean revolt as long as its motives were religious but withdrew when it became primarily political (1 Maccabees 2:42 ; 7:13 ; cf. Recent studies suggest the Pharisees were part of a general revolutionary spirit of the pre-Maccabean times and that they emerged as a scholarly class dedicated to the teaching of both the written and oral Law and stressing the internal side of Judaism. ...
John Hyrcanus was at first "a disciple" of the Pharisees but became their enemy (Ant 13. The Pharisees were opponents of the Hasmonean rulers from then on. The hostility was especially great during the reign of Alexander Jannaeus (103-76), and they seem to have taken a leading part in opposition to him; it is usually assumed that Pharisees composed either all or a large part of the eight hundred Jews he later crucified (Ant 13. ...
Josephus's information about the Pharisees under the Romans is spotty. ) the Pharisees were influential, but carefully controlled by the king. Some individual Pharisees did oppose Herod on occasion. Josephus gives almost no information about the Pharisees from the death of Herod until the outset of the revolt against Rome (about a. Later Pharisees appear as part of the leadership of the people during the revolt, some individuals playing a leading role in it. ...
The New Testament depicts the Pharisees as opponents of Jesus or the early Christians. ...
The clearest New Testament statement of Pharisaic distinctives is Acts 23:8 : "The Sadducees say that there is no resurrection, and that there are neither angels, nor spirits, but the Pharisees acknowledge them all. However, Mark 7:3-4 says that "The Pharisees do not eat unless they give their hands a ceremonial washing holding to the tradition of the elders. " Thus, we are also told of the Pharisees' concern for washing (ceremonial cleansing) and observance of "the traditions of the elders, " a description of the Oral Law. "...
There is general recognition that Josephus's description of the Pharisees as a "sect" (hairesis [18]8) should not be understood in the modern sense. The Pharisees developed their own body of interpretations, expansions, and applications of the Law that they came to regard as of divine origin (Mishnah, Aboth, 1:1). The Pharisees opposed Hasmoneans who, contrary to the Law, sought to combine the monarchy and priesthood. Intertestamental Judaism was far from a monolithic whole; many, if not most, of the common people, who were influenced by the Pharisees, seem to have held a legalistic view of their religion. Bowker, Jesus and the Pharisees ; L. Findelstein, The Pharisees: The Sociological Background of Their Faith ; L. Neusner, Formative Judaism: Torah, Pharisees and Rabbis ; idem, The Rabbinic Traditions about the Pharisees before 70 ; E. Rivkin, A Hidden Revolution: The Pharisees Search for the Kingdom Within ; E
Herodian - They joined with the Pharisees against Christ
Sadducees - This name was applied in the time of Jesus to a portion or sect of the Jews, who were usually at variance with the other leading sect, namely, the Pharisees, but united with them in opposing Jesus and accomplishing his death, Matthew 16:1-12 ; Luke 20:27 . The Sadducees disregarded all the traditions and unwritten laws which the Pharisees prized so highly, and professed to consider the Scriptures as the only source and rule of the Jewish religion. They rejected the demonology of the Pharisees; denied the existence of angles and spirits; considered the soul as dying with the body, and of course admitted no future state of rewards and punishments, Matthew 22:23 . While, moreover, the Pharisees believed that all events and actions were directed by an overruling providence or fate, the Sadducees considered them all as depending on the will and agency of man. The tenets of these freethinking philosophers were not, in general, so acceptable to the people as those of the Pharisees; yet many of the highest rank adopted them, and practiced great severity of manners and of life
Jewish Parties in the New Testament - We read of Pharisees, Sadducees, and Herodians. Pharisees The Pharisees constituted the most important group. ...
No surviving writing gives us information about the origin of the Pharisees. ), where Josephus refers to Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes. ...
The Pharisees were strongly monotheistic. The Pharisees opposed Jesus because He refused to accept the teachings of the oral law. In all our literature, they stand in opposition to the Pharisees. The Zealots were the extreme wing of the Pharisees. In contrast with the Pharisees, they believed that only God had the right to rule over the Jews. In the earliest reference in Mark, they joined with the Pharisees in a plot to kill Jesus. The other two passages refer to the sending of Pharisees and Herodians to ask Jesus about paying taxes to Caesar. They may have begun at about the same time as the Pharisees and Sadducees. They went beyond the Pharisees in their rigid understanding of it. ...
The vast majority of the people were not a member of any of these parties, although they would have been most influenced by the Pharisees
Mint, - One of the small herbs on which the Pharisees were careful to pay tithes
Mint - , "having a sweet smell"), one of the garden herbs of which the Pharisees paid tithes (Matthew 23:23 ; Luke 11:42 ). The paying of tithes of mint was in accordance with the Mosiac law (Deuteronomy 14:22 ), but the error of the Pharisees lay in their being more careful about this little matter of the mint than about weightier matters
Pharisaism - ) The notions, doctrines, and conduct of the Pharisees, as a sect
Hem of Garment - The importance which the later Jews, especially the Pharisees, (Matthew 23:5 ) attached to the hem or fringe of their garments was founded upon the regulation in (Numbers 15:38,39 ) which gave a symbolical meaning to it
Dill - Jesus accused the scribes and Pharisees of tithing their dill but neglecting justice, mercy, and faith (Matthew 23:23 )
Ox - Referred to by our Lord in his reproof to the Pharisees (Luke 13:15 ; 14:5 )
Sanhedrin - The Sanhedrin was a council of 71 individuals, around the time of Christ that was comprised of Pharisees and Sadducees who governed the Jewish nation while under the rule of Rome
Hypocrite - Our Savior accused the Pharisees of hypocrisy, Luke 12:1
Pharisees - The Pharisees (ôÌÀøåÌùÑÄéí, Φαρισαῖοι) were a religious sect among the Jews, probably originating in Maccabaean times. He points out that the Pharisees were the popular party; that one of their precepts was, ‘Separate not thyself from the congregation,’ and that they reproached the Sadducees as the separatists. ’ In support he quotes Josephus, who says of the Pharisees that ‘they are those who seem to explain the laws with accuracy’ (BJ_ II. General position of Pharisees in the 1st cent. At the opening of our period we find the Pharisees noted for piety, learning, and strict observance of the Law. No doubt it was among the Pharisees that the best type of Jewish character and piety was found. But in the Gospels it is clear that the Pharisees, the popular party, were drawing themselves apart into a new aristocracy, and that the party of progress had become rigidly conservative. Pharisees and foreign domination. How the Pharisees regarded the rule of Herod and the Romans it is difficult to judge. Further, the party of the Zealots who agitated for the overthrow of Roman power were an off-shoot from the Pharisees. We may take it that certain of the Pharisees favoured political action, others deprecated it. -This catastrophe, so calamitous in itself, came to the Pharisees, as to Jewish Christians, really as an emancipation. If the Church was henceforth free from serious Jewish persecution, and the distraction of Judaizing propaganda, the Pharisees were free of their conflict with the Sadducees, who disappeared with Temple and priesthood. The Pharisees set themselves more diligently than ever to the development of the Law. -In saying what was the attitude of Pharisees to Christianity, we are in danger of arguing from isolated and therefore perhaps exceptional cases. Simon the Pharisee), and that, on the other hand, certain of the Pharisees (e. Arguing from the known tendency of the Pharisees to be moderate in judgment, and from the definite illustrations of it which we have (Acts 5:34 ff; Acts 23:9), we may hold that as far as the persecutions in Jerusalem are concerned, the main responsibility at least does not lie on the Pharisees. ...
When we remember that the Pharisees with all their faults were the leaders of Jewish piety, and the orthodox theologians, it is clear that it is difficult to overestimate the part they played in preparing the way for Christianity. Paul was a Pharisee of the Pharisees, and what would Christianity have been but for him? It was the Pharisees who settled the OT canon, and the Christian Church accepted it. Pharisees developed the Messianic hope, distinguished the Church from the State, taught a religion that was independent of priests and Temple, developed doctrines of immortality, resurrection, and judgment to come, that with only little modification passed into Christian theology. The best of the Pharisees understood the inwardness of the Law as Jesus taught it, and some of His most characteristic sayings are to be found in almost identical form in the sayings of the Rabbis. Works on the Pharisees and Sadducees are numerous
Sadducee - " They were smaller in size than the group of the Pharisees. The Sadducees were generally on the upper class, often in a priestly line, and the Pharisees in the middle class, usually merchants and tradesmen
Serpent - Jesus accused the Pharisees of being as evil and deadly as serpents (Matthew 23:33 )
Anise - Plant mentioned by Our Lord (Matthew 23:23) as subjected to tithe by the Pharisees; a mis-translation for dill, which was made originally in the Wycllif version and let pass since, as of no consequence, dill and anise being of the same parsley family
Herodians - Herod was dependent on the Roman power, and his adherents on the Roman power, and his adherents therefore maintained the propriety of paying tribute to Caesar, which the Pharisees denied
Fringes - Our Lord also wore them; the Pharisees made theirs extra large (Matthew 23)
Essenes - A Jewish mystical sect somewhat resembling the Pharisees
Cummin - An umbelliferous plant like fennel, with aromatic, pungent, carminative seeds; beaten out with a rod, not threshed (Isaiah 28:25; Isaiah 28:27); tithed by the punctilious Pharisees (Matthew 23:23)
Rue - It is only mentioned as a small thing which was tithed by the Pharisees
Ensnare - 1: παγιδεύω (Strong's #3802 — Verb — pagideuo — pag-id-yoo'-o ) "to entrap, lay snares for" (from pagis, "anything which fixes or grips," hence, "a snare"), is used in Matthew 22:15 , of the efforts of the Pharisees to "entrap" the Lord in His speech, AV, "entangle
Hasideans - ” The Pharisees and the Essenes likely derived from different streams of the Hasidean movement
Sadducees - The Sadducees were a Jewish sect or party best known by their opposition to the Pharisees. They record various disputes that took place between Pharisees and Sadducees); (d) Zadokite fragments (these are two fragments discovered quite recently in the Cairo Genizah. It has to be remarked of the evidence of Josephus that it almost seems that part of what he had to say regarding Pharisees and Sadducees has been lost. , but there we find only a scanty reference to Pharisees and Sadducees, while his notice of the Essenes is full. It is argued that, just as the Greek ἐπικοῦρος was used by Jews as = ‘infidel,’ the Persian zandik was probably applied to this sect, who, from the standpoint of the Pharisees were little better than infidels, and who further supported the introduction of foreign customs. Opposition to the Pharisees. Geiger’s view that the Sadducees were aristocratic while the Pharisees were democratic is true so far, but does not bring out the fact that their differences were notably theological or give any explanation of those divergences. Hanne’s view that Pharisees and Sadducees carried on the old conflict of prophetism and priestism is attractive, but according to the NT it is the Pharisees who are blinded and enslaved by that ceremonialism and externalism against which prophetism protested. Wellhausen’s view that the Pharisees were essentially those devoted to the Law on religious grounds while the Sadducees were essentially a political party has really little evidence in its favour, and all our authorities agree in representing the differences between the two parties as to a great extent doctrinal. -The fundamental difference between Pharisees and Sadducees was that relating to the supreme arbiter of all disputes. The Pharisees held that the oral traditions were as authoritative at least as the written Law. ...
‘The Pharisees have delivered to the people from the tradition of the fathers all manner of ordinances not contained in the laws of Moses; for which reason the sect of the Sadducees reject these ordinances; for they affirm that only such laws ought to be observed as are written, while those which are orally delivered from the tradition of the fathers are not binding. It explains why they were more rigid than the Pharisees in enforcing the penal law (Ant. It would be misleading to call the Sadducees the Protestants of Judaism, but there is some similarity between their divergence from the Pharisees and the divergence of Protestants from Roman Catholics on the question of authority. For the latter the Pharisees claimed the same sort of infallibility as the Roman Church attaches to ex cathedra pronouncements by the pope. On the one hand, the complexities of life convinced the Sadducees that cases had to be met for which there was no definite guidance in the written Word, and popular feeling compelled them to fall in with the procedure of the Pharisees (Ant. On the other hand, their insistence on the supreme authority of the Word led to an intensive study of the Word by the Pharisees, who were concerned to show, just as a Roman Catholic is, that the oral tradition was really based upon the Word. Hence the Pharisees won, but only by doing full justice to the Sadducean position. ...
‘The Pharisees won the day ultimately, for they were able to show by subtle exegesis that the oral tradition was based upon the written Law. But, and this is the great point, the Sadducaean principle was thus victorious; as a party they went under; but the Pharisees, by adopting the Sadducaean principle that nothing is binding that cannot be shown to be in accordance with the written Law, implicitly acknowledged that the Sadducees had been right all along’ (Cesterley, op. ...
While the Pharisees, he tells us, hold that some things in the world happen by the will of Providence, and that other things lie in the power of men, ‘the Sadducees take away Providence, and say there is no such thing, and that the events of human affairs are not at its disposal; but they suppose that all our actions are in our own power’ (Ant. Again, while Rabbinical writings contain no evidence of any dispute with the Pharisees on this topic-a silence which is very significant-the Zadokite fragments show the Sadducean doctrine of God to be in harmony with OT teaching (see Cesterley, op. We conclude that on this topic there was no essential difference between Pharisees and Sadducees. It follows that the popular idea of Sadducees as irreligious and rationalist is as baseless as the idea that all Pharisees were whited sepulchres. -In strong contrast to the Pharisees (see article Pharisees), the Sadducees were sympathetic to foreign, especially Hellenistic, culture. The Sadducees stood for the old truth against the innovations of the Pharisees. It is sufficient to say that endless disputes were carried on between the two parties as to the correct dates of the feasts, arising from the fact that while the Pharisees reckoned by a lunar year, the Sadducees computed a solar year (see Cesterley, op. -Jesus Himself referred very seldom to the Sadducees; His polemic was directed against the Pharisees. -See under Pharisees
Mint - Tithed scrupulously by the Pharisees (Matthew 23:23; Luke 11:42)
Mint And Cummin - Jesus named cummin, dill, and mint as He criticized the Pharisees for requiring the tithe of the herbs while ignoring more important matters of the Law (Matthew 23:23 )
Rue - Our Saviour reproaches the Pharisees with their superstitious affectation of paying the tithe of rue, which was not in reality subject to the law of tithe, while they neglected the more essential parts of the law, Luke 11:42
Sadducees - Acts 23:8 defines the Sadducees theologically, saying that, in contrast to the Pharisees, they hold there "is no resurrection, and neither angels nor spirits. ) came under their influence after his break with the Pharisees. When exercising their office the Sadducees were forced by public opinion to follow "the formulas of the Pharisees" (Ant 18. Evidently they were more severe in administering punishments than Pharisees (Ant 13. ...
Josephus says, "The Pharisees had passed on certain regulations handed down by former generations and not recorded in the Laws of Moses, rejected by the Sadducean group, who hold only those regulations should be considered valid which were written down (in Scripture)" (Ant 13. ), the Pharisees compiled and transmitted orally a body of traditional interpretations, adaptations, and additions to Scripture that they believed to be of divine origin. ...
Religiously, the Sadducees were literal in handling the Old Testament Law and resisted the "new" ideas and traditions of the Pharisees. Furthermore, Jesus and his followers supported some of the positions of the Pharisees. ...
See also Pharisees ...
Bibliography . Saldarini, Pharisees, Scribes, and Sadducees in Palestinian Society ; E. Zeitlin, The Sadducees and the Pharisees
Phar'Isees, - " The chief sects among the Jews were the Pharisees, the Sadducees and the Essenes, who may be described respectively as the Formalists, the Freethinkers and the Puritans. A knowledge of the opinions and practices of the Pharisees at the time of Christ is of great importance for entering deeply into the genius of the Christian religion. He denounced them in the bitterest language; see ( Matthew 15:7,8 ; 23:5,13,14,15,23 ; Mark 7:6 ; Luke 11:42-44 ) and compare (Mark 7:1-5 ; 11:29 ; 12:19,20 ; Luke 6:28,37-42 ) To understand the Pharisees is by contrast an aid toward understanding the spirit of uncorrupted Christianity.
The fundamental principle all of the of the Pharisees, common to them with all orthodox modern Jews, is that by the side of the written law regarded as a summary of the principles and general laws of the Hebrew people there was on oral law to complete and to explain the written law, given to Moses on Mount Sinai and transmitted by him by word of mouth. ...
While it was the aim of Jesus to call men to the law of God itself as the supreme guide of life, the Pharisees, upon the Pretence of maintaining it intact, multiplied minute precepts and distinctions to such an extent that the whole life of the Israelite was hemmed in and burdened on every side by instructions so numerous and trifling that the law was almost if not wholly lost sight of. The lowliness of piety was, according to the teaching of Jesus, an inseparable concomitant of its reality; but the Pharisees sought mainly to attract the attention and to excite the admiration of men. (Matthew 22:15 ) ...
The Pharisees at an early day secured the popular favor and thereby acquired considerable political influence. This influence was greatly increased by the extension of the Pharisees over the whole land and the majority which they obtained in the Sanhedrin. ...
One of the fundamental doctrines of the Pharisees was a belief in a future state . ...
It is proper to add that it would be a great mistake to suppose that the Pharisees were wealthy and luxurious much more that they had degenerated into the vices which were imputed to some of the Roman popes and cardinals during the two hundred years preceding the Reformation. Josephus compared the Pharisees to the sect of the Stoics
Pharisees - Pharisees. The answer to the question How came the Pharisees into the place of power and prestige they held in the time of our Lord? involves a clear understanding of the task of Israel after the Exile. The Jewish Puritans became a distinct class called the ‘Pharisees,’ or men who separated themselves from the heathen, and no less from the heathenizing tendencies and forces in their own nation. And so it comes to pass that in our Lord’s time, to use His own words, ‘the scribes and Pharisees sit in Moses’ seat’ ( Matthew 23:2 ). The Pharisees are seen at their best when contrasted with the Zealots (see Cananæan) on the one side and the Herodians (wh. The Pharisees were in a sense Churchmen rather than statesmen. The Pharisees, as contrasted with the Sadducees (wh. But the Pharisees and the Scribes opened a great career to all the talents. But the Pharisees found their main function in teaching and preaching. ...
We have not yet exhausted the claims of the Pharisees on our interest and gratitude. We need only consider our Lord’s task to see how much preparatory work the Pharisees did. Now, it was the Pharisees who made idealized nationalism, based upon the monotheism of the prophets, the pith and marrow of Judaism. Though they stood for the spiritualizing tendencies which looked towards the existence of a Church, the Pharisees never reached the Church idea. And so, when John the Baptist, the first prophet for many centuries, came on the field, he put himself in mortal opposition to the Pharisees, no less than to the Sadducees ( Matthew 3:7 f. And our Lord, embodying the moral essence of Prophetism, found His most dangerous opponents, until the end of His ministry, not in the Sadducees or the Essenes or the Zealots, but in the Pharisees
Lost Coin, Parable of the - A parable told to the Pharisees and Scribes who were murmuring against Our Lord for stooping to receive and enlighten publicans and sinners (Luke 15); also read for the Gospel, the third Sunday after Pentecost. So, too, sinners, despicable and of no value in the eyes of the Pharisees, mean much to God who out of His great love created and destined them for heaven
Sadducees - Next to the Pharisees, the Sadducees were the most prominent sect of the Jews. The Pharisees made proselytes, but the Sadducees were much more exclusive, and therefore remained fewer in number
Rue - A garden herb (Ruta graveolens) which the Pharisees were careful to tithe (Luke 11:42 ), neglecting weightier matters
Closet - He also noted that not even words said in the inner room privacy could be kept secret (Luke 12:3 ), indicating the Pharisees' hypocrisy could not be hidden
Galileans - They pretended that god alone should be owned as master and lord, and in other respects were of the opinion of the Pharisees; but as they judged in unlawful to pray for infidel princes, they separated themselves from the rest of the Jews, and performed their sacrifices apart. Jerome observes, that the Pharisees laid a snare for him, asking, Whether it were lawful to give tribute to Caesar? that in case he denied it, they might have an occasion of accusing him
Tithe - ...
Our Lord makes but three references to the tithes, and they are all of the observance of them by the Pharisees (Matthew 23:23, Luke 11:42; Luke 18:12). In the first two passages He contrasts the minute exactness with which the Pharisees observe their less important and external laws of tithe with their careless disregard of the inner and more important virtues of justice, mercy, faith, and the love of God. In Luke 18:12 He illustrates how compliance with external requirements, especially when these are exceeded, as in the case of the Pharisees, and dissociated from the corresponding state of heart, breeds a culpable and overweening self-righteousness
Disciple - A scholar, sometimes applied to the followers of John the Baptist (Matthew 9:14 ), and of the Pharisees (22:16), but principally to the followers of Christ
Shimon ben shetach - (1century BCE) During John Hyrcanus' persecution of the Pharisees, he was hidden by his sister Salome Alexandra
Simeon ben shetach, rabbi - (1century BCE) During John Hyrcanus' persecution of the Pharisees, he was hidden by his sister Salome Alexandra
Anise - The Pharisees were careful to pay tithes of such things while they omitted the weightier matters of the law, Matthew 23:23
Cummin - Our Lord reproved the scribes and Pharisees for so very carefully paying tithe of mint, anise, and cummin, and yet neglecting good works and obedience to God's law, Matthew 23:23
Pharisees (2) - PHARISEES...
I. —The Pharisees present the most characteristic manifestation of Palestinian Judaism in the time of Christ, and His work cannot be understood without a knowledge of them; for ‘later Judaism is through and through Pharisaism and nothing but Pharisaism’ (Bousset, Jesu Predigt, 1892, p. The Pharisees were an outgrowth of the long conflict between the Jews and surrounding heathenism, from the Babylonian Captivity onward. The Reformers under Ezra and Nehemiah were forerunners of the Pharisees, as the priestly court party under Zerubbabel foreshadowed the Sadducees. These Hăsîdîm, or Puritans of the century before Christ, became the Pharisees of NT times. They received the name ‘Pharisees’ or separated, when they withdrew from the Saddrcee court party of the Maccabaean rulers under John Hyrcanus (b. Differences between Pharisees and Sadducees. —The chief differences were the following: (1) the Pharisees ‘delivered to the people a great many observances by tradition which are not written in the law of Moses’ (Josephus Ant. (2) The Pharisees had an elaborate doctrine of immortality, resurrection, angels, demons, heaven, hell, intermediate state, and Messianic Kingdom, about all of which the Sadducees were agnostic. (3) The Pharisees taught both predestination and free-will,—much as St. (4) The Pharisees had a high theory of the theocracy, which led them to oppose foreign interference from the time of the Syrian kings to the Roman emperors, and reject also the Maccabaean rule as inconsistent with the high priesthood. (5) The Pharisees were also missionary, and made many converts (Ant. (6) The Pharisees differed from the Sadducees by the wide distance between the Synagogue, the centre of the one party, and the Temple, the stronghold of the other. The Pharisees even prescribed rules for the priestly Sadducees in the Temple (Ant. In fact, the Temple services were regarded as meritorious because done in obedience to the legal teachings of the Pharisees (cf. ‘Pharisees’ in JE
The theology of the Pharisees was crude and unscientific,—‘a terrible mass of conflicting statements and debasing superstitions’ (Edersheim, Life and Times, i. The Pharisees ‘killed nature by legal prescriptions’ (Wellhausen, Phar. Stephen was stoned for blaspheming God, Moses, and the customs of the Pharisees, and doing so in the name of Jesus Christ. —The Pharisees had an abstract, transcendental view of God, which gave rise to the legalism that marks their teachings, and added colour to their Messianic hope (cf. The confused view of the Pharisees, that the Jew was partly in national relations to God and partly member of a holy congregation, disappears. Here is the great point of departure from Judaism and the Ghetto, already erected by the Pharisees in Jerusalem, towards Christianity and the gospel of humanity. Obedience to God’s Law under the awful Categorical Imperative of Sinai, as applied by scribes and Pharisees, was the dominant principle, the yoke upon the neck of the Jews, when Christ appeared (Acts 15:10, Galatians 5:1). Hence from Hillel onwards the Pharisees elaborated a civil code by means of tradition and exegesis from the Scriptures. —This the Pharisees made to touch every detail of human life. —The Pharisees bound spiritual and moral living also under law. —Even the best legal maxims of the Pharisees fall far short of the teachings of Jesus. Jesus dropped the whole Law as a way of salvation,—a way the Pharisees themselves could not keep (Romans 7:8), as appeared in their numerous evasions of it, such as ‘blending of courts,’ and their ostentatious putting of appearance in place of reality. He threw aside the endless civil, ceremonial, and ethical rules of the Pharisees, and went back to the spiritual religion of the OT as fulfilled in Him and transformed in the gospel. Salvation by way of the Pharisees was impossible, hence Jesus declared they were either blind or hypocrites in claiming to please God in that way. This gospel of the loving father and the prodigal son, of the penitent publican and the proud Pharisee, was as a honeymoon compared with the funereal legalism of the Pharisees (Mark 2:19). Religious hopes of the Pharisees. The Pharisees had no idea that the Messiah would be a Saviour of all men. —The teachings of Jesus differed from those of the Pharisees on salvation, first, by showing it was not by law; and, second, by presenting the Messiah as a sin-bearer. His preaching of the Kingdom, also, was very different from that of the Pharisees. He appropriated to Himself the lofty Messianic conception of the Pharisees; He was ‘Son of God’ (Enoch 105:2 f. It is little wonder that such words on the lips of Jesus amazed the Pharisees; in fact, nearly all He said contradicted their teachings
Cummin - Jesus faulted the Pharisees for giving attention to small things like tithing mint, dill, and cummin while ignoring the weightier matters of the law (Matthew 23:23 ; see Luke 11:42 )
Lawyers - They belonged mostly to the sect of the Pharisees, and fell under the reproof of our Savior for having taken from the people the key of knowledge
Herodians - Though the Pharisees would normally not be sympathetic to the Herodians, they were willing to cooperate with them in trying to find a way to have Jesus accused of law-breaking and, if possible, killed (Matthew 22:15-17; Mark 3:6)
Sadducees - In New Testament times the two main parties within the Jewish religion were the Sadducees and the Pharisees. These two factions were the forerunners of the Sadducees and the Pharisees. The Pharisees followed strictly the traditions handed down from their forefathers, but the Sadducees had little interest in the traditions. These were all important beliefs for the Pharisees (Matthew 22:23; Acts 4:1-2; Acts 23:7-8). ...
In spite of their dislike for the Pharisees, the Sadducees readily joined with them to oppose Jesus (Matthew 16:1-4; Matthew 22:15; Matthew 22:23; Matthew 22:34). Jesus condemned them, along with the Pharisees, for their hypocrisy (Matthew 16:6; Matthew 16:12). Only when the Pharisees turned against the Christians were the Sadducees able to use the full power of the Sanhedrin against the Christians (Acts 6:12-15; Acts 7:58; Acts 8:1; cf
Scribes - The scribes were closely associated with the Pharisees, and served them as their lawyers. They shared the Pharisees' hatred of Christ, and were imbued with a high degree of Pharisaic hypocrisy and venality
Wedding Guests, Bridegroom And the - The parable was provoked by the question of the disciples of John the Baptist and some of the scribes and Pharisees asking "Why do we and the Pharisees fast often, but thy disciples do not fast?" Jesus replies in a similitude, asking if the companions of the bridal-chamber, whose special task it was to provide for the merrymaking at the feast, could be expected at the same time to mourn and fast. The disciples of Christ kept the fasts prescribed by the Law but they did ignore those imposed by the Pharisees. This parable does stand against the spirit of the Pharisees who esteemed too highly external works and it shows to all that a new time had come and another spirit reigned in the Kingdom
Herodians - The Herodians appear in the Gospels on two occasions ( Mark 3:6 , Matthew 22:16 || Mark 12:13 ) as making common cause with the Pharisees against Jesus
Publican - The Pharisees used this name for anyone who failed to agree with their doctrines and their manner of life
Leaven - Mark (8:11-15) presents Jesus' warning following the Pharisees' questioning of Jesus about a sign from heaven. In the boat Jesus warns them about leaven, really meaning the attitude or perspective of the Pharisees and Herod. Matthew records that Jesus' response to the questioning of the Pharisees and Sadducees included some symbolic discussion about weather and a reference to "the sign of Jonah" (v. Then, in the following discussion with his disciples after they have reached the other side, Jesus warns against the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees. 12) that the disciples finally understood that Jesus was referring to the teaching (didache [3]) of the Pharisees and Sadducees. The way Matthew presents the whole scene, with the explicit use of teaching in verse 12, seems to focus the meaning of leaven in his Gospel on the attitude of the rejection of Jesus by the Pharisees and Sadducees. He has just narrated Jesus' woes on the Pharisees and Scribes (11:37-53) and now describes the gathering of a large crowd. Jesus warns his disciples against the leaven of the Pharisees, which Luke notes is hypocrisy (v. Thus, Jesus' warning about the leaven of the Pharisees in Luke seems to stress preparation for times of persecution
Nicodemus - At the time when the priests and Pharisees had sent officers to seize Jesus, Nicodemus declared himself openly in his favour, John 7:45 , &c; and still more so when he went with Joseph of Arimathea to pay the last duties to his body, which they took down from the cross, embalmed, and laid in a sepulchre
Sad'Ducees - (Matthew 16:1,4,6 ) Christ never assailed the Sadducees with the same bitter denunciations which he uttered against the Pharisees. As the Pharisees asserted so the Sadducees denied, that the Israelites were in possession of an oral law transmitted to them by Moses, [1] In opposition to the Pharisees, they maintained that the written law alone was obligatory on the nation, as of divine authority. Josephus states that the Sadducees believed in the freedom of the will , which the Pharisees denied. An important fact in the history of the Sadducees is their rapid disappearance from history after the first century, and the subsequent predominance among the Jews of the opinions of the Pharisees. Consciously, therefore, or unconsciously, many circumstances combined to induce the Jews who were not Pharisees, but who resisted the new heresy, to rally round the standard of the oral law, and to assert that their holy legislator, Moses, had transmitted to his faithful people by word of mouth, although not in writing, the revelation of a future state of rewards and punishments
Sect - ), meaning properly "a choice," then "a chosen manner of life," and then "a religious party," as the "sect" of the Sadducees (Acts 5:17 ), of the Pharisees (15:5), the Nazarenes, i
Phylactery - The Pharisees and scribes made them large to attract attention; it was their being made 'broad' that was condemned by the Lord
Alexander jannaeus - This served as a pretext to wage a war against the Pharisees which cost approximately 50,000 Jewish lives
Scoff - 1: ἐκμυκτηρίζω (Strong's #1592 — Verb — ekmukterizo — ek-mook-ter-id'-zo ) "to hold up the nose in derision at" (ek, "from," used intensively, mukterizo, "to mock;" from mukter, "the nose"), is translated "scoffed at" in Luke 16:14 , RV (AV, "derided"), of the Pharisees in their derision of Christ on account of His teaching; in Luke 23:35 (ditto), of the mockery of Christ on the Cross by the rulers of the people
Beelzebub - Jesus showed the contradictory nature of such a claim and turned the charge back on the Pharisees
Scribe - 1: γραμματεύς (Strong's #1122 — Noun Masculine — grammateus — gram-mat-yooce' ) from gramma, "a writing," denotes "a scribe, a man of letters, a teacher of the law;" the "scribes" are mentioned frequently in the Synoptists, especially in connection with the Pharisees, with whom they virtually formed one party (see Luke 5:21 ), sometimes with the chief priests, e. Hence the Lord's stern denunciations of them and the Pharisees (see Pharisees)
Sadducees - They were in sharp opposition to the Pharisees, but ready to work with them against the person and teaching of Jesus. They disregarded the traditions and unwritten laws which the Pharisees prized so highly, and professed to take the Scriptures as the sole authoritative guide of religion. The Sadducees were not so numerous as the Pharisees; nor were their tenets so acceptable to the people
Assideanis - They practised greater hardships and mortifications than others; and their common oath was, "By the temple;" for which our Saviour reproves the Pharisees, who had learned that oath of them, Matthew 23:16 . From this sect the Pharisees sprung
Frontlets, - The expression "they make broad their phylacteries," (Matthew 23:5 ) refers not so much to the phylactery itself, which seems to have been of a prescribed breadth, as to the case in which the parchment was kept, which the Pharisees, among their other pretentious customs, (Mark 7:3,4 ; Luke 5:33 ) etc. It is said that the Pharisees wore them always, whereas the common people only used them at prayers
Pharisees - From their rigorous observance of these traditions, they looked upon themselves as more holy than other men, and therefore separated themselves from those whom they thought sinners or profane, so as not to eat or drink with them; and hence, from the Hebrew word pharia, which signifies "to separate, " they had the name of Pharisees, or Sepharatists. The extraordinary pretences of the Pharisees to righteousness, drew after them the common people, who held them in the highest esteem and veneration. ...
The Pharisees, contrary to the opinion of the Sadducees, held a resurrection from the dead, and the existence of angels and spirits, Acts 23:8 . The Pharisees had many Pagan notions respecting the soul; but Bishop Bull, in his Harmonia Apostolica, has clearly proved that they held a resurrection of the body, and that they supposed a certain bone to remain uncorrupted, to furnish the matter of which the resurrection body was to be formed. ...
The state of future felicity in which the Pharisees believed was very gross: they imagined that men in the next world, as well as in the present, were to eat and drink, and enjoy the pleasures of love, each being re-united to his former wife. Had the resurrection of Christianity been the Pharisaical resurrection, this difficulty would have been insurmountable; and accordingly we find the people, and even some of the Pharisees themselves, struck with the manner in which our Saviour removed it. The sect of the Pharisees was not extinguished by the ruin of the Jewish commonwealth
Purification - To these the scribes and Pharisees added others, such as washing the hands before eating, washing cups and plates — being very zealous in these things, while within they were full of extortion and excess
Mint - The Pharisees, desiring to distinguish themselves by a most scrupulous and literal observation of the law, gave tithes of mint, anise, and cummin, Matthew 23:23
Pharisees - ...
Lastly: the Pharisees contended that God stood engaged to bless the Jews, to make them all partakers of the terrestrial kingdom of the Messiah, to justify them, and make them eternally happy. ...
The Pharisees were the strictest of the three principal sects that divided the Jewish nation, Acts 26:5 , and affected a singular probity of manners according to their system; which, however, was, for the most part, both lax and corrupt. Thus many things which Moses had tolerated in civil life, in order to avoid a greater evil, the Pharisees determined to be morally right: for instance, the law of divorce from a wife for any cause, Matthew 5:31 , &c; Matthew 19:3-12 . ...
But, above all their other tenets, the Pharisees were conspicuous for their reverential observance of the traditions or decrees of the elders: these traditions, they pretended, had been handed down from Moses through every generation, but were not committed to writing; and they were not merely considered as of equal authority with the divine law, but even preferable to it. " Among the traditions thus sanctimoniously observed by the Pharisees, we may briefly notice the following: the washing of hands up to the wrist before and after meat, Matthew 15:2 ; Mark 7:3 ; which they accounted not merely a religious duty, but considered its omission as a crime equal to fornication, and punishable by excommunication: the purification of the cups, vessels, and couches used at their meals by ablutions or washings, Mark 7:4 ; for which purpose the six large water pots mentioned by St. ...
With all their pretensions to piety, the Pharisees entertained the most sovereign contempt for the people; whom, being ignorant of the law, they pronounced to be accursed, John 7:49 . It is unquestionable, as Mosheim has well remarked, that the religion of the Pharisees was, for the most part, founded in consummate hypocrisy; and that, at the bottom, they were generally the slaves of every vicious appetite, proud, arrogant, and avaricious, consulting only the gratification of their lusts, even at the very moment when they professed themselves to be engaged in the service of their Maker. These odious features in the character of the Pharisees caused them to be reprehended by our Saviour with the utmost severity, even more so than the Sadducees; who, although they had departed widely from the genuine principles of religion, yet did not impose on mankind by a pretended sanctity, or devote themselves with insatiate greediness to the acquisition of honours and riches. A few, and a few only, of the sect of the Pharisees, in those times, might be of better character,—men who, though self-righteous and deluded and bigoted, were not like the rest, hypocritical. The sect of the Pharisees was not extinguished by the ruin of the Jewish commonwealth. The greater part of the Jews are still Pharisees, being as much devoted to traditions, or the oral law, as their ancestors were
Herodians - In scepticism they sided with the Sadducees, but were strongly opposed to the Pharisees
Hypocrisy - Beware ye of the leaven of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy
Neighbor - At the time of our Savior, the Pharisees had restrained the meaning of the word "neighbor" to those of their own nation, or to their own friends; holding, that to hate their enemy was not forbidden by the law, Matthew 5:43
Pharisees - The Pharisees were successors of the Assideans or Chasidim, i. The Sadducees succeeded to the latter, the Pharisees to the former (1 Maccabees 1:13-15; 1 Maccabees 1:41-49; 1 Maccabees 1:62-63; 1 Maccabees 2:42; 1 Maccabees 7:13-17; 2 Maccabees 14:6-38). ...
So the beginning of the Pharisees was patriotism and faithfulness to the covenant. Hillel and Shammai were leaders of two schools of the Pharisees, differing on slight points; the Mishna refers to both (living before Christ) and to Hillel's grandson, Paul's' teacher, Gamaliel. ...
An undesigned coincidence confirming genuineness is the fact that throughout the Gospels hostility to Christianity shows itself mainly from the Pharisees; but throughout Acts from the Sadducees. The Pharisees therefore regarded Christians in this as their allies against the Sadducees, and so the less opposed Christianity (John 11:57; John 18:3; Acts 4:1; Acts 5:17; Acts 23:6-9). The Mishna lays down the fundamental principle of the Pharisees. A member of the society of Pharisees was called chaber ; those not members were called "the people of the land"; compare John 7:49, "this people who knoweth not the law are cursed"; also the Pharisee standing and praying with himself, self righteous and despising the publican (Luke 18:9-14). 18:1, section 3, 13:10, section 5) says the Pharisees lived frugally, like the Stoics, and hence had so much weight with the multitude that if they said aught against the king or the high-priest it was immediately believed, whereas the Sadducees could gain only the rich. ...
The defect in the Pharisees which Christ stigmatized by the parable of the two debtors was not immorality but want of love, from unconsciousness of forgiveness or of the need of it. 18:1, section 3) says: "the Pharisees say that the soul of good men only passes over into another body, while the soul of bad men is chastised by eternal punishment. "...
Paul: regarded the Pharisees as holding our view of the resurrection of the dead (Acts 23:6-8). The Sadducees, the wealthy aristocrats, originally in political and practical dealings with the Syrians relied more on worldly prudence, the Pharisees more insisted on considerations of legal righteousness, leaving events to God. ...
The Pharisees were notorious for proselytizing zeal (Matthew 23:15), and seem to have been the first who regularly organized missions for conversions (compare Josephus, Pharisees imbued with a thirst for inquiry, and were prepared for the gospel ministered by the apostles, and especially Paul, a Hebrew in race, a Pharisee by training, a Greek in language, and a Roman citizen in birth and privilege. Among even the Pharisees some accepted the truth, Nicodemus and Joseph of Arimathea, and John 12:42 and Acts 15:5
Cummin - In the New Testament it is mentioned in Matthew 23:23 , where our Lord pronounces a "woe" on the scribes and Pharisees, who were zealous in paying tithes of "mint and anise and cummin," while they omitted the weightier matters of the law
Doctor - The doctors of the law were principally of the sect of the Pharisees
Rue - see) as one of the common garden herbs on which the Pharisees paid tithe
Borne - ...
Matthew 23:4 (b) Here is described the great difficulty which the people had in trying to be good, and to observe all the traditions of the scribes and Pharisees in order to be saved
Allegory - Allegories are interpreted at times by their author; thus Our Lord bids: "Beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees," as a reference to their teaching (Matthew 16)
Tradition - Many of the later traditions had been developed and taught by the scribes and Pharisees, and brought Jesus into conflict with the Jewish religious leaders (Matthew 23:4-16; see SCRIBES; Pharisees)
Two Sons, Parable of the - They responded in favor of the first son: whereupon Jesus said that publicans and harlots shall go into the Kingdom of God before the chief-priests, Scribes, and Pharisees, thus giving the meaning of the parable and convicting the members of the august Sanhedrin out of their own mouths. The interpretation of the parable is this: The certain man is God; the first son, the notorious sinners, at first rebellious but who repented at the preaching of John the Baptist; the second son, the Pharisees and their type, who professed to obey God but rejected the teaching of the Precursor
Dust - The Pharisees entering Judea from a Gentile country were accustomed to shake the dust from their feet, as a renunciation of Gentile communion
Hypocrite - Our Saviour accused the Pharisees of hypocrisy
Title - The rabbis attached great importance to these; hence the significance of the Lord's statements in Matthew 5:18 ; Luke 16:17 , charging the Pharisees with hypocrisy, because, while professing the most scrupulous reverence to the Law, they violated its spirit
Sadducees - Even Josephus, who was himself a Pharisee, and took every opportunity of reproaching the Sadducees, does not mention that they rejected any part of the Scriptures; he only says that "The Pharisees have delivered to the people many institutions as received from the fathers, which are not written in the law of Moses. Confining all their hopes to this present world, enjoying its riches, and devoting themselves to its pleasures, they might well be particularly anxious that their lot of life should be cast in the splendid reign of this expected temporal king, with the hope of sharing in his conquests and glory; but this expectation was so contrary to the lowly appearance of our Saviour, that they joined their inveterate enemies, the Pharisees, in persecuting him and his religion. The Sadducees were far less numerous than the Pharisees, but they were in general persons of greater opulence and dignity. Paul were carried consisted partly of Pharisees and partly of Sadducees
Phylacteries - It seems the Pharisees used to "make broad their phylacteries. " This some understand of the knots of the thongs by which they were fastened, which were tied very artificially in the form of Hebrew letters; and that the pride of the Pharisees induced them to have these knots larger than ordinary, as a peculiar ornament. The Pharisees are farther said to "enlarge the borders of their garments," τα κρασπεδα των ιματιων , Matthew 23:5 . " The Pharisees are censured by our Saviour for enlarging these fringes of their garments, which we may suppose they did partly from pride, and partly from hypocrisy, as pretending thereby an extraordinary regard for the precepts of the law
Corban - Our Lord condemns the Pharisees for their false doctrine, inasmuch as by their traditions they had destroyed the commandment which requires children to honour their father and mother, teaching them to find excuse from helping their parents by the device of pronouncing "Corban" over their goods, thus reserving them to their own selfish use
Phylactery - Phylacteries are often mentioned in the New Testament, and appear to have been very common among the Pharisees in our Lord's time
Judaism - The principal sects among the Jews were the Pharisees, who placed religion in external ceremony; the Sadducees, who were remarkable for their incredulity; and the Essenes, who were distinguished for their austere sanctity
Mint - But the Pharisees, desirous of distinguishing themselves by a more scrupulous and literal observance of the law than others, gave the tithes "of mint, anise, and cummin," Matthew 23:23
Doctors - "...
Doctors of the law were chiefly of the sect of the Pharisees; but they are sometimes distinguished from that sect, Luke 5:17
Gnat - This may help us to understand that passage, Matthew 23:24 , where the proverbial expression of carefully straining out a little fly from the liquor to be drunk, and yet swallowing a camel, intimates, that the scribes and Pharisees affected to scruple little things, and yet disregarded those of the greatest moment
Evening - According to the Pharisees and the rabbins, the first evening began when the sun inclined to descend more rapidly, that is, at the ninth hour; while the second or real evening commenced at sunset
Sect - Among the jews, the principal sects were the Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes
Philosophy - ...
As there arose, under the influence of philosophy, several sects among the Greeks, as the Academics, the Peripatetics, and the Stoics, so also there arose among the Jews several sects, as the Essenes, the Pharisees, and the Sadducees. The Pharisees had some resemblance to the Stoics, the Sadducees to the Epicureans, the Essenes to the Academics. The Pharisees were proud, vain, and boasting, like the Stoics; the Sadducees, who denied the immortality of the soul, and the existence of spirits, freed themselves at once, like the Epicureans, from all solicitude about futurity: the Essenes were more moderate, more simple and religious, and therefore approached nearer to the Academics
Mote And the Beam, the - It was not intended to discourage fraternal correction, but directed against all those, of whom the Pharisees were striking examples, who are inclined to judge harshly of others and to disregard the correction of their own faults
Torches - On the night of his betrayal, when our Lord was in the garden of Gethsemane, Judas, "having received a band of men and officers from the chief priests and Pharisees, cometh thither with lanterns and torches and weapons" (John 18:1-3 )
Scribe - A professional group of such scribes developed by New Testament times, most being Pharisees (Mark 2:16 )
Viper, - John the Baptist called the multitude who came to be baptised 'a brood of vipers,' and the Lord applies the same term to the scribes and Pharisees, showing the deadly character of their opposition
Rabbi - The Jewisk Scribes and Pharisees eagerly sought the honor of this appellation
Leaven - Beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees
Sadducees (2) - Influenced by Hellenic culture, they sympathized to some extent with the policy of Antiochus Epiphanes which provoked the Maccabaean rebellion; and although, as a consequence, they fell into the background during the earlier period of Hasmonaean rule, they recovered their position in the time of John Hyrcanus, under whom we find them, now known as Sadducees, in direct antagonism to the Pharisees, or party of the scribes. In the Roman period their power was considerably diminished, in this respect that while they were able to retain the high offices for themselves, they were compelled to adopt the policy of the Pharisees, who had an overwhelming influence with the people. They stood in most things in direct opposition to the Pharisees, yet in an opposition which involved no fundamental principle, but into which they had been driven by their historical development. Schürer says that they agreed with the Pharisees on some—perhaps many—particulars of the tradition, but ‘only denied its obligation, and reserved the right of private opinion’ (HJP Gehenna - Jesus condemned the Pharisees for making converts but then turning them into sons of Gehenna, that is, people destined for hell (Matthew 23:15 ). He scolded the Pharisees, warning they had no chance to escape Gehenna through their present practices (Matthew 23:33 )
Ablution -
The Pharisees carried the practice of ablution to great excess, thereby claiming extraordinary purity ( Matthew 23:25 ). The Pharisees washed their hands "oft," more correctly, "with the fist" (RSV, "diligently"), or as an old father, Theophylact, explains it, "up to the elbow
Metempsychosis - This tenet has been attributed to the sect of the Pharisees. Nevertheless, it is questioned by some persons, whether the words of Josephus, before quoted, are a sufficient evidence of this doctrine of the metempsychosis being received by the whole sect of the Pharisees; for "passing into another or different body," may only denote its receiving a body at the resurrection; which will be another, not in substance, but in quality; as it is said of Christ at his transfiguration, το ειδος του προσωπου αυτου ετερον , "the fashion of his countenance was" another, or, as we render it, was "altered,"...
Luke 9:29 . As to the opinion which some entertained concerning our Saviour, that he was either John the Baptist, or Elias, or Jeremias, or one of the prophets, Matthew 16:14 , it is not ascribed to the Pharisees in particular, and if it were, one cannot see how it could be founded on the doctrine of the metempsychosis; since the soul of Elias, now inhabiting the body of Jesus, would no more make him to be Elias, than several others had been, in whose bodies the soul of Elias, according to this doctrine, is supposed to have dwelt since the death of that ancient prophet, near a thousand years before. Upon the whole, therefore, it appears most reasonable to adopt the opinion of Reland, though in opposition to the sentiments of many other learned men, that the Pharisees held the doctrine of the resurrection in a proper sense
Washing of the Hands And Feet - The words of Christ against the handwashings of the Pharisees was directed against it as a religious observance
Caesar - Some Pharisees and Herodians asked Jesus about the propriety of paying taxes to Caesar
Extortion - —The word is used by Christ in His terrible arraignment of the scribes and Pharisees, on account of the way in which, by their methods of plunder, they openly violated the Scriptures they knew so well (Matthew 23:25, Luke 11:39)
Phylactery - The Pharisees broadened their "phylacteries" to render conspicuous their superior eagerness to be mindful of God's Law, Matthew 23:5
Hassideans - From the former sprang the Samaritans, Sadducees, and Caraites: from the latter, the Pharisees and the Essenes; which see
Spies - ’ The putting of the question about the tribute money, which immediately follows, was a cunning plot, in which the Pharisees and the Herodians, two mutually hostile parties, joined (cf. The Pharisees sent their disciples (Matthew 22:16), young men apparently, fresh, earnest, zealous, and anxious to do right, hoping thus to avoid exciting suspicion of their designs. Compare also Matthew 19:3, John 11:46, and Luke 19:39 where some Pharisees mingled with the rejoicing multitude, no doubt for a similar purpose. The murmuring in favour of Jesus mentioned in John 7:32 was possibly reported to the Pharisees by spies
Essenes (2) - ...
Josephus introduces the Essenes as one of the three ‘sects of philosophy’ which were influential amongst the Jews, the others being the Sadducees and the Pharisees; but from the descriptions given of their practices and organization, they seem to have corresponded more closely to a monastic order than to a sect or a religious party. Their name is probably, though not certainly, derived from the Aramaic form of the Hebrew word hăsîdim (‘pious ones’), and this already suggests a close relation, especially in their origin, between the Essenes and the Pharisees. The indications of incipient dualism which may be found in their abstinence from marriage and in other ascetic practices, find a parallel in their doctrine of immortality, wherein they agreed with the Pharisees against the Sadducees as to the immortality of the soul, but differed from the Pharisees in denying the resurrection of the body. On the other hand, they were rigid beyond all others in their observance of the Sabbath; and they went beyond the Pharisees in their absolute determinism, affirming ‘that fate governs all things, and that nothing befalls men but what is according to its determination’ (Josephus Ant
Anise - It was this species of garden plant of which the Pharisees were in the habit of paying tithes
Fringe - The English translations (with the exception of the NRSV) obscure this point by using different terms to translate the Greek kraspedon when it refers to Jesus' outer cloak (hem, KJV; fringe, NAS; edge; NIV, TEV; simply garment, RSV) and to the outer garment of the Pharisees (borders, KJV; tassels, NAS, NIV, TEV; fringe, RSV)
Sadducees - " Acts (23), "For the Sadducees say that there is no resurrection, neither angel nor spirit: but the Pharisees confess both
Sadducees - ...
Another undesigned coincidence, confirming the sacred writers accuracy, is that the opposition to Christ in the Gospels is almost exclusively on the part of the Pharisees (Matthew 23:29; Matthew 23:32; John 11:57; John 18:3) and His denunciations are mainly against these; but in Acts on the part of the Sadducees (Acts 4:1; Acts 5:17; Acts 23:6; Acts 23:8). " Besides their reasonable denial of an oral law, which the Pharisees maintained was transmitted by Moses, the Sadducees denied the resurrection because it is not explicitly stated in Moses' Pentateuch, the legislator's sanctions of the law being primarily temporal rewards and punishments (Exodus 20:12; Exodus 23:25-26; Deuteronomy 7:12-15; Deuteronomy 28:1-12; Deuteronomy 28:15-68). ) The Pharisees, though wrong in maintaining oral tradition as obligatory, yet preserved in respect to the resurrection the faith of the fathers. ...
Probably it is only their disbelief of angelic communications to men in their time, such as the Pharisees suggested (Acts 23:9) may have been made to Paul, that the Sadducees denied. Josephus states, "the Pharisees say that some things are the work of fate (he should have said God's providence; he uses the Roman mode of expression), but others in our own power to be or not to be; the Essenes, that fate rules all things. The Sadducees, the Pharisees, and the Herodians of Jesus' day represent the three schools antagonistic to vital Christianity in our days: infidelity; superstition, spiritualism and spiritual pride; worldly compromise
Entangle - The Pharisees took counsel how they might entangle him in his talk
Sinner - In the Synoptic Gospels the word is used not infrequently, by the Pharisees, of publicans (tax collectors) and women of ill repute, e
Hem of the Garment - The Lord had, alas, to declare that the scribes and Pharisees, among other pretended marks of sanctity, enlarged the borders of their garments to be seen of men
Amulet - The phylacteries worn by the Pharisees and others of the Jewish nation were a sort of amulets
Streets - Our Lord reproves the Pharisees for praying in the corners of the streets, that is, choosing public places for what ought to have been private devotion
Corban - The Pharisees, and the Talmudists their successors, permitted even debtors to defraud their creditors by consecrating their debt to God; as if the property were their own, and not rather the right of their creditor
Sect - Among the Jews, there were four sects, distinguished by their practices and opinions, yet united in communion with each other and with the body of their nation: namely, the Pharisees, the Sadducees, and the Essenes, and the Herodians
Divorce, - The Pharisees wished perhaps to embroil our Saviour with these rival schools by their question, ( Matthew 19:3 ) by his answer to which, as well as by his previous maxim, (Matthew 5:31 ) he declares that he regarded all the lesser causes than "fornication" as standing on too weak ground, and declined the question of how to interpret the words of Moses
Pharisees - The "Pharisees" and Sadducees appear as distinct parties in the latter half of the 2nd cent. The opposition of both "Pharisees" and Sadducees (still mutually antagonistic, Acts 23:6-10 ) against the new "sect" continued unabated during apostolic times
Herodians - ...
Thus on the side of maintaining the Jewish polity they coincided with the Pharisees; on the side of their lax and scarcely orthodox views and means for maintaining it, they had common ground with the Sadducees. After Christ's miracle on the sabbath "the Pharisees went forth and straightway took counsel with the H. ...
The same coalition appears at the close of Christ's ministry: "the Pharisees sent unto Him their disciples with the Herod" as "spies, feigning themselves just men, that they might take hold of His words, that so they might deliver Him unto the power and authority of the governor" (Matthew 22:15-16; Mark 12:13; Luke 20:20)
Scribes - ‘The scribes of the Pharisees’ ( Mark 2:16 ) points us to the inseparable connexion between the Pharisees and the Scribes. Pharisees). Pharisees and Sadducees
Herodians - He maintains that the Pharisees gave this appellation, by way of derision, to Herod's soldiers, who paid tribute to the Romans; agreeably to which the Syriac interpreters render the word by the domestics of Herod, that is, his courtiers. In their zeal for the Roman authority they were diametrically opposite to the Pharisees, who esteemed it unlawful to submit or pay taxes to the Roman emperor; an opinion which they grounded on their being forbidden by the law to set a stranger over them, who was not one of their own nation, as their king. The conjunction of the Herodians, therefore, with the Pharisees, against Christ, is a memorable proof of the keenness of their resentment and malice against him; especially when we consider that they united together in proposing to him an ensnaring question, on a subject which was the ground of their mutual dissension; namely, whether it was lawful to pay tribute to Caesar. And provided he answered in the negative, the Herodians would accuse him of treason against the state; and should he reply in the affirmative, the Pharisees were as ready to excite the people against him, as an enemy of their civil liberties and privileges
Entangle - have the word in 2 Thessalonians 1:4 , the most authentic have anecho, "to endure;" (b) with the meaning to set oneself against, be urgent against, said of the plotting of Herodias against John the Baptist, Mark 6:19 , RV, "set herself against," AV, "had a quarrel against;" of the effort of the scribes and Pharisees to provoke the Lord to say something which would provide them with a ground of accusation against Him, Luke 11:53 , RV, "to press upon," marg
Nazarenes - They were very zealous observers of the law of Moses, but held the traditions of the Pharisees in very great contempt
Redness of the Sky - —When the Pharisees and Sadducees (Matthew 16:1 f
Sir - It is the salutation of servants (slaves) to their masters (‘Sir, didst thou not sow good seed?’ Matthew 13:27); of a son to a father (‘I go, sir,’ Matthew 21:30); of the priests and Pharisees to Pilate (‘Sir, we remember that that deceiver said,’ Matthew 27:63); of the Greeks to Philip (‘Sir, we would see Jesus,’ John 12:21)
Arnish - ...
Matthew 23:29 (b) This is a description of the flowery words used by the Pharisees to describe the virtues of the dead prophets while they themselves rejected the teachings of those same prophets
Cummin - In the latter passage Jesus rebukes the Pharisees, because they paid tithe of mint, and anise, and , and omitted the weightier matters of the Law
Fringes - ...
The Pharisees "enlarged" the fringes to gain note for piety (Matthew 23:5)
Stumble - When He appeared the Scribes, the Pharisees and the Herodians at once complained, resented and rejected CHRIST
Divorce - The Pharisees wished perhaps to entangle our Saviour with these questions in their rival schools, Matthew 19:3; but by his answer to them, as well as by his previous maxim
Nazarenes - They rejected those additions that were made to the Mosaic institutions by the Pharisees and doctors of the law, and admitted the Scriptures both of the Old and New Testament
Opposition - OPPOSITION—The reason for the opposition offered to Christ in proclaiming His Kingdom on earth was the hostility of the scribes, Pharisees, and others, who represented the religious element in the Jewish nation. He inveighed against the Pharisees and scribes in no measured terms (see esp
Possession (2) - (Mark 7:4; Mark 7:8) when he is relating how ‘the Pharisees and all the Jews’ kept ‘the tradition of the elders. This he mentions to explain why the Pharisees and scribes came to ask Jesus, ‘Why walk thy disciples not according to the tradition of the elders, but eat bread with unwashen hands?’ thus giving Jesus occasion to apply to them the prophecy of Isaiah, ‘This people honoureth me with their lips, but their heart is far from me,’ and otherwise exposing and rebuking their ‘hypocrisy
Sadducees - In our Lord’s time many of the poor priests were Pharisees. ...
When we turn to the tenets of the Sadducees, it is still the contrast with the Pharisees that puts them in an Intelligible light. This brought Him into continual conflict with the Pharisees. Pharisees, Scribes
Shewbread (2) - They were challenged by the Pharisees for doing what was unlawful on the Sabbath. Jesus replied to the Pharisees by citing two illustrations (according to Mt. The real issue between Jesus and the Pharisees in Matthew 12 was the extent to which such laws as that of the Sabbath were binding
Blasphemy - He had been casting out devils, and the Scribes and Pharisees, with their usaul malignity, ascribed those gracious acts to the agency of the Evil Spirit. They would shudder even to hear such blasphemy from the lips of others; and how then should it come from their own?...
Who then were the persons to whom the Lord Jesus alluded when he thus expressed himself? Most evidently and plainly, the Scribes and Pharisees then before him. Your very softness of heart proves the reverse of those obdurate Pharisees
Unpardonable Sin - connect the saying with calumnious charges of the scribes and Pharisees, based upon our Lord’s action in curing demoniacs (Matthew 12:22 ff. (Matthew 12:23), began to ask, ‘Is this the Son of David?’ But when the Pharisees heard it, they said, ‘This man doth not cast out devils but by Beelzebub, the prince of the devils’ (Matthew 12:24, Mark 3:22; cf. Jesus was speaking to Pharisees, and it is by thinking, in the first place, of the Pharisees and their attitude to Him and His teaching that we get on the right line for arriving at the meaning of His words. He had cast out demons; and the Pharisees said that He did this by the help of Beelzebub. But in the presence of the Divine goodness that shone from His beneficent activities, the Pharisees only gnashed their teeth and declared that the spirit of Jesus was the spirit of Satan. And such blasphemy, we must remember, the Pharisees were guilty of, not once, but constantly. For an act may be the revelation of a state; and when the Pharisees said of Jesus, ‘He hath an unclean spirit,’ this particular piece of blasphemy, as we have seen, was really the expression of a settled attitude of mind. Thus we have here again, though now in the case, not of Pharisees, but of members of the Christian Church, a manifestation of the same kind of sin as before. ...
(2) But if anxious and fearful souls need to be reminded that blasphemy against the Holy Spirit is not some mysterious sin into which a man may fall against all the promptings of his better nature, the case of the Pharisees and Jesus conveys to all a message of serious warning. No one can stumble suddenly into irremediable sin; but men may drift into it after the fashion of the Pharisees. ‘The Pharisees’; Bunyan, Grace Abounding; ExpT Judaizers - In the preamble to the meeting of the Apostles and priests at Jerusalem to consider the matter, the Pharisees "that believed" expressed the formula of the Judaizers: "They must be circumcised and be commanded to observe the law of Moses" (Acts 15)
Custom - The Pharisees would have no intercourse with them ( Thief - False and self-seeking teachers—whether false Christs, or, more probably, Pharisees—are compared to thieves and robbers
Sighing - ’ In the second, where a stronger expression is used through the compound, the Pharisees are asking for a sign, and He ‘sighed in his spirit,’ evidently thinking of the speedy appearance of the sign for which they asked, and mourning over the terrible nature which it would bear
Heresy, Heretic - ' The same Greek word is translated 'sect' and is applied to the sects among the Jews, as the Sadducees and the Pharisees
Sadducees - The "Scribes and Pharisees, the Sadducees and Samaritans," all arose in opposition to the cross
Heresy - " The Pharisees, Acts 15:5; Acts 26:5, and the Sadducees, Acts 5:17, as well as the Nazarenes, Acts 24:5; Acts 24:12; Acts 24:14, were denominated heresies
Nicodemus - One of the Pharisees and a teacher in Israel
Blasphemy Against the Holy Ghost - Matthew 12:31,32 Mark 3:28 Luke 12:10 This sin was committed by the Pharisees when they, in violation of their own convictions, willfully and maliciously ascribed the miracles of the Son of God and the work of the Holy Spirit to the evil one
James the Less, - (Acts 12:17 ; 15:13,19 ; 21:18 ; Galatians 2:9 ) According to tradition, James was thrown down from the temple by the scribes and Pharisees; he was then stoned, and his brains dashed out with a fuller's club
Alms - The Pharisees were zealous in almsgiving, but too ostentatious their mode of performance, for which our Lord finds fault with them
Within - , "in the midst of," is to be preferred; the kingdom of God was not in the hearts of the Pharisees; (b) en, "of thinking or saying within oneself," e
Fox - The Pharisees came to expedite His departure by pretending "Herod was seeking to kill Him. It was the Pharisees themselves who wished to kill Him
Hasmonean - Part of the general resistance was particularized in open animosity between the Hasmohynean priesthood, represented by Alexander Janneus and the Pharisees. Public demonstrations broke out, and Josephus records that hundreds of Jews were executed, including 800 Pharisees and their families. Tradition tells us that while on his deathbed, he advised his wife to seek reconciliation with the Pharisees when she assumed the Judaean throne as queen. It seems that Salome Alexandria invited the Pharisees to take an active role in policy-making as members of the Sanhedrin
Search - , "search," RV text, "ye search," either is possible grammatically; (f) of Nicodemus as commanded similarly by the chief priests and Pharisees, John 7:52
Seal - ]'>[1] where we read that the chief priests and Pharisees, after consultation with Pilate, in order to guard against the removal of our Lord’s body by the disciples, secured the sepulchre to the best of their power by setting their seal upon the entrance stone (cf
Market Place - Amidst the shops, children played (Matthew 11:16 ), day laborers gathered to be hired (Matthew 20:2-3 ), and Pharisees and other leading citizens wandered, exchanging greetings (Matthew 23:7 ; Luke 11:43 )
Builders - They were the scribes, the Pharisees, the Sadducees, and the Herodians
Leaven - Our Saviour, in the Gospel, Matthew 16:11 , warns his Apostles to beware of the leaven of the Herodians and Pharisees; meaning their doctrines
Disciple, - ' The Pharisees had such, whom they taught to fast
Market - Hence the proud Pharisees desired "greeting in the market places," Matthew 12:38 ; and Paul resorted to the agora at Athens to meet and convince the philosophers, Acts 17:17 ; and the masters of the damsel at Philippi exorcised by Paul and Silas, "drew them into the market place unto the rulers," Acts 16:19
Heresy - The Sadducees and Pharisees were sects within Judaism (Acts 5:17; Acts 15:5)
Seal - ]'>[1] where we read that the chief priests and Pharisees, after consultation with Pilate, in order to guard against the removal of our Lord’s body by the disciples, secured the sepulchre to the best of their power by setting their seal upon the entrance stone (cf
Justifying One's Self - And on a later occasion, in opposition to the Pharisees who derided Him, our Lord said to them, ‘Ye are they which justify yourselves before men’ (Luke 16:15). In the case of the Pharisees in the latter passage, the emphasis is clearly laid upon the fact that they were endeavouring (with apparent success) to show themselves to be righteous persons in the judgment of men, though God’s idea of them was entirely different
Hemerobaptists - Epiphanius, who mentions this as the fourth heresy among the Jews, observes, that in other points these heretics had much the same opinion as the Scribes and Pharisees; only that they denied the resurrection of the dead, in common with the Sadducees, and retained a few other of the improprieties of these last
Washing the Hands And Feet - The former of these usages was transformed by the Pharisees of the New Testament age into a matter of ritual observance, (Mark 7:3 ) and special rules were laid down as to the time and manner of its performance
Eating And Drinking - The scribes and Pharisees complained that Jesus ate and drank with publicans and sinners (Luke 5:30), which was His glory; and it will be the glory of those who continue with Him in His temptations that they will eat and drink at His table in His Kingdom (Luke 22:30)
Galileans - In the twelfth year of Christ, about the time that Archelaus was sent away from his government, a secession was made from the sect of the Pharisees, and a new sect arose, called the Galileans
Caraites - The name signifies Textualists, or Scripturists, and was originally given to the school of Shammai, (about thirty years or more before Christ,) because they rejected the traditions of the elders, as embraced by the school of Hillel and the Pharisees, and all the fanciful interpretations of the Cabbala
Blindness - ...
Some of Jesus' strongest outbursts were directed at the Pharisees, who masqueraded their superficial conformity to Jewish ceremonial laws as sincere and sufficient righteousness in the sight of God. Jesus follows the form of Isaiah in castigating the Pharisees as "blind guides of the blind" (Matthew 15:14 ; 23:16-26 ; John 9:39-41 )
Judaizers - Insisting that "Unless you are circumcised … you cannot be saved" (Acts 15:1 ), these "believers who belonged to the party of the Pharisees" (Acts 15:5 ) posed a serious threat to the gospel of grace and the uNIVersality of the Christian mission. David Rightmire...
See also Galatians, Theology of ; James, Theology of ; Paul the Apostle ; Pharisees ...
Bibliography
Lawlessness - The scribes and Pharisees were losing all sense of proportion in the duties of the religious life (Matthew 23:24, Luke 11:42). The revelation of the guiding principle summing up the Law renders light a burden which the Pharisees made heavy (Luke 11:46)
Border - Again, in that remarkable denunciation of the scribes and Pharisees which constitutes the climax of one of our Lord’s most striking discourses, He makes this charge among others: ‘All their works they do to be seen of men: they make broad their phylacteries, and they enlarge borders of their garments’ (Matthew 23:5). The ostentatious Pharisees, however, went beyond others in their use of these signs, by making them large and conspicuous. ...
Jewish hearers and readers would at once understand what Jesus meant by this charge against the scribes and Pharisees, ‘who sit in Moses’ seat
Matthew (2) - The work of a publican excited the scorn so often shown beyond the limits of Israel to fiscal officers; and when he was a Jew, as was Matthew, he was condemned for impurity by the Pharisees. Yet the fact that he belonged to the publican class, among whom were Jews who outraged patriotism by gathering tribute for Caesar, subjected him to the scorn of the Pharisees and their party (cf. The sinners mentioned along with the publicans at the feast were those who violated the Law, or did not try to keep its innumerable commands as set forth by the scribes or interpreted by the Pharisees. Certain scribes and Pharisees had been spectators of the feast, and they asked the disciples concerning Jesus’ eating and drinking with sinners; and Jesus Himself, answering them, declared that He had not come to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance
Scribes - They are very frequently associated in the Synoptics with the Pharisees, and with the chief priests and elders, but there is no mention of ‘scribes’ in the Fourth Gospel at all, except in the special passage dealing with the woman taken in adultery (John 8:3). When, therefore, it became clear that the Maccabaean party were aiming also at the political independence of the nation, the Hasidaeans separated from them, and in the time of John Hyrcanus we find the Pharisees—‘the separated’—who practically represented the same party as the Hasidaeans, in opposition to the Hasmonaean or Maccabaean dynasty. See Pharisees. As a rule, they may be said to have been Pharisees, although not exclusively. The Pharisees, indeed, were those whose professed object it was to regulate their lives in strict accordance with the Law, written and oral, as that was expounded by its best accredited interpreters. Support is lent to this view by the expressions in Mark 2:16 ‘the scribes of the Pharisees,’ and in Luke 5:30 ‘the Pharisees and their scribes,’ which seem to indicate that there were other Scribes than those of the Pharisees. Pharisees, p. Pharisees, p
Baal-Zebub - It doth not appear that was worshipped at that time; but it is evident so generally known and acknowledged by this name, that the Pharisees made use of it as a well known, and in a daring blasphemy, the miracles of the Lord Jesus to his power (See Matthew 12:24)...
Alms - The Pharisees were very ostentatious in their almsgivings (Matthew 6:2 )
Hem of Garment - ...
The Pharisees enlarged their fringes as a show of piety (Matthew 23:5)
Leaven - Jesus warned His disciples against the leaven of the Pharisees, their teaching and hypocrisy (Matthew 16:5-12 ; Luke 12:1 )
Beware - ...
Beware of false prophets beware of the leaven of the Pharisees beware of the concision
Martyr - The Lord charged the Pharisees with being the children of them which killed the prophets, Matthew 23:31 ; and in the "cloud of witnesses" spoken of in Hebrews 11 , were some of whom it is said "others were tortured Disciples - The Greek philosophers and the Jewish Rabbis had theirs, and John the Baptist had his ( Mark 2:18 ‘the disciples of John and the disciples of the Pharisees’; cf
Hypocrisy - Jesus often called the Pharisees hypocrites because of the conflict between their external actions and internal attitudes (Matthew 15:1-9 ). See Lie; Pharisees ; Sin ; Truth
Searching - ), than it did upon the lips of the chief priests and Pharisees (John 7:52). ), and the Pharisees ‘searched’ for what would maintain their burdensome traditions (Mark 2:7; Mark 2:24, Luke 13:14, John 9:28), or even enable them to evade a moral issue (Matthew 19:7)
Matthew, Saint - A Galilean Jew by birth, the son of Alpheus, he was a publican by trade, and therefore despised by the Pharisees; he possessed some education and a knowledge of Greek
Pharisees - ...
From the very beginning of his ministry the Pharisees showed themselves bitter and persistent enemies of our Lord
Serpent - , Psalm 58:4 ; Proverbs 23:32 ; Ecclesiastes 10:8,11 ; Amos 5:19 ; Mark 16:18 ; Luke 10:19 ; the Lord used the word metaphorically of the scribes and Pharisees, Matthew 23:33 (cp
Sadducees - They seem, indeed, to have been as numerous as the Pharisees (Acts 23:6 )
Pit - In the New Testament "pit" is used literally of a place into which an animal (Matthew 12:11 ; Luke 14:5 ) or the blind (Matthew 15:14 ; Luke 6:39 ) might fall (the latter is also a figure for the spiritually blind Pharisees)
Oath - " The Lord's command in Matthew 5:33 was a condemnation of the minute and arbitrary restrictions imposed by the scribes and Pharisees in the matter of adjurations, by which God's Name was profaned
Heresy - Josephus, a Jewish historian of the first century from whom we learn much of what we know about the Judaism of New Testament times, used the word to refer to the various Jewish parties (or schools of thought) such as the Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes. In Acts 5:17 , Acts 15:5 ; and Acts 26:5 , where it refers to the Pharisees and Sadducees, it simply means party or sect
Scribe - While doubtless the majority were Pharisees, the Sadducees had their scribes also (implied in Acts 23:9). The synagogue became the sole centre of Jewish religious and national life, and the scribe the most important official (see under Pharisees)
Prudence - Later on, when opposition was growing, and the Pharisees and Herodians were taking counsel together against Him, He withdrew for a time to the sea (Matthew 12:14, Mark 3:6). That would rouse the Pharisees, who regarded His claim as blasphemous, and the Sadducees, who might tremble for the peace and order of the city. And when at last Pharisees and Sadducees were united against Him, He uttered in the public hearing His invectives against the hypocrisy of scribes and Pharisees. Its shadow is over the words which He spake to the Pharisees, when early in His ministry they questioned Him about His disciples and fasting: ‘The days will come when the bridegroom shall be taken away from them, and then shall they fast in those days’ (Luke 5:35)
Sect - The same temple, and the same synagogues, were attended alike by Pharisees and by Sadducees: nay, there were often of both denominations in the Sanhedrim, and even in the priesthood
Jews - ‘The Jews’ in this sense were blind followers of the Pharisees, and bitter opponents of Christ
Proselyte - The Lord describes such a proselyte as the Scribes and Pharisees would make, as "twofold more the child of hell" than themselves
Pharisees - ' The Pharisees included all classes of men, rich and poor: they were numerous, and at times had great influence
Leaven - In Matthew 16:6-12 leaven is applied to the teaching of the Pharisees and Sadducees
Leaven - the corrupt doctrine) of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees," ( Matthew 16:6 ) and St
Proselyte - Our Savior rebukes the blind zeal of the Pharisees to make proselytes to ceremonial Judaism, without caring for the circumcision of the heart, Matthew 23:15 Romans 2:28,29
New Testament, Divorce in the - ...
"And there came to him [1] the Pharisees tempting him, and saying: Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife for every cause? Who answering, said to them: Have ye not read, that he who made man from the beginning, made them male and female? And he said: For this cause shall a man leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife, and they two shall be in one flesh
Divorce in the New Testament - ...
"And there came to him [1] the Pharisees tempting him, and saying: Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife for every cause? Who answering, said to them: Have ye not read, that he who made man from the beginning, made them male and female? And he said: For this cause shall a man leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife, and they two shall be in one flesh
Herodians - Matthew, treats this opinion as ridiculous; and maintains that the Pharisees gave this appellation, by way of ridicule, to Herod's soldiers, who paid tribute to the Romans; agreeable to which the Syrian interpreters render the word by the domestics of Herod, 1:e
Proselytes - The New Testament attests to the zeal of the first century Pharisees in proselytizing Gentiles (Matthew 23:15 )
Phylacteries - Our Savior reproaches the pride and hypocrisy of the Pharisees, shown in making their phylacteries broad as a sign of their superior wisdom and piety, Matthew 23:5
Murmur, Murmuring - For its use in a friendly sense see John 7:31-32, where the murmuring was that of persons who believed on Jesus, and who said, ‘When the Christ shall come, will he do more signs than those which this man hath done?’—a dangerous omen to the Pharisees. Dissatisfaction is seen highly intensified in Luke 5:30; Luke 15:2, where the Pharisees and the scribes murmured because He ate with publicans and sinners
Toleration, Tolerance - ...
Again, though the Lord Jesus was frequently compelled to attack the Pharisees on account of their doctrines and practices, He showed them consideration by accepting their hospitality (Luke 7:36; Luke 11:37); and He reminded His disciples, on an occasion when His enemies criticised His conduct (Luke 5:30-33), that those who preferred old ways were to be judged leniently (Luke 5:39). There is, moreover, a striking proof of the existence, in the minds of the Pharisees, of a strong belief in our Lord’s toleration
Man From Heaven - The people of Jerusalem and some Pharisees know that he is from Galilee but are puzzled by his messianic actions and teachings since the Messiah (they believe) will not come from there (7:26,52). Other Pharisees declare that they can trust Moses, but that they "don't even know where he [1] comes from" (9:29)
Frontlets - ) "They make broad their phylacteries" (Matthew 23:5) refers not to the phylactery, which was of a prescribed size, but to its case, which the Pharisees made as ostentatious as possible. ...
The Sadducees wore them on the palm, the Pharisees above the elbow
Divorce (2) - The Pharisees came to Him with the question, Is it lawful for a husband to divorce a wife? The Pharisees themselves could have had no doubt upon the point thus broadly stated. In putting the question to Christ, the Pharisees therefore had an ulterior object. The Pharisees are represented as inquiring, ‘Is it lawful for a man to put away a wife on any pretext?’ Christ answers, as in Mk. The Pharisees appeal to the Law against this judgment
Woe - Other Woes He utters with a sob of pity; but His indictment of the scribes and Pharisees is spoken with the wrath of love (cf. ...
In Luke 11:42-44; Luke 11:46-47; Luke 11:52 there are two indictments containing three Woes apiece, and addressed to Pharisees and lawyers (wh. Sentence is first pronounced upon the Pharisees for being so punctilious about matters of a subordinate nature, which should be kept in their proper place, while they neglected those moral obligations, which, were of far higher moment, ‘judgment and the love of God’ (Luke 11:42); for putting themselves forward into the first seats in the face of the congregation, and their fondness for having reverence done to them in public (Luke 11:43); and for being a secret source of defilement to others who were not aware of the evil tendency of their principles (Luke 11:44, cf. In it, our Lord pronounces woe against the scribes and Pharisees for their ‘hypocrisy’ or their dishonesty and love of stage-effect in religion, which was to Him the most hateful impiety; also for shutting the doors of the Kingdom of God which He had opened by His preaching, and so preventing people from entering (Matthew 23:13, cf. ...
‘Tremendous’ (Mozley) as this language is, we are not to think that it was meant to apply to all the Pharisees indiscriminately. A well-known passage in the Talmud, distinguishing the various classes of Pharisees from each other, says that the real and only Pharisee is ‘he who does the will of his Father in heaven because he loves Him’ (Levy, NHWB [2]0 4. 30), which has been supposed to refer to the Pharisees (Hastings’ DB, Extra Vol. There is thus no reasonable ground for doubt that during our Lord’s life on earth the scribes and Pharisees were immersed in that externalism and religious affectation which He so vividly depicted; and it was their implacable hostility to His spiritual teaching, begun at a very early period in His ministry (Mark 3:6), that in the end brought about His crucifixion
Law of God - His mission being not to destroy but to fulfil the Law and the Prophets (Matthew 5:17), so far from saying anything in disparagement of the Law of Moses or from encouraging His disciples to assume an attitude of independence with regard to it, He expressly recognized the authority of the Law of Moses as such, and of the Pharisees as its official interpreters (Matthew 23:1-3). The Pharisees put their own lax interpretation upon this precept, and multiplied the causes of divorce to an extent far beyond what the precept actually justified. Thus, in proceeding to apply the principle which He has just laid down (Matthew 5:17), Jesus starts with the comprehensive statement of Matthew 5:20 ‘For I say unto you, That except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter into the kingdom of heaven. ) to the subject of religious exercises, Jesus shows that questions of ritual and outward form, upon which the Pharisees founded their ideas of ‘righteousness’ (δικαιοσύνην … ποιεῖν, Matthew 6:1) and meritorious service, are of trifling importance in comparison with the question of the heart’s approach to God. It is that of His controversy with the Pharisees with reference to the ceremonial ablutions which the disciples were accused of neglecting (Matthew 15:1-20 || Mark 7:1-23). Jesus defends His disciples by turning the tables upon the Pharisees, whom He taxes with setting their traditions above the express commandments of God Himself, and with neglecting in the interest of mere technicalities the weightier matters of the Law (cf. But what calls for notice is, in particular, the circumstance that what specially offended the Pharisees, and startled even Christ’s own disciples, was His pronouncement upon the point immediately in dispute, the question of ceremonial ablutions, and the whole Levitical legislation on the subject of the clean and the unclean. ...
Jesus taught essentially the same truth when, in controversy with the Pharisees, He summarized the teaching of the Law and the Prophets
Covetousness - Such persons reverse unconsciously Christ’s principle that ‘the life is more than meat’ (Matthew 6:25); and the Pharisees, ‘who were covetous’ (Luke 16:14), by their blindness to the true order of importance called forth essentially the same rebuke, ‘that which is highly esteemed amongst men, is abomination in the sight of God’ (Luke 16:15). In the last resort of psychological analysis ‘no man can serve two masters’ (Matthew 6:24), and the Pharisees are pilloried for evermore as the awful example of hypocrisy in this respect. And as a counter-illustration to the Pharisees, cf
Dives - The interpretation which best suits all the facts of the case is that the rich man is a typical instance of the religious leaders of the people, Pharisees and Sadducees, and that Lazarus is a representative of the despised publicans, or of the neglected ‘common people. ’ If this is the primary significance of Dives and Lazarus, then we can see, as stated above, that interpretation 4 is not lightly to be set aside; for if Pharisees and Sadducees despised and neglected those of their own nation, much more would they contemptuously overlook ‘sinners of the Gentiles. Didon (Life of Christ), Mosheim, and Wetstein hold that he is a Sadducee, since the Pharisees were not characterized by luxurious living or by unbelief; but if, with the majority of expositors, who say that the connexion of the parable with what precedes requires it, we hold him to be a Pharisee, he is at least a Pharisee who, as Stier says, ‘lives as a Sadducee
Assembly - As to the charge made against him, the Apostle conducted his defence in a way that won for himself the sympathy of the Pharisees. Paul was winning over the Pharisees not merely to himself but to the Christian cause. Paul states the same view more fully in Acts 26:6-8 where there is no question of a clever trick, for there were no Pharisees among his judges’ (Ramsay, Pictures of the Apostolic Church, 1910, p
Sheep - Jesus contrasted His care for His flock with other religious leaders, especially the Pharisees who behaved as thieves and robbers (John 10:1 )
Haggadah, Halakah - See Mishnah ; Talmud ; Pharisees ; Torah
Mark, Gospel of Saint - Chapters specially commendable for reading: ...
2, the paralytic, the call of Saint Matthew
3, call of the Apostles, refutation of the Pharisees
14-16, Passion and Glory of Jesus
Disciple - , "a learner" (from manthano, "to learn," from a root math---, indicating thought accompanied by endeavor), in contrast to didaskalos, "a teacher;" hence it denotes "one who follows one's teaching," as the "disciples" of John, Matthew 9:14 ; of the Pharisees, Matthew 22:16 ; of Moses, John 9:28 ; it is used of the "disciples" of Jesus (a) in a wide sense, of Jews who became His adherents, John 6:66 ; Luke 6:17 , some being secretly so, John 19:38 ; (b) especially of the twelve Apostles, Matthew 10:1 ; Luke 22:11 , e
Seal - The tomb was sealed by the Pharisees and chief priests for the purpose of making sure that the disciples would not come and steal the body away (ver
Salutation - Jesus critiqued the Pharisees for practicing long, protracted deferential salutations (Mark 12:37-40 ; Luke 20:45-47 ; compare Matthew 23:1-36 ) and forbade His disciples from practicing such public displays (Luke 10:4 )
Publican - "Publicians and harlots, said Jesus, to the proud self-righteous Pharisees, go into the kingdom of God before you
Signs - When Christ was on earth He wrought miracles, wonders, and signs, but the Pharisees and Sadducees demanded of Him 'a sign from heaven,' Matthew 16:1 , and it is added that they did this 'tempting Him
Zealot - " The Jewish historian Josephus calls the movement, "The Fourth of the Philosophies, " and says it agreed with the Pharisees, differing only in their "passion for liberty convinced that God alone is their leader and master"; they were willing to die for this conviction (Ant 18
Scribe - Like the Pharisees, they were bitterly opposed to Christ, and joined with the priests and counselors in persecuting him and his followers, having little knowledge of Him concerning whom Moses and the prophets did write
Marvel, Marvellous - ...
C — 1: θαυμαστός (Strong's #2298 — Adjective — thaumastos — thow-mas-tos' ) "marvellous" (akin to A and B), is said (a) of the Lord's doing in making the rejected Stone the Head of the corner, Matthew 21:42 ; Mark 12:11 ; (b) of the erstwhile blind man's astonishment that the Pharisees knew not from whence Christ had come, and yet He had given him sight, John 9:30 , RV, "the marvel," AV, "a marvellous thing;" (c) of the spiritual light into which believers are brought, 1 Peter 2:9 ; (d) of the vision of the seven angels having the seven last plagues, Revelation 15:1 ; (e) of the works of God, 15:3
Scribes - ...
Most of the scribes belonged to the party of the Pharisees (one of two major groups within Judaism; see Pharisees; SADDUCEES), and are often linked with them in the biblical narratives (Matthew 5:20; Matthew 12:38; Matthew 15:1; Matthew 23:2; Acts 5:34; Acts 22:3)
False Witness - The Sadducees were less severe than the Pharisees in the interpretation of Deuteronomy 19:16 f. ; they held that the punishment should be inflicted only if the falsely accused had been punished, whereas the Pharisees demanded punishment if the sentence had been pronounced, whether it was executed or not
Matthew - For there were Pharisees in Capernaum in those days, just as there were publicans and sinners. And just as the publicans were ever on the outlook for more money; and just as the sinners were ever on the outlook for another supper and another dance; so the Pharisees were ever on the outlook for a fresh scandal, and for something to find fault with in their neighbours. "Why eateth your Master with publicans and sinners?" the Pharisees of Capernaum demanded of Jesus' disciples. And the disciples were still too much Pharisees themselves to be able to give a very easy answer to that question. Some Pharisees from the synagogue are coming up with their lamps. " Happy intrusion, and fortunate fault-finding of the Pharisees which ended in these ever-blessed words of our Saviour! And then, these words also: "I am not come to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance
Nicodemus - The Pharisees, chagrined at the failure of their officers to apprehend Jesus, said, "why have ye not brought Him?" They replied, "never man spoke like this man. " The Pharisees retorted, "are ye also deceived? surely none of the rulers or the Pharisees have believed on Him, have they? (Greek) But this people who knoweth not the law are cursed
Scorn - It is thus that He uses it to the Pharisees, whose cloak of self-righteousness needed to be pierced through with some sharp weapon, if they were to be brought to the state of mind in which they might be capable of any improvement. It occurs in His answer to the threat used by certain Pharisees of danger from Herod Antipas (Luke 13:31-32). ’ The phrase τῇ ἀλώπεκι ταύτῃ is certainly surprising at first sight, and unlike any other phrase employed by our Lord, not even excepting His comparison of the scribes and Pharisees to ‘whited sepulchres,’ ‘serpents,’ and ‘offspring of vipers’ (Mark 2:15-1781; Matthew 23:33)
Deceit, Deception, Guile - The whole significance of the struggle may be said to have been summed up and symbolized in our Lord’s conflict with the Pharisees. Before long the Pharisees brought down on themselves the severest denunciations for their moral obtuseness, duplicity, and hypocrisy (Matthew 23, John 8:12-59). In the teaching and training of these first Apostles and disciples, our Lord especially emphasized the necessity of those virtues of character in which the Pharisees were so singularly deficient (Matthew 5:8; Matthew 7:1-4; Matthew 10:16; Matthew 11:25; Matthew 18:3, Luke 12:1-3)
Fasting (2) - Judith 8:6); and some, particularly among the Pharisees, fasted on Mondays and Thursdays all the year round (Luke 18:12; Lightfoot and Wetstein, ad loc. As for the pretentious externalism of the Pharisees, that has its own reward. In reply to the question of the disciples of John and of the Pharisees, Jesus deliberately refuses to enjoin fasting on His followers
Phylacteries, Frontlets - Among the charges brought by our Lord against the Pharisees of His day we read: ‘but all their works they do for to be seen of men: for they make broad their phylacteries and enlarge the borders of their garments’ ( Matthew 23:5-6 ; for ‘borders’ see Fringes). It is probable, however, that in our Lord’s time, as was the case later, the more zealous spirits among the Pharisees wore their phylacteries during the whole day. We may, therefore, with some confidence assign the introduction of the phylacteries to the period of the domination of the Pharisees in the reign of John Hyrcanus (b. ...
Even in the first century of our era it is very doubtful if the practice extended beyond the Pharisees and their adherents, who showed their zeal for religion by the size of the cases and the breadth of the straps by which they were fastened
Consecration - In Matthew 23:16-24Jesus criticized the scribes and Pharisees on the basis of their neglect of justice, mercy, and faith
Tal'Mud - It was a fundamental principle of the Pharisees, common to them with all orthodox modern Jews, that by the side of the written law, regarded as a summary of the principles and general laws of the Hebrew people, there was an oral law, to complete and to explain the written law
Fast, Fasting - ...
The answers of Christ to the questions of the disciples of John and of the Pharisees reveal His whole purpose and method
Essenes - In zeal for the law, except where their peculiarities were concerned, sabbatarianism and rigorous exercises, they resembled the Pharisees, with whom they were popularly confounded
Scribes - It is evident that in New Testament times the scribes belonged to the sect of the Pharisees, who supplemented the ancient written law by their traditions (Matthew 23 ), thereby obscuring it and rendering it of none effect
Tribute - In effect the famous question posed to Jesus by the Pharisees about taxes (Matthew 22:15-22 ) was about tribute
Watch - This word, which is said to have been the technical term for a company of 60 men, is used here to describe either the Roman soldiers, whom the chief priests and Pharisees obtained from Pilate, or the Temple guard, which he reminded them they already had and could employ to protect the sepulchre from being rifled
Guard (2) - custodia), Matthew 27:65-66; Matthew 28:11, Authorized Version ‘watch’; obtained by the chief priests and Pharisees from Pilate to guard the sepulchre
Disciple - ’ In the Gospels, ‘disciple’ is often used in a special sense of the Twelve, and sometimes of the followers of human teachers-Moses, or John the Baptist, or the Pharisees
Ignorance (2) - Of the Jews the most culpable were the leaders—the Sadducees, because they were ignorant of the resurrection and the future life, truths inculcated by Moses himself (Matthew 22:29); and the Pharisees and scribes, those blind leaders of the blind, who led their unwary followers into a pit (Matthew 15:14). The case of the Pharisees was particularly hopeless, because, being ignorant, they thought themselves wise: ‘If ye were blind [1], ye would have no sin; but now ye say, We see: your sin remaineth’ (John 9:41)
Levirate Law - The Pharisees, on the other hand, accepted such traditions, and with them a belief in the doctrine of the resurrection (cf. ]'>[4] and suggested the problem set forth by the Sadducees, who evidently sought by the authority of Moses to discredit a doctrine held by the Pharisees and taught by Jesus
am ha'Arez - To the ‘hâ’ârez the Pharisees directly refer in John 7:49 ‘This multitude which knoweth not the Law are accursed. ‘Pharisees’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible iii
Nineveh, Ninevites - It would seem that on two occasions, the second of which is narrated in these passages, the Pharisees asked for a sign. Matthew the Pharisees are addressed, in St
Nation (2) - But though his partisans were hand and glove with the Pharisees in their hostility to Jesus (Mark 3:6; Mark 12:13), and though we learn from Luke that he associated himself with the condemnation of Jesus, he was not ready to take that awful responsibility upon himself (Luke 23:7-12). There were even some of the Pharisees who, whether because they were satisfied with the measure of religious liberty accorded under the Imperial administration, or because they shut their eyes to the facts (John 8:33), or because they saw in the foreign yoke the discipline of God, resented any movement towards national independence; and perhaps it was some of these who associated themselves with the Herodians in Matthew 22:16. The succession of Pharisees and scribes proved a far surer defence than the dynasty of David. And these distinctions were guarded by a multitude of observances, which called into requisition the school of scribes trained in the principles of the Pharisees. The symbol of this rejuvenated Judaism was still the Temple, whither the tribes went up at the national festivals; but its rallying-point was the synagogue, where men were instructed in the Law and Hope of Israel, and where the Pharisees ruled supreme. The Pharisees pursued Him from the first because they instinctively saw that the tendency of His teaching (see Nationality) was to break the bonds their traditions had woven, and to act as a solvent on the rigidity of national isolation, which was the only thing left to their pride
Error - The Pharisees and the other religious leaders. ‘The gospel did not place itself, directly and at the outset, in opposition to the errors of the Pharisees. ‘In the hands of the Pharisees, Judaism finally became petrified. The errors of the Pharisees and the bitter hostility to Jesus which they provoked may be studied in the following passages—they are a mere selection: Matthew 6:1-8; Matthew 12:1-45; Matthew 21:23-46; Matthew 23:1-39, Mark 3:1-6, Luke 6:1-11; Luke 11:37-54; Luke 18:9-14, John 5:30-47; John 7:14-52; John 8:12-59; John 9:1-41
Blasphemy - If we consider the Scripture account of this sin, nothing can be plainer than that it is to be understood of the Pharisees' imputing the miracles wrought by the power of the Holy Ghost to the power of the devil; for our Lord had just healed one possessed of a devil, and upon this the Pharisees gave this malicious turn to the miracle. The Pharisees were the persons charged with the crime: the sin itself manifestly consisted in ascribing what was done by the finger of God to the agency of the devil; and the reason, therefore, why our Lord pronounced it unpardonable, is plain; because, by withstanding the evidence of miracles, they resisted the strongest means of conviction, and that wilfully and malignantly; and, giving way to their passions, opprobriously treated that Holy Spirit whom they ought to have adored. It implied, however, a high offence against the Holy Spirit also, with whose gifts they had, probably, been endowed, and their conduct must be considered, if not the same sin as that committed by the Pharisees, yet as a consenting with it, and thus as placing them in nearly, if not altogether, the same desperate condition
the Pharisee - There had been Pharisees known to Paul who had a faith that could actually remove mountains. Our hearts bleed for the Pharisees. Who then, my brethren, can be saved?...
In answer to that staggered exclamation of ours, the Apostle, who was one of them and one of the very best of them, goes on to accuse the Pharisees with such unanswerable accusations as these. If the Pharisees had been out and out bad men, their condemnation would not have been so startling and so solemnising to us as it is. Now when you study your New Testament well you will see how much there is to be said in behalf of the Pharisees. Compared with the Sadducees, for instance, the Pharisees were men of a high religious character. In short, all the best people in Israel in our Lord's day belonged to the party of the Pharisees
James - According to tradition, James was thrown down from the temple by the scribes and Pharisees; he was then stoned and his brains dashed out with a fuller's club while praying for his murderers
Hair - Jesus told His followers not to follow the custom of the Pharisees, who refused to care for their hair while they were fasting (Matthew 6:17 )
Hunt - Matthew described the Pharisees' plotting “to entrap” Jesus (Matthew 22:15 ), Luke their “lying in wait” for Him (Luke 11:54 )
Burden - In Matthew 23:4 Jesus describes the heavy burdens the Pharisees laid upon the people "but they themselves are not willing to lift a finger to move them
Fast - Our Lord rebuked the Pharisees for their hypocritical pretences in fasting (Matthew 6:16 )
Reproach, Reproachfully - , who are superior to ordinary Pharisees
Nazarene - Had the prophets expressly foretold He should be of Nazareth, it would not have been so despised; nor would the Pharisees, who were able from Micah 5 to tell Herod where Messiah's birthplace was - Bethlehem (Matthew 2) - have been so ignorant of the prophecy of His connection with Nazareth as to say, "out of Galilee ariseth no prophet" (John 7:52)
Matthew (Apostle) - ), which roused the anger of the ‘scribes of the Pharisees
Taxes - Other duties owed to foreign powers were: a land tax, a poll tax, a kind of progressive income tax (about which the Pharisees tested Jesus, Matthew 22:17 ), and a tax on personal property
Burden - The word is used for the ordinances of the Law as interpreted by the Pharisees ( Matthew 23:4 , Luke 11:46 ), for the prohibitions of the Apostolic decree ( Acts 15:28 ; cf
Garden - In the Gospels mention is made of mint, anise, and cummin (Matthew 23:23) as the cheap and common garden produce that occupied the laboured scrupulosity of the scribes and Pharisees, to the neglect of more important matters
Burden - —Both in Christ’s discourse against the Pharisees (Matthew 23:4, Luke 11:46) and in His saying, ‘Come unto me,’ etc
Food - Jesus came ‘eating and drinking’ the ordinary food of His time, rebuking the artificial abstemiousness of the Pharisees (Matthew 11:18 f
Catch - They sent certain of the Pharisees and of the Herodians, to catch him in his words
Meals - "The uppermost room" desired by the Pharisees was the highest seat on the highest couch (Matthew 23:6). The Pharisees overlaid this with a minute and burdensome ritual (Mark 7:1-13)
Witness - ...
With all these witnesses, the Pharisees had no basis for their objection that Jesus had no witnesses to support his claim to be the God-sent Saviour (John 8:12-13). His witness was supported by the witness of the Father, and therefore the Pharisees should have accepted it (John 8:14-18)
the Woman Who Took Leaven And Hid it in Three Measures of Meal - ...
Beware of the leaven of the Pharisees, He said to His disciples on one occasion. Now, what did He mean by that saying, do you suppose? What would you say was the leaven of the Pharisees? I do not know any more than you do, but I will tell you what I think. Now, what was the leaven of the Pharisees? It must have been something inward and hidden, to begin with. And then it had by that time worked its way through their whole heart and character till they were the Pharisees who were bent on our Lord's death and destruction. There is not left in all his inward parts so much as a single ounce of that leaven of the Pharisees. You are travelling on the road of the Pharisees
Ebionites - The first were orthodox in every thing, except that to the Christian doctrine they joined the ceremonies of the Jewish law, with the Jews, Samaritans, and Nazarenes; together with the traditions of the Pharisees
Sanhedrin - In New Testament times it consisted of scribes, elders, priests and other respected citizens, and included both Pharisees and Sadducees
Bottle - In the Gospels the allusion to ‘bottles’ occurs in connexion with a question that had been addressed to Christ with regard to an observed difference between His disciples and those of John the Baptist and the Pharisees (Matthew 9:14-17, Mark 2:18-22, Luke 5:33-38)
Grave - ...
The Lord compared the hypocritical scribes and Pharisees to whited sepulchres, the outward beauty of which stood in strong contrast to the dead men's bones and uncleanness within
Common, Commonly - , communis), said of things had in common, Acts 2:44 ; 4:32 ; of faith, Titus 1:4 ; of salvation, Jude 1:3 ; it stands in contrast to idios, "one's own;" (b) "ordinary, belonging to the generality, as distinct from what is peculiar to the few;" hence the application to religious practices of Gentiles in contrast with those of Jews; or of the ordinary people in contrast with those of the Pharisees; hence the meaning "unhallowed, profane," Levitically unclean (Lat
Zeal - ) The Pharisees had a zeal for God, but not according to knowledge. ) come spiritual conceit, the idea that we have ‘whereof to glory’ (Romans 4:2) even toward God; the showy religionism of the Pharisees (Matthew 23:5); the love ‘to have the pre-eminence’ (3 John 1:9), and that envy which is ‘the rottenness of the bones’ (Proverbs 14:30)
Torah - The traditions of the Pharisees went far beyond the bounds of the law as spelled out in the Torah. Jesus scathingly denounced the Pharisees' placing their tradition above the intent of the law (Mark 7:8-13 )
Scribes - Those who, in Luke 5, are called Pharisees and doctors of the law, are soon afterward called Pharisees and scribes; and he who, in Matthew 22:35 , is called a lawyer, is, in Mark 12:28 , called one of the scribes. Our Lord, when speaking of "them of old time," classed the "prophets, and wise men, and scribes," together, Matthew 23:34 ; but of the later scribes he uniformly speaks with censure, and indignation, and usually joins them with the Pharisees, to which sect they in general belonged
the Blind Leaders of the Blind - ALL the same, the Scribes and Pharisees were quite right, as they often are. The disciples had no business to sit down to eat with unwashen hands, and the Scribes and Pharisees were only doing their bounden duty in entering their protest against such disorderly conduct. And the Scribes and Pharisees sat in Moses' seat for the very purpose of seeing to it that the great lawgiver was obeyed and imitated in all things great and small that he had ever said and done. And, more than all that, the Scribes and Pharisees had the Master of the disciples so far with them. The Scribes and the Pharisees had eyes enough to preach against adultery and murder when these things once came out of the hearts of the people; but they were as blind as moles to the real roots of these things, as well as to the kindred roots of pride, and covetousness, and envy, and deceit, of which their own hearts, and the hearts of all their blinded hearers, were full
Multitude - Mark 8:34, Luke 9:16; Luke 9:18, and Matthew 23:1, where the disciples appear round Jesus in the foreground, the multitude farther off, and the Pharisees in the background). This same fear prevented the chief priests and the Pharisees from laying hold on Jesus (Matthew 21:46); they decided not to arrest Him on the feast day (Mark 14:2), ‘lest haply there shall be a tumult of the people’ (λαοῦ, note the future ἔσται, which shows their positive expectation of trouble); and they arranged with Judas for His betrayal ‘in the absence of the multitude’ ((Revised Version margin) ‘without tumult,’ ἄτερ ὄχλου, Luke 22:6; cf. But if, as seems more likely, the expressions are mainly figurative, ἐσκυλμένοι will mean ‘hunted and distressed by spiritual foes,’ harassed by the tyranny of the scribes and Pharisees with their ‘heavy burdens’ (cf. where, turning from the Pharisees and the scribes, ‘he called to him the multitude, and said unto them, Hear and understand’; ἑκείνους μὲν ἐπιστομίσας καὶ καταισχύνας ἀφῆκεν ὡς ἀνιάτους· τρέπει δὲ τὸν λόγον πρὸς τὸν ὅχλον ὡς ἁξιολογώτερον, Euthym. ); and the passage dealing with the scribes and Pharisees (Matthew 23:1 f
Heresy - Thus it is applied to the parties of the Pharisees and Sadducees ( Acts 5:17 , Acts 15:5 , Acts 26:5 ), precisely as in Jos
School - Simon ben Shetah, the leader of the Pharisees, founded schools for boys of sixteen and seventeen to promote the study of the Scriptures
Jacob - Matthew 3:9, Luke 3:8), and it figured prominently in the conflicts between Jesus and the Pharisees (cf
Sifting - ὑμᾶς]'>[1] are sifted; Pharisees strain out gnats (Matthew 23:24); evil work avoids the sifting of the light (John 3:20)
Jew, Jews, Jewess, Jewish, Jewry, Jews' Religion - ...
B — 1: Ἰουδαϊσμός (Strong's #2454 — Noun Masculine — ioudaismos — ee-oo-dah-is-mos' ) "Judaism," denotes "the Jews' religion," Galatians 1:13,14 , and stands, not for their religious beliefs, but for their religious practices, not as instituted by God, but as developed and extended from these by the traditions of the Pharisees and scribes
Proselyte - It was no wonder that he became "twofold more the child of hell," (Matthew 23:15 ) than the Pharisees themselves
Messi'ah - The lineage of David is again alluded to in ( Zechariah 12:1-14 ) The coming of the Forerunner and of the Anointed is clearly revealed in (Malachi 3:1 ; 4:5,6 ) The Pharisees and those of the Jews who expected Messiah at all looked for a temporal prince only
Catch - ...
3: ἀβαρής (Strong's #4 — Adjective — agreuo — ab-ar-ace' ) "to take by hunting" (from agra, "a hunt, a catch"), is used metaphorically, of the Pharisees and Herodians in seeking to catch Christ in His talk, Mark 12:13
Jacob - Matthew 3:9, Luke 3:8), and it figured prominently in the conflicts between Jesus and the Pharisees (cf
Seeing - distinctly states that the purpose of Christ’s presence in the world was first to bring light to blind eyes, but, secondly, to make blind those who were able to see; and this last statement is further explained in the passage by the answer given to the indignant question of the Pharisees as to whether they also were blind, that their fault consisted in claiming to possess the power of spiritual vision, while their hearts were closed to the real significance of Christ’s message; and so their boast of spiritual perception only magnified their sin. ’ For example, in Matthew 24:6 we read, ‘See that ye be not troubled’; and in Mark 8:15 two words are combined in the warning, ‘Take heed (ὁρᾶτε), beware (βλέπετε) of the leaven of the Pharisees, and the leaven of Herod
Leaven - ...
The fermentation produced by leaven was regarded as a species of putrefaction, and this, together with the tendency of leaven to spread, explains the figure in which ‘the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees’ stands for their corrupt teaching (Matthew 16:6; Matthew 16:11, Mark 8:15), or, as St. Luke puts it more specifically in the case of the Pharisees, their hypocrisy (Luke 12:1)
Leaven - ...
The fermentation produced by leaven was regarded as a species of putrefaction, and this, together with the tendency of leaven to spread, explains the figure in which ‘the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees’ stands for their corrupt teaching (Matthew 16:6; Matthew 16:11, Mark 8:15), or, as St. Luke puts it more specifically in the case of the Pharisees, their hypocrisy (Luke 12:1)
Sanhedrin (2) - In the main they formed the Pharisee element in the Sanhedrin, though individual members of the other classes may have been Pharisees, and many Pharisees, adhering to the scribal party, were not themselves professional scribes. The Pharisees, the representatives of the earlier Hăsîdîm, stood aloof, and devoted themselves to the cultivation of their moral and religious influence with the people. 5–6) relates a story which tells how Hyrcanus broke with the Pharisees, to whom he had hitherto been attached, and went over to the Sadducees. , show that what took place was not a breach with the Pharisees, but an unsuccessful attempt to conciliate them. His refusal to concede the demand made the opposition of the Pharisees to the ruling party more acute, and under Alexander Jannaeus there was open war. But the attitude of the people showed that the Pharisees could no longer with safety be left in opposition
Mishnah - The tradition of the Mishnah appears to begin with the sect of Judaism called the Pharisees, who sought to liberalize the legal system of Judaism by applying regulations for Temple purity particularly with regard to food laws to the entirety of Judaism. The Pharisees were largely a lay movement. See Halakah; Talmud ; Pharisees ; Torah ; Tosephta
Lazarus - ...
Their friends from Jerusalem (John 11:19), according to John's use of "the Jews," were of the ruling elders and Pharisees. The same miracle which converted some Jews to belief furnished others only with materials for informing the Pharisees against Him. ...
The very sign which the Pharisees desired in the parable of Lazarus (Luke 16:27-30) is now granted in the person of one of the same name, but only stimulates them to their crowning sin, to kill Jesus, nay even to kill Lazarus too (John 12:10). Plumptre (Smith's Dictionary) identifies Simon the leper with Simon the Pharisee (Luke 7:36-40); Martha had the Pharisees' belief in the resurrection (John 11:24); Mary's gift of the ointment was after the example of the sinful woman in Simon's house; the leprosy came on subsequently
Persecution - ...
This persecution came first from the Sadducees (Acts 4:1-3; Acts 5:17; Acts 5:27-28), then from the Pharisees, whose fiery leader was the young Saul of Tarsus (Acts 7:58-60; 1618833376_54; Acts 9:4; Galatians 1:13; Philippians 3:6)
Blindness - As the Pharisees gained leadership, they became blind leaders of the blind (Matthew 15:14 ; Matthew 23:16-26 )
Leading - ...
The leadership of religious authorities is referred to in the description of scribes and Pharisees as ‘blind guides’ or ‘blind leaders of the blind’ (Matthew 23:16; Matthew 15:14); the metaphor being based on the sight, familiar in Eastern cities, of rows or files of blind persons each holding by the one in front
Frontlets - That they were in use in the days of our Lord seems more than probable; for Jesus, speaking of the Scribes and Pharisees, said, "that they made broad their phylacteries
Lunatics - It evinced an intimate knowledge both of his person and character, which was hidden from the "wise and prudent" of the nation, the chief priests, scribes, and Pharisees
Pharisees - In numerous cases Christ denounced the Pharisees for their pride and covetousness, their ostentation in prayers, alms, tithes, and facts, Matthew 6:2,5 Luke 18:9 , and their hypocrisy in employing the garb of religion to cover the profligacy of their dispositions and conduct; as Matthew 23:1-39 Luke 16:14 John 7:48,49 8:9
Tithe - The Pharisees were scrupulously exemplary in paying their tithes, but neglected the more important duties of love to God and man, Matthew 23:23
Hell - " ...
In Matthew 23 the Lord denounces the scribes and Pharisees, who in proselytizing a person "make him two-fold more a son of hell" than themselves ( Matthew 23:15 ), the phrase here being expressive of moral characteristics, and declares the impossibility of their escaping "the judgment of hell," Matthew 23:33
Sepulchre - ...
It was thought an act of piety to preserve and adorn the tombs of the prophets, but was often an act of hypocrisy and our Savior says that the Pharisees were like whited sepulchres, which appeared fine without, but inwardly were full of rottenness and corruption, Matthew 23:27-29 ; and Lightfoot has shown that every year, after the winter rains were over, the Hebrews whitened them anew. In Luke 11:44 , Christ compares the Pharisees to "grave which appear not," so that men walk over them without being aware of it, and many thus contract an involuntary impurity
Eschatology (2) - Whether or not the author of Daniel in the latter of these passages conceived of a resurrection from the dead available for all past generations of faithful Israelites, it seems certain that in the time of our Lord this sense was assigned to his words by those who, like the Pharisees, held the doctrine. ]'>[8] the Pharisees held a fatalistic doctrine of the present life—but not of human conduct—which seems to have resembled that of the Stoics, and which made them for the most part averse to schemes of political revolution. The Psalter of Solomon,** Hypocrisy - ’...
Hypocrisy was plainly no new vice in our Lord’s time, but an ancient heritage into which the Pharisees entered. The justification for the terrible assault on the Pharisees in Matthew 23, is that, sitting in Moses’ seat, they show a spirit with which truth cannot dwell. The Pharisees neither enter the Kingdom nor suffer others to enter. Of the whole standard of the Kingdom of Heaven hypocrisy is the daily practical denial—its broad result being the external righteousness of the Scribes and Pharisees, without exceeding which we shall in no wise enter into the Kingdom of Heaven. The Pharisees had reached a turning-point in their opposition. This connexion is most evident in the narrative of Luke, which begins with a warning against the leaven of the Pharisees which is hypocrisy
Hypocrisy - ’...
Hypocrisy was plainly no new vice in our Lord’s time, but an ancient heritage into which the Pharisees entered. The justification for the terrible assault on the Pharisees in Matthew 23, is that, sitting in Moses’ seat, they show a spirit with which truth cannot dwell. The Pharisees neither enter the Kingdom nor suffer others to enter. Of the whole standard of the Kingdom of Heaven hypocrisy is the daily practical denial—its broad result being the external righteousness of the Scribes and Pharisees, without exceeding which we shall in no wise enter into the Kingdom of Heaven. The Pharisees had reached a turning-point in their opposition. This connexion is most evident in the narrative of Luke, which begins with a warning against the leaven of the Pharisees which is hypocrisy
Psalms of Solomon - -a period of bitter feud between the Pharisees and the Sadducees, and of the invasion of Judah by the Romans under Pompey. Main ideas...
(1) Pharisees and Sadducees. the Pharisees, ‘the righteous’ (δίκαιοι), ‘the pious’ (ὅσιοι, representing the Hebrew ḥasîdim), ‘those that fear the Lord’ ([1] φοβούμενοι τὸν κύριον), ‘the guileless’ (ἄκακοι); occasionally too this party appears as ‘the poor’ (πτωχοί, πένητες). But in their view of a future life these Pharisees of the 1st cent. -In their view of man’s free-will the author of the Psalms and his party are at one with the Pharisees of the 1st cent. James, Psalms of the Pharisees, 1891 (the Greek text here printed is antiquated; but on account of the fullness and excellence of the introduction and commentary this work remains of the first importance); J
Jews, Judaism - The Pharisees were strictly orthodox, holding to the authority of both the Torah and the oral tradition, and believing in resurrection and immortality. They conflicted with the Sadducees who believed in the Torah only, rejecting the interpre tation of the rabbis of the Pharisees. Jesus insisted on a moral and ethical life based on love for God and love for one's neighbor, rather than the observance of a multitude of rules as advocated by the rabbis of the Pharisees. In that period various currents of thought in Judaism resulted in the development of the oral law, the writing of the Apocrypha, and the fragmentation into factions such as the Sadducees, Pharisees, and the Dead Sea Scroll sect. David Rightmire...
See also Apocrypha ; Dead Sea Scrolls ; Israel ; Pharisees ; Sadducees ...
Bibliography
John the Baptist - He denounced the Sadducees and Pharisees as a "generation of vipers," and warned them of the folly of trusting to external privileges (Luke 3:8 )
Sepulchres - Now, as all these different sorts of tombs and sepulchres, with the very walls likewise of the inclosures, are constantly kept clean, white-washed, and beautified, they continue to this day to be an excellent comment upon that expression of our Saviour, where he mentions the garnishing of the sepulchres, Matthew 23:29 ; and again, Matthew 23:27 , where he compares the scribes, Pharisees, and hypocrites to whited sepulchres
People of the Land - ...
There was considerable bad feelings between the “people of the land” and the Pharisees
Leaven - Jesus saw the Pharisees, the Sadducees and Herod as evil influences that spread through Israel as leaven spreads through a lump of dough
Jews in the New Testament - Whereas the former names Jesus' enemies as scribes and Pharisees, high priests and Sadducees, the Gospel of John simply uses the general term “Jews. See Israel ; Hebrews ; Pharisees ; Sadducees
Tradition - This principle was explicitly taught in the schools of both Hillel and Shammai, and was accepted by the Pharisees generally, while the conservative Sadducees rejected the claims of tradition in toto (Jos. Among the more rigid Pharisees, indeed, the oral Law was held to possess an even greater sanctity than the written; for the oral was the ‘perfection’ of the written, and he who knew and followed it was wiser and holier than he who observed merely the written
Sanhedrin - Since the high priest presided, the Sadducean priestly party seems to have predominated; but some leading Pharisees also were members (Acts 5:34 ; Acts 23:1-9 )
Exaltation (2) - In Christ’s parable of the Wedding Feast He insists on this principle, as against the self-seeking and pride of the scribes and Pharisees, who love the chief seats in the synagogue, and the foremost places at feasts
Temptation - “The Pharisees also with the Sadducees came, and tempting (peirazo ) desired him that he would show them a sign from heaven” (Matthew 16:1 )
Alms - " The Pharisees gave much alms, but with ostentation, figuratively blowing the trumpet before them (the figure being from the trumpet blowing in religious feasts): Matthew 6:1-2
Garments - It is the 'garment' the edge of which the woman touched, Matthew 14:36 ; and the 'garments' of which the scribes and Pharisees enlarged the borders
Publican - ...
As the Pharisees were the respectable and outwardly religious class, so the publicans were the vile and degraded
Burden, Burdened, Burdensome - , "something carried" (from phero, "to bear"), is always used metaphorically (except in Acts 27:10 , of the lading of a ship); of that which, though "light," is involved in discipleship of Christ, Matthew 11:30 ; of tasks imposed by the scribes, Pharisees and lawyers, Matthew 23:4 ; Luke 11:46 ; of that which will be the result, at the judgment-seat of Christ, of each believer's work, Galatians 6:5
Servant - This sort of slavery survived the captivity, but was opposed by the Pharisees
Wash - ...
6: ῥαντίζω (Strong's #4472 — Verb — rhantizo — hran-tid'-zo ) "to sprinkle," is used in the Middle Voice in Mark 7:4 , in some ancient texts, of the acts of the Pharisees in their assiduous attention to the cleansing of themselves after coming from the market place (some texts have baptizo here)
Publican - Luke 15:1), is not to be held as implying that He laid Himself out more for them than for other sinners who realized their need of Him; nor are we to infer that, in contrasting them with the Pharisees and scribes, as in the well-known parable (Luke 18:10 ff
Scribes - Their separating themselves from defilement originated the name Pharisees. The Sadducees taunt was "these Pharisees would purify the sun itself. (See Pharisees
Appreciation (of Christ) - Inspite of all the enmity written there; remembering that there were those who saw in Him an ally of Beelzebub (Matthew 12:24), working with the devil’s aid; that some called Him ‘a gluttonous man, a wine-bibber, friend of publicans and sinners’ (Matthew 11:19); that lawyers, and Pharisees, and Sadducees were ever watching to trip Him (Matthew 22:15), and plotting with Herodians (Matthew 22:16) to destroy Him; that the Galilaean cities, which should have known Him best,—Chorazin, Bethsaida, Capernaum (Matthew 11:21; Matthew 11:23), and even Nazareth,—rejected Him (Luke 4:28 f. But beyond these we have the scribes (Matthew 8:19, Mark 12:34) earnestly approaching Him, Pharisees inviting Him to their houses (Luke 11:37; Luke 14:1); we have the confession of the council of priests and Pharisees—‘If we let him alone, all will believe on him’ (John 11:48); we have the acknowledgment of Samaritans, convinced not by hearsay but by personal knowledge (John 4:42), of centurions (Matthew 8:5-13, Mark 15:39), and of the rich young man ‘running and kneeling’ and saying, ‘Good Master’ (Mark 10:17)
Sanhedrin - predominantly the Sadducæan interest; but under Herod, who favoured the Pharisaic party in his desire to restrict the power and influence of the old nobility, the Sadducæan element in the Sanhedrin became less prominent, while that of the Pharisees increased. So that during the Roman period the Sanhedrin contained representatives of two opposed parties, the priestly nobility with its Sadducæan sympathies, and the learned Pharisees
Blindness (2) - This gave rise to the charge of the Pharisees, that the miraculous power of Jesus was not a God-given, but a devil-given power. And when the Pharisees seek to persuade him of their peculiar theological tenet that the power of Jesus is derived from Satan, the man has strength of mind enough to fall back on that primary moral instinct to which Jesus always appeals
Philosophy - Thus arose contentions, which gave occasion for the various sects of Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes. In the time of our Saviour, divisions had arisen among the Pharisees themselves
Simple, Simplicity - Outwardly religious, the Pharisees were essentially worldly. Pharisees could not believe, because they sought glory from one another rather than the glory that comes from God (John 5:44; cf. calls them ‘Pharisees,’ Matthew 12:24; Mk
Benedictus - The usurpations, the feuds, the subserviences to Herod and the Romans, the Sadducean unbelief of the high-priestly families, the immoralities which disgraced them,—must all have been fresh in his recollection, and may well have led him, as these things led the more quiet and religious Pharisees around him, to turn back for comfort to the Divine promise to David and his seed for evermore. They emanated from the better sort of Pharisees, and they betray all the elements of Pharisaism as we see it in the Gospels. our Lord’s contention on this point with the Pharisees, Matthew 22:41-46, Mark 12:35-37, Luke 20:39-44)
Discourse - To this class belong: the discourse on Forgiveness, with the parable of the Two Debtors, given at the house of Simon the Pharisee (Luke 7:36-50); the beginning of the discourse on Tradition (eating with unwashen hands), though later ‘he called the multitudes,’ ‘and the disciples came unto him’ (Matthew 15:1-20, Mark 7:1-20); the Denunciation of the Pharisees and Lawyers at the house of a chief Pharisee (Luke 11:37-54); the discourse at another Pharisee’s house, where He discussed Modesty, Giving Feasts, and spoke the parable of the Great Feast and Excuses (Luke 14:1-24); finally, the discourse at the house of Zaccbaeus, with the parable of the Pounds (Luke 19:1-27). Of these there are a great number and variety, spoken sometimes to great multitudes, sometimes to groups, but publicly: on Blasphemy (Matthew 12:22-37, 1618833376_67); on Signs (Matthew 12:38-45); latter part of discourse on Eating with Unwashen Hands, and Traditions (Matthew 15:1-20, Mark 7:1-23); on Signs again (Matthew 16:1-4, Mark 8:11-12); on Demons and Signs again (Luke 11:14-36); on Confession, Worldliness, Watchfulness (Luke 12); on Repentance, with parable of the Barren Fig-tree (Luke 13:1-9); on the Good Shepherd (John 10:1-18); on His Messiahship and Relations with the Father (John 10:22-38); Sabbath Healing, parables of Mustard Seed and Leaven (1618833376_1); on the Salvation of the Elect (Luke 13:23-30); Lament over Jerusalem (Luke 13:34-35); on Counting the Cost of Following Him (Luke 14:25-35); reproof of the Pharisees, with parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus (Luke 16:14-31); on the Coming of the Kingdom (Luke 17:20-37); on Prayer, with parables of the Importunate Widow, and of the Pharisee and Publican (Luke 18:1-14); the colloquies with His critics in the Temple, on His Authority, on the Tribute to Caesar, on the Resurrection, on the Great Commandment, on the Son of David (Matthew 21:23 to Matthew 22:46, Mark 11:27 to Mark 12:37, Luke 20); remarks on Belief and Unbelief (John 12:44-50). (Luke 15:1 to Luke 17:10); last public discourse, Denunciation of the Pharisees (Matthew 23:1-39, Mark 12:38-40, Luke 20:45-47)
Pride (2) - The religious ostentation of the Pharisees was unsparingly reprobated. Many who would loathe the commonly recognized vaingloriousness of the Pharisees are dangerously near sharing in the mental arrogance which prompted the latter to sneer, ‘This multitude which knoweth not the law are accursed’ (John 7:49). This social arrogance of the Pharisees was one of the points in our Lord’s indictment of them
Maccabees - ’ His long reign was marked by a break with the Pharisees, who, as successors of ‘the Pious,’ had been the traditional party of the government, and the establishment of friendship with the Sadducees, thereby fixing the high priesthood as one of the perquisites of that party. His monarchical ambitions, however, aroused the hostility of the Pharisees, and Judæa was rent by civil war. The Pharisees asked aid from Demetrius iii. During the latter part of his reign he was engaged in struggles with the Greek cities of Palestine, in the siege of one of which he died, bequeathing his kingdom to his wife Alexandra, with the advice that she should make friends with the Pharisees (Jos Queen (2) - The Pharisees had demanded of Him a special sign, and He replied that no such sign should be given them, but that they should have a sign in Himself and in His burial and resurrection, as the Ninevites had had in Jonah
Saying And Doing - The same contrast is boldly presented in the parable of the Two Sons (Matthew 21:28-32), with special reference on the one hand to the Pharisees and scribes, and on the other to the outwardly unpromising ‘publicans and sinners’ who welcomed the message of the Kingdom of heaven
Widow - Further, widows are referred to by Christ (Matthew 23:14 [1], Mark 12:40, Luke 20:47) as being often cruelly oppressed and defrauded by the Pharisees of His day
Serpent - In Matthew 23:33 Jesus employs both words to describe the Pharisees—ὄφεις, γεννήματα ἐχιδνῶν, ‘serpents, offspring [1] of vipers’ (cf
Ablutions - ...
Mark 7:4 mentions that among the traditions observed by the Pharisees was the “washing of cups and pots
Observation - ’...
Four explanations of the apparent contradiction have been proposed: (1) that the earlier verse refers to the Pharisees, who are blind to the signs of the new age, and the later to the disciples, who will have their eyes opened to see it (cf
Serpent - In Matthew 23:33 Jesus employs both words to describe the Pharisees—ὄφεις, γεννήματα ἐχιδνῶν, ‘serpents, offspring [1] of vipers’ (cf
Law (2) - His parents did not belong to the ranks of the Pharisees, hence His early training was healthier than that of St. Wonder was excited that, while the Pharisees and the disciples of the Baptist fasted, the disciples of Jesus neglected this religious exercise. The Pharisees fasted twice in the week, on Monday and Thursday. Jesus defends His disciples against the criticism implied in the question, ‘Why do John’s disciples and the disciples of the Pharisees fast, but thy disciples fast not?’ (Mark 2:18) by the answer, ‘Can the sons of the bride-chamber fast while the bridegroom is with them? as long as they have the bridegroom with them they cannot fast. The religious self-advertisement which characterized the Pharisees eviscerated these exercises of all their value. The practice originated with the Pharisees, but was adopted by almost all the Jews. If they were known to be unclean, they had to be washed twice before a meal; they were also washed after food; and some Pharisees washed even between the courses. In His great indictment of the scribes and Pharisees He rebukes them for their ruling that an oath by the temple or by the altar counts for nothing, while an oath by the gold of the temple, or a gift at the altar, is binding
Common Life - It was therefore in opposition to the ritualism of the Pharisees alone that Christ had to develop His teaching as to common life. Purity and holiness in the eyes of the Pharisees were matters of ceremonial observance far more than of heart and life; and to such an extent had they elaborated the Mosaic ritual, that it was no longer possible for the poor man and the toiler to attain to holiness in the sense which they had rendered popular. Throughout it is the Law’s moral requirements that He treats of; and the discourse is prefaced by the assertion that the righteousness of the new kingdom must start by exceeding that of the scribes and Pharisees (Matthew 5:20). In regard to the question of washing the hands before eating, He comes into open conflict with the Pharisees, upbraiding their hypocrisy, and contending that defilement comes not from external things, but from within the heart (Matthew 15:1-20, Mark 7:1-23)
Violence - the scribes and Pharisees. ‘Every man’ (πᾶς) is perhaps emphatic, showing that the Pharisees and the scribes must no longer look on the Kingdom as the exclusive possession of their nation or class; it was open to all nations, and might be entered by even the lowest men, though it would appear from the warning of the following verses that not all would seek it in the right spirit. According to him, it is applied in opposition to the Pharisees, who despised the admonition as to the right use of money
Messiah - Judas of Gamala and a Pharisee named Zaduc organized a fourth sect coordinate with the Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes, and incited the people to revolt, because of the census then established. It is, however, not difficult to see in it the more political and concrete hopes which the Pharisees expressed in terms of the apocalypse. The Zealots, like the Pharisees, expected the new Kingdom to be established by God or His representative the Messiah, but, unlike the Pharisees, they were not content to await the Divine action. Yet it would be unsafe to say that the Messiah whom the people expected, any more than he whom the Pharisees awaited, would be without Divine appointment and inspiration. The chief difference between the Messianic hope of the Pharisees and that of the Zealots and people was probably the lack in the latter of the eschatological, transcendental element, such as the resurrection from the dead and the heavenly Jerusalem, which was so important in the hope of the Pharisees
Tradition (2) - 6); but the attitude of the Pharisees was the very opposite, and exerted a dominant influence in the matter. As against the Pharisees, He taught that the Law of God could not come in conflict with itself, whereas between the traditions current and the Law there were conflicts
Son of God - To Jesus' question, "what think ye of Christ, whose Son is He?" the Pharisees answered not the Son of God, but "the Son of David," and could not solve the difficulty," how then doth David in the Spirit call Him Lord?" in Psalm 110, "Jehovah said unto my Lord" ('Αdonay ), etc. ...
Had the Pharisees believed in Messiah's Godhead they could have answered: As man Messiah was David's son, as God He was David's and the church's Lord
Corban - Our Lord is there replying to the criticism of the Pharisees that the disciples ate food with hands ceremonially unclean. He accuses the Pharisees of attaching too much value to the tradition of the elders, so as even in some cases to set aside in their favour the plain moral commandments of God
Dropsy - Luke alone of the Evangelists tells of Jesus being invited to partake of the hospitality of the Pharisees and of His accepting their invitations on three different occasions: ‘to eat’ (Luke 7:36), ‘to breakfast’ (Luke 11:37), ‘to eat bread’ (Luke 14:1). ...
The question addressed by Jesus on this occasion to ‘the lawyers and Pharisees’ aptly illustrates His method of ‘carrying the war into the enemy’s camp’ (cf
Phylacteries - ...
It cannot be doubted that the Pharisees and scribes in the time of our Lord used phylacteries; but how far the custom was followed by the people generally is uncertain. Thus in Matthew 22:34 || it may be considered as certain that the group of Pharisees with whom our Lord held His controversy wore their broadened phylacteries, and that the passage He quoted, the Shema’, the foundation of Hebrew religion, would be found in the phylacteries they carried on their heads and arms
Burial - In addition to all four Gospel writers recording the tomb being found empty (Matthew 28:1-7 ; Mark 16:1-7 ; Luke 24:1-12 ; 2 Kings 23:17 ), Matthew notes the care to which the chief priests and the Pharisees went to make Jesus' tomb secure (27:6-66) and the subsequent rumor they spread when their efforts failed (28:11-15)
Right (2) - Our Lord contrasts the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees with that which He demanded from His followers (Matthew 5:20)
Heresy - Pharisees and Sadducees were sects in Judaism, not withdrawn from it
Harlot - Here we cannot fail to contrast the harsh temper of the Pharisees towards such women with the holy and redemptive sympathy of Jesus
Horse - Strict Pharisees, however, never rode on horseback, and it is at least as likely that he and his companions were mounted on asses or mules
Judas - We find in Josephus an allusion to a man, who is there said to have been born in the city of Gamala in Gaulanitis, and to have been the founder of a new sect, which did not differ from that of the Pharisees save in a fanatical love of liberty and refusal to support the Roman state
Fierceness - But the white heat of fierceness in the utterance of Christ comes when He meets with Pharisees, scribes, and teachers of the Law, who are unworthy of their high professions
Fasting - But when the Pharisees reproached him, that his disciples did not fast so often as theirs, or as John the Baptist's, he replied, "Can ye make the children of the bride-chamber fast while the bridegroom is with them? But the days will come when the bride-groom shall be taken away from them, and then shall they fast in those days," Luke 5:34-35
Like, Liken - 1), is used in Matthew 23:27 (perhaps with intensive force), in the Lord's comparison of the scribes and Pharisees to whitened sepulchres
Camel - See also the proverb in Matthew 23:24 , which illustrates the hypocrisy of the Pharisees by the custom of passing wine through a strainer
Harlot - Here we cannot fail to contrast the harsh temper of the Pharisees towards such women with the holy and redemptive sympathy of Jesus
Righteous, Righteousness - Already in some of the Psalms we have ‘the righteous’ as a regular party in the land, and the term ultimately became the self-designation of the Pharisees. ...
It was the simplicity and the ‘inwardness’ of this supreme test of righteousness by love that were to make Christ’s ‘yoke easy’ (Matthew 11:30), in contrast with the ‘heavy burdens’ imposed on men’s shoulders by the externalism and endless rules of the Pharisees (Matthew 23:4). Mark 9:35); and He called the scribes and Pharisees ‘children of hell’ (Matthew 23:15)—a term which he never applies even to the publican or the harlot—because He found in their self-exaltation and censoriousness (cf. Therefore He said, ‘Except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no wise enter into the kingdom of heaven’ (Matthew 5:20). But that John 7:18 really applies to the principles of the Law, and not its letter, is surely proved by the addition of John 7:20, where the scribes and Pharisees are denounced as having broken it while seeming to ‘hedge it round
Retaliation - When Christ came to deal with the Pharisees, He found that this broader interpretation of the Law was lacking. As much of the discourse is aimed at the Pharisees, who had made an idol of the minutiae of the Law, it is wholly improbable that Christ meant to lay down a new set of rules, which could be worthily observed only by adhering to their letter
Judas the Galilaean - From this time until their last stand at Masada, the Zealots were the representatives of a politico-revolutionary Messianism, as distinguished from the eschatological hopes of the Pharisees and Essenes
Talmud - This process probably began with the early Jewish sect known as the Pharisees
Resurrection - " The Pharisees in holding this preserved the faith gleaned from the Old Testament by the pious fathers of the nation; such was Martha's and Paul's faith (John 11:25; Acts 26:6-8)
James - ...
According to extra-canonical tradition, James was surnamed ‘the Just’; he was a Nazirite from his mother’s womb, abstaining from strong drink and animal food, and wearing linen; he was always kneeling in intercession for the people, so that his knees were callous like a camel’s; he was cruelly martyred by the Scribes and Pharisees: they cast him down from the pinnacle of the Temple (cf
Hymenaeus - ...
‘Wherefore that also must be held to be the resurrection, when a man is re-animated by access to the truth, and having dispersed the death of ignorance, and being endowed with new life by God, has burst forth from the sepulchre of the old man, even as the Lord likened the Scribes and Pharisees to “whited sepulchers” (Matthew 23:27)
Caiaphas (2) - When, after the raising of Lazarus, the ‘high priests and Pharisees’ held a meeting of the Sanhedrin (informal, as Caiaphas does not appear to have presided), it was Caiaphas who gave the ironically prophetic advice that it was expedient that one man should die for the people (John 11:50)
Fig - ...
Compare Isaiah 5 as to God's care of Israel; the only result was not merely unfruitfulness but deceptiveness, "the rustling leaves of a religious profession, barren traditions of the Pharisees, and vain exuberance of words without the good fruit of works" (Wordsworth); ostentatious promise of antedating the Gentile church in fruit, without performance; pretentious show and hypocrisy
Face - As the expression of the face was regarded as a trustworthy indication of the life within, the Pharisees cultivated an aspect of religious absorption; and Christ showed that the thought behind this device was essentially blind and irreligious, inasmuch as the true service of the Kingdom required the spirit of the Beatitudes (Matthew 6:17)
Foot - The Pharisees thus sat in Moses’ seat (Matthew 23:2)
Demon - The Pharisees said that the Lord cast out demons by Beelzebub the prince of demons
Merit - ’...
This statement of Schultz may be supplemented, with regard, in particular, to the doctrine of the Pharisees, which forms at once the background and the contrast of the teaching of Jesus, by the accounts of H. ...
The teaching of Jesus now proceeds in agreement with the theology of the Pharisees, in so far as He not only continually speaks of the rewarding of our works by God, but also represents the Kingdom of God itself under the point of view of a reward, which is awarded to the performance of ‘righteousness. ...
The limitations set to the idea of merit in the teaching of Jesus, as compared with its use in the theology of the Pharisees, are, however, very striking. While with the Pharisees the idea of God as Lawgiver and Judge is dominant, with Jesus this idea is subordinated to the conception of God as Father
Discipline - Paul, for example, probably borrowed some notions from Jewish groups like the Pharisees of whose disciplinary procedures he was himself a recipient. Rabbinic traditions suggest that the Pharisees commonly imposed a "ban, " a temporary state of social isolation imposed for deviation from ritual purity laws or for heretical views and designed to recall the offender to full participation in the community. It is not clear whether warnings could be construed as witnesses ex post facto, but this may have been an intentional flexibility designed to avoid the legal elaborations of the Qumran sectaries and Pharisees
Herod - The rise of the Pharisees and the development of the Essenes plainly showed that the fortune of the Jews was not to be made in the political field. More than once the Pharisees flung the reproach ‘half-Jew’ in the teeth of Herod. Even the Pharisees thought well of him
Jonah - ...
Certain of the scribes and Pharisees, not content with our Lord’s many miracles or signs (cf. ...
To these objections it may be replied: (1) There is no contradiction of the Gospel story, for the scribes and Pharisees plainly demanded a sign of a different character from those which they had so far witnessed (see above). (3) Or did both our Lord and His hearers, the scribes and Pharisees, regard the story of Jonah as a parable or fictitious narrative, like others in the OT and in the Apocrypha, and did He thus refer to it? Although in view of Tobit 14:4; Tobit 14:8, 3 Maccabees 6:8, Josephus Ant
Hunger - On this occasion Jesus takes advantage of the opportunity afforded by the carping criticism of the Pharisees to emphasize, by an appeal to the case of the hungry David, His teaching on the Sabbath question. It was through the disciples that the Pharisees attacked Him (cf
Slave, Slavery (2) - An early tradition recounts a controversy between Pharisees and Sadducees, assumed to have taken place in or about our period, as to the incidence of the responsibility for an injury done by a slave (Yadayim, iv. The solution of the Pharisees was that the slave himself, and not the master, must be held responsible, as the slave was capable of reasoning, and not to be classed with beasts of burden
Doubt - The Pharisees doubted Christ's messiahship and asked for another sign (Matthew 12:38-42 )
Rest - for the Sabbath "rest," is used in Matthew 11:29 ; here the contrast seems to be to the burdens imposed by the Pharisees
Uncleanness - The hand-washing ritual of the Pharisees, for instance, required the pouring of water over their hands to cleanse them from the defilement of people and things they had touched in the Gentile world (Mark 7:1-4; John 2:6; John 3:25; John 18:28)
Bread, Bread of Presence - In Matthew 16:5-12 , leaven represents the doctrine of the Sadducees and Pharisees
Tithes - ...
The Pharisees were punctilious in paying tithe for all even the smallest herbs (Matthew 23:23; Luke 18:12)
Matthew - All the Synoptists narrate the story of the call of Matthew from his tax-gatherer’s booth and the subsequent feast in his house which aroused the wrath of the Pharisees and led Jesus to defend Himself by the declaration: ‘They that are whole have no need of a physician, but they that are sick
Adultery - ...
The Pharisees' object in bringing the adulterous woman (John 8) before Christ was to put Him in a dilemma between declaring for reviving an obsolete penalty, or else sanctioning an infraction of the law
Envy (2) - The deeds and words of Jesus were from the outset attended by suspicion on the part of scribes and Pharisees
Isaiah - More general is the application of Isaiah 6:9-10 to the people of His own time (Matthew 13:14-15, Mark 4:12, Luke 8:10); and also His use of Isaiah 29:13 of the Pharisees and scribes (Matthew 15:7-9, Mark 7:6-7)
David - ]'>[1]...
During the week preceding our Lord’s crucifixion, perhaps on Tuesday, He asked the Pharisees a question which put them to silence and confusion
Ceremony - Even under the Mosaical dispensation, proceeding as it did, immediately from heaven, and adapted, as in infinite wisdom it was, to the situation of those to whom it was given, the same evil early began to be experienced; and although it was lamented and exposed by the prophets, and the most enlightened men among the Jews, it was so far from being eradicated, that it continued to acquire strength, till it was exhibited in all its magnitude in the character prevalent among the Pharisees at the period of Christ's manifestation
Medicine - The Pharisees and Essenes aimed at scrupulous strictness in all such rules
Eating - " On the other hand, the Son of Man is said, in Matthew 11:19 , to have come "eating and drinking;" that is, as others did; and that too with all sorts of persons, Pharisees, publicans, and sinners
John the Baptist - ...
To the Pharisees and the Sadducees he was especially severe, calling them a 'generation of vipers' ( Matthew 3:7 ), but in Luke the multitude are so designated, for all must flee from the wrath to come, and bring forth fruits meet for repentance
David - ]'>[1]...
During the week preceding our Lord’s crucifixion, perhaps on Tuesday, He asked the Pharisees a question which put them to silence and confusion
Isaiah - More general is the application of Isaiah 6:9-10 to the people of His own time (Matthew 13:14-15, Mark 4:12, Luke 8:10); and also His use of Isaiah 29:13 of the Pharisees and scribes (Matthew 15:7-9, Mark 7:6-7)
Paradox - More paradoxical still must have appeared His condemnation of the Pharisees (Matthew 23:1-36), His friendship with publicans and sinners (Matthew 9:9-13, Mark 2:15-16, Luke 19:1-10), His conception of the Messiah (Mark 10:45; Mark 8:27-38)
Matthew, Gospel According to - On the other hand, He associated with people who were regarded by the leaders of religion as ill friends for a devout man (Matthew 9:11), and seemed negligent of the rules which the Pharisees had framed as the guides of a pious life. After a ministry marked by acts like these, He had been put to death by the Romans at the instigation of the Pharisees and Sadducees. Their ‘righteousness’ was to exceed that of the scribes and Pharisees, because they were to interpret the Law of Moses in a sense which would make it more far-reaching in its effect upon conduet than ever before (Matthew 5:21-48). Matthew 21:28-32 illustrates the perverse attitude of the Pharisees towards the Baptist’s preaching. The sayings of the Baptist are so arranged as to form a sermon of denunciation of the Pharisees and Sadducees
Doctrines - ’ With reference to the subject-matter of His teaching it occurs in the answer of Jesus to the question of the Pharisees (John 7:15; John 7:17), ‘How knoweth this man letters (γραμματα), having never learned?’ The question refers to learning as it was understood by the scribes, that is, as theological science, those methods of Biblical interpretation in virtue of which they themselves were called scribes (γραμματεὶς), i. He announces that He is come not to destroy but to fulfil the Law and the Prophets (Matthew 5:17), and in this connexion shows that the Law is not satisfied with the literal and formal obedience of the Pharisees, but extends to thought and motive; He warns His disciples that, except their righteousness shall exceed that of the scribes and Pharisees, they cannot enter the Kingdom of Heaven (Matthew 5:18-20); and in other passages He says that in the Day of Judgment men shall be judged so strictly that they shall give account of every idle word, and even of any neglect on their part of the law of kindness and compassion towards their neighbours (Matthew 12:36; Matthew 25:45). Such a complete change as these words imply—‘change of mind’ (μετάνοια), ‘convert,’ ‘turn round’ (ἐπιστρέφειν, Matthew 13:15), ‘new birth’ or ‘birth from above’ (γεννηθῇ ἄνωθεν, John 3:3), is necessary for all, as Jesus shows by addressing His teaching on this theme not only to Pharisees like Nicodemus, but to His own disciples—notably in the parable of the Unmerciful Servant (Matthew 18:21-35), in which, in answer to a question of Peter, He likens the condition of all recipients of the Divine forgiveness to that of a man who owes a debt of ten thousand talents, clearly meaning by that the infinitude of
Confess, Confession - This doctrinal sense of the word can be seen generally in Luke's reminder that the Pharisees acknowledge the teachings about the resurrection and the spiritual realm (Acts 23:8 ). " John tells us that the Pharisees refused to confess that Jesus was the Messiah (12:42), and forced out of the synagogue all Jews who did make such a confession (9:22)
Dead, the - The common belief, illustrated in the later literature of Judaism, was virtually that of the Pharisees, who held that the soul is imperishable, that rewards and punishments follow this life under the earth (cf. ...
Jesus definitely repudiates the Sadducean view (Mark 12:24; Mark 12:27), and endorses, as to its substance, that of the Pharisees
Essenes - They appear to have been an enthusiastic sect, never numerous, and but little known; directly opposite to the Pharisees with respect to their reliance upon tradition, and their scrupulous regard to the ceremonial law, but pretending, like them, to superior sanctity of manners. In the troublesome and superstitious observance of the rest of the Sabbath, according to the letter, and not according to the spirit, they went even farther than the other Jews, only with this difference, that they were in good earnest in the matter, while the Pharisees by their casuistry relaxed their rules, or drew them tighter, just as it suited their purpose
Perfection (of Jesus) - With what irony He sketches the indecision of the Pharisees, in the story of the children who will play neither at funerals nor at weddings! What deeper criticism of a prudential morality is there than in the words ‘he that saveth his life shall lose it’? what clearer perception of the hopelessness of a man’s attempt at self-deliverance than the parable of the house swept and garnished but empty? There is His indictment of the Pharisees (Matthew 23). And He drew nigh unto men in brotherly love as the physician of sick souls, the faithful shepherd seeking the lost sheep of God, though thereby He outraged the sentiments of the Pharisees (Matthew 9:11; Matthew 11:19, Luke 15:2; Luke 19:7), though His friendship with them was helping to raise the eross on which He was slain. That death was no accident, provoked by the invectives against the Pharisees; it was seen afar off as the end of His mission. It looks through the sad irony of His answer to the Pharisees when they complained of the religious light-heartedness of His followers and He said, ‘The days will come when the bridegroom shall be taken away from them, and then shall they fast in those days’ (Mark 2:20). Jesus Himself says to the complaining Pharisees, ‘Can the children of the bridechamber fast while the bridegroom is with them?’ The joy of the bridegroom was in His heart
Satan (2) - Accused by the Pharisees, representatives of those to whose speculations in angelology and demonology that popular belief has been traced, of casting out demons through Beelzebub the prince of demons, Jesus, so far from controverting or throwing doubt upon the current opinions of the time, repels the charge by the argument that if Satan should cast out Satan, he would only be defeating his own ends and destroying his own work. That Jesus should thus have argued in controversy with the Pharisees has its own significance. Jesus could and did rebuke the spirit of Pharisaic traditionalism which led them to introduce all manner of mischievous subtleties, making void the Law by their unauthorized traditions, but never once did He even cast suspicion upon this part of the doctrine of the Pharisees
Insight - He understood perfectly the feeling of instinctive resistance that arose within the minds of the Pharisees at the impact of spiritual truth upon the hard crust of an artificial religionism which had become part of their very nature (Luke 6:8, Matthew 12:25). The two mites thrown by the widow into the Temple treasury are a more munificent offering than the costly gifts of the Pharisees, because they represent a greater degree of sacrifice (Mark 12:43-44). The sin of the Pharisees is that they are blind while they think they see (John 9:41)
Advent (2) - Scribes and Pharisees on the one hand, and Sadducees on the other, stood in mutual antagonism, striving for ascendency as leaders of national religious feeling,—the scribes and Pharisees combining to enforce the mass of stringent precepts which the former had elaborated to supplement the original written word; the Sadducees entirely rejecting those precepts, and contending that the Law as written was sufficient, and that the observance of the temple ordinances, its worship and sacrifices, was the central element in religion. By their insistence on conformity to the regulations they had added to the Law as a condition of Divine favour, the scribes and Pharisees, who were the most numerous and aggressive party, converted religion itself into a matter of slavish obedience, in which the instigating motives were the hope of reward and the fear of punishment
Symbol - Hence Christ’s message to the Samaritan woman concerning true worship, and His frequent protests against the ceremonial insincerities of the Pharisees
Struggles of Soul - His conflict with the scribes and Pharisees regarding Sabbath observance, fasting, ceremonial washing, and intercourse with sinners must have distressed His spirit; for He too would need to face the issue—would He follow custom or conscience? We have more distinct evidence of the inward strain felt by Him, because His regard for Jewish prejudice and exclusiveness in relation to the Gentiles, in order that He might not estrange His countrymen, compelled Him to assume an attitude of aloofness to the Gentiles (the Roman centurion, Matthew 8:10; the Syrophœnician mother, Matthew 15:26; the Greeks, John 12:23)
Joy - The Pharisees and scribes had criticized Jesus for receiving sinners and eating with them
Lost - It was precisely to this class, called by the Pharisees in a bitter hour ‘an accursed multitude which knoweth not the law’ (John 7:49), that Christ mainly appealed
Adam in the nt - His answer to the Pharisees is intended to show that the provision made for divorce in the Mosaic law ( Deuteronomy 24:1 ) was only a concession to the hardness of men’s hearts
Despise - The Pharisees ‘invented the most high-flown designations for each other, such as “Light of Israel,” “Glory of the Law,” etc
Tithes - The Pharisees, in the time of Jesus Christ, to distinguish themselves by a more scrupulous observance of the law, did not content themselves with paying the tithe of the grain and fruits growing in the fields; but they also paid tithe of the pulse and herbs growing in their gardens, which was more than the law required of them
Eating, Mode of - " The Jews were wont to wash their hands before eating, a custom rendered necessary by their mode of eating, but made by the Pharisees a test of piety, Mark 7:2,3 Luke 11:38
ju'Das Iscar'Iot - " (2) He made ineffectual struggles to escape, by attempting to return the reward to the Pharisees, and when they would not receive it, he cast it down at their feet and left it
Pre-Existence - His question to the Pharisees concerning Psalms 110 (Matthew 22:41-45, Mark 12:35-37, Luke 20:41-44) would seem to imply, in the background of the Speaker’s mind, His pre-existence before His birth of the line of David
Offence - The rejection of His claims by the Pharisees was attended by some irritation and the spirit of opposition (Matthew 15:12); thus they were offended or caused to stumble
Divorce - ...
In Matthew 19:1-12 and Mark 10:1-12 some Pharisees test Jesus by asking whether it is lawful for a man to divorce his wife for any reason. Unsatisfied with his answer, the Pharisees raise the issue of the divorce statement in Deuteronomy 24:1-4
Stone - One of the most striking assertions of His claim to Messianic dignity lay in His answer to the Pharisees when they appealed to Him to rebuke the enthusiastic shouts of His disciples: ‘I tell you that if these shall hold their peace, the stones will cry out’ (Luke 19:40). ’ Thus He identified the rejected ‘Son’ of the parable with the rejected stone of the Psalm, and the wicked husbandmen with the scribes and Pharisees as the ‘builders’ of Israel’s theocratic edifice; but at the same time intimated to the latter that they must not think that by rejecting Him and putting Him to death they would be done with Him for ever
Ave Maria - And among those who came into more incidental contact with Him by simple inquiry or importunate need, Nicodemus was attracted by the persuasion that He was a teacher come from God (John 3:2); an admission to the same effect was made on one occasion by the Pharisees and Herodians (Mark 12:14); the chief priests and scribes were driven to assign a Satanic origin to His unquestionable power (Matthew 12:24); while the Pharisees reached a stage in their controversy with Him after which no man durst ask Him any question (Matthew 22:46, Mark 12:34)
Nationality - Before the death of Herod the Great, two Pharisees were burnt alive for leading an assault upon the golden eagle he had fixed over the gate of the Temple court. He withdrew Himself more and more from the passion of nationality as embodied in the religious pedantry and exclusiveness of the Pharisees, until at last it was almost wholly arrayed against Him and He against it (Matthew 23:15 etc
Rebuke - ’ (4) The Pharisees’ request that Jesus would rebuke His followers for hailing Him as Messiah, only served to make more clear and definite His acceptance of that homage with all it meant (Luke 19:39)
Scribes - (Matthew 15:1-6 ; 23:16-23 ) We can therefore understand why they were constantly denounced by our Lord along with the Pharisees
Guest-Chamber - The eagerness of the Pharisees to secure for themselves the ‘chief seats’ (πρωτοκλισίαι) at feasts brought on them the rebuke of Jesus (Luke 14:7 ff
Son of David - The Messianic value of the title comes out forcibly in the puzzling question put by Jesus to the Pharisees (Matthew 22:42 f
Profane - Our blessed Lord, in the days of his flesh, walking through the cornfields, and his disciples eating of the ears of corn on the Sabbath-day, were reproved by the Pharisees for it
Concubine - Hence, when the Pharisees came to our Lord to ask the question about putting away their wives, and pleaded Moses's permission in certain cases, our Lord expressly said, that Moses's permission was from the hardness of their heart, but from the beginning (saith Jesus), it was not so
Entry Into Jerusalem - The lament over the city, the retort to the Pharisees’ objection, ‘If these should hold their peace,’ etc. Jesus is hailed ‘King of Israel,’ and the Pharisees comment on their own powerlessness and His popularity (John 12:19). Shortly before this the Pharisees had asked when the Kingdom of God should come (Luke 17:20)
Angels - Yet some of the Jews rejected all belief in them, and this sharply divided the Pharisees from the Sadducees, who said ‘that there is no resurrection, neither angel, nor spirit’; the Pharisees confessed both (Acts 23:8). In Acts 23:8 the Pharisees are said to confess ‘both,’ i
Caesarea Philippi - The fundamental opposition between Jesus and the legalism of the Pharisees which had appeared in His attitude towards the Sabbath customs, and in the Sermon on the Mount, came now to sharp expression in His attack on the whole system of external formalism in religion. Returning to Galilee, He feeds the four thousand, refuses the request of the Pharisees and Sadducees for a sign from heaven, with its evident Messianic implication, warns His disciples against the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees (so Matthew 16:6; Mark 8:15 has ‘Pharisees and Herod’), heals a blind man near Bethsaida (Mark 8:22 ff
Forgiveness - The Pharisees refused to see the merciful hand of God in the work of Jesus, and rather attributed His miracles to the power of Satan
Tittle - 20) we find Him declaring, ‘Except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no wise enter into the kingdom of heaven
Gamaliel - Gamaliel was a representative of a broader and more liberal school among the Pharisees, the school of Hillel as opposed to that of Shammai
James, the Lord's Brother - 23) gives a much more highly coloured account of James’s martyrdom, representing him as hurled from the pinnacle of the Temple because he refused to make a pronouncement against Jesus (which the Scribes and Pharisees had confidently expected of him!)
Judging (by Men) - To this great principle of judging our Lord made frequent appeal in His controversies with the Pharisees
Liberality - Whatever may have been the greedy and grasping spirit of the Pharisees, whose extortions our Lord denounces (Matthew 23:14), it is probable that the Deuteronomic precept (Deuteronomy 15:7-11) received a generous fulfilment among all classes
Loneliness - after the death of John the Baptist (Matthew 14:13; in Mark 6:11 this retirement immediately follows the return of the Twelve); from the opposition of the Pharisees (Matthew 16:13, Mark 8:27, Luke 9:18; also Matthew 15:21, Mark 7:24)
Palm Tree - On the other hand, the Pharisees and officials regarded it as a challenge of their authority
Announcements of Death - The Pharisees from Jerusalem (Luke 5:17) are now in Galilee watching the movements of Jesus, so as to gain a case against Him. He does this to distinguish between Himself and the Pharisees, who have been vehemently attacking Him. They were posing as His friends, but were either representatives of Herod Antipas or of the Jerusalem Pharisees. It is in the last journey to Jerusalem that the Pharisees ask when the kingdom of God comes (Luke 17:20)
Matthew, the Gospel According to - Appointment of apostles; doubts of John's disciples; cavils of the Pharisees; on the other hand His loving invitations, miracles, series of parables on the kingdom; effects of His ministry on Herod and various classes; prophecy to His disciples of His coming death (Matthew 10 - 18:35). Passion week: entry into Jerusalem; opposition to Him by Herodians, Sadducees, Pharisees; silences them all; denunciation of the Pharisees (Matthew 21-23_
Influence - That they turned completely round at the last was no doubt due to the malign influence of the Pharisees joined to the great disappointment experienced when nothing followed the events of Palm Sunday. He was indignant at the abuses of the time, and was unsparing in His condemnation of Pharisees and scribes, but the hostility had set in before that, and its only explanation is the hatred of bad men to a holy life. The Pharisees and Herodians only expressed the general feeling in saying, ‘Master, we know that thou art true, and teachest the way of God in truth, and carest not for anyone: for thou regardest not the person of men’ (Matthew 22:16)
Mercy - Thus in Luke 11:41 the value of giving alms is placed high above religious rules about purity, which the Pharisees guarded so carefully. Jesus took up this reprimand to denounce the legalistic practices of the Pharisees (Matthew 9:13 )
Keeping - For instance, we read that when the Pharisees and scribes asked Jesus why His disciples walked not according to the tradition of the elders, but ate their bread with defiled hands, He replied, ‘Full well do ye reject the commandment of God, that ye may keep (τηρέω) your tradition’ (Mark 7:9). Again, the conclusion to which some of the Pharisees are reported to have come with regard to our Lord’s action in healing a man blind from his birth on the Sabbath, was, ‘This man is not from God, because he keepeth (τηρέω) not the Sabbath’ (John 9:16)
Silence - Silence here cannot have been from prudential considerations, for miracles must undoubtedly have enhanced His reputation among the people, and it was His refusal to work miracles to gratify the Pharisees that formed the ground of their offence against Him (Matthew 16:1 ff. Jesus has nothing to say to the jeers and mockery of the infuriated people, or to the taunts of priests and Pharisees
Sabbath - While he kept the law of God (Matthew 5:17; Luke 4:16), he opposed the traditions of the scribes and Pharisees (Mark 7:6-9)
Fast, Fasting - In the New Testament Jesus chides the hypocritical Pharisees for disfiguring their faces when they fast (Matthew 6:16-18 ), a reference no doubt to the custom of smearing themselves with ashes
Sermon on the Mount - The theme of the sermon is found in Matthew 5:20 , “For I say unto you, That except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter into the kingdom of heaven
Neighbor - At the time of Jesus, various restricting movements, like the Pharisees and Essenes at Qumran, naturally tended to show favoritism to members of their own social groups
Temptation, Test - Jesus is tested by the Pharisees with hostile intent (Matthew 16:1 ; Mark 10:2 )
Guest - The Pharisees complained bitterly of His eating with publicans and sinners, yet several of them invited Him to be their guest (Luke 7:36 ff; Luke 11:37 ff; Luke 14:1 ff
Shame - The Pharisees are ashamed of being found exploiting a sin for their own ends
Chief Priests - ]'>[4] But in NT times their influence, even in the Sanhedrin, was inferior to that of the scribes and Pharisees, who commanded the popular sympathies as the high priestly party did not (Josephus Ant
Antichrist - This political hatred of the Pharisees entered into the Antichrist expectation, just as their political hope went into the Messianic programme
Sin - This sin, or blasphemy, as it should rather be called, many scribes and Pharisees were guilty of, who, beholding our Lord do his miracles, affirmed that he wrought them by Beelzebub, the prince of devils, which was, in effect, calling the Holy Ghost Satan, a most horrible blasphemy; and, as on this ground they rejected Christ, and salvation by him, their sin could certainly have no forgiveness
Profession (2) - It goes without saying that He repudiated all insincere professions; and He knew that these were to be Found not only among the Pharisees, but also among His own followers (Matthew 7:22; Matthew 21:30)
Publishing - The Pharisees were not influenced favourably by the miracles which they saw (Matthew 12:14, Mark 3:5 f
Shame - The Pharisees are ashamed of being found exploiting a sin for their own ends
Ethics (2) - True, we can observe the behaviour of the circles from which sprang the Psalms of Solomon, we can lay our hand upon the devout breast of the pseudo-Ezra, we can enter into the spirit of the author of 1 Maccabees or Sirach; but how diverse are even these few casual types, and how impossible is it to make them fit into one harmonious picture! What, again, do we know of the Ethics of the Greek or Sadducean party? What vogue had the Essenes among the people? Are the Pharisees of the Psalms of Solomon identical with those of the time of Jesus? And, above all, what significance for our problem has the Talmud, so often named, so little known? Here, in sober truth, so many unsolved enigmas await the historian, that one cannot but marvel at the assurance of those who, in face of them all, are ready to sketch the Ethics of later Judaism as a foil for the Ethics of Jesus. In this connexion the great discourse against the Scribes and Pharisees in Matthew 23 (cf. A glaring light is thrown likewise upon the propaganda of the Pharisees (Matthew 23:15): under their tutelage a proselyte becomes a child of hell, twice as wicked as themselves (or, as it was probably spoken at first, twice as wicked as he was before). The question may be answered provisionally and generally: Jesus was not a Pharisee, and this means that His attitude towards many of the scribal maxims was a dissentient one; He was not a Judaean, but a son of the Galilaean peasantry, who knew how to evade the authority of Pharisaic doctors and lawyers, and who were, in consequence, liable to the curse merited by those who ‘know not the law’ (John 7:49); and, accordingly, He regards Himself and His followers likewise as above the Pharisees’ rules about purifying
Persecution - According to the Gospels, Jesus Christ was conscious of a growing premonition as to the issue of the conflict between Himself on the one hand and the Pharisees and Sadducees on the other, the representatives of the democracy and the aristocracy of Judaea . The Pharisees were the nationalist party, and carried on the traditions of the Ḥasidim, or ‘loyalists,’ who supported Judas Maccabaeus in his struggle for religious liberty in the 2nd cent. The Pharisees were profoundly religious. But the Pharisees did not fall in with the policy of the ‘zealots’ or ‘Cananaeans’ or the followers of Judas of Gal
God (2) - ...
Finally, when Jesus warned the scribes and Pharisees concerning the irremissible sin of blasphemy against the Holy Spirit, it is obvious that we cannot draw any personal distinction between this Spirit and God. According to this, the standard of the Kingdom of God called for a righteousness that exceeded the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees (Matthew 5:20)
Joy (2) - Our Lord’s own description of Himself, for instance, as the Bridegroom when He is vindicating the liberty of His disciples to abstain from the ascetic practices of the Pharisees, shows how He conceived His mission and ministry (see Mark 2:18-22). All these more or less exuberant outbursts of spontaneous joy greatly offended the Pharisees and other formal religionists; and while it would not be correct to say that our Lord designedly arranged circumstances in which the contrasts would be clearly manifested, still the conditions in which they were so displayed were admirable parables in action of some of the deepest truths of His kingdom
Disciple (2) - μαθητής = (1) ‘learner,’ ‘pupil,’ in contrast to ‘teacher,’ as Matthew 10:24; and (2) ‘adherent,’ one who is identified with a certain leader, or school, and adopts a corresponding line of conduct, as Mark 2:18 ‘Why do John’s disciples and the disciples of the Pharisees fast, but thy disciples fast not?’ cf. That increase took place when the fame of His teaching and words, as He went through the towns and villages of Galilee, ‘preaching the gospel of the kingdom, healing all manner of disease and all manner of sickness’ (Matthew 9:35), both attracted to Him the attention of the populace, and so excited the resentment of the scribes and Pharisees that they began to take counsel with the Herodians ‘how they might destroy him’ (Mark 3:6)
Synagogue - Here were the "chief seats," for which Pharisees and scribes strove so eagerly, (Matthew 23:6 ) and to which the wealthy and honored worshipper was invited
Essenes - ...
But a deeper cause was at work, the genius of Judaism itself (see Pharisees)
Fellowship - Pharisees tended to form very close associations with one another in social, religious, and even business affairs
Vain - Other suggested explanations of the μάτην in the Gospels are, that our Lord used the LXX Septuagint and quoted from it, or that in reporting His answer to the Pharisees the writer or writers quoted memoriter from the LXX Septuagint (it will be observed that the order of the last words is not the same in the LXX Septuagint and in the Gospels)
Spirit - ...
One of the perennial points of conflict between the Sadducees and the Pharisees was over whether there are angels and spirits
Cosmopolitanism - the references to publicans and sinners, Matthew 9:11; Matthew 11:19, Mark 2:15, Luke 5:30; Luke 7:37; Luke 15:1, and the fragment in John 7:53 to John 8:11; (b) the universalism of the gospel, Matthew 24:14, Mark 14:9 (‘what she hath done shall be preached in all the world’), Matthew 28:19, Mark 16:15, Luke 24:49 (‘make disciples of all the nations’); so John 3:16; John 12:33 (‘I, if I be lifted up, will draw all men unto myself’); the same thing would result from Matthew 20:28, Mark 10:45 (‘to give his life a ransom for many’), if carried out to its logical conclusion; (c) anti-legalism in regard to the Sabbath (Matthew 12:1, Mark 2:23, Luke 6:1; Luke 13:14), ceremonial ablutions (Matthew 15:1, Mark 7:19), the provisions of the Law (Matthew 5:21; Matthew 5:33; Matthew 5:38; Matthew 5:43), and the inadequacy of the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees (Matthew 5:20)
Circumcision - They were well received by the church at Jerusalem, but certain of the Pharisees, who were believers, laid it down ‘that it was necessary to circumcise them’ (Acts 15:5), and thus the issue was joined
Dish - Luke, Jesus denounces the Pharisees, while a guest in the house of one of their number, for their punctiliousness in keeping the outside of their vessels clean, their own hearts all the time being full of uncleanness
Field - It was not of this, but of Sabbath-breaking, that the Pharisees complained
Luke - Townson observes, that the evangelist has inserted many explanations, particularly concerning the scribes and Pharisees, which he would have omitted if he had been writing for those who were acquainted with the customs and sects of the Jews
Kingdom - ...
"The fundamental principle of the Kingdom is declared in the words of the Lord spoken in the midst of a company of Pharisees, "the Kingdom of God is in the midst of you," Luke 17:21 , marg
Compassion - Jesus commanded the Pharisees to learn God's desire for compassion (Matthew 9:13 ; Matthew 12:7 )
Justification - vindicated His righteousness, showed they counted Him righteous in His "counsel" by accepting the gospel; opposed to the Pharisees who "rejected" it, to their own condemnation (Romans 2:13)
Nicodemus - It is altogether probable that some men of the upper classes and of the Pharisees would be attracted by the personality and teaching of Jesus, and that they would seek with varying degrees of caution to know more of Him
Circumcision - They were well received by the church at Jerusalem, but certain of the Pharisees, who were believers, laid it down ‘that it was necessary to circumcise them’ (Acts 15:5), and thus the issue was joined
Justification (2) - Paul is in agreement with the Pharisees. The OT taught that righteousness was the condition of acceptance with God; the Pharisees sharpened this into the doctrine that the performance of the Law was the condition. He solves the problem of justification in reality by going back behind the legalism of the Pharisees, and behind the Law altogether, to the position of the OT prophets, in so far as they demanded practical righteousness as the condition of acceptance with God
Sympathy - His presence at festivities of various kinds caused the Pharisees to bestow on Him the title of ‘glutton and wine-bibber. Compassion would have been wasted upon the Pharisees; stern treatment was necessary there
James - ...
At the Passover shortly before the destruction of Jerusalem (foretold in his epistle, James 5:1) the scribes and Pharisees set him on a pinnacle of the temple, and begged him to restrain the people who were "going astray after Jesus as though He were the Christ. "...
But James was cast down by the Pharisees
Reality - The fault-finders who challenged the piety of His disciples because they did not fast (Matthew 4:23 Luke 5:33-39), the illiberal formalists who sought to convert the Sabbath into a dreary bondage (John 9:3 Luke 13:15-16), the hardened censors who had no mercy on a woman caught in transgression (John 8:7), the scribes and Pharisees who turned religion into a pretentious show (Matthew 23:13-35),—were made to feel the baseness of the spirit by which they were animated. Conscious of a testimony to bear for God to which He could not be untrue, and intent on disseminating ideas which He felt to be essential to the spiritual well-being of humanity, He confronted the malice of priests, Pharisees, and scribes, and amid gathering troubles ‘steadfastly set his face to go to Jerusalem’ (Luke 9:51), where that malice at its fiercest had to be encountered
Metaphors - The Pharisees are ‘white-washed tombs’ full of putridity (Matthew 23:27); ‘blind guides of the blind’ (Matthew 15:14, Matthew 23:16; Matthew 23:24); ‘wolves in sheep’s clothing’ (Matthew 7:15). ’s metaphorical reference to the Pharisees as painted sepulchres (
Essenes - ...
In devotion to the Law and in ceremonial cleansings they out-Phariseed the Pharisees. Those who believe so must hold the common, but quite wrong, opinion that all Jews were Pharisees, Sadducees, or Essenes, and that all showing asceticism were Essenes, James might be an ascetic without being an Essene, as one may to-day be an abstainer without being a Good Templar
the Ethiopian Eunuch - OUR Lord gave the Pharisees of His day this praise, that they would compass sea and land to make one proselyte. Only, I fear, with all his ability, and with all his insight, and with all his seriousness of mind, the eunuch's furlough came to an end before he had well begun to see daylight on the Pharisees and the Sadducees, the Essenes and the Herodians, the Zelots and the Publicans, the devotees of Moses, and the disciples of Jesus Christ
Nicodemus - And we would have had an Epistle of Nicodemus to the Pharisees, and in it such a key to this whole conversation as would have made it impossible for any man to preach regeneration by water out of it. And thus it is that we read this in John's seventh chapter: "Then Nicodemus said to the chief priests and to the Pharisees, Doth our law judge any man before it hear him, and know what he doeth?" And then as we read John's nineteenth chapter, we come on this
Paul - ...
As a religiously zealous young man, Paul moved to Jerusalem, where he received instruction in the Jewish law according to the strict traditions of the Pharisees
Magi - But though the coincidence has drawn some even to adopt the linguistically impossible notion that the very name of the Pharisees was due to their ‘Parsi’ leanings, a coincidence it remains for the most part
Prophet, Christ as - This identification is also in accord with what Jesus told the Pharisees in John 5:46-47 : "If you believed Moses, you would believe me, for he wrote about me
Israel - ...
For the history and religion of Israel in apostolic times see articles Pharisees, Herod
Jew - They are divided into orthodox and liberal or reform Jews, who differ from each other as the Pharisees and Sadducees of old
Census - This poll-tax was the tribute (κῆνσος) referred to by the Pharisees in the question to Christ as to the lawfulness of payment (Matthew 22:17; see art
Beauty - So when the merchantman is described as seeking goodly pearls (Matthew 13:45), and the righteousness of Christ’s disciples is expected to exceed that of the scribes and Pharisees (Matthew 5:20), the quality of beauty arises from the surprising rarity and recognized pre-eminence of the things referred to
Apocalyptic - The reason for this form is still uncertain; it obviously includes the desire for a book to gain a hearing, but it also expresses the conviction that the revelations have come down from ancient times, somewhat as the Pharisees believed that their tradition went back to Moses
Sanhedrim - This gave occasion to the question which the Pharisees put to Jesus Christ upon that head, Matthew 19:3
Paul - He had profited by the instructions of Gamaliel, and became learned in the law; yielding himself to the strictest discipline of the sect of the Pharisees, he had become a fierce defender of Judaism and a bitter enemy of Christianity, Acts 8:3 26:9-11
Call, Called, Calling - , denotes (a) "to surname;" (b) "to be called by a person's name;" hence it is used of being declared to be dedicated to a person, as to the Lord, Acts 15:17 (from Amos 9:12 ); James 2:7 ; (c) "to call a person by a name by charging him with an offense," as the Pharisees charged Christ with doing His works by the help of Beelzebub, Matthew 10:25 (the most authentic reading has epikaleo, for kaleo); (d) "to call upon, invoke;" in the Middle Voice, "to call upon for oneself" (i
Sanhedrin - The duumvirate was, no doubt, the result of a compromise between Sadducean priesthood and the Pharisean scribes, the Ab Bçth Dîn being for the Pharisees the actual president, whereas the Sadducean high priest was consigned to oblivion, wherefore a later tradition referred the duumvirate to the leaders of the two Pharisean schools of each generation, giving to the foremost one the title of Nâsî (cf. ), formed the bulk of the Sanhedrin, until king Herod replaced them by homines novi, whereas the Pharisees, who rose to power under Alexandra Salome, were but few in number (Jos. 5; Mark 10:33; only the later Gospels mention the Pharisees)
Matthew, Gospel According to - were a chronological work) that the breach with the Pharisees had already, at that early stage, taken place; whereas Mk. At first Jesus treats the Pharisees gently, and gives them explanations of difficulties; only when they are obstinate does He denounce them
Eschatology - ...
In the Hebrew period, however, there were elements which were subsequently to be utilized in the development of the eschatology of the Pharisees and of Christianity. The Pharisees believed in immortality and the entrance of the souls of the righteous into ‘new bodies’ (Jos
Demoniac - And it is on this supposition alone that we can explain the language of Christ in that remarkable declaration which he makes to the Pharisees and rulers of the Jews, and which we find recorded in the twelfth chapter of the Gospel by St. "The Pharisees heard it," observes the Evangelist, "and they said, This fellow doth not cast out devils but by Beelzebub, the prince of the devils
Political Conditions - Opposed to them were the Pharisees, whose national ideal was that of a theocracy, and whose endurance of an alien rule was reluctant or sullen. In political theory the Essenes exaggerated the views of the Pharisees; but their comparatively small number in the early part of the 1st cent, and their segregation from ordinary life made them a force of little consequence except in times of excitement
Malachi, Theology of - Most of the Messiah's judging work is associated with his second coming, but Christ did cleanse the temple and denounce the hypocrisy of the teachers of the law and the Pharisees
Gentiles (2) - On the other hand, the evil generation of whom the Pharisees were representatives, He declared should be condemned in the judgment by Gentiles, the men of Nineveh and the queen of Sheba (Matthew 12:41 f
Self-Denial - In the sub-Apostolic age, probably as a result of the example of the Pharisees, fasting on stated days became a common form of self-denial (Did
Arnobius - 76); he confuses the Pharisees with the Sadducees (iii
Fulness of the Time - Latterly, indeed, through the influence of the scribes and Pharisees, legalism and formality had crept in, and the externalization of religion had been carried far; yet in many classes of society there was a wistful straining after inner purity and a more living fellowship with God; and in spite of the soulless bondage of ceremonial observances, there was an amount of deep and reverent piety that kept the nation’s heart sounder than might appear on the surface
Inspiration - the false arguments of Job’s friends or the misleading teachings of the Pharisees), for God reveals his truth by correcting what is false as well as by teaching what is right (Romans 15:4; 1 Corinthians 10:11; 2 Timothy 3:16)
Proselyte (2) - to Galatians) was an attempt on the part of Christian Pharisees to compel Gentile Christians to become ‘proselytes of Righteousness
John the Baptist - All classes, Pharisees, Sadducees, the people, publicans, and soldiers, flocked to him from every quarter, Jerusalem, Judea, and the, region round Jordan (Matthew 3:5; Luke 3)
Jesus Christ - This tendency had its classic representatives in the Pharisees. 4); but as a class our Lord charges them with sins of covetousness and inhumanity, which gave the colour of hypocrisy to their ritualistic scruples ( Matthew 24:1-51 ; see Pharisees). The influence which the Pharisees had over them shows that they were capable of reverencing, and eager to obey, those who seemed to them to speak for God; and their response to the preaching of John the Baptist was still more to their honour
Ethics - The law was "hedged" with innumerable minor rules, to express the whole duty of man; enthusiasts (Hasidim, later Pharisees) defended it, devoted scribes expounded it, synagogues inculcated it, exaggerated claims held it to be "superior to prophecy, " "light and life of all, " and "eternal. " Essenes outdid Pharisees in strictness, discouraging marriage, sharing possessions, and rejecting the temple
Matthew, Theology of - Thus, the Gospel addresses the problem of an Israel still led by the Pharisees even though it is clear that God's Messiah, Jesus, has appointed the apostles as the new shepherds for the new Israel (9:35-11:1; 23). Thus, Jesus expects his followers to live in a way that is superior ("exceeds") to the way of the scribes and Pharisees (5:20)
Dress (2) - In the ‘hem’ or ‘border’ (κράσπεδον, Matthew 9:20; Matthew 14:36, Mark 6:56, Luke 8:44) we have reference to the fringed border of the cloak; and even more definite is the reference in Matthew 23:5, when the scribes and Pharisees are reproved for unduly lengthening the fringes (τὰ κράσπεδα) of their garments. The long garments of the scribes and Pharisees find their modern counterparts in the long cloak used by Moslem religious leaders, the jibbch, and in the velvet, plush, and silk robes of gorgeous colours favoured by the leading Rabbis of the Ashkenazim Jews, on Sabbath and feast-days
Sabbath - Accordingly the Sabbath law was (next to His own Messianic claims) the chief subject of contention between our Lord and the Pharisees (see Matthew 12:1 ff
Dalmanutha - For he holds Mark 8:9 b, Mark 8:10 to be identical with Mark 8:13, the object αὐτούς of ἀφείς in Mark 8:13 being the ὄχλοι, not the Pharisees, and πάλιν he regards as a harmonistic insertion
Tomb, Grave, Sepulchre - This kind of burial is referred to in Luke 11:44 ‘Woe unto yon, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, for ye are as graves which appear not, and the men that walk over them are not aware of them
Nativity of Christ - While the Pharisees undermined religion, on the one hand, by their vain traditions and wretched interpretations of the law, the Sadducees denied the immortality of the soul, and overturned the doctrine of future rewards and punishments; so that between them the knowledge and power of true religion were entirely destroyed
Law, Ten Commandments, Torah - The Pharisees accused Jesus and His disciples of not following the law with regard to “unclean” things (Matthew 15:1-20 ), and they accused Him of eating with tax-gatherers and sinners (Matthew 9:11 )
Herod - At the same time, he evinced an occasional interest in the Jewish religion, and sought to win over the Pharisees to his projects
Liberty (2) - Pharisees are startled at His frank intercourse with publicans and sinners (Mark 2:16, Luke 5:30; Luke 15:2)
Sincerity - It is possible that the Pharisees would not have been unwilling to compromise with Jesus, but He would keep back nothing of the truth
Jesus Christ - Early in the third year of his ministry, Jesus disputed with the Pharisees about eating with unwashed hands, and went toward the northwest, healed the daughter of the Syrophœnician woman, and then passed around to Decapolis, where he wrought many miracles and fed 4000
Clean, Cleanness - Cleansing (katharismos ) was a matter of contention between the Pharisees and the disciples of John the Baptist (John 3:25 ), but Christ obeyed the Law in sending healed lepers to the priest for cleansing (1618833376_98 ; Matthew 8:4 )
Premeditation - He had found the incompleteness of the Law, and with deliberate purpose declared His mission to be one that was not to destroy but to fulfil: ‘Except your righteousness shall exceed that of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in nowise enter into the kingdom’ (Matthew 5:17; Matthew 5:20)
Christ, Christology - No other explanation can satisfactorily account for the phenomenon (the rejecting Pharisees, on the other hand, see Jesus as demonically possessed and heretically mad, Matthew 12:24 ). To the Pharisees he puts t
Unity (2) - It still denotes any party or faction within a single communion, as of the Sadducees (Acts 5:17), of the Pharisees (Acts 15:5, Acts 26:5), or of Christians considered as a school of Judaism (Acts 24:5; Acts 24:14, Acts 28:22). The Temple demanded cleansing at His hands; the synagogues were in possession of those scribes and lawyers and Pharisees on whom He cried ‘Woe,’ as hypocrites
Humility - The rulers of the Gentiles aimed at supremacy, and, in the exercise of a harsh authority, delighted to ‘lord it over them’; and equally the scribes and Pharisees, in their fondness for places and titles of honour, coveted influence and recognition as the ‘great ones’ of Jewish society. Christ’s unflinching exposure of the scribes and Pharisees (Matthew 23) calls us to be courageous in adherence to truth and righteousness, and in view of evil and opposition, however powerful
Christian Life - Their Master, while condemning the defects of representative leaders of religion, like the Pharisees, had never rejected the observances of the Jewish religion-true to the spirit of His mission, which, was rather to fulfil than to destroy. 341) that there is disharmony between the evidence of the Synoptics and the Acts, on the ground that the latter shows the primitive Church more bound up with Judaism than Jesus Himself was, and the Pharisees actual patrons of the apostolic community
Parable - The Scribes and Pharisees did not require it. The point of distinction between Him and the Pharisees was that in His hands the Law was no longer an end in itself, but became a minister to what was beyond and greater than itself
Property (2) - And the method adopted by the Pharisees to escape the practical force of the Fifth Commandment is sternly rebuked (Matthew 15:3-6 || Mark 7:6-13). He condemns the ostentation of the Pharisees in their gifts (Mark 12:42, Luke 21:2), and also their idea that a gift to the Temple is acceptable to God from those who are neglecting the weightier matters of the Law (Matthew 23:23-26; Matthew 6:23-24, Luke 18:9-14)
Blood - ...
Jesus condemned the scribes and Pharisees of His day who would kill some of the “prophets, and wise men, and scribes” sent by Jesus (Matthew 23:34 )
Vengeance (2) - The permission, even encouragement, of retaliation by the OT, and still more the interpretations, exaggerations, limitations of the scribes and Pharisees, Christ swept away with an authority which astounded His hearers
Claim - Its duties, as imposed by the scribes and Pharisees, are like the load on the submissive baggage animal (Matthew 23:4)
Synagogue - Here were "the chief seats" sought by the Pharisees and the rich (Matthew 23:6; James 2:2-3)
John the Baptist - It was not from these ‘Pharisees in the superlative degree’ (Schürer) that the last of the prophets learnt his message
Possession - ), attributes the power to cast out devils to the disciples of the Pharisees, and implicitly asserts it for Himself ( Mark 12:27 f
Passover And Feast of Unleavened Bread - The posture at the meal was recumbent (as a token, according to the Pharisees, of the rest which God had given to His people)
Hebrews - The majority of the Jews in Europe, and those with whose works we are mostly conversant, are ribbinists, and may be taken as representative of the ancient Pharisees
Philosophy - At any rate we may date from this time the twofold division of Jewish speculation, The Sadducees appear as the supporters of human freedom in its widest scope; the Pharisees of a religious Stoicism
Nazarene (2) - Another case is probably ‘Pharisees,’ Heb
Peraea - In Peraea multitudes gathered round Christ, among whom were Pharisees who entered into controversy with Him and displayed all the animus of their sect (Matthew 19:3 ff
Purity (2) - the Pharisees are denounced for their hypocrisy in cleansing the outside of the cup and platter while inwardly full of extortion and excess, whereas practical love shown in alms would have made all clean to them (Matthew 23:25-26, cf
Palestine - Again, everyone must have noticed that in the battles of Jesus against the unintelligent and conventional doctrines of the Pharisees, His constant appeal was to commonsense and the facts of the case obvious to every unprejudiced observer. In the heart of the invaded country Jerusalem remained bitterly exclusive and hostile to all the world, so far as the Pharisees could keep it so. But, so far as we know, Jesus visited it only once, when He retreated to the coasts of Tyre and Sidon from the Pharisees who had followed Him from Jerusalem
Death of Christ - In Mark a major section early in the Gospel (2:1-3:6) shows some of the reasons for such opposition, and that section concludes by saying, "the Pharisees went out and began to plot with the Herodians how they might kill Jesus. " Then there was an occasion when "the chief priests and the Pharisees sent temple guards to arrest him" ( John 7:32 ), but were not able to do so
Government - This powerful religious combination was augmented subsequently by the rise of the Sadducees and Pharisees, who exercised an important influence over Jewish life when Palestine was occupied by the Romans. But by the Roman period the Pharisees and scribes had been included in the Jerusalem Sanhedrin
Sanctification - Jesus spoke his harshest words against the unsanctified Pharisees (Matthew 23 ). The Pharisees followed the Law, having first tinkered with its meaning and application
Miracles (2) - Conflict with scribes and Pharisees in regard to eating and drinking with publicans and sinners, and fasting, and His teaching consequent thereon. Pharisees and Herodians take counsel to kill Him (but no reason given—the healing of withered hand being removed)
Asceticism (2) - The more strict among the Pharisees paid particular attention to abstinence from food, and, in addition to ordinary fasts, were accustomed to observe all Mondays and Thursdays in the year as days of fasting (Luke 18:12). The asceticism of the Pharisees, however, was a formal performance which resulted naturally from their legal and ceremonial conception of religion
Anger - in the series of woes, terrible in intensity of language, pronounced by Jesus against the scribes and Pharisees (Matthew 23:13 ff. There is no reference to deliberate indignation on a matter of principle, such as the resentment which, the author of Ecce Homo claims, was felt by Jesus towards the Pharisees to the end of His life
Lord's Prayer, the - In Matthew the prayer appears in the Sermon on the Mount where Jesus spoke about a righteousness that exceeds that of the scribes and Pharisees (Luke 5:20 )
Judgment - He pronounces judgment on the Pharisees (Matthew 22:15-46)
Son, Sonship - Persons are described as sons ‘of the kingdom’ (Matthew 8:12; Luke 2:22-51); ‘of this world’ (age) (Luke 16:8; Luke 20:34); ‘of the bridechamber’ (Mark 2:19 ||); ‘of Jerusalem’ (= inhabitants) (Matthew 23:37); ‘of the Pharisees’ (followers, adherents, Matthew 12:27 = Luke 11:19): ‘of the evil one’ (Matthew 13:38; Twentieth Cent
Debt, Debtor (2) - The Sadducees, whose love of money was whetted by enjoyment of the Temple dues, were not the men to show mercy to a debtor, nor were the Pharisees behind them, more Puritanic in zeal, and rigidly enforcing the letter of their writs
Blasphemy (2) - ’ Upon this the scribes and Pharisees who were present complained that He was speaking blasphemies because only God could forgive sins, that is to say, that He was arrogating to Himself a Divine prerogative
Dominion (2) - Thus, in controversy with the Pharisees, He claimed to be Lord of the Sabbath, and, as such, to be entitled to interpret the Sabbath law (Matthew 12:8 || Mark 2:28 || Luke 6:5)
Parable - ...
The Pharisees, hating the truth, became judicially hardened by that vehicle which might have taught them it in a guise least unpalatable
Hellenists - Those among them who belonged to the Pharisees gave themselves much trouble to obtain proselytes; and the loss of respect for the old popular religion, and the unsatisfied religious wants of multitudes, farthered their views
Proselyte - It is probable, as Adolf Jellinek, the famous Austrian Rabbi and scholar (1821-1893), suggested, that what is here condemned is the Pharisees’ practice of winning over every year at least one proselyte each (E
Hell - is Josephus, who has two references to the belief of the Pharisees in the matter of future punishment. 14, quoting the doctrine of the Pharisees, he claims their view to be ‘that the souls of bad men are subject to eternal punishment
Animals - The second reference is found in the denunciation of the Pharisees, who strain out a gnat while they gulp down a camel (Matthew 23:24). The bulls and fatlings in the parable of the Marriage Feast, and the fatted calf in the parable of the Returning Prodigal, alike stand for the lavish generosity of God’s love, which the Scribes and Pharisees could not appreciate, even when offered to themselves, the king’s invited guests, much less when those prodigals, the publicans and sinners, were likewise embraced therein
Hell - is Josephus, who has two references to the belief of the Pharisees in the matter of future punishment. 14, quoting the doctrine of the Pharisees, he claims their view to be ‘that the souls of bad men are subject to eternal punishment
Humility - The rulers of the Gentiles aimed at supremacy, and, in the exercise of a harsh authority, delighted to ‘lord it over them’; and equally the scribes and Pharisees, in their fondness for places and titles of honour, coveted influence and recognition as the ‘great ones’ of Jewish society. Christ’s unflinching exposure of the scribes and Pharisees (Matthew 23) calls us to be courageous in adherence to truth and righteousness, and in view of evil and opposition, however powerful
Offence (2) - Thus the Pharisees in Matthew 15:12 were offended by the word in which He seemed to abolish the distinction between clean and unclean meats: they could not get over the idea that a distinction on which so much of their sanctity depended should be so summarily swept away. 12 we have first the Pharisees, and then His mother and brothers
Disease - ...
Job's friends thus argued that his disease and suffering proved his sinfulness; the Pharisees argued likewise, as did Jesus' disciples (John 9:2 ); and Paul so interprets the sickness prevalent at Corinth (1 Corinthians 11:27-30 )
Mark, the Gospel According to - Mark's explanations of Jewish customs and names (Jordan is called a "river"; the Pharisees' fasting and customs, Mark 1:5; Mark 2:18; Mark 7:1-4; the Sadducees' tenets, Mark 12:18; the Passover described, Mark 14:1; Mark 14:12) which Jews would not need, and the absence of appeals by himself to Old Testament prophecy, also of the genealogy and of the term nomos , the Mosaic "law," show he wrote for Gentiles not for Jews
Israel, Israelite - On the one hand, He recognized the Divine authority of the Law, in its true meaning and spirit, and not as interpreted and embodied in the ‘deformed righteousness’ of the scribes and Pharisees (Matthew 5:17-20; Matthew 12:5; Matthew 19:17; Matthew 23:3, Matthew 5:21-48)
Sabbath - Others contend that Jesus violated not the Sabbath commandment but only the casuistry of the Pharisees as contained in the halachah
Sabbath - So Christ condemns the burdensome sabbath restraints multiplied by the Pharisees, violating the law of mercy and man's good for which the sabbath was instituted (Matthew 12:2; Matthew 12:10-11; Luke 13:14; Luke 14:1; Luke 14:5; John 7:22; Mark 2:23-28); yet inviting guests to a social meal was lawful, even in their view (Luke 14:5)
Evil (2) - Josephus says of the Pharisees: ‘When they say that all things happen by fate, they do not take away from men the freedom of acting as they think fit; since their notion is that it hath pleased God to mix up the decrees of fate and man’s will, so that man can act virtuously and viciously’ (Ant
Cabbala - The Jewish mysteries, thus enlarged by the accession of Pagan dogmas, were conveyed from Egypt to Palestine, at the time when the Pharisees, who had been driven into Egypt under Hyrcanus, returned with many other Jews into their own country
Power - —During His earthly ministry, in the impression made both upon His disciples and upon the hostile Pharisees, as well as upon the mass of the people, there is abundant testimony to the transcendent personality of Christ
Praise (2) - According to 1618833376_16 He reproaches the Pharisees with seeking honour from one another rather than from God
Ideas (Leading) - ’...
The sentence (Luke 17:21) ‘The kingdom of God is within you’ (ἑντος ὑμῶν) is capable of being translated, ‘The kingdom of God is in the midst of you,’ and this rendering suits the context better than any other, for the saying was addressed to the Pharisees. All the examples which He gave to show that the righteousness of the Kingdom must exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, display the operation of this principle
Trial of Jesus - Their antipathy to one whose teaching threatened their class privileges in the Temple and the political status quo of the nation, led them to breaches of the law which would have been less probable in the case of the Pharisees. He explained the precipitate conduct of the proceedings as impossible for Pharisees, and due to the well-known severity of the Boethusians
John the Baptist - ) (civilians and soldiers (Luke 3:10; Luke 3:14), Pharisees and publicans side by side (Matthew 3:7, Luke 3:12). The very leaders of the nation themselves, the Pharisees and Sadducees, must bring forth fruit worthy of repentance if they are to escape from the wrath to come (Matthew 3:7-8)
John, the Gospel by - Being obliged to withdraw through the jealousy of the Pharisees from Judaea, the Lord on His road to Galilee must needs pass through Samaria, where He meets with a poor empty-hearted woman — empty spite of all her efforts to find satisfaction in sin. The Pharisees for the moment were confounded
Hymn - also the benediction said before Hallel, which was probably the composition of the Pharisees (‘who hast commanded us to read the Hallel’)
Illustrations - Our Lord’s controversy with the Pharisees sums itself up in this revealing picture where the inner spirit and tendency of Pharisaism is brought to a luminous point
Hell - Similarly, Jesus labels the Pharisees "sons of hell, " identifying the root of their hypocrisy (Matthew 23:15 )
Providence of God - Josephus describes it this way: "The Pharisees say that some actions, but not all, are the work of fate, and some of them are in our power, and that they are subject to fate, but not caused by it
Invitation - By this Jesus exposed the attitude of the Pharisees and scribes towards His gospel, and in a wider sense that of all those who in a thoroughly worldly spirit have since treated His offer of salvation with derision or disrespect
Kindness (2) - His fiery denunciation of scribes and Pharisees (see Matthew 23) presents no exception; for His wrath is the wrath of love, and the denunciation must be read in the light of the yearning lament over Jerusalem (Matthew 23:37 ff
Laughter - The element of satire runs through the scathing denunciations of the Pharisees and scribes (23, etc
Holy Day - : ‘The Pharisees’; F
Commandments - It is objected to the Pharisees as their chief offence that they have perverted and overlaid with tradition the commandments of God (Matthew 15:3, Mark 7:7)
Excommunication (2) - This is confirmed by the expressions, ‘they bring to the Pharisees him that aforetime was blind’ (John 9:13), ‘they called the parents’ (John 9:16), ‘they called a second time the man that was blind’ (John 9:24), which suggests an authoritative summons before an official body
Adam - Pharisees came and asked Him whether divorce was allowable Devil - The excepted instances occur in the address of Paul to Elymas the sorcerer, Acts 13:10 ; and that of our Lord to the Pharisees, John 8:44
Banquet - After meals they wash them again; for, says the evangelist, "the Pharisees and all the Jews, except they wash their hands oft, eat not, holding the tradition of the elders," Mark 7:3-4
Adam - Pharisees came and asked Him whether divorce was allowable Profaning, Profanity - There is a profaneness of the law and the letter, eagerly pounced upon by scribes and Pharisees
Gospels - The document must have included the preaching of the Baptist, the Temptation, the Sermon on the Mount, the healing of the centurion’s servant, the coming of John’s messengers to Jesus, the instructions to the disciples, the Lord’s Prayer, the controversy about Beelzebub, the denunciation of the Pharisees, and precepts about over-anxiety. With them the question who Jesus was could not be postponed; this is shown by the way in which the Pharisees questioned the Baptist
Josephus - 2-14 [14]), which he seeks to divest of all political significance, and to represent as the exact counterparts of the philosophic schools of Greece (Pharisees = Stoics; Sadducees = Epicureans; and Essenes = Pythagoreans): an affinity which he tries to establish by introducing quite irrelevant considerations, such as their attitude to the problems of free-will and fate-thus misleading even modern investigators-while, as a matter of fact, the unphilosophical and non-Hellenic character of the sects reveals itself at every point. ]'>[38], where the judicial murder of James ‘the brother of Jesus who was called Christ’ (Messiah?) and of some others, by Ananus, the high priest, is referred to as having been disapproved of by the strict observers of the Law (Pharisees?)
Authority in Religion - The same view finds yet more palpable and pungent expression in His rebuke to the Pharisees (Mark 7:6 ff. And, as is well known, it was His resistance in word and deed to the traditions of the elders regarding the Sabbath—these being ‘beside’ God’s word—that earned for Him, with the Pharisees, the odium of being Himself a Sabbath-breaker (John 5, Matthew 12, Mark 3)
Old Testament (ii. Christ as Student And Interpreter of). - reports the reference, it is contained in a short section of teaching to the disciples that follows upon a question asked by the Pharisees; but it is a section which also bears upon it the impress of apocalypse, and may be a passage extracted by the Evangelist from what the present writer regards as most probably the first collection of the sayings of Jesus, i. The whole section is that which contains the woes uttered against the scribes and Pharisees, and bears considerable trace of later editing, even if it is to be attributed, in very much of its present form, to the writer of the Gospel
Synagogue - These are the ‘chief seats in the synagogues’ coveted by the Pharisees ( Matthew 23:5 and ||)
Cross, Crucifixion - ” During the intertestamental period the western form was borrowed when Alexander Janneus crucified 800 Pharisees (76 B
Bible, Authority of the - We read: "Some Pharisees came to him to test him
Jesus, Life And Ministry of - ...
None of this was calculated to win Him friends among the priests in Jerussalem or the Pharisees throughout Israel
Tares - ‘On that day’ (Matthew 13:1) of the parables, or at least a short time before it, the Pharisees had shown their true colours by charging that Jesus cast out demons by Beelzebub, the prince of the demons (Matthew 12:22-32)
Disciples - Usually the word refers to disciples of Jesus, but there are also references to disciples of the Pharisees (Matthew 22:16 ; Mark 2:18 ), disciples of John the Baptist (Mark 2:18 ; Luke 11:1 ; John 1:35 ), and even disciples of Moses (John 9:28 )
Widows - There were deposits for widows and orphans in the treasury of the Temple (2 Maccabees 3:10), and from the gospel we learn that even well-to-do widows were robbed by the Pharisees and that others were subject to spoliation without legal redress (Mark 12:40; see Swete, in loc
Sacrifice And Offering - Jesus chided the Pharisees neglecting family responsibilities by claiming that something was “corban,” or offered to God, and thus unavailable for the care of their parents (Mark 7:1 )
Righteousness - Further, Jesus does allow that conformity to the norms of the scribes and Pharisees is a certain kind of (inferior) righteous living, but he contrasts it with the proper righteousness he exhibits, proclaims, and looks for (Luke 5:30-32 ; 15:7 ; 18:9 ) in the disciples of the kingdom
Galatians, Theology of - It is clear, for example, that much rabbinic teaching appreciated the biblical emphasis on divine grace and that the Pharisees did not necessarily have a crass view of "works righteousness
Ebionism - ...
The siege and fall of Jerusalem were events of the greatest importance for Judaism (see article Pharisees) and Jewish Christianity alike
Manliness - ), His denunciations of the Pharisees (Matthew 23), His woes against the cities of Galilee (Matthew 11:20-24), His acts of healing upon the Sabbath, His rebuke to the people of Nazareth (Luke 4:16-30), His statement about the Temple (John 2:18-22), His refusal of a sign to the scribes (Matthew 12:38-42; Matthew 16:1-4, Mark 8:11-12, Luke 11:16 f
the Much Forgiven Debtor And His Much Love - Let no true preacher then be brow-beaten by all the Pharisees in the world from labouring to make the law enter the innermost hearts of his people: both the law legal, and the law evangelical
John the Baptist - 'Art thou He that should come, or do we look for another? Why dost thou eat and drink with Scribes and Pharisees, and leave me lying here in this prison-house of Herod and his harlots? Why dost thou eat and drink and make wine out of water for weddings? Rather, surely, should all God's true servants put on sackcloth and ashes and mourn apart, every family apart, and their wives apart
James the Lord's Brother - The Scribes and the Pharisees were continually finding fault with James's Brother for His laxity in the traditions of the elders, and no man would feel that laxity so acutely as James would feel it
Fall of Man - " This is sufficiently in proof that both our Lord and the Pharisees considered this early part of the history of Moses as a narrative; for, otherwise, it would neither have been a reason, on his part, for the doctrine which he was inculcating, nor have had any force of conviction as to them
Parables - These answering parables, usually for Pharisees and sinners simultaneously, expose and extol
Jonah - To the Pharisees who, not satisfied with His many signs, still demanded "a sign (Messiah coming gloriously) from heaven," Christ gave a sign "out of the belly of hell" (Jonah 2:2), i
Providence - ’ From Josephus we learn that Rabbinical Judaism was much occupied with the mysteries of Divine providence in its relation to human freedom; and that, as against the Sadducees who held an exaggerated view of liberty, and the Essenes who maintained a doctrine of absolute fate, the Pharisees kept to the middle path represented by the OT teaching, affirming the freedom and responsibility of man on the one hand, and the Divine providence and omnipotence on the other (Ant
John, the Gospel According to - ...
His adversaries are called "the Jews," the nation by the time of John writing having become through continued resistance of the truth identified With their hierarchical chiefs, Jesus' opponents; whereas in the synoptists the several classes of opponents are distinguished, "Pharisees," "scribes," "lawyers," "chief priests," etc
Baptize, Baptism - ...
Thus Paul, baptized within three days of his dramatic conversion, was evidently familiar with the need, despite the Pharisees' hostility toward it (John 1:24-25 )
Matthew, the Gospel of - Jesus warned the people about the examples of the Pharisees and Sadducees (Matthew 23:1-38 )
Money - It is for this reason that those who lead the church must have no fondness for money (Acts 20:33 ; 1 Timothy 3:3,8 ; Titus 1:7,11 ; 1 Peter 5:2 ; contrast the Pharisees in Luke 16:14 )
Mark, Theology of - Jesus reveals himself as the Son of Man to counter the false messianic interpretations of the Pharisees, to prepare his disciples for how he will ransom many, and to show the faithful how they can rightly follow him
Individuality - They must shun the all-pervasive, all-assimilative creed of the time, the leaven of the Pharisees; nor will the accepted Christian formula, the saying of ‘Lord, Lord,’ be any more approved (Matthew 7:21)
Lord (2) - (1) Without the article, it is employed in direct address, as the salutation of a son to a father, ‘I go, sir’ (Matthew 21:30); of servants to their master, ‘Sir, didst not thou sow good seed in thy field?’ (Matthew 13:27); ‘Lord, let it alone this year also’ (Luke 13:8); of the Greeks to Philip, ‘Sir, we would see Jesus’ (John 12:21); of the Pharisees and priests to Pilate, ‘Sir, we remember that this deceiver said’ (Matthew 27:63)
the Queen of Sheba - And I cannot think there could have been, since our Lord sets His seal upon her, and takes her and her questions as His accusation and condemnation of the Pharisees of His day
Disease - No account is given of the trouble, the controversy with the Pharisees regarding the right use of the Sabbath being the main interest
Agony - The fickleness of the multitude, the hypocrisy and bigotry of the Pharisees, the worldliness and selfishness of the priesthood, the treachery of Judas, the denial by Peter, the antagonism of the disciples generally to the Master’s saving purpose, the falsehood of His accusers, the hate and the craft of His persecutors,—all these were present to the consciousness of Jesus as an intolerable offence to His conscience, and an unspeakable grief to His heart
Individuality - They must shun the all-pervasive, all-assimilative creed of the time, the leaven of the Pharisees; nor will the accepted Christian formula, the saying of ‘Lord, Lord,’ be any more approved (Matthew 7:21)
Insects - Jesus used the figure of the gnat ( konops ) to teach the scribes and Pharisees a lesson (Matthew 23:24 )
Resurrection - "...
By the time of Christ, the Pharisees (the most influential Jewish sect just prior to the Christian period who dated back to at least the second century b
Man (2) - The Pharisees were also deeply troubled by Jesus’ manner of life
Sermon on the Mount - , for there was an evident reason for the Third Evangelist’s omission of the references to the Pharisees and to Jewish customs which Mt
Apocalyptic Literature - The Psalms of Solomon a group of noble songs, written by a Pharisee (or Pharisees) probably between b
Jesuits - It is as follows: "But there are a new "fraternity of late sprung up who call "themselves Jesuits, which will deceive "many, much after the Scribes and "Pharisees' manner
Nehemiah - And, worst of all, a man who was always well pleased with himself; the first of Pharisees, in short, as Ezra was the first of Scribes
Heresy - Thus we read of the sect or heresy of the Sadducees, of the Pharisees, of the Nazarenes, &c
Mission - Any devout Jew would think that somehow the Gentiles were to reap advantage from the Messianic reign (Luke 2:30-32), and though it was deemed absurd to suppose that preference could be given by the Messiah to heathen men (John 7:35), even the Pharisees were zealous in making proselytes (Matthew 23:15)
Truth (2) - 227), the only occurrence of this term in the Synoptic Gospels is in the hypocritical address of the Pharisees and Herodians to Jesus (Matthew 22:16, Mark 12:14, Luke 20:21), where these soi-disant inquirers compliment Him on His sincerity as a teacher
Elect, Election - ...
Though Jesus felt Himself forced to recognize, in the attitude of the Pharisees and lawyers of His day, the failure of God’s people to realize the Divine purpose in them, He also recognizes no less distinctly that, according to that purpose, theirs was a high destiny (… τὴν βουλὴν τοῦ θεοῦ ἠθέτησαν εἰς ἐαυτούς, Luke 7:30 Language of Christ - ’...
That a Palestinian Jew such as Josephus, who was of a distinguished priestly family, who received a careful rabbinic education and studied in the various schools of the Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes, should not only characterize Aramaic as ‘the language of our own country,’ but should write his first book in that language, is in itself conclusive proof that Aramaic had not then been materially driven from its position as the vernacular of Palestine
Temple - To this guard Pilate referred, when he said to the chief priests and Pharisees who waited upon him to desire he would make the sepulchre secure, "Ye have a watch, go your way, and make it as secure as ye can," Matthew 27:65
Universalism (2) - He rejects, as lacking Divine authority, that tradition (Matthew 15:3-9 ||) by means of which the Pharisees, morally the most earnest among the Jews, safeguarded the OT law and applied it to new details, at the cost of making it ever more and more a burden
Canon of the Old Testament - 70 supplied the Incentive for recording in the Mishna the oral tradition of the Pharisees, so in Babylon expatriation impelled the priestly families to write out their hereditary usages, thus forming the document known as the Priestly Code
Fulfilment - , where our Lord, in a series of brilliant paradoxes, sweeps away the mere letter of the OT [23]
Oath - 5) and also in the teaching of the Pharisees (ch
Evil - ...
The compounds and derivatives of the word poneros [ Matthew 7:11 ), the hardened Pharisees (Matthew 12:34 ), and the Jews as the evil generation (Matthew 12:39 )
Redemption (2) - His denunciations of the Pharisees are merciless in their severity (1618833377_92; Matthew 23:32-33); the language of judgment in many of the parables is hardly less strong (Matthew 12:33-37; Matthew 13:50, Matthew 18:34, Matthew 21:44, Matthew 22:7; Job 19:25, etc
Sanctify, Sanctification - In the Sermon on the Mount He said: ‘Except your righteousness exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no wise enter the kingdom of heaven’ (Matthew 5:20)
Sin - Later the Pharisees, utterly sincere, yet hypocritical because self-deceived, would revive this sin by killing not their children, but their maker, and calling it an act of service to God
Money (2) - ...
Of special interest is the reference to the denarius in Matthew 22:19 = Mark 12:15 = Luke 20:24 in connexion with the Pharisees’ question as to the lawfulness of paying tribute to Caesar
Character - The business of Jesus was not the chiselling and polishing of character, but primarily its creation among the multitudes who would be shut out by the Pharisees from the kingdom of righteousness
Passover - If Luke 6:1 mean "the first Sabbath after the second day of unleavened bread," the day on which the firstfruit sheaf was offered, from whence they counted 50 days to Pentecost, it will be an undesigned coincidence that the disciples should be walking through fields of standing grain at that season, and that the minds of the Pharisees and of Jesus should be turned to the subject of grain at that time (Blunt, Undesigned Coincidences, 22)
Assumption of Moses - There could be no severer censure on the political and bellicose Pharisees of his time
Jeremiah - His protests against the priests and prophets answer to our Lord's against the scribes and Pharisees (Matthew 23); his lamentations over his doomed country correspond to the Saviour's tears over Jerusalem
Marriage - In this respect the Essenes were in direct antagonism with the Pharisees, who strongly supported marriage; but they had some influence in promoting Christian celibacy in the post-Apostolic Age
Law - It was in reality the aggression of certain Christian Pharisees-Judaizers (Acts 15:1; Acts 15:5, Galatians 2:4)-that forced him into a thorough-going discussion of the significance of the Law, and this is his special theme in his Epistles to the Galatians, Corinthians, and Romans
Individualism - A certain regard was to be paid to the Scribes and Pharisees who sat in Moses’ seat (Matthew 23:2), but He also subjected them to such criticism as must have sapped their power
Atonement - He who recalled the fate of all past prophets, and sent forth His disciples with predictions of persecutions and death ( Matthew 10:1-42 ), could be under no delusions as to His own fate at the hands of scribes and Pharisees (cf
Paul - Certain Pharisees however rose up, insisting on it, but Paul would not yield "for an hour" (Galatians 2); the council followed, in which Peter silenced arguments by the logic of facts, God having given the Holy Spirit to the Gentiles, who believed through him, even as He did to the believing Jews
Acts of the Apostles (2) - Hence also the Pharisees, who believe in the resurrection of the dead, appear as the party favourable to Christianity; whereas the Sadducees, who say that ‘there is no resurrection,’ are its enemies (Acts 23:8)
Anger (2) - ...
(d) To these passages may be added Jesus’ denunciation of the Pharisees in Matthew 23:13 ff
Proverbs - ‘Sound not a trumpet before thee’ (Matthew 6:2) is a proverbial metaphor, though Calvin takes it literally, supposing that the Pharisees, those ‘play-actors’ (ὑποκριταί) in religion, actually blew a trumpet to summon the beggars (cf
Resurrection - The common Jewish belief in the time of Jesus finds expression in the words of Martha concerning her brother Lazarus ( John 11:24 ), while this formed one of the deep lines of religious cleavage between the Pharisees and the Sadducees ( Acts 23:6 ff
Teaching of Jesus - Already the Scribes, both local (Mark 2:6; Mark 2:16) and from the religious centre in Jerusalem (Mark 3:22), the Pharisees generally (Mark 2:18; Mark 2:24, Mark 3:6), and even the disciples of John,—presumably a specially prepared class,—had indicated pretty clearly that their attitude was likely to be unreceptive Thus we read in Mark 3:7 of His withdrawing from before Pharisaic hostility—which already felt that He must be got rid of at any cost (v
Virgin Birth - , occurs: ‘And some went away to the chief priests, and to the chiefs of the Pharisees, and told them that Jesus the son of Joseph had done great signs,’ etc
Feasts And Festivals of Israel - Jesus describes the hypocritical teaching of the Pharisees as "yeast" and warns his disciples to beware of it (Matthew 16:6-12 )
Wandering Stars - The mere fact that He stood aloof from such aspirations must have seemed intensely unpatriotic, even to the Pharisees
Luke, Gospel According to - In the Woes on the Pharisees, St
Boyhood - The practice for sons of Pharisees is naturally the one recorded for us, rather than the popular one
Boyhood of Jesus - Yet it must be admitted, in favour of a contrary view, that Peter at least was guided by some rules which went beyond those of the OT, and which came from the scribes, Pharisees, and Rabbis (Acts 10:28; Galatians 2:12—eating with non-Jews)
Complacency - || Luke 9:47-48); while the value which He attached to their faith and devotion is clearly shown in the incident of the children in the Temple, when Jesus silenced the cavils of the Pharisees and priests, and demanded, ‘Have ye never read, Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings thou hast perfected praise?’ (Matthew 21:16)
Apocalypse - , edited by Ryle and James (Cambridge, 1891) under the alternative title Psalms of the Pharisees
Paul the Apostle - They were probably Pharisees ( Acts 23:6 ; cf
Old Testament (i. Christ as Fulfilment of) - For Pharisees and Sadducees the OT was a finality
Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs - Further, as the Pharisaic author speaks of him in the highest terms, the date must be earlier than the tragic breach between Hyrcanus and the Pharisees, which occurred probably in 107 b
Sinlessness - In cleansing the Temple, He is charged with displaying undue vehemence, and it is held that He exhibited an arrogance unbecoming His youth and His position in His attacks on the scribes and Pharisees
Samaria, Samaritans - It is to be remarked, however, that Arabic writers in the Middle Ages tell us of Samaritan sects professing the distinctive beliefs of both Pharisees and Sadducees, so that the opinions of both parties must have been held by individuals at an earlier date
Science (2) - The political ambitions of the Herodians, the compromising worldliness of the Sadducees, the formalism and pride of the Pharisees, and the carnal carelessness of the generality, alike met with His denunciation and appeal
Law - It is a severer not a laxer ethics that Jesus introduces, a searching in place of a superficial discipline; ‘Your righteousness,’ He says, ‘must exceed that of the scribes and Pharisees
Mental Characteristics - What could be finer than His appeal to the image and superscription of the tribute-money when plied with the insidious question, ‘Shall we give, or shall we not give?’ (Mark 12:14); or than His rejoinder to the challenge of His own authority, ‘The baptism of John, was it from heaven, or from men? answer me’ (Mark 11:30),—a rejoinder which not only silenced objectors, but went to the root of the question they raised as to the criterion of ‘authority’? His dialectic skill sometimes passed into biting sarcasm, as when He pointed out how the scribes and Pharisees witnessed to themselves that they were the sons of them that slew the prophets, by the way they garnished their tombs (Matthew 23:29-31)
Dates (2) - 4), in which the Pharisees appear, may have been due to the census
Jews - Almost all the modern Jews are Pharisees, and are as much attached to tradition as their ancestors were; and assert that whoever rejects the oral law deserves death
Miracles - We must not, however, omit to take notice of the wicked and blasphemous cavil of the Pharisees, and the noble reply which our Lord made to it
Paul - He was of the tribe of Benjamin, and of the sect of the Pharisees, Php_3:5
Enoch Book of - ’ If the massacre of the Pharisees by John Hyrcanus is meant, the date must be later than that year-94 b
Hieronymus, Eusebius (Jerome) Saint - 500), and began his translation of the work of Didymus, the blind Origenistic teacher of Alexandria, on the Holy Spirit, which he did not complete till after his settlement at Bethlehem, probably because of the increasing suspicions and enmity of clergy and people, whom he speaks of as the senate of the Pharisees, against all that had any connexion with Origen (pref
Character of Christ - At once the question arises, and was thrown at the Preacher with bitter controversial animus, How does this new Kingdom stand related to that which had endured through the centuries of Israel’s history, which was now indeed obscured by political oppression, but which was destined one day to receive a glorious vindication? How do its new views of God and man and duty compare with the venerable system of law, of which the Scribes and Pharisees were the acknowledged defenders?...
Then Jesus pronounces words which place Him in the central stream of the Divine purpose, and designate Him as its goal and its complete realization: ‘I came not to destroy, but to fulfil’ (Matthew 5:17)
Gregorius (14) Nazianzenus, Bishop of Sasima And of Constantinople - The prophets dwelt on the fearful position of the shepherds who feed themselves; the apostles and Christ Himself taught what the true shepherds should be; and His condemnation of Scribes and Pharisees includes all false teachers
Apostles - ...
A comparison has often been drawn between the disciples of Plato or of the Pharisees and the disciples of Jesus
Clementine Literature - the priests, the Sadducees, the Samaritans, the Scribes and Pharisees, and the disciples of John
Bible - We have therefore sufficient evidence that the Old Testament existed at that time; and if it be only allowed that Jesus Christ was a teacher of a fearless and irreproachable character, it must be acknowledged that we draw a fair conclusion, when we assert that the Scriptures were not corrupted in his time: for when he accused the Pharisees of making the law of no effect by their traditions, and when he enjoined his hearers to search the Scriptures, he could not have failed to mention the corruptions or forgeries of Scripture, if any had existed in that age
Jesus Christ - The whole force of the argument by which he silenced the Pharisees when he asked how the Messiah, who was to be the Son of David, could be David's Lord, in reference to the passage in the Psalms before quoted, arose out of the doctrine of the Messiah's divinity; and when he claims that all men should honour him as they honour the Father, and asserts that as the Father hath life in himself, so he has given to the Son to have life in himself, that he "quickeneth whom he will," that "where two or three meet in his name he is in the midst of them," and would be with his disciples "to the end of the world;" who does not see that the Jews concluded right, when they said that he made himself "equal with God,"—an impression which he took no pains to remove, although his own moral character bound him to do so, had he not intended to confirm that conclusion
Originality - He did not break with Judaism, nor was He the opponent of the Pharisees in the way He is represented in the Gospels