What does Pharaoh mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
פַּרְעֹ֔ה the common title of the king of Egypt. 39
פַּרְעֹ֖ה the common title of the king of Egypt. 27
פַּרְעֹ֑ה the common title of the king of Egypt. 24
פַּרְעֹה֙ the common title of the king of Egypt. 24
פַרְעֹ֔ה the common title of the king of Egypt. 15
פַּרְעֹֽה the common title of the king of Egypt. 14
פַּרְעֹ֗ה the common title of the king of Egypt. 12
פַּרְעֹ֣ה the common title of the king of Egypt. 11
פַרְעֹ֖ה the common title of the king of Egypt. 8
פַרְעֹ֑ה the common title of the king of Egypt. 8
פַרְעֹֽה the common title of the king of Egypt. 7
פַרְעֹה֙ the common title of the king of Egypt. 7
לְפַרְעֹֽה the common title of the king of Egypt. 6
פַּרְעֹ֛ה the common title of the king of Egypt. 6
לְפַרְעֹ֑ה the common title of the king of Egypt. 5
פַּרְעֹ֤ה the common title of the king of Egypt. 4
לְפַרְעֹ֔ה the common title of the king of Egypt. 4
φαραὼ was a common title of the native kings of Egypt. 4
פַּרְעֹ֥ה the common title of the king of Egypt. 3
פַרְעֹ֜ה the common title of the king of Egypt. 3
פַּרְעֹ֜ה the common title of the king of Egypt. 3
לְפַרְעֹ֖ה the common title of the king of Egypt. 3
לְפַרְעֹ֥ה the common title of the king of Egypt. 3
פַרְעֹ֗ה the common title of the king of Egypt. 2
פַּרְעֹה֒ the common title of the king of Egypt. 2
פַּרְעֹה֮ the common title of the king of Egypt. 2
בְּפַרְעֹה֙ the common title of the king of Egypt. 2
וּפַרְעֹ֖ה the common title of the king of Egypt. 2
؟ פַּרְעֹֽה the common title of the king of Egypt. 2
בְּפַרְעֹ֥ה the common title of the king of Egypt. 1
וּפַרְעֹ֣ה the common title of the king of Egypt. 1
פַרְעֹ֣ה the common title of the king of Egypt. 1
לְפַרְעֹה֒ the common title of the king of Egypt. 1
כְּפַרְעֹֽה the common title of the king of Egypt. 1
לְפַרְעֹ֗ה the common title of the king of Egypt. 1
מִפַּרְעֹ֖ה the common title of the king of Egypt. 1
פַּרְעֹ֧ה the common title of the king of Egypt. 1
בְּפַרְעֹ֤ה the common title of the king of Egypt. 1
פַרְעֹ֤ה the common title of the king of Egypt. 1
פַרְעֹ֛ה the common title of the king of Egypt. 1
מִפַּרְעֹ֛ה the common title of the king of Egypt. 1
לָקָ֔ח to take 1
לְפַרְעֹה֮ the common title of the king of Egypt. 1
פַּרְעֹ֞ה the common title of the king of Egypt. 1
וַיְמִיתֵ֙הוּ֙ to die 1
פַּרְעֹ֨ה the common title of the king of Egypt. 1
לְפַרְעֹ֣ה the common title of the king of Egypt. 1
בְּפַרְעֹ֔ה the common title of the king of Egypt. 1
פַרְעֹה֮ the common title of the king of Egypt. 1
φαραώ was a common title of the native kings of Egypt. 1
בְּ֝פַרְעֹ֗ה the common title of the king of Egypt. 1

Definitions Related to Pharaoh

H6547


   1 the common title of the king of Egypt.
   Additional Information: Pharaoh = “great house”.
   

G5328


   1 was a common title of the native kings of Egypt.
   Additional Information: Pharaoh = “his nakedness”.
   

H4191


   1 to die, kill, have one executed.
      1a (Qal).
         1a1 to die.
         1a2 to die (as penalty), be put to death.
         1a3 to die, perish (of a nation).
         1a4 to die prematurely (by neglect of wise moral conduct).
      1b (Polel) to kill, put to death, dispatch.
      1c (Hiphil) to kill, put to death.
      1d (Hophal).
         1d1 to be killed, be put to death.
            1d1a to die prematurely.
            

H3947


   1 to take, get, fetch, lay hold of, seize, receive, acquire, buy, bring, marry, take a wife, snatch, take away.
      1a (Qal).
         1a1 to take, take in the hand.
         1a2 to take and carry along.
         1a3 to take from, take out of, take, carry away, take away.
         1a4 to take to or for a person, procure, get, take possession of, select, choose, take in marriage, receive, accept.
         1a5 to take up or upon, put upon.
         1a6 to fetch.
         1a7 to take, lead, conduct.
         1a8 to take, capture, seize.
         1a9 to take, carry off.
            1a10 to take (vengeance).
      1b (Niphal).
         1b1 to be captured.
         1b2 to be taken away, be removed.
         1b3 to be taken, brought unto.
      1c (Pual).
         1c1 to be taken from or out of.
         1c2 to be stolen from.
         1c3 to be taken captive.
         1c4 to be taken away, be removed.
      1d (Hophal).
         1d1 to be taken unto, be brought unto.
         1d2 to be taken out of.
         1d3 to be taken away.
      1e (Hithpael). 1e1 to take hold of oneself. 1e2 to flash about (of lightning).
         

Frequency of Pharaoh (original languages)

Frequency of Pharaoh (English)

Dictionary

Easton's Bible Dictionary - Pharaoh
The Pharaoh who was on the throne when Abram went down into Egypt (Genesis 12:10-20 ) was probably one of the Hyksos, or "shepherd kings." The Egyptians called the nomad tribes of Syria Shasu, "plunderers," their king or chief Hyk, and hence the name of those invaders who conquered the native kings and established a strong government, with Zoan or Tanis as their capital. They were of Semitic origin, and of kindred blood accordingly with Abram. They were probably driven forward by the pressure of the Hittites. The name they bear on the monuments is "Mentiu."
The Pharaoh of Joseph's days (Genesis 41 ) was probably Apopi, or Apopis, the last of the Hyksos kings. To the old native Egyptians, who were an African race, shepherds were "an abomination;" but to the Hyksos kings these Asiatic shepherds who now appeared with Jacob at their head were congenial, and being akin to their own race, had a warm welcome (Genesis 47:5,6 ). Some argue that Joseph came to Egypt in the reign of Thothmes III., long after the expulsion of the Hyksos, and that his influence is to be seen in the rise and progress of the religious revolution in the direction of monotheism which characterized the middle of the Eighteenth Dynasty. The wife of Amenophis III., of that dynasty, was a Semite. Is this singular fact to be explained from the presence of some of Joseph's kindred at the Egyptian court? Pharaoh said to Joseph, "Thy father and thy brethren are come unto thee: the land of Egypt is before thee; in the best of the land make thy father and brethren to dwell" (Genesis 47:5,6 ).
The "new king who knew not Joseph" (Exodus 1:8-22 ) has been generally supposed to have been Aahmes I., or Amosis, as he is called by Josephus. Recent discoveries, however, have led to the conclusion that Seti was the "new king." For about seventy years the Hebrews in Egypt were under the powerful protection of Joseph. After his death their condition was probably very slowly and gradually changed. The invaders, the Hyksos, who for some five centuries had been masters of Egypt, were driven out, and the old dynasty restored. The Israelites now began to be looked down upon. They began to be afflicted and tyrannized over. In process of time a change appears to have taken place in the government of Egypt. A new dynasty, the Nineteenth, as it is called, came into power under Seti I., who was its founder. He associated with him in his government his son, Rameses II., when he was yet young, probably ten or twelve years of age.
Note, Professor Maspero, keeper of the museum of Bulak, near Cairo, had his attention in 1870 directed to the fact that scarabs, i.e., stone and metal imitations of the beetle (symbols of immortality), originally worn as amulets by royal personages, which were evidently genuine relics of the time of the ancient Pharaohs, were being sold at Thebes and different places along the Nile. This led him to suspect that some hitherto undiscovered burial-place of the Pharaohs had been opened, and that these and other relics, now secretly sold, were a part of the treasure found there. For a long time he failed, with all his ingenuity, to find the source of these rare treasures. At length one of those in the secret volunteered to give information regarding this burial-place. The result was that a party was conducted in 1881 to Dier el-Bahari, near Thebes, when the wonderful discovery was made of thirty-six mummies of kings, queens, princes, and high priests hidden away in a cavern prepared for them, where they had lain undisturbed for thirty centuries. "The temple of Deir el-Bahari stands in the middle of a natural amphitheatre of cliffs, which is only one of a number of smaller amphitheatres into which the limestone mountains of the tombs are broken up. In the wall of rock separating this basin from the one next to it some ancient Egyptian engineers had constructed the hiding-place, whose secret had been kept for nearly three thousand years." The exploring party being guided to the place, found behind a great rock a shaft 6 feet square and about 40 feet deep, sunk into the limestone. At the bottom of this a passage led westward for 25 feet, and then turned sharply northward into the very heart of the mountain, where in a chamber 23 feet by 13, and 6 feet in height, they came upon the wonderful treasures of antiquity. The mummies were all carefully secured and brought down to Bulak, where they were deposited in the royal museum, which has now been removed to Ghizeh.
Among the most notable of the ancient kings of Egypt thus discovered were Thothmes III., Seti I., and Rameses II. Thothmes III. was the most distinguished monarch of the brilliant Eighteenth Dynasty. When this mummy was unwound "once more, after an interval of thirty-six centuries, human eyes gazed on the features of the man who had conquered Syria and Cyprus and Ethiopia, and had raised Egypt to the highest pinnacle of her power. The spectacle, however, was of brief duration. The remains proved to be in so fragile a state that there was only time to take a hasty photograph, and then the features crumbled to pieces and vanished like an apparition, and so passed away from human view for ever." "It seems strange that though the body of this man," who overran Palestine with his armies two hundred years before the birth of Moses, "mouldered to dust, the flowers with which it had been wreathed were so wonderfully preserved that even their colour could be distinguished" (Manning's Land of the Pharaohs).
Seti I. (his throne name Merenptah), the father of Rameses II., was a great and successful warrior, also a great builder. The mummy of this Pharaoh, when unrolled, brought to view "the most beautiful mummy head ever seen within the walls of the museum. The sculptors of Thebes and Abydos did not flatter this Pharaoh when they gave him that delicate, sweet, and smiling profile which is the admiration of travellers. After a lapse of thirty-two centuries, the mummy retains the same expression which characterized the features of the living man. Most remarkable of all, when compared with the mummy of Rameses II., is the striking resemblance between the father and the son. Seti I. is, as it were, the idealized type of Rameses II. He must have died at an advanced age. The head is shaven, the eyebrows are white, the condition of the body points to considerably more than threescore years of life, thus confirming the opinions of the learned, who have attributed a long reign to this king."
Rameses II., the son of Seti I., is probably the Pharaoh of the Oppression. During his forty years' residence at the court of Egypt, Moses must have known this ruler well. During his sojourn in Midian, however, Rameses died, after a reign of sixty-seven years, and his body embalmed and laid in the royal sepulchre in the Valley of the Tombs of Kings beside that of his father. Like the other mummies found hidden in the cave of Deir el-Bahari, it had been for some reason removed from its original tomb, and probably carried from place to place till finally deposited in the cave where it was so recently discovered. In 1886, the mummy of this king, the "great Rameses," the "Sesostris" of the Greeks, was unwound, and showed the body of what must have been a robust old man. The features revealed to view are thus described by Maspero: "The head is long and small in proportion to the body. The top of the skull is quite bare. On the temple there are a few sparse hairs, but at the poll the hair is quite thick, forming smooth, straight locks about two inches in length. White at the time of death, they have been dyed a light yellow by the spices used in embalmment. The forehead is low and narrow; the brow-ridge prominent; the eye-brows are thick and white; the eyes are small and close together; the nose is long, thin, arched like the noses of the Bourbons; the temples are sunk; the cheek-bones very prominent; the ears round, standing far out from the head, and pierced, like those of a woman, for the wearing of earrings; the jaw-bone is massive and strong; the chin very prominent; the mouth small, but thick-lipped; the teeth worn and very brittle, but white and well preserved. The moustache and beard are thin. They seem to have been kept shaven during life, but were probably allowed to grow during the king's last illness, or they may have grown after death. The hairs are white, like those of the head and eyebrows, but are harsh and bristly, and a tenth of an inch in length. The skin is of an earthy-brown, streaked with black. Finally, it may be said, the face of the mummy gives a fair idea of the face of the living king. The expression is unintellectual, perhaps slightly animal; but even under the somewhat grotesque disguise of mummification there is plainly to be seen an air of sovereign majesty, of resolve, and of pride."
Both on his father's and his mother's side it has been pretty clearly shown that Rameses had Chaldean or Mesopotamian blood in his veins to such a degree that he might be called an Assyrian. This fact is thought to throw light on Isaiah 52:4 .
The Pharaoh of the Exodus was probably Menephtah I., the fourteenth and eldest surviving son of Rameses II. He resided at Zoan, where he had the various interviews with Moses and Aaron recorded in the book of Exodus. His mummy was not among those found at Deir el-Bahari. It is still a question, however, whether Seti II. or his father Menephtah was the Pharaoh of the Exodus. Some think the balance of evidence to be in favour of the former, whose reign it is known began peacefully, but came to a sudden and disastrous end. The "Harris papyrus," found at Medinet-Abou in Upper Egypt in 1856, a state document written by Rameses III., the second king of the Twentieth Dynasty, gives at length an account of a great exodus from Egypt, followed by wide-spread confusion and anarchy. This, there is great reason to believe, was the Hebrew exodus, with which the Nineteenth Dynasty of the Pharaohs came to an end. This period of anarchy was brought to a close by Setnekht, the founder of the Twentieth Dynasty. "In the spring of 1896, Professor Flinders Petrie discovered, among the ruins of the temple of Menephtah at Thebes, a large granite stela, on which is engraved a hymn of victory commemorating the defeat of Libyan invaders who had overrun the Delta. At the end other victories of Menephtah are glanced at, and it is said that 'the Israelites (I-s-y-r-a-e-l-u) are minished (?) so that they have no seed.' Menephtah was son and successor of Rameses II., the builder of Pithom, and Egyptian scholars have long seen in him the Pharaoh of the Exodus. The Exodus is also placed in his reign by the Egyptian legend of the event preserved by the historian Manetho. In the inscription the name of the Israelites has no determinative of 'country' or 'district' attached to it, as is the case with all the other names (Canaan, Ashkelon, Gezer, Khar or Southern Palestine, etc.) mentioned along with it, and it would therefore appear that at the time the hymn was composed, the Israelites had already been lost to the sight of the Egyptians in the desert. At all events they must have had as yet no fixed home or district of their own. We may therefore see in the reference to them the Pharaoh's version of the Exodus, the disasters which befell the Egyptians being naturally passed over in silence, and only the destruction of the 'men children' of the Israelites being recorded. The statement of the Egyptian poet is a remarkable parallel to Exodus 1:10-22 ."
The Pharaoh of 1 Kings 11:18-22 .
So, king of Egypt (2 Kings 17:4 ).
The Pharaoh of 1 Chronicles 4:18 .
Pharaoh, whose daughter Solomon married (1 Kings 3:1 ; 7:8 ).
Pharaoh, in whom Hezekiah put his trust in his war against Sennacherib (2 Kings 18:21 ).
The Pharaoh by whom Josiah was defeated and slain at Megiddo (2 Chronicles 35:20-24 ; 2 Kings 23:29,30 ). (See NECHO .)
Pharaoh-hophra, who in vain sought to relieve Jerusalem when it was besieged by Nebuchadnezzar (q.v.), 2 Kings 25:1-4 ; Compare Jeremiah 37:5-8 ; Ezekiel 17:11-13 . (See ZEDEKIAH .)
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Pharaoh
Pharaoh (fâ'ro, or fâ'ra-o). Genesis 12:15. The common title of the king of Egypt—also called Pharaoh-necho and Pharaoh-hophra. 2 Kings 23:29; Jeremiah 44:30; Jeremiah 46:2. Ten Pharaohs are mentioned in the Old Testament. 1. The Pharaoh of the time of Abraham. Genesis 12:15. The date of Abraham's visit to Egypt is most probably fixed at about b.c. 2080. 2. The Pharaoh of Joseph, Genesis 41:1-57, was the last, or the last but one, of the fifteenth dynasty; probably identical with Apophis, who reigned at least 26 years, b.c. 1876-1850. S. The Pharaoh of the Oppression—" the new king over Egypt who knew not Joseph," Exodus 1:8, and under whose reign Moses was born—probably Rameses II., the Sesostris of the Greeks, the master-builder of Egypt, whose statues and temples in ruins are found all over the Nile valley from Zoan (Tanis) to Karnak. His mummied body was taken from the tomb in 1881 and unwrapped in the Bulak museum, 4. The Pharaoh of the Exodus, 2 Kings 23:29-30 before whom Moses wrought his miracles, was Menephtha, son of Rameses II. On a monument of Tanis mention is made of the fact that he lost a son, and Dr. Brugsch connects this with the death of the first-born, the last of the plagues. 5. The Pharaoh whose daughter, Bithiah, was given in marriage to Mered, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chronicles 4:18. 6. The Pharaoh who gave the sister of his queen in marriage to Hadad, an Edomite of royal blood, who escaped the massacre of Joab and fled to Egypt. 1 Kings 11:18 to 1 Kings 20:7. The Pharaoh whose daughter Solomon married and brought "into the city of David until he had made an end of building his own house, and the house of the Lord," 1 Kings 3:1, consequently before the eleventh year of his reign, in which year the temple was finished. 1 Kings 6:37-38. This Pharaoh afterward made an expedition into Palestine, took Gezer, and gave it to his daughter, Solomon's wife. 1 Kings 9:16. 8. The Pharaoh to whom king Hezekiah was allied in his war with Sennacherib. Exodus 5:1,2. 9. Pharaoh-nechoh, also called amply Necho, reigned from b.c. 610 to 594. He made an expedition against Assyria, but was encountered by Josiah, king of Judah, at Megiddo. 2 Chronicles 35:20-24; 1618420385_80. Necho's army was afterward defeated at Carchemish by Nebuchadnezzar, and he lost all his Asiatic possessions. 2 Kings 24:7. 10. Pharaoh-hophra, the Apries of secular history, was the second successor of Necho, and entered Palestine, probably in b.c. 590, in order to relieve Jerusalem, which was besieged by Nebuchadnezzar. Jeremiah 37:5-8; Ezekiel 17:11-13; comp. 2 Kings 25:1-4. The campaign was of no avail. Jerusalem fell, and Nebuchadnezzar made a successful invasion into Egypt. Pharaoh-hophra was afterward deposed by his own subjects, and finally strangled. In their prophecies Jeremiah and Ezekiel (see above) give a very striking picture of this king, his arrogance and conceit, which corresponds closely with that given by Herodotus.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Pharaoh
A title meaning, “great house” for the ancient kings of Egypt. Every ancient pharaoh had five “great names” which he assumed on the day of his accession. Since it was not deemed proper to use such powerful names in direct fashion, a polite circumlocution developed; he came to be called Pharaoh.
Egyptians applied “pharaoh” to the royal palace and grounds in the fourth dynasty (about 2500 B.C.). The title Pharaoh came to be applied to the king from about 1500 B.C. until the Persian domination, about 550 B.C.
An ancient pharaoh was an absolute monarch, supreme commander of the armies, chief justice of the royal court, and high priest of all religion. His absolute power may be seen in that justice was defined as “what Pharaoh loves”; wrongdoing as “what Pharaoh hates.” An example of his divine power was that he daily conducted “the Rite of the House of the Morning,” an early morning ritual in which he broke the seal to the statue of the sun god, waking him up with a prayer. This act brought the sun up and started every day for the people.
References to ten pharaohs can be clearly distinguished in the Old Testament: the Pharaoh of Abraham, Genesis 12:10-20 ; of Joseph, Genesis 39-50 ; of the Oppression, Exodus 1:1 ; of the Exodus, Exodus 2:23-15:19 ; of 1 Chronicles 4:18 ; of Solomon, 1 Kings 3-11 ; of Rehoboam, called Shishak, king of Egypt, 1 Kings 14:25 ; of Hezekiah and Isaiah, 2 Kings 18:21 ; Isaiah 36:1 ; of Josiah, 2 Kings 23:29 ; of Jeremiah 44:30 and Ezekiel 29:1-16 . See Egypt ; Exodus .
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Pharaoh
Egyptian kings were known by the title Pharaoh. To the Egyptian people Pharaoh was a god-king, one who embodied a god during his life and went to the world of the gods at his death (see EGYPT). The Bible, however, treats the various Pharaohs as it treats the kings of other nations. They were mere human beings under the sovereign control of God (Romans 9:17; cf. Isaiah 44:28).
Some Pharaohs are mentioned favourably in the Bible. The Pharaoh whom Abraham visited was more honest in his behaviour than Abraham (Genesis 12:10-20), and the Pharaoh of Joseph’s time was sensible and generous (Genesis 41:37-45; Genesis 41:55; Genesis 45:16-20; Genesis 47:20-22; Genesis 50:4-6). Later, other Pharaohs oppressed the Israelites and made them slaves. One even tried to kill all their babies (Exodus 1:8-16; Exodus 1:22).
The most infamous of the Pharaohs was the man who opposed Moses and hardened his heart against God. From Moses’ first meeting with him, he showed that he despised God and had no intention of releasing the captive Israelites (Exodus 5:1-2). He was determined to resist God at all costs, in spite of the repeated opportunities God gave him to repent and in spite of the warnings God gave him through a series of plagues (Exodus 7:11-13; Exodus 8:8; Exodus 8:15; Exodus 8:28-32). By confirming Pharaoh in his hardness of heart, God showed the greatness of Pharaoh’s evil and the justice with which he punished it (Exodus 9:12; Romans 9:14-18; see PLAGUE).
In the final plague on Egypt, the firstborn in all Egyptian families, including Pharaoh’s, died. This prompted Pharaoh at last to release the Israelites (Exodus 11:1-9; Exodus 12:29-32). When Pharaoh changed his mind and tried to recapture the Israelites, he and his soldiers were killed in a mighty judgment at the Red Sea (Exodus 14:5-9; Exodus 14:28).
Most of the remaining Pharaohs of the Bible story are mentioned in relation to Egypt’s political and military involvement with Judah during the time of the Israelite monarchy (e.g. 1 Kings 3:1; 1 Kings 11:40; 2 Kings 18:21; 2 Kings 23:29; see JUDAH, TRIBE AND KINGDOM). Some of them feature in prophetic announcements of judgment upon Egypt (e.g. Ezekiel 29; Ezekiel 30; Ezekiel 31; Ezekiel 32; see EGYPT).
Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Pharaoh
Genesis 41:44 (c) In this passage the king may be taken as a type of GOD the Father. He takes the same relationship to Joseph as GOD the Father takes toward CHRIST. All "things" are delivered to the Lord JESUS, and all judgment is in CHRIST's hands. All things were made by CHRIST. No one can come to the Father except through His Son. We may understand that Pharaoh thus represents GOD the Father just in this passage.
Exodus 5:2 (c) Here we may see a type of the hardened sinner who rebels against GOD's Word, and refuses to bow to GOD's authority. This is true today.
Exodus 7:3 (c) It is still true that those who persist in rebelling against GOD are bound to their choice by GOD. He chooses their delusions ( Isaiah 66:4), and binds their rebellion upon them. Clay when placed in the sun gets hard, so the sinner's heart becomes hardened when it insists on rebelling against the Lord.
Romans 9:17 (c) In this passage GOD presents Pharaoh as an example of one in whom He works and deals as He will with all other obstinate sinners.
Webster's Dictionary - Pharaoh
(1):
(n.) See Faro.
(2):
(n.) A title by which the sovereigns of ancient Egypt were designated.
Whyte's Dictionary of Bible Characters - Pharaoh
A NEW KING WHO KNEW NOT JOSEPH.… AND WHEN HE SAW THAT THERE WAS RESPITE HE HARDENED HIS HEART
WHEN King Ahasuerus could not sleep at night he used to have his chamberlains called in to read the books of the chronicles of the kingdom at his bedside. And as the reading went on King Ahasuerus would stop them and would ask them, What honour and what reward have been done to Mordecai for all this? And then when the king's ministers answered him that nothing had been done, the first orders that the king gave in the morning were that Mordecai and all his descendants should be set straightway among the men whom the king delighted to honour. Now it was just because Pharaoh the father did not have the history of Egypt read to him in that way that he and his son came to such a terrible end. Poor, misguided crown-prince, when he was still the crown-prince! His tutors and his governors had destroyed their royal charge for lack of knowledge. They had amused him, and flattered him, and let him run wild, and let him have his own way in everything, when they should have been bringing him up as David brought up Solomon, and as the wise men in the east brought up Cyrus. The only claim any man has to reign over other men is that he is wiser and better than they are. The divine right, as it used to be called, of every true king is grounded in his wisdom, and in his goodness, and in his truth, and in his justice; he is the best born, the best brought up, the best read, the best experienced, the largest-minded and the noblest-hearted man in all the land. But the times are changed since Pharaoh's day. We are all kings, in a manner, in our day. We all have a crown on our head, and a sword and a sceptre in our hand. And, in our measure, we should all be instructed statesmen, like the royal patron of Mordecai and Esther; and it will go ill with us, and with those who come after us, if we are like Pharaoh, who had never heard of Joseph, and what Joseph had done for the land of Egypt. That will be the best election-time Scotland has ever seen, not when this or that party comes into power, but when every enfranchised man has already read about Wallace and Bruce, and about Cromwell and Milton, and about Hampden and Pym, and about Knox and Melville, and about Henderson and Rutherford and Chalmers. When all who have votes prepare themselves for the polling-booth in that way, then we shall see a House of Commons composed of the best and ablest men the land can produce; the moat loyal, the most fair and just, the most God-fearing, and the least self-seeking of men. Then Ireland, and India, and China, and Africa, and Armenia, and Macedonia shall hold out their hands to England; and all lands shall both love and fear England and her Queen because of that knowledge and that righteousness which alone exalteth a nation, and which alone enthroneth and establisheth a sovereign.
Come on, let us deal wisely with them, said the ill-read and ignorant sovereign who sat on the throne of Egypt at the time when the children of Israel were fast becoming more and mightier than their masters. Come on, was his insane edict, let us deal wisely with them, lest they multiply and it come to pass that, when there falleth out any war, they join themselves to our enemies and fight against us. Therefore, they did set taskmasters over them to afflict them with their burdens. But the more they afflicted them the more they multiplied and grew. Till in a policy of despair this demented king charged all his people, saying, Every son of the Hebrews that is born ye shall cast into the river, and every daughter ye shall save alive. This is all that remains on the statute-book of Egypt to testify to the statesmanship of that king of Egypt who had never heard of Joseph the son of Jacob, the servant of Potiphar, and the counsellor and deliverer of the kingdom. That was the statute-book, and that was the sword and the sceptre, that this Pharaoh handed down to his son who succeeded him, and who was that new Pharaoh whom God raised up to show in him His power, and that through him His name might be declared throughout all the earth. A Pharaoh, says Philo, whose whole soul from his cradle had been filled full of the arrogance of his ancestors. And indeed, he was no sooner sat down on his throne, we no sooner begin to hear his royal voice, than he at once exhibits all the ignorance and all the arrogance of his ancestors in the answer he gives to Moses and Aaron: Who is the Lord that I should obey Him? I know not the Lord, neither will I let Israel go. Get you to your burdens. It is because you are idle that you say, Let us go and do sacrifice to the Lord. Go, therefore, for there shall no straw be given you, and yet you shall deliver your tale of bricks! The father had not known Joseph, and the son knew neither Joseph, nor Moses, nor Aaron, nor God. Moses! Moses is my slave, he shouted. Moses should be baking his tale of bricks all this time. What! Moses! of all men in the world, to come into my presence with a demand like that! Had Moses been some great ambassador who had come in a ship from some far country; had Moses and Aaron come with great gifts and in a great name to negotiate a royal league with Egypt, Pharaoh would have done them honour. A banquet would have been spread for Moses and Aaron, and the great council of the kingdom would have been called together to receive them, and to hear what they had to say. But Moses and Aaron! Why, they should have been at their tasks! Who are they, to come like ambassadors to me? No; to your bricks and to your burdens, you Moses and Aaron! And if only your minister were some great one, it would go so much better with him and with you. If he only came from some far-off city, and from some famous pulpit. If you only heard him preach once or twice in a lifetime, then you would attend to what he says; and you might, who knows, be prevailed on to do it. If your minister were only Dr. Chalmers, or Dr. Candlish, or Mr. Spurgeon. But he is nobody. And, besides, he has offended you, and has not always pleased you. And he is full of faults. And, besides, you know all about him. Moses had blood upon his hands in his youth, as Pharaoh's counsellors kept him well in mind. Yes, you stick to it like that royal spirit. It would be weak, it would be an impossible humiliation in you, to make any alteration in your heart or in your life for what your present minister says. Talk on after every sermon. Show your children after every sermon and every prayer of his how much better their father could preach and pray. Tell them about Disruption times. Laugh at their weak impressions and at their foolish praises, and tell them that they have never heard preaching to be called preaching. And if it turns out with you like Pharaoh, and if Pharaoh rises up in the day of judgment to condemn you, then stand up on the left hand and tell the Judge to His face that He never gave you and your children a chance. With such a minister, you never had fair play and a proper chance. Moses! Who, I would like to know, is Moses? Pharaoh was still shouting out that to his captains when the Red Sea rolled in and cut short his scorn.
What sign showest Thou, said the unbelieving Jews to our Lord, that we may see, and believe Thee? What dost Thou work? Let me see a miracle, said Pharaoh to Moses and Aaron, and then I will let Israel go. And to satisfy Pharaoh, and to soften his heart, Aaron cast down his rod before Pharaoh, and before his servants, and it became a serpent. But instead of saying, This is the Lord, and proclaiming an edict that the people should go free, Pharaoh called in his sorcerers and his magicians, and they did in like manner with their enchantments. And miracle succeeded miracle; miracles of judgment were wrought and miracles of mercy; but they all ended in the same way-Pharaoh's heart was only the more hardened. It looked a very innocent request. We would have said that it was a very promising and a very hopeful state of mind in Pharaoh to ask for some proof of the divine embassy of Moses and Aaron, and then he would obey. But, all the time, the evil seed of all Pharaoh's after life and death of sin lay at the heart of that innocent-looking, hopeful-sounding demand. For, innocent as it looked, and hopeful as it sounded, Pharaoh's demand put upon God, and upon Moses and Aaron, the first step of Pharaoh's repentance and obedience. If no miracle had followed his request, then Pharaoh would have felt fully justified in holding to his refusal. And, as it was, when his magicians did something sufficiently like Aaron's rod, then Pharaoh fell back and took his stand upon that, till the miracle upon which he had suspended his obedience was wrought in vain. No. Pharaoh's first step to his salvation, had he but taken it, was not to see a miracle, but to do what he knew to be right. Had Pharaoh said to his servants-Come, let us read in the book of the kingdom. Come, let us see what manner of life the people of Israel live in Goshen. What are their sorrows? What are their complaints? What are their requests? Then he would have soon after said, Yes, let them sacrifice to their God without molestation; and then let them come back again to their work. That was all that was asked of Pharaoh for the time; and, had he not been filled full from his cradle with the ignorance and arrogance of his ancestors, Moses and he would soon have come to terms, and Egypt and Israel would have been friends and allies to this day. But Pharaoh took a wrong turn and a false step when lie still asked for evidence where he should have offered obedience; and that wrong turn and that false step laid him at last in the bottom of the Red Sea.
No. It is not more evidence you need. Or, if it is evidence, then it is the evidence of obedience and experience. It is not a course of Lectures on Apologetics you need. All the Bridgewater and Bampton treatises together would only mislead you and harden your heart. Neither is it a special providence, nor an extraordinary interposition on the part of Almighty God that you need. No, Be not self-deceived. For this cause, among others, God raised up Pharaoh that he might speak to you out of the Ked Sea, saying, Learn of me. Burn your books about miracles. If I had not bargained for miracles I would not have been here. Read books of obedience. Read books of prayer and repentance and obedience. Cease from debate and betake yourselves to be alone with God. Yes. A voice comes from the depth below, as well as from the height above, saying to us all, He among you that doetb the will of God, eveu he shall know of the doctrine, and shall not need to seek after a miracle. Do the will of God in the thing that lies nearest you, and in the thing that God has been so long asking of you; do it; resolve to do it; begin to do it tonight and before tomorrow; and then all past miracles in Egypt and in Israel, and all present providences and all coming experiences, will all work together to soften your heart and thus to strengthen and assure your faith. But turn away tonight from your first duty; make postponements; seek more convenient seasons; raise obstacles; make conditions; seek for signs, and put it off yourself, and put it upon God and upon His servants, to wait for you and to make terms with you, and from this night your heart will harden like Pharaoh's heart till your end is like his. Two young men are sitting in one seat, and, to look at them, you would say that they are not far from the kingdom of God. Their hearts are in the balance. They are almost persuaded. The intimation is made to them of the approaching celebration of the Lord's Supper. The time and the place are told them when their names may be entered for the Table. They both listen to the intimation. They both think about it; both in their own way. Yes, the one says, I have put it off too long. And I am no better. I think I will take what looks like God's word to me tonight. I will offer myself just as I am. And he does it. And his name is enrolled for the coming communion. He begins tonight and he goes on from tonight. The church is henceforth his church. The minister is henceforth his minister. He comes up to the church Sabbath after Sabbath now with a new interest in everything, and a stake of his own in everything. His heart softens and softens. And his faith clears up, and strengthens, and strikes root, and brings forth fruit; till, after years and years and years spent among us, he passes over into the promised land. His neighbour looks at the communion invitation also, and almost accepts it. No. I will wait, he says. I have some difficulties not yet resolved. I have not seen the unbelieving argument of that new book sufficiently answered. I must first read what is to be said on the other side. No, not tonight. No, not this communion yet. And he goes home. And, you could not detect it, it is so little, but his heart is just the smallest degree hardened tonight. He was at the sharp turning of the way, and he took, if anything, the wrong turn. He took Pharaoh's turn. May he turn again! Turn him, O Lord, before he goes on to Pharaoh's end.
The magicians led on Pharaoh so far, but a time came when their enchantments could carry them no farther. This is the finger of God, the outdone magicians had the insight and the honesty to say. This is the finger of God, and there is no use, and it would he death to us, to go on fighting with our enchantments against God's finger any further. Do, they advised Pharaoh-do what is asked of thee, and let the people go. But those magicians had done their evil work hotter than they knew. For, by that time, Pharaoh's heart was so hardened by their enchantments that he would not hearken to the too late advice of his old enchanters. Just so. We have seen it ourselves a thousand times. We have seen magicians who could begin a work of deception and delusion, but who could not stop the deception and undo the delusion when they fain would. We have seen philosophers putting nature in the place of God till their scholars went against both God and nature too. We have seen fathers and mothers indulging their sons, and letting them take their own way in religion and in life till they could not stop them. We have seen infidels, and scoffers, and gamblers, and drunkards, and all manner of profligates made by the score, as the magicians made Pharaoh; made, that is, little by little, till the work was finished, and till those who began it and carried it so far on were laughed at when they said, This, I fear, is the finger of God. The very sorcerers themselves at last believed, but Pharaoh still held out. They could set a bad work a-going; but, with all their advice, and with all their authority, they could not stop their evil work, nor in one iota undo it.
But stroke after stroke, plague after plague, fell upon Pharaoh till even he was brought at last to his knees. Then Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron, and said, Entreat the Lord and I will let the people go. And Moses cried unto the Lord, and the Lord did according to the word of Moses. But when Pharaoh saw that there was to be respite, he hardened his heart and hearkened not unto them. Fatal Pharaoh! Everything that came to Pharaoh hardened his hard heart. God was fairly battled with Pharaoh. God was completely defeated by Pharaoh. Good and evil, grace and judgment, plague and respite from plague-it was all one. Pharaoh's heart was hardened. Pharaoh was his name. What is your name? Well, when we substitute your name for Pharaoh's name in the terrible passage about the respite, we have in that passage the last chapter, the latest written-out chapter, of your evil life. Your present respite is fast running out, and up to tins holy day you are still hardening your heart. You have gone on doing the things you swore to God and to man you would never do again. Because judgment against your evil work was not executed out, when it began to be executed, you have lifted up your heel to this very day in the face of God. There are men here tonight who were in that same seat on the New Year's day before last. And they have often remembered, sometimes with tears, but more often with a hard remorse as of hell, the text of that New Year's day address. The text that day was out of A Kempis, and it was to this effect. That spiritual writer said to us that, if we would root out but one of our vices every new year, we should soon become perfect men. And, as I know, there were some men present here that New Year's day who were so touched and so taken with that striking counsel of A Kempis that they asked for a respite for that year. Now, that is a year and a half ago. They have had a whole half-year to the bargain, till their vice is all the deeper in their bodies and in their souls to this day. Stop tonight before you sleep. Stay up alone and set yourself to think what conceivable end God can have had in raising you up, and in filling your life so full of so many accumulated and aggravated sentences and respites of sentences? God tells us Himself for what purpose He raised up Pharaoh. And, read what God says about His purpose with Pharaoh in what light you like, and offer what explanations of it you like, still it remains a terrible story and a terrible sentence. What do you think, what do you suppose, God has raised you up for? Are you, do you think, would you believe, being sentenced and respited, sentenced and respited, and sentenced and respited again in order to show how far grace can go-your sin and God's grace? Who can tell, but that as Pharaoh stands to the end of time the proof of God's power, so you are to stand at the opposite pole as the proof of His long-suffering and super-abounding grace? Yes, that must be it in you. After so many respites, and so much sin after so many respites, if you die under respite, that must be it. Yes, this must be the key to your so often respited life-this: that, where sin abounded, grace did much more abound. And that, as sin hath reigned unto death in you, even so might grace reign through righteousness unto eternal life in you by Jesus Christ your Lord. May it be so!
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Pharaoh
This was the regal title of the kings of Egypt, so the mere appellation, 'Pharaoh' in no way intimates which king is alluded to. Some kings of Egypt are mentioned in scripture without this title, as Shishak, Necho, Hophra, So, and Tirhakah, the last two of whom were Ethiopians. Those specially referred to in the O.T. are:
1. The Pharaoh who took Abram's wife, Sarai, into his house (about B.C. 1919). Genesis 12:14-20 .
2. The Pharaoh who promoted Joseph (about B.C. 1715), and received into Egypt Jacob and his sons and their families. Genesis 40 — Genesis 50 ; Acts 7:10,13 .
3. The Pharaoh who knew not Joseph (about B.C. 1635), he oppressed the Israelites, and ordered the male children to be killed, under whom Moses was born; and whose daughter adopted him as her son. Exodus 1 .
4. The Pharaoh from whom Moses fled when he was grown up (about B.C. 1531). Exodus 2 .
5. The Pharaoh of the Exodus (about B.C. 1491). See EGYPT and PLAGUES.
After a period of about 500 years scripture refers to
6. The Pharaoh whose daughter Bithiah was married to Mered, of the tribe of Judah. 1 Chronicles 4:18 .
7. The Pharaoh whose daughter was married to Solomon (about B.C. 1014). 1 Kings 3:1 ; 1 Kings 7:8 , etc. This Pharaoh captured and burntthe city of Gezer in Canaan, and gave the site to his daughter. 1 Kings 9:16 .
8. The Pharaoh who received Hadad when he fled from Solomon, and gave him his sister-in-law to wife (about A.D. 984). 1 Kings 11:14-22 .
The title 'Pharaoh' is judged by Professor Sayce to signify 'Great House' [1], or somewhat similar to the 'Sublime Porte,' or Gate. Each king had a title ofhonour as well as his personal name: the titles were such as 'The Sun, Lord of Glory'; 'The Sun, Lord of Truth,' etc.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Pharaoh
(See EGYPT; EXODUS for the list of the Pharaohs.) The official title of the Egyptian kings. The vocalization and diacritic points show the Hebrew read "Par-aoh," not "Pa-raoh". It is not from Ra "the sun," for the king is called Si-ra , "son of Ra," therefore he would not also be called "The Ra," though as an honorary epithet Merneptah Hotephima is so-called, "the good sun of the land." But the regular title Ρharaoh means "the great house" or "the great double house," the title which to Egyptians and foreigners represented his person. The Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch is strikingly confirmed by the Egyptian words, titles, and names occurring in the Hebrew transcription. No Palestinian Hebrew after the Exodus would have known Egyptian as the writer evidently did. His giving Egyptian words without a Hebrew explanation of the meaning can only be accounted for by his knowing that his readers were as familiar with Egyptian as he was himself; this could only apply to the Israelites of the Exodus. Abraham's Pharaoh was probably of the 12th dynasty, when foreigners from western Asia were received and promoted.
Joseph was under an early Pharaoh of the 13th dynasty, when as yet Pharaoh ruled over all Egypt, or probably under Amenemha III, sixth king of the 12th, who first regulated by dykes, locks, and reservoirs the Nile's inundation, and made the lake Moeris to receive the overflow. The 12th dynasty, moreover, was especially connected with On or Heliopolis. The Ηyksos or "shepherd kings", who ruled only Lower Egypt while native kings ruled Upper Egypt, began with the fourth of the 13th dynasty, and ended with Apophis or Apopi, the last of the 17th. Aahmes or Amosis, the first of the 18th, expelled them. He was the "new king who knew not Joseph." Finding Joseph's people Israel settled in fertile Goshen, commanding the entrance to Egypt from the N.E., and favored by the Hyksos, he adopted harsh repressive measures to prevent the possibility of their joining invaders like the Hyksos; he imposed bond service on Israel in building forts and stores. Moses as adopted son of the king's sister apparently accompanied Amenhotep I in his expedition against Ethiopia, and showed himself "mighty in words and deeds" (Acts 7).
Under Thothmes I, Moses was in Midian. Thothroes II was the Pharaoh of the Exodus, drowned in the Red Sea. Thothmes III broke the confederacy of the allied kings of all the regions between Euphrates and the Mediterranean, just 17 years before Israel's invasion of Canaan, thus providentially preparing the way for an easy conquest of Canaan; this accounts for the terror of Midian and Moab at Israel's approach (Numbers 22:3-4), and the "sorrow and trembling which took hold on the inhabitants of Palestina and Canaan" (Exodus 15:14-16). (See BITHIAH and EGYPT on the influence which the Jewess wife (Tei) of Amenhotep III exercised in modifying Egyptian idolatry.) (See JOSIAH; NEBUCHADNEZZAR; JERUSALEM; EGYPT, on Pharaoh Necho II and Pharaoh Hophra.)
Herodotus (ii. 159) illustrates Necho's conquests in Syria and Palestine between 610 and 604 B.C.: "Necho made war by land upon the Syrians, and defeated them in a pitched battle at Magdolus" (Megiddo). Berosus (in Josephus, Apion 1:19) too says that toward the close of Nabopolassar's reign, i.e. before 605 B.C., Egypt, Syria, and Phoenicia revolted; so he sent his son Nebuchadnezzar to recover those countries. The sacred history harmonizes the two accounts. Necho designed to acquire all Syria as far as Carchemish on the Euphrates (2 Chronicles 35:20-24). Josiah opposed his design and fell at Megiddo. So Necho for a time ruled all Syria, "from the Euphrates to the river of Egypt," deposed Jehoahaz for Eliakim = Jehoiakim, and levied tribute (2 Kings 24:7; 2 Kings 23:31-35). Nebuchadnezzar defeated Necho at Carchemish, 606 B.C. (Jeremiah 46:2), and recovered all that region, so that Necho "came not again any more out of his land."
Necho was sixth king of the 26th (Saitic) dynasty, son of Psammetichus I, and grandson of Necho I. Celebrated for a canal he proposed to cut connecting the Nile and Red Sea. Brugsch (Eg. 1:252) makes his reign from 611 to 595 B.C. PHARAOH HOPHRA succeeded Psamme tichus II, Necho's successor. Herodotus writes Apries. Began reigning 589 B.C., and reigned 19 years. Hai-fra-het (Rawlinson Herodot. 2:210, 823). He took Gaza of the Philistines (Jeremiah 47:1), and made himself master of Philistia and most of Phoenicia; attacked Sidon, and fought by sea with Tyre; and "so firmly did he think himself established in his kingdom that he believed not even a god could east hint down" (Herodotus ii. 161-169). So Ezekiel in harmony with the secular historian describes him as a great crocodile in his rivers, saying, "my river is mine own, and I have made it for myself" (Ezekiel 29:3).
But his troops sent against Cyrene having been routed, the Egyptians, according to Herodotus, revolted and set up Amasis as king; then strangled Hophra, and raised Amasis to the throne. Ezekiel (Ezekiel 29-32) foretold the conquest of Pharaoh and invasion of Egypt by Nebuchadnezzar. Hophra in 590 or 589 B.C. bad caused the Chaldaeans to raise the siege of Jerusalem, but it was only for a time (Jeremiah 37:5-7). Jerusalem, under Zedekiah, fell before Nebuchadnezzar, 588 B.C. Jeremiah in Egypt subsequently foretold "Jehovah's giving Hophra into the hand of them that sought his life" (Jeremiah 44:30; Jeremiah 46:25-26). The civil war between Amasis and Apries would give an opportunity for the invader Nebuchadnezzar (in the 23rd year of his reign: Josephus Ant. 10:11) to interfere and elevate Amasis on condition of his becoming tributary to Babylon. Or else the invasion of Nebuchadnezzar gave an opportunity for the revolt which ended in Hophra's death and Amasis' elevation.
Berosus alone records Nebuchadnezzar's invasion, but similarly we find Assyrian monuments recording conquests of Egypt either unnoticed by our historians extant or mentioned only by inferior authorities. National vanity would prevent the Egyptian priests from telling Herodotus of Egypt's loss of territory in Syria (which Josephus records) and of Nebuchadnezzar's share in raising Amasis to the throne instead of Hophra The language of Jeremiah 44:30 is exact to the truth: "I will give Pharaoh Hophra into the hands of his enemies, and of them that seek his life," namely, Amasis and his party; Nebuchadnezzar is not mentioned until the end of the verse. In Ezekiel 30:21, "I have broken the arm of Pharaoh king of Egypt ... it shall not be bound up"; Ezekiel's prophecy (Ezekiel 30:13), "there shall be no more a prince of ... Egypt," implies there should be no more a prince independent and ruling the whole land. Cambyses made Egypt a province of the Persian empire; since the second Persian conquest, 2,000 years ago, there has been no native prince.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Pharaoh
a common name of the kings of Egypt. We meet with it as early as Genesis 12:15 . Josephus says, that all the kings of Egypt, from Minaeus, the founder of Memphis, who lived several ages before Abraham, always had the name of Pharaoh, down to the time of Solomon, for more than three thousand three hundred years. He adds, that, in the Egyptian language, the word Pharaoh means king, and that these princes did not assume the name until they ascended the throne, at which time they quitted their former name.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Necho or Pharaoh-Necho
An Egyptian king, mentioned not only in Scripture, but by Herodotus, who says that he was son of Psammetichus, king of Egypt: and that, having succeeded him in the kingdom, he raised great armies, and sent out great fleets, as well on the Mediterranean as the Red Sea; that he expended a vast sum and many thousands of lives in a fruitless effort to unite and Nile and the Red Sea by a canal; and that he was the first to send a ship wholly around Africa. Josiah king of Judah being tributary to the king of Babylon, opposed Necho on his first expedition against Nebuchadnezzar, and gave him battle at Megiddo, where he received the wound of which he died; and Necho pressed forward, without making any long stay in Judea. On his return from the Euphrates, where he had taken and garrisoned the city of Carchemish, B. C. 610, he halted at Riblah in Syria; and sending for Jehoahaz, king of the Jews, he deposed him, loaded him with chains, and sent him into Egypt. Then coming to Jerusalem, he set up Eliakim, or Jehoiakim, in his place, and exacted the payment of one hundred talents of silver and one talent of gold. The accompanying cut from the great "Tomb of the Kings" in Egypt, explored by Belzoni, is believed to represent four Jewish hostages or captives of distinction presented before Pharaoh-Necho. One of them may be meant for Jehoahaz.
They were colored white; and with them were four reds, four blacks, and four others white supposed to represent Babylonians, Ethiopians, etc. They were led before the king, seated on his throne, by one of the hawk-headed figures so frequent on Egyptian monuments. Jeremiah 46:2 , acquaints us that Carchemish was retaken by Nabopolassar king of Babylon, in the fourth year of Jehoiakim king of Judah; so that Necho did not retain his conquests in Syria more than four year, 2 Kings 23:29-24:7 2 Chronicles 35:20-36:6 .
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Pharaoh
Is properly an Egyptian word adopted into the Hebrew, and signifies king; so that when we find this name it means everywhere the king. Thus, also, Pharaoh Hophra is simply king Hophra.
Of the kings of Egypt, there are not less than twelve or thirteen mentioned in Scripture, all of whom bore the general title of Pharaoh, except four. Along with this title, two of them have also other proper names, Necho and Hophra. The following is their order. Some of them have been identified, by the labors of Champollion and others, with kings whose proper names we know from other sources, while others still remain in obscurity. Indeed, so brief, obscure, and conflicting are the details of Egyptian history and ancient chronology, which no name before that of Shishak can be regarded as identified beyond dispute.
1. Pharaoh, Genesis 12:15 , in the time of Abraham, B. C. 1920. He was probably a king of the Theban dynasty.
2. Pharaoh, the master of Joseph, Genesis 37:36 39:1-23 Acts 7:10,13 , B. C. 1728. Some suppose that the Pharaoh to whom Joseph became Prime Minister was the son of the one mentioned in Genesis 37:36 .
3. Pharaoh, who knew not Joseph, and under whom Moses was born, B. C. 1571, Exodus 1:8 Acts 7:18 Hebrews 11:23 .
Very probably there was another Pharaoh reigning at the time when Moses fled into Midian, and who died before Moses at the age of eighty returned from Midian into Egypt, Exodus 2:11-23 4:19 Acts 7:23 .
4. Pharaoh, under whom the Israelites left Egypt, and who perished in the Red Sea, Exodus 5:1-14:31 2 Kings 17:7 Nehemiah 9:10 Psalm 135:9 136:13 Romans 9:17 Hebrews 11:27 , B. C. 1491.
5. Pharaoh, in the time of David, 1 Kings 11:18-22 ; B. C. 1030.
6. Pharaoh, the father-in-law of Solomon, 1 Kings 3:1 7:8 9:16,24 , B. C. 1010.
7. Shishak, near the end of Solomon's reign, and under Rehoboam, B. C. 975,1 Kings 11:40 14:25 2 Chronicles 12:2 . From this time onward the proper name of the Egyptian kings are mentioned in Scripture. See SHISHAK.
8. Zerah, king of Egypt and Ethiopia in the time of Asa, B. C. 930; called Osorchon by historians. See ZERAH.
9. So, or Sevechus, contemporary with Ahaz, B. C. 730,2 Kings 17:4 . See SO.
10. Tirhakah, king of Ethiopia and Egypt, in the time of Hezekiah, B. C. 720,2 Kings 19:9 Isaiah 37:9 . The Tearcho of Strabo, and the Taracles of Manetho. See TIRHAKAH.
11. Pharaoh Necho, in the time of Josiah, B. C. 612,2 Kings 23:29-30 2 Chronicles 35:20-24 , etc. Necho, the son of Psammeticus. See NECHO.
12. Pharaoh Hophra, contemporary with Nebuchadnezzar. He was the grandson of Necho, and is the Apries of Herodotus. Zedekiah formed an alliance with him against Nebuchadnezzar, and he drove the Assyrians from Palestine, took Zidon and Tyre, and returned to Egypt with great spoil. He seems to have done nothing to prevent the subsequent destruction of Jerusalem, Jeremiah 37:1-5 47:1 Ezekiel 29:21 . He reigned twenty-five years, and was dethroned by his army after an unsuccessful expedition against Cyrene, as was foretold, Jeremiah 44:30 .
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Pharaoh
PHARAOH. The later Egyptian royal title, Per-‘o , Great House,’ adopted into Hebrew. Originally designating the royal establishment in Egypt, it graduailly became the appellative title of the king, and from the 22nd Dyn. ( c [1] . b.c. 950) onwards was regularly attached to the king’s name in popular speech. The Hebrew Pharaoh-necho and Pharaoh-hophra are thus precise renderings of Egyptian. Shishak also was entitled Per-‘o Sheshonk in Egyptian, but apparently Hebrew had not yet adopted the novel fashion, and so gave his name without Pharaoh ( 1 Kings 11:40 ; 1 Kings 14:24 ). Tirhakah is not entitled Pharaoh as in Egyptian documents, but is more accurately described as king of Cush ( 2 Kings 19:9 ).
The following Pharaohs are referred to without their names being specified: 1 . Pharaoh of Abram ( Genesis 12:10-20 ), impossible to identify. The title Pharaoh and the mention of camels appear to be anachronisms in the story. 2. Pharaoh of Joseph ( Genesis 39:1-23 etc.). The proper names in the story, viz. Potiphar, Potiphera, Asenath, Zaphenath-paneah are at once recognizable (when the vocalization is discounted) as typical names (Petepre, Esnelt, Zepnetefonkh) of the late period beginning with the 22nd Dyn. ( c [1] . b.c. 950), and ending in the reign of Darius ( c [1] . b.c. 500). It has been conjectured that the Pharaoh of Joseph was one of the Hyksos kings, but it is not advisable to press for historical identifications in this beautiful legend. 3. and 4. The Pharaohs of the Oppression and the Exodus. The name of Raamses , given to a store-city built by the Hebrews ( Exodus 1:11 ), points to one of the kings named Ramesses in the 19th 20th Dyn. as the Pharaoh of the Oppression. The chief of these was Ramesses ii. ( c [1] . b.c. 1350), after whom several towns were named. He was perhaps the greatest builder in Egyptian history. His son Mineptah might be the Pharaoh of the Exodus: but from the fifth year of Mineptah there is an Egyptian record of the destruction of ‘Israel,’ who, it would seem, were already in Palestine. At present it is impossible to ascertain the proportion of historical truth contained in the legends of the Exodus 5:1-23 . 1 Chronicles 4:18 , ‘Bithiah, daughter of Pharaoh’: no clue to identity. Bithiah is Heb., and not like an Egyp. name. 6. 1 Kings 3:1 ; 1Ki 9:16 ; 1 Kings 9:24 ; 1 Kings 11:1 , Pharaoh, the father-in-law of Solomon, must be one of the feeble kings of the end of the 21st Dynasty. 7. 1 Kings 11:18 , the Pharaoh who befriended Hadad the Edomite in the last days of Solomon, and gave him the sister of his queen Tahpenes: not identified. (At this point in the narrative Shishak comes in: he is never called Pharaoh, see above.) 8. Pharaoh, king of Egypt in 2 Kings 18:21 , Isaiah 36:6 etc., perhaps as a general term for the Egyptian king, not pointing to any individual. In the time of Sennacherib and Hezekiah, Tirhakah or some earlier king of the Ethiopian Dynasty would be on the throne. 9. For Jeremiah 37:1-21 , Ezekiel 29:1-21 , see Hophra.
F. Ll. Griffith.
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Pharaoh, the Wife of
The wife of one Pharaoh, the king who received Hadad the Edomite, is mentioned in Scripture. She is called "queen," and her name, Tahpenes, is given. [1]
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Pharaoh Pharaohis Daughter
The term ‘Pharaoh’ was an honorary title of the kings of Egypt. In biblical history several Pharaohs are met with, especially in connexion with Abraham, Joseph, and Moses. In the NT there are some interesting references. Thus in his speech (Acts 7) St. Stephen proves God’s care for Joseph and Moses by the confidence Pharaoh placed in the former, and the protection given to the latter by the daughter of the reigning king. The writer of Hebrews (Hebrews 11:24) finds in the story of Moses who ‘refused to become the son of Pharaoh’s daughter’ an outstanding instance of faith refusing this world’s glory for the better part. St. Paul in his great argument for election in Romans (ch. 9) gives the Pharaoh of the Exodus as an illustration of God’s absoluteness in dealing with men. ‘Just as the career of Moses exhibits the Divine mercy, so the career of Pharaoh exhibits the Divine severity, and in both cases the absolute sovereignty of God is vindicated’ (Sanday-Headlam, ICC_, ‘Romans’5, Edinburgh, 1902, on 9:17).
J. W. Duncan.

Sentence search

Pharaoh's Daughter, - Three Egyptian princesses, daughters of Pharaohs, are mentioned in the Bible:--
The preserver of Moses, daughter of the Pharaoh who first oppressed the Israelites. daughter of a Pharaoh of an uncertain age, probably of about the time of the exodus. (1 Chronicles 4:18 ) [2] (B
Pharaoh - This was the regal title of the kings of Egypt, so the mere appellation, 'Pharaoh' in no way intimates which king is alluded to. The Pharaoh who took Abram's wife, Sarai, into his house (about B. The Pharaoh who promoted Joseph (about B. The Pharaoh who knew not Joseph (about B. The Pharaoh from whom Moses fled when he was grown up (about B. The Pharaoh of the Exodus (about B. The Pharaoh whose daughter Bithiah was married to Mered, of the tribe of Judah. The Pharaoh whose daughter was married to Solomon (about B. This Pharaoh captured and burntthe city of Gezer in Canaan, and gave the site to his daughter. The Pharaoh who received Hadad when he fled from Solomon, and gave him his sister-in-law to wife (about A. ...
The title 'Pharaoh' is judged by Professor Sayce to signify 'Great House' [1], or somewhat similar to the 'Sublime Porte,' or Gate
Pharaoh, the Wife of - The wife of one Pharaoh, the king who received Hadad the Edomite, is mentioned in Scripture. [1]
Necho - We read of Pharaoh Neeho, king of Egypt, 2 Kings 23:29. Probably the name of Necho was added to that of Pharaoh on account of some lameness, as Necho means lame
Pharoah - It should seem that Pharaoh was the common name of the kings of Egypt, since we find that both he that knew Joseph, and he that knew him not, were both called Pharaoh. Indeed we find a Pharaoh in the days of Abraham. (Genesis 12:10-15) The name of Pharaoh implies a destroyer, derived from Parah. The Pharaoh, the tyrant of Egypt, we know most of in Scripture, was a type of the devil; and as such the Lord's people should read his history, %with the Lord's striking observation upon him
Pharaoh - Pharaoh. The Hebrew Pharaoh-necho and Pharaoh-hophra are thus precise renderings of Egyptian. Shishak also was entitled Per-‘o Sheshonk in Egyptian, but apparently Hebrew had not yet adopted the novel fashion, and so gave his name without Pharaoh ( 1 Kings 11:40 ; 1 Kings 14:24 ). Tirhakah is not entitled Pharaoh as in Egyptian documents, but is more accurately described as king of Cush ( 2 Kings 19:9 ). ...
The following Pharaohs are referred to without their names being specified: 1 . Pharaoh of Abram ( Genesis 12:10-20 ), impossible to identify. The title Pharaoh and the mention of camels appear to be anachronisms in the story. Pharaoh of Joseph ( Genesis 39:1-23 etc. It has been conjectured that the Pharaoh of Joseph was one of the Hyksos kings, but it is not advisable to press for historical identifications in this beautiful legend. The Pharaohs of the Oppression and the Exodus. as the Pharaoh of the Oppression. His son Mineptah might be the Pharaoh of the Exodus: but from the fifth year of Mineptah there is an Egyptian record of the destruction of ‘Israel,’ who, it would seem, were already in Palestine. 1 Chronicles 4:18 , ‘Bithiah, daughter of Pharaoh’: no clue to identity. 1 Kings 3:1 ; 1Ki 9:16 ; 1 Kings 9:24 ; 1 Kings 11:1 , Pharaoh, the father-in-law of Solomon, must be one of the feeble kings of the end of the 21st Dynasty. 1 Kings 11:18 , the Pharaoh who befriended Hadad the Edomite in the last days of Solomon, and gave him the sister of his queen Tahpenes: not identified. (At this point in the narrative Shishak comes in: he is never called Pharaoh, see above. Pharaoh, king of Egypt in 2 Kings 18:21 , Isaiah 36:6 etc
Pharaoh - Every ancient Pharaoh had five “great names” which he assumed on the day of his accession. Since it was not deemed proper to use such powerful names in direct fashion, a polite circumlocution developed; he came to be called Pharaoh. ...
Egyptians applied “pharaoh” to the royal palace and grounds in the fourth dynasty (about 2500 B. The title Pharaoh came to be applied to the king from about 1500 B. ...
An ancient Pharaoh was an absolute monarch, supreme commander of the armies, chief justice of the royal court, and high priest of all religion. His absolute power may be seen in that justice was defined as “what Pharaoh loves”; wrongdoing as “what Pharaoh hates. ...
References to ten Pharaohs can be clearly distinguished in the Old Testament: the Pharaoh of Abraham, Genesis 12:10-20 ; of Joseph, Genesis 39-50 ; of the Oppression, Exodus 1:1 ; of the Exodus, Exodus 2:23-15:19 ; of 1 Chronicles 4:18 ; of Solomon, 1 Kings 3-11 ; of Rehoboam, called Shishak, king of Egypt, 1 Kings 14:25 ; of Hezekiah and Isaiah, 2 Kings 18:21 ; Isaiah 36:1 ; of Josiah, 2 Kings 23:29 ; of Jeremiah 44:30 and Ezekiel 29:1-16
Hophra - See Pharaoh HOPHRA
Pharaoh - Pharaoh (fâ'ro, or fâ'ra-o). The common title of the king of Egypt—also called Pharaoh-necho and Pharaoh-hophra. Ten Pharaohs are mentioned in the Old Testament. The Pharaoh of the time of Abraham. The Pharaoh of Joseph, Genesis 41:1-57, was the last, or the last but one, of the fifteenth dynasty; probably identical with Apophis, who reigned at least 26 years, b. The Pharaoh of the Oppression—" the new king over Egypt who knew not Joseph," Exodus 1:8, and under whose reign Moses was born—probably Rameses II. The Pharaoh of the Exodus, Exodus 5:1, before whom Moses wrought his miracles, was Menephtha, son of Rameses II. The Pharaoh whose daughter, Bithiah, was given in marriage to Mered, a descendant of Judah. The Pharaoh who gave the sister of his queen in marriage to Hadad, an Edomite of royal blood, who escaped the massacre of Joab and fled to Egypt. The Pharaoh whose daughter Solomon married and brought "into the city of David until he had made an end of building his own house, and the house of the Lord," 1 Kings 3:1, consequently before the eleventh year of his reign, in which year the temple was finished. This Pharaoh afterward made an expedition into Palestine, took Gezer, and gave it to his daughter, Solomon's wife. The Pharaoh to whom king Hezekiah was allied in his war with Sennacherib. Pharaoh-nechoh, also called amply Necho, reigned from b. Pharaoh-hophra, the Apries of secular history, was the second successor of Necho, and entered Palestine, probably in b. Pharaoh-hophra was afterward deposed by his own subjects, and finally strangled
Genubath - ” Son of Hadad, king of Edom, and the sister of Tahpenes, the wife of Egypt's Pharaoh (1 Kings 11:19-20 ). The name of the Egyptian Pharaoh is not known
Pharaon - ) See Pharaoh, 2
Necho - See EGYPT [1]...
Bithiah - The daughter of a Pharaoh, who became the wife of Mered, a descendant of Judah ( 1 Chronicles 4:18 ). Whether Pharaoh is to be taken here as the Egyp
Zaphenath-Paneah - The name given by Pharaoh to Joseph ( Genesis 41:45 ). name in late times (see Pharaoh, 2 , and cf
Pharaoh - Thus, also, Pharaoh Hophra is simply king Hophra. ...
Of the kings of Egypt, there are not less than twelve or thirteen mentioned in Scripture, all of whom bore the general title of Pharaoh, except four. Pharaoh, Genesis 12:15 , in the time of Abraham, B. Pharaoh, the master of Joseph, Genesis 37:36 39:1-23 Acts 7:10,13 , B. Some suppose that the Pharaoh to whom Joseph became Prime Minister was the son of the one mentioned in Genesis 37:36 . Pharaoh, who knew not Joseph, and under whom Moses was born, B. ...
Very probably there was another Pharaoh reigning at the time when Moses fled into Midian, and who died before Moses at the age of eighty returned from Midian into Egypt, Exodus 2:11-23 4:19 Acts 7:23 . Pharaoh, under whom the Israelites left Egypt, and who perished in the Red Sea, Exodus 5:1-14:31 2 Kings 17:7 Nehemiah 9:10 Psalm 135:9 136:13 Romans 9:17 Hebrews 11:27 , B. Pharaoh, in the time of David, 1 Kings 11:18-22 ; B. Pharaoh, the father-in-law of Solomon, 1 Kings 3:1 7:8 9:16,24 , B. Pharaoh Necho, in the time of Josiah, B. Pharaoh Hophra, contemporary with Nebuchadnezzar
Pharaoh Pharaohis Daughter - The term ‘Pharaoh’ was an honorary title of the kings of Egypt. In biblical history several Pharaohs are met with, especially in connexion with Abraham, Joseph, and Moses. Stephen proves God’s care for Joseph and Moses by the confidence Pharaoh placed in the former, and the protection given to the latter by the daughter of the reigning king. The writer of Hebrews (Hebrews 11:24) finds in the story of Moses who ‘refused to become the son of Pharaoh’s daughter’ an outstanding instance of faith refusing this world’s glory for the better part. 9) gives the Pharaoh of the Exodus as an illustration of God’s absoluteness in dealing with men. ‘Just as the career of Moses exhibits the Divine mercy, so the career of Pharaoh exhibits the Divine severity, and in both cases the absolute sovereignty of God is vindicated’ (Sanday-Headlam, ICC_, ‘Romans’5, Edinburgh, 1902, on 9:17)
Bithiah - Daughter of some Pharaoh and wife of Mered, a descendant of Judah
Tahpenes - The wife of Pharaoh, who gave her sister in marriage to Hadad the Edomite (1 Kings 11:19,20 )
Bithi'ah - (daughter of the Lord ), daughter of a Pharaoh, and wife of Mered
Pha'Raoh, - " As several kings are mentioned only by the title "Pharaoh" in the Bible, it is important to endeavor to discriminate them:
The Pharaoh of Abraham . ( Exodus 1:8 ) --The first Persecutor of the Israelites may be distinguished as the Pharaoh of the oppression, from the second, the Pharoah of the exodus especially as he commenced and probably long carried on the persecution. One class of Egyptologists think that Amosis (Ahmes), the first sovereign of the eighteenth dynasty, is the Pharaoh of the oppression; but Brugsch and others identify him with Rameses II. , whom Brugsch thinks was probably the Pharaoh of the exodus, who with his army pursued the Israelites and were overwhelmed in the Red Sea. The dumb tumults covers the misfortune: which was suffered, for the record of these events was inseparably connected with the humiliating confession of a divine visitation, to which a patriotic writer at the court of Pharaoh would hardly have brought his mind. ...
Pharaoh, father-in-law of Mered . --In the genealogies of the tribe of Judah, mention is made of the daughter of a Pharaoh married to an Israelite--" Bithiah the daughter of Pharaoh. " ( 1 Chronicles 4:18 ) ...
Pharaoh, brother-in-law of Hadad the Edomite . ( 1 Kings 11:18-20 ) ...
Pharaoh, father-in-law of Solomon . --The mention that the queen was brought into the city of David while Solomon's house and the temple and the city wall were building shows that the marriage took place not later than the eleventh year of the king, when the temple was finished, having been commenced in the Pharaoh led an expedition into Palestine. ( 1 Kings 9:16 ) ...
Pharaoh, the opponent of Sennacherib . --This Pharaoh, ( Isaiah 36:6 ) can only be the Sethos whom Herodotus mentions as the opponent of Sennacherib and who may reasonably be supposed to be the Zet of Manetho. --The first mention in the Bible of a proper name with the title Pharaoh is the case of Pharaoh-necho, who is also called Necho simply. (2 Kings 24:7 ) ...
Pharaoh-hophra . --The next king of Egypt mentioned in the Bible is Pharaoh-hophra, the second successor of Necho, from whom he was separated by the six-years reign of Psammetichus II. In the Bible it is related that Zedekiah, the last king of Judah was aided by a Pharaoh against Nebuchadnezzar, in fulfillment of it treaty, and that an army came out of Egypt, so that the Chaldeans were obliged to raise the siege of Jerusalem. It was evidently continuously invested for a length of time before was taken, so that it is most probable that Pharaoh's expedition took place during 590 or 589. 2 Kings 25:1-4 No subsequent Pharaoh is mentioned in Scripture, but there are predictions doubtless referring to the misfortunes of later princes until the second Persian conquest, when the prophecy, "There shall be no more a prince of the land of Egypt," ( Ezekiel 30:13 ) was fulfilled. (In the summer of 1881 a large number of the mummies of the Pharaohs were found in a tomb near Thebes --among them Raskenen, of the seventeenth dynasty, Ahmes I. A group of coffins belonging to the twenty-first dynasty has been found, and it is probable that we will learn not a little about the early Pharaohs, especially from the inscriptions on their shrouds
Batyah - Daughter of Pharaoh, saved Baby Moses when she saw him floating in the Nile and raised him as her own
Pithom - one of the cities that the Israelites built for Pharaoh in Egypt, during the time of their servitude, Exodus 1:11
Shiphrah - ” Midwife for Israel in Egypt who disobeyed Pharaoh because they feared God (Exodus 1:15-21 )
Bithiah - (Pharaoh's Daughter): Daughter of Pharaoh, saved Baby Moses when she saw him floating in the Nile and raised him as her own
Plagues of Egypt - These were wrought by God to show to Pharaoh and to the Egyptians His great power, and that all the elements of creation were at His disposal. ' The magicians also were able to turn water into blood: where then was the great power of the God of Israel? Pharaoh hardened his heart. The presence of the frogs was so insufferable that Pharaoh called for Moses, and begged him to entreat Jehovah for their removal, and he would let the people go. The frogs died and were gathered in heaps; but with the relief, Pharaoh hardened his heart, and would not let the people go. " Yet Pharaoh's heart was hardened, and he would not let Israel go. The plague was felt so much that Pharaoh hastened to call Moses, and proposed that they should have their sacrifice, but have it in Egypt. Pharaoh at length consented to their going; but they were not to go very far away. However no sooner was the plague removed than Pharaoh again refused to let Israel go. Pharaoh sent to certify this, and one would have thought that, finding they were all safe, it would have convinced him that it was the Almighty he was fighting against. The magicians were now smitten, so that they could not stand before Pharaoh as at other times. But Pharaoh hardened his heart, and refused to let the people go. " The hail and thunder ceased; but Pharaoh would not let Israel go. Moses threatened these, and Pharaoh's servants now begged him to let the people go. Pharaoh again refused, but said the men might go. The devastation of the locusts was such that Pharaoh sent for Moses and Aaron 'in haste,' confessed that he had sinned against Jehovah, and begged that 'this death' might be removed. A west wind carried away the locusts but Pharaoh's heart was hardened; and he again refused. " It was a darkness that might be felt, and Pharaoh called for Moses, and bade the Israelites to depart with their wives and their little ones; but they must leave their flocks and herds behind. Pharaoh was angry, saying, "Take heed to thyself, see my face no more: for in that day thou seest my face thou shalt die. " This is in Exodus 10:29 ; but in Exodus 11:4-8 it is clear that Moses told Pharaoh of the death of the firstborn, which might have been on the same occasion by a message direct from God. We read that Moses, though the meekest of men, went out from Pharaoh in great anger. "From the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne, unto the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon; and all the firstborn of cattle. " Thus did God bring His sore judgements upon Egypt, to let Pharaoh know that He was the mighty God, and to redeem His chosen people with a high hand
Zaphnath-Paaneah - Savior of the world, an Egyptian name given by Pharaoh to Joseph, in commemoration of the salvation wrought through him, Genesis 41:45
Potiph'Erah, - was priest or prince of On, and his daughter Asenath was given Joseph to wife by Pharaoh
Raamses - One of the cities built by the children of Israel in Egypt for Pharaoh
Pharaoh - Josephus says, that all the kings of Egypt, from Minaeus, the founder of Memphis, who lived several ages before Abraham, always had the name of Pharaoh, down to the time of Solomon, for more than three thousand three hundred years. He adds, that, in the Egyptian language, the word Pharaoh means king, and that these princes did not assume the name until they ascended the throne, at which time they quitted their former name
Mingled People - Pharaoh Hophra's mercenaries; whose employment provoked the native Egyptians to overthrow him (Ezekiel 30:5)
Pharaoh - Egyptian kings were known by the title Pharaoh. To the Egyptian people Pharaoh was a god-king, one who embodied a god during his life and went to the world of the gods at his death (see EGYPT). The Bible, however, treats the various Pharaohs as it treats the kings of other nations. ...
Some Pharaohs are mentioned favourably in the Bible. The Pharaoh whom Abraham visited was more honest in his behaviour than Abraham (Genesis 12:10-20), and the Pharaoh of Joseph’s time was sensible and generous (Genesis 41:37-45; Genesis 41:55; Genesis 45:16-20; Genesis 47:20-22; Genesis 50:4-6). Later, other Pharaohs oppressed the Israelites and made them slaves. ...
The most infamous of the Pharaohs was the man who opposed Moses and hardened his heart against God. By confirming Pharaoh in his hardness of heart, God showed the greatness of Pharaoh’s evil and the justice with which he punished it (Exodus 9:12; Romans 9:14-18; see PLAGUE). ...
In the final plague on Egypt, the firstborn in all Egyptian families, including Pharaoh’s, died. This prompted Pharaoh at last to release the Israelites (Exodus 11:1-9; Exodus 12:29-32). When Pharaoh changed his mind and tried to recapture the Israelites, he and his soldiers were killed in a mighty judgment at the Red Sea (Exodus 14:5-9; Exodus 14:28). ...
Most of the remaining Pharaohs of the Bible story are mentioned in relation to Egypt’s political and military involvement with Judah during the time of the Israelite monarchy (e
Tah'Penes, - an Egyptian queen, was wife of the Pharaoh who received Hadad the Edomite, and who gave him her sister in marriage
Tahpenes - Wife of the Pharaoh (conjectured to be Psusennes of the Tanitic line) who received Hadad the Edomite, when fleeing from David (1 Kings 11:19)
Tirhakah - (tuhr hay' kuh) Egyptian Pharaoh of the twenty-fifth dynasty (689-664 B
Thirty - Joseph was thirty years old when he stood before Pharaoh
Hophra - , Pharaoh-HOPHRA (called Apries by the Greek historian Herodotus) king of Egypt (B
Shiph'Rah - (brightness ), ( Exodus 1:15 ) the name of one of the two midwives of the Hebrews who disobeyed the command of Pharaoh to kill the mule children
Shishak - A Pharaoh of Egypt known also as Sheshonk I. Some equate him with the Pharaoh whose daughter married Solomon (1 Kings 3:1 ) and who later burned Gezer and gave it to his daughter (1 Kings 9:16 )
Asenath - Daughter of Potipherag, priest or prince of On; given in marriage by Pharaoh to Joseph, as adding honor and strength to his high office
Re - The chief Egyptian god, worshiped at his Temple in Thebes, credited with creating the universe and believed to have been the first Pharaoh
Potiphar - Egyptian chamberlain of Pharaoh’s butchers
Megiddo - a city of the tribe of Manasseh, famous for the battle fought there between Pharaoh-Necho and King Josiah, in which the latter was defeated and mortally wounded, Joshua 17:11 ; Judges 1:27 ; 2 Kings 23:29
Handmaid - It is probable that Hagar was Sarah's personal attendant while she was in the house of Pharaoh, and was among those maid-servants whom Abram had brought from Egypt
Carchemish - A chief city of northern Syria, on the Euphrates, where a great and decisive battle was fought, in which Nebuchadnezzar defeated Pharaoh-necho
Zaph'Nath-pa-Ane'ah, - a name given by Pharaoh to Joseph
Gen'Ubath, - the son of Hadad, an Edomite of the royal family, by an Egyptian princess, the sister of Tahpenes, the queen of the Pharaoh who governed Egypt in the latter part of the reign of David
Bulrush - In Exodus 2:3 , the material that was used to make the ark in which the infant Moses was placed to protect him from the edict of Pharaoh requiring that every male Hebrew child be drowned
Genubath - Son of Hadad, an Edomite of the king's seed, by an Egyptian princess, sister of Tahpenes, queen of the Pharaoh who ruled Egypt in David's reign (1 Kings 11:14-20). Born and weaned by the queen in the palace, and reckoned in the household among Pharaoh's sons
Armageddon - The plain of Esdraelon, the great Old Testament battle field between Israel and the various enemies of Jehovah's people: the scene of Barak's victory over Canaan, and Gideon's over Midian (Judges 4; 5; 7), the scene also of Saul's death and Israel's defeat before the Philistines (1 Samuel 31), and of Josiah's death in battle with Pharaoh Necho (2 Kings 23:29-30). As he and his army represent the professing church, so Pharaoh Necho and the Egyptians the God-opposed world. The triumph of Pharaoh then shall be utterly reversed in the last conflict of the ten confederate kings under Antichrist against the Lamb and His hosts (not merely professors, but "called, chosen, and faithful") (Revelation 17:12-14; Revelation 19:11-21)
Brick - A new Pharaoh who “knew not Joseph” (Exodus 1:6-8 ) enslaved the Jews. When Moses confronted Pharaoh for Israel's freedom, the angered Pharaoh increased his demands of the slaves
Horseman - The army of Pharaoh consisted of a chariot and infantry force
Magicians - Such were the magicians in the court of Pharaoh, Exodus 7:11, etc
Potiphar - A high officer of Pharaoh, who purchased Joseph of the Midianites, and made him master of his house, but afterwards imprisoned him on a false charge
Eliakim - The son of Josiah who was placed on the throne of Judah by Pharaoh Neco of Egypt (2 Kings 23:34 ). The Pharaoh changed the name of Eliakim to Jehoiakim
Shunem, Shunammites - The site was captured by the Egyptian Pharaoh Thutmose III about 1450 B. , the Egyptian Pharaoh Shishak captured the town
Tahpenes - The name of Pharaoh’s wife, whose sister was given to Hadad the Edomite. The Pharaoh should be of the weak 21st Dynasty
Sar hamashkim - Fell out of Pharaoh�s graces. He later recommended that Joseph interpret Pharaoh's dreams, leading to Joseph's appointment as viceroy of Egypt
Treasure-Cities - Pharaoh compelled the Hebrews to build him treasure-cities
Misheal - The town appears in the list of towns conquered by Pharaoh Thut-mose III
Pharaoh's butler - Fell out of Pharaoh�s graces. He later recommended that Joseph interpret Pharaoh's dreams, leading to Joseph's appointment as viceroy of Egypt
pi'Thom - (the city of justice ), one of the store-cites Israelites for the first oppressor, the Pharaoh "which knew not Joseph
Pithom - One of the store-cities built bythe Israelites for the Pharaoh 'who knew not Joseph
Hyksos - Eventually, one of these local rulers managed to consolidate the rule of northern Egypt as Pharaoh, thus beginning the Fifteenth Dynasty. As these dynasties of Pharaohs were not ethnic Egyptians, they were remembered by the native population as “Hyksos. ”...
While the Hyksos Pharaohs ruled northern Egypt from Avaris in the eastern Delta, the native Egyptian Seventeenth Dynasty ruled southern Egypt from Thebes. The status quo was maintained until war erupted between the Hyksos and the last two Pharaohs of the Seventeenth Dynasty. As the first Pharaoh of a reunited Egypt, Ahmose I established the Eighteenth Dynasty and inaugurated the Egyptian New Kingdom or Empire. ...
Joseph's rise to power (Genesis 41:39-45 ) as Pharaoh's second-in-command would have been far more likely under a Hyksos king. Ahmose I is very likely the Pharaoh “who did not know Joseph” (Exodus 1:8 NRSV). If Joseph served a Hyksos Pharaoh, an Egyptian king would not have “known” of him in a political or historical sense, nor would he have regarded him as significant in an ethnic sense
Hanes - frontier of Egypt, to which the Jews sent ambassadors with presents for the reigning Pharaoh (perhaps Zet or Sethos of the 23rd dynasty), as also to the neighbouring Zoan his capital
Straw - The Egyptians reaped grain close to the ear, afterward they cut the straw close to the ground and laid the straw by Pharaoh refused this straw to Israel, who therefore had to gather the short stubble left; translated Exodus 5:12, "gather (qash ) stubble for the straw," i
Jochebed - The Talmud identifies her with the midwife Shifra, who practiced midwifery in Egypt together with Puah (Miriam), and defied Pharaoh’s orders to kill Israelite babies
Pithom - One of the cities built by the children of Israel for Pharaoh in Egypt, during their servitude, Exodus 1:11
pu'ah - ...
One of the two midwives to whom Pharaoh gave instructions to kill the Hebrew male children at their birth
Pharaoh - Now it was just because Pharaoh the father did not have the history of Egypt read to him in that way that he and his son came to such a terrible end. But the times are changed since Pharaoh's day. And, in our measure, we should all be instructed statesmen, like the royal patron of Mordecai and Esther; and it will go ill with us, and with those who come after us, if we are like Pharaoh, who had never heard of Joseph, and what Joseph had done for the land of Egypt. That was the statute-book, and that was the sword and the sceptre, that this Pharaoh handed down to his son who succeeded him, and who was that new Pharaoh whom God raised up to show in him His power, and that through him His name might be declared throughout all the earth. A Pharaoh, says Philo, whose whole soul from his cradle had been filled full of the arrogance of his ancestors. What! Moses! of all men in the world, to come into my presence with a demand like that! Had Moses been some great ambassador who had come in a ship from some far country; had Moses and Aaron come with great gifts and in a great name to negotiate a royal league with Egypt, Pharaoh would have done them honour. Moses had blood upon his hands in his youth, as Pharaoh's counsellors kept him well in mind. And if it turns out with you like Pharaoh, and if Pharaoh rises up in the day of judgment to condemn you, then stand up on the left hand and tell the Judge to His face that He never gave you and your children a chance. Moses! Who, I would like to know, is Moses? Pharaoh was still shouting out that to his captains when the Red Sea rolled in and cut short his scorn. ...
What sign showest Thou, said the unbelieving Jews to our Lord, that we may see, and believe Thee? What dost Thou work? Let me see a miracle, said Pharaoh to Moses and Aaron, and then I will let Israel go. And to satisfy Pharaoh, and to soften his heart, Aaron cast down his rod before Pharaoh, and before his servants, and it became a serpent. But instead of saying, This is the Lord, and proclaiming an edict that the people should go free, Pharaoh called in his sorcerers and his magicians, and they did in like manner with their enchantments. And miracle succeeded miracle; miracles of judgment were wrought and miracles of mercy; but they all ended in the same way-Pharaoh's heart was only the more hardened. We would have said that it was a very promising and a very hopeful state of mind in Pharaoh to ask for some proof of the divine embassy of Moses and Aaron, and then he would obey. But, all the time, the evil seed of all Pharaoh's after life and death of sin lay at the heart of that innocent-looking, hopeful-sounding demand. For, innocent as it looked, and hopeful as it sounded, Pharaoh's demand put upon God, and upon Moses and Aaron, the first step of Pharaoh's repentance and obedience. If no miracle had followed his request, then Pharaoh would have felt fully justified in holding to his refusal. And, as it was, when his magicians did something sufficiently like Aaron's rod, then Pharaoh fell back and took his stand upon that, till the miracle upon which he had suspended his obedience was wrought in vain. Pharaoh's first step to his salvation, had he but taken it, was not to see a miracle, but to do what he knew to be right. Had Pharaoh said to his servants-Come, let us read in the book of the kingdom. That was all that was asked of Pharaoh for the time; and, had he not been filled full from his cradle with the ignorance and arrogance of his ancestors, Moses and he would soon have come to terms, and Egypt and Israel would have been friends and allies to this day. But Pharaoh took a wrong turn and a false step when lie still asked for evidence where he should have offered obedience; and that wrong turn and that false step laid him at last in the bottom of the Red Sea. For this cause, among others, God raised up Pharaoh that he might speak to you out of the Ked Sea, saying, Learn of me. But turn away tonight from your first duty; make postponements; seek more convenient seasons; raise obstacles; make conditions; seek for signs, and put it off yourself, and put it upon God and upon His servants, to wait for you and to make terms with you, and from this night your heart will harden like Pharaoh's heart till your end is like his. He took Pharaoh's turn. May he turn again! Turn him, O Lord, before he goes on to Pharaoh's end. ...
The magicians led on Pharaoh so far, but a time came when their enchantments could carry them no farther. Do, they advised Pharaoh-do what is asked of thee, and let the people go. For, by that time, Pharaoh's heart was so hardened by their enchantments that he would not hearken to the too late advice of his old enchanters. We have seen infidels, and scoffers, and gamblers, and drunkards, and all manner of profligates made by the score, as the magicians made Pharaoh; made, that is, little by little, till the work was finished, and till those who began it and carried it so far on were laughed at when they said, This, I fear, is the finger of God. The very sorcerers themselves at last believed, but Pharaoh still held out. ...
But stroke after stroke, plague after plague, fell upon Pharaoh till even he was brought at last to his knees. Then Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron, and said, Entreat the Lord and I will let the people go. But when Pharaoh saw that there was to be respite, he hardened his heart and hearkened not unto them. Fatal Pharaoh! Everything that came to Pharaoh hardened his hard heart. God was fairly battled with Pharaoh. God was completely defeated by Pharaoh. Pharaoh's heart was hardened. Pharaoh was his name. What is your name? Well, when we substitute your name for Pharaoh's name in the terrible passage about the respite, we have in that passage the last chapter, the latest written-out chapter, of your evil life. Stay up alone and set yourself to think what conceivable end God can have had in raising you up, and in filling your life so full of so many accumulated and aggravated sentences and respites of sentences? God tells us Himself for what purpose He raised up Pharaoh. And, read what God says about His purpose with Pharaoh in what light you like, and offer what explanations of it you like, still it remains a terrible story and a terrible sentence. What do you think, what do you suppose, God has raised you up for? Are you, do you think, would you believe, being sentenced and respited, sentenced and respited, and sentenced and respited again in order to show how far grace can go-your sin and God's grace? Who can tell, but that as Pharaoh stands to the end of time the proof of God's power, so you are to stand at the opposite pole as the proof of His long-suffering and super-abounding grace? Yes, that must be it in you
Hadad-Rimmon - ) The scene of the national lamentation for Josiah's death in the battle fought here with Pharaoh Necho (2 Kings 23:29; 2 Chronicles 35:23)
Potipherah - His daughter Pharaoh gave in marriage to Joseph
Abomination - So when Pharaoh told Israel to offer sacrifice to Jehovah in Egypt without going to the wilderness, Moses objected: "we shall sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians before their eyes" (the cow, the only animal which all the Egyptians held sacred), "and will they not stone us?" (Exodus 8:26) compare the Jews' own practice in later times (Acts 10:28). Therefore Joseph tells his brethren to inform Pharaoh, "Our trade hath been about cattle, both we and also our fathers," i. hereditarily; for Pharaoh would be sure then to plant them, not in the heart of the country, but in Goshen, the border land. The Egyptians themselves reared cattle, as Pharaoh's offer to make Joseph's brethren "overseers of his cattle" proves (Genesis 47:6), and as their sculptures and paintings show; but they abominated the nomad shepherds, or Bedouins, because the Egyptians, as being long civilized, shrank, and to the present day shrink, from the lawless predatory habits of the wandering shepherd tribes in their vicinity
Necho - Necho (nç'ko) or Pharaoh-necho. "Pharaoh-necoh" in the R
Tahpanhes - Pharaoh had there a "palace" being built or repaired in the prophet's time, with bricks made of clay in a "brick kiln" at the entry. Of the same materials, Jeremiah foretells, should the substructure of Nebuchadnezzar's throne be built, implying that Nebuchadnezzar's throne should be raised on the downfall of Pharaoh's throne: Jeremiah 46:14, "publish in Migdol (E. In Jeremiah 2:16 "the children of Noph (Memphis, the capital) and Tahapanes" (with which the Jews came most in contact) represent the Egyptians generally, who under Pharaoh Necho slew the king of Judah, Josiah, at Megiddo, and deposed Jehoahaz for Eliakim or Jehoiakim (2 Kings 23:29-30; 2 Kings 23:33-35)
ha'Dad - The title appears to have been an official one, like Pharaoh. Pharaoh, the predecessor of Solomon's father-in-law, treated him kindly, and gave him his sister-in-law in marriage
Riblah - City in the land of Hamath, where Pharaoh-nechoh imprisoned Jehoahaz, and whence the king of Babylon carried Zedekiah, when he slew his sons and the priests and chief men of Judah
Baal Zephon - In Egypt, where Israel encamped before Pharaoh overtook them at the Red Sea (Ezekiel 14:2; Ezekiel 14:9; Numbers 33:7), W
Miriam - The Talmud identifies her with the midwife Puah, who practiced midwifery in Egypt together with Shifrah (Jochebed), and defied Pharaoh’s orders to kill Israelite babies
Shaving - Hence Joseph shaved before he was presented to Pharaoh, Genesis 41:14
Pharaoh - (See EGYPT; EXODUS for the list of the Pharaohs. Abraham's Pharaoh was probably of the 12th dynasty, when foreigners from western Asia were received and promoted. ...
Joseph was under an early Pharaoh of the 13th dynasty, when as yet Pharaoh ruled over all Egypt, or probably under Amenemha III, sixth king of the 12th, who first regulated by dykes, locks, and reservoirs the Nile's inundation, and made the lake Moeris to receive the overflow. Thothroes II was the Pharaoh of the Exodus, drowned in the Red Sea. ) (See JOSIAH; NEBUCHADNEZZAR; JERUSALEM; EGYPT, on Pharaoh Necho II and Pharaoh Hophra. Pharaoh HOPHRA succeeded Psamme tichus II, Necho's successor. Ezekiel (Ezekiel 29-32) foretold the conquest of Pharaoh and invasion of Egypt by Nebuchadnezzar. National vanity would prevent the Egyptian priests from telling Herodotus of Egypt's loss of territory in Syria (which Josephus records) and of Nebuchadnezzar's share in raising Amasis to the throne instead of Hophra The language of Jeremiah 44:30 is exact to the truth: "I will give Pharaoh Hophra into the hands of his enemies, and of them that seek his life," namely, Amasis and his party; Nebuchadnezzar is not mentioned until the end of the verse. In Ezekiel 30:21, "I have broken the arm of Pharaoh king of Egypt
Bithiah - ) Pharaoh's daughter and wife of Mered, a descendant of Judah. In Lepsius' Kings' Book, Amenophis II, (in his view) father of the Pharaoh drowned at the Red Sea, has among his children one with the hieroglyphic Amun P or B T H, i. (See EGYPT, where is stated Canon Cook's view that Thothmes II, much earlier; was the Pharaoh drowned; Amenophis III had a wife not Egyptian in creed, and not of royal birth, named Tel, and her parents Juaa and Tuaa, names not unlike Bithia
Pharaoh - We may understand that Pharaoh thus represents GOD the Father just in this passage. ...
Romans 9:17 (c) In this passage GOD presents Pharaoh as an example of one in whom He works and deals as He will with all other obstinate sinners
Agag - Flame, the usual title of the Amalekite kings, as "Pharaoh" was of the Egyptian
Bithiah - ” Daughter of an Egyptian Pharaoh whom Mered, a descendant of tribe of Judah, married (1 Chronicles 4:17 NAS, RSV; 1 Chronicles 4:18 KJV; NIV)
Hodiah - The same as Jehudijah (but Keil gives reason for Hodiah being a man (See JEHUDIJAH)) "the Jewess" (1 Chronicles 4:18), to distinguish her from his other wife Bithiah ("worshipper of Jehovah"), an Egyptian princess, daughter of Pharaoh, a convert from idolatry
Agag - " It is supposed that 'Agag' was the common title of the kings of the Amalekites, as Pharaoh was that of the Egyptians
Jehoiakim - or ELIAKIM, the brother and successor of Jehoahaz, king of Judah, was advanced to the throne by Pharaoh-Necho, king of Egypt, A
Riblah - There Pharaoh Neco imprisoned King Jehoahaz of Judah after the young monarch had reigned only three months (2 Kings 23:31-33 )
Potiphar - ]'>[1] ‘captain of the guard’), and likewise saris , ‘eunuch’ of Pharaoh. Joseph was sold to Potiphar, on whose wife’s accusation he was cast into the king’s prison (in Potiphar’s own house), to which Pharaoh afterwards committed his chief butler and chief baker
Potiphar - Potiphar, with whom the history of Joseph is connected, is described as "an officer of Pharaoh, chief of the executioners, an Egyptian
Abimelech - This seems to have been the title of the kings of Philistia, as Caesar was of the Roman emperors, and Pharaoh of the sovereigns of Egypt
Raamses, Rameses - District in Goshen in Lower Egypt, east of the Nile, in which Jacob and his descendants were placed, and in which they built a treasure city of the same name for Pharaoh
Zaphnath-Paaneah - The name which Pharaoh gave to Joseph when he raised him to the rank of prime minister or grand vizier of the kingdom (Genesis 41:45 )
Discreet - ...
Let Pharaoh look out a man discreet and wise
Birth-Day - The only scriptural notices of birth-days being kept are in reference to Pharaoh, Genesis 40
Gezer - Gezer was in Ephraim; given to Kohath, Joshua 21:21; 1 Chronicles 6:67; noticed in the wars of David, 1 Samuel 27:8; 2 Samuel 5:25; 1 Chronicles 20:4; burned by Pharaoh in Solomon's days, 1 Kings 9:15-17; given to Solomon's Egyptian wife, and rebuilt by him; was an important city in the time of the Maccabees
Riblah - At Riblah king Jehoahaz was taken and deposed by Pharaoh- necho; here also Nebuchadnezzar established his headquarters when warring against Judah, 2 Kings 23:33 ; 25:6,20,21 ; Jeremiah 39:5 ; 52:10
Pot'Iphar, - with whom the history of Joseph is connected is described as an officer of Pharaoh chief of the executioners, an Egyptian
Midwives - Egyptians: translated Exodus 1:15 "midwives of the Hebrew women," for Pharaoh would never employ Hebrew women to destroy the males of their own nation; the answer of the midwives implies they were used to attend Egyptian women (Exodus 1:19). " Pharaoh probably only desired to kill the males of the chief Hebrew, who alone would call in midwives
no, no-Amon - Pharaoh after Pharaoh added to the magnificent temples of Karnak and its “queen” just to the south, Luxor
Goshen - fortified anew) for Pharaoh Raamses and Pithom as treasure cities (Genesis 47:11; Exodus 1:11). The answer of Joseph's brethren to Pharaoh (Genesis 46:28; Genesis 46:34), "thy servants have been herdsmen from our youth," (Joseph so instructing them "that ye may dwell in . ...
Pharaoh calls Goshen "the best of the land" (Genesis 47:5-11), namely, for a pastoral people as Israel; for in tillage the parts of Egypt next the Nile are more fertile than Goshen. In Goshen Pharaoh implies he kept some of his cattle, over which he proposes to set Israelites as rulers of herdsmen
Agag - A general name of the kings of the Amalekites; apparently like Pharaoh for the Egyptian kings, Numbers 1:1-36:13 24:7 1 Samuel 15:8
Jannes And Jambres - Though the names do not appear in the Old Testament, rabbinic tradition identified Jannes and Jambres as being among those Egyptian magicians who sought to duplicate for Pharaoh the miracles performed by Moses (Exodus 7:11 )
Japhia - In the Amarna Letters, the Egyptian Pharaoh required the town to supply forced laborers after Labayu of Shechem destroyed Shunem
Shallum - Shallum of Judah (who was also known as Jehoahaz) reigned only three months before Pharaoh Necho deposed him and took him captive to Egypt (in 609 BC; 2 Kings 23:30-34; Jeremiah 22:11-12; see JEHOAHAZ)
Make - ’ In Ezekiel 17:17 ‘Neither shall Pharaoh with his mighty army and great company make for him in the war,’ ‘make for’ means ‘assist
Moses - Born in Egypt and raised by Pharaoh’s daughter
Zaphnathpaaneah - Name given to Joseph by Pharaoh
Herd, Herdsman - All the sons of Jacob were introduced to Pharaoh as shepherds, and men whose trade had been to feed cattle
Herself - ...
The daughter of Pharaoh came down to wash herself
Joseph - He landed in Egypt, where, after enduring slavery and prison, he interpreted Pharaoh’s puzzling dreams and became viceroy of the land
Carchemish - The Babylonian army, under Nebuchadnezzar, the son of Nabopolassar, here met and conquered the army of Pharaoh-necho, king of Egypt (B
a'Gag - (flame ), possibly the title of the kings of Amalek, like Pharaoh of Egypt
Plagues of Egypt - The design of these visitations, growing more awful and tremendous in their progress, was to make Pharaoh know, and confess, that the God of the Hebrews was the supreme Lord, and to exhibit his power and his justice in the strongest light to all the nations of the earth, Exodus 9:16 ; 1 Samuel 4:8 , &c; to execute judgment upon the Egyptians and upon all their gods, inanimate and bestial, for their cruelty to the Israelites, and for their grovelling polytheism and idolatry, Exodus 7:14-17 ; Exodus 8:20-23 . The judgment then inflicted upon the river, and all the waters of Egypt, in the presence of Pharaoh and of his servants, as foretold,—when, as soon as Aaron had smitten the waters of the river, they were turned into blood, and continued in that state for seven days, so that all the fish died, and the Egyptians could not drink of the waters of the river, in which they delighted as the most wholesome of all waters, but were forced to dig wells, for pure water to drink,—was a significant sign of God's displeasure for their senseless idolatry in worshipping the river and its fish, and also "a manifest reproof of that bloody edict whereby the infants were slain," Wis_11:7 . ...
The plague of lice, which was produced without any previous intimation to Pharaoh, was peculiarly offensive to a people so superstitiously nice and cleanly as the Egyptians; and, above all, to their priests, who used to shave their whole body every third day, that neither louse, nor any other vermin, might be found upon them while they were employed in serving their gods, as we learn from Herodotus; and Plutarch informs us, that they never wore woollen garments, but linen only, because linen is least apt to produce lice. But the appointed time of this plague was in the middle of winter; and, accordingly, this plague extorted Pharaoh's partial consent, "Go ye, sacrifice to your God, but in the land;" and when Moses and Aaron objected the offence they would give to the Egyptians, who would stone them for sacrificing "the abomination of the Egyptians," namely, animal sacrifices, he reluctantly consented, "only ye shall not go very far away;" for he was apprehensive of their flight, like his predecessor, who first enslaved the Israelites, Exodus 1:10 ; and he again desired them to "entreat for him. " But he again dealt deceitfully; and after the flies were removed so effectually that not one was left, when Moses "entreated the Lord, Pharaoh hardened his heart this fifth time also, neither would he let the people go. "...
This second breach of promise on the part of Pharaoh drew down a plague of a more deadly description than the preceding. " It was immediately inflicted by God himself, after previous notification, and without the agency of Moses and Aaron, to manifest the divine indignation at Pharaoh's falsehood. ...
At length, after Pharaoh had repeatedly abused the gracious respites and warnings vouchsafed to him and his servants, a sorer set of plagues, affecting themselves, began to be inflicted; and Moses now, for the first time, appears as the executioner of divine vengeance; for in the presence of Pharaoh, by the divine command, he sprinkled ashes of the furnace toward heaven, and it became a boil, breaking forth with blains upon man and upon beast. And now "the Lord," for the first time, "hardened the heart of Pharaoh," after he had so repeatedly hardened it himself, "and he hearkened not unto them, as the Lord had foretold unto Moses," Exodus 9:12 . Though Pharaoh probably felt the scourge of the boil, as well as his people, it did not soften nor humble his heart; and when he wilfully and obstinately turned away from the light, and shut his eyes against the luminous evidences vouchsafed to him of the supremacy of the God of the Hebrews, and had twice broken his promise when he was indulged with a respite, and dealt deceitfully, he became a just object of punishment; and God now began to increase the hardness or obduracy of his heart. This plague was formally announced to Pharaoh and his people: "I will at this season send all my plagues upon thine heart, and upon thy servants, and upon thy people, that thou mayest know that there is none like me in all the earth. This rendering of the passage is more conformable to the context, the Chaldee paraphrase, and to Philo, than the received translation, "For now I will stretch out my hand, that I may smite thee and thy people with pestilence;" for surely Pharaoh and his people were not smitten with pestilence; and "they were preserved" or kept from immediate destruction, according to the Septuagint, διετηρηθης , "to manifest the divine power," by the number and variety of their plagues. " And this warning had some effect: "He that feared the word of the Lord among the servants of Pharaoh, made his servants and his cattle flee into the houses; and he that regarded not the word of the Lord, left his servants and his cattle in the field," Exodus 9:17-21 . " Pharaoh sent and called for Moses and Aaron, and said unto them, "I have sinned this time; the Lord is righteous, and I and my people are wicked: entreat the Lord," for it is enough, "that there might be no more mighty thunderings and hail; and I will let you go, and ye shall stay no longer. " But when there was respite, Pharaoh "sinned yet more, and hardened his heart, he and his servants; neither would he let the people go," Exodus 9:27-35 . Pharaoh had humbled himself, and acknowledged his own and his people's guilt, and the justice of the divine plague: the Lord, therefore, forbore this time to harden his heart. This terrific and horrible plague compelled Pharaoh to relax; he offered to let the men and their families go; but he wished to keep the flocks and herds as security for their return; but Moses peremptorily declared, that not a hoof should be left behind. Again "the Lord hardened Pharaoh's heart, so that he would not let them go,"...
Exodus 10:21-27 . "And the Lord said unto Moses, Pharaoh shall not hearken unto you, that my wonders may be multiplied in the land of Egypt. And Moses and Aaron did all these wonders before Pharaoh; and the Lord" ultimately "hardened Pharaoh's heart, so that he would not let the children of Israel go out of his land," Exodus 11:9-10 . This passage forms the conclusion to the nine plagues, and should properly follow the preceding; for the result of the tenth and last plague was foretold, that Pharaoh should not only let them go, but surely thrust them out altogether, Exodus 11:1 . ...
The tenth plague was announced to Pharaoh with much solemnity: "Thus saith the Lord, About midnight will I go out into the midst of Egypt, and all the first-born in the land of Egypt shall die, from the first-born of Pharaoh that sitteth upon his throne, even to the first-born of the maid- servant that is behind the mill; and all the first-born of cattle. Such a threat, delivered in so high a tone, both in the name of the God of Israel and of Moses, did not fail to exasperate the infatuated Pharaoh, and he said, "Get thee from me; take heed to thyself; see my face no more: for in the day thou seest my face thou shalt die. And he went out from Pharaoh in great anger,"...
Exodus 10:28-29 ; Exodus 11:8 . ...
"For when all things were wrapt in still silence, ...
And night, in her proper speed, holding her mid course, Thy all powerful oracle leapt down from heaven, ...
Out of the royal throne, a fierce warrior, ...
Into the midst of the land of destruction, Wielding a sharp sword, thine unfeigned command, ...
And standing up, he filled the whole with death, ...
He touched the heavens, indeed, but trod upon the earth!" ...
"And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he and all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and he called for," or sent to, "Moses and Aaron by night, and said, Get you forth from among my people, both ye and the children of Israel; and go, serve the Lord, as ye said; take also your flocks and your herds, and be gone; and bless me also. " It is evident from the extreme urgency of the occasion, when all the Egyptians apprehended total destruction, if the departure of the Israelites was delayed any longer, that Pharaoh had no personal interview with Moses and Aaron, which would have wasted time, and was quite unnecessary; he only sent them a peremptory mandate to be one on their own terms
Jehoahaz - Zedekiah, though put before Jehoahaz or Shallum in 1 Chronicles 3:15, was younger; 2 Chronicles 36:11 he is given precedence because of his longer reign, namely, eleven years, whereas Jehoahaz reigned but three months, then was carried by Pharaoh Necho to Egypt, never to return. The people set up Jehoahaz out of order; Johanan is never after mentioned; the pagan Pharaoh set up Jehoiakim; Nebuchadnezzar Zedekiah. "to whom it is requited"; a second "Shallum," son of Jabesh, who reigned only one mouth in Samaria (2 Kings 15:13), instead of Shalom, "peaceful," like Solomon: bitter irony! The popular party set great hopes upon him (Jeremiah 22:10-12), as though he would deliver the kingdom from Pharaoh Necho, and "anointed" him with extraordinary ceremony to compensate for his defective title to the throne. Meditating revenge for his father's death at Megiddo (2 Kings 23:29-30), Jehoahaz was carried captive from "Riblah" in Hamath to Egypt by Pharaoh Necho; "they brought him with chains (or hooks or rings, fastened in wild beasts' noses, appropriate figure as he was compared to a 'lion'; the Assyrian king literally put a hook through the nose of captives, as appears in the Ninevite remains) unto . ...
Doubtless Pharaoh, having there dethroned him, took him thence to "Riblah. ...
Indeed Pharaoh did not recognize the reign of Jehoahaz because elevated without his consent; therefore the words are "Pharaoh made Eliakim king in the room of Josiah his father" (2 Kings 23:34)
Riblah - Here the Egyptian king Pharaoh-nechoh put Jehoahaz in chains and made Eliakim king, and here Nebuchadnezzar brought Zedekiah, murdered his sons before his eyes, and then put out his eyes and bound him in chains to be carried to Babylon
Tah'Panhes, Tehaph'Nehes, Tahap'Anes, - (Jeremiah 2:16 ; 46:14 ) Here stood a house of Pharaoh-hophra before which Jeremiah hid great stones
Aretas - The common appellation (like Pharaoh for Egyptian kings) of the Arabian kings of the northern part of Arabia
Jannes And Jambres - Jannes and Jambres were doubtless the leaders of the Egyptian magicians who imitated the first plagues before Pharaoh; but who, when it was a question of the creation of life, had to confess that the finger of God was there
Goshen - ' Pharaoh bade Joseph place his father and his brethren in the best of the land
Zoan - It was here that Moses and Aaron met with Pharaoh and here the 'plagues' were wrought; for it was in the 'field of Zoan' that God did marvellous things
Urijah - He confirmed the predictions of Jeremiah against Judah; and having fled to Egypt for refuge from the enraged king, and been sent back by Pharaoh-necho on demand, he was wickedly slain and dishonorably buried, Jeremiah 26:20-23
Interpret - To explain or unfold the meaning of predictions, vision, dreams or enigmas to expound and lay open what is concealed from the understanding as, Joseph interpreted the dream of Pharaoh
Shishak - He comes before us without the ancient name of Pharaoh; he probably was a bold adventurer who supplanted the previous dynasty. Hence arose his hostility to Solomon, who was allied to a daughter of the former Pharaoh. A Pharaoh of the 21st dynasty took Gezer in Palestine from the Canaanites (1 Kings 9:16) and gave it as a present to his daughter, Solomon's wife. It was only late in his reign that Shishak could, like that Pharaoh, carry on foreign wars. Shishak early in his reign received Jeroboam the political exile, fleeing from Solomon, Jeroboam's enemy, toward whom Shishak would feel only jealousy, having no He of affinity as the Pharaoh of the previous dynasty had
Pharaoh - ...
The Pharaoh who was on the throne when Abram went down into Egypt (Genesis 12:10-20 ) was probably one of the Hyksos, or "shepherd kings. " ...
...
The Pharaoh of Joseph's days (Genesis 41 ) was probably Apopi, or Apopis, the last of the Hyksos kings. Is this singular fact to be explained from the presence of some of Joseph's kindred at the Egyptian court? Pharaoh said to Joseph, "Thy father and thy brethren are come unto thee: the land of Egypt is before thee; in the best of the land make thy father and brethren to dwell" (Genesis 47:5,6 ). , stone and metal imitations of the beetle (symbols of immortality), originally worn as amulets by royal personages, which were evidently genuine relics of the time of the ancient Pharaohs, were being sold at Thebes and different places along the Nile. This led him to suspect that some hitherto undiscovered burial-place of the Pharaohs had been opened, and that these and other relics, now secretly sold, were a part of the treasure found there. " "It seems strange that though the body of this man," who overran Palestine with his armies two hundred years before the birth of Moses, "mouldered to dust, the flowers with which it had been wreathed were so wonderfully preserved that even their colour could be distinguished" (Manning's Land of the Pharaohs). The mummy of this Pharaoh, when unrolled, brought to view "the most beautiful mummy head ever seen within the walls of the museum. The sculptors of Thebes and Abydos did not flatter this Pharaoh when they gave him that delicate, sweet, and smiling profile which is the admiration of travellers. , is probably the Pharaoh of the Oppression. ...
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The Pharaoh of the Exodus was probably Menephtah I. or his father Menephtah was the Pharaoh of the Exodus. This, there is great reason to believe, was the Hebrew exodus, with which the Nineteenth Dynasty of the Pharaohs came to an end. , the builder of Pithom, and Egyptian scholars have long seen in him the Pharaoh of the Exodus. We may therefore see in the reference to them the Pharaoh's version of the Exodus, the disasters which befell the Egyptians being naturally passed over in silence, and only the destruction of the 'men children' of the Israelites being recorded. " ...
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The Pharaoh of 1 Kings 11:18-22 . ...
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The Pharaoh of 1 Chronicles 4:18 . ...
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Pharaoh, whose daughter Solomon married (1 Kings 3:1 ; 7:8 ). ...
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Pharaoh, in whom Hezekiah put his trust in his war against Sennacherib (2 Kings 18:21 ). ...
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The Pharaoh by whom Josiah was defeated and slain at Megiddo (2 Chronicles 35:20-24 ; Ezekiel 17:11-132 ). ) ...
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Pharaoh-hophra, who in vain sought to relieve Jerusalem when it was besieged by Nebuchadnezzar (q
Abel-Mizraim - " The phrase, "Joseph spake unto the house of Pharaoh" implies that Pharaoh and his estates in council decreed a state funeral for Jacob, in which the princes, nobles, and chief men of Egypt, with their pomp of chariots and equipages, took part
Megiddo - When Pharaoh-necho came from Egypt against the king of Assyria, Josiah joined the latter, and was slain at Megiddo
Hadad - When a child he was carried into Egypt: Pharaoh eventually gave him his sister-in-law as wife
Tahpanhes - Jeremiah, after the murder of Gedaliah, was taken to this place, and Pharaoh had a palace built or restored there, made of bricks In a brick-kiln
Goshen - Goshen was largely protected from the plagues that fell on other parts of Egypt during the time of Moses’ conflict with Pharaoh (Exodus 8:22; Exodus 9:26)
Moses - In his infancy, because of the cruel edict of Pharaoh, he was hid in a boat-cradle in the Nile; but was found and adopted by the daughter of Pharaoh. "And there arose not a prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom the Lord knew face to face, in all the signs and the wonders which the Lord sent him to do in the land of Egypt, to Pharaoh, and to all his servants, and to all his land, and in all that mighty land, and in all the great terror which Moses showed in the sight of all Israel
Gezer - Three different kings of Gezer wrote the Egyptian Pharaoh. claims the Pharaoh captured Gezer. A few years later, Egypt's Pharaoh captured the city from the Canaanites and gave it to Solomon as a wedding gift for Solomon's marriage with the Pharaoh's daughter
Plague - ...
God in his mercy gave advance notice of the plagues and consistently gave Pharaoh the chance to repent; but the longer Pharaoh delayed, the more he increased the judgment that was to fall on him (Exodus 9:15-19)
Hardening - ) Pharaoh’s hardening is regarded as typical. In Exodus, two explanations are given of his stubbornness: (1) ‘Pharaoh hardened his heart’ ( Romans 8:15 ; Romans 8:32 ); (2) ‘the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh’ ( Romans 9:12 )
Abim'Elech - (father of the king ), the name of several Philistine kings, was probably a common title of these kings, like that of Pharaoh among the Egyptians and that of Caesar and Augustus among the Romans. A similar account is given of Abraham's conduct of this occasion to that of his behavior towards Pharaoh
Rings - When Pharaoh committed the government of Egypt to Joseph, he took his ring from his finger and gave it to Joseph, Genesis 41:42 . Pharaoh gave his ring to Joseph, as a token of authority
Enchantments -
The rendering of Hebrew Latim_ or _lehatim , Which means "something covered," "muffled up;" secret arts, tricks ( Exodus 7:11,22 ; 8:7,18 ), by which the Egyptian magicians imposed on the credulity of Pharaoh
Commend - The princes commended Sarai before Pharaoh
Carchemish - Taken by Pharaoh Necho after the battle of Megiddo in which king Josiah, Babylon's ally, fell 610 B
Jehoiakim - Jehoiakim was a throne name given to him by Pharaoh Neco of Egypt, who deposed his brother Jehoahaz
Etham - Had Etham been half way between Mukfar and Ajrud (Robinson, Chart), Pharaoh could not have overtaken them, whether he was at Zoan or Rameses, which was two days journey from Etham
Rameses - After the Israelites became slaves, they were forced to help build Rameses and Pithom (Exodus 1:11 ) as store cities for Pharaoh Rameses II
Height - ...
Ezekiel 32:5 (a) Hereby we learn that GOD will humble and bring down in defeat and humiliation Pharaoh, the King of Egypt
Aaron's Rod - The rod Aaron used to demonstrate to the Pharaoh that the God of the Hebrews was Lord
First-Begotten, First-Born, - Moses was to say to Pharaoh, "Thus saith the Lord, Israel is my son, even my first-born. Because Pharaoh refused to let God's first-born go, all the first-born of Egypt were slain
zo'an - This cite is mentioned in connection with the plagues in such a manner as to leave no doubt that it is the city spoken of in the narrative in Exodus as that where Pharaoh dwelt, ( Psalm 78:42,43 ) and where Moses wrought his wonders on the field of Zoan a rich plain extending thirty miles toward the east. "One of the principal capitals of Pharaoh is now the habitation of fishermen the resort of wild beasts, and infested with reptiles and malignant fevers
Adoption - in Moses being an adopted son of the daughter of Pharaoh, Exodus 2:10 , and Esther being adopted by her cousin Mordecai, Esther 2:7 . Moses was instructed to say to Pharaoh, "Thus saith Jehovah, Israel is my son, even my firstborn
Uncircumcised - "...
Exodus 6:12, Exodus 6:30 (a) Moses evidently thought he knew GOD so little, and also was among the enemies of Pharaoh, that his message would not be acceptable to Pharaoh, and would lack authority. He had rejected the power of Egypt, and he had no official promotion to be GOD's messenger in the sight of Pharaoh, and therefore he spoke as he did about his own lips
Hardness of the Heart - ...
When God's people were in captivity in Egypt, “Pharaoh hardened his heart” (Exodus 8:32 ) as he refused to let the Israelites go. One of the puzzling aspects of this hard heart is that in the next chapter in the contest between God and Pharaoh, “the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh, and he hearkened not unto them” (Exodus 9:12 ). ...
The explanation of saying God hardened Pharaoh's heart seems to be that this is the way of punishment which comes as the consequence of his own initial self hardening. Pharaoh hardened his own heart and then became confirmed in his obstinacy
Savour - ’ It is also used figuratively in the sense of reputation , Exodus 5:21 ‘Ye have made our savour to be abhorred in the eyes of Pharaoh’ (lit
Straw - This was the straw that Pharaoh refused to give to the Israelites who were therefore compelled to gather "stubble" instead --a matter of considerable difficulty, seeing that the straw itself had been cut off near to the ground
Sepharvaim - ) The recent discovery of cuneiform inscriptions at Tel el-Amarna in Egypt, consisting of official despatches to Pharaoh Amenophis IV
Embalming - (See Pharaoh
Elishah - Among the Amarna letters from Egypt are letters from the king of Elishah to the Pharaoh mentioning copper exports
Merneptah - and thought by many to be the Pharaoh of Egypt when the Exodus occurred
Jehudijah - ) Bertheau simply transposes "these are the sons of Bithiah the daughter of Pharaoh whom Mered took," and puts the clause after "Jalon
Libya - Pharaoh Shishak I (about 950 B
Akhenaton - (ahkh' ehn ah' tuhn) Egyptian Pharaoh (1370-1353 B
Gezer, Gezrites - It was taken and burnt by Pharaoh as a Canaanitish city, and the site given to his daughter whom Solomon had married
Aven - It appears, however, highly probable, by the behaviour of Pharaoh to Joseph and Jacob, and especially by Joseph's care to preserve the land to the priests, Genesis 47:22-26 , that the true religion prevailed in Egypt in his time; and it is incredible that Joseph should have married the daughter of the priest of On, had that name among the Egyptians denoted only the material light; which, however, no doubt they, like all the rest of the world, idolized in after times, and to which we find a temple dedicated among the Canaanites, under this name, Joshua 7:2
Abel-Misraim - On this occasion the funeral procession was, at the command of Joseph, attended by "all the elders of Egypt, and all the servants of Pharaoh, and all his house, and the house of his brethren, chariots and horsemen, a very great company;" an affecting proof, as it has been remarked, of Joseph's simplicity and singleness of heart, which allowed him to give to the great men of Egypt, over whom he bore absolute rule, an opportunity of observing his own comparatively humble origin, by leading them in attendance upon his father's corpse to the valleys of Canaan, the modest cradle of his race, and to their simple burial places
Jehoiakim - When his father Josiah was killed in battle with Pharaoh Necho (609 BC), the people of Judah made one of Josiah’s younger sons king in preference to the older Jehoiakim (2 Chronicles 35:20-25; 2 Chronicles 36:1-2). Pharaoh Necho, considering himself the master of Judah, replaced the people’s choice with his own. ...
In order to raise the large amount of money that Pharaoh Necho demanded each year from Judah, Jehoiakim taxed his people heavily (2 Kings 23:35)
Candace - Pliny (6:35) and Strabo (17:820), pagan authors, confirm Scripture as to Candace being the name of the Ethiopian queens, as Pharaoh was common to the Egyptian kings
Carchemish - Here Nebuchadrezzar defeated Pharaoh-necho in b
Agag - Agag was a common name among Amalekite kings much as Pharaoh among Egyptian rulers
Taxes, Taxation, Taxing - Jehoiakim taxed the land in order to be able to pay the demands of Pharaoh, king of Egypt
Rame'Ses, - The city was one of the two store-cities built for the Pharaoh who first oppressed the children of Israel
Riblah - ...
The statement of 2 Kings 23:33 , that Pharaoh-necho put Jehoahaz in bonds at Riblah in the land of Hamath, is to be corrected by the parallel passage 2 Chronicles 36:3 , where the transaction is said to have taken place in Jerusalem itself. The true reading is, ‘and Pharaoh-necho removed him from reigning in Jerusalem’ (cf
Jehoiakim - JEHOIAKIM , whose original name was Eliakim , was placed upon the throne of Judah by Pharaoh-necho, who deposed the more popular Jehoabaz. His heart, however, was with the Pharaoh, to whom he owed his elevation
Tell - Pharaoh asked Abram: “Why didst thou not tell me that she was thy wife?” Pharaoh had taken Sarai into his harem to become his wife, God had smitten his household with great plagues. 41:24, where Pharaoh said of his dream: “… I told this unto the magicians; but there was none that could declare it to me. 10:10 Pharaoh told Moses that evil was immediately “before” his face, or was in his mind
Joseph - ...
Joseph was taken to Egypt where he became a trusted slave in the house of Potiphar, an official of the Pharaoh. On false accusations of Potiphar's wife, Joseph was thrown in the royal prison, where he interpreted the dreams of two officials who had offended the Pharaoh (Genesis 39-40 ). Eventually Joseph was brought to interpret some worrisome dreams for the Pharaoh. Pharaoh responded by making Joseph his second in command (Genesis 41:39-45 ). ...
That the influential Joseph (Genesis 47:13-26 ) is not known from Egyptian records would be expected if he served under a Hyksos Pharaoh, as seems likely
Dream - Other significant dreams are also recorded, such as those of Abimelech (Genesis 20:3-7 ), Pharaoh's chief butler and baker (40:5), Pharaoh (41:1-8), the Midianites (Judges 7:13 ), Nebuchadnezzar (Daniel 2:1 ; 4:10,18 ), the wise men from the east (Matthew 2:12 ), and Pilate's wife (27:19)
Obelisk - They apparently symbolized the rays of the rising sun and the hope of the Pharaoh for rejuvenation and new vitality
Voice - Pharaoh would not believe
Tirhakah - It is supposed that he is the Pharaoh intended in Isaiah 30:2 ; and that Isaiah 19:1-25 depicts the anarchy which succeeded his reign
Jehoahaz - He fell into the idolatrous ways of his predecessors (23:32), was deposed by Pharaoh-Necho from the throne, and carried away prisoner into Egypt, where he died in captivity (23:33,34; Jeremiah 22:10-12 ; 2 Chronicles 36:1-4 )
First-Born - ...
Menephtah is probably the Pharaoh whose first-born was slain
Pharaoh's Daughters - ...
...
"Bithiah the daughter of Pharaoh, which Mered took (1 Chronicles 4:18 )
Tahapanes, Tahpanhes, Tehaphnehes - City in Lower Egypt, where Pharaoh had a house, and whither in disobedience the people of Judah fled after the murder of Gedaliah, taking Jeremiah and Baruch with them
Rameses (ra'Amses) - One reason why the Israelites of Moses’ time were slaves in Egypt was that the Pharaoh wanted a cheap work-force to carry out his spectacular building programs
Memphis - It was founded by Menes, a Pharaoh of the First Dynasty (about 2800 B
Eliakim - The name of king Josiah’s son, who reigned after him; Pharaoh-necho changed his name to Jehoiakim ( 2 Kings 23:34 )
Array - ...
Pharaoh arrayed Joseph with fine linen
Megiddo, Megiddon - The rout of Sisera's army was in this district; and at Megiddo Josiah fell when he rashly attacked Pharaoh-nechoh
Cup-Bearer - An officer of high dignity at Eastern courts, as the butler of Pharaoh
Treasure - Pharaoh compelled the Hebrews to build him treasure cities, or magazines
Jethro - They met at the "mount of God," and "Moses told him all that the Lord had done unto Pharaoh" (Exodus 18:8 )
Plagues - They showed the God of Moses was sovereign over the gods of Egypt, including Pharaoh who was considered a god by the Egyptians. Paul used the plagues to stress the sovereignty of God in the hardening of Pharaoh's heart (Romans 9:17-18 ). Pharaoh and the Egyptians, as well as Moses and the Israelites, would come to know the Lord through the events of the plagues (Exodus 7:17 ; Exodus 8:10 ,Exodus 8:10,8:22 ; Exodus 9:14 ,Exodus 9:14,9:16 ,Exodus 9:16,9:29 )
Alliances - ...
Solomen's alliance with Pharaoh by marriage was the precursor of importing horses contrary to the law, leaning too much on human forces, and of contracting alliances with Moabite, Ammonite, Edomite, Sidonian, and Hittite wives, who seduced him from God. Josiah on the other hand was Assyria's ally against Pharaoh Necho of Egypt, and fell a victim to meddling in the world's quarrels (2 Chronicles 35:20-25). ...
Zedekiah, the last king of Judah, leant on Egypt, and Pharaoh Hophra raised the siege of Jerusalem for a time; but Nebuchadnezzar returned and took it (Jeremiah 37:1-5; Jeremiah 37:39)
Plagues, the Ten, - When Moses and Aaron came before Pharaoh, a miracle was required of them. " Its being changed into an animal reverenced by all the Egyptians, or by some of them, would have been an especial warning to Pharaoh, The Egyptian magicians called by the king produced what seemed to be the same wonder, yet Aaron's rod swallowed up the others. After this warning to Pharaoh, Aaron, at the word of Moses, waved his rod over the Nile, and the river was turned into blood, with all its canals and reservoirs, and every vessel of water drawn from them; the fish died, and the river stank. At the precise time of which Moses forewarned Pharaoh, all the cattle of the Egyptians were smitten with a murrain and died, but not one of the cattle of the Israelites suffered. Moses and Aaron were commanded to take ashes of the furnace, and to "sprinkle it toward the heaven in the sight of Pharaoh. --The account of the seventh plague is preceded by a warning which Moses was commanded to deliver to Pharaoh, respecting the terrible nature of the plagues that were to ensue if he remained obstinate. --Before the tenth plague Moses went to warn Pharaoh: "Thus saith the Lord, about midnight will I go out into the midst of Egypt; and all the first-born in the land of Egypt shall die, from the first-born of Pharaoh that sitteth upon his throne even to the first-born of the maidservant that is behind the mill; and all the first-born of beasts. The lesson that Pharaoh's career teaches us seems to be that there are men whom the meet signal judgments do not affect so as to cause any lasting repentance. In the first of each three the warning is given to Pharaoh in the morning. At the third the magicians acknowledge the finger of God; at the sixth they cannot stand before Moses; and at the ninth Pharaoh refuses to see the face of Moses any more
Agag - ) A common title of the Amalekite kings; as Pharaoh of the Egyptian
Jokmeam - Egyptian records of Thutmose III, Egyptian Pharaoh about 1504-1450 B
Zoan - Here Pharaoh was holding his court at the time of his various interviews with Moses and Aaron
Wheat - That which Pharaoh saw in his dream was the Triticum compositum, which bears several ears upon one stalk ( Genesis 41:5 )
Chushan-Rishathaim - (of the Twentieth Dynasty), but as its king is not one of the princes stated to have been conquered by the Pharaoh, it would seem that he did not actually enter Egypt
Midian - One clan, the Kenites, dwelt near Mount Sinai, and to it Moses fled from Pharaoh (Exodus 2:15)
Candace - It is somewhat singular that female sovereignty seems to have prevailed in Ethiopia, the name Candace (compare "Pharaoh," "Ptolemy," "Caesar") being a title common to several successive queens
Dragon - That it sometimes has this meaning, he thinks is clear from Ezekiel 29:3 : "Behold, I am against thee, Pharaoh king of Egypt, the great dragon that lieth in the midst of his rivers
Rib-Lah - (Jeremiah 39:5,6 ; 62:9,10,26,27 ; 2 Kings 25:6,20,21 ) In like manner Pharaoh-necho after his victory over the Babylonians at Carchemish, returned to Riblah and summoned Jehoahaz from Jerusalem before him
Egypt - The official title Pharaoh, Egyptian Peraa, means "the great house" (De Rouge). ...
Pharaoh was Suten, "king," of Upper Egypt; Shebt, "bee" (compare Isaiah 7:18), of Lower Egypt; together the SUTEN-SHEBT. Camels are not found on the monuments, yet they were among Abram's possessions by Pharaoh's gift. )...
God made Amasis the hook which He put in the jaws of Pharaoh Hophra (Apries), who was dethroned and strangled, in spite of his proud boast that "even a god could not wrest from him his kingdom" (Herodotus, 2:169). and gavest him to be meat to the people inhabiting the wilderness"; alluding to Pharaoh and his host overthrown in the Red Sea and their bodies cast on shore and affording rich spoil to Israel in the wilderness. ...
The seventh, the hail, thunder, and lightning; man, beast, herb, and tree were smitten, so that Pharaoh for the first time recognizes Jehovah as God; "Jehovah is righteous, and I and my people are wicked" (Exodus 9:27). -The kings seem to have been absolute; but the priests exercised a controlling influence so great that the Pharaoh of Joseph's time durst not take their lands even for money. The struggle with Assyria and Babylonia for the intermediate countries lasted until Pharaoh Necho's defeat at Carchemish ended Egypt's supremacy. Solomon married a Pharaoh's daughter; Tirhakah helped Hezekiah; So made a treaty with Hoshea; Pharaoh Necho was unwilling to war with Josiah; and Pharaoh Hophra (Apries) raised the Chaldaean siege of Jerusalem as Zedekiah's ally. There are few records of any dynasty before the 18th, except those of the 4th and 12th; but the names of the Pharaohs of the first six dynasties have been found, with notices implying the complete organization of the kingdom (Rouge, Recherches). Pharaoh's invitation to Joseph's family to settle in Goshen (Genesis 46:34; Genesis 47:6), not among the Egyptians, may indicate a desire to strengthen himself against the Egyptian party. The kings of this period in Manetho's list were probably rulers of parts only of Egypt, contemporary with other Pharaohs. The Pharaohs of the 12th dynasty, and the early kings of the 13th, were lords of all Egypt, which the shepherd kings were not; the latter must therefore belong to a subsequent period. The complete list of the ancestors of Seti I gives no Pharaoh between Amenemha, the last king of the 12th dynasty, and Aahmes or Amosis, the first of the 18th, who expelled the Hyksos. Abram's visit (Genesis 12:10-20) was in a time of Egypt's prosperity; nor is Abram's fear lest Sarai should be taken, and he slain for her sake, indicative of a savage state such as would exist under the foreign Hyksos rather than the previous native Egyptian kings; for in the papyrus d'Orbiney in the British Museum, of the age of Rameses II of a native dynasty, the 19th, the story of the two brothers (the wife of the elder of whom acts toward the younger as Potiphar's wife toward Joseph) represents a similar act of violence (the Pharaoh of the time sending two armies to take a beautiful wife and murder her husband on the advice of the royal councilors), at the time of Egypt's highest civilization; and this attributed not to a tyrant, but to one beloved and deified at his decease. son of the sycamore) in one of the oldest papyri relates that he, an Amu, under the 12th dynasty, rose to high rank under Pharaoh, and after a long exile abroad was restored and made "counselor among the chosen ones," to develop the resources of Egypt (just as Joseph), taking precedence among the courtiers. ...
This proves there is nothing improbable in the account of Abram's kind reception and Joseph's elevation by the Pharaoh of a native dynasty, earlier than the foreign Hyksos, who were harsh and fierce, and more likely to repel than to welcome foreigners. Asses, regarded as unclean under the middle and later empire, were among Pharaoh's presents to Abram (Genesis 12:16). So that Abram's visit seems to have been under an early Pharaoh, perhaps Amenemha, the first king of the 12th dynasty; Joseph's visit two centuries later, toward the end of the 12th or the beginning of the 13th. Joseph was quite young at his introduction to Pharaoh, and lived 110 years; but if Apophis, the contemporary of Rasekenen, the predecessor of Aahmes I who took Avaris and drove out the Hyksos, were Joseph's Pharaoh, Joseph would have long outlived Apophis; how then after his patron's expulsion could he have continued prosperous? Moreover, Apophis was not master of all Egypt, as Joseph's Pharaoh was; Rasekenen retained the Thebaid, and after Apophis' defeat erected large buildings in Memphis and Thebes. ...
JOSEPH'S Pharaoh. - There is nothing of Joseph's history which does not agree with the most prosperous period of the native dynasties; their inscriptions illustrate every fact recorded in Genesis concerning Joseph's Pharaoh. The names of the first three of the 48 kings of the 13th dynasty in the papyrus at Turin resemble Joseph's Egyptian title given by Pharaoh as his grand vizier Zafnath Paanaeh the food of life," or "the living" (compare the apposite title of the type, John 6:35). Joseph may therefore have lived trader an early Pharaoh of the 13th dynasty, prior to the Hyksos, or else of the 12th; compare the story of Saneha under Osirtasin above. ...
On was the sacerdotal city and university of northern Egypt; its chief priest, judging from the priests' titles, was probably a relative of Pharaoh. As absolute, Pharaoh could command the marriage of Joseph to the daughter of the priest of On, however reluctant the priesthood might be to admit a foreigner
Egypt - The second successor of Necho, Apries, or Pharaoh-hophra, sent his army into Palestine to the aid of Zedekiah, Jeremiah 37:5; Jeremiah 37:7; Jeremiah 37:11, so that the siege of Jerusalem was raised for a time. Inscriptions on the monuments speak of the dreams of Pharaoh; the butler's and baker's duties are indicated in pictures; one of the oldest papyri relates the story that a foreigner was raised to the highest rank in the court of Pharaoh; and Dr. Who was the Pharaoh of the oppression, and who the Pharaoh of the Exodus? To this two answers are given by different scholars: 1. , the first ruler of the eighteenth dynasty, is identified with the Pharaoh of the oppression, and Thothmes II. , about 100 years later, as the Pharaoh of the Exodus, by Canon Cook. , the third sovereign of the nineteenth dynasty, is the Pharaoh of the oppression, and Menephthah the Pharaoh of the Exodus. " Among his many structures noted on monuments and in papyri are fortifications along the canal from Goshen to the Bed Sea, and particularly at Pi-tum and Pi-rameses or Pi-ramessu; these must be the same as the treasure-cities Pithom and Rameses, built or enlarged by the Israelites for Pharaoh. ; Solomon made a treaty with king Pharaoh and married his daughter, 1 Kings 3:1; Gezer was spoiled by Pharaoh and given to Solomon's wife, 1 Kings 9:16; Solomon brought horses from Egypt; Hadad fled thither for refuge, as did also Jeroboam, 1 Kings 10:28; 1 Kings 11:17; 1 Kings 12:2; Shishak plundered Jerusalem and made Judæa tributary, 1 Kings 14:25, and a record of this invasion and conquest has been deciphered on the walls of the great temple at Karnak, or el-Karnak. " Pharaoh-necho was met on his expedition against the Assyrians by Josiah, who was slain. Pharaoh-hophra aided Zedekiah, Jeremiah 37:5-11, so that the siege of Jerusalem was raised, but he appears to have been afterward attacked by Nebuchadnezzar. " Among the most interesting ancient cities are:(a) On or Heliopolis, "the city of the sun," ten miles northeast of Cairo, where there was an obelisk of red granite 68 feet high, and erected previous to the visit of Abraham and Sarah to the land of the Pharaohs. , the Pharaoh of the oppression, which has been fully described by Maspero
Esarhaddon - Esarhaddon was an eminent military general who defeated Taharqa, Pharaoh of Egypt, in the process of conquering the entire country
Ahasuerus - It is supposed that the word Ahasuerus is an appellative, or official title, as Pharaoh was in Egypt, and that the person referred to is the Cyaxares of history, king of Media
Pithom - Egyptian, Pa-Tum, "house of Tum," the sun-god, one of the "treasure" cities built for Pharaoh Rameses II. Lansing) that these "store" cities "were residence cities, royal dwellings, such as the Pharaohs of old, the Kings of Israel, and our modern Khedives have ever loved to build, thus giving employment to the superabundant muscle of their enslaved peoples, and making a name for themselves
Lud - above if a distinction is to be made at all; otherwise, the reference is to mercenary soldiers from Lydia in Asia Minor serving in the Egyptians army, a practice apparently testified under Pharaoh Psammetichus before 600 B
Jehoahaz - Pharaoh-necho sent him a prisoner loaded with chains into Egypt, and there he died, Jeremiah 22:11-12, and his brother Jehoiakim became king in his stead
Jehoahaz - He did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord, and was deposed by Pharaoh-Necho, who sent him in chains to Egypt, where he died
Harden - Why then do ye harden your hearts, as Pharaoh and the Egyptians hardened their hearts? 1 Samuel 6 ...
So God is said to harden the heart, when he withdraws the influences of his spirit from men, and leaves them to pursue their own corrupt inclinations
Jambres - Some have supposed, that they were the magicians who for a while confronted Moses, when, at the command and in the name of the Lord, he wrought miracles before Pharaoh and his court
Savor - 5:21: “… Because ye have made our savor to be abhorred [3] in the eyes of Pharaoh
Wonder - ...
First, this word signifies a divine act or a special display of divine power: “When thou goest to return into Egypt, see that thou do all those wonders before Pharaoh, which I have put in thine hand …” ( Megid'do - When Pharaoh-necho came from Egypt against the king of Assyria, Josiah joined the latter, and was slain at Megiddo
Dragon, - Pharaoh, king of Egypt, is called the great dragon
Elie'Zar - 1523), to whom his father gave this name because "the God of my father was mine help, and delivered me from the sword of Pharaoh
Jeho'Ahaz - Pharaoh-necho sent to Jerusalem to depose him and to fetch him to Riblah
Jehoahaz - Pharaoh Necho, having just defeated and killed Josiah, considered himself the overlord of Judah and would not accept Jehoahaz as king
Red Sea - They encamped by the sea shore and Pharaoh naturally thought they were entangled in the land. ...
Pharaoh had not yet learned the power of Jehovah, and the Egyptians pursued them
Jehoiakim - Raised to the throne by Pharaoh Necho, who named him Jehoiakim (whom Jehovah establishes), having deposed Jehoahaz, the people's nominee, his younger brother. ) Pharaoh bound Jehoiakim to exact tribute from Judah, for Josiah's having taken part with Babylon against him: one talent of gold and 100 talents of silver (40,000 British pounds). So "Jehoiakim valued ('taxed') the land to give the money to Pharaoh . In this case not so; the pagan kings Pharaoh and Nebuchadnezzar made Jehoiakim and Zedekiah ("Jehovah's righteousness") confirm their covenant of subjection with the seal of Jehovah's name, the Jews' own God, by whom they had sworn fealty. " Nebuchadnezzar from Carchemish marched to Jerusalem, and fettered him as Pharaoh Necho's tributary, in the third (Dan 1) or fourth year of his reign (the diversity being caused by reckoning Jehoahaz' reign as a year, or not), intending to take him to Babylon; bat afterward for the sake of his former ally Josiah, his father, restored him as a vassal. " His intense selfishness and indifference to the people's sufferings appear in his lavish expenditure upon building palaces for himself at the very time the people were overwhelmed with paying heavy tribute to Pharaoh (Jeremiah 22:13-18)
Moses - Since the Israelites had grown to be a large people, the Egyptian Pharaoh feared their power. ...
The mother, however, acted to protect the baby Moses from the Pharaoh's death decree. She witnessed an apparently terrible twist of fate, however, when the Pharaoh's own daughter came to the river. God sent Moses back to the Pharaoh to secure the release of his people from their oppression. With the authority of that double commission, Moses returned to the Pharaoh to negotiate the freedom of his people. Moses posed his demands to the Pharaoh, announced a sign that undergirded the demand, secured some concession from the Pharaoh on the basis of the negotiations, but failed to win the release of the people. The Pharaoh closed negotiations with Moses by refusing permission for the Israelites to leave in accordance with—Moses' proposition (Exodus 10:28 ). In the wake of this failure, Moses returned to the people with a plan for escaping Egypt without the knowledge of the Pharaoh
Joseph - " These merchants were going down with a varied assortment of merchandise to the Egyptian market, and thither they conveyed him, and ultimately sold him as a slave to Potiphar, an "officer of Pharaoh's, and captain of the guard" (Genesis 37:36 ). After a while the "chief of the cupbearers" and the "chief of the bakers" of Pharaoh's household were cast into the same prison (40:2). ...
This led to Joseph's being remembered subsequently by the chief butler when Pharaoh also dreamed. Pharaoh was well pleased with Joseph's wisdom in interpreting his dreams, and with his counsel with reference to the events then predicted; and he set him over all the land of Egypt (Genesis 41:46 ), and gave him the name of Zaphnath-paaneah. " Afterwards all the cattle and all the land, and at last the Egyptians themselves, became the property of Pharaoh. ...
"The 'Story of the Two Brothers,' an Egyptian romance written for the son of the Pharaoh of the Oppression, contains an episode very similar to the Biblical account of Joseph's treatment by Potiphar's wife. , of the Pharaoh. ...
The Pharaoh of Joseph's elevation was probably Apepi, or Apopis, the last of the Hyksos kings. (see Pharaoh), long after the expulsion of the Hyksos
Etam - Pharaoh Shishak did, indeed, attack (2 Chronicles 12:2-4 )
Baldness - The Egyptians, contrary to oriental custom, shaved on joyous occasions and only let the hair grow in mourning; the mention of Joseph's "shaving" when summoned before Pharaoh is therefore an undesigned coincidence in Genesis 41:14, and mark of the truth of the Scripture record
Hophra - , is also referred to as Pharaoh in Jeremiah 37:8 ; Jeremiah 37:7 ; Jeremiah 37:11 , Ezekiel 29:3 etc
Hard - ...
Hardly means either ‘harshly,’ as Genesis 16:5 ‘Sarai dealt hardly with her,’ or ‘with difficulty,’ as Exodus 13:15 ‘Pharaoh would hardly let us go’; Matthew 19:23 ‘a rich man shall hardly enter into the kingdom of heaven’; Luke 9:39 ‘bruising him, hardly departeth from him’; Acts 27:8 ‘And, hardly passing it, came unto a place which is called The fair havens
Jehoahaz - But Pharaoh-necho, who had obtained possession of all Syria, regarded his coronation as an act of assumption, deposed him in favour of his brother Jehoiakim, and carried him away to Egypt, where he died ( 2 Kings 23:34 )
Achish - But 'Abimelech' was used as a title rather than a proper name of the kings of the Philistines, as Pharaoh was of the kings of Egypt
Abimelech - A similar thing happened with Isaac and Rebecca under another king of the same name — the name being a title of the kings of the Philistines, as Pharaoh was that of the kings of Egypt
Hadad - By her he had a son, named Genubath, whom Queen Tahpenes educated in Pharaoh's house with the king's children. Pharaoh wished to detain him, but at last permitted his return to Edom
Frog - When God plagued Pharaoh and his people, the river Nile, which was the object of great admiration to the Egyptians, was made to contribute to their punishment
Dragon - The same term, tannîn , is also applied metaphorically to Pharaoh ( Psalms 74:13 , Isaiah 51:9 ; and thus perhaps refers to the crocodile), and to Nebuchadnezzar ( Jeremiah 51:34 )
Egypt - He seeks refuge in Egypt because "there was a famine in the land" (Genesis 12:10 ); yet he must leave when Pharaoh wants to place Sarah in the royal harem. Throughout the course of the struggle between Pharaoh and Yahweh, Egypt comes to represent all that is opposed to God. Even the divine Pharaoh is unmasked as a man subject to death like his people. This was done because "the Lord loved you and brought you out with a mighty hand and redeemed you from the land of slavery, from the power of Pharaoh king of Egypt" (7:8)
Finger - The magicians said to Pharaoh, this is the finger of God
Jehoiakim - After deposing Jehoahaz, Pharaoh-necho set Eliakim, his elder brother, upon the throne, and changed his name to Jehoiakim
Whelp - ...
Ezekiel 19:3 (a) This young lion was the King of Israel who was taken prisoner by Pharaoh and carried in chains into Egypt
Hardeneth - Pharaoh had lived many years as a rebel idolator before we read that GOD had hardened his heart
Potiphar - "An officer (chamberlain) of Pharaoh, chief of the executioners," i
Ambassador - Pharaoh Necho sent ambassadors to prevent King Josiah of Judah (640-609) from joining in the battle at Megiddo, but Josiah persisted and died (2 Chronicles 35:21 )
Feast - ” That is its meaning in its first biblical occurrence, when Moses said to Pharaoh: “We will go with our young and with our old, with our sons and with our daughters, with our Rocks and with our herds will we go; for we must hold a feast unto the Lord” ( Shishak - See Pharaoh
Rings - When Pharaoh committed the government of Egypt to Joseph, he gave him his ring from his finger, Genesis 41:42
ex'Odus - (Exodus 19:40 ; 38:1 ) ...
The first part contains an account of the following particulars: the great increase of Jacob's posterity in the land of Egypt, and their oppression under a new dynasty, which occupied the throne after the death of Joseph; the birth, education, flight and return of Moses; the ineffectual attempts to prevail upon Pharaoh to let the Israelites go; the successive signs and wonders, ending in the death of the first-born, by means of which the deliverance of Israel from the land of bondage is at length accomplished, and the institution of the Passover; finally the departure out of Egypt and the arrival of the Israelites at Mount Sinai
Fly, Flies - ...
'Arob ("swarms of flies ," "divers sorts of flies ," Authorized Version), the name of the insect or insects which God sent to punish Pharaoh; see ( Exodus 8:21-31 ; Psalm 78:45 ; 105:31 ) The question as to what particular species is denoted, or whether any one species is to be understood, has long been a matter of dispute
Carchemish - Carchemish was a vassal and ally of the Hittite King Muwatallis against the Egyptian Pharaoh Ramses II at the important battle of Kadesh in 1286 B. At the very end of the Assyrian period, when Nebuchadrezzar was incorporating all former Assyrian territory within the new Babylonian Empire, Pharaoh Neco II of Egypt came to Carchemish to try to save the remnants of the Assyrian army
Rahab - And in Psalms 89:10, Rahab is said to be broken in pieces: by which is meant most probably, Pharaoh and his host. " (Psalms 74:13-14) Here is an evident allusion to the destruction of Pharaoh; and his host in the Red Sea; and afterwords causing the people, when at any time in their wilderness-state, to meet with difficulties, that the recollection of this mighty deliverance might become food to their faith, to help them through any present trouble
Commander - 12:15, its first biblical appearance: “The princes also of Pharaoh saw her [1], and commended her before Pharaoh. 21:22) and Potiphar was “an officer of Pharaoh’s and captain of the [2]guard” ( Apries - a king of Egypt, called in the sacred writings Pharaoh Hophrah, Jeremiah 44:30 . Zedekiah defended himself in Jerusalem, long and obstinately, that he might give time to Pharaoh Hophrah, or Apries, to come to his assistance
Joseph - court attendant, of Pharaoh, chief of the executioners (Hebrew, or "commander of the body guard"), the superintendence of executions belonging to the chiefs of the military caste. The story of Saneha in one of the oldest papyri records his elevation to high rank under a Pharaoh of the 12th dynasty, and his developing the resources of Egypt just as Joseph did. After a time the chief of Pharaoh's cupbearers (Hebrew), and the chief of his bakers or confectioners, were cast into prison by the king; the captain of the guard committed them as men of rank to Joseph's custody. His interpretation of their dreams, the vine with three branches and the pressing the grape juice into Pharaoh's cup, and the three baskets of white bread (the Egyptians being noted for their fancy bread and pastry) out the uppermost of which the birds ate, came to pass; Pharaoh restored the chief cupbearer, and decapitated the chief baker. After two years Pharaoh's two dreams of the seven fat and seven lean kine out of the river (Nile, yeowr Hebrew, aa Αur Egyptian, "great river": also Hapi, i. ...
Having in vain consulted his magicians or "sacred scribes" (chartumim , "bearers of spells"; the "sorcerers" do not occur until Exodus 7:11), Pharaoh through Joseph learned the interpretation, that seven years of famine (doubtless owing to failure of the Nile's overflow) should succeed to and consume all the stores remaining from the seven plenteous years. It is an undesigned mark of genuineness that Joseph is represented as "shaving" before entering Pharaoh's presence, for the Hebrew wore a beard, but the Egyptians cut it and the hair close, and represent on the monuments the idea of slovenliness or low birth by giving a beard to a man. He put his signet ring (the names of the Pharaohs were always written in an elongated, signet like, ring) on Joseph's hand in token of delegated sovereignty, a gold chain about his neck, and arrayed him in the fine linen peculiar to the Egyptian priests; and made him ride in his second chariot, while the attendants cried "Abrech," ("Rejoice thou") (Egyptian), calling upon him to rejoice with all the people at his exaltation (Canon Cook, Speaker's Commentary) Pharaoh named Joseph "Zaphnath Paaneah. Pharaoh doubtless ordered the marriage, to link his prime minister with the noblest in the land. Pharaoh himself was invested with the highest sacerdotal dignity, and could remove all disqualifications, so as to enable Joseph to be allied to the proud and exclusive priest caste. Joseph certainly professed openly his religion without molestation (Genesis 42:18), and Pharaoh recognizes the God of Joseph and His Spirit as the true God (Genesis 41:32-38-39). )...
Apophis the last of the shepherd kings was supposed to be the Pharaoh over Joseph. But Apophis was not master of all Egypt, as Joseph's Pharaoh was. Osirtasin I, the second king of the 12th dynasty, was perhaps Joseph's Pharaoh. " The tenure under the crown, subject to a rent of a fifth of the increase, could only emanate from a native Pharaoh. " If he be Joseph's Pharaoh Joseph was just the minister to carry out his grand measures. Pharaoh's one reply to all was: "go to Joseph, what he saith to you, do" (compare the Antitype: John 6:45 ff; John 2:5). ) Joseph bartered grain successively for the Egyptian money (the money was in the form of rings not coined but weighed), cattle and land, of which he retained only a fifth of the produce for Pharaoh and took nothing from the priests. ...
Not Joseph but Pharaoh it was who made the exception in behalf of the idolatrous priests, giving them grain without requiring their land (Genesis 47:22). ) Pharaoh and his court were pleased at the arrival of his brethren, and rendered him all help in removing his father and the whole household
Red Sea - Instead of proceeding from Etham, round the head of the Red Sea, and coasting along its eastern shore, the Lord made them turn southward along its western shore, and, after a stage of about twenty or thirty miles, to encamp in the valley of Bedea, where there was an opening in the great chain of mountains that line the western coast, called Pi-hahiroth, the mouth of the ridge between Migdol westward, and the sea eastward, "over against Baal-zephon," on the eastern coast; to tempt Pharaoh, whose heart he finally hardened, to pursue them when they were "entangled in the land," and shut in by the wilderness on their rear and flanks, and by the sea in their front. The leading motive with Pharaoh and his servants was to bring back the Israelites to bondage, and of the Egyptians in general, to recover the treasures of which they had been spoiled, Exodus 14:1-5 . So Pharaoh pursued the Israelites by the direct way of Migdol, with six hundred chariots, his horsemen, and his army, and overtook them encamping by the sea, beside Pi-hahiroth, over against Baal-zephon. Beside Attaka, on the eastern coast opposite, is a head land, called Ras Musa, or "the Cape of Moses;" somewhat lower, Hamam Faraun, "Pharaoh's Springs;" below Girondel, a reach of the gulf, called Birket Faraum; and the general name of the gulf is Bahr al Kolsum, "the Bay of Submersion. ' The words of this author are of the most remarkable kind: we cannot think this Heathen is writing in favour of revelation: he knew not Moses, nor says a word about Pharaoh and his host; but records the miracle of the division of the sea in words nearly as strong as those of Moses, from the mouths of unbiassed, undesigning Pagans. ...
Niebuhr wonders, also, how Pharaoh and the Egyptians could be led to follow the Israelites. "Pharaoh must have wanted prudence. " But Pharaoh and the Egyptians probably did not know their situation. If we ask, Why did the Egyptians venture to pursue the Israelites by night? Why did they not wait till day light, when they could see whither they were going? Niebuhr himself has unwittingly answered the question: Pharaoh wanted "prudence," indeed, and the Egyptians were "bereft of understanding. " And this is the Scriptural solution; for God hardened the heart of Pharaoh to follow after them, that he might be honoured upon Pharaoh and all his host; and that, by their miraculous destruction, the Egyptians might know that he was the Lord supreme, Exodus 14:4-18 . ...
The particulars of this transaction demonstrate, that neither the host of the Israelites, nor the host of Pharaoh, could possibly have passed at the head of the gulf near Suez; where the sea was only half a league broad, according to Niebuhr's own supposition, and consequently too narrow to contain the whole host of Pharaoh at once; whose six hundred chariots alone, exclusive of his cavalry and infantry, must have occupied more ground. That the recovery of the jewels of silver and jewels of gold and raiment, which they asked and obtained of the Egyptians, according to the divine command, Exodus 12:35-36 , was a leading motive with the Egyptians to pursue them; as the bringing back the Israelites to slavery had been with Pharaoh and his servants, or officers
Egypt - It was turning to the world for help, and it entangled the patriarch in conduct for which he was rebuked by Pharaoh, the prince of the world. ...
Very interesting questions arise — which of the kings of Egypt was it who promoted Joseph? which king was it that did not know Joseph? and which king reigned at the time of the Plagues and the Exodus? The result more generally arrived at is that the Pharaoh who promoted Joseph was one of the Hyksos (who being of Semitic origin, were more favourable to strangers than were the native Egyptians), and was probably APEPA or APEPI II, the last of those kings. ...
The Pharaoh of the oppression has been thought to be RAMESES II of the nineteenth dynasty, and the Pharaoh of the Exodus to be MENEPHTHAH his son. The latter had one son, SETI II, who must have been slain in the last plague on Egypt, if his father was the Pharaoh of the Exodus. Scripture does not state positively that he fell under that judgement, but it does say that God "overthrew Pharaoh and his host in the Red Sea. God also instructed Moses to say to Pharaoh, "Thou shalt be cut off from the earth. As scripture does not give the names of the Pharaohs in the Pentateuch, there is really no definite link between those mentioned therein and any particular kings as found on the monuments. Pinetem 2, of the twenty-first dynasty, is supposed to be the Pharaoh who was allied to Solomon. ...
The first Pharaoh mentioned by name is SHISHAK: he has been identifiedwith Shashank I. It will be noticed that scripture does not say that Zerah was a Pharaoh. ...
Egypt recovered this shock under Psammetichus I of Sais (twenty-sixth dynasty), and in the days of Josiah, Pharaoh-NECHO, anxious to rival the glories of the eighteenth and nineteenth dynasties, set out to attack the king of Assyria and to recover the long-lost sway of Egypt over Syria. 1480, and they were addressed to the two Pharaohsknown as Amenophis 3 and 4. Judged to be the king who oppressed Israel, and Menephthah to be the Pharaoh of the Exodus. Pinetem II is supposed to be the Pharaoh allied to Solomon
Exodus - ), which are wrought by Aaron, forma trial of strength with Pharaoh’s magicians. ) is represented as deliberately chosen in order that Israel and Egypt may witness Jahweh’s power over Pharaoh ( Exodus 12:37 , Exodus 13:20 , Exodus 14:1-4 ). ]'>[6] , the people are cattle-owners, living apart in Goshen, where they increase so rapidly as to alarm Pharaoh (Exodus 1:6 ; Exodus 1:8-12 ). , Exodus 3:7 , Exodus 4:1-16 ; Exodus 4:19-20 a, Exodus 4:24-26 a, Exodus 4:29-31 ), demands from Pharaoh liberty to depart three days’ journey to sacrifice ( Exodus 5:3 ; Exodus 5:5-23 ). On Pharaoh’s refusal, the plagues, which are natural calamities brought by Jahweh, and which are limited to Egypt, follow Moses’ repeated announcement ( Exodus 7:14 ; Exodus 7:16-17 a, Exodus 7:21 Exodus 7:21 a, Exodus 7:24 f. ]'>[7] ’s account of the plagues has survived merely in fragments, but from these it would appear that Moses speaks only once to Pharaoh, and that the plagues follow his mere gesture while the miraculous element is heightened ( Exodus 7:15 ; Exodus 7:17 b, Exodus 7:20 b, Exodus 7:23 , 1618420385_20 , Exodus 10:12-13 a, Exodus 10:14 a, Exodus 10:15 b, Exodus 10:20-23 ; Exodus 10:27 ). Pharaoh pursues to recover his slaves ( Exodus 14:5 f. Pharaoh pursues ( Exodus 14:9 a, Exodus 14:10 b
Guard - Tabbach (literally butcher or slaughterer) is a Hebrew term used only for officers of foreign kings (of Pharaoh, Genesis 37:36 ; Genesis 39:1 ; of Nebuchadnezzar, 2 Kings 25:8-20 ; Jeremiah 39:9-13 )
Alliance - He also appears to have entered into an alliance with Pharaoh (1 Kings 10:28,29 )
Nebuchadrezzar - The fall of Nineveh gave Egypt a chance to reclaim Syria, and Pharaoh-Necho made an attempt to regain it
Scythians - ), where they were bought off by the Egyptian Pharaoh
Zoan - " This Pharaoh had warred successfully against the Shasous, the nomadic tribes adjoining, and so his residing in N. ...
Moses' exposure must have been in a branch of the Nile not infested by crocodiles, for neither would the parents have exposed him nor would Thermuthis ("the great mother", a designation of Neith the deity of Lower Egypt), Pharaoh's daughter, have bathed in a place infested by them; therefore not at Memphis where anciently they were common, but at Zoan on the Tanitic branch, near the sea, where crocodiles are never found, probably the western boundary of the district occupied by Israel
Pashur - Subsequently, after the respite caused by Pharaoh Hophra had ended and the Chaldees returned to the siege, Pashur was one who besought the king to kill Jeremiah for weakening the hands of the men of war by dispiriting prophecies, and who cast the prophet into the pit of Malchiah
Gaza - It was afterwards smitten by Pharaoh
Fight - 1:10, where the Egyptian Pharaoh expresses his fears that the Israelite slaves will multiply and join an enemy “to fight” against the Egyptians
Sarah - ...
The most prominent points of her history as recorded in the Bible are, her consenting to Abraham's unbelieving dissimulation while near Pharaoh and Abimelech; her long-continued barrenness; her giving to Abraham her maid Hagar as a secondary wife; their mutual jealousy; and her bearing Isaac in her old age, "the child of promise," Genesis 12:1-23:20
Palace - Primarily ‘palace’ denotes simply a large house; so the Egyptian royal title Pharaoh or Palace (cf. This included the ‘House of the Forest of Lehanon,’ a great hall, 100 cubits long, 50 broad, 30 high, with four rows of pillars; a ‘porch of pillars,’ 50 cubits by 30; the ‘porch of the throne’ for a court of justice; a dwelling-house for himself, and another for Pharaoh’s daughter
Noph - Here, it is supposed, Joseph was a prisoner and a ruler, and here Moses stood before Pharaoh
Exodus - At one time the land in Egypt was owned by many landholders; but after the reign of the Hyksos kings the Pharaoh owned most of the land, and the people were serfs of the king (Genesis 47:20 ). ...
The Nature of the Event Some scholars see the Exodus as the miraculous deliverance of the people of God from the grip of Pharaoh's army at the Red Sea. Exodus 1:11 says, however, that the Israelites in Egypt built the store cities of Pithom and Raamses for Pharaoh. ...
Another difficulty in dating these events is that although the term “pharaoh” is used over a hundred times in the first fifteen chapters of Exodus to refer to the king of Egypt, the title is always anonymous. No personal name of any individual Pharaoh is used. The text does not indicate the identity of the Pharaoh of the oppression nor the one of the Exodus
Throne - Pharaoh Exodus 11:6 , David and Solomon 1 Kings 2:12 etc
Self-Seeking - Micah 2:1-2 ; that it is contrary to the example of all wise and good men: that the most awful examples of the punishment of this sin are recorded in Scripture; as Pharaoh, Achan, Haman, Gehazi, Absalom, Ananias and Sapphira, Judas, and many others
Esdraelon - Josiah here attacked Pharaoh-necho on his way to Mesopotamia and was slain ( 2 Kings 23:30 )
Affinity - Solomon made affinity with Pharaoh
Hoof - ...
Ezekiel 29:4 (a) This figure represents the power of the enemy to subdue and conquer Pharaoh
Balaam - ) Balaam becomes in legend a counsellor of Pharaoh; he and his two sons Jannes and Jambres (q
pi-Hahiroth - The name, however, sufficiently explains the situation of the children of Israel; who were hemmed in at this place, between the sea in front, and a narrow mountain pass behind; which no doubt encouraged Pharaoh to make his attack upon them in so disadvantageous a position; thinking that they must inevitably fall an easy prey into his hands, or be cut to pieces: when their deliverance, and his own destruction, were unexpectedly wrought by the parting of the waters of the sea
Jeho-i'Akim - After deposing Jehoahaz, Pharaoh-necho set Eliakim, his elder brother, upon the throne, and changed his name to Jehoiakim, B
Ashkelon - papyrus speaks of Ashkelon's loyalty to Egypt, and the fourteenth century Amarna Letters confirm that relationship with the ruler Widia claiming submission to the Pharaoh, although the ruler of Jerusalem claimed that Ashkelon had given supplies to the “Apiru. Later that same century Pharaoh Merneptah captured the city
Pithom - One of the cities which the children of Israel built for Pharaoh during their captivity in Egypt. "And they built for Pharaoh treasure cities, Pithom and Ramases
Egypt - The Soudan, which had been conquered by the kings of the Twelfth Dynasty, was again annexed to Egypt, and the eldest son of the Pharaoh took the title of "Prince of Cush. The attempt led to religious and civil war, and the Pharaoh retreated from Thebes to Central Egypt, where he built a new capital, on the site of the present Tell-el-Amarna. Naville in 1883, was one of the cities he built, he must have been the Pharaoh of the Oppression. The Pharaoh of the Exodus may have been one of his immediate successors, whose reigns were short. ...
Then came the Twentieth Dynasty, the second Pharaoh of which, Rameses III. ...
The title of Pharaoh, given to the Egyptian kings, is the Egyptian Per-aa, or "Great House," which may be compared to that of "Sublime Porte. 1480, addressed to the two Pharaohs, Amenophis III
Exodus, the Book of - ) Then his passionate reproach of Jehovah for the failure of his first appeal to Pharaoh, which only brought more bitter hardship on Israel (Exodus 5:20-23). ...
His courageous boldness before Pharaoh is never praised. "Jehovah hardened Pharaoh's heart so that he would not let Israel go. To Pharaoh it was the longsuffering appeal of God, who is slow to anger, and who tries the milder chastisements to bring the sinner if possible to repentance before resorting to the more severe. ...
Two months elapsed between Moses' first and second interviews with Pharaoh; the former in April, when the Israelites were scattered throughout all Egypt gathering the stubble of the harvest just reaped (the reapers leaving the stalks standing and cut close to the ears), the latter in June at the time of the Nile's yearly overflow when "the king went out unto the water" to offer his devotions to Apis, whose embodiment the river was (Exodus 5:12; Exodus 7:15). Pharaoh shows the first signs of yielding, but when the plague ceased would not let Israel go. The boils (burning carbuncles) were the third and closing plague of the second group, sent without previous notice, and warning the Egyptians during its three months continuance that their bodies would suffer if Pharaoh should still resist God. Moses for the first time warned Pharaoh to bring all cattle out of the field, on pain of their destruction. Pharaoh for the first time cried, "I have sinned this time, Jehovah is righteous, I and my people are wicked" (Exodus 9:27). Israel received leave to go, and now knew they had sympathizers even among Pharaoh's servants. The locusts followed on Pharaoh's retracting leave. The dread of such a scourge made Pharaoh's servants intercede to "let the men go" lest "Egypt should be destroyed. " Pharaoh consented, but on hearing Moses' demand that young and old, sons and daughters, flocks and herds, should go, refused peremptorily, saying "evil is before you," i. On Pharaoh's confession of sin and entreaty Moses besought the Lord and they disappeared as quickly as they came, before a wind from the sea (Hebrew), i. Pharaoh and his people rightly regarded the successive visitations as natural to Egypt, yet so overruled in their intensity, in their coming and going at Moses' call to Jehovah, and in their gradual heightening when the divine will continued to be resisted, as to be supernatural and palpably sent from above
Moses - ...
God warned Moses that his job would be difficult and that Pharaoh would not listen to his pleas for freedom for the Israelites (Exodus 4:21-23). Pharaoh’s response to Moses’ initial meeting was to increase the Israelites’ suffering, with the result that they turned bitterly against Moses (Exodus 5:1-21). God gave Moses further assurance that Pharaoh would be defeated, but when Moses told the people, they were too disheartened to listen (Exodus 6:1; Exodus 6:9). ...
Moses again put his request to Pharaoh, and again Pharaoh refused (Exodus 7:1-13). God therefore worked through Moses and Aaron to send a series of plagues upon Egypt, resulting in the overthrow of Egypt and the release of Israel (Exodus 7:14-25; Exodus 8; Exodus 9; Exodus 10; Exodus 11; Exodus 12; Exodus 13; Exodus 14; Exodus 15:1-21; see Pharaoh; PLAGUE)
Egypt - ...
History The numerous Egyptian Pharaohs were divided by the ancient historian Manetho into thirty dynasties. The most famous, however, are the Fourth Dynasty pyramids at Giza, especially the Great Pyramid of Pharaoh Khufu (Greek Cheops ). Under the able Pharaohs of the Twelfth Dynasty, Egypt prospered and conducted extensive trade. These Pharaohs, being Asiatics rather than native Egyptians, were remembered as Hyksos, or “rulers of foreign lands. Joseph's rise to power (Genesis 41:39-45 ) may have taken place under a Hyksos Pharaoh. Successive Eighteenth Dynasty Pharaohs made military campaigns into Canaan and against the Mitannian kingdom of Mesopotamia, creating an empire which reached the Euphrates River. Foremost among the Pharaohs was Thutmose III (1479-1425 B. Documents from Akhetaton, the Amarna Letters, represent diplomatic correspondence between local rulers in Egypt's sphere of influence and Pharaoh's court. ) was the most vigorous and successful of the Nineteenth Dynasty Pharaohs. Although ambushed and nearly defeated, the Pharaoh rallied and claimed a great victory. Indeed, Ramses II may have been the unnamed Pharaoh of the Exodus. It was likely a Pharaoh of this dynasty, perhaps Siamun, who took Gezer in Palestine and gave it to Solomon as his daughter's dowry (1 Kings 3:1 ; Jeremiah 37:5-10 ). The most important of these Pharaohs was Taharqa, the biblical Tirhakah who rendered aid to Hezekiah (2 Kings 19:9 ; Isaiah 37:9 ). The Pharaoh Hophra (Greek Apries ; 589-570 B. This is reflected by the gods' names which dominate Pharaohs' names in various dynasties. In death, the Pharaoh was worshiped as Osiris. As the legitimate heir Horus buried the dead Osiris, the new Pharaoh became the living Horus by burying his dead predecessor
Rameses - There is mentioned in Egyptian monuments RΗΜSS , son of Aahmes I (Lepsius); the new Pharaoh "that knew not Joseph. " The Pharaohs of the 19th dynasty of Rama (Rameses ΙΙ was the great conqueror) two centuries later have a final -u , Ramessu
Jehoiakim - Name given by Pharaoh-Necho, to ELIAKIM son of Josiah king of Judah, whom he made king in the room of Jehoahaz his brother
Shepherd - Joseph instructed his brethren to tell Pharaoh that they were shepherds, and they asked permission to dwell in Goshen, for every shepherd was an abomination to the Egyptians
Herd - 12:16 (the first biblical occurrence): “And he [1] entreated Abram well for her [2] sake: and he had sheep, and oxen, and he asses
Eden - The fall of Pharaoh, under the figure of an exalted tree, is said to comfort the trees of Eden, which is called the 'garden of God,' etc
So - See Pharaoh
Herd - (Genesis 47:6 ; 1 Samuel 11:5 ; 1 Chronicles 27:29 ; 28:1 ) Saul himself resumed it in the interval of his cares as king, also Doeg was certainly high in his confidence (1 Samuel 21:7 ) Pharaoh made some of Joseph's brethren "rulers over his cattle
Eden - The fall of Pharaoh, under the figure of an exalted tree, is said to comfort the trees of Eden, which is called the 'garden of God,' etc
Hamath - It was among the conquests of the Pharaoh Thothmes III
Midian, Midianites - When Moses fled from Pharaoh, he went east to Midian (Exodus 2:15 )
Taanach - when it was destroyed by the Egyptian Pharaoh Shishak
Dragon - The second term has four possible uses: (1) “great sea monster” (KJV, “great whales”) in the sense of a large sea creature (Genesis 1:21 ; Psalm 148:7 ), possibly a whale; this sense of tannin as created being may serve as a correction of sense 4; (2) a snake ( Exodus 7:9-10 ,Exodus 7:9-10,7:12 ; Deuteronomy 32:33 ; Psalm 91:13 ); (3) a crocodile (Jeremiah 51:34 ; Ezekiel 29:3 ; Ezekiel 32:3 ); here the beast is used as a symbol of Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon or the Egyptian Pharaoh; (4) a mythological sea monster symbolic of the forces of chaos and evil in opposition to God's creative and redemptive work (Psalm 74:12-14 ; Job 7:12 ; Job 26:12-13 ; Isaiah 27:1 ; Isaiah 51:9-10 )
Queen - Since marriages often sealed political alliances (2 Samuel 3:3 ; 1 Kings 3:1 ; 1 Kings 16:31 ; 2 Kings 8:25-27 ), daughters of more powerful allies such as the Egyptian Pharaoh or king of Tyre enjoyed special privileges (1 Kings 7:8 ) and influence (1 Kings 16:32-33 ; 1 Kings 18:19 ; 1 Kings 21:7-14 )
Herd - Joseph's brethren were assigned the office as an honourable one by Pharaoh (Genesis 47:6)
Patience of God - xviii; in Pharaoh, Exod
Eliezer - A son of Moses by Zipporah; so named to commemorate the deliverance of Moses from Pharaoh ( Exodus 18:4 , 1 Chronicles 23:15 ; 1 Chronicles 23:17 )
Josiah - The Assyrian empire was tottering to its fall, and Pharaoh-necho thought to seize the provinces nearest him and attach them to Egypt
Shallum - Son of Josiah king of Judah: he succeeded his father, but after a reign of three months he was deposed by Pharaoh-necho, and taken to Egypt, where he died
Patriarchs - The Gentile Pharaoh and Abimelech have revelations
Wars - ...
When Jehovah destroyed the army of Pharaoh in the Red Sea, He was called 'a man of war,' and this and other victories were recorded in "the book of the wars of Jehovah
Amarna, Tell el - That city was constructed as the new capital of a young Pharaoh, Amenhotep (or Amenophis) IV, who was in power during the mid-fourteenth century B
On - The first mention of this place in the Bible is in the history of Joseph, to whom we read Pharaoh gave "to wife Asenath the daughter of Potipherah priest of On
Restore - Pharaoh shall restore thee to thy place
On - The first mention of this place in the Bible is in the history of Joseph, to whom we read Pharaoh gave "to wife Asenath the daughter of Potipherah priest of On
Josi'ah - (2 Kings 22:20 ) When Pharaoh-necho went from Egypt to Carchemish to carry on his war along the seacoast
Hananiah - This hope rested on Pharaoh Hophra (Apries). " In Zedekiah's 6th year the league with Pharaoh Hophra tempted Zedekiah to open revolt in violation of his oath to Nebuchadnezzar (Ezekiel 17:12-20)
Exodus, the, - [1] In the night in which, at midnight, the firstborn were slain, (Exodus 12:29 ) Pharaoh urged the departure of the Israelites. Here Pharaoh overtook them, and the great miracle occurred by which they were saved, while the pursuer and his army were destroyed
Decrees - ...
In Exodus 7-14 God shows his decrees to be sovereign over Pharaoh's by "hardening" Pharaoh's heart. Despite the miraculous plagues, Pharaoh refuses to do the reasonable thing (decreeing Israel's release from bondage), thereby bringing further disaster on himself and his land. In the early stages of the story Pharaoh appears to be a free agent, hardening his own heart (Exodus 8:15 ), but as the story develops God is increasingly portrayed as the direct cause of Pharaoh's stupidity. Pharaoh is ultimately reduced to a mere puppet of Yahweh (Exodus 14:4,8 )
Borrow - Let it be remembered, that when the children of Israel, under the first Pharaoh, went down into Egypt, they were commanded by the king not "to regard their stuff; for the good of all the land of Egypt was to be theirs. " (Genesis 46:1-7) It becomes an important question in the subject, to ask, What became of this property, improved and increased, as we may reasonably suppose it to have been, when another king arose, who knew not Joseph? Moreover, we are told, that the children, when in bondage, built treasure cities for Pharaoh, Exodus 1:8. " (Acts 7:19) When, therefore, the Lord had turned their tables upon them, and by the plagues upon Pharaoh, and all his people, had made a way for the Exodus, of his chosen, no doubt, under the remorse of their minds, and their sorrow of heart, the Egyptians were glad to part with the Israelites at any rate, and therefore lent them, or gave them such things as they asked
Weaker One, Little One - 50:7-8: “And Joseph went up to bury his father; and with him went up all the servants of Pharaoh, the elders of his house, and all the elders of the land of Egypt, and all the house of Joseph, and his brethren and his father’s house: only their little ones, and their flocks, and their herds, they left in the land of Goshen
Thutmose - ” Four Pharaohs of the Egyptian Eighteenth Dynasty (about 1550-1310 B. Some scholars believe him to be the Pharaoh of the Israelite oppression, but this is not the predominate view
Hanging - Contrast the undetermined length of exposure allowed by Pharaoh, ( Genesis 40:19 ), the Philistines, (1 Samuel 31:10 ), and the Gibeonites (2 Samuel 21:8-10 )
Tirhakah - The Ethiopian influence and authority over Egypt appear in the large proportion of Ethiopians in Shishak's and Zerah's armies (2 Chronicles 12:3; 2 Chronicles 16:8); also in Pharaoh Necho's (Jeremiah 46:9)
Gezer - It must have been independent when Pharaoh slew the Canaanite inhabitants, burnt the city, and gave it a present to his daughter, Solomon's wife
Armageddon - One of the most stunning and decisive defeats for God's people took place here when King Josiah perished in battle with Pharaoh-nechoh (2 Kings 23:29-30 )
Fly - Figure for troublesome and numerous foes, as Pharaoh Necho's hosts who slew king Josiah at Megiddo (2 Kings 23:29-30)
Signs - Signs were wrought by Moses, first to convince the children of Israel that God had sent him; and then to attest and enforce on the Egyptians God's demands upon Pharaoh to let the Israelites go that they might serve Him
Jannes - Artapanus tells us, that Pharaoh sent for magicians from Upper Egypt to oppose Moses. Jerom translates their names Johannes and Mambres; and there is a tradition, they say, in the Talmud, that Juhanni and Mamre, chief of Pharaoh's physicians, said to Moses, "Thou bringest straw into Egypt, where abundance of corn grew;" that is, to bring your magical arts hither is to as much purpose as to bring water to the Nile
Necho or Pharaoh-Necho - The accompanying cut from the great "Tomb of the Kings" in Egypt, explored by Belzoni, is believed to represent four Jewish hostages or captives of distinction presented before Pharaoh-Necho
Chariot, - The earliest mention of chariots in Scripture is in Egypt, where Joseph, as a mark of distinction, was placed in Pharaoh's second chariot. Thus Pharaoh in pursuing Israel took with him 600 chariots
Aaron - ...
First, he accepted God's call to be Moses' mouthpiece before Pharaoh (Exodus 4:10-17 ; 5:1-13 ; 6:10-13 ; 6:28-7:7 ), a risky assignment. ...
Second, as Moses' prophet (Exodus 7:1 ) he was an important proclaimer of God's word to Pharaoh and the other Egyptians
Gaza - "...
"Pharaoh" Necho fulfilled the prophecy on returning from slaying Josiah at Megiddo (2 Chronicles 35:20) (Grotius). Or "Pharaoh" Hophra, on his return from the unavailing attempt to save Jerusalem from Nebuchadnezzar (Jeremiah 37:5; Jeremiah 37:7; Jeremiah 47:1) (Calvin) In Zephaniah 2:4 there is a play on like sounds; Gazah gazuwbah , "Gaza shall be forsaken
Plagues of Egypt - We may form some conjecture of the dreadful effect that this plague wrought on Pharaoh and his people, for he called for Moses, and in his fright consented to the Israelites' departure. The persons of Pharaoh and his people in those boils and ulcers were most dreadfully beset. ) This tremendous storm was ushered in with a solemn message from the Lord to Pharaoh, that there should be a succession of plagues until that the Lord had cut him off from the face of the earth; and that the Lord had indeed raised him up for this very purpose, to shew in him the Lord's power, and that the Lord's name should be declared throughout all the earth. ...
In this we mark also distinguishing grace to some of the servants of Pharaoh. And as when Israel went up afterwards with an high hand out of Egypt, a mixed multitude went with them, were not these such as grace had marked for the Lord's own? May we not consider them as types of the Gentile church given to the Lord Jesus, as well as the Jewish church? (Isaiah 49:6)...
The eighth plague is introduced by the Lord with bidding Moses, the man of God, to remark to Israel that the Lord had hardened the heart of Pharaoh purposely, that he might set forth his love to Israel in shewing these signs and wonders before them. ...
The tenth and last plague which the Lord inflicted upon Egypt, preparatory to Israel's departure, was that of the destruction of the first-born both of man and beast; and so universal was it, that it reached from the first-born of Pharaoh that sat upon his throne, to the first-born of the maid servant which ground at the mill. And though in our present twilight of knowledge our greatest researches go but a little way, yet certain it is, the destruction of Egypt, the hardening of Pharaoh's heart, and the heart of his people, and the delivery of Israel, all pointedly preached the same solemn truth, as it is the whole, tenor of revelation to declare, that the distinguishing grace of God is the sole cause wherefore Israel is saved and the Egyptians destroyed
Exodus, Theology of - As a nation, Israel suffers oppression from Pharaoh (1:8-10). He is named Moses, for Pharaoh's daughter "drew him out of the water. " His name could also mean "deliverer, " suitable to his role as a human agent to resolve the repression by Pharaoh. After Moses' initial attempts at deliverance from Pharaoh fail, Yahweh puts the scene into theological perspective. Although the Pharaoh's magicians imitate some of the plagues, human powers soon fade. ...
The conflict with Pharaoh, and probably with all that he stands for, is emphasized by the narrative. Almost every plague account notes the obstinate attitude of Pharaoh, an attitude that outwardly may give in to the danger of the moment, but resurfaces when the plague abates. Pharaoh, the Egyptians, Moses, and the people of Israel witness the quality of the name. In the ten plagues, Yahweh pits his power against the power of Pharaoh. God's anger may be averted by intercession (8:8; 32:30-34) and repentance holds the possibility of aversion of God's wrath, although Pharaoh does not do so in a meaningful way
Moses - ]'>[4] ’s message, and demand permission from Pharaoh to sacrifice in the wilderness. Moses spoke to the elders and they believed; and then they made their demand to Pharaoh, which led to his increased severity ( Exodus 4:10-12 ; Exodus 4:29-31 , Numbers 14:8-97 ; Exodus 5:6 ; Exodus 5:23 , Exodus 6:1 ). Pharaoh bade Israel go with their families, but refused to allow them animals for sacrifice; so Moses announced the death of the firstborn ( 1618420386_89 ; Exodus 10:28 f. Moses’ birth; his discovery and adoption by Pharaoh’s daughter ( Exodus 2:1-10 ). Moses returned to Egypt, meeting Aaron on the way; they made their demand to Pharaoh, and were refused ( Exodus 4:17 f
Moses - On the invitation of Pharaoh (Genesis 45:17-25 ), Jacob and his sons went down into Egypt. The Hyksos or "shepherd" king who thus showed favour to Joseph and his family was in all probability the Pharaoh Apopi (or Apopis). (See Pharaoh . It reached the ears of Pharaoh (the "great Rameses," Rameses II. " "There arose not a prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom the Lord knew face to face, in all the signs and the wonders, which the Lord sent him to do in the land of Egypt to Pharaoh, and to all his servants, and to all his land, and in all that mighty hand, and in all the great terror which Moses shewed in the sight of all Israel" (Deuteronomy 34:10-12 )
Moabite - , the Pharaoh of the Oppression, enumerates Moab (Muab) among his conquests
Megiddo - Here king Ahaziah ( 2 Kings 9:27 ) died; and the good king Josiah, interfering in a quarrel between Pharaoh-necho and the king of Assyria, and opposing the former’s progress in the dangerous passage of Megiddo, was also slain ( 2 Kings 23:29-30 , 2 Chronicles 35:22 ), to the grief of all Israel ( Zechariah 12:11 )
Armageddon - Deborah and Barak defeated Sisera and his Canaanite army there (Judges 4-5 ), Gideon drove off the Midianites and Amalekites (Judges 6 ), Saul and the army of Israel were defeated because of their failure to trust in God (1 Samuel 31 ), and the Egyptian army under Pharaoh Neco killed Josiah, king of Judah (2 Kings 23:29 )
Dragon - ...
In Psalms 74:13, "Thou brokest the heads of the dragons in the waters," Egypt's princes and Pharaoh are poetically represented hereby, just as crocodiles are the monarchs of the Nile waters
Plane Tree - We have a lofty description of Pharaoh, king of Egypt, under the similitude of those elegant tress of the forest
Jacob - He was presented to Pharaoh and dwelt for 17 years in Rameses and Goshen, and died in his 147th year
Hadad - The reference to Pharaoh ( 1 Kings 11:18 ff
Zedekiah - In the ninth year of his reign, he revolted against Nebuchadnezzar, trusting to the support of Pharaoh-hophra king of Egypt, which proved ineffectual, and despising the faithful remonstrance's of Jeremiah, Jeremiah 37:2,5,7-10
Jehoiakim - On the death of his father his younger brother Jehoahaz (=Shallum, Jeremiah 22:11 ), who favoured the Chaldeans against the Egyptians, was made king by the people; but the king of Egypt, Pharaoh-necho, invaded the land and deposed Jehoahaz (2 Kings 23:33,34 ; Jeremiah 22:10-12 ), setting Eliakim on the throne in his stead, and changing his name to Jehoiakim
Cause - For this cause have I raised up Pharaoh
Hard, Harden, Hardening, Hardness - 1), is used in Acts 19:9 ; in Romans 9:18 , illustrated by the case of Pharaoh, who first persistently "hardened" his heart (see the RV marg
Prepare - 16:7, RSV),...
Used abstractly, kûn can refer to a concept as “established,” or “fixed” so as to be unchanging and unchangeable: “And for that the dream was doubled unto Pharaoh twice; it is because the thing is established by God, and God will shortly bring it to pass” ( Pharaoh: “It is not meet so to do; for we shall sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians to the Lord our God …” ( Exodus - The plagues that successively fell upon the land loosened the bonds by which Pharaoh held them in slavery, and at length he was eager that they should depart. " Pharaoh rose up in the night, and called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said, "Rise up, and get you forth from among my people, both ye and the children of Israel; and go, serve Jehovah, as ye have said. " Thus was Pharaoh (q. This city was at that time the residence of the Egyptian court, and here the interviews between Moses and Pharaoh had taken place
Kill, Killing - Even Pharaoh participated in the mass destruction of enemies (1 Kings 9:16 ). Pharaoh intended to kill the Hebrew sons (Heb. Moses' killing of an Egyptian was considered a crime by Pharaoh (Exodus 2:14-15 ), as was Joab's blood vengeance against Abner (2 Samuel 3:30 ; cf. He killed Pharaoh's firstborn (Exodus 4:23 ; 13:15 ), the Philistines (Isaiah 14:28-32 ), Babylonians (Isaiah 14:4-21 ), and even his own people (Jeremiah 5:14 ; 23:29 ; Hosea 6:5 ; Amos 9:1-4 )
Aaron - In the narratives of the plagues Aaron is a silent figure, merely summoned with Moses four times when Pharaoh entreats for the removal of the plagues ( Exodus 8:8 ; Exodus 8:25 , Exodus 9:27 , Exodus 10:16 ). They demanded release from Pharaoh, and on his refusal the people murmured ( Exodus 5:1-2 ; Exodus 5:4 ; Exodus 5:20 f. He became Moses’ spokesman, not to the people but to Pharaoh (7:1), in whose presence he changed the staff into a ‘reptile’ (contrast ‘serpent’ in 4:3 J Machpelah - Here it may be that the body of Jacob, which was embalmed in Egypt, is still preserved (much older embalmed bodies have recently been found in the cave of Deir el-Bahari in Egypt, see Pharaoh ), though those of the others there buried may have long ago mouldered into dust
No - ]'>[1] ) ‘I will punish Amon of No and Pharaoh and Egypt with her gods and their kings,’ Amon is probably not taken as the representative god of Egypt, a position which he no longer held in the 6th cent
Chariot - The first mention of the chariot is when Joseph, as a mark of distinction, was placed in Pharaoh's second state chariot (Genesis 41:43 ); and the next, when he went out in his own chariot to meet his father Jacob (46:29). When Pharaoh pursued the Israelites he took 600 war-chariots with him (Exodus 14:7 )
Abomination - ...
Pharaoh was so moved by the fourth plague, that while he refused the demand of Moses, he offered a compromise, granting to the Israelites permission to hold their festival and offer their sacrifices in Egypt
ja'Cob - He was presented to Pharaoh, and dwelt for seventeen years in Rameses and Goshen, and died in his 147th year
Birthright - This seems to have been the case in Egypt, in the time of Moses: and hence Jehovah's destroying their first- born, as it was the last miracle wrought in that country before the Exodus, so was it the most dreadful, and most effectual in prevailing on Pharaoh and the Egyptians to dismiss the Israelites
Dreams - We see the antiquity of this attention to dreams in the history of Pharaoh's butler and baker, Genesis 40. Pharaoh himself, and Nebuchadnezzar, are instances
Foreknowledge - When Pharaoh refused to let the Israelites leave Egypt, it appeared that he had no choice, because God would harden his heart (Exodus 4:21 ). But not until the sixth plague does the text say that the Lord hardened Pharaoh's heart (Exodus 9:12 ). During the first five plagues Pharaoh hardened his own heart, refusing to listen to Moses and Aaron; after that the Lord confirmed him in his hardened condition (Exodus 7:13-14 ; 8:15,19 , 32 )
Come Up, Ascend - 34:24) or “going up” before the Lord; in a secular context, compare Joseph’s “going up” before Pharaoh ( Pharaoh feared the Israelites lest in a war they join the enemy, fight against Egypt, and “overpower” the land ( Strength - Pharaoh told Joseph: “The land of Egypt is before thee; in the best of the land make thy father and brethren to dwell; in the land of Goshen let them dwell: and if thou knowest any men of activity [1] among them, then make them rulers over my cattle. ...
Fourth, this word sometimes means “army”; “And I will harden Pharaoh’s heart, that he shall follow after them; and I will be honored upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host [2] …” ( Exodus, Book of - God delivered the baby Moses from danger, and he grew up in Pharaoh's court as son of Pharaoh's daughter. With his brother Aaron, he faced a stubborn Pharaoh, who refused to release the Israelites. When Pharaoh made life harder for Israel, the Israelites griped about Moses. God took this as opportunity to reveal Himself to Israel, to Pharaoh, and to the Egyptians. Pharaoh stubbornly refused to let Israel go until his firstborn son and the eldest sons of all Egypt died in the final plague. As Israel fled Egypt, the Pharaoh again resisted and led his army after them
Plagues of Egypt - In Romans 9:14-24 God’s treatment of Pharaoh is dwelt upon, to show His absolute right to do what He will with the creatures of His own handiwork. ]'>[3] ’s narrative has been preserved, which relates the effect of the ‘ darkness ’ upon Pharaoh. Only the firstborn are smitten, as a just retribution for Pharaoh’s attempt to destroy the firstborn of the Israelites. ]'>[14] is supreme in power over the world which He made; that He has an absolute right, if He so wills, to punish Pharaoh in order to show forth in him His power; that He does so, however, only because Pharaoh is impenitent, and consequently ‘fitted for destruction,’ for J″ [14] hardens his heart; that the sin of Pharaoh, and so of any other man, may entail sufferings upon many innocent men and animals; and finally, that J″ Moses - By a singular providence, the infant Moses, when exposed on the river Nile, through fear of the royal decree, after his mother had hid him three months, because he was a goodly child, was taken up and adopted by Pharaoh's daughter, and nursed by his own mother, whom she hired at the suggestion of his sister Miriam. And while he was instructed "in all the wisdom of the Egyptians," and bred up in the midst of a luxurious court, he acquired at home the knowledge of the promised redemption of Israel; and, "by faith" in the Redeemer Christ, "refused to be called the son of Pharaoh's daughter, choosing rather to suffer affliction with the people of God, than to enjoy the pleasures of sin for a season; esteeming the reproach of Christ," or persecution for Christ's sake, "greater riches than the treasures of Egypt: for he had respect to the recompense of reward," Exodus 2:1-10 ; Acts 7:20-22 ; Hebrews 11:23-26 ; or looked forward to a future state. " For when, in the excess of his zeal to redress their grievances, he had slain an Egyptian, who injured one of them, in which he probably went beyond his commission, and afterward endeavoured to reconcile two of them that were at variance, they rejected his mediation; and "the man who had done wrong said, Who made thee a judge and a ruler over us? Intendest thou to kill me, as thou killedst the Egyptian yesterday?" So Moses, finding it was known, and that Pharaoh sought to slay him, fled for his life to the land of Midian, in Arabia Petraea, where he married Zipporah, the daughter of Jethro, or Reuel, prince and priest of Midian; and, as a shepherd, kept his flocks in the vicinity of Mount Horeb, or Sinai, for forty years, Exodus 2:11-21 ; Exodus 3:2-22 ; Numbers 14:39-4555 ; Numbers 10:29 ; Acts 7:23-30 . ...
At length, when the oppression of the Israelites was come to the full, and they cried to God for succour, and the king was dead, and all the men in Egypt that sought his life, "the God of glory" appeared to Moses in a flame of fire, from the midst of a bush, and announced himself as "the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob," under the titles of Jahoh and AEhjeh, expressive of his unity and sameness; and commissioned him first to make known to the Israelites the divine will for their deliverance; and next to go with the elders of Israel to Pharaoh, requiring him, in the name of "the Lord, the God of the Hebrews, to suffer the people to go three, days' journey into the wilderness, to sacrifice unto the Lord their God," after such sacrifices had been long intermitted during their bondage; for the Egyptians had sunk into bestial polytheism, and would have stoned them, had they attempted to sacrifice to their principal divinities, the apis, or bull, &c, in the land itself: foretelling, also, the opposition they would meet with from the king, the mighty signs and wonders that would finally compel his assent, and their spoiling of the Egyptians, by asking or demanding of them (not borrowing) jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment, (by way of wages or compensation for their services,) as originally declared to Abraham, that "they should go out from thence with great substance,"...
Genesis 15:14 ; Exodus 2:23-25 ; Exodus 3:1 ; Exodus 8:25-26 . To assist him, also, in his arduous mission, when Moses had represented that he was "not eloquent, but slow of speech," and of a slow or stammering tongue, God inspired Aaron, his elder brother, to go and meet Moses in the wilderness, to be his spokesman to the people, Exodus 4:1-31 , and his prophet to Pharaoh; while Moses was to be a god to both, as speaking to them in the name, or by the authority, of God himself, Exodus 7:1-2 . At their first interview with Pharaoh, they declared, "Thus saith the Lord, the God of Israel, Let my people go, that they may hold a feast unto me in the wilderness. And Pharaoh said, Who is the Lord, that I should obey his voice to let Israel go? I know not," or regard not, "the Lord, neither will I let Israel go. " In answer to this haughty tyrant, they styled the Lord by a more ancient title, which the Egyptians ought to have known and respected, from Abraham's days, when he plagued them in the matter of Sarah: "The God of the Hebrews hath met with us: Let us go, we pray thee, three days' journey into the desert, and sacrifice unto the Lord our God, lest he fall upon us with pestilence or with the sword:" plainly intimating to Pharaoh, also, not to incur his indignation, by refusing to comply with his desire. ...
At their second interview with Pharaoh, in obedience to the divine command, again requiring him to let the children of Israel go out of his land; Pharaoh, as foretold, demanded of them to show a miracle for themselves, in proof of their commission, when Aaron cast down his rod, and it became a serpent before Pharaoh and before his servants, or officers of his court. And the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, so that he "hearkened not unto them, as the Lord had said," or foretold, Exodus 6:10-11 ; Exodus 7:8-13 . The preeminence of Moses's character is briefly described by the sacred historian, Samuel or Ezra: "And there arose not a prophet since, in Israel, like unto Moses, whom the Lord knew face to face; in all the signs and the wonders which the Lord sent him to do in the land of Egypt, to Pharaoh, and all his servants, and all his land; and in all that mighty hand, and in all the great terror which Moses showed in the sight of all Israel," Deuteronomy 34:10-12
Irrigation - Joseph may have fulfilled this role during his service for Pharaoh
Angel of the Lord - The commander of the Lord's army commissions Joshua to undertake the Lord's battles for Canaan, just as Moses had been commissioned to confront Pharaoh (Joshua 5:13-15 ; cf
Riblah - Riblah or Riblathah in the land of Hamath, on the high road between Palestine and Babylon, where the Babylonian kings remained in directing the operations of their armies in Palestine and Phoenicia; where Jehoahaz was put in chains by Pharaoh Necho (2 Kings 23:33), and Zedekiah, after seeing his sons slain, had his own eyes put out (Jeremiah 39:5-7; literally, Jeremiah 39:9-10), and other leading captives were slain, probably by the Assyrian death of impaling (Jeremiah 39:24; Jeremiah 39:27), as depicted on the monuments
Shepherds - It appears by the history of Joseph that the patriarch used this policy when bringing his father and his brethren before Pharaoh, in order that they might be separated from the Egyptians, and have the land of Goshen assigned them
Aaron - ) He was a Levite, and is first mentioned in (Exodus 4:14 ) He was appointed by Jehovah to be the interpreter, (Exodus 4:16 ) of his brother Moses, who was "slow of speech;" and accordingly he was not only the organ of communication with the Israelites and with Pharaoh, (Exodus 4:30 ; 7:2 ) but also the actual instrument of working most of the miracles of the Exodus
On - ...
The city On, according to Josephus, was given to the Israelites to dwell in, when they first went into Egypt; and it was a daughter of a priest of the temple of the sun at this place, who was given in marriage to Joseph by Pharaoh
Ammon Ammonites Children of Ammon - It has been conjectured that Nahash, 1 Samuel 11:1; 2 Samuel 10:2, was the official title of the king as Pharaoh was of the Egyptian monarchs; but this is without any sure foundation
Ward - Pharaoh put his butler and baker in ward
Statute, Ordinance - 47:22: “Only the land of the priests bought he not; for the priests had a portion [1] assigned them of Pharaoh. The Egyptian priests received their income from Pharaoh ( Pharaoh should have the fifth part; except the land of the priests only, which became not Pharaoh’s” ( Exodus, the - The new Pharaoh that knew not Moses was Aahmes I, 1706 B. But the Pharaoh of that day rejected with scorn Moses and Aaron's application for leave to depart; "Who is Jehovah, that I should obey His voice to let Israel go? I know not Jehovah, neither will I let Israel go" (Exodus 5:2). Then followed the ten plagues on the idols, as well as on the property and persons of Pharaoh and his people, culminating in the slaying of the firstborn and his own (Thothmes II) destruction at the Red Sea. Moses' first proposal to Pharaoh had been for a journey into the wilderness adjoining Goshen, not beyond the frontier, three days in all going and, returning, in order to sacrifice. ...
Pharaoh's refusal of this reasonable request (Exodus 3:18) ended in Moses' demand for their absolute manumission and departure (Exodus 11; Exodus 12:31-33). Here, while they passed safely through, Pharaoh perished in the waters (Psalms 136:15)
Adoption - So the daughter of Pharaoh adopted Moses; and he became her son, Exodus 2:10
Pride - ...
See the cases of Pharaoh, Haman, Nebuchadnezzar, Herod, and others
Assembly - 17:17: “Neither shall Pharaoh with his mighty army and great company make for him in the war
Finger - Thus the magicians in the court of Pharaoh were compelled to acknowledge the finger of God concerning several of the ten plagues of Egypt which the Lord brought upon the Egyptians
Command - Pharaoh “ordered” (“commanded”) his men concerning Abraham, and they escorted Abraham and his party out of Egypt ( Jewels, Jewelry - More Egyptian jewelry undoubtedly came into Israel through trade, as well as with the daughter of Pharaoh who married Solomon (1 Kings 3:1 ). When Pharaoh appointed Joseph to high office, he put a gold chain around his neck (Genesis 41:42 ). Pharaoh gave Joseph his signet ring as a symbol of authority (Genesis 41:42 )
Zedekiah - It was through the anger of Jehovah against Judah that Zedekiah was given up to his own rebellious devices, "stiffening his neck and hardening his heart from turning unto the Lord God of Israel" who warned him by Jeremiah; like Pharaoh of old (2 Chronicles 36:12-13), he would "not humble himself" (Jeremiah 38:5; Jeremiah 39:1-7; Jeremiah 52:1-11; and Jeremiah 21; 24; 27; 28; 29; 32; 33; 34; 37; 38). Still while the issue between the Chaldaeans and Pharaoh Hophra was undecided, he sent begging Jeremiah, Pray now unto the Lord our God for us. But when Pharaoh Hophra compelled the Chaldaeans to raise the siege of Jerusalem, the princes and people in violation of the covenant enslaved their Hebrew servants again
Wise, Skilled - 41:8: “And it came to pass in the morning that his spirit was troubled; and he sent and called for all the magicians of Egypt, and all the wise men thereof: and Pharaoh told them his dream; but there was none that could interpret them unto Pharaoh. In pagan cultures the “wise” man practiced magic and divination: “Then Pharaoh also called the wise men and the sorcerers: now the magicians of Egypt, they also did in like manner with their enchantments” ( Divine Retribution - Pharaoh and all Egypt incurred God's judgment for not yielding to God's will
Philistines - The Philistines had formed part of the great naval confederacy which attacked Egypt, but were eventually repulsed by that Pharaoh, who, however, could not dislodge them from their settlements in Palestine
Esdraelon - Josiah died in battle against Pharaoh Neco at Megiddo (2 Chronicles 35:20-24 )
Scripture - , John 19:37 ; Romans 4:3 ; 9:17 , where the Scripture is said to speak to Pharaoh, giving the message actually sent previously by God to him through Moses; James 4:5 (see above); (b) as possessed of the sentient quality of foresight, and the active power of preaching
Small - …” In a related use the word is comparative, contrasting the age of a given individual with that of his sibling(s): “Hereby ye shall be proved: By the life of Pharaoh ye shall not go forth hence, except your youngest brother come hither” ( Gaza - Pharaoh Neco conquered Gaza about 609 B
Leviathan - So again the Psalmist, speaking figuratively, saith, (Psalms 74:14) "Thou brakest the head of leviathan in pieces, and gavest him to be meat to thy people inhabiting the wilderness:" meaning, that as in the Red Sea the Lord overthrew and destroyed that type of the devil, Pharaoh, so in the after-journies of the people during their wilderness state, whenever they were put to wilderness straits, the recollection of the Lord's deliverance of them in that memorable instance, became meat for their faith to feed upon
Plague - )...
A close connection exists between the ordinary physical visitations of Egypt and those whereby Pharaoh was constrained to let Israel go
Tomorrow - In most passages mâchâr by itself (used absolutely) means “tomorrow”: “Behold, I go out from thee, and I will entreat the Lord that the swarms of flies may depart from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people, tomorrow …” ( Midst - In many contexts the word means “among,” not necessarily in the middle: “… And he [3] lifted up the head of the chief butler and of the chief baker among [2] his servants” ( Hagar - The rabbins say she was Pharaoh's daughter; but Chrysostom asserts that she was one of those slaves which Pharaoh gave to Abraham, Genesis 12:16
Wisdom (1) - Thus it is said by Moses, that Pharaoh dealt wisely with the Israelites, when he opposed them in Egypt, Exodus 1:10 ; it is observed of Jonadab; the friend of Ammon, and nephew of David, that he was very wise, that is, very subtle and crafty, 2 Samuel 13:3 ; and Job 5:13 , says, that God "taketh the wine in their own craftiness
Aaron - Aaron was noted for his eloquence, and was appointed by Jehovah to speak for Moses in the court of Pharaoh
Euphrates - It was indeed only occasionally that the dominion of the Hebrews extended so far; but it would appear that even Egypt, under Pharaoh Necho, made conquests to the western bank of the Euphrates
Joseph - ...
At present the date of Joseph can be only provisionally fixed, as the account of his life neither mentions the name of the ruling Pharaoh nor refers to distinctive Egyptian manners or customs in such a way as to yield a clue to the exact period. The Pharaoh of the oppression is now generally taken to be Rameses ii. Under his charge were placed in due course the chief of the Pharaoh’s butlers and the chief of his bakers, who had for some unstated reason incurred the royal displeasure. Two years later the Pharaoh himself had his duplicated dream of the fat and lean kine and of the full and thin ears; and as much significance was attached in Egypt to dreams, the king was distressed by his inability to find an interpreter, and ‘his spirit was troubled. ’ Thereupon the chief butler recalled Joseph’s skill and his own indebtedness to him, and mentioned him to the Pharaoh, who sent for him, and was so impressed by his sagacity and foresight that exaltation to the rank of keeper of the royal seal followed, with a degree of authority that was second only to that of the throne. An exception was made in favour of the priests ( Genesis 47:22 ), who were supported by a fixed income in kind from the Pharaoh, and therefore had no need to part with their land. ); and in the name of the Pharaoh he invited them with their father to settle in Egypt, with the promise of support during the five years of famine that remained
Joseph - He goes to meet him; he presents himself unto him, and falls on his neck, and weeps on his neck a good while; he provides for him and his household out of the fat of the land; he sets him before Pharaoh. By and by he hears that he is sick, and hastens to visit him; he receives his blessing; watches his death bed; embalms his body; mourns for him threescore and ten days; and then carries him, as he had desired, into Canaan to bury him, taking with him, as an escort to do him honour, "all the elders of Israel, and all the servants of Pharaoh, and all his house, and the house of his brethren, chariots, and horsemen, a very great company. It is not the constancy with which the son's strong affection for his father had lived through an interval of twenty years' absence, and, what is more, through the temptation of sudden promotion to the highest estate;—it is not the noble- minded frankness with which he still acknowledges his kindred, and makes a way for them, "shepherds" as they were, to the throne of Pharaoh himself;—it is not the simplicity and singleness of heart which allow him to give all the first-born of Egypt, men over whom he bore absolute rule, an opportunity of observing his own comparatively humble origin, by leading them in attendance upon his father's corpse to the valleys of Canaan and the modest cradle of his race;—it is not, in a word, the grace, but the identity of Joseph's character, the light in which it is exhibited by himself, and the light in which it is regarded by his brethren, to which I now point as stamping it with marks of reality not to be gainsayed
Hadad - Pharaoh gave him house, victuals, and land, and his wife Tahpenes the queen's sister in marriage, who bore him Genubath. At David's death, in spite of Pharaoh's entreaties he left Egypt for his own country
Megiddo - ) Here godly Josiah fell in conflict with Pharaoh Necho (2 Chronicles 35:22-24; Zechariah 12:11)
Goshen - (1) The Pharaoh assigned Goshen to Joseph's family when they entered Egypt (Genesis 47:6 ,Genesis 47:6,47:11 )
Abimelech - My father a king, or father of a king, a common name of the Philistine kings, as "Pharaoh" was of the Egyptian kings
Aaron - Aaron accompanied Moses in his interviews with Pharaoh, and with his rod some of the miraculous plagues were called forth
Let - Pharaoh said, I will let you go
Kiss - (See Isaiah 45:23; Jeremiah 31:19) Thus we find Pharaoh giving commands concerning the homage to be paid Joseph. "Thou shalt be over my house, (said Pharaoh) and according to thy word shall all my people be ruled
Keep, Watch, Guard - Joseph tells Pharaoh to appoint overseers to gather food: “And let them … lay up corn under the hand of Pharaoh, and let them keep food in the cities” ( Sow - 47:24: “And it shall come to pass in the increase, that ye shall give the fifth part unto Pharaoh, and four parts shall be your own, for seed of the field, and for your food. The Egyptians told Joseph: “Buy us and our land for bread, and we and our land will be servants unto Pharaoh: and give us seed, that we may live, and not die, that the land be not desolate” ( Praise - 12:15, where it is noted that because of Sarah’s great beauty, the princes of Pharaoh “praised” (KJV, “commended”) her to Pharaoh
jo'Seph - Finally Pharaoh himself dreamed two prophetic dreams. Pharaoh at once appointed Joseph not merely governor of Egypt, but second only to the sovereign, and also gave him to wife Asenath, daughter of Potipherah priest of On (Hieropolis), and gave him a name or title, Zaphnath-paaneah (preserver of life). ( Genesis 41:54-57 ) [1] After the famine had lasted for a time, apparently two years, Joseph gathered up all the money that was found in the land of Egypt and in the land of Canaan, for the corn which they brought, and brought it into Pharaoh's house, (Genesis 47:13,14 ) and when the money was exhausted, all the cattle, and finally all the land except that of the priests, and apparently, as a consequence, the Egyptians themselves. He demanded, however, only a fifth part of the produce as Pharaoh's right
Governor - It is used of the chief baker of Pharaoh (Genesis 40:16 ); of the chief butler (40:2, etc
Josiah - ...
Soon after this, Pharaoh-Necho II
Sargon - ) Then, according to the inscriptions, he invaded Egypt and Ethiopia, and received tribute from a Pharaoh of Egypt, besides destroying in part the Ethiopian No-Amon or Thebes (Nahum 3:8); confirming Isaiah 20:2-4, "as Isaiah hath walked naked and barefoot three years for a sign and wonder upon Egypt and upon Ethiopia, so shall the king of Assyria lead away the Egyptians and the Ethiopians captives, young and old, naked and barefoot," etc
Joseph - Stephen’s address before the Sanhedrin reference is made to Joseph’s being sold by his brothers, God’s presence with him in Egypt, his promotion to be governor of the land, his manifestation of himself to his brethren, his invitation to his father and all his kindred to migrate to Egypt (Acts 7:9-14), and finally, at a much later date, the rise of a Pharaoh who ‘knew not Joseph’ (7:18)
Say, Speak, Answer - Moses requests Pharaoh to let Israel go and sacrifice to God as He “commands” them ( Miriam - She watched her infant brother in the ark on the Nile, and suggested to Pharaoh's daughter the mother as a nurse. Berheau by transposition reads, "and these are the sons of Bithiah the daughter of Pharaoh, whom Mered had taken" immediately after "and Jalon,
Nile - Two of the ten plagues sent upon Pharaoh and Egypt before the departure of the Israelites were turning the water of the Nile into blood and bringing forth frogs from the river
Bethlehem - 290) where the ruler of Jerusalem complained to the Egyptian Pharaoh that the people of Bit-Lahmi had gone over to the side of the “Apiru,” apparently a people without local citizenship who caused disturbances in Canaanite society
Hardening of Heart - (e) In the OT the typical case is that of Pharaoh; in which all three statements are remarkably exemplified (Exodus 7:14; Exodus 8:15; Exodus 9:12)
Joseph - By a wonderful providence of God he was raised from a prison to be the chief ruler of Egypt under Pharaoh
Abraham - His wife Sarai's beauty attracted the Pharaoh when they moved to Egypt during a famine (Genesis 12:10 ), but God intervened to save her
Hang - Pharaoh hanged the chief baker
Honor - I will be honored upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host
Camel - Mention is made of the camel among the cattle given by Pharaoh to Abraham (Genesis 12:16 )
Shepherd - So Pharaoh dreamed that “there came up out of the river seven well-favored kine and fatfleshed; and they fed in a meadow” ( Josiah - In the thirty-second year of Josiah's reign, Pharaoh-Necho, king of Egypt, advanced with his army against Carchemish, a city situated on the river Euphrates
Horse - To Moses, educated as he was in Egypt, and, with his people, at last chased out by Pharaoh's cavalry, the use of the horse for war and for travelling was well known; but as it was his object to establish a nation of husbandmen, and not of soldiers for the conquest of foreign lands, and as Palestine, from its situation, required not the defence of cavalry, he might very well decline introducing among his people the yet unusual art of horse breeding. Solomon, having married a daughter of Pharaoh, procured a breed of horses from Egypt; and so greatly did he multiply them, that he had four hundred stables, forty thousand stalls, and twelve thousand horsemen, 1 Kings 4:26 ; 2 Chronicles 9:25
Circumcision - Moses' circumcision took place only immediately prior to his confrontation with the Pharaoh (Exodus 4:24-26 )
Prophesy - ...
The second occurrence of nâbı̂y' establishes its meaning: “And the Lord said unto Moses, See, I have made thee a god to Pharaoh: and Aaron thy brother shall be thy prophet” ( Pharaoh as God’s spokesman
No - ...
"The monuments represent Sargon warring with Egypt and imposing tribute on the Pharaoh of the time, also Egypt as in that close connection with Ethiopia which Isaiah and Nahum imply" (G. ...
A still heavier blow was dealt by Nebuchadnezzar, as Jeremiah (Jeremiah 46:25-26) foretells: "Behold I will punish Anjou No and Pharaoh and Egypt, with their gods and their kings
Adoption - He tells Pharaoh, "Israel is my firstborn son" (Exodus 4:22 )
Jehoshaphat, Valley of - "Armageddon" in Revelation 16:16 corresponds: from har "a mountain", and Megiddo "the valley of Jezreel", the great battle field of Canaan, where godly Josiah fell before Pharaoh Necho
Solomon - The Temple complex in Jerusalem was composed of several buildings including Solomon's palace, the “house of the forest of Lebanon,” the “hall or porch of pillars,” the “hall or porch of the throne,” and a palace for one of his wives, the daughter of the Pharaoh of Egypt (1 Kings 7:1 )
Chaos - In Ezekiel 29:3 ; Ezekiel 32:2 , the Pharaoh of Egypt is called the river-monster that will be defeated at God's will
Jannes And Jambres - [1] 268) makes the two apostles warn Nero against Simon Magus by the example of Pharaoh, who was drowned in the Red Sea through listening to Jannes and Jambres
Ashdod - The Assyrians were able quickly to subdue the Philistines, and they remained under Assyrian control until captured by the Egyptian Pharaoh Psammetichus I (664-610) after a 29-year siege as reported by Herodotus
Solomon - His marriage with the daughter of Pharaoh, king of Egypt, is symbolical of Christ having the church (mainly Gentiles) with Him when He comes to reign. He built also his own house and one for Pharaoh's daughter
Gospel, the, - It was good news to the Israelites, when slaves to Pharaoh, that God had come down to deliver them by the hand of Moses
Tree - …” This may also refer to a “pole” or “gallows”: “… Within three days shall Pharaoh lift up thy head from off thee, and shall hang thee on a tree [3] …” ( Josiah - Pharaoh Necho of Egypt, fearing this expansion of Babylonian power, set out to attack Babylon
Johanan - All they gained by forcing Jeremiah and Baruch to accompany them to Egypt was that Jeremiah there under the Spirit foretold their doom and that of Pharaoh upon whom they trusted instead of God
Nebuchadnezzar - Sent by Nabopolassar to punish Pharaoh Necho, the conqueror of Josiah at Megiddo. Meantime Zedekiah, Nebuchadnezzar's sworn vassal, in treaty with Pharaoh Hophra (Apries) revolted (Ezekiel 17:15). ...
The dream was the appropriate form for one outside the kingdom of God, as Nebuchadnezzar and Pharaoh (Genesis 41)
Work - So Pharaoh asks Abram: “What is this that thou hast done unto me?” ( Pharaoh do this, and let him appoint officers over the land …” ( Pharaoh
Red Sea - The Muslims suppose Memphis to have been the city at which the Pharaoh of the exodus resided before that event occurred. " From it the traveller reaches the sea beneath the lofty Gebel-et-Takah , which rises in the north and shuts off all escape in that direction excepting by a narrow way along the seashore, which Pharaoh might have occupied. In the morning watch, the last third or fourth of the night, or the period before sunrise Pharaoh's army was in full pursuit in the divided sea, and was there miraculously troubled, so that the Egyptians sought to flee. This is the most probable thee Near here Napoleon, deceived by the tidal wave, attempted to cross in 1799, and nearly met the fate of Pharaoh
Gather - 41:35 (the first occurrence): Joseph advised Pharaoh to appoint overseers to “gather all the food of those good years that come, and lay up corn under the hand of Pharaoh
Cry - The people cried to Pharaoh for bread
Nebuchadnezzar - " Nebuchadnezzar was intrusted by his father with repelling Pharaoh-necho, and succeeded in defeating him at Carchemish, on the Euphrates, b
Exodus, the - Under PLAGUES OF EGYPTare considered the preliminary dealings with Pharaoh which were intended to show him the power of that God whose people he was holdingin slavery. The word is very plain that the waters stood 'a wall' on their right hand and on their left; and when the waters returned they were enough to drown all Pharaoh's army: it must therefore have been at a deep part of the river that they crossed
Abimelech - ) A common title of many Philistine kings, as Pharaoh of the Egyptians, and Caesar and Augustus of the Roman: Padishah (father king) is similarly a title of the Persian king
Nebuchadnezzar, or Nebuchadrezzar - Nebuchadnezzar acted as his father's general and defeated Pharaoh-necho at Carchemish, B
Jezreel (1) - It was Israel's great field of battle with invaders: Sisera, Judges 4 and 5; Midian, Judges 7; the Philistines at Gilboa, 1 Samuel 29,31; Pharaoh Necho at Megiddo, 2 Kings 23:29
Hardening - Pharaoh’s successive promises and refusals to let the Israelites go into the wilderness are the outward signs of an inward vacillation under the alternate influences of insensate pride and abject fear. ...
Moses’ experience of the hardening effect of Divine truth in the case of Pharaoh was one which almost all prophets have shared with him. ...
The hardening of Pharaoh’s (or of any other guilty man’s) heart is a judicial, not an arbitrary, act of God, who never hardens a good man’s heart. The story of Pharaoh’s overthrow has great and permanent value as a drama of freedom abused, and its moral effect would be ruined if we were to interpolate in it at any point the words of the Qur’än (x. 88):...
‘And Moses said, O our Lord, Thou hast given Pharaoh and his nobles pomp and riches in this world, to make them wander from Thy path; O our Lord, destroy their riches and harden their hearts, that they may not believe until they see exemplary punishment. Paul uses the case of Pharaoh, as well as the figure of the clay and the potter, to establish his doctrine of God’s sovereign right and power of disposing of men’s lives as He will
Solomon - As soon as he had settled himself in his kingdom, and arranged the affairs of his extensive empire, he entered into an alliance with Egypt by the marriage of the daughter of Pharaoh (1 Kings 3:1 ), of whom, however, nothing further is recorded. A portion of it was set apart as the residence of the queen consort, the daughter of Pharaoh
Moses - Being found there by Pharaoh's daughter he was named by her MOSES, signifying 'drawn out,' and adopted as her son, being nursed for her by his own mother. ...
No trace of timidity is apparent in his dealings with Pharaoh, he boldly requests him to let the people go into the wilderness to sacrifice to Jehovah; but Pharaoh refused and made the burdens of the Israelites greater. declares that it was by faith he refused to be called the son of Pharaoh's daughter, choosing rather to suffer affliction with the people of God
Exodus, Book of - With his brother Aaron, who was his assistant, he tried to persuade Pharaoh to release the Israelites, but without success (4:18-6:27). This began a long conflict between Moses and Pharaoh, which resulted in repeated plagues upon Egypt (6:28-10:29; see PLAGUE)
Ethiopia - ...
The monuments confirm Isaiah 20:4; Nahum 3:5; Nahum 3:8-9, by representing Sargon as warring with Egypt and making the Pharaoh tributary; they also make Ethiopia closely united to Egypt
Red Sea - Pharaoh Necho built ships in the Arabian gulf, manned by Phoenicians (Herodotus ii
Horse - The bride is compared to "a company of horses in Pharaoh's chariots" (Song of Solomon 1:9), namely, in ardor and beauty (Song of Solomon 1:4, "run"; Song of Solomon 1:5, "comely"), and in forming "a company" militant, orderly, and numerous (Revelation 19:7; Revelation 19:14). The qualities which seemed preeminent in the enemy Pharaoh's hosts at the Red Sea really belonged to Israel. received from) Pharaoh," but the plural "chariots" requires the collective sense "a company of horses
Hardening, Hardness of Heart - In a few instances, such as Pharaoh and the Egyptians (Exodus 7:3 ; 9:12 ), Sihon, king of Heshbon (Deuteronomy 2:30 ), and the Hivites living in Gibeon (Joshua 11:19-20 ), it is said that God hardened their hearts
Baptism - They were set free from the damnation of Pharaoh into the leadership of Moses
Firstborn - The firstborn represented the whole people; Jehovah said to Pharaoh, "Israel is My son, My firstborn, and I say unto thee, Let My son go, that he may serve He; and if thou refuse to let him go, behold I will slay thy son, thy firstborn" (Exodus 4:22-23)
Eat - 41:35 with the sense of “food supply”: “And let them gather all the food of those good years that come, and lay up corn under the hand of Pharaoh, and let them keep food in the cities
Zedekiah - Some time afterward, Pharaoh Hophrah, king of Egypt, marched to assist Zedekiah, Jeremiah 37:3-5 ; Jeremiah 37:10
Elder - Moses was desired to convey the divine message to "the elders of Israel," Numbers 11:10-3067; and they were both to accompany him when he demanded freedom from Pharaoh, and also to be the means of communication between Moses and the mass of the people
Servant - The servants of Pharaoh, of Saul, and of David, were their subjects in general, and their court officers and counselors in particular
Elders - This term occurs first in Genesis 50:7 , where it applies to the Egyptians of the house of Pharaoh and to the elders of Egypt
Moses - But his existence cannot be disproved, either, since other prominent Old Testament figures have neither names nor monuments, as, for example, the Pharaoh with whom Moses contended, and the Egyptian princess who rescued the infant Moses from the Nile. Nevertheless, this mysterious Name and its power sustain Moses as he struggles with Pharaoh for the liberation of the Hebrew slaves
Solomon - Solomon, being confirmed in his kingdom, contracted an alliance with Pharaoh, king of Egypt, and married his daughter, A. The Scripture speaks of the daughter of Pharaoh, as contributing to pervert Solomon, 1 Kings 11:1-2 ; Nehemiah 13:26 ; and it is very likely, that if at first this princess might seem converted to the Lord, she afterward might retain her private disposition to idolatry, and might engage her husband in it. Beside Pharaoh's daughter, he married wives from among the Moabites, Ammonites, Idumeans, Sidonians, and Hittites
Hand - Thus, in Genesis 41:42 , when Pharaoh took his signet ring “from his hand” and placed it “upon Joseph's hand,” “hand” was used in the place of “finger
Raise - 1 (a) for the 1st part]'>[3]; (b) of "raising" a person to public position, Romans 9:17 , "did I raise thee up," RV, said of Pharaoh
Palm (of Hand) - Moses told Pharaoh: “As soon as I am gone out of the city, I will spread abroad my hands unto the Lord …” ( Dreams - The accounts of Joseph identify God as the Source of Joseph's ability when he came before Pharaoh (Genesis 41:16 )
Anger - Moses was therefore justly angry with Pharaoh (Exodus 11:8 )
Pentateuch - we see Moses speaking to Pharaoh, where the author omits the beginning of his discourse
Wind - So closely is the wind connected with God's will that it is called His breath which He blew on the sea to cover the chariots of Pharaoh ( Exodus 15:10 ), or by which He froze rivers (Job 37:10 ) and withered grass (Isaiah 40:7 )
Adultery - The conduct of Pharaoh and Abimelech (Genesis 12; 20), implies the same reverence for the sacredness of marriage
Love - The word does seem to have this added meaning, however, in 1 Kings 11:1: “But King Solomon loved many strange women, together with the daughter of Pharaoh …” (cf
See, Perceive - When Joseph advised Pharaoh “to look out a man discreet and wise,” he was telling him to choose or select such a man ( Father - 45:8, the noun is used of an “advisor”: “So now it was not you that sent me hither, but God: and he hath made me a father [3] to Pharaoh, and lord of all his house, and a ruler throughout all the land of Egypt
Vessel - 45:20 this word refers to movable but large possessions: Pharaoh told Joseph to tell his brothers to take wagons and bring their family to Egypt, and “regard not your stuff; for the good of all the land of Egypt is yours
Zedeki'ah - ( Jeremiah 34:7 ) Called away for a time by an attack from Pharaoh and the Egyptians, on the tenth day of the tenth month of Zedekiah's ninth year the Chaldeans were again before the walls
Predestination - ...
In a discussion of election and predestination, questions about Jacob and Esau (Romans 9:13 ) arise, as do questions about God “hardening Pharaoh's heart” (Romans 9:17-18 ). A better interpretation of these passages is to say that God used what Esau and Pharaoh had become. Pharaoh, a ruthless man, God confirmed and judged as an oppressor; Pharaoh's harsh and cruel acts were punished. In that punishment God received glory to Himself, even out of Pharaoh's disobedience
Abraham - Here occurred that case of deception on the part of Abram which exposed him to the rebuke of Pharaoh (Genesis 12:18 ). Sarai was restored to him; and Pharaoh loaded him with presents, recommending him to withdraw from the country
Mediator, Mediation - They also use mediators to argue a case or to negotiate terms of peace with a hostile party, as Moses did with Pharaoh on behalf of Israel (Exodus 6:28-12:32 ) and Joab did with David on behalf of Absalom (2 Samuel 14:1-24 ). Both kinds of mediation are sometimes intertwined in the Bible, as when Moses used Aaron to mediate between himself and Pharaoh (Exodus 7:1-2 ) and Joab used the wise woman of Tekoa to mediate his message about Absalom to David (2 Samuel 14:2-20 )
Exodus - ) The commission of Moses, the perversity of Pharaoh, and the infliction of the ten plagues in succession, Exodus 7:1-11:10 . ) The institution of the Passover, the sudden departure of the Israelites, the passage of the Red Sea, and the thanksgiving of Moses and the people on the opposite shore, after the destruction of Pharaoh and his host, Exodus 12:1-15:27
Intercession - ...
Moses intervened between God and Pharaoh as he tried to get permission for the people to leave Egypt (for example, Exodus 8:8 )
Prayer - , of Abraham (Genesis 17:18,20 ; 18:23-32 ; 20:7,17,18 ), of Moses for Pharaoh (Exodus 8:12,13,30,31 ; Exodus 9:33 ), for the Israelites (Exodus 17:11,13 ; 32:11-14,31-34 ; Numbers 21:7,8 ; Deuteronomy 9:18,19,25 ), for Miriam (Numbers 12:13 ), for Aaron (Deuteronomy 9:20 ), of Samuel (1 Samuel 7:5-12 ), of Solomon (1 Kings 8 ; 2 Chronicles 6 ), Elijah (1 Kings 17:20-23 ), Elisha (2 Kings 4:33-36 ), Isaiah (2 Kings 19 ), (Jeremiah 42:2-10 ), Peter (Acts 9:40 ), the church (12:5-12), Paul (28:8)
Firstborn - The death of the firstborn was the last of the punishments sent upon Egypt for Pharaoh’s refusal to let the Israelites go. ), and because Pharaoh refused to allow them to offer their firstlings, J″ Aaron - Ready of speech, he served nobly as Moses' spokesman before Pharaoh
Lord - , an adviser]'>[1] to Pharaoh, and lord of all his house, and a ruler throughout all the land of Egypt” ( House - 50:4, however, uses bayith in the sense of “a royal court” or all the people in a king’s court: “And when the days of his mourning were past, Joseph spake unto the house of Pharaoh
Hand - 25 applies this word to the “banks” of the Nile River: “And the daughter of Pharaoh came down to wash herself at the river, and her maidens walked along by the [6]
Live - the parallels sozo, "to save," in Matthew 16:25 , and phulasso, "to keep," in John 12:25 ; in Acts 7:19 , "live," negatively of the efforts of Pharaoh to destroy the babes in Israel; in 1 Timothy 6:13 , according to the best mss
Jubilee - ...
The princes and people at Jerusalem first observed it, in accordance with Zedekiah's covenant made under fear of the Babylonian besiegers; afterward on Pharaoh Hophra interrupting the siege they broke their engagement and enslaved their brethren again; God in retribution gave them a fatal liberty, namely, emancipation from His blessed service, to be given up to the sword, pestilence, and famine (Jeremiah 34:8-22; Jeremiah 37:5-10; compare Nehemiah 5:1-13)
Jeremiah - )...
Jeremiah, like Isaiah (Isaiah 30:1-7), foresaw that the tendency of many to desire an alliance with Egypt, upon the dissolution of the Assyrian empire whose vassal Manasseh was, would end in sorrow (Jeremiah 2:18): "what hast thou to do in the way of (with going down to) Egypt? to drink the waters of Sihor (to seek hosts as allies from the Nile land)?" Josiah so far molded his policy according to Jeremiah's counsel; but he forgot that it was equally against God's will for His people to lean upon Assyrian or Babylonian "confidences" as upon Egyptian (Jeremiah 36 - 37); so taking the field as ally of Assyria and Babylon against the Egyptian Pharaoh Necho he fell (Jeremiah 26:7-119). In Jeremiah 22:11-12 Jeremiah foretold that Josiah's son, Shallum or Jehoahaz who reigned but three months and was carried to Egypt by Pharaoh Necho, should never return. "...
So in Jehoiakim's fourth year Judah's hopes from Egypt were crushed by Nebuchadnezzar's defeat of Pharaoh Necho at Carchemish (Jeremiah 46:2, a prophecy uttered shortly before the event). Zedekiah in the tenth year, through Jehucal and Zephaniah, begged Jeremiah, "pray for us," as the issue between Nebuchadnezzar and Pharaoh Hophra (Apries) was at that time as yet undecided. Pharaoh's advance caused the Chaldeans to withdraw temporarily from besieging Jerusalem (Jeremiah 37:1-5)
Holy Spirit - During the time of the Exodus, God deployed this wind to part the sea thus enabling the Israelites to pass through safely and elude Pharaoh and his army ( Exodus 14:21 )
Deliver - Nebuchadnezzar (Daniel 3:15,28 ), Pharaoh (Exodus 5:2 ), and Sennacherib (2 Chronicles 32:10-15 ) railed against Israel for trusting in God's deliverance
Altar - In the next passage, however, Abraham went to Egypt and fell into sin, lying about Sarah out of fear of Pharaoh
Age, Old (the Aged) - During the time of Moses, "the elders of Israel" were an important group of leaders who accompanied him on his first meeting with Pharaoh (Exodus 3:18 ), served as intermediaries with the nation (Exodus 19:7 ), assisted Moses at the ratification of the Sinai covenant (Exodus 24:1 ), and assisted Moses in many other ways throughout his lifetime (Exodus 17:5 ; Numbers 11:16-17 )
Rehoboam - ) Shemaiah explained the cause from Jehovah; "ye have forsaken Me, therefore have I also left you in the hand of Shishak" (Shishak was first of the 22nd or Bubastite dynasty; whereas his predecessor, the Pharaoh whose daughter Solomon married, was the last of the 22nd or Tanite dynasty)
Israel in Egypt - ...
Age of Abraham when Isaac was born 100...
" " Abraham, when the promise was given 75...
25...
" " Israel when Jacob was born 60...
" " Jacob when he stood before Pharaoh 130...
" " Sojourn of Israel in Egypt 215...
430...
If then this be the correct period, how does it agree with Genesis 15:13 and Exodus 12:40 ? In Genesis 15:13 and Acts 7:6 , nothing is said about Egypt : "Thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs
Joseph - In the exaltation of Joseph at the right hand of Pharaoh, and all the famished country coming to him for bread, we behold a lovely type, indeed, of our Almighty Joseph exalted at the right hand of God, and dispensing blessings of grace and mercy in the living bread, which is himself, to a famished world
Priest; Priesthood - Joseph did not purchase the land of the “priests” of Egypt, because the Egyptian “priests” received regular allotments from Pharaoh ( Remember - ” Joseph said to Pharaoh’s butler: “But think on me … , and make mention of me unto Pharaoh …” ( Moses - The first extends from his infancy, when he was exposed in the Nile, and found and adopted y the daughter of Pharaoh, to his flight to Midian
Genesis - ...
In the specially marked-off area that Pharaoh had given them, Jacob’s large family could live together and multiply without being corrupted by Egyptian ideas
Abram - Instantly she would be seized upon for Pharaoh's haram. And when Sarah was taken, and separated from him: when no possibility of communication between Sarah and her husband was found: locked up in the haram of Pharaoh, from whence there could be no escape, (according to the custom of those Eastern courts, during the life of the prince, the women of the haram being confined there never to get out,) here was a season for the exercise of faith, and for the display of the Lord's favour to his servants. "The Lord plagued Pharaoh and his house with great plagues, because of Sarah Abraham's wife
Prophets - Thus Aaron is said to be Moses's prophet: "The Lord said unto Moses, See, I have made thee a God to Pharaoh, and Aaron thy brother shall be thy prophet," Exodus 7:1 ; because Aaron received the divine messages, which he carried immediately from Moses; whereas other prophets receive their messages immediately from God himself. In this respect, as Moses stood in the place of God to Pharaoh, so Aaron acted in the character of his prophet
Predestination - Godet, who is not a rigid predestinarian, says of the instance in Romans 9:17 ...
‘God might have caused Pharaoh to be born in a cabin, where his proud obstinacy would have been displayed with no less self-will, but without any historical consequence; on the other hand, he might have placed on the throne of Egypt at that time a weak, easy-going man, who would have yielded at the first shock. What would have happened? Pharaoh in his obscure position would not have been less arrogant and perverse, out Israel would have gone forth from Egypt without çclat ’ (on Romans 9:17-18 )
Aaron - He was faithful to his trust, and stood by Moses in all his interviews with Pharaoh
Set On, Set Up - God’s establishing the plagues on Pharaoh is also an appointing ( Judges, Book of - ...
Age of Isaac, when Jacob was born, Genesis 25:26 60...
" Jacob when lie stood before Pharaoh 130...
" Israel in Egypt 215...
" Israel in the wilderness 40...
" To the division of the land 7...
(about 450 years)
Moses - " Magicians foretold to Pharaoh his birth as a destroyer; a dream announced to Amram his coming as the deliverer (Josephus, Pharaohs could repel the attacks of Asiatic nomads and crush the Israelite serfs. ...
When Moses was 40 years old, in no fit of youthful enthusiasm but deliberately, Moses "chose" (
Hebrews 11:23-28) what are the last things men choose, loss of social status as son of Pharaoh's daughter, "affliction," and "reproach. Pharaoh, on hearing of his killing the Egyptian overseer, "sought to slay him," a phrase implying that Moses' high position made necessary special measures to bring him under the king's power. ...
But he did "not fear" the king's wrath which would be aggravated by his fleeing without Pharaoh's leave. He dwells not on Pharaoh's cruelty and power, but on the hopelessness of his appeals to Israel and on his want of the "eloquence" needed to move their stubborn hearts. The same spirit prompted him to avenge his injured countryman, and to rescue the Midianite women from the shepherds' violence, as afterward led him to confront Pharaoh; but in the first instance he was an illustration of the truth that "the wrath of man worketh not the righteousness of God" (James 1:20). Jehovah gave Moses two signs as credentials to assure him of his mission: the transformation of his long "rod" of authority (as on Egyptian monuments) or pastoral rod into a "serpent," the basilisk or cobra, the symbol of royal and divine power on the Pharaoh's diadem; a pledge of victory over the king and gods of Egypt (compare Mark 16:18; Moses' humble but wonder working crook typifies Christ's despised but allpowerful cross). ...
His first efforts only aggravated Pharaoh's oppression and Israel's bondage (Psalms 16:11). Yet in a few months, without Israel's drawing sword, Pharaoh and the Egyptians urge their departure, and Israel "demands" (not "borrows," shaal ) as a right from their former masters, and receives, gold, silver, and jewels (Exodus 12:85-39). Pharaoh's murder of the innocents answers to Herod's; Christ like Moses sojourned in Egypt, His 40 days' fast answers to that of Moses
Terah - Till the end of that sad business was that the Lord plagued Pharaoh and his house with great plagues because of Sarai, Abram's wife. And till Pharaoh called Abram and bitterly rebuked him. It is not told in Moses, but I can well believe it, that nothing that ever happened to Abram so hastened forward his humility, his detachment from this world, and his heavenly-mindedness, as his fall in Egypt, and all its consequences to Pharaoh and to Pharaoh's household. But if Pharaoh was sore plagued because of Abram's transgressions, then Lot, at any rate, had his advantage out of all that
Jeremiah - It was not as the vassal of Nineveh, but in the assertion of his hereditary rights and as guardian of the old territory of Israel, that he challenged Pharaoh-necho, who was attempting to seize the lost western provinces of Assyria, to the fatal encounter of Megiddo in the year 608 ( Jeremiah 22:13-19 ; 2 Kings 23:15-20 , 2 Chronicles 35:20 ). The Pharaoh pointedly calls him ‘thou king of Judah,’ as if bidding him keep within his bounds ( 2 Chronicles 35:21 ). For three years the country was subject to the victorious Pharaoh, who deposed and deported Shalum-Jehoahaz, the national choice, replacing him on the throne of Judah by his brother Eliakim-Jehoiakim. The Egyptians under the new and ambitious Pharaohhophra (Apries, 588 569), effected a diversion of the Chaldæan troops ( Jeremiah 37:5-10 , Ezekiel 17:15 ); but, as often before, Pharaoh proved ‘a broken reed to those who trusted in him
Miracle - Further signs are promised to encourage him that he can overcome Pharaoh and the Egyptians (4:1-17). The climactic plague of the death of firstborn sons finally motivates Pharaoh to let Moses and his people go. ...
Pharaoh quickly changes his mind, though, and it seems that his armies will obliterate Israel
Babylon, History And Religion of - Pharaoh Necho II, with the last of the Assyrians (2 Kings 23:29-30 ), failed in 609 to retake Haran. An abortive campaign by the Pharaoh Hophra gave Jerusalem a short respite, but the attack was renewed (Jeremiah 37:4-10 )
Divination - We read of it first in Genesis 41:8 , when Pharaoh called for all the magicians, chartummim, of Egypt and the wise men, to interpret his dream. When Moses was endeavouring by means of signs to convince Pharaoh of the power of God, the magicians of Egypt were able to turn their rods into serpents, and to simulate the first two plagues with their enchantments
Jacob - ...
When Jacob, at the invitation of Joseph, went down to Egypt, Joseph introduced his father to his royal master; and the patriarch, in his priestly character, blessed Pharaoh, and supplicated the divine favour for the king. After a general mourning of seventy days, he solicited the king's permission to go with the remains of Jacob into Canaan, to which Pharaoh consented; and with Joseph went up all the state officers and principal nobility of Egypt, so that when they came to the place of interment, the Canaanites were astonished, and said, "This is a grievous mourning to the Egyptians," Genesis 50:1-11
Presentation - When God sent Moses to Pharaoh, the Divine message to the king ran, ‘Israel is my son, even my firstborn: if thou refuse to let him go I will slay thy son, even thy firstborn’ (Exodus 4:22-23). Pharaoh refused
Elder - Moses was commanded to inform the “elders of Israel” of the Lord's intention to deliver Israel from Egypt and to take the elders with him to confront the Pharaoh (1 Timothy 3:1-7 ,Exodus 3:16,3:18 )
Land, Ground - In Genesis 47:20 , the totality of their former lands that had been turned over to Pharaoh is called erets (meaning earth or land)
Haggai, Theology of - Just as the Lord brought judgment on Pharaoh and his chariots at the Red Sea, so he will once again display his awesome power over the nations in the endtimes
Jacob - When Jacob and his household arrived in Egypt, he as a prince of God blessed Pharaoh king of Egypt
Desert, Wilderness - ’ The thought behind the former reference, of the wilderness as a place of refuge for the woman, may be taken from the history of the Jews who fled from Pharaoh to the wilderness, but there may be no more than the general idea of the wilderness as a place of refuge and concealment, so amply illustrated in the life of David
Call - 2:7, Moses’ sister Miriam asked Pharaoh’s daughter if she should go and “call” (summon) a nurse. ” When Pharaoh discovered Abram’s deceit concerning Sarai, he “summoned” (“called”) Abram so that he might correct the situation ( Seek - Bâqash may be used with this same nuance but without nepesh—so Pharaoh “sought to slay Moses” ( a'Braham - The deception was discovered, and Pharaoh with some indignation dismissed Abram from the country
Jacob - When Jacob and his household arrived in Egypt, he as a prince of God blessed Pharaoh king of Egypt
Coins - After Judah's defeat at Megiddo, the victorious Pharaoh appointed a puppet king and required the Jews to pay Egypt a heavy tribute in silver and gold (2 Kings 23:33 )
Aaron - No man could refuse Aaron, Pharaoh himself would not be able to resist and refuse Aaron. Till, with Aaron beside him, Moses felt that he could face without fear of failure both all Israel and Pharaoh with all his priests and all his magicians. Aaron faced the elders of Israel, and scattered all their objections and all their fears as a rushing mighty wind scatters chaff; and the long struggle with Pharaoh and with his magicians lias surely been preserved to us by Aaron's eloquent pen
Transportation And Travel - Foreign rulers also fought to hold the city (which was destroyed over a dozen times during its period of occupation), and king Josiah of Judah died here defending the pass against the army of Pharaoh Necho II in 609 B. ...
No physical remains of chariots have been found in Palestine, although a magnificent example of a royal Egyptian chariot was discovered in the tomb of Pharaoh Tutankhamon (about 1300 B
Assyria, History And Religion of - The Pharaoh Taharqa fled south as Memphis fell to the Assyrians, but returned and fomented rebellion two years later. He defeated Pharaoh Taharqa and took the ancient capital of Thebes
Egypt - The common name of the Egyptian kings was Pharaoh, which signified sovereign power. See Pharaoh
Spirit - The Pharaoh saw the Spirit of God in Joseph (Genesis 41:38 )
Know, Knowledge - Thus when the new king of Egypt did not know Joseph (Exodus 1:8 ) he did not recognize the agreement that had been developed between Joseph and Pharaoh at the time his family came to Egypt
Magnify - Pharaoh said to Joseph: “Thou shalt be over my house, and according unto thy word shall all my people be ruled: only in the throne will I be greater [2] than thou” ( Nebuchadnezzar - The king of Babylon came into Judea, reduced the chief places of the country, and besieged Jerusalem; but Pharaoh Hophra coming out of Egypt to assist Zedekiah, Nebuchadnezzar went to meet him, and forced him to retire to his own country
Egypt - This Pharaoh, however, was a great strategist, as well as a valiant soldier: as the result of many annual campaigns, he not only placed his tablet on the bank of the Euphrates, by the side of that of Thetmosi I. The wealth of the conquered countries poured into Egypt, and the temple of the Theban Ammon, the god under whose banner the armies of the Pharaohs of two dynasties had won their victories, was ever growing in wealth of slaves, lands, and spoil. He may thus have been rather a tool in the hands of a reformer]'>[6], it rapidly declined: the Hittites were pressing into Syria from the north, and all the while the Pharaoh was a dreamer absorbed in establishing a monotheistic worship of Aton (the sun) against the polytheism of Egypt, and more especially against the Theban and national worship of Ammon. But for the empire Pharaoh had no thought or leisure. They were compelled to make a treaty with Pharaoh and leave him master of Syria as far as Kadesh on the Orontes. was the greatest builder of all the Pharaohs, covering the land with temples and monuments of stone, the inscriptions and scenes upon them in many cases extolling his exploit against the Hittites at the battle of Kadesh, when his personal prowess saved the Egyptian camp and army from overwhelming disaster
Occupations And Professions in the Bible - Baker ( Genesis 40:5 ) is mentioned early in Scripture as a member of the Egyptian Pharaoh's court. Butler of the Pharaoh's palace was also known as a cupbearer ( Nehemiah 1:11 ; compare Genesis 40:21 ), one who was responsible for providing the king with drink. He, presumably, tasted each cup of wine before it was presented to Pharaoh as a precaution against poisoning. His position was second only to Pharaoh
Aaron - He was three years older than Moses (Exodus 7:7): born, doubtless, before Pharaoh's edict for the destruction of the Hebrew male infants (Exodus 1:22). Miriam was the oldest of the three, as appears from her being old enough, when Moses was only three months old and Aaron three years, to offer to go and call a Hebrew nurse for Pharaoh's daughter, to tend his infant brother. ...
The first mention of Aaron is in Exodus 4:14; where, in answer to Moses' objection that he did not have the eloquence needed for such a mission as that to Pharaoh, Jehovah answers: "Is not Aaron, the Levite, thy brother? I know that he can speak well: and thou shalt speak unto him, and put words in his mouth; and I will be with thy mouth, and with his mouth, and will teach you what ye shall do; and he shall be thy spokesman unto the people; and he shall be instead of a mouth, and thou shalt be to him instead of God. From his first interview with Pharaoh to the end of his course he always appears in connection with his more illustrious brother, cooperating with and assisting him
Sign - The punishment to befall Pharaoh Hophra was to serve as a sign promoting the knowledge that God's word of judgment would surely stand up against the Judean refugees in Egypt ( Jeremiah 44:29 )
Feet - ...
Ezekiel 32:2 (a) Pharaoh provided for the people that which defiled them, and enabled them to live in wicked practices
Numbers as Symbols - Pharaoh was visited by ten plagues
Live - 42:15 except that the power summoned is Pharaoh’s: “Hereby ye shall be proved: By the life of Pharaoh ye shall not go forth hence, except your youngest brother come hither
Chronology of the Biblical Period - Pharaoh Merneptah (1224-1214 B
Palestine - Thus Rameses II marched against the Chitti or Hittites in northern Syria, and Pharaoh Necho fought at Mefiddo in the Esdraelon plain, the battlefield of Palestine; they did not meddle with the central highlands, "The S. (See Pharaoh NECHO; MEGIDDO. ...
The Canaanites held Dor (Judges 1:27) and Gezer until Pharaoh took it and gave it to his daughter, Solomon's wife (1 Kings 9:16)
Joseph - And then Joseph's intellectual gifts were such that, taken along with the purity and the nobility of his character, they lifted him up out of a pit, and out of a prison, and set him in a seat of power and of honour scarcely second to the seat of Pharaoh himself. Those who know Joseph's after-history will flash forward their minds, and will contrast the Prime Minister of Pharaoh with that slave lad sold for that paltry price at the mouth of that pit that day. For that handful of silver the captain of Pharaoh's guard came into possession of all the splendid talents that lay hid in Joseph's greatly gifted mind, and all the magnificent moral character the first foundations of which had been laid in the pit in Dothan, and had been built up in God every step of the long wilderness journey
Habakkuk, Theology of - Chariots do not belong to Pharaoh but to God
Existence of God - "The existence of God farther appears from the fearful punishments which have been inflicted upon persons, and especially upon nations, when their immoralities became excessive, and that by very unexpected means and instruments; as in the drowning of the old world; destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah; plagues of Pharaoh and his servants; overthrow of Sennacherib and his army; miseries and ruin of the Canaanites, Jews, Syrians, Assyrians, Chaldeans, Persians, Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, Saracens, Tartars, and others
Make - See I have made thee a god to Pharaoh
Heart - Pharaoh hardened his heart lest he hear Moses and gain insight about the Lord (Exodus 8:15 ), and the Lord hardened it irrevocably (7:13; 9:12)
Egypt - ), where they see the Pharaoh, and remain three years, during which period Jesus works many miracles; returning at the end of the three years to Palestine, and by direction of an angel making their home at Nazareth
Abraham - A famine occurring in the land Abraham went to sojourn in Egypt, and for want of faith he called Saraihis sister and she was taken into the house of Pharaoh, but the Lord protected her, and Abraham with his wife was sent away with a rebuke
Head - , to lift up someone else’s “head”), this word may connote restoring someone to a previous position: “Yet within three days shall Pharaoh lift up thine head, and restore thee unto thy place …” ( Deliver - ...
“To give one’s heart” to something or someone is “to be concerned about it”; Pharaoh was not “concerned” about (“did not set his heart to”) Moses’ message from God ( Gods - And again, God says to Moses, "I have made thee a god to Pharaoh,"...
Exodus 7:1
Nebuchadnezzar the Great - The king of Babylon came into Judea, reduced the chief places of the country, and besieged Jerusalem: but Pharaoh-Hophra coming out of Egypt to assist Zedekiah, Nebuchadnezzar overcame him in battle, and forced him to retire into his own country
Judah, Kingdom of - ...
After the reigns of the worthless Jehoahaz, set aside by Pharaoh Necho who promoted Jehoiakim, and Jehoiachin or Coniah, Zedekiah (promoted by Nebuchadnezzar) through treachery in violation of his oath brought destruction on himself and Jerusalem (588 B
Egypt - ), where they see the Pharaoh, and remain three years, during which period Jesus works many miracles; returning at the end of the three years to Palestine, and by direction of an angel making their home at Nazareth
Freedom of the Will - Paul himself was involved in this) to the Law, Second, the apparent inability of an individual or groups of individuals (Esau, Pharaoh, Israel) to will what is right because of some dealing of God with them. It is the same with his reference to Pharaoh (Romans 9:17). He is writing as a Jew, and his purpose in mentioning Pharaoh is to show the sweep of God’s power, not the limitations of Pharaoh’s freedom
Gentiles - The native chiefs of Canaan treat Abraham with respect; the Pharaoh who makes Joseph lord of his house calls him ‘a man in whom the spirit of God is’; the daughter of the Pharaoh of the oppression is moved with compassion at the sight of the child Moses, and brings him up as her son; Jethro receives Moses when an exile into his family, guides him in the desert, and instructs him in the art of governing; Rahab and Ruth ‘take refuge under the wings of the God of Israel,’ and their names are in the regal genealogy; Ittai the Gittite cleaves to David, when almost all have forsaken him; the Queen of Sheba comes to hear the wisdom of Solomon; the Tyrian Hiram supplies him with materials when building the Temple, having been ‘ever a lover of David’; the widow of Zarephath, nearly destitute herself, feeds the famishing Elijah; and Naaman, the Syrian general, confesses his faith in the God of Elisha as the one true God; Ebed-melech, an Ethiopian slave, rescues Jeremiah from death, and is rewarded with a promise of personal immunity from danger; Job, an Arabian shaikh, is the lofty teacher of how ‘to suffer and be strong’; Cyrus the Persian Is the Lord’s anointed, and the deliverer of His people
Tyre - ...
In the early unsettled days of the New Babylonian Empire the Tyrians entered into a league with Pharaohnecho of Egypt. and Pharaoh-hophra ( Jeremiah 44:30 )
Philistia - The Egyptian Pharaoh took Gezer at the head of the Philistia plain, and gave it as his daughter's marriage portion to Solomon (1 Kings 9:16-17); and Solomon fortified it and Bethhoron, to command the passes from the Philistia plain to the central region
Hittites And Hivites - stifled Hittite development until the death of the Egyptian Pharaoh about 1436 B
Elder - Their leadership position was evident from the fact that Moses had to go to the elders, he would have to go to Pharaoh (Exodus 3:16-18 )
Sacrifice - The same is the case in the words of Moses to Pharaoh
Land (of Israel) - Why is this land called the promised land? After all, life was easier in Egypt (barring the oppression of Pharaoh, of course)
Mill - When this stone is large, or expedition is required, a second person is called in to assist; and as it is usual for the women only to be concerned in this employment, who seat themselves over against each other, with the mill stone between them, we may see the propriety of the expression in the declaration of Moses: "And all the first-born in the land of Egypt shall die, from the first-born of Pharaoh that sitteth upon his throne even unto the first-born of the maid-servant that is behind the mill," Exodus 11:5
Sin - ...
Pharaoh and his people are portrayed as “wicked” people guilty of hostility to God and His people ( Pharaoh, … Few and evil have the days of the years of my life been …” ( Sol'Omon - He made affinity with Pharaoh, king of Egypt, by marrying his daughter (1 Kings 3:1 ) The immediate results were probably favorable enough
Divination - In Egypt books containing magic formulae belonged exclusively to the king, the priests and wise men, who formed a college, being called in by Pharaoh when needful
Genseric, King of the Vandals - Every allusion in a sermon to Pharaoh, Nebuchadnezzar, or Holofernes was regarded as aimed at the king, and the preacher punished with exile
Chronicles, i - In 2 Chronicles 8:11 the removal of the daughter of Pharaoh, whom Solomon had married, from the city of David to the house that he had built for her, is said to have been occasioned by the house of David having become too holy because of the coming of the ark
Edom - Hadad the Edomite, who escaped from David's slaughter to Egypt, returned thence from Pharaoh Shishak to excite Edom to revolt against Solomon (1 Kings 11:14)
End - 47:2, where the word is used with the preposition min (“from”): “And from among his brothers he took five men and presented them to Pharaoh” (RSV; cf
Shepherds - The numerous flocks of Pharaoh seem to have required the superintending care of many overseers, Genesis 47:6
Abram - He was rescued by God's providence from the false position in which he had placed himself, and enriched by Pharaoh he returned to Canaan
Romans, Theology of - Whether it is Jacob over Esau, Moses over Pharaoh, or now the Gentiles over Paul's own kind, it is by God's sovereign grace that even a remnant is saved. ...
Yet there is an added ingredient in the formula of election, for God does not choose capriciously but through valid secondary agents, and in each case the nonelect are seen to be lacking in faith: Esau, Pharaoh, and now Israel who have not pursued righteousness through faith, but as it were based on works (9:30-33)
Inspiration - To the idea that knowledge is supernaturally conveyed to persons who are not in the historic line of Scriptural revelation, sanction is given in the OT by the instances of Abimelech, Pharaoh, and Balaam. Paul can say (Romans 9:17) ‘the scripture saith unto Pharaoh’; and it is God who speaks in the prophets (Romans 9:25)
Simeon - Simeon in his prayer, "pray that none of these things which ye have spoken come upon me," shows that fear of punishment, not hatred of sin, influenced him as Pharaoh (Exodus 8:8)
Miracles - ...
The other miracles, wrought by him in Egypt, were to show to Pharaoh the mighty power of God, who said, I will "multiply my signs and my wonders in the land of Egypt
Patriarchs, the - Yet God was with them, and saved Sarai from the amorous attentions of Pharaoh (Genesis 12:15-20 ) and Abimelech (Genesis 20:1-18 )
Phoenicia, phNicians - 1113) a certain Wenamon was despatched to Phœnicia for cedar from the Lebanon forests; and Dor, Tyre, and Gebal, the towns at which he touched, were not only independent but had small respect for a representative of Pharaoh (Breasted, ib
Abram - As the beauty of Sarah, which she retained so long as quite to conceal her real age from observers, attracted so much notice as to lead to her forcible seizure, once by Pharaoh in Egypt, and again by Abimelech in Palestine, it may appear strange, that, as in the east women are generally kept in seclusion, and seldom appear without veils, she exposed herself to observation. But to this day the Arab women do not wear veils at home in their tents; and Sarah's countenance might have been seen in the tent by some of the officers of Pharaoh and Abimelech, who reported her beauty to their masters
Micah, Theology of - As at the beginning of Israel's history the Lord hurled Pharaoh into the sea, now at the end of their history he will hurl all their sins into the sea (v
Houses - " House is taken for family: "The Lord plagued Pharaoh and his house
Israel - It has been customary, therefore, to regard Rameses as the Pharaoh of the oppression, and Menephtah (Meren-ptah, 1225 1215) as the Pharaoh of the Exodus
Prophet, Prophetess, Prophecy - Exodus 4:15-16 ): "Then the Lord said to Moses, See, I have made you like God to Pharaoh, and your brother Aaron will be your prophet. You are to say everything I command you, and your brother Aaron is to tell Pharaoh
Clement of Rome, Epistle of - Let us therefore-and especially those who have caused strife-confess our offences and not harden our hearts as Pharaoh did, lest like Pharaoh we perish (li
Jews - ...
Pharaoh pursued them with a mighty army; but the Lord opened a passage for them through the Red Sea; and the Egyptians, in attempting to follow them, were drowned. After Josiah was slain by Pharaoh Necho, king of Egypt, the people returned to idolatry, and God gave them up to servitude to the Egyptians and the Chaldeans
Ezekiel - The imaginative use of figurative language was characteristic of Ezekiel (the watchman, Ezekiel 3:17-21 ; 1618420386_10 ; a refining furnace, Ezekiel 22:17-22 ; Tyre as a merchant ship, Ezekiel 27:1-36 ; Pharaoh as a crocodile, Ezekiel 29:2-5 )
Time, Meaning of - Everything new was only a new incarnation of its eternal model, just as each Pharaoh was a reincarnation of the divine
Chronology - The Apis tablets of Egypt prove the synchronism of Josiah and Pharaoh Necho; also they demonstrate that of Hezekiah and Tirhakah
Mission - ...
Moses does receive a call from God, who sends him to Pharaoh to bring his people out of Egypt (Exodus 3:10 )
Wages - This "Mesopotamian exile" is a prelude to Israel's oppressive sojourn in Egypt, where a tyrannical Pharaoh pays her the "wages" of a slave (Exodus 1-3 )
Genesis, Theology of - It would also tell them that although Egypt was not their land they were there legitimately since they had been welcomed by Pharaoh himself (47:7-12)
Star (2) - There we are told that Pharaoh’s astrologers (האסטרולונין) perceived that the mother of the future redeemer of Israel Man - Pharaoh’s men escorted Abraham: “And Pharaoh commanded his men concerning him: and they sent him away …” ( Jeroboam - In a short space of time the fugitive overseer of Solomon's works had actually become the son-in-law of Pharaoh himself
Assyria - And in the end of his reign, Pharaoh-Necho, king of Egypt, the successor of Psammitichus, went up against the king of Assyria to the river Euphrates, to fight against Carchemish, or Circutium; and in his way thither slew Josiah, 2 Kings 23:29 ; 2 Chronicles 35:20 ; and therefore the last king of Assyria was not yet slain
Presence - We have it literally in such passages as Genesis 41:46 (‘the presence of Pharaoh’), Exodus 10:11; Exodus 10 :1 Samuel 19:7, 2 Samuel 24:4, 1 Kings 1:28; 1 Kings 12:2, 2 Chronicles 9:23, Nehemiah 2:1, Esther 1:10; Esther 8:13
Jeroboam - Sheshonk having dethroned the Pharaoh whose daughter Solomon had married, had naturally espoused Jeroboam's cause
Solomon - ( a ) Early in his reign he married Pharaoh’s daughter ( 1 Kings 3:1 ), who brought as her marriage portion Gezer ( 1 Kings 9:16 ). This Pharaoh was apparently the last of the Tanite (21st) dynasty a confused period of which little is known; we have no other notice of the connexion between Egypt and Palestine at this period
Ibas, Bishop of Edessa - Ibas was "a second Judas," "an adversary of Christ," an "offshoot of Pharaoh
Jacob - In Egypt he was met by Joseph, and, after an interview with the Pharaoh, settled in the pastoral district of Goshen ( Genesis 47:6 ), afterwards known as ‘the land of Rameses’ (from Rameses ii
Bible - Pharaoh, Sennacherib, Nebuchadnezzar, Cyrus while doing their own will, appear in the Bible as God's instruments, overruled to carry out His purposes
Rivers And Waterways in the Bible - Nebuchadnezzar II defeated Pharaoh Necho as he began his successful drive to claim the former Assyrian Empire for Babylon ( 2 Kings 24:7 ; Jeremiah 46:1 ). The Egyptian Pharaohs used the Gulf of Suez as the shortest route to the Mediterranean
Family - It is used (1) for all living under one roof-father, mother, near relations, and dependents-frequently in the NT: Acts 7:10 (Pharaoh), Acts 10:2 and Acts 11:14 (Cornelius), Acts 16:31 (Philippian jailer: so Acts 16:34 πανοικί ‘with all his house,’ here only in NT), Ephesians 6:1-4,6 (Crispus), 1 Corinthians 1:6 (Stephanas), 1 Timothy 3:4 f
Division of the Earth - The Egyptians were masters of their persons and property, till they sold them to Pharaoh for bread; and then their servitude amounted to no more than the fifth part of the produce of the country, as an annual tax payable to the king
Pronunciation of Proper Names - The first syllables of Canaan, Pharaoh, Balaam, must have the â as in fate or fair
Israel, History of - This reform had long-range repercussions on the development of Yahwism and Judaism, but the primary impetus for the reform was removed with Josiah's death in 609 as he fought against Pharaoh Necho of Egypt at Megiddo (2 Kings 23:29 )
Gods, Pagan - Thus, in death the Pharaoh was worshiped as Osiris, while the legitimate heir became the living Horus by burying his dead predecessor. The gods' names which dominate Pharaohs' names in a dynasty show both the dominant city and its dominant god
Jacob - At 130 Jacob blessed Pharaoh and termed his life a "pilgrimage" of days "few and evil" (47; Hebrews 11:9; Hebrews 11:13)
Election - Besides, the Apostle further maintains, God, in His electing purpose, is sovereign, as is seen in the difference between the two sons of Rebecca; in the Divine word to Moses: ‘I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy’; and in the hardening of the heart of Pharaoh (Romans 9:10-24)
Sanctification - For example, God used Pharaoh even though he did not let Israel go (Romans 9:17 )
Father, Fatherhood - God’s message to Pharaoh by Moses involved a paternal relation to Israel, for Moses was to say in God’s name, ‘Israel is my son, my first-born’ (Exodus 4:22)
Palestine - local sheiks) answerable to the Pharaoh, but always quarrelling among themselves
Herod - Unimportant as the event seemed to the world, the murder of the innocents was the consummation of his guilt before God, and places him among the foremost of Satan's and the world's foretold (Jeremiah 31:15) representative adversaries of the Lord and His church, answering to the Pharaoh who oppressed Christ's type, Israel, murdering the male children in the nation's infancy in order to stifle the nation's first beginnings; but in vain, for God secured the nation's Exodus from Egypt by the tyrant's overthrow, just as subsequently He saved Jesus and destroyed Herod, and in due time "called His (antitypical) Son out of Egypt" (Matthew 2:15; compare Hosea 11:1)
Egypt - They were, in fact, engaged exactly as the Israelites used to be, making bricks with straw; and for a similar purpose, to build extensive granaries for the bashaw; "treasure-cities for Pharaoh
Biblical Theology - His rise to power there as adjutant second only to Pharaoh himself sets the stage for a captivity of Israel's descendants some four centuries in length, in keeping with God's promise to Abraham (15:16). Following revelation of his own name for himself (Yahweh) to Moses (3:14), God breaks Pharaoh's stranglehold on the hapless Israelites
God - When Moses objected to Yahweh's plan that he should go to Pharaoh, Yahweh said, "I will be with you" (Exodus 3:12 )
Offerings And Sacrifices - These two terms occur together in Exodus 10:25 , where Moses explained to Pharaoh, "You must allow us to have sacrifices and burnt offerings to present to the Lord our God
Son of God - (3) The Hebrew nation collectively is frequently thus designated, as when, in the land of Midian, Jehovah sent Moses to Pharaoh with the message: ‘Thus saith the Lord, Israel is my son, even my firstborn, and I say unto thee, Let my son go’ (Exodus 4:22 f
Work - "...
After a significant period of time, the Israelites are oppressed by the Egyptians (Exodus 1-3 ), who teach them the harsh meaning of slavery as they are forced to build earthly cities for the Pharaoh
Psalms - ...
Neither Heman nor the sons of Heman are named in the superscriptions, but the sons of Korah; perhaps because Heman, though musical and head of the Korahitic singers, was not also poetically gifted as was Asaph; Psalm 88, is gloom throughout, yet the title calls it (shir ) a "song" of joy; this can only refer to Psalm 89 which follows being paired with it; it was when the "anointed" of David's throne (Josiah) had his "crown profaned on the ground," being not able to" stand in the battle" (Psalms 89:43), and his son Jehoahaz after a three months' reign was carried to Egypt by Pharaoh Necho (1618420386_16; 2 Chronicles 36:1-4; Psalms 89:45); the title, "to the chief musician," shows the temple was standing, Josiah had just before caused a religious revival
Dream (2) - We have but to think of Abraham and Abimelech, of Jacob and Laban, of Joseph and Pharaoh, of Daniel and Nebuchadnezzar, of Joseph and the Magi, to observe how near at hand the suggestion lies that the choice of dreams in these instances as the medium of revelation has some connexion with the relation in which the recipient stood at the moment to influences arising from the outer world, or at least to some special interaction between Israel and that world
Elijah - It was the same wilderness which received Moses fleeing from Pharaoh, and Elijah now fleeing from Ahab, and lastly Paul escaping from the Judaic bondage of ritualism
Babel - Pharaoh Necho, son of Psamatik I (608 B
Josephus - Thus Josephus, in spite of his Hellenic guise, is in all things a genuine Jew, a Palestinian Rabbi: witness, for instance-as compared with the tractates of Philo-his version of the story of Moses, where he not only gives us the name of Pharaoh’s daughter (Thermuthis), but also relates how Moses as a child was presented to Pharaoh, and how, when the king put his diadem on the child’s head, the latter threw it upon the ground; and again, how, when Moses had grown to manhood, and was in command of an Egyptian army in a war against Ethiopia, he broke a way into that all but inaccessible country by making use of ibises to destroy the serpents which obstructed the march, and further, how he captured the impregnable city of Saba (or Meroë; Philae, an island in the Nile?) by gaining the love of Tharbis, the daughter of the Ethiopian king (Ant
Archaeology And Biblical Study - The Tell Amarna tablets found by a peasant woman in Egypt are letters from Palestinian rulers to the reigning Pharaohs; but they show the unstable conditions in Palestine prior to the Israelite conquest which enabled Israel to conquer the enemy one by one. ...
The Egyptian Pharaoh Merneptah (1213-1204 B
Dioscorus (1), Patriarch of Alexandria - Some time later the Easterns denied that the whole council at Ephesus had assented to Eutyches's language; it was the language of "that Pharaoh, Dioscorus the homicide
Jerusalem - Within the space of sixty-six years more it was taken by Pharaoh-Necho, king of Egypt, whom Josiah, king of Judah, had opposed in his expedition to Carchemish; and who, in consequence, was killed at the battle of Megiddo, and his son Eliakim placed on the throne in his stead by Necho, who changed his name to Jehoiakim, and imposed a heavy tribute upon him, having sent his elder brother, Jehoahaz, who had been proclaimed king at Jerusalem, a prisoner to Egypt, where he died, 2 Kings 23; 2 Chronicles 35
Christ in Mohammedan Literature - ...
Jesus went one day to an infidel king like Pharaoh, and called upon him to embrace Islam